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Sample records for intertidal sediments soil

  1. Biogeochemistry of Intertidal Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jickells, T. D.; Rae, J. E.

    2005-07-01

    This authoritative volume includes contributions from a wide range of researchers of intertidal sediments. Individual chapters explore the underlying biogeochemical processes controlling the behavior of carbon, the nutrients nitrogen and phosphorus, and contaminants such as toxic organics, trace metals and artificial radionuclides in intertidal environments. The biogeochemistry of these environments is critical to understanding their ecology and management. Each of the chapters includes a comprehensive review and the results of recent research. The contributors are active researchers in this diverse and ecologically important field. This text is mainly for researchers and managers working with intertidal sediments, but it will also serve as a valuable senior undergraduate and graduate reference text in environmental chemistry, environmental science, earth science, and oceanography.

  2. Hydrogeochemical zonation in intertidal salt marsh sediments: evidence of positive plant-soil feedback?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffett, K. B.; Dittmar, J.; Seyfferth, A.; Fendorf, S.; Gorelick, S.

    2012-12-01

    Surface and subsurface environments are linked by the biogeochemical activity in near-surface sediment and by the hydrological fluxes that mobilize its reagents and products. A particularly dynamic and interesting setting to study near-surface hydrogeochemistry is the intertidal zone. Here, the very strong tidal hydraulic forcing is often thought to dominate water and solute transport. However, we demonstrated the importance of two additional subsurface drivers: groundwater flow and plant root water uptake. A high-resolution, coupled surface water-groundwater model of an intertidal salt marsh in San Francisco Bay, CA showed that these three drivers vary over different spatial scales: tidal flooding varies over 10's of meters; groundwater flow varies over meters, particularly within channel banks; and plant root water uptake varies in 3D at the sub-meter scale. Expanding on this third driver, we investigated whether the spatial variations in soil-water-plant hydraulic interactions that occur due to vegetation zonation also cause distinct geochemical zonation in salt marsh sediment pore waters. The existence of such geochemical zonation was verified and mapped by detailed field observations of the chemical composition of sediments, pore waters, surface waters, and vegetation. The field data and the coupled hydrologic model were then further analyzed to evaluate potential causal mechanisms for the geochemical zonation, including testing the hypothesis that the vegetation affects pore water geochemistry via a positive feedback beneficial to itself. If further supported by future studies, this geochemical feedback may complement known physical ecosystem engineering mechanisms to help stabilize and organize intertidal wetlands.

  3. Destabilization of Cohesive Intertidal Sediments by Infauna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Deckere, E. M. G. T.; Tolhurst, T. J.; de Brouwer, J. F. C.

    2001-11-01

    Bioturbation activity was reduced in four plots on an intertidal mudflat in the Humber estuary (UK) during 4 days, by spraying the sediment with an insecticide, namely vydate. Macrofaunal, especially Nereis diversicolor and oligochaeta, and meiofaunal densities decreased, while the diatom biomass did not change. This resulted in a 300% increase in sediment stability, caused by a reduction in bioturbation and grazing pressure and a decrease in the water content.

  4. Redistribution of intertidal sediment contaminants by microphytobenthos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Amani; Copplestone, David; Tyler, Andrew; Smith, Nick; Sneddon, Christopher

    2014-05-01

    Microphytobenthos (MPB) is a mixed community of microscopic algae inhabiting the top few millimetres of bottom sediment in the intertidal zone. It is a key component of the estuarine ecosystem, interacting with the sediment and fauna to influence sediment distribution and resuspension and forming the base of the estuarine food chain. Estuarine sediments, with which the MPB is closely associated, are a significant sink for contaminants from both fluvial and marine sources. Algae are known to have the capacity to take up contaminants, and the phytoplankton has been well studied in this respect, however there has been little research involving MPB. The extent to which contaminant uptake by MPB occurs and under what conditions is therefore very poorly understood. It seems probable that the paucity of research in this area is due to the complexity of the bioavailability of contaminants in the intertidal zone coupled with difficulties in separating MPB from the sediment. A series of experiments are proposed in which we will investigate (at a range of spatial scales) contaminant partitioning in the presence of MPB; the effect of changing temperatures on contaminant uptake and toxicity to MPB; effects of sediment resuspension on contaminant availability and uptake to MPB; and the uptake of contaminants from MPB to molluscs. A mesocosm (or experimental enclosure) is being constructed to replicate the natural system and enable manipulation of conditions of interest. This will attain greater realism than laboratory toxicity tests, with more statistical power than can be achieved through field studies. By gaining a better understanding of processes governing contaminant bioavailability and mechanisms for uptake by MPB it will be possible to relate these to projected climate change effects and ascertain potential consequences for contaminant redistribution.

  5. Denitrification in San Francisco Bay intertidal sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oremland, Ronald S.; Umberger, Cindy; Culbertson, Charles W.; Smith, Richard L.

    1984-01-01

    The acetylene block technique was employed to study denitrification in intertidal estuarine sediments. Addition of nitrate to sediment slurries stimulated denitrification. During the dry season, sediment-slurry denitrification rates displayed Michaelis-Menten kinetics, and ambient NO3− + NO2− concentrations (≤26 μM) were below the apparent Km (50 μM) for nitrate. During the rainy season, when ambient NO3− + NO2− concentrations were higher (37 to 89 μM), an accurate estimate of the Km could not be obtained. Endogenous denitrification activity was confined to the upper 3 cm of the sediment column. However, the addition of nitrate to deeper sediments demonstrated immediate N2O production, and potential activity existed at all depths sampled (the deepest was 15 cm). Loss of N2O in the presence of C2H2 was sometimes observed during these short-term sediment incubations. Experiments with sediment slurries and washed cell suspensions of a marine pseudomonad confirmed that this N2O loss was caused by incomplete blockage of N2O reductase by C2H2 at low nitrate concentrations. Areal estimates of denitrification (in the absence of added nitrate) ranged from 0.8 to 1.2 μmol of N2 m−2 h−1 (for undisturbed sediments) to 17 to 280 μmol of N2 m−2 h−1 (for shaken sediment slurries).

  6. Yaquina Bay, Oregon, Intertidal Sediment Temperature Database, 1998 - 2006.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Detailed, long term sediment temperature records were obtained and compiled in a database to determine the influence of daily, monthly, seasonal and annual temperature variation on eelgrass distribution across the intertidal habitat in Yaquina Bay, Oregon. Both currently and hi...

  7. The Fate of Nitrate in Intertidal Permeable Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Marchant, Hannah K.; Lavik, Gaute; Holtappels, Moritz; Kuypers, Marcel M. M.

    2014-01-01

    Coastal zones act as a sink for riverine and atmospheric nitrogen inputs and thereby buffer the open ocean from the effects of anthropogenic activity. Recently, microbial activity in sandy permeable sediments has been identified as a dominant source of N-loss in coastal zones, namely through denitrification. Some of the highest coastal denitrification rates measured so far occur within the intertidal permeable sediments of the eutrophied Wadden Sea. Still, denitrification alone can often account for only half of the substantial nitrate (NO3−) consumption. Therefore, to investigate alternative NO3− sinks such as dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA), intracellular nitrate storage by eukaryotes and isotope equilibration effects we carried out 15NO3− amendment experiments. By considering all of these sinks in combination, we could quantify the fate of the 15NO3− added to the sediment. Denitrification was the dominant nitrate sink (50–75%), while DNRA, which recycles N to the environment accounted for 10–20% of NO3− consumption. Intriguingly, we also observed that between 20 and 40% of 15NO3− added to the incubations entered an intracellular pool of NO3− and was subsequently respired when nitrate became limiting. Eukaryotes were responsible for a large proportion of intracellular nitrate storage, and it could be shown through inhibition experiments that at least a third of the stored nitrate was subsequently also respired by eukaryotes. The environmental significance of the intracellular nitrate pool was confirmed by in situ measurements which revealed that intracellular storage can accumulate nitrate at concentrations six fold higher than the surrounding porewater. This intracellular pool is so far not considered when modeling N-loss from intertidal permeable sediments; however it can act as a reservoir for nitrate during low tide. Consequently, nitrate respiration supported by intracellular nitrate storage can add an additional 20% to

  8. Sediment balance of intertidal mudflats in a macrotidal estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    lafite, R.; Deloffre, J.; Lemoine, M.

    2012-12-01

    Intertidal area contributes widely to fine-grained sediment balance in estuarine environments. Their sedimentary dynamics is controlled by several forcing parameters including tidal range, river flow and swell, affected by human activities such as dredging, construction or vessels traffic leading to modify sediment transport pattern. Although the estuarine hydrodynamics is well documented, the link between forcing parameters and these sedimentary processes is weakly understood. One of the main reasons is the difficulty to integrate spatial (from the fluvial to the estuary mouth) and temporal (from swell in seconds to pluriannual river flow variability) patterns. This study achieved on intertidal mudflats distributed along the macrotidal Seine estuary (France) aims (i) to quantify the impact of forcing parameters on each intertidal area respect to its longitudinal position in the estuarine system and (ii) to assess the fine-grained sediment budget at estuarine scale. The Seine estuary is a macrotidal estuary developed over 160 km up the upstream limit of tidal wave penetration. With an average river flow of 450m3.s-1, 80% of the Suspended Particles Matter (SPM) annual flux is discharged during the flood period. In the downstream part, the Seine estuary Turbidity Maximum (TM) is the SPM stock located near the mouth. During their transfer toward the sea, the fine particles can be trapped in (i) the intertidal mudflats; preferential areas characterized by low hydrodynamics and generally sheltered of the tidal dominant flow, the main tidal current the Seine River and (ii) the TM. The Seine estuary is an anthropic estuary in order to secure navigation: one consequence of these developments is the tidal bore disappearance. Along the macrotidal Seine estuary hydrodynamics features and sedimentary fluxes were followed during at least 1 year using respectively Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter, Optical BackScatter and altimeter. Results in the fluvial estuary enhance the role of

  9. Demethylation and cleavage of dimethylsulfoniopropionate in marine intertidal sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Visscher, P.T.; Kiene, R.P.; Taylor, B.F.

    1994-01-01

    Demethylation and cleavage of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) was measured in three different types of,intertidal marine sediments: a cyanobacterial mat, a diatom-covered tidal flat and a carbonate sediment. Consumption rates of added DMSP were highest in cyanobacterial mat slurries (59 ?? mol DMSP l-1 slurry h-1) and lower in slurries from a diatom mat and a carbonate tidal sediment (24 and 9 ??mol DMSP l-1 h-1, respectively). Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and 3-mercaptopropionate (MPA) were produced simultaneously during DMSP consumption, indicating that cleavage and demethylation occurred at the same time. Viable counts of DMSP-utilizing bacteria revealed a population of 2 x 107 cells cm-3 sediment (90% of these cleaved DMSP to DMS, 10% demethylated DMSP to MPA) in the cyanobacterial mat, 7 x 105 cells cm-3 in the diatom mat (23% cleavers, 77% demethylators), and 9 x 104 cells cm-3 (20% cleavers and 80% demethylators) in the carbonate sediment. In slurries of the diatom mat, the rate of MPA production from added 3-methiolpropionate (MMPA) was 50% of the rate of MPA formation from DMSP. The presence of a large population of demethylating bacteria and the production of MPA from DMSP suggest that the demethylation pathway, in addition to cleavage, contributes significantly to DMSP consumption in coastal sediments.

  10. Sea to land transfer of anthropogenic radionuclides to the North Wales coast, Part I: external gamma radiation and radionuclide concentrations in intertidal sediments, soil and air.

    PubMed

    Bryan, S E; McDonald, P; Hill, R; Wilson, R C

    2008-01-01

    Previous projects specifically aimed at performing radiological assessments in the vicinity of North Wales, investigating the presence and transfer of radionuclides from sea to land, were in 1986 and 1989. Since then, changes have occurred in the radioactive discharges from the British Nuclear Group Sellafield site. Annual discharges of (137)Cs, (238)Pu, (239,340)Pu and (241)Am have decreased markedly whereas, up until recent years, discharges of (99)Tc have increased. It is therefore desirable to quantify current transfer processes of radionuclides in the North Wales region and thus provide an update on 15-year-old studies. A field campaign was conducted collecting soil samples from 10 inland transects and air particulates on air filters from three High Volume Air Samplers, along the northern coast of Wales at Amlwch, Bangor Pier and Flint. Complementary field data relating to external gamma dose rates were collected at the soil sites. The field data generated for (137)Cs, (238)Pu, (239,340)Pu and (241)Am were consistent with what had been reported 15 years previously. Therefore, there has been no increase in the supply of these Sellafield-derived radionuclides to the terrestrial environment of the North Wales coast. The (99)Tc data in sediments were consistent with reported values within annual monitoring programmes, however, a relatively high activity concentration was measured in one sediment sample. This site was further investigated to determine the reason why such a high value was found. At present there is no clear evidence as to why this elevated concentration should be present, but the role of seaweed and its capacity in accumulating (99)Tc and transferring it to sediment is of interest. The analysis of the field samples for (99)Tc, (137)Cs, (238)Pu, (239,240)Pu and (241)Am has provided a data set that can be used for the modelling of the transfer of anthropogenic radionuclides from sea to land and its subsequent radiological implications and is reported

  11. Day-night variation of intertidal flat sediment properties in relation to sediment stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friend, P. L.; Collins, M. B.; Holligan, P. M.

    2003-11-01

    The majority of investigations that have measured sediment properties related to intertidal sediment stability have been undertaken during daylight subaerial exposure periods. As a consequence, models based upon such data represent only partially the intertidal flat surface conditions within any 24 h period. In this contribution, a comparison is made between surface sediment properties related to sediment stability measured during six consecutive (day/night), semi-diurnal subaerial exposure periods, at three stations on an intertidal sand flat in late March 1999. The study site was selected on the basis of its suitability for sampling and data collection at night, with special regard to safety and logistics. Seawater temperatures ranged from 4.1 to 9.6 °C, and salinities from 33.9 to 34.8. Eleven parameters related to intertidal flat sediment stability were measured, or derived. These variables included the critical erosion shear stress ( τc), chlorophyll a, phaeopigment, and colloidal carbohydrate content, mean grain size and settling velocity of the surface (0-1 mm) sediment fraction. Bed elevation was described using an acretion/erosion parameter (AEP) (West and West 1991), whilst additional physical terms included ambient seawater salinity and temperature, as well as tidal range and wind speed, during the preceding immersion periods. One-way ANOVA was used to detect significant differences between day- and night-time emersion periods; similarly, principal components analysis (PCA) was applied to detect continuous variation between properties. The results show a high degree of temporal and spatial variability between day- and night-time intertidal flat variables, the PCA differentiating clearly between day and night conditions. Surface sediments across the intertidal flat exhibited varying degrees of biostabilisation. The maximum biostabilisation coefficient (18) was recorded at night in high microalgal biomass areas; the minimum (5) occurred during both day

  12. Mapping intertidal surface sediment type distribution with retrieved sedimental components using EO-1 Hyperion data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huan; Zhang, Dong; Zhang, Ying; Xu, Yong

    2010-11-01

    Sediment type was one of the most important parameters of intertidal zone. The hydrodynamics and morphological changes could be indicated by sediment types very well, and the understanding of their distribution and stability could provide an important insight into littoral marine ecology. The way of conventional survey for sediment types was expensive and time-consuming. The objective of this study was to develop a method to distinguish sediment types using remote sensing, and enable which to be an alternative to traditional methods. Intertidal zone sediments were sampled at the south of Dafeng port, Yancheng city, Jiangsu province, China. Samples were collected from the upper 3cm surface of intertidal zone. The laboratory spectral reflectance data were obtained using a spectrometer. Particle-size of sediment samples were measured by Mastersizer 2000. Through analyzing characteristics of spectral reflectance for sediment samples, we found that two bands were sensitive to content of sediment components (sand, silt and clay) with central wavelengths at 864 and 1034 nm. However, the position of sensitive bands changed as moisture varied. In order to eliminate the impact of moisture on sediment spectral reflectance, moisture was introduced as a crucial factor to build regression equations with reflectance of sensitive bands to get contents of different sediment components, and then Shepard classification system was applied to acquire spatial distribution of sediment types. This way provided a quick, non-destructive and nonpolluting survey method. Meanwhile, this intelligent way of extracting information from muddy coastal zone will contribute to constructing digital earth, the huge system which benefits human beings.

  13. Mapping intertidal surface sediment type distribution with retrieved sedimental components using EO-1 Hyperion data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huan; Zhang, Dong; Zhang, Ying; Xu, Yong

    2009-09-01

    Sediment type was one of the most important parameters of intertidal zone. The hydrodynamics and morphological changes could be indicated by sediment types very well, and the understanding of their distribution and stability could provide an important insight into littoral marine ecology. The way of conventional survey for sediment types was expensive and time-consuming. The objective of this study was to develop a method to distinguish sediment types using remote sensing, and enable which to be an alternative to traditional methods. Intertidal zone sediments were sampled at the south of Dafeng port, Yancheng city, Jiangsu province, China. Samples were collected from the upper 3cm surface of intertidal zone. The laboratory spectral reflectance data were obtained using a spectrometer. Particle-size of sediment samples were measured by Mastersizer 2000. Through analyzing characteristics of spectral reflectance for sediment samples, we found that two bands were sensitive to content of sediment components (sand, silt and clay) with central wavelengths at 864 and 1034 nm. However, the position of sensitive bands changed as moisture varied. In order to eliminate the impact of moisture on sediment spectral reflectance, moisture was introduced as a crucial factor to build regression equations with reflectance of sensitive bands to get contents of different sediment components, and then Shepard classification system was applied to acquire spatial distribution of sediment types. This way provided a quick, non-destructive and nonpolluting survey method. Meanwhile, this intelligent way of extracting information from muddy coastal zone will contribute to constructing digital earth, the huge system which benefits human beings.

  14. Disturbance of intertidal sediments: the response of bacteria and foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langezaal, A. M.; Ernst, S. R.; Haese, R. R.; van Bergen, P. F.; van der Zwaan, G. J.

    2003-10-01

    Incubation experiments are common in marine experimental studies but the impact on organisms and geochemical parameters is poorly understood. Here, the re-establishment of vertical bacterial and foraminiferal zonation in intertidal sediments was studied after sieving and subsequent incubation of sediment. Living (Rose Bengal stained) foraminifera were counted and redox sensitive elements in the pore water were measured using a voltammetric microelectrode. Bacterial abundances were quantified using phospholipid derived fatty acid (PLFA) methyl esters in the range of C12-C22 released from intact phospholipids. Foraminifera appeared to be predominantly dependent on the presence of oxygen; they re-migrated to the top oxygenated 3 mm of the sediment within 21 days. Total bacterial abundance did not re-establish to original levels even after 49 days. Total fatty acid concentration increased to a depth of at least 70 mm in the field, but decreased with depth in the sieved sediments of the microcosms. This difference is attributed to macrobenthic activity and physical mixing in the field, causing an increased downward flux of electron acceptors (O 2, NO 3-, Mn(IV), Fe(III)) which is essential for dissimilatory processes at some centimetres depth. In the experimental microcosms, where macrobenthos was removed by sieving, foraminifera alone were not capable of this sediment mixing. The relative amounts of the individual PLFAs were constant with depth, which indicates that no differentiation with depth of the bacterial population by means of bacterial PLFAs could be established both in the field and in the experimental situation. The artificial disturbance led to a long-term change in the vertical bacterial distribution, which was not re-established during the incubation time of 49 days.

  15. Effect of salinity on heavy metal mobility and availability in intertidal sediments of the Scheldt estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du Laing, G.; De Vos, R.; Vandecasteele, B.; Lesage, E.; Tack, F. M. G.; Verloo, M. G.

    2008-05-01

    The effect of the flood water salinity on the mobility of heavy metals was studied for intertidal sediments of the Scheldt estuary (Belgium). Soils and sediments of 4 sampling sites were flooded with water of different salinities (0.5, 2.5, and 5 g NaCl L -1). Metal concentrations were monitored in pore water and surface water. To study the potential effects of flood water salinity on metal bioavailability, duckweed ( Lemna minor) was grown in the surface water. The salinity was found to primarily enhance the mobility of Cd and its uptake by duckweed. Cadmium concentrations in pore water of soils and sediments and surrounding surface waters significantly exceeded sanitation thresholds and quality standards during flooding of initially oxidized sediments. Moreover, the effect was observed already at lower salinities of 0.5 g NaCl L -1. This implies that risks related to Cd uptake by organisms and Cd leaching to ground water are relevant when constructing flooding areas in the brackish zones of estuaries. These risks can be reduced by inducing sulphide precipitation because Cd is then immobilised as sulphide and its mobility becomes independent of flood water salinity. This could be achieved by permanently flooding the polluted sediments, because sulphates are sufficiently available in the river water of the brackish part of the estuary.

  16. Estuarine intertidal sediment temperature variability in Zoster marina and Z. japonica habitats in Yaquina Bay, Oregon

    EPA Science Inventory

    Physical characterization of intertidal estuarine plant habitats over time may reveal distribution-limiting thresholds. Temperature data from loggers embedded in sediment in transects crossing Zostera marina and Z. japonica habitats in lower Yaquina Bay, Oregon display signific...

  17. Influence of introduced Sonneratia apetala on nutrients and heavy metals in intertidal sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, ruili; chai, minwei; Qiu, guo yu

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the influence of Sonneratia apetala on nutrients and heavy metals in intertidal sediments, core sediments from a S. apetala forest and adjacent mud flat in Futian Nature Reserve (Shenzhen Bay, China) were analyzed. The results showed that total carbon (TC), total nitrogen (TN), and total sulfur (TS) in S. apetala site were higher than mud flat site, indicating its improvement on soil nutrient properties. Concentrations of As (S. apetala: 199.66 μg/g, mud flat: 152.40 μg/g) were higher than probable effect concentrations, suggesting heavy pollution of As in sediments of S. apetala and mud flat sites. Furthermore, compared with mud flat site, sediments from S. apetala site have higher heavy metals, including Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Pb, and Hg. Overall, the heavy metals in both sites were in the same order of Zn > As > Hg > Cr > Cu ˜ Pb > Ni > Cd. In S. apetala site, organic matters (TC, TN, and TS) were positively correlated with Cu, Zn, and Hg, different from Cu, Zn, Hg, and Cd in mud flat site, indicating less important role of organic matter in trapping heavy metals. In addition, there were positive correlations among Ni, Cu, Zn, and Cd in S. apetala and mud flat sites, indicating the similar sources mainly from increasing municipal and industrial wastewater discharges.

  18. Factors affecting metal concentrations in the upper sediment layer of intertidal reedbeds along the river Scheldt.

    PubMed

    Du Laing, Gijs; Vandecasteele, Bart; De Grauwe, Pieter; Moors, Wouter; Lesage, Els; Meers, Erik; Tack, Filip M G; Verloo, Marc G

    2007-05-01

    Factors that play a role in determining metal accumulation in sediments of 26 intertidal marshes which are mainly vegetated by reed plants (Phragmites australis) were assessed along the Scheldt estuary (Belgium and The Netherlands). In the upper 20 cm sediment layer, several physico-chemical properties (clay, silt and sand content, organic matter, carbonate and chloride content, pH and conductivity) and aqua regia extractable metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn) were determined. The sediments were significantly contaminated with trace metals. The Cd concentrations often exceeded the Flemish soil remediation thresholds for nature areas, whereas Cr, Cu and Zn levels indicated moderate contamination. Pb concentrations occasionally were high, whereas Ni concentrations leaned towards background values. Organic matter was the single most important predictor variable for total metal contents in regression models, except for Cr. Additional significant predictor variables were clay or chloride content, depending on the metal. Observed metal concentrations at sites within a range of a few km from specific point-sources of metals (e.g. shipyards, industrial areas with metallurgic activities, affluents, major motorways) were somewhat higher than predicted by the models, whereas they were lower than predicted at sites which are regularly subjected to flooding by water of high salinity. The ratio between observed and predicted concentrations seems to be a valuable tool for the identification of areas which are specifically impacted by point sources. PMID:17492090

  19. Anthropogenic influence on sedimentation and intertidal mudflat change in San Pablo Bay, California: 1856-1983

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaffe, B.E.; Smith, R.E.; Foxgrover, A.C.

    2007-01-01

    Analysis of a series of historical bathymetric surveys has revealed large changes in morphology and sedimentation from 1856 to 1983 in San Pablo Bay, California. In 1856, the morphology of the bay was complex, with a broad main channel, a major side channel connecting to the Petaluma River, and an ebb-tidal delta crossing shallow parts of the bay. In 1983, its morphology was simpler because all channels except the main channel had filled with sediment and erosion had planed the shallows creating a uniform gently sloping surface. The timing and patterns of geomorphic change and deposition and erosion of sediment were influenced by human activities that altered sediment delivery from rivers. From 1856 to 1887, high sediment delivery (14.1 ?? 106 m3/yr) to San Francisco Bay during the hydraulic gold-mining period in the Sierra Nevada resulted in net deposition of 259 ?? 14 ?? 106 m3 in San Pablo Bay. This rapid deposition filled channels and increased intertidal mudflat area by 60% (37.4 ?? 3.4 to 60.6 ?? 6.2 km2). From 1951 to 1983, 23 ?? 3 ?? 106 m3 of sediment was eroded from San Pablo Bay as sediment delivery from the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers decreased to 2.8 ?? 106 m3/yr because of damming of rivers, riverbank protection, and altered land use. Intertidal mudflat area in 1983 was 31.8 ?? 3.9 km2, similar to that in 1856. Intertidal mudflat distribution in 1983, however, was fairly uniform whereas most of the intertidal mudflats were in the western part of San Pablo Bay in 1856. Sediment delivery, through its affect on shallow parts of the bay, was determined to be a primary control on intertidal mudflat area. San Pablo Bay has been greatly affected by human activities and will likely continue to erode in the near term in response to a diminished sediment delivery from rivers. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The effect of tidal forcing on biogeochemical processes in intertidal salt marsh sediments

    PubMed Central

    Taillefert, Martial; Neuhuber, Stephanie; Bristow, Gwendolyn

    2007-01-01

    Background Early diagenetic processes involved in natural organic matter (NOM) oxidation in marine sediments have been for the most part characterized after collecting sediment cores and extracting porewaters. These techniques have proven useful for deep-sea sediments where biogeochemical processes are limited to aerobic respiration, denitrification, and manganese reduction and span over several centimeters. In coastal marine sediments, however, the concentration of NOM is so high that the spatial resolution needed to characterize these processes cannot be achieved with conventional sampling techniques. In addition, coastal sediments are influenced by tidal forcing that likely affects the processes involved in carbon oxidation. Results In this study, we used in situ voltammetry to determine the role of tidal forcing on early diagenetic processes in intertidal salt marsh sediments. We compare ex situ measurements collected seasonally, in situ profiling measurements, and in situ time series collected at several depths in the sediment during tidal cycles at two distinct stations, a small perennial creek and a mud flat. Our results indicate that the tides coupled to the salt marsh topography drastically influence the distribution of redox geochemical species and may be responsible for local differences noted year-round in the same sediments. Monitoring wells deployed to observe the effects of the tides on the vertical component of porewater transport reveal that creek sediments, because of their confinements, are exposed to much higher hydrostatic pressure gradients than mud flats. Conclusion Our study indicates that iron reduction can be sustained in intertidal creek sediments by a combination of physical forcing and chemical oxidation, while intertidal mud flat sediments are mainly subject to sulfate reduction. These processes likely allow microbial iron reduction to be an important terminal electron accepting process in intertidal coastal sediments. PMID:17567893

  1. Influence of history and environment on the sediment dynamics of intertidal flats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Craig A.; Jaffe, Bruce E.

    2013-01-01

    Morphological trends of three distinct intertidal environments in South San Francisco Bay were investigated using a combination of measurement and modeling tools. Because of the inherent relationship between the physical environment and the sediment properties, the sediment properties provide a good indicator of morphologic trends. A significant finding of this study is that surface sediment erodibility increases as the energy level in the environment increases. Conversely subsurface sediment erodibility shows a strong relationship to the long-term history of the site. The combination of the measured sediment properties, the history of deposition and erosion, and simple modeling of the physical environment illustrate the interaction of these properties such that an understanding of intertidal flat behavior is developed.

  2. Exchange of nutrients across the sediment-water interface in intertidal ria systems (SW Europe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ospina-Alvarez, N.; Caetano, M.; Vale, C.; Santos-Echeandía, J.; Bernárdez, P.; Prego, R.

    2014-01-01

    Concentrations of nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, phosphate and silicate were determined in river water, tidal water that floods the intertidal sediment (flooding water) and pore water of those sediments in the Northern Galician Rias of Ortigueira and Viveiro (NW Iberian Peninsula). The field surveys were done in the productive seasons of spring and summer 2008. Short-sediment cores and tidal flooding water were sampled at the intertidal area during the first 20 min that the tide inundates the sampling site. Nutrient fluxes of rivers (Lourido and Landro) flowing into the rias were in the order of H4SiO4 > NO3- > NH4+ > HPO42 Nutrients input from those rivers were low relative to the nutrient discharge of the entire coastal area. Striking changes of nutrient concentrations in flooding and pore waters of intertidal sediments were observed in the short periods of tidal inundation. Nutrient fluxes driven by molecular diffusion and tide-induced transport across the sediment-water interface were quantified and compared to the nutrient river contribution. Diffusive fluxes ranged from 9.3 to 13.7 nmol·cm- 2·d- 1 for nitrate and nitrite, - 1.32 to 30.1 nmol·cm- 2·d- 1 for ammonium, - 0.01 to 0.49 nmol·cm- 2·d- 1 for phosphate, and - 13.2 to 0.2 nmol·cm- 2·d- 1 for silicate. Tide-induced transport always exceeded diffusive fluxes, with differences reaching up to four orders of magnitude for silicate. The overall results of this study emphasize the relevance of tidal water movement in promoting the sediment-water exchange of nutrients in intertidal sub-ecosystems.

  3. Sediment characterization in intertidal zone of the Bourgneuf bay using the Automatic Modified Gaussian Model (AMGM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verpoorter, C.; Carrère, V.; Combe, J.-P.; Le Corre, L.

    2009-04-01

    Understanding of the uppermost layer of cohesive sediment beds provides important clues for predicting future sediment behaviours. Sediment consolidation, grain size, water content and biological slimes (EPS: extracellular polymeric substances) were found to be significant factors influencing erosion resistance. The surface spectral signatures of mudflat sediments reflect such bio-geophysical parameters. The overall shape of the spectrum, also called a continuum, is a function of grain size and moisture content. Composition translates into specific absorption features. Finally, the chlorophyll-a concentration derived from the strength of the absorption at 675 nm, is a good proxy for biofilm biomass. Bourgneuf Bay site, south of the Loire river estuary, France, was chosen to represent a range of physical and biological influences on sediment erodability. Field spectral measurements and samples of sediments were collected during various field campaigns. An ASD Fieldspec 3 spectroradiometer was used to produce sediment reflectance hyperspectra in the wavelength range 350-2500 nm. We have developed an automatic procedure based on the Modified Gaussian Model that uses, as the first step, the Spectroscopic Derivative Analysis (SDA) to extract from spectra the bio-geophysical properties on mudflat sediments (Verpoorter et al., 2007). This AMGM algorithm is a powerfull tool to deconvolve spectra into two components, first gaussian curves for the absorptions bands, and second a straight line in the wavenumber range for the continuum. We are investigating the possibility of including other approaches, as the inverse gaussian band centred on 2800 nm initially developed by Whiting et al., (2006) to estimate water content. Additionally, soils samples were analysed to determine moisture content, grain size (laser grain size analyses), organic matter content, carbonate content (calcimetry) and clay content. X-ray diffraction analysis was performed on selected non

  4. Anthropogenic influence on sedimentation and intertidal mudflat change in San Pablo Bay, California: 1856 1983

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffe, Bruce E.; Smith, Richard E.; Foxgrover, Amy C.

    2007-06-01

    Analysis of a series of historical bathymetric surveys has revealed large changes in morphology and sedimentation from 1856 to 1983 in San Pablo Bay, California. In 1856, the morphology of the bay was complex, with a broad main channel, a major side channel connecting to the Petaluma River, and an ebb-tidal delta crossing shallow parts of the bay. In 1983, its morphology was simpler because all channels except the main channel had filled with sediment and erosion had planed the shallows creating a uniform gently sloping surface. The timing and patterns of geomorphic change and deposition and erosion of sediment were influenced by human activities that altered sediment delivery from rivers. From 1856 to 1887, high sediment delivery (14.1 × 10 6 m 3/yr) to San Francisco Bay during the hydraulic gold-mining period in the Sierra Nevada resulted in net deposition of 259 ± 14 × 10 6 m 3 in San Pablo Bay. This rapid deposition filled channels and increased intertidal mudflat area by 60% (37.4 ± 3.4 to 60.6 ± 6.2 km 2). From 1951 to 1983, 23 ± 3 × 10 6 m 3 of sediment was eroded from San Pablo Bay as sediment delivery from the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers decreased to 2.8 × 10 6 m 3/yr because of damming of rivers, riverbank protection, and altered land use. Intertidal mudflat area in 1983 was 31.8 ± 3.9 km 2, similar to that in 1856. Intertidal mudflat distribution in 1983, however, was fairly uniform whereas most of the intertidal mudflats were in the western part of San Pablo Bay in 1856. Sediment delivery, through its affect on shallow parts of the bay, was determined to be a primary control on intertidal mudflat area. San Pablo Bay has been greatly affected by human activities and will likely continue to erode in the near term in response to a diminished sediment delivery from rivers.

  5. Sediment dynamics within the intertidal floodplain of the lower Amazon River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricke, A. T.; Nittrouer, C. A.; Ogston, A. S.; Nowacki, D. J.; Asp, N. E.; Souza Filho, P. W.

    2014-12-01

    Tidal influence extends ~800 kilometers upstream of the Amazon River mouth, producing semidiurnal oscillations in water elevation and slowing or reversing the flow of the world's largest river. This tidally influenced reach, known as the tidal river, is flanked by an expansive intertidal floodplain, and includes confluences with two large tributaries, the Xingu and Tapajós. The relative magnitude of the seasonal and tidal signals changes along the length of the tidal river, yielding diverse floodplain environments that span a range of seasonal and tidal influence. Near the upstream limit of tides, natural levees isolate the river from the floodplain during low to moderate flows, while in the lower tidal river, natural levees are absent and river-floodplain exchange is dominated by the tides rather than seasonal variation in river stage. This difference between fluvial and tidal systems strongly affects the nature of sediment exchange between the channel and floodplain, including frequency, duration, and depth of inundation. Here we present data on the impact of this fluvial-tidal continuum on sedimentary processes in the floodplain and resultant depositional signatures. Changes in levee prominence, grain size, and sediment accumulation combine to produce the distinct morphologies of floodplain lakes, intertidal backswamps, and intertidal flats. In addition to sediment accumulation on the periodically exposed floodplain, Amazon River sediment accumulates within the drowned tributary confluences of the Xingu and Tapajós Rivers. Here seasonal and tidal changes in water temperature, discharge, and suspended-sediment concentration drive barotropic and baroclinic flows that transport Amazon River sediment into tributary basins. These findings help to constrain the fate of sediment within the ungauged Amazon tidal river, and will help in understanding the response of the lower Amazon River to changes in accommodation space associated with rising sea level, and changes

  6. Site-specific features influence sediment stability of intertidal flats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Defew, Emma C.; Tolhurst, Trevor J.; Paterson, David M.

    The factors that influence the sediment stability and the transport of estuarine mudflats are not yet fully understood but knowledge of them is essential in coastal engineering applications and pollution ecology studies. The suggestion that variation in predictive models of sediment stability might be due to site-specific characteristics is investigated using data from four estuarine mudflats (Eden Estuary, Scotland, the Biezelingsche Ham, Zandkreek, and Molenplaat mudflats in The Netherlands). These estuaries differ in their environmental conditions, macrofaunal species composition and local features (e.g. Enteromorpha mats, migratory biofilms). Stable and unstable sediments were compared, and mean chlorophyll-a concentrations and granulometry of the sediments were significantly different between the two groups. Step-wise multiple linear regressions were applied to the sediment stability data of all sites to establish the influences on erosion threshold of microphytobenthic biomass, water content, granulometry, organic carbon content and the abundance of dominant macrofaunal species. The stability of each site was influenced by different factors. Sediment stability of the Eden Estuary was affected by the Enteromorpha bloom; Biezelingsche Ham was influenced by the highly migratory nature of the diatom biofilms and the abundance of Corophium volutator; the polychaete worm Arenicola marina had a net negative effect on sediment stability of the Zandkreek; and the Molenplaat was influenced by microphytobenthic biomass. This research highlights the need for site-specific calibration of models and suggests that a universal proxy parameter for sediment stability is unlikely to be obtained.

  7. Depositional variability of estuarine intertidal sediments and implications for metal distribution: An example from Moreton Bay (Australia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morelli, Guia; Gasparon, Massimo

    2015-10-01

    This study examines the patterns of depositional variability, sediment geochemistry and metal distribution in intertidal areas of Moreton Bay, southeast Queensland, Australia. Recent concern over increasing human impact on the bay has generated the need to obtain evidence on how the disturbance of the depositional setting might affect the natural estuarine environment. Sediment stratigraphy, major, and trace element analyses of sediment cores show that the sedimentation pattern is unique to each intertidal site. Disturbed 210Pb and 137Cs activity profiles of some of the cores indicate that sediment reworking occurs across the intertidal flats up to a depth of at least 80 cm. With some notable exceptions, an accurate geochronology of the surface sediments could not be established due to low 210Pb activities and sediment mixing. Thus, an increase in Pb, Zn and Cu towards the surface sediments observed at various sites is attributed to both anthropogenic contribution following the rapid urban development in the last century and to post-depositional diagenetic processes, bioturbation and sediment re-suspension induced by tides, storms or floods. Sediment cores are representative only of the local sedimentation and may not always allow extensive correlation to larger areas. Vertical profiles of heavy metals reflect the different depositional environment controlled by the complex hydrodynamics of the bay. Local hydrologic, physical, and tidal conditions might induce metals redistribution at different scales. This information is of critical importance in view of sediment remobilization caused by future development such as dredging, intertidal areas reclamation or excavation of new navigational channels.

  8. Effectiveness of bioremediation in reducing toxicity in oiled intertidal sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K.; Tremblay, G.H.; Siron, R.

    1995-12-31

    A 123-day field study was conducted with in situ enclosures to compare the effectiveness of bioremediation strategies based in inorganic and organic fertilizer additions to accelerate the biodegradation rates and reduce the toxicity of Venture{trademark} condensate stranded within sand-beach sediments. Comparison of the two fertilizer formulations with identical nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations showed that the organic fertilizer stimulated bacterial productivity within the oiled sediments to the greatest extent. However, detailed chemical analysis indicated that inorganic fertilizer additions were the most effective in enhancing condensate biodegradation rates. The Microtox{reg_sign} Solid-Phase Test (SPT) bioassay was determined to be sensitive to Venture Condensate in laboratory tests. Subsequent application of this procedure to oiled sediment in the field showed a reduction in sediment toxicity over time. However, the Microtox{reg_sign} bioassay procedure did not identify significant reductions in sediment toxicity following bioremediation treatment. An observed increase in toxicity following periodic additions of the organic fertilizer was attributed to rapid biodegradation rates of the fertilizer, which resulted in the production of toxic metabolic products.

  9. Sediment-porewater-biota partitioning of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in an urban intertidal marsh

    SciTech Connect

    Maruya, K.A.; Home, A.J.; Risebrough, R.W.

    1995-12-31

    Quantifying the distribution of these hydrophobic organic compounds in situ is key to understanding their fate and effects in aquatic ecosystems. In particular, field data are needed to assess/validate/invalidate the relevance of chemical-specific sediment quality criteria which are derived from equilibrium partitioning models. A field-based study in San Francisco Bay designed to investigate seasonal and spatial variations has revealed that the in situ partitioning of pyrogenically-derived PAHs between sediments and porewaters as measured by K{sub oc}{prime} was an order of magnitude higher during the wet season than during the dry season. Moreover, K{sub oc}{prime} increased along an intertidal gradient accompanied by a corresponding increase in sediment fines, organic carbon and PAH concentration. In addition, BSAFs for two species of bivalves and a composite of polychaetes collected in the marsh were negatively correlated with log K{sub ow}. Moreover, BSAFs were consistently less during the wet season and also decreased along the same intertidal gradient providing further evidence that both partitioning and bioavailability are affected by a heterogeneous interaction between PAHs and sediments contaminated with urban runoff and/or depositional sources which are suspected to be enriched with a highly aromatic soot-like organic matrix. These findings suggest that simple equilibrium models may not accurately predict the partitioning and bioavailability of combustion-source PAHs in sediments which are contaminated primarily via an urban landscape.

  10. Effect of crab bioturbation on organic matter processing in South West Atlantic intertidal sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanjul, Eugenia; Escapa, Mauricio; Montemayor, Diana; Addino, Mariana; Alvarez, María Fernanda; Grela, María A.; Iribarne, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    Organic matter (OM) remineralization plays a key role in controlling the biogeochemistry of marine sediments. Through their burrowing activities, bioturbating macrofauna not only induces physical, chemical and biological modifications, which can affect microbial communities responsible for organic matter remineralization, but it could also directly affect the distribution and bioavailability of sedimentary organic matter. Through in situ experiments manipulating crab and burrow density in intertidal soft-bottoms, we assessed if crab-bioturbation affects benthic metabolism, and the amount, distribution, and bioavailability of sedimentary OM. Crab-bioturbation enhanced overall benthic metabolism and benthic flux of dissolved OM toward the water column at both mudflat and saltmarsh zones. Moreover, our results revealed that bioturbation also changes the quality, bioavailability and distribution of sedimentary OM in mudflats and saltmarshes. Overall, bioturbation enhanced the proportion of labile organic carbon of bioturbated sediments and homogenized the sediment column in terms of their proportion of labile organic carbon. However, crabs also generated biogenic structures (e.g., mounds) that could promote spatial heterogeneity of high nutritional-value OM. Bioturbation-induced changes on benthic metabolism and on OM availability would result in a reduction of the storage capacity of carbon in our intertidal systems. Previous works indicated that crab-burrows trap detritus and OM-rich sediments. Our results suggest that detritus are efficiently remineralized at bioturbated sediment, and finally they are quickly exported to the water column as CO2 and DOC. Thus, crabs are modifying the OM processing at intertidal soft bottoms, and the ways in which carbon is exported to coastal waters.

  11. Proliferation of Purple Sulphur Bacteria at the Sediment Surface Affects Intertidal Mat Diversity and Functionality

    PubMed Central

    Hubas, Cédric; Jesus, Bruno; Ruivo, Mickael; Meziane, Tarik; Thiney, Najet; Davoult, Dominique; Spilmont, Nicolas; Paterson, David M.; Jeanthon, Christian

    2013-01-01

    There is a relative absence of studies dealing with mats of purple sulphur bacteria in the intertidal zone. These bacteria display an array of metabolic pathways that allow them to disperse and develop under a wide variety of conditions, making these mats important in terms of ecosystem processes and functions. Mass blooms of purple sulphur bacteria develop during summer on sediments in the intertidal zone especially on macroalgal deposits. The microbial composition of different types of mats differentially affected by the development of purple sulphur bacteria was examined, at low tide, using a set of biochemical markers (fatty acids, pigments) and composition was assessed against their influence on ecosystem functions (sediment cohesiveness, CO2 fixation). We demonstrated that proliferation of purple sulphur bacteria has a major impact on intertidal mats diversity and functions. Indeed, assemblages dominated by purple sulphur bacteria (Chromatiaceae) were efficient exopolymer producers and their biostabilisation potential was significant. In addition, the massive growth of purple sulphur bacteria resulted in a net CO2 degassing whereas diatom dominated biofilms represented a net CO2 sink. PMID:24340018

  12. Temporal-spatial variation and partitioning prediction of antibiotics in surface water and sediments from the intertidal zones of the Yellow River Delta, China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shengnan; Liu, Xinhui; Cheng, Dengmiao; Liu, Guannan; Liang, Baocui; Cui, Baoshan; Bai, Junhong

    2016-11-01

    As special zones, the intertidal zones of the Yellow River Delta (YRD) are highly variable along with time and space. Fluvial-marine and land-ocean interactions which frequently occur in these areas have a great impact on the fate of pollutants. Antibiotics, which contribute to antibiotic-resistant genes (ARGs), are widely detected in wastewater, natural water, soil, sediments, and even drinking water. Therefore, it is meaningful to investigate the occurrence and fate of antibiotics in these special zones. In this study, eight antibiotics belonging to tetracyclines (TCs), fluoroquinolones (FQs), and macrolides (MLs) were detected in the surface water and sediments from the intertidal zones of YRD during two seasons. Two models were established to predict the partitioning coefficients of norfloxacin (NOR) and erythromycin (ETM) using physicochemical properties of sediments, respectively. The total concentrations of these antibiotics were 82.94-230.96ng·L(-1) and 40.97-207.44ng·g(-1), respectively, in the surface water and sediments. Seasonal variation was mainly influenced by the frequency of antibiotics use and environment factors. The regions with river supply exhibited the highest concentrations of antibiotics in surface water and sediments. Meanwhile, particle-size fractions, cation exchange capability (CEC), and metal ions content played dominant roles in the partitioning behaviors of NOR and ETM between the surface water and sediments. Both models established in this study featured accuracy and feasibility, which provided the methods for predicting the partitioning coefficients of emerging contaminants similar in structures to NOR and ETM in the intertidal zones. PMID:27387795

  13. The effects of simulated rain on the erosion threshold and biogeochemical properties of intertidal sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolhurst, T. J.; Watts, C. W.; Vardy, S.; Saunders, J. E.; Consalvey, M. C.; Paterson, D. M.

    2008-06-01

    The effects of simulated rain on the erosion threshold and biogeochemical properties of cores of muddy intertidal sediments were measured. Rain was simulated with a trailer-mounted device that produced rain with an intensity and drop size similar to that of natural rain. Erosion thresholds were measured with a cohesive strength meter (CSM) and sediment samples for analysis of the biogeochemical properties of the sediment were collected using the cryogenic contact-core technique. Rain caused significant disruption of the sediment surface, often resulting in significantly lower erosion thresholds and increased relative erosion rates. The removal of unconsolidated surface sediments and the revealing of deeper more consolidated sediments, however, caused an increase in the measured erosion threshold and a reduction in erosion rate in some treatments. The biogeochemical properties of the sediment were significantly altered by even a short duration of rain (5 min). Bio-dependent properties such as the amount of chlorophyll a and carbohydrates were generally decreased by rain. The presence of a visible biofilm did not significantly mediate the effects of rain on erosion thresholds, in contrast to their ability to significantly reduce erosion by tidal flows.

  14. Surface sedimentation and sediment property of 2014~2015 years on the Dongho open-coast intertidal flat, Gochang coast of southwestern Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryang, Woo Hun; Kang, Na Yeong; Kang, Sol Ip

    2016-04-01

    The Dongho intertidal flat, located on the southwestern coast of Korea, is macro-tide, open-coast, linear shoreline, and sand substrates. In the Dongho intertidal flat, this study has focused on characteristics of surface sedimentation and sediment properties during 2014~2015 years. Can cores (30×17×5 cm3) were sampled at 4 sites with 150 m interval from shoreline to lower intertidal area during the 6 seasons from spring (June) in 2014 to summer (Aug.) in 2015. The 24 can cores of the intertidal flat were analyzed for sediment texture, porosity, wet density, grain density, and shear strength at 2, 10, and 25 cm parts from the top. Sediment type is mostly sand (S) facies of the Folk scheme, and mean grain size and skewness of the sediments are 0.93~2.70 ϕ and -0.50~0.41, respectively. Sediment properties show porosity of 9~32%, wet density of 1.88~2.45 g/cm3, grain density of 2.62~3.09 g/cm3, and shear strength of 8~64 kPa. The cancore peels represent planar and inclined stratification and bioturbated faintly stratification with some shell fragments. The stratification weaken from the shoreline to the lower intertidal site. This is indicative of waning influences of sea wave in the Dongho intertidal flat. Keywords: macro-tide, open-coast, can core, intertidal flat, Gochang coast Acknowledgements: This study was supported by the research grant from the Korean Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries (PJT200538). This presentation is an interim result of the coastal research program in the study area.

  15. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and black carbon in intertidal sediments of China coastal zones: Concentration, ecological risk, source and their relationship.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaofei; Hou, Lijun; Li, Ye; Liu, Min; Lin, Xianbiao; Cheng, Lv

    2016-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and black carbon (BC) have attracted many attentions, especially in the coastal environments. In this study, spatiotemporal distributions of PAHs and BC, and the correlations between BC and PAHs were investigated in the intertidal sediments of China coastal zones. BC in sediments was measured through dichromate oxidation (BCCr) and thermal oxidation (BCCTO). The concentrations of BCCr in the intertidal sediments ranged between 0.61 and 6.32mgg(-1), while BCCTO ranged between 0.57 and 4.76mgg(-1). Spatial variations of δ(13)C signatures in TOC and BC were observed, varying from -21.13‰ to -24.87‰ and from -23.53‰ to -16.78‰, respectively. PAH contents of sediments ranged from 195.9 to 4610.2ngg(-1) in winter and 98.2 to 2796.5ngg(-1) in summer, and significantly seasonal variations were observed at most sampling sites. However, the results of potential toxicity assessment indicated low ecological risk in the intertidal sediments of China coastal zones. Greater concentrations of PAHs measured in the sediments of estuarine environments indicated that rivers runoff may have been responsible for the higher PAH pollution levels in the intertidal sediments of China coastal zones. Pearson's correlation analysis suggested that pyrogenic compounds of PAH were significantly related to BC, due to that both BC and these compounds derived mainly from the combustion process of fossil fuels and biomass. Overall, increasing energy consumptions caused by anthropogenic activities can contribute more emissions of BC as well as PAHs and thus improve the importance of BC in indicating pyrogenic compounds of PAHs in the intertidal sediments of China coastal zones. PMID:27266522

  16. Trace metals in the surface sediments of the intertidal Jiaozhou Bay, China: Sources and contamination assessment.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fangjian; Qiu, Longwei; Cao, Yingchang; Huang, Jingli; Liu, Zhaoqing; Tian, Xu; Li, Anchun; Yin, Xuebo

    2016-03-15

    The major (Al) and trace metal (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Cd, and As) concentrations in 29 surface sediment samples from the intertidal Jiaozhou Bay (JZB) are evaluated to assess the contamination level. The results show that the overall sediment quality in the area has been obviously impacted by trace metal contamination. The geoaccumulation index and the enrichment factor values indicate that no Cr or Cu contamination has occurred on the whole, only a few stations have been polluted by As, and some areas have been polluted by Cd, Pb, and Zn. Principal component analysis suggests that the Cu, Pb, Zn, and Cd are derived from anthropogenic inputs and that Cr, As, Cu, and Zn are influenced by natural weathering processes. Cu and Zn may originate from both natural and anthropogenic sources. The contamination in the northeastern JZB is higher than that in other areas of the bay. PMID:26806660

  17. Trace metals, PCBs, and PAHs in benthic (epipelic) diatoms from intertidal sediments; a pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Stronkhorst, J.; Misdorp, R. ); Vos, P.C. )

    1994-06-01

    Intertidal sediments in many estuaries around the world have a history of contamination resulting from long term discharges of industrial, agricultural and domestic waste effluents. These contaminated sediments are now regarded as a major source of toxicants for bottom-related organisms which, in turn, may pass on certain contaminants (e.g. methylmercury, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)) to organisms higher in the foodchain. Many studies have been conducted on the contamination of benthic macrofauna, estuarine fish and birds, but to our knowledge no research has yet been carried out on benthic diatoms which form the lowest trophic level of an intertidal ecosystem. Research on the effects of micro-contaminants on primary producers in marine ecosystems is mainly performed with phytoplankton. In the estuaries of temperate regions, benthic diatoms make a significant contribution to primary production in the ecosystem and are predated especially by deposit feeding Polychaete and Mollusca. Knowledge of the level of contamination in benthic diatoms is of major importance to recognize possible effects on growth rate and species composition of the benthic diatom populations and to understand the accumulation of toxicants into the foodchain. For chemical analysis it is difficult to obtain [open quote]pure[close quote] samples of benthic diatoms because they form part of the sediment. A similar problem occurs with the sampling of phytoplankton in turbid estuarine waters. The aim of this pilot study was (a) to improve a trap technique to collect pure samples of benthic diatoms of at least 2 gram dry weight for analysis of trace metals, PCBs and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and (b) to compare the concentrations in benthic diatoms with levels in sediment and some bottom-related organisms. 16 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Measuring Sediment Exchange Rates On Two Intertidal Banks In The Trent/ouse System, Uk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, S. B.; Lawler, D. M.; West, J. R.; Couperthwaite, J. S.

    Results from PEEP sensors installed at two inter-tidal sites at Burringham, on the Trent estuary, and Blacktoft, near the confluence of the Trent and Ouse rivers, York- shire, UK will be presented for the period 1 March 1997 to 28 September, 1997. The PEEP system allows detailed erosion and deposition event sequences to be monitored automatically, and this considerably improves process information collected. It con- sists of linear arrays of photovoltaic cells covering an active length of 200 mm, housed within a transparent acrylic tube (f=16 mm). Following insertion of the PEEP sen- sors in the bank, subsequent erosion of sediment reveals more photosensitive cells to light, which increases the recorded output voltage. Accretion of sediment causes the recorded output voltages to drop. The sensors are connected to a data logger. This sys- tem permits data to be obtained on the magnitude, timing and frequency of individual erosion and deposition events, and hence sediment cycling patterns on estuarine banks. These events can be related much more sensitively to local hydraulic and meteorolog- ical conditions such as wind speed, tidal range and river flow. This enables calibration of process-based models of sediment transport regime. The main conclusions to this study are as follows: (1) Spring tides lead to higher sediment deposition through in- creased sediment availability. Sediment availability is modified by the proximity of the turbidity maximum to the study site. (2) Erosion is linked with wind speed, with high wind events leading to locally generated waves, which cause removal of surface sediment. Episodic erosion due to collapse of ScliffS forms has also been observed for ´ the Burringham site. (3) Observed Erosion and deposition rates of up to 50 mm per day are generally 2-3 times higher for the Burringham site compared with the Black- toft site. This more dynamic environment may be related to higher tidal velocities, and steeper banks at Burringham

  19. Disturbance of intertidal soft-sediment benthic communities by cockle hand raking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, M. J.; Broad, G.; Hall, S. J.

    2001-05-01

    Recent awareness of the ecosystem effects of fishing activities on the marine environment means that there is a pressing need to evaluate the direct and indirect effects of those activities that may have negative effects on non-target species and habitats. The cockle, Cerastoderma edule (L.) is the target of a commercial and artisanal fishery that occurs in intertidal and estuarine habitats across Northern Europe. Cockles are harvested either mechanically using tractor dredges or suction dredges or by large numbers of individual fishers using hand rakes. This study examined the effects of hand raking on the non-target species and under-sized cockles associated with intertidal cockle beds and the effects of size of the patch of sediment disturbed on subsequent recolonisation. Hand raking led to an initial three-fold increase in the damage rate of under-sized cockles compared with control plots. The communities in both small and large raked plots showed community changes relative to control plots 14 days after the initial disturbance. The small raked plots had recovered 56 days after the initial disturbance whereas the large raked plots remained in an altered state. Samples collected over a year later indicated that small-scale variations in habitat heterogeneity had been altered and suggest that while effects of hand raking may be significant within a year, they are unlikely to persist beyond this time-scale unless there are larger long-lived species present within the community.

  20. Role of Diatoms in the Spatial-Temporal Distribution of Intracellular Nitrate in Intertidal Sediment

    PubMed Central

    Stief, Peter; Kamp, Anja; de Beer, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Intracellular nitrate storage allows microorganisms to survive fluctuating nutrient availability and anoxic conditions in aquatic ecosystems. Here we show that diatoms, ubiquitous and highly abundant microalgae, represent major cellular reservoirs of nitrate in an intertidal flat of the German Wadden Sea and are potentially involved in anaerobic nitrate respiration. Intracellular nitrate (ICNO3) was present year-round in the sediment and was spatially and temporally correlated with fucoxanthin, the marker photopigment of diatoms. Pyrosequencing of SSU rRNA genes of all domains of life confirmed that ICNO3 storage was most likely due to diatoms rather than other known nitrate-storing microorganisms (i.e., large sulfur bacteria and the eukaryotic foraminifers and gromiids). Sedimentary ICNO3 concentrations reached up to 22.3 µmol dm-3 at the sediment surface and decreased with sediment depth to negligible concentrations below 5 cm. Similarly, the ICNO3/fucoxanthin ratio and porewater nitrate (PWNO3) concentrations decreased with sediment depth, suggesting that ICNO3 of diatoms is in equilibrium with PWNO3, but is enriched relative to PWNO3 by 2-3 orders of magnitude. Cell-volume-specific ICNO3 concentrations in a diatom mat covering the sediment surface during spring were estimated at 9.3-46.7 mmol L-1. Retrieval of 18S rRNA gene sequences related to known nitrate-storing and nitrate-ammonifying diatom species suggested that diatoms in dark and anoxic sediment layers might be involved in anaerobic nitrate respiration. Due to the widespread dominance of diatoms in microphytobenthos, the total nitrate pool in coastal marine sediments may generally be at least two times larger than derived from porewater measurements and partially be recycled to ammonium. PMID:24023845

  1. Assessment of trace metal pollution in sediments and intertidal fauna at the coast of Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Ngeve, Magdalene N; Leermakers, Martine; Elskens, Marc; Kochzius, Marc

    2015-06-01

    Coastal systems act as a boundary between land and sea. Therefore, assessing pollutant concentrations at the coast will provide information on the impact that land-based anthropogenic activities have on marine ecosystems. Sediment and fauna samples from 13 stations along the whole coast of Cameroon were analyzed to assess the level of trace metal pollution in sediments and intertidal fauna. Sediments showed enrichment of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn. However, pollution of greater concern was observed for Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn at the northern stations. Some sites recorded trace metal levels higher than recommended in sediment quality guidelines. Species diversity was low, and high bioaccumulation of trace metals was observed in biological samples. Some edible gastropod species accumulated trace metals above the safety limits of the World Health Organization, European Medicine Agency, and the US Environment Protection Agency. Although industrial pollution is significant along Cameroon's coast, natural pollution from the volcano Mount Cameroon is also of concern. PMID:25957194

  2. RESPONSE OF GHOST SHRIMP (NEOTRYPAEA CALIFORNIENSIS) BIOTURBATION TO ORGANIC MATTER ENRICHMENT OF ESTUARINE INTERTIDAL SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Populations of burrowing shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis and Upogebia p;ugettensis) are the dominant invertebrate fauna on Pacific estuarine tide flats, occupying >80% of intertidal area in some estuaries. Burrowing shrimp are renowned for their bioturbation of intertidal sedi...

  3. Wave energy dissipation by intertidal sand waves on a mixed-sediment Beach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, P.; Ruggiero, P.

    2006-01-01

    Within the surf zone, the energy expended by wave breaking is strongly influenced by nearshore bathymetry, which is often linked to the character and abundance of local sediments. Based upon a continuous, two year record of Argus Beach Monitoring System (ABMS) data on the north shore of Kachemak Bay in southcentral Alaska, we model the enhancement of wave energy dissipation by the presence of intertidal sand waves. Comparison of model results from simulations in the presence and absence of sand waves illustrates that these ephemeral morphological features can offer significant protection to the backing beach and sea cliff through two mechanisms: (1) by moving the locus of wave breaking seaward and (2) by increasing energy expenditure associated with the turbulence of wave breaking. Copyright ASCE 2006.

  4. The effects of five different defaunation methods on biogeochemical properties of intertidal sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolhurst, T. J.; Chapman, M. G.; Underwood, A. J.; Cruz, J. J.

    2012-01-01

    Various methods have been used to remove organisms from sediments to investigate structure and function of faunal assemblages in intertidal habitats. Nevertheless, little is known about how these treatments affect properties of the sediments themselves, although changing these properties may cause changes in the assemblages independently of other hypotheses being tested. This study assesses the efficacy of defaunation and effect on selected biogeochemical properties of five different methods of defaunating soft muddy sediments in an estuary. The methods were: removal and freezing of sediment, removal and oven-heating, freezing in situ with liquid N2, spraying with formalin and spraying with hydrogen peroxide. The first four of these methods have been used in previous studies, whilst the fifth was considered to be a potentially useful defaunator because it does not leave toxic residues. The first two methods required sediment to be brought back to the lab, disrupting the natural structure of the sediment; the last three were done in situ, with much less disturbance. Variables measured to assess effects of the treatments on the sediment were: amount of water, grain-size, total carbohydrate, suspension index (relative erosion rate), erosion threshold, chlorophylls-a and -b, colloidal carbohydrate, Fo (minimal fluorescence) and Fv/Fm (photosynthetic yield). There were no significant effects of any treatment on the first 4 variables. For the others, effects of defaunation varied from treatment to treatment and with time after treatment. Generally, the greatest disturbance was to the microphytobenthos (MPB, measured by chlorophyll and fluorescence) and related variables. For most treatments, recovery was rapid, but the effects of formalin and H2O2 persisted for a few days. Effects on physical properties of the sediment were largely minor and insignificant, removal and freezing or heating, however, caused major changes to the sediments because of the disturbances involved

  5. Technical Note: The effects of five different defaunation methods on biogeochemical properties of intertidal sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolhurst, T. J.; Chapman, M. G.; Underwood, A. J.; Cruz, J. J.

    2012-09-01

    Various methods have been used to remove organisms from sediments to investigate structure and function of faunal assemblages in intertidal habitats. Nevertheless, little is known about how these treatments affect properties of the sediments themselves, although changing these properties may cause changes in the assemblages, independently of other hypotheses being tested. This study assesses the efficacy of defaunation and effect on selected biogeochemical properties of five different methods of defaunating soft muddy sediments in an estuary. The methods were removal and freezing of sediment, removal and oven-heating, freezing in situ with liquid N2, spraying with formalin and spraying with hydrogen peroxide. The first four of these methods have been used in previous studies, whilst the fifth was considered to be a potentially useful defaunator because it does not leave toxic residues. The first two methods required sediment to be brought back to the lab, disrupting the natural structure of the sediment; the last three were done in situ, with much less disturbance. Variables measured to assess effects of the treatments on the sediment were amount of water, grain size, total carbohydrate, suspension index (relative erosion rate), erosion threshold, chlorophyll a and b, colloidal carbohydrate, Fo (minimal fluorescence) and Fv / Fm (photosynthetic yield). There were no significant effects of any treatment on the first four variables. For the others, effects of defaunation varied from treatment to treatment and with time after treatment. Generally, the greatest disturbance was to the microphytobenthos (MPB, measured by chlorophyll and fluorescence) and related variables. For most treatments, recovery was rapid, but the effects of formalin and H2O2 persisted for a few days. Effects on physical properties of the sediment were mostly minor and insignificant. Removal and freezing or heating, however, caused major changes to the sediments because of the disturbances

  6. Interactions between Benthic Copepods, Bacteria and Diatoms Promote Nitrogen Retention in Intertidal Marine Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Stock, Willem; Heylen, Kim; Sabbe, Koen; Willems, Anne; De Troch, Marleen

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims at evaluating the impact of diatoms and copepods on microbial processes mediating nitrate removal in fine-grained intertidal sediments. More specifically, we studied the interactions between copepods, diatoms and bacteria in relation to their effects on nitrate reduction and denitrification. Microcosms containing defaunated marine sediments were subjected to different treatments: an excess of nitrate, copepods, diatoms (Navicula sp.), a combination of copepods and diatoms, and spent medium from copepods. The microcosms were incubated for seven and a half days, after which nutrient concentrations and denitrification potential were measured. Ammonium concentrations were highest in the treatments with copepods or their spent medium, whilst denitrification potential was lowest in these treatments, suggesting that copepods enhance dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium over denitrification. We hypothesize that this is an indirect effect, by providing extra carbon for the bacterial community through the copepods' excretion products, thus changing the C/N ratio in favour of dissimilatory nitrate reduction. Diatoms alone had no effect on the nitrogen fluxes, but they did enhance the effect of copepods, possibly by influencing the quantity and quality of the copepods' excretion products. Our results show that small-scale biological interactions between bacteria, copepods and diatoms can have an important impact on denitrification and hence sediment nitrogen fluxes. PMID:25360602

  7. River flow control on intertidal mudflat sedimentation in the mouth of a macrotidal estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuvilliez, Antoine; Lafite, Robert; Deloffre, Julien; Lemoine, Maxence; Langlois, Estelle; Sakho, Issa

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the impact of hydrological variability influenced by climatic phenomena upon the sedimentary exchange between the turbidity maximum (TM) and a river mouth intertidal mudflat. This study, carried out over a period of 10 years (1997-2006) in the Seine Estuary (France), is specifically focused on two extreme periods: a wet one from 2001 to 2002 and a drier one from 2005 to 2006. This study is based on an original approach combining data gathered via low-altitude remote sensing with altimeter readings and ground-level measurements. During this 10 year period, we observed a link between climate change and the sedimentary processes on the mudflat surface. The modifications of sedimentary processes are mainly connected to the multiannual variability of hydrological flow rates that control the positioning of the turbidity maximum, the source of the sedimentary material deposited in this intertidal zone. The TM at the mouth of the Seine estuary is well developed; its maximum mass is estimated to be between 300,000 tons and 500,000 tons (Avoine et al., 1981) with maximum concentrations in the surface waters ranging from 1 to 2 g • l- 1 (Le Hir et al., 2001). Most of the fine particles stored within the TM have been found to originate from within the catchment area (Dupont et al., 1994). In the Seine estuary, the dynamics of the estuarine TM, in response to hydrodynamic forcings, have been previously described (Avoine et al., 1981) and modeled (e.g. Brenon and Le Hir, 1999; Le Hir et al., 2001). The TM is upstream of the northern mudflat when the river flow is low (< 450 m • s- 1) and nearby the study area when the river flow is higher. Thus during wet periods, the sedimentation rates increase by + 17 cm • y- 1, while during the drier one (when the turbidity maximum is located upstream of the estuary) we observed an erosion rate of 7.6 cm • y- 1. Sedimentation events in the mudflat resulting from spring tides are less frequent

  8. Classification and Change Detection of Yellow Sea Intertidal Sediment Using a Two-step PCA of Optical Reflectance Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, D. J.; Park, W.; Won, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    Grain size distributions of intertidal sediment in the Yellow Sea vary widely ranging from mud dominant to sand dominant with extensive seasonal changes. These are affected by tidal energy of the Yellow Sea, river flows, topography, shoreline gradient and human activities such as land reclamation, etc. Grain size of tidal flats are linked closely to fisheries, aquaculture and pollutant process. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor these areas continuously. It is, however, difficult to retrieve grain size information from remotely sensed data. Because the optical reflectance of intertidal sediment is not a function of single parameter but varies according to water content, grain size, topography, surface water, benthic algae and halophytes, etc. Among these parameters, grain size and water content play a key role in bare intertidal surface. Since water content of intertidal sediment are affected by tide, it is necessary to establish a water-independent grain size retrieval model. It is known that mud and sand sediment are well distinguished under dry condition on PCA (Principal Component Analysis) space but hardly distinguished under saturated condition. Here we introduce a new grain size retrieval model by removing the water content dependency from optical reflectance via a two-step PCA transform. To define the relationship between grain size, water content and optical reflectance, two different standard samples were made as per grain size by wet sieving. By exploiting simplified reflectance features of the standard samples, a two-step PCA transform model was established. This grain size retrieval model was applied to GOCI (Geostationary Ocean Color Imager) images for sediment classification within the Yellow Sea. The results demonstrate it might be possible to discriminate between sand-dominant and mud-dominant areas based upon the model. Seasonal changes of sediment distribution within the tidal flats are well observed from the results.

  9. Dynamics of Inorganic Nutrients in Intertidal Sediments: Porewater, Exchangeable, and Intracellular Pools

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Robledo, Emilio; Bohorquez, Julio; Corzo, Alfonso; Jimenez-Arias, Juan L.; Papaspyrou, Sokratis

    2016-01-01

    The study of inorganic nutrients dynamics in shallow sediments usually focuses on two main pools: porewater (PW) nutrients and exchangeable (EX) ammonium and phosphate. Recently, it has been found that microphytobenthos (MPB) and other microorganisms can accumulate large amounts of nutrients intracellularly (IC), highlighting the biogeochemical importance of this nutrient pool. Storing nutrients could support the growth of autotrophs when nutrients are not available, and could also provide alternative electron acceptors for dissimilatory processes such as nitrate reduction. Here, we studied the magnitude and relative importance of these three nutrient pools (PW, IC, and EX) and their relation to chlorophylls (used as a proxy for MPB abundance) and organic matter (OM) contents in an intertidal mudflat of Cadiz Bay (Spain). MPB was localized in the first 4 mm of the sediment and showed a clear seasonal pattern; highest chlorophylls content was found during autumn and lowest during spring-summer. The temporal and spatial distribution of nutrients pools and MPB were largely correlated. Ammonium was higher in the IC and EX fractions, representing on average 59 and 37% of the total ammonium pool, respectively. Similarly, phosphate in the IC and EX fractions accounted on average for 40 and 31% of the total phosphate pool, respectively. Nitrate in the PW was low, suggesting low nitrification activity and rapid consumption. Nitrate accumulated in the IC pool during periods of moderate MPB abundance, being up to 66% of the total nitrate pool, whereas it decreased when chlorophyll concentration peaked likely due to a high nitrogen demand. EX-Nitrate accounted for the largest fraction of total sediment nitrate, 66% on average. The distribution of EX-Nitrate was significantly correlated with chlorophyll and OM, which probably indicates a relation of this pool to an increased availability of sites for ionic adsorption. This EX-Nitrate pool could represent an alternative nitrate

  10. Community Dynamics and Activity of Ammonia-Oxidizing Prokaryotes in Intertidal Sediments of the Yangtze Estuary

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yanling; Newell, Silvia; Liu, Min; Zhou, Junliang; Zhao, Hui; You, Lili; Cheng, Xunliang

    2014-01-01

    Diversity, abundance, and activity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) were investigated using the ammonia monooxygenase α subunit (amoA) in the intertidal sediments of the Yangtze Estuary. Generally, AOB had a lower diversity of amoA genes than did AOA in this study. Clone library analysis revealed great spatial variations in both AOB and AOA communities along the estuary. The UniFrac distance matrix showed that all the AOB communities and 6 out of 7 AOA communities in the Yangtze Estuary were statistically indistinguishable between summer and winter. The studied AOB and AOA community structures were observed to correlate with environmental parameters, of which salinity, pH, ammonium, total phosphorus, and organic carbon had significant correlations with the composition and distribution of both communities. Also, the AOA communities were significantly correlated with sediment clay content. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) results indicated that the abundance of AOB amoA genes was greater than that of AOA amoA genes in 10 of the 14 samples analyzed in this study. Potential nitrification rates were significantly greater in summer than in winter and had a significant negative correlation with salinity. In addition, potential nitrification rates were correlated strongly only with archaeal amoA gene abundance and not with bacterial amoA gene abundance. However, no significant differences were observed between rates measured with and without ampicillin (AOB inhibitor). These results implied that archaea might play a more important role in mediating the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite in the Yangtze estuarine sediments. PMID:24185847

  11. Community dynamics and activity of ammonia-oxidizing prokaryotes in intertidal sediments of the Yangtze estuary.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yanling; Hou, Lijun; Newell, Silvia; Liu, Min; Zhou, Junliang; Zhao, Hui; You, Lili; Cheng, Xunliang

    2014-01-01

    Diversity, abundance, and activity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) were investigated using the ammonia monooxygenase α subunit (amoA) in the intertidal sediments of the Yangtze Estuary. Generally, AOB had a lower diversity of amoA genes than did AOA in this study. Clone library analysis revealed great spatial variations in both AOB and AOA communities along the estuary. The UniFrac distance matrix showed that all the AOB communities and 6 out of 7 AOA communities in the Yangtze Estuary were statistically indistinguishable between summer and winter. The studied AOB and AOA community structures were observed to correlate with environmental parameters, of which salinity, pH, ammonium, total phosphorus, and organic carbon had significant correlations with the composition and distribution of both communities. Also, the AOA communities were significantly correlated with sediment clay content. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) results indicated that the abundance of AOB amoA genes was greater than that of AOA amoA genes in 10 of the 14 samples analyzed in this study. Potential nitrification rates were significantly greater in summer than in winter and had a significant negative correlation with salinity. In addition, potential nitrification rates were correlated strongly only with archaeal amoA gene abundance and not with bacterial amoA gene abundance. However, no significant differences were observed between rates measured with and without ampicillin (AOB inhibitor). These results implied that archaea might play a more important role in mediating the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite in the Yangtze estuarine sediments. PMID:24185847

  12. Random Forest Classification of Sediments on Exposed Intertidal Flats Using ALOS-2 Quad-Polarimetric SAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W.; Yang, X.; Liu, G.; Zhou, H.; Ma, W.; Yu, Y.; Li, Z.

    2016-06-01

    Coastal zones are one of the world's most densely populated areas and it is necessary to propose an accurate, cost effective, frequent, and synoptic method of monitoring these complex ecosystems. However, misclassification of sediments on exposed intertidal flats restricts the development of coastal zones surveillance. With the advent of SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) satellites, polarimetric SAR satellite imagery plays an increasingly important role in monitoring changes in coastal wetland. This research investigated the necessity of combining SAR polarimetric features with optical data, and their contribution in accurately sediment classification. Three experimental groups were set to make assessment of the most appropriate descriptors. (i) Several SAR polarimetric descriptors were extracted from scattering matrix using Cloude-Pottier, Freeman-Durden and Yamaguchi methods; (ii) Optical remote sensing (RS) data with R, G and B channels formed the second feature combinations; (iii) The chosen SAR and optical RS indicators were both added into classifier. Classification was carried out using Random Forest (RF) classifiers and a general result mapping of intertidal flats was generated. Experiments were implemented using ALOS-2 L-band satellite imagery and GF-1 optical multi-spectral data acquired in the same period. The weights of descriptors were evaluated by VI (RF Variable Importance). Results suggested that optical data source has few advantages on sediment classification, and even reduce the effect of SAR indicators. Polarimetric SAR feature sets show great potentials in intertidal flats classification and are promising in classifying mud flats, sand flats, bare farmland and tidal water.

  13. Observations of Intertidal Bars Welding to the Shoreline: Examining the Mechanisms of Onshore Sediment Transport and Beach Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohn, N.; Anderson, D. L.; Susa, T.; Ruggiero, P.; Honegger, D.; Haller, M. C.

    2014-12-01

    Many coastlines throughout the world are in a net erosional state due to factors such as climate change and anthropogenic activities. While most coastal erosion occurs episodically during major storms, beaches recover during extended periods of low wave energy. Despite the importance of beach recovery on limiting coastal vulnerability, the mechanisms driving onshore sediment transport are much less well understood than those of storm-driven offshore transport. Intertidal bar (i.e., swash bar) welding to the shoreline is one proposed mechanism of sediment delivery from the nearshore to the backshore. However, studies of swash bars and their contribution to beach building have been scarce because of the sporadic nature of these events and difficulty measuring sediment fluxes in the intertidal zone. Several beaches in the US Pacific Northwest are prograding rapidly in part due to highly dissipative conditions and an abundant sediment supply. For example, at South Beach State Park (SBSP) in Newport, OR the shoreline accreted at an average of 6 m/yr from 1960 to 2002. To explore the role of intertidal bar welding on supplying sediment to this dynamic backshore, we recently completed a boutique field experiment at SBSP. Topographic and bathymetric surveys carried out over 9 months document the short term (sediment concentrations, and the density structure of the water column to characterize the environmental conditions driving the observed morphologic changes. A co-located X-band marine radar and meteorological station provide information regarding spatially complex wave transformations and the forces driving aeolian sediment transport, respectively. Our observations at SBSP indicate a dynamic coastal landscape including multiple nearshore bars. During the experiment we observed onshore migration of the subtidal bars

  14. Heavy metal contamination and ecological risk in Spartina alterniflora marsh in intertidal sediments of Bohai Bay, China.

    PubMed

    Chai, Minwei; Shi, Fuchen; Li, Ruili; Shen, Xiaoxue

    2014-07-15

    To investigate the effects of Spartina alterniflora on heavy metals pollution of intertidal sediments, sediment cores of a S. alterniflora salt marsh and a mudflat in Bohai Bay, China were analyzed. The results showed that S. alterniflora caused higher total C and P, but lower bulk density and electrical conductivity. The levels of Cd, Cu and Pb were higher in S. alterniflora sediment. Both Cd and Zn were higher than the probable effect level at both sites, indicating their toxicological importance. The geo-accumulation and potential ecological risk indexes revealed higher metal contamination in S. alterniflora sediment. Multivariate analysis implied that anthropogenic activities altered mobility and bioavailability of heavy metals. The percentage of mobile heavy metals was higher in S. alterniflora sediment, indicating improvement of conversion from the immobilized fraction to the mobilized fraction. These findings indicate that S. alterniflora may facilitate accumulation of heavy metals and increase their bioavailability and mobility. PMID:24930737

  15. Substantial nitrous oxide emissions from intertidal sediments and groundwater in anthropogenically-impacted West Falmouth Harbor, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moseman-Valtierra, Serena;; Kroeger, Kevin D.; Crusius, John; Baldwin, Sandy; Green, Adrian; Brooks, Thomas W.; Pugh, E.

    2015-01-01

    Large N2O emissions were observed from intertidal sediments in a coastal estuary, West Falmouth Harbor, MA, USA. Average N2O emission rates from 41 chambers during summer 2008 were 10.7 mol N2O m(-2) h(-1)±4.43 μmol N2O m(-2) h(-1) (standard error). Emissions were highest from sediments within a known wastewater plume, where a maximum N2O emission rate was 155 μmol N2O m(-2) h(-1). Intertidal N2O fluxes were positively related to porewater ammonium concentrations at 10 and 25 cm depths. In groundwater from 7 shoreline wells, dissolved N2O ranged from 488% of saturation (56 nM N2O) to more than 13000% of saturation (1529 nM N2O) and was positively related to nitrate concentrations. Fresh and brackish porewater underlying 14 chambers was also supersaturated in N2O, ranging from 2980% to 13175% of saturation. These observations support a relationship between anthropogenic nutrient loading and N2O emissions in West Falmouth Harbor, with both groundwater sources and also local N2O production within nutrient-rich, intertidal sediments in the groundwater seepage face. N2O emissions from intertidal "hotspot" in this harbor, together with estimated surface water emissions, constituted 2.4% of the average overall rate of nitrogen export from the watershed to the estuary. This suggests that N2O emissions factors from coastal ecosystems may be underestimated. Since anthropogenic nutrient loading affects estuaries worldwide, quantification of N2O dynamics is warranted in other anthropogenically-impacted coastal ecosystems.

  16. Degradation and Mineralization of the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Anthracene and Naphthalene in Intertidal Marine Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, James E.; Capone, Douglas G.

    1985-01-01

    The degradation of the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) anthracene and naphthalene by the microbiota of intertidal sediments was investigated in laboratory studies. No mineralization of either PAH was observed in the absence of oxygen. Both rates and total amounts of PAH mineralization were strongly controlled by oxygen content and temperature of the incubations. Inorganic nitrogen and glucose amendments had minimal effects on PAH mineralization. The rates and total amounts of PAH mineralized were directly related to compound concentration, pre-exposure time, and concentration. Maximum mineralization was observed at the higher concentrations (5 to 100 μg/g [ppm]) of both PAHs. Optimal acclimation to anthracene and naphthalene (through pre-exposures to the compounds) occurred at the highest acclimation concentration (1,000 ppm). However, acclimation to a single concentration (100 ppm) resulted in initial relative mineralization rates over a range of re-exposure concentrations (1 to 1,000 ppm) being nearly identical. Maximum mineralization of both PAHs occurred after intermediate periods (1 to 2 weeks) of pre-exposure. The fraction of the total heterotrophic population capable of utilizing anthracene or naphthalene as sole carbon source was also greatest after 2 weeks. PMID:16346843

  17. Residues of organochlorine pesticides in intertidal flat surface sediments from coastal zone of Jiangsu Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xiumei; Zheng, Rong; Zhao, Jiale; Ma, Chao; Gao, Xiaojiang

    2014-09-01

    Sixteen surface sediment samples were collected and analysed to evaluate the residues of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) from intertidal flat in Jiangsu Province. Overall, 22 OCPs were detected with total concentrations of OCPs ranging widely from 0.96 to 12.14 ng/g (dry wt). Total hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and total dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) levels varied from <0.01 to 0.67 ng/g and from 0.23 to 4.85 ng/g, respectively. DDTs were the predominant compounds. The dominance of β-HCH indicated a history of HCH pollution. According to the ratios of ( p, p'-DDD+ p, p'-DDE)/ p, p'-DDT and o,p'-DDT/ p, p'-DDT, new input of DDTs did not occur in most sites, and the main sources were historical usage of technical DDTs. OCPs such as dieldrin, endrin, p, p'-DDD, and p, p'-DDT exceeded the effects range low, showing adverse biological effects that would occasionally occur at some sites of the study area.

  18. Temporal record of Pu isotopes in inter-tidal sediments from the northeastern Irish Sea.

    PubMed

    Lindahl, Patric; Worsfold, Paul; Keith-Roach, Miranda; Andersen, Morten B; Kershaw, Peter; Leonard, Kins; Choi, Min-Seok; Boust, Dominique; Lesueur, Patrick

    2011-11-01

    A depth profile of (239)Pu and (240)Pu specific activities and isotope ratios was determined in an inter-tidal sediment core from the Esk Estuary in the northeastern Irish Sea. The study site has been impacted with plutonium through routine radionuclide discharges from the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing plant in Cumbria, NW England. A pronounced sub-surface maximum of ~10 k Bq kg(-1) was observed for (239+240)Pu, corresponding to the peak in Pu discharge from Sellafield in 1973, with a decreasing trend with depth down to ~0.04 k Bq kg(-1) in the deeper layers. The depth profile of (239+240)Pu specific activities together with results from gamma-ray spectrometry for (137)Cs and (241)Am was compared with reported releases from the Sellafield plant in order to estimate a reliable sediment chronology. The upper layers (1992 onwards) showed higher (239+240)Pu specific activities than would be expected from the direct input of annual Sellafield discharges, indicating that the main input of Pu is from the time-integrated contaminated mud patch of the northeastern Irish Sea. The (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios ranged from ~0.03 in the deepest layers to >0.20 in the sub-surface layers with an activity-weighted average of 0.181. The decreasing (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratio with depth reflects the changing nature of operations at the Sellafield plant from weapons-grade Pu production to reprocessing spent nuclear fuel with higher burn-up times in the late 1950s. In addition, recent annual (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios in winkles collected during 2003-2008 from three stations along the Cumbrian coastline showed no significant spatial or temporal differences with an overall average of 0.204, which supports the hypothesis of diluted Pu input from the contaminated mud patch. PMID:21911246

  19. Influence of sediment characteristics on the composition of soft-sediment intertidal communities in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Henkel, Jessica R.; Sigel, Bryan J.; Taylor, Caz M.

    2015-01-01

    Benthic infaunal communities are important components of coastal ecosystems. Understanding the relationships between the structure of these communities and characteristics of the habitat in which they live is becoming progressively more important as coastal systems face increasing stress from anthropogenic impacts and changes in climate. To examine how sediment characteristics and infaunal community composition were related along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast, we sampled intertidal infaunal communities at seven sites covering common habitat types at a regional scale. Across 69 samples, the communities clustered into four distinct groups on the basis of faunal composition. Nearly 70% of the variation in the composition of the communities was explained by salinity, median grain size, and total organic content. Our results suggest that at a regional level coarse habitat characteristics are able to explain a large amount of the variation among sites in infaunal community structure. By examining the relationships between infaunal communities and their sedimentary habitats, we take a necessary first step that will allow the exploration of how changes in habitat and community composition influence higher trophic levels and ecosystem scale processes. PMID:26157603

  20. Wave attenuation and sediment transport over an intertidal sand flat on the Fraser River Delta (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houser, C.; Hill, P. R.

    2010-12-01

    This paper describes the results of two instrument field studies to examine sediment transport processes and wave attenuation across Roberts Bank, a sandy intertidal bank on the Fraser River Delta. The field work was completed as part of a three-year study of the sensitivity of Roberts Bank to sea level rise and changing storminess. It was hypothesized that the response of the mudflats and salt marshes along the landward margin of the delta were dependent on the ability of the fronting sand flat to attenuate wave height and energy. The attenuation of wave height and energy was monitored at four stations along a shore-normal transect between December 23, 2003 and February 10, 2004. The attenuation varied with the relative wave height ratio (Hs h-1) along the seaward margin, with dissipation increasing as water depths decrease and/or incident wave heights increase. Under the most dissipative conditions observed (Hs h-1 ≈ 0.25), the exponential decay coefficient reached 0.00045. This decay coefficient is an order of magnitude smaller than predicted by a simple wave transformation model due to the relatively large wind fetch over the sand flat. Despite the maintenance of wave energy, the range of wave heights remains constrained in the landward direction, with the frequency of waves capable of entraining sediment on the sand flat decreasing from 11% at the outer flat to 2% at the inner stations. In response, bed elevation change and depth of sediment activation are greatest at the seaward margin and decrease exponentially landward. It is argued that the sand flat provides a natural barrier that defines the extent of mudflat development by limiting the potential for sediment resuspension and morphological change on the mudflat. The ability of the sand flat to provide continued protection to the mudflats and salt marshes depends on how it will respond to change in sea level and storminess. A comparison of the dimensionless, current-induced skin friction with the

  1. Diagenesis of magnetic minerals in the intertidal sediments of the Yangtze Estuary, China, and its environmental significance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, W; Yu, L; Hutchinson, S M

    2001-02-01

    In this study, diagenesis of iron oxides in intertidal sediments of the Yangtze Estuary, China, has been investigated by combined environmental magnetic and geochemical methods. The results indicated that the magnetic properties of the sediments were dominated by ferrimagnetic magnetite. The content of Fe, DCB- and AOD-extractable iron oxides correlated positively with the concentration of fine grained magnetite near the superparamagnetic/stable single domain (SP/SSD, approximately 0.03 microm) boundary, and with anti-ferromagnetic minerals (hematite/goethite). The magnetic parameters for core SDK indicated a substantial decrease in magnetite concentration from a depth of approximately 20 cm toward the surface, together with a shift in the grain-size distribution of magnetic minerals toward the coarse end, suggesting selective dissolution of fine grained magnetite under reducing conditions. The reduction of iron oxides inferred from magnetic measurements was supported by the similar decrease in the concentration of Fe and Mn and a lower ratio of Mn/Fe. Magnetic measurements on another core from elsewhere also indicated substantial reductive dissolution of iron oxides. In conjunction with the results of heavy metal analysis, it was suggested that the dissolution of iron oxides had a direct effect on the cycling of heavy metals. Therefore, magnetic measurements may provide useful information as to early diagenesis within intertidal sediments, which greatly influences the behavior of heavy metals in coastal environments. PMID:11258814

  2. Analysis of temperature variability and determination of apparent thermal diffusivity in sandy intertidal sediments at the German North Sea coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricklefs, Klaus; Vanselow, Klaus Heinrich

    2012-08-01

    Temperature was measured at depths of 1, 10, 30, 75, and 170 cm in fine sandy intertidal sediments by means of specially-designed "temperature lances". The measurements cover a period from February to October 2007 and have a temporal resolution of 5 min. Stochastic as well as recurrent processes due to the solar cycle and due to tide induces flooding and drying of the sediment surface lead to a complex composition of the time series curves. Spectral analyses based on Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) reveal that temperature variability at the sediment water/air interface is widely controlled by recurrent processes with period lengths of 4.93, 6.1, 8.19, ˜12, ˜24 h, and 354 h (14.7 days). The importance of the higher frequencies decreases with increasing sediment depth. At a depth of 30 cm the 24 h and the 14.7 days cycles mainly determine the temperature development over time, while at 75 cm sediment depth contour temperature varies only along the 14.7 days cycle, as well as within the seasonal cycle. Using cross-correlation-analysis the time necessary for a temperature signal at the surface to trigger a response at a sediment depth of 10, 30, and 75 cm was calculated as 1.4, 7.0, and 73.1 h respectively. Utilizing an alternate approach, FFT derived temperature peak-to-peak amplitude values and phase angles of up to 9 different cycles were used to calculate apparent thermal diffusivity in different sediment depths. The thermal diffusivity decreases from approximately 6-9 × 10-7 m2 s-1 from the surface down to a sediment depth of 75 cm. The specially-designed instrumentation has proven to be robust and precise enough to record high resolution time series of sediment temperature in different depths. The time series analysis of the data clearly shows that the temperature variability in the intertidal sediments to a high degree can be explained by recurrent solar and/or tidal effects. So the methods and results presented in this paper can help to answer questions

  3. Recovery of sediments in the lower intertidal and subtidal environment. Restoration project 93047-1. Exxon Valdez oil spill restoration project final report

    SciTech Connect

    O`Clair, C.E.; Short, J.W.; Rice, S.D.

    1996-05-01

    Sediments were collected at ten locations in Prince William Sound in July 1993 to determine the geographical and bathymetric distribution of oil from the Exxon Valdez oil spill in the low intertidal zone and subtidal region. The authors sampled sediments at mean lower low water (0 m) and at five subtidal depths from 3 to 100 m. No Exxon Valdez oil was found in sediments at 0 m where the greatest mean intertidal concentration of total polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons excluding perylene (54 ng/g) was observed at Moose Lips Bay. Subtidal sediments showed polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon composition patterns similar to Exxon Valdez oil at three sites, Herring Bay, Northwest Bay and Sleepy Bay. Contamination of sediments by Exxon Valdez oil reached a depth of 20 m at Northwest Bay and Sleepy Bay. In deep sediments (> or = 40 m) the authors found no evidence of weathered Exxon Valdez oil.

  4. Physical, chemical and microbiological characterization of the intertidal sediments of Pereque Beach, Guarujá (SP), Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Ana Julia Fernandes C; Hollnagel, Heloísa C; Lima Mesquita, Hilda de S; Fontes, Roberto Fioravanti C

    2007-07-01

    Physical and chemical characteristics of intertidal sediments and their relationships with bacteria and cyanobacteria were analyzed at four stations at Pereque Beach. Granulometric analysis showed that Pereque beach has sediment that is classified as sand. The lowest value of the sediment C/N rates (6.08), mainly due to a higher concentration of organic nitrogen, was found at the northern part of Pereque Beach, where organic matter of marine source was more prominent. In this area, density (9.6x10(6)cells cm(-3)), biomass (1992.04ngC cm(-3)) and activity of bacteria were higher than at the southern end. In contrast, cyanobacteria density varied from 2.0 to 4.0x10(5)cells cm(-3), with biomass and total chlorophyll a of the sediment being higher at the southern part, where there are water input from Pereque River and higher organic matter of continental origin. The variability in the microbial population is discussed in the light of the sediment granulometry, organic matter quality, fresh water inflow and pollution. PMID:17467013

  5. Small-scale temporal and spatial variability in the erosion threshold and properties of cohesive intertidal sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolhurst, T. J.; Defew, E. C.; de Brouwer, J. F. C.; Wolfstein, K.; Stal, L. J.; Paterson, D. M.

    2006-03-01

    Intertidal mudflats can be highly patchy due to both biotic and abiotic variability. The problems caused by such patchiness for the measurement of the erosion threshold of sediments has only received limited attention, primarily because of the limitations of the devices used to measure erosion threshold. The cohesive strength meter (CSM) erosion device partly overcomes these problems because it can collect numerous measurements in a short time. This paper assesses the effects of site selection, small-scale spatial patchiness in a diatom biofilm and small-scale temporal variability over a tidal emersion on the measurement of erosion thresholds of cohesive intertidal sediments. Measurements were made with three CSM devices over a complete tidal emersion and at the beginning of the next emersion in the Westerschelde estuary, the Netherlands, in April 2001. Three different criteria were used in site selection: random sampling, random sampling with a user-bias towards visible diatom biofilms and sampling of only visible diatom biofilm areas. This resulted in different patterns of the measured sediment erodability. Contact core samples were collected to measure bio-dependant properties of the sediment known to influence erosion characteristics (water content and carbohydrates). In addition, variations in algal biomass ( F015) over time were measured at the sediment surface with a fluorescence monitoring system (FMS). Three different operational extractions of carbohydrates were analysed to assess the roles of different carbohydrates in stabilising the sediment (colloidal-S-, EDTA- extracted and ETOH-precipitated). Different responses in the erosion threshold to the tidal emersion were found depending upon the presence or absence of a diatom biofilm and on the sampling strategy used. Areas with a visible diatom biofilm showed a rapid increase in erosion threshold at the beginning of the emersion, whilst areas without a visible biofilm tended to show an increase at the end

  6. Climate variations, soil conservation and reservoir sedimentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The integrated effects of soil conservation and a wetter climate on reservoir sedimentation were investigated for the Fort Cobb Reservoir watershed in west-central Oklahoma. A 12% wetter climate since the mid-1980s led to an increase in soil erosion and downstream sediment yield that offset the redu...

  7. Spatial pattern of early recruitment of Macoma balthica (L.) and Cerastoderma edule (L.) in relation to sediment dynamics on a highly dynamic intertidal sandflat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouma, H.; Duiker, J. M. C.; de Vries, P. P.; Herman, P. M. J.; Wolff, W. J.

    2001-05-01

    To investigate the possible relationship between sediment dynamics and spatial distribution of early bivalve recruits, a correlative field study was carried out on a highly dynamic intertidal sandflat in the Westerschelde estuary, SW Netherlands. On a spatial grid, 43 plots over an area of 700×800 m 2, early recruits (300-1000 μm mesh fraction) of the tellinid clam Macoma balthica (L.) and the edible cockle Cerastoderma edule (L.) were sampled during the spatfall period (May-June) in 1997. Data were also collected on bed-level height, sediment dynamics and -composition and abundance of adult benthos. The grid covered a range of -50 to +140 cm with respect to mean-tide level. In both species, maximum early recruitment was found at the higher part of this range of intertidal levels. The strong gradient in densities from the lower towards the higher intertidal was significantly negatively correlated with sediment dynamics. No significant correlations of early-recruit densities were found with silt content, or with densities of adult benthos. The relationship between early recruitment and bed-level height differed from that observed in Wadden Sea studies of recruits of similar size, where maximum early recruitment occurred in the lower intertidal. It is suggested that in highly dynamic environments, sediment dynamics may have an important influence on passive resuspension of early recruits and on spatial patterns of early recruitment. Based on field and model data, it is discussed which processes could cause the difference in early recruitment patterns in low and highly dynamic intertidal environments. It is concluded that the presence of low-dynamic areas is essential for the success of early recruitment, and thus for the maintenance of bivalve populations.

  8. Heavy metals in surface sediments of the intertidal Laizhou Bay, Bohai Sea, China: Distributions, sources and contamination assessment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinfeng; Gao, Xuelu

    2015-09-15

    Surface sediments from the intertidal zone of the southwestern Laizhou Bay were analyzed for heavy metals to seek their concentrations, distributions, pollution status, potential ecological risks and possible sources. The concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn were in the ranges of 4.65-9.65, 0.11-0.28, 25.85-42.75, 7.57-21.29, 0.022-0.054, 12.85-25.35, 9.65-17.65 and 38.22-73.81μgg(-1) dry sediment weight, respectively. Cd and Hg presented a status of no pollution to moderate pollution and moderate to considerable potential ecological risks; they were enriched to some extent at some sampling stations, while the other studied metals were not. The combined effects of the studied metals in the sediments made them have a 21% probability of being toxic to biota. The results indicated that As, Cr, Cu, Zn, Ni and Pb were mainly from natural contribution, while a significant portion of Cd and Hg was likely from anthropogenic discharges in addition to natural inputs. PMID:26111655

  9. Bacterial community structure and its regulating factors in the intertidal sediment along the Liaodong Bay of Bohai Sea, China.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Binghui; Wang, Liping; Liu, Lusan

    2014-01-01

    Investigating the entire species composition of the microorganisms is crucial to understand their roles in the biogeochemical cycles. Metagenomic DNA was extracted from six intertidal sediment samples along the Liaodong Bay of Bohai Sea, China, and was sequenced which yielded a total of 64,496 high-quality sequences from 83,485 reads, with an average read length of 463 bp. The sequences were assigned to 20,718 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) which belong to 42 phyla, 90 classes and 376 genera. At the different taxonomic levels, both the dominants and their abundances varied significantly among the six sites. Phylum Proteobacteria predominated in all the six samples, however, not only the abundance of this phylum varied significantly but also the proportions of Alpha-, Beta-, Gamma-, and delta- and epsilon-Proteobacteria varied greatly. The site sediment median grain size and dissolved oxygen (DO) revealed to be key factors regulating the observed significant differences in the bacterial community between sampling sites. In addition, the bacterial composition might be more sensitive than the richness and diversity to the studied environmental conditions. PMID:24231160

  10. Diverse metal reduction and nano- mineral formation by metal-reducing bacteria enriched from inter-tidal flat sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.; Park, B.; Seo, H.; Roh, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Dissimilatory metal-reducing bacteria utilize diverse metal oxides as electron acceptors and couple this microbial metal reduciton to growth. However, the microbe-metal interactions playing important roles in the metal geochemistry and organic matter degradation in the tidal flat sediments have not been uncovered enough to employ in various environmental and industrial applications. The objective of this study was to examine biomineralization and bioremediation by the facultative metal-reducing bacteria isolated from the inter-tidal flat sediments in southwestern of Korea. 16S-rRNA analysis showed bacterial consortium mainly consists of genus of Clostridium sp. The enriched bacteria were capable of reducing diverse metals such as iron oxide, maganese oxide, Cr(VI) and Se(VI) during glucose fermentation process at room temperature. The bacteria reduced highly toxic and reactive elements such as Cr(VI) and Se(VI) to Cr(III) and Se(0). The results showed that microbial processes induced transformation from toxic states of heavy metals to less toxic and mobile states in natural environments. Andthe bacteria also reduced iron oxyhydroxide such as ferrihydrite and akaganeite (β-FeOOH) and formed nanometer-sized magnetite (Fe3O4). This study indicates microbial processes not only can be used for bioremediation of inorganic contaminants existing in the marine environments, but also form the magnetite nanoparticles which are exhibit superparamagnetic properties that can be useful for relevant medical and industrial applications.

  11. Velocity and sediment surge: What do we see at times of very shallow water on intertidal mudflats?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qian; Gong, Zheng; Zhang, Changkuan; Townend, Ian; Jin, Chuang; Li, Huan

    2016-02-01

    A self-designed "bottom boundary layer hydrodynamic and suspended sediment concentration (SSC) measuring system" was built to observe the hydrodynamic and the SSC processes over the intertidal mudflats at the middle part of the Jiangsu coast during August 8-10, 2013. Velocity profiles within 10 cm of the mudflat surface were obtained with a vertical resolution as fine as 1 mm. An ADCP was used to extend the profile over the full water depth with a resolution of 10 cm and the vertical SSC profile was measured at intervals using Optical Backscatter Sensors (OBS). At the same time, water levels and wave conditions were measured with a Tide and Wave Recorder. Measured data suggested that the vertical structure of velocity profiles within 10 cm above the bed maintains a logarithmic distribution during the whole tidal cycle except the slack-water periods. Shallow flows during both the early-flood period and the later-ebb period are characterized by a relatively large vertical velocity gradient and a "surge" feature. We conclude that the very shallow water stages are transient and may not contribute much to the whole water and sediment transport, while they can play a significant role in the formation and evolution of micro-topographies on tidal flats.

  12. RECOVERY OF DNA FROM SOILS AND SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experiments were performed to evaluate the effectiveness of different methodological approaches for recovering DNA from soil and sediment bacterial communities; cell extraction followed by lysis and DNA recovery (cell extraction method) versus direct cell lysis and alkaline extra...

  13. Kinetic parameters for nutrient enhanced crude oil biodegradation in intertidal marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Singh, Arvind K; Sherry, Angela; Gray, Neil D; Jones, D Martin; Bowler, Bernard F J; Head, Ian M

    2014-01-01

    Availability of inorganic nutrients, particularly nitrogen and phosphorous, is often a primary control on crude oil hydrocarbon degradation in marine systems. Many studies have empirically determined optimum levels of inorganic N and P for stimulation of hydrocarbon degradation. Nevertheless, there is a paucity of information on fundamental kinetic parameters for nutrient enhanced crude oil biodegradation that can be used to model the fate of crude oil in bioremediation programmes that use inorganic nutrient addition to stimulate oil biodegradation. Here we report fundamental kinetic parameters (Ks and qmax) for nitrate- and phosphate-stimulated crude oil biodegradation under nutrient limited conditions and with respect to crude oil, under conditions where N and P are not limiting. In the marine sediments studied, crude oil degradation was limited by both N and P availability. In sediments treated with 12.5 mg/g of oil but with no addition of N and P, hydrocarbon degradation rates, assessed on the basis of CO2 production, were 1.10 ± 0.03 μmol CO2/g wet sediment/day which were comparable to rates of CO2 production in sediments to which no oil was added (1.05 ± 0.27 μmol CO2/g wet sediment/day). When inorganic nitrogen was added alone maximum rates of CO2 production measured were 4.25 ± 0.91 μmol CO2/g wet sediment/day. However, when the same levels of inorganic nitrogen were added in the presence of 0.5% P w/w of oil (1.6 μmol P/g wet sediment) maximum rates of measured CO2 production increased more than four-fold to 18.40 ± 1.04 μmol CO2/g wet sediment/day. Ks and qmax estimates for inorganic N (in the form of sodium nitrate) when P was not limiting were 1.99 ± 0.86 μmol/g wet sediment and 16.16 ± 1.28 μmol CO2/g wet sediment/day respectively. The corresponding values for P were 63 ± 95 nmol/g wet sediment and 12.05 ± 1.31 μmol CO2/g wet sediment/day. The qmax values with respect to N and P were not significantly different (P < 0.05). When N and P

  14. Kinetic parameters for nutrient enhanced crude oil biodegradation in intertidal marine sediments

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Arvind K.; Sherry, Angela; Gray, Neil D.; Jones, D. Martin; Bowler, Bernard F. J.; Head, Ian M.

    2014-01-01

    Availability of inorganic nutrients, particularly nitrogen and phosphorous, is often a primary control on crude oil hydrocarbon degradation in marine systems. Many studies have empirically determined optimum levels of inorganic N and P for stimulation of hydrocarbon degradation. Nevertheless, there is a paucity of information on fundamental kinetic parameters for nutrient enhanced crude oil biodegradation that can be used to model the fate of crude oil in bioremediation programmes that use inorganic nutrient addition to stimulate oil biodegradation. Here we report fundamental kinetic parameters (Ks and qmax) for nitrate- and phosphate-stimulated crude oil biodegradation under nutrient limited conditions and with respect to crude oil, under conditions where N and P are not limiting. In the marine sediments studied, crude oil degradation was limited by both N and P availability. In sediments treated with 12.5 mg/g of oil but with no addition of N and P, hydrocarbon degradation rates, assessed on the basis of CO2 production, were 1.10 ± 0.03 μmol CO2/g wet sediment/day which were comparable to rates of CO2 production in sediments to which no oil was added (1.05 ± 0.27 μmol CO2/g wet sediment/day). When inorganic nitrogen was added alone maximum rates of CO2 production measured were 4.25 ± 0.91 μmol CO2/g wet sediment/day. However, when the same levels of inorganic nitrogen were added in the presence of 0.5% P w/w of oil (1.6 μmol P/g wet sediment) maximum rates of measured CO2 production increased more than four-fold to 18.40 ± 1.04 μmol CO2/g wet sediment/day. Ks and qmax estimates for inorganic N (in the form of sodium nitrate) when P was not limiting were 1.99 ± 0.86 μmol/g wet sediment and 16.16 ± 1.28 μmol CO2/g wet sediment/day respectively. The corresponding values for P were 63 ± 95 nmol/g wet sediment and 12.05 ± 1.31 μmol CO2/g wet sediment/day. The qmax values with respect to N and P were not significantly different (P < 0.05). When N and P

  15. Stable isotope biogeochemistry of the sulfur cycle in modern marine sediments: I. Seasonal dynamics in a temperate intertidal sandy surface sediment.

    PubMed

    Böttcher, Michael; Hespenheide, Britta; Brumsack, Hans-Jürgen; Bosselmann, Katja

    2004-12-01

    A biogeochemical and stable isotope geochemical study was carried out in surface sediments of an organic-matter poor temperate intertidal sandy surface sediment (German Wadden Sea of the North Sea) to investigate the activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria and the dynamics of the vertical partitioning of sedimentary sulfur, iron, and manganese species in relation to the availability of total organic carbon (TOC) and mud contents. The contents and stable isotopic compositions ((34)S/(32)S) of total reduced inorganic sulfur species (TRIS) and dissolved sulfate were measured. Maximum oxygen penetration depths were estimated from the onset of a blackening of the sediments due to FeS accumulation and ranged from 5 to 10 mm below surface (mmbsf). A zone of relatively moderate relative organic-matter enrichment was found between 5 and 20 mmbsf leading to enhanced activities of sulfate-reducing bacteria with sulfate-reduction rates (SRR) up to 350 nmol cm(-3) d(-1). Below this zone, microbial SRR dropped significantly. Depth integrated SRR seem to depend not only on temperature but also on the availability of reactive organic matter. The sulfur-isotopic composition of TRIS was depleted in (34)S by 33-40 per thousand with respect to coexisting dissolved sulfate (constant at about +21 per thousand vs. Vienna-Canyon Diablo Troilite (V-CDT)). Since sulfate reduction is not limited by dissolved sulfate (open system), depth variations of the isotopic composition of TRIS reflect changes in overall isotope effect due to superimposed microbial and abiotic reactions. Most of the solid-phase iron and manganese was bonded to (non-reactive) heavy minerals. However, a layer of reactive Fe(III) and Mn(IV) oxi(hydroxi)des was found in the uppermost sediment section due to re-oxidation of dissolved Fe(II) and Mn(II) species at the sediment-water interface. Metal cycling below the surface is at least partially coupled to intense sulfur cycling. PMID:15621745

  16. Chemoautotrophic Carbon Fixation Rates and Active Bacterial Communities in Intertidal Marine Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Boschker, Henricus T. S.; Vasquez-Cardenas, Diana; Bolhuis, Henk; Moerdijk-Poortvliet, Tanja W. C.; Moodley, Leon

    2014-01-01

    Chemoautotrophy has been little studied in typical coastal marine sediments, but may be an important component of carbon recycling as intense anaerobic mineralization processes in these sediments lead to accumulation of high amounts of reduced compounds, such as sulfides and ammonium. We studied chemoautotrophy by measuring dark-fixation of 13C-bicarbonate into phospholipid derived fatty acid (PLFA) biomarkers at two coastal sediment sites with contrasting sulfur chemistry in the Eastern Scheldt estuary, the Netherlands. At one site where free sulfide accumulated in the pore water right to the top of the sediment, PLFA labeling was restricted to compounds typically found in sulfur and ammonium oxidizing bacteria. At the other site, with no detectable free sulfide in the pore water, a very different PLFA labeling pattern was found with high amounts of label in branched i- and a-PLFA besides the typical compounds for sulfur and ammonium oxidizing bacteria. This suggests that other types of chemoautotrophic bacteria were also active, most likely Deltaproteobacteria related to sulfate reducers. Maximum rates of chemoautotrophy were detected in first 1 to 2 centimeters of both sediments and chemosynthetic biomass production was high ranging from 3 to 36 mmol C m−2 d−1. Average dark carbon fixation to sediment oxygen uptake ratios were 0.22±0.07 mol C (mol O2)−1, which is in the range of the maximum growth yields reported for sulfur oxidizing bacteria indicating highly efficient growth. Chemoautotrophic biomass production was similar to carbon mineralization rates in the top of the free sulfide site, suggesting that chemoautotrophic bacteria could play a crucial role in the microbial food web and labeling in eukaryotic poly-unsaturated PLFA was indeed detectable. Our study shows that dark carbon fixation by chemoautotrophic bacteria is a major process in the carbon cycle of coastal sediments, and should therefore receive more attention in future studies on

  17. Chemoautotrophic carbon fixation rates and active bacterial communities in intertidal marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Boschker, Henricus T S; Vasquez-Cardenas, Diana; Bolhuis, Henk; Moerdijk-Poortvliet, Tanja W C; Moodley, Leon

    2014-01-01

    Chemoautotrophy has been little studied in typical coastal marine sediments, but may be an important component of carbon recycling as intense anaerobic mineralization processes in these sediments lead to accumulation of high amounts of reduced compounds, such as sulfides and ammonium. We studied chemoautotrophy by measuring dark-fixation of 13C-bicarbonate into phospholipid derived fatty acid (PLFA) biomarkers at two coastal sediment sites with contrasting sulfur chemistry in the Eastern Scheldt estuary, The Netherlands. At one site where free sulfide accumulated in the pore water right to the top of the sediment, PLFA labeling was restricted to compounds typically found in sulfur and ammonium oxidizing bacteria. At the other site, with no detectable free sulfide in the pore water, a very different PLFA labeling pattern was found with high amounts of label in branched i- and a-PLFA besides the typical compounds for sulfur and ammonium oxidizing bacteria. This suggests that other types of chemoautotrophic bacteria were also active, most likely Deltaproteobacteria related to sulfate reducers. Maximum rates of chemoautotrophy were detected in first 1 to 2 centimeters of both sediments and chemosynthetic biomass production was high ranging from 3 to 36 mmol C m(-2) d(-1). Average dark carbon fixation to sediment oxygen uptake ratios were 0.22±0.07 mol C (mol O2)(-1), which is in the range of the maximum growth yields reported for sulfur oxidizing bacteria indicating highly efficient growth. Chemoautotrophic biomass production was similar to carbon mineralization rates in the top of the free sulfide site, suggesting that chemoautotrophic bacteria could play a crucial role in the microbial food web and labeling in eukaryotic poly-unsaturated PLFA was indeed detectable. Our study shows that dark carbon fixation by chemoautotrophic bacteria is a major process in the carbon cycle of coastal sediments, and should therefore receive more attention in future studies on

  18. DNA SORPTION TO SOILS AND SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) adsorption of five soils, an acid-washed sand, and a lake sediment was investigated. ll DNA at environmentally relevant concentrations was adsorbed by soils containing a significant amount of montmorillonite at low to neutral pk values. tudies on the e...

  19. Accumulation of Sellafield-derived radiocarbon ((14)C) in Irish Sea and West of Scotland intertidal shells and sediments.

    PubMed

    Tierney, Kieran M; Muir, Graham K P; Cook, Gordon T; MacKinnon, Gillian; Howe, John A; Heymans, Johanna J; Xu, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    The nuclear energy industry produces radioactive waste at various stages of the fuel cycle. In the United Kingdom, spent fuel is reprocessed at the Sellafield facility in Cumbria on the North West coast of England. Waste generated at the site comprises a wide range of radionuclides including radiocarbon ((14)C) which is disposed of in various forms including highly soluble inorganic carbon within the low level liquid radioactive effluent, via pipelines into the Irish Sea. This (14)C is rapidly incorporated into the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) reservoir and marine calcifying organisms, e.g. molluscs, readily utilise DIC for shell formation. This study investigated a number of sites located in Irish Sea and West of Scotland intertidal zones. Results indicate (14)C enrichment above ambient background levels in shell material at least as far as Port Appin, 265 km north of Sellafield. Of the commonly found species (blue mussel (Mytilus edulis), common cockle (Cerastoderma edule) and common periwinkle (Littorina littorea)), mussels were found to be the most highly enriched in (14)C due to the surface environment they inhabit and their feeding behaviour. Whole mussel shell activities appear to have been decreasing in response to reduced discharge activities since the early 2000s but in contrast, there is evidence of continuing enrichment of the carbonate sediment component due to in-situ shell erosion, as well as indications of particle transport of fine (14)C-enriched material close to Sellafield. PMID:26555367

  20. Two Genera of Magnetococci with Bean-like Morphology from Intertidal Sediments of the Yellow Sea, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wen-Yan; Zhou, Ke; Pan, Hong-Miao; Yue, Hai-Dong; Jiang, Ming

    2012-01-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria have the unique capacity of being able to swim along geomagnetic field lines. They are Gram-negative bacteria with diverse morphologies and variable phylogenetic relatedness. Here, we describe a group of uncultivated marine magnetococci collected from intertidal sediments of Huiquan Bay in the Yellow Sea. They were coccoid-ovoid in morphology, with an average size of 2.8 ± 0.3 μm by 2.0 ± 0.2 μm. Differential interference contrast microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy revealed that each cell was apparently composed of two hemispheres. The cells synthesized iron oxide-type magnetosomes that clustered on one side of the cell at the interface between the two hemispheres. In some cells two chains of magnetosomes were observed across the interface. Each cell had two bundles of flagella enveloped in a sheath and displayed north-seeking helical motion. Two 16S rRNA gene sequences having 91.8% identity were obtained, and their authenticity was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the magnetococci are affiliated with the Alphaproteobacteria and are most closely related to two uncultured magnetococci with sequence identities of 92.7% and 92.4%, respectively. Because they display a >7% sequence divergence to all bacteria reported, the bean-like magnetococci may represent two novel genera. PMID:22660708

  1. Two genera of magnetococci with bean-like morphology from intertidal sediments of the Yellow Sea, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen-Yan; Zhou, Ke; Pan, Hong-Miao; Yue, Hai-Dong; Jiang, Ming; Xiao, Tian; Wu, Long-Fei

    2012-08-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria have the unique capacity of being able to swim along geomagnetic field lines. They are Gram-negative bacteria with diverse morphologies and variable phylogenetic relatedness. Here, we describe a group of uncultivated marine magnetococci collected from intertidal sediments of Huiquan Bay in the Yellow Sea. They were coccoid-ovoid in morphology, with an average size of 2.8 ± 0.3 μm by 2.0 ± 0.2 μm. Differential interference contrast microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy revealed that each cell was apparently composed of two hemispheres. The cells synthesized iron oxide-type magnetosomes that clustered on one side of the cell at the interface between the two hemispheres. In some cells two chains of magnetosomes were observed across the interface. Each cell had two bundles of flagella enveloped in a sheath and displayed north-seeking helical motion. Two 16S rRNA gene sequences having 91.8% identity were obtained, and their authenticity was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the magnetococci are affiliated with the Alphaproteobacteria and are most closely related to two uncultured magnetococci with sequence identities of 92.7% and 92.4%, respectively. Because they display a >7% sequence divergence to all bacteria reported, the bean-like magnetococci may represent two novel genera. PMID:22660708

  2. LC/IRMS analysis: A powerful technique to trace carbon flow in microphytobenthic communities in intertidal sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moerdijk-Poortvliet, Tanja C. W.; Stal, Lucas J.; Boschker, Henricus T. S.

    2014-09-01

    Microphytobenthic communities are important for primary production in intertidal marine sediments. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), comprising polysaccharides and proteins, play a key role in the structure and functioning of microphytobenthic biofilms and allow interactions between the benthic microalgae and the associated heterotrophic bacteria. The use of stable isotopes has provided major insights into the functioning of these microbial ecosystems. Until recently, gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/IRMS) was the principal method for compound specific stable isotope analysis in these studies. Liquid chromatography linked to IRMS (LC/IRMS) is a more recently developed technique that broadens the range of compounds that can be targeted, in particular enabling the analysis of 13C in non-volatile, aqueous soluble organic compounds, such as carbohydrates and amino acids. In this paper we present an overview of the possibilities and limitations of the LC/IRMS technique to study metabolic processes in microphytobenthic biofilms consisting of mainly diatoms. With a preliminary in-situ labeling experiment, we show that the biosynthesis of carbohydrates and amino acids in EPS and total carbohydrate and amino acid pools can be determined by LC/IRMS. Water extractable EPS were composed predominantly of carbohydrates, whereas amino acids played a minor role, both in terms of content and production. By using LC/IRMS, we will be able to quantify the biosynthesis of metabolites and, hence, to unravel in detail the metabolic pathways of the transfer of carbon from the diatoms via EPS to the bacteria.

  3. Temporal fluctuations in grain size, organic materials and iron concentrations in intertidal surface sediment of San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomson-Becker, E. A.; Luoma, S.N.

    1985-01-01

    The physical and chemical characteristics of the oxidized surface sediment in an estuary fluctuate temporally in response to physical forces and apparently-fluctuating inputs. These characteristics, which include grain size and concentrations of organic materials and iron, will influence both trace-metal geochemistry and bioavailability. Temporal trends in the abundance of fine particles, total organic carbon content (TOC), absorbance of extractable organic material (EOM), and concentration of extractable iron in the sediment of San Francisco Bay were assessed using data sets containing approximately monthly samples for periods of two to seven years. Changes in wind velocity and runoff result in monthly changes in the abundance of fine particles in the intertidal zone. Fine-grained particles are most abundant in the late fall/early winter when runoff is elevated and wind velocities are low; particles are coarser in the summer when runoff is low and wind velocities are consistently high. Throughout the bay, TOC is linearly related to fine particle abundance (r = 0.61). Temporal variability occurs in this relationship, as particles are poor in TOC relative to percent of fine particles in the early rainy season. Iron-poor particles also appear to enter the estuary during high runoff periods; while iron is enriched on particle surfaces in the summer. Concentrations of extractable iron and absorbance of EOM vary strongly from year to year. Highest absorbances of EOM occurred in the first year following the drought in 1976-77, and in 1982 and 1983 when river discharge was unusually high. Extractable-iron concentrations were also highest in 1976-77, but were very low in 1982 and 1983. ?? 1985 Dr W. Junk Publishers.

  4. Spatial distribution and concentration assessment of total petroleum hydrocarbons in the intertidal zone surface sediment of Todos os Santos Bay, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Carine S; Moreira, Icaro T A; de Oliveira, Olivia M C; Queiroz, Antonio F S; Garcia, Karina S; Falcão, Brunno A; Escobar, Narayana F C; Rios, Mariana Cruz

    2014-02-01

    The primary objective of this study was to investigate the concentrations and spatial distribution of the total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) in the intertidal zone surface sediment of Todos os Santos Bay, Brazil, to assess the distribution and degree of contamination by TPHs, measure the level of TPH degradation in the surface sediment, and identify the organic matter sources. The surface sediment used in this study was collected in 50 stations, and TPHs, isoprenoid alkanes (pristane and phytane), and unresolved complex mixture (UCM) were analyzed by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector. The total concentrations ranged from 0.22 to 40,101 μg g(-1) dry weight and showed a strong correlation with the total organic carbon (TOC) content. The highest TPH concentrations were observed in samples from the mangrove sediments of a river located near a petroleum refinery. Compared with other studies in the world, the TPH concentrations in the intertidal surface sediment of Todos os Santos Bay were below average in certain stations and above average in others. An analysis of the magnitude of UCM (0.11 to 17,323 μg g(-1) dry weight) and the ratios nC17/Pr and nC18/Ph suggest that an advanced state of oil weathering, which indicates previous contamination. The molar C/N ratios varied between 5 and 43, which indicate organic matter with a mixed origin comprising marine and continental contributions. PMID:24100798

  5. Nitrous oxide and methane fluxes vs. carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous burial in new intertidal and saltmarsh sediments.

    PubMed

    Adams, C A; Andrews, J E; Jickells, T

    2012-09-15

    Carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) burial rates were determined within natural saltmarsh (NSM) and 'managed realignment' (MR) sediments of the Blackwater estuary, UK. Methane (CH(4)) and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) fluxes were measured along with their ability to offset a portion of the C burial to give net C sequestration. C and N densities (Cρ and Nρ) of NSM sediments (0.022 and 0.0019 g cm(-3)) are comparable to other UK NSM sediments. Less vegetationally developed MR sediments have lower Cρ and Nρ (0.012 and 0.0011 g cm(-3)) while the more vegetationally developed sites possess higher Cρ and Nρ (0.023 and 0.0030 g cm(-3)) than NSM. Both NSM and MR areas were small CH(4) (0.10-0.40 g m(-2)yr(-1)) and N(2)O (0.03-0.37 g m(-2) yr(-1)) sources. Due to their large Global Warming Potentials, even these relatively small greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes reduced the net C sequestration within MR marshes by as much as 49%, but by only 2% from NSM. Potential MR areas within the Blackwater estuary (29.5 km(2) saltmarsh and 23.7 km(2) intertidal mudflat) could bury 5478 t C yr(-1) and 695.5 t N yr(-1), with a further 476t N yr(-1) denitrified. The saltmarsh MR would also sequester 139.4 t Pyr(-1). GHG fluxes would reduce the C burial benefit by 24% giving a C sequestration rate of 4174 t Cyr(-1). Similar areas within the Humber estuary (74.95 km(2)) could bury 3597 t Cyr(-1) and 180 t N yr(-1), with a further 442 t Nyr(-1) denitrified. GHG fluxes would reduce the C burial benefit by 31% giving a C sequestration rate of 2492 t C yr(-1). Overall, MR sites provide sustainable coastal defence options with significant biogeochemical value and, despite being net sources of CH(4) and N(2)O, can sequester C and reduce estuarine nutrient loads. PMID:22197113

  6. Cycling of trace metals (Mn, Fe, Mo, U, V, Cr) in deep pore waters of intertidal flat sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Melanie; Dellwig, Olaf; Schnetger, Bernhard; Brumsack, Hans-Jürgen

    2008-06-01

    Trace metals (Mn, Fe, Mo, U, Cr, V) were studied in pore waters of an intertidal flat located in the German Wadden Sea. The study system is an example of a permeable tidal flat system where pore water exchange is affected by tidal driven pressure gradients besides diffusion. Permanently installed in situ samplers were used to extract pore waters down to 5 m depth throughout one year. The samplers were either located close to the tidal flat margin or in central parts of the tidal flat. Despite dynamic sedimentological and hydrological conditions, the general trends with depth in deep tidal flat pore waters are remarkably similar to those observed in deep sea environments. Rates of trace metal cycling must be comparably large in order to maintain the observed pore water profiles. Trace metals further show similar general trends with depth close to the margin and in central parts of the tidal flat. Seasonal sampling revealed that V and Cr vary concurrent with seasonal changes in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration. This effect is most notable close to the tidal flat margin where sulphate, DOC, and nutrients vary with season down to some metres depth. Seasonal variations of Mn, Fe, Mo, and U are by contrast limited to the upper decimetres of the sediment. Their seasonal patterns depend on organic matter supply, redox stratification, and particulate matter deposited on sediment surfaces. Pore water sampling within one tidal cycle provides evidence for pore water advection in margin sediments. During low tide pore water flow towards the creekbank is generated by a hydraulic gradient suggesting that deep pore waters may be seeping out of creekbank sediments. Owing to the enrichment of specific elements like Mn in pore water compared to sea water, seeping pore waters may have an impact on the chemistry of the open water column. Mass balance calculations reveal that the impact of deep pore waters on the Mn budget in the open water column is below 4%. Mn deep pore

  7. Distribution, mobility, and pollution assessment of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, and Fe in intertidal surface sediments of Sg. Puloh mangrove estuary, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Udechukwu, Bede Emeka; Ismail, Ahmad; Zulkifli, Syaizwan Zahmir; Omar, Hishamuddin

    2015-03-01

    Sungai Puloh mangrove estuary supports a large diversity of macrobenthic organisms and provides social benefits to the local community. Recently, it became a major recipient of heavy metals originating from industries in the hinterland as a result of industrialization and urbanization. This study was conducted to evaluate mobility and pollution status of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, and Fe) in intertidal surface sediments of this area. Surface sediment samples were collected based on four different anthropogenic sources. Metals concentrations were analyzed using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). Results revealed that the mean concentrations were Zn (1023.68 ± 762.93 μg/g), Pb (78.8 ± 49.61 μg/g), Cu (46.89 ± 43.79 μg/g), Ni (35.54 ± 10.75 μg/g), Cd (0.94 ± 0.29 μg/g), and Fe (7.14 ± 0.94%). Most of the mean values of analyzed metals were below both the interim sediment quality guidelines (ISQG-low and ISQG-high), except for Pb concentration (above ISQG-low) and Zn concentration (above ISQG-high), thus suggesting that Pb and Zn may pose some environmental concern. Cadmium, Pb, and Zn concentrations were above the threshold effect level (TEL), indicating seldom adverse effect of these metals on macrobenthic organisms. Pollution load index (PLI) indicated deterioration and other indices revealed the intertidal surface sediment is moderately polluted with Cd, Pb, and Zn. Therefore, this mangrove area requires urgent attention to mitigate further contamination. Finally, this study will contribute to data sources for Malaysia in establishing her own ISQG since it is a baseline study with detailed contamination assessment indices for surface sediment of intertidal mangrove area. PMID:25292304

  8. Competition for Sulfate and Ethanol Among Desulfobacter, Desulfobulbus, and Desulfovibrio Species Isolated from Intertidal Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Laanbroek, Hendrikus J.; Geerligs, Harm J.; Sijtsma, Lolke; Veldkamp, Hans

    1984-01-01

    Competition for sulfate and ethanol among Desulfobacter, Desulfobulbus, and Desulfovibrio species isolated from estuarine sediments was studied in energy-limited chemostats. Desulfovibrio baculatus was the most successful competitor for limiting amounts of sulfate and ethanol, followed by Desulfobulbus propionicus. The success of Desulfovibrio baculatus was dependent on the availability of sufficient iron. Of the three species studied, Desulfobacter postgatei was the least successful competitor for limiting amounts of sulfate. Although stimulating the growth of Desulfobacter postgatei, addition of Ca-saturated illite particles to culture media did not affect the outcome of competition for sulfate. Thus, under sulfate limitation acetate accumulated. This phenomenon was briefly discussed in relation to the flow of electrons during anaerobic mineralization in marine and estuarine sulfate-limited sediments. PMID:16346474

  9. Osmium and Platinum Decoupling in the Environment: Evidences in Intertidal Sediments (Tagus Estuary, SW Europe).

    PubMed

    Almécija, Clara; Sharma, Mukul; Cobelo-García, Antonio; Santos-Echeandía, Juan; Caetano, Miguel

    2015-06-01

    Catalytic converters in automobiles have significantly increased the input of platinum group elements (PGE) to the environment, and their coupled geochemical behavior has been proposed. To check this hypothesis, Pt and Os concentrations and (187)Os/(188)Os ratios were determined in sediment cores and interstitial waters from the Tagus Estuary (SW Europe) affected by different traffic pressure. Platinum concentration in surface sediments nearby the high traffic zone (up to 40 ng g(-1)) indicated severe contamination. Although lower than Pt, Os enrichment was also observed in surface sediments, with lower (187)Os/(188)Os ratios than in deeper layers. Dissolved Pt and Os in interstitial waters, 0.1-0.7 pg g(-1) and 0.03-0.10 pg g(-1), respectively, were higher than in typical uncontaminated waters. Results indicate two sources of Pt and Os into the Tagus Estuary salt marshes: a regional input associated with industrial activities, fossil fuel combustions, and regional traffic and a local source linked to nearby traffic density emissions. Estimations of Os and Pt released by catalytic converters support this two-source model. Differences in geochemical reactivity and range of dispersion from their sources lead to a decoupled behavior of Os and Pt, questioning the use of Os isotopes as proxies of PGE sources to the environment. PMID:25923357

  10. 210Pb chronology and trace metal geochemistry in the intertidal sediment of Qinjiang River estuary, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Peng; Meng, Xianwei; Feng, Aiping; Yin, Ping; Wang, Xiangqin; Zhang, Jun

    2012-06-01

    Historical records of metal inputs were studied by using a sediment core collected from a sand-rich mudflat in the Qinjiang River estuary, China. 210Pb chronology was used to reconstruct the fluxes of Hg, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr and As to the core site during the last 86 years. Based on the constant initial concentration model, the sedimentation rates are 1.18 cm year-1 in the top 30 cm sandy layer and 0.92 cm year-1 in the muddy bottom layer. To compensate for grain-size and mineralogy effects on metal concentrations, aluminum was used as the normalizing element. The enrichment factors ( EF) indicate that the natural inputs had prevailed up to the early 1980s. After this period, the intensity of human activities has resulted in continual increasing trend of metals towards the surface. Recent sediment samples from the Qinjiang River estuary are found moderately enriched by Cd ( EF>1.5) and slightly enriched by other metals ( EF<1.5). Considering that the drainage area of the Qinjiang River is mostly agricultural land, the increased Cd may be due to the usage of fertilizers and pesticides in agricultural activities and the combustion of fossil fuels.

  11. Soil conservation through sediment trapping: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mekonnen, Mulatie; Keesstra, Saskia; Baartman, Jantiene; Maroulis, Jerry; Stroosnijder, Leo

    2014-05-01

    Preventing the off-site effects of soil erosion is an essential part of good catchment management. Most efforts are in the form of on-site soil and water conservation measures. However, sediment trapping (ST) can be an alternative (or additional) measure to prevent the negative off-site effects of soil erosion. Therefore, not all efforts should focus solely on on-site soil conservation, but also on the safe routing of sediment-laden flows and on creating sites and conditions where sediment can be trapped, preferably in a cost effective or even profitable way. ST can be applied on-site (in-field) and off-site and involves both vegetative and structural measures. The main vegetative measures include grass strips, tree or bush buffers, grassed waterways and restoration of the waterways and their riparian zone; while structural measures include terraces, ponds and check dams. This paper provides a review of studies that have assessed the sediment trapping efficacy (STE) of such vegetative and structural measures. Vegetation type and integration of two or more measures (vegetative as well as structural) are important factors influencing STE. In this review, the STE of most measures was evaluated either individually or in such combinations. In real landscape situations, it is not only important to select the most efficient erosion control measures, but also to determine their optimum location in the catchment. Hence, there is a need for research that shows a more integrated determination of STE at the catchment scale. If integrated measures are implemented at the most appropriate spatial locations within a catchment where they can disconnect landscape units from each other, they will decrease runoff velocity and sediment transport and, subsequently, reduce downstream flooding and sedimentation problems. KEY WORDS: Integrated sediment trapping, sediment trapping efficacy, vegetative, structural, on-site and off-site measures.

  12. Diversity, abundance, and activity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea in Chongming eastern intertidal sediments.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yanling; Hou, Lijun; Liu, Min; Lu, Min; Zhao, Hui; Yin, Guoyu; Zhou, Junliang

    2013-09-01

    Ammonia oxidation plays a pivotal role in the cycling and removal of nitrogen in aquatic sediments. Certain bacterial groups and a novel group of archaea, which is affiliated with the novel phylum Thaumarchaeota, can perform this initial nitrification step. We examined the diversity and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing β-Proteobacteria (β-AOB) and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) in the sediments of Chongming eastern tidal flat using the ammonia monooxygenase-α subunit (amoA) gene as functional markers. Clone library analysis showed that AOA had a higher diversity of amoA gene than β-AOB. The β-Proteobacterial amoA community composition correlated significantly with water soluble salts in the sediments, whereas the archaeal amoA community composition was correlated more with nitrate concentrations. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) results indicated that the abundance of β-AOB amoA gene (9.11 × 10(4)-6.47 × 10(5) copies g(-1) sediment) was always greater than that of AOA amoA gene (7.98 × 10(3)-3.51 × 10(5) copies g(-1) sediment) in all the samples analyzed in this study. The β-Proteobacterial amoA gene abundance was closely related to organic carbon, while no significant correlations were observed between archaeal amoA gene abundance and the environmental factors. Potential nitrification rates were significantly greater in summer than in winter and correlated strongly with the abundance of amoA genes. Additionally, a greater contribution of single amoA gene to potential nitrification occurred in summer (1.03-5.39 pmol N copy(-1) day(-1)) compared with winter (0.16-0.38 pmol N copy(-1) day(-1)), suggesting a higher activity of ammonia-oxidizing prokaryotes in warm seasons. PMID:23108528

  13. Intense nitrogen cycling in permeable intertidal sediment revealed by a nitrous oxide hot spot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schutte, Charles A.; Joye, Samantha B.; Wilson, Alicia M.; Evans, Tyler; Moore, Willard S.; Casciotti, Karen

    2015-10-01

    Approximately 40% of the total global rate of nitrogen fixation is the result of human activities, and most of this anthropogenic nitrogen is used to fertilize agricultural fields. Approximately 23% of the applied agricultural nitrogen is delivered to the coastal zone, often reducing water quality and driving eutrophication. Nitrogen cycling in coastal sediments can mitigate eutrophication by removing bioavailable nitrogen. However, some of these processes generate nitrous oxide, a potent greenhouse gas, as a by-product. Here we report the discovery of a nitrous oxide production hot spot in shallow barrier island sands. Nitrous oxide concentrations, production and consumption rates, vertical diffusion fluxes, and flux to the atmosphere were measured across triplicate depth profiles. Using a mass balance approach, rates of net nitrous oxide production were estimated to be 40 µmol m-2 d-1. This production was driven by a hot spot of nitrate consumption that removed bioavailable nitrogen from the coastal environment at a rate of 10 mmol m-2 d-1, a rate that is comparable with the highest rates of denitrification reported for coastal sediments.

  14. Ecosystem Carbon Stocks of Intertidal Wetlands in Singapore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phang, V. X. H.; Friess, D.; Chou, L. M.

    2014-12-01

    Mangrove forests and seagrass meadows provide numerous ecosystem services, with huge recent interest in their carbon sequestration and storage value. Mangrove forests and seagrass meadows as well as mudflats and sandbars form a continuum of intertidal wetlands, but studies that consider these spatially-linked habitats as a whole are limited. This paper presents the results of a field-based and remote sensing carbon stock assessment, including the first study of the ecosystem carbon stocks of these adjacent habitats in the tropics. Aboveground, belowground and soil organic carbon pools were quantified at Chek Jawa, an intertidal wetland in Singapore. Total ecosystem carbon stocks averaged 499 Mg C ha-1 in the mangrove forest and 140 Mg C ha-1 in the seagrass meadow. Soil organic carbon dominated the total storage in both habitats. In the adjacent mudflats and sandbars, soil organic carbon averaged 143 and 124 Mg C ha-1 respectively. High amount of carbon stored in soil demonstrate the role of intertidal wetlands in sequestering large amount of carbon in sediments accumulated over millennia. High-resolution remote sensing imagery was used to create spatial models that upscaled field-based carbon measurements to the national scale. Field-based data and spatial modeling of ecosystem carbon stocks to the entire island through remote sensing provides a large-scale and holistic carbon stock value, important for the understanding and management of these threatened intertidal ecosystems.

  15. Processing of particulate organic carbon associated with secondary-treated pulp and paper mill effluent in intertidal sediments: a 13C pulse-chase experiment.

    PubMed

    Oakes, Joanne M; Ross, Donald J; Eyre, Bradley D

    2013-01-01

    To determine the benthic transformation pathways and fate of carbon associated with secondary-treated pulp and paper mill (PPM) effluent, (13)C-labeled activated sludge biomass (ASB) and phytoplankton (PHY) were added, separately, to estuarine intertidal sediments. Over 28 days, (13)C was traced into sediment organic carbon, fauna, seagrass, bacteria, and microphytobenthos and into fluxes of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) from inundated sediments, and carbon dioxide (CO2(g)) from exposed sediments. There was greater removal of PHY carbon from sediments (~85% over 28 days) compared to ASB (~75%). Although there was similar (13)C loss from PHY and ASB plots via DIC (58% and 56%, respectively) and CO2(g) fluxes (<1%), DOC fluxes were more important for PHY (41%) than ASB (12%). Faster downward transport and loss suggest that fauna prefer PHY, due to its lability and/or toxins associated with ASB; this may account for different carbon pathways. Secondary-treated PPM effluent has lower oxygen demand than primary-treated effluent, but ASB accumulation may contribute to sediment anoxia, and respiration of ASB and PHY-derived DOC may make the water column more heterotrophic. This highlights the need to optimize secondary-treatment processes to control the quality and quantity of organic carbon associated with PPM effluent. PMID:24261917

  16. 40 CFR 796.2750 - Sediment and soil adsorption isotherm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... to sediments and soils is an important process that affects a chemical's distribution in the.... “Adsorption, desorption of parathion as affected by soil organic matter,” Journal of Agricultural and Food... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sediment and soil adsorption...

  17. 40 CFR 796.2750 - Sediment and soil adsorption isotherm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... to sediments and soils is an important process that affects a chemical's distribution in the.... “Adsorption, desorption of parathion as affected by soil organic matter,” Journal of Agricultural and Food... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sediment and soil adsorption...

  18. 40 CFR 796.2750 - Sediment and soil adsorption isotherm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... to sediments and soils is an important process that affects a chemical's distribution in the.... “Adsorption, desorption of parathion as affected by soil organic matter,” Journal of Agricultural and Food... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sediment and soil adsorption...

  19. Thermal analysis of whole soils and sediment.

    PubMed

    DeLapp, Rossane C; LeBoeuf, Eugene J

    2004-01-01

    Thermal analysis techniques were utilized to investigate the thermal properties of two soils and a lignite coal obtained from the International Humic Substances Society (IHSS), and sediment obtained from The Netherlands. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) revealed glass transition behavior of each sample at temperatures ranging from 52 degrees C for Pahokee peat (euic, hyperthermic Lithic Medisaprists), 55 degrees C for a Netherlands (B8) sediment, 64 degrees C for Elliott loam (fine, illitic, mesic Aquic Arguidolls), to 70 degrees C for Gascoyne leonardite. Temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC) revealed glass transition behavior at similar temperatures, and quantified constant-pressure specific heat capacity (Cp) at 0 degrees C from 0.6 J g(-1) degrees C(-1) for Elliott loam and 0.8 J g(-1) degrees C(-1) for the leonardite, to 1.0 J g(-1) degrees C(-1) for the peat and the sediment. Glass transition behavior showed no distinct correlation to elemental composition, although Gascoyne Leonardite and Pahokee peat each demonstrated glass transition behavior similar to that reported for humic acids derived from these materials. Thermomechanical analysis (TMA) revealed a large thermal expansion followed by a matrix collapse for each sample between 20 and 30 degrees C, suggesting the occurrence of transition behavior of unknown origin. Thermal transitions occurring at higher temperatures more representative of glass transition behavior were revealed for the sediment and the peat. PMID:14964387

  20. A doubling of microphytobenthos biomass coincides with a tenfold increase in denitrifier and total bacterial abundances in intertidal sediments of a temperate estuary.

    PubMed

    Decleyre, Helen; Heylen, Kim; Sabbe, Koen; Tytgat, Bjorn; Deforce, Dieter; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; Van Colen, Carl; Willems, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Surface sediments are important systems for the removal of anthropogenically derived inorganic nitrogen in estuaries. They are often characterized by the presence of a microphytobenthos (MPB) biofilm, which can impact bacterial communities in underlying sediments for example by secretion of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and competition for nutrients (including nitrogen). Pyrosequencing and qPCR was performed on two intertidal surface sediments of the Westerschelde estuary characterized by a two-fold difference in MPB biomass but no difference in MPB composition. Doubling of MPB biomass was accompanied by a disproportionately (ten-fold) increase in total bacterial abundances while, unexpectedly, no difference in general community structure was observed, despite significantly lower bacterial richness and distinct community membership, mostly for non-abundant taxa. Denitrifier abundances corresponded likewise while community structure, both for nirS and nirK denitrifiers, remained unchanged, suggesting that competition with diatoms for nitrate is negligible at concentrations in the investigated sediments (appr. 1 mg/l NO3-). This study indicates that MPB biomass increase has a general, significantly positive effect on total bacterial and denitrifier abundances, with stimulation or inhibition of specific bacterial groups that however do not result in a re-structured community. PMID:25961719

  1. A Doubling of Microphytobenthos Biomass Coincides with a Tenfold Increase in Denitrifier and Total Bacterial Abundances in Intertidal Sediments of a Temperate Estuary

    PubMed Central

    Decleyre, Helen; Heylen, Kim; Sabbe, Koen; Tytgat, Bjorn; Deforce, Dieter; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; Van Colen, Carl; Willems, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Surface sediments are important systems for the removal of anthropogenically derived inorganic nitrogen in estuaries. They are often characterized by the presence of a microphytobenthos (MPB) biofilm, which can impact bacterial communities in underlying sediments for example by secretion of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and competition for nutrients (including nitrogen). Pyrosequencing and qPCR was performed on two intertidal surface sediments of the Westerschelde estuary characterized by a two-fold difference in MPB biomass but no difference in MPB composition. Doubling of MPB biomass was accompanied by a disproportionately (ten-fold) increase in total bacterial abundances while, unexpectedly, no difference in general community structure was observed, despite significantly lower bacterial richness and distinct community membership, mostly for non-abundant taxa. Denitrifier abundances corresponded likewise while community structure, both for nirS and nirK denitrifiers, remained unchanged, suggesting that competition with diatoms for nitrate is negligible at concentrations in the investigated sediments (appr. 1 mg/l NO3-). This study indicates that MPB biomass increase has a general, significantly positive effect on total bacterial and denitrifier abundances, with stimulation or inhibition of specific bacterial groups that however do not result in a re-structured community. PMID:25961719

  2. Climate Change and Intertidal Wetlands

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Pauline M.; Adam, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Intertidal wetlands are recognised for the provision of a range of valued ecosystem services. The two major categories of intertidal wetlands discussed in this contribution are saltmarshes and mangrove forests. Intertidal wetlands are under threat from a range of anthropogenic causes, some site-specific, others acting globally. Globally acting factors include climate change and its driving cause—the increasing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. One direct consequence of climate change will be global sea level rise due to thermal expansion of the oceans, and, in the longer term, the melting of ice caps and glaciers. The relative sea level rise experienced at any one locality will be affected by a range of factors, as will the response of intertidal wetlands to the change in sea level. If relative sea level is rising and sedimentation within intertidal wetlands does not keep pace, then there will be loss of intertidal wetlands from the seaward edge, with survival of the ecosystems only possible if they can retreat inland. When retreat is not possible, the wetland area will decline in response to the “squeeze” experienced. Any changes to intertidal wetland vegetation, as a consequence of climate change, will have flow on effects to biota, while changes to biota will affect intertidal vegetation. Wetland biota may respond to climate change by shifting in distribution and abundance landward, evolving or becoming extinct. In addition, impacts from ocean acidification and warming are predicted to affect the fertilisation, larval development, growth and survival of intertidal wetland biota including macroinvertebrates, such as molluscs and crabs, and vertebrates such as fish and potentially birds. The capacity of organisms to move and adapt will depend on their life history characteristics, phenotypic plasticity, genetic variability, inheritability of adaptive characteristics, and the predicted rates of environmental change. PMID:24832670

  3. Effects of sandy vs muddy sediments on the vertical distribution of microphytobenthos in intertidal flats of the Fraser River Estuary, Canada.

    PubMed

    Yin, Kedong; Zetsche, Eva-Maria; Harrison, Paul J

    2016-07-01

    Benthic algae or microphytobenthos (MPB) in intertidal flats play an important role in the sediment and overlying water ecosystems. We hypothesize that there are effects of sediment texture on the vertical distribution of MPB using chlorophyll a (chl a) as a proxy for MPB biomass and present results over a 2.5-year period. Four sites were sampled monthly: two sandy sites (A10 and A12) and two muddy sites (A0 and A14) on the intertidal flats of the Fraser River Estuary. At the two sandy sites, pigments were distributed down to 10 cm. High ratios of depth-integrated chl a to phaeopigments suggest that the chl a had been recently buried. In contrast, at the muddy sites, pigments were limited to the top 4 cm, with MBP in the top 1 cm contributing up to 60 % of the whole sediment core pigments. As a result, the depth-integrated chl a values were on average 2,044 mg m(-2) (160-4,200) at A10 and 882 mg m(-2) (183-2,569) at A12, the two sandy sites, and much higher than at the two muddy sites where averages of 84 mg m(-2) (41-174) and 235 mg m(-2) (77-854) were measured at A0 and A14, respectively. Despite these lower concentrations at the muddy sites than at the sandy sites, particulate organic carbon (POC) and nitrogen (PON) concentrations showed a homogenous vertical distribution at the two sandy sites. Such a homogeneous vertical distribution of chl a, POC, and PON suggests that vertical transport mechanisms were actively transporting organic material into and out of the sediment. These results suggest that MBP on sandy sediments play a very active role in providing food for herbivores and are interacting with the overlying water column in the sediment-water exchange processes during tidal cycles. PMID:27053045

  4. The landward and seaward mechanisms of fine-sediment transport across intertidal flats in the shallow-water region—A numerical investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Tian-Jian; Chen, Shih-Nan; Ogston, Andrea S.

    2013-06-01

    This study investigates transport of fine sediment across idealized intertidal flats with emphasis on resolving processes at the tidal edge, which is defined as the very shallow region of the land-water interface. We first utilize a two-dimensional, vertical numerical model solving the non-hydrostatic Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with a k-ɛ turbulence closure. The numerical model adopts the Volume of Fluid method to simulate the wetting and drying region of the intertidal flat. The model is demonstrated to be able to reproduce the classic theory of tidal-flat hydrodynamics of Friedrichs and Aubrey (1996) and to predict the turbidity at the tidal edge that is similar, qualitatively, to prior field observations. The Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) is also utilized to simulate the same idealized tidal flat to evaluate its applicability in this environment. We demonstrate that when a small critical depth (hcrit=2cm) in the wetting and drying scheme is adopted, ROMS is able to predict the main features of hydrodynamics and sediment-transport processes similar to those predicted by the RANS-VOF model. When driving the models with a symmetric tidal forcing, both models predict landward transport on the lower and upper flat and seaward transport in the subtidal region. When the very shallow region of the tidal edge is well resolved, both models predict an asymmetry of tidal velocity magnitude between the flood and the ebb that may encourage landward sediment transport on the flat. Further model simulation suggests that the predicted landward transport of sediment on the flat is mainly due to the settling-lag effect while the asymmetry of tidal velocity magnitude may add a lesser but non-negligible amount. When the bed erosion is limited by the availability of soft mud, the predicted transport direction becomes landward in both the subtidal region and on the flat. These results suggest that the tidal flow generally encourages landward transport while

  5. The abundance of functional genes, cbbL, nifH, amoA and apsA, and bacterial community structure of intertidal soil from Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Keshri, Jitendra; Yousuf, Basit; Mishra, Avinash; Jha, Bhavanath

    2015-06-01

    The Gulf of Cambay is a trumpet-shaped inlet of the Arabian Sea, located along the west coast of India and confronts a high tidal range with strong water currents. The region belongs to a semi-arid zone and saline alkaline intertidal soils are considered biologically extreme. The selected four soil types (S1-S4) were affected by salinity, alkalinity and sodicity. Soil salinity ranged from 20 to 126 dS/m, soil pH 8.6-10.0 with high sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP). Abundance of the key functional genes like cbbL, nifH, amoA and apsA involved in biogeochemical cycling were targeted using qPCR, which varied from (2.36 ± 0.03) × 10(4) to (2.87 ± 0.26) × 10(8), (1.18 ± 0.28) × 10(6) to (1.01 ± 0.26) × 10(9), (1.41 ± 0.21) × 10(6) to (1.29 ± 0.05) × 10(8) and (8.47 ± 0.23) × 10(4) to (1.73 ± 0.01) × 10(6) per gram dry weight, respectively. The microbial community structure revealed that soils S1 and S3 were dominated by phylum Firmicutes whereas S4 and S2 showed an abundance of Proteobacterial clones. These soils also represented Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Actinobacteria, Planctomycetes and Acidobacteria clones. Molecular phylogeny showed a significant variation in the bacterial community distribution among the intertidal soil types. A high number of novel taxonomic units were observed which makes the intertidal zone a unique reservoir of unidentified bacterial taxa that may be explored further. PMID:25862282

  6. Sonochemical Digestion of Soil and Sediment Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Sinkov, Sergei I.; Lumetta, Gregg J.

    2006-10-12

    This work was performed as part of a broader effort to automate analytical methods for determination of plutonium and other radioisotopes in environmental samples. The work described here represented a screening study to determine the potential for applying ultrasonic irradiation to sample digestion. Two standard reference materials (SRMs) were used in this study: Columbia River Sediment and Rocky Flats Soil. The key experiments performed are listed below along with a summary of the results. The action of nitric acid, regardless of its concentration and liquid-to-solid ratio, did not achieve dissolution efficiency better that 20%. The major fraction of natural organic matter (NOM) remained undissolved by this treatment. Sonication did not result in improved dissolution for the SRMs tested. The action of hydrofluoric acid at concentrations of 8 M and higher achieved much more pronounced dissolution (up to 97% dissolved for the Rocky Flats soil sample and up to 78% dissolved for the Columbia River Sediment sample). Dissolution efficiency remains constant for solid-to-liquid ratios of up to 0.05 to 1 and decreases for the higher loadings of the solid phase. Sonication produced no measurable effect in improving the dissolution of the samples compared with the control digestion experiments. Combined treatment of the SRM by mixtures of HNO3 and HF showed inferior performance compared with the HF alone. An adverse effect of sonication was found for the Rocky Flats soil material, which became more noticeable at higher HF concentrations. Sonication of the Columbia River sediment samples had no positive effect in the mixed acid treatment. The results indicate that applying ultrasound in an isolated cup horn configuration does not offer any advantage over conventional ''heat and mix'' treatment for dissolution of the soil and sediment based on the SRM examined here. This conclusion, however, is based on an approach that uses gravimetric analysis to determine gross dissolution

  7. Effects of sediment discharge from Namibian diamond mines on intertidal and subtidal rocky-reef communities and the rock lobster Jasus lalandii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulfrich, Andrea; Branch, George M.

    2014-10-01

    Extensive terrestrial diamond mining occurs on the southern coast of Namibia, and at Elizabeth Bay near Lüderitz sediment tailings totalling about 2 million tons.yr-1, have been discharged onto the beach. We report here on monitoring spanning 2004-2012 to assess (1) the impacts of increased tailings discharges following an expansion of the mine in 2005, and (2) recovery after discharges halted in 2009. Sampling covered three levels of wave exposure, and compared impacted sites with comparable unmined reference sites. Benthic communities were quantified on both intertidal and subtidal reefs, and kelp densities and rock-lobster abundances, lengths and sex ratios on subtidal reefs. Prior to intensification of mining, deposition of tailings significantly influenced intertidal communities only at sheltered localities where wave action was insufficient to disperse them. Following the mine expansion, effects spread to both semi-exposed and exposed sites. After mining was suspended, recovery of the biota was limited, even three years later. Reductions of intertidal diversity and grazers, proliferation of macroalgae, and increased dominance by filter feeders were recorded at the impacted sites and were persistent, but the affects of wave exposure on community composition generally exceeded those of mining discharges. On subtidal reefs, tailings deposition reduced predators and grazers, increased filter feeders and ephemeral green algae, and decreased all other algae, possibly driven by light reduction due to plumes of suspended fine sediments. Increased discharges post-2005 also substantially influenced bathymetry, wave and current regimes, transforming 2 km of previously wave-exposed rocky coastline into a semi-exposed sandy beach. Tailings discharge appeared to influence community composition in four ways: (1) inundation and blanketing; (2) increased suspended particulate materials; (3) indirect top-down ripple effects, and (4) light reduction. Throughout the period 2004

  8. 40 CFR 796.2750 - Sediment and soil adsorption isotherm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Sediment and soil adsorption isotherm. 796.2750 Section 796.2750 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL FATE TESTING GUIDELINES Transport Processes § 796.2750 Sediment and soil adsorption isotherm....

  9. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: SOIL/SEDIMENT WASHING SYSTEM BERGMANN USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Bergmann USA Soil/Sediment Washing System is a waste minimization technique designed to separate or "partition" soils and sediments by grain size and density. In this water-based volume reduction process, hazardous contaminants are concentrated into a small residual portion...

  10. Molluscs of an intertidal soft-sediment area in China: Does overfishing explain a high density but low diversity community that benefits staging shorebirds?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hong-Yan; Chen, Bing; Piersma, Theunis; Zhang, Zhengwang; Ding, Changqing

    2016-03-01

    The Yellow Sea is a key staging ground for shorebirds that migrate from Australasia to the Arctic each spring. A lot of attention has been paid to the impact of habitat loss due to land reclamation on shorebird survival, but any effects of overfishing of coastal resources are unclear. In this study, the abundance of molluscs in the intertidal mudflats of northern Bohai Bay on the Chinese Yellow Sea was investigated in 2008-2014 from the perspective of their importance as food for northward migrating shorebirds, especially Red Knots Calidris canutus. Numerically contributing 96% to the numbers of 17 species found in spring 2008, the bivalve Potamocorbula laevis (the staple food of Red Knots and other shorebirds) dominated the intertidal mollusc community. In the spring of 2008-2014, the densities of P. laevis were surprisingly high, varying between 3900 and 41,000 individuals/m2 at distinctly small sizes (average shell lengths of 1.1 to 4.8 mm), and thus reaching some of the highest densities of marine bivalves recorded worldwide and providing good food for shorebirds. The distribution of P. laevis was associated with relatively soft sediments in close proximity to the recently built seawalls. A monthly sampling programme showed steep seasonal changes in abundance and size. P. laevis were nearly absent in winter, each year settling on the intertidal mudflats anew. Peak densities were reached in spring, when 0-age P. laevis were 1-3 mm long. The findings point to a highly unusual demographic structure of the species, suggesting that some interfering factors are at play. We hypothesise that the current dominance of young P. laevis in Bohai Bay reflects the combined pressures of a nearly complete active removal of adult populations from mid-summer to autumn for shrimp farming (this clearing of adults may offer space for recruitment during the next spring) and low numbers of epibenthic predators of bivalves, such as shrimps and crabs, due to persistent overfishing in

  11. Climate variability, soil conservation, and reservoir sedimentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rivers carry sediments which, upon entering a reservoir, settle to the bottom. The process of deposition and gradual accumulation of sediments in the reservoir is referred to as reservoir sedimentation. As reservoir sedimentation progresses, the storage capacity allocated for sediment deposition wil...

  12. Are intertidal soft sediment assemblages affected by repeated oil spill events? A field-based experimental approach.

    PubMed

    Sandrini-Neto, Leonardo; Martins, César C; Lana, Paulo C

    2016-06-01

    This study investigates the impact of repeated diesel spills on the structure of intertidal macrofaunal assemblages of a subtropical estuary. Three frequencies of exposure events were compared against two dosages of oil in a factorial experiment with asymmetrical controls. Hypotheses were tested to distinguish between (i) the overall effect of oil spills, (ii) the effect of diesel dosage via different exposure regimes, and (iii) the effect of time since last spill. Repeated oil spills dramatically altered the overall structure of assemblages and reduced the total density of macrofauna and densities of dominant taxa. Increasing the frequency of oil spills negatively affected macrofauna. In general, frequent low-dosage oil spills were more deleterious than infrequent high-dosage ones. However, increases in densities of some taxa, mainly the gastropod Heleobia australis, were observed in response to infrequent spills. Our results highlight the importance of repeated exposure events in determining the extent of oil impacts. PMID:26890483

  13. Human viruses in sediments, sludges, and soils*

    PubMed Central

    Rao, V. Chalapati; Metcalf, Theodore G.; Melnick, Joseph L.

    1986-01-01

    Recent studies have provided a greater understanding of the movement of viruses in the environment by their attachment to solids. These studies have focused on solids-associated viruses present in wastewater discharged into the ocean and on viruses in sludge and wastewater that may be retained in soil following their land disposal. Such ocean or land disposal of wastewater and sludge may result in a discharge of one or more of 120 human enteric virus pathogens including those causing poliomyelitis, viral hepatitis A and acute gastroenteritis. Solids-associated viruses in effluents discharged into coastal waters accumulate in bottom sediments, which may contain 10 to 10 000 more virus per unit volume than the overlying seawater. Solids-associated viruses resuspended by water turbulence may be transported from polluted to distant non-polluted recreational or shellfish-growing water. Transmission of viruses causing hepatitis or gastroenteritis may result from contact by bathers or swimmers with these viruses in recreational waters, or from ingestion of raw or improperly cooked shellfish in which the solids-associated virus had been bioaccumulated. The land disposal of sludge and wastewater has a potential of causing infections in farm workers, contamination of crops, pollution of raw potable water sources or infiltration of ground water. Viruses retained on soils can be released by rain water and may contaminate ground water through lateral and vertical movements. PMID:3015442

  14. Global Soil and Sediment transfer during the Anthropocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Thomas; Vanacker, Veerle; Stinchcombe, Gary; Penny, Dan; Xixi, Lu

    2016-04-01

    The vulnerability of soils to human-induced erosion and its downstream effects on fluvial and deltaic ecosystems is highly variable in space and time; dependent on climate, geology, the nature and duration of land use, and topography. Despite our knowledge of the mechanistic relationships between erosion, sediment storage, land-use and climate change, the global patterns of soil erosion, fluvial sediment flux and storage throughout the Holocene remain poorly understood. The newly launched PAGES working group GloSS aims to determine the sensitivity of soil resources and sediment routing systems to varying land use types during the period of agriculture, under contrasting climate regimes and socio-ecological settings. Successfully addressing these questions in relation to the sustainable use of soils, sediments and river systems requires an understanding of past human-landscape interactions. GloSS, therefore, aims to: Develop proxies for, or indices of, human impact on rates of soil erosion and fluvial sediment transfer that are applicable on a global scale and throughout the Holocene; Create a global database of long-term (102-104 years) human-accelerated soil erosion and sediment flux records; Identify hot spots of soil erosion and sediment deposition during the Anthropocene, and Locate data-poor regions where particular socio-ecological systems are not well understood, as strategic foci for future work. This paper will present the latest progress of the PAGES GloSS working group.

  15. The use of lipid markers to define sources of organic matter in sediment and food web of the intertidal salt-marsh-flat ecosystem of Mont-Saint-Michel Bay, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meziane, Tarik; Bodineau, Laurent; Retiere, Christian; Thoumelin, Guy

    1997-12-01

    Salt marsh plants and seven surface sediment samples along a transect in the intertidal flat area of Mont-Saint-Michel Bay were analysed for fatty acids and sterols. The presence of lipid markers of halophytes (long-chain fatty acids, 18:3ω3, and phytosterols) in the surface layers of the sediment confirms the export of organic matter from the salt marsh to the intertidal flat. The spatial distribution of this organic matter over the tidal-flat area was controlled by the tidal currents and the presence of mussel beds. Lipid markers of diatoms (20:5ω3 and brassicasterol) and bacteria (18:1ω7 and odd, linear and branched, fatty acids) were also found in the surface sediments. Diatoms and benthic bacteria as well as organic matter from the salt marsh were the significant food sources available to the macrozoobenthos on the intertidal flat. The ingestion of these food types by the dominant species of the macrozoobenthos was confirmed by the presence of their respective lipid markers in the animals. The presence of these markers in animals subjected to a starvation experiment confirmed that these food types are really assimilated. The lipid composition of the starved animals indicated that the species studied were able to accumulate the fatty acid 20:5ω3 (considered to be a diatom marker), and that the annelid Nereis diversicolor supported an internal bacterial population.

  16. Relative Importance of Biotic and Abiotic Forces on the Composition and Dynamics of a Soft-Sediment Intertidal Community

    PubMed Central

    Barbeau, Myriam A.

    2016-01-01

    Top-down, bottom-up, middle-out and abiotic factors are usually viewed as main forces structuring biological communities, although assessment of their relative importance, in a single study, is rarely done. We quantified, using multivariate methods, associations between abiotic and biotic (top-down, bottom-up and middle-out) variables and infaunal population/community variation on intertidal mudflats in the Bay of Fundy, Canada, over two years. Our analysis indicated that spatial structural factors like site and plot accounted for most of the community and population variation. Although we observed a significant relationship between the community/populations and the biotic and abiotic variables, most were of minor importance relative to the structural factors. We suggest that community and population structure were relatively uncoupled from the structuring influences of biotic and abiotic factors in this system because of high concentrations of resources that sustain high densities of infauna and limit exploitative competition. Furthermore, we hypothesize that the infaunal community primarily reflects stochastic spatial events, namely a “first come, first served” process. PMID:26790098

  17. An alternative method for the estimation of sedimentation rates using radiometric measurements in an intertidal region (sw of spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ligero, Rufino; Casas-Ruiz, Melquiades; Barrera, Manuel; Barbero, Luis

    2010-05-01

    The techniques for the direct measurement of the sedimentation rate are reliable but slow and imprecise, given that the time intervals of measurement cannot be very long. Consequently it is an extremely laborious task to obtain a representative map of the sedimentation rates and such maps are available for very few zones. However, for most environmental studies, it is very important to know the sedimentation rates. The high degree of accuracy of the gamma spectrometric techniques together with the application of the model describes in this work, has allowed the determination of the sedimentation rates in a wide spatial area such of the Bay of Cadiz to be obtained with precision and consuming considerably less time in comparison to the traditional techniques. Even so, the experimental conditions required for the sample cores are fairly restrictive, and although the radiological method provides a quantitative advance in measurement, the experimental difficulty in the execution of the study is not greatly diminished. For this reason, a second model has been derived based on the measurement of the inventory, which offers economies in time and financial cost, and which allows the sedimentation rate in a region to be determined with satisfactory accuracy. Furthermore, it has been shown that the application of this model requires a precise determination of 137Cs inventories. The sedimentation rates estimated by the 137Cs inventory method ranged from 0.26 cm/year to 1.72 cm/year. The average value of the sedimentation rate obtained is 0.59 cm/year, and this rate has been compared with those resulting from the application of the 210Pb dating technique. A good agreement between the two procedures has been found. From the study carried out, it has been possible for the first time, to draw a map of sedimentation rates for this zone where numerous physical-chemical, oceanographic and ecological studies converge, since it is situated in a region of great environmental interest

  18. Seasonal dynamics of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in surface sediments of a diatom-dominated intertidal mudflat (Marennes-Oléron, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierre, Guillaume; Zhao, Jean-Michel; Orvain, Francis; Dupuy, Christine; Klein, Géraldine L.; Graber, Marianne; Maugard, Thierry

    2014-09-01

    Numerous field-based investigations have highlighted that the production of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) is physico-chemically and ecologically important for intertidal mudflats. EPS are largely secreted by marine benthic diatoms and their quantity and quality are environmental-dependant. This paper focused on the dynamic pathways, concentration rates and monosaccharides composition of colloidal, bound and residual carbohydrates extracted by using a cationic exchange resin from a diatom-dominated intertidal mudflat (Marennes-Oléron, France) during two different sampling periods: winter (February 2008) and summer (July 2008). A wide range of biotic and abiotic parameters were also studied to better understand the effect of environmental parameters, e.g., chlorophyll a, salinity, pore water amount, emersion time, luminosity, C:N ratio and tidal coefficient. Multiple colorimetric assays coupled to gas chromatographic analyses were carried out to perform the biochemical characterizations. Firstly, the quantity of carbohydrates produced during winter (5.28 μg·μg chl a- 1) was more important than during summer (2.04 μg·μg chl a- 1). Yet, more proteins were found during summer for the colloidal and bound fractions (0.73 and 1.04 μg·μg chl a- 1). Further investigations showed that the dynamic pathways were equivalent between winter and summer: bound carbohydrates (BC) quantities increased during the sediment emersion periods on the contrary to colloidal carbohydrates (CC) which tended to drop throughout the emersion time. The quality in monosaccharides was fraction-dependant, whatever the season. CC were always glucose-rich confirming their role of carbon source. BC were mainly composed of rhamnose whose the ratio increased during the emersion period, thus conferring adhesive properties to the extracellular matrix bounding diatoms cells. Residual carbohydrates (RC) were composed of various monosaccharides and a major increase of glucose content was

  19. Annual and seasonal temperature variance along an inter-tidal sediment transect in Yaquina bay, Oregon, 1999 - 2006

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment temperature was measured using submersible Onset TidbiT® recording thermistor thermometers at eelgrass (Zostera marina, Z. japonica) mid-rhizome root depth (~5 cm) at 6 stations on a transect from ~MLLW (mean lower low water) at the channel edge to near MHHW (mean higher...

  20. Arsenic chemistry in soils and sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Fendorf, S.; Nico, P.; Kocar, B.D.; Masue, Y.; Tufano, K.J.

    2009-10-15

    Arsenic is a naturally occurring trace element that poses a threat to human and ecosystem health, particularly when incorporated into food or water supplies. The greatest risk imposed by arsenic to human health results from contamination of drinking water, for which the World Health Organization recommends a maximum limit of 10 {micro}g L{sup -1}. Continued ingestion of drinking water having hazardous levels of arsenic can lead to arsenicosis and cancers of the bladder, skin, lungs and kidneys. Unfortunately, arsenic tainted drinking waters are a global threat and presently having a devastating impact on human health within Asia. Nearly 100 million people, for example, are presently consuming drinking water having arsenic concentrations exceeding the World Health Organization's recommended limit (Ahmed et al., 2006). Arsenic contamination of the environment often results from human activities such as mining or pesticide application, but recently natural sources of arsenic have demonstrated a devastating impact on water quality. Arsenic becomes problematic from a health perspective principally when it partitions into the aqueous rather than the solid phase. Dissolved concentrations, and the resulting mobility, of arsenic within soils and sediments are the combined result of biogeochemical processes linked to hydrologic factors. Processes favoring the partitioning of As into the aqueous phase, potentially leading to hazardous concentrations, vary extensively but can broadly be grouped into four categories: (1) ion displacement, (2) desorption (or limited sorption) at pH values > 8.5, (3) reduction of arsenate to arsenite, and (4) mineral dissolution, particularly reductive dissolution of Fe and Mn (hydr)oxides. Although various processes may liberate arsenic from solids, a transition from aerobic to anaerobic conditions, and commensurate arsenic and iron/manganese reduction, appears to be a dominant, but not exclusive, means by which high concentrations of dissolved

  1. How Soil Roughness Affects Runoff and Sediment Production?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of soil surface roughness on runoff and sediment production have not been clearly quantified, mostly due to the lack of a logical separation between geometric (i.e., surface microtopography) and process (i.e., runoff generation, soil detachment by raindrop and runoff) scales. In this resea...

  2. Retention and Migration of Chlorpyrifos in Aquatic Sediments and Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebremariam, S. Y.; Beutel, M.; Yonge, D.; Flury, M.; Harsh, J. B.

    2010-12-01

    The accurate description of the fate and transport of potentially toxic agricultural pesticides in sediments and soils is of great interest to environmental scientists and regulators. Of particular concern is the widely documented detection of agricultural pesticides and their byproducts in drinking water wells. This presentation discusses results of a study of the fate and transport of chlorpyrifos, a strongly hydrophobic organophosphate-pesticide, in sediments and soils collected from a range of aquatic environments. Using radio-labeled chlorpyrifos, this study is unique in its comprehensive nature and focus on aquatic sediments, for which studies involving pesticide fate and transport are limited. Study components include: (1) batch equilibrium experiments to evaluate sorption/desorption parameters; (2) kinetic and non-equilibrium sorption experiments using miniaturized flow-cells; (3) column experiments to understand patterns of pesticide break through; and (4) numerical modeling of chlorpyrifos transport through aquatic sediments and soils. Initial results show that chlorpyrifos sorption, when corrected for reversible sorption to container walls, exhibited two component sorption, a large irreversible fraction and a smaller reversible fraction that can act as a secondary source. In addition, of a wide range of soil parameters measured, organic carbon content exhibited the highest correlation with chlorpyrifos retention in cranberry field soils. Simulation models developed in this study, which account for hysteretic and nonlinear sorption, will help to better predict the fate of chlorpyrifos and other hydrophobic chemicals in sediments and soils.

  3. Dissimilatory nitrogen reduction in intertidal sediments of a temperate estuary: small scale heterogeneity and novel nitrate-to-ammonium reducers

    PubMed Central

    Decleyre, Helen; Heylen, Kim; Van Colen, Carl; Willems, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The estuarine nitrogen cycle can be substantially altered due to anthropogenic activities resulting in increased amounts of inorganic nitrogen (mainly nitrate). In the past, denitrification was considered to be the main ecosystem process removing reactive nitrogen from the estuarine ecosystem. However, recent reports on the contribution of dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) to nitrogen removal in these systems indicated a similar or higher importance, although the ratio between both processes remains ambiguous. Compared to denitrification, DNRA has been underexplored for the last decades and the key organisms carrying out the process in marine environments are largely unknown. Hence, as a first step to better understand the interplay between denitrification, DNRA and reduction of nitrate to nitrite in estuarine sediments, nitrogen reduction potentials were determined in sediments of the Paulina polder mudflat (Westerschelde estuary). We observed high variability in dominant nitrogen removing processes over a short distance (1.6 m), with nitrous oxide, ammonium and nitrite production rates differing significantly between all sampling sites. Denitrification occurred at all sites, DNRA was either the dominant process (two out of five sites) or absent, while nitrate reduction to nitrite was observed in most sites but never dominant. In addition, novel nitrate-to-ammonium reducers assigned to Thalassospira, Celeribacter, and Halomonas, for which DNRA was thus far unreported, were isolated, with DNRA phenotype reconfirmed through nrfA gene amplification. This study demonstrates high small scale heterogeneity among dissimilatory nitrate reduction processes in estuarine sediments and provides novel marine DNRA organisms that represent valuable alternatives to the current model organisms. PMID:26528270

  4. Dissimilatory nitrogen reduction in intertidal sediments of a temperate estuary: small scale heterogeneity and novel nitrate-to-ammonium reducers.

    PubMed

    Decleyre, Helen; Heylen, Kim; Van Colen, Carl; Willems, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The estuarine nitrogen cycle can be substantially altered due to anthropogenic activities resulting in increased amounts of inorganic nitrogen (mainly nitrate). In the past, denitrification was considered to be the main ecosystem process removing reactive nitrogen from the estuarine ecosystem. However, recent reports on the contribution of dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) to nitrogen removal in these systems indicated a similar or higher importance, although the ratio between both processes remains ambiguous. Compared to denitrification, DNRA has been underexplored for the last decades and the key organisms carrying out the process in marine environments are largely unknown. Hence, as a first step to better understand the interplay between denitrification, DNRA and reduction of nitrate to nitrite in estuarine sediments, nitrogen reduction potentials were determined in sediments of the Paulina polder mudflat (Westerschelde estuary). We observed high variability in dominant nitrogen removing processes over a short distance (1.6 m), with nitrous oxide, ammonium and nitrite production rates differing significantly between all sampling sites. Denitrification occurred at all sites, DNRA was either the dominant process (two out of five sites) or absent, while nitrate reduction to nitrite was observed in most sites but never dominant. In addition, novel nitrate-to-ammonium reducers assigned to Thalassospira, Celeribacter, and Halomonas, for which DNRA was thus far unreported, were isolated, with DNRA phenotype reconfirmed through nrfA gene amplification. This study demonstrates high small scale heterogeneity among dissimilatory nitrate reduction processes in estuarine sediments and provides novel marine DNRA organisms that represent valuable alternatives to the current model organisms. PMID:26528270

  5. Trace metal content in sediments and autochthonous intertidal organisms from two adjacent bays near Ushuaia, Beagle Channel (Argentina).

    PubMed

    Duarte, Claudia Alejandra; Giarratano, Erica; Gil, Mónica N

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this work was to monitor levels of Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn and Fe in sediments, mussels (Mytilus edulis chilensis) and limpets (Nacella magellanica) from the Industrial zone (IZ); fuel dock (FD) and Ushuaia Peninsula (UP) on the Beagle Channel. In sediments, seasonal variations showed high values of Cu and Pb in spring and Zn in autumn. Comparing among sites, Cd concentration was superior in UP (2.07 μg/g); while Pb was maximum in FD (41.00 μg/g). In mussels, a higher bioaccumulation in winter was found. Mussels from UP showed the highest bioaccumulation of Cu (5.95 μg/g) and those from FD presented the highest of Zn (170.15 μg/g). A seasonal trend was not found for limpets, while differences among sites were observed for Cd being the highest at IZ (3.02 μg/g). Although pollution level found was low, anthropic activities at the studied sites could result in deterioration, further monitoring is recommended. PMID:22681905

  6. Four new species of Epacanthion Wieser, 1953 (Nematoda: Thoracostomopsidae) in intertidal sediments of the Nanji Islands from the East China Sea.

    PubMed

    Shi, Benze; Xu, Kuidong

    2016-01-01

    Four new species of Epacanthion are described from intertidal sandy sediments in the Nanji Islands National Marine Natural Reserve from the East China Sea. Males of all four new species have short spicules (< 2 anal body diameter) and a characteristic cervical circle of distinctly short and densely arranged setae at the pharyngeal region: Epacanthion hirsutum sp. nov. with a cervical circle of a single row of setae posterior to the nerve ring; E. longicaudatum sp. nov. with a cervical circle of 16 bundles each composed of six setae in two longitudinal rows posterior to the nerve ring; E. fasciculatum sp. nov. with a cervical circle of 18 bundles each composed of about 10 setae posterior to the nerve ring; and E. sparsisetae sp. nov. with a cervical circle of eight bundles each composed of about 10 setae anterior to the nerve ring. Among the known species of Epacanthion, only two species possess these features: E. quadridisci and E. gorgonocephalum. Epacanthion quadridiscus has six bundles of setae situated at the same level of the nerve ring, while E. gorgonocephalum has distinctly dense setae forming a wide band at the pharyngeal region. Epacanthion hirsutum sp. nov. differs from all congeners by the cervical circle composed of a single row of setae. Epacanthion sparsisetae sp. nov. is unique in having the cervical circle of bundles anterior to the nerve ring. Epacanthion longicaudatum sp. nov. differs from E. fasciculatum sp. nov. by the body size and the structure of the cervical circle. An updated diagnostic key to 28 valid species of Epacanthion is proposed. PMID:27394319

  7. Consequences of diatom mat erosion for carbohydrate concentrations and heterotrophic bacterial activities in intertidal sediments of the Ems-Dollard estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Duyl, Fleur C.; Winder, Ben de; Kop, Arjen J.; Wollenzien, Ute

    2000-07-01

    Patches with a diatom mat were compared with adjacent eroded patches on an intertidal flat in the Ems-Dollard estuary. Distinction between patches was made on the basis of chlorophyll- a (chl- a) concentration and relief. Short-term variations and depth distribution were investigated for carbohydrates (water-soluble and water-insoluble carbohydrates), β-glucosidase activity and heterotrophic bacterial production and abundance. The major differences between mat patches and eroded patches were confined to the upper 6 mm. From 6 to 20 mm depth variables in mat patches and eroded patches were roughly comparable, with the exception of the bacterial abundance and β-glucosidase activity. Distinct increases in carbohydrates, bacterial production and abundance during tidal flat exposure were most pronounced in the mat surface layer, but were still detectable in the eroded patches for the different carbohydrate fractions. Concentrations of water-soluble carbohydrates were substantially higher in mats than in eroded patches. This concurred with a much higher bacterial production and abundance in mats than in eroded patches. The β-glucosidase activity in the mat surface was low compared to this activity in eroded patches. In diatom mats, β-glucosidase showed highest activities between 6 and 12 mm, while in eroded patches this maximum occurred at 0-2 mm. Patterns suggest inhibition of the β-glucosidase activity at high concentrations of water-soluble carbohydrate concentrations and a release of inhibition with declining carbohydrate concentrations. Interestingly, concentrations of water-insoluble carbohydrates (EDTA-extracted carbohydrates) did neither clearly differ between mat patches and eroded patches, nor changed substantially with depth. The observation that water-insoluble carbohydrate-to-chl- a ratios were higher outside the mat layer than in the mat, which has a larger stability than eroded patches, indicates that it is a poor index for sediment erodibility. The

  8. Soils as Sediment database: closing a gap between soil science and geomorphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, Nikolaus J.

    2016-04-01

    Soils are an interface between the Earth's spheres and shaped by the nature of the interaction between them. The relevance of soil properties for the nature of the interaction between atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere is well-studied and accepted, on point- or ecotone-scale. However, this understanding of the largely vertical connections between spheres is not matched by a similar recognition of soil properties affecting processes acting largely in a lateral way across the land surface, such as erosion, transport and deposition of soil. Key areas where such an understanding is essential are all issues related to the lateral movement of soil-bound substances that affect the nature of soils itself, as well as water or vegetation downslope from the source area. The redistribution of eroded soil falls several disciplines, most notably soil science, agronomy, hydrology and geomorphology. Accordingly, the way sediment is described differs: in soil science, aggregation and structure are essential properties, while most process-based soil erosion models treat soil as a mixture of individual mineral grains, based on concepts derived in fluvial geomorphology or civil engineering. The actual behavior of aggregated sediment is not reflected by either approach and difficult to capture due to the dynamic nature of aggregation, especially in an environment such as running water. Still, a proxy to assess the uncertainties introduced by aggregation on the behavior of soil as sediment would represent a step forward. To develop such a proxy, a database collating relevant soil and sediment properties could serve as an initial step to identify which soil types and erosion scenarios are prone to generate a high uncertainty compared to the use of soil texture in erosion models. Furthermore, it could serve to develop standardized analytical procedures for appropriate description of soil as sediment.

  9. Importance of intertidal sediment processes and porewater exchange on the water column biogeochemistry in a pristine mangrove creek (Ras Dege, Tanzania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouillon, S.; Middelburg, J. J.; Dehairs, F.; Borges, A. V.; Abril, G.; Flindt, M. R.; Ulomi, S.; Kristensen, E.

    2007-06-01

    We sampled a tidal creek (Ras Dege, Tanzania) during a 24-h cycle to document the variations in a suite of creek water column characteristics and to determine the relative influence of tidal and biological driving forces. Since the creek has no upstream freshwater inputs, highest salinity was observed at low tide, due to evaporation effects and porewater seepage. Total suspended matter (TSM) and particulate organic carbon (POC) showed distinct maxima at periods of highest water flow, indicating that erosion of surface sediments and/or resuspension of bottom sediments were an important source of particulate material. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC), in contrast, varied in phase with water height and was highest at low tide. Stable isotope data of POC and DOC displayed large variations in both pools, and similarly followed the variations in water height. Although the variation of δ13CDOC (-23.8 to -13.8‰) was higher than that of δ13CPOC (-26.2 to -20.5‰), due to the different end-member pool sizes, the δ13C signatures of both pools differed only slightly at low tide, but up to 9‰ at high tide. Thus, at low tide both DOC and POC originated from mangrove production. At high tide, however, the DOC pool had signatures consistent with a high contribution of seagrass-derived material, whereas the POC pool was dominated by marine phytoplankton. Daily variations in CH4, and partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) were similarly governed by tidal influence and were up to 7- and 10-fold higher at low tide, which stresses the importance of exchange of porewater and diffusive fluxes to the water column. When assuming that the high dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) levels in the upper parts of the creek (i.e. at low tide) are due to inputs from mineralization, δ13C data on DIC indicate that the organic matter source for mineralization had a signature of -22.4‰. Hence, imported POC and DOC from the marine environment contributes strongly to overall mineralization within the

  10. In situ measurements of erosion shear stress and geotechnical shear strength of the intertidal sediments of the experimental managed realignment scheme at Tollesbury, Essex, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watts, C. W.; Tolhurst, T. J.; Black, K. S.; Whitmore, A. P.

    2003-11-01

    Managed realignment is one of several 'soft' engineering options which may reduce the costs of coastal defence, provide a more 'natural' response to the problem of rising sea levels and at the same time deliver environmental, specifically nature conservation, benefits. The success of this technique depends on the ability of the soils and sediments within the site to resist the erosive action of waves and tidal currents and allow sediment accretion to occur, at least at a rate equal to mean sea-level rise. Once a critical shear stress, τ0 crt exerted by the moving fluids over the bed, is exceeded erosion will occur. A cohesive strength meter (CSM) and the fall-cone method were used to gather data, in situ on the strength and stability of sediments from an experimental managed realignment site and an adjacent, established saltmarsh in south-east England. Following six years of regular tidal cover, the underlying agricultural soil appeared both very strong (mean surface shear strength, τ f=228 kPa) and highly resistant to erosion ( τ 0 crt=6.23 N m -2). During this period much of the site had been covered by sediment, and saltmarsh plants ( Salicornia europaea) had become established above the mean high water neap tide (MHWN) level. Above MHWN level (tidal cover time <15%) sediments had greater bulk densities and lower water contents which resulted in a moderate shear strength (τ f=11.6 kPa) and resistance to erosion (τ 0 crt=2.45 N m -2) . Below MHWN, where sediment accretion rates were greatest, poor consolidation resulted in very high water contents and low bulk densities. These areas were at the highest potential risk of erosion (τ 0 crt=1.5 N m -2) and had very low shear strengths (τ f=0.33 kPa) . Where sediment exceeded 25 cm depth, gullies formed allowing their banks and adjacent margins to drain faster than the surrounding sediment. This led to a significant increase in bed strength (τ f=10.8 kPa) and stability (τ 0 crt=4.3 N m -2) . These gullies

  11. Morphodynamic evolution of an intertidal mudflat under the influence of Amazon sediment supply - Kourou mud bank, French Guiana, South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gensac, Erwan; Gardel, Antoine; Lesourd, Sandric; Brutier, Laurent

    2015-06-01

    The coastal environment between the Amazon and the Orinoco Rivers is characterised by the migration of large mud banks formed by accretion of the muddy discharge from the Amazon. The migration of mud in the shallow coastal waters is associated with the creation of mudflats that form a surface for the development of coastal mangroves after consolidation. This study focuses on the fine-scale sedimentary processes involved in the morphodynamic evolution of a consolidated mudflat and its erosion. Mudflats can be divided into two areas: the seafront and the inner part between the seafront and the land. This study highlights a link between tidal mud supply, biofilm migration and increasing elevation in the latter area. The migration of a biofilm through each cycle of tidal supply prevents erosion and permits the continuous accretion of the entire mudflat over several years. This increase in topography is also modulated by fortnightly tidal cycles. Desiccation greatly impacts the mudflat's structure at a yearly scale. This process plays an important role in the erosion of the seafront area under wave action by allowing the formation of mud pebbles, which are progressively abraded into fluid mud supplied to the inner part of the mudflat by over-wash processes. This study provides a better understanding of the behaviour of mudflats on the wave-exposed coast downdrift of the mouth of the Amazon by describing: (1) the processes involved in sediment exchanges between mudflats and mud banks, (2) the mechanisms associated with the persistence of mudflats along the French Guiana coast downdrift of the mouth of the Amazon, and (3) the processes involved in the erosion and recycling of these mudflats.

  12. Linking soil and sediment properties for research on biogeochemical cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, Nikolaus J.

    2013-04-01

    Conventional perspectives on soil erosion include the on-site damage to soil and reductions in crop yield, as well as the resulting off-site effects on water quality, runoff and sediment loads in rivers. Our evolving understanding of the Earth System has added a new dimension to the role of soil erosion within the global geochemical cycles. First, the relevance of soil as a nutrient and Carbon (C) pool was recognized. Initially, the role of soils in the global C cycle was largely considered to be limited to a vertical exchange of greenhouse house gases (GHG) between vegetation, soil and atmosphere and thus mostly studied by soil scientists, plant ecologists and climatologists. Even Critical Zone research focused mostly on weathering and regolith properties and ignored lateral fluxes of dissolved or particulate organic matter. Since the late 1990s, a wider role of soils in biogeochemical cycles has emerged. Recent estimates place the lateral movement of C between soil and sediment pools in terrestrial ecosystems (including rivers and lakes) at approximately 0.6 to 1.5 Gt per year. Some of the eroded C is replaced by photosynthesis from the atmosphere, but at a cost of additional emissions, for example due to fertilizer production. The long-term fate of the eroded and deposited soil organic matter is subject to an open debate and suffers from a lack of reliable spatial information on lateral C fluxes and its subsequent fate in terrestrial ecosystems. The connection between soil C pool, GHG emissions and erosion illustrates the relevance of surface processes for the C fluxes between Earth's spheres. Accordingly, soil is now considered as mobile system to make accurate predictions about the consequences of global change for terrestrial biogeochemical cycles and climate feedbacks. This expanded perspective on soils as dynamic pool of weathering regolith, sediment, nutrients and C at the interface between the geospheres requires the analysis of relevant soil properties

  13. Linking Soil and Sediment Properties for research on Biogeochemical Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, N. J.

    2012-04-01

    Conventional perspectives on soil erosion include the on-site damage to soil and reductions in crop yield, as well as the resulting off-site effects on water quality, runoff and sediment loads in rivers. Our evolving understanding of the Earth System has added a new dimension to the role of soil erosion within the global geochemical cycles. First, the relevance of soil as a nutrient and Carbon (C) pool was recognized. Initially, the role of soils in the global C cycle was largely considered to be limited to a vertical exchange of greenhouse house gases (GHG) between vegetation, soil and atmosphere and thus mostly studied by soil scientists, plant ecologists and climatologists. Even Critical Zone research focused mostly on weathering and regolith properties and ignored lateral fluxes of dissolved or particulate organic matter. Since the late 1990s, a wider role of soils in biogeochemical cycles has emerged. Recent estimates place the lateral movement of C between soil and sediment pools in terrestrial ecosystems (including rivers and lakes) at approximately 0.6 to 1.5 Gt per year. Some of the eroded C is replaced by photosynthesis from the atmosphere, but at a cost of additional emissions, for example due to fertilizer production. The long-term fate of the eroded and deposited soil organic matter is subject to an open debate and suffers from a lack of reliable spatial information on lateral C fluxes and its subsequent fate in terrestrial ecosystems. The connection between soil C pool, GHG emissions and erosion illustrates the relevance of surface processes for the C fluxes between Earth's spheres. Accordingly, soil is now considered as mobile system to make accurate predictions about the consequences of global change for terrestrial biogeochemical cycles and climate feedbacks. This expanded perspective on soils as dynamic pool of weathering regolith, sediment, nutrients and C at the interface between the geospheres requires the analysis of relevant soil properties

  14. DERMAL ABSORPTION OF CONTAMINANTS FROM SEDIMENTS/SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mechanisms by which contaminants are released from sediments/soils and absorbed into the skin are poorly understood. The project will first conduct invitro experiments to study the effects of particle layering and chemical saturation. Secondly, mechanistic models will be de...

  15. Authigenic pyrite formation and re-oxidation as an indicator of an unsteady-state redox sedimentary environment: Evidence from the intertidal mangrove sediments of Hainan Island, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Hai; Yao, Suping; Chen, Jun

    2014-04-01

    Two cores of intertidal mangrove sediments from the Tanmen and Qinglan Harbors on Hainan Island, China, were investigated for their geochemical characteristics of carbon, nitrogen, iron and sulfur and the pyrite morphology and framboidal pyrite size distribution. A modified sequential iron extraction procedure revealed extremely high FeHR/FeT ratios (0.81±0.07, n=28). The pyrite results determined by the nitric acid digestion and chromium reduction method show a strong correlation (r=0.91, n=28), indicating that most of the chromium-reducible sulfur is pyrite, whereas the proportion of elemental sulfur is minor. The organic carbon concentrations and the atomic C/N ratios demonstrate that the organic carbon in the mangrove sediments is derived predominantly from higher plants. The chromium-reducible sulfur (CRS) values show a good linear logarithmic correlation with the total organic carbon (TOC), indicating that the process of sulfate reduction increases rapidly with the concentration of TOC at Qinglan Harbor (QL), which has low TOC contents (<5 wt%). In contrast, sulfate reduction increases slowly with high TOC (>5 wt%) at Tanmen Harbor (TM). These data suggest that pyrite formation at the QL site is controlled by the TOC contents, whereas at the TM site, the primary factor controlling the pyritization process is the supply rate of sulfate. Both sites have significantly high sulfate contents (average 1.67±0.45 wt% and 0.80±0.32 wt% at Tanmen and Qinglan, respectively), which are isotopically depleted in 34S (average -6.15±7.17‰ and -6.72±7.33‰ at Tanmen and Qinglan, respectively) suggesting that the sulfate is mainly from the reoxidation of reduced sulfides (mainly pyrite) instead of seawater sulfate during burial. The distributions of pyrite textures suggest that the pyrite in the mangrove swamps is formed mainly as framboids and only a few pyrite crystals are formed directly as euhedral crystals. The high mean diameters and standard deviations (7.0±4

  16. Can control of soil erosion mitigate water pollution by sediments?

    PubMed

    Rickson, R J

    2014-01-15

    The detrimental impact of sediment and associated pollutants on water quality is widely acknowledged, with many watercourses in the UK failing to meet the standard of 'good ecological status'. Catchment sediment budgets show that hill slope erosion processes can be significant sources of waterborne sediment, with rates of erosion likely to increase given predicted future weather patterns. However, linking on-site erosion rates with off-site impacts is complicated because of the limited data on soil erosion rates in the UK and the dynamic nature of the source-pathway-receptor continuum over space and time. Even so, soil erosion control measures are designed to reduce sediment production (source) and mobilisation/transport (pathway) on hill slopes, with consequent mitigation of pollution incidents in watercourses (receptors). The purpose of this paper is to review the scientific evidence of the effectiveness of erosion control measures used in the UK to reduce sediment loads of hill slope origin in watercourses. Although over 73 soil erosion mitigation measures have been identified from the literature, empirical data on erosion control effectiveness are limited. Baseline comparisons for the 18 measures where data do exist reveal erosion control effectiveness is highly variable over time and between study locations. Given the limitations of the evidence base in terms of geographical coverage and duration of monitoring, performance of the different measures cannot be extrapolated to other areas. This uncertainty in effectiveness has implications for implementing erosion/sediment risk reduction policies, where quantified targets are stipulated, as is the case in the EU Freshwater Fish and draft Soil Framework Directives. Also, demonstrating technical effectiveness of erosion control measures alone will not encourage uptake by land managers: quantifying the costs and benefits of adopting erosion mitigation is equally important, but these are uncertain and difficult to

  17. Searsville Sediment Experiment: What is the ideal agricultural soil?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leal, J.; Lo, D.; Patel, N.; Gu, S.

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this experiment is to decide whether or not the sediment located within Searsville Dam at the Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve is well suited for agricultural soil. By utilizing various combinations of sediment, farm soil, compost, and horse manure to grow basil plants, we underwent an exploratory study in order to better understand what type of materials and nutrients plants can best thrive within. Our general experiment protocol includes watering the crops with irrigation every day while young, and then limiting that water exposure to only Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays as they become more established. The basil is growing in pots filled with the different amounts of material, and are arranged randomly to prevent certain plants from getting more sunlight than others. The whole experiment plot is covered with a thin white fabric and secured with bricks and wood to keep out pests in the garden. In order to observe trends in the basil development, plant height and leaf number is recorded once every week. During the third week of the study we performed soil texture tests, and within the fourth week we calculated pH data. We discovered that the sediment our project focuses upon is 10-18% clay and 50% sand which categorizes it as loam, and the Stanford farm soil that serves as our control group contains 20-26% clay and 30% sand so it is a silt loam material. The pH tests also showed an average of 7.45 for sediment, 7.3 for farm soil, 7.85 for compost, and 7.65 for horse manure. By looking at all of the data recorded over the five-week time period, we have so far noticed that the 50% sediment and 50% horse manure combination consistently has the best height increase as well as leaf size and content. The 50% sediment and 50% compost mixture has also performed well in those terms, and is therefore a possibility for the best agricultural soil. However, future lab work conducted by Stanford students to examine the nutrient content of the basil tissue, along

  18. Adsorption and desorption of chlorpyrifos to soils and sediments.

    PubMed

    Gebremariam, Seyoum Yami; Beutel, Marc W; Yonge, David R; Flury, Markus; Harsh, James B

    2012-01-01

    Chlorpyrifos, one of the most widely used insecticides, has been detected in air, rain, marine sediments, surface waters, drinking water wells, and solid and liquid dietary samples collected from urban and rural areas. Its metabolite, TCP, has also been widely detected in urinary samples collected from people of various age groups. With a goal of elucidating the factors that control the environmental contamination, impact, persistence, and ecotoxicity of chlorpyrifos, we examine, in this review, the peer-reviewed literature relating to chlorpyrifos adsorption and desorption behavior in various solid-phase matrices. Adsorption tends to reduce chlorpyrifos mobility, but adsorption to erodible particulates, dissolved organic matter, or mobile inorganic colloids enhances its mobility. Adsorption to suspended sediments and particulates constitutes a major off-site migration route for chlorpyrifos to surface waters, wherein it poses a potential danger to aquatic organisms. Adsorption increases the persistence of chlorpyrifos in the environment by reducing its avail- ability to a wide range of dissipative and degradative forces, whereas the effect of adsorption on its ecotoxicity is dependent upon the route of exposure. Chlorpyrifos adsorbs to soils, aquatic sediments, organic matter, and clay minerals to differing degrees. Its adsorption strongly correlates with organic carbon con- tent of the soils and sediments. A comprehensive review of studies that relied on the batch equilibrium technique yields mean and median Kd values for chlorpyrifos of 271 and 116 L/kg for soils, and 385 and 403 L/kg for aquatic sediments. Chlorpyrifos adsorption coefficients spanned two orders of magnitude in soils. Normalizing the partition coefficient to organic content failed to substantially reduce variability to commonly acceptable level of variation. Mean and median values for chlorpyrifos partition coefficients normalized to organic carbon, K, were 8,163 and 7,227 L/kg for soils and 13

  19. Importance of intertidal sediment processes and porewater exchange on the water column biogeochemistry in a pristine mangrove creek (Ras Dege, Tanzania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouillon, S.; Middelburg, J. J.; Dehairs, F.; Borges, A. V.; Abril, G.; Flindt, M. R.; Ulomi, S.; Kristensen, E.

    2007-01-01

    We conducted diurnal sampling in a tidal creek (Ras Dege, Tanzania) to document the variations in a suite of creek water column characteristics and to determine the relative influence of tidal and biological driving forces. Since the creek has no upstream freshwater inputs, highest salinity was observed at low tide, due to evaporation effects and porewater seepage. Total suspended matter (TSM) and particulate organic carbon (POC) showed distinct maxima at periods of highest water flow, indicating that erosion of surface sediments and/or resuspension of bottom sediments were an important source of particulate material. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC), in contrast, followed the tidal variations and was highest at low tide. Stable isotope data of POC and DOC exhibit large variations in both pools, and followed tidal variations. Although the variation of δ13CDOC (-23.8 to -13.8‰) was higher than that of δ13CPOC (-26.2 to -20.5‰) due to the different end-member pool sizes, the δ13C signatures of both pools differed only slightly at low tide, but up to 9‰ at high tide. Thus, at low tide both DOC and POC originated from mangrove production. At high tide, on the other hand, the DOC pool had signatures consistent with a high contribution of seagrass-derived material, whereas the POC pool was dominated by marine phytoplankton. Daily variations in CH4, and partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) were similarly governed by tidal influence and were up to 7- and 10-fold higher at low tide, which stresses the importance of exchange of porewater and diffusive fluxes to the water column. Furthermore, this illustrates that constraining an ecosystem-level budget of these greenhouse gases in tidal systems requires a careful appraisal of tidal variations. When assuming that the high dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) levels in the upper parts of the creek (i.e. at low tide) are due to inputs from mineralization, δ13C data on DIC indicate that the source of the mineralized organic matter

  20. Nitrogen release from forest soils containing sulfide-bearing sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maileena Nieminen, Tiina; Merilä, Päivi; Ukonmaanaho, Liisa

    2014-05-01

    Soils containing sediments dominated by metal sulfides cause high acidity and release of heavy metals, when excavated or drained, as the aeration of these sediments causes formation of sulfuric acid. Consequent leaching of acidity and heavy metals can kill tree seedlings and animals such as fish, contaminate water, and corrode concrete and steel. These types of soils are called acid sulfate soils. Their metamorphic equivalents, such as sulfide rich black shales, pose a very similar risk of acidity and metal release to the environment. Until today the main focus in treatment of the acid sulfate soils has been to prevent acidification and metal toxicity to agricultural crop plants, and only limited attention has been paid to the environmental threat caused by the release of acidity and heavy metals to the surrounding water courses. Even less attention is paid on release of major nutrients, such as nitrogen, although these sediments are extremely rich in carbon and nitrogen and present a potentially high microbiological activity. In Europe, the largest cover of acid sulfate soils is found in coastal lowlands of Finland. Estimates of acid sulfate soils in agricultural use range from 1 300 to 3 000 km2, but the area in other land use classes, such as managed peatland forests, is presumably larger. In Finland, 49 500 km2 of peatlands have been drained for forestry, and most of these peatland forests will be at the regeneration stage within 10 to 30 years. As ditch network maintenance is often a prerequisite for a successful establishment of the following tree generation, the effects of maintenance operations on the quality of drainage water should be under special control in peatlands underlain by sulfide-bearing sediments. Therefore, identification of risk areas and effective prevention of acidity and metal release during drain maintenance related soil excavating are great challenges for forestry on coastal lowlands of Finland. The organic and inorganic nitrogen

  1. Estimating soil organic carbon input to marine sediments (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weijers, J.; Schouten, S.; Schefuss, E.; Schneider, R. R.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.

    2009-12-01

    Estimating (past) input of terrestrial organic carbon (OC) in marine sediments is complicated due to the heterogeneity of the OC. Two end member mixing models based on different parameters often give different results. This is in part due to the fact that terrestrial OC is only represented by one end member (often representing plant OC) where it in fact consists of two OC pools, i.e., plant and soil OC. The branched vs. isoprenoid tetraether (BIT) index is a new proxy for soil OC input, with the branched tetraether membrane lipids being derived from bacteria living in soils and peat bogs [1]. We have now applied this molecular proxy in a three end member mixing model, in conjunction with d13C and C/N values of total organic matter, in a marine sediment core from the Congo deep sea fan to estimate inputs of marine, soil and plant OC to this location over the last deglaciation. Results indicate an average of 45% of the OC being of soil origin, pointing to the importance of soil OC and the need for proper characterization of this fraction. [1] Hopmans et al. (2004) EPSL 224, 107-116. Figure 1: Composition of the organic carbon input to the Congo deep sea fan over the last 20 thousand years. YD = Younger Dryas; LGM = Last Glacial Maximum

  2. Contaminant bioavailability in soils, sediments, and aquatic environments

    PubMed Central

    Traina, Samuel J.; Laperche, Valérie

    1999-01-01

    The aqueous concentrations of heavy metals in soils, sediments, and aquatic environments frequently are controlled by the dissolution and precipitation of discrete mineral phases. Contaminant uptake by organisms as well as contaminant transport in natural systems typically occurs through the solution phase. Thus, the thermodynamic solubility of contaminant-containing minerals in these environments can directly influence the chemical reactivity, transport, and ecotoxicity of their constituent ions. In many cases, Pb-contaminated soils and sediments contain the minerals anglesite (PbSO4), cerussite (PbCO3), and various lead oxides (e.g., litharge, PbO) as well as Pb2+ adsorbed to Fe and Mn (hydr)oxides. Whereas adsorbed Pb can be comparatively inert, the lead oxides, sulfates, and carbonates are all highly soluble in acidic to circumneutral environments, and soil Pb in these forms can pose a significant environmental risk. In contrast, the lead phosphates [e.g., pyromorphite, Pb5(PO4)3Cl] are much less soluble and geochemically stable over a wide pH range. Application of soluble or solid-phase phosphates (i.e., apatites) to contaminated soils and sediments induces the dissolution of the “native” Pb minerals, the desorption of Pb adsorbed by hydrous metal oxides, and the subsequent formation of pyromorphites in situ. This process results in decreases in the chemical lability and bioavailability of the Pb without its removal from the contaminated media. This and analogous approaches may be useful strategies for remediating contaminated soils and sediments. PMID:10097045

  3. A regional soil and sediment geochemical study in northern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldhaber, M.B.; Morrison, J.M.; Holloway, J.M.; Wanty, R.B.; Helsel, D.R.; Smith, D.B.

    2009-01-01

    Regional-scale variations in soil geochemistry were investigated in a 20,000-km2 study area in northern California that includes the western slope of the Sierra Nevada, the southern Sacramento Valley and the northern Coast Ranges. Over 1300 archival soil samples collected from the late 1970s to 1980 in El Dorado, Placer, Sutter, Sacramento, Yolo and Solano counties were analyzed for 42 elements by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry following a near-total dissolution. These data were supplemented by analysis of more than 500 stream-sediment samples from higher elevations in the Sierra Nevada from the same study site. The relatively high-density data (1 sample per 15 km2 for much of the study area) allows the delineation of regional geochemical patterns and the identification of processes that produced these patterns. The geochemical results segregate broadly into distinct element groupings whose distribution reflects the interplay of geologic, hydrologic, geomorphic and anthropogenic factors. One such group includes elements associated with mafic and ultramafic rocks including Cr, Ni, V, Co, Cu and Mg. Using Cr as an example, elevated concentrations occur in soils overlying ultramafic rocks in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada (median Cr = 160 mg/kg) as well as in the northern Coast Ranges. Low concentrations of these elements occur in soils located further upslope in the Sierra Nevada overlying Tertiary volcanic, metasedimentary and plutonic rocks (granodiorite and diorite). Eastern Sacramento Valley soil samples, defined as those located east of the Sacramento River, are lower in Cr (median Cr = 84 mg/kg), and are systematically lower in this suite compared to soils from the west side of the Sacramento Valley (median Cr = 130 mg/kg). A second group of elements showing a coherent pattern, including Ca, K, Sr and REE, is derived from relatively silicic rocks types. This group occurs at elevated

  4. COPING WITH CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS AND SOILS IN THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT.

    SciTech Connect

    JONES,K.W.; VAN DER LELIE,D.; MCGUIGAN,M.; ET AL.

    2004-05-25

    Soils and sediments contaminated with toxic organic and inorganic compounds harmful to the environment and to human health are common in the urban environment. We report here on aspects of a program being carried out in the New York/New Jersey Port region to develop methods for processing dredged material from the Port to make products that are safe for introduction to commercial markets. We discuss some of the results of the program in Computational Environmental Science, Laboratory Environmental Science, and Applied Environmental Science and indicate some possible directions for future work. Overall, the program elements integrate the scientific and engineering aspects with regulatory, commercial, urban planning, local governments, and community group interests. Well-developed connections between these components are critical to the ultimate success of efforts to cope with the problems caused by contaminated urban soils and sediments.

  5. Rapid persulfate oxidation predicts PAH bioavailability in soils and sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Cuypers, C.; Grotenhuis, T.; Joziasse, J.; Rulkens, W.

    2000-05-15

    Persulfate oxidation was validated as a method to predict polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) bioavailability in soils and sediments. It was demonstrated for 14 field contaminated soils and sediments that residual PAH concentrations after a short (3 h) persulfate oxidation correspond well to residual PAH concentrations after 21 days of biodegradation. Persulfate oxidation of samples that had first been subjected to biodegradation yielded only limited additional PAH oxidation. This implies that oxidation and biodegradation removed approximately the same PAH fraction. Persulfate oxidation thus provides a good and rapid method for the prediction of PAH bioavailability. Thermogravimetric analysis of oxidized and untreated samples showed that persulfate oxidation primarily affected expanded organic matter. The results indicate that this expanded organic matter contained mainly readily bioavailable PAHs.

  6. Growth dynamics of eelgrass, Zostera marina, in the intertidal zone of Seomjin Estuary, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jeong Bae; Lee, Won-Chan; Lee, Kun-Seop; Park, Jung-Im

    2013-09-01

    To examine the growth dynamics of eelgrass, Zostera marina, in the intertidal zone of Seomjin Estuary, Korea, we surveyed environmental factors such as water temperature, underwater irradiance, tidal exposure, and nutrient concentrations in the water column and sediment pore water in relation to the shoot density, biomass, morphological characteristics, and growth of Z. marina inhabiting the upper and lower intertidal zones. The survey was conducted monthly from January 2003 to December 2004. The water temperature of the two areas displayed seasonal fluctuations. Underwater irradiance was significantly higher in the upper intertidal zone than in the lower intertidal zone. Tidal exposure was also markedly longer in the upper intertidal zone than in the lower intertidal zone, whereas tidal exposure was highest in the spring and lowest in the summer in both areas. Water column NH4 + and sediment pore water NO3 -+NO2 - concentrations were significantly higher in the upper intertidal zone than the lower intertidal zone. The eelgrass shoot density, biomass, morphology, and leaf productivity were significantly higher in the lower intertidal zone than in the upper intertidal zone. Both areas displayed a clear seasonal variation depending on changes in water temperature. However, leaf turnover time was significantly shorter in the upper intertidal zone than in the lower intertidal zone, with a higher turnover rate in the upper intertidal zone. Compared to the seagrasses in the lower intertidal zone, those in the upper intertidal zone showed more effective adaptations to the stress of long tidal exposure through downsizing and increased turnover time. These results suggest that tidal exposure, coupled with desiccation stress, can be a limiting factor for seagrass growth in the intertidal zone, along with underwater irradiance, water temperature, and nutrient availability.

  7. Assessing the environmental availability of uranium in soils and sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Amonette, J.E.; Holdren, G.R. Jr.; Krupa, K.M.; Lindenmeier, C.W.

    1994-06-01

    Soils and sediments contaminated with uranium pose certain environmental and ecological risks. At low to moderate levels of contamination, the magnitude of these risks depends not only on the absolute concentrations of uranium in the material but also on the availability of the uranium to drinking water supplies, plants, or higher organisms. Rational approaches for regulating the clean-up of sites contaminated with uranium, therefore, should consider the value of assessing the environmental availability of uranium at the site before making decisions regarding remediation. The purpose of this work is to review existing approaches and procedures to determine their potential applicability for assessing the environmental availability of uranium in bulk soils or sediments. In addition to making the recommendations regarding methodology, the authors have tabulated data from the literature on the aqueous complexes of uranium and major uranium minerals, examined the possibility of predicting environmental availability of uranium based on thermodynamic solubility data, and compiled a representative list of analytical laboratories capable of performing environmental analyses of uranium in soils and sediments.

  8. Analysis of chlorothalonil and three degradates in sediment and soil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hladik, M.L.; Kuivila, K.M.

    2008-01-01

    A method has been developed for the simultaneous extraction of chlorothalonil and three of its degradates (4-hydroxy-2,5,6- trichloroisophthalonitrile, 1-carbamoyl-3-cyano-4-hydroxy-2,5,6- trichlorobenzene, and 1,3-dicarbamoyl-2,4,5,6-tetrachlorobenzene) from soils and sediments; the compounds were extracted using sonication with acetone and isolation of the parent compound and matrix interferences from the degradates by solid phase extraction (SPE). The chlorothalonil fraction underwent further coextracted matrix interference removal with Florisil. The degradates were derivatized with N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) and chlorotrimethylsilane (TMCS). All compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Recoveries on a spiked (20 and 200 ??g kg-1) sediment ranged from 80% to 91% with calculated limits of detection of 1-5 ??g kg-1 dry weight sediment. An additional 20 sediment samples were collected in watersheds from the Southeastern United States where chlorothalonil is used widely on peanuts and other crops. None of the target compounds were detected. Laboratory fortified recoveries of chlorothalonil and its degradates in these environmental sediment samples ranged from 75% to 89%.

  9. Extraction of tricyclazole from soil and sediment with subcritical water.

    PubMed

    Krieger, M S; Cook, W L; Kennard, L M

    2000-06-01

    The use of subcritical water to extract tricyclazole from soils and sediments was examined. Extraction efficiency and kinetics were determined as a function of temperature, sample age, sample matrix, sample size, and flow rate. Extraction temperature was the most influential experimental factor affecting extraction efficiency and kinetics, with increasing temperature (up to 150 degrees C) yielding faster and higher efficiency extractions. Higher extraction temperatures were also important for quantitative recovery of tricyclazole from aged samples. Extraction at 50 degrees C yielded 97% recoveries from samples aged 1 day but only 30% recoveries for samples aged 202 days, whereas extraction at 150 degrees C yielded recoveries of 85-100% that were independent of incubation time and sample matrix, with the exception of one sediment that contained a large amount of organic matter. Sample extracts from subcritical water extraction were generally a pale yellow color, contrasted with a dark brown color from organic solvent extractions of the same matrixes. Less sample cleanup was therefore required prior to analysis, with the total time for the extraction and analysis of a single sample being approximately 2 h. Subcritical water extraction is an effective technique for the rapid and quantitative extraction of tricyclazole from soils and sediments. PMID:10888518

  10. ISSUES IN ASSESSING LOW LEVEL IONIZABLE CONTAMINANT PARTITIONING IN SOILS AND SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Solubilization has profound implications for such diverse risk assessment activities as assessing sediment contaminant porewater exposures to benthic fauna, determining half lives of refractory toxicants in natural soils and sediments, and assessing the fate and transport of th...

  11. Ammonia- and methane-oxidizing microorganisms in high-altitude wetland sediments and adjacent agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuyin; Shan, Jingwen; Zhang, Jingxu; Zhang, Xiaoling; Xie, Shuguang; Liu, Yong

    2014-12-01

    Ammonia oxidation is known to be carried out by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA), while methanotrophs (methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB)) play an important role in mitigating methane emissions from the environment. However, the difference of AOA, AOB, and MOB distribution in wetland sediment and adjacent upland soil remains unclear. The present study investigated the abundances and community structures of AOA, AOB, and MOB in sediments of a high-altitude freshwater wetland in Yunnan Province (China) and adjacent agricultural soils. Variations of AOA, AOB, and MOB community sizes and structures were found in water lily-vegetated and Acorus calamus-vegetated sediments and agricultural soils (unflooded rice soil, cabbage soil, and garlic soil and flooded rice soil). AOB community size was higher than AOA in agricultural soils and lily-vegetated sediment, but lower in A. calamus-vegetated sediment. MOB showed a much higher abundance than AOA and AOB. Flooded rice soil had the largest AOA, AOB, and MOB community sizes. Principal coordinate analyses and Jackknife Environment Clusters analyses suggested that unflooded and flooded rice soils had relatively similar AOA, AOB, and MOB structures. Cabbage soil and A. calamus-vegetated sediment had relatively similar AOA and AOB structures, but their MOB structures showed a large difference. Nitrososphaera-like microorganisms were the predominant AOA species in garlic soil but were present with a low abundance in unflooded rice soil and cabbage soil. Nitrosospira-like AOB were dominant in wetland sediments and agricultural soils. Type I MOB Methylocaldum and type II MOB Methylocystis were dominant in wetland sediments and agricultural soils. Moreover, Pearson's correlation analysis indicated that AOA Shannon diversity was positively correlated with the ratio of organic carbon to nitrogen (p < 0.05). This work could provide some new insights toward ammonia and methane oxidation in soil and wetland sediment

  12. Microbial biofilms in intertidal systems: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decho, Alan W.

    2000-07-01

    Intertidal marine systems are highly dynamic systems which are characterized by periodic fluctuations in environmental parameters. Microbial processes play critical roles in the remineralization of nutrients and primary production in intertidal systems. Many of the geochemical and biological processes which are mediated by microorganisms occur within microenvironments which can be measured over micrometer spatial scales. These processes are localized by cells within a matrix of extracellular polymeric secretions (EPS), collectively called a "microbial biofilm". Recent examinations of intertidal systems by a range of investigators using new approaches show an abundance of biofilm communities. The purpose of this overview is to examine recent information concerning the roles of microbial biofilms in intertidal systems. The microbial biofilm is a common adaptation of natural bacteria and other microorganisms. In the fluctuating environments of intertidal systems, biofilms form protective microenvironments and may structure a range of microbial processes. The EPS matrix of biofilm forms sticky coatings on individual sediment particles and detrital surfaces, which act as a stabilizing anchor to buffer cells and their extracellular processes during the frequent physical stresses (e.g., changes in salinity and temperature, UV irradiation, dessication). EPS is an operational definition designed to encompass a range of large microbially-secreted molecules having widely varying physical and chemical properties, and a range of biological roles. Examinations of EPS using Raman and Fourier-transform infared spectroscopy, and atomic-force microscopy suggest that some EPS gels possess physical and chemical properties which may hasten the development of sharp geochemical gradients, and contribute a protective effect to cells. Biofilm polymers act as a sorptive sponge which binds and concentrates organic molecules and ions close to cells. Concurrently, the EPS appear to localize

  13. Plutonium mobility studies in soil sediment decontaminated by means of a soil-washing technology

    SciTech Connect

    Negri, M.C.; Orlandini, K.A.; Swift, N.; Carfagno, D.

    1995-07-01

    The ACT*DE*CON{sup SM} process extracts plutonium from contaminated soils/sediments by means of a series of washings with a blend of chemicals, that includes a chelating agent, an oxidant, and carbonates. At the end of the process, the Pu level in the soil is lowered to 25-30 pCi/g from an initial contamination level averaging 500 pCi/g. The radionuclide still present in the soil at the end of the treatment must be strongly immobilized in or onto the soil particles to minimize the risk of its percolation to the aquifer and/or uptake by vegetation. This paper reports the investigation of residual Pu mobility as K{sub d} (distribution coefficient) in the treated soil/sediment. Six batches of contaminated soil were treated simultaneously by means of the ACT*DE*CON{sup SM} process. Some batches of the treated soil were amended with a standard fertilizer treatment of compost and nutrient and brought to pH 8.5. The treated soil, treated and fertilized soil, and the untreated controls were then incubated at 18{degrees}C for 90 days. At four different times, a small aliquot of soil was retrieved from each of the batches and contacted with rainwater for six days to determine the Pu solid/liquid distribution and K{sub d}. Results indicated that a higher total amount of Pu was leached from the untreated soil, probably as a consequence of the higher content of available/exchangeable Pu in this soil compared with the treated ones. Treated/fertilized soils showed Pu leaching at intermediate levels between those for treated and untreated soils, at least for the first 30 days of incubation. K{sub d} values at the beginning of the incubation period were significantly lower in the untreated and treated/fertilized soils compared with those for the treated-only, but at 90 days, these values were substantially equal among the three different soils. Traces of the chelant were detectable only in treated, unfertilized soil.

  14. Plutonium contamination in soils and sediments at Mayak PA, Russia.

    PubMed

    Skipperud, Lindis; Salbu, Brit; Oughton, Deborah H; Drozcho, Eugeny; Mokrov, Yuri; Strand, Per

    2005-09-01

    The Mayak Production Association (Mayak PA) was established in the late 1940's to produce plutonium for the Soviet Nuclear Weapons Programme. In total, seven reactors and two reprocessing plants have been in operation. Today, the area comprises both military and civilian reactors as well as reprocessing and metallurgical plants. Authorized and accidental releases of radioactive waste have caused severe contamination to the surrounding areas. In the present study, [alpha]-spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) have been used to determine plutonium activities and isotope ratios in soil and sediment samples collected from reservoirs of the Techa River at the Mayak area and downstream Techa River. The objective of the study was to determine the total inventory of plutonium in the reservoirs and to identify the different sources contributing to the plutonium contamination. Results based on [alpha]-spectrometry and ICP-MS measurements show the presence of different sources and confirmed recent reports of civilian reprocessing at Mayak. Determination of activity levels and isotope ratios in soil and sediment samples from the Techa River support the hypothesis that most of the plutonium, like other radionuclides in the Techa River, originated from the very early waste discharges to the Techa River between 1949 and 1951. Analysis of reservoir sediment samples suggest that about 75% of the plutonium isotopes could have been released to Reservoir 10 during the early weapons production operation of the plant, and that the majority of plutonium in Reservoir 10 originates from discharges from power production or reprocessing. Enhanced 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios in river sediment upper layers (0-2 cm) between 50 and 250 km downstream from the plant indicate a contribution from other, non-fallout sources. PMID:16096501

  15. Partition of nonpolar organic pollutants from water to soil and sediment organic matters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chiou, C.T.

    1995-01-01

    The partition coefficients (Koc) of carbon tetrachloride and 1,2-dichlorobenzene between normal soil/sediment organic matter and water have been determined for a large set of soils, bed sediments, and suspended solids from the United States and the People's Republic of China. The Koc values for both solutes are quite invariant either for the soils or for the bed sediments; the values on bed sediments are about twice those on soils. The similarity of Koc values between normal soils and between normal bed sediments suggests that natural organic matters in soils (or sediments) of different geographic origins exhibit comparable polarities and possibly comparable compositions. The results also suggest that the process that converts eroded soils into bed sediments brings about a change in the organic matter property. The difference between soil and sediment Koc values provides a basis for identifying the source of suspended solids in river waters. The very high Koc values observed for some special soils and sediments are diagnostic of severe anthropogenic contamination.

  16. TXRF analysis of soils and sediments to assess environmental contamination.

    PubMed

    Bilo, Fabjola; Borgese, Laura; Cazzago, Davide; Zacco, Annalisa; Bontempi, Elza; Guarneri, Rita; Bernardello, Marco; Attuati, Silvia; Lazo, Pranvera; Depero, Laura E

    2014-12-01

    Total reflection x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (TXRF) is proposed for the elemental chemical analysis of crustal environmental samples, such as sediments and soils. A comparative study of TXRF with respect to flame atomic absorption spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy was performed. Microwave acid digestion and suspension preparation methods are evaluated. A good agreement was found among the results obtained with different spectroscopic techniques and sample preparation methods for Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, and Zn. We demonstrated that TXRF is suitable for the assessment of environmental contamination phenomena, even if the errors for Pb, As, V, and Ba are ingent. PMID:24122164

  17. Selenium fractionation and cycling in the intertidal zone of the Carquinez Strait. Quarterly progress report, January 1996--March 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Zawislanski, P.T.; Benson, S.M.; Brownfield, A.A.

    1996-04-01

    This quarterly report describes research on selenium (Se) cycling in the marshes and mudflats of the Carquinez Strait between January 1, 1996 and March 31, 1996. Chapter 2 contains descriptions of results of extractions and analyses of sediment cores from the intertidal zone of the Martinez and Benicia field sites, including some x-ray spectroscopy data related to the characterization of the sediment Eh-pH regime. Chapter 3 contains a summary of work in progress on the extraction of various Se species from sediment/soil samples, and efforts in measuring suspended sediment Se. Chapter 4 is an update on stable Se isotope research and Se purification techniques. Chapter 5 describes the rationale, design, and preliminary results of a plant-Se study. Chapter 6 presents the design of a recently initiated sediment dynamics study. The leader is referred to the 1995 Annual Report for details on the project design, site selection, and methodology.

  18. Some statistical relationships between stream sediment and soil geochemistry in northwestern Wisconsin - can stream sediment compositions be used to predict compositions of soils in glaciated terranes?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, W.F.; Woodruff, L.G.; Pimley, S.

    2004-01-01

    Mean stream sediment chemical compositions from northwestern Wisconsin in the north central United States, based on more than 800 samples, differ significantly from mean A-horizon and C-horizon soil compositions, based on about 380 samples of each horizon. Differences by a factor greater than 1.5 exist for some elements (Ca, Mn, Mg, P, Ti, Ni, Pb, Se, Zn). A very large database of stream sediment geochemistry exists for the region (more than 2200 samples) and for the U.S. (roughly 400,000 samples), whereas data on the chemistry of soils is much sparser both regionally and nationally. Therefore, we have attempted to quantify trends in compositional differences between stream sediments and nearby soils to test whether the abundant stream sediment data can be used to predict soil compositions. A simple computational technique of adjusting the stream sediment compositions according to the ratio of means of soils and stream sediments was conducted. A variety of techniques of correction and interpolation of data were tested and indicate that repetitive testing of results allows an optimum correction to be achieved. Predicted soil compositions compared to analytically determined soil compositions show a range of results from relatively good correspondence for some elements to rather poor correspondence for others. In general, predictions are best at midranges of compositions. The technique does not predict well more extreme or anomalous values. Thus, this technique appears to be useful for estimating background soil compositions and delineating regional compositional trends in soils in situations where large amounts of stream sediment analyses and smaller amounts of soil analyses are available. The technique also provides probabilistic qualifications on the expected error between predicted and actual soil compositions so that individual users can judge if the technique provides data of sufficient accuracy for specific needs. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Soils of sinkholes: effects of slope aspect and lateral transport of sediments on soil variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnova, Maria; Tsibart, Anna; Abramova, Anna; Koshovskii, Timur; Gennadiev, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    Karst landscapes are highly fragile and particularly vulnerable to subsidence and soil erosion. In karst region there may be hundreds or even thousands of sinkholes and other karst landforms in a small area so that the flat surface is actually absent. The effect of slope aspect on karst landscapes are resulted in different amount of solar radiation and increase of moisture along slopes. In European Russia semiarid landscapes the wind transport of the snow resulted in addition moistening of the soil situated on the eastern slope of depressions. Our research is devoted to the investigation of soil catenas on the slopes of subsidence sinkhole in "Bogdo-Baskuntschak" natural reserve (semiarid landscape). It based on field research of 4 soil catenas situated on the slopes of eastern, northern, western and south exposures. The profile of the sinkhole is an inverted cone (elongated from west to east), slope length varies from 8 to 12 meters, slope gradient - between 40-55% (eastern slope is the shortest and steepest). The short slope length and soil diversity that the sinkholes provided are beneficial for investigation of slope aspect and effect of lateral transport on soil formation. The main feature of sinkhole soil cover is a considerable variety and their high complexity. The lateral transport of sediments resulted in dramatic changes of soil within catenas. Haplic calcisols and arenosols calcaric, situated on the inter-sinkhole flat surface and upper parts of the slopes are substituted by cambisols and leptosols in the middle part of the slopes and colluvic regosols humic in the lower part of the slopes and sinkhole bottom. Soil formation and accumulation of sediments occur simultaneously and lead to the weak soil formation at the middle and lower sections of sinkhole side slopes. The thickness of humus horizon increases from the top to the bottom of sinkhole notably - from 8-12 cm on the upper and middle part of the slopes to 240 cm on the bottom of the sinkhole

  20. Soil and sediment bacteria capable of aerobic nitrate respiration.

    PubMed Central

    Carter, J P; Hsaio, Y H; Spiro, S; Richardson, D J

    1995-01-01

    Several laboratory strains of gram-negative bacteria are known to be able to respire nitrate in the presence of oxygen, although the physiological advantage gained from this process is not entirely clear. The contribution that aerobic nitrate respiration makes to the environmental nitrogen cycle has not been studied. As a first step in addressing this question, a strategy which allows for the isolation of organisms capable of reducing nitrate to nitrite following aerobic growth has been developed. Twenty-nine such strains have been isolated from three soils and a freshwater sediment and shown to comprise members of three genera (Pseudomonas, Aeromonas, and Moraxella). All of these strains expressed a nitrate reductase with an active site located in the periplasmic compartment. Twenty-two of the strains showed significant rates of nitrate respiration in the presence of oxygen when assayed with physiological electron donors. Also isolated was one member of the gram-positive genus Arthrobacter, which was likewise able to respire nitrate in the presence of oxygen but appeared to express a different type of nitrate reductase. In the four environments studied, culturable bacteria capable of aerobic nitrate respiration were isolated in significant numbers (10(4) to 10(7) per g of soil or sediment) and in three cases were as abundant as, or more abundant than, culturable bacteria capable of denitrification. Thus, it seems likely that the corespiration of nitrate and oxygen may indeed make a significant contribution to the flux of nitrate to nitrite in the environment. PMID:7487017

  1. Soil characteristics of sediment-amended baldcypress (Taxodium distichum) swamps of coastal Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jiang, Ming; Middleton, Beth A.

    2011-01-01

    Amendments of sediment from dredging activities have played an important role in raising the elevation of sinking coastal wetlands. This study compared the soil characteristics of sediment- amended coastal swamps in the Barataria Preserve unit of Jean Lafitte National Historical Park and Preserve with natural swamps along Bayou des Familles. The sandy sediment amendments used in the coastal forests had different soil texture and characteristics than the more organic soils of the natural swamps. Three years after the application of these sediments on the sediment-amended swamps, dewatering and compaction of the sediment had occurred but the sediment still had high salinity and bulk density, and low organic matter content. The two sediment-amended swamps differed from each other in that Site 1 had a higher elevation (mean = 25 cm higher) and drier soil than Site 2. The effects of sediment in coastal forested wetlands require separate consideration from studies of salt marshes, e.g., the weight of the sediment might damage tree roots, or the amendments might influence soil stability during storms in a different way. Generally, this study suggests that shallower depths of sediment are more likely to yield environments beneficial to these sinking baldcypress swamps in coastal Louisiana.

  2. Pyrosequencing reveal distinct bacteria are carried in different wind eroded sediments from the same soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known about the microbial communities carried in wind-eroded sediments from various soil types and land management systems. A novel technique, named pyrosequencing, promises to expand our understanding of the vast microbial diversity of soils and eroded sediments as it can sequence between...

  3. METHODS FOR THE DETERMINATION OF TOTAL ORGANIC CARBON (TOC) IN SOILS AND SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Organic matter in soils and sediments is widely distributed over the earth's surface occurring in almost all terrestrial and aquatic environments (Schnitzer, 1978). Soils and sediments contain a large variety of organic materials ranging from simple sugars and carbohydrates to th...

  4. IMPROVED FLOTATION TECHNIQUE FOR MICROSCOPY OF 'IN SITU' SOIL AND SEDIMENT MICROORGANISMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An improved flotation method for microscopical examination of in situ soil and sediment microorganisms was developed. Microbial cells were released into gel-like flotation films that were stripped from soil and sediment aggregates as these aggregates were submerged in 0.5% soluti...

  5. Spiral-shaped graphoglyptids from an Early Permian intertidal flat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minter, Nicholas J.; Buatois, Luis A.; Lucas, Spencer G.; Braddy, Simon J.; Smith, Joshua A.

    2006-12-01

    Spiral-shaped foraging trace fossils, assigned to the grapho glyptid cf. Spirorhaphe azteca, are reported from an Early Permian intertidal flat in the Robledo Mountains of southern New Mexico, USA. Remarkably similar spiral-shaped structures are produced in modern intertidal flats by the paraonid polychaete Paraonis fulgens, and function as traps to capture mobile microorganisms migrating in the sediment in response to tides. We envisage a similar function for the Early Permian trace fossils. Previous studies have suggested that the lack of P. fulgens type traces from ancient intertidal deposits indicates that such behavior only evolved geologically recently in such settings. However, this report demonstrates that such specialized foraging behavior was present in intertidal settings by at least the Early Permian. Graphoglyptids are typical of deep-marine settings, and characteristic of the Nereites ichnofacies. This represents their first undoubted occurrence in intertidal facies in the geological record. We postulate that the occurrence of graphoglyptids in deep-marine and intertidal settings is related to the predictability of resources. The scarcity of intertidal graphoglyptids in the geological record is most likely a preservational effect.

  6. Selenium fractionation and cycling in the intertidal zone of Carquinez Strait. Quarterly progress report, April 1996--June 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Zawislanski, P.T.; Benson, S.M.; Brownfield, A.A.; Chau, S.

    1996-07-01

    This quarterly report describes research on selenium (Se) cycling in the marshes and mudflats of the Carquinez Strait between 4/1/96 and 6/30/96. Chapter 2 contains descriptions of results of extractions and analyses of sediment cores from the intertidal zone of the Martinez and Benicia field sites, including Se fractionation data from Martinez Regional Park. Chapter 3 contains a summary of work in progress on the extraction of various Se species from sediment/soil samples, and efforts in measuring suspended sediment Se. Chapter 4 is an update on stable Se isotope research and Se purification techniques. Chapter 5 describes the recent developments in low-level Se analytical methods. Chapter 6 presents preliminary sedimentation rate data from the Martinez field site. Exciting new developments in x-ray spectroscopy of clams are presented in Chapter 7. The reader is referred to the 1995 Annual Report for details on the project design, site selection, and methodology.

  7. Effects of biochar on soil infiltration, runoff and sediment production on a slopeland red soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jien, Shih-Hao; Chen, Jyun-Yuan; Liao, Chien-Sen

    2016-04-01

    Biochar has been considered as a useful amendment to ameliorate soil physical and chemical properties. This study aims to incorporate a wood biochar (WB), pyrolized by 400℃, into a clayey red soil with a slope gradient of 5o to improve infiltration and reduce runoff and sediment production. Field trials were conducted in four treatments including control, biochar (4%, w/w) (WB), compost (1%) + biochar (4%) (CWB) and polyacrylamide in 50 ppm (PAM) in this study. An erosion experiment was performed by a rainfall simulator in a rainfall intensity of 70 mm/hr after 12 months. The runoff and sediments were collected and weighted for each treatment. The results displayed that runoff amounts were obviously reduced by 2.3% -6.3% in treatments of WB and CWB compared with the control, but not in PAM. On contrary, the infiltration rates were obviously increased by 7.4%-18% in the treatment of WB and CWB compared with the control, but reduced by 25% in PAM treatment. After 12 months, all treatments could effectively prevent clayey soil from erosion, particularly in PAM. In conclusion, biochar could be an alternative strategy for improvement of permeability and erodibility compared with PAM practice on mild slopeland soils.

  8. Study of sediment movement in an irrigated maize-cotton system combining rainfall simulations, sediment tracers and soil erosion models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzmán, Gema; Laguna, Ana; Cañasveras, Juan Carlos; Boulal, Hakim; Barrón, Vidal; Gómez-Macpherson, Helena; Giráldez, Juan Vicente; Gómez, José Alfonso

    2015-05-01

    Although soil erosion is one of the main threats to agriculture sustainability in many areas of the world, its processes are difficult to measure and still need a better characterization. The use of iron oxides as sediment tracers, combined with erosion and mixing models opens up a pathway for improving the knowledge of the erosion and redistribution of soil, determining sediment sources and sinks. In this study, magnetite and a multivariate mixing model were used in rainfall simulations at the micro-plot scale to determine the source of the sediment at different stages of a furrow-ridge system both with (+T) and without (-T) wheel tracks. At a plot scale, magnetite, hematite and goethite combined with two soil erosion models based on the kinematic wave approach were used in a sprinkler irrigation test to study trends in sediment transport and tracer dynamics along furrow lengths under a wide range of scenarios. In the absence of any stubble cover, sediment contribution from the ridges was larger than the furrow bed one, almost 90%, while an opposite trend was observed with stubble, with a smaller contribution from the ridge (32%) than that of the bed, at the micro-plot trials. Furthermore, at a plot scale, the tracer concentration analysis showed an exponentially decreasing trend with the downstream distance both for sediment detachment along furrows and soil source contribution from tagged segments. The parameters of the distributed model KINEROS2 have been estimated using the PEST Model to obtain a more accurate evaluation. Afterwards, this model was used to simulate a broad range of common scenarios of topography and rainfall from commercial farms in southern Spain. Higher slopes had a significant influence on sediment yields while long furrow distances allowed a more efficient water use. For the control of runoff, and therefore soil loss, an equilibrium between irrigation design (intensity, duration, water pattern) and hydric needs of the crops should be

  9. Determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in soils and sediment of Hanfeng Lake, Three Gorges.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenrui; Lu, Yingzhuan; Gao, Shutao; Jia, Xuwei; Yu, Zhiqiang; Zeng, Xiangying; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo

    2015-01-01

    As ubiquitous organic contaminants, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were evaluated to explore the impacts of the water level fluctuating zone (WLFZ) on organic pollutant behavior and the retention mechanism of organic pollutants in the bank-WLFZ-water system of Hanfeng Lake in the Three Gorges region of China. The mean concentrations of total PBDEs were 103, 75.2, and 568 ng g(-1) dry wt for bank soils, WLFZ soils, and sediment samples, respectively. Except for sampling sites S1 and S2, the levels of PBDEs decreased in the order of sediment>WLFZ soil > bank soil, suggesting that PBDEs were transferred from bank soil to WLFZ soil and finally deposited in the sediment. Decabromodiphenyl ethers (deca-BDEs) were the predominant congener in the study area, comprising 93.8% to 98.3% of the total PBDEs. Greater photolytic degradation of deca-BDEs was suggested in bank soils based on a higher relative abundance of octa- and nona-BDEs than in WLFZ soils and sediment. This may have occurred because deca-BDEs in bank soils have relatively longer sunlight exposure than in WLFZ soils and sediment due to the annual alternation of water storage and drainage in the catchments of the Three Gorges Reservoir. More in-depth investigations of contaminants in bank-WLFZ-water systems are needed due to the large areas of WLFZ created by the construction of the Three Gorges Dam and their importance to the balance of aquatic ecosystems. PMID:26181085

  10. Intertidal meiofauna of Jeju Island, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlyuk, Olga N.; Trebukhova, Yulia A.

    2011-03-01

    For the first time, the structure of the meiobenthos community and marine nematodes in particular was investigated in the different intertidal zones of Jeju Island (South Sea of Korea). A relationship was found between the density of meiobenthic communities and the type of the bottom sediment. In addition, in the silty sediments, nematodes were dominant, while in the sandy sediments harpacticoids and ostracods were dominant groups. Sixty eight species belonging to 60 genera and 19 families of nematodes were found in the whole area. Four different nematode taxocenosis were distinguished using a cluster analysis. Dominant feeding groups were omnivores (2B) and epistratum-feeders (2A). The highest number of non-selective deposit-feeders (1B) was detected in the lagoon with the bottom silty sediments.

  11. Effect of aggregation on SOC transport: linking soil properties to sediment organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, Nikolaus J.

    2016-04-01

    Soils are an interface between the Earth's spheres and shaped by the nature of the interaction between them. The relevance of soil properties for the nature of the interaction between atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere is well-studied and accepted, on point- or ecotone-scale. However, this understanding of the largely vertical connections between spheres is not matched by a similar recognition of soil properties affecting processes acting largely in a lateral way across the land surface, such as erosion, transport and deposition of soil and the associated organic matter. Understanding the redistribution of eroded soil organic matter falls into several disciplines, most notably soil science, agronomy, hydrology and geomorphology, and recently into biogeochemistry. Accordingly, the way soil and sediment are described differs: in soil science, aggregation and structure are essential properties, while most process-based soil erosion models treat soil as a mixture of individual mineral grains, based on concepts derived in fluvial geomorphology or civil engineering. The actual behavior of aggregated sediment and the associated organic matter is not reflected by either approach and difficult to capture due to the dynamic nature of aggregation, especially in an environment such as running water. Still, a proxy to assess the uncertainties introduced by aggregation on the behavior of soil/sediment organic while moving in water across landscapes and into the aquatic system would represent a major step forward. To develop such a proxy, a database collating relevant soil, organic matter and sediment properties could serve as an initial step to identify which soil types and erosion scenarios are prone to generate a high uncertainty compared to the use of soil texture in erosion models. Furthermore, it could serve to develop standardized analytical procedures for appropriate description of soil and organic matter as sediment.

  12. Quantifying and modeling soil erosion and sediment export from construction sites in southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wernet, A. K.; Beighley, R. E.

    2006-12-01

    Soil erosion is a power process that continuously alters the Earth's landscape. Human activities, such as construction and agricultural practices, and natural events, such as forest fires and landslides, disturb the landscape and intensify erosion processes leading to sudden increases in runoff sediment concentrations and degraded stream water quality. Understanding soil erosion and sediment transport processes is of great importance to researchers and practicing engineers, who routinely use models to predict soil erosion and sediment movement for varied land use and climate change scenarios. However, existing erosion models are limited in their applicability to constructions sites which have highly variable soil conditions (density, moisture, surface roughness, and best management practices) that change often in both space and time. The goal of this research is to improve the understanding, predictive capabilities and integration of treatment methodologies for controlling soil erosion and sediment export from construction sites. This research combines modeling with field monitoring and laboratory experiments to quantify: (a) spatial and temporal distribution of soil conditions on construction sites, (b) soil erosion due to event rainfall, and (c) potential offsite discharge of sediment with and without treatment practices. Field sites in southern California were selected to monitor the effects of common construction activities (ex., cut/fill, grading, foundations, roads) on soil conditions and sediment discharge. Laboratory experiments were performed in the Soil Erosion Research Laboratory (SERL), part of the Civil and Environmental Engineering department at San Diego State University, to quantify the impact of individual factors leading to sediment export. SERL experiments utilize a 3-m by 10-m tilting soil bed with soil depths up to 1 m, slopes ranging from 0 to 50 percent, and rainfall rates up to 150 mm/hr (6 in/hr). Preliminary modeling, field and laboratory

  13. Heavy metal enrichment in the riparian sediments and soils of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Q.; Bao, Y.; He, X.; Wen, A.

    2015-03-01

    The Three Gorges Reservoir encompasses a riparian zone with a vertical height of 30 m and a total area of 349 km2 that has been subjected to alternate inundation and exposure due to regular impoundment. Sedimentation on the riparian landforms constitutes an important pathway for riverine contaminant redistribution. In an attempt to understand heavy metal enrichment since water inundation, riparian sediments and soils were sampled along five transects in a typical riparian zone composed of cultivated bench terraces in the middle reaches. Heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb) were determined to characterize the lateral distribution and vertical transfer ratio. The results indicated that all heavy metals were enriched to varying extents both in the riparian sediments and soils, compared with regional background contents in soils and the reference levels in sediments. However, heavy metal levels in the riparian sediments were generally higher than those in the riparian soils, while those in the upper riparian soils (0-5 cm) were overall slightly higher than those in the lower riparian soils (5-10 cm). There was a decreasing trend of heavy metal contents with increasing elevation. The elevated levels of heavy metals in the riparian sediments may be attributed to sediment yields from upstream anthropogenic sources, especially during major rainstorms in the wet season when large loads of contaminated sediment may be produced from diffuse source areas. Heavy metals can also be adsorbed to pure sediment in the course of mobilization or after deposition. Considering that the riparian soils are local weathering products without mobilization, the enrichment of heavy metals may principally be ascribed to chemical adsorption from dissolved fractions or vertical transfer from overlaid sediments. Heavy metal enrichment may further be affected by the specific type of hydrologic regime such that relatively long flooding duration caused by water impoundment and natural floods

  14. Flocculation on a muddy intertidal flat in Willapa Bay, Washington, Part I: A regional survey of the grain size of surficial sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, B. A.; Milligan, T. G.; Hill, P. S.; Newgard, J.; Wheatcroft, R. A.; Wiberg, P. L.

    2013-06-01

    Bottom sediments were collected on a muddy tidal flat in Willapa Bay (southwestern Washington State) and analyzed for grain size using a Coulter Multisizer. The disaggregated inorganic grain size (DIGS) distributions obtained from the sediment were then analyzed using conventional methods including median diameter, d50, the largest 25% of the grain size in the population, d75, skewness, and kurtosis. In addition, the inverse model of Curran et al. (2004) was used to provide process-based parameters for description of the size distributions. To examine small-scale spatial differences in grain size, the results of the analysis were plotted against seabed elevation, obtained from USGS LiDAR data. Results reveal a strong inverse correlation between the mass fraction deposited to the seabed as flocs, which is called the "floc fraction", and elevation on the tidal flat but failed to show any correlation with conventional grain-size descriptors. The dependence of floc fraction on elevation arises mainly due to the differences in size distributions between secondary tidal channels and tidal flats. The extent of flocculation in sediments deposited in the channels of the Shoalwater tidal-flat system is seasonal. Greater precipitation in the winter months is associated with periods of increased suspended-sediment concentrations, which favours more extensive flocculation and the formation and maintenance of low-strength, high-water-content muds. During the summer dry season, lower suspended-sediment concentrations lead to reduced floc fractions in the channels, while the size distributions on the flats resemble those in winter.

  15. Origin of basaltic soils at Gusev crater, Mars, by aeolian modification of impact-generated sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGlynn, Ian O.; Fedo, Christopher M.; McSween, Harry Y., Jr.

    2011-04-01

    Textural properties of soils including grain size, sorting, modality, skewness, shape (quantified as sphericity and qualified as form), roundness, and grain size distribution, have been measured and calculated from Microscopic Imager (MI) high-resolution images from the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Spirit in Gusev crater. Soil targets were classified by grain size into five groups: fine to medium sand dark soil, medium sand to very fine pebble bed form armor, and very fine to medium pebble lithic fragments, a bimodal mixed soil, and an excavated soil trench. The abundance of submature, very poorly sorted, bimodal mixed soils indicates incomplete sorting by soil type. Probability distributions of excavated subsurface soil match crushed sediment analogs, indicating impact comminution, while all other soils show no direct evidence of an impact origin. If soils were produced primarily by impacts, then the evidence from probability distributions, angular shapes, and agglutinates have been reworked by postimpact surface activity. Soils in Gusev crater are continuously modified, reworked, and sandblasted. Textures of surface sediments are disconnected from subsurface textures and only reflect modern surficial aeolian processes. Models to reconstruct physical and chemical soil formation properties should not assume a static three-dimensional structure. A three-step model, initiated by the formation of basaltic crust and its alteration, followed by bolide impact, and finally modification by aeolian reworking is envisioned for the formation of soils. Such a scenario accounts for the potential that surface sediments may be compositionally and texturally distinct from the subsurface.

  16. The transformation of hexabromocyclododecane in aerobic and anaerobic soils and aquatic sediments.

    PubMed

    Davis, J W; Gonsior, S; Marty, G; Ariano, J

    2005-03-01

    The biological transformation of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), a brominated fire retardant commonly used in a variety of consumer goods, was investigated in aerobic and anaerobic soils and freshwater sediments. Soil, river water, and aquatic sediments were collected from several locations in the United States and transformation of HBCD was evaluated in the correspondingly composed microcosms based on the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) Test Guidelines 307 (Aerobic and Anaerobic Transformation in Soil) or 308 (Aerobic and Anaerobic Transformation in Aquatic Sediment Systems). Soil and sediment reaction mixtures, prepared under either aerobic or anoxic conditions, were dosed with HBCD at a concentration ranging from approximately 10 to 80 ng/g dry weight. The soils and sediments were then placed at 20 degrees C for approximately 4 months and the concentration of HBCD in the microcosms was determined at selected time intervals utilizing high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). HBCD loss was observed in both the aerobic and anaerobic soils and sediments although the rates were appreciable faster under anoxic conditions. Biologically mediated transformation processes (i.e., biotransformation) accelerated the rate of loss of HBCD when compared to the biologically inhibited (i.e., autoclaved) soils and sediments. Biotransformation half-lives for HBCD were determined to be 63 and 6.9 days in the aerobic and anaerobic soils, respectively, while biotransformation half-lives for HBCD in the two river systems ranged from 11 to 32 days and 1.1 to 1.5 days under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, respectively. Brominated degradation products were not detected in any of the soils or sediments during the course of the study. PMID:15766961

  17. Predicting habitat associations of five intertidal crab species among estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeiren, Peter; Sheaves, Marcus

    2014-08-01

    Intertidal crab assemblages that are active on the sediment surface of tropical estuaries during tidal exposure play an important role in many fundamental ecosystem processes. Consequently, they are critical contributors to a wide range of estuarine goods and services. However, a lack of understanding of their spatial organization within a large landscape context prevents the inclusion of intertidal crabs into generally applicable ecological models and management applications. We investigated spatial distribution patterns of intertidal crabs within and among eight dry tropical estuaries spread across a 160 km stretch of coast in North East Queensland, Australia. Habitat associations were modelled for five species based on photographic sampling in 40-80 sites per estuarine up- and downstream component: Uca seismella occurred in sites with little structure, bordered by low intertidal vegetation; Macrophthalmus japonicus occupied flat muddy sites with no structure or vegetation; Metopograpsus frontalis and Metopograpsus latifrons occupied sites covered with structure in more than 10% and 25% respectively. Finally, both Metopograpsus spp. and Metopograpsus thukuhar occupied rock walls. Habitat associations were predictable among estuaries with moderate to high sensitivity and low percentages of false positives indicating that simple, physical factors were adequate to explain the spatial distribution pattern of intertidal crabs. Results provide a necessary first step in developing generally applicable understanding of the fundamental mechanisms driving spatial niche organization of intertidal crabs within a landscape context.

  18. Long-term sediment yield from small catchment in southern Brazil affected by land use and soil management changes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes Minella, Jean Paolo; Henrique Merten, Gustavo; Alessandra Peixoto de Barros, Claudia; Dalbianco, Leandro; Ramon, Rafael; Schlesner, Alexandre

    2015-04-01

    Soil erosion and sediment yield are the main cause of soil degradation in Brazil. Despite this, there is a lack of information about the effects of the soil management on the hydrology and sediment yield at catchment scale. This study aimed to investigate the long-term relationship between the land use and sediment yield in a small catchment with significant changes in soil management, and its impacts on soil erosion and sediment yield. To account the anthropogenic and climatic effects on sediment yield were monitored precipitation, stream flow and suspended sediment concentration during thirteen years (2002 and 2014) at 10 minutes interval and the changes that occurred each year in the land use and soil management. Despite the influence of climate on the sediment yield, the results clearly show three distinct periods affected by the land use and soil management changes during this this period. In the first four years (2002-2004) the predominant land use was the tobacco with traditional soil management, where the soils are plough every year and without winter cover crop. In this period the sediment yield reached the order of 160 t.ha-1.y-1. In the period of 2005-2009, a soil conservation program introduced the adoption of minimum tillage in the catchment and the sediment yield decrease to 70 t.ha-1.y-1. In the last period (2010-2014) there was a partial return to the traditional soil management practices with an increase trend in sediment yield. However, there was also an increase in reforestation areas with positive effect in reducing erosion and sediment yield. The magnitude order of sediment yield in this period was 100 t.ha-1.y-1. The long term sediment yield data was able to demonstrate the impact of the improved management practices in reducing soil erosion and sediment yield. The results allowed a good understanding of the changing sediment dynamics and soil erosion at catchment scale.

  19. Soil, Groundwater, Surface Water, and Sediments of Kennedy Space Center, Florida: Background Chemical and Physical Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shmalzer, Paul A.; Hensley, Melissa A.; Mota, Mario; Hall, Carlton R.; Dunlevy, Colleen A.

    2000-01-01

    This study documented background chemical composition of soils, groundwater, surface; water, and sediments of Kennedy Space Center. Two hundred soil samples were collected, 20 each in 10 soil classes. Fifty-one groundwater wells were installed in 4 subaquifers of the Surficial Aquifer and sampled; there were 24 shallow, 16 intermediate, and 11 deep wells. Forty surface water and sediment samples were collected in major watershed basins. All samples were away from sites of known contamination. Samples were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, aroclors, chlorinated herbicides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), total metals, and other parameters. All aroclors (6) were below detection in all media. Some organochlorine pesticides were detected at very low frequencies in soil, sediment, and surface water. Chlorinated herbicides were detected at very low frequencies in soil and sediments. PAH occurred in low frequencies in soiL, shallow groundwater, surface water, and sediments. Concentrations of some metals differed among soil classes, with subaquifers and depths, and among watershed basins for surface water but not sediments. Most of the variation in metal concentrations was natural, but agriculture had increased Cr, Cu, Mn, and Zn.

  20. Individual and population plasticity of the seagrass Zostera noltii along a vertical intertidal gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabaço, Susana; Machás, Raquel; Santos, Rui

    2009-04-01

    The seasonal plasticity of individual Zostera noltii architectural, reproductive and elemental content features, of plant epiphyte load and of meadow biomass-density relationships was investigated along a vertical intertidal gradient at Ria Formosa lagoon, southern Portugal. The vertical variability of the seagrass environment was evident in the sediment characteristics, which showed coarser grain size, less organic matter, lower N content and higher ammonium concentration in the low intertidal than in medium and high intertidal. A clear vertical differentiation in Z. noltii morphology was observed from longer and wider leaves, longer and wider internodes and shorter roots at low intertidal, to shorter and narrow leaves, shorter and narrower internodes and longer roots at high intertidal. The leaf size was negatively related to light availability and positively related to nutrient availability whereas the root size was negatively related to nutrient availability. The lower leaf N and P content found in low intertidal plants may reflect a dilution effect of the nutrients due to higher growth rates. Lower N content of low intertidal leaves supports previous findings that the nitrate reductase activity is lower in plants from this level. The higher epiphyte load observed in Z. noltii leaves of the low intertidal may be a consequence of the lower exposure period, but also of higher hydrodynamics that increase the availability of nutrients. No evidence of the influence of the intertidal level on the flowering shoot density was found. The cyclic temporal pattern of the biomass-density relationship was much wider at low and medium intertidal than at high intertidal. At low intertidal, the decline in shoot density during fall and winter was coincident with a biomass decrease and its increase in spring and summer coincided with the biomass increase. In medium and high intertidal, the biomass and density seasonal variations were decoupled. As a result, only at low intertidal

  1. Biotransformation of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) in anaerobic digester sludge, soils, and freshwater sediments.

    PubMed

    McAvoy, Drew C; Pittinger, Charles A; Willis, Alison M

    2016-09-01

    The biotransformation of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) was evaluated in anaerobic digester sludge, soils, and freshwater sediments. In anaerobic digester sludge, TBBPA biotransformed rapidly with a 50% disappearance time (DT50) of 19 days, though little mineralization (1.1%) was observed. In aerobic soils, mineralization of TBBPA ranged from 17.5% to 21.6% with 55.3-83.6% of the TBBPA incorporated into the soils as a non-extractable bound residue. The DT50 for TBBPA in aerobic soils ranged from 5.3 to 7.7 days. In anaerobic soils, 48.3-100% of the TBBPA was incorporated into the soils as non-extractable bound residue with <4% mineralized. The soil fate studies demonstrated extensive incorporation of TBBPA into the solid matrix and this association was related to the amount of organic carbon in the soils (i.e., greater association of TBBPA with soil at higher organic carbon content). In anaerobic sediments the DT50 for TBBPA ranged from 28 to 42 days, whereas in aerobic sediments the DT50 for TBBPA ranged from 48 to 84 days and depended on the initial dose concentration. Most of the TBBPA in the sediment studies was incorporated as a non-extractable bound residue with little mineralization observed. Sediment extracts revealed three unknown biotransformation products and bisphenol A (BPA). These results were consistent with previously published studies where TBBPA biotransformed in anaerobic environments (digester sludge and sediments) by debromination and slowly mineralized in the test environments (anaerobic digester sludge, soils, and freshwater sediments). PMID:26212340

  2. MONITORING OXIDATION-REDUCTION PROCESSES IN GROUND WATERS, SEDIMENTS, AND SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall goal of this project is to develop recommendations and technical guidelines for evaluating redox processes in contaminated ground water, sediment, and soil systems. One specific goal is to evaluate existing methodologies for determining Dissolved Oxygen (DO) concentra...

  3. Background concentrations of radionuclides in soils and river sediments in northern New Mexico, 1974-1986

    SciTech Connect

    Purtymun, W.D.; Peters, R.J.; Buhl, T.E.; Maes, M.N.; Brown, F.H.

    1987-11-01

    This report documents the range and the upper limit for background concentrations of radionuclides and radioactivity in soils and river sediments that occur as natural rock-forming minerals and worldwide fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. Documentation is based on the collection of soil and sediment in northern New Mexico and analyzed for /sup 137/Cs, /sup 238/Pu, /sup 239,240/Pu, /sup 90/Sr, total uranium, gross gamma, and tritium. The data used to establish the statistical range and upper limit of background concentration cover a 9- or 13-year period ending in 1986. The knowledge of background levels is necessary to interpret soil and sediment data collected for the annual environmental surveillance report and other reports relating to radionuclides or radioactivity in soils and sediments. 11 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  4. SYNTHETIC SUBSTRATA FOR PROPAGATION AND TESTING OF SOIL AND SEDIMENT ORGANISMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method for formulation of synthetic substrata (soils and sediments) is given. ubmerged, wetland, and terrestrial plants, earthworms, crustaceans, and vertebrates were maintained on synthetic substrata composed of various amounts of commercially available sand, clay, silt, and p...

  5. Development and Application of Immunoaffinity Chromatography for Coplanar PCBs in Soil and Sediment

    EPA Science Inventory

    An immunoaffinity chromatography (IAC) column was developed as a simple cleanup procedure for preparing environmental samples for analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Soil and sediment samples were prepared using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), followed by the IAC c...

  6. DYNAMICS OF MINERAL STRUCTURES AND THE FATE OF METALS IN SOILS AND SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Significant progress has been made in elucidating sorption reactions that control the partitioning of metals from solution to mineral surfaces in contaminated soil/sediment systems. Surface complexation models have been developed to quantify the forward reaction with reasonable ...

  7. METAL SPECIATION IN SOIL, SEDIMENT, AND WATER SYSTEMS VIA SYNCHROTRON RADIATION RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metal contaminated environmental systems (soils, sediments, and water) have challenged researchers for many years. Traditional methods of analysis have employed extraction methods to determine total metal content and define risk based on the premise that as metal concentration in...

  8. THE INFLUENCE OF MINERAL REACTIONS ON THE ENVIRONMENTAL FATE OF METALS IN SOILS AND SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Significant progress has been made in elucidating sorption reactions that control the partitioning of metals from solution to mineral surfaces in contaminated soil/sediment systems. Surface complexation models have been developed to quantify the forward reaction, however, these ...

  9. Ecoenzymatic Stoichiometry of Microbial Organic Nutrient Acquisition in Soil and Sediment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Terrestrial soils and freshwater sediments contain reserves of organic carbon estimated at 1500 Pg and 0.2 Pg, respectively. Mineralization of this organic matter by heterotrophic microorganisms drives global carbon and nutrient cycles, controlling plant production and atmospher...

  10. NEW GIS WATERSHED ANALYSIS TOOLS FOR SOIL CHARACTERIZATION AND EROSION AND SEDIMENTATION MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    A comprehensive procedure for computing soil erosion and sediment delivery metrics has been developed which utilizes a suite of automated scripts and a pair of processing-intensive executable programs operating on a personal computer platform.

  11. Psychrotrophic lipase producers from Arctic soil and sediment samples.

    PubMed

    Rasol, R; Rashidah, A R; Nazuha, R Siti Nur; Smykla, J; Maznah, W O Wan; Alias, S A

    2014-01-01

    Culturable microorganisms were successfully isolated from soil and sediment samples collected in 2011 on the northern coast of Hornsund, West Spitsbergen. A total of 63 single colony isolates from three sampling sites obtained were subjected to temperature dependence study to assess whether they are obligate psychrophilic or psychrotrophic strains. From initial temperature screening, only 53 psychrotrophic isolates were selected that are capable of growing between 4-28 degrees C. The rest that were capable of tolerating higher temperatures up to 37 degrees C were not included in this study. These isolates were chosen for lipase enzyme screening confirmation with the standard plate assay of olive oil and fluorescent dye Rhodamine B. Six lipase positive isolates were also subjected for subsequent lipase enzyme plate screening on tributyrin, triolein, olive oil and palm oil agar. Lipase production by these six isolates was further assayed by using colorimetric method with palm oil and olive oil as the substrate. These isolates with promising lipase activity ranging from 20 U/ml up to 160 U/ml on palm oil and olive oil substrate were successfully identified. Molecular identification by using 16S rRNA revealed that five out of six isolates were Gram-negative Proteobacteria and the other one was a Gram-positive Actinobacteria. PMID:25033666

  12. Laboratory measurements of upwelled radiance and reflectance spectra of Calvert, Ball, Jordan, and Feldspar soil sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitlock, C. H.; Usry, J. W.; Witte, W. G.; Gurganus, E. A.

    1977-01-01

    An effort to investigate the potential of remote sensing for monitoring nonpoint source pollution was conducted. Spectral reflectance characteristics for four types of soil sediments were measured for mixture concentrations between 4 and 173 ppm. For measurements at a spectral resolution of 32 mm, the spectral reflectances of Calvert, Ball, Jordan, and Feldspar soil sediments were distinctly different over the wavelength range from 400 to 980 nm at each concentration tested. At high concentrations, spectral differences between the various sediments could be detected by measurements with a spectral resolution of 160 nm. At a low concentration, only small differences were observed between the various sediments when measurements were made with 160 nm spectral resolution. Radiance levels generally varied in a nonlinear manner with sediment concentration; linearity occurred in special cases, depending on sediment type, concentration range, and wavelength.

  13. A multi-component statistic analysis for the influence of sediment/soil composition on the sorption of a nonionic surfactant (Triton X-100) onto natural sediments/soils.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lizhong; Yang, Kun; Lou, Baofeng; Yuan, Bihao

    2003-11-01

    The contents of soil/sediment organic carbon and clay minerals (i.e. montmorillonite, kaolinite, illite, gibbsite and 1.4 nm minerals) for 21 natural soil/sediment samples and the sorption of Triton X-100 on these samples were determined. A multi-component statistic analysis was employed to investigate the importance of soil/sediment organic matters and clay minerals on their sorption of Triton X-100. The sorption power of soil/sediment composition for Triton X-100 conforms to an order of montmorillonite>organic carbon>illite>1.4 nm minerals (vermiculite+chlorite+1.4 nm intergrade mineral)>kaolinite. The sorption of Triton X-100 on a montmorillonite, a kaolinite and a humic acid were also investigated and consistent with the result of multi-component statistic analysis. It is clear that the sorption of Triton X-100 on soils or sediments is the combined contribution of soil/sediment organic matters and clay minerals, which depended on both the contents of soil/sediment organic matters and the types and contents of clay minerals. The important influence of illite on the sorption of nonionic surfactants onto soils/sediments is suggested and demonstrated in this paper. Surfactants for aquifer remediation application may be more efficient for the contaminated soils/sediments that contain little clay minerals with 2:1 structure because of the less sorption of nonionic surfactants on these soils/sediments. PMID:14568066

  14. Assessment of herbicide sorption by biochars and organic matter associated with soil and sediment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorption of two herbicides, fluridone (FLUN) and norflurazon (NORO), by whole sediment, two types of biochars and various soil/sediment organic matter (OM) fractions including nonhydrolyzable carbon (NHC), black carbon (BC) and humic acid (HA) was examined. The single-point organic carbon (OC)-norma...

  15. A probe for sampling interstitial waters of stream sediments and bog soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nowlan, G.A.; Carollo, C.

    1974-01-01

    A probe for sampling interstitial waters of stream sediments and bog soils is described. Samples can be obtained within a stratigraphic interval of 2-3 cm, to a depth of 60-80 cm, and with little or no contamination of the samples by sediment or air. ?? 1974.

  16. In Situ Representation of Soil/Sediment Conductivity Using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaojing; Wang, Xin; Zhao, Qian; Zhang, Yueyong; Zhou, Qixing

    2016-01-01

    The electrical conductivity (EC) of soil is generally measured after soil extraction, so this method cannot represent the in situ EC of soil (e.g., EC of soils with different moisture contents) and therefore lacks comparability in some cases. Using a resistance measurement apparatus converted from a configuration of soil microbial fuel cell, the in situ soil EC was evaluated according to the Ohmic resistance (Rs) measured using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The EC of soils with moisture content from 9.1% to 37.5% was calculated according to Rs. A significant positive correlation (R2 = 0.896, p < 0.01) between the soil EC and the moisture content was observed, which demonstrated the feasibility of the approach. This new method can not only represent the actual soil EC, but also does not need any pretreatment. Thus it may be used widely in the measurement of the EC for soils and sediments. PMID:27144567

  17. In Situ Representation of Soil/Sediment Conductivity Using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaojing; Wang, Xin; Zhao, Qian; Zhang, Yueyong; Zhou, Qixing

    2016-01-01

    The electrical conductivity (EC) of soil is generally measured after soil extraction, so this method cannot represent the in situ EC of soil (e.g., EC of soils with different moisture contents) and therefore lacks comparability in some cases. Using a resistance measurement apparatus converted from a configuration of soil microbial fuel cell, the in situ soil EC was evaluated according to the Ohmic resistance (Rs) measured using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The EC of soils with moisture content from 9.1% to 37.5% was calculated according to Rs. A significant positive correlation (R² = 0.896, p < 0.01) between the soil EC and the moisture content was observed, which demonstrated the feasibility of the approach. This new method can not only represent the actual soil EC, but also does not need any pretreatment. Thus it may be used widely in the measurement of the EC for soils and sediments. PMID:27144567

  18. Relating suspended sediment to its original soil depth using fallout radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Wallbrink, P.J.; Olley, J.M.; Murray, A.S.

    1999-03-01

    The authors present and test a new method for determining the original soil depth of suspended sediment through analysis of fallout radionuclide properties. They propose that combining the different depth distributions of fallout {sup 7}Be, {sup 210}Pb, and {sup 137}Cs in soils with one another provides reference curves that can be used as a framework for interpreting the tracer concentrations of sediments derived from them. If it is assumed that the soil depth sources of the sediment are from the surface and the subsurface, the tracer concentrations from these two sources can be used to calculate the actual soil depth(s) from which the sediment originated. The proportion of sediment from each depth can also be calculated. The authors tested this method by generating sediment from a hillslope with treatments simulating: (T1) surface erosion, (T2) shallow rills to 10 mm, (T3) deep rills to 100 mm, and (T4) small gullies to 250 mm. The tracer-based calculations of sediment source matched the known incision depths of these features. Material was predicted to be from 1 {+-} 2 mm and 4 {+-} 4 mm soil depth for T1 and T2 respectively. In T3, the material was predicted to be from 1.25 {+-} 0.5 mm at the surface and >78 {+-} 6 mm depth from the deep rills. In T4, the sediment was predicted to be from <2.5 {+-} 1.5 mm at the soil surface and >86 {+-} 6 mm from the small gullies. The subsoil contribution to sediments increased from {approx}50% (T3) to 75% (T4) as rill and dully depths and widths increased.

  19. Unstable Pore-Water Flow in Intertidal Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barry, D. A.; Shen, C.; Li, L.

    2014-12-01

    Salt marshes are important intertidal wetlands strongly influenced by interactions between surface water and groundwater. Bordered by coastal water, the marsh system undergoes cycles of inundation and exposure driven by the tide. This leads to dynamic, complex pore-water flow and solute transport in the marsh soil. Pore-water circulations occur over vastly different spatial and temporal scales with strong link to the marsh topography. These circulations control solute transport between the marsh soil and the tidal creek, and ultimately affect the overall nutrient exchange between the marsh and coastal water. The pore-water flows also dictate the soil condition, particularly aeration, which influences the marsh plant growth. Numerous studies have been carried out to examine the pore-water flow process in the marsh soil driven by tides, focusing on stable flow with the assumption of homogeneity in soil and fluid properties. This assumption, however, is questionable given the actual inhomogeneous conditions in the field. For example, the salinity of surface water in the tidal creek varies temporally and spatially due to the influence of rainfall and evapotranspiration as well as the freshwater input from upland areas to the estuary, creating density gradients across the marsh surface and within the marsh soil. Many marshes possess soil stratigraphy with low-permeability mud typically overlying high-permeability sandy deposits. Macropores such as crab burrows are commonly distributed in salt marsh sediments. All these conditions are prone to the development of non-uniform, unstable preferential pore-water flow in the marsh soil, for example, funnelling and fingering. Here we present results from laboratory experiments and numerical simulations to explore such unstable flow. In particular, the analysis aims to address how the unstable flow modifies patterns of local pore-water movement and solute transport, as well as the overall exchange between the marsh soil and

  20. The Effect of the Subsurface Soil Water Regime on Sediment Production and Movement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil erosion and sediment transport in agricultural watersheds are highly complicated processes involving a large array of soil properties, surface conditions, and flow regimes. The preponderance of early research on upland areas in agricultural watersheds was motivated by concern for the loss of ag...

  1. Sorption and photolysis studies in soil and sediment of the herbicide napropamide.

    PubMed

    Aguer, J P; Cox, L; Richard, C; Hermosin, M C; Cornejo, J

    2000-11-01

    The influence of soil and sediment composition on sorption and photodegradation of the herbicide napropamide [N,N-diethyl-2-(1-naphthyloxy)propionamide] was investigated. Five soils and one sediment were selected for this study and the clay fractions were obtained by sedimentation. Sorption-desorption was studied by batch equilibration technique and photolysis in a photoreactor emitting within 300-450 nm wavelength with a maximum at 365 nm. Sorption increased with clay content and was not related to organic matter content. High irreversibility of sorption was related to the greater montmorillonite content. The presence of soil or sediment reduced photolysis rate due to screen effect and this process did not depend on solid composition but on particle size distribution. PMID:11069015

  2. Modeling of soil erosion and sediment transport in the East River Basin in southern China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yiping; Chen, Ji

    2012-12-15

    Soil erosion is a major global environmental problem that has caused many issues involving land degradation, sedimentation of waterways, ecological degradation, and nonpoint source pollution. Therefore, it is significant to understand the processes of soil erosion and sediment transport along rivers, and this can help identify the erosion prone areas and find potential measures to alleviate the environmental effects. In this study, we investigated soil erosion and identified the most seriously eroded areas in the East River Basin in southern China using a physically-based model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). We also introduced a classical sediment transport method (Zhang) into SWAT and compared it with the built-in Bagnold method in simulating sediment transport process along the river. The derived spatial soil erosion map and land use based erosion levels can explicitly illustrate the identification and prioritization of the critical soil erosion areas in this basin. Our results also indicate that erosion is quite sensitive to soil properties and slope. Comparison of Bagnold and Zhang methods shows that the latter can give an overall better performance especially in tracking the peak and low sediment concentrations along the river. We also found that the East River is mainly characterized by sediment deposition in most of the segments and at most times of a year. Overall, the results presented in this paper can provide decision support for watershed managers about where the best management practices (conservation measures) can be implemented effectively and at low cost. The methods we used in this study can also be of interest in sediment modeling for other basins worldwide. PMID:23137981

  3. Modeling of soil erosion and sediment transport in the East River Basin in southern China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, Yping; Chen, Ji

    2012-01-01

    Soil erosion is a major global environmental problem that has caused many issues involving land degradation, sedimentation of waterways, ecological degradation, and nonpoint source pollution. Therefore, it is significant to understand the processes of soil erosion and sediment transport along rivers, and this can help identify the erosion prone areas and find potential measures to alleviate the environmental effects. In this study, we investigated soil erosion and identified the most seriously eroded areas in the East River Basin in southern China using a physically-based model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). We also introduced a classical sediment transport method (Zhang) into SWAT and compared it with the built-in Bagnold method in simulating sediment transport process along the river. The derived spatial soil erosion map and land use based erosion levels can explicitly illustrate the identification and prioritization of the critical soil erosion areas in this basin. Our results also indicate that erosion is quite sensitive to soil properties and slope. Comparison of Bagnold and Zhang methods shows that the latter can give an overall better performance especially in tracking the peak and low sediment concentrations along the river. We also found that the East River is mainly characterized by sediment deposition in most of the segments and at most times of a year. Overall, the results presented in this paper can provide decision support for watershed managers about where the best management practices (conservation measures) can be implemented effectively and at low cost. The methods we used in this study can also be of interest in sediment modeling for other basins worldwide.

  4. Correlation of soil and sediment organic matter polarity to aqueous sorption of nonionic compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kile, D.E.; Wershaw, R. L.; Chiou, C.T.

    1999-01-01

    Polarities of the soiL/sediment organic matter (SOM) in 19 soil and 9 freshwater sediment sam pies were determined from solid-state 13C-CP/MAS NMR spectra and compared with published partition coefficients (K(oc)) of carbon tetrachloride (CT) from aqueous solution. Nondestructive analysis of whole samples by solid-state NMR permits a direct assessment of the polarity of SOM that is not possible by elemental analysis. The percent of organic carbon associated with polar functional groups was estimated from the combined fraction of carbohydrate and carboxylamide-ester carbons. A plot of the measured partition coefficients (K(oc)) of carbon tetrachloride (CT) vs. percent polar organic carbon (POC) shows distinctly different populations of soils and sediments as well as a roughly inverse trend among the soil/sediment populations. Plots of K(oc) values for CT against other structural group carbon fractions did not yield distinct populations. The results indicate that the polarity of SOM is a significant factor in accounting for differences in K(oc) between the organic matter in soils and sediments. The alternate direct correlation of the sum of aliphatic and aromatic structural carbons with K(oc) illustrates the influence of nonpolar hydrocarbon on solute partition interaction. Additional elemental analysis data of selected samples further substantiate the effect of the organic matter polarity on the partition efficiency of nonpolar solutes. The separation between soil and sediment samples based on percent POC reflects definite differences of the properties of soil and sediment organic matters that are attributable to diagenesis.Polarities of the soil/sediment organic matter (SOM) in 19 soil and 9 freshwater sediment samples were determined from solid-state 13C-CP/MAS NMR spectra and compared with published partition coefficients (Koc) of carbon tetrachloride (CT) from aqueous solution. Nondestructive analysis of whole samples by solid-state NMR permits a direct

  5. Spatial distribution of soil erosion and suspended sediment transport rate for Chou-Shui river basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chin-Ping; Chen, Ching-Nuo; Wang, Yu-Min; Tsai, Chih-Heng; Tsai, Chang-Tai

    2014-10-01

    In this study, a Physiographic Soil Erosion-Deposition Model (PSED) is applied for better management of a watershed. The PSED model can effectively evaluate the key parameters of watershed management: surface runoff discharge, suspended sediment transport rate, quantity of soil erosion, and spatial distribution of soil erosion and deposition. A basin usually contains multiple watersheds. These watersheds may have complex topography and heterogeneous physiographic properties. The PSED model, containing a physiographic rainfall-runoff model and a basin scale erosion-deposition model, can simulate the physical mechanism of the entire erosion process based on a detailed calculation of bed-load transportation, surface soil entrainment, and the deposition mechanism. With the assistance of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), the PSED model can handle and analyze extremely large hydrologic and physiographic datasets and simulate the physical erosion process without the need for simplification. We verified the PSED model using three typhoon events and 40 rainfall events. The application of PSED to Chou-Shui River basin shows that the PSED model can accurately estimate discharge hydrographs, suspended sediment transport rates, and sediment yield. Additionally, we obtained reasonable quantities of soil erosion as well as the spatial distribution of soil erosion and deposition. The results show that the PSED model is capable of calculating spatially distributed soil erosion and suspended sediment transport rates for a basin with multiple watersheds even if these watersheds have complex topography and heterogeneous physiographic properties.

  6. Parasitism, community structure and biodiversity in intertidal ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Mouritsen, K N; Poulin, R

    2002-01-01

    There is mounting evidence that parasites can influence the composition and structure of natural animal communities. In spite of this, it is difficult to assess just how important parasitism is for community structure because very few studies have been designed specifically to address the role of parasites at the community level, no doubt because it is difficult to manipulate the abundance of parasites in field experiments. Here, we bring together a large amount of published information on parasitism in intertidal communities to highlight the potential influence of parasites on the structure and biodiversity of these communities. We first review the impact of metazoan parasites on the survival, reproduction, growth and behaviour of intertidal invertebrates, from both rocky shores and soft-sediment flats. Published evidence suggests that the impact of parasites on individuals is often severe, though their effects at the population level are dependent on prevalence and intensity of infection. We then put this information together in a discussion of the impact of parasitism at the community level. We emphasize two ways in which parasites can modify the structure of intertidal communities. First, the direct impact of parasites on the abundance of key host species can decrease the importance of these hosts in competition or predator-prey interactions with other species. Second, the indirect effects of parasites on the behaviour of their hosts, e.g. burrowing ability or spatial distribution within the intertidal zone, can cause changes to various features of the habitat for other intertidal species, leading to their greater settlement success or to their local disappearance. Our synthesis allows specific predictions to be made regarding the potential impact of parasites in certain intertidal systems, and suggests that parasites must be included in future community studies and food web models of intertidal ecosystems. PMID:12396219

  7. Erodibility of selected soils and estimates of sediment yields in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Summer, Rebecca M.

    1981-01-01

    Onsite rainfall-simulation experiments were conducted to derive field-erodibility indexes for rangeland soils and soils disturbed by mining in coal fields of northwestern New Mexico. Mean indexes on rangeland soils range from 0 grams (of detached soil) on dune soil to 121 grams on wash-transport zones. Mean field-erodibility-index values of soils disturbed by mining range from 16 to 32 grams; they can be extrapolted to nearby coal fields where future mining is expected. Because field-erodibility-index data allow differentiation of erodibilities across a variable landscape, these indexes were used to adjust values of K, the erodibility factor of the Universal Soil Loss Equation. Estimates of soil loss and sediment yield were then calculated for a small basin following mining. (USGS)

  8. The influence of vegetation on sedimentation and resuspension of soil particles in small constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Braskerud, B C

    2001-01-01

    When initiatives to mitigate soil erosion are insufficient or fail, constructed surface flow wetlands (CWs) could be a final buffer to reduce pollution before reaching recipients. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of CW vegetation on the retention of soil particles from arable land. Retention was measured with water flow-proportional sampling systems in the inlet and outlet, sedimentation traps, and sedimentation plates in four small CWs over a period of 5 yr. The surface area of the CWs was 265 to 900 m2, and the average hydraulic loads were 1.2 to 3.4 m d(-1). Watershed areas were 0.5 to 1.5 km2. Annual soil particle retention was 30 to 80% or 14 to 121 kg m(-2). Results show that macrophytes stimulate sediment retention by mitigating resuspension of CW sediment. Five years after construction, resuspension had decreased approximately 40% and was negligible. As vegetation cover increases, the influence of macrophytes on soil particle retention reaches a level where other factors, such as hydraulic load and sediment load, were more important. Macrophytes increased the hydraulic efficiency by reducing short-circuit or preferential flow. However, vegetation did not have any influence on the clay concentration in the sediment. Hence, a possible stimulation of particle flocculation was not detected. Vegetation makes it possible to use the positive effect of a short particle settling distance in shallow ponds by hindering resuspension. PMID:11476524

  9. Bioavailability of chromium in soils and sediments at a former leather tannery site

    SciTech Connect

    Pacquin, P.R.; Di Toro, D.M.; De Rosa, L.; Maiello, J.; Kerrigan, J.

    1995-12-31

    Bioavailability is a fundamental consideration in the equilibrium partitioning method used by EPA to develop sediment quality criteria (SOC). Even so, the bioavailability of metals in soils and sediments is often overlooked in ecological risk assessments for Superfund sites. This paper summarizes field and laboratory data for chromium levels in biota, soil and sediment samples from an abandoned tannery site and presents a method for characterizing the bioavailable fraction of chromium in these media. Chromium levels in soils and sediments at the former tannery site are about 1,000 times higher than levels at control sites (30,000 ppm versus 30 ppm). The elevated chromium levels are due to previously released tannery wastes, which contain high levels of chromium as a result of the tanning process. In contrast to chromium levels in soils and sediments, levels in terrestrial biota (earthworms, vegetation, and meadow voles) and aquatic biota (minnows, crayfish and mayfly nymphs) at the site are only about 2 to 20 times higher than control area samples. Biota:Soil and Biota:Sediment Accumulation Factors (BSAFs, total chromium basis) for the site are about one to five percent of control area BSAFs. This difference indicates that chromium at the site is relatively non-bioavailable. Sequential extraction techniques were used to characterize the manner in which the chromium is bound to soil and sediment at the site. The extraction results are compared with the biota field data and it appears that the exchangeable chromium fraction is indicative of the bioavailable fraction. The implications of these results to a screening level ecological risk assessment are presented.

  10. Metal pollution of estuarine sediments caused by leaching of acid sulphate soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordmyr, Linda; Åström, Mats; Peltola, Pasi

    2008-01-01

    This study tracks changes in metal distribution in estuarine sediments as a result of leakage from acid sulphate (AS) soil landscapes in the Boreal Zone (Finland). The main objective was to identify the impact of these nasty soils on sediment geochemistry in a biologically sensitive and shallow brackish-water estuary. In order to do this four sediment cores were sampled in a profile extending seawards from the mouth of the Vörå River, which is one of the most heavily AS soil-impacted rivers in Finland and Europe. Two of the cores were rather deep (2.5 m and 4.0 m) and the others were shallow (0.4 m and 0.8 m). The results showed that an appreciable amount of aluminium (Al), cobalt (Co), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) were elevated in the surface and sub-surface of the sampled bottom sediments compared to the deeper sediment background levels. These metals are all known to be abundantly leached from the AS soils. At the site approximately 4 km away from the river mouth, the concentrations of Cd, Co, Mn, Ni and Zn were elevated 5-100 times as compared to the background levels and showed an intriguing cyclic pattern, most likely reflecting seasonal leaching dynamics in the AS soil landscapes. In contrast, metals that are not abundantly leached from AS soils, i.e. chromium (Cr), iron (Fe) and vanadium (V) had consistently low concentrations throughout all sediment cores. The elevated metal concentrations in the top layers of the sediments in the estuary are alarming. The continuous land uplift of the region combined with the episodic rapid declines in pH may result in short and long term extensive release of metals. This, in turn, may have significant effects on the trace-metal contents in the Gulf of Bothnia and the entire Baltic Sea.

  11. An experimental study of rill sediment delivery in purple soil, using the volume-replacement method

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yuhan; Luo, Banglin; Ding, Linqiao; Gong, Chunming

    2015-01-01

    Experimental studies provide a basis for understanding the mechanisms of rill erosion and can provide estimates for parameter values in physical models simulating the erosion process. In this study, we investigated sediment delivery during rill erosion in purple soil. We used the volume-replacement method to measure the volume of eroded soil and hence estimate the mass of eroded soil. A 12 m artificial rill was divided into the following sections: 0–0.5 m, 0.5–1 m, 1–2 m, 2–3 m, 3–4 m, 4–5 m, 5–6 m, 6–7 m, 7–8 m, 8–10 m, and 10–12 m. Erosion trials were conducted with three flow rates (2 L/min, 4 L/min, and 8 L/min) and five slope gradients (5°, 10°, 15°, 20°, and 25°). The eroded rill sections were refilled with water to measure the eroded volume in each section and subsequently calculate the eroded sediment mass. The cumulative sediment mass was used to compute the sediment concentration along the length of the rill. The results show that purple soil sediment concentration increases with rill length before eventually reaching a maximal value; that is, the rate of increase in sediment concentration is greatest at the rill inlet and then gradually slows. Steeper slopes and higher flow rates result in sediment concentration increasing more rapidly along the rill length and the maximum sediment concentration being reached at an earlier location in the rill. Slope gradient and flow rate both result in an increase in maximal sediment concentration and accumulated eroded amount. However, slope gradient has a greater influence on rill erosion than flow rate. The results and experimental method in this study may provide a reference for future rill-erosion experiments. PMID:26734498

  12. Effects of sedimentation on soil nutrient dynamics in riparian forests.

    PubMed

    Lockaby, B G; Governo, R; Schilling, E; Cavalcanti, G; Hartsfield, C

    2005-01-01

    The influence of sedimentation rates on biogeochemistry of riparian forests was studied near ephemeral streams at Fort Benning, GA. Upper reaches of seven ephemeral streams had received varying rates of sedimentation stemming from erosion along unpaved roadways at the military installation. Two reference catchments were also included in the study. Decomposition of foliar litter, microbial C and N, N mineralization, and arthropod populations were compared within and among catchments. Rates of sedimentation over the past 25 yr ranged from 0 in references to 4.0 cm yr(-1). Decomposition rates declined exponentially with sedimentation rates as low as 0.20 to 0.32 cm yr(-1) and appeared to reach an equilibrium at a sedimentation rate of 0.5 cm yr(-1). Nitrogen mineralization and microbial C and N followed the same trend. Sedimentation had no discernible effect on arthropod populations. These data suggest that biogeochemical cycles may be altered by sedimentation rates that commonly occur in some floodplain forests. PMID:15647569

  13. Assessment of Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals in Soils and Sediments from Three Superfund Sites

    PubMed Central

    dela Cruz, Albert Leo N.; Cook, Robert L.; Dellinger, Barry; Lomnicki, Slawomir M.; Donnelly, Kirby C.; Kelley, Matthew A.; Cosgriff, David

    2014-01-01

    We previously reported the presence of environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) in pentachlorophenol (PCP) contaminated soils at a closed wood treatment facility site in Georgia. The reported EPFRs were pentachlorophenoxyl radicals formed on soils under ambient conditions via electron transfer from PCP to electron acceptors in the soil. In this study, we present results for soil and sediment samples from additional Superfund sites in Montana and Washington. Paramagnetic centers associated with different chemical environments were characterized by distinct g-factors and line widths (ΔHp-p). EPFR concentrations in contaminated samples were ~30x, ~12x, and ~2x higher than background samples at the Georgia, Montana, and Washington sites, respectively. EPR signals in the Montana contaminated soils were very similar to those previously observed for pentachlorophenol contaminated soils at the Georgia site, i.e., g = 2.00300 and ΔHp-p = 6.0 G, whereas signals in the Washington sediment samples were similar to those previously observed for other PAH contaminated soils, i.e., g = 2.00270 and ΔHp-p = 9.0G. Total carbon content measurements exhibited direct correlation with EPFR concentration. The presence of radicals in sites contaminated a decade to a century ago suggests continuous formation of EPFRs from molecular contaminants in the soil and sediment. PMID:24244947

  14. Assessment of environmentally persistent free radicals in soils and sediments from three Superfund sites.

    PubMed

    dela Cruz, Albert Leo N; Cook, Robert L; Dellinger, Barry; Lomnicki, Slawomir M; Donnelly, Kirby C; Kelley, Matthew A; Cosgriff, David

    2014-01-01

    We previously reported the presence of environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) in pentachlorophenol (PCP) contaminated soils at a closed wood treatment facility site in Georgia. The reported EPFRs were pentachlorophenoxyl radicals formed on soils under ambient conditions via electron transfer from PCP to electron acceptors in the soil. In this study, we present results for soil and sediment samples from additional Superfund sites in Montana and Washington. Paramagnetic centers associated with different chemical environments were characterized by distinct g-factors and line widths (ΔHp-p). EPFR concentrations in contaminated samples were ~30×, ~12×, and ~2× higher than background samples at the Georgia, Montana, and Washington sites, respectively. EPR signals in the Montana contaminated soils were very similar to those previously observed for pentachlorophenol contaminated soils at the Georgia site, i.e., g = 2.00300 and ΔHp-p = 6.0 G, whereas signals in the Washington sediment samples were similar to those previously observed for other PAH contaminated soils, i.e., g = 2.00270 and ΔHp-p = 9.0 G. Total carbon content measurements exhibited direct correlation with EPFR concentration. The presence of radicals in sites contaminated a decade to a century ago suggests continuous formation of EPFRs from molecular contaminants in the soil and sediment. PMID:24244947

  15. Effects of the Release of Soil Organic Matter on Phenanthrene Sorption by Sediments.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoyan; Wu, Yaoguo; Hu, Sihai; Li, Tao

    2016-04-01

    The release of soil organic matter (SOM) has been frequently studied, while its effects on sorption kinetics and on the capacity of phenanthrene (PHE) on sediments have seldom been studied. In this study, sodium chloride (NaCl, 0-0.1 mol/L) was introduced to adjust the release of SOM, and three sediments were prepared: a raw sediment (S1), an eluted sediment (S2), and an SOM-removed sediment (S3). The release of SOM , with dissolved organic matter (DOM) formed in solution, was confirmed in sediment 1. Sorption kinetics on sediment 1 showed atypical results as three stages: rapid sorption, pseudo sorption with partial desorption, and slow sorption. Also, a defined "sorption valley" occurred in the kinetic curve, which can be qualitatively determined by the characteristics of the release of SOM, including its amount, rate and sequence in each SOM fraction. Sorption capacity on sediments 1 and 2 was negatively correlated with aqueous DOM concentrations. By changing sediment characteristics and solution properties, the release of SOM significantly impacts polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) sorption behaviors. These results help clarify the transport of PAHs in sediment-water systems. PMID:27131058

  16. Sediment Dynamics Within Buffer Zone and Sinkhole Splay Areas Under Extreme Soil Disturbance Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoonover, Jon E.; Crim, Jackie F.; Williard, Karl W. J.; Groninger, John W.; Zaczek, James J.; Pattumma, Klairoong

    2015-09-01

    Sedimentation dynamics were assessed in sinkholes within training areas at Ft. Knox Military Installation, a karst landscape subjected to decades of tracked vehicle use and extreme soil disturbance. Sinkholes sampled were sediment-laden and behaved as intermittent ponds. Dendrogeomorphic analyses were conducted using willow trees ( Salix spp.) located around the edge of 18 sinkholes to estimate historical sedimentation rates, and buried bottles were installed in 20 sinkholes at the center, outer edge, and at the midpoint between the center and edge to estimate annual sedimentation rates. Sedimentation data were coupled with vegetation characteristics of sinkhole buffers to determine relationships among these variables. The dendrogeomorphic method estimated an average accumulation rate of 1.27 cm year-1 translating to a sediment loss rate of 46.1 metric ton year-1 from the training areas. However, sediment export to sinkholes was estimated to be much greater (118.6 metric ton year-1) via the bottle method. These data suggest that the latter method provided a more accurate estimate since accumulation was greater in the center of sinkholes compared to the periphery where dendrogeomorphic data were collected. Vegetation data were not tightly correlated with sedimentation rates, suggesting that further research is needed to identify a viable proxy for direct measures of sediment accumulation in this extreme deposition environment. Mitigation activities for the sinkholes at Ft. Knox's tank training area, and other heavily disturbed karst environments where extreme sedimentation exists, should consider focusing on flow path and splay area management.

  17. Sediment Dynamics Within Buffer Zone and Sinkhole Splay Areas Under Extreme Soil Disturbance Conditions.

    PubMed

    Schoonover, Jon E; Crim, Jackie F; Williard, Karl W J; Groninger, John W; Zaczek, James J; Pattumma, Klairoong

    2015-09-01

    Sedimentation dynamics were assessed in sinkholes within training areas at Ft. Knox Military Installation, a karst landscape subjected to decades of tracked vehicle use and extreme soil disturbance. Sinkholes sampled were sediment-laden and behaved as intermittent ponds. Dendrogeomorphic analyses were conducted using willow trees (Salix spp.) located around the edge of 18 sinkholes to estimate historical sedimentation rates, and buried bottles were installed in 20 sinkholes at the center, outer edge, and at the midpoint between the center and edge to estimate annual sedimentation rates. Sedimentation data were coupled with vegetation characteristics of sinkhole buffers to determine relationships among these variables. The dendrogeomorphic method estimated an average accumulation rate of 1.27 cm year(-1) translating to a sediment loss rate of 46.1 metric ton year(-1) from the training areas. However, sediment export to sinkholes was estimated to be much greater (118.6 metric ton year(-1)) via the bottle method. These data suggest that the latter method provided a more accurate estimate since accumulation was greater in the center of sinkholes compared to the periphery where dendrogeomorphic data were collected. Vegetation data were not tightly correlated with sedimentation rates, suggesting that further research is needed to identify a viable proxy for direct measures of sediment accumulation in this extreme deposition environment. Mitigation activities for the sinkholes at Ft. Knox's tank training area, and other heavily disturbed karst environments where extreme sedimentation exists, should consider focusing on flow path and splay area management. PMID:25975438

  18. The role of climate in balancing soil production and sediment yield in New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, K. P.

    2013-12-01

    New Zealand hosts some of the highest specific sediment yields on the planet reaching up to nearly 30,000 t km-2 yr-1. Sediment yields measure the export of sediment from a basin and give an indication of erosion from hillslopes. In New Zealand high sediment yields correlate with high annual precipitation and high rates of tectonic strain (Hicks et al., 1996). It is, however, unclear how soil production keeps pace with such extreme erosion. Here, this question is investigated by modelling soil production as a function of local climate parameters. Two simple models for building climate into soil production are through effective energy and mass transfer, EEMT, (Rasmussen and Tabor, 2007) and primary chemical weathering. When applied to ~30 year climate data, these models highlight the variability of potential soil production across New Zealand. Due partially to high annual rainfall, some of the fastest erosion rates on the west coast of the South Island are nearly in balance with soil production. In other regions such as the east coast of the North Island, hotspots exist where annual sediment yields exceed reasonable soil production rates such that additional mechanisms must operate to generate sediment and make up this deficit. Globally, precipitation tends to increase and temperature decreases with increasing elevation. In New Zealand, increasing elevations also roughly correlate with an increase in mean basin slope angle and the percent of a basin at >30° slopes. As a result, modelled soil production also tends to increase with increasing mean basin slope angle. This correlation occurs independent of erosion feedbacks on the modelled soil production rates. This relationship presents an intriguing scenario in which the topography of the mountain range may be maintained by climate through variations in soil production. Even with rapid modelled soil production at high precipitation rates and/or high temperatures and/or high temperatures, many basins cannot keep pace

  19. Mercury Fractionation in Superficial Sediment and Paddy Soil Samples from Tianjin, Northern China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chao; Zhang, Zhaoji; Fei, Yuhong; Wu, Guoqing; Qian, Yong

    2016-08-01

    Sediment and soil samples from the Beitang River (BR) and the Haihe River (HR) in Tianjin were analyzed to investigate the extent of mercury contamination. The results show that total mercury (THg) contents in the BR and HR sediments were 2241 ± 1024 and 653 ± 450 ng g(-1), and THg in rice paddy soils were 907 ± 345 and 328 ± 286 ng g(-1), respectively. Industrial and domestic sewage were regarded as the main sources of mercury in the two river basins. Sediment-bound mercury in the BR and the HR were found to be predominantly associated with the organic-bound fraction (55 %) and residual fraction and (54 %), while soil-bound mercury was mainly in organic-bound fraction in paddy soils (61 % and 57 %, respectively). The availability of this element (soluble and exchangeable and specifically sorbed fraction) seemed restricted, but significantly higher in the paddy soils than in sediments. Higher soluble and exchangeable, specifically sorbed fraction and organic-bound fraction may promote the higher toxic methylmercury and bioavailable fraction formation in the soils during the rice cultivation. PMID:27283074

  20. Cadmium contamination in Tianjin agricultural soils and sediments: relative importance of atmospheric deposition from coal combustion.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guanghong; Yang, Cancan; Guo, Lan; Wang, Zhongliang

    2013-06-01

    Cadmium (Cd) in coal, fly ash, slag, atmospheric deposition, soils and sediments collected from Tianjin, northern China, were measured to provide baseline information and determine possible Cd sources and potential risk. The concentrations of Cd in coal, fly ash and atmospheric deposition were much higher than the soil background values. Fallout from coal-fired thermal power plants, heating boilers and industrial furnaces has increased the Cd concentration in soils and sediments in Tianjin. The concentrations of Cd in soils of suburban areas were significantly higher than in rural areas, suggesting that coal burning in Tianjin may have an important impact on the local physical environment. Cd from coal combustion is readily mobilized in soils. It is soluble and can form aqueous complexes and permeate river sediments. The high proportion of mobile Cd affects the migration of Cd in soils and sediments, which may pose an environmental threat in Tianjin due to the exposure to Cd and Cd compounds via the food chain. This study may provide a window for understanding and tracing sources of Cd in the local environment and the risk associated with Cd bioaccessibility. PMID:23212535

  1. Sorption of radium-226 from oil-production brine by sediments and soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landa, E.R.; Reid, D.F.

    1983-01-01

    The sorption of226Ra from oil-production brine by soils and sediments was investigated. Sorption was rapid, and the percentage sorbed increased with brine dilution. Greatest removals of226Ra from sediments in the laboratory occurred with alkaline DTPA, HCl, and BaCl2, with lesser removals using CaCl2 and NaCl solutions. Digestion of sediments with NaOCl indicates that most of the native and sorbed226Ra is associated with the mineral rather than organic fraction of the sediments. Correlation analysis based on 14 soils indicates that the retention of226Ra may involve precipitation reactions associated with sulfate-bearing minerals, as well as ion-exchange reactions with the clay mineral fractions of surficial earth materials. ?? 1982 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  2. Effect of soil surface conditions on runoff velocity and sediment mean aggregate diameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    César Ramos, Júlio; Bertol, Ildegardis; Paz González, Antonio; de Souza Werner, Romeu; Marioti, Juliana; Henrique Bandeira, Douglas; Andrighetti Leolatto, Lidiane

    2013-04-01

    Soil cover and soil management are the factors that most influence soil erosion by water, because they directly affect soil surface roughness and surface cover. The main effect of soil cover by crop residues consists in dissipation of kinetic energy of raindrops and also partly kinetic energy of runoff, so that the soil disaggregation is considerably reduced but, in addition, soil cover captures detached soil particles, retains water on its surface and decreases runoff volume and velocity. In turn, soil surface roughness, influences soil surface water storage and infiltration and also runoff volume and velocity, sediment retention and subsequently water and sediment losses. Based on the above rationale, we performed a field experiment to assess the influence of soil cover and soil surface roughness on decay of runoff velocity as well as on mean diameter of transported sediments (D50 index). The following treatments were evaluated: SRR) residues of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) on a smooth soil surfcace, SRV) residues of common vetch (Vicia sativa) on a smooth soil surface, SSR) scarification after cultivation of Italian ryegrass resulting in a rough surface, SSV) scarification after cultivation of common vetch resulting in a rough surface, and SBS) scarified bare soil with high roughness as a control. The field experiments was performed on an Inceptisol in South Brazil under simulated rainfall conditions during 2012. Experimental plots were 11 m long and 3.5 m wide with an area of 38.5 m2. Six successive simulated rainfall tests were applied using a rotating-boom rain simulator. During each test, rain intensity was 60 mmhr-1, whereas rain duration was 90 minutes. Runoff velocity showed no significant differences between cultivated treatments. However, when compared to bare soil treatment, SBS (0.178 m s-1) and irrespective of the presence of surface crop residues or scarification operations, cultivated soil treatments significantly reduced runoff velocity

  3. Extraction of amino acids from soils and sediments with superheated water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, C. N.; Ponnamperuma, C.

    1974-01-01

    A method of extraction for amino acids from soils and sediments involving superheated water has been investigated. About 75-97 per cent of the amino acids contained in four soils of a soil profile from Illinois were extracted by this method. Deep penetration of water into soil aggregates and partial hydrolysis of peptide bonds during this extraction by water at high temperature are likely mechanisms responsible for the release of amino acids from samples. This extraction method does not require subsequent desalting treatments when analyses are carried out with an ion-exchange amino acid analyzer.

  4. A history of intertidal flat area in south San Francisco Bay, California: 1858 to 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaffe, Bruce; Foxgrover, Amy

    2006-01-01

    A key question in salt pond restoration in South San Francisco Bay is whether sediment sinks created by opening ponds will result in the loss of intertidal flats. Analyses of a series of bathymetric surveys of South San Francisco Bay made from 1858 to 2005 reveal changes in intertidal flat area in both space and time that can be used to better understand the pre-restoration system. This analysis also documents baseline conditions of intertidal flats that may be altered by restoration efforts. From 1858 to 2005, intertidal flat area decreased by about 25% from 69.2 +6.4/-7.6 km2 to 51.2 +4.8/-5.8 km2. Intertidal flats in the north tended to decrease in area during the period of this study whereas those south of Dumbarton Bridge were either stable or increased in area. From 1983 to 2005, intertidal flats south of Dumbarton Bridge increased from 17.6 +1.7/-2.5 km2 to 24.2 +1.0/-1.8 km2. Intertidal flats along the east shore of the bay tended to be more erosional and decreased in area while those along the west shore of the bay did not significantly change in area. Loss of intertidal flats occurred intermittently along the eastern shore of the bay north of the Dumbarton Bridge. There was little or no loss from 1931 to 1956 and from 1983 to 2005. Predictions of future change in intertidal flat area that do not account for this spatial and temporal variability are not likely to be accurate. The causes of the spatial and temporal variability in intertidal flat area in South San Francisco Bay are not fully understood, but appear related to energy available to erode sediments, sediment redistribution from north to south in the bay, and sediment available to deposit on the flats. Improved understanding of sediment input to South San Francisco Bay, especially from Central Bay, how it is likely to change in the future, the redistribution of sediment within the bay, and ultimately its effect on intertidal flat area would aid in the management of restoration of South San

  5. Hillslope sediment and soil carbon transport: can we model their movement?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hancock, Greg; Kunkel, Veikko; Dever, Chris; Braggins, Matthew; Willgoose, Garry

    2016-04-01

    Quantifying and predicting the movement of hillslope sediment and soil organic carbon (SOC) is of huge scientific, agronomic and economic benefit. In particular, the movement and fate of SOC has attracted considerable recent attention. However, the reliable modelling and prediction of sediment and SOC movement has proved elusive. Here we examine the movement of sediment and SOC along a grazing hillslope in south-eastern Australia. The slope is linear, uniformly managed and has consistent vegetation (grassland). We quantify sediment and SOC transport using the environmental tracer 137-Ceasium. However, here we collect field samples using the conventional soil cores but also shallow samples to quantify the dynamics of the near surface. We also model the movement of sediment and SOC using a numerically based soil erosion and landscape evolution model. Our results show that the hillslope is erosional which is supported by field observation. However, there was no relationship between SOC and 137-Caesium suggesting that SOC and their movement and fate are not related. Significant relationships were observed between soil texture and SOC for the near surface but not for the deeper cores suggesting any movement and fate of SOC is more controlled by soil particle size at the near surface. The SIBERIA sediment transport model was calibrated and run for the site. Comparing the field derived erosion and SOC data with model prediction found no significant relationship. However, the numerical model was able to predict the cyclic pattern of 137-Ceasium and SOC as well as overall trends. Our findings demonstrate that the movement and fate of sediment and SOC is complex.

  6. Water and sediment dynamics in a small Mediterranean cultivated catchment under cracking soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoubli, Nesrine; Raclot, Damien; Moussa, Roger; Habaieb, Hamadi; Le Bissonnais, Yves

    2016-04-01

    Shrink-swell soils, such as those in a Mediterranean climate regime, can cause changes in terms of hydrological and erosive responses due to the changing soil water storage conditions. Only a limited number of long-term studies have focused on the impacts on both hydrological and erosive responses and their interactions in an agricultural environment. In this context, this study aims to document the dynamics of cracks, runoff and soil erosion within a small Mediterranean cultivated catchment and to quantify the influence of crack processes on the water and sediment supplied to a reservoir located at the catchment outlet. Detailed monitoring of the presence of topsoil cracks was conducted within the Kamech catchment (ORE OMERE, Tunisia), and runoff and suspended sediment loads were continuously measured over a long period of time (2005-2012) at the outlets of a field (1.32 ha) and a catchment (263 ha). Analysis of the data showed that topsoil cracks were open approximately half of the year and that the rainfall regime and water table level conditions locally control the seasonal cracking dynamics. Topsoil cracks appeared to seriously affect the generation of runoff and sediment concentrations and, consequently, sediment yields, with similar dynamics observed at the field and catchment outlets. A similar time lag in the seasonality between water and sediment delivery was observed at these two scales: although the runoff rates were globally low during the presence of topsoil cracks, most sediment transport occurred during this period associated with very high sediment concentrations. This study underlines the importance of a good prediction of runoff during the presence of cracks for reservoir siltation considerations. In this context, the prediction of cracking effects on runoff and soil erosion is a key factor for the development of effective soil and water management strategies and downstream reservoir preservation.

  7. Sediments deposition due to soil erosion in the watershed region of Mangla dam.

    PubMed

    Butt, Mohsin Jamil; Mahmood, Rashed; Waqas, Ahmad

    2011-10-01

    Soil erosion is the most important reason of sedimentation load of water reservoirs in the world. In Pakistan, Mangla dam is one of the most important water reservoirs used for the production of electricity and for the supply of water for irrigation purposes. However, the capacity of Mangla dam reservoir has reduced by more than 20% since its construction. This study highlights the impact of rainfall on soil erosion and consequently on sedimentation deposition in Mangla dam reservoir. Sedimentation, annual rainfall, and normal rainfall data of 39 years were used in this study. Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission data were used to calculate the total drainage area of the Mangla watershed region. The sedimentation data of Mangla reservoir from 1967 to 2005 were retrieved from Water and Power Development Authority in Pakistan. The meteorological observatories in the Mangla watershed region are identified. Annual rainfall data from 1967 to 2005 for the meteorological observatories in the Mangla watershed regions were retrieved from Pakistan Meteorological Department (PMD). In addition, normal rainfall data for the years 1949 to 1978 and for the years 1979 to 2008 were also retrieved from PMD. The impact of annual rainfall is observed on sedimentation load in Mangla dam. The correlation coefficient between annual rainfall and sedimentation load is 0.94. This study shows that with an increase in rainfall, the soil erosion of the area increases which subsequently is responsible for the increase in the rate of sedimentation load in Mangla dam. This study further demonstrates that better soil management can reduce the sedimentation load in the Mangla reservoir. PMID:21225339

  8. Tidal pumping facilitates dissimilatory nitrate reduction in intertidal marshes

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yanling; Hou, Lijun; Liu, Min; Liu, Zhanfei; Li, Xiaofei; Lin, Xianbiao; Yin, Guoyu; Gao, Juan; Yu, Chendi; Wang, Rong; Jiang, Xiaofen

    2016-01-01

    Intertidal marshes are alternately exposed and submerged due to periodic ebb and flood tides. The tidal cycle is important in controlling the biogeochemical processes of these ecosystems. Intertidal sediments are important hotspots of dissimilatory nitrate reduction and interacting nitrogen cycling microorganisms, but the effect of tides on dissimilatory nitrate reduction, including denitrification, anaerobic ammonium oxidation and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium, remains unexplored in these habitats. Here, we use isotope-tracing and molecular approaches simultaneously to show that both nitrate-reduction activities and associated functional bacterial abundances are enhanced at the sediment-tidal water interface and at the tide-induced groundwater fluctuating layer. This pattern suggests that tidal pumping may sustain dissimilatory nitrate reduction in intertidal zones. The tidal effect is supported further by nutrient profiles, fluctuations in nitrogen components over flood-ebb tidal cycles, and tidal simulation experiments. This study demonstrates the importance of tides in regulating the dynamics of dissimilatory nitrate-reducing pathways and thus provides new insights into the biogeochemical cycles of nitrogen and other elements in intertidal marshes. PMID:26883983

  9. Tidal pumping facilitates dissimilatory nitrate reduction in intertidal marshes.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yanling; Hou, Lijun; Liu, Min; Liu, Zhanfei; Li, Xiaofei; Lin, Xianbiao; Yin, Guoyu; Gao, Juan; Yu, Chendi; Wang, Rong; Jiang, Xiaofen

    2016-01-01

    Intertidal marshes are alternately exposed and submerged due to periodic ebb and flood tides. The tidal cycle is important in controlling the biogeochemical processes of these ecosystems. Intertidal sediments are important hotspots of dissimilatory nitrate reduction and interacting nitrogen cycling microorganisms, but the effect of tides on dissimilatory nitrate reduction, including denitrification, anaerobic ammonium oxidation and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium, remains unexplored in these habitats. Here, we use isotope-tracing and molecular approaches simultaneously to show that both nitrate-reduction activities and associated functional bacterial abundances are enhanced at the sediment-tidal water interface and at the tide-induced groundwater fluctuating layer. This pattern suggests that tidal pumping may sustain dissimilatory nitrate reduction in intertidal zones. The tidal effect is supported further by nutrient profiles, fluctuations in nitrogen components over flood-ebb tidal cycles, and tidal simulation experiments. This study demonstrates the importance of tides in regulating the dynamics of dissimilatory nitrate-reducing pathways and thus provides new insights into the biogeochemical cycles of nitrogen and other elements in intertidal marshes. PMID:26883983

  10. Tidal pumping facilitates dissimilatory nitrate reduction in intertidal marshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yanling; Hou, Lijun; Liu, Min; Liu, Zhanfei; Li, Xiaofei; Lin, Xianbiao; Yin, Guoyu; Gao, Juan; Yu, Chendi; Wang, Rong; Jiang, Xiaofen

    2016-02-01

    Intertidal marshes are alternately exposed and submerged due to periodic ebb and flood tides. The tidal cycle is important in controlling the biogeochemical processes of these ecosystems. Intertidal sediments are important hotspots of dissimilatory nitrate reduction and interacting nitrogen cycling microorganisms, but the effect of tides on dissimilatory nitrate reduction, including denitrification, anaerobic ammonium oxidation and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium, remains unexplored in these habitats. Here, we use isotope-tracing and molecular approaches simultaneously to show that both nitrate-reduction activities and associated functional bacterial abundances are enhanced at the sediment-tidal water interface and at the tide-induced groundwater fluctuating layer. This pattern suggests that tidal pumping may sustain dissimilatory nitrate reduction in intertidal zones. The tidal effect is supported further by nutrient profiles, fluctuations in nitrogen components over flood-ebb tidal cycles, and tidal simulation experiments. This study demonstrates the importance of tides in regulating the dynamics of dissimilatory nitrate-reducing pathways and thus provides new insights into the biogeochemical cycles of nitrogen and other elements in intertidal marshes.

  11. Delineation of Hydrocarbon Contamination of Soils and Sediments With Environmental Magnetic Methods: Laboratory and Field Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rijal, M. L.; Appel, E.; Porsch, K.; Kappler, A.; Blaha, U.; Petrovsky, E.

    2008-12-01

    Hydrocarbon contamination of soils and sediments is a worldwide environmental problem. The present research focuses on the study of magnetic properties of hydrocarbon contaminated soils and sediments using environmental magnetic methods both on field sites as well as in laboratory batch experiments. The main objectives of this research are i) to determine a possible application of magnetic proxies for the delineation of organic contamination in soils and sediments and ii) to examine the role of bacteria in changing soil magnetic properties after hydrocarbon contamination. A former oil field and a former military site which are heavily contaminated with hydrocarbons were studied. Additionally, three different types of natural clean soils were investigated in laboratory experiments by simulating hydrocarbon contamination in sterile and microbial active setups. Magnetic properties, soil properties, iron bioavailability, iron redox state and hydrocarbon content of samples were measured. Additionally, magnetic susceptibility (MS) was monitored weekly in laboratory batch set-ups during several months. Results from the field sites showed that there is an increase of MS and a good correlation between MS and hydrocarbon content. A weekly monitored MS result from the laboratory study clearly indicated~~10% change (increase as well as decrease) of initial MS of respective soils only in microbial active set-ups with saturation after a few weeks of experimental period. This depicts that there is a change of MS caused by microbial iron mineral transformation in presence of hydrocarbon contamination in soils. The results from the field study demonstrate that magnetic proxies can be used to localize hydrocarbon contamination. However, more field sites with hydrocarbon contaminated soils and sediments need to be investigated by using environmental magnetic methods for better understanding the factors driving such changes in magnetic properties.

  12. Herbicide monitoring in soil, runoff waters and sediments in an olive orchard.

    PubMed

    Calderon, Maria Jesus; De Luna, Elena; Gomez, Jose Alfonso; Hermosin, M Carmen

    2016-11-01

    Occurrences of surface water contamination by herbicides in areas where olive orchards are established reveal a need to understand soil processes affecting herbicide fate at field scale for this popular Mediterranean crop. A monitoring study with two herbicides (terbuthylazine and oxyfluorfen) in the first 2cm of soil, runoff waters, and sediments, was carried out after under natural rainfall conditions following winter herbicide application. At the end of the 107day field experiment, no residues of the soil applied terbuthylazine were recovered, whereas 42% of the oxyfluorfen applied remained in the top soil. Very low levels of both herbicides were measured in runoff waters; however, concentrations were slightly higher for terbuthylazine (0.53% of applied) than for oxyfluorfen (0.03% of applied), relating to their respective water solubilities. Congruent with soil residue data, 38.15% of the applied oxyfluorfen was found in runoff-sediment, compared to only 0.46% for terbuthylazine. Accordingly, the herbicide soil distribution coefficients measured within runoff field tanks was much greater for oxyfluorfen (Kd=3098) than for terbuthylazine (Kd=1.57). The herbicide oxyfluorfen is co-transported with sediment in runoff, remaining trapped and/or adsorbed to soil particle aggregates, due in part to its low water solubility. In contrast, terbuthylazine soil dissipation may be associated more so with leaching processes, favored by its high water solubility, low sorption, and slow degradation. By comparing these two herbicides, our results reaffirm the importance of herbicide physico-chemical properties in dictating their behavior in soil and also suggest that herbicides with low solubility, as seen in the case oxyfluorfen, remain susceptible to offsite transport associated with sediments. PMID:27351146

  13. The Effect of Water Harvesting Techniques on Runoff, Sedimentation, and Soil Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Seekh, Saleh H.; Mohammad, Ayed G.

    2009-07-01

    This study addressed the hydrological processes of runoff and sedimentation, soil moisture content, and properties under the effect of different water harvesting techniques (treatments). The study was conducted at three sites, representing environmental condition gradients, located in the southern part of the West Bank. For each treatment, the study evaluated soil chemical and physical properties, soil moisture at 30 cm depth, surface runoff and sedimentation at each site. Results showed that runoff is reduced by 65-85% and sedimentation by 58-69% in stone terraces and semi-circle bunds compared to the control at the semi-humid site. In addition, stone terraces and contour ridges significantly reduced the amount of total runoff by 80% and 73%, respectively, at the arid site. Soil moisture content was significantly increased by water harvesting techniques compared to the control in all treatments at the three study sites. In addition, the difference between the control and the water harvesting structures were higher in the arid and semi-arid areas than in the semi-humid area. Soil and water conservation, via utilization of water harvesting structures, is an effective principle for reducing the negative impact of high runoff intensity and subsequently increasing soil moisture storage from rainfall. Jessour systems in the valley and stone terraces were effective in increasing soil moisture storage, prolonging the growing season for natural vegetation, and decreasing the amount of supplemental irrigation required for growing fruit trees.

  14. Metal removal from contaminated soil and sediments by the biosurfactant surfactin

    SciTech Connect

    Mulligan, C.N.; Yong, R.N.; Gibbs, B.F.; James, S.; Bennett, H.P.J.

    1999-11-01

    Batch soil washing experiments were performed to evaluate the feasibility of using surfactin from Bacillus subtilis, a lipopeptide biosurfactant, for the removal of heavy metals from a contaminated soil and sediments. The soil contained high levels of metals and hydrocarbons (890 mg/kg of zinc, 420 mg/kg of copper, and 12.6% oil and grease), and the sediments contained 110 mg/kg of copper and 3,300 mg/kg of zinc. The contaminated soil was spiked to increase the level of copper, zinc, and cadmium to 550, 1,200, and 2,000 mg/kg, respectively. Water alone removed minimal amounts of copper and zinc (less than 1%). Results showed that 0.25% surfactin/1% NaOH could remove 25% of the copper and 6% of the zinc from the soil and 15% of the copper and 6% of the zinc from the sediments. A series of five washings of the soil with 0.25% surfactin (1% NaOH) was able to remove 70% of the copper and 22% of the zinc. The technique of ultrafiltration and the measurement of octanol-water partitioning and {zeta}-potential were used to determine the mechanism of metal removal by surfactin. It was indicated that surfactin was able to remove the metals by sorption at the soil interphase and metal complexation, followed by desorption of the metal through interfacial tension lowering and fluid forces and finally complexation of the metal with the micelles.

  15. Clay Mineralogy of Soils and Sediments from an Alluvial Aquifer, Rifle, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, W. C.; Zaunbrecher, L. K.; Lim, D.; Pickering, R. A.; Williams, K. H.; Long, P. E.; Qafoku, N. P.

    2014-12-01

    Alluvial aquifers along the Colorado River corridor in central to western Colorado contain legacy contamination including U, V, As and Se. These alluvial aquifers host important "hot spots" and "hot moments" for microbiological activity controlling organic carbon processing and fluxes in the subsurface that are both significant on their own, but also influence contaminant behavior. Mineral phases likely active in the sequestration of metal contaminants are chlorite, smectite-vermiculite, illite, and smectite. These minerals are also important biogeofacies markers. The Colorado alluvial sediments include lenses of silt and clay that are commonly more reduced than coarser grained materials. The clay minerals that make up the alluvial aquifer sediments include these mineral phases important for metal sequestration (chlorite, smectite, illite), as well as kaolinite and quartz. More specifically, the clay mineralogy of soils derived from these sediments at Rifle are composed of the same suite of minerals found in the alluvial sediments plus a vermiculite-smectite intergrade. The vermiculite-smectite intergrade is a weathering product of illite. The presence of illite and chlorite in both the sediments and the soils at Rifle reflect a mineralogically immature character of the source rocks. These assemblages are consistent with sediments and soils that formed in a moderately low rainfall climate, indicative of mixed provence of immature (chlorite, smectite, illite) and mature (kaolinite) minerals relative to their source areas.

  16. Microbial degradation of hydrochlorofluorocarbons (CHCl2F and CHCl2CF3) in soils and sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oremland, R.S.; Lonergan, D.J.; Culbertson, C.W.; Lovley, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    The ability of microorganisms to degrade trace levels of the hydrochlorofluorocarbons HCFC-21 and HCFC-123 was investigated. Methanotroph- linked oxidation of HCFC-21 was observed in aerobic soils, and anaerobic degradation of HCFC-21 occurred in freshwater and salt marsh sediments. Microbial degradation of HCFC-123 was observed in anoxic freshwater and salt marsh sediments, and the recovery of 1,1,1-trifluoro-2-chloroethane indicated the involvement of reductive dechlorination. No degradation of HCFC-123 was observed in aerobic soils. In same experiments, HCFCs were degraded at low (parts per billion) concentrations, raising the possibility that bacteria in nature remove HCFCs from the atmosphere.

  17. A simple silica-based method for metagenomic DNA extraction from soil and sediments.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Herrera, R; Narváez-Zapata, J; Zamudio-Maya, M; Mena-Martínez, M E

    2008-09-01

    A new method is described for extraction of metagenomic DNA from soil and sediments which is based on DNA adsorption to silica without the use of phenol, ethanol precipitation or a cesium chloride gradient. High-quality DNA was obtained, and PCR inhibition was overcome by adding bovine serum albumin and adjusting magnesium concentration. By using PCR-DGGE with Firmicutes and lactic acid bacteria-specific primers the extracted metagenomic DNA was shown to contain a mixture of bacterial genomes. This method can be used for screening bacterial diversity in soil and sediment samples. PMID:18373226

  18. 40 CFR 796.2750 - Sediment and soil adsorption isotherm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and tissues of soil organisms, and substances synthesized by the microbial population. (iv) “Particle... growth of land plants. Its formation and properties are determined by various factors such as parent... during sieving, crush and grind dried soil very gently. (C) Eliminate microbial growth during the...

  19. Char BC amendments for soil and sediment amelioration: BC quantification and field pilot trials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornelissen, G.; Braendli, R. C.; Eek, E.; Henriksen, T.; Hartnik, T.; Breedveld, G. D.

    2008-12-01

    Background Activated char BC binds organic contaminants and possibly mercury so strongly that their bioaccumulation and transport to other environmental compartments are reduced. The advantages of black carbon amendment over many other remediation methods include i) it can be used as an in situ risk reduction method, ii) the price is low, and iii) it overcomes significant controversies associated with disposal of dredged and excavated materials. In this study BC amendment is used in pilot trials in the field for soil and sediment amelioration. Quantification of amended char BC Two methods for char BC quantification were tested: i) chemothermal oxidation (CTO) at a range of temperatures and ii) wet chemical oxidation with a potassium dichromate/sulfuric acid solution. The amount of BC amended to three soils was accurately determined by CTO at 375°C. For two sediments, much of the BC disappeared during combustion at 375°C, which could probably be explained by catalytic effects caused by sediment constituents such as metals, mineral oxides and salts. Attempts to avoid these effects through rinsing with acid before combustion did not result in higher char BC recoveries. CTO at lower temperatures (325-350°C) was a feasible alternative for one of the sediments. Wet oxidation with potassium dichromate/sulfuric acid proved to effectively function for BC quantification in sediments, since almost complete BC recovery (81-92 %) was observed for both sediments, while the amount of organic carbon remaining was low (5-16 %). Field pilots Earlier, we showed the effectiveness of BC amendment in the laboratory. In the laboratory it was shown that BC amendments (2 %) reduced freely dissolved porewater concentrations (factor of 10-50) and bioaccumulation (factor of 5). This presentation will describe 50 × 50 m pilot field trials in Norway (2007-2008): Trondheim Harbor (sediment) and Drammen (soil). The presentation will focus on physical monitoring (distribution of BC in the

  20. USEPA METHOD STUDY 37 - SW-846 METHOD 3050, ACID DIGESTION OF SEDIMENTS, SLUDGES AND SOILS BY AA-DIRECT ASPIRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    An interlaboratory collaborative study was conducted to determine the precision and accuracy of Method 3050 for the analysis of 23 elements in sediments, sludqes and soils. Method 3050 is entitled, "Acid Digestion of Sediments, Sludges and Soils." It includes instructions for qua...

  1. Modeling 3D soil and sediment distributions for assessing catchment structure and hydrological feedbacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurer, Thomas; Brück, Yasemine; Hinz, Christoph; Gerke, Horst H.

    2015-04-01

    Structural heterogeneity, namely the spatial distribution of soils and sediments (represented by mineral particles), characterizes catchment hydrological behavior. In natural catchments, local geology and the specific geomorphic processes determine the characteristics and spatial distribution of structures. In constructed catchments, structural features are determined primarily by the construction processes and the geological origin of the parent material. Objectives are scenarios of 3D catchment structures in form of complete 3D description of soil hydraulic properties generated from the knowledge of the formation processes. The constructed hydrological catchment 'Hühnerwasser' (Lower Lusatia, Brandenburg, Germany) was used for the calibration and validation of model results due to its well-known conditions. For the modelling of structural features, a structure generator was used to model i) quasi-deterministic sediment distributions using input data from a geological model of the parent material excavation site; ii) sediment distributions that are conditioned to measurement data from soil sampling; and iii) stochastic component sediment distributions. All three approaches allow a randomization within definable limits. Furthermore, the spoil cone / spoil ridge orientation, internal layering, surface compaction and internal spoil cone compaction were modified. These generated structural models were incorporated in a gridded 3D volume model constructed with the GOCAD software. For selected scenarios, the impact of structure variation was assessed by hydrological modelling with HYDRUS 2D/3D software. For that purpose, 3D distributions of soil hydraulic properties were estimated based on generated sediment properties using adapted pedotransfer functions. Results from the hydrological model were compared them to measured discharges from the catchment. The impact of structural feature variation on flow behaviour was analysed by comparing different simulation scenarios

  2. Biogeochemistry of mercury in soils and sediments in a mining-impacted watershed, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holloway, J. M.; Goldhaber, M. B.

    2004-12-01

    The East Davis Creek watershed, located in the California Coast Ranges, is host to historic mines that provided mercury for recovery of gold in the Sierra Nevada goldfields in the mid-to-late 1800s. Bedrock in this watershed includes marine sedimentary rock, serpentinite, and hydrothermally altered serpentinite. Cinnabar (HgS) found in the altered serpentinite is the primary ore mineral for mercury. We evaluated the hypothesis that mercury is sequestered in soil organic matter downstream from source areas, releasing a fraction as water-soluble methylmercury. Microbial biomass and the presence of sulfur-reducing bacteria implicated in mercury methylation were quantified using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) data. Methylation incubations were performed on soil and sediment inoculated with water from Davis Creek Reservoir and sealed in glass containers under an anoxic headspace for 21 days. Methylmercury was measured on extracts of the soils at the start and at the end of the incubation period. Two sources of mercury to stream sediments, a soil with an altered serpentinite parent and mine tailings, were incubated. Stream sediment, an overbank deposit soil and a wetland soil forming from these sediments were also incubated. The overbank deposit soil is periodically flooded. The wetland soil around the edge of Davis Creek Reservoir is perennially saturated with water. The altered serpentinite soil and mine tailings had the highest total mercury concentrations (170 and 150 ng Hg /g, respectively). Total mercury concentrations in stream sediments are low (¡Ü1 ng Hg/g), with higher mercury concentrations in the overbank (3 ng/g) and wetland soils (18 ng Hg/g). Mercury leached from altered serpentinite soils and mine tailings may be transported downstream and sequestered through sorption to organic matter in the overbank and wetland soils. PLFA biomarkers for Desulfobacter (10Me16:0) and Desulfovibrio (i17:1) were present in all incubated materials, with lower

  3. Human Impact on the Sedimentary Environment of the Intertidal Zone Since about 200 Years in Beibu Bay,the Southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Q.

    2014-12-01

    Multiple approaches including 210Pb dating, grain-size distribution and heavy metal elements (Hg, Cd, As, Pb, Cu, Cr, and Zn) concentration of sediments from two cores in the intertidal zone of Beibu Bay were used in order to discuss the human impact on sedimentary environment since the last 200 years. The average sedimentation rate of cores YX07 and YX05 is 0.45 cm/a and 0.37 cm/a, respectively. The two cores span the last 231 and 210 years. The downcore concentration of heavy metal elements generally shows a contrary trend as mean grain-size, suggesting that heavy metal elements tend to be rich in finer grain-size materials. The similar values and stable downcore variation of ratio of trace elements (La/Th ) in sediments of the both cores indicate that the sediment sources of the two cores are similar and not changed through time. The sedimentary environment before 1930AD was influenced by nature factors, whereas largely influenced by human activity after the time. The mean grain-size became coarser since about 1930, possibly resulted from strengthened physical erosion of soils by stronger anthropogenic impact. Moreover, the 2-3 times increase of Al-normalized heavy minerals such as As, Pb, and Cu since the time suggests that vast industry and domestic wastewater was poured to the estuarine and coastal area and thus deteriorated the environment of the intertidal zones.

  4. Ecoenzymatic Stoichiometry of Stream Sediments with Comparison to Terrestrial Soils

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, we extend the development of ecoenzymatic stoichiometry to the surface sediments of stream ecosystems using data collected in a nationwide survey. The data set is larger and more comprehensive than those used in our previous studies. The data include the first broa...

  5. Geochemical features of rocks, stream sediments, and soils of the Fiume Grande Valley (Calabria, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apollaro, Carmine; Marini, Luigi; de Rosa, Rosanna; Settembrino, Paolo; Scarciglia, Fabio; Vecchio, Giuseppe

    2007-04-01

    The role of both natural weathering and anthropogenic pollution in controlling the distribution of major oxides and several trace elements in soils, stream sediments, and rocks of the Fiume Grande catchment was evaluated. The contents of major oxides and trace elements in soils appear to be governed by weathering and pedogenetic processes, although the use of fertilizers in agriculture could also partly affect K2O and P2O5 contents. Stream sediments have concentrations of major oxides (except CaO) very similar to soils, as relevant amounts of soil materials are supplied to the stream channels by erosive phenomena. In contrast, stream sediments have concentrations of Cr, Co, Ni, Zn, As, and Pb significantly higher than those of soils, probably due to different conditions and rates of mobility of these elements within the three considered matrices and/or disposal of wastes in the drainage network. Comparison of the concentrations of PHEs in soils with the maximum admissible contents established by the Italian law shows that these limits are too restrictive in some cases and too permissive in other ones. The approach of setting these limits with no consideration for the local geological geochemical framework may lead to improper management of the territory and its resources.

  6. Abundance and community structure of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms in reservoir sediment and adjacent soils.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Cui; Bao, Linlin; Xie, Shuguang

    2014-02-01

    Ammonia oxidation is an important process for global nitrogen cycling. Both ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA) can be the important players in nitrification process. However, their relative contribution to nitrification remains controversial. This study investigated the abundance and community structure of AOA and AOB in sediment of Miyun Reservoir and adjacent soils. Quantitative PCR assays indicated that the highest AOA abundance occurred in unplanted riparian soil, followed by reservoir sediment, reed-planted riparian soil and agricultural soil. The AOB community size in agricultural soil was much larger than that in the other habitats. Large variations in the structures of AOA and AOB were also observed among the different habitats. The abundance of Nitrosospira-like AOB species were detected in the agricultural soil and reservoir sediment. Pearson's correlation analysis showed the AOB diversity had positive significant correlations with pH and total nitrogen, while the AOA diversity might be negatively affected by nitrate nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen. This work could add new insights towards nitrification in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. PMID:23949998

  7. Zircon geochronology of loess and alluvial sediment: implications for provenance of modern soils of Middle Tennessee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Ayers, J. C.; Katsiaficas, N. J.

    2014-12-01

    Soils in Middle Tennessee are commonly observed on limestone bedrock. However, comparison of zircon U-Pb age spectra of soil and bedrock (Ayers and Katsiaficas, unpublished data) suggests that there is a small but significant exotic (externally derived) zircon component. Potential sources of exotic zircon include loess and alluvial sediments. In western Tennessee the Roxana Silt was deposited 38-53 ka and the Peoria Loess 18-25 ka. Detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology is a direct and effective way to test the possibility of loess as a contributor to the source material of the soil. According to Aleinikoff et al. (2008), loess from Colorado and Nebraska have young detrital zircon age peaks at ~34Ma. If this is also true for the loess in Tennessee, it may explain the ~33 Ma age peak found in one of the three studied soil samples. To identify the source of the exotic zircon found in middle TN soils, zircon age spectra will be measured for Roxana Silt, Peoria Loess, and alluvial sediments from the Harpeth and Cumberland Rivers. The loess samples were collected near Memphis, TN, while the alluvial sediments were collected near the soil sample sites.

  8. Soil/sediment characterization for 216-A-29 ditch

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, R.M.

    1997-03-01

    This document provides a detailed description of the environmental samples collected from the 216-A-29 Ditch in 1988. Tables summarizing the laboratory data for radionuclides, metals, and soil chemistry are included.

  9. NUTRIENT FLUXES IN THE MICROALGAL-DOMINATED INTERTIDAL REGIONS OF THE LOWER YAQUINA ESTUARY, OREGON (USA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of benthic microalgae on sediment nutrient fluxes were investigated at three sites across the intertidal zone of lower Yaquina Bay. Study sites were selected where microalgae were present but where seagrass and mud shrimp were absent. Sediment columns were collected...

  10. Watershed sediment losses to lakes accelerating despite agricultural soil conservation efforts.

    PubMed

    Heathcote, Adam J; Filstrup, Christopher T; Downing, John A

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural soil loss and deposition in aquatic ecosystems is a problem that impairs water quality worldwide and is costly to agriculture and food supplies. In the US, for example, billions of dollars have subsidized soil and water conservation practices in agricultural landscapes over the past decades. We used paleolimnological methods to reconstruct trends in sedimentation related to human-induced landscape change in 32 lakes in the intensively agricultural region of the Midwestern United States. Despite erosion control efforts, we found accelerating increases in sediment deposition from erosion; median erosion loss since 1800 has been 15.4 tons ha(-1). Sediment deposition from erosion increased >6-fold, from 149 g m(-2) yr(-1) in 1850 to 986 g m(-2) yr(-1) by 2010. Average time to accumulate one mm of sediment decreased from 631 days before European settlement (ca. 1850) to 59 days mm(-1) at present. Most of this sediment was deposited in the last 50 years and is related to agricultural intensification rather than land clearance or predominance of agricultural lands. In the face of these intensive agricultural practices, traditional soil conservation programs have not decelerated downstream losses. Despite large erosion control subsidies, erosion and declining water quality continue, thus new approaches are needed to mitigate erosion and water degradation. PMID:23326454

  11. Using geochemical indicators to distinguish high biogeochemical activity in floodplain soils and sediments.

    PubMed

    Kenwell, Amy; Navarre-Sitchler, Alexis; Prugue, Rodrigo; Spear, John R; Hering, Amanda S; Maxwell, Reed M; Carroll, Rosemary W H; Williams, Kenneth H

    2016-09-01

    A better understanding of how microbial communities interact with their surroundings in physically and chemically heterogeneous subsurface environments will lead to improved quantification of biogeochemical reactions and associated nutrient cycling. This study develops a methodology to predict potential elevated rates of biogeochemical activity (microbial "hotspots") in subsurface environments by correlating microbial DNA and aspects of the community structure with the spatial distribution of geochemical indicators in subsurface sediments. Multiple linear regression models of simulated precipitation leachate, HCl and hydroxylamine extractable iron and manganese, total organic carbon (TOC), and microbial community structure were used to identify sample characteristics indicative of biogeochemical hotspots within fluvially-derived aquifer sediments and overlying soils. The method has been applied to (a) alluvial materials collected at a former uranium mill site near Rifle, Colorado and (b) relatively undisturbed floodplain deposits (soils and sediments) collected along the East River near Crested Butte, Colorado. At Rifle, 16 alluvial samples were taken from 8 sediment cores, and at the East River, 46 soil/sediment samples were collected across and perpendicular to 3 active meanders and an oxbow meander. Regression models using TOC and TOC combined with extractable iron and manganese results were determined to be the best fitting statistical models of microbial DNA (via 16S rRNA gene analysis). Fitting these models to observations in both contaminated and natural floodplain deposits, and their associated alluvial aquifers, demonstrates the broad applicability of the geochemical indicator based approach. PMID:27145490

  12. Arsenic contamination in water, soil, sediment and rice of central India.

    PubMed

    Patel, K S; Shrivas, K; Brandt, R; Jakubowski, N; Corns, W; Hoffmann, P

    2005-04-01

    Arsenic contamination in the environment (i.e. surface, well and tube-well water, soil, sediment and rice samples) of central India (i.e. Ambagarh Chauki, Chhattisgarh) is reported. The concentration of the total arsenic in the samples i.e. water (n = 64), soil (n = 30), sediment (n = 27) and rice grain (n = 10) were ranged from 15 to 825 microg L(-1), 9 to 390 mg kg(-1), 19 to 489 mg kg(-1) and 0.018 to 0.446 mg kg(-1), respectively. In all type of waters, the arsenic levels exceeded the permissible limit, 10 microg L(-1). The most toxic and mobile inorganic species i.e. As(III) and As(V) are predominantly present in water of this region. The soils have relatively higher contents of arsenic and other elements i.e. Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Ga, Zr, Sn, Sb, Pb and U. The mean arsenic contents in soil of this region are much higher than in arsenic soil of West Bengal and Bangladesh. The lowest level of arsenic in the soil of this region is 3.7 mg kg(-1) with median value of 9.5 mg kg(-1). The arsenic contents in the sediments are at least 2-folds higher than in the soil. The sources of arsenic contamination in the soil of this region are expected from the rock weathering as well as the atmospheric deposition. The environmental samples i.e. water, soil dust, food, etc. are expected the major exposure for the arsenic contamination. The most of people living in this region are suffering with arsenic borne diseases (i.e. melanosis, keratosis, skin cancer, etc.). PMID:16003581

  13. AUTOMATED GIS WATERSHED ANALYSIS TOOLS FOR RUSLE/SEDMOD SOIL EROSION AND SEDIMENTATION MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    A comprehensive procedure for computing soil erosion and sediment delivery metrics has been developed using a suite of automated Arc Macro Language (AML ) scripts and a pair of processing- intensive ANSI C++ executable programs operating on an ESRI ArcGIS 8.x Workstation platform...

  14. Determination of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Soil and Sediment by Selective Pressurized Liquid Extraction with Immunochemical Detection

    EPA Science Inventory

    A selective liquid pressurized extraction (SPLE) method was developed as a streamlined sample preparation/cleanup procedure for determining Aroclors and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in soil and sediment matrices. The SPLE method was coupled with an enzyme-linked imm...

  15. IN-SITU REMEDIATION OF CHROMIUM-CONTAMINATED SOILS AND SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objectives of this study were to characterize the extent of total chromium and Cr(VI)contamination in the underlying soils and sediments of a chrome-plating shop at the USCG Support Center near Elizabeth City, NC and to evaluate the use of liquid reductants for in situ treatm...

  16. AN OVERVIEW OF PARTITIONING AND BIOAVAILABILITY OF PAHS IN SEDIMENTS AND SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding and predicting any adverse effects of PAHs depends on generating a reliable measure or estimate of how much PAH is available for uptake. Simply knowing the total amount of PAH in soil, water or sediment is insufficient for determining whether or not these compounds ...

  17. ATTENUATION/STABILIZATION OF ARSENIC BY IRON (HYDR)OXIDES IN SOILS/SEDIMENTS: LABORATORY STUDY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory studies will be performed to assess the role of naturally occurring soil/sediment iron (hydr)oxides on the attenuation/stabilization of arsenic. Changes in the reversibility of arsenic partitioning will be assessed as a function of aging time using model experimental ...

  18. CALCULATION OF SOIL-WATER AND BENTHIC SEDIMENT PARTITION COEFFICIENTS FOR MERCURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    To accurately model mercury transport to water bodies, an assessment of this pollutant's behavior in the watershed is critical. Partition coefficients, defined as an estimate of the ratio of the pollutant concentration sorbed onto soil/sediment particles to the pollutant concentr...

  19. IN-SITU REMEDIATION OF CHROMIUM- CONTAMINATED SOILS AND SEDIMENTS USING SODIUM DITHIONITE: SYMPOSIUM/CONFERENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    SYMPOS/CONF NRMRL-ADA-01163 Paul*, C.J., Khan*, F.A., and Puls*, R.W. In-Situ Remediation of Chromium-Contaminated Soils and Sediments Using Sodium Dithionite. CD-ROM, GWPC Annual Forum, Reno, NV, ...

  20. UTILIZATION OF BACTERIA TO REMEDIATE CONTAMINATED SOILS AND SEDIMENTS IN THE US: LASAGNA AND OTHER TREATMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is an overview of the work underway at USEPA/ORD/NRMRL's Center Hill Microbiology Laboratory on bioremediation of contaminated soils and sediments. The Laboratory has isolated and naturally selected for various isolates. An isolate that will be reviewed is CHL-004, a Pseudom...

  1. IMMUNOASSAY METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF PENTACHLOROPHENOL IN SOIL AND SEDIMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The journal article describes the use of a prototype immunoassay method for the determination of pentacholorphenol (PCP) in soil and sediment. PCP was used as a pesticide and wood preservative and is not currently available to the general public. The paper stresses the importan...

  2. Sediment source identification in a semiarid watershed at soil mapping unit scales

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selective erosion and transport of silt and clay-particles from watershed soil surfaces leads to enrichment of suspended sediments by size fractions that are the most effective scavengers of chemical pollutants. Thus, preferential transport of highly reactive size fractions represents a major proble...

  3. Effects of climate variations and soil conservation on sedimentation of a west-central Oklahoma reservoir

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the second half of the 20th century, extensive soil conservation practices were implemented on the Fort Cobb Reservoir watershed in West-Central Oklahoma. Sediment and flow observations were made on major tributaries in 1943-1950 (pre-conservation time period), and again in 2004-2008 (post-co...

  4. Phosphorus Dynamics in Soil, Runoff, and Sediment from Three Management Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land application of poultry litter can lead to increased phosphorus (P) level in surface runoff and sediment, which in turn, potentially accelerates the eutrophication in the water bodies. The objective of this research was to study the P dynamics in two poultry litter amended soils using three mana...

  5. IN-SITU REDUCTION OF CHROMIUM-CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATER, SOILS, AND SEDIMENTS BY SODIUM DITHIONITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory studies were conducted to characterize the extent of chromium contamination in the groundwater and underlying soils and sediments of a chrome-plating shop at the USCG Support Center near Elizabeth City, NC. Most of the mobile Cr(VI) is present in the capillary zone ...

  6. DEMONSTRATION AND QUALITY ASSURANCE PROJECT PLAN: XRF TECHNOLOGIES OF MEASURING TRACE ELEMENTS IN SOIL AND SEDIMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A demonstration of field portable/mobile technologies for measuring trace elements in soil and sediments was conducted under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program. The demonstration took place from January 24 to 28, 200...

  7. WATER EROSION PREDICTION PROJECT (WEPP) TECHNOLOGY FOR ASSESSMENT OF RUNOFF, SOIL LOSS AND SEDIMENT YIELD POTENTIAL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model is a process-based, distributed parameter, continuous simulation computer program for estimation of runoff, soil loss and sediment yield from fields and small watersheds. In addition to having large databases for application to a multitude of U.S. s...

  8. MANAGING ARSENIC CONTAMINATED SOIL, SEDIMENT, AND INDUSTRIAL WASTE WITH SOLIDIFICATION/STABILIZATION TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic contamination of soil, sediment and groundwater is a widespread problem in certain areas and has caused great public concern due to increased awareness of the health risks. Often the contamination is naturally occurring, but it can also be a result of waste generated from...

  9. Mercury Release from Soils and Sediments in the Sacramento River Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suess, E.; Aiken, G. R.; Ryan, J. N.; Gasper, J. D.

    2007-12-01

    Mercury released into water from soils and sediments contaminated by cinnabar (HgS) and gold mining is a major environmental concern in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California. To better understand the conditions resulting in Hg solubilization from these contaminated materials, six soil and sediment samples from the Coastal Range and the Sierra Nevada were subject to batch leaching experiments under varying conditions. Sequential extraction analyses of the soils and sediments indicated that most of the mercury was present as (1) Hg as HgS in samples affected by HgS mining, which occurred in the Coastal Range, (2) Hg bound to metal oxides in a background serpentine soil from the Coastal Range, (3) Hg bound to sediment organic matter in lake sediments from Camp Far West Reservoir, and (4) elemental Hg in a sluice sediment from Starr Tunnel. The effects of pH, ionic strength, inorganic ions (chloride, calcium), simple organic ligands (mercaptoacetic acid, salicylic acid, EDTA), and dissolved organic matter (DOM) on the release of Hg were investigated. Leaching experiments confirmed that the water-soluble fraction was small (9 to 350 ng/L) compared to the amounts of Hg associated with the solid samples (1 to 36 μg/g total mercury); however, these concentrations would be sufficient to result in increased methylation by sulfate-reducing bacteria in wetland systems. An increase in mercury release was observed with (1) increasing pH due to solubilization of soil organic matter, (2) decreasing ionic strength due to colloid stabilization, and (3) increasing chloride concentration due to the formation of complexes with mercury. The presence of calcium strongly inhibited mercury release. Among the organic ligands, mercaptoacetic acid, which binds Hg very strongly, was the most effective at solubilizing Hg. DOM, in the form of organic matter isolates, was also very effective at solubilizing Hg for all samples except the lake sediment sample, with the most aromatic organic

  10. Mercury speciation in floodplain soils and sediments along a contaminated river transect

    SciTech Connect

    Wallschlaeger, D.; Desai, M.V.M.; Spengler, M.; Wilken, R.D.

    1998-09-01

    A novel mercury-specific sequential extraction procedure (SEP) for the assessment of mercury (Hg) speciation in soils and sediments, with emphasis on studying the interaction between Hg and organic matter (OM), was developed and tested. It was applied to determine Hg speciation in floodplain topsoils and surface sediments along the Hg-contaminated part of the river Elbe, and to simultaneously derive some information on the (re)mobilization potentials for Hg from these matrices. The majority of the total Hg in the ecosystem today is bound in the floodplains, which also still geographically reflect the historic emission record. Most of the Hg in both matrices is bound strongly to OM, suggesting low availability. However, distinct differences between Hg speciation in the floodplain soils and sediments were also discovered. Mercury deposited in the floodplains shows speciation patterns that indicate stronger fixation compared with Hg in the sediments. This difference is attributed to the association of Hg with larger quantities of OM, which presumably also has higher molecular weight (MW). By comparison, Hg in the sediments was distributed among weaker binding forms, which are more likely to liberate Hg. Particularly, sediments showed a total lack of sulfidic binding forms for Hg. Pronounced geographical trends were detected in the Hg speciation along the river transect, with a general downstream shift from weaker to stronger binding forms, probably due to increased association with OM. These studies indicate that Hg speciation in riverine ecosystems is dynamic and reflects the chemical mechanisms underlying (bio) geochemical processes like distribution and transport.

  11. Linking the field to the stream: soil erosion and sediment yield in a rural catchment, NW Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Blanco, M. L.; Taboada-Castro, M. M.; Palleiro-Suarez, L.; Taboada-Castro, M. T.

    2009-04-01

    Quantifying the linkages between field erosion, fluvial response and catchment sediment yield remains problematic, among other reasons, because of the re-deposition of eroded sediment within the catchment, which is controlled by the spatial organization of the land use and the connectivity between sediment sources and the stream network. This paper presents the results of an integrated study that considered the relationship between erosion and stream sediment yield in an agroforestry catchment (16 km2) in NW Spain. The geology consists of basic metamorphic schist. The relieve of the area is steeper, the mean slope is approximately 19%. Main soil types are classified as Umbrisol and Cambisol. Soils are acidic and rich in organic matter. The soil texture is silt and silt-loam. Land cover consists of a mixture of forest (65%) and agricultural fields (mainly grassland, pasture and maize). The study combined measurements of soil erosion by concentrate flow and sediment deposition at field scale with sediment yield measured at the catchment outlet. The hydrological data and water samples were obtained at the catchment outlet. Stream water level was monitored continuously and converted to discharge using a rating curve. The sampling for suspended sediments was supplemented by an automatic sampler. Suspended sediment load was calculated from the suspended sediment concentrations and discharge data. Eroded volume was calculated from cross-sections (measured at specific points, where the section changed abruptly) and length of the channel segments. The total sediment delivered to stream was determined as the difference between all erosion features (rills and gullies) and the sediment volumes that were deposited on the fields. The results showed that in the catchment during the period winter 2007/08 soil erosion by concentrate flow, i.e. rills and ephemeral gullies, occurred on unprotected crop field. Erosion by concentrate flow was highly discontinuous within the catchment

  12. Autoclave decomposition method for metals in soils and sediments.

    PubMed

    Navarrete-López, M; Jonathan, M P; Rodríguez-Espinosa, P F; Salgado-Galeana, J A

    2012-04-01

    Leaching of partially leached metals (Fe, Mn, Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) was done using autoclave technique which was modified based on EPA 3051A digestion technique. The autoclave method was developed as an alternative to the regular digestion procedure passed the safety norms for partial extraction of metals in polytetrafluoroethylene (PFA vessel) with a low constant temperature (119.5° ± 1.5°C) and the recovery of elements were also precise. The autoclave method was also validated using two Standard Reference Materials (SRMs: Loam Soil B and Loam Soil D) and the recoveries were equally superior to the traditionally established digestion methods. Application of the autoclave was samples from different natural environments (beach, mangrove, river, and city soil) to reproduce the recovery of elements during subsequent analysis. PMID:21584757

  13. Reducing sediment concentration and soil loss using organic and inorganic amendments at plot scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi, S. H. R.; Gholami, L.; Homaee, M.; Khaledi Darvishan, A.

    2015-01-01

    Although various organic and inorganic mulches are used for soil conservation purposes, the comparative effectiveness of them on soil characteristics has not been comprehensively considered from different aspects. The present study is therefore an attempt to determine the efficiency of straw mulch, manure and TA-200 polyacrylamide with respective rates of 500, 300 and 50 g m-2, respectively, in changing sediment concentration and soil loss. The experiments were conducted for sandy-loam soil (collected from the top 0-20 cm-layer) taken from a summer rangeland, the Alborz Mountains, Northern Iran under laboratory conditions with simulated rainfall intensities of 30, 50, 70 and 90 mm h-1 and the slope of 30%. The results showed that the straw mulch decreased soil concentration at rate of 45.60% compared to the control plots, and performed better than manure (8.98% reduction) and PAM (4.74% reduction). The results showed that the maximum reduction in sediment concentration and soil loss for all soil amendments occurred in the rainfall intensity of 90 mm h-1 with the rates of 58.69 and 63.24%, for straw mulch, 14.65 and 13.14%, for manure and 20.15 and 23.44% for TA-200, respectively.

  14. Reducing sediment concentration and soil loss using organic and inorganic amendments at plot scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi, S. H. R.; Gholami, L.; Homaee, M.; Khaledi Darvishan, A.

    2015-04-01

    Various organic and inorganic mulches are used for soil conservation purposes, the effectiveness of which on soil characteristics has not been comprehensively considered from different aspects. The present study surveys the efficiency of straw mulch, manure and TA-200 polyacrylamide with respective rates of 500, 300 and 50 g m-2 in changing sediment concentration and soil loss. The experiments were conducted for sandy-loam soil taken from a summer rangeland, the Alborz Mountains, northern Iran. The experiments were performed under laboratory conditions with simulated rainfall intensities of 30, 50, 70 and 90 mm h-1 and a slope of 30%. The results showed that the straw mulch decreased soil erosion at rate of 45.60% compared to the control plots and performed better than manure (8.98% reduction) and PAM (4.74% reduction). The results showed that the maximum reduction in sediment concentration and soil loss for all soil amendments occurred at the rainfall intensity of 90 mm h-1 with the rates of 58.69 and 63.24% for straw mulch, 14.65 and 13.14% for manure and 20.15 and 23.44% for TA-200.

  15. Bottom shear stress and SSC control on the morphological evolution of estuarine intertidal mudflats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deloffre, Julien; Verney, Romaric; Lafite, Robert

    2014-05-01

    The supply and fate of fine-grained suspended sediment is of primary importance to the functioning and evolution of estuaries. Intertidal mudflats are habitats of high ecological value: feeding ground for birds, fish species and other biota. Estuarine intertidal mudflats can also contain buried contaminants that can be potentially released in the estuarine system. Thus physical processes such as erosion and sedimentation are fundamental from both applied and environmental viewpoint. Sedimentation and erosion rates/fluxes are mainly driven by hydrodynamics, particles/sediment properties, bedforms and sediment supply. Few high-frequency field-investigation studies compared tidal scale processes simultaneously in the water column and on the mudflat surface. The aim of this paper is to determine the thresholds values (bottom shear stress and SSC) that control the morphological evolution of estuarine intertidal mudflats (< 10% of sand) on semi-diurnal tidal scale. This field-based study combines high-resolution and high-frequency measurements of turbulence and SSC in the water column (using ADV) and bed height (using altimeter) on intertidal mudflat surface in three macrotidal estuaries. Such approach on semi-diurnal scale permitted to accurately understand relationships between hydrodynamics in the boundary layer and sedimentary processes above intertidal mudflats. Results emphasize the role of waves, sediment supply and consolidation state of surface sediments on sedimentary processes over intertidal mudflats. Bottom shear stresses on studied intertidal mudflats were recorded always sufficiently low (<1N.m-2) to permit settling of fine particles during flood tide and/or high-water slack. Sedimentation occurrence and rate on studied intertidal mudflat was found to be driven by (i) the SSC near the bed (if > 0.1g.l-1) and (ii) the absence of significant waves. Wind-generated waves can prevent sedimentation or induce erosion if the bottom shear stress exceeds 1N.m-2

  16. Reductive microbial dechlorination of indigenous polychlorinated biphenyls in soil using a sediment-free inoculum.

    PubMed

    Klasson, K T; Barton, J W; Evans, B S; Reeves, M E

    1996-01-01

    In laboratory experiments, unagitated soil slurry bioreactors inoculated with micro-organisms extracted from polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated (PCBs) sediments from the Hudson River were used to anaerobically dechlorinate PCBs. The onset of dechlorination activity was accelerated by the addition of certain organic acids (pyruvate and maleate) and single congeners (2,3,6-trichlorobiphenyl). Dechlorination was observed under several working conditions after 19 weeks of incubation with PCB-contaminated soil and nutrient solution. Best results showed a drop in average chlorine content from 4.3 to 3.6 chlorines per biphenyl due to a loss of m-chlorines. Soil used for these experiments was obtained from a PCB-contaminated (weathered Aroclor 1248) site at an electric power substation. Dechlorination was observed with no sediment particles or other matrix being added. PMID:8652118

  17. Reductive microbial dechlorination of indigenous polychlorinated biphenyls in soil using a sediment-free inoculum

    SciTech Connect

    Klasson, K.T.; Barton, J.W.; Evans, B.S.; Reeves, M.E.

    1996-05-01

    In laboratory experiments, unagitated soil slurry bioreactors inoculated with microorganisms extracted from polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated (PCBs) sediments from the Hudson River were used to anaerobically dechlorinate PCBs. The onset of dechlorination activity was accelerated by the addition of certain organic acids (pyruvate and maleate) and single congeners (2,3,6-trichlorobiphenyl). Dechlorination was observed under several working conditions after 19 weeks of incubation with PCB-contaminated soil and nutrient solution. Best results showed a drop in average chlorine content from 4.3 to 3.6 chlorines per biphenyl due to a loss of m-chlorines. Soil used for these experiments was obtained from a PCB-contaminated (weathered Aroclor 1248) site at an electric power substation. Dechlorination was observed with no sediment particles or other matrix being added. 17 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Modifications to particles as they move through landscapes: connecting soils and sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, Philip N.

    2016-04-01

    In many areas of the world, soils are eroded leading to the movement of particles towards the global ocean. Along this journey, there are modifications to these particles and we tend to refer to this altered material as sediment in recognition that such material may no longer be fully reflective of its source. These modifications are brought about by physical, chemical and biological processes, and by the inclusion of additional sources of material, such as channel banks. The degree of modification is partly a function of the inherent properties of the original soil material but also reflects landscape type, and the temporal and spatial scales of investigation. This presentation will consider the changes in particles between soil profiles and sediment transported in river systems, drawing on examples from studies in Canada and beyond. It is hoped that by understanding the transformation of such material we can predict better its movement and impacts.

  19. PHYTOTECHNOLOGY RESEARCH: REMEDIATION OF SOIL, SEDIMENT, GROUNDWATER, AND ET CAPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    NRMRL has a number of research efforts underway in the general field of using plants as all or part of an environmental improvement strategy. Planted systems have been demonstrated on several SITE program locations for PAH and PCP degradation in soil, TCE uptake and degradation ...

  20. TRANSFORMATION OF CHIRAL POLLUTANTS IN SOIL AND SEDIMENT MICROCOSMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The transformation rates and enantiomeric ratios of several chiral pollutants were determined in laboratory microcosms (25oC). Aerobic and anaerobic agricultural soil slurries were separately dosed with the following chiral pesticides: o,p'-DDT, o,p'-methoxychlor, cis-chlordane, ...

  1. Fine Increment Soil Collector (FISC): A new device to support high resolution soil and sediment sampling for agri-environmental assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mabit, Lionel; Meusburger, Katrin; Iurian, Andra-Rada; Owens, Philip N.; Toloza, Arsenio; Alewell, Christine

    2014-05-01

    Soil and sediment related research for terrestrial agri-environmental assessments requires accurate depth incremental sampling of soil and exposed sediment profiles. Existing coring equipment does not allow collecting soil/sediment increments at millimetre resolution. Therefore, the authors have designed an economic, portable, hand-operated surface soil/sediment sampler - the Fine Increment Soil Collector (FISC) - which allows extensive control of soil/sediment sampling process and easy recovery of the material collected by using a simple screw-thread extraction system. In comparison with existing sampling tools, the FISC has the following advantages and benefits: (i) it permits sampling of soil/sediment samples at the top of the profile; (ii) it is easy to adjust so as to collect soil/sediment at mm resolution; (iii) it is simple to operate by one single person; (iv) incremental samples can be performed in the field or at the laboratory; (v) it permits precise evaluation of bulk density at millimetre vertical resolution; and (vi) sample size can be tailored to analytical requirements. To illustrate the usefulness of the FISC in sampling soil and sediments for 7Be - a well-known cosmogenic soil tracer and fingerprinting tool - measurements, the sampler was tested in a forested soil located 45 km southeast of Vienna in Austria. The fine resolution increments of 7Be (i.e. 2.5 mm) affects directly the measurement of the 7Be total inventory but above all impacts the shape of the 7Be exponential profile which is needed to assess soil movement rates. The FISC can improve the determination of the depth distributions of other Fallout Radionuclides (FRN) - such as 137Cs, 210Pbexand239+240Pu - which are frequently used for soil erosion and sediment transport studies and/or sediment fingerprinting. Such a device also offers great potential to investigate FRN depth distributions associated with fallout events such as that associated with nuclear emergencies. Furthermore, prior

  2. Wave energy and intertidal productivity

    PubMed Central

    Leigh, Egbert G.; Paine, Robert T.; Quinn, James F.; Suchanek, Thomas H.

    1987-01-01

    In the northeastern Pacific, intertidal zones of the most wave-beaten shores receive more energy from breaking waves than from the sun. Despite severe mortality from winter storms, communities at some wave-beaten sites produce an extraordinary quantity of dry matter per unit area of shore per year. At wave-beaten sites of Tatoosh Island, WA, sea palms, Postelsia palmaeformis, can produce > 10 kg of dry matter, or 1.5 × 108 J, per m2 in a good year. Extraordinarily productive organisms such as Postelsia are restricted to wave-beaten sites. Intertidal organisms cannot transform wave energy into chemical energy, as photosynthetic plants transform solar energy, nor can intertidal organisms “harness” wave energy. Nonetheless, wave energy enhances the productivity of intertidal organisms. On exposed shores, waves increase the capacity of resident algae to acquire nutrients and use sunlight, augment the competitive ability of productive organisms, and protect intertidal residents by knocking away their enemies or preventing them from feeding. PMID:16593813

  3. On the morphodynamic stability of intertidal environments and the role of vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakeh, Nabil; Coco, Giovanni; Marani, Marco

    2016-07-01

    We describe the coupled biotic and abiotic dynamics in intertidal environments using a point model that includes suspended sediment deposition, wave- and current-driven erosion, biofilm sediment stabilization, and sediment production and stabilization by vegetation. We explore the effects of two widely different types of vegetation: salt-marsh vegetation and mangroves. These two types of vegetation, which colonize distinct geographical areas, are characterized by different biomass productivities and stabilization mechanisms. We show that changing vegetation and biofilm properties result in differing stable states, both in their type and number. The presence of the biofilm exerts a dominant control on the tidal flat (lower intertidal) equilibrium elevation and stability. Vegetation controls the elevation of the marsh platform (i.e., the upper intertidal equilibrium). The two types of vegetation considered lead to similar effects on the stability of the system despite their distinct biophysical interactions.

  4. Hydrodynamic investigation of fluvial sediment transport with Soil Protrusion Apparatus (SPA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayaratne, Ravindra; Salim, Sarik

    2014-11-01

    In order to understand sediment transport process based on knowledge of their soil properties and hydrodynamic behaviour a series of 2D laboratory controlled small-scale experiments were conducted using the Ahlborn sediment mobile bed tank (4.0×0.6×0.2 m). Experiments were conducted in smooth and rough bed conditions with purposely-built Soil Protrusion Apparatus (SPA) to measure the basic parameters on which erosion depends. Sediment deposition patterns in equilibrium stage associated with different bed roughness and particle size distributionswere fundamentally investigated. Extended physical modelling of crescent zones also included analysing their grain size distribution. Dimensional analysis and multiple linear regression methodswere employed to derive a simple empirical relationship for erosion rate (ER) in terms of the shear stress (τs), average grain diameter (d50) and soil protrusion (z) for smooth and rough sediment bed conditions. These analyses also suggest ways to refine empirical models, examining transport rates to explore the limits of erosion and deposition influences in shallow flow conditions.

  5. Sediment budget for Murder Creek, Georgia, USA, from Pu239+240 - determined soil erosion rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stubblefield, A. P.; Matissoff, G.; Ketterer, M. E.; Whiting, P. J.

    2005-12-01

    Soil inventories of the radionuclides Cs137 and Pb210 have been used in a variety of environments as indicators for erosion and depositional processes. Development of sediment budgets for entire watersheds from radionuclide data has been somewhat constrained because limited sample numbers may not adequately characterize the wide range of geomorphic conditions and land uses found in heterogeneous environments. The measurement of Pu239+240 shows great potential for developing quantitative watershed sediment budgets. With inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry, hundreds of samples may be processed in dramatically shorter times than the gamma spectrometry method used for Cs137 or alpha spectrometry method used for Pb210. We collected surface soil samples from Murder Creek in the Piedmont region of Georgia, USA, to compare Pu239+240 inventories with Cs137 and Pb210 inventories for a range of land uses in a predominantly forested watershed. Excellent correlations were found for radionuclide inventories (r2 =0.88, n = 38) and high resolution (4 mm) depth profiles. The second objective was to generate a sediment budget using the full Pu239+240 dataset (n = 309). Average Pu239+240 inventories were 70.0 Bq/m2 for hardwood forest, 60.0 Bq/m2 for pine plantation, 65.1 Bq/m2 for pine forest, 66.7 Bq/m2 for row crop agriculture and 67.9 Bq/m2 for pasture. The sediment budget will be constructed by converting inventories into site-specific erosion rates. Erosion rates will be scaled up to the watershed scale using GIS coverages of land use, soil, slope, and slope position. Results will be compared with Murder Creek sediment budgets in the scientific literature generated from RUSLE erosion modeling, USGS monitoring networks and reservoir sedimentation.

  6. Disposal of dredged sediments in tropical soils: ecotoxicological effects on earthworms.

    PubMed

    Cesar, Ricardo; Natal-da-Luz, Tiago; Sousa, José Paulo; Colonese, Juan; Bidone, Edison; Castilhos, Zuleica; Egler, Silvia; Polivanov, Helena

    2014-03-01

    The upper limit concentrations of metals established by international legislations for dredged sediment disposal and soil quality do not take into consideration the properties of tropical soils (generally submitted to more intense weathering processes) on metal availability and ecotoxicity. Aiming to perform an evaluation on the suitability of these threshold values in tropical regions, the ecotoxicity of metal-contaminated dredged sediment from the Guanabara Bay (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) was investigated. Acute and avoidance tests with Eisenia andrei were performed with mixtures of dredged sediment with a ferralsol (0.00, 6.66, 13.12, 19.98, and 33.30 %) and a chernosol (0.00, 6.58, 13.16, 19.74, and 32.90 %). Mercury, lead, nickel, chromium, copper, and zinc concentrations were measured in test mixtures and in tissues of surviving earthworms from the acute tests. While ferralsol test mixtures provoked significant earthworm avoidance response at concentrations ≥13.31 %, the chernosol mixtures showed significant avoidance behavior only at the 19.74 % concentration. The acute tests showed higher toxicity in ferralsol mixtures (LC50 = 9.9 %) compared to chernosol mixtures (LC50 = 16.5 %), and biomass increased at the lowest sediment doses in treatments of both test soils. Most probably, the expansive clay minerals present in chernosol contributed to reduce metal availability in chernosol mixtures, and consequently, the ecotoxicity of these treatments. The bioconcentration factors (BCF) for zinc and copper were lower with increasing concentrations of the dredged sediment, indicating the existence of internal regulating processes. Although the BCF for mercury also decreased with the increasing test concentrations, the known no biological function of this metal in the earthworms metabolism lead to suppose that Hg measured was not present in bioaccumulable forms. BCFs estimated for the other metals were generally higher in the highest dredged sediment doses

  7. Flow Cytometric Assessment of Bacterial Abundance in Soils, Sediments and Sludge

    PubMed Central

    Frossard, Aline; Hammes, Frederik; Gessner, Mark O.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial abundance is a fundamental measure in microbiology, but its assessment is often tedious, especially for soil, and sediment samples. To overcome this limitation, we adopted a time-efficient flow-cytometric (FCM) counting method involving cell detachment and separation from matrix particles by centrifugation in tubes receiving sample suspensions and Histodenz® solution. We used this approach to assess bacterial abundances in diverse soils (natural and agricultural), sediments (streams and lakes) and sludge from sand-filters in a drinking water treatment plant and compared the results to bacterial abundances determined by two established methods, epifluorescence microscopy (EM) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) quantification. Cell abundances determined by FCM and EM correlated fairly well, although absolute cell abundances were generally lower when determined by FCM. FCM also showed significant relations with cell counts converted from ATP concentrations, although estimates derived from ATP determinations were typically higher, indicating the presence of ATP sources other than bacteria. Soil and sediment organic matter (OM) content influenced the goodness of fit between counts obtained with EM and FCM. In particular, bacterial abundance determined by FCM in samples containing less than 10% OM, such as stream sediment, was particularly well correlated with the cell counts assessed by EM. Overall, these results suggest that FCM following cell detachment and purification is a useful approach to increase sample throughput for determining bacterial abundances in soils, sediments and sludge. However, notable scatter and only partial concordance among the FCM and reference methods suggests that protocols require further improvement for assessments requiring high precision, especially when OM contents in samples are high. PMID:27379043

  8. Flow Cytometric Assessment of Bacterial Abundance in Soils, Sediments and Sludge.

    PubMed

    Frossard, Aline; Hammes, Frederik; Gessner, Mark O

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial abundance is a fundamental measure in microbiology, but its assessment is often tedious, especially for soil, and sediment samples. To overcome this limitation, we adopted a time-efficient flow-cytometric (FCM) counting method involving cell detachment and separation from matrix particles by centrifugation in tubes receiving sample suspensions and Histodenz(®) solution. We used this approach to assess bacterial abundances in diverse soils (natural and agricultural), sediments (streams and lakes) and sludge from sand-filters in a drinking water treatment plant and compared the results to bacterial abundances determined by two established methods, epifluorescence microscopy (EM) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) quantification. Cell abundances determined by FCM and EM correlated fairly well, although absolute cell abundances were generally lower when determined by FCM. FCM also showed significant relations with cell counts converted from ATP concentrations, although estimates derived from ATP determinations were typically higher, indicating the presence of ATP sources other than bacteria. Soil and sediment organic matter (OM) content influenced the goodness of fit between counts obtained with EM and FCM. In particular, bacterial abundance determined by FCM in samples containing less than 10% OM, such as stream sediment, was particularly well correlated with the cell counts assessed by EM. Overall, these results suggest that FCM following cell detachment and purification is a useful approach to increase sample throughput for determining bacterial abundances in soils, sediments and sludge. However, notable scatter and only partial concordance among the FCM and reference methods suggests that protocols require further improvement for assessments requiring high precision, especially when OM contents in samples are high. PMID:27379043

  9. Soil and sediments micromorphology: reconstruction of palaeoenvironments, anthropogenic processes, or more recent human impact on ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gérard, Martine; Trombino, Luca; Stoops, Georges

    2014-05-01

    Soils and sediments registered the environmental changes in time and space, but also display components inherited from human activities, both in archaeological and in modern times. Micromorphological investigations carried out on undisturbed samples of soil and sediments by microscopic and ultramicroscopic techniques, correlated with mineralogy, geochemistry or biology, allow us to interpret the processes behind the formation of regoliths, sediments and anthropogenic deposits, from which a relative chronology, specific environmental conditions and/or extent of human impact may be deduced. The traditional optical microscopy observations, carried on the thin section groundmass and pedofeatures, provide clues on the different processes behind soils and sediments genesis (weathering, supergene, low T hydrothermal, anthropogenic) and their impact on ecosystems or on palaeoenvironments. In more recent times, the improvements in electron microscope imaging technology permit to make detailed observations up to the nanoscale, opening a new domain of observations to micromorphologists, both as regard of the micromass and of the thinner pedofeatures. Moreover, the optimisation of the microgeochemical mapping techniques, with spatially resolved chemical, isotopic or mineralogical analyses, is another powerful tool to gain insight in chemical migration fronts: the limit of the original rock fabric disappearance may be bypassed. In order to illustrate micromorphological researches in natural and man-influenced ecosystems, and to combine researches at different scales, several optical and electronic images of soils and sediments groundmass, associated to their microgeochemical characteristics will be presented, with selected examples taken from the climatic record of paleosols, the impact of hydrothermal alteration on saprolites, the neo-formation of minerals related to weathering process evolution, the protosoil formation in natural and human waste deposits, and the forensic

  10. Potential Carbon Transport: Linking Soil Aggregate Stability and Sediment Enrichment for Updating the Soil Active Layer within Intensely Managed Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wacha, K.; Papanicolaou, T.; Abban, B. K.; Wilson, C. G.

    2014-12-01

    Currently, many biogeochemical models lack the mechanistic capacity to accurately simulate soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics, especially within intensely managed landscapes (IMLs) such as those found in the U.S. Midwest. These modeling limitations originate by not accounting for downslope connectivity of flowpathways initiated and governed by landscape processes and hydrologic forcing, which induce dynamic updates to the soil active layer (generally top 20-30cm of soil) with various sediment size fractions and aggregates being transported and deposited along the downslope. These hydro-geomorphic processes, often amplified in IMLs by tillage events and seasonal canopy, can greatly impact biogeochemical cycles (e.g., enhanced mineralization during aggregate breakdown) and in turn, have huge implications/uncertainty when determining SOC budgets. In this study, some of these limitations were addressed through a new concept, Potential Carbon Transport (PCT), a term which quantifies a maximum amount of material available for transport at various positions of the landscape, which was used to further refine a coupled modeling framework focused on SOC redistribution through downslope/lateral connectivity. Specifically, the size fractions slaked from large and small aggregates during raindrop-induced aggregate stability tests were used in conjunction with rainfall-simulated sediment enrichment ratio (ER) experiments to quantify the PCT under various management practices, soil types and landscape positions. Field samples used in determining aggregate stability and the ER experiments were collected/performed within the historic Clear Creek Watershed, home of the IML Critical Zone Observatory, located in Southeastern Iowa.

  11. Preferential flow in fissured sediments in desert soils related to radioactive waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Scanlon, B.R.; Raney, J.A. . Bureau of Economic Geology)

    1992-01-01

    Unsaturated flow in fissured sediments in the Chihuahuan Desert of Texas was examined to determine if these features act as preferred pathways for water and solute transport. Fissures are surface features, or gulleys, that are underlain by fractures filled with sediment derived from surrounding areas. Hydraulic and chemical approaches were used to investigate unsaturated flow processes beneath and adjacent to fissures, and the results were compared with data from surrounding geomorphic systems such as arroyos, ephemeral streams, and interstreams. Typically, high water potentials in surficial sediments result from infiltration of recent precipitation. Below this surficial zone of high water potentials lies a zone of low water potentials that is much thinner beneath the fissure than in adjacent sediments or in sediments beneath ephemeral streams and interstreams. Maximum chloride concentrations in profiles in the near-surface fissured sediments were much lower than those measured in all other geomorphic systems. The corresponding moisture velocities in the fissured sediments ranged from 10 to 70 mm/yr. A tracer experiment demonstrated higher downward water and solute transport in the fracture fill beneath the fissure relative to adjacent sediments. Numerical simulations of the tracer experiment with the computer code TRACR3D reproduced the overall shape of the tracer plume. Sensitivity analyses demonstrated that the tracer plume is most sensitive to spatial variability in soil texture and the corresponding hydraulic parameters. The results from this study suggest that sediments in the fissured area act as preferred pathways in the shallow subsurface because surface runoff is concentrated in the fissures and because underlying fractures and cavities provide avenues for moisture and solute transport.

  12. Immobilization of mercury in field soil and sediment using carboxymethyl cellulose stabilized iron sulfide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Yanyan; Liu, Yuanyuan; Xiong, Zhong; Kaback, Dawn; Zhao, Dongye

    2012-07-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the most pervasive and bio-accumulative metals in the environment. Yet, effective in situ remediation technologies have been lacking. This study investigated the effectiveness of a class of soil-deliverable FeS nanoparticles for in situ immobilization of Hg in two field-contaminated soils from a New Jersey site and one sediment from an Alabama site. The nanoparticles were prepared using sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as a stabilizer. Transmission electron microscopy measurements revealed a particle size of 34.3 ± 8.3 nm (standard deviation), whereas dynamic light scattering gave a hydrodynamic diameter of 222.5 ± 3.2 nm. Batch tests showed that at an FeS-to-Hg molar ratio of 28:1-118:1, the nanoparticles reduced water-leachable Hg by 79%-96% and the TCLP (toxicity characteristic leaching procedure) based leachability by 26%-96%. Column breakthrough tests indicated that the nanoparticles were deliverable in the sediment/soil columns under moderate injection pressure. However, once the external pressure was removed, the delivered nanoparticles remained virtually mobile under typical groundwater flow conditions. When the Hg-contaminated soil and sediment were treated with 52-95 pore volumes of a 500 mg l-1 FeS nanoparticle suspension, water-leachable Hg was reduced by 90%-93% and TCLP-leachable Hg was reduced by 65%-91%. The results warrant further field demonstration of this promising in situ remediation technology.

  13. Dissolution characteristics of Pu-contaminated soils and sediments in lung serum simulant solution.

    PubMed

    Lee, S Y; Bondietti, E A; Tamura, T

    1982-11-01

    Dissolution characteristics of Pu from contaminated Nevada Test Site (NTS) and Rocky Flats (RF) soils, and Mound Laboratory (ML) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) sediments in lung serum simulant solution at 37 degrees C were investigated. The dissolved Pu concentration had reached a maximum within a day of equilibration and the percent dissolved Pu at the maximum was 0.70 (RF), 0.43 (ML), 0.02 (ORNL), and 0.02 (NTS). The Pu concentrations of the RF, ML and ORNL samples in the successively extracted solutions decreased drastically but the concentration in the NTS soil extracts did not change significantly. The differences in Pu dissolution among the samples were caused by the differences in the total Pu concentration, particle size distribution, and chemical nature of Pu in contaminated soils and sediments. The higher solubility of the particulate Pu form in the RF soil relative to the ORNL sediment contaminated by dissolved Pu suggests that contamination source alone can not explain the observed differences. Variation of Pu solubility among the samples indicates that a single solubility class for dose assessment use may not be appropriate, particularly if one attempts to make comparative assessments among different sites. PMID:7152928

  14. Characterization and mobility of geogenic chromium in soils and river bed sediments of Asopos basin.

    PubMed

    Lilli, Maria A; Moraetis, Daniel; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos P; Karatzas, George P; Kalogerakis, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    A field and laboratory study was conducted to assess the origin and mobility of CrVI in Asopos basin in Greece. Sampling was designed in such way as to capture the spatial variability of chromium occurring in sediments and soils in different lithological units in the area. Physicochemical and geochemical characterization of surface agricultural soils obtained from river terraces and river bed sediments was conducted in order to determine the natural background of chromium. Lithologies with strong calcareous, siliceous and ultramafic components were identified using principal component analysis. Laboratory mobility studies quantified the rates of chromium sorption and release from soils and their capacity to adsorb chromium. Heavy metal analysis and local geology study support the hypothesis that the main source of chromium is of geogenic origin. Chromium distribution in Asopos river bed was influenced from the eroded products derived from extensive areas with ultramafic rocks the last 5Ma. The mobility studies showed that leaching process was very fast and sorption capacity was significant and capable to retain chromium in case of waste release in the river. Finally the mobility of chromium release is limited due to existing attenuation capacity controlled by ferric oxides coatings on the soil and sediments. PMID:25103879

  15. Analysis of sulfonamides in soil, sediment, and sludge based on dynamic microwave-assisted micellar extraction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Ding, Jie; Ding, Lan; Ren, Nanqi

    2016-07-01

    A green and high-throughput analytical method was described for the simultaneous determination of ten sulfonamides (SAs) from soil, sediment, and sludge in northeast China. None of potentially hazardous organic solvents was used in the whole sample preparation procedure, and the total preparation time of 15 samples was about 18 min. The limits of detection for the SAs were in the range of 0.42-0.68 ng g(-1). The intra-day and inter-day precisions, expressed by the relative standard deviation, were below 7 %. Under the optimum conditions, the recoveries of ten SAs were between 69.7 and 102.7 %. The proposed method was successfully applied to analyze the SAs residues in agricultural soils, river sediments, and sewage sludge. SAs were found at the levels of 1.40-2.31 ng g(-1) and 3.77-29.29 ng g(-1) in the sediments and sludge, respectively. The aging effect of spiked soil samples on the SAs recoveries was examined, and the results demonstrate that eight SAs could persist in five soils for 3 months. Compared with the traditional method, the proposed method could reduce the consumption of the organic solvent, shorten the sample preparation time, and increase the sample throughput. PMID:26996907

  16. Spatio-temporal patterns of soil erosion and suspended sediment dynamics in the Mekong River Basin.

    PubMed

    Suif, Zuliziana; Fleifle, Amr; Yoshimura, Chihiro; Saavedra, Oliver

    2016-10-15

    Understanding of the distribution patterns of sediment erosion, concentration and transport in river basins is critically important as sediment plays a major role in river basin hydrophysical and ecological processes. In this study, we proposed an integrated framework for the assessment of sediment dynamics, including soil erosion (SE), suspended sediment load (SSL) and suspended sediment concentration (SSC), and applied this framework to the Mekong River Basin. The Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) model was adopted with a geographic information system to assess SE and was coupled with a sediment accumulation and a routing scheme to simulate SSL. This framework also analyzed Landsat imagery captured between 1987 and 2000 together with ground observations to interpolate spatio-temporal patterns of SSC. The simulated SSL results from 1987 to 2000 showed the relative root mean square error of 41% and coefficient of determination (R(2)) of 0.89. The polynomial relationship of the near infrared exoatmospheric reflectance and the band 4 wavelength (760-900nm) to the observed SSC at 9 sites demonstrated the good agreement (overall relative RMSE=5.2%, R(2)=0.87). The result found that the severe SE occurs in the upper (China and Lao PDR) and lower (western part of Vietnam) regions. The SSC in the rainy season (June-November) showed increasing and decreasing trends longitudinally in the upper (China and Lao PDR) and lower regions (Cambodia), respectively, while the longitudinal profile of SSL showed a fluctuating trend along the river in the early rainy season. Overall, the results described the unique spatio-temporal patterns of SE, SSL and SSC in the Mekong River Basin. Thus, the proposed integrated framework is useful for elucidating complex process of sediment generation and transport in the land and river systems of large river basins. PMID:27338846

  17. Non-steady State Soil Organic Carbon Storage in Undisturbed Watersheds Due to Diffusive Sediment Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, K.; Amundson, R.; Heimsath, A. M.; Dietrich, W. E.

    2003-12-01

    Most soil C models assume that plant C inputs are matched by C loss through heterotrophic respiration. While these models are applicable for level terrain, on soil mantled uplands in hilly to mountainous regions, persistent soil mass transport represents a potentially large, but unstudied, flux of soil C. In this research we quantify the soil C erosional fluxes and non-steady state soil C storage within two undisturbed grass-covered hillslopes in Coastal California: Tennessee Valley (TV) (coastal Marin County) and Black Diamond (BD) (interior Contra Costa County). At both sites, previous geomorphic studies have quantified both the sediment transport processes (TV= gopher driven sediment transport; BD= abiotic soil shrink/swell) and their rates. Hillslope patterns of soil C storage were examined in relation to slope position with a hillslope sediment transport model. The average C erosion rates from convex slopes are between 1.4 and 2.7 g C m -2 yr-1 at TV and approximately 8 g C m-2 yr-1 at BD. The C erosional flux is locally as high as 14% of above ground net primary productivity (NPP) at TV and 8% at BD. The convex slopes are net C sinks because NPP likely exceeds respiration by a value equaling the size of C erosion. Eroded soils ultimately accumulate in depositional settings which have residence times on the order of 13kyrs at TV and 5.3kyrs at BD. At TV hollow, 15-24 kg C m-2 of soil C has accumulated at a long-term rate of 1.6-1.9 g C m-2 yr-1 . The present rates of C accumulation were calculated to be 0.3 g C m-2 yr-1 at TV and 0.6 g C m-2 yr-1 at BD. During the hollow infilling, the depositional C inputs have been greater than C accumulation rates, meaning that much of the incoming eroded C is ultimately oxidized to CO2. At both sites, a fraction of the eroded C is exported from the watershed (C of 0.1-0.5 g C m-2 yr-1 at TV and 2 g C m-2 yr-1 at BD). When all hillslope components are integrated, these watersheds are continuous atmospheric C sinks at rates

  18. Degradation of the herbicide dichlobenil and its metabolite BAM in soils and subsurface sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clausen, Liselotte; Arildskov, Niels P.; Larsen, Flemming; Aamand, Jens; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    The worldwide used herbicide dichlobenil (2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile) has resulted in widespread presence of its metabolite 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM) in surface water and groundwater. To evaluate the potential for natural attenuation of this BAM pollution in groundwater, we studied the degradation of BAM and dichlobenil in 16 samples of clayey till, unconsolidated sand and limestone, including sediments from both oxidized and reduced conditions. The degradation of dichlobenil occurred primarily in the upper few meters below surface, although dichlobenil was strongly sorbed to these sediments. However, the degradation of dichlobenil to BAM could not be correlated to either sorption, water chemistry, composition of soils or sediments. Degradation of dichlobenil to BAM was limited (< 2% degraded) in the deeper unsaturated zones, and no degradation was observed in aquifer sediments. This illustrates, that dichlobenil transported to aquifers does not contribute to the BAM-contamination in aquifers. A small, but significant degradation of BAM was observed in the upper part of the unsaturated zones in sandy sediments, but no degradation was observed in the clayey till sediment or in the deeper unsaturated zones. The insignificant degradation of BAM in aquifer systems shows that BAM pollution detected in aquifers will appear for a long time; and consequently the potential for natural attenuation of BAM in aquifer systems is limited.

  19. Geochemical and physical properties of soils and shallow sediments at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Looney, B.B.; Eddy, C.A.; Ramdeen, M.; Pickett, J. ); Rogers, V. . Savannah River Site Savannah River Lab., Aiken, SC ); Scott, M.T.; Shirley, P.A. )

    1990-08-31

    A program to characterize the geochemical and physical properties of the unimpacted soils and shallow sediments at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has been completed. The maximum, minimum, median, standard deviation, and mean values for metals, radionuclides, inorganic anions, organic compounds, and agricultural indicator parameters are summarized for six soil series that were identified as representative of the 29 soil series at SRS. The soils from unimpacted areas of SRS are typical of soils found in moderately aggressive weathering environments, including the southeastern United States. Appendix 8 organic compounds were detected in all samples. Since these constituents are not generally present in soil, this portion of the investigation was intended to assess possible laboratory artifacts. An additional objective of the SRS Soil Study was to determine if the composition of the split spoon sampler biased chemical analysis of the soils. Twenty-five duplicate samples were analyzed for a number of metals, radiological and agricultural parameters, and organics by two laboratories currently contracted with to analyze samples during waste site characterization. In all cases, the absolute values of the average differences are relatively small compared to the overall variability in the population. 31 refs., 14 figs., 48 tabs.

  20. Cadmium and associated metals in soils and sediments of wetlands across the Northern Plains, USA.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Donna L; Yellick, Alex H; Kissoon, La Toya T; Asgary, Aida; Wijeyaratne, Dimuthu N; Saini-Eidukat, Bernhardt; Otte, Marinus L

    2013-07-01

    Cadmium, present locally in naturally high concentrations in the Northern Plains of the United States, is of concern because of its toxicity, carcinogenic properties, and potential for trophic transfer. Reports of natural concentrations in soils are dominated by dryland soils with agricultural land uses, but much less is known about cadmium in wetlands. Four wetland categories - prairie potholes, shallow lakes, riparian wetlands, and river sediments - were sampled comprising more than 300 wetlands across four states, the majority in North Dakota. Cd, Zn, P, and other elements were analyzed by ICP-MS, in addition to pH and organic matter (as loss-on-ignition). The overall cadmium content was similar to the general concentrations in the area's soils, but distinct patterns occurred within categories. Cd in wetland soils is associated with underlying geology and hydrology, but also strongly with concentrations of P and Zn, suggesting a link with agricultural land use surrounding the wetlands. PMID:23583941

  1. Seasonal herbicide monitoring in soil, runoff and sediments of an olive orchard under conventional tillage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calderón, Maria Jesus; de Luna, Elena; Gómez, José Alfonso; Cornejo, Juan; Hermosín, M. Carmen

    2015-04-01

    Several pollution episodes in surface and groundwaters with pesticides have occurred in areas where olive crops are established. For that reason, it is necessary to know the evolution of some pesticides in olive trees plantation depending on their seasonal application. This is especially important when conventional tillage is used. A monitoring of two herbicides (terbuthylazine and oxyfluorfen)in the first cm of soil and, in runoff and sediment yield was carried out after several rainfall events. The rainfall occurred during the study was higher in winter than in spring giving rise more runoff in winter. However, no differences in sediment yields were observed between spring and winter. Terbuthylazine depletion from soil is associated to the first important rainfall events in both seasons (41 mm in spring and 30 mm in winter). At the end of the experiment, no terbuthylazine soil residues were recovered in winter whereas 15% of terbuthylazine applied remained in spring. Oxyfluorfen showed a character more persistent than terbuthylazine remaining 48% of the applied at the end of the experiment due to its low water solubility. Higher percentage from the applied of terbuthylazine was recovered in runoff in winter (0.55%) than in spring (0.17%). Nevertheless, no differences in terbuthylazine sediments yields between both seasons were observed. That is in agreement with the values of runoff and sediment yields accumulated in tanks in both seasons. Due to the low water solubility of oxyfluorfen very low amount of this herbicide was recovered in runoff. Whereas, in sediment yields the 39.5% of the total applied was recovered. These data show that the dissipation of terbuthylazine from soil is closely related with leaching processes and in less extent with runoff. However, oxyfluorfen dissipation is more affected by runoff processes since this herbicide is co-transported in sediment yields. Keywords: olive crop, pesticide, runoff, sediments, surface water, groundwater

  2. Soil conservation and the reduction of erosion and sedimentation in the Coon Creek basin, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trimble, S.W.; Lund, S.W.

    1982-01-01

    The Coon Creek basin, in the Driftless Area of Wisconsin, has been strikingly transformed by soil conservation measures since the 1930's. Comparison of sheet and rill erosion by use of the Universal Soil Loss Equation, shows 1975 erosion rates on upland fields to be about one-fourth those of 1934. Average annual sedimentation accumulation in small reservoirs declined from about 5,000 megagrams per square kilometer in 1936-45 to about 50 megagrams per square kilometer in 1962-75. Analysis of deposition in tributary valleys suggests that annual rates declined from about 3,700 megagrams per square kilometer in the 1930 's to about 35-70 megagrams per square kilometer in recent years. These reductions in erosion and sedimentation are due principally to improvements in land management and, to a lesser degree, to changes in land use. (USGS)

  3. Distribution of trace elements in sediment and soil from river Vardar Basin, Macedonia/Greece.

    PubMed

    Popov, Stanko Ilić; Stafilov, Trajče; Šajn, Robert; Tănăselia, Claudiu

    2016-01-01

    A systematic study was carried out to investigate the distribution of 59 elements in the sediment and soil samples collected from the river Vardar (Republic of Macedonia and Greece) and its major tributaries. The samples were collected from 28 sampling sites. Analyses were performed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. R-mode factor analysis (FA) was used to identify and characterise element associations. Seven associations of elements were determined by the method of multivariate statistics. Every factor (Factors 1-3 and 6 and 7 as geogenic and Factors 4 and 5 as anthropogenic associations of elements) are examined and explained separately. The distribution of various elements showed that there is a presence of anthropogenic elements (Ag, Cd, Cu, Ge, Pb, Sn and Zn) introduced in the river sediments and soils from the mining, metallurgical, industrial and agricultural activities in Vardar River Basin, which covers most of the Republic of Macedonia and Central-northern part of Greece. PMID:26422060

  4. Plutonium as a tracer of soil and sediment movement in the Herbert River, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tims, S. G.; Everett, S. E.; Fifield, L. K.; Hancock, G. J.; Bartley, R.

    2010-04-01

    Plutonium fallout from atmospheric nuclear-weapons testing in the 1950s and 1960s constitutes an artificial tracer suitable for the study of recent soil erosion and sediment accumulation rates. Traditionally 137Cs has been the fallout isotope of choice for such studies, but the plutonium isotopes confer a number of advantages, which can be realised using the ultra-sensitive detection technique of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS). As a first application of plutonium to a whole-of-basin study, Pu has been measured in both soil and sediment across the catchment of the Herbert River, which is one of the major rivers draining into Australia's Great Barrier Reef Lagoon. Its catchment includes undisturbed areas as well as regions of pasture and sugar cultivation. The Pu measurements allow the relative contributions of surface and gully erosion from the different land use areas to be determined, and permit the discharged material to be apportioned between the relevant sources.

  5. Sediment and Soil Profiles of Taylor and Wright Valleys, Antarctica, as Analogs for Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Englert, P. A.; Bishop, J. L.; Patel, S.; Koeberl, C.; Gibson, E. K.

    2013-12-01

    The Antarctic Dry Valleys are extremely cold and dry desert environments. They represent a unique analog for Martian surface development conditions. Chemistry and mineralogy of soils and sediments from Taylor and Wright Valleys were analyzed [1-4]. Samples from selected lakes, ponds and nearby surface areas were collected in 1979/1980, from sediments below Lake Hoare in 1994/95, and from lake surfaces in 2005/06. Surface samples are from Lakes Brownworth, Vanda and Fryxell; sediment cores from Lake Hoare, Don Juan and Don Quixote ponds. Systematic analysis by INAA, XRD, VNIR and mid-infrared spectroscopy, and other methods is underway for all samples. Classical major element weathering / pedogenesis ratiosand major element weathering indices are applied to ADV as well as MER and MSL rocks and soils. The Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA) values were used to characterize weathering conditions in Antarctic soils of Barton Peninsula [5] and for sediment layers in Antarctic drill cores [6]. The CIAs of sediment layers in drill cores are largely explained by the CIAs of source materials and reflect little or isochemical weathering. At Barton Peninsula with a less arid environment than the ADVs, CIAs of soils generally exceed those of source rocks. In Figure 1, two of several ADV soil source rocks and three sets of ADV soil and sediment CIAs are compared to molar Al2O3/TiO2 ratios. ADV CIA data are clustered and, as expected, lower than those of Barton Penisula, indicating a lesser degree of weathering. Very low ADV soil CIAs indicate sulfur rich samples. Full geochemical analysis as proposed will provide good indicators of weathering where historical to contemporary alteration conditions are liquid water based. Investigating elemental relationships for analogs that can be applied to Mars elemental abundance data bases is therefore important to assist in evaluating the extent of water based alteration derived from indicators in the Martian surface. References: [1] Gibson

  6. Development and application of screening tools for biodegradation in water-sediment systems and soil.

    PubMed

    Junker, Thomas; Coors, Anja; Schüürmann, Gerrit

    2016-02-15

    Two new screening-test systems for biodegradation in water-sediment systems (WSST; Water-Sediment Screening Tool) and soil (SST; Soil Screening Tool) were developed in analogy with the water-only test system OECD 301C (MITI-test). The test systems could be applied successfully to determine reproducible experimental mineralization rates and kinetics on the screening-test level for fifteen organic chemicals in water (MITI), water-sediment (WSST) and soil (SST). Substance-specific differences were observed for mineralization compared among the three test systems. Based on mineralization rate and mineralization half-life, the fifteen compounds could be grouped into four biodegradation categories: substances with high mineralization and a half-life <28 days in (1) all three test systems, (2) only in the MITI test and in the WSST, (3) only in the SST, and (4) none of the test systems. The observed differences between the MITI results and the WSST and SST biodegradation rates of the compounds do not reflect their (reversible) sorption into organic matter in terms of experimental K(oc) values and log D values for the relevant pH range. Regarding mineralization kinetics we recommend to determine the lag-phase, mineralization half-life and mineralization rate using a 5-parameter logistic regression for degradation curves with and without lag-phase. Experimental data obtained with the WSST and the SST could be verified by showing good agreement with biodegradation data from databases and literature for the majority of compounds tested. Thus, these new screening-tools for water-sediment and soil are considered suitable to determine sound and reliable quantitative mineralization data including mineralization kinetics in addition to the water-only ready biodegradability tests according to OECD 301. PMID:26774960

  7. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of soil and sediment samples from Siwa Oasis, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badawy, Wael M.; Ali, Khaled; El-Samman, Hussein M.; Frontasyeva, Marina V.; Gundorina, Svetlana F.; Duliu, Octavian G.

    2015-07-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used to study geochemical peculiarities of the Siwa Oasis in the Western Egyptian Desert. A total of 34 elements were determined in soil and sediment samples (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Eu, Tb, Dy, Tm, Yb, Hf, Ta, Th, and U). For data interpretation Cluster analysis was applied. Comparison with the available literature data was carried out.

  8. Trace metal uptake by the grass Melinis repens from roadside soils and sediments, tropical Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt, C.; Lottermoser, B. G.

    2007-08-01

    This study reports on trace metal uptake by the grass species Melinis repens, growing in roadside soils and sediments in tropical northeastern Australia. Median total Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn concentrations were significantly ( P < 0.05) higher in road edge soils (Cu = 61.1 mg/kg, Pb = 97.3 mg/kg, Ni = 28.6 mg/kg, Zn = 729 mg/kg) than in background soils collected away from roads (Cu = 5.8 mg/kg, Pb = 11.2 mg/kg, Ni = 3.7 mg/kg, Zn = 21 mg/kg). Significantly ( P < 0.05) elevated Zn values were recorded in the stems of the M. repens specimens growing on roadside soils (231.6 mg/kg dry weight of tissue) compared with those of grasses growing on background soils (40.8 mg/kg dry weight of tissue). Moreover, median Cu, Ni and Zn values in the roots of roadside grasses (Cu = 29.1 mg/kg, Ni = 2.73 mg/kg, Zn = 169 mg/kg) were significantly ( P < 0.05) higher than their respective levels in the roots of background M. repens samples (Cu = 5.98 mg/kg, Ni = 0.70 mg/kg, Zn = 22 mg/kg). A greenhouse experiment showed that Cu and Zn in road sediments are labile and are available for uptake by M. repens. The studied roadside soils and sediments were leached with a diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-CaCl2-triethanolamine-HCl extraction solution, which proved to be a rudimentary indicator of Zn availability and uptake to the root tissue of M. repens. The results demonstrate that trace metals in roadside grasses have the potential to be directed up the food-chain as grasses are consumed by herbivores. In addition, bioavailable metal contaminants hosted by road sediments have the capacity to impact on ecosystems downstream of roads because these sediments are mobilised by road runoff waters from road surfaces into adjoining catchments.

  9. Modelling the initial structure dynamics of soil and sediment exemplified for a constructed hydrological catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurer, Thomas; Schneider, Anna; Gerke, Horst H.

    2016-04-01

    The structure of a hydrological catchment is determined by the geometry of the boundaries and the spatial distribution of soil and sediment properties. Models of the 3D subsurface structure and the soil heterogeneity have often been built based on geostatistical approaches and conditional simulations for spatial interpolation between measurements. Here, an alternative model was proposed that generated 3D subsurface structures by imitating basic structures resulting from mass distribution processes. Instead of directly assuming stochastic variations of the subsurface structure, the present approach assumed stochastic variations in parameters of the process-based algorithms of the generator models. The constructed hydrological catchment "Hühnerwasser" located in the Lower Lusatia region of Brandenburg, Germany, was used as an example for the development of such a 3D structure generator model. Boundary geometries and changes in the surface topography due to erosion and sedimentation processes were quantified on the basis of digital elevation models (DEMs) derived from aerial photographs and terrestrial laser scanning information. Basic sediment properties came i) from a geological model of the parent material at the outcrop site, ii) from actual soil sample measurements on-site, and iii) based on stochastic texture variations. Sediment distributions were generated according to construction processes such as sediment dumping, particle segregation, and soil compaction. The resulting internal structures reflect the formation of spoil cones and surface compaction by machinery. The simulated 3D model scenarios of soil texture and bulk density distributions were incorporated in a gridded 3D volume model using the 3D software tool GoCAD (Paradigm Ltd.). This 3D distributed solid phase structure of the catchment allowed for a more direct comparison with observations using minimal invasive methods. By including structural changes over time (e.g., derived from DEM

  10. Organic compound composition in soil and sediments collected in Jackson, Mississippi.

    PubMed

    Gołębiowski, Marek; Stepnowski, Piotr; Hemmingway, Tometrick; Leszczyńska, Danuta

    2016-06-01

    The aim of our study was to identify organic pollutants found in soil and sediment samples collected within the Jackson, MS metropolitan area. The chemical characterization of the organic compound fractions in soil and sediment samples was carried out by separating the organic fraction using column chromatography (CC) and quantitatively analyzing the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), n-alkanes and other organic compounds using gas chromatography-electron impact mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Fifty-six compounds were identified and quantified in the soil samples and 33 compounds were identified and quantified in the sediment samples. The PAHs, n-alkanes and other organic compound profiles in the soil and sediment samples were compared. The percentage contents of the organic compounds in the soil samples were very diverse (from traces to 12.44 ± 1.47%). The compounds present in the highest concentrations were n-alkanes: n-C31 (12.44 ± 1.47%), n-C29 (11.64 ± 1.21%), and n-C33 (8.95 ± 1.08%). The components occurring in smaller quantities (from 1% to 5%) were 2 PAHs (fluoranthene 1.28 ± 0.25%, pyrene 1.16 ± 0.20%), 10 n-alkanes from n-C21 (1.25 ± 0.29%) to n-C32 (2.67 ± 0.52%) and 11 other compounds (e.g., 2-pentanol, 4-methyl (3.33 ± 0.44%), benzyl butyl phthalate (4.25 ± 0.59%), benzenedicarboxylic acid (1.14 ± 0.08%), ethane, 1,1-diethoxy (3.15 ± 0.41) and hexadecanoic acid (2.52 ± 0.34). The soil samples also contained 30 compounds present in concentrations <1% (e.g., anthracene (0.13 ± 0.04%), n-C20 (0.84 ± 0.21%) and acetic acid (0.12 ± 0.04%). The compounds present in the highest concentrations in the sediment samples were PAHs: pyrene (7.73 ± 1.15%) and fluoranthene (6.23 ± 1.07%) and n-alkanes: n-C31 (6.74 ± 1.21%), n-C29 (6.65 ± 0.98%) and n-C27 (6.13 ± 1.09%). The remaining organic compounds were present in smaller quantities (< 5%). PMID:26943144

  11. Ecotoxicological assessment of a dredged sediment using bioassays with three species of soil invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Cesar, Ricardo; Natal-da-Luz, Tiago; Silva, Franciane; Bidone, Edison; Castilhos, Zuleica; Polivanov, Helena; Sousa, José Paulo

    2015-03-01

    The ecotoxicity of a dredged sediment from the Guanabara Bay (Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil) was evaluated using reproduction tests with Eisenia andrei, Folsomia candida and Enchytraeus crypticus, and avoidance and feeding inhibition tests with Folsomia candida. The sediment was mixed with artificial soil to obtain the following doses: 1.25, 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, 20.0 and 40.0 %. Lead, nickel, chromium, copper and zinc concentrations were determined in the test mixtures. In reproduction tests, E. andrei was the most sensitive species (EC50 = 2.94 %), followed by F. candida (EC50 = 7.72 %) and E. crypticus (EC50 = 10.10 %). The percentage of initial weight of earthworms was significantly higher in all test concentrations compared to the control except at the highest one where earthworms biomass significantly decreased. No feeding inhibition of F. candida was observed for any test mixture and the number of organisms with a dark gut (the fed collembolans) generally increased with the increasing dose of sediment. Significant avoidance responses of F. candida were observed towards all test mixtures, however, the avoidance behaviour was the less sensitive endpoint after feeding inhibition. The results showed that chemical analysis is not sufficient to foresee toxic effects in terrestrial systems resulting from sediment disposal in soil if not complemented with an ecotoxicological evaluation. PMID:25427718

  12. A faster numerical scheme for a coupled system modeling soil erosion and sediment transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, M.-H.; Cordier, S.; Lucas, C.; Cerdan, O.

    2015-02-01

    Overland flow and soil erosion play an essential role in water quality and soil degradation. Such processes, involving the interactions between water flow and the bed sediment, are classically described by a well-established system coupling the shallow water equations and the Hairsine-Rose model. Numerical approximation of this coupled system requires advanced methods to preserve some important physical and mathematical properties; in particular, the steady states and the positivity of both water depth and sediment concentration. Recently, finite volume schemes based on Roe's solver have been proposed by Heng et al. (2009) and Kim et al. (2013) for one and two-dimensional problems. In their approach, an additional and artificial restriction on the time step is required to guarantee the positivity of sediment concentration. This artificial condition can lead the computation to be costly when dealing with very shallow flow and wet/dry fronts. The main result of this paper is to propose a new and faster scheme for which only the CFL condition of the shallow water equations is sufficient to preserve the positivity of sediment concentration. In addition, the numerical procedure of the erosion part can be used with any well-balanced and positivity preserving scheme of the shallow water equations. The proposed method is tested on classical benchmarks and also on a realistic configuration.

  13. Consumption of freons CFC-11 and CFC-12 by anaerobic sediments and soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovley, D.R.; Woodward, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    A variety of anaerobic sediments and soils consumed CFC-11 (CFCl3) and CFC-12 (CF2Cl2). An aerobic soil did not. Active microbial metabolism was required for CFC-12 uptake in all of the sediments examined. CFC-11 uptake was faster in the presence of microbial activity, but reduced components in the sediments also resulted in nonenzymatic CFC-11 consumption in most instances. CFC-12 uptake in a culture of Clostridium pasteurianum provided a model for the sediment uptake of CFC-11 and CFC-12 that required active microbial metabolism. Consumption of CFC-11 in the presence of reduced hematin demonstrated a potential mechanism for nonenzymatic CFC-11 consumption. These findings demonstrate that CFC-11 and CFC-12 are not biochemically inert under anaerobic conditions. This suggests that anaerobic degradation of CFC-11 and CFC-12 in anaerobic landfills might prevent some disposed CFC-11 and CFC-12 from entering the atmosphere. The results also suggest that CFC-11 and CFC-12 cannot be used as stable tracers in anaerobic environments. Furthermore, although the microbial sink for atmospheric CFC-11 and CFC-12 is much less than current anthropogenic release, this sink could have a significant long-term effect on the amount of CFC-11 and CFC-12 reaching the stratosphere.

  14. Environmental impact of historical harbour city Zadar (Croatia) on the composition of marine sediments and soils.

    PubMed

    Sager, Manfred; Kralik, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Sediment samples and soils along the coast line of the Adriatic Sea were sampled along a transect near the coast line at Zadar/Croatia, ranging from north-western suburbs via the historical centre and the industrial area to south-east suburbs. The sediments were dominated by carbonates and clay minerals, and contaminations with Cd-Cu-Pb-Zn-TOC (total organic carbon) at the historical centre and the industrial site were detected, as well as P and Mo input at the mouth of a small creek, probably from agriculture. No trends between the composition of surface and subsurface sea sediments were seen. At the historic harbour site, total element concentrations versus grain size showed a minimum in the fine silt fraction for most of the elements analysed. The soil samples behind the shoreline were not carbonaceous, but dominated by Fe-Al- oxides, some contained high levels of Be-Cd-Cu-Sn-Zn. Surprisingly, high TOC values within the soils might be assigned to human impacts, not to humus. Contrary to data from street dust samples from Seoul city/Korea, which were measured within our laboratory at the same time, Pt-Ir-Au were at ambient levels due to the limited use of catalysts in cars in the Zadar area at the time of sampling. PMID:21830135

  15. Diversity and Composition of Bacterial Community in Soils and Lake Sediments from an Arctic Lake Area.

    PubMed

    Wang, Neng Fei; Zhang, Tao; Yang, Xiao; Wang, Shuang; Yu, Yong; Dong, Long Long; Guo, Yu Dong; Ma, Yong Xing; Zang, Jia Ye

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the diversity and composition of bacterial communities within soils and lake sediments from an Arctic lake area (London Island, Svalbard). A total of 2,987 operational taxonomic units were identified by high-throughput sequencing, targeting bacterial 16S rRNA gene. The samples from four sites (three samples in each site) were significantly different in geochemical properties and bacterial community composition. Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria were abundant phyla in the nine soil samples, whereas Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were abundant phyla in the three sediment samples. Furthermore, Actinobacteria, Chlorobi, Chloroflexi, Elusimicrobia, Firmicutes, Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospirae, Planctomycetes, Proteobacteria significantly varied in their abundance among the four sampling sites. Additionally, members of the dominant genera, such as Clostridium, Luteolibacter, Methylibium, Rhodococcus, and Rhodoplanes, were significantly different in their abundance among the four sampling sites. Besides, distance-based redundancy analysis revealed that pH (p < 0.001), water content (p < 0.01), ammonium nitrogen ([Formula: see text]-N, p < 0.01), silicate silicon ([Formula: see text]-Si, p < 0.01), nitrite nitrogen ([Formula: see text]-N, p < 0.05), organic carbon (p < 0.05), and organic nitrogen (p < 0.05) were the most significant factors that correlated with the bacterial community composition. The results suggest soils and sediments from a lake area in the Arctic harbor a high diversity of bacterial communities, which are influenced by many geochemical factors of Arctic environments. PMID:27516761

  16. Diversity and Composition of Bacterial Community in Soils and Lake Sediments from an Arctic Lake Area

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Neng Fei; Zhang, Tao; Yang, Xiao; Wang, Shuang; Yu, Yong; Dong, Long Long; Guo, Yu Dong; Ma, Yong Xing; Zang, Jia Ye

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the diversity and composition of bacterial communities within soils and lake sediments from an Arctic lake area (London Island, Svalbard). A total of 2,987 operational taxonomic units were identified by high-throughput sequencing, targeting bacterial 16S rRNA gene. The samples from four sites (three samples in each site) were significantly different in geochemical properties and bacterial community composition. Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria were abundant phyla in the nine soil samples, whereas Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were abundant phyla in the three sediment samples. Furthermore, Actinobacteria, Chlorobi, Chloroflexi, Elusimicrobia, Firmicutes, Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospirae, Planctomycetes, Proteobacteria significantly varied in their abundance among the four sampling sites. Additionally, members of the dominant genera, such as Clostridium, Luteolibacter, Methylibium, Rhodococcus, and Rhodoplanes, were significantly different in their abundance among the four sampling sites. Besides, distance-based redundancy analysis revealed that pH (p < 0.001), water content (p < 0.01), ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N, p < 0.01), silicate silicon (SiO42--Si, p < 0.01), nitrite nitrogen (NO2--N, p < 0.05), organic carbon (p < 0.05), and organic nitrogen (p < 0.05) were the most significant factors that correlated with the bacterial community composition. The results suggest soils and sediments from a lake area in the Arctic harbor a high diversity of bacterial communities, which are influenced by many geochemical factors of Arctic environments. PMID:27516761

  17. Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin extractability and bioavailability of phenanthrene in humin and humic acid fractions from different soils and sediments.

    PubMed

    Gao, Huipeng; Ma, Jing; Xu, Li; Jia, Lingyun

    2014-01-01

    Organic matter (OM) plays a vital role in controlling polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) bioavailability in soils and sediments. In this study, both a hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPCD) extraction test and a biodegradation test were performed to evaluate the bioavailability of phenanthrene in seven different bulk soil/sediment samples and two OM components (humin fractions and humic acid (HA) fractions) separated from these soils/sediments. Results showed that both the extent of HPCD-extractable phenanthrene and the extent of biodegradable phenanthrene in humin fraction were lower than those in the respective HA fraction and source soil/sediment, demonstrating the limited bioavailability of phenanthrene in the humin fraction. For the source soils/sediments and the humin fractions, significant inverse relationships were observed between the sorption capacities for phenanthrene and the amounts of HPCD-extractable or biodegradable phenanthrene (p < 0.05), suggesting the importance of the sorption capacity in affecting desorption and biodegradation of phenanthrene. Strong linear relationships were observed between the amount of HPCD-extractable phenanthrene and the amount degraded in both the bulk soils/sediments and the humin fractions, with both slopes close to 1. On the other hand, in the case of phenanthrene contained in HA, a poor relationship was observed between the amount of phenanthrene extracted by HPCD and the amount degraded, with the former being much less than the latter. The results revealed the importance of humin fraction in affecting the bioavailability of phenanthrene in the bulk soils/sediments, which would deepen our understanding of the organic matter fractions in affecting desorption and biodegradation of organic pollutants and provide theoretical support for remediation and risk assessment of contaminated soils and sediments. PMID:24705921

  18. Partial least-squares regression for linking land-cover patterns to soil erosion and sediment yield in watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Z. H.; Ai, L.; Li, X.; Huang, X. D.; Wu, G. L.; Liao, W.

    2013-08-01

    There are strong ties between land cover patterns and soil erosion and sediment yield in watersheds. The spatial configuration of land cover has recently become an important aspect of the study of geomorphological processes related to erosion within watersheds. Many studies have used multivariate regression techniques to explore the response of soil erosion and sediment yield to land cover patterns in watersheds. However, many landscape metrics are highly correlated and may result in redundancy, which violates the assumptions of a traditional least-squares approach, thus leading to singular solutions or otherwise biased parameter estimates and confidence intervals. Here, we investigated the landscape patterns within watersheds in the Upper Du River watershed (8973 km2) in China and examined how the spatial patterns of land cover are related to the soil erosion and sediment yield of watersheds using hydrological modeling and partial least-squares regression (PLSR). The results indicate that the watershed soil erosion and sediment yield are closely associated with the land cover patterns. At the landscape level, landscape characteristics, such as Shannon’s diversity index (SHDI), aggregation index (AI), largest patch index (LPI), contagion (CONTAG), and patch cohesion index (COHESION), were identified as the primary metrics controlling the watershed soil erosion and sediment yield. The landscape characteristics in watersheds could account for as much as 65% and 74% of the variation in soil erosion and sediment yield, respectively. Greater interspersion and an increased number of patch land cover types may significantly accelerate soil erosion and increase sediment export. PLSR can be used to simply determine the relationships between land-cover patterns and watershed soil erosion and sediment yield, providing quantitative information to allow decision makers to make better choices regarding landscape planning. With readily available remote sensing data and rapid

  19. Organic matter compositions and loadings in soils and sediments along the Fly River, Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goñi, Miguel A.; Moore, Eric; Kurtz, Andrew; Portier, Evan; Alleau, Yvan; Merrell, David

    2014-09-01

    The compositions and loadings of organic matter in soils and sediments from a diverse range of environments along the Fly River system were determined to investigate carbon transport and sequestration in this region. Soil horizons from highland sites representative of upland sources have organic carbon contents (%OC) that range from 0.3 to 25 wt%, carbon:nitrogen ratios (OC/N) that range from 7 to 25 mol/mol, highly negative stable carbon isotopic compositions (δ13Corg < -26‰) and variable concentrations of lignin phenols (1 < LP < 5 mg/100 mg OC). These compositions reflect inputs from local vegetation, with contributions from bedrock carbon in the deeper mineral horizons. Soils developed on the levees of active floodplains receive inputs of allochthonous materials by overbank deposition as well as autochthonous inputs from local vegetation. In the forested upper floodplain reaches, %OC contents are lower than upland soils (0.8-1.5 wt%) as are OC/N ratios (9-15 mol/mol) while δ13Corg (-25 to -28‰) and LP (2-6 mg/100 mg OC) values are comparable to upland soils. These results indicate that organic matter present in these active floodplain soils reflect local (primarily C3) vegetation inputs mixed with allochthonous organic matter derived from eroded bedrock. In the lower reaches of the floodplain, which are dominated by swamp grass vegetation, isotopic compositions were less negative (δ13Corg > -25‰) and non-woody vegetation biomarkers (cinnamyl phenols and cutin acids) more abundant relative to upper floodplain sites. Soils developed on relict Pleistocene floodplain terraces, which are typically not flooded and receive little sediment from the river, were characterized by low %OC contents (<0.6 wt%), low OC/N ratios (<9 mol/mol), more positive δ13Corg signatures (>-21‰) and low LP concentrations (∼3 mg/100 mg OC). These relict floodplain soils contain modern carbon that reflects primarily local (C3 or C4) vegetation sources. Total suspended solids

  20. Mineralogy and arsenic mobility in arsenic-rich Brazilian soils and sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    de Mello, J.W.V.; Roy, W.R.; Talbott, J.L.; Stucki, J.W.

    2006-01-01

    Background. Soils and sediments in certain mining regions of Brazil contain an unusually large amount of arsenic (As), which raises concerns that mining could promote increased As mobility, and thereby increase the risks of contaminating water supplies. Objectives. The purpose of t his study was to identify the most important factors governing As mobility in sediments and soils near three gold-mining sites in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Methods. Surface and sub-surface soil samples were collected at those sites and characterized by chemical and mineralogical analyses. Oxalate (Feo) and citrate-bicarbonate-dithionite (Fed) iron contents were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Arsenic mobilization was measured after incubating the samples in a 2.5 mM CaCl2 solution under anaerobic conditions for 1, 28, 56, 84, or 112 days. The solution concentrations of As, Fe, and Mn were then measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and AAS, respectively. Results and Discussion. Results indicated that As mobilization is largely independent of both the total As and the Feo/Fed ratio of the solid phase. Soluble As is roughly controlled by the Fe (hydr)oxide content of the soil, but a closer examination of the data revealed the importance of other highly weathered clay minerals and organic matter. Large amounts of organic matter and a low iron oxide content should favor As leaching from soils and sediments. Under reducing conditions, As is mobilized by the reductive dissolution of Fe and/or Mn oxides. However, released As may be readsorbed depending on the sorptive properties of the soil. Gibbsite is particularly effective in adsorbing or readsorbing As, as is the remaining unreduced fraction of the iron (hydr)oxides. Conclusion and Outlook. In general, low soluble As is rel ated to the presence of gibbsite, a large amount of iron oxides, and a lack of organic matter in the solid phase. This has environmental significance because

  1. Evolution of platinum concentration in soil and sediment from urban environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jean-Soro, L.

    2012-04-01

    Since the 1990s, platinum is widely used in automotive catalytic converters in Europe. However, only few environmental data about this element are available. The aim of this study was: - in a first part, to detected changes that may occur on the concentration and the distribution of platinum in urban and peri-urban environment over the 20-years last period, to evaluate the long term urban soil retention capacity; - in a second part, to investigated the sorption capacity of soil components. The study was conducted on samples from a peri-urban area, particularly on soil and sediment. The soil was sampled along an highway (Nantes ring road, western France) and the sediment was sampled in a detention pond receiving highway runoff waters. The first site is a motorway which was opened in 1993 with an average daily traffic of 24,000 vehicles. To date, the average daily traffic is about 50,000 vehicles. The second site is a detention pond which receives highway runoff from the Cheviré bridge. This road started to operate in 1991 and the bridge supported an average daily traffic of about 50,000 vehicles. Now, the traffic is about 98,000 vehicles/day. A physico-chemical analysis of the samples was carried out to identify the nature of pollutants and to determine their concentrations. The first result concern the evolution of pollutant concentrations in the environment, taking into account the changes such as the use decrease of Pb in gasoline (until its ban in 2000) and the widespread use of automotive catalytic converters. The results obtained show an increase of platinum concentrations with time in the detention pond sediments. Platinum concentrations are ranged from 47 to 144 µg.kg-1. For roadside soil the higher concentration (106 µg.kg-1) was found in the road dust collected close to the road pavement. This accumulated dust can be remobilised by wind, traffic and runoff. Then, there is a decrease of concentration with the distance from the road. The second part of

  2. Soil Erosion and Sediment Losses from the Ridge Watersheds in the Guánica Bay, Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Yongping; Taguas, Encarnación; Hu, Wenhui

    2014-05-01

    Puerto Rico faces considerable challenges regarding sustainable land use and effects of land use on adjacent coastal ecosystems and the services they provide. One primary concern is increased sediment loading to reservoirs and ultimately to Guánica Bay and reef areas outside the Bay. Studies by scientists in Puerto Rico have suggested that nutrient and sediment contaminants have increased 5 to 10 fold since pre-colonial levels and an additional 2 to 3 fold in the last 40-50 years (Sturm et al., 2012). Sediment deposition has significantly reduced the storage capacity of several reservoirs, and the associated contaminants and nutrients within the terrestrial soil particles of sediment can stress corals and negatively impact reef health. Sedimentation can also reduce photosynthetic activity of aquatic plants and algae, and increase water-treatment costs for domestic and industrial uses (Estades Hernández, 1997). Therefore, it is important to understand soil erosion and sediment transport processes. In this study, we analyze sediment losses from ridge watersheds of the Guánica Bay and try to understand the main factors causing soil erosion and sediment in those ridge watersheds. Our specific objectives were: 1) to quantify sediment contributions to Guánica Bay and identify sediment sources; 2) seek factors that impact the sediment loss and explore alternative strategies to reduce soil erosion and sediment loading to the reservoirs, Guánica Bay and the coastal zone. It was found that sediment loss in those ridge watersheds was mainly caused by interaction of heavy rainfall (especially the hurricanes) and steep mountainous slopes. Coffee planting increased the risk of soil erosion, which the loss of protective canopy for sun-grown coffee exacerbated. In addition, rainy seasons (February to May and August to November) contributed more than 80% of annual sediment loss. Exploration of different land use scenarios found that coffee land use yielded more sediment per

  3. Modern sedimentation patterns in Laguna de Medina, Southern Spain, derived from lake surface and soil samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van ´t Hoff, Jasmijn; Schröder, Tabea; Reicherter, Klaus; Held, Peter; Melles, Martin

    2016-04-01

    In September 2014 and March 2015, a 25.66 m long sediment core (Co1313) was retrieved from the centre of Laguna de Medina, a small endorheic salt lake in Cádiz, SW Spain. This record covers the last 9.000 years, thus providing an unique archive for Holocene climatic and environmental changes with extraordinary high temporal resolution. For a better understanding of the palaeoenvironmental proxies to be analysed on the sediment core, the modern processes of sediment formation in the lake and its catchment under known environmental conditions were investigated on a set of 46 lake sediment surface samples and 32 soil surface sediment samples from the lake and the close surroundings, respectively. These samples were analysed for bulk mineralogy (XRD), chemical composition (XRF), grain-size distribution (laser scanner), and carbonate, total organic carbon (TOC), nitrogen (TN) and sulphur (TS) contents (elemental analyser). Based on the mineralogical, geochemical and granulometrical data, the lake can be divided into four zones. The northern shore is characterized by particularly high quartz contents and coarse grain sizes. This reflects input from ancient terraces of the Guadalete River that are exposed in that area. The southern shore is characterised by high calcite contents due to sediment supply from the Cretaceous ´Capas rojaś, a series of Subbetic deep-water marl- and limestones. The southeastern and to a lesser extend the northwestern shores show particularly high dolomite contents, reflecting the Triassic dolomites outcroping in the southeastern catchment. The southeastern shore furthermore is also influenced by strong terrestrial input of the Triassic Keuper facies from the most important inlet, Arroyo Fuente Bermeja, as reflected by high contents of Ti, K, Al, Fe, Rb in the lake sediments. The last zone comprises only a small part of the western shore and is characterized by a relatively high gypsum amount. This does not reflect the geology in the catchment

  4. Sedimentation Time Measurements of Soil Particles by Light Scattering and Determination of Chromium, Lead, and Iron in Soil Samples via ICP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todebush, Patricia Metthe; Geiger, Franz M.

    2005-01-01

    The study of soil samples, using light scattering and Inductively Coupled Plasma spectrometry (ICP) to determine colloid sedimentation rates and the quantity of chromium, lead, and iron in the sample is described. It shows the physical and chemical behavior of solid components in soil, and how such pollutant binding colloid surfaces directly…

  5. Stronger association of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with soot than with char in soils and sediments

    PubMed Central

    Han, Y.M.; Bandowe, B.A.M.; Wei, C.; Cao, J.J.; Wilcke, W.; Wang, G.H.; Ni, H.Y.; Jin, Z.D.; An, Z.S.; Yan, B.Z.

    2016-01-01

    The knowledge of the association of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with organic matter and carbonaceous materials is critical for a better understanding of their environmental transport, fate, and toxicological effects. Extensive studies have been done with regard to the relationship of PAHs with total organic carbon (TOC) and elemental carbon (EC) in different environmental matrices. The relationship between PAHs and the two subtypes of EC, char (combustion residues) and soot (produced via gas-to-particle conversion) also has been tested in field and laboratory experiments using reference materials. However, a direct comparison of associations of PAHs between with char and with soot in real environmental matrices has to our knowledge not yet been reported because of a lack of methodology to differentiate them. In this study, char and soot were measured using the IMPROVE method to test their associations with 12 EPA priority PAHs measured in topsoil samples (N = 22, top 10 cm) collected from the Guanzhong Plain and in surface sediment samples (N = 32, top 5 cm) from the Wei River (central China). In both soils and sediments, Σ12PAHs were more strongly associated with soot than with char, mainly due to the fact that soot and PAHs were produced in the same gas phase during combustion, had a strong affinity for each other, and were transported and deposited together, while char, the combustion residue, was transported differently to PAHs due to its large particle size. Stronger correlations between PAHs and the different carbon fractions (TOC, soot, and char) in sediments than in soils were observed, which is associated with the redistribution of PAHs among the organic matter pools in water because of the processes during soil erosion and sedimentation in the river. PMID:24656973

  6. Nonlinear forecasting of intertidal shoreface evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimes, D. J.; Cortale, N.; Baker, K.; McNamara, D. E.

    2015-10-01

    Natural systems dominated by sediment transport are notoriously difficult to forecast. This is particularly true along the ocean coastline, a region that draws considerable human attention as economic investment and infrastructure are threatened by both persistent, long-term and acute, event driven processes (i.e., sea level rise and storm damage, respectively). Forecasting the coastline's evolution over intermediate time (daily) and space (tens of meters) scales is hindered by the complexity of sediment transport and hydrodynamics, and limited access to the detailed local forcing that drives fast scale processes. Modern remote sensing systems provide an efficient, economical means to collect data within these regions. A solar-powered digital camera installation is used to capture the coast's evolution, and machine learning algorithms are implemented to extract the shoreline and estimate the daily mean intertidal coastal profile. Methods in nonlinear time series forecasting and genetic programming applied to these data corroborate that coastal morphology at these scales is predominately driven by nonlinear internal dynamics, which partially mask external forcing signatures. Results indicate that these forecasting techniques achieve nontrivial predictive skill for spatiotemporal forecast of the upper coastline profile (as much as 43% of variance in data explained for one day predictions). This analysis provides evidence that societally relevant coastline forecasts can be achieved without knowing the forcing environment or the underlying dynamical equations that govern coastline evolution.

  7. Nonlinear forecasting of intertidal shoreface evolution.

    PubMed

    Grimes, D J; Cortale, N; Baker, K; McNamara, D E

    2015-10-01

    Natural systems dominated by sediment transport are notoriously difficult to forecast. This is particularly true along the ocean coastline, a region that draws considerable human attention as economic investment and infrastructure are threatened by both persistent, long-term and acute, event driven processes (i.e., sea level rise and storm damage, respectively). Forecasting the coastline's evolution over intermediate time (daily) and space (tens of meters) scales is hindered by the complexity of sediment transport and hydrodynamics, and limited access to the detailed local forcing that drives fast scale processes. Modern remote sensing systems provide an efficient, economical means to collect data within these regions. A solar-powered digital camera installation is used to capture the coast's evolution, and machine learning algorithms are implemented to extract the shoreline and estimate the daily mean intertidal coastal profile. Methods in nonlinear time series forecasting and genetic programming applied to these data corroborate that coastal morphology at these scales is predominately driven by nonlinear internal dynamics, which partially mask external forcing signatures. Results indicate that these forecasting techniques achieve nontrivial predictive skill for spatiotemporal forecast of the upper coastline profile (as much as 43% of variance in data explained for one day predictions). This analysis provides evidence that societally relevant coastline forecasts can be achieved without knowing the forcing environment or the underlying dynamical equations that govern coastline evolution. PMID:26520082

  8. The significance of morphogenetic analysis in the assessment of soil-water conditions in Quaternary sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falkowska, Ewa

    2015-10-01

    The landform pattern of the Polish Lowlands, which originated during and after the Warta Glaciation, is closely connected with areal deglaciation and directions of geomorphological landform evolution. Landscape-shaping processes were significant for the creation of sediment configuration and sediment characteristics of particular landforms and thus for properties of sediments. Determination of the relationships between the origin of a landform and its physical/geochemical properties can facilitate the evaluation of geological conditions carried out for land use planning that should take into account the sensitivity of the geological environment (soil, groundwater) to the migration of contaminants. The aim of this research was to find geomorphological means of identifying physicochemical and hydrogeological properties of Quaternary sediments that enable fast and precise assessment of long-term and recent soil-water conditions. The investigations were conducted in two areas of the Polish Lowlands that were formed during the Warta Glaciation. During geological mapping of distinguished landforms, 169 samples of sediments were collected for laboratory testing. The samples were analyzed for particle size, calcium carbonate, organic matter content, pH, permeability coefficient, CEC, and adsorption of Cd and Pb. The results show that these distinguished glacial landforms are characterized by the recurrence of superficial lithological profiles with typical physicochemical parameters. Thus, the morphogenesis of postglacial areas of central Poland formed during the Warta Glaciation has influenced the ability of surface deposits to retain contamination. A total of seven insulation classes of landforms in terms of differentiated insulating abilities of deposits, as well as the ranges of values for each insulating parameter, have been identified.

  9. Revisiting Atmospheric Lead in NYC - Comparison of Archived Air Filters to Urban Park Sediments and Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chillrud, S. N.; Ross, J. M.; Yan, B.; Bopp, R.

    2015-12-01

    Urban lake sediments have the potential to be used for reconstructing history of aerosols, providing data before the start of urban air quality monitoring. In a previous study, the similarity between radionuclide and excess Pb inventories (57 g/m^2) in Central Park Lake (CPL) sediments and those same parameters in Central Park soils (CPS) was interpreted to indicate that urban lake sediment cores from CPL represent deposition of atmospheric aerosols over the history of the park, which was constructed in the 1860s. Furthermore, metal ratios and metal chronologies indicated that incineration was the major source of Pb to the NYC atmosphere over the 20th century. In this report, we compare the lake chronologies for metals to a set of archived air filters collected by the Department of Energy's Environmental Measurement Lab (EML). These weekly filters of total suspended particulates (TSP) were collected by a high volume sampler located in lower Manhattan for radionuclides as part of the program focused on documenting radioactive fallout from nuclear weapons testing. Metal concentrations measured in subsamples of the EML filters collected between the 1970s to 1990s showed Pb decreasing more slowly than the records of Pb added to gasoline. Metal ratios in the filters were similar to the ratios measured in CPL sediments; the Pb to Sn ratios were roughly 20:1 and the Pb to Zn ratios were in close to 1. The similarity of the ratios provides additional solid support that the CP Lake sediment cores reflect atmospheric inputs. The enrichment of Pb in the large aerosol particle fraction (TSP), relative to fine PM2.5 fraction, demonstrates that the resuspended NYC soils and their historical contaminant burden, are the primary, current source of Pb to NYC air.

  10. Seasonal changes in the intertidal and subtidal macrobenthic invertebrate community structure in Baker Bay, lower Columbia River estuary. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Furota, T.; Emmett, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    Macrobenthic invertebrates and sediments at 1 subtidal and 10 intertidal stations along a transect in Baker Bay of the lower Columbia River estuary were sampled monthly from November 1980 to October 1981. Water column temperatures and salinities were also recorded at the subtidal station. The intertidal community consisted primarily of estuarine species, whereas the subtidal community had additional marine species. Marine species declined in abundance after the interstitial salinity minimum (June), indicating the important role of salinity in determining benthic community structure.

  11. Thallium occurrence and partitioning in soils and sediments affected by mining activities in Madrid province (Spain).

    PubMed

    Gomez-Gonzalez, M A; Garcia-Guinea, J; Laborda, F; Garrido, F

    2015-12-01

    Thallium (Tl) and its compounds are toxic to biota even at low concentrations but little is known about Tl concentration and speciation in soils. An understanding of the source, mobility, and dispersion of Tl is necessary to evaluate the environmental impact of Tl pollution cases. In this paper, we examine the Tl source and dispersion in two areas affected by abandoned mine facilities whose residues remain dumped on-site affecting to soils and sediments of natural water courses near Madrid city (Spain). Total Tl contents and partitioning in soil solid phases as determined by means of a sequential extraction procedure were also examined in soils along the riverbeds of an ephemeral and a permanent streams collecting water runoff and drainage from the mines wastes. Lastly, electronic microscopy and cathodoluminescence probe are used as a suitable technique for Tl elemental detection on thallium-bearing phases. Tl was found mainly bound to quartz and alumino-phyllosilicates in both rocks and examined soils. Besides, Tl was also frequently found associated to organic particles and diatom frustules in all samples from both mine scenarios. These biogenic silicates may regulate the transfer of Tl into the soil-water system. PMID:26218566

  12. Erosion of upland hillslope soil organic carbon: Coupling field measurements with a sediment transport model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Kyungsoo; Amundson, Ronald; Heimsath, Arjun M.; Dietrich, William E.

    2005-09-01

    Little is known about the role of vegetated hillslope sediment transport in the soil C cycle and soil-atmosphere C exchange. We combined a hillslope sediment transport model with empirical soil C measurements to quantify the erosion and temporal storage of soil organic carbon (SOC) within two grasslands in central California. The sites have contrasting erosional mechanisms: biological perturbation (Tennessee Valley (TV)) versus clay-rich soil creep (Black Diamond (BD)). The average SOC erosion rates from convex slopes were 1.4-2.7 g C m-2 yr-1 at TV and 5-8 g C m-2 yr-1 at BD, values that are <10% of above ground net primary productivity (ANPP) at both sites. The eroded soil accumulates on depositional slopes. The long term SOC accumulation (or C sink) rates are ˜1.9 g C m-2 yr-1 in the TV hollow and 1.7-2.8 g C m-2 yr-1 in the BD footslope. We found that the hillslope C sink is driven primarily by the burial of in situ plant production rather than preservation of eroded SOC, a finding that differs from existing hypotheses. At TV, the net sequestration of atmospheric C by long-term hollow evacuation and refilling depends on the fate of the C exported from the zero order watershed. This study suggests that erosion and deposition are coupled processes that create a previously unrecognized C sink in undisturbed upland watersheds, with a potential to substantially affect the global C balance presently, and over geological timescales.

  13. Particulate phosphorus and sediment in surface runoff and drainflow from clayey soils.

    PubMed

    Uusitalo, R; Turtola, E; Kauppila, T; Lilja, T

    2001-01-01

    Recent work has shown that a significant portion of the total loss of phosphorus (P) from agricultural soils may occur via subsurface drainflow. The aim of this study was to compare the concentrations of different P forms in surface and subsurface runoff, and to assess the potential algal availability of particulate phosphorus (PP) in runoff waters. The material consisted of 91 water-sample pairs (surface runoff vs. subsurface drainage waters) from two artificially drained clayey soils (a Typic Cryaquept and an Aeric Cryaquept) and was analyzed for total suspended solids (TSS), total phosphorus (TP), dissolved molybdate-reactive phosphorus (DRP), and anion exchange resin-extractable phosphorus (AER-P). On the basis of these determinations, we calculated the concentrations of PP, desorbable particulate phosphorus (PPi), and particulate unavailable (nondesorbable) phosphorus (PUP). Some water samples and the soils were also analyzed for 137Cs activity and particle-size distribution. The major P fraction in the waters studied was PP and, on average, only 7% of it was desorbable by AER. However, a mean of 47% of potentially bioavailable P (AER-P) consisted of PPi. The suspended soil material carried by drainflow contained as much PPi (47-79 mg kg-1) as did the surface runoff sediment (45-82 mg kg-1). The runoff sediments were enriched in clay-sized particles and 137Cs by a factor of about two relative to the surface soils. Our results show that desorbable PP derived from topsoil may be as important a contributor to potentially algal-available P as DRP in both surface and subsurface runoff from clayey soils. PMID:11285921

  14. Magnetic Parameter Changes in Soil and Sediments in the Presence of Hydrocarbon Contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appel, E.; Porsch, K.; Rijal, M. L.; Ameen, N. N.; Kappler, A.

    2014-12-01

    Magnetic proxies were successfully used for fast and non-destructive detection of fly ash related heavy metal pollution. Correlations of magnetic signals with organic contaminants in soils and sediments were also reported; however, their significance is unclear because of co-existing heavy metal pollution. At a hydrocarbon (HC) contaminated former military airbase (Hradcany, Czech Rep.), where heavy metal contents are insignificant, we detected clearly higher magnetic concentrations at the top of the groundwater fluctuation (GWF) zone. Frequent GWF by up to ca. one meter was caused through remediation by air sparging. In this study and all previous ones magnetite was identified as the dominant phase for higher magnetic concentrations. To determine the importance of microbial activity and soil parameters on changes in magnetic susceptibility (MS) laboratory batch experiments with different microbially active and sterile soils without carbon addition and with gasoline amendment were setup. MS of these microcosms was followed weekly. Depending on the soil MS either increased or decreased by up to ~7% and remained constant afterwards. The main findings were that MS changes were mainly microbially driven and influenced by the bioavailable Fe content, the initial MS and the organic carbon content of the soils. Moreover, we tested magnetic changes in laboratory columns, filled with sand from the field site Hradcany, by simulating water level changes. The observed changes were small and hardly statistically significant. Our laboratory studies revealed that different factors influence changes in magnetic properties of soil/sediments after HC contamination, with much smaller effects than expected from anomalies observed at field sites. With the present results, the ambitious goal of using magnetic monitoring for detecting HC contaminations by oil spills seem far from practical application.

  15. No estuarine intertidal bathymetry? No worries! Estimating intertidal depth contours from readily available GIS data

    EPA Science Inventory

    The importance of littoral elevation to the distribution of intertidal species has long been a cornerstone of estuarine ecology and its historical importance to navigation cannot be understated. However, historically, intertidal elevation measurements have been sparse likely due ...

  16. Polychlorinated biphenyls: Occurrence in sediments and soils. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning field and laboratory analyses of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediments and soils. Topics include site studies; chemical analyses of adsorption-desorption processes; decomposition in soils, including biodegradation; and bioaccumulation. Detection methods and instrumention, and the impact of dredging in contaminated areas are also discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  17. Polychlorinated biphenyls: Occurrence in sediments and soils. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning field and laboratory analyses of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediments and soils. Topics include site studies; chemical analyses of adsorption-desorption processes; decomposition in soils, including biodegradation; and bioaccumulation. Detection methods and instrumention, and the impact of dredging in contaminated areas are also discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  18. Polychlorinated biphenyls: Occurrence in sediments and soils. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning field and laboratory analyses of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediments and soils. Topics include site studies; chemical analyses of adsorption-desorption processes; decomposition in soils, including biodegradation; and bioaccumulation. Detection methods and instrumention, and the impact of dredging in contaminated areas are also discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  19. QUANTITATIVE ENZYME-LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY FOR DETERMINATION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SOIL AND SEDIMENT SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the quantitative determination of Aroclors 1242, 1248, 1254, and 1260 in soil and sediments was developed and its performance compared with that of gas chromatography (GC). The detection limits for Aroclors 1242 and 1248 in soil ar...

  20. USDA process-based tools for estimating runoff, soil loss, and sediment yield – the WEPP model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) was initiated in 1985 with the goal of developing next generation erosion modeling technologies for use by soil conservationists, researchers, and other national, state, and local agencies engaged in estimating levels of soil erosion by water and sediment ...

  1. Distribution of heavy metals in riverine soils and sediments of the Turia River basin.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreu, Vicente; Gimeno-García, Eugenia; Pascual, Juan Antonio

    2014-05-01

    Water is a scarce and contested good, and a primary need for the population all over. Rivers are one of the mainsources of freshwater to people but, in the same way, receive both point source and difuse pollution, usually frorm wastewaters and agriculture. However, they are not independent bodies but they influence different associated ecosystems that compound the catchment. Soils of the river banks often acts as the last phase of the diffuse contamination pathways, favouring the contaminants input to the river waters. In this sense, the fluvial sedimentary phase usually acts as a sink of pollutants. Sediments can work as resevoirs that accumulate contaminants fixing them or allowing their decomposition or metabolization. However, environmental or human induced, such as variations in water pH, increases in the turbulence or intensity of the water flow, etc.could favour their release to the environment. In this work, the incidence and distribution of seven heavy metals was monitored in riverine soils and sediments of the Turia River. Along the river course, 22 zones were selected for sampling according different lithologies, land uses, size of populations and the proximity to waste waters treatment plants (WWTPs), from the headwaters to the mouth. The selected metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn) were analysed to determine its total and extractable contents in the sediments. Total content of metals was extracted by microwave acid digestion and the extractable fraction by treatment with EDTA. Atomic Absorption Spectrometry, using graphite furnace when necessary, was used for the determination of all metals. Highest values for sediments were mainly observed in zones 10 and 22, close to urban areas, reaching values of 172.86 mg/kg for Pb, or 58.34 mg/kg for Cr. However, zone 2 near in the headwaters of the Alfambra River and supposedly of reference for the River authorities shows the highest values of zinc with 96.96 mg/kg. Regarding the available

  2. Correlations of natural radionuclides in soil with those in sediment from the Danube and nearby irrigation channels.

    PubMed

    Krmar, M; Varga, E; Slivka, J

    2013-03-01

    The correlation between activity concentrations of some natural radionuclides ((238)U, (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K) measured in soil and in sediment taken from the Danube River and nearby irrigation channels was studied. The soil samples were collected from the northern part of Serbia and the sediment from the Serbian part of the Danube River and from the surrounding irrigation channels. The correlation between (238)U and other natural radionuclides in irrigation channel sediments was not as good as in the Danube. One of the possible explanations for this weak correlation can be the different chemical dynamics of (238)U in the irrigation channel sediment or changes of the (238)U activity concentration in irrigation channel sediment due to some human activities. The evaluation of ratios of activity concentrations of some natural radionuclides could be a more sensitive method for the determination of contaminant, rather than the straightforward analysis of activity concentrations. PMID:22244685

  3. Geochemical distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils and sediments of El-Tabbin, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Havelcová, Martina; Melegy, Ahmed; Rapant, Stanislav

    2014-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were extracted from 30 samples (24 soils and 6 stream sediments) collected in El-Tabbin area in the southern part of Greater Cairo, Egypt. Isopleth maps of PAHs clarified the regional variability and identified the most affected regions in the area suffering from high pollution. The total PAH concentrations were 53.4-5558.0 ng g(-1) in the sample extracts. The highest values were found in a soil sample near a coke factory, with the highest concentration of single PAHs, which were 1064.8 ng g(-1) of fluoranthene and 1286.4 ng g(-1) of phenanthrene. The calculated ratios and indexes allowed to elucidate origin of the organic compounds and to identify emission sources. The overall molecular patterns are signatures of pyrolysis of fossil fuels and biomass. Petrogenic contamination was recognised in the sediment samples due to petroleum products deliveries from ships. Also perylene was prominent especially in samples of the River Nile sediments as a diagenetic product of fungi. Other detailed information on petrogenic sources was provided by analysis of alkanes and calculation of alkane ratios. PMID:24053943

  4. Occurrence of pesticides in fish tissues, water and soil sediment from Manzala Lake and River Nile.

    PubMed

    Osfor, M M; Abd el Wahab, A M; el Dessouki, S A

    1998-02-01

    Pesticides constitute the major source of potential environmental hazard to man and animal as they are present and concentrated in the food chain. This study was conducted on 136 samples of water, sediment and fish for detection and determination of pesticide residues in this ecosystem. Highly significant differences were found in levels of Indian, heptachlor, endrin, dieldrin, P,P'-DDE and propoxur in River Nile water when compared with that of Manzala Lake. Levels of Indian, endrin, malathion and diazinon were significantly higher in soil sediment of Manzala Lake, while the levels of heptachlor, aldrine, P,P'-DDE, DDT, parathion, propoxur and zectran were significantly higher in soil sediment of River Nile. Boury fish of Manzala Lake contained higher levels of heptachlor, aldrin, P,P'-DDE and malathion, while boury fish of River Nile contained a higher level of zectran only. This survey, thus indicated that Manzala Lake and even the River Nile which was used as control are heavily contaminated with chlorinated hydrocarbons (Indian, heptachlor, aldrin, endrin, dieldrin, P,P'-DDE and DDT), organic phosphorus compounds (malathion, dimethoat, diazinon and parathion) and carbamate pesticides (propoxur and zectran). PMID:9584277

  5. Dynamics of intertidal flats in the Loire estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kervella, Stephane; Sottolichio, Aldo; Bertier, Christine

    2014-05-01

    Tidal flats form at the edges of many tidal estuaries, and are found in broad climatic regions. Their evolution plays a fundamental role in maintaining the morphodynamic equilibrium of an estuary. The Loire estuary is one of the largest macrotidal systems of the french atlantic coast. Since 200 years, its geometry has been drastically modified through channeling, deepening, embanking, infilling of secondary channels, etc. These works altered many intertidal areas. In the recent years, efforts for the rectification of the morphology have been made in order to restore the ecology of the estuary. In this context, it is crucial to better understand the dynamics of intertidal flats, still poorly understood in this estuary. The aim of this work is to analyse a series of original observations conducted for the first time in two intertidal flats of the central Lore estuary between 2008 and 2010. The tidal flats are situated in the northern bank, at 12 and 17 km upstream from the mouth respectively. Six Altus altimeters were deployed at two cross shore transects, measuring continuously and at a high-frequency bed altimetry and water level, providing information on tide and waves. At the semi-diurnal tidal scale, the surficial sediment of intertidal flats is permanently mobilized. Altimetry variations are low, and their amplitude varies as a function of tides and river flow. At the scale of several months, the sedimentation is controlled by the position of the turbidity maximum (and therefore by the river flow) and also by the tidal amplitude. During low river flow periods, altimetry variations are only due to tidal cycles. During decaying tides, suspended sediment settle mainly on the lower part of the tidal flats, forming fluid mud layers of several cm thick, which can consolidate rapidly; under rising tides, the increasing of tidal currents promotes erosion. During periods of high river flow, the turbidity maximum shifts to the lower estuary. The higher suspended sediment

  6. Contamination and risk of heavy metals in soils and sediments from a typical plastic waste recycling area in North China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhenwu; Zhang, Lianzhen; Huang, Qifei; Yang, Yufei; Nie, Zhiqiang; Cheng, Jiali; Yang, Jun; Wang, Yuwen; Chai, Miao

    2015-12-01

    Plastic wastes are increasingly being recycled in many countries. However, available information on the metals released into the environment during recycling processes is rare. In this study, the contamination features and risks of eight heavy metals in soils and sediments were investigated in Wen'an, a typical plastic recycling area in North China. The surface soils and sediments have suffered from moderate to high metal pollution and in particular, high Cd and Hg pollution. The mean concentrations of Cd and Hg were 0.355 and 0.408 mg kg(-1), respectively, in the soils and 1.53 and 2.10 mg kg(-1), respectively, in the sediments. The findings suggested that there is considerable to high potential ecological risks in more than half of the soils and high potential ecological risk in almost all sediments. Although the health risk levels from exposure to soil metals were acceptable for adults, the non-carcinogenic risks to local children exceeded the acceptable level. Source assessment indicated that heavy metals in soils and sediments were mainly derived from inputs from poorly controlled plastic waste recycling operations in this area. The results suggested that the risks associated with heavy metal pollution from plastic waste recycling should be of great concern. PMID:26318969

  7. Soil erosion and sediment sources in an Ohio watershed using beryllium-7, cesium-137, and lead-210.

    PubMed

    Matisoff, Gerald; Bonniwell, Everett C; Whiting, Peter J

    2002-01-01

    Soil cores and suspended sediments were collected within the Old Woman Creek, Ohio (OWC) watershed following a thunderstorm and analyzed for 7Be, 137Cs, and 210Pb activities to compare the effects of till vs. no-till management on soil erosion and sediment yield. The upper reaches of the watershed draining tilled agricultural fields were disproportionately responsible for the majority of the suspended sediment load compared with lower in the watershed (2.0-7.0 metric tons/km2 [Mg/km2] vs. 1.2-2.6 Mg/km2). About 6 to 10 times more sediment was derived from the subbasins that are predominantly tilled (6.8-12.4 Mg/km2) compared with the subbasins undergoing no-till practices (0.5-1.1 Mg/km2). In undisturbed soils the 210Pb activities decreased with movement toward the bottom of the cores to the constant supported 210Pb value at a depth of about 10 cm. There was a subsurface maximum in 137Cs activity within the top 10 cm. In contrast, the 210Pb and 137Cs distributions in soils that are currently or were previously tilled were nearly homogeneous with depth, reflecting continuing or previous mixing by plowing. The activities of 210Pb and 7Be were linearly correlated and were higher in suspended sediments derived from no-till subbasins than those derived from tilled subbasins, indicating that the soil surface is the source of suspended sediment. This study demonstrates that no-till farming results in decreases in soil erosion and decreases in suspended sediment discharges and that those eroded sediments have a radionuclide signature corresponding to the tillage practice and the depth of erosion. PMID:11837444

  8. Sediments and Soils Act as Reservoirs for Taxonomic and Functional Bacterial Diversity in the Upper Mississippi River.

    PubMed

    Staley, Christopher; Gould, Trevor J; Wang, Ping; Phillips, Jane; Cotner, James B; Sadowsky, Michael J

    2016-05-01

    In this study, we utilized Illumina next-generation sequencing of 16S rDNA to characterize the bacterial communities in water, sediments, and soils at four sites along the Mississippi River and Minnesota River, in Minnesota, in order to evaluate community exchanges between these habitats. Communities in water and sediment were hypothesized to show greater taxonomic similarity than those in soil, while microbial communities in sediment and soil would show greater functional similarity. Habitat-specific communities showed significant differences in phylogenetic structure and β-diversity (P < 0.001), but site-specific differences in community structures within a single habitat type did not differ greatly (P ≥ 0.083). Community exchange among habitats generally influenced < 5% of the total community composition in a single sample, with the exception of the sediment community at the Minnesota River site, which contributed to a mean of 14% of the microbial community in the water column. Communities from all habitat types were significantly correlated with each other (r = 0.44-0.64, P ≤ 0.004). Furthermore, approximately 33% of the taxonomic units were found in all samples and comprised at least 40% of the bacterial community. Functional annotation of shotgun sequencing data revealed similar functional profiles for sediment and soil communities that were distinct from those in the water. Results of this study suggest that sediments, when disturbed, contribute significantly to bacterial communities in the water and that a core bacterial community may be supported in the soils and sediments. Furthermore, a high degree of functional redundancy results in similar functional profiles in sediment and soil communities. PMID:26879939

  9. Intertidal resource use over millennia enhances forest productivity.

    PubMed

    Trant, Andrew J; Nijland, Wiebe; Hoffman, Kira M; Mathews, Darcy L; McLaren, Duncan; Nelson, Trisalyn A; Starzomski, Brian M

    2016-01-01

    Human occupation is usually associated with degraded landscapes but 13,000 years of repeated occupation by British Columbia's coastal First Nations has had the opposite effect, enhancing temperate rainforest productivity. This is particularly the case over the last 6,000 years when intensified intertidal shellfish usage resulted in the accumulation of substantial shell middens. We show that soils at habitation sites are higher in calcium and phosphorous. Both of these are limiting factors in coastal temperate rainforests. Western redcedar (Thuja plicata) trees growing on the middens were found to be taller, have higher wood calcium, greater radial growth and exhibit less top die-back. Coastal British Columbia is the first known example of long-term intertidal resource use enhancing forest productivity and we expect this pattern to occur at archaeological sites along coastlines globally. PMID:27572157

  10. Spatial analysis of soil erosion and sediment fluxes: a paired watershed study of two Rappahannock River tributaries, Stafford County, Virginia.

    PubMed

    Ricker, Matthew C; Odhiambo, Ben K; Church, Joseph M

    2008-05-01

    Soil erosion is a serious problem in areas with expanding construction, agricultural production, and improper storm water management. It is important to understand the major processes affecting sediment delivery to surficial water bodies in order to tailor effective mitigation and outreach activities. This study analyzes how naturally occurring and anthropogenic influences, such as urbanization and soil disturbance on steep slopes, are reflected in the amount of soil erosion and sediment delivery within sub-watershed-sized areas. In this study, two sub-watersheds of the Rappahannock River, Horsepen Run and Little Falls Run, were analyzed using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) and a sediment delivery ratio (SDR) to estimate annual sediment flux rates. The RUSLE/SDR analyses for Horsepen Run and Little Falls Run predicted 298 Mg/y and 234 Mg/y, respectively, but nearly identical per-unit-area sediment flux rates of 0.15 Mg/ha/y and 0.18 Mg/ha/y. Suspended sediment sampling indicated greater amounts of sediment in Little Falls Run, which is most likely due to anthropogenic influences. Field analyses also suggest that all-terrain vehicle crossings represent the majority of sediment flux derived from forested areas of Horsepen Run. The combined RUSLE/SDR and field sampling data indicate that small-scale anthropogenic disturbances (ATV trails and construction sites) play a major role in overall sediment flux rates for both basins and that these sites must be properly accounted for when evaluating sediment flux rates at a sub-watershed scale. PMID:18320265

  11. [Spatial Distribution and Potential Ecological Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Soils and Sediments in Shunde Waterway, Southern China].

    PubMed

    Cai, Yi-min; Chen, Wei-ping; Peng, Chi; Wang, Tie-yu; Xiao, Rong-bo

    2016-05-15

    Environmental quality of soils and sediments around water source area can influence the safety of potable water of rivers. In order to study the pollution characteristics, the sources and ecological risks of heavy metals Zn, Cr, Pb, Cu, Ni and Cd in water source area, surface soils around the waterway and sediments in the estuary of main tributaries were collected in Shunde, and ecological risks of heavy metals were assessed by two methods of potential ecological risk assessment. The mean contents of Zn, Cr, Pb, Cu, Ni and Cd in the surface soils were 186.80, 65.88, 54.56, 32.47, 22.65 and 0.86 mg · kg⁻¹ respectively, and they were higher than their soil background values except those of Cu and Ni. The mean concentrations of Zn, Cr, Pb, Cu, Ni and Cd in the sediments were 312.11, 111.41, 97.87, 92.32, 29.89 and 1.72 mg · kg⁻¹ respectively, and they were higher than their soil background values except that of Ni. The results of principal component analysis illustrated that the main source of Cr and Ni in soils was soil parent materials, and Zn, Pb, Cu and Cd in soils mainly came from wastewater discharge of local manufacturing industry. The six heavy metals in sediments mainly originated from industry emissions around the Shunde waterway. The results of potential ecological risk assessment integrating environmental bioavailability of heavy metals showed that Zn, Cu, Pb and Ni had a slight potential ecological risk. Cd had a slight potential ecological risk in surface soils, but a moderate potential ecological risk in surfaces sediments. Because the potential ecological risk assessment integrating environmental bioavailability of heavy metals took the soil properties and heavy metal forms into account, its results of risks were lower than those of Hakanson methods, and it could avoid overestimating the potential risks of heavy metals. PMID:27506029

  12. Utilization Patterns of Intertidal Habitats by Birds in Yaquina Estuary, Oregon

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bird utilization patterns were assessed in five types of intertidal soft sediment and low marsh habitat in the Yaquina estuary, Oregon. Censuses were designed to determine the spatial and seasonal utilization patterns of birds in Zostera marina (eelgrass), Upogebia (mud shrimp)/...

  13. How humic substances dominate mercury geochemistry in contaminated floodplain soils and sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Wallschlaeger, D.; Desai, M.V.M.; Spengler, M.; Windmoeller, C.C.; Wilken, R.D.

    1998-09-01

    The interaction of mercury (Hg) and humic substances (hs) was studied in floodplain topsoils and surface sediments of the contaminated German river Elbe. An intimate coupling exists between the geochemical cycles of Hg and organic carbon (OC) in this ecosystem. Humic substances exert a dominant influence on several important parallel geochemical pathways of Hg, including binding, transformation, and transport processes. Significant differences exist between the Hg-hs associations in floodplains and sediments. Both humic acids (ha) and fulvic acids (fa) contribute to Hg binding in the sediments. In contrast, ultrafiltration experiments proved that Hg in the floodplain soils is almost exclusively bound to very large humic acids (ha) with a nominal molecular weight (MW) > 300,000. Successive cation and anion exchange experiments demonstrated that those Hg-ha complexes are inert toward competition by other cations, and also apparently predominantly electroneutral. Speciation transformation reactions in the solid phase were investigated by sequential extraction and thermal release experiments. Upon addition of Hg model compounds to a sediment matrix, all species were transformed to the same new speciation pattern, regardless of their original speciation. The accompanying alterations in availability and solubility were partially due to interconversion between the different Hg redox states, including Hg(I). Simultaneously, partial transformation of added Hg{sup 2+} into volatile Hg compounds (35% in 10 d) was observed. Finally, Hg association with water-soluble ha continuously increased downstream, indicating that hs play a key role in both lateral and longitudinal Hg transport in the Elbe ecosystem.

  14. The influence of Fe(III) on oil biodegradation in excessively moistened soils and sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vodyanitskii, Yu. N.; Trofimov, S. Ya.; Shoba, S. A.

    2015-07-01

    Soils are self-purified from oil slowly, in the north, in particular, where hydromorphic conditions and low temperatures hinder the process. Oxidation of oil hydrocarbons depends on the type of electron acceptors and decreases in the following sequence: denitrification > Mn4+ reduction > Fe3+ reduction > sulfate reduction > methanogenesis. Usually, not all of these redox reactions develop in contaminated excessively moistened soils and sediments. Fe(III) reduction and methanogenesis are the most common: the latter is manifested near the contamination source, while the former develops in less contaminated areas. Fe reduction hinders the methanogenesis. In oil-contaminated areas, Fe reduction is also combined with sulfate reduction, the latter intensifying Fe reduction due to the formation of iron sulfides. Concurrently with oil degradation in excessively moistened soils and sediments, the composition of iron compounds changes due to the increasing Fe(II) share magnetite, as well as siderite and ferrocalcite (in calcareous deposits), and iron sulfides (in S-containing medium) are formed.

  15. Autochthonous ascomycetes in depollution of polychlorinated biphenyls contaminated soil and sediment.

    PubMed

    Sage, Lucile; Périgon, Sophie; Faure, Mathieu; Gaignaire, Carole; Abdelghafour, Mohamed; Mehu, Jacques; Geremia, Roberto A; Mouhamadou, Bello

    2014-09-01

    We investigated the capacity of a consortium of ascomycetous strains, Doratomyces nanus, Doratomyces purpureofuscus, Doratomyces verrucisporus, Myceliophthora thermophila, Phoma eupyrena and Thermoascus crustaceus in the mycoremediation of historically contaminated soil and sediment by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Analyses of 15 PCB concentrations in three mesocosms containing soil from which the fungal strains had previously been isolated, revealed significant PCB depletions of 16.9% for the 6 indicator PCBs (i-PCBs) and 18.7% for the total 15 PCBs analyzed after 6months treatment. The degradation rate did not statistically vary whether the soil had been treated with non-inoculated straw or colonized straw or without straw and inoculated with the consortium of the six strains. Concerning the sediment, we evidenced significant depletions of 31.8% for the 6 i-PCBs and 33.3% for the 15 PCB congeners. The PCB depletions affected most of the 15 PCBs analyzed without preference for lower chlorinated congeners. Bioaugmented strains were evidenced in different mesocosms, but their reintroduction, after six months treatment, did not improve the rate of PCB degradation, suggesting that the biodegradation could affect the bioavailable PCB fraction. Our results demonstrate that the ascomycetous strains potentially adapted to PCBs may be propitious to the remediation of PCB contaminated sites. PMID:24880600

  16. Fallout beryllium-7 as a soil and sediment tracer in river basins: current status and needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Alex; Blake, Will H.; Smith, Hugh G.; Mabit, Lionel; Keith-Roach, Miranda J.

    2013-04-01

    Beryllium-7 is a cosmogenic radionuclide formed in the upper atmosphere by cosmic ray spallation of nitrogen and oxygen. Its constant natural production and fallout via precipitation coupled with its ability to bind to soil particles have underpinned its application as a sediment tracer. The short half-life of beryllium-7 (53.3 days) lends itself to tracing sediment dynamics over short time periods, thus, enabling assessment of the effect of land use change upon soil redistribution. Although beryllium-7 has been widely applied as a tracer to date, there remain crucial gaps in understanding relating to the assumptions for its use. To further support the application of beryllium-7 as a tracer across a range of environments requires consideration of both the current strengths and shortcomings of the technique to direct research needs. Here we review research surrounding the assumptions underpinning beryllium-7 use as a tracer and identify key knowledge gaps relating to i) the effects of rain shadowing and vegetation interception upon beryllium-7 fallout uniformity at the hillslope-scale; ii) the effect of preferential flow pathways upon beryllium-7 depth distribution in soil and overland flow upon beryllium-7 inventory uniformity and iii) the potential for beryllium-7 desorption in saline and reducing environments. To provide continued support for the use of beryllium-7 as a hillslope and catchment-scale tracer, there is an urgent need to undertake further research to quantify the effect of these factors upon tracer estimates.

  17. Persistence of oxyfluorfen in soil, runoff water, sediment and plants of a sunflower cultivation.

    PubMed

    Mantzos, N; Karakitsou, A; Hela, D; Patakioutas, G; Leneti, E; Konstantinou, I

    2014-02-15

    A field dissipation and transport study of oxyfluorfen in a sunflower cultivation under Mediterranean conditions have been conducted in silty clay plots (cultivated and uncultivated) with two surface slopes (1% and 5%). The soil dissipation and transport of oxyfluorfen in runoff water and sediment, as well as the uptake by sunflower plants, were investigated over a period of 191 days. Among different kinetic models assayed, soil dissipation rate of oxyfluorfen was better described by first-order kinetics. The average half-life was 45 and 45.5 days in cultivated plots with soil slopes 5% and 1% respectively, and 50.9 and 52.9 days in uncultivated plots with soil slopes 5% and 1%. The herbicide was detected below the 10 cm soil layer 45 days after application (DAA). Limited amounts of oxyfluorfen were moved with runoff water and the cumulative losses from tilled and untilled plots with slope 5% were estimated at 0.007% and 0.005% of the initial applied active ingredient, while for the plots with slope of 1%, the respective values were 0.002% and 0.001%. The maximum concentration of oxyfluorfen in sediment ranged from 1.46 μg g(-1) in cultivated plot with soil slope 1% to 2.33 μg g(-1) in uncultivated plot with soil slope 5%. The cumulative losses from tilled and untilled plots with slope 5% were estimated at 0.217% and 0.170% while for the plots with slope of 1%, the respective values were 0.055% and 0.025%. Oxyfluorfen was detected in sunflower plants until the day of harvest; maximum concentrations in stems and leaves (0.042 μg g(-1)) were observed 33 DAA and in roots (0.025 μg g(-1)) 36 DAA. In conclusion, oxyfluorfen hardly moves into silty clay soil and exhibited low run-off potential so it represents a low risk herbicide for the contamination of ground and adjacent water resources. PMID:24333999

  18. Monitoring aggregate disintegration with laser diffraction: A tool for studying soils as sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Joseph; Kasmerchak, Chase; Liang, Mengyu

    2016-04-01

    One of the more important characteristics of soil that becomes hillslope, fluvial, or aeolian sediment is the presences of aggregates, which disintegrate at varying rates and to varying degrees during transport. Laser diffraction particle size analyzers allow monitoring of aggregate disintegration as a sample of soil or sediment suspended in water is circulated continuously through the measurement cell (Bieganowski et al., 2010, Clay Minerals 45-23-34; Mason et al., Catena 87:107-118). Mason et al. (2011) applied this approach to aeolian sedimentary aggregates (e.g. clay pellets eroded from dry lakebeds), immersing dry samples in DI water and circulating them through a Malvern Mastersizer 2000 particle size analyzer for three hours while repeated size distribution (SD) measurements were made. A final measurement was made after sonication and treatment with Na-metaphosphate. In that study, most samples approached a steady SD within three hours, which included both primary mineral grains and persistent aggregates. The disintegration process could be modeled with a first-order rate law representing the disintegration of a single population of aggregates. A wide range of model parameters were observed among the samples studied, and it was suggested that they could be useful in predicting the behavior of these aggregates, under rainfall impact and during slopewash or fluvial transport. Addition of Ca++ to the suspension altered aggregate behavior in some but not all cases. We applied the same method to dry, unground material from upper horizons of soils sampled along a bioclimatic gradient in northern Minnesota, USA, all formed in lithologically similar glacigenic sediment. These ranged from Alfisols (Luvisols) formed under forest since the last deglaciation, to Alfisols under forest that more recently replaced grassland, and Mollisols (Chernozems) that formed entirely under grassland vegetation. Few of these soil samples approached a steady SD within three hours, and

  19. Quantitative trace analysis of fullerenes in river sediment from Spain and soils from Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Sanchís, Josep; Božović, Dalibor; Al-Harbi, Naif A; Silva, Luis F; Farré, Marinella; Barceló, Damià

    2013-07-01

    A quantitative method based on ultrasound-assisted toluene extraction followed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry for the analysis of C60 and C70 fullerenes, N-methylfulleropyrrolidine, [6, 6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester and [6, 6]-thienyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester has been developed. The method was validated using fortified blank river sediments according to the criteria of Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. The method limits of detection ranged from 14 to 290 pg/g, making it suitable for its application in environmental analysis. The method has been applied to investigate fullerene content in 58 soil samples collected from different urban and industrial areas in Saudi Arabia and in river sediment from six different sites in the Llobregat River Basin. In addition, in the case of the Llobregat River, superficial water samples from the same sites of the sediments were collected and analysed using a previous method. In soils from Saudi Arabia, C60-fullerene was the only compound that was detected and quantified in 19% of samples. In the sediments of the Llobregat River, C60-fullerene was also the only one detected (33% of the samples), while in river water, C70-fullerene was the most frequent compound, and it was quantified in 67% of the samples. However, C60-fullerene was present in two of the six samples, but at higher concentrations than C70-fullerene, ranging from 0.9 to 7.8 ng/L. PMID:23545859

  20. Sorption of endocrine disrupting chemicals by condensed organic matter in soils and sediments.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ke; Gao, Bo; Zhang, Zheyun; Zhang, Guixiang; Liu, Xitao; Zhao, Ye; Xing, Baoshan

    2010-08-01

    Sorption of 17alpha-ethinyl estradiol (EE2) and bisphenol A (BPA) by nonhydrolyzable carbon (NHC), black carbon (BC), and bulk soils and sediments was examined. All sorption isotherms were nonlinear and fitted both Freundlich and Dubinin-Ashtakhov (DA) models. The single-point organic carbon (OC)-normalized distribution coefficient (K(OC)) of EE2 for the isolated NHC and BC was 2.7-4.8 times and 5.4-12.9 times greater, respectively, than that of the bulk samples. However, no clear trend in BPA K(OC) values was observed. Based on the contribution of soil/sediment organic matter (SOM) fractions to the overall sorption of BPA or EE2 by the bulk samples, condensed SOM (NHC and BC) generally played a dominant role to the overall sorption. The BPA adsorption capacity (Q(OC)(0)) from the DA model was higher than that of EE2 on NHC and there was obvious difference in isotherm nonlinearity (n) between EE2 and BPA. These results suggest that BPA may have more access to the pore sites of NHC samples than EE2. The pi-pi bonds formed between BPA and NHC or BC may be stronger than that between EE2 and NHC or BC. This would be attributed to the fact that BPA has two benzene rings, and can also be used to explain the difference in hexadecane-water partition coefficient (K(HW))-normalized K(OC) values (K(OC)/K(HW)) of BPA and EE2 after factoring out the hydrophobic effect. These findings could be useful for predicting fate and ecological risks of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) (e.g., EE2 and BPA) in natural environments especially when soils or sediments become receptors for EDCs. PMID:20579690

  1. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water, sediment and soil of the Songhua River Basin, China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wan-Li; Liu, Li-Yan; Qi, Hong; Zhang, Zi-Feng; Song, Wei-Wei; Shen, Ji-Min; Chen, Zhong-Lin; Ren, Nan-Qi; Grabuski, Josey; Li, Yi-Fan

    2013-10-01

    The Songhua River is the third largest river in China and the primary source of drinking and irrigation water for northeastern China. The distribution of 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water [dissolved water (DW) and suspended particulate matter (SPM)], sediment, and soil in the river basin was investigated, and the associated risk of cancer from these PAHs was also assessed. The total concentration of PAHs ranged from 13.9 to 161 ng L(-1) in DW, 9.21 to 83.1 ng L(-1) in SPM, 20.5 to 632 ng g(-1) dw (dry weight) in sediment, and from 30.1 to 870 ng g(-1) dw in soil. The compositional pattern of PAHs indicated that three-ring PAHs were predominant in DW and SPM samples, while four-ring PAHs dominated in sediment and soil samples. The spatial distribution of PAHs revealed some site-specific sources along the river, with principal component analysis indicating that these were from pyrogenic sources (such as coal and biomass combustion, and vehicle emissions) and coke oven emission distinguished as the main source of PAHs in the Songhua River Basin. Based on the ingestion of PAH-contaminated drinking water from the Songhua River, cancer risk was quantitatively estimated by combining the Incremental Lifetime Cancer Risk assessment model and BaP-equivalent concentration for five age groups of people (adults, teenagers, children, toddlers, and infants). Overall, the results suggest that the estimated integrated lifetime cancer risk for all groups was in acceptable levels. This study is the first attempt to provide information on the cancer risk of PAHs in drinking water from the Songhua River. PMID:23564413

  2. Availability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to earthworms (Eisenia andrei, Oligochaeta) in field-polluted soils and soil-sediment mixtures.

    PubMed

    Jager, Tjalling; Baerselman, Rob; Dijkman, Ellen; de Groot, Arthur C; Hogendoorn, Elbert A; de Jong, Ad; Kruitbosch, Jantien A W; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M

    2003-04-01

    The bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) for earthworms (Eisenia andrei) was experimentally determined in seven field-polluted soils and 15 soil-sediment mixtures. The pore-water concentration of most PAHs was higher than predicted. However, most of the compound was associated with dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and not directly available for uptake by earthworms. The apparent sorption could be reasonably predicted on the basis of interactions with DOC; however, the biota-soil accumulation factors (BSAFs) for earthworms were up to two orders of magnitude lower than predicted by equilibrium partitioning. The large variability between sites was not fully explained by differences in sorption. Experimental results indicate that the pool of freely dissolved PAHs in the pore water became partially depleted because of uptake by the earthworms and that bioaccumulation is thus also influenced by the kinetics of PAH desorption and mass transport. A pilot study with Lumbricus rubellus showed that steady-state body residues were well correlated to E. andrei. Current results show that depositing dredge spoil on land may lead to increased bioavailability of the lower-molecular-weight PAHs. However, risk assessment can conservatively rely on equilibrium partitioning, but accurate prediction requires quantification of the kinetics of bioavailability. PMID:12685711

  3. FEASIBILITY OF USING SEQUENTIAL EXTRACTION TECHNIQUES FOR ARSENIC AND SELENIUM IN SOILS AND SEDIMENTS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gruebel, Karen A.; Davis, James A.; Leckie, James O.

    1988-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted with well-characterized minerals to test the applicability of selective extraction schemes for Se and As partitioning in soils and sediments. Two specific steps were tested: the reductive dissolution of amorphous iron oxides and the oxidation of organic material. Selenium and As associated with amorphous iron oxides were usually not found in solution after reductive dissolution, due to readsorption onto other minerals unaffected by the extractant. Oxidants intended to dissolve organic material also oxidized Se(IV) adsorbed on a mineral to Se(VI), causing the release of Se(VI) to the extractant solution.

  4. Significance of natural organic matter in nonlinear sorption of 2,4-dichlorophenol onto soils/sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kun; Zhu, Lizhong; Lou, Baofeng; Chen, Baoliang

    2004-01-01

    Sorption of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) onto 17 lake/river sediments, one red soil, pure minerals, and humic acid was comparatively studied. The isotherms of 2,4-DCP onto soil/sediment samples and humic acid are notably nonlinear at low concentrations and can be described by a simple dual-mode model: qe = KpCe + Q0bCe/(1 + bCe). No significant sorption of 2,4-DCP on pure minerals (montmorillonite and amorphous silicon oxide) was detected. Strong correlations of natural organic matter content to model parameters Kp, Q0, and Q0b were observed, while no significant effects of soil/sediment specific surface area and total clay content on sorption were observed. It is hypothesized that most of the nonlinear sorption behavior can be attributed to the soil/sediment organic matter contents as opposed to mineral contents because of the predominance of strongly hydrated cations (e.g., Na+, Ca2+, Al3+, Mg2+) in natural waters. The treatment of K*oc (K*oc = Kp/foc), Qoc (Qoc = Q0/foc), and Loc (Loc = Q0b/foc) as constants for a given solute represents an important step toward establishing a quantitative relationship between nonlinear sorption and solute molecular structure and offers a way to approximately calculate the nonlinear sorption from soil/sediment foc.

  5. An improved protocol for DNA extraction from alkaline soil and sediment samples for constructing metagenomic libraries.

    PubMed

    Verma, Digvijay; Satyanarayana, T

    2011-09-01

    An improved single-step protocol has been developed for extracting pure community humic substance-free DNA from alkaline soils and sediments. The method is based on direct cell lysis in the presence of powdered activated charcoal and polyvinylpolypyrrolidone followed by precipitation with polyethyleneglycol and isopropanol. The strategy allows simultaneous isolation and purification of DNA while minimizing the loss of DNA with respect to other available protocols for metagenomic DNA extraction. Moreover, the purity levels are significant, which are difficult to attain with any of the methods reported in the literature for DNA extraction from soils. The DNA thus extracted was free from humic substances and, therefore, could be processed for restriction digestion, PCR amplification as well as for the construction of metagenomic libraries. PMID:21519906

  6. Trace elements and Pb isotopes in soils and sediments impacted by uranium mining.

    PubMed

    Cuvier, A; Pourcelot, L; Probst, A; Prunier, J; Le Roux, G

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the contamination in As, Ba, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Sr, V, Zn and REE, in a high uranium activity (up to 21,000Bq∙kg(-1)) area, downstream of a former uranium mine. Different geochemical proxies like enrichment factor and fractions from a sequential extraction procedure are used to evaluate the level of contamination, the mobility and the availability of the potential contaminants. Pb isotope ratios are determined in the total samples and in the sequential leachates to identify the sources of the contaminants and to determine the mobility of radiogenic Pb in the context of uranium mining. In spite of the large uranium contamination measured in the soils and the sediments (EF≫40), trace element contamination is low to moderate (2sediments/soils, implying an enhanced potential availability. Even if no Pb enrichment is highlighted, the Pb isotopic signature of the contaminated soils is strongly radiogenic. Measurements performed on the sequential leachates reveal inputs of radiogenic Pb in the most mobile fractions of the contaminated soil. Inputs of low-mobile radiogenic Pb from mining activities may also contribute to the Pb signature recorded in the residual phase of the contaminated samples. We demonstrate that Pb isotopes are efficient tools to trace the origin and the mobility of the contaminants in environments affected by uranium mining. PMID:27220101

  7. Influence of flooding and metal immobilising soil amendments on availability of metals for willows and earthworms in calcareous dredged sediment-derived soils.

    PubMed

    Vandecasteele, Bart; Du Laing, Gijs; Lettens, Suzanna; Jordaens, Kurt; Tack, Filip M G

    2010-06-01

    Soil amendments previously shown to be effective in reducing metal bioavailability and/or mobility in calcareous metal-polluted soils were tested on a calcareous dredged sediment-derived soil with 26 mg Cd/kg dry soil, 2200 mg Cr/kg dry soil, 220 mg Pb/kg dry soil, and 3000 mg Zn/kg dry soil. The amendments were 5% modified aluminosilicate (AS), 10% w/w lignin, 1% w/w diammonium phosphate (DAP, (NH4)2HPO4), 1% w/w MnO, and 5% w/w CaSO4. In an additional treatment, the contaminated soil was submerged. Endpoints were metal uptake in Salix cinerea and Lumbricus terrestris, and effect on oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) in submerged soils. Results illustrated that the selected soil amendments were not effective in reducing ecological risk to vegetation or soil inhabiting invertebrates, as metal uptake in willows and earthworms did not significantly decrease following their application. Flooding the polluted soil resulted in metal uptake in S. cinerea comparable with concentrations for an uncontaminated soil. PMID:20347195

  8. The bioaccumulation of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons by benthic invertebrates in an intertidal marsh

    SciTech Connect

    Maruya, K.A.; Risebrough, R.W.; Horne, A.J.

    1997-06-01

    Biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAF; concentration in organism lipid/concentration in sediment on an organic carbon basis) of polyaromatic hydrocarbons varied with season and along an intertidal gradient in a coastal marsh in San Francisco Bay. The BSAFs were lowest during the local rainy season. During the dry season, BSAFs were lowest in the high intertidal zone closest to shore. Significant differences among species groups were also observed; BSAFs were lowest in polychaetes and highest in the Asian clam (Potamocorbula amurensis), varying over almost three orders of magnitude. The BSAFs decreased with increasing percent fines in the sediments and with PAH concentrations on an organic carbon basis. The authors suggest that a determining variable is the content of highly aromatic soot particles, which increases during periods of surface runoff and which is expected in the dry season to be highest in the high intertidal zone where these finer particles preferentially accumulate. Correlations of BSAFs with the ratio of the logarithm of the activity coefficients in porewaters to those in sediments were generally stronger than with log K{sub ow}, indicating a limitation of octanol as a surrogate for sediment organic carbon or organism lipid. These observations qualify but also strengthen the concept of equilibrium partitioning as the determining factor in bioaccumulation by benthic organisms of nonpolar organic compounds for sediments; the assumption that organic carbon can be considered in generic terms without allowance for aromaticity and probably other factors as well, must, however, be reconsidered.

  9. Strategies for Treating and Dewatering Contaminated Soils and Sediments Simultaneously - 13389

    SciTech Connect

    Bickford, Jody; Foote, Martin

    2013-07-01

    MSE Technology Applications, Inc. (MSE) was asked to perform a series of treatability studies by Global Technologies, Inc. (Global) and M{sup 2} Polymer Technologies, Inc. (M{sup 2} Polymer) using Global's metal treatment agent, Molecular Bonding System (MBS) and M{sup 2} Polymer's super-absorbent polymer, Waste Lock 770 (WL-770). The primary objective of the study was to determine if the two products could be used as a one-step treatment process to reduce the leachability of metals and de-water soils and/or sediments simultaneously. Three phases of work were performed during the treatability study. The first phase consisted of generating four bench-scale samples: two treated using only MBS and two treated using only WL- 770, each at variable concentrations. The second phase consisted of generating nine bench-scale samples that were treated using MBS and WL-770 in combination with three different addition techniques. The third phase consisted of generating four intermediate-scale samples that were treated using MBS and WL-770 simultaneously. The soils used in the treatability study were collected at the Mike Mansfield Advanced Technology Center in Butte, Montana. The collected soils were screened at 4 mesh (4.75 millimeters (mm)) to remove the coarse fraction of the soil and spiked with metallic contaminants of lead, cadmium, nickel, mercury, uranium, chromium, and zinc. (authors)

  10. Partition of iodine (¹²⁹I and ¹²⁷I) isotopes in soils and marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Violeta; Roos, Per; Aldahan, Ala; Hou, Xiaolin; Possnert, Göran

    2011-12-01

    Natural organic matter, such as humic and fulvic acids and humin, plays a key role in determining the fate and mobility of radioiodine in soil and sediments. The radioisotope ¹²⁹I is continuously produced and released from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, and as a biophilic element, its environmental mobility is strongly linked to organic matter. Due to its long half-life (15.7 million years), ¹²⁹I builds up in the environment and can be traced since the beginning of the nuclear era in reservoirs such as soils and marine sediments. Nevertheless, partition of the isotope between the different types of organic matter in soil and sediment is rarely explored. Here we present a sequential extraction of ¹²⁹I and ¹²⁷I chemical forms encountered in a Danish soil, a soil reference material (IAEA-375), an anoxic marine sediment from Southern Norway and an oxic sediment from the Barents Sea. The different forms of iodine are related to water soluble, exchangeable, carbonates, oxides as well as iodine bound to humic acid, fulvic acid and to humin and minerals. This is the first study to identify ¹²⁹I in humic and fulvic acid and humin. The results show that 30-56% of the total ¹²⁷I and 42-60% of the total ¹²⁹I are associated with organic matter in soil and sediment samples. At a soil/sediment pH below 5.0-5.5, (¹²⁷I and ¹²⁹I in the organic fraction associate primarily with the humic acid while at soil/sediment pH > 6 ¹²⁹I was mostly found to be bound to fulvic acid. Anoxic conditions seem to increase the mobility and availability of iodine compared to oxic, while subaerial conditions (soils) reduces the availability of water soluble fraction compared to subaqueous (marine) conditions. PMID:21924531

  11. Organic persistent toxic substances in soils, waters and sediments along an altitudinal gradient at Mt. Sagarmatha, Himalayas, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Guzzella, Licia; Poma, Giulia; De Paolis, Adolfo; Roscioli, Claudio; Viviano, Gaetano

    2011-10-01

    Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are important classes of compounds of serious environmental concern. These compounds were measured in waters, sediments and soils from several high altitude sites in the Sagarmatha National Park (Nepal) and included in the Himalayan ridge. In water samples, low-level substituted PCBs and PBDEs, along with more volatile PAHs, were the most common contaminants. In sediment and soil samples, the PCB profile was mainly composed of medium-level chlorinated congeners and significantly correlated with altitude. The PAH profile for water and soil samples showed the main contribution of pyrogenic PAHs due to emissions of solid combustion, whereas the profile for sediments indicated the main contribution of pyrogenic PAHs from gasoline emissions. The PAH levels measured in Himalayan samples must be considered as low to medium contaminated, whereas the regarded Himalayan stations can be considered undisturbed remote areas concerning PCB, PBDE and OC compounds. PMID:21752503

  12. Process for the solvent extraction for the radiolysis and dehalogenation of halogenated organic compounds in soils, sludges, sediments and slurries

    DOEpatents

    Mincher, Bruce J.; Curry, Randy Dale; Clevenger, Thomas E.; Golden, Jeffry

    2000-01-01

    A process of extracting halogenated organic compounds, and particularly PCBs, from soil, sediment, slurry, sludge and dehalogenating the compounds contacting a contaminated soil sample with an extraction medium of a mixture of an alkane and a water miscible alcohol. The organic compounds dissolve in the extraction medium which is separated from the soil by passing water upwardly through the soil. The extraction medium floats to the surface of the water and is separated. Thereafter, the extraction medium containing the halogenated organic contaminants is subjected to ionizing radiation to radiolytically dehalogenate the compounds.

  13. Process for the solvent extraction for the radiolysis and dehalogenation of halogenated organic compounds in soils, sludges, sediments and slurries

    DOEpatents

    Mincher, Bruce J.; Curry, Randy Dale; Clevenger, Thomas E.; Golden, Jeffry

    2003-05-27

    A process of extracting halogenated organic compounds, and particularly PCBs, from soil, sediment, slurry, sludge and dehalogenating the compounds contacts a contaminated soil sample with an extraction medium of a mixture of an alkane and a water miscible alcohol. The organic compounds dissolve in the extraction medium which is separated from the soil by passing water upwardly through the soil. The extraction medium floats to the surface of the water and is separated. Thereafter, the extraction medium containing the halogenated organic contaminants is subjected to ionizing radiation to radiolytically dehalogenate the compounds.

  14. Process for the solvent extraction for the radiolysis and dehalogenation of halogenated organic compounds in soils, sludges, sediments and slurries

    DOEpatents

    Golden, Jeffry

    2007-02-13

    A process of extracting halogenated organic compounds, and particularly PCBs, from soil, sediment, slurry, sludge and dehalogenating the compounds contacts a contaminated soil sample with an extraction medium of a mixture of an alkane and a water miscible alcohol. The organic compounds dissolve in the extraction medium which is separated from the soil by passing water upwardly through the soil. The extraction medium floats to the surface of the water and is separated. Thereafter, the extraction medium containing the halogenated organic contaminants is subjected to ionizing radiation to radiolytically dehalogenate the compounds.

  15. Thermal analytical investigation of biopolymers and humic- and carbonaceous-based soil and sediment organic matter

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Zhang; Eugene J. LeBoeuf; Baoshan Xing

    2007-07-15

    Improved understanding of the physical, chemical, and thermodynamic properties of soil and sediment organic matter (SOM) is crucial in elucidating sorption mechanisms of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) in soils and sediments. In this study, several thermoanalytical techniques, including thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC), and thermal mechanical analysis (TMA) were applied to 13 different organic materials (three woods, two humic acids, three kerogens, and five black carbons) representing a spectrum of diagenetic and/or thermal histories. Samples included Pocahontas No. 3 bituminous coal. Second-order thermal transition temperatures (T{sub t}) were identified in most materials, where the highest observed T{sub t} values (typically characterized as glass transition temperatures (T{sub g})) were shown to closely relate to chemical characteristics of the organic samples as influenced by diagenetic or thermal alteration. Results further suggest a positive correlation between glass transition temperature and a defined diagenetic/thermal index, where humic-based SOM (e.g., humic and fulvic acids) possess lower transition temperatures than more 'mature' carbonaceous-based SOM (i.e., kerogens and black carbons). The observed higher thermal transition temperature of aliphatic-rich Green River shale kerogen (about 120{sup o}C) relative to that of aromatic-rich humic acids suggests that a sole correlation of aromaticity to thermal transition temperature may be inappropriate. 55 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  16. SIP metagenomics identifies uncultivated Methylophilaceae as dimethylsulphide degrading bacteria in soil and lake sediment

    PubMed Central

    Eyice, Özge; Namura, Motonobu; Chen, Yin; Mead, Andrew; Samavedam, Siva; Schäfer, Hendrik

    2015-01-01

    Dimethylsulphide (DMS) has an important role in the global sulphur cycle and atmospheric chemistry. Microorganisms using DMS as sole carbon, sulphur or energy source, contribute to the cycling of DMS in a wide variety of ecosystems. The diversity of microbial populations degrading DMS in terrestrial environments is poorly understood. Based on cultivation studies, a wide range of bacteria isolated from terrestrial ecosystems were shown to be able to degrade DMS, yet it remains unknown whether any of these have important roles in situ. In this study, we identified bacteria using DMS as a carbon and energy source in terrestrial environments, an agricultural soil and a lake sediment, by DNA stable isotope probing (SIP). Microbial communities involved in DMS degradation were analysed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, high-throughput sequencing of SIP gradient fractions and metagenomic sequencing of phi29-amplified community DNA. Labelling patterns of time course SIP experiments identified members of the Methylophilaceae family, not previously implicated in DMS degradation, as dominant DMS-degrading populations in soil and lake sediment. Thiobacillus spp. were also detected in 13C-DNA from SIP incubations. Metagenomic sequencing also suggested involvement of Methylophilaceae in DMS degradation and further indicated shifts in the functional profile of the DMS-assimilating communities in line with methylotrophy and oxidation of inorganic sulphur compounds. Overall, these data suggest that unlike in the marine environment where gammaproteobacterial populations were identified by SIP as DMS degraders, betaproteobacterial Methylophilaceae may have a key role in DMS cycling in terrestrial environments. PMID:25822481

  17. Thermodynamic properties of several soil- and sediment-derived natural organic materials.

    PubMed

    DeLapp, Rossane C; LeBoeuf, Eugene J; Bell, Katherine D

    2004-01-01

    Improved understanding of the structure of soil- and sediment-derived organic matter is critical to elucidating the mechanisms that control the reactivity and transport of contaminants in the environment. This work focuses on an experimental investigation of thermodynamic properties that are a function of the macromolecular structure of natural organic matter (NOM). A suite of thermal analysis instruments were employed to quantify glass transition temperatures (Tg), constant-pressure specific heat capacities (Cp), and thermal expansion coefficients (alpha) of several International Humic Substances Society (IHSS) soil-, sediment-, and aquatic-derived NOMs. Thermal mechanical analysis (TMA) of selected NOMs identified Tgs between 36 and 72 degrees C, and alphas ranging from 11 mum/m degrees C below the Tg to 242 mum/m degrees C above the Tg. Standard differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC) measurements provided additional evidence of glass transition behavior, including identification of multiple transition behavior in two aquatic samples. TMDSC also provided quantitative measures of Cp at 0 and 25 degrees C, ranging from 1.27 to 1.44 J/g degrees C. Results from TMA, DSC, and TMDSC analyses are consistent with glass transition theories for organic macromolecules, and the glass transition behavior of other NOM materials reported in previous studies. Discussion of the importance of quantifying these thermodynamic properties is presented in terms of improved physical and chemical characterization of NOM structures, and in terms of providing constraints to molecular simulation models of NOM structures. PMID:14581055

  18. SIP metagenomics identifies uncultivated Methylophilaceae as dimethylsulphide degrading bacteria in soil and lake sediment.

    PubMed

    Eyice, Özge; Namura, Motonobu; Chen, Yin; Mead, Andrew; Samavedam, Siva; Schäfer, Hendrik

    2015-11-01

    Dimethylsulphide (DMS) has an important role in the global sulphur cycle and atmospheric chemistry. Microorganisms using DMS as sole carbon, sulphur or energy source, contribute to the cycling of DMS in a wide variety of ecosystems. The diversity of microbial populations degrading DMS in terrestrial environments is poorly understood. Based on cultivation studies, a wide range of bacteria isolated from terrestrial ecosystems were shown to be able to degrade DMS, yet it remains unknown whether any of these have important roles in situ. In this study, we identified bacteria using DMS as a carbon and energy source in terrestrial environments, an agricultural soil and a lake sediment, by DNA stable isotope probing (SIP). Microbial communities involved in DMS degradation were analysed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, high-throughput sequencing of SIP gradient fractions and metagenomic sequencing of phi29-amplified community DNA. Labelling patterns of time course SIP experiments identified members of the Methylophilaceae family, not previously implicated in DMS degradation, as dominant DMS-degrading populations in soil and lake sediment. Thiobacillus spp. were also detected in (13)C-DNA from SIP incubations. Metagenomic sequencing also suggested involvement of Methylophilaceae in DMS degradation and further indicated shifts in the functional profile of the DMS-assimilating communities in line with methylotrophy and oxidation of inorganic sulphur compounds. Overall, these data suggest that unlike in the marine environment where gammaproteobacterial populations were identified by SIP as DMS degraders, betaproteobacterial Methylophilaceae may have a key role in DMS cycling in terrestrial environments. PMID:25822481

  19. Variations in clay mineralogy and sediment texture of salt marsh soils on the Eastern Shore of Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, S.E.; Furman, T. . Dept. of Environmental Sciences)

    1993-03-01

    On the Eastern Shore of VA, relative sea level rise has resulted in encroachment of marsh onto upland areas. The amount and type of sediment determines the morphologic environment of the system: lagoon, mudflat, low marsh, high marsh or upland. This research is part of a study to examine the relationship between marsh soil characteristics and the production of Spartina alterniflora. The productivity of marsh vegetation depends on the import and entrapment of sediments that maintain marsh elevation and control water and nutrient availability. This work focused on distribution patterns of sediment texture and mineralogy. One meter deep cores were taken at marsh sites with 10 cm intervals homogenized for analysis. In order to distinguish potential sediment sources, samples were also taken from upland soil pits on the mainland and dredged one-half mile seaward of the barrier islands. Samples have undergone size analysis with a hydrometer and the clay fraction has been analyzed by XRD. Results from the marsh surface indicate large variations in sediment texture, but only slight differences in clay mineralogy between marshes. Barrier island marshes contain a higher average sand content than mainland marshes because of their closer proximity to barrier island beaches and inputs from overwash deposits. The clay minerals found in all marsh surface deposits are illite and chlorite, indicative of oceanic clays. The clay mineralogy of upland soils (kaolinite, chlorite, illite, vermiculite mixed-layer clay) differs from marsh surface clays, indicating that recent sediment deposited on the marsh surface is no upland soil but rather material brought in through tidal inlets. The sediment texture and clay mineralogy at different depths varies as a function of the past geomorphic and depositional history of the site. These data will be used to determine the timing of marsh development on flooded upland sites and to determine the pre-Holocene source of inorganic sediment inputs.

  20. Soil erosion and sediment fluxes analysis: a watershed study of the Ni Reservoir, Spotsylvania County, VA, USA.

    PubMed

    Pope, Ian C; Odhiambo, Ben K

    2014-03-01

    Anthropogenic forces that alter the physical landscape are known to cause significant soil erosion, which has negative impact on surface water bodies, such as rivers, lakes/reservoirs, and coastal zones, and thus sediment control has become one of the central aspects of catchment management planning. The revised universal soil loss equation empirical model, erosion pins, and isotopic sediment core analyses were used to evaluate watershed erosion, stream bank erosion, and reservoir sediment accumulation rates for Ni Reservoir, in central Virginia. Land-use and land cover seems to be dominant control in watershed soil erosion, with barren land and human-disturbed areas contributing the most sediment, and forest and herbaceous areas contributing the least. Results show a 7 % increase in human development from 2001 (14 %) to 2009 (21.6 %), corresponding to an increase in soil loss of 0.82 Mg ha(-1) year(-1) in the same time period. (210)Pb-based sediment accumulation rates at three locations in Ni Reservoir were 1.020, 0.364, and 0.543 g cm(-2) year(-1) respectively, indicating that sediment accumulation and distribution in the reservoir is influenced by reservoir configuration and significant contributions from bedload. All three locations indicate an increase in modern sediment accumulation rates. Erosion pin results show variability in stream bank erosion with values ranging from 4.7 to 11.3 cm year(-1). These results indicate that urban growth and the decline in vegetative cover has increased sediment fluxes from the watershed and poses a significant threat to the long-term sustainability of the Ni Reservoir as urbanization continues to increase. PMID:24141485

  1. Heavy metals in sediments, soils, and aquatic plants from a secondary anabranch of the three gorges reservoir region, China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jun-Min; Sun, Xiu-Qian; Jiang, Wen-Chao; Wei, Yun-Mei; Guo, Jin-Song; Liu, Yuan-Yuan; Zhang, Ke

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the occurrence of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), Znic (Zn), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and magnesium (Mg) in sediments, as well as in related soils and aquatic plants in the Liangtan River, a typical secondary anabranch of the Yangtze River in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region (TGRR) of China. We found that sediments accumulated more metals than soils and aquatic plants. Concentrations of the nine metals in sediments and soils followed the same sequence, while their concentrations in aquatic plants followed a different sequence. Potential adverse effects of contaminated sediments on benthic fauna were evaluated, and the results showed that the toxic effect on benthic organisms followed the sequence Zn > Ni > Cr > Cu > Cd > Pb. The potential ecological risk index analysis indicated that Cd in sediments had considerable ecological risk, whereas Cr, Cu, Zn, Ni, and Pb had low ecological risk. The potential ecological risk index (RI) of the heavy metals in sediments of the Liangtan River was 174.9, indicating moderate ecological risk. The transfer factor trend of metals for aquatic plants showed that Cd and Ni had the most and least accumulation, respectively. For Cu, Cd, Mg, Pb, and Cr, a significant positive correlation of the metal concentrations was observed between sediments and soils, but no correlations (excluding Cr) were detected between sediments and aquatic plants. Our study indicated that anthropogenic input may be the primary source of metal contamination in the Liangtan River, and that Zn and Cd pollution in the Liangtan River should be further explored. PMID:27055891

  2. Heavy metal contamination from historic mining in upland soil and estuarine sediments of Egypt Bay, Maine, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osher, L. J.; Leclerc, L.; Wiersma, G. B.; Hess, C. T.; Guiseppe, V. E.

    2006-10-01

    Concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in sediments of Egypt Bay in Hancock County, Maine, are elevated above background levels. The source of the contamination is Cu mining that occurred in the uplands adjacent to Egypt Stream between 1877 and 1885. Egypt Stream is a tributary to Egypt Bay. Egypt Bay is part of the Taunton Bay estuary system. The Hagan Mine was one of the mines extracting metals from the sulfide deposits in Downeast Maine north of Penobscot Bay. Metal concentrations were determined using ICP-AES after sample digestion with nitric acid. Soil collected from the coarse textured mine tailings pile contained elevated concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn, but the majority of the surface soils at the Hagan Mine site were not contaminated. Estuary sediments from the surface to 100 cm depth were collected in four locations within Egypt Bay. Below 40 cm, metal concentrations in sediments were similar to those in uncontaminated upland soils. Metal concentrations in the estuary sediments between the surface and 26 cm were above background levels. According to 210Pb dating, the sediment at 26-34 cm depth was likely to have been deposited at the time the historic mines were in operation. Concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in sediment from the 32-34 cm depth interval are similar to concentrations in the upland soil sample from the mine tailings pile. Elevated Pb concentrations in sediments from the surface to 24 cm are from atmospheric Pb deposition from anthropogenic sources. Sediment in the top 10 cm of the estuary has been mixed both by the polychaete worm Nereis virens and by those harvesting the worms for sale as fish bait.

  3. Modeling the neutralizing processes of acid precipitation in soils and glacial sediments of northern Ohio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckstein, Yoram; Hau, Joseph A.

    1992-02-01

    Most studies of the acidic deposition phenomena have been focused on processes occurring in the northeastern USA and Scandinavia. In these regions the soil cover is thin, the bedrock is acidic, and the terrain has very poor acid buffering capacity. Most of the US Midwest, including northern Ohio, has been ignored because the terrain is covered by glacial sediments with an abundance of carbonate minerals. Yet, for the last three decades the area has been experiencing acidic precipitation with a pH range of 3.5-4.5. the lowest in the USA. Samples of precipitation, soil water, and shallow ground water from Leroy Township in Lake County, Ohio, and from Wooster Township in Wayne County, Ohio, were analyzed and processed using WATEQ3 and PHREEQE computer models to quantify the effects of the acidic deposition. The two regions are characterized by very similar topographic, geological and hydrogeological conditions. Although the cation content of the precipitation in both regions is similar, the anion concentrations are much higher (sulfate by 70%, nitrate by 14% and chloride by 167%) in Leroy, located 50 km east-northeast and downwind of the Cleveland-Akron industrial complex, than in Wooster, located 80 km south-southwest and off-wind from the industrial complex. Computer modeling results indicate that buffering of acidic deposition in the surficial sediments and glacial tills of the two regions is dominated apparently by calcite dissolution, and dissolution and exchange of hydrogen for magnesium ions are the dominant neutralizing processes. However, reaction simulations also suggest that the buffering capacity of the Leroy soils and tills has been depleted to a much greater degree than in Wooster Township. In Leroy more acidic input is reacting with less buffering material to produce lower soil and groundwater pH. The depletion of carbonate and alumino-silicate minerals in the soils of Leroy Township is occurring at a rate that is 3-5 times faster than in the same type

  4. Distributed Hydrology Soil Vegetation Model (DHSVM) and Sediment Discharge in a Small, Timber Production Watershed, Humboldt County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stubblefield, A.; Huggett, B.; Sullivan, K.; Dhakal, A.

    2008-12-01

    Sediment impacts to streams and rivers, either as suspended sediment concentration (SSC), or as aggradation, are well documented in the Pacific Northwest. Fishery stocks, estuarine, infrastructural and wildland resources can be negatively impacted. The causes and reasons for sedimentation of river resources are varied and diverse: tectonic setting - the relative rapid uplift of the study region produces a dominant erosional process of landsliding and mass wasting; regolithic setting - the relatively recent uplift of marine sediments has produced local formations of poorly and moderately consolidated soils, and lithic melanges that are naturally susceptible to erosion; climatic/geographic setting - coastal locations are subject to seasonal delivery of a relatively high average annual precipitation serving to transport available sediment; and finally, management setting - the activities that serve to make sediment available for transport to the river channel, forest road building and harvesting activities associated with timber production, agriculture, gravel mining, and fire management. The reduction of sediment loading can be accomplished through restoration activities like forest road decommissioning or riparian area revegetation. The need to prioritize restoration efforts is confounded by a lack of hydrographic and sediment discharge data, the complex terrain, and the inability to predict the effects of these activities on a dynamic scale. The Distributed Hydrology Soil Vegetation Model (DHSVM) has been developed to model watersheds using spatially explicit geographical data coupled with physically based hydrologic equations. DHSVM simulates watershed processes across a grid on a cell-by-cell manner. The most recent development within the DHSVM includes a mass wasting / sediment production and channel routing module which allows prediction of total sediment loading in a forest basin. We are applying DHSVM to the McReady sub-basin of Freshwater Creek, Humboldt

  5. Central Colorado Assessment Project (CCAP)-Geochemical data for rock, sediment, soil, and concentrate sample media

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Granitto, Matthew; DeWitt, Ed H.; Klein, Terry L.

    2010-01-01

    This database was initiated, designed, and populated to collect and integrate geochemical data from central Colorado in order to facilitate geologic mapping, petrologic studies, mineral resource assessment, definition of geochemical baseline values and statistics, environmental impact assessment, and medical geology. The Microsoft Access database serves as a geochemical data warehouse in support of the Central Colorado Assessment Project (CCAP) and contains data tables describing historical and new quantitative and qualitative geochemical analyses determined by 70 analytical laboratory and field methods for 47,478 rock, sediment, soil, and heavy-mineral concentrate samples. Most samples were collected by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel and analyzed either in the analytical laboratories of the USGS or by contract with commercial analytical laboratories. These data represent analyses of samples collected as part of various USGS programs and projects. In addition, geochemical data from 7,470 sediment and soil samples collected and analyzed under the Atomic Energy Commission National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) program (henceforth called NURE) have been included in this database. In addition to data from 2,377 samples collected and analyzed under CCAP, this dataset includes archived geochemical data originally entered into the in-house Rock Analysis Storage System (RASS) database (used by the USGS from the mid-1960s through the late 1980s) and the in-house PLUTO database (used by the USGS from the mid-1970s through the mid-1990s). All of these data are maintained in the Oracle-based National Geochemical Database (NGDB). Retrievals from the NGDB and from the NURE database were used to generate most of this dataset. In addition, USGS data that have been excluded previously from the NGDB because the data predate earliest USGS geochemical databases, or were once excluded for programmatic reasons

  6. Improved quantification of pyrogenic carbon in soils and sediments by a HPLC-DAD method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedemeier, D. B.; Hilf, M. D.; Smittenberg, R. H.; Schmidt, M. W. I.

    2012-04-01

    Fire-derived (pyrogenic) carbon (PyC) is produced by the incomplete combustion of biomass, for example during wildfires. It can persist in the environment for a long time due to its relative resistance against biological and chemical breakdown. Its accurate quantification in soils and sediments is of great interest because the slow turn-over of PyC has implications for the global carbon cycle and carbon budget calculations. Moreover, PyC in pedological and sedimentological records can be used to reconstruct wildfire history or to investigate historical periods like the industrialization. A whole suite of PyC quantification methods exists because PyC is not a defined chemical structure but rather a continuum of thermally altered biomass. The benzene polycarboxylic acids (BPCA) analysis is a molecular marker method that was shown to give conservative estimates of PyC quantity in soils. In addition, it yields qualitative information about the degree of aromaticity and condensation of PyC. The commonly used BPCA method consists in digesting samples with nitric acid that breaks down the PyC into a suite of BPCAs, which are cleaned, derivatized and finally analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID). Here, we present a modified BPCA method for soils and sediments that uses a high performance liquid chromatography system coupled to diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). We demonstrate that this method greatly enhances the reproducibility of PyC quantification in soil and sediment samples while significantly reducing analysis time. Moreover, much less sample material is needed for precise PyC quantification and we show that the HPLC-DAD method yields consistently higher PyC contents than the GC-FID method. Additionally, the modified method also facilitates δ13C and 14C measurements of the PyC fraction in these complex matrix samples. The isotopic information further improves the assessment of PyC budgets in the environment and the reconstruction of past

  7. A theoretical assessment of microplastic transport in river catchments and their retention by soils and river sediments.

    PubMed

    Nizzetto, Luca; Bussi, Gianbattista; Futter, Martyn N; Butterfield, Dan; Whitehead, Paul G

    2016-08-10

    The presence of microplastics (MPs) in the environment is a problem of growing concern. While research has focused on MP occurrence and impacts in the marine environment, very little is known about their release on land, storage in soils and sediments and transport by run-off and rivers. This study describes a first theoretical assessment of these processes. A mathematical model of catchment hydrology, soil erosion and sediment budgets was upgraded to enable description of MP fate. The Thames River in the UK was used as a case study. A general lack of data on MP emissions to soils and rivers and the mass of MPs in agricultural soils, limits the present work to serve as a purely theoretical, nevertheless rigorous, assessment that can be used to guide future monitoring and impact evaluations. The fundamental assumption on which modelling is based is that the same physical controls on soil erosion and natural sediment transport (for which model calibration and validation are possible), also control MP transport and storage. Depending on sub-catchment soil characteristics and precipitation patterns, approximately 16-38% of the heavier-than-water MPs hypothetically added to soils (e.g. through routine applications of sewage sludge) are predicted to be stored locally. In the stream, MPs < 0.2 mm are generally not retained, regardless of their density. Larger MPs with densities marginally higher than water can instead be retained in the sediment. It is, however, anticipated that high flow periods can remobilize this pool. Sediments of river sections experiencing low stream power are likely hotspots for deposition of MPs. Exposure and impact assessments should prioritize these environments. PMID:27255969

  8. Assessment of a sequential phase extraction procedure for uranium-series isotope analysis of soils and sediments.

    PubMed

    Suresh, P O; Dosseto, A; Handley, H K; Hesse, P P

    2014-01-01

    The study of uranium-series (U-series) isotopes in soil and sediment materials has been proposed to quantify rates and timescales of soil production and sediment transport. Previous works have studied bulk soil or sediment material, which is a complex assemblage of primary and secondary minerals and organic compounds. However, the approach relies on the fractionation between U-series isotopes in primary minerals since they were liberated from the parent rock via weathering. In addition, secondary minerals and organic compounds have their own isotopic compositions such that the composition of the bulk material may not reflect that of primary minerals. Hence, there is a need for a sample preparation procedure that allows the isolation of primary minerals in soil or fluvial sediment samples. In this study, a sequential extraction procedure to separate primary minerals from soils and sediments was assessed. The procedure was applied to standard rock sample powders (TML-3 and BCR-2) to test whether it introduced any artefactual radioactive disequilibrium. A new step was introduced to remove the clay-sized fraction (<2 µm). Significant amounts (5-14%) of U and Th were removed from the rock standards during the procedure. No significant alteration in ((234)U/(238)U) and ((230)Th/(238)U) activity ratios of the rock standards occurred during the procedure. Aliquots of soil sample were subjected to the sequential extraction process to test how each step modifies the uranium-series activity ratios and mineralogy. Although no secondary minerals were detected in the unleached soil aliquots, the sequential leaching process removed up to 17% of U and Th and modified their activity ratios by up to 3%. The modification of the activity ratios poses a demand for careful means to avoid redistribution of isotopes back to the residual phase during phase extraction. PMID:24239599

  9. XANES spectroscopy as a tool to trace phosphorus transformation during soil genesis and mountain ecosystem development from lake sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giguet-Covex, C.; Poulenard, J.; Chalmin, E.; Arnaud, F.; Rivard, C.; Jenny, J.-P.; Dorioz, J.-M.

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate phosphorus (P) species modifications triggered by soil genesis and mountain ecosystem development after glacial retreat using a lake sediment archive (Lake Anterne, North French Alps). Five lake sediment samples, representative of different stages of soil and ecosystem development, were selected for P speciation analyses. Furthermore, a sequence of current soils from the catchment was analyzed to better constrain our interpretations of the lacustrine archive. Synchrotron techniques (X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) mapping and P K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy) were applied to lake sediments, soils, and standards (mineral and organic) to distinguish between different P species. The results show that soil development during the first millennia of the Holocene triggered increased P species diversity. At the onset of the Holocene, P was present as apatite when rocks and leptosols dominated the catchment. Pedogenic processes then led to apatite dissolution and the formation of large amounts of P on metal/clay-organic complexes. P geochemistry during the main step of soil genesis (early leptosols dominated by apatite, low weathered cambisols with P mainly adsorbed on iron oxides, highly weathered podzols with large amounts of P on Al/Fe/clay organic complexes) is thus clearly recorded in lake sediments. P K-edge XANES spectroscopy is particularly relevant as qualitative method to study P species in soils and lake sediments at high spatial resolution. Such resolution is needed to reveal the diversity of small P particles and like this better characterize the P cycle and improve our understanding of ecosystem evolution.

  10. Soil erosion and sediment control laws. A review of state laws and their natural resource data requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, S. B.

    1980-01-01

    Twenty states, the District of Columbia, and the Virgin Islands enacted erosion and sediment control legislation during the past decade to provide for the implementation or the strengthening of statewide erosion and sediment control plans for rural and/or urban lands. That legislation and the state programs developed to implement these laws are quoted and reviewed. The natural resource data requirements of each program are also extracted. The legislation includes amendments to conservation district laws, water quality laws, and erosion and sediment control laws. Laws which provides for legislative review of administrative regulations and LANDSAT applications and/or information systems that were involved in implementing or gathering data for a specific soil erosion and sediment control program are summarized as well as principal concerns affecting erosion and sediment control laws.

  11. Membrane-micelle model for humus in soils and sediments and its relation to humification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wershaw, Robert L.

    1994-01-01

    Humification, the process whereby biomass consisting of dead plant and animal remains is converted into soil organic matter (humus), is one of the basic processes of the carbon cycle. The organic compounds that make up plant and animal tissue are thermodynamically unstable in the oxidizing atmosphere at the surface of the Earth. After the organisms in which they are incorporated die, the compounds are converted back to carbon dioxide and water by degradation reactions catalyzed by enzymes secreted by micro-organisms. However, not all the organic compounds in the dead biomass are immediately converted; some of the material is only partially oxidized. The residue left after partial oxidative degradation of the dead biomass is the source of the organic compounds that accumulate in soils and sediments as humus. Previously, humification was thought to involve a conversion of degradation products by a series of polymerization reactions into new types of polymeric species that are different from the precursor molecular species in the original biomass. However, it is proposed here that the depolymerization and oxidation reactions that take place during the enzymatic degradation of biopolymers produce amphiphiles--molecules that have a polar (hydrophilic) part and a nonpolar (hydrophobic) part. These amphiphiles that result from the partial oxidative degradation of dead biomass assemble spontaneously into ordered aggregates in which the hydrophobic parts of the molecules form the interiors and the hydrophilic parts of the molecules make up the exterior surfaces of the aggregates. These ordered aggregates constitute the humus in soils and sediments. Humus ordered aggregates most likely exist as bilayer membranes coating mineral grains and as micelles in solution.

  12. Sediment Transport On The Vegetated Bank of The Soil Bioengineering Test Flume At The Wien River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meixner, H.; Rauch, H. P.; Schreiber, J.; Vollsinger, St.

    Soil bioengineering structures are frequently used to protect river banks. Studies by WEITZER / DOPPLER / FLORINETH (1998) on measuring the pull-out resistance and by OPLATKA (1998) on the effective flow acting on willows show that a high hydraulic load by itself does not lead to failure or dislodging of the plants but that the slopeSs instability is caused by the erosion of bed material. The onset of erosion is indicated by a critical shear stress, determined by the combination of a number of factors such as flow velocity, lift force, turbulence, grain size, grain shape, stratifica- tion of the river bed material and the type and density of the vegetation. Investigations into the stability of a variety of soil bioengineering structures (brush mattress with wil- lows, branch layers, fascine layers) are carried out at the soil bioengineering test flume along the Wien river, where artificial flooding runs expose the plant/soil complex to extreme hydraulic loads. Marked, surveyed and weighed gravel material of different grain diameters (10, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 mm) and variable layer arrangements is put into the bed or bank of the test flume to determine the critical shear stress. The exact grain position is identified before and after each artificial flooding, so that the mean sediment transport path can be determined for each grain diameter. By comparing sed- iment transport paths for different grain sizes, a critical grain diameter can be defined for each soil bioengineering structure. The critical grain diameter thus obtained is used as an input parameter in calculating the critical shear stress from bed load transport equations. Based on the data thus collected and their analysis it is possible to present and interpret initial findings.

  13. Evaluating the importance of surface soil contributions to reservoir sediment in alpine environments: a combined modelling and fingerprinting approach in the Posets-Maladeta Natural Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palazón, L.; Gaspar, L.; Latorre, B.; Blake, W.; Navas, A.

    2014-05-01

    Soil in alpine environments plays a key role in the development of ecosystem. Identify, maintain and preserve its resources, as well as recognize processes that would affect them are important and of practical interest. Environmental concerns about these fragile systems which are threatened by the human pressure and climatic change have stressed the need to gather information in soil erosion processes. As most mountain alpine environment the Benasque catchment is characterized by temperatures below freezing that can last from November to April, strong rainfall events and rugged topography. Indirect studies, such as combined model approaches, could be an alternative to evaluate soil erosion on these areas. In this study the complementary tools of Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and fingerprinting procedure were used to assess an initial approach on soil erosion processes which take place in the area of the Posets-Maladeta National Park (Central Spanish Pyrenees). Soil erosion rates and sediment contribution of potential sediment sources (Kastanozem/Phaeozem; Fluvisol; Cambisol and channel bed sediments) were assessed. SWAT model identified Cambisols as the main source of sediment of the Benasque catchment with the highest specific sediment yields and Phaeozems and Fluvisols were identified as the lowest sediment contributors. Spring and winter performed the highest and lowest specific sediment yield, respectively. Fingerprinting procedure identified channel bed sediment and Fluvisols as the main sediment sources indicating the main influence of connectivity. The combined approach enabled us to better understand soil erosion processes in the Benasque alpine catchment.

  14. Diffuse-reflectance mid-infrared spectrocopy reveals chemical differences in soil organic matter carried in different size wind eroded sediments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil organic matter (SOM) influences water holding capacity, aggregation, and diversity. Little information is available regarding the C functional groups carried in wind eroded sediments away from the source soil. Mid-infrared (MidIR) spectra was used on wind tunnel-blown sediments eroded from a lo...

  15. Standard operating procedures for collection of soil and sediment samples for the Sediment-bound Contaminant Resiliency and Response (SCoRR) strategy pilot study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, Shawn C.; Reilly, Timothy J.; Jones, Daniel K.; Benzel, William M.; Griffin, Dale W.; Loftin, Keith A.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Cohl, Jonathan A.

    2015-01-01

    An understanding of the effects on human and ecological health brought by major coastal storms or flooding events is typically limited because of a lack of regionally consistent baseline and trends data in locations proximal to potential contaminant sources and mitigation activities, sensitive ecosystems, and recreational facilities where exposures are probable. In an attempt to close this gap, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has implemented the Sediment-bound Contaminant Resiliency and Response (SCoRR) strategy pilot study to collect regional sediment-quality data prior to and in response to future coastal storms. The standard operating procedure (SOP) detailed in this document serves as the sample-collection protocol for the SCoRR strategy by providing step-by-step instructions for site preparation, sample collection and processing, and shipping of soil and surficial sediment (for example, bed sediment, marsh sediment, or beach material). The objectives of the SCoRR strategy pilot study are (1) to create a baseline of soil-, sand-, marsh sediment-, and bed-sediment-quality data from sites located in the coastal counties from Maine to Virginia based on their potential risk of being contaminated in the event of a major coastal storm or flooding (defined as Resiliency mode); and (2) respond to major coastal storms and flooding by reoccupying select baseline sites and sampling within days of the event (defined as Response mode). For both modes, samples are collected in a consistent manner to minimize bias and maximize quality control by ensuring that all sampling personnel across the region collect, document, and process soil and sediment samples following the procedures outlined in this SOP. Samples are analyzed using four USGS-developed screening methods—inorganic geochemistry, organic geochemistry, pathogens, and biological assays—which are also outlined in this SOP. Because the SCoRR strategy employs a multi-metric approach for sample analyses, this

  16. Determining soil moisture and sediment availability at White Sands Dune Field, New Mexico, from apparent thermal inertia data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheidt, Stephen; Ramsey, Michael; Lancaster, Nicholas

    2010-06-01

    Determinations of soil moisture and sediment availability in arid regions are important indicators of local climate variability and the potential for future dust storm events. Data from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection (ASTER) radiometer were used to derive the relationships among potential soil erosion, soil moisture, and thermal inertia (TI) at the spatial scale of aeolian landforms for the White Sands Dune Field between May 2000 and March 2008. Land surface apparent thermal inertia (ATI) data were used to derive an approximation of actual TI in order to estimate the wind threshold velocity ratio (WTR). The WTR is a ratio of the wind velocity thresholds at which soil erosion occurs for wet soil versus dry soil. The ASTER-derived soil moisture retrievals and the changes through time at White Sands were interpreted to be driven primarily by precipitation, but the presence of a perched groundwater table may also influence certain areas. The sediment availability of dunes, active playa surfaces and the margin of the alluvial fans to the west were determined to be consistently higher than the surrounding area. The sediment availability can be primarily explained by precipitation events and the number of dry days prior to the data acquisition. Other factors such as vegetation and the amount of surface crusting may also influence soil mobility, but these were not measured in the field. This approach showed the highest modeled sediment availability values just days prior to the largest dust emission event at White Sands in decades. Such an approach could be extended to a global monitoring technique for arid land systems that are prone to dust storms and for other regional land surface studies in the Sahara.

  17. Bisphenol A, nonylphenols, benzophenones, and benzotriazoles in soils, groundwater, surface water, sediments, and food: a review.

    PubMed

    Careghini, Alessando; Mastorgio, Andrea Filippo; Saponaro, Sabrina; Sezenna, Elena

    2015-04-01

    Contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) are not commonly monitored in the environment, but they can enter the environment from a variety of sources. The most worrying consequence of their wide use and environmental diffusion is the increase in the possible exposure pathways for humans. Moreover, knowledge of their behavior in the environment, toxicity, and biological effects is limited or not available for most CECs. The aim of this work is to edit the state of the art on few selected CECs having the potential to enter the soil and aquatic systems and cause adverse effects in humans, wildlife, and the environment: bisphenol A (BPA), nonylphenol (NP), benzophenones (BPs), and benzotriazole (BT). Some reviews are already available on BPA and NP, reporting about their behavior in surface water and sediments, but scarce and scattered information is available about their presence in soil and groundwater. Only a few studies are available about BPs and BT in the environment, in particular in soil and groundwater. This work summarizes the information available in the literature about the incidence and behavior of these compounds in the different environmental matrices and food. In particular, the review focuses on the physical-chemical properties, the environmental fate, the major degradation byproducts, and the environmental evidence of the selected CECs. PMID:25548011

  18. Growth form defines physiological photoprotective capacity in intertidal benthic diatoms.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Alexandre; Méléder, Vona; Blommaert, Lander; Lepetit, Bernard; Gaudin, Pierre; Vyverman, Wim; Sabbe, Koen; Dupuy, Christine; Lavaud, Johann

    2015-01-01

    In intertidal marine sediments, characterized by rapidly fluctuating and often extreme light conditions, primary production is frequently dominated by diatoms. We performed a comparative analysis of photophysiological traits in 15 marine benthic diatom species belonging to the four major morphological growth forms (epipelon (EPL), motile epipsammon (EPM-M) and non-motile epipsammon (EPM-NM) and tychoplankton (TYCHO)) found in these sediments. Our analyses revealed a clear relationship between growth form and photoprotective capacity, and identified fast regulatory physiological photoprotective traits (that is, non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) and the xanthophyll cycle (XC)) as key traits defining the functional light response of these diatoms. EPM-NM and motile EPL showed the highest and lowest NPQ, respectively, with EPM-M showing intermediate values. Like EPL, TYCHO had low NPQ, irrespective of whether they were grown in benthic or planktonic conditions, reflecting an adaptation to a low light environment. Our results thus provide the first experimental evidence for the existence of a trade-off between behavioural (motility) and physiological photoprotective mechanisms (NPQ and the XC) in the four major intertidal benthic diatoms growth forms using unialgal cultures. Remarkably, although motility is restricted to the raphid pennate diatom clade, raphid pennate species, which have adopted a non-motile epipsammic or a tychoplanktonic life style, display the physiological photoprotective response typical of these growth forms. This observation underscores the importance of growth form and not phylogenetic relatedness as the prime determinant shaping the physiological photoprotective capacity of benthic diatoms. PMID:25003964

  19. Budgets of soil erosion and deposition for sediments and sedimentary organic carbon across the conterminous United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, S.V.; Renwick, W.H.; Buddemeier, R.W.; Crossland, C.J.

    2001-01-01

    The fate of soil organic matter during erosion and sedimentation has been difficult to assess because of the large size and complex turnover characteristics of the soil carbon reservoir. It has been assumed that most of the carbon released during erosion is lost to oxidation. Budgets of bulk soil and soil organic carbon erosion and deposition suggest that the primary fates of eroded soil carbon across the conterminous United States are trapping in impoundments and other redeposition. The total amount of soil carbon eroded and redeposited across the United States is ???0.04 Gt yr-1. Applying this revision to the U. S. carbon budget by Houghton et al. [1999] raises their net sequestration estimate by 20-47 %. If comparable rates of erosion and redeposition occur globally, net carbon sequestration would be ???1 Gt yr-1.

  20. Sediment and process water characterization in support of 300 Area North Process Pond physical soil washing test

    SciTech Connect

    Field, J.G.

    1994-02-18

    The sediments in the 300 Area North Process Pond are being considered for clean-up using soil washing processes. Prior to site clean-up several preliminary pilot-scale physical washing campaigns were performed by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) staff in the summer of 1993. WHC used equipment that was obtained from the US Environmental Protection Agency. Specific details are found in the 300-FF-1 Physical Separations CERCLA Treatability Test Plan. Physical soil washing includes separation and proper containment of the contaminant-rich fines and residual liquid effluent and release of the coarse ``clean`` fraction, should it meet minimum performance levels for residual contaminant concentration to the site being cleaned. A goal of the demonstration is to concentrate the contaminants into {le}10% of the soil volume excavated and, therefore, to release {ge}90% of the soil back to the site as clean soil. To support interpretation of the WHC soil washing treatability study, PNL performed some sediment and process water characterization on samples taken during three major and one small campaign. This report documents particle-size distributions in various field washed piles, and chemical and gama emitting radionuclide contents as a function of particle-size distribution for the field washed sediments and contents in the spent process water. All of the particle fractions were separated by wet sieving, but two field samples were also subjected to dry sieving and attrition scrubbing followed by wet sieving.

  1. Study of soil aggregate breakdown dynamics under low dispersive ultrasonic energies with sedimentation and X-ray attenuation**

    PubMed Central

    Schomakers, Jasmin; Zehetner, Franz; Mentler, Axel; Ottner, Franz; Mayer, Herwig

    2016-01-01

    It has been increasingly recognized that soil organic matter stabilization is strongly controlled by physical binding within soil aggregates. It is therefore essential to measure soil aggregate stability reliably over a wide range of disruptive energies and different aggregate sizes. To this end, we tested high-accuracy ultrasonic dispersion in combination with subsequent sedimentation and X-ray attenuation. Three arable topsoils (notillage) from Central Europe were subjected to ultrasound at four different specific energy levels: 0.5, 6.7, 100 and 500 J cm−3, and the resulting suspensions were analyzed for aggregate size distribution by wet sieving (2 000-63 μm) and sedimentation/X-ray attenuation (63-2 μm). The combination of wet sieving and sedimentation technique allowed for a continuous analysis, at high resolution, of soil aggregate breakdown dynamics after defined energy inputs. Our results show that aggregate size distribution strongly varied with sonication energy input and soil type. The strongest effects were observed in the range of low specific energies (< 10 J cm−3), which previous studies have largely neglected. This shows that low ultrasonic energies are required to capture the full range of aggregate stability and release of soil organic matter upon aggregate breakdown. PMID:27099408

  2. Enrichment of Arsenic in Surface Water, Stream Sediments and Soils in Tibet

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shehong; Wang, Mingguo; Yang, Qiang; Wang, Hui; Zhu, Jianming; Zheng, Baoshan; Zheng, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater in sedimentary deposits in China, Southern, and Southeast Asia down gradient from the Tibetan plateau contain elevated As concentrations on a regional scale. To ascertain the possibility of source region As enrichment, samples of water (n=86), stream sediment (n=77) and soil (n=73) were collected from the Singe Tsangpo (upstream of the Indus River), Yarlung Tsangpo (upstream of the Brahmaputra River) and other drainage basins in Tibet in June of 2008. The average arsenic concentration in stream waters, sediments and soils was 58±70 μg/L (n=39, range 2-252 μg/L), 42±40 mg/kg (n=37, range 12-227 mg/kg), and 44±27mg/kg (n=28, range 12-84 mg/kg) respectively for the Singe Tsangpo and was 11±17 μg/L (n=30, range 2-83 μg/L), 28±11 mg/kg (n=28, range 2-61 mg/kg), and 30±34 mg/kg (n=21, range 6-173 mg/kg) respectively for the Yarlung Tsangpo. A dug well contained 195 μg/L of As. In addition to elevated As levels in surface and shallow groundwater of Tibet, hot spring and alkaline salt lake waters displayed very high As levels, reaching a maximum value of 5,985 μg/L and 10,626 μg/L As, respectively. The positive correlation between [As] and [Na]+[K] in stream waters indicates that these surface water arsenic enrichments are linked to the hot springs and/or salt lakes. Further, 24% of As in stream sediment is reductively leachable, with bulk As displaying a positive correlation with stream water As, suggesting sorption from stream water. In contrast, the fraction of reductively leachable As is negligible for soils and several rock samples, suggesting that As in them are associated with unweathered minerals. Whether the pronounced As anomaly found in Tibet affects the sedimentary As content in deltas downstream or not requires further study. PMID:24367140

  3. A review on slurry bioreactors for bioremediation of soils and sediments

    PubMed Central

    Robles-González, Ireri V; Fava, Fabio; Poggi-Varaldo, Héctor M

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work is to present a critical review on slurry bioreactors (SB) and their application to bioremediation of soils and sediments polluted with recalcitrant and toxic compounds. The scope of the review encompasses the following subjects: (i) process fundamentals of SB and analysis of advantages and disadvantages; (ii) the most recent applications of SB to laboratory scale and commercial scale soil bioremediation, with a focus on pesticides, explosives, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and chlorinated organic pollutants; (iii) trends on the use of surfactants to improve availability of contaminants and supplementation with degradable carbon sources to enhance cometabolism of pollutants; (iv) recent findings on the utilization of electron acceptors other than oxygen; (v) bioaugmentation and advances made on characterization of microbial communities of SB; (vi) developments on ecotoxicity assays aimed at evaluating bioremediation efficiency of the process. From this review it can be concluded that SB is an effective ad situ and ex situ technology that can be used for bioremediation of problematic sites, such as those characterized by soils with high contents of clay and organic matter, by pollutants that are recalcitrant, toxic, and display hysteretic behavior, or when bioremediation should be accomplished in short times under the pressure and monitoring of environmental agencies and regulators. SB technology allows for the convenient manipulation and control of several environmental parameters that could lead to enhanced and faster treatment of polluted soils: nutrient N, P and organic carbon source (biostimulation), inocula (bioaugmentation), increased availability of pollutants by use of surfactants or inducing biosurfactant production inside the SB, etc. An interesting emerging area is the use of SB with simultaneous electron acceptors, which has demonstrated its usefulness for the bioremediation of soils polluted with hydrocarbons and some

  4. Effect of soil properties and a synthetic municipal landfill leachate on the retention of Cd, Ni, Pb, and Zn in soil and sediment materials

    SciTech Connect

    LaBauve, J.M.; Kotuby-Amacher, J.; Gambrell, R.P.

    1988-03-01

    Batch equilibrium metal immobilization studies were conducted using seven soils and sediment materials spiked with varying concentrations of Cd, Ni, Pb, and Zn. The objective was to examine the potential mobility of metals in subsoils of metals-contaminated sites. Soil pH influenced metal immobilization more than other properties. The inclusion of other property values improved correlation of retention and concentration. Among the metals, Pb was most strongly retained, while Ni was the most mobile. The presence of a synthetic municipal landfill leachate enhanced the dissolved levels of two metals studied (Cd, Ni) in all soil materials.

  5. Microbial Dechlorination of 2,3,5,6-Tetrachlorobiphenyl under Anaerobic Conditions in the Absence of Soil or Sediment

    PubMed Central

    Cutter, Leah; Sowers, Kevin R.; May, Harold D.

    1998-01-01

    Bacterial enrichment cultures developed with Baltimore Harbor (BH) sediments were found to reductively dechlorinate 2,3,5,6-tetrachlorobiphenyl (2,3,5,6-CB) when incubated in a minimal estuarine medium containing short-chain fatty acids under anaerobic conditions with and without the addition of sediment. Primary enrichment cultures formed both meta and ortho dechlorination products from 2,3,5,6-CB. The lag time preceding dechlorination decreased from 30 to less than 20 days as the cultures were sequentially transferred into estuarine medium containing dried, sterile BH sediment. In addition, only ortho dechlorination was observed following transfer of the cultures. Sequential transfer into medium without added sediment also resulted in the development of a strict ortho-dechlorinating culture following a lag of more than 100 days. Upon further transfer into the minimal medium without sediment, the lag time decreased to less than 50 days. At this stage all cultures, regardless of the presence of sediment, would produce 2,3,5-CB and 3,5-CB from 2,3,5,6-CB. The strict ortho-dechlorinating activity in the sediment-free cultures has remained stable for more than 1 year through several transfers. These results reveal that the classical microbial enrichment technique using a minimal medium with a single polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener selected for ortho dechlorination of 2,3,5,6-CB. Furthermore, this is the first report of sustained anaerobic PCB dechlorination in the complete absence of soil or sediment. PMID:9687458

  6. Soil Organic Carbon Stocks in Arctic Deltaic Sediments: Investigations in the Lena River Delta.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubrzycki, S.; Kutzbach, L.; Desyatkin, A.; Pfeiffer, E.-M.

    2012-04-01

    The soil organic carbon stock (SSOC) of deltaic sediments in arctic permafrost regions is known to be significant but is insufficiently investigated so far. Previous SSOC studies were conducted mainly in the comparatively well studied Mackenzie River Delta (area: 13,000 km2) in Canada. The few studies from other arctic delta regions report only the gravimetric carbon (C) contents and are limited to the active layer depth at the time of sampling. Since C deposits in permafrost regions are likely to become a future C source, more detailed investigations of the presently frozen likely carbon-rich sediment and soil layers in other arctic delta regions are of importance. Our investigations were performed on Samoylov Island in the southern-central part of the Lena River Delta (32,000 km2) which is the largest arctic delta and the fifth largest delta worldwide. Samoylov Island is representative for the Lena River Delta's first terrace and the active floodplains. Within this study a new portable Snow-Ice-Permafrost-Research-Establishment (SIPRE) auger was used during a spring field session to obtain 1 m deep frozen soil cores (n = 37) distributed over all known soil and vegetation units. These cores are analyzed for bulk contents of nitrogen (N) and C, ice content and bulk density (BD) and to determine the SSOC including the rarely investigated currently permanently frozen layers up to 1 m depth on Samoylov Island. Our study provides evidence for high SSOC for a depth of 1 m for the investigated area ranging between 6 kg m2 and 54 kg m2. Considering the spatial extent of different soil units on the two geomorphological units of Samoylov Island, the area-weighted average SSOC were 31 kg m2 (n = 31) for the first terrace and 15 kg m2 (n = 6) for the active floodplain. For the correspondent soil units of Turbels and Orthels in circumpolar permafrost regions, Tarnocai et al. 2009 reported a mean SSOC of 27 kg m2 (min: 0.1 kg m2, max: 126 kg m2) for a depth of 1 m. For up

  7. Suspended sediment export in five intensive agricultural river catchments with contrasting land use and soil drainage characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherriff, Sophie; Rowan, John; Melland, Alice; Jordan, Phil; Fenton, Owen; hUallacháin, Daire Ó.

    2015-04-01

    Soil erosion and sediment loss from land can have a negative impact on the chemical and ecological quality of freshwater resources. In catchments dominated by agriculture, prediction of soil erosion risk is complex due to the interaction of physical characteristics such as topography, soil erodibility, hydrological connectivity and climate. Robust measurement approaches facilitate the assessment of sediment loss magnitudes in relation to a range of agricultural settings. These approaches improve our understanding of critical sediment transfer periods and inform development of evidence-based and cost-effective management strategies. The aim of this study was to i) assess the efficacy of out-of-channel (ex-situ) suspended sediment measurement approaches, ii) to quantify the variability of sediment exported from five river catchments with varying hydrology and agricultural land uses over multiple years and iii) to investigate trends in relation to physical and land use characteristics when sediment data were compared between catchments. Sediment data were collected in five intensive agricultural river catchments in Ireland (3-11 km2) which featured contrasting land uses (predominantly intensive grassland or arable) and soil drainage classes (well, moderate and poor). High-resolution suspended sediment concentration data (SSC - using a calibrated turbidity proxy) were collected ex-situ and combined with in-stream discharge data measured at each catchment outlet to estimate suspended sediment yield (SSY - t km-2 yr-1). In two catchments additional in-stream turbidity monitoring equipment replicated ex-situ measurements including site specific calibration of individual in-stream and ex-situ turbidity probes. Depth-integrated samples were collected to assess the accuracy of both approaches. Method comparison results showed that true SSC values (from depth-integrated sampling) were predominantly within the 95% confidence interval of ex-situ predicted SSC consequently

  8. Glomalin accumulated in seagrass sediments reveals past alterations in soil quality due to land-use change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Merino, Lourdes; Serrano, Oscar; Adame, María Fernanda; Mateo, Miguel Ángel; Martínez Cortizas, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), symbionts with most terrestrial plants, produce glomalin-related soil protein (GRSP), which plays a major role in soil structure and quality. Both fungi hyphae and protein production in soils are affected by perturbations related to land-use changes, implying that GRSP is a sensitive indicator of soil quality. Unfortunately, GRSP degrades within years to decades in oxic environments, preventing its use as palaeoecological proxy. However, GRSP is transported to marine, near-shore anoxic sediments, where it accumulates and remains non-degraded, enabling the assessment of its potential as a palaeoecological proxy for soil ecosystem's health. Exploiting this fact, we have obtained for the first time a long-term record (c. 1250 years) of GRSP content using a Posidonia oceanica seagrass mat sediment core from the Western Mediterranean (Portlligat Bay, Spain). The trends in GRSP content matched well with land-use changes related to agrarian activities reconstructed by pollen analysis. In periods of cultivation, GRSP accumulation in the mat decreased. Given the role played by GRSP, the results suggest that agrarian intensification may have resulted in perturbations to soil quality. Thus, GRSP in seagrass mat sediments can be used to assess long-term trends in continental soil quality induced by human activities. These findings open new possibilities in long-term ecology research, as other anoxic environments could be potentially valid too. Testing them would open the possibility to identify long-term patterns in soil quality and other environmental stressors that could also affect AMF and GRSP production in soils.

  9. INTERIM REPORT ON THE EVOLUTION AND PERFORMANCE OF THE EICHROM TECHNOLOGIES PROCEPT RAPID DIOXIN ASSAY FOR SOIL AND SEDIMENT SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A demonstration of screening technologies for determining the presence of dioxin and dioxin-like compounds in soil and sediment was conducted under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's(EPA's) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation Program in Saginaw, Michigan in 2004. T...

  10. DETERMINATION OF PCBS IN SOILS/SEDIMENTS BY MICROWAVE-ASSISTED EXTRACTION AND GC/ECD OR ELISA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article describes the application of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) combined either with gas chromatography and electron capture detection (GC/ECD) or with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to the determination of PCBs in soil and sediment samples. CBs were extr...

  11. Determination of vanadium in soils and sediments by the slurry sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry using permanent modifiers.

    PubMed

    Dobrowolski, Ryszard; Adamczyk, Agnieszka; Otto, Magdalena

    2013-09-15

    A new analytical procedure for vanadium (V) determination in soils and sediments by the slurry sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (slurry sampling GFAAS) using the mixed permanent modifiers is described. Moreover, the comparison of action of the modifiers based on the iridium (Ir) and carbide-forming elements: tungsten (W) and niobium (Nb) deposited on the graphite tubes is studied, especially in terms of their analytical utility and determination sensitivity. The mechanism of their action was investigated using an X-ray diffraction technique (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray detector (EDX). Finally, the mixture of 0.3 μg of Ir and 0.04 μg of Nb was used for the graphite tube permanent modification. The analytical procedure was optimized on the basis of the data from pyrolysis and atomization temperature curves studies. The results obtained for the four certified reference materials (marine sediments: PACS-1 and MESS-1, lake sediment: SL-1, soil: San Joaquin Soil SRM 2709), using the slurry sampling GFAAS and the standard calibration method, were in good agreement with the certified values. The detection and quantification limits and characteristic mass calculated for the proposed procedure were 0.04 µg/g, 0.16 µg/g and 11.9 pg, respectively. The precision (RSD% less than 8%) and the accuracy of vanadium determination in the soil and sediment samples were acceptable. PMID:23708618

  12. Final Report on the Performance of the Eichrom Technologies Procept® Rapid Dioxin Assay for Soil and Sediment Samples

    EPA Science Inventory

    A demonstration of screening technologies for determining the presence of dioxin and dioxin-like compounds in soil and sediment was conducted under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation Program in Saginaw, Michigan in 2004. ...

  13. PERFORMANCE OF THE CAPE TECHNOLOGIES DF1 DIOXIN/FURAN IMMUNOASSAY KIT FOR SOIL AND SEDIMENT SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A demonstration of screening technologies for determining the presence of dioxin and dioxin-like compounds in soil and sediment was conducted under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation Program in Saginaw, Michigan in 2004. ...

  14. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in soils, sediments, and human hair in a plastic waste recycling area: a neglected heavily polluted area.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhenwu; Huang, Qifei; Cheng, Jiali; Yang, Yufei; Yang, Jun; Guo, Wei; Nie, Zhiqiang; Zeng, Ning; Jin, Lu

    2014-01-01

    The release of pollutants during the recycling of contaminated plastics is a problem which has drawn worldwide attention; however, little information on the transfer of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in these processes is available. We conducted a survey of PBDEs in soils, sediments, and human hair in a typical plastic waste recycling area in northern China. The total concentrations (ng/g) of 21 PBDEs were 1.25-5504 (average 600), 18.2-9889 (average 1619), and 1.50-861 (average 112) in soils, sediments, and hair, respectively. The PBDE concentrations were comparable to concentrations observed in e-waste recycling areas; however, the concentrations in soils and sediments were 1-3 orders of magnitude higher than in other areas, and the concentrations in hair were much higher than in other areas. This indicates that this area is highly polluted with PBDEs. BDE-209 was the dominant congener (representing 91.23%, 92.3%, and 91.5% of the total PBDEs observed in soils, sediments, and hair, respectively), indicating that the commercial deca-BDE product was dominant. The commercial penta- and octa-BDE products made small contributions to the total PBDE concentrations, unlike what has been found in some e-waste recycling areas. Our results show that crude plastic waste processing is a major contributor of PBDEs to the environment and humans, which should be of great concern. PMID:24401001

  15. Field analysis of mercury in water, sediment and soil using static headspace analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kriger, A.A.; Turner, R.R.

    1994-12-31

    We developed a field screening method for rapid analysis of Hg in water, soil, and sediment, which can be applied cost-effectively at Hg-contaminated sites. Samples are chemically pretreated in ordinary containers, followed by analysis of the sample headspace Hg vapor using a portable commercial analyzer. Hg in water samples is reduced directly by the addition of stannous chloride, while solids are first digested with aqua regia or piranha solution to liberate the Hg from the solids. Aided by vigorous agitation after adding the reductant, the elemental Hg partitions between solution and headspace according to Henry`s Law. The method requires about 2 and 15 minutes to complete for water and solids, respectively. The method provides very useful detection limits for water (0.1 {mu}g/L) and solids (2-3{mu}g/g). Intercomparisons with laboratory-analyzed environmental samples show good agreement.

  16. Intertidal biofilm distribution underpins differential tide-following behavior of two sandpiper species (Calidris mauri and Calidris alpina) during northward migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez, Ariam; Elner, Robert W.; Favaro, Corinna; Rickards, Karen; Ydenberg, Ronald C.

    2015-03-01

    The discovery that some shorebird species graze heavily on biofilm adds importance to elucidating coastal processes controlling biofilm, as well as impetus to better understand patterns of shorebird use of intertidal flats. Western sandpipers (Calidris mauri) and dunlin (Calidris alpina) stopover in the hundreds of thousands on the Fraser River estuary, British Columbia, Canada, during northward migration to breeding areas. Western sandpipers show greater modification of tongue and bill morphology for biofilm feeding than dunlin, and their diet includes more biofilm. Therefore, we hypothesized that these congeners differentially use the intertidal area. A tide following index (TFI) was used to describe their distributions in the upper intertidal during ebbing tides. Also, we assessed sediment grain size, biofilm (= microphytobenthic or MPB) biomass and invertebrate abundance. Foraging dunlin closely followed the ebbing tide line, exploiting the upper intertidal only as the tide retreated through this area. In contrast, western sandpipers were less prone to follow the tide, and spent more time in the upper intertidal. Microphytobenthic biomass and sediment water content were highest in the upper intertidal, indicating greater biofilm availability for shorebirds in the first 350 m from shore. Invertebrate density did not differ between sections of the upper intertidal. Overall, western sandpiper behaviour and distribution more closely matched MPB biofilm availability than invertebrate availability. Conservation of sandpipers should consider physical processes, such as tides and currents, which maintain the availability of biofilm, a critical food source during global migration.

  17. Active exchange of water and nutrients between seawater and shallow pore water in intertidal sandflats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Dong-Woon; Kim, Guebuem; Yang, Han Soeb

    2008-12-01

    In order to determine the temporal and spatial variations of nutrient profiles in the shallow pore water columns (upper 30 cm depth) of intertidal sandflats, we measured the salinity and nutrient concentrations in pore water and seawater at various coastal environments along the southern coast of Korea. In the intertidal zone, salinity and nutrient concentrations in pore water showed marked vertical changes with depth, owing to the active exchange between the pore water and overlying seawater, while they are temporally more stable and vertically constant in the sublittoral zone. In some cases, the advective flow of fresh groundwater caused strong vertical gradients of salinity and nutrients in the upper 10 cm depth of surface sediments, indicating the active mixing of the fresher groundwater with overlying seawater. Such upper pore water column profiles clearly signified the temporal fluctuation of lower-salinity and higher-Si seawater intrusion into pore water in an intertidal sandflat near the mouth of an estuary. We also observed a semimonthly fluctuation of pore water nutrients due to spring-neap tide associated recirculation of seawater through the upper sediments. Our study shows that the exchange of water and nutrients between shallow pore water and overlying seawater is most active in the upper 20 cm layer of intertidal sandflats, due to physical forces such as tides, wave set-up, and density-thermal gradient.

  18. Modeling PAH mass transfer in a slurry of contaminated soil or sediment amended with organic sorbents.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Sungwoo; Werner, David; Luthy, Richard G

    2008-06-01

    A three-compartment kinetic partitioning model was employed to assess contaminant mass transfer and intraparticle diffusion in systems comprising dense slurries of polluted soil or aquifer sediment with or without sorbent amendments to sequester polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The model was applied to simulate temporal changes in aqueous and particle-bound PAH concentrations comparing different pollution sources (heavy oil or tar sludge) and various sorbent amendments (polyoxymethylene (POM), coke breeze, and activated carbon). For the model evaluation, all the parameters needed were directly measured from a series of experiments, allowing full calibration and verification of model predictions without parameter fitting. The numerical model reproduced two separate laboratory-scale experiments reasonably: PAH uptake in POM beads and PAH uptake by semipermeable membrane devices. PAH mass transfer was then simulated for various scenarios, considering different sorbent doses and mass transfer rates as well as biodegradation. Such model predictions provide a quick assessment tool for identifying mass transfer limitations during washing, stabilization, or bioslurry treatments of polluted soil or sediment in mixed systems. It appears that PAHs would be readily released from materials contaminated by small oil droplets, but not tar decanter sludge. Released PAHs would be sequestered rapidly by activated carbon amendment but to a much lesser extent by coke breeze. If sorbing black carbon is present in the slurries, POM pellets would not be effective as a sequestration amendment. High first-order biodegradation rates in the free aqueous phase, e.g., in the order of 0.001 s(-1) for phenanthrene, would be required to compete effectively with adsorption and mass transfer for strong sorbents. PMID:18456306

  19. Treatment of Y-12 storm sewer sediments and DARA soils by thermal desorption

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, M.I.; Shealy, S.E.

    1995-12-31

    The 1992 Oak Ridge Reservation Federal Facilities Compliance Agreement (FFCA) listed a number of mixed wastes, subject to land disposal restrictions (LDR), for which no treatment method had been identified, and required DOE to develop strategies for treatment and ultimate disposal of those wastes. This paper presents the results of a program to demonstrate that thermal desorption can remove both organics and mercury from two mixed wastes from the DOE Y-12 facility in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The first waste, the Y-12 Storm Sewer Sediments (SSSs) was a sediment generated from upgrades to the plant storm sewer system. This material contained over 4 percent mercury, 2 percent uranium and 350 mg/kg polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Leachable mercury exceeded toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and LDR criteria. The second waste, the Disposal Area Remedial Action (DARA) Soils, are contaminated with uranium, mercury and PCBs. This treatability study included bench-scale testing of a thermal desorption process. Results of the testing showed that, for the SSSs, total mercury could be reduced to 120 mg/kg by treatment at 600{degrees}C, which is at the high end of the temperature range for typical thermal desorption systems. Leachable TCLP mercury was less than 50 {mu}g/L and PCBs were below 2 mg/kg. Treatment of the DARA Soils at 450{degrees}C for 10 minutes resulted in residual PCBs of 0.6 to 3.0 mg/kg. This is too high (goal < 2mg/kg) and higher treatment temperatures are needed. The testing also provided information on the characteristics and quantities of residuals from the thermal desorption process.

  20. Renewed soil erosion and remobilisation of radioactive sediment in Fukushima coastal rivers after the 2013 typhoons

    PubMed Central

    Evrard, Olivier; Chartin, Caroline; Onda, Yuichi; Lepage, Hugo; Cerdan, Olivier; Lefèvre, Irène; Ayrault, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    Summer typhoons and spring snowmelt led to the riverine spread of continental Fukushima fallout to the coastal plains of Northeastern Japan and the Pacific Ocean. Four fieldwork campaigns based on measurement of radioactive dose rates in fine riverine sediment that has recently deposited on channel bed-sand were conducted between November 2011 and May 2013 to document the spread of fallout by rivers. After a progressive decrease in the fresh riverine sediment doses rates between 2011 and early spring in 2013, a fifth campaign conducted in November 2013 showed that they started to increase again after the occurrence of violent typhoons. We show that this increase in dose rates was mostly due to remobilization of contaminated material that was temporarily stored in river channels or, more importantly, in dam reservoirs of the region during the typhoons. In addition, supply of particles from freshly eroded soils in autumn 2013 was the most important in areas where decontamination works are under progress. Our results underline the need to monitor the impact of decontamination works and dam releases in the region, as they may provide a continuous source of radioactive contamination to the coastal plains and the Pacific Ocean during the coming years. PMID:24694549

  1. Comparing radiation dose rates in soils and riverine sediment to track the dispersion of radioactive contamination in Fukushima coastal rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evrard, Olivier; Onda, Yuichi; Lepage, Hugo; Chartin, Caroline; Lefèvre, Irène; Cerdan, Olivier; Bonté, Philippe; Ayrault, Sophie

    2014-05-01

    The Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) accident that occurred in March 2011 led to the formation of a 3000-km² radioactive pollution plume on soils located up to 70 km to the northwest of the damaged site. Forests and paddy fields are the dominant land uses in this mountainous region drained to the Pacific Ocean by several rivers that flow across densely inhabited coastal plains. It is then crucial to track the dispersion of radioactive material conveyed by those rivers to estimate the continental supply of radionuclides to the Ocean and to assess redistribution of radioactive sediment in those catchments. Radiations emitted by this contaminated material may indeed lead to an external exposure threat for local populations. As river discharge and sediment concentration data were not available during the first two years that followed the accident, alternative methods had to be developed to track this dispersion. We therefore organized field campaigns every six months and conducted local ground dose rate measurements to estimate whether fresh sediment drape deposits were more or less contaminated compared to local soils. Overall, our results showed that, in those regions exposed to violent typhoons and spring snowmelt, transfers of sediment are massive and episodic, and that they followed a seasonal cycle in 2011-2012. Then, in May 2013, contamination levels measured in sediment found in the upper parts of the catchments were almost systematically lower than the ones measured in nearby soils, whereas their contamination was higher in the coastal plains. This could have indicated a drying-up of the upstream sources of contamination. However, after the violent typhoons that occurred during summer in 2013, dose rates measured in fresh sediment deposits in November 2013 increased again systematically across the region. We thereby suggest that remobilization of contaminated sediment by typhoons and their storage in reservoirs and in coastal sections of the

  2. [Pollution status of phenolic compounds in the soil and sediment from a chemical industrial park along the Yangtze River].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiexia; Wei, Enze; Xian, Qiming

    2014-08-01

    A determination method of 12 phenolic compounds in soil and sediment samples by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis coupled with accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) for clean-up was developed. The method detection limits (MDLs) varied from 0. 410 μg/kg to 13. 1 μg/kg (dry weight), and the average recoveries ranged from 70. 7% to 122% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 1. 2% to 16%. Based on this method, the levels of 12 phenolic compounds were investigated in 17 soil surrounding a chemical industrial park along the Yangtze River and seven sediment samples collected in the river. It was found that 11 of the 12 phenolic compounds were detected in all of the 24 samples, and only hydroquinone was below the MDL. The contents of the total 12 phenolic compounds were 10. 16-30. 66 mg/kg in the soil and 18. 00-29. 83 mg/kg in the sediment, with the average contents of 18. 26 and 22. 51 mg/kg respectively. It showed that 4-nitro- phenol, 4-chloro-3-methylphenol, 2-chlorohydroquinone, 2-methyl-4,6-dinitrophenol and 2,4,6- trichlorophenol were five major phenolic contaminants in the soil and sediment in this study. The pollution levels of the 12 phenolic compounds were low in the soil of the chemical industrial park as well as in the sediment of the Yangtze River, which implied a comparatively low risk for the environment. PMID:25434120

  3. Transformation of marine sediment to paddy soil: Primary marine, lacustrine, and land plant lipids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller-Niggemann, Cornelia; Cao, Zhihong; Schwark, Lorenz

    2010-05-01

    More than fifty percent of the world's population feeds on rice. The continuous population increase and urban sprawl leads to an ever-increasing demand for new rice cultivation area, in particular China. For centuries suitable coastal areas in China have been exploited for land reclamation, i.e. conversion of coastal marine and lacustrine marshlands into rice paddy fields. Flooded rice paddies are considered one of the major biogenic sources of methane into the atmospheric. Methane is thought to be about 30 times more efficient as greenhouse gas, when compared to carbon dioxide. Overall, rice fields are assumed to contribute app. 10-25% to global CH4 production. It is thus paramount importance to study the effects of increasing rice cultivation and land reclamation in China. For global carbon cycle investigation, it is crucial whether paddy soils, due to their large extent and higher carbon turnover, serve as carbon (CO2) sinks or sources. Here we present results from a chronosequence study of paddy soils with different and well known starting dates of cultivation, in the Zhejiang province (Yangtze River delta) by land reclamation through the building of protective dikes over the past 2000 years. Two end members of natural sediments subjected to land reclamation, a marine tidal mudflat in the Yangtze delta and a coastal lake, represent the substrate on which the paddy soil evolution started. Dike systems were constructed 2000, 1000, 700, 300, 100, and 50 years before present. We are thus able to follow the evolution of rice paddy soils developed on marine sediments using eight well defined tie-points. This chronosequence is then used for assessing the relative proportion of primary marine or lacustrine organic matter preserved in present day soils and to identify the amount and composition of organic matter added since cultivation started. Paddy soil management introduces rice plants debris and exudates as well as rice-associated microbial biomass (covered in a

  4. (210)Pb as a tracer of soil erosion, sediment source area identification and particle transport in the terrestrial environment.

    PubMed

    Matisoff, Gerald

    2014-12-01

    Although (137)Cs has been used extensively to study soil erosion and particle transport in the terrestrial environment, there has been much less work using excess or unsupported (210)Pb ((210)Pbxs) to study the same processes. Furthermore, since (137)Cs activities in soils are decreasing because of radioactive decay, some locations have an added complication due to the addition of Chernobyl-derived (137)Cs, and the activities of (137)Cs in the southern hemisphere are low, there is a need to develop techniques that use (210)Pbxs to provide estimates of rates of soil erosion and particle transport. This paper reviews the current status of (210)Pbxs methods to quantify soil erosion rates, to identify and partition suspended sediment source areas, and to determine the transport rates of particles in the terrestrial landscape. Soil erosion rates determined using (210)Pbxs are based on the unsupported (210)Pb ((210)Pbxs) inventory in the soil, the depth distribution of (210)Pbxs, and a mass balance calibration ('conversion model') that relates the soil inventory to the erosion rate using a 'reference site' at which neither soil erosion nor soil deposition has occurred. In this paper several different models are presented to illustrate the effects of different model assumptions such as the timing, depth and rates of the surface soil mixing on the calculated erosion rates. The suitability of model assumptions, including estimates of the depositional flux of (210)Pbxs to the soil surface and the post-depositional mobility of (210)Pb are also discussed. (210)Pb can be used as one tracer to permit sediment source area identification. This sediment 'fingerprinting' has been extended far beyond using (210)Pb as a single radioisotope to include numerous radioactive and stable tracers and has been applied to identifying the source areas of suspended sediment based on underlying rock type, land use (roads, stream banks, channel beds, cultivated or uncultivated lands, pasture lands

  5. Transformation of the structural organization of clay sediments and soils under the impact of polyelectrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurochkina, G. N.; Pinskiy, D. L.; Fedotov, G. N.; Hajnos, M.; Sokolowska, Z.; Ciesla, I.

    2013-08-01

    The effects of polyacrylic acid (PAAc) and polyacrylamide (PAA) adsorption by quartz sand, montmorillonite, kaolinite, gray forest soil, and chernozem on the texture of the sorbents were studied. It was shown that the polymolecular adsorption was typical of the applied polyelectrolytes. The addition of PAA in a concentration of 0.05% to the solution resulted in consolidation of the sediments with a decrease in their volume. In the case of montmorillonite, a loose gel precipitate formed; its volume decreased by about 6% during the experiment. The adsorption of polyelectrolytes slightly affected the average radii, total surface area, and volume of the pore space (within 4-20%). The transformation of the surface of minerals and soils under the action of polyelectrolytes resulted in a significant change in the differential pore volume. The number of pores of about 0.0014 μm in size hardly changed at all. However, wider pores (0.011-0.45 μm) appeared. The adsorption of PAAc resulted in the appearance of wide pores (1.6-22.0 μm), and the adsorption of PAA resulted in the appearance of two narrow classes of micropores. A much more even distribution of differential porosity in the range of 3.6-4.5 μm was revealed. Thus, the transformation of the surface of adsorbents by polyelectrolytes led to changes in the pore-size distribution.

  6. Impact of gold mining associated with mercury contamination in soil, biota sediments and tailings in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Odumo, Benjamin Okang'; Carbonell, Gregoria; Angeyo, Hudson Kalambuka; Patel, Jayanti Purshottam; Torrijos, Manuel; Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio

    2014-11-01

    This work considered the environmental impact of artisanal mining gold activity in the Migori-Transmara area (Kenya). From artisanal gold mining, mercury is released to the environment, thus contributing to degradation of soil and water bodies. High mercury contents have been quantified in soil (140 μg kg(-1)), sediment (430 μg kg(-1)) and tailings (8,900 μg kg(-1)), as expected. The results reveal that the mechanism for transporting mercury to the terrestrial ecosystem is associated with wet and dry depositions. Lichens and mosses, used as bioindicators of pollution, are related to the proximity to mining areas. The further the distance from mining areas, the lower the mercury levels. This study also provides risk maps to evaluate potential negative repercussions. We conclude that the Migori-Transmara region can be considered a strongly polluted area with high mercury contents. The technology used to extract gold throughout amalgamation processes causes a high degree of mercury pollution around this gold mining area. Thus, alternative gold extraction methods should be considered to reduce mercury levels that can be released to the environment. PMID:24943890

  7. Modelling soil erosion and associated sediment yield for small headwater catchments of the Daugava spillway valley, Latvia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soms, Juris

    2015-04-01

    The accelerated soil erosion by water and associated fine sediment transfer in river catchments has various negative environmental as well as economic implications in many EU countries. Hence, the scientific community had recognized and ranked soil erosion among other environmental problems. Moreover, these matters might worsen in the near future in the countries of the Baltic Region, e.g. Latvia considering the predicted climate changes - more precisely, the increase in precipitation and shortening of return periods of extreme rainfall events, which in their turn will enable formation of surface runoff, erosion and increase of sediment delivery to receiving streams. Thereby it is essential to carry out studies focused on these issues in order to obtain reliable data in terms of both scientific and applied aims, e.g. environmental protection and sustainable management of soils as well as water resources. During the past decades, many of such studies of soil erosion had focused on the application of modelling techniques implemented in a GIS environment, allowing indirectly to estimate the potential soil losses and to quantify related sediment yield. According to research results published in the scientific literature, this approach currently is widely used all over the world, and most of these studies are based on the USLE model and its revised and modified versions. Considering that, the aim of this research was to estimate soil erosion rates and sediment transport under different hydro-climatic conditions in south-eastern Latvia by application of GIS-based modelling. For research purposes, empirical RUSLE model and ArcGIS software were applied, and five headwater catchments were chosen as model territories. The selected catchments with different land use are located in the Daugava spillway valley, which belongs to the upper Daugava River drainage basin. Considering lithological diversity of Quaternary deposits, a variety of soils can be identified, i.e., Stagnic

  8. Ecological Screening Values for Surface Water, Sediment, and Soil: 2005 Update

    SciTech Connect

    Friday, G. P.

    2005-07-18

    One of the principal components of the environmental remediation program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is the assessment of ecological risk. Used to support CERCLA, RCRA, and DOE orders, the ecological risk assessment (ERA) can identify environmental hazards and evaluate remedial action alternatives. Ecological risk assessment is also an essential means for achieving DOE's risk based end state vision for the disposition of nuclear material and waste hazards, the decommissioning of facilities, and the remediation of inactive waste units at SRS. The complexity of an ERA ranges from a screening level ERA (SLERA) to a full baseline ERA. A screening level ecological risk assessments, although abbreviated from a baseline risk assessment, is nonetheless considered a complete risk assessment (EPA, 2001a). One of the initial tasks of any ERA is to identify constituents that potentially or adversely affect the environment. Typically, this is accomplished by comparing a constituent's maximum concentration in surface water, sediment, or soil with an ecological screening value (ESV). The screening process can eliminate many constituents from further consideration in the risk assessment, but it also identifies those that require additional evaluation. This document is an update of a previous compilation (Friday, 1998) and provides a comprehensive listing of ecological screening values for surface water, sediment, and soil. It describes how the screening values were derived and recommends benchmarks that can be used for ecological risk assessment. The sources of these updated benchmarks include the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the State of Florida, the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME), the Dutch Ministry of the Environment (RIVM), and the scientific literature. It should be

  9. Alkalinity production in intertidal sands intensified by lugworm bioirrigation

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Alexandra M.F.; Malkin, Sairah Y.; Montserrat, Francesc; Meysman, Filip J.R.

    2014-01-01

    Porewater profiles and sediment-water fluxes of oxygen, nutrients, pH, calcium, alkalinity, and sulfide were measured in intertidal sandflat sediments from the Oosterschelde mesotidal lagoon (The Netherlands). The influence of bioturbation and bioirrigation by the deep-burrowing polychaete Arenicola marina on the rates and sources of benthic alkalinity generation was examined by comparing measurements in intact and defaunated sediment cores before and after the addition of A. marina in summer and fall 2011. Higher organic matter remineralization rates, shallower O2 penetration, and greater sediment-water solute fluxes were observed in summer, consistent with higher sediment community metabolic rates at a higher temperature. Lugworm activity stimulated porewater exchange (5.1 × in summer, 1.9 × in fall), organic matter remineralization (6.2 × in summer, 1.9 × in fall), aerobic respiration (2.4 × in summer, 2.1 × in fall), alkalinity release (4.7 × in summer, 4.0 × in fall), nutrient regeneration, and iron cycling. The effects of lugworm activity on net sediment-water fluxes were similar but more pronounced in summer than in fall. Alkalinity release in fall was entirely driven by metabolic carbonate dissolution, while this process explained between 22 and 69% of total alkalinity production in summer, indicating the importance of other processes in this season. By enhancing organic matter remineralization and the reoxidation of reduced metabolites by the sediment microbial community, lugworm activity stimulated the production of dissolved inorganic carbon and metabolic acidity, which in turn enhanced metabolic CaCO3 dissolution efficiency. In summer, evidence of microbial long distance electron transport (LDET) was observed in defaunated sediment. Thus, alkalinity production by net carbonate dissolution was likely supplemented by anaerobic respiration and LDET in summer. PMID:25431515

  10. Alkalinity production in intertidal sands intensified by lugworm bioirrigation.

    PubMed

    Rao, Alexandra M F; Malkin, Sairah Y; Montserrat, Francesc; Meysman, Filip J R

    2014-07-01

    Porewater profiles and sediment-water fluxes of oxygen, nutrients, pH, calcium, alkalinity, and sulfide were measured in intertidal sandflat sediments from the Oosterschelde mesotidal lagoon (The Netherlands). The influence of bioturbation and bioirrigation by the deep-burrowing polychaete Arenicola marina on the rates and sources of benthic alkalinity generation was examined by comparing measurements in intact and defaunated sediment cores before and after the addition of A. marina in summer and fall 2011. Higher organic matter remineralization rates, shallower O2 penetration, and greater sediment-water solute fluxes were observed in summer, consistent with higher sediment community metabolic rates at a higher temperature. Lugworm activity stimulated porewater exchange (5.1 × in summer, 1.9 × in fall), organic matter remineralization (6.2 × in summer, 1.9 × in fall), aerobic respiration (2.4 × in summer, 2.1 × in fall), alkalinity release (4.7 × in summer, 4.0 × in fall), nutrient regeneration, and iron cycling. The effects of lugworm activity on net sediment-water fluxes were similar but more pronounced in summer than in fall. Alkalinity release in fall was entirely driven by metabolic carbonate dissolution, while this process explained between 22 and 69% of total alkalinity production in summer, indicating the importance of other processes in this season. By enhancing organic matter remineralization and the reoxidation of reduced metabolites by the sediment microbial community, lugworm activity stimulated the production of dissolved inorganic carbon and metabolic acidity, which in turn enhanced metabolic CaCO3 dissolution efficiency. In summer, evidence of microbial long distance electron transport (LDET) was observed in defaunated sediment. Thus, alkalinity production by net carbonate dissolution was likely supplemented by anaerobic respiration and LDET in summer. PMID:25431515

  11. Alkalinity production in intertidal sands intensified by lugworm bioirrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Alexandra M. F.; Malkin, Sairah Y.; Montserrat, Francesc; Meysman, Filip J. R.

    2014-07-01

    Porewater profiles and sediment-water fluxes of oxygen, nutrients, pH, calcium, alkalinity, and sulfide were measured in intertidal sandflat sediments from the Oosterschelde mesotidal lagoon (The Netherlands). The influence of bioturbation and bioirrigation by the deep-burrowing polychaete Arenicola marina on the rates and sources of benthic alkalinity generation was examined by comparing measurements in intact and defaunated sediment cores before and after the addition of A. marina in summer and fall 2011. Higher organic matter remineralization rates, shallower O2 penetration, and greater sediment-water solute fluxes were observed in summer, consistent with higher sediment community metabolic rates at a higher temperature. Lugworm activity stimulated porewater exchange (5.1 × in summer, 1.9 × in fall), organic matter remineralization (6.2 × in summer, 1.9 × in fall), aerobic respiration (2.4 × in summer, 2.1 × in fall), alkalinity release (4.7 × in summer, 4.0 × in fall), nutrient regeneration, and iron cycling. The effects of lugworm activity on net sediment-water fluxes were similar but more pronounced in summer than in fall. Alkalinity release in fall was entirely driven by metabolic carbonate dissolution, while this process explained between 22 and 69% of total alkalinity production in summer, indicating the importance of other processes in this season. By enhancing organic matter remineralization and the reoxidation of reduced metabolites by the sediment microbial community, lugworm activity stimulated the production of dissolved inorganic carbon and metabolic acidity, which in turn enhanced metabolic CaCO3 dissolution efficiency. In summer, evidence of microbial long distance electron transport (LDET) was observed in defaunated sediment. Thus, alkalinity production by net carbonate dissolution was likely supplemented by anaerobic respiration and LDET in summer.

  12. Glyphosate and AMPA contents in sediments produced by wind erosion of agricultural soils in Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aparicio, Virginia; Aimar, Silvia; De Gerónimo, Eduardo; Buschiazzo, Daniel; Mendez, Mariano; Costa, José Luis

    2014-05-01

    Wind erosion of soils is an important event in arid and semiarid regions of Argentina. The magnitude of wind erosion occurring under different management practices is relatively well known in this region but less information is available on the quality of the eroded material. Considering that the intensification of agriculture may increase the concentrations of substances in the eroded material, producing potential negative effects on the environment, we analyzed the amount of glyphosate and AMPA in sediments produced by wind erosion of agricultural soils of Argentina. Wind eroded materials were collected by means of BSNE samplers in two loess sites of the semiarid region of Argentina: Chaco and La Pampa. Samples were collected from 1 ha square fields at 13.5, 50 and 150 cm height. Results showed that at higher heights the concentrations of glyphosate and AMPA were mostly higher. The glyphosate concentration was more variable and higher in Chaco (0.66 to 313 µg kg-1) than in La Pampa (4.17 to 114 µg kg-1). These results may be due to the higher use of herbicides in Chaco, where the predominant crops are soybeans and corn, produced under no-tillage. Under these conditions the use of glyphosate for weeds control is a common practice. Conversely, AMPA concentrations were higher in La Pampa (13.1 to 101.3 µg kg-1) than in Chaco (1.3 to 83 µg kg-1). These preliminary results show high concentrations of glyphosate and AMPA in wind eroded materials of agricultural soils of Argentina. More research is needed to confirm these high concentrations in other conditions in order to detect the temporal and spatial distribution patterns of the herbicide.

  13. Fractal features of soil particle size distribution in layered sediments behind two check dams: Implications for the Loess Plateau, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xia; Li, Xungui; Wei, Ning

    2016-08-01

    The layered sediment deposited behind a check dam can provide useful information about soil erosion processes in the dam-controlled area. This study aims to evaluate the possible fractal nature of layered sediments behind check dams, assessing whether fractal dimension can serve as a feasible index for evaluating the impact of land use types on the area controlled by the check dam. Fractal dimension measurement was employed to analyze the features of soil particle size distribution (PSD) for different layered sediments of the Shipanmao and Zhangshan check dams in the Dalihe River Basin of the Loess Plateau, China. Results show that the predominant soil particle sizes of the sediment layers behind the Shipanmao and Zhangshan dams are silt-clay (< 0.05 mm) and fine sand (0.25-0.05 mm). The overall gradients of the trends for silt-clay and fine sand are 0.0622 (slight increase) and - 0.0618 (slight decrease), respectively, for Shipanmao, and - 0.8415 (decrease) and 0.8448 (increase), respectively, for Zhangshan. There are considerable differences in the PSDs among different layers, especially in the coarse and fine sand fractions. The coefficient of variation (CV) for the coarse sand fraction is highest, followed by the fine sand and the silt-clay size fractions. Larger soil particle sizes coincide with larger CV values. The fractal dimension (Dm) of the PSD ranges from 2.111 to 2.219, and 2.144 to 2.447 for Shipanmao and Zhangshan, respectively. The Dm values tend to increase and decrease for the layered sediments from top to bottom with some turning points. The turning points of Dm are related to the trends of the soil PSDs in the adjacent sediment layers. Although Dm has significant positive and negative correlations with the silt-clay and the fine sand size fractions, respectively, no correlation with the coarse sand fraction was observed. Soil PSD is a more dominant factor affecting Dm than the time lag between soil erosion and sediment deposition. Overall, Dm

  14. Metal accumulation, biochemical response and yield of Indian mustard grown in soil amended with rural roadside pond sediment.

    PubMed

    Karak, Tanmoy; Bhattacharyya, Pradip; Kumar Paul, Ranjit; Das, D K

    2013-06-01

    This present study aims to discern the effect of roadside pond sediments on Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. (cv. Rohini) by examining heavy metal uptake by different parts of the plant and its influence on biochemical properties, biomass, yield and oil content in plant. Although the treated soils were clearly contaminated with heavy metals (HMs) after application of pond sediments and chemical fertilizers, but the metal content in mustard leaves and seeds are below the permissible limit of consumable food. HMs accumulation was proportionally lesser in grains than in shoots and roots. All the biochemical characteristics were significantly (p<0.05) responded to the pond sediments application as compared to the control. Increase in photosynthetic pigment was also observed during growing period while pond sediment was used as amendment. This study revealed that Brassica juncea is well adapted to tolerate and accumulate high quantities of HMs due to increased level of antioxidants (cysteine and ascorbic acid) in roots, shoots and leaves. Multivariate techniques like principal component analysis and cluster analysis (CA) were used as classification techniques. On the basis of factor loadings and principal component scores, different parameters were grouped based on their similarity or closeness, separately in leaves, roots and seeds. A very similar grouping was also obtained using CA. However, pond sediment did not thwart the enhancement of mustard yield and oil content. Therefore, pond sediment would be a valuable resource for mustard as an alternative soil amendment for nutrients, but long-term use may require the cessation to restrict HMs contamination in soils. PMID:23597677

  15. Mining-related sediment and soil contamination in a large Superfund site: Characterization, habitat implications, and remediation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Juracek, Kyle E.; Drake, K. D.

    2016-01-01

    Historical mining activity (1850–1970) in the now inactive Tri-State Mining District provided an ongoing source of lead and zinc to the environment including the US Environmental Protection Agency Superfund site located in Cherokee County, southeast Kansas, USA. The resultant contamination adversely affected biota and caused human health problems and risks. Remediation in the Superfund site requires an understanding of the magnitude and extent of contamination. To provide some of the required information, a series of sediment and soil investigations were conducted in and near the Superfund site to characterize lead and zinc contamination in the aquatic and floodplain environments along the main-stem Spring River and its major tributaries. In the Superfund site, the most pronounced lead and zinc contamination, with concentrations that far exceed sediment quality guidelines associated with potential adverse biological effects, was measured for streambed sediments and floodplain soils located within or downstream from the most intensive mining-affected areas. Tributary streambeds and floodplains in affected areas are heavily contaminated with some sites having lead and zinc concentrations that are an order of magnitude (or more) greater than the sediment quality guidelines. For the main-stem Spring River, the streambed is contaminated but the floodplain is mostly uncontaminated. Measured lead and zinc concentrations in streambed sediments, lakebed sediments, and floodplain soils documented a persistence of the post-mining contamination on a decadal timescale. These results provide a basis for the prioritization, development, and implementation of plans to remediate contamination in the affected aquatic and floodplain environments within the Superfund site.

  16. BENTHIC MICROALGAL CONTROL ON THE NUTRIENT FLUX IN INTER-TIDAL FLATS OF THE LOWER YAQUINA ESTUARY, OREGON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three sites were selected across the intertidal zone of the lower Yaquina Bay to investigate the role of benthic microalgae in benthic nutrient fluxes. Study sites were selected where microalage were present but without seagrass or mud shrimp. Sediment columns were collected th...

  17. Oil spill in the Rio de la Plata estuary, Argentina: 1. Biogeochemical assessment of waters, sediments, soils and biota.

    PubMed

    Colombo, J C; Barreda, A; Bilos, C; Cappelletti, N; Demichelis, S; Lombardi, P; Migoya, M C; Skorupka, C; Suárez, G

    2005-03-01

    Aliphatic (ALI) and aromatic (ARO) hydrocarbon concentrations, composition and sources were evaluated in waters, sediments, soils and biota to assess the impact of approximately 1000 tons of oil spilled in Rio de la Plata coastal waters. Total ALI levels ranged from 0.4-262 microg/l in waters, 0.01-87 microg/g in sediments, 5-39 microg/g in bivalves, 12-323 microg/g in macrophytes to 948-5187 microg/g in soils. ARO varied from non-detected 10 microg/l, 0.01-1.3 mug/g, 1.0-16 microg/g, 0.5-6.9 microg/g to 22-67 microg/g, respectively. Offshore (1, 5, 15 km) waters and sediments were little affected and contained low background hydrocarbon levels reflecting an effective wind-driven transport of the slick to the coast. Six months after the spill, coastal waters, sediments, soils and biota still presented very high levels exceeding baseline concentrations by 1-3 orders of magnitude. UCM/resolved aliphatic ratio showed a clear trend of increasing decay: coastal waters (3.3) < macrophytes (6.7) < soils (9.4) < offshore sediments (13) < coastal sediments (17) < clams (52). All environmental compartments consistently indicated that the most impacted area was the central sector close to Magdalena city, specially low-energy stream embouchures and bays which acted as efficient oil traps. The evaluation of hydrocarbon composition by principal component analysis indicated the predominance of biogenic (algae, vascular plant cuticular waxes), background anthropic, pyrogenic and diagenetic hydrocarbons, offshore and in non-impacted coastal sites. In contrast, polluted stations presented petrogenic signatures characterized by the abundance of isoprenoids, low molecular weight n-alkanes and methylated aromatics in different stages of alteration. The petrogenic/biogenic ratio ( n-C23) and petrogenic/pyrogenic relationship (methylated/unsubstitued PAH) discriminated the samples according to the different degree of impact. The following paper

  18. Effects of sewage sludges contaminated with chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons on sludge-treated areas (soils and sediments).

    PubMed

    Eljarrat, Ethel

    2002-06-22

    The fate of PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs in sewage sludges after different management techniques--such as agricultural application, land restoration, and marine disposal--was studied. Changes observed in the concentrations, in the ratio between PCDD and PCDF levels, and in the isomeric distribution suggest the influence of the sewage sludge on the sludge-treated areas (soils and sediments). Whereas land application techniques seem to produce no serious environmental consequences, marine disposal practices produce considerable increases in the levels of contamination in marine sediments. PMID:12806166

  19. Soil erosion and sediment yield, a double barrel problem in South Africa's only large river network without a dam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Roux, Jay

    2016-04-01

    Soil erosion not only involves the loss of fertile topsoil but is also coupled with sedimentation of dams, a double barrel problem in semi-arid regions where water scarcity is frequent. Due to increasing water requirements in South Africa, the Department of Water and Sanitation is planning water resource development in the Mzimvubu River Catchment, which is the only large river network in the country without a dam. Two dams are planned including a large irrigation dam and a hydropower dam. However, previous soil erosion studies indicate that large parts of the catchment is severely eroded. Previous studies, nonetheless, used mapping and modelling techniques that represent only a selection of erosion processes and provide insufficient information about the sediment yield. This study maps and models the sediment yield comprehensively by means of two approaches over a five-year timeframe between 2007 and 2012. Sediment yield contribution from sheet-rill erosion was modelled with ArcSWAT (a graphical user interface for SWAT in a GIS), whereas gully erosion contributions were estimated using time-series mapping with SPOT 5 imagery followed by gully-derived sediment yield modelling in a GIS. Integration of the sheet-rill and gully results produced a total sediment yield map, with an average of 5 300 t km-2 y-1. Importantly, the annual average sediment yield of the areas where the irrigation dam and hydropower dam will be built is around 20 000 t km-2 y-1. Without catchment rehabilitation, the life expectancy of the irrigation dam and hydropower dam could be 50 and 40 years respectively.

  20. Bacterial GDGTs in Holocene sediments and catchment soils of a high Alpine lake: application of the MBT/CBT-paleothermometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemann, H.; Stadnitskaia, A.; Wirth, S. B.; Gilli, A.; Anselmetti, F. S.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.; Schouten, S.; Hopmans, E. C.; Lehmann, M. F.

    2012-05-01

    A novel proxy for continental mean annual air temperature (MAAT) and soil pH, the MBT/CBT-paleothermometer, is based on the temperature (T) and pH-dependent distribution of specific bacterial membrane lipids (branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers - GDGTs) in soil organic matter. Here, we tested the applicability of the MBT/CBT-paleothermometer to sediments from Lake Cadagno, a high Alpine lake in southern Switzerland with a small catchment of 2.4 km2. We analysed the distribution of bacterial GDGTs in catchment soils and in a radiocarbon-dated sediment core from the centre of the lake, covering the past 11 000 yr. The distribution of bacterial GDGTs in the catchment soils is very similar to that in the lake's surface sediments, indicating a common origin of the lipids. Consequently, their transfer from the soils into the sediment record seems undisturbed, probably without any significant alteration of their distribution through in situ production in the lake itself or early diagenesis of branched GDGTs. The MBT/CBT-inferred MAAT estimates from soils and surface sediments are in good agreement with instrumental values for the Lake Cadagno region (~0.5 °C). Moreover, downcore MBT/CBT-derived MAAT estimates match in timing and magnitude other proxy-based T reconstructions from nearby locations for the last two millennia. Major climate anomalies recorded by the MBT/CBT-paleothermometer are, for instance, the Little Ice Age (~14th to 19th century) and the Medieval Warm Period (MWP, ~9th to 14th century). Together, our observations indicate the quantitative applicability of the MBT/CBT-paleothermometer to Lake Cadagno sediments. In addition to the MWP, our lacustrine paleo T record indicates Holocene warm phases at about 3, 5, 7 and 11 kyr before present, which agrees in timing with other records from both the Alps and the sub-polar North-East Atlantic Ocean. The good temporal match of the warm periods determined for the central Alpine region with north

  1. Reductive debromination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers by anaerobic bacteria from soils and sediments.

    PubMed

    Lee, Lip Kim; He, Jianzhong

    2010-02-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have attracted attention recently due to their proven adverse effects on animals and their increasing concentrations in various environmental media and biota. To gain insight into the fate of PBDEs, microcosms established with soils and sediments from 28 locations were investigated to determine their debromination potential with an octa-brominated diphenyl ether (octa-BDE) mixture consisting of hexa- to nona-BDEs. Debromination occurred in microcosms containing samples from 20 of the 28 locations when they were spiked with octa-BDE dissolved in the solvent trichloroethene (TCE), which is a potential cosubstrate for stimulating PBDE debromination, and in microcosms containing samples from 11 of the 28 locations when they were spiked with octa-BDE dissolved in nonane. Debromination products ranging from hexa- to mono-BDEs were generated within 2 months. Notably, the toxic tetra-BDEs accounted for 50% of the total product. In sediment-free culture