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Sample records for intervening coastal basins

  1. Mesozoic basin development beneath the southeastern US coastal plain: evidence from new COCORP profiling

    SciTech Connect

    McBride, J.H.; Nelson, K.D.; Arnow, J.A.; Oliver, J.E.; Brown, L.D.; Kaufman, S.

    1985-01-01

    New COCORP profiling on the Georgia coastal plain indicates that the Triassic/Early Jurassic South Georgia basin is a composite feature, which includes several large half-grabens separated by intervening regions where the Triassic/Early Jurassic section is much thinner. Two half-grabens imaged on the profiles have apparent widths of 125 and 40 km, and at their deepest points contain about 5 km of basin fill. Both basins are bounded on their south flanks by major normal faults that dip moderately steeply toward the north, and are disrupted internally by subsidiary normal faults within the basin fill sequences. The orientation of the main basin-bounding faults suggests that they might have reactivated Paleozoic south-vergent structures formed on the south side of the Alleghenian suture. Evolution of the South Georgia basin appears to follow a model of initial, rapid rifting followed by flexural subsidence. The major episode of normal faulting, and hence extension, within the South Georgia basin occurred prior to extrusion of an areally extensive sequence of Early Jurassic basalt flows. This sequence is traceable across most of the width of the South Georgia basin in western Georgia, and may extend as far east as offshore South Carolina. Jurassic strata above the basalt horizon are notably less faulted and accumulated within a broadly subsiding basin that thins both to the north and south. The occurrence of the basalt relatively late in the rift sequence supports the hypothesis that the southeastern US may have been a major area of incipient spreading after Pangea had begun to separate.

  2. Micropaleontology and biostratigraphy of the coastal basins of West Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Kogbe, C.A.; Mehes, K.

    1986-01-01

    This book is intended to meet the need for a single volume on descriptive micropaleontology of West African microfauna assemblage which is different from that of the Boreal, Mediterranean, Pacific and Atlantic regions. The contents include: Preface. Introduction. Systematics: West African foraminifera species: Systematic classification and description. Glossary for the foraminifera. Selected references for the foraminifera. The ostracoda: Systematic classification and description. Glossary for the ostracoda. Selected references for the ostracoda. Stratigraphic Sequences of the West African Coastal Basins: General review. Angola-Cuanza basin. Congo. Gabon. Cameroun-Douala basin. Nigeria. Togo-Benin basin. Ghana. Ivory Coast. Senegal. Appendix: Brief classification of foraminifera. Paleo-ecology of the foraminifera. Testing of samples. Collection of samples. Preparation of samples. Preparation of thin sections. Storage of microfossils. Methods of examination. Index.

  3. Water Resources Data - Texas Water Year 1999, Volume 4. Colorado River Basin, Lavaca River Basin, and Intervening Coastal Basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gandara, S.C.; Gibbons, W.J.; Barbie, D.L.; Jones, R.E.

    2000-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1999 water year for Texas are presented in six volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water-quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 4 contains records for water discharge at 61 gaging stations; stage only at 1 gaging station; stage and contents at 11 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 30 gaging stations; and data for 13 partial-record stations comprised of 6 flood-hydrograph, 5 low-flow, and 2 miscellaneous stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic datacollection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  4. Water Resources Data - Texas Water Year 2000, Volume 4. Colorado River Basin, Lavaca River Basin, and Intervening Coastal Basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gandara, S.C.; Gibbons, W.J.; Barbie, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2000 water year for Texas are presented in six volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water-quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 4 contains records for water discharge at 58 gaging stations; stage only at 2 gaging stations; stage and contents at 14 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 30 gaging stations; and data for 13 partial-record stations comprised of 5 flood-hydrograph, 5 low-flow, 1 crest-stage, and 2 miscellaneous stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  5. Water resources data Texas, water year 2004, volume 4. Colorado River basin, Lavaca River basin, and intervening coastal basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, Susan C. Aragon; Reece, Brian D.; Eames, Deanna R.

    2005-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2004 water year for Texas are presented in six volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water-quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 4 contains records for water discharge at 68 gaging stations; elevation at 14 lakes and reservoirs; and water quality at 30 gaging stations. Also included are data for 11 partial-record stations comprised of 3 flood-hydrograph, 7 low-flow, and 1 crest-stage station. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface- water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  6. Nitrogen inputs, ouptut, and retention in a coastal suburban basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDowell, W. H.; Daley, M. L.; Gettel, G.

    2005-12-01

    Understanding the biogeochemistry of suburban basins is becoming increasingly important due to the rapidly accelerating suburban sprawl in many parts of the US. In southeastern New Hampshire, population density is expected to increase by 50% over 20 years, and most of the development will occur as low-density suburban home lots with wells and on-site waste disposal. We measured the N inputs, outputs, and loss/storage in a 470 sq km basin, the Lamprey River of coastal New Hampshire. Atmospheric deposition and food imported into the basin were both significant inputs, and totaled 13 kg/ha/yr. Output was 0.6 kg/ha/yr, for a net loss/retention of 95% of inputs. Net retention among various sub-watersheds of the Lamprey ranged from 50 to 98%. Because the Lamprey river basin contains a high proportion of wetlands (14% wetlands and open water), has some water courses that undergo periodic oxygen depletion, and has high levels of dissolved organic carbon in surface waters (6 mg/l), in-stream and wetland denitrification may be a major loss pathway for N in the basin. Results from a study of riparian zone biogeochemistry suggest that riparian denitrification may also be a significant loss pathway. Accelerating suburbanization may greatly increase N delivery to the coast if it shortens hydrologic flow paths and decreases wetland coverage while increasing N inputs.

  7. Water Resources Data, Texas Water Year 1998, Volume 3. Colorado River Basin, Lavaca River Basin, Guadalupe River Basin, Nueces River Basin, Rio Grande Basin, and Intervening Coastal Basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gandara, S.C.; Gibbons, W.J.; Andrews, F.L.; Barbie, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1998 water year for Texas are presented in four volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water-quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 3 contains records for water discharge at 126 gaging stations; stage only at 3 gaging stations; stage and contents at 15 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 62 gaging stations; and data for 35 partial-record stations comprised of 8 flood-hydrograph, 14 low-flow, and 18 creststage, and 5 miscellaneous stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  8. Water Resources Data, Texas Water Year 1998, Volume 1. Arkansas River Basin, Red River Basin, Sabine River Basin, Neches River Basin, Trinity River Basin, and Intervening Coastal Basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gandara, S.C.; Gibbons, W.J.; Andrews, F.L.; Barbie, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1998 water year for Texas are presented in four volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water-quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 1 contains records for water discharge at 112 gaging stations; stage only at 5 gaging stations; stage and contents at 33 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 65 gaging stations; and data for 12 partial-record stations comprised of 7 flood-hydrograph, 2 low-flow, and 3 creststage stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  9. Water Resources Data - Texas Water Year 1999, Volume 1. Arkansas River Basin, Red River Basin, Sabine River Basin, Neches River Basin, and Intervening Coastal Basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gandara, S.C.; Gibbons, W.J.; Barbie, D.L.; Jones, R.E.

    2000-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1999 water year for Texas are presented in six volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water-quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 1 contains records for water discharge at 71 gaging stations; stage only at 3 gaging stations; stage and contents at 23 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 47 gaging stations; and data for 9 partial-record stations comprised of 6 flood-hydrograph and 3 low-flow stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  10. Water Resources Data - Texas Water Year 2000, Volume 1. Arkansas River Basin, Red River Basin, Sabine River Basin, Neches River Basin, and Intervening Coastal Basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gandara, S.C.; Gibbons, W.J.; Barbie, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2000 water year for Texas are presented in six volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water-quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 1 contains records for water discharge at 68 gaging stations; stage only at 3 gaging stations; stage and contents at 37 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 39 gaging stations; and data for 9 partial-record stations comprised of 6 flood-hydrograph and 3 low-flow stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  11. Water resources data Texas, water year 2004, volume 1. Arkansas River basin, Red River basin, Sabine River basin, Neches River basin, and intervening coastal basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, Susan C. Aragon; Reece, Brian D.; Eames, Deanna R.

    2005-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2004 water year for Texas are presented in six volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water-quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 1 contains records for water discharge at 72 gaging stations; stage only at 3 gaging stations; elevation at 29 lakes and reservoirs; content at 6 lakes and reservoirs; and water quality at 26 gaging stations. Also included are data for 9 partial-record stations comprised of 6 flood-hydrograph and 3 low-flow stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  12. Prediction of streamflow from the set of basins flowing into a coastal bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Lavenne, A.; Cudennec, C.

    2015-03-01

    Many coastal basins of the Brittany peninsula (France) display a high level of nitrate pollution, nine of them highlighted by the European Commission since 2007, as causing algal blooms in several coastal bays. To precisely diagnose and solve this issue the fluxes of every contributing basin have to be considered. However, this faces a strong data-scarce situation as most of the basins are ungauged. In this context, we propose to transpose hydrological information from one gauged basin to neighbouring points of interest. The methodology uses a simple geomorphology-based transfer function on the gauged basin, which allows assessment of the net rainfall time series through the de-convolution of the gauged discharge series. This net rainfall is then transposed and convoluted on the ungauged basin using its own transfer function in order to estimate discharge. This approach enables the quantification of the whole volume of freshwater entering the controversial Saint-Brieuc Bay.

  13. Impact of river basin management on coastal water quality and ecosystem services: A southern Baltic estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schernewski, Gerald; Hürdler, Jens; Neumann, Thomas; Stybel, Nardine; Venohr, Markus

    2010-05-01

    Eutrophication management is still a major challenge in the Baltic Sea region. Estuaries or coastal waters linked to large rivers cannot be managed independently. Nutrient loads into these coastal ecosystems depend on processes, utilisation, structure and management in the river basin. In practise this means that we need a large scale approach and integrated models and tools to analyse, assess and evaluate the effects of nutrient loads on coastal water quality as well as the efficiency of river basin management measures on surface waters and especially lagoons and estuaries. The Odra river basin, the Szczecin Lagoon and its coastal waters cover an area of about 150,000 km² and are an eutrophication hot-spot in the Baltic region. To be able to carry out large scale, spatially integrative analyses, we linked the river basin nutrient flux model MONERIS to the coastal 3D-hydrodynamic and ecosystem model ERGOM. Objectives were a) to analyse the eutrophication history in the river basin and the resulting functional changes in the coastal waters between early 1960's and today and b) to analyse the effects of an optimal nitrogen and phosphorus management scenario in the Oder/Odra river basin on coastal water quality. The models show that an optimal river basin management with reduced nutrient loads (e.g. N-load reduction of 35 %) would have positive effects on coastal water quality and algae biomass. The availability of nutrients, N/P ratios and processes like denitrification and nitrogen-fixation would show spatial and temporal changes. It would have positive consequences for ecosystems functions, like the nutrient retention capacity, as well. However, this optimal scenario is by far not sufficient to ensure a good coastal water quality according to the European Water Framework Directive. A "good" water quality in the river will not be sufficient to ensure a "good" water quality in the coastal waters. Further, nitrogen load reductions bear the risk of increased

  14. Water resources data - Texas water year 2002 : Volume 5. Guadalupe River basin, Nueces River basin, Rio Grande basin, and intervening coastal basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gandara, S.C.

    2003-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2002 water year for Texas are presented in six volumes and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 5 contains records for water discharge at 82 gaging stations; stage only at 6 gaging stations; stage and contents at 8 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 25 gaging stations; and data for 30 partial-record stations comprised of 2 flood-hydrograph, 6 low-flow, 4 crest-stage, and 18 miscellaneous stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  15. Water Resources Data Texas Water Year 2003, Volume 5. Guadalupe River Basin, Nueces River Basin, Rio Grande Basin, and Intervening Coastal Basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gandara, S.C.

    2004-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2003 water year for Texas are presented in six volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water-quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 5 contains records for water discharge at 84 gaging stations; stage only at 6 gaging stations; stage and contents at 6 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 28 gaging stations; and data for 18 partial-record stations comprised of 1 flood-hydrograph, 10 low-flow, 4 crest-stage, and 3 miscellaneous stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  16. Water resources data - Texas water year 2001 : Volume 5. Guadalupe River basin, Nueces River basin, Rio Grande basin, and intervening coastal basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gandara, S.C.

    2002-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2001 water year for Texas are presented in six volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water-quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 5 contains records for water discharge at 77 gaging stations; stage only at 4 gaging stations; stage and contents at 5 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 27 gaging stations; and data for 23 partial-record stations comprised of 3 flood-hydrograph, 8 low-flow, 4 crest-stage, and 3 miscellaneous stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  17. Water Resources Data - Texas Water Year 2000, Volume 5. Guadalupe River Basin, Nueces River Basin, Rio Grande Basin, and Intervening Coastal Basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gandara, S.C.; Gibbons, W.J.; Barbie, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2000 water year for Texas are presented in six volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water-quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 5 contains records for water discharge at 71 gaging stations; stage only at 4 gaging stations; stage and contents at 4 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 29 gaging stations; and data for 23 partial-record stations comprised of 3 flood-hydrograph, 10 low-flow, 6 crest-stage, and 4 miscellaneous stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  18. Water Resources Data - Texas Water Year 1999, Volume 3. San Jacinto River Basin, Brazos River Basin, San Bernard River Basin, and Intervening Coastal Basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gandara, S.C.; Gibbons, W.J.; Barbie, D.L.; Jones, R.E.

    2000-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1999 water year for Texas are presented in six volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 3 contains records for water discharge at 78 gaging stations; stage only at 7 gaging stations; stage and contents at 28 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 27 gaging stations; and data for 48 partial-record stations comprised of 19 flood-hydrograph, 8 low-flow, and 17 crest-stage, and 4 miscellaneous stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  19. Water Resources Data - Texas Water Year 2000, Volume 3. San Jacinto River Basin, Brazos River Basin, San Bernard River Basin, and Intervening Coastal Basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gandara, S.C.; Gibbons, W.J.; Barbie, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2000 water year for Texas are presented in six volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 3 contains records for water discharge at 84 gaging stations; stage only at 9 gaging stations; stage and contents at 32 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 25 gaging stations; and data for 43 partial-record stations comprised of 18 flood-hydrograph, 8 low-flow, 14 crest-stage, and 3 miscellaneous stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  20. Water Resources Data - Texas Water Year 1999, Volume 5. Guadalupe River Basin, Nueces River Basin, Rio Grande Basin, and Intervening Coastal Basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gandara, S.C.; Gibbons, W.J.; Barbie, D.L.; Jones, R.E.

    2000-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1999 water year for Texas are presented in six volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water-quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 5 contains records for water discharge at 76 gaging stations; stage only at 1 gaging stations; stage and contents at 4 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 38 gaging stations; and data for 30 partial-record stations comprised of 3 flood-hydrograph, 14 low-flow, and 8 crest-stage, and 5 miscellaneous stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  1. Water Resources Data, Texas Water Year 1998, Volume 2. San Jacinto River Basin, Brazos River Basin, San Bernard River Basin, and Intervening Coastal Basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gandara, S.C.; Gibbons, W.J.; Andrews, F.L.; Barbie, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1998 water year for Texas are presented in four volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 2 contains records for water discharge at 74 gaging stations; stage only at 9 gaging stations; stage and contents at 21 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 32 gaging stations; and data for 73 partial-record stations comprised of 43 flood-hydrograph, 9 low-flow, and 16 crest-stage, and 5 miscellaneous stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  2. Water resources data Texas, water year 2004, volume 5. Guadalupe River basin, Nueces River basin, Rio Grande basin, and intervening coastal basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, Susan C. Aragon; Reece, Brian D.; Eames, Deanna R.

    2005-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2004 water year for Texas are presented in six volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water-quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 5 contains records for water discharge at 86 gaging stations; stage only at 5 gaging stations; elevation at 3 lakes and reservoirs; content at 4 lakes and reservoirs;and water quality at 24 gaging stations. Also included are data for 16 partial-record stations comprised of 1 flood-hydrograph, 11 low-flow, and 4 crest-stage stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  3. Water resources data Texas, water year 2004, volume 3. San Jacinto River basin, Brazos River basin, San Bernard River basin, and intervening coastal basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, Susan C. Aragon; Reece, Brian D.; Eames, Deanna R.

    2005-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2004 water year for Texas are presented in six volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 3 contains records for water discharge at 92 gaging stations; stage only at 6 gaging stations; elevation at 27 lakes and reservoirs; content at 6 lakes and reservoirs; and water quality at 33 gaging stations. Also included are data for 33 partial-record stations comprised of 15 flood-hydrograph, 8 low-flow, and 10 crest-stage stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  4. Response of large-scale coastal basins to wind forcing: influence of topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wen L.; Roos, Pieter C.; Schuttelaars, Henk M.; Kumar, Mohit; Zitman, Tjerk J.; M. H. Hulscher, Suzanne J.

    2016-04-01

    Because wind is one of the main forcings in storm surge, we present an idealised process-based model to study the influence of topographic variations on the frequency response of large-scale coastal basins subject to time-periodic wind forcing. Coastal basins are represented by a semi-enclosed rectangular inner region forced by wind. It is connected to an outer region (represented as an infinitely long channel) without wind forcing, which allows waves to freely propagate outward. The model solves the three-dimensional linearised shallow water equations on the f plane, forced by a spatially uniform wind field that has an arbitrary angle with respect to the along-basin direction. Turbulence is represented using a spatially uniform vertical eddy viscosity, combined with a partial slip condition at the bed. The surface elevation amplitudes, and hence the vertical profiles of the velocity, are obtained using the finite element method (FEM), extended to account for the connection to the outer region. The results are then evaluated in terms of the elevation amplitude averaged over the basin's landward end, as a function of the wind forcing frequency. In general, the results point out that adding topographic elements in the inner region (such as a topographic step, a linearly sloping bed or a parabolic cross-basin profile), causes the resonance peaks to shift in the frequency domain, through their effect on local wave speed. The Coriolis effect causes the resonance peaks associated with cross-basin modes (which without rotation only appear in the response to cross-basin wind) to emerge also in the response to along-basin wind and vice versa.

  5. Availability of ground water in the Piscataqua and other coastal river basins southeastern New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cotton, J.E.

    1977-01-01

    This map (scale 1:125,000) is a preliminary assessment of the availability of ground water in the Piscataqua and coastal river basins in New Hampshire. It is a generalization of several hydrogeologic factors and provides a guide for ground-water exploration, which is useful in water- and land-use planning. The best aquifers in the basin are deposits of stratified sand or sand and gravel of Pleistocene age. Large aquifers of this type occur in places in the major river valleys and in interstream areas within the coastal plain. Ground water is generally of good chemical quality. Iron and manganese in concentrations greater than the recommended limits for drinking water suggested by the U.S. Public Health Service, however, are not uncommon. (Woodard-USGS)

  6. Modern coastal back-barrier environment: analog for coal basin or for carbonaceous black shale

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.R.; Cameron, B.

    1988-04-01

    Coastal back-barrier salt-marsh environments are evaluated as possible modern analogs for some coal-forming basins. Analysis of the amount of organic matter in Holocene salt-marsh peats from 158 core samples at Plum Island, Massachusetts, indicates that the organic matter content is too low to ultimately produce coal. C-14 dates indicate depositional rates of 1 mm/yr. Both the high and low salt-marsh peat facies would probably diagenetically alter to a carbonaceous shale. A review of the organic content reported from other nondeltaic back-barrier and coastal salt-marsh environments indicates that they commonly have too much detrital material to classify as coal precursors. Barrier-island systems, being affected by sea-level changes and subject to landward migrations, also lack long-term stability needed for coal formation. These data suggest that modern back-barrier environments are not good analogs for coal-forming basins.

  7. Status of groundwater quality in the Coastal Los Angeles Basin, 2006-California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldrath, Dara; Fram, Miranda S.; Land, Michael; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 860-square-mile (2,227-square-kilometer) Coastal Los Angeles Basin study unit (CLAB) was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study area is located in southern California in Los Angeles and Orange Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA CLAB study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated (raw) groundwater in the primary aquifer system. The assessment is based on water-quality and ancillary data collected in 2006 by the USGS from 69 wells and on water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. The primary aquifer system was defined by the depth interval of the wells listed in the CDPH database for the CLAB study unit. The quality of groundwater in the primary aquifer system may be different from that in the shallower or deeper water-bearing zones; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. This study assesses the status of the current quality of the groundwater resource by using data from samples analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides, and naturally occurring inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements. This status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of groundwater resources in the primary aquifer system of the CLAB study unit, not the treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors. Relative-concentrations (sample concentration divided by the health- or aesthetic-based benchmark concentration) were used for evaluating groundwater quality for those constituents that have Federal and (or) California regulatory or non-regulatory benchmarks for drinking-water quality. A relative

  8. Complex mass wasting response of drainage basins to forest management in coastal British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brardinoni, Francesco; Hassan, Marwan A.; Slaymaker, H. Olav

    2003-01-01

    The impacts of logging activities on mass wasting were examined in five watersheds in the coastal mountains of British Columbia. Historical aerial photos were used to document mass wasting events, and their occurrence was related to logging activities in the study basins. Logged and forested areas were compared in terms of mass wasting magnitude and frequency, with reference to site characteristics. The recovery time of the landscape after logging was assessed. Bedrock type and basin physiography had no identifiable effect on mass wasting frequency and magnitude. Mass wasting failure was primarily controlled by slope gradient. Basin vulnerability increased, following clearcutting relative to forested areas, in that mass wasting was initiated on gentler slopes. The volume of sediment produced from logged slopes is of the same order as that from forested areas, which are steeper by as much as 10°. In both logged and forested areas, the size distribution of mass wasting events follows an exponential distribution. However, the variability in mass wasting size in forested areas is much higher than that obtained for logged areas. The recovery time after forest harvesting is over 20 years, which confirms published estimates based on vegetation reestablishment. Continuous disturbance of the basin, however, may extend the recovery time for the whole basin well beyond 20 years.

  9. Observations of Cooling Summer Daytime Temperatures (1948-2005) in Growing Urban Coastal California Air Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bornstein, R.; Lebassi, B.; Gonzalez, J.

    2008-12-01

    The study evaluated long-term (1948-2005) air temperatures in California (CA) during summer (June- August). The aggregate CA results showed asymmetric warming, as daily minimum temperatures increased faster than daily maximum temperatures. The spatial distributions of daily maximum temperatures in the heavily urbanized South Coast and San Francisco Bay Area air basins, however, exhibited a complex pattern, with cooling at low-elevation (mainly urban) coastal-areas and warming at (mainly rural) inland areas. Previous studies have suggested that cooling summer max temperatures in CA were due to increased irrigation, coastal upwelling, or cloud cover. The current hypothesis, however, is that this temperature pattern arises from a 'reverse-reaction' to greenhouse gas (GHG) induced global-warming. In this hypothesis, the global warming of inland areas resulted in an increased (cooling) sea breeze activity in coastal areas. The coastal cooling thus resulted as urban heat island (UHI) warming was weaker than the reverse-reaction cooling; if there was no UHI effect, then the cooling would be even stronger. The cooling or warming trends at several pairs of nearby urban and non- urban sites were compared in an effort to separate out the urban heat island (UHI) and global warming components of the trend. Average temperatures from global circulation models show warming that decreases from inland areas of California to its coastal areas. Such large scale models, however, cannot resolve these smaller scale topographic and coastal effects. Meso-scale modeling on a 4 km grid is thus being carried out to evaluate the contributions from GHG global-warming and land-use changes, including UHI development, to the observed trends. Significant societal impacts may result from this observed reverse-reaction to GHG- warming; possible beneficial effects include decreased maximum: O3 levels, human thermal-stress, and per- capita energy requirements for cooling.

  10. Technical Appendix for Development for Modified Streamflows 1928-1989 : Columbia River & Coastal Basin.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; A.G. Crook Company

    1993-06-01

    The report ``Adjusted Streamflow and Storage 1928-1989`` contains listings of historical flows for the sites in the Columbia River and Coastal Basins. This section of the Technical Appendix provides for the site specific procedures used to determine those historical flows. The study purpose, authority, and definitions are given in the main report. The purpose of this section of the Technical Appendix is to document the computational procedures used at each of the project sites to develop historical flows for the period July 1928--September 1989.

  11. Lower Miocene plant assemblage with coastal-marsh herbaceous monocots from the Vienna Basin (Slovakia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvaček, Zlatko; Teodoridis, Vasilis; Kováčová, Marianna; Schlögl, Ján; Sitár, Viliam

    2014-06-01

    A new plant assemblage of Cerová-Lieskové from Lower Miocene (Karpatian) deposits in the Vienna Basin (western Slovakia) is preserved in a relatively deep, upper-slope marine environment. Depositional conditions with high sedimentation rates allowed exceptional preservation of plant remains. The plant assemblage consists of (1) conifers represented by foliage of Pinus hepios and Tetraclinis salicornioides, a seed cone of Pinus cf. ornata, and by pollen of the Cupressaceae, Pinaceae, Pinus sp. and Cathaya sp., and (2) angiosperms represented by Cinnamomum polymorphum, Platanus neptuni, Potamogeton sp. and lauroid foliage, by pollen of Liquidambar sp., Engelhardia sp. and Craigia sp., and in particular by infructescences (so far interpreted as belonging to cereal ears). We validate genus and species assignments of the infructescences: they belong to Palaeotriticum Sitár, including P. mockii Sitár and P. carpaticum Sitár, and probably represent herbaceous monocots that inhabited coastal marshes, similar to the living grass Spartina. Similar infructescences occur in the Lower and Middle Miocene deposits of the Carpathian Foredeep (Slup in Moravia), Tunjice Hills (Žale in Slovenia), and probably also in the Swiss Molasse (Lausanne). This plant assemblage demonstrates that the paleovegetation was represented by evergreen woodland with pines and grasses in undergrowth, similar to vegetation inhabiting coastal brackish marshes today. It also indicates subtropical climatic conditions in the Vienna Basin (central Paratethys), similar to those implied by other coeval plant assemblages from Central Europe

  12. Arctic Summer Surface Energy Balance at Two Coastal Drained Lake Basins, Barrow, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liljedahl, A.; Hinzman, L.; Harazono, Y.; Zona, D.; Oechel, W.

    2008-12-01

    We examined the partitioning of the summer surface energy balance at two coastal drained lake basins using measurements from two eddy covariance towers in Barrow, Alaska. Drained lake basins are a common land feature covering approximately one fourth of the Arctic Coastal Plain but have been given limited attention. Overall, wetlands are extensive in the region in spite of an annual precipitation close to a desert and a negative summer P-ET. Included in the analysis was summer 2007, which experienced unusually high air temperatures and low precipitation compared to the long term mean. During the five analyzed summers, most of the energy available at the ground surface was partitioned into sensible heat flux despite saturated or nearly saturated near-surface soils. The maritime conditions resulted in a cool and close to saturated air mass with a few exceptions on individual days. With a ground surface often warmer than the air above and limited air vapor pressure deficits, the dissipation of the available heat at the ground surface was mainly partitioned into sensible heat flux resulting in midday Bowen Ratios (sensible divided by latent heat flux) above unity. Total daily latent heat flux presented in mm of water varied between 0.2 - 4.2 mm/day with a Jun-Aug mean of 1.5 mm. In 80% of the analyzed days, mean midday evapotranspiration occurred below the equilibrium rate resulting in a Priestley-Taylor alpha value below unity. The equilibrium evaporation rates of inland arctic wetlands have previously shown to occur at or above equilibrium rate. Further, the energy balance partitioning of a wetland located in a maritime or continental climate show differences such as in the Bowen Ratio. It is therefore necessary to analyze coastal and inland areas separately when examining the hydrological response of wetlands to climate changes.

  13. Biogeochemical processes and buffering capacity concurrently affect acidification in a seasonally hypoxic coastal marine basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagens, M.; Slomp, C. P.; Meysman, F. J. R.; Seitaj, D.; Harlay, J.; Borges, A. V.; Middelburg, J. J.

    2015-03-01

    Coastal areas are impacted by multiple natural and anthropogenic processes and experience stronger pH fluctuations than the open ocean. These variations can weaken or intensify the ocean acidification signal induced by increasing atmospheric pCO2. The development of eutrophication-induced hypoxia intensifies coastal acidification, since the CO2 produced during respiration decreases the buffering capacity in any hypoxic bottom water. To assess the combined ecosystem impacts of acidification and hypoxia, we quantified the seasonal variation in pH and oxygen dynamics in the water column of a seasonally stratified coastal basin (Lake Grevelingen, the Netherlands). Monthly water-column chemistry measurements were complemented with estimates of primary production and respiration using O2 light-dark incubations, in addition to sediment-water fluxes of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity (TA). The resulting data set was used to set up a proton budget on a seasonal scale. Temperature-induced seasonal stratification combined with a high community respiration was responsible for the depletion of oxygen in the bottom water in summer. The surface water showed strong seasonal variation in process rates (primary production, CO2 air-sea exchange), but relatively small seasonal pH fluctuations (0.46 units on the total hydrogen ion scale). In contrast, the bottom water showed less seasonality in biogeochemical rates (respiration, sediment-water exchange), but stronger pH fluctuations (0.60 units). This marked difference in pH dynamics could be attributed to a substantial reduction in the acid-base buffering capacity of the hypoxic bottom water in the summer period. Our results highlight the importance of acid-base buffering in the pH dynamics of coastal systems and illustrate the increasing vulnerability of hypoxic, CO2-rich waters to any acidifying process.

  14. Spatial Analysis of Suitability for Managed Aquifer Recharge in a Groundwater Basin in Central Coastal California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, T. A.; Fisher, A. T.; Hanson, R. T.; Lockwood, B. S.

    2011-12-01

    The Pajaro Valley Groundwater Basin (PVGB), central coastal California, relies almost entirely on groundwater to satisfy agricultural and municipal/domestic needs (83% and 17% of water usage, respectively). The rate of groundwater extraction and other outflows from the PVGB over the last five decades has exceeded the total rate of inflows, resulting in chronic overdraft. This has led to a lowering of water levels throughout the basin and seawater intrusion near the coast. Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) likely will become increasingly important for sustaining groundwater supply in future years; however, identifying areas amenable to MAR remains challenging. A geographical information system (GIS) analysis was completed to evaluate areas of the PVGB suitable for MAR. Initially GIS analyses used topographic, land use, bedrock geology, and soil property data to assess shallow conditions, and subsequent analyses have included subsurface information such as aquifer and associated confining layer locations, properties, thicknesses, and historical changes in water levels. Additional GIS coverages included potential supplemental water supplies. A preliminary map of MAR site suitability suggests that about 10% of the basin may be suitable for MAR. Ongoing field testing will provide "ground truth" for the assessment of GIS-based calculations, and both field and GIS analyses will provide critical input for regional hydrologic models that will be used to quantify the potential influences of different MAR scenarios. Collectively, these studies are helping to evaluate management options for improving long-term groundwater conditions throughout the PVGB.

  15. The Santa Barbara Channel - Santa Maria Basin Study: A model for Coastal Ocean Observing Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winant, C. D.

    2002-12-01

    The need to anticipate the potential impact of oil exploration and production activities on coastal resources, and the information needs of agencies charged with responding to coastal emergencies motivated the development of the oil-spill response system for the Santa Barbara Channel (SBC) and the Santa Maria Basin (SMB), along the California coast, between Ventura and Morro Bay. In the Santa Barbara Channel (SBC), moorings and drifter trajectories document a persistent cyclonic circulation with a typical re-circulation period between three and five days. In the spring currents near the mainland are weaker than near the Channel Islands and the overall flow is toward the southeast. Trajectories document the possibility for water parcels to leave the channel through the inter-island passes. In the late fall and winter, a poleward flow with velocities often exceeding 0.5 m/s is confined within 20 km of the mainland. Between these two seasons, the cyclonic tendency is enhanced although most of the drifters eventually migrate westward. The trajectories of drifters released at the same time from sites only 20 km apart can be remarkably different. In the Santa Maria Basin (SMB), the direction and amplitude of the flow is strongly depth dependent. Near the surface, moorings and drifters show the flow to be equatorward except during late fall and early winter when the surface flow is poleward. Beneath the surface layer the flow is poleward except in March and April, right after the spring transition. The observations provide a basis on which several data assimilating model of the circulation are based. The models reproduce all the major observed features of the circulation, including individual drifter trajectories. With little effort these models could be used to maintain an operational predictive capability with real predictive skills over periods of a few days.

  16. Climatological Variability in Southern Mexico: the case of the Oaxaca Pacific Coastal Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, N.; Kretzschmar, T.; Munoz-Arriola, F.; Cavazos, T.

    2010-12-01

    The precipitation regime of the southern coast of Mexico, particularly in Oaxaca, is characterized by a marked seasonal pattern, where most precipitation occurs during the summer with a bimodal distribution. The precipitation regime begins at the end of May, with two maxima, one in June and another between September and October. The minimum, between July and August is called the Mid Summer Drought (MSD). Periodic events, such as hurricanes, tropical storms and droughts occur in the region and cause considerable economical losses of one of the poorest states in Mexico. This study investigates the spatial and temporal variability in the annual and summer rainfall patterns in the Río Verde basin and two nearby coastal Oaxaca basins, Colotepec and Tonameca Rivers. The study evaluates local and global processes that may affect the climatic variability of these two basins. Locally, for example, climate regions are separated by physiographic effects and by response to phenomena such as ENSO and tropical cyclones. Also, it is important to notice that the warm pool of the eastern tropical Pacific is close to these basins and may have a strong influence on the rainfall patterns. At global scale, the behavior of precipitation during the ENSO and PDO positive and negative phases is analyzed. Obtained data from the Mexican Meteorological Agency (Servicio Meteorológico Nacional), database from the CLICOM system and from the National Water Commission. We analyzed 120 climatological stations with daily precipitation data. A quality control protocol was adopted, and stations with less than 70% of complete and correct data were discarded. A threshold of 4 standard deviations above the climatological mean was used to indentify daily outliers. Histogram analyses, a comparison with neighboring stations, and checks of the events were used to determine the validity of the outliers. The period of major continuity was 1961 to 1984. The study area is subdivided in regions using an PCA

  17. Trends in Streamflow, River Ice, and Snowpack for Coastal River Basins in Maine During the 20th Century

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dudley, Robert W.; Hodgkins, Glenn A.

    2002-01-01

    Trends over the 20th Century were examined in streamflow, river ice, and snowpack for coastal river basins in Maine. Trends over time were tested in the timing and magnitude of seasonal river flows, the occurrence and duration of river ice, and changes in snowpack depth, equivalent water content, and density. Significant trends toward earlier spring peak flow and earlier center-of-volume runoff dates were found in the extended streamflow record spanning 1906-21 and 1929-2000. Only one of the six coastal rivers in the study analyzed for trends in cumulative runoff had a significant change in total annual runoff volume. Last spring river-ice-off dates at most coastal streamflow-gaging stations examined are trending to earlier dates. Trends in later fall initial onset of ice also are evident, although these trends are significant at fewer stations than that observed for ice-off dates. Later ice-on dates in the fall and (or) earlier ice-off dates in the spring contribute to a statistically significant decrease over time in the total number of days of ice occurrence at most gaging stations on coastal rivers in Maine. The longest, most complete snow records in coastal Maine indicate an increase in snow density for the March 1 snow-survey date during the last 60 years. The historical trends in streamflow, ice, and snow are all consistent with an earlier onset of hydrologic spring conditions in coastal Maine.

  18. Biogeochemical Insights into B-Vitamins in the Coastal Marine Sediments of San Pedro Basin, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteverde, D.; Berelson, W.; Baronas, J. J.; Sanudo-Wilhelmy, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    Coastal marine sediments support a high abundance of mircoorganisms which play key roles in the cycling of nutrients, trace metals, and carbon, yet little is known about many of the cofactors essential for their growth, such as the B-vitamins. The suite of B-vitamins (B1, B2, B6, B7, B12) are essential across all domains of life for both primary and secondary metabolism. Therefore, studying sediment concentrations of B-vitamins can provide a biochemical link between microbial processes and sediment geochemistry. Here we present B-vitamin pore water concentrations from suboxic sediment cores collected in September 2014 from San Pedro Basin, a silled, low oxygen, ~900 m deep coastal basin in the California Borderlands. We compare the B-vitamin concentrations (measured via LCMS) to a set of geochemical profiles including dissolved Fe (65-160 μM), dissolved Mn (30-300 nM), TCO2, solid phase organic carbon, and δ13C. Our results show high concentrations (0.8-3nM) of biotin (B7), commonly used for CO2 fixation as a cofactor in carboxylase enzymes. Thiamin (B1) concentrations were elevated (20-700nM), consistent with previous pore water measurements showing sediments could be a source of B1 to the ocean. Cobalamin (B12), a cofactor required for methyl transfers in methanogens, was also detected in pore waters (~4-40pM). The flavins (riboflavin [B2] and flavin mononucleotide[FMN]), molecules utilized in external electron transfer, showed a distinct increase with depth (10-90nM). Interestingly, the flavin profiles showed an inverse trend to dissolved Fe (Fe decreases with depth) providing a potential link to culture experiments which have shown extracellular flavin release to be a common trait in some metal reducers. As some of the first B-vitamin measurements made in marine sediments, these results illustrate the complex interaction between the microbial community and surrounding geochemical environment and provide exciting avenues for future research.

  19. Rapid inundation estimates using coastal amplification laws in the Western Mediterranean basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gailler, Audrey; Hébert, Hélène; Schindelé, François

    2016-04-01

    Numerical tsunami propagation and inundation models are well developed and have now reached an impressive level of accuracy, especially in locations such as harbors where the tsunami waves are mostly amplified. In the framework of tsunami warning under real-time operational conditions, the main obstacle for the routine use of such numerical simulations remains the slowness of the numerical computation, which is strengthened when detailed grids are required for the precise modeling of the coastline response of an individual harbor. Thus only tsunami offshore propagation modeling tools using a single sparse bathymetric computation grid are presently included within the French Tsunami Warning Center (CENALT), providing rapid estimation of tsunami impact at Western Mediterranean and NE Atlantic basins scale. We present here a work that performs quick estimates of the coastal impact at individual harbors from these high sea forecasting tsunami simulations. The method involves an empirical correction based on the Green's theoretical amplification law. The main limitation is that its application to a given coastal area would require a large database of previous observations, in order to define the empirical parameters of the correction equation. As no tide gage records of significant tsunamis are available for the Western Mediterranean French coasts, we use a set of points of interest distributed along these coasts, where maximum water heights are calculated for both fake events and well-known historical tsunamigenic earthquakes in the area. This synthetic dataset is obtained through accurate numerical tsunami propagation and inundation modeling by using several nested bathymetric grids of increasingly fine resolution close to the shores. Non linear shallow water tsunami modeling performed on a single 2' coarse bathymetric grid are compared to the values given by time-consuming nested grids simulations, in order to check to which extent the simple approach based on the

  20. Circulation in a Southern Italy coastal basin: Modelling and field measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Serio, Francesca; Malcangio, Daniela; Mossa, Michele

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of the present work is to study the hydrodynamic aspects in the Mar Piccolo, a coastal basin located on the northern side of the Gulf of Taranto in the Ionian Sea (Italy), by means of mathematical modelling and field measurements. The latter were assessed during three surveys carried out in the spring-summer of 2002. Collected data have been utilized as input by the 3-D Princeton Ocean Model, which is a sigma coordinate, free surface ocean model which was developed in the late 1970s by Blumberg and Mellor. Simulations in baroclinic condition were forced by a homogeneous and stationary wind field, a simple tidal wave, a constant outflow and vertical stratification of temperature and salinity. A comparison was made between the mathematical modelling results and the field measurements collected during the surveys, in terms of velocity. It was observed that during small tides, when the wind effect prevails over the stratification effect, the best model results were obtained for the most superficial layer and that superficial patterns reproduced by the model are more sensitive to wind direction than to stratification. On the contrary, when the wind effect decreases or the thermohaline effect rises, best results occurred in deeper layers.

  1. Cable Bacteria Control Iron-Phosphorus Dynamics in Sediments of a Coastal Hypoxic Basin.

    PubMed

    Sulu-Gambari, Fatimah; Seitaj, Dorina; Meysman, Filip J R; Schauer, Regina; Polerecky, Lubos; Slomp, Caroline P

    2016-02-01

    Phosphorus is an essential nutrient for life. The release of phosphorus from sediments is critical in sustaining phytoplankton growth in many aquatic systems and is pivotal to eutrophication and the development of bottom water hypoxia. Conventionally, sediment phosphorus release is thought to be controlled by changes in iron oxide reduction driven by variations in external environmental factors, such as organic matter input and bottom water oxygen. Here, we show that internal shifts in microbial communities, and specifically the population dynamics of cable bacteria, can also induce strong seasonality in sedimentary iron-phosphorus dynamics. Field observations in a seasonally hypoxic coastal basin demonstrate that the long-range electrogenic metabolism of cable bacteria leads to a dissolution of iron sulfides in winter and spring. Subsequent oxidation of the mobilized ferrous iron with manganese oxides results in a large stock of iron-oxide-bound phosphorus below the oxic zone. In summer, when bottom water hypoxia develops and cable bacteria are undetectable, the phosphorus associated with these iron oxides is released, strongly increasing phosphorus availability in the water column. Future research should elucidate whether formation of iron-oxide-bound phosphorus driven by cable bacteria, as observed in this study, contributes to the seasonality in iron-phosphorus cycling in aquatic sediments worldwide. PMID:26720721

  2. Biomass of coastal cutthroat trout in unlogged and previously clearcut basins in the central Coast Range of Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Connolly, P.J.; Hall, J.D.

    1999-01-01

    Populations of coastal cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki clarki were sampled in 16 Oregon headwater streams during 1991–1993. These streams were above upstream migration barriers and distributed among basins that had been logged 20–30 and 40–60 years ago and basins that had not been logged but had burned 125–150 years ago. The objective of our study was to characterize the populations and habitats of age-1 or older cutthroat trout within these three forest management types. Streams within unlogged basins had relatively low levels and a small range of trout biomass (g/m2). Streams in basins logged 40–60 years ago supported low levels but an intermediate range of trout biomass. Streams in basins logged 20–30 years ago supported the widest range of biomass, including the lowest and highest biomasses among all streams sampled. The variable that best explained the variation of trout biomass among all 16 streams was the amount of large woody debris (LWD). All streams were heavily shaded during at least part of the year by mostly closed tree canopies. Deciduous trees were more prominent in canopies over streams in logged basins, while conifers were more prominent in the stream canopies of unlogged basins. Our results suggest that trout production in basins extensively clear-cut 20–60 years ago may generally decrease or remain low over the next 50 or more years because of decreasing loads of remnant LWD, persistent low recruitment potential for new LWD, and persistent heavy shading by conifers. These logged basins are not likely to show an increase in trout biomass over the next 50 years unless reset by favorable natural disturbances or by habitat restoration efforts.

  3. Biomass of coastal cutthroat trout in unlogged and previously clear-cut basins in the central Coast Range of Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Connolly, P.J.; Hall, J.D.

    1999-01-01

    Populations of coastal cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki clarki were sampled in 16 Oregon headwater streams during 1991-1993. These streams were above upstream migration barriers and distributed among basins that had been logged 20-30 and 40-60 years ago and basins that had not been logged but had burned 125-150 years ago. The objective of our study was to characterize the populations and habitats of age-1 or older cutthroat trout within these three forest management types. Streams within unlogged basins had relatively low levels and a small range of trout biomass (g/m2). Streams in basins logged 40-60 years ago supported low levels but an intermediate range of trout biomass. Streams in basins logged 20-30 years ago supported the widest range of biomass, including the lowest and highest biomasses among all streams sampled. The variable thai best explained the variation of trout biomass among all 16 streams was the amount of large woody debris (LWD). All streams were heavily shaded during at least part of the year by mostly closed tree canopies. Deciduous trees were more prominent in canopies over streams in logged basins, while conifers were more prominent in the stream canopies of unlogged basins. Our results suggest that trout production in basins extensively clear-cut 20-60 years ago may generally decrease or remain low over the next 50 or more years because of decreasing loads of remnant LWD, persistent low recruitment potential for new LWD, and persistent heavy shading by conifers. These logged basins are not likely to show an increase in trout biomass over the next 50 years unless reset by favorable natural disturbances or by habitat restoration efforts.

  4. Interactions of near-coastal and basin-wide features of the Mediterranean Sea in the surface colour and temperature historical record

    SciTech Connect

    Barale, V.; Filippi, P.

    1997-08-01

    Sea surface colour and temperature images, derived from time series of CZCS (1978-1986) and AVHRR (1982-1990) data, have been used to assess the interactions of near-coastal and basin-wide features in the Mediterranean basin. Individual images were processed to apply sensor(s) calibration, to correct for atmospheric contamination, and to estimate chlorophyll-like pigment concentration and surface temperature. Long-term composites show marked differences between western and eastern sub-basins, inshore and offshore domains, northern and southern near-coastal areas. Continental runoff and wind-driven mixing, as well as geomorphology and meteorology of the (northern) basin margins, appear to influence both water dynamics and bio-geo-chemistry. The major sub-basins present a distinct seasonality, superimposed to that of the basin.

  5. Effects of basin type on coastal plain-shelf-slope systems during base-level fluctuations: An experimental approach

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, L.J. )

    1991-03-01

    Sequence stratigraphic models emphasize the importance of basin type on the reactions of coastal plain-shelf-slope systems to base-level changes. A series of experiments were performed in a 4.5 m by 7 m flume to examine the effects of a passive margin basin with a shelf/slope break versus a ramp margin basin on coastal plain-shelf-slope deposits that result from base-level fluctuations. Results indicate that basin type has a strong influence on the erosional features and deposits that develop in response to base-level fluctuations. Fluctuations that occur along a shelf/slope break margin result in well-defined, deeply incised valleys, which develop early in lowstand time and have low width:depth ratios. Rivers may incise into and deposit over outer-middle shelf deposits of the previous highstand. Late lowstand deposits are coarser grained than early lowstand deposits and include fine- and coarse-grained slope and basin floor fans. During subsequent base-level rise early transgressive deposits are confined to incised valleys. Fluctuations along a ramp margin result in shallow, wide incised valleys with high width:depth ratios, which develop late in lowstand time. Incision occurs into shelf deltaic deposits and these are overlain by valley fill deposits. Deposits of the lowstand systems tract do not coarsen upward significantly and contain only sand-rich, small, thin delta front fan deposits. During subsequent base-level rise transgressive deposits are not confined to incised valleys. Transgressive deposition within the valleys occurs over a short time interval and is followed closely by flooding of the adjacent shelf.

  6. Water Quality in the New England Coastal Basins, Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island 1999-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, Keith W.; Flanagan, Sarah M.; Ayotte, Joseph D.; Campo, Kimberly W.; Chalmers, Ann; Coles, James F.; Cuffney, Thomas F.

    2004-01-01

    This report contains the major findings of a 1999?2001 assessment of water quality in the New England Coastal Basins. It is one of a series of reports by the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program that present major findings in 51 major river basins and aquifer systems across the Nation. In these reports, water quality is discussed in terms of local, State, and regional issues. Conditions in a particular basin or aquifer system are compared to conditions found elsewhere and to selected national benchmarks, such as those for drinking-water quality and the protection of aquatic organisms. This report is intended for individuals working with water-resource issues in Federal, State, or local agencies, universities, public interest groups, or in the private sector. The information will be useful in addressing a number of current issues, such as the effects of agricultural and urban land use on water quality, human health, drinking water, source-water protection, hypoxia and excessive growth of algae and plants, pesticide registration, and monitoring and sampling strategies. This report is also for individuals who wish to know more about the quality of streams and ground water in areas near where they live and how that water quality compares to the quality of water in other areas across the Nation. The water-quality conditions in the New England Coastal Basins summarized in this report are discussed in detail in other reports that can be accessed from http://nh.water.usgs.gov/CurrentProjects/nawqa/nawqaweb.htm. Detailed technical information, data and analyses, collection and analytical methodology, models, graphs, and maps that support the findings presented in this report in addition to reports in this series from other basins can be accessed from the national NAWQA Web site (http://water.usgs.gov/nawqa).

  7. Gazetteer of hydrologic characteristics of streams in Massachusetts; coastal river basins of the South Shore and Buzzards Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wandle, S.W.; Morgan, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    The coastal river basins include the minor river basins draining into Massachusetts Bay along the South Shore or into Buzzards Bay. The larger of these basins are the North, South, Jones, Wareham, Weweantic, Mattapoisett, Acushnet, and Slocums River basins. Drainage areas, using the latest available 1:24,000 scale topographic maps, were computed for data collection sites. Statistics on streamflow characteristics computed with a new data base are presented for six gaged streams. Daily-flow records through 1982 were used to compute annual and monthly flow statistics, duration of daily flow values, and the annual 7-day mean low flow at the 2-year and 10-year recurrence intervals. Seven-day low-flow statistics are presented for 49 partial-record sites and procedures used to determine the hydrologic characteristics of the basin are summarized. This gazetteer will aid in the planning and siting of water-resources related activities and will provide a common data base for governmental agencies and the engineering and planning communities. (USGS)

  8. Gazetteer of hydrologic characteristics of streams in Massachusetts; coastal river basins of the North Shore and Massachusetts Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wandle, S.W.

    1984-01-01

    The coastal river basins of the North Shore and Boston Bay include streams draining the Parker River (60.4 square miles), Rowley River (9.9 square miles), Ipswich River (156 miles), Mystic River (66.0 square miles), Charles River (311 square miles), Neponset River (117 square miles), Weymouth Fore and Weymouth Back Rivers (about 63 square miles) and Weir River (about 20 square miles) basins. The study area in eastern and northeastern Massachusetts also includes the minor river basins draining into Massachusetts Bay, Ipswich Bay, or the Atlantic Ocean. Drainage areas using the latest available 1:24,000 scale topographic maps were computed for the first time for streams draining more than 3 square miles and were recomputed for data-collection sites. Streamflow characteristics at 15 gaging stations were calculated using a new data base with daily flow records through 1981. These characteristics include annual and monthly flow statistics, duration of daily flow values, and the annual 7-day mean low flow at the 2-year and 10-year recurrence intervals. Seven-day low-flow statistics are presented for 95 partial-record sites and the procedures used to determine the hydrologic characteristics of a basin are summarized. Basin characteristics representing 14 commonly used indices to estimate various streamflows are presented for 15 gaged streams. This gazetteer will aid in the planning and siting of water-resources related activities and will provide a common data base for governmental agencies and the engineering and planning communities. (USGS)

  9. Sedimentary budgets of the Tanzania coastal basin and implications for uplift history of the East African rift system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Said, Aymen; Moder, Christoph; Clark, Stuart; Abdelmalak, Mohamed Mansour

    2015-11-01

    Data from 23 wells were used to quantify the sedimentary budgets in the Tanzania coastal basin in order to unravel the uplift chronology of the sourcing area located in the East African Rift System. We quantified the siliciclastic sedimentary volumes preserved in the Tanzania coastal basin corrected for compaction and in situ (e.g., carbonates) production. We found that the drainage areas, which supplied sediments to this basin, were eroded in four episodes: (1) during the middle Jurassic, (2) during the Campanian-Palaeocene, (3) during the middle Eocene and (4) during the Miocene. Three of these high erosion and sedimentation periods are more likely related to uplift events in the East African Rift System and earlier rift shoulders and plume uplifts. Indeed, rapid cooling in the rift system and high denudation rates in the sediment source area are coeval with these recorded pulses. However, the middle Eocene pulse was synchronous with a fall in the sea level, a climatic change and slow cooling of the rift flanks and thus seems more likely due to climatic and eustatic variations. We show that the rift shoulders of the East African rift system have inherited their present relief from at least three epeirogenic uplift pulses of middle Jurassic, Campanian-Palaeocene, and Miocene ages.

  10. Basin-Scale Exports vs. Coastal Delivery of Carbon, Nutrients and Particulates Above and Below Arctic River Deltas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Striegl, R. G.; Tank, S. E.; Weeks, G.; Holmes, R. M.; McClelland, J. W.

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies have substantially improved our understanding of water, sediment and materials exports by arctic rivers. Seasonality of exports, particularly during the spring freshet, is better quantified, as are the inland sources of water and sediment discharge and the source and chemical character of other material exports, including carbon and nutrients. Measurements on small rivers discharging directly to the Arctic Ocean and lacking complex deltas can accurately quantify local inputs to coastal regions. However, the majority of hydrologic inputs to the Arctic Ocean derive from 6 major Eurasian and North American rivers. Water, sediment, and chemical exports from these rivers are typically measured above head of tide, far inland, and commonly above large river deltas. These deltas settle particles and provide favorable environments for deposition, storage, and biogeochemical consumption, production, and transformation of aquatic carbon and nutrients. Consequently, basin exports measured above river deltas likely misrepresent actual delivery to coastal regions. In addition to accumulating sediment, observed and modeled arctic delta effects include enrichment of the organic content of suspended solids, increased dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen (DOC; DON) concentration, decreased inorganic nutrient concentration, and settling and likely increased bioavailability of particle associated contaminants, such as mercury. Increased DOC concentration in the Mackenzie River delta has also been associated with a change in DOC quality, with increased potential for biodegradation of DOC and decreased potential for photodegradation of DOC from head of tide to within the delta. For the most part, assessments of differences between head of tide basin exports and coastal delivery tend to be qualitative rather than quantitative, largely because of difficulties quantifying tidally affected flow. This points to the need to resolve data gaps, improve quantitative assessments

  11. High-resolution seismic analysis of the coastal Mecklenburg Bay (North German Basin): the pre-Alpine evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zöllner, H.; Reicherter, K.; Schikowsky, P.

    2008-09-01

    The pre-Alpine structural and geological evolution in the northern part of the North German Basin have been revealed on the basis of a very dense reflection seismic profile grid. The study area is situated in the coastal Mecklenburg Bay (Germany), part of the southwestern Baltic Sea. From the central part of the North German Basin to the northern basin margin in the Grimmen High area a series of high-resolution maps show the evolution from the base Zechstein to the Lower Jurassic. We present a map of basement faults affecting the pre-Zechstein. The pre-Alpine structural evolution of the region has been determined from digital mapping of post-Permian key horizons traced on the processed seismic time sections. The geological evolution of the North German Basin can be separated into four distinct periods in the Rerik study area. During Late Permian and Early Triassic evaporites and clastics were deposited. Salt movement was initiated after the deposition of the Middle Triassic Muschelkalk. Salt pillows, which were previously unmapped in the study area, are responsible for the creation of smaller subsidence centers and angular unconformities in the Late Triassic Keuper, especially in the vicinity of the fault-bounded Grimmen High. In this area, partly Lower Jurassic sediments overlie the Keuper unconformably. The change from extension to compression in the regional stress field remobilized the salt, leading to a major unconformity marked at the base of the Late Cretaceous.

  12. Potential leakage between aquifers in a deeply anthropized coastal sedimentary basin (Recife, Brazil): Strontium isotope constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petelet-Giraud, Emmanuelle; Cary, Lise; Hirata, Ricardo; Martins, Veridiana; Bertrand, Guillaume; Montenegro, Suzana; Pauwels, Helene; Kloppmann, Wolfram; Aquilina, Luc

    2013-04-01

    Due to an increasing demographic pressure, the Metropolitan Region of Recife (RMR) went through remarkable changes of water and land uses over the last decades. These evolutions gave rise to numerous environmental consequences, such as a dramatic decline of the piezometric levels, groundwater salinization and contamination. This degradation of natural resources is linked to the increase of water demand, punctually amplified by drought periods which induced the construction of thousands of private wells. Recife was built on the estuarine area of the Capibaribe River and other small rivers. The Recife coastal plain is located in the geographic limits of the sedimentary basins of Cabo and Pernambuco-Paraíba which consist out of fluvial and marine geologic formations. It is composed of three main aquifers: the two semi-confined Cabo and Beberibe aquifers, both underlining the superficial Boa Viagem unconfined aquifer, which is the most directly exposed to contamination, since it is connected to mangroves, rivers, estuaries and highly urbanized areas. The Boa Viagem aquifer is made of marine terraces of sand, silt and clay has an average thickness of 40 m. The Cabo aquifer occurs in the south of Recife and comprises sandstones, siltstones and mudstones, with an average thickness of 90 m. The Beberibe aquifer occurs in the north and central area of Recife with an average thickness of 100 m of sandstones with intercalations of mudstone; it is the most important one, with the highest amount of good quality water. Both the Beberibe and Cabo aquifers contain large clay levels. The hydraulic connections between the three aquifers are not well known but isotopic studies have shown that the recharge processes are similar, suggesting that exchanges may occur and may be modified or amplified by overexploitation especially between the Cabo and Boa Viagem aquifers. Two other aquifers can be found west of the city: the Barreiras aquifer, characterized by alternating well stratified

  13. Water resources inventory of Connecticut Part 3: lower Thames and southeastern coastal river basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Chester E., Jr.; Cervione, Michael A., Jr.; Grossman, I.G.

    1968-01-01

    The lower Thames and southeastern coastal river basins have a relatively abundant supply of water of generally good quality which is derived from streams entering the area and precipitation that has fallen on the area. Annual precipitation has ranged from about 32 inches to 65 inches and has averaged about 48 inches over a 30-year period. Approximately 22 inches of water are returned to the atmosphere each year by evaporation and transpiration; the remainder of the annual precipitation either flows overland to streams or percolates downward to the water table and ultimately flows out of the report area through estuaries and coastal streams or as underflow through the deposits beneath. During the autumn and winter months precipitation normally is sufficient to cause a substantial increase in the amount of water stored underground and in surface reservoirs within the report area, whereas in the summer most of the precipitation is lost through evaporation and transpiration, resulting in sharply reduced stream-flow and lowered ground-water levels. The mean monthly storage of water on an average is about 3.8 inches higher in November than it is in June. The amount of water that flows through and out of the report area represents the total amount of water potentially available for use by man. For the 30-year period 1931 through 1960, the annual runoff from the report area has averaged nearly 26 inches (200 billion gallons), from the entire Thames River basin above Norwich about 24 inches (530 billion gallons), and from the Pawcatuck River basin about 26 inches (130 billion gallons). A total average annual runoff of 860 billion gallons is therefore available. Although runoff indicates the total amount of water potentially available, it is usually not economically feasible for man to use all of it. On the other hand, with increased development, it is possible that some water will be reused several times. The water available may be tapped as it flows through the area or is

  14. Water management sustainability in reclaimed coastal areas. The case of the Massaciuccoli lake basin (Tuscany, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossetto, Rudy; Baneschi, Ilaria; Basile, Paolo; Guidi, Massimo; Pistocchi, Chiara; Sabbatini, Tiziana; Silvestri, Nicola; Bonari, Enrico

    2010-05-01

    land sub-systems, the first one showing an average 4.2 mm net daily water loss during the summer season (about 0.975 m3/s) for the years 2000-2009. Lake inflow is constituted of two main terms: an anthropogenic one related to the drainage of the reclaimed land of about 1.1 m3/s (ranging 75-81% of the total inflow); a natural one defined by recharge through rainfall, the western coastal aquifer and the eastern reliefs, accounting for 0.25 m3/s (varying 19-25% of the total inflow). On the other hand, lake water loss is mainly due to evaporation from water surface and evapotranspiration from the palustrine vegetation for around 56-61% (1.31 m3/s on average), while 13 to 15% (0.325 m3/s) is due to inefficient irrigation schemes using lake water and, being the lake perched, recharge to the reclaimed land aquifer (26 to 29%) by means of water infiltrating along the embankments (0.64 m3/s on average). Since several springs on the eastern margin, which would flow to the lacustrine system for about 0.160 m3/s (Autorità di Bacino del Fiume Serchio, 2007), are tapped (for residential, tourism and industrial users), the anthropogenic impact on the water deficit constitutes about 50% of the total, being 34% due to irrigation and 16% to other users. This demonstrates the naturally induced water deficit, already known by historical sources, is heavily altered by anthropogenic pressure defining a not sustainable balance between the socio-economic system and the natural one. It is then clear, that in order to reduce the water stress, a new water management strategy in the whole basin must be devised by revising and enhancing the irrigation schemes and the residential, industrial and tourism water distribution. Reference Autorità di Bacino del Fiume Serchio, 2007. Piano di Bacino 'Bilancio idrico del bacino del lago di Massaciuccoli' Relazione di piano. Lucca, Italy.

  15. Basin Analysis of Mississippi Interior Salt Basin and Petroleum System Modeling of the Jurassic Smackover Formation, Eastern Gulf Coastal Plain

    SciTech Connect

    Ernest Mancini

    2001-03-01

    Part 3 (Petroleum System Modeling of the Jurassic Smackover Formation) objectives are to provide an analysis of the Smackover petroleum system in Years 4 and 5 of the project and to transfer effectively the research results to producers through workshops and topical reports. Work Accomplished (Year 5): Task 1 - Basin Flow - Basin flow modeling has been completed and the topical report has been submitted to the U.S. DOE for review. Task 2 - Petroleum Source Rocks - Work on the characterization of Smackover petroleum source rocks has been integrated into the basin flow model. The information on the source rocks is being prepared for inclusion in the final report. Task 3 - Petroleum Reservoirs - Work on the characterization of Smackover petroleum reservoirs continues. The cores to be described have been identified and many of the cores for the eastern and western parts of the basin have been described. Task 4 - Reservoir Diagenesis - Work on reservoir diagenesis continues. Samples from the cores selected for the reservoir characterization are being used for this task. Task 5 - Underdeveloped Reservoirs - Two underdeveloped Smackover reservoirs have been identified. They are the microbial reef and shoal reservoirs. Work Planned (Year 5): Task 1 - Basin Flow - This task has been completed and the topical report has been submitted to the U.S. DOE. Task 2 - Petroleum Source Rocks - Petroleum source rock information will continue to be prepared for the final report. Task 3 - Petroleum Reservoirs - Characterization of petroleum reservoirs will continue through core studies. Task 4 - Reservoir Diagenesis - Characterization of reservoir diagenesis will continue through petrographic analysis. Task 5 - Underdeveloped Reservoirs - Study of Smackover underdeveloped reservoirs will continue with focus on the microbial reef and shoal reservoirs.

  16. Sedimentological and geochronological evidences of anthropogenic impacts on river basins in the Northern Latium coastal area (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piazzolla, Daniele; Paladini de Mendoza, Francesco; Scanu, Sergio; Marcelli, Marco

    2015-04-01

    In this work we aimed to compare sedimentological and geochronological data from three sediment core samples (MIG50, MRT50, and GRT50) taken in the Northern Latium (Italy) coastal area, at -50 m depth, to data regarding rainfall, river flows and the land use in the three most important hydrographic basins (Mignone, Marta and Fiora) and in the coastal area. Different trends of sediment mass accumulation rate (MAR) are detected in the three cores: a strongly increasing trend was identified in MIG50 and MRT50 cores while GRT50 doesn't show significant variation. Data from the sedimentological analysis of GRT50 core identify a progressive decrease in the sandy component, which declined from about 30% to the current level of 7% over the last 36 years, while MRT50 and MIG50 cores (mainly composed by pelitic fraction > 95%) showed slight variations of textural ratio between silt and clay. According to the general decrease of pluviometric trend observed in Italy, related to teleconnection pattern tendency (NAO), the statistical analysis of rain identified significative decrease only in the Fiora river basin, whereas in the other two locations the decrease was not as significant. Regarding the Fiora river flow, a significative decreasing trend of average flow is detected, while the flood regime remained unaffected over the past 30 years. The analysis of the land use shows that the human activities are increased of 6-10% over the available time steps (1990 - 2006) in Fiora and Mignone river basins, while the Marta river basin has a strong human impact since 1990 highligting more than 80% of artificial soil covering. The largest variation is observed on the Fiora basin (10%) where the antrhopic activities have expanded to an area of about 85 Km2. Moreover, in the last ten years a large beach nourishment in 2004 (570000 m3) and dredging activities in the early second half of 2000s (1000000 m3 moved) were performed in Marina di Tarquinia beach and in front of the Torrevaldaliga

  17. Hydrology of the coastal springs ground-water basin and adjacent parts of Pasco, Hernando, and Citrus Counties, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knochenmus, Lari A.; Yobbi, Dann K.

    2001-01-01

    The coastal springs in Pasco, Hernando, and Citrus Counties, Florida consist of three first-order magnitude springs and numerous smaller springs, which are points of substantial ground-water discharge from the Upper Floridan aquifer. Spring flow is proportional to the water-level altitude in the aquifer and is affected primarily by the magnitude and timing of rainfall. Ground-water levels in 206 Upper Floridan aquifer wells, and surface-water stage, flow, and specific conductance of water from springs at 10 gaging stations were measured to define the hydrologic variability (temporally and spatially) in the Coastal Springs Ground-Water Basin and adjacent parts of Pasco, Hernando, and Citrus Counties. Rainfall at 46 stations and ground-water withdrawals for three counties, were used to calculate water budgets, to evaluate long-term changes in hydrologic conditions, and to evaluate relations among the hydrologic components. Predictive equations to estimate daily spring flow were developed for eight gaging stations using regression techniques. Regression techniques included ordinary least squares and multiple linear regression techniques. The predictive equations indicate that ground-water levels in the Upper Floridan aquifer are directly related to spring flow. At tidally affected gaging stations, spring flow is inversely related to spring-pool altitude. The springs have similar seasonal flow patterns throughout the area. Water-budget analysis provided insight into the relative importance of the hydrologic components expected to influence spring flow. Four water budgets were constructed for small ground-water basins that form the Coastal Springs Ground-Water Basin. Rainfall averaged 55 inches per year and was the only source of inflow to the Basin. The pathways for outflow were evapotranspiration (34 inches per year), runoff by spring flow (8 inches per year), ground-water outflow from upward leakage (11 inches per year), and ground-water withdrawal (2 inches per year

  18. Study of the United States coal resources. [Appalachian Plateau, Interior Basins, Gulf Coastal Plain, Rocky Mountain Basins, High Plains, North Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Ferm, J.C.; Muthig, P.J.

    1982-09-15

    The objectives of this study were: (1) the identification of geologically significant coal resources for the United States, including Alaska; and (2) the preparation of statistically controlled tonnage estimates for each resource type. Particular emphasis was placed on the identification and description of coals in terms of seam thickness, inclination, depth of cover, discontinuities caused by faulting and igneous intrusion, and occurrence as isolated or multiseam deposits. The national resource was organized into six major coal provinces: the Appalachian Plateau, the Interior Basins, the Gulf Coastal Plain, the Rocky Mountain Basins, the High Plains, and North Alaska. Total coal tonnage for a subarea was estimated from an analysis of the cumulative coal thickness derived from borehole or surface section records and subsequently categorized in terms of seam thickness, dip, overburden, multiseam proportions, coal quality, and tonnage impacted by severe faulting and igneous intrusions. Results indicate an aggregate resource in place of 11.6 trillion tons, of which North Alaska accounts for 3.5 trillion tons of subbituminous and bituminous coal; the Rocky Mountains, 2.2 trillion tons of bituminous and subbituminous deposits; and the Gulf Coast, 3.8 trillion tons of lignites. The Appalachian Plateau and Interior Basins are estimated to contain slightly less than 1 trillion tons each of bituminous coal, and the High Plains slightly more than 0.5 trillion tons of lignite. The Appalachian Plateau and Interior Basins are estimated to contain slightly less than 1 trillion tons each, and the High Plains Province is estimated to contain a bit more than 0.5 trillion tons. The implications of the results for research on advanced mining systems are discussed. 27 figures, 25 tables.

  19. Towards Predicting Basin-Wide Invertebrate Organic Biomass and Production in Marine Sediments from a Coastal Sea

    PubMed Central

    Burd, Brenda J.; Macdonald, Tara A.; van Roodselaar, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Detailed knowledge of environmental conditions is required to understand faunal production in coastal seas with topographic and hydrographic complexity. We test the hypothesis that organic biomass and production of subtidal sediment invertebrates throughout the Strait of Georgia, west coast of Canada, can be predicted by depth, substrate type and organic flux modified to reflect lability and age of material. A basin-wide database of biological, geochemical and flux data was analysed using an empirical production/biomass (P/B) model to test this hypothesis. This analysis is unique in the spatial extent and detail of P/B and concurrent environmental measurements over a temperate coastal region. Modified organic flux was the most important predictor of organic biomass and production. Depth and substrate type were secondary modifiers. Between 69–74% of variability in biomass and production could be explained by the combined environmental factors. Organisms <1 mm were important contributors to biomass and production primarily in shallow, sandy sediments, where high P/B values were found despite low organic flux. Low biomass, production, and P/B values were found in the deep, northern basin and mainland fjords, which had silty sediments, low organic flux, low biomass of organisms <1 mm, and dominance by large, slow-growing macrofauna. In the highest organic flux and biomass areas near the Fraser River discharge, production did not increase beyond moderate flux levels. Although highly productive, this area had low P/B. Clearly, food input is insufficient to explain the complex patterns in faunal production revealed here. Additional environmental factors (depth, substrate type and unmeasured factors) are important modifiers of these patterns. Potential reasons for the above patterns are explored, along with a discussion of unmeasured factors possibly responsible for unexplained (30%) variance in biomass and production. We now have the tools for basin-wide first

  20. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the East Coast Mesozoic basins of the Piedmont, Blue Ridge Thrust Belt, Atlantic Coastal Plain, and New England Provinces, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milici, Robert C.; Coleman, James L., Jr.; Rowan, Elisabeth L.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    During the early opening of the Atlantic Ocean in the Mesozoic Era, numerous extensional basins formed along the eastern margin of the North American continent from Florida northward to New England and parts of adjacent Canada. The basins extend generally from the offshore Atlantic continental margin westward beneath the Atlantic Coastal Plain to the Appalachian Mountains. Using a geology-based assessment method, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean undiscovered natural gas resource of 3,860 billion cubic feet and a mean undiscovered natural gas liquids resource of 135 million barrels in continuous accumulations within five of the East Coast Mesozoic basins: the Deep River, Dan River-Danville, and Richmond basins, which are within the Piedmont Province of North Carolina and Virginia; the Taylorsville basin, which is almost entirely within the Atlantic Coastal Plain Province of Virginia and Maryland; and the southern part of the Newark basin (herein referred to as the South Newark basin), which is within the Blue Ridge Thrust Belt Province of New Jersey. The provinces, which contain these extensional basins, extend across parts of Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, Connecticut, and Massachusetts.

  1. From pre-salt sources to post-salt traps: A specific petroleum system in Congo coastal basin

    SciTech Connect

    Vernet, R.

    1995-08-01

    The Bas Congo basin extends from Gabon to Angola and is a prolific oil province where both pre-salt and post salt sources and reservoirs have been found. In the northern part of the basin referred to as the Congo coastal basin, the proven petroleum system is more specific: mature source rocks are found only in pre-salt series whereas by contrast 99 % proven hydrocarbon reserves am located in post-salt traps. Such a system is controlled by the following factors: Source rocks are mostly organic rich shales deposited in a restricted environment developed in a rift prior to the Atlantic Ocean opening; Migration from pre-salt sources to post-salt traps is finalized by local discontinuities of the regional salt layer acting otherwise as a tight seal; Post-salt reservoirs are either carbonates or sands desposited in the evolutive shelf margin developped during Upper Cretaceous; Geometric traps are linked to salt tectonics (mostly turtle-shaped structures); Regional shaly seals are related to transgressive shales best developped during high rise sea level time interval. Stratigraphically, the age of hydrocarbon fields trends are younger and younger from West to East: lower Albian in Nkossa, Upper Albian and lower Cenomanian in Likouala, Yanga, Sendji, Upper Cenomanian in Tchibouela, Turonian in Tchendo, Turanian and Senonian in Emeraude.

  2. Coastal freshwater resources management in the frame of climate change: application to three basins (Italy, Morocco, Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson, E.; Antonellini, M.; Dentinho, T.; Khattabi, A.

    2009-04-01

    Climate change becomes an increasing constraint in IWRM and many effects are expected in coastal watersheds like sea level rise and its consequences (i.e. beach erosion, salt water intrusion, soil salinization, groundwater and surface water pollution…) or water budget changes (i.e. seasonal and inter-annual fluctuations) and an increase of extreme events (i.e. floods, rainfalls and droughts). Beside this physical changes one can also observed the increase of water demand in coastal areas due to population growth and development of tourism activities. Both effects (e.g. physical and socio-economical) must be included into any coastal freshwater management option for a mid-term / long-term approach to set water mass/basin management plans as expected in European countries by the WDF or elsewhere in an IWRM objective. The Waterknow project funded by EraNet-Circle-Med program aims to develop a tool to help decisions makers in the implementation of IWRM plans in coastal areas that will have to cope with climate change effects and socio-economical pressures. This interdisciplinary project is applied to three basins (e.g. Fiumi Uniti Bevano, Italy; Terceira Island, Portugal and Taheddart, Morocco) and seeks to integrate and to develop research achievements in coastal hydrogeology, economical and land use modeling in each basin. In the Fiumi Uniti Bevano basin, a detailed hydrogeological survey was performed during the summer 2008. Twenty auger holes with an average spacing of 350 m where drilled with the objective of determining the top groundwater quality in the coastal aquifer. At the same time, we collected the chemical and physical parameters of the surface waters. The data collected in the field show that a fresh groundwater lens is still present in the aquifer of the backshore area below the coastal dunes and that the surface water is all brackish to salty. In the northern part of the study area, the fresh groundwater lens in the backshore zone is missing, as

  3. Not Your Basic Base Levels: Simulations of Erosion and Deposition With Fluctuating Water Levels in Coastal and Enclosed Basin Settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, A. D.; Matsubara, Y.; Lloyd, H.

    2006-12-01

    The DELIM landform evolution model has been adapted to investigate erosional and depositional landforms in two setting with fluctuating base levels. The first is erosion and wave planation of terraced landscapes in Coastal Plain sediments along the estuarine Potomac River. The last 3.5 million years of erosion is simulated with base level fluctuations based upon the long-term oceanic delta 18O record, eustatic sea level changes during the last 120 ka, estimates of the history of tectonic uplift in the region, and maximum depths of incision of the Potomac River during sea-level lowstands. Inhibition of runoff erosion by vegetation has been a crucial factor allowing persistence of uplands in the soft coastal plain bedrock. The role of vegetation is simulated as a contributing area- dependent critical shear stress. Development of wave-cut terraces is simulated by episodic planation of the landscape during base-level highstands. Although low base level excursions are infrequent and of short duration, the total amount of erosion is largely controlled by the depth and frequency of lowstands. The model has also been adapted to account for flow routing and accompanying erosion and sedimentation in landscapes with multiple enclosed depressions. The hydrological portion of the model has been calibrated and tested in the Great Basin and Mojave regions of the southwestern U.S. In such a setting, runoff, largely from mountains, may flow through several lacustrine basins, each with evaporative losses. An iterative approach determines the size and depth of lakes, including overflow (or not) that balances runoff and evaporation. The model utilizes information on temperatures, rainfall, runoff, and evaporation within the region to parameterize evaporation and runoff as functions of latitude, mean annual temperature, precipitation, and elevation. The model is successful in predicting the location of modern perennial lakes in the region as well as that of lakes during the last

  4. Ecological data collected in the Santee River basin and coastal drainages, North and South Carolina, 1996-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abrahamsen, Thomas A.

    2001-01-01

    As part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program, ecological investigations were conducted in 23 reaches of 16 streams in the Santee River Basin and Coastal Drainages study unit in North and South Carolina during 1996-98. Habitat characteristics, such as stream width and depth, bank composition, bank vegetative cover, stream shading by overhanging vegetation, and streambed composition were recorded. Algal and benthic invertebrate communities were sampled using quantitative and qualitative techniques. These data will provide information needed to: (1) support findings of the effects of human landuse activities on water quality by augmenting or enhancing physical and chemical water-quality data, (2) provide a basic overview of aquatic community structure in selected stream reaches in the study unit, and (3) provide a means for comparing aquatic communities in subsequent years of the assessment program.

  5. Historic and Holocene environmental change in the San Antonio Creek Basin, mid-coastal California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott Anderson, R.; Ejarque, Ana; Rice, Johnathan; Smith, Susan J.; Lebow, Clayton G.

    2015-03-01

    Using a combination of pollen, non-pollen palynomorphs (NPPs) and charcoal particle stratigraphies from sediment cores from two sites, along with historical records, we reconstructed paleoenvironmental change in mid-coastal California. The San Antonio Creek section contains a discontinuous, Holocene-length record, while Mod Pond includes a continuous late Holocene record. Together the records allow for interpretation of most of the present interglacial. The longer record documents coastal sage scrub and chaparral dominated by woodland elements early in the Holocene to about 9000 yr ago, a potential decline in woodland communities with drying conditions during the middle Holocene to about 4800 yr ago, and an expansion of coastal sage scrub with grassland during the late Holocene. Evidence for climatic fluctuations during the last 1000 yr at Mod Pond is equivocal, suggesting that the Medieval Climate Anomaly-Little Ice Age had modest impact on the Mod Pond environment. However, evidence of significant environmental change associated with cultural transitions in the 18th-19th centuries is stark. Introduction of non-native plants, establishment of cattle and sheep grazing, missionization of the native population, changes in burning practices during the Spanish period and enhanced cropping activities during North American settlement worked together to substantially modify the mid-California coastal landscape in about a century's time.

  6. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Coastal Los Angeles Basin Study Unit, 2006: Results from the California GAMA Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Land, Michael; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 860 square-mile Coastal Los Angeles Basin study unit (CLAB) was investigated from June to November of 2006 as part of the Statewide Basin Assessment Project of the Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Statewide Basin Assessment was developed in response to the Ground-Water Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The Coastal Los Angeles Basin study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within CLAB, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 69 wells in Los Angeles and Orange Counties. Fifty-five of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (?grid wells?). Fourteen additional wells were selected to evaluate changes in ground-water chemistry or to gain a greater understanding of the ground-water quality within a specific portion of the Coastal Los Angeles Basin study unit ('understanding wells'). Ground-water samples were analyzed for: a large number of synthetic organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), gasoline oxygenates and their degradates, pesticides, polar pesticides, and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and potential wastewater-indicators]; constituents of special interest [perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), 1,4-dioxane, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane (1,2,3-TCP)]; inorganic constituents that can occur naturally [nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements]; radioactive constituents [gross-alpha and gross-beta radiation, radium isotopes, and radon-222]; and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes [stable isotopic ratios of hydrogen and oxygen, and activities of tritium and carbon-14

  7. Water-Quality Assessment of the Trinity River Basin, Texas - Pesticides in a Coastal Prairie Agricultural Area, 1994-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, M.F.

    1996-01-01

    Agriculture is a major land use in the coastal prairie area located in the southern part of the Trinity River Basin. Crops grown in the area include rice, sorghum, and soybeans. Pesticide- use estimates for the area show that compounds with the highest use are the herbicides: molinate, propanil, thiobencarb, metolachlor, acifluorfen, bentazon, and atrazine and the insecticides: carbaryl and methyl parathion. More than 20 pesticide samples collected from each of three streams in the coastal prairie resulted in detections of 29 different pesticide compounds. The most frequently detected compounds were the herbicides: atrazine, metolachlor, and molinate, which were detected in more than 75 percent of the samples. Herbicides were detected more frequently than insecticides. Maximum concentrations of atrazine, metolachlor, and molinate occurred in the spring and were 4, 1.9, and 200 micrograms per liter (?g/L), respectively. Almost all concentrations of atrazine and metolachlor were below drinking water standards; no standard is available for molinate. Concentrations and estimated loads and percent of applied compound lost to the streams were generally higher in the watersheds where more of the pesticides were applied to crops.

  8. A mid-Permian chert event: widespread deposition of biogenic siliceous sediments in coastal, island arc and oceanic basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murchey, B.L.; Jones, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    Radiolarian and conodont of Permian siliceous rocks from twenty-three areas in teh the circum-Pacific and Mediterranean regions reveal a widespread Permian Chert Event during the middle Leonardian to Wordian. Radiolarian- and (or) sponge spicule-rich siliceous sediments accumulated beneath high productivity zones in coastal, island arc and oceanic basins. Most of these deposits now crop out in fault-bounded accreted terranes. Biogenic siliceous sediments did not accumulate in terranes lying beneath infertile waters including the marine sequences in terranes of northern and central Alaska. The Permian Chert Event is coeval with major phosphorite deposition along the western margin of Pangea (Phosphoria Formation and related deposits). A well-known analogue for this event is middle Miocene deposition of biogenic siliceous sediments beneath high productivity zones in many parts of the Pacific and concurrent deposition of phosphatic as well as siliceous sediments in basins along the coast of California. Interrelated factors associated with both the Miocene and Permian depositional events include plate reorientations, small sea-level rises and cool polar waters. ?? 1992.

  9. The role of floodplain connections in controlling dissolved organic carbon quality and export in coastal urban sub-basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gettel, G. M.; Wollheim, W. M.; Harms, T. K.; Hopkinson, C.

    2009-04-01

    This study examines the role of fluvial wetlands (those connected to the stream via floodplains) in controlling DOC quality and export in urban systems. Human activity in urban basins may impact both DOC quality and export, but river-wetland complexes may dampen this signature. These dynamics are important to understand because the processing of DOC can affect the degree to which land-use affects a number of environmental problems: the eutrophication of coastal ecosystems, interactions with the nitrogen cycle and nitrogen retention, and feedbacks with climate system. We performed synoptic surveys above and below wetlands in urban and rural sub-basins in the headwaters of the Ipswich and Parker River watersheds (Plum Island Estuary Long Term Ecological Research) in northeastern Massachusetts. US. We also instrumented wetland sites to sample wetland sites during storm events. We used the optical characteristics of DOC determined by fluorescence and absorbance to quantify DOC quality. Excitation Emission Matrices (EEMS) were used to determine the relative importance of autochthonous and allochthonous sources of DOM. In addition, we measured metabolism and denitrification to correlate fluorescence characteristics to ecosystem processes. Preliminary results suggest that high flow conditions, DOC export increases, and over-land and sub-surface flow-paths facilitate leaching of more recalcitrant forms of DOC from wetland plant sources. Under low flow conditions, autochthonous sources of DOC from the stream channel may be more prevalent. In contrast, wetlands in rural areas are less flashy and sources of DOC more consistent with autochthonous sources.

  10. Effects of oxygen on recycling of biogenic elements from sediments of a stratified coastal Baltic Sea basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekeroth, Nils; Kononets, Mikhail; Walve, Jakob; Blomqvist, Sven; Hall, Per O. J.

    2016-02-01

    Benthic nutrient dynamics in the coastal basin Kanholmsfjärden, NW Baltic proper, were studied by in situ flux measurements and sediment samplings in 2010-2013. The benthic release of NH4 and DIP from anoxic sediments in Kanholmsfjärden were calculated to renew the standing stock inventories of DIN and DIP in the overlying water in roughly 1 year. Starting in summer 2012, mixing of oxygen-rich water into the deep part of the basin temporarily improved the oxygen conditions in the deep water. During the 1 year oxygenated period, the total phosphorus inventory in the surficial sediment increased by 0.4 g P m- 2 or 65%. This was most likely due to stimulated bacterial P assimilation under oxygenated conditions. By July 2013, the bottom water had again turned anoxic, and DIP and DSi fluxes were even higher than earlier in the study period. These high fluxes are attributed to degradation of sedimentary pools of P and Si that had accumulated during the bottom water oxygenation in 2012. The strong correlation between DIP and DSi fluxes and the similar dynamics of DIP and DSi in the sediment pore water and near bottom water, suggest a similar redox dependency of benthic-pelagic exchange for these nutrients.

  11. Integrated Assessment of Heavy Metal Contamination in Sediments from a Coastal Industrial Basin, NE China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoyu; Liu, Lijuan; Wang, Yugang; Luo, Geping; Chen, Xi; Yang, Xiaoliang; Gao, Bin; He, Xingyuan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the current status of metal pollution of the sediments from urban-stream, estuary and Jinzhou Bay of the coastal industrial city, NE China. Forty surface sediment samples from river, estuary and bay and one sediment core from Jinzhou bay were collected and analyzed for heavy metal concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni and Mn. The data reveals that there was a remarkable change in the contents of heavy metals among the sampling sediments, and all the mean values of heavy metal concentration were higher than the national guideline values of marine sediment quality of China (GB 18668-2002). This is one of the most polluted of the world’s impacted coastal systems. Both the correlation analyses and geostatistical analyses showed that Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd have a very similar spatial pattern and come from the industrial activities, and the concentration of Mn mainly caused by natural factors. The estuary is the most polluted area with extremely high potential ecological risk; however the contamination decreased with distance seaward of the river estuary. This study clearly highlights the urgent need to make great efforts to control the industrial emission and the exceptionally severe heavy metal pollution in the coastal area, and the immediate measures should be carried out to minimize the rate of contamination, and extent of future pollution problems. PMID:22768107

  12. PAHs and PCBs deposited in surficial sediments along a rural to urban transect in a mid-Atlantic coastal river basin (USA).

    PubMed

    Foster, Gregory D; Cui, Vickie

    2008-10-01

    PAHs and PCBs were measured in river sediments along a 226 km longitudinal transect that spanned rural to urban land use settings through Valley and Ridge, Piedmont Plateau and Coastal Plain physiographic provinces in the Potomac River basin (mid-Atlantic USA). A gradient in PAH concentrations was found in river bed sediments along the upstream transect in the Potomac and Shenandoah Rivers that correlated with population densities in the nearby sub-basins. Sediment PAH concentrations halved per each approximately 40 km of transect distance upstream (i.e., the half-concentration distance) from the urban center (Washington, DC) of the Potomac River basin in direct proportion to population density. The PAH molecular composition was consistent across all geologic provinces, revealing a dominant pyrogenic source. Fluoranthene to perylene ratios served as useful markers for urban inputs, with a ratio > 2.4 observed in sediments near urban structures such as roadways, bridges and sewer outfalls. PCBs in sediments were not well correlated with population densities along the river basin transect, but the highest concentrations were found in the urban Coastal Plain region near Washington, DC and in the Shenandoah River near a known industrial Superfund site. PAHs were moderately correlated with sediment total organic carbon (TOC) in the Shenandoah River and Coastal Plain Potomac River regions, but TOC was poorly correlated with PCB concentrations throughout the entire basin. Although both PAHs and PCBs are widely recognized as urban-derived contaminants, their concentration profiles and geochemistry in river sediments were uniquely different throughout the upper Potomac River basin. PMID:18780210

  13. Geologic appraisal of the petroleum potential of offshore southern California; the borderland compared to onshore coastal basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, James Carlton

    1976-01-01

    Offshore southern California is part of a much larger Pacific continental margin, and the two areas have a similar geologic history at least as far back as middle Tertiary time. Assessment of the petroleum potential of the offshore Southern California borderland is accomplished by examining the adjacent highly explored productive coastal basins in the tectonically unstable area west of the San Andreas fault. Known oil and gas accumulations in this region can be characterized as follows: 88 percent comes from the Los Angeles and Ventura basins; 87 percent has been found in late Miocene and younger strata and only 0.2 percent has been found in Eocene strata; 80 percent has been found in thick deposits of deep-water turbidite reservoirs; and 5 percent has been found in fractured Miocene siliceous shale reservoirs. The percentage of siliceous shale reservoirs will increase as a result of recent discoveries in this rock type in the Santa Barbara Channel. Of the 212 known fields only 5 are giants (greater than 500 million barrels), and these fields account for 52 percent of all past production from the region. Most fields are faulted anticlines, and the largest fields have the highest oil recoveries per acre. Geologic knowledge of the offshore is limited by the availability of data. Data have been obtained from geophysical surveys, analyses of bedrock samples from the sea floor, and extrapolations of data from the mainland and offshore islands. Several factors have a negative effect on the assessment of the petroleum potential of the southern California borderland. They are: 1. The Neogene section is relatively thin, and the Paleogene section is thin and has a limited distribution. 2. Over large areas, Miocene sediments apparently rest directly on basement. 3. Along much of the Santa Rosa-Cortes Ridge, sediments are uplifted and truncated, exposing Paleogene rocks. 4. Organic content in Paleogene sediments is believed too low to generate large amounts of petroleum. 5

  14. Cooling of daytime temperatures in coastal California air basins during 1969-2005: Monthly and extreme value trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, J.; Bornstein, R. D.; Charland, A.; Gonzalez, J.

    2009-12-01

    Analysis of long-term (1969-2005) air temperatures in California (CA) during summer (June-August) previously showed an aggregate CA asymmetric warming, as daily minimum temperatures increased faster than daily maximum values Tmax. The spatial distributions of daily Tmax temperatures in the heavily urbanized South Coast and San Francisco Bay Area air basins were more complex pattern, with cooling at low-elevation coastal-areas and warming at inland areas. Our hypothesis was that this temperature pattern arose from a “reverse-reaction” to greenhouse gas induced global-warming, in that the global warming of inland areas resulted in an increased (cooling) sea breeze activity in coastal areas. These results appeared in the July 2009 issue of the J. of Climate. Extension of this analysis over the entire year now shows that the cooling trend in average Tmax values occurred during most months, with warming trends only during winter months. The largest rate of cooling, however, occurred in June (-0.95 K/decade), indicating that an earlier initiation of sea breeze activity may be the most important cooling factor, relative to increases in its intensity, duration, and/or penetration. Possible beneficial effects of the cooling were discussed (e.g., decreased maximum O3 and human thermal-stress levels), but as these impact would occur during periods of maximum Tmax values, the previous analysis was thus expanded to includes trends in the frequency of high Tmax values, i.e., 85, 90, 95, and 100oF. Results showed that all of these frequencies were decreasing, with rates decreasing with Tmax value (from -0.27 to -0.04 days/year, respectively). While this result is expected, as the frequency of occurrence decreases with Tmax value (from about 50 to about 3 per year, respectively), the percent decrease in frequency showed the opposite results, i.e., it was largest with the highest Tmax value (from -0.57 to -1.57 %/year, respectively). In addition, the rate of decrease of annual

  15. Effects of Human Alterations on Global River Basins and their Associated Coastal Zones: focus on River-dominated Ocean Margins (RiOMars)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dürr, H. H.; Van Cappellen, P.; Meybeck, M.; Laruelle, G. G.; Mayorga, E.; Hartmann, J.; Maavara, T.; Bouwman, L.; Seitzinger, S.

    2013-12-01

    Coastal systems connected to large rivers, mostly major delta systems or river-dominated ocean margins (RiOMars), make up <1% of the worldwide shoreline. Yet, they comprise 28% of the exorheic terrestrial river basins area, and host 26.4% of the population connected via rivers to coastal systems (Dürr et al. 2011). These systems receive 41.6% of the discharge delivered to oceans. 25.7% of the suspended sediment load is processed, with comparable amounts for the total nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loads. The filter function for incoming riverine nutrients (N, P, C, Si) in these coastal environments is very different from other near-shore environments such as macro-tidal estuaries, lagoons or fjords. In this type, the major biogeochemical transformation of incoming river fluxes takes place in a plume on the continental margins (RiOMars). This effect is even more pronounced at high flow stages when the highest volumes of water and material are delivered. The filtering efficiency of delta systems is highest during low flows, and some of the systems may be influenced by tides when ebb and flood might flow through different channels, creating a braided network of streams and many islands (Dürr et al. 2011). Here, we discuss controls on the different nutrient forms delivered to different coastal environments, and how they are assessed (Global-NEWS and other approaches), with a special focus on large deltas and RiOMars. Drivers and impacts of global change will be explored through the Millenium Assessment Scenarios and how the fluxes to these different coastal systems might change. An increasing role is also played by aquaculture in different coastal types as a non-insignificant source of nutrients. World-wide distribution of coastal types and their related river basins (Dürr et al. 2011). Characteristics of types of near-shore coastal areas and their associated river basins Greenland and Antarctica excepted. Data from Dürr et al. (2011) and the Global-NEWS program

  16. The whale pump: marine mammals enhance primary productivity in a coastal basin.

    PubMed

    Roman, Joe; McCarthy, James J

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that microbes, zooplankton, and fish are important sources of recycled nitrogen in coastal waters, yet marine mammals have largely been ignored or dismissed in this cycle. Using field measurements and population data, we find that marine mammals can enhance primary productivity in their feeding areas by concentrating nitrogen near the surface through the release of flocculent fecal plumes. Whales and seals may be responsible for replenishing 2.3×10(4) metric tons of N per year in the Gulf of Maine's euphotic zone, more than the input of all rivers combined. This upward "whale pump" played a much larger role before commercial harvest, when marine mammal recycling of nitrogen was likely more than three times atmospheric N input. Even with reduced populations, marine mammals provide an important ecosystem service by sustaining productivity in regions where they occur in high densities. PMID:20949007

  17. The Whale Pump: Marine Mammals Enhance Primary Productivity in a Coastal Basin

    PubMed Central

    Roman, Joe; McCarthy, James J.

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that microbes, zooplankton, and fish are important sources of recycled nitrogen in coastal waters, yet marine mammals have largely been ignored or dismissed in this cycle. Using field measurements and population data, we find that marine mammals can enhance primary productivity in their feeding areas by concentrating nitrogen near the surface through the release of flocculent fecal plumes. Whales and seals may be responsible for replenishing 2.3×104 metric tons of N per year in the Gulf of Maine's euphotic zone, more than the input of all rivers combined. This upward “whale pump” played a much larger role before commercial harvest, when marine mammal recycling of nitrogen was likely more than three times atmospheric N input. Even with reduced populations, marine mammals provide an important ecosystem service by sustaining productivity in regions where they occur in high densities. PMID:20949007

  18. A high-resolution angiosperm pollen reference record covering Albian mid-latitude coastal deposits (Lusitanian Basin, Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horikx, Maurits; Dinis, Jorge L.; Heimhofer, Ulrich

    2013-04-01

    The Lusitanian Basin in Portugal is one of the most important areas to investigate the rise and radiation of early angiosperms. Here, important micro-, macro- and mesofossil remains including pollen, reproductive organs, fruits and seeds have been found. In this study, a high-resolution Early to Late Albian pollen record from a thick (~160m) coastal succession in the Lusitanian Basin containing mixed carbonate-siliciclastic near-shore deposits is generated. The outcrop is located near the town of Ericeira (São Julião) and exhibits some important new features compared to existing records from the Lusitanian basin. The comparatively proximal depositional setting and high sedimentation rate of the São Julião outcrop is well suited for high-resolution palynological sampling compared to previously studied, more distal outcrops. In addition, the succession covers almost the entire Albian including a thick interval representing Late Albian strata. Dating of the succession was obtained using dinoflagellate cyst biostratigraphy, bulk C-isotope analysis and strontium isotope analysis of low-Mg oysters and rudist shells. The high-resolution pollen record shows a distinct radiation pattern of early angiosperm pollen as well as significant changes in the accompanying palynoflora. During most of the section gymnosperm pollen types such as Classopollis spp., Inaperturopollenites spp. and Exesipollenites spp. are dominant. Angiosperm pollen abundances do not exceed 20%, although angiosperms increase slightly from the Early Albian onwards. Monoaperturate grains of magnoliid or monocot affinity remain the most dominant angiosperm pollen type, both in abundances and diversity. Tricolpate and zonoaperturate pollen grains are also present. In addition, the occurrence of several odd-shaped Dichastopollenites-type pollen types is intriguing. The palynological results indicate a warm and dry climate during most of the Albian, although a rise in the spores over pollen ratio in the

  19. Governing change: land-use change and the prevention of nonpoint source pollution in the north coastal basin of California.

    PubMed

    Short, Anne G

    2013-01-01

    Many rural areas in the United States and throughout much of the postindustrial world are undergoing significant ecological, socioeconomic, and political transformations. The migration of urban and suburban dwellers into rural areas has led to the subdivision of large tracts of land into smaller parcels, which can complicate efforts to govern human-environmental problems. Non-point source (NPS) pollution from private rural lands is a particularly pressing human-environmental challenge that may be aggravated by changing land tenure. In this article, I report on a study of the governance and management of sediment (a common NPS pollutant) in the North Coastal basin of California, a region undergoing a transition from traditional extractive and agricultural land uses to rural residential and other alternative land uses. I focus on the differences in the governance and management across private timber, ranch, residential, vacation, and other lands in the region. I find that (1) the stringency and strength of sediment regulations differ by land use, (2) nonregulatory programs tend to target working landscapes, and (3) rural residential landowners have less knowledge of sediment control and report using fewer sediment-control techniques than landowners using their land for timber production or ranching. I conclude with an exploration of the consequences of these differences on an evolving rural landscape. PMID:21805381

  20. Long-Term Hydrological Changes of Coastal Arctic Tundra Ponds in Drained Thaw Lake Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andresen, C. G.; Lougheed, V.

    2013-12-01

    Given the dominance of these ponds in the tundra landscape, documenting long-term changes in these aquatic systems is essential to understand carbon and energy balance, trophic energy flow, and biodiversity for the Arctic. The combination of remote sensing using historical imagery, as well as rare historical data from the International Biological Program, provides a unique opportunity for understanding long-term changes in hydrology, chemistry and biology of these significant freshwater environments. To assess the changes in pond area and abundance in 22 drained thaw-lake basins (DTLB) across the Barrow Peninsula over the past 60 years, we utilized historic aerial imagery from USGS archives (1948) and modern high-resolution Quickbird (2002, 2008, 2010). Age classification of DTLB was based on Hinkel et al 2003. We compared water temperature, active layer thickness, and aboveground biomass of these systems to historical datasets compiled in the Limnology of Tundra Ponds' by Hobbie et al 1975. We observed an overall decrease of 28% in pond area and 19% decrease in pond number, where smaller ponds (<100m2) had the highest change. These losses were coincident with significantly higher air and water temperature and reduced annual rainfall, which has decreased by 2.5 cm over the past 62 years (-0.4mm/yr). Active layer in ponds increased on average by 15cm. Aquatic grasses increased in density and cover in ponds over the past 40 years. Area and number of ponds loss was independent of DTLB age; however, medium-age DTLBs had significantly higher number of new ponds over old and ancient-age basins. While we observe new ponds due to thaw lake processes, climate seems to be having a stronger effect on these systems by reducing the overall inundated area and pond number in these basins. Increased evaporation due to warmer and longer summers, permafrost degradation, transpiration from encroaching aquatic grasses and changes in precipitation patterns are likely the current major

  1. Identification of Natural and Logging-Related Landslides in the Capilano River Basin, Coastal British Columbia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brardinoni, F.; Slaymaker, O.

    2001-12-01

    In the Pacific Northwest landslide inventories are routinely compiled by means of aerial photo interpretation. When examining photo pairs the forest canopy, notably in old-growth forest, hides a population of "not visible" landslides. The present study attempts to estimate how important is the contribution of landslides not detectable from aerial photographs, to the global mass of sediment production from mass failures on forested terrain of the Capilano basin. To achieve this, aerial photo interpretation has been coupled with intensive fieldwork for identification and measurement of all landslides. In order to minimise bias in the comparison and integration of field-collected and air photo-collected data it was decided to define a 30-year time window. Incidentally, it has been possible to prove how landslide scars that appear on a single photo set would date further back than 30 years. Results show that "not visible" landslides can represent up to 85 percent of the total number of failures and can account for up to 30 percent the total volume of debris mobilised. Rates of sediment production differ greatly (one order of magnitude) between two sub-basins of the study area, suggesting that such figures should be generalised with care within a physiographic region. The difference in denudation rate is explained qualitatively by GIS-based analysis of slope frequency distributions, drainage density and spatial distribution of surficial materials. Fieldwork has demonstrated that gully-related failures have a greater importance than one could expect from air photo interpretation. ANOVA and nonparametric tests indicate that careful logging in East Cap Creek has produced no detectable effects on mass wasting. Similarly, Sisters Creek, where timber harvesting stopped about 20 years before the start of our 30-year time window, has apparently recovered from the signs of past extensive logging. The existence of "not visible" events affected in a minor way conclusions about the

  2. Watershed and Lake Influences on the Energetic Base of Coastal Wetland Food Webs across the Great Lakes Basin

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manuscript examines the responses of Great Lakes coastal wetland food webs to nutrient enrichment and identifies three classes of systems whose food webs respond differently. Or is that differentially? Anyway, coastal wetlands with relatively long hydraulic residence times ...

  3. Drought responses of freshwater mussels (Unionidae) in coastal plain tributaries of the Flint River basin, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gagnon, P.M.; Golladay, S.W.; Michener, W.K.; Freeman, Mary C.

    2004-01-01

    During extreme drought conditions, mussel survival and habitat conditions were monitored weekly at nine locations representing a gradient in stream size in the lower Flint River basin, Georgia, USA. Cumulative unionid mortality ranged from 13 to 93% among sites, and was associated with low flow velocity (below 0.01 m/s) and dissolved oxygen concentrations below 5 mg/L. Species assemblages demonstrated differential mortality under declining dissolved oxygen conditions. Riffle and medium-large stream mussel assemblages had greater mortality than generalist assemblages under reduced dissoloved oxygen (DO < 5 mg/L). Mussel community composition at medium-sized sites shifted toward greater dominance of generalist species and lower proportions of riffle and medium-large stream species. At other sites, community structure changed little, likely due to the dominance of drought-resilient species in small streams and less detrimental changes in stream habitat conditions in large streams. Low flow conditions and severe drought adversely affected mussel distributions and assemblages, particularly in high diversity, medium-sized streams.

  4. Basin Analysis of the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin and Petroleum System Modeling of the Jurassic Smackover Formation, Eastern Gulf Coastal Plain

    SciTech Connect

    Mancini, Ernest A.

    2003-02-06

    The project objectives are improving access to information for the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin by inventorying data files and records of the major information repositories in the region, making these inventories easily accessible in electronic format, increasing the amount of information available on domestic sedimentary basins through a comprehensive analysis of the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, and enhancing the understanding of the petroleum systems operating in the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin.

  5. Application of MODIS Products to Infer Possible Relationships Between Basin Land Cover and Coastal Waters Turbidity Using the Magdalena River, Colombia, as a Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madrinan, Max Jacobo Moreno; Cordova, Africa Flores; Olivares, Francisco Delgado; Irwin, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Basin development and consequent change in basin land cover have been often associated with an increased turbidity in coastal waters because of sediment yield and nutrients loading. The later leads to phytoplankton abundance further exacerbating water turbidity. This subsequently affects biological and physical processes in coastal estuaries by interfering with sun light penetration to coral reefs and sea grass, and even affecting public health. Therefore, consistent estimation of land cover changes and turbidity trend lines is crucial to design environmental and restoration management plans, to predict fate of possible pollutants, and to estimate sedimentary fluxes into the ocean. Ground solely methods to estimate land cover change would be unpractical and traditional methods of monitoring in situ water turbidity can be very expensive and time consuming. Accurate monitoring on the status and trends of basin land cover as well as the water quality of the receiving water bodies are required for analysis of relationships between the two variables. Use of remote sensing (RS) technology provides a great benefit for both fields of study, facilitating monitoring of changes in a timely and cost effective manner and covering wide areas with long term measurements. In this study, the Magdalena River basin and fixed geographical locations in the estuarine waters of its delta are used as a case to study the temporal trend lines of both, land cover change and the reflectance of the water turbidity using satellite technology. Land cover data from a combined product between sensors Terra and Aqua (MCD12Q1) from MODIS will be adapted to the conditions in the Magdalena basin to estimate changes in land cover since year 2000 to 2009. Surface reflectance data from a MODIS, Terra (MOD09GQ), band 1, will be used in lieu of in situ water turbidity for the time period between 2000 and present. Results will be compared with available existing data.

  6. Recommendations for Improving Intervener Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Consortium on Deaf-Blindness, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Education's Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP) recognizes the current challenges faced by states and schools relative to the provision of high-quality intervener services for children who are deaf-blind. To respond to these challenges, OSEP asked the National Consortium on Deaf-Blindness (NCDB) to conduct an…

  7. Basin-scale contributions of Cr, Ni and Co from Ortegal Complex to the surrounding coastal environment (SW Europe).

    PubMed

    Prego, Ricardo; Caetano, Miguel; Ospina-Alvarez, Natalia; Raimundo, Joana; Vale, Carlos

    2014-01-15

    The enrichment of Cr and Ni in the coastal zones is usually associated with anthropogenic sources such as the tanning, galvanization, ceramic, and cement industries. However, geological complexes of specific lithologic composition located near shorelines may act as natural sources of metals to the continental shelf. Cape Ortegal (SW Europe) is an ultramafic complex that has Cr, Ni and Co enriched in rocks due to the minerals chromite, chromospinel, gersdorfite and pentlandite. Thus, the hypothesis that this geological complex contributes to metal enrichment in Ortigueira and Barqueiro Rias and the adjacent continental shelf was tested. Chromium, Ni, and Co were determined in water and in suspended particulate matter of ria tributaries, rainfall, surface sediments, mussels, and algae. High contents of Cr (max. 1670mg·kg(-1)) and Ni (max. 1360 mg · kg(-1)) were found in the sediments surrounding Cape Ortegal and the Ortigueira Ria as a result of erosion of exposed cliffs. Dissolved Cr and Ni concentrations in fluvial waters were significantly higher in the rivers that crosses the Ortegal Complex, i.e. Lourido (0.47 μg Cr · L(-1); 9.4 μg Ni · L(-1)) and Landoi (0.37 μg Cr · L(-1); 4.3 μg Ni · L(-1)), in comparison with the nearby basin out of the complex influence (Sor River: <0.01 μg Cr · L(-1); 0.57 μg Ni · L(-1)). The annual fluvial contributions of Cr and Ni to the Ortigueira Ria were higher than fluxes into the Barqueiro Ria. Moreover, the increase in Cr and Ni in the rainfall in summer demonstrated the importance of the atmosphere pathway for introducing these elements into the aquatic environment. As a consequence, the contents of these metals in soft tissues and shell of mussels and algae from the Ortigueira Ria were higher than the organisms from Barqueiro Ria. Thus, geological complexes, such as the Cape Ortegal, located in an uncontaminated area, can increase the land-sea exchange of trace metals. PMID:24055665

  8. Estimating of suspended sediment loads of rivers in the Seine downstream basin and coastal rivers in Southeastern Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landemaine, Valentin; Cerdan, Olivier; Laignel, Benoit; Fournier, Matthieu; Copard, Yoann

    2014-05-01

    Sediment exports in rivers constitute the essential of materials transfer from the land surface to the ocean and contribute significantly to the transfer of nutrients, pesticides, heavy metals which can affect water quality. Such problems of water pollution are particularly present at the Norman loess plateaus because soil erosion is a frequent phenomena and mudslides are common. In this context, the quantification of sediment load, as well as the short and long term variability analysis are a key component for any sustainable management project of water resources. The quantification of sediment fluxes is based on turbidity, suspended sediment concentrations (SSC) and discharge measurements. These measurements must be made with sufficient high frequency for integrating temporal variability of SSC and flows. However, the cost of a high frequency monitoring limits their use at large scale. In France, discharges are monitored using daily frequency (Banque Hydro), while SSC are measured in monthly or bimonthly frequency under the national water quality survey system (RNB). With these low frequency measurements, an algorithm must be used to reconstruct SSC temporal variability and to estimate a sediment flux. Many estimation algorithms have been developed in recent decades, from the simplest to the most elaborate, but no consensus has been reached on the use of a particular algorithm because of the complexity of SSC-discharge relationship. In this study, the analysis focuses on eight Channel coastal watersheds and nine Seine watersheds in the downstream part. We have a several years of high-frequency measurements on nine watersheds with highly variable area (10 km² to 10,000 km²) and low-frequency measurements for all watersheds. From these data, we compared the statistical performance of eleven algorithms to estimate sediment fluxes conventionally used in the literature. These algorithms are: averaging estimator, ratio estimator, linear interpolation, rating curve

  9. The magnitude and controls on denitrification during managed aquifer recharge into a shallow, unconfined aquifer in a coastal groundwater basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, C. M.; Fisher, A. T.; Racz, A. J.; Wheat, C. G.; Sharkey, J.; Lockwood, B. S.

    2009-12-01

    Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) is used to augment water supplies and limit the adverse impacts of groundwater overdraft in many basins. As groundwater demands continue to increase and MAR projects become more common it is increasingly difficult to secure pristine sources for MAR throughout the year. Instead resource managers must explore options for using MAR sources such as stormwater runoff, treated wastewater, and supplies influenced by agricultural activity. Many such sources are impaired by elevated nutrient concentrations and thus there is a need to understand the conditions under which the quality of managed recharge can be improved. In this study we quantify the rates and controls on denitrification during MAR with an emphasis on the load reduction that occurs during infiltration. Our study site includes a 3 ha percolation pond located in central coastal California into which excess flows are diverted from a nearby wetland system during the rainy season. Recharged water passes through a 20 m to 30 m thick vadose zone below the pond and enters a perched aquifer from which it is recovered and distributed to local growers. The concentration of nitrate in diverted wetland water is generally between 10 μmol and 100 μmol but values ≥1000 µmol have been observed. Major element and stable isotopic analyses of infiltrating water and groundwater in combination with point measurements of infiltration indicate considerable spatial and temporal variability in hydrologic and geochemical conditions beneath the recharge pond. Nitrate concentrations are consistently reduced by 50-90% during infiltration. Nitrate isotopic analyses suggest that most of this reduction in nitrate concentration results from denitrification. The average rate of denitrification during infiltration was 30 µmol N L-1 d-1, although rates as high as 200 µmol N L-1 d-1 were observed. While denitrification rates were highest at high infiltration rates, denitrification was most efficient at

  10. Basin Analysis of the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin and Petroleum System Modeling of the Jurassic Smackover Formation, Eastern Gulf Coastal Plain

    SciTech Connect

    Ernest Mancini

    2000-12-31

    Part 3 (Petroleum System Modeling of the Jurassic Smackover Formation) objectives are to provide an analysis of the Smackover petroleum system in Years 4 and 5 of the project and to transfer effectively the research results to producers through workshops and topical reports. Work Accomplished (Year 5): Task 1 - Basin Flow - Basin flow modeling has been completed and the modeling results are being interpreted for report writing (Table 1). Task 2 - Petroleum Source Rocks - Work on the characterization of Smackover petroleum source rocks has been integrated into the basin flow model. Task 3 - Petroleum Reservoirs - Work on the characterization of Smackover petroleum reservoirs continues. The cores to be described have been identified and many of the cores for the eastern part of the basin have been described. Task 4 - Reservoir Diagenesis - Work on reservoir diagenesis has been initiated. Samples from the cores selected for the reservoir characterization are being used for this task. Work Planned (Year 5): Task 1 - Basin Flow - The report on basin flow will be completed. Task 2 - Petroleum Source Rocks - Petroleum source rock data will be reviewed in light of the basin flow model results. Task 3 - Petroleum Reservoirs - Characterization of petroleum reservoirs will continue through core studies. Task 4 - Reservoir Diagenesis - Characterization of reservoir diagenesis will continue through petrographic analysis.

  11. Nitrogen Budget in a Lowland Coastal Area Within the Po River Basin (Northern Italy): Multiple Evidences of Equilibrium Between Sources and Internal Sinks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castaldelli, Giuseppe; Soana, Elisa; Racchetti, Erica; Pierobon, Enrica; Mastrocicco, Micol; Tesini, Enrico; Fano, Elisa Anna; Bartoli, Marco

    2013-09-01

    Detailed studies on pollutants genesis, path and transformation are needed in agricultural catchments facing coastal areas. Here, loss of nutrients should be minimized in order to protect valuable aquatic ecosystems from eutrophication phenomena. A soil system N budget was calculated for a lowland coastal area, the Po di Volano basin (Po River Delta, Northern Italy), characterized by extremely flat topography and fine soil texture and bordering a network of lagoon ecosystems. Main features of this area are the scarce relevance of livestock farming, the intense agriculture, mainly sustained by chemical fertilizers, and the developed network of artificial canals with long water residence time. Average nitrogen input exceeds output terms by ~60 kg N ha-1 year-1, a relatively small amount if compared to sub-basins of the same hydrological system. Analysis of dissolved inorganic nitrogen in groundwater suggests limited vertical loss and no accumulation of this element, while a nitrogen mass balance in surface waters indicates a net and significant removal within the watershed. Our data provide multiple evidences of efficient control of the nitrogen excess in this geographical area and we speculate that denitrification in soil and in the secondary drainage system performs this ecosystemic function. Additionally, the significant difference between nitrogen input and nitrogen output loads associated to the irrigation system, which is fed by the N-rich Po River, suggests that this basin metabolizes part of the nitrogen excess produced upstream. The traditionally absent livestock farming practices and consequent low use of manure as fertilizer pose the risk of excess soil mineralization and progressive loss of denitrification capacity in this area.

  12. The contribution of Fe(III) and humic acid reduction to ecosystem respiration in drained thaw lake basins of the Arctic Coastal Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipson, David A.; Raab, Theodore K.; Goria, Dominic; Zlamal, Jaime

    2013-04-01

    research showed that anaerobic respiration using iron (Fe) oxides as terminal electron acceptor contributed substantially to ecosystem respiration (ER) in a drained thaw lake basin (DTLB) on the Arctic coastal plain. As DTLBs age, the surface organic layer thickens, progressively burying the Fe-rich mineral layers. We therefore hypothesized that Fe(III) availability and Fe reduction would decline with basin age. We studied four DTLBs across an age gradient, comparing seasonal changes in the oxidation state of dissolved and extractable Fe pools and the estimated contribution of Fe reduction to ER. The organic layer thickness did not strictly increase with age for these four sites, though soil Fe levels decreased with increasing organic layer thickness. However, there were surprisingly high levels of Fe minerals in organic layers, especially in the ancient basin where cryoturbation may have transported Fe upward through the profile. Net reduction of Fe oxides occurred in the latter half of the summer and contributed an estimated 40-45% to ecosystem respiration in the sites with the thickest organic layers and 61-63% in the sites with the thinnest organic layers. All sites had high concentrations of soluble Fe(II) and Fe(III), explained by the presence of siderophores, and this pool became progressively more reduced during the first half of the summer. Redox titrations with humic acid (HA) extracts and chelated Fe support our view that this pattern indicates the reduction of HA during this interval. We conclude that Fe(III) and HA reductions contribute broadly to ER in the Arctic coastal plain.

  13. Transport of branched tetraether lipids from the Tagus River basin to the coastal ocean of the Portuguese margin: consequences for the interpretation of the MBT'/CBT paleothermometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zell, C.; Kim, J.-H.; Balsinha, M.; Dorhout, D.; Fernandes, C.; Baas, M.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.

    2014-10-01

    Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs), which are thought to be transported from soil to marine sediment by rivers, have been used to reconstruct the mean annual air temperature (MAAT) and soil pH of the drainage basin using the methylation index of branched tetraethers (MBT, recently refined as MBT') and cyclization index of branched tetraethers (CBT) from coastal marine sediment records. In this study, we trace the brGDGTs from source to sink in the Tagus River basin, the longest river system on the Iberian Peninsula, by determining their concentration and distribution in soils, river suspended particulate matter (SPM), riverbank sediments, marine SPM, and marine surface sediments. The concentrations of brGDGTs in river SPM were substantially higher and their distributions were different compared to those of the drainage basin soils. This indicates that brGDGTs are mainly produced in the river itself. In the marine environment, the brGDGT concentrations rapidly decreased with increasing distance from the Tagus estuary. At the same time, the brGDGT distributions in marine sediments also changed, indicating that marine in situ production also takes place. These results show that there are various problems that complicate the use of the MBT'/CBT for paleoreconstructions using coastal marine sediments in the vicinity of a river. However, if the majority of brGDGTs are produced in the river, it might be possible to reconstruct the environmental (temperature and pH) conditions of the river water using appropriate aquatic calibrations, provided that marine core locations are chosen in such a way that the brGDGTs in their sediments are predominantly derived from riverine in situ production.

  14. Transport of branched tetraether lipids from the Tagus River basin to the coastal ocean of the Portuguese margin: consequences for the interpretation of the MBT'/CBT paleothermometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zell, C.; Kim, J.-H.; Balsinha, M.; Dorhout, D.; Fernandes, C.; Baas, M.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.

    2014-03-01

    Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs), which are transported from soil to marine sediment by rivers, have been used to reconstruct the mean annual air temperature (MAAT) and soil pH of the drainage basin using the methylation index of branched tetraethers (MBT, recently refined as MBT') and cyclization index of branched tetraethers (CBT) from coastal marine sediment records. In this study we are tracing the brGDGTs from source to sink in the Tagus River basin, the longest river system on the Iberian Peninsula, by determining their concentration and distribution in soils, river suspended particulate matter (SPM), riverbank sediments, marine SPM, and marine surface sediments. The concentrations of brGDGTs in river SPM were substantially higher and their distributions were different compared to those of the drainage basin soils. This indicates that brGDGTs are mainly produced in the river itself. In the marine environment, the brGDGT concentrations rapidly decreased with increasing distance from the Tagus estuary. At the same time, the brGDGT distributions in marine sediments also changed, indicating that marine in-situ production also takes place. These results show that there are various problems that complicate the use of the MBT'/CBT for paleoreconstructions using coastal marine sediments in the vicinity of a river. However, if the majority of brGDGTs are produced in the river, it might be possible to reconstruct the environmental (temperature and pH) conditions of the river water using appropriate aquatic calibrations, provided that marine core locations are chosen in such a way that the brGDGTs in their sediments are predominantly derived from riverine in-situ production.

  15. Transport of branched tetraether lipids from the Tagus River basin to the coastal ocean of the Portuguese margin: Consequences for the interpretation of the MBT'/CBT paleothermometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zell, Claudia; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Balinsha, Maria; Dorhout, Denise; Santos Fernandez, Cten; Baas, Marianne; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

    2014-05-01

    Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs), which are transported from soil to marine sediment by rivers, have been used to reconstruct the mean annual air temperature(MAAT) and soil pH of the drainage basin using the methylation index of branched tetraethers(MBT, recently refined as MBT') and cyclization index of branched tetraethers (CBT) from coastal marine sediment records. In this study we are tracing the brGDGTs from source to sink in the Tagus River basin, the longest river system on the Iberian Peninsula, by determining their concentration and distribution in soils, river suspended particulate matter (SPM), riverbank sediments, marine SPM, and marine surface sediments. The concentrations of brGDGTs in river SPM were substantially higher and their distributions were different compared to those of the drainage basin soils. This indicates that brGDGTs are mainly produced in the river itself. In the marine environment, the brGDGT concentrations rapidly decreased with increasing distance from the Tagus estuary. At the same time, the brGDGT distributions in marine sediments also changed,indicating that marine in-situ production also takes place. These results show that there are various problems that complicate the use of the MBT'/CBT for paleoreconstructions using coastal marine sediments in the vicinity of a river. However, if the majority of brGDGTs are produced in the river, it might be possible to reconstruct the environmental (temperature and pH) conditions of the river water using appropriate aquatic calibrations, provided that marine core locations are chosen in such a way that the brGDGTs in their sediments are predominantly derived from riverine in-situ production.

  16. The Influence of Wind and Basin Eddies in Controlling Sea Level Variations in the Coastal Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abualnaja, Yasser O.; Churchill, James H.; Nellayaputhenpeedika, Mohammedali; Limeburner, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Sea level variations in the central Red Sea coastal zone span a range of roughly 1.2 m. Though relatively small, these water level changes can significantly impact the environment over the shallow reef tops prevalent in the central Red Sea, altering the water depth by a factor or two or more. Roughly half of the coastal sea level variance in central Red Sea is due to elevation changes in an 'intermediate' frequency band, with periods between 2 days and 1 month. We examined the sea level signal in this band using the data from pressure sensors maintained for more than five years at a number of locations in Saudi Arabian coastal waters between 20.1 and 23.5 oN. We find that the intermediate-band sea level variations are strongly correlated with the local wind stress measured at a meteorological buoy. The maximum pressure-wind correlation occurs at wind direction closely aligned with the alongshore orientation and at a lag (wind leading) of 45 hr, which is consistent with the expected response of the coastal sea level to local wind forcing. However, less than half of the sea level variance in the intermediate band is related, through linear correlation, with local wind forcing. Our analysis indicates that the residual coastal sea level signal, not associated with wind forcing, is largely driven remotely by the passage of mesoscale eddies, revealed by satellite altimeter-derived sea level anomaly fields of the central Red Sea. These eddy-driven coastal sea level changes occur on time scales of 10-30 days. They span a range of 0.5 m, and thus constitute an import component of the sea level signal in the coastal Red Sea.

  17. A large scale survey of trace metal levels in coastal waters of the Western Mediterranean basin using caged mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis).

    PubMed

    Benedicto, José; Andral, Bruno; Martínez-Gómez, Concepción; Guitart, Carlos; Deudero, Salud; Cento, Alessandro; Scarpato, Alfonso; Caixach, Josep; Benbrahim, Samir; Chouba, Lassaad; Boulahdid, Mostefa; Galgani, François

    2011-05-01

    A large scale study of trace metal contamination (Hg, Cd, Pb and Ni) by means of caged mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis was undertaken along the coastal waters of the Western Mediterranean Sea within the context of the MYTILOS project. Individual mussels from an homogeneous population (shell size 50 ± 5 mm) obtained from an aquaculture farm were consecutively caged and deployed at 123 sites located in the Alborán, North-Western, South-Western and Tyrrhenian sub-basins for 12 weeks (April-July) in 2004, 2005 and 2006. After cage recoveries, both the metal content in the whole mussel tissue and the allometric parameters were measured. Statistical analysis of the datasets showed significant differences in concentrations between sub-basins for some metals and mussel condition index (CI). Linear regression models coupled to the CI were revisited for the data adjustment of certain trace metals (Hg, Cd and Ni), and four level categories were statistically derived to facilitate interregional comparison. Seawater masses surrounding coastal areas impacted by run-off from land mineralised coasts and industrial activities displayed the highest concentration ranges (Hg: 0.15-0.31 mg kg(-1) dw; Cd: 1.97-2.11; Ni: 2.18-3.20 and Pb: 3.1-3.8), although the levels obtained in most of the sites fitted within moderate or low categories, and they could be considered as baseline concentrations. However, few sites considered little-influenced by human activities, at present, showed high concentrations of Cd, Ni and Pb, which constitute new areas of concern. Overall, the use of active biomonitoring (ABM) approach allowed to investigate trace metal contamination in order to support policy makers in establishing regional strategies (particularly, with regard to the European Marine Strategy Directive). PMID:21384032

  18. Coupled Dynamics of Iron and Phosphorus in Sediments of an Oligotrophic Coastal Basin and the Impact of Anaerobic Oxidation of Methane

    PubMed Central

    Slomp, Caroline P.; Mort, Haydon P.; Jilbert, Tom; Reed, Daniel C.; Gustafsson, Bo G.; Wolthers, Mariette

    2013-01-01

    Studies of phosphorus (P) dynamics in surface sediments of lakes and coastal seas typically emphasize the role of coupled iron (Fe), sulfur (S) and P cycling for sediment P burial and release. Here, we show that anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) also may impact sediment P cycling in such systems. Using porewater and sediment profiles for sites in an oligotrophic coastal basin (Bothnian Sea), we provide evidence for the formation of Fe-bound P (possibly vivianite; Fe3(PO4)2.8H2O) below the zone of AOM with sulfate. Here, dissolved Fe2+ released from oxides is no longer scavenged by sulfide and high concentrations of both dissolved Fe2+ (>1 mM) and PO4 in the porewater allow supersaturation with respect to vivianite to be reached. Besides formation of Fe(II)-P, preservation of Fe-oxide bound P likely also contributes to permanent burial of P in Bothnian Sea sediments. Preliminary budget calculations suggest that the burial of Fe-bound P allows these sediments to act as a major sink for P from the adjacent eutrophic Baltic Proper. PMID:23626815

  19. Gazetteer of hydrologic characteristics of streams in Massachusetts; Taunton and Ten Mile River basins and coastal river basins of Mount Hope Bay, Narragansett Bay, and Rhode Island Sound

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wandle, S.W.; Keezer, G.R.

    1984-01-01

    The study area includes streams draining the Taunton River (562 square miles), the Tenmile River (53.1 square miles), and the minor streams flowing into Mount Hope Bay, Narragansett Bay, and Rhode Island Sound in southern Massachusetts, and adjacent areas of Rhode Island. Drainage areas, using the latest available 1:24 ,000 scale topographic maps, were computed for the first time for streams draining more than 3 square miles and were re-computed for data-collection sites. Streamflow characteristics, at 10 gaging stations were calculated using a new data base with daily flow records through 1981. These characteristics include annual and monthly flow statistics, duration of daily flow values, and the annual 7-day mean low flow at the 2-year and 10-year recurrence intervals. Seven-day low-flow statistics are presented for 44 partial-record sites and the procedures used to determine the hydrologic characteristics of a basin are summarized. Basin characteristics representing 14 commonly used indices to estimate various streamflows are presented for selected gaged streams. This gazetteer will aid in the planning and managing of water-resources related activities, and will provide a common data base for governmental agencies and the engineering and planning communities. (USGS)

  20. Effects of olive oil wastes on river basins and an oligotrophic coastal marine ecosystem: a case study in Greece.

    PubMed

    Pavlidou, A; Anastasopoulou, E; Dassenakis, M; Hatzianestis, I; Paraskevopoulou, V; Simboura, N; Rousselaki, E; Drakopoulou, P

    2014-11-01

    This work aims to contribute to the knowledge of the impacts of olive oil waste discharge to freshwater and oligotrophic marine environments, since the ecological impact of olive oil wastes in riverine and coastal marine ecosystems, which are the final repositories of the pollutants, is a great environmental problem on a global scale, mostly concerning all the Mediterranean countries with olive oil production. Messinia, in southwestern Greece, is one of the greatest olive oil production areas in Europe. During the last decade around 1.4×10(6)tons of olive oil mill wastewater has been disposed in the rivers of Messinia and finally entered the marine ecosystem of Messiniakos gulf. The pollution from olive oil mill wastewater in the main rivers of Messinia and the oligotrophic coastal zone of Messiniakos gulf and its effects on marine organisms were evaluated, before, during and after the olive oil production period. Elevated amounts of phenols (36.2-178 mg L(-1)) and high concentrations of ammonium (7.29-18.9 mmol L(-1)) and inorganic phosphorus (0.5-7.48 mmol L(-1)) were measured in small streams where the liquid disposals from several olive oil industries were gathered before their discharge in the major rivers of Messinia. The large number of olive oil units has downgraded the riverine and marine ecosystems during the productive period and a period more than five months is needed for the recovery of the ecosystem. Statistical analysis showed that the enrichment of freshwater and the coastal zone of Messiniakos gulf in ammonia, nitrite, phenols, total organic carbon, copper, manganese and nickel was directly correlated with the wastes from olive oil. Toxicity tests using 24h LC50 Palaemonidae shrimp confirm that olive mill wastewater possesses very high toxicity in the aquatic environment. PMID:25112823

  1. Application and evaluation of electromagnetic methods for imaging saltwater intrusion in coastal aquifers: Seaside Groundwater Basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nenna, Vanessa; Herckenrather, Daan; Knight, Rosemary; Odlum, Nick; McPhee, Darcy

    2013-01-01

    Developing effective resource management strategies to limit or prevent saltwater intrusion as a result of increasing demands on coastal groundwater resources requires reliable information about the geologic structure and hydrologic state of an aquifer system. A common strategy for acquiring such information is to drill sentinel wells near the coast to monitor changes in water salinity with time. However, installation and operation of sentinel wells is costly and provides limited spatial coverage. We studied the use of noninvasive electromagnetic (EM) geophysical methods as an alternative to installation of monitoring wells for characterizing coastal aquifers. We tested the feasibility of using EM methods at a field site in northern California to identify the potential for and/or presence of hydraulic communication between an unconfined saline aquifer and a confined freshwater aquifer. One-dimensional soundings were acquired using the time-domain electromagnetic (TDEM) and audiomagnetotelluric (AMT) methods. We compared inverted resistivity models of TDEM and AMT data obtained from several inversion algorithms. We found that multiple interpretations of inverted models can be supported by the same data set, but that there were consistencies between all data sets and inversion algorithms. Results from all collected data sets suggested that EM methods are capable of reliably identifying a saltwater-saturated zone in the unconfined aquifer. Geophysical data indicated that the impermeable clay between aquifers may be more continuous than is supported by current models.

  2. Arsenic, metals, and nutrients in runoff from two detention basins to Raccoon Creek, New Jersey Coastal Plain, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barringer, Julia L.; Szabo, Zoltan; Bonin, Jennifer L.; McGee, Craig K.

    2011-01-01

    Arsenic (As) concentrations in the waters of Raccoon Creek in southern New Jersey commonly exceed the State\\'s Surface Water Quality Standard (SWQS) for freshwater of 0.017 microgram per liter (mu or ug/L). In order to assess contributions of As from residential runoff to the creek, samples of runoff water were collected from a detention basin in each of two residential developments underlain by different geologic formations and at the outlets of those basins. Samples of streamwater also were collected from Raccoon Creek adjacent to the developments. The samples were analyzed to determine concentrations of As, selected metals, organic carbon, and nutrients. Soil samples in and downgradient from the basins also were collected and analyzed. Concentrations of As in unfiltered water samples of runoff from the basin underlain by glauconitic clays generally were higher (up to 4.35 mu or ug/L) than in runoff from the basin underlain by predominantly quartz sands and silts (up to 2.68 mu or ug/L). Chromium (Cr) concentrations also were higher in runoff from the basin underlain by glauconitic clays than in runoff from the basin underlain by quartz sand and silt. In addition, Cr concentrations were higher in the glauconitic soils than in the quartz-rich soils. Metals such as aluminum (Al), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), and manganese (Mn) in the runoff and in the streamwater were mostly in particulate form. Arsenic, most metals, and phosphorus (P) however, were mostly in dissolved form in runoff but in particulate form in the streamwater. Total organic carbon concentrations in the runoff ranged from about 10 to nearly 16 milligrams per liter (mg/L). Given such levels of organic carbon and strong correlations between concentrations of some metals and organic carbon, it may be that many of the metals were complexed with dissolved organic carbon and transported in that form in the runoff. Although underlying geologic materials and soils appear to be major contributors of As to the

  3. Freshwater Vulnerability to Nitrate Contamination as an Indicator of Sustainability and Resilience within the Water-Energy-Food Nexus of the California Coastal Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanus, L.; Geyer, G.; Gurdak, J. J.; Orencio, P. M.; Endo, A.; Taniguchi, M.

    2014-12-01

    The California Coastal Basin (CCB) aquifers are representative of many coastal aquifers that are vulnerable to nonpoint-source (NPS) contamination from intense agriculture and increased urbanization combined with historical groundwater use and overdraft conditions. Overdraft has led to seawater intrusion along parts of the central California coast, which negatively affects food production because of high salinity concentrations in groundwater used for irrigation. Recent drought conditions in California have led to an increased need to further understand freshwater sustainability and resilience within the water-energy-food (WEF) nexus. Assessing the vulnerability of NPS contamination in groundwater provides valuable information for optimal resource management and policy. Vulnerability models of nitrate contamination in the CCB were developed as one of many indicators to evaluate risk in terms of susceptibility of the physical environment at local and regional scales. Multivariate logistic regression models were developed to predict the probability of NPS nitrate contamination in recently recharged groundwater and to identify significant explanatory variables as controlling factors in the CCB. Different factors were found to be significant in the sub-regions of the CCB and issues of scale are important. For example, land use is scale dependent because of the difference in land management practices between the CCB sub-regions. However, dissolved oxygen concentrations in groundwater, farm fertilizer, and soil thickness are scale invariant because they are significant both regionally and sub-regionally. Thus, the vulnerability models for the CCB show that different explanatory variables are scale invariant. This finding has important implications for accurately quantifying linkages between vulnerability and consequences within the WEF nexus, including inherent tradeoffs in water and food production in California and associated impacts on the local and regional economy

  4. Food web of a confined and anthropogenically affected coastal basin (the Mar Piccolo of Taranto) revealed by carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes analyses.

    PubMed

    Bongiorni, Lucia; Fiorentino, Federica; Auriemma, Rocco; Aubry, Fabrizio Bernardi; Camatti, Elisa; Camin, Federica; Nasi, Federica; Pansera, Marco; Ziller, Luca; Grall, Jacques

    2016-07-01

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis was used to examine the food web of the Mar Piccolo of Taranto, a coastal basin experiencing several anthropogenic impacts. Main food sources (algal detritus, seaweeds, particulate organic matter (POM) and sediment organic matter (SOM)) and benthic and pelagic consumers were collected during two contrasting seasons (June and April), at four sites distributed over two inlets, and characterized by different level of confinements, anthropogenic inputs and the presence of mussels farming. δ(13)C values of organic sources revealed an important contribution of POM to both planktonic and benthic pathways, as well as the influence of terrigenous inputs within both inlets, probably due to high seasonal land runoff. Although δ(13)C of both sources and consumers varied little between sampling sites and dates, δ(15)N spatial variability was higher and clearly reflected the organic enrichment in the second inlet as well as the uptake of anthropogenically derived material by benthic consumers. On the other hand, within the first inlet, the isotopic composition of consumers did not change in response to chemical contamination. However, the impact of polluted sediments near the Navy Arsenal in the first inlet was detectable at the level of the macrobenthic trophic structure, showing high dominance of motile, upper level consumers capable to face transient conditions and the reduction of the more resident deposit feeders. We therefore underline the great potential of matching stable isotope analysis with quantitative studies of community structure to assess the effects of multiple anthropogenic stressors. PMID:26381790

  5. Total dissolved and total particulate copper in Abu-Kir bay a coastal Mediterranean basin under stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saad, M. A. H.; Badr, N. B.

    2003-05-01

    Abu-Kir Bay, a shallow semicircular basin east of Alexandria, has an area of 360 km^2, an average depth of 12 m and a volume of 4.32 km^3. It receives Nile water. brackish lakewater and highly polluted industrial waters. Vertical water samples were collected seasonally from the bay for studying the distribution of total dissolved copper (TDCu), total suspended matter (TSM) and total particulate copper (TPCu). The depth differences of TDCu values were associated with variations in salinities between the water layers. The increase in TDCu content at low salinity in the mixed zone is due to local anthropogenic input from Lake Edku. The stepwise regression model shows that pH was the main factor controlling the TDCu variations, especially at Tabia Sector (TS). Copper was transported mainly to the bay in particulate form, following the considerable input of TSM. During friction of the in-and outflowing water layers with different salinities at the Maadia Sector (MS), a complicated adsorption/desorption behavior of TSM could be expressed as a result of changes in pH, ionic Srength and solution composition. The enrichment of TpCu near the outfalls decreased gradually seaward. A significant positive correlation existed between TPCu and TSM in the surfixe layer of TS.

  6. Definition of Intervener Services and Interveners in Educational Settings. Technical Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Consortium on Deaf-Blindness, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This technical report synthesizes the process and information used by National Consortium on Deaf-Blindness (NCDB) in the development of a consistently applied definition of intervener services. It addresses challenges and questions, provides comparisons between interveners and paraprofessionals, and offers definitions, roles and concepts used by…

  7. Organofacies and kerogen tranformation kinetics: Implications for hydrocarbon generation in the Bucomazi Formation, lower Congo coastal basin

    SciTech Connect

    Burwood, R.; Fortems, G.; Mycke, B.; Paulet, J.; De Witte, S.M. )

    1993-09-01

    Deposited under lacustrine conditions during the rift-phase opening of the southern Atlantic, the lower Congo Bucomazi Formation is a highly productive source rock sequence. Reaching considerable thickness (1.8 km), a heterogeneous organofacies reflects both rapid accumulation and changing conditions during Early Cretaceous Barremian sedimentation. As a component of organofacies, low resolution studies showed kerogen kinetic parameters (Ea/A) varied widely according to the gross paleoenvironmental conditions prevailing during deposition. As a a general trend, refractory (type I, higher Ea) kerogens of the [open quotes]basin fill[close quotes] Organic Rich Zone (ORZ) give way to more labile (type II, lower Ea) assemblages in the up-section [open quotes]sheet drape[close quotes] sediments. At higher resolution, a considerable fine structure in Ea fluctuation, presumably reflecting micropaleoenvironment control, becomes evident. Using Ea values assembled for the Bucomazi type section, subsidence modeling for a Ponta Vermelha depocenter section showed a wide disparity in behavior. Being more representative of the sheet-drape episode, type II assemblages matured earlier, at lesser overburdens, and provided the initial hydrocarbon charge. For the ORZ assemblages, the dominant type I component was of retarded maturation, only becoming productive at commensurately greater overburdens. Cumulatively, these events merge to provide an extended period of hydrocarbon generation with implications for production of aggregate oils of varied emplacement histories. Significantly, the net effect of the observed Ea contrast results in the less prolific (but more labile) uppermost Bucomazi assuming a more important charging role than the ORZ of superior source richness. The latter can only realize its full potential under the greatest overburdens attainable in the most subsident depocenters.

  8. Relation of arsenic, iron, and manganese in ground water to aquifer type, bedrock lithogeochemistry, and land use in the New England coastal basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ayotte, Joseph D.; Nielsen, Martha G.; Robinson, Gilpin R., Jr.; Moore, Richard B.

    1999-01-01

    In a study of arsenic concentrations in public-supply wells in the New England Coastal Basins, concentrations at or above 0.005 mg/L (milligrams per liter) were detected in more samples of water from wells completed in bedrock (25 percent of all samples) than in water from wells completed in stratified drift (7.5 percent of all samples). Iron and manganese were detected (at concentrations of 0.05 and 0.03 mg/L, respectively) at approximately the same frequency in water from wells in both types of aquifers. Concentrations of arsenic in public-supply wells drilled in bedrock (in the National Water-Quality Assessment Program New England Coastal Basins study unit) vary with the bedrock lithology. Broad groups of lithogeochemical units generalized from bedrock lithologic units shown on state geologic maps were used in the statistical analyses. Concentrations of arsenic in water from public-supply wells in metasedimentary bedrock units that contain slightly to moderately calcareous and calcsilicate rocks (lithogeochemical group Mc) were significantly higher than the concentrations in five other groups of bedrock units in the study unit. Arsenic was detected, at or above 0.005 mg/L, in water from 44 percent of the wells in the lithogeochemical group M c and in water from less than 28 percent of wells in the five other groups. Additionally, arsenic concentrations in ground water were the lowest in the metasedimentary rocks that are characterized as variably sulfidic (group Ms ). Generally, concentrations of arsenic were low in water from bedrock wells in the felsic igneous rocks (group If ) though locally some bedrock wells in granitic rocks are known to have ground water with high arsenic concentrations, especially in New Hampshire. The concentrations of arsenic in ground water also correlate with land-use data; significantly higher concentrations are found in areas identified as agricultural land use than in undeveloped areas. There is, however, more agricultural land in

  9. Restoring the Mississippi River Basin from the Catchment to the Coast Defines Science and Policy Issues of Ecosystem Services Associated with Alluvial and Coastal Deltaic Floodplains: Soil Conservation, Nutrient Reduction, Carbon Sequestration, and Flood Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twilley, R.

    2014-12-01

    Large river systems are major economic engines that provide national economic wealth in transporting commerce and providing extensive agriculture production, and their coastal deltas are sites of significant ports, energy resources and fisheries. These coupled natural and social systems from the catchment to the coast depend on how national policies manage the river basins that they depend. The fundamental principle of the Mississippi River Basin, as in all basins, is to capitalize on the ability of fertile soil that moves from erosional regions of a large watershed, through downstream regions of the catchment where sediment transport and storage builds extensive floodplains, to the coastal region of deposition where deltas capture sediment and nutrients before exported to the oceans. The fate of soil, and the ability of that soil to do work, supports the goods and services along its path from the catchment to the coast in all large river basin and delta systems. Sediment is the commodity of all large river basin systems that together with the seasonal pulse of floods across the interior of continents provide access to the sea forming the assets that civilization and economic engines have tapped to build national and global wealth. Coastal landscapes represent some of the most altered ecosystems worldwide and often integrate the effects of processes over their entire catchment, requiring systemic solutions to achieve restoration goals from alluvial floodplains upstream to coastal deltaic floodplains downstream. The urgent need for wetland rehabilitation at landscape scales has been initiated through major floodplain reclamation and hydrologic diversions to reconnect the river with wetland processes. But the constraints of sediment delivery and nutrient enrichment represent some critical conflicts in earth surface processes that limit the ability to design 'self sustaining' public work projects; particularly with the challenges of accelerated sea level rise. Only

  10. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the South Coast Range-Coastal study unit, 2008: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burton, Carmen A.; Land, Michael; Belitz, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the South Coast Range–Coastal (SCRC) study unit was investigated from May through November 2008 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study unit is located in the Southern Coast Range hydrologic province and includes parts of Santa Barbara and San Luis Obispo Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in collaboration with the California State Water Resources Control Board and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was designed to provide a statistically unbiased, spatially distributed assessment of untreated groundwater quality within the primary aquifer system. The primary aquifer system is defined as that part of the aquifer corresponding to the perforation interval of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database for the SCRC study unit. The assessments for the SCRC study unit were based on water-quality and ancillary data collected in 2008 by the USGS from 55 wells on a spatially distributed grid, and water-quality data from the CDPH database. Two types of assessments were made: (1) status, assessment of the current quality of the groundwater resource, and (2) understanding, identification of the natural and human factors affecting groundwater quality. Water-quality and ancillary data were collected from an additional 15 wells for the understanding assessment. The assessments characterize untreated groundwater quality, not the quality of treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors. The first component of this study, the status assessment of groundwater quality, used data from samples analyzed for anthropogenic constituents such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and pesticides, as well as naturally occurring inorganic constituents such as major ions and trace elements. Although the status assessment applies to untreated

  11. Ground-water data as of 1967, Central Coastal Subregion, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bader, J.S.

    1969-01-01

    Most usable ground water in the predominantly mountainous Central Coastal Subregion occurs in alluvium-filled valleys and coastal plains and in deeper aquifers of Quaternary and Tertiary age. The intervening mountainous areas are underlain by consolidated sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic rocks, mainly of Mesozoic age. These older rocks contain only small quantities of recoverable ground water and, therefore, are not considered a major source of ground water. In the Central Coastal Subregion, 24 basins have been identified as significant sources of ground water. The total area of the 24 basins is about 3,500 square miles. The water-bearing deposits range in thickness from about 200 to 4,000 feet. Depending on local conditions, recharge infiltrates at rates of less than 1½ feet per day to more than 10 feet per day in the upper part of alluvial fans and stream channels and at the outcrops of the deeper aquifers. The maximum measured depth to water in the water-bearing deposits is 568 ft. In several valleys there are flowing wells. Total storage capacity of 16 of the basins is more than 20,000,000 acre-feet . The usable storage capacity of 18 of the basins is more than 7,600,000 acre-feet; the limiting factors are sea-water intrusion and high pumping lift. Ground-water temperature ranges from about 55° to about 75°F . The dissolved-solids content of the water is generally less than 800 parts per million, but locally is more than 11,000 parts per million. The predominant water type is calcium bicarbonate, but sodium, magnesium, sulfate, and chloride are present locally in significant quantities. Properly constructed wells in some areas can yield 425 gallons per minute.

  12. Eustatic and tectonic control of sedimentation in the Pennsylvanian strata of the Central Appalachian Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Chesnut, D.R. Jr. . Kentucky Geological Survey)

    1992-01-01

    Analysis of the Breathitt Group of the Central Appalachian Basin reveals three orders of depositional cycles or trends. The Breathitt coarsening-upward trend (20 million years (my)) represents increasing intensity of the Alleghenian Orogeny. The major transgression (MT) cycle (2.5 my) was controlled by an unknown eustatic or tectonic mechanism. The major coal beds and intervening strata make up the coal-clastic cycle (CC cycle) (=Appalachian cyclothem) which has a 0.4 my periodicity. This periodicity supports eustatic control of sedimentation modulated by an orbital periodicity. Extensive coastal peats deposited at lowstand (CC cycle) were preserved as coals, whereas highstand peats were eroded during the subsequent drop in sea level. Autocyclic processes such as delta switching and avulsion occurred within CC cycles. An Early Pennsylvanian unconformity represents uplift and erosion of mid-Carboniferous foreland basin deposits. Alluvial deposits (Breathitt Group) derived from the highlands were transported to the northwest toward the forebulge. During lowstand, the only outlet available to further sediment transport (Lee sandstones) was toward the southwest (Ouachita Trough), along the Black Warrior-Appalachian foreland basins. The Middle Pennsylvanian marks a period of intermittent overfilling of the foreland basin and cresting of the forebulge. Marine transgressions entered through the foreland basins and across saddles in the forebulge. After the Ouachita Trough was destroyed during the late Middle Pennsylvanian, marine transgressions migrated only across saddles in the forebulge. In the Late Pennsylvanian, marine waters entered the basin only across the diminished forebulge north of the Jessamine Dome.

  13. Coastal groundwater salinization: Focus on the vertical variability in a multi-layered aquifer through a multi-isotope fingerprinting (Roussillon Basin, France).

    PubMed

    Petelet-Giraud, Emmanuelle; Négrel, Philippe; Aunay, Bertrand; Ladouche, Bernard; Bailly-Comte, Vincent; Guerrot, Catherine; Flehoc, Christine; Pezard, Philippe; Lofi, Johanna; Dörfliger, Nathalie

    2016-10-01

    The Roussillon sedimentary Basin (South France) is a complex multi-layered aquifer, close to the Mediterranean Sea facing seasonally increases of water abstraction and salinization issues. We report geochemical and isotopic vertical variability in this aquifer using groundwater sampled with a Westbay System® at two coastal monitoring sites: Barcarès and Canet. The Westbay sampling allows pointing out and explaining the variation of water quality along vertical profiles, both in productive layers and in the less permeable ones where most of the chemical processes are susceptible to take place. The aquifer layers are not equally impacted by salinization, with electrical conductivity ranging from 460 to 43,000μS·cm(-1). The δ(2)H-δ(18)O signatures show mixing between seawater and freshwater components with long water residence time as evidenced by the lack of contribution from modern water using (3)H, (14)C and CFCs/SF6. S(SO4) isotopes also evidence seawater contribution but some signatures can be related to oxidation of pyrite and/or organically bounded S. In the upper layers (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios are close to that of seawater and then increase with depth, reflecting water-rock interaction with argillaceous formations while punctual low values reflect interaction with carbonate. Boron isotopes highlight secondary processes such as adsorption/desorption onto clays in addition to mixings. At the Barcarès site (120m deep), the high salinity in some layers appear to be related neither to present day seawater intrusion, nor to Salses-Leucate lagoonwater intrusion. Groundwater chemical composition thus highlights binary mixing between fresh groundwater and inherited salty water together with cation exchange processes, water-rock interactions and, locally, sedimentary organic matter mineralisation probably enhanced by pyrite oxidation. Finally, combining the results of this study and those of Caballero and Ladouche (2015), we discuss the possible future evolution of

  14. Ravens intervene in others' bonding attempts.

    PubMed

    Massen, Jorg J M; Szipl, Georgine; Spreafico, Michela; Bugnyar, Thomas

    2014-11-17

    The competition for power in a complex social world is hypothesized to be a driving force in the evolution of intelligence. More specifically, power may be obtained not only by brute force but also by social strategies resembling human politics. Most empirical evidence comes from primate studies that report unprovoked aggression by dominants to maintain power by spreading fear and third-party interventions in conflicts. Coalitionary support has also been described in other animals and is often linked to social bonding. As coalitions can lead to a gain in power and fitness benefits, individuals may try to prevent coalitionary support or indirectly prevent others from forming social bonds that might lead to coalitions. Although there is some empirical evidence that coalitionary support can be manipulated, little is known about the indirect strategy. We show here that wild ravens (Corvus corax) regularly intervene in affiliative interactions of others even though such interventions are potentially risky and without immediate benefits. Moreover, the identities of both interveners and intervened pairs are not randomly distributed. Ravens with existing ties initiate most interventions, and ravens that are creating new ties are most likely to be the targets of interventions. These patterns are consistent with the idea that interventions function to prevent others from forming alliances and consequently becoming future competitors. We thus show previously undescribed social maneuvers in the struggle for power. These maneuvers are likely to be of importance in other social species as well. PMID:25455033

  15. Attenuation of landscape signals through the coastal zone: A basin-wide analysis for the US Great Lakes shoreline, circa 2002-2010

    EPA Science Inventory

    We compare statistical models developed to describe a) the relationship between watershed properties and Great Lakes coastal wetlands with b) the relationship developed between watershed properties and the Great Lakes nearshore. Using landscape metrics from the GLEI project (Dan...

  16. Ravens Intervene in Others’ Bonding Attempts

    PubMed Central

    Massen, Jorg J.M.; Szipl, Georgine; Spreafico, Michela; Bugnyar, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Summary The competition for power in a complex social world is hypothesized to be a driving force in the evolution of intelligence [1]. More specifically, power may be obtained not only by brute force but also by social strategies resembling human politics [2]. Most empirical evidence comes from primate studies that report unprovoked aggression by dominants to maintain power by spreading fear [3] and third-party interventions in conflicts [4–6]. Coalitionary support has also been described in other animals [7, 8] and is often linked to social bonding [9, 10]. As coalitions can lead to a gain in power [5, 11] and fitness benefits [12], individuals may try to prevent coalitionary support or indirectly prevent others from forming social bonds that might lead to coalitions. Although there is some empirical evidence that coalitionary support can be manipulated [13], little is known about the indirect strategy. We show here that wild ravens (Corvus corax) regularly intervene in affiliative interactions of others even though such interventions are potentially risky and without immediate benefits. Moreover, the identities of both interveners and intervened pairs are not randomly distributed. Ravens with existing ties initiate most interventions, and ravens that are creating new ties are most likely to be the targets of interventions. These patterns are consistent with the idea that interventions function to prevent others from forming alliances and consequently becoming future competitors. We thus show previously undescribed social maneuvers in the struggle for power. These maneuvers are likely to be of importance in other social species as well. PMID:25455033

  17. Arctic Coastal Dynamics (ACD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachold, V.; Boike, J.

    2003-04-01

    Coastal dynamics directly reflecting the complicated land-ocean interactions play an important role in the balance of sediments, organic carbon and nutrients in the Arctic basin. Recent studies indicate that sediment input to the Arctic shelves resulting from erosion of ice-rich, permafrost-dominated coasts may be equal to or greater than input from river discharge. Thus, the understanding and quantification of coastal processes is critical for interpreting the geological history of the Arctic shelves. The predictions of future behavior of these coasts in response to climatic and sea level changes is an important issue because most of the human activity that occurs at high latitudes concentrates on the Arctic coastlines. As an initiative of the International Permafrost Association (IPA) the multi-disciplinary, multi-national forum Arctic Coastal Dynamics (ACD), which was recently accepted as a project of the International Arctic Sciences Committee (IASC), had been developed. The overall objective of ACD is to improve our understanding of circum-Arctic coastal dynamics as a function of environmental forcing, coastal geology and cryology and morphodynamic behavior. In particular, the project aims to: - establish the rates and magnitudes of erosion and accumulation of Arctic coasts; - develop a network of long-term monitoring sites including local community-based observational sites; - identify and undertake focused research on critical processes; - estimate the amount of sediments and organic carbon derived from coastal erosion; - refine and apply an Arctic coastal classification (includes ground-ice, permafrost, geology etc.) in digital form (GIS format); - extract and utilize existing information on relevant environmental forcing parameters (e.g. wind speed, sea level, fetch, sea ice etc.); - produce a series of thematic and derived maps (e.g. coastal classification, ground-ice, sensitivity etc.); - develop empirical models to assess the sensitivity of Arctic

  18. Identifying and intervening in relational aggression.

    PubMed

    Raskauskas, Juliana; Stoltz, Ann D

    2004-08-01

    Chronic victimization by bullies has been associated with academic failure in adolescence, as well as adjustment difficulties, depression, and suicidal ideation. Relational aggression is a form of bullying that is a problem for adolescent girls. It often takes the form of damaging peer relationships and includes verbal assaults such as teasing or name calling, as well as psychological attacks such as gossip, social exclusion, and strategic friendship manipulations. A girl's ability to identify these indirect attacks may be imperative for her to enact an effective defense. Because many students do not recognize relational aggression as a form of bullying, their experiences often go unreported to parents or teachers. School nurses may be the front line of defense. With this in mind, school nurses must be informed about bullying behaviors, equipped to identify these behaviors, and prepared to intervene with victims as well as perpetrators of bullying. PMID:15283614

  19. Baseflow and stormflow metal fluxes from two small agricultural catchments in the Coastal Plain of the Chesapeake Bay Basin, United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, C.V.; Foster, G.D.; Majedi, B.F.

    2003-01-01

    Annual yields (fluxes per unit area) of Al, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr, Co, As and Se were estimated for two small non-tidal stream catchments on the Eastern Shore of the Chesapeake Bay, United States - a poorly drained dissected-upland watershed in the Nanticoke River Basin, and a well-drained feeder tributary in the lower reaches of the Chester River Basin. Both watersheds are dominated by agriculture. A hydrograph-separation technique was used to determine the baseflow and stormflow components of metal yields, thus providing important insights into the effects of hydrology and climate on the transport of metals. Concentrations of suspended-sediment were used as a less-costly proxy of metal concentrations which are generally associated with particles. Results were compared to other studies in Chesapeake Bay and to general trends in metal concentrations across the United States. The study documented a larger than background yield of Zn and Co from the upper Nanticoke River Basin and possibly enriched concentrations of As, Cd and Se from both the upper Nanticoke River and the Chesterville Branch (a tributary of the lower Chester River). The annual yield of total Zn from the Nanticoke River Basin in 1998 was 18,000 g/km2/a, and was two to three times higher than yields reported from comparable river basins in the region. Concentrations of Cd also were high in both basins when compared to crustal concentrations and to other national data, but were within reasonable agreement with other Chesapeake Bay studies. Thus, Cd may be enriched locally either in natural materials or from agriculture.

  20. Across Hydrological Interfaces from Coastal Watersheds to the Open Lake: Finding Landscape Signals in the Great Lakes Coastal Zone

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the past decade, our group has been working to bring coastal ecosystems into integrated basin-lakewide monitoring and assessment strategies for the Great Lakes. We have conducted a wide range of research on coastal tributaries, coastal wetlands, semi-enclosed embayments an...

  1. The Impact of Intervening Tasks on Response Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sangals, Jorg; Sommer, Werner

    2010-01-01

    Response preparation usually facilitates performance, but it may also interfere with other concurrent tasks. In this article, the authors used event-related brain potentials to study how intervening tasks affect response preparation. In 3 experiments, participants performed intervening tasks during the preparation of a precued hand choice…

  2. Oceanography: Coastal oceanic nitrogen loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thamdrup, Bo

    2013-03-01

    Oxygen minimum zones crop up along the eastern boundaries of ocean basins in the low latitudes. A survey of the oxygen minimum zone in the eastern South Pacific points to the coastal zone as a hotspot for anammox-driven marine nitrogen loss.

  3. Three decadal inputs of total organic carbon from four major coastal river basins to the summer hypoxic zone of the Northern Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    He, Songjie; Xu, Y Jun

    2015-01-15

    This study investigated long-term (1980-2009) yields and variability of total organic carbon (TOC) from four major coastal rivers in Louisiana entering the Northern Gulf of Mexico where a large-area summer hypoxic zone has been occurring since the middle 1980s. Two of these rivers drain agriculture-intensive (>40%) watersheds, while the other two rivers drain forest-pasture dominated (>50%) watersheds. The study found that these rivers discharged a total of 13.0×10(4)t TOC annually, fluctuating from 5.9×10(4) to 22.8×10(4)t. Seasonally, the rivers showed high TOC yield during the winter and early spring months, corresponding to the seasonal trend of river discharge. While river hydrology controlled TOC yields, land use has played an important role in fluxes, seasonal variations, and characteristics of TOC. The findings fill in a critical information gap of quantity and quality of organic carbon transport from coastal watersheds to one of the world's largest summer hypoxic zones. PMID:25475441

  4. (abstract) Seasonal Variability in Coastal Upwelling: A Comparison of Four Coastal Upwelling Sites from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, Mary-Elena

    1996-01-01

    Coastal upwelling of subsurface nutrient-rich water occurs along the eastern boundary of the ocean basins and leads to high primary production and fish catches. In this study satellite observations are used to compare the seasonal cycle in wind forcing and in the oceanic and biological response of the major coastal upwelling regions associated with the Canary, Benguela, California, and Humboldt Currents.

  5. Basin Analysis of the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin and Petroleum System Modeling of the Jurassic Smackover Formation, Eastern Gulf Coastal Plain, Final Report and Topical Reports 5-8 on Smackover Petroleum system and Underdevelopment Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Mancini, Ernest A.; Puckett, T. Markham; Parcell, William C.; Llinas, Juan Carlos; Kopaska-Merkel, David C.; Townsend, Roger N.

    2002-03-05

    The Smackover Formation, a major hydrocarbon-producing horizon in the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin (MISB), conformably overlies the Norphlet Formation and is conformably overlain by the Buckner Anhydrite Member of the Haynesville Formation. The Norphlet-Smackover contact can be either gradational or abrupt. The thickness and lithofacies distribution of the Smackover Formation were controlled by the configuration of incipient paleotopography. The Smackover Formation has been subdivided into three informal members, referred to as the lower, middle and upper members.

  6. Right-lateral displacements and the Holocene slip rate associated with prehistoric earthquakes along the southern Panamint Valley fault zone: Implications for southern Basin and Range tectonics and coastal California deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Peizhen Zhang; Ellis, M.; Slemmons, D.B.; Fengying Mao )

    1990-04-10

    The N 20{degree}W-trending Panamint Valley fault zone is linked to the N 60{degree}W-trending Hunter Mountain strike-slip fault and the Saline Valley fault system, which represents on of the three major fault systems accommodating active crustal extension in the southern Great Basin. The displacement associated with the most recent event, determined through six detailed topographic maps of offset features, is 3.2 {plus minus} 0.5 m, and a number of larger offsets, in range of 6-7 m and 12 m, are also observed. If the larger displacements represent, respectively, two and three events, each of {approximately} 3 m, then the fault zone appears to be associated with a characteristic earthquake, which the authors estimate from the length of the rupture zone and the displacement to be between (Ms) 6.5 and 7.2. The Holocene slip rate is 2.36 {plus minus} 0.79 mm/yr, is determined from the displacement of two alluvial features whose maximum age is estimated from pluvial shorelines. Assuming a characterisitc earthquake model, the recurrence interval is between 860 and 2,360 years. The total slip vector of the southern Panamint Valley fault system is oriented toward {approximately} N 35{degree}W, making this a predominately strike-slip fault. In conjunction with the N 60{degree}W orientation of the Hunter mountain strike-slip fault, the authors suggest that the displacement vector for the southern Great Basin is toward the NW, consistent with results from VLBI data, rather than WNW as determined by combining VLBI and geological data. This is turn suggests that the coastal California deformation component involves, respectively, less shortening and more strike-slip displacement perpendicular and parallel to the San Andreas fault than is currently proposed.

  7. The intervening task method: implications for measuring mediation.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, Jeremy P; Harkins, Stephen G

    2011-05-01

    To study mediation, investigators sometimes examine the effect of an independent variable on an unrelated filler task that precedes the focal task. This approach assumes that the same psychological process drives performance on both tasks. The authors tested this assumption in a stereotype threat paradigm by manipulating whether or not the intervening task was described as relevant to the gender-math stereotype. When performance was relevant to the stereotype, females outperformed controls on an intervening Stroop task, but not when it was irrelevant (Experiment 1). In fact, females anticipating taking a math test under threat withdrew effort and performed more poorly on the intervening task when performance was irrelevant (Experiment 2). These findings suggest that different processes may drive performance on irrelevant and relevant intervening tasks. As a result, performance on irrelevant filler tasks may actually tell scholars little about mediating mechanisms. PMID:21393614

  8. Non-arboreal pollen (NAP) and terrestrial non-pollen palynomorph (NPP) indicating fluctuation of East China Sea Coastal Water (ECSCW): piston core (St-21) from Ulleung Basin, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Chang-Pyo; Kim, Chang-Hwan; Lee, Seong-Joo

    2014-05-01

    Piston core samples (St-21) collected from the northern part of Ulleung Basin, Korea yielded a great amount of palynomorph including arboreal pollen (AP), non-arboreal pollen (NAP) and non-pollen palynormorphs (NPP). Abundance of NAP changes significantly throughout the core, showing high percentages (ca. < 20 %) during 12-16ka, 43ka, and 98ka, whereas low percentages (ca. > 10 %) during 18ka, 33ka, and 65ka. Such a fluctuation of NAP would have been controlled by freshwater run-off into the East Sea during the period of last glaciation, most probably by influx of East China Sea Coastal Water (ECSCW) because there has not been a large river along the coast surrounding the East Sea. Other palynomorph (freshwater algae and fungal spore) originated from terrestrial environments also shows similar trend. Because influx of ECSCW, in general, tends to increase during the period of warm climate while decrease at the time of cold seasons, horizons with high percentages of NAP and terrestrial NPP indicate warm climates, introducing more NAP and terrestrial NPP into the East Sea. Such interpretation is also supported by principle component analysis (PCA).

  9. Salt marsh dieback in coastal Louisiana: survey of plant and soil conditions in Barataria and Terrebonne basins, June 2000-September 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKee, Karen L.; Mendelssohn, Irving A.; Materne, Michael D.

    2006-01-01

    Sudden and extensive dieback of the perennial marsh grass, Spartina alterniflora Loisel (smooth cordgrass), which dominates regularly flooded salt marshes along the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic coastlines, occurred in the coastal zone of Louisiana. The objectives of this study were to assess soil and plant conditions in dieback areas of the Barataria-Terrebonne estuarine system as well as vegetative recovery during and after this dieback event. Multiple dieback sites were examined along 100 km of shoreline from the Atchafalaya River to the Mississippi River during the period from June 2000 through September 2001. The species primarily affected was S. alterniflora; sympatric species such as Avicennia germinans (L.) Stearn (black mangrove) and Juncus roemerianus Scheele (needlegrass rush) showed no visible signs of stress. The pattern of marsh dieback was distinctive with greatest mortality in the marsh interior, suggesting a correlation with local patterns of soil chemistry and/or hydrology. Little or no expansion of dieback occurred subsequent to the initial event, and areas with 50 percent or less mortality in the fall of 2000 had completely recovered by April 2001. Recovery was slower in interior marshes with 90 percent or greater mortality initially. However, regenerating plants in dieback areas showing some recovery were robust, and reproductive output was high, indicating that the causative agent was no longer present and that post-dieback soil conditions were actually promoting plant growth. Stands of other species within or near some dieback sites remained largely unchanged or expanded (A. germinans) into the dead salt marsh. The cause of the dieback is currently unknown. Biotic agents and excessive soil waterlogging/high sulfide were ruled out as primary causes of this acute event, although they could have contributed to overall plant stress and/or interacted with the primary agent to cause plant mortality. Our observations over the 15 month study

  10. Benthic macrofaunal colonization patterns and preservation of laminated sediments: Observations in an extreme coastal basin environment in the lower Gulf of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herguera, J.; Paull, C. K.; Anderson, K.; Gwiazda, R.; Lundsten, E. M.; Kundz, L.; Edwards, B. D.; McGann, M. L.

    2012-12-01

    New observations and cores obtained with the ROV Doc Ricketts operated from the RV/Western Flyer provide a glimpse into a macrofauna barren sea-floor where laminated sediments are known to accumulate on the sea-floor of Alfonso Basin. This basin, located north of La Paz Bay, Baja California, is known to be an important repository of laminated sediments due to a combination of the relatively high input of terrigenous sediments brought in by summer rains, a moderate to high export productivity from its surface waters, and the very low oxygen concentrations at depth bathed by tropical subsurface waters. These laminated sediments are unique repositories of paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic information for its very high resolution records of past conditions comparable to ice core, tree ring, coral and cave records although spanning continuously much further back in time. However, the paleoceanographic community rarely has had the opportunity to visualize the seafloor surface where these sediments are accumulating and examine the biological abundance patterns in these extreme environments. Here we will show results from ROV Doc Ricketts quantitative video transects providing benthic faunal abundance patterns on the seafloor in these highly oxygen depleted bottom waters. These observations are further compared with the underlying stratigraphy. A coring system carried on the ROV allowed us to replicate cores and to collect a transect of 5 closely spaced cores to evaluate the horizontal extent of the observed variability down-core. We will also show some preliminary results from x-radiographs showing the nature of the laminations and its sediment composition based on elemental analysis on organic carbon, carbonate and biogenic opal analysis. New XRF results from a box core will be used to calibrate its terrigenous components with the historical rainfall record and evaluate its potential to reconstruct summer precipitation patterns in this region.

  11. Geochemistry and characteristics of nitrogen transport at a confined animal feeding operation in a coastal plain agricultural watershed, and implications for nutrient loading in the Neuse River basin, North Carolina, 1999-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spruill, T.B.; Tesoriero, A.J.; Mew, H.E., Jr.; Farrell, K.M.; Harden, S.L.; Colosimo, A.B.; Kraemer, S.R.

    2005-01-01

    Chemical, geologic, hydrologic, and age-dating information collected between 1999 and 2002 were used to examine the transport of contaminants, primarily nitrogen, in ground water and the pathways to surface water in a coastal plain setting in North Carolina. Data were collected from more than 35 wells and 4 surface-water sampling sites located in a 0.59 square-mile basin to examine detailed hydrogeology and geochemical processes affecting nutrient fate and transport. Two additional surface-water sampling sites were located downstream from the primary study site to evaluate basin-scale effects. Chemical and flow data also were collected at an additional 10 sites in the Coastal Plain portion of the Neuse River basin located between Kinston and New Bern, North Carolina, to evaluate loads transported in the Neuse River and primary tributary basins. At the Lizzie Research Station study site in North Carolina, horizontal flow is induced by the presence of a confining unit at shallow depth. Age-dating, chemical, and piezometric data indicate that horizontal flow from the surficial aquifer is the dominant source of ground water to streamflow. Nitrogen applied on cultivated fields at the Lizzie Research Station is substantially reduced as it moves from recharge to discharge areas. Denitrification in deeper parts of the aquifer and in riparian zones is indicated by a characterization of redox conditions in the aquifer and by the presence of excess nitrogen gas. Direct ground-water discharge of nitrate to surface water during base-flow conditions is unlikely to be significant because of strongly reducing conditions that occur in the riparian zones of these streams. Nitrate loads from a drainage tile at the study site may account for much of the nitrate load in the receiving stream, indicating that a major source of nutrients from ground water to this stream is artificial drainage. During base-flow conditions when the streams are not flowing, it is hypothesized that the

  12. Cenomanian sealevel rise, oxygen minmum zone development and biotic response in the Tarfaya Basin: evidence from the "Mohammed Plage" coastal section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebhardt, H.; Kuhnt, W.; Holbourn, A.; Kolonic, S.; Kawamura, H.

    2003-04-01

    Cenomanian sediments are exposed along a continuous 10-km-long transect (i.e., the "Mohammed Plage" coastal section) between Tarfaya and Tan Tan in southern Morocco. They reflect the transition from marginal marine to outer shelf environments. A total of about 150 samples were studied from the 60 m thick section. Total organic carbon (TOC), sulfur and calcium carbonate content, and other derived organochemical parameter (e.g., Tmax, HI, OI etc.) were measured and plotted together with the planktic benthic foraminiferal ratio (P/B-ratio) and quantitative benthic foraminiferal records. Our data show that the P/B-ratio is not a simple proxy for water-depth (or sealevel change) but is also strongly influenced by nutrient fluxes (potential productivity). 3rd-order-cyclic variations in P/B-ratio correspond closely with fluctuations in TOC and reflect the onlap of the sea and development of an intensified oxygen minimum zone on the shelf. Generally, principal benthic foraminiferal biofacies are dominated either by Gabonita-species, indicating high sealevel and high surface productivity, or by agglutinated taxa pointing to low sealevel or lower productivity. We present a model of the complex interaction between waterdepth, productivity and the resulting faunal assemblage.

  13. Nutrient and chlorophyll relations in selected streams of the New England Coastal Basins in Massachusetts and New Hampshire, June-September 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riskin, Melissa L.; Deacon, J.R.; Liebman, M.L.; Robinson, K.W.

    2003-01-01

    study exceeded the preliminary U.S. Environmental Protection Agency nutrient criteria values for the coastal region of New England. In an effort to establish more appropriate nutrient and chlorophyll criteria for streams in the New England coastal region, relations between total nitrogen and total phosphorus to periphyton chlorophyll a in wadeable streams from this study were quantified to present potential techniques for determining nutrient concentrations. Linear regression was used to estimate the total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations that corresponded to various chlorophyll a concentrations. On the basis of this relation, a median concentration for moderately enriched streams of 21 milligrams per square meter (mg/m2) of periphyton chlorophyll a from the literature corresponded to estimated concentrations of 1.3 milligrams per liter (mg/L) for total nitrogen and 0.12 mg/L for total phosphorus. The median concentration for periphyton chlorophyll a from the literature is similar to the 50th-percentile concentration of periphyton chlorophyll a (17 mg/m2) calculated with the data from open-canopy sites in this study. The 25th-percentile concentration for periphyton chlorophyll a of all open-canopy sites (5.2 mg/m2) and the 75th-percentile concentration for periphyton chlorophyll a of open-canopy reference sites (16 mg/m2) also were plotted to provide additional estimates and methods for developing total nitrogen and total phosphorus criteria. The 25th-percentile concentrations of total nitrogen and total phosphorus were calculated based on all sites in this study and were used as another potential criteria estimation. A concentration of 0.64 mg/L for total nitrogen and 0.030 mg/L for total phosphorus were calculated. As another possible method to develop threshold concentrations, the 10th-percentile concentrations of total nitrogen and total phosphorus were calculated based on all the impaired sites in this study. A concentration threshold of 0

  14. Coastal Fisheries in the Eastern Baltic Sea (Gulf of Finland) and Its Basin from the 15 to the Early 20th Centuries

    PubMed Central

    Lajus, Julia; Kraikovski, Alexei; Lajus, Dmitry

    2013-01-01

    The paper describes and analyzes original data, extracted from historical documents and scientific surveys, related to Russian fisheries in the southeastern part of the Gulf of Finland and its inflowing rivers during the 15- early 20th centuries. The data allow tracing key trends in fisheries development and in the abundance of major commercial species. In particular, results showed that, over time, the main fishing areas moved from the middle part of rivers downstream towards and onto the coastal sea. Changes in fishing patterns were closely interrelated with changes in the abundance of exploited fish. Anadromous species, such as Atlantic sturgeon, Atlantic salmon, brown trout, whitefish, vimba bream, smelt, lamprey, and catadromous eel were the most important commercial fish in the area because they were abundant, had high commercial value and were easily available for fishing in rivers. Due to intensive exploitation and other human-induced factors, populations of most of these species had declined notably by the early 20th century and have now lost commercial significance. The last sturgeon was caught in 1996, and today only smelt and lamprey support small commercial fisheries. According to historical sources, catches of freshwater species such as roach, ide, pike, perch, ruffe and burbot regularly occurred, in some areas exceeding half of the total catch, but they were not as important as migrating fish and no clear trends in abundance are apparent. Of documented marine catch, Baltic herring appeared in the 16th century, but did not become commercially significant until the 19th century. From then until now herring have been the dominant catch. PMID:24204735

  15. Marine vertebrates from the Santonian coastal carbonates of northwestern Germany - a tool for the reconstruction of a Proto- North Sea Basin intertidal dinosaur-exchange bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diedrich, Cajus G.; Scheer, Udo

    2015-09-01

    A diverse vertebrate fauna, dominated by shark teeth, is recorded from conglomerates within the limestones of the Upper Cretaceous (Santonian) Burgsteinfurt Formation of northwestern Germany. The conglomerate beds comprise carbonatic, glauconitic and phosphate nodules, as well as Triassic, Jurassic and Cretaceous extraclasts. The Burgsteinfurt Formation conglomerates contain fining-upwards parasequences 2-20 cm in thickness, interpreted as tempestite layers within a unit formed by larger-scale Milankovitch Cycles. The presence of the inoceramid Sphenoceramus patootensis and belemnite Gonioteuthis granulata indicate a late Santonian age for the unit. The studied vertebrate fauna from the Weiner Esch locality consists of 20 selachian species (14 macroselachians and 6 microselachians), a few teleosts, rare marine mosasaur remains, and one tooth from a theropod dinosaur. 95% of the vertebrates in the assemblage are depositionally autochthonous, with the remaining material reworked from older underlying Cenomanian-Coniacian (lower Upper Cretaceous) limestones. On the basis of observed sedimentary structures, the scarcity of deep-sea selachians, and the dominance of the Mitsukurinidae (59% of the preserved shark fauna) in the fossil assemblage, the unit is interpreted as a shallow (0-3 metres deep), subtidal, nearshore environment, or even subaerial carbonate-sand islands, located on the southern margin of a submarine swell. The presence of a Santonian theropod in this deposit, and other dinosaur records in northern Germany, together support the interpretation of a short-lived uplift event with strong upwelling influence for the Northwestphalian-Lippe submarine swell north of the Rhenish Massif in the southern Proto- North Sea Basin. A new migration model for dinosaurs moving along carbonate coasts or intertidal zones of shallow carbonate-sand islands in Central Europe is presented, which may explain the scattered distribution of dinosaur remains across Europe in the

  16. Constraining the Geometry and Tectonic Evolution of the Maneadero Basin Through Combined Geophysical and Structural Data Sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callihan, S.; Wetmore, P.; Connor, C.; Fletcher, J.; Springer, A.; Beeson, J.; Wilson, J.

    2008-12-01

    Maneadero basin, located 5 km south of Ensenada, Mexico, is bound to the south by the dextral Agua Blanca Fault (ABF). The ABF is the southwestern-most in a network of faults transferring plate boundary strain out of the Gulf of California and around the bend in the San Andreas in southern California. The basin is about 60km2 with an axis that trends WNW, subparallel to the ABF. The WNW-trending, western ABF juxtaposes the basin and the Bahia Todos Santos to the northwest, with the 1000m high Punta Banda Ridge. The goals of this study were to constrain the geometry of the Maneadero basin and the distribution of faults bounding and within the basin, as well as to provide constraints on the kinematic evolution of the basin. A combined geophysical (gravity and magnetic) and structural study were employed to address these issues. Gravity data define an anomaly of about 60 mGal across the basin and onto the adjacent up-thrown block, and can clearly identify two gravity highs separated by an intervening gravity low. The highs, irrespective of elevation, are offset by approximately 7km of dextral strike slip. This is consistent with the results of field mapping conducted during the summer 2008 that identifies a Cretaceous intrusion, located just beyond the southeast corner of the Maneadero Basin which is cut by the ABF, which is also displaced by approximately 7km of slip on the ABF. Gravity data also allow for the estimation of a dip-slip component of displacement across the ABF. As expected, the gravity low appears in the middle of the basin, which is shown to have sediment thicknesses of approximately 1km near the ABF and gradually shallowing northward. There is also a slight gradient that decreases in magnitude from southeast to northwest along the axis of the basin. A density contrast of 0.37 g/cm3 between the basin fill and outcropping Punta Banda Ridge, as described by Florez et al (2004), was used to generate this model. A normal slip component is also documented

  17. Coastal Upwelling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Steve

    1998-01-01

    Features a three-part activity designed to teach students about coastal upwelling, the upward movement of cooler, more nutrient-rich water along a coast. Activity includes a mapping exercise, a graphing exercise, and questions for analyzing the map and graph. (Author/WRM)

  18. COASTAL GUIDELINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Resource Purpose:Developed to support effluent guidelines for the coastal subcategory of the oil and gas extraction industry. Data were used to develop environmental impacts, potential regulatory limits, and the cost of regulation.
    Legislation/Enabling Authority:...

  19. 46 CFR 502.68 - Motion for leave to intervene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... leave to intervene may be filed in any proceeding. (b) Procedure for intervention. (1) Upon request, the... the type of intervention sought; (iii) Describe the interest and position of the person seeking intervention, and address the grounds for intervention set forth in paragraph (c) of this section;...

  20. 46 CFR 502.68 - Motion for leave to intervene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... leave to intervene may be filed in any proceeding. (b) Procedure for intervention. (1) Upon request, the... the type of intervention sought; (iii) Describe the interest and position of the person seeking intervention, and address the grounds for intervention set forth in paragraph (c) of this section;...

  1. 42 CFR 411.26 - Subrogation and right to intervene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Subrogation and right to intervene. 411.26 Section 411.26 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM EXCLUSIONS FROM MEDICARE AND LIMITATIONS ON MEDICARE PAYMENT Insurance Coverage That Limits Medicare Payment: General Provisions...

  2. Coastal Zone Color Scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, B.

    1988-01-01

    The Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) spacecraft ocean color instrument is capable of measuring and mapping global ocean surface chlorophyll concentration. It is a scanning radiometer with multiband capability. With new electronics and some mechanical, and optical re-work, it probably can be made flight worthy. Some additional components of a second flight model are also available. An engineering study and further tests are necessary to determine exactly what effort is required to properly prepare the instrument for spaceflight and the nature of interfaces to prospective spacecraft. The CZCS provides operational instrument capability for monitoring of ocean productivity and currents. It could be a simple, low cost alternative to developing new instruments for ocean color imaging. Researchers have determined that with global ocean color data they can: specify quantitatively the role of oceans in the global carbon cycle and other major biogeochemical cycles; determine the magnitude and variability of annual primary production by marine phytoplankton on a global scale; understand the fate of fluvial nutrients and their possible affect on carbon budgets; elucidate the coupling mechanism between upwelling and large scale patterns in ocean basins; answer questions concerning the large scale distribution and timing of spring blooms in the global ocean; acquire a better understanding of the processes associated with mixing along the edge of eddies, coastal currents, western boundary currents, etc., and acquire global data on marine optical properties.

  3. Thermal evolution of coastal california with application to hydrocarbon maturation

    SciTech Connect

    Heasler, H.P.; Surdam, R.C.

    1985-09-01

    Numerical solutions for steady-state heat transfer are used to estimate temperature suppression resulting from plate subduction along coastal California, and to model thermal refraction within the Pismo basin. Numerical solutions for time-dependent heat transfer estimate the thermal effect of the passage of the Mendocino triple junction with consequent upwelling of asthenosphere. Thermal solutions vary for different areas along coastal California depending on the magnitude of the temperature suppression due to subduction, the geometry of the space into which the asthenosphere upwells, the time since passage of the triple junction, and the specific depositional history of each basin. Paleotemperatures are calculated for the Pismo basin.

  4. 77 FR 13590 - Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Notice of Extension of Time for Filing of Motions To Intervene...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... Motions To Intervene and Protests, Comments, Recommendations, Preliminary Terms and Conditions... date for filing of motions to intervene and protests, comments, recommendations, preliminary terms and... Motions to Intervene and Protests, Ready for Environmental Analysis, and Soliciting...

  5. Drainage divides, Massachusetts-Hudson River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wandle, S. William, Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Drainage boundaries for selected subbasins in northern Berkshire County, Massachusetts, are delineated on five topographic quadrangle maps at a scale of 1:24,000. Drainage basins are shown for all U.S. Geological Survey data-collection sites and for mouths of major rivers. Drainage basins are shown for the outlets of lakes or ponds and for rivers where the drainage area is greater than 3 square miles. Successive sites are indicated where the intervening area is at least 6 square miles on tributary streams and 10 square miles along the Hoosic or North Branch Noosic Rivers. (USGS)

  6. When physicians intervene in their relatives' health care.

    PubMed

    Scarff, Jonathan R; Lippmann, Steven

    2012-06-01

    Physicians often struggle with ethical issues surrounding intervention in their relatives' health care. Many editorials, letters, and surveys have been written on this topic, but there is no systematic review of its prevalence. An Ovid Medline search was conducted for articles in English, written between January 1950 and December 2010, using the key words family member, relatives, treatment, prescribing, physician, and ethics. The search identified 41 articles (editorials, letters, and surveys). Surveys were reviewed to explore demographics of these treating physicians and reasons for and against intervention. Physicians often intervene directly or indirectly in the health care of relatives. The most common reasons were convenience, cost savings, and the perception of having greater knowledge or concern than colleagues. Lost objectivity, fear of misdiagnosis, and inability to provide complete care were the main considerations against intervention. The characteristics of treating doctors were nonspecific. Most surveys recommend against this practice except for emergencies or minor ailments. This review included only a few surveys with small sample size and only assessed scientific literature written in English after 1950. Survey data may be biased by physicians' self-reporting. In conclusion, most doctors occasionally intervene in their relatives' care. The decision to do so is determined by multiple factors. Physicians should treat only short-term or minor illnesses within their scope of practice. Future research should evaluate doctors' attitudes toward their relatives, medical student feelings about treating family, and intervention frequencies of medical and nonmedical professionals. PMID:22262264

  7. Financial Toxicity of Cancer Care: It's Time to Intervene.

    PubMed

    Zafar, S Yousuf

    2016-05-01

    Evidence suggests that a considerably large proportion of cancer patients are affected by treatment-related financial harm. As medical debt grows for some with cancer, the downstream effects can be catastrophic, with a recent study suggesting a link between extreme financial distress and worse mortality. At least three factors might explain the relationship between extreme financial distress and greater risk of mortality: 1) overall poorer well-being, 2) impaired health-related quality of life, and 3) sub-par quality of care. While research has described the financial harm associated with cancer treatment, little has been done to effectively intervene on the problem. Long-term solutions must focus on policy changes to reduce unsustainable drug prices and promote innovative insurance models. In the mean time, patients continue to struggle with high out-of-pocket costs. For more immediate solutions, we should look to the oncologist and patient. Oncologists should focus on the value of care delivered, encourage patient engagement on the topic of costs, and be better educated on financial resources available to patients. For their part, patients need improved cost-related health literacy so they are aware of potential costs and resources, and research should focus on how patients define high-value care. With a growing list of financial side effects induced by cancer treatment, the time has come to intervene on the "financial toxicity" of cancer care. PMID:26657334

  8. Characteristics of Southern California coastal aquifer systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, B.D.; Hanson, R.T.; Reichard, E.G.; Johnson, T.A.

    2009-01-01

    Most groundwater produced within coastal Southern California occurs within three main types of siliciclastic basins: (1) deep (>600 m), elongate basins of the Transverse Ranges Physiographic Province, where basin axes and related fluvial systems strike parallel to tectonic structure, (2) deep (>6000 m), broad basins of the Los Angeles and Orange County coastal plains in the northern part of the Peninsular Ranges Physiographic Province, where fluvial systems cut across tectonic structure at high angles, and (3) shallow (75-350 m), relatively narrow fluvial valleys of the generally mountainous southern part of the Peninsular Ranges Physiographic Province in San Diego County. Groundwater pumped for agricultural, industrial, municipal, and private use from coastal aquifers within these basins increased with population growth since the mid-1850s. Despite a significant influx of imported water into the region in recent times, groundwater, although reduced as a component of total consumption, still constitutes a significant component of water supply. Historically, overdraft from the aquifers has caused land surface subsidence, flow between water basins with related migration of groundwater contaminants, as well as seawater intrusion into many shallow coastal aquifers. Although these effects have impacted water quality, most basins, particularly those with deeper aquifer systems, meet or exceed state and national primary and secondary drinking water standards. Municipalities, academicians, and local water and governmental agencies have studied the stratigraphy of these basins intensely since the early 1900s with the goals of understanding and better managing the important groundwater resource. Lack of a coordinated effort, due in part to jurisdictional issues, combined with the application of lithostratigraphic correlation techniques (based primarily on well cuttings coupled with limited borehole geophysics) have produced an often confusing, and occasionally conflicting

  9. GEOCHEMISTRY AND CHARACTERISTICS OF NITROGEN TRANSPORT AT A CONFINED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATION IN A COASTAL PLAIN AGRICULTURAL WATERSHED, AND IMPLICATIONS FOR NUTRIENT LOADING IN THE NEUSE RIVER BASIN, NORTH CAROLINA, 1999-2002

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical, geologic, hydrologic, and age-dating information collected between 1999 and 2002 were used to examine the transport of contaminants, primarily nitrogen, in ground water and the pathways to surface water in a coastal plain setting in North Carolina. Data were collected f...

  10. Modeled Global vs. Coastal Impacts on 1970 and 2005 Summer Daytime Temperature Trends in Coastal California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habtezion, B. L.; Gonzalez, J.; Bornstein, R. D.

    2010-12-01

    California summertime July to August (JJA) mean monthly air temperatures (1970-2005) were analyzed for two California air basins: South Coast (SoCAB) and the San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA), which extended into the Central Valley (CV). Daily Tmin and Tmax values were used to produce average monthly values and spatial distributions of and Tmax values trends for each air basin. Results showed concurrent cooling in coastal areas and warming at further inland areas. This pattern suggests that the regional-warming of inland areas resulted in increased coastal sea breeze activity. Further investigations by use of mesoscale model simulations with the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) meso-met model with a horizontal grid resolution of 4 km on an inner grid over SoCAB were undertaken to investigate the effects of long-term changes due to green house gas (GHG) warming and land-use land-cover changes on coastal flows. Comparison of simulated present (2000-4) and past climate (1970-4) conditions showed significant increases in sea breeze activity and thus coastal cooling, which supports the observational analysis results that coastal cooling is an indirect “reverse reaction” of GHG warming. The magnitude and location of the simulated and observed coastal-cooling region were in good agreement. Urbanization effects on coastal environment were twofold: increased urban mechanical surface roughness retards sea breeze flows, while urban heat islands (UHIs) enhance them. Significant beneficial societal impacts will result from this observed reverse-reaction to global-warming, especially during UHI-growth periods, include decreased maximum: agricultural production, O3 levels, per-capita energy requirements for cooling, and human thermal-stress levels. Similar “reverse-reaction” effects should be found in other mid-latitude western coastal-regions.

  11. 76 FR 14376 - Evaluation of State Coastal Management Programs and National Estuarine Research Reserves

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    ... National Estuarine Research Reserves AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Office... its intent to evaluate the performance of the ACE Basin (South Carolina) National Estuarine Research Reserve and the Georgia Coastal Management Program. The National Estuarine Research Reserve...

  12. Multiple Stressors: Lessons from Louisiana Coastal Waters (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabalais, N. N.

    2013-12-01

    Coastal Louisiana is a Mississippi River-dominated landscape driven by the long-term (millennia) and short-term (decades to hundreds of years) changes in materials flux, nature and human activities. The results are a highly productive coastal landscape and nearshore coastal waters that support rich natural and non-renewable resources. The ecosystem and socio-economic systems are intimately linked. Several factors have led to the demise of many of the healthy features of this coastal system, including long-term changes in the landscape of the Mississippi River basin watershed, alterations to the structure and flow of the Mississippi River and its tributaries, coastal landscape alterations leading to loss of productive marshes and protective barrier islands, increases in nitrogen and phosphorus loads to the coastal ocean and their detrimental effects, and reduction in the sediments delivered by the river. Increases in population and extraction of living resources and oil and gas reserves continue to drive many actions taken in the coastal landscape and waters. As a result, Louisiana is in a state of major disrepair (to be charitable) and needs thoughtful consideration of restoration actions taken in the river basin and within the coastal landscape. The first thought is to cause no further harm. The second is to proceed acknowledging that human and natural forces (particularly climate change, rising sea level and changing global economies) must be taken into account. Thirdly, a broader consideration of the river basin and coastal landscapes, their interconnectivity, and ecosystem health and social welfare must be taken into account.

  13. Early, middle, and late Miocene basin development, California

    SciTech Connect

    Bachman, S.B.

    1988-03-01

    Contrary to earlier models of progressive basin development related to northward migration of the Mendocino triple junction, it can now be documented that the major basins of coastal California developed at about the same time in the late Oligocene to early Miocene. This basin development is marked by rapid deepening of basin floors, subsequent changes in depositional facies from nonmarine and shallow marine to deep marine, and widespread volcanism dated at 23-20 Ma. The coastal basins likely formed by rifting and subsidence linked to the proximity of the Farallon-pacific spreading ridge and the subduction of hot young oceanic crust, but cannot be correlated to any existing models of triple junction migration. Indeed, strike-slip restored positions of the coastal basins at their inception indicate that the basins were spread out over about 800 km of the southern coast of California. The Miocene basins were likely larger than the present coastal basins, although their configurations are obscured by late Neogene faulting and erosion. It is likely, however, that paleohighs separated at least some of the margin into proximal and distal basins. With local exceptions, structuring in the Miocene basins was primarily extensional, with widespread strike-slip and thrust tectonics restricted mainly to latest Miocene and younger events. Plate reconstructions suggest several hundred kilometers of transform motion occurred along the California margin during the Miocene, but there is only limited evidence of this movement in the known history of either the basins or the major faults of California. Sedimentation during the Miocene was controlled by both oceanic conditions (biogenic component) and the relative abundance of clastic input. The clastic input was controlled by a combination of proximal vs distal basinal positions, eustatic sea level changes, and local tectonics.

  14. A Review of Selected Ecosystem Services Supplied by Coastal Wetlands of the Laurentian Great Lakes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Significant ecosystem services derive from the coastal wetlands of the Laurentian Great Lakes even though they have undergone substantial declines since European settlement. Basin-wide, two-thirds of the original coastal wetlands have been lost, and the remaining 126,000 ha of US...

  15. Early Intervening for Students with Speech Sound Disorders: Lessons from a School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mire, Stephen P.; Montgomery, Judy K.

    2009-01-01

    The concept of early intervening services was introduced into public school systems with the implementation of the Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA) of 2004. This article describes a program developed for students with speech sound disorders that incorporated concepts of early intervening services, response to…

  16. The Intervenor Effect in Masked Priming: How Does Masked Priming Survive across an Intervening Word?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forster, Kenneth I.

    2009-01-01

    Four masked priming experiments are reported investigating the effect of inserting an unrelated word between the masked prime and the target. When the intervening word is visible, identity priming is reduced to the level of one-letter-different form priming, but form priming is largely unaffected. However, when the intervening word is itself…

  17. Parent Involvement in Early Intervening and Responsiveness to Invention (RTI). A Primer for Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mountain Plains Regional Resource Center (MPRRC), 2007

    2007-01-01

    The focus of this primer is to explain Responsiveness to Intervention (RTI) and Early Intervening Services as they pertain to parents and children who are at risk for academic and behavioral problems, explaining changes to special education law and how parents should be involved in each process. Emphasis on early intervening services allows action…

  18. 46 CFR Exhibit No. 3 to Subpart E... - Petition for Leave To Intervene

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Petition for Leave To Intervene No. Exhibit No. 3 to... PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Proceedings; Pleadings; Motions; Replies Pt. 502, Subpt. E, Exh. 3 Exhibit No. 3 to... Leave To Intervene ___ v. ___ Docket No. ___. Your petitioner, , respectfully represents that he...

  19. 46 CFR Exhibit No. 3 to Subpart E... - Petition for Leave To Intervene

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Petition for Leave To Intervene No. Exhibit No. 3 to... PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Proceedings; Pleadings; Motions; Replies Pt. 502, Subpt. E, Exh. 3 Exhibit No. 3 to... Leave To Intervene ___ v. ___ Docket No. ___. Your petitioner, , respectfully represents that he...

  20. The sedimentary basins of Tanzania - reviewed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mbede, E. I.

    The sedimentary basins of Tanzania have been classified into four morphotectonic groups: the coastal basin, the Karoo rift basins, basins found within the present East African rift valley and the cratonic sag basins. Except for the cratonic sag basins, each of these basin group has been affected by rifting at one time or another. The geology of each basin is discussed, structural evolution is evaluated and the prospectivity is thence looked into. Coal is exploited at Songwe-Kiwira coalfield and is found in potentially economic quantities in other Karoo basins. Prospecting for hydrocarbon resources has been going on since the 50s. Gas has been discovered in Songosongo and Mnazi bay fields, uneconomical quantities of oil have also been reported in Songosongo. Being basically rift basins which have reached different stages of development, source rocks normally associated with Initial-rifting, synrifting as well as post-rifting processes are probably well developed. Reservoir rocks, traps and cap rocks are normally not rare in such tectonic environments. Thermal gradients associated with the rifting stage are normaly high to effect maturation of source rocks even at low sedimentary thicknesses. Studies done so far are still inconclusive, because while testing has mainly been focused on structural traps stratigraphic traps seems to be more promising.

  1. The Intervening Sequence of Coxiella burnetii: Characterization and Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Warrier, Indu; Walter, Mathias C.; Frangoulidis, Dimitrios; Raghavan, Rahul; Hicks, Linda D.; Minnick, Michael F.

    2016-01-01

    The intervening sequence (IVS) of Coxiella burnetii, the agent of Q fever, is a 428-nt selfish genetic element located in helix 45 of the precursor 23S rRNA. The IVS element, in turn, contains an ORF that encodes a hypothetical ribosomal S23 protein (S23p). Although S23p can be synthesized in vitro in the presence of an engineered E. coli promoter and ribosome binding site, results suggest that the protein is not synthesized in vivo. In spite of a high degree of IVS conservation among different strains of C. burnetii, the region immediately upstream of the S23p start codon is prone to change, and the S23p-encoding ORF is evidently undergoing reductive evolution. We determined that IVS excision from 23S rRNA was mediated by RNase III, and IVS RNA was rapidly degraded, thereafter. Levels of the resulting 23S rRNA fragments that flank the IVS, F1 (~1.2 kb) and F2 (~1.7 kb), were quantified over C. burnetii's logarithmic growth phase (1–5 d). Results showed that 23S F1 quantities were consistently higher than those of F2 and 16S rRNA. The disparity between levels of the two 23S rRNA fragments following excision of IVS is an interesting phenomenon of unknown significance. Based upon phylogenetic analyses, IVS was acquired through horizontal transfer after C. burnetii's divergence from an ancestral bacterium and has been subsequently maintained by vertical transfer. The widespread occurrence, maintenance and conservation of the IVS in C. burnetii imply that it plays an adaptive role or has a neutral effect on fitness. PMID:27595093

  2. The Intervening Sequence of Coxiella burnetii: Characterization and Evolution.

    PubMed

    Warrier, Indu; Walter, Mathias C; Frangoulidis, Dimitrios; Raghavan, Rahul; Hicks, Linda D; Minnick, Michael F

    2016-01-01

    The intervening sequence (IVS) of Coxiella burnetii, the agent of Q fever, is a 428-nt selfish genetic element located in helix 45 of the precursor 23S rRNA. The IVS element, in turn, contains an ORF that encodes a hypothetical ribosomal S23 protein (S23p). Although S23p can be synthesized in vitro in the presence of an engineered E. coli promoter and ribosome binding site, results suggest that the protein is not synthesized in vivo. In spite of a high degree of IVS conservation among different strains of C. burnetii, the region immediately upstream of the S23p start codon is prone to change, and the S23p-encoding ORF is evidently undergoing reductive evolution. We determined that IVS excision from 23S rRNA was mediated by RNase III, and IVS RNA was rapidly degraded, thereafter. Levels of the resulting 23S rRNA fragments that flank the IVS, F1 (~1.2 kb) and F2 (~1.7 kb), were quantified over C. burnetii's logarithmic growth phase (1-5 d). Results showed that 23S F1 quantities were consistently higher than those of F2 and 16S rRNA. The disparity between levels of the two 23S rRNA fragments following excision of IVS is an interesting phenomenon of unknown significance. Based upon phylogenetic analyses, IVS was acquired through horizontal transfer after C. burnetii's divergence from an ancestral bacterium and has been subsequently maintained by vertical transfer. The widespread occurrence, maintenance and conservation of the IVS in C. burnetii imply that it plays an adaptive role or has a neutral effect on fitness. PMID:27595093

  3. Childhood adversity and adult health: Evaluating intervening mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Turner, R Jay; Thomas, Courtney S; Brown, Tyson H

    2016-05-01

    Substantial evidence has accumulated supporting a causal link between childhood adversity and risk for poor health years and even decades later. One interpretation of this evidence is that this linkage arises largely or exclusively from a process of biological embedding that is not modifiable by subsequent social context or experience - implying childhood as perhaps the only point at which intervention efforts are likely to be effective. This paper considers the extent to which this long-term association arises from intervening differences in social context and/or environmental experiences - a finding that would suggest that post-childhood prevention efforts may also be effective. Based on the argument that the selected research definition of adult health status may have implications for the early adversity-adult health linkage, we use a representative community sample of black and white adults (N = 1252) to evaluate this relationship across three health indices: doctor diagnosed illnesses, self-rated health, and allostatic load. Results generally indicate that observed relationships between childhood adversity and dimensions of adult health status were totally or almost totally accounted for by variations in adult socioeconomic position (SEP) and adult stress exposure. One exception is the childhood SEP-allostatic load association, for which a statistically significant relationship remained in the context of adult stress and SEP. This lone finding supports a conclusion that the impact of childhood adversity is not always redeemable by subsequent experience. However, in general, analyses suggest the likely utility of interventions beyond childhood aimed at reducing exposure to social stress and improving social and economic standing. Whatever the effects on adult health that derive from biological embedding, they appear to be primarily indirect effects through adult social context and exposure. PMID:27030896

  4. Conceptual hydrogeological model of a coastal hydrosystem in the mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitropapas, Anastasios; Pouliaris, Christos; Apostolopoulos, Georgios; Vasileiou, Eleni; Schüth, Christoph; Vienken, Thomas; Dietrich, Peter; Kallioras, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Groundwater resources management in the Mediterranean basin is an issue of paramount importance that becomes a necessity in the case of the coastal hydrosystems. Coastal aquifers are considered very sensitive ecosystems that are subject to several stresses being of natural or anthropogenic origin. The coastal hydrosystem of Lavrion can be used as a reference site that incorporates multi-disciplinary environmental problems, which are typical for Circum-Mediterranean. This study presents the synthesis of a wide range of field activities within the area of Lavrion including the monitoring of water resources within all hydrologic zones (surface, unsaturated and saturated) and geophysical (invasive and non-invasive) surveys. Different monitoring approaches -targeting to the collection of hydrochemical, geophysical, geological, hydrological data- were applied, that proved to provide a sound characterization of the groundwater flows within the coastal karstic system in connection to the surrounding water bodies of the study area. The above are used as input parameters process during the development of the conceptual model of the coastal hydrosystem of Lavrion. Key-words: Coastal hydrosystems, Mediterranean basin, seawater intrusion

  5. 77 FR 50490 - Notice of Application for Amendment of License and Soliciting Comments, Motions To Intervene, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ... Comments, Motions To Intervene, and Protests; Georgia Power Company Take notice that the following.... Deadline for filing comments, motions to intervene, and protests: September 10, 2012 All documents may be... writing to the Secretary of the Commission. n. Comments, Protests, or Motions to Intervene: Anyone...

  6. 76 FR 79673 - PacifiCorp; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Comments, Motions To Intervene...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-22

    .... n. Comments, Protests, or Motions to Intervene: Anyone may submit comments, a protest, or a motion... other comments filed, but only those who file a motion to intervene in accordance with the Commission's... ``MOTION TO INTERVENE'' as applicable; (2) set forth in the heading the name of the applicant and...

  7. 78 FR 32384 - South Carolina Electric and Gas Company; Notice Denying Motion to Intervene and Rejecting Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission South Carolina Electric and Gas Company; Notice Denying Motion to Intervene..., Richland, and Saluda Counties, South Carolina.\\1\\ On May 7, 2013, Pat Kelleher filed a motion to intervene... relevant part that a motion to intervene must show in sufficient detail that the movant's participation...

  8. Keuper stratigraphic cycles in the Paris basin and comparison with cycles in other peritethyan basins (German basin and Bresse-Jura basin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourquin, Sylvie; Guillocheau, François

    1996-09-01

    High-resolution sequence stratigraphy of the Keuper, Paris Basin, is used to establish correlations between the basin-centre evaporite series and the basin-margin clastics series. The high-resolution correlations show stratigraphic cycle geometries. The Keuper consists of five minor base-level cycles whth occur in the upper portion of the Scythian-Carnian major base-level cycle and the lower part of the Carnian-Liassic major base-level cycle. The maximum relative rate of subsidence for the base-level fall phase of the Scythian-Carnian major cycle occurs in the eastern part of the Paris Basin. During the base-level rise phase of the Carnian-Liassic major cycle, the area of highest rate of subsidence shifted westwards and northwards. This shift records the first occurrence of an independent Paris Basin which was no longer merely the western margin of the German Basin. Two phases of tectonic movement influenced evaporite sedimentation and sequence geometries by creating areas of subsidence where halite could accumulate. The second, within the 'Marnes irisées supérieures', induced a general westward and northward tilt of the basin. Concurrent migration of depocentres to the west and north produced an intra-'Marnes irisées supérieures' truncation. Comparison of the stratigraphic records of the Paris Basin and of other Triassic Peritethyan basins (German Basin, Bresse-Jura Basin and South-East Basin) reveals numerous similarities. The coastal onlap curve of the German Keuper (Aigner and Bachmann, 1992) exhibits many similarities with the sequence evolution of the Paris Basin. But the Triassic succession is more complete in the German Basin and more cycles are observed. The major difference between these two basins during the Keuper is that the 'Marnes irisées inférieures' minor base-level cycle does not occur in the German Basin. In the Bresse-Jura Basin, the major difference concerns the Lettenkohle. One minor base-level cycle is recorded in the Paris Basin while

  9. 75 FR 34725 - Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments, Motions To Intervene...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-18

    ..., Motions To Intervene, and Competing Applications; Mahoning Hydropower, LLC June 10, 2010. On May 25, 2010, Mahoning Hydropower, LLC filed an application, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act,...

  10. NATIONAL COASTAL CONDITION REPORT III

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coastal waers in the US include estuaries, coastal wetlands, coral reefs, ,mangrove and kelp forests, seagrass meadows, and upwelling areas. Critical coastal habitats provide spawning grounds, nurseries, shelter, and food for finfish, shellfish, birds, and other wildlife. The n...

  11. Psychological modulation in patients surgically intervened for gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    PubMed

    Lara, F J Pérez; Carranque, G; Oehling, H; Hernández, J M; Oliva, H

    2014-08-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) has been related with certain psychological dimensions. The influence of mood, emotional intelligence, and perceived quality of life on clinical symptoms and outcome of antireflux surgery was evaluated in GERD patients with and without hiatal hernia. The study included 61 patients who were diagnosed with GERD between 2003 and 2008: 16 of them without hiatal hernia (group A) and 45 of them with hiatal hernia (group B). All of these patients had undergone laparoscopic antireflux surgery. Patients were clinically examined and evaluated with the following instruments: Short Form (SF)-36 Health Survey, Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index, Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) Scale, and Trait Meta-Mood Scale (TMMS)-24. Proportions were compared by using the chi-squared test; averages were compared by using the Student's t-test (with Bonferroni's correction). In general, our patients intervened for GERD showed results lower than normal or close to the lower limit of normal in the administered tests. Patients in the group without hernia were younger (P < 0.001) and with lower American Society of Anaesthesiologists risk. They showed higher scores in the SF-36 dimensions: Physical Functioning, Physical Role and Emotional Role, and lower scores in the Social Role (P < 0.001). They showed lower scores in the Emotional dimension of Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index (P = 0.0068) and worse results in the Hospital Anxiety and Depression subscales of Anxiety (P < 0.001) and Depression (not significant). Men in the group without hernia showed higher scores than men in the group with hernia in the TMMS subscales corresponding to Emotional Clarity and Emotional Repair (P < 0.001). Women in the group with hernia showed higher scores than women in the group without hernia regarding Emotional Clarity (P = 0.0012). GERD patients showed poor results in all the tests, and patients without hiatal hernia compared with patients with hernia showed

  12. 25 CFR 584.5 - How do I file a motion to intervene?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How do I file a motion to intervene? 584.5 Section 584.5... CONTROL STANDARDS AND/OR TECHNICAL STANDARDS, AND NOTICES OF LATE FEES AND LATE FEE ASSESSMENTS § 584.5 How do I file a motion to intervene? (a) An entity or an individual, whether acting on his or her...

  13. 25 CFR 585.5 - How do I file a motion to intervene?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How do I file a motion to intervene? 585.5 Section 585.5... CONTROL STANDARDS AND/OR TECHNICAL STANDARDS, AND NOTICES OF LATE FEES AND LATE FEE ASSESSMENTS § 585.5 How do I file a motion to intervene? (a) An entity or individual, whether acting on his or her...

  14. Intervening tasks and visuospatial memory: the role of similarity in retroactive interference.

    PubMed

    Morra, L F; Garcon, S M; Lucas, M E; Donovick, P J

    2013-01-01

    Verbal tasks are often administered during the Rey-Osterreith Complex Figure Test (ROCFT) delay period in order to minimize retroactive interference resulting from similarity between tests (Meyers & Meyers, 1995). However, previous studies showed that similarity between the California Verbal Learning Test-II (CVLT-II) and intervening tasks administered during the delay period did not affect memory performance on the CVLT-II. In the current study we examined whether intervening tasks similar to the ROCFT would increase retroactive interference compared to dissimilar tasks, thereby negatively impacting visuospatial memory performance. A total of 106 undergraduate students were divided into three groups. Each group completed different intervening tasks during the ROCFT delay interval. Groups did not differ on copy, immediate recall, and delayed recall trials of the ROCFT. However, a repeated-measures ANOVA revealed an interaction between group and trial (p < .001), suggesting group performance on the ROCFT was differentially impacted by the intervening task. Planned comparisons indicated that the group completing two similar non-verbal intervening tasks had poorer memory of the complex figure and performed significantly worse on recognition (p = .003) and percent retention (p < .001) trials, respectively. This suggests that similarity of intervening tasks impacts memory performance on a complex figure test. PMID:23697810

  15. Resilience from coastal protection.

    PubMed

    Ewing, Lesley C

    2015-10-28

    Coastal areas are important residential, commercial and industrial areas; but coastal hazards can pose significant threats to these areas. Shoreline/coastal protection elements, both built structures such as breakwaters, seawalls and revetments, as well as natural features such as beaches, reefs and wetlands, are regular features of a coastal community and are important for community safety and development. These protection structures provide a range of resilience to coastal communities. During and after disasters, they help to minimize damages and support recovery; during non-disaster times, the values from shoreline elements shift from the narrow focus on protection. Most coastal communities have limited land and resources and few can dedicate scarce resources solely for protection. Values from shore protection can and should expand to include environmental, economic and social/cultural values. This paper discusses the key aspects of shoreline protection that influence effective community resilience and protection from disasters. This paper also presents ways that the economic, environmental and social/cultural values of shore protection can be evaluated and quantified. It presents the Coastal Community Hazard Protection Resilience (CCHPR) Index for evaluating the resilience capacity to coastal communities from various protection schemes and demonstrates the use of this Index for an urban beach in San Francisco, CA, USA. PMID:26392613

  16. NATIONAL COASTAL CONDITION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Coastal Condition report compiles several available data sets from different agencies and areas of the country and summarizes them to present a broad baseline picture of the condition of coastal waters. Although data sets presented in this report do not cover all coa...

  17. NATIONAL COASTAL ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the National Coastal Assessment (NCA) is to estimate the status and trends of the condition of the nation's coastal resources on a state, regional and national basis. Based on NCA monitoring from 1999-2001, 100% of the nation's estuarine waters (at over 2500 locati...

  18. Coastal zone management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, E. L., III

    1975-01-01

    A panel of federal and state representatives concerned with coastal zone affairs discussed their problems in this area. In addition, several demonstrations of the application of remote sensing technology to coastal zone management were described. These demonstrations were performed by several agencies in a variety of geographical areas.

  19. Drainage divides, Massachusetts; Westfield and Farmington River basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gadoury, Russell A.; Wandle, S. William, Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Drainage boundaries for selected subbasins in western Hampshire, western Hampden, and southeastern Berkshire Counties, Massachusetts, are delineated on 15 topographic quadrangle maps at a scale of 1:24,000. Drainage basins are shown for all U.S. Geological Survey data-collection sites and for mouths of major rivers. Drainage basins are shown for the outlets of lakes or ponds and for streams where the drainage area is greater than 3 square miles. Successive sites along watercourses are indicated where the intervening area is at least 6 square miles on tributary streams or 10 square miles along the Westfield or Farmington Rivers. (USGS)

  20. Paleothermometry of the Sydney Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Middleton, M.F.; Schmidt, P.W.

    1982-07-10

    Evidence from overprinting of magnetizations of Late Permian and Mesozoic rocks and from the rank of Permian coals and Mesozoic phytoclasts (coal particles) suggests that surface rocks in the Sydney Basin, eastern Australia, have been raised to temperatures of the order of 200 /sup 0/C or higher. As vitrinite reflectance, an index of coal rank or coalification, is postulated to vary predictably with temperature and time, estimates of the paleotemperatures in the Sydney Basin based on observed vitrinite reflectance measurements can be made in conjunction with reasonable assumptions about the tectonic and thermal histories of the basin. These estimates give maximum paleotemperatures of present day surface rocks in the range 60--249 /sup 0/C, depending on factors such as location in the basin, the thickness of the sediment eroded, and the maximum paleogeothermal gradient. Higher coal rank and, consequently, larger eroded thicknesses and paleogeothermal gradients occur along the eastern edge of the basin and may be related to seafloor spreading in the Tasman Sea on the basin's eastern margin. A theory of thermal activation of magnetization entailing the dependence of magnetic viscosity on the size distribution of the magnetic grains is used to obtain an independent estimate of the maximum paleotemperatures in the Sydney Basin. This estimate places the maximum paleotemperature in the range 250--300 /sup 0/C along the coastal region. Both coalification and thermal activation of magnetization models provide strong evidence of elevated paleotemperatures, which in places exceed 200 /sup 0/C, and the loss of sediment thicknesses in excess of 1 km due to erosion.

  1. Space Station Views of African Sedimentary Basins-Analogs for Subsurface Patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, M. Justin

    2007-01-01

    Views of African sedimentary basins from the International Space Station (ISS) is presented. The images from ISS include: 1) Inland deltas; 2) Prediction; 3) Significance; 4) Exploration applications; and 5) Coastal megafans

  2. Coastal land loss in Texas - An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Morton, R.A.; Paine, J.G. )

    1990-09-01

    Each year in Texas more than 1,500 acres of prime real estate and productive wetlands are destroyed along the Gulf shoreline and near the bay margins primarily as a result of coastal erosion and submergence. Wetland losses constitute about half of the total land losses. Historical analyses of maps and aerial photographs since the mid-1800s indicate that land losses are accelerating and that human activities are either directly or indirectly responsible for the increased losses, Natural decreases in sediment supply since the modern sea-level stillstand have been exacerbated by (1) river basin projects that reduce the volume of sediment transported to the coast and (2) coastal structures and navigation projects that prevent redistribution of littoral sediments along the coast. Erosion is primarily caused by high wave and current energy combined with an inadequate supply of sediment. Erosion is responsible for higher local rates of land loss than submergence, and the erosion losses are more perceptible, especially after major storms when the greatest losses occur. The principal components of submergence are subsidence and the eustatic rise in sea level. Together these components are recorded by tide gauges as a relative rise in sea level. Submergence converts uplands to wetlands and wetlands to open water. These surficial changes occur mostly on the coastal plain but are also observed on barrier islands and bayhead deltas and within entrenched valleys. Although compactional subsidence is a natural process operating in the Gulf Coast basin, most of the accelerated land-surface subsidence in Texas is attributed to extraction of shallow ground water or production of hydrocarbons at moderate depths. Faults activated by the withdrawal of these fluids concentrate the subsidence near the fault planes. Coastal land losses caused by dredging are less than those caused by erosion and submergence, but they constitute a growing percentage of total land losses.

  3. Coastal Fog, Climate Change, and the Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torregrosa, Alicia; O'Brien, Travis A.; Faloona, Ian C.

    2014-12-01

    Coastal marine fog, a characteristic feature of climates generated at the eastern boundaries of ocean basins worldwide, evokes different feelings in those who experience it (see Figure 1). Authors and poets use fog to represent mystery, bleakness, and confusion. Film directors seek out fog to shroud scenes in eerie gloominess. Tourists visiting beaches bemoan the cool and damp conditions that create a striking contrast to the sunny warm conditions typically found less than a few kilometers inland. Airline passengers delayed by fog impatiently wait for the skies to clear. Residents get used to the Sun "rising" in midday after fog dissipates.

  4. Coastal fog, climate change, and the environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torregrosa, Alicia; O'Brien, Travis A.; Faloona, Ian C.

    2014-01-01

    Coastal marine fog, a characteristic feature of climates generated at the eastern boundaries of ocean basins worldwide, evokes different feelings in those who experience it (see Figure 1). Authors and poets use fog to represent mystery, bleakness, and confusion. Film directors seek out fog to shroud scenes in eerie gloominess. Tourists visiting beaches bemoan the cool and damp conditions that create a striking contrast to the sunny warm conditions typically found less than a few kilometers inland. Airline passengers delayed by fog impatiently wait for the skies to clear. Residents get used to the Sun “rising” in midday after fog dissipates.

  5. Frontier sedimentary basins of New Zealand region

    SciTech Connect

    Beggs, J.M. )

    1991-03-01

    Petroleum-prospective basins of New Zealand began to form by mid-Cretaceous rifting of crustal elements previously assembled at the Gondwana continental margin. During the latest Cretaceous-early Cenozoic New Zealand separated from Australia and Antarctica by sea-floor spreading. An overall transgression in widely recorded in this post-rift phase, with decreasing clastic sediment supply as land area and relief were reduced. Mid-Cenozoic initiation of the modern plate boundary has resulted in uplift of mountain ranges, subsidence and filling of troughs, progradation of the shelf, and common reactivation or eversion of older structures. Petroleum potential of less explored basins can be compared to the productive Taranki basin. Source rocks are coal-rich deposits of the rift phase, also developed in Great South, Canterbury/Chatham, Western Southland, West Coast, and Northland basins. A different source contributes to oil and gas seeps on the East Coast, a continental margin during Late Cretaceous. The main reservoirs of Taranaki are early Cenozoic coastal and fluvial sands, also present in Great South, Canterbury, and West Coast and possibly other basins. Other Taranaki reservoirs include mid-Cenozoic limestone and Miocene turbidites, which are widespread in most other basins. Pliocene limestones have excellent reservoir potential on the East Coast. Late Cenozoic tectonics, essential to trap development and significant for maturation in Taranaki, have created similar structures in basins near the plate boundary but are less significant in the development of Great South, eastern Canterbury/Chatham, and Northland basins.

  6. Coastal Ohio Wind Project

    SciTech Connect

    Gorsevski, Peter; Afjeh, Abdollah; Jamali, Mohsin; Bingman, Verner

    2014-04-04

    The Coastal Ohio Wind Project intends to address problems that impede deployment of wind turbines in the coastal and offshore regions of Northern Ohio. The project evaluates different wind turbine designs and the potential impact of offshore turbines on migratory and resident birds by developing multidisciplinary research, which involves wildlife biology, electrical and mechanical engineering, and geospatial science. Firstly, the project conducts cost and performance studies of two- and three-blade wind turbines using a turbine design suited for the Great Lakes. The numerical studies comprised an analysis and evaluation of the annual energy production of two- and three-blade wind turbines to determine the levelized cost of energy. This task also involved wind tunnel studies of model wind turbines to quantify the wake flow field of upwind and downwind wind turbine-tower arrangements. The experimental work included a study of a scaled model of an offshore wind turbine platform in a water tunnel. The levelized cost of energy work consisted of the development and application of a cost model to predict the cost of energy produced by a wind turbine system placed offshore. The analysis found that a floating two-blade wind turbine presents the most cost effective alternative for the Great Lakes. The load effects studies showed that the two-blade wind turbine model experiences less torque under all IEC Standard design load cases considered. Other load effects did not show this trend and depending on the design load cases, the two-bladed wind turbine showed higher or lower load effects. The experimental studies of the wake were conducted using smoke flow visualization and hot wire anemometry. Flow visualization studies showed that in the downwind turbine configuration the wake flow was insensitive to the presence of the blade and was very similar to that of the tower alone. On the other hand, in the upwind turbine configuration, increasing the rotor blade angle of attack

  7. Buried Mesozoic rift basins of Moroccan Atlantic continental margin

    SciTech Connect

    Mohamed, N.; Jabour, H.; El Mostaine, M.

    1995-08-01

    The Atlantic continental margin is the largest frontier area for oil and gas exploration in Morocco. Most of the activity has been concentrated where Upper Jurassic carbonate rocks have been the drilling objectives, with only one significant but non commercial oil discovery. Recent exploration activities have focused on early Mesozoic Rift basins buried beneath the post-rift sediments of the Middle Atlantic coastal plain. Many of these basins are of interest because they contain fine-grained lacustrine rocks that have sufficient organic richness to be classified as efficient oil prone source rock. Location of inferred rift basins beneath the Atlantic coastal plain were determined by analysis of drilled-hole data in combination with gravity anomaly and aeromagnetic maps. These rift basins are characterized by several half graben filled by synrift sediments of Triassic age probably deposited in lacustrine environment. Coeval rift basins are known to be present in the U.S. Atlantic continental margin. Basin modeling suggested that many of the less deeply bored rift basins beneath the coastal plain are still within the oil window and present the most attractive exploration targets in the area.

  8. Parana basin

    SciTech Connect

    Zalan, P.V.; Wolff, S.; Conceicao, J.C.J.; Vieira, I.S.; Astolfi, M.A.; Appi, V.T.; Zanotto, O.; Neto, E.V.S.; Cerqueira, J.R.

    1987-05-01

    The Parana basin is a large intracratonic basin in South America, developed entirely on continental crust and filled with sedimentary and volcanic rocks ranging in age from Silurian to Cretaceous. It occupies the southern portion of Brazil (1,100,000 km/sup 2/ or 425,000 mi/sup 2/) and the eastern half of Paraguay (100,000 km/sup 2/ or 39,000 mi/sup 2/); its extension into Argentina and Uruguay is known as the Chaco-Parana basin. Five major depositional sequences (Silurian, Devonian, Permo-Carboniferous, Triassic, Juro-Cretaceous) constitute the stratigraphic framework of the basin. The first four are predominantly siliciclastic in nature, and the fifth contains the most voluminous basaltic lava flows of the planet. Maximum thicknesses are in the order of 6000 m (19,646 ft). The sequences are separated by basin wide unconformities related in the Paleozoic to Andean orogenic events and in the Mesozoic to the continental breakup and sea floor spreading between South America and Africa. The structural framework of the Parana basin consists of a remarkable pattern of criss-crossing linear features (faults, fault zones, arches) clustered into three major groups (N45/sup 0/-65/sup 0/W, N50/sup 0/-70/sup 0/E, E-W). The northwest- and northeast-trending faults are long-lived tectonic elements inherited from the Precambrian basement whose recurrent activity throughout the Phanerozoic strongly influenced sedimentation, facies distribution, and development of structures in the basin. Thermomechanical analyses indicate three main phases of subsidence (Silurian-Devonian, late Carboniferous-Permian, Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous) and low geothermal gradients until the beginning of the Late Jurassic Permian oil-prone source rocks attained maturation due to extra heat originated from Juro-Cretaceous igneous intrusions. The third phase of subsidence also coincided with strong tectonic reactivation and creation of a third structural trend (east-west).

  9. Coastal Hazards: Hurricanes, Tsunamis, Coastal Erosion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandas, Steve

    1998-01-01

    Details an ocean-based lesson and provides background information on the designation of 1998 as the "Year of the Ocean" by the United Nations. Contains activities on the poster insert that can help raise student awareness of coastal-zone hazards. (DDR)

  10. Flood hydrology and methylmercury availability in Coastal Plain rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, Paul M.; Journey, Celeste A.; Chapelle, Francis H.; Lowery, Mark A.; Conrads, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) burdens in top-predator fish differ substantially between adjacent South Carolina Coastal Plain river basins with similar wetlands coverage. In the Congaree River, floodwaters frequently originate in the Blue Ridge and Piedmont regions, where wetlands coverage and surface water dissolved methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations are low. Piedmont-driven flood events can lead to downward hydraulic gradients in the Coastal Plain riparian wetland margins, inhibiting MeHg transport from wetland sediments, and decreasing MeHg availability in the Congaree River habitat. In the adjacent Edisto River basin, floodwaters originate only within Coastal Plain sediments, maintaining upward hydraulic gradients even during flood events, promoting MeHg transport to the water column, and enhancing MeHg availability in the Edisto River habitat. These results indicate that flood hydrodynamics contribute to the variability in Hg vulnerability between Coastal Plain rivers and that comprehensive regional assessment of the relationship between flood hydrodynamics and Hg risk in Coastal Plain streams is warranted.

  11. Intrashelf basins: A geologic model for source-bed and reservoir facies deposition within carbonate shelves

    SciTech Connect

    Grover, G. Jr. )

    1993-09-01

    Intrashelf basins (moats, inshore basins, shelf basins, differentiated shelf, and deep-water lagoons of others) are depressions of varying sizes and shapes that occur within tectonically passive and regionally extensive carbonate shelves. Intrashelf basins grade laterally and downdip (seaward) into shallow-water carbonates of the regional shelf, are separated from the open marine basin by the shelf margin, and are largely filled by fine-grained subtidal sediments having attributes of shallow- and deeper water sedimentation. These basins are commonly fringed or overlain by carbonate sands, reefs, or buildups. These facies may mimic those that occur along the regional shelf margin, and they can have trends that are at a high angle to that of the regional shelf. Intrashelf basins are not intracratonic basins. The history of most intrashelf basins is a few million to a few tens of million of years. Examples of intrashelf basins are known throughout the Phanerozoic; the southern portion of the Holocene Belize shelf is a modern example of an intrashelf basin. Two types of intrashelf basins are recognized. Coastal basins pass updip into coastal clastics of the craton with the basin primarily filled by fine clastics. Shelf basins occur on the outer part of the shelf, are surrounded by shallow-water carbonate facies, and are filled by peloidal lime mud, pelagics, and argillaceous carbonates. Intrashelf basins are commonly the site of organic-rich, source-bed deposition, resulting in the close proximity of source beds and reservoir facies that may fringe or overlie the basin. Examples of hydrocarbon-charged reservoirs that were sourced by an intrashelf basin include the Miocene Bombay High field, offshore India; the giant Jurassic (Arab-D) and Cretaceous (Shuaiba) reservoirs of the Arabian Shelf; the Lower Cretaceous Sunniland trend, South Florida basin; and the Permian-Pennsylvanian reservoirs surrounding the Tatum basin in southeastern New Mexico.

  12. Coastal mapping handbook

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; Ellis, Melvin Y., (Edited By)

    1978-01-01

    Passage of the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972 focused attention on the Nation's coastal land and water areas. As plans for more effective management of the coastal zone evolved, it soon became apparent that improved maps and charts of these areas were needed. This handbook was prepared with the requirements of the entire coastal community in mind, giving greatest attention to the needs of coastal zone managers and planners at the State and local levels. Its principal objective is to provide general information and guidance; it is neither a textbook nor a technical manual, but rather a primer on coastal mapping. This handbook should help planners and managers of coastal programs to determine their mapping requirements, select the best maps and charts for their particular needs, and to deal effectively with personnel who gather data and prepare maps. The sections on "Sources of Assistance and Advice" and "Product and Data Sources" should be especially useful to all involved in mapping the coastal zone. Brief summaries of the mapping efforts of several State coastal zone management programs are included. "Future outlook" discusses anticipated progress and changes in mapping procedures and techniques. Illustrations are inserted, where appropriate, to illustrate the products and equipment discussed. Because of printing restrictions, the colors in map illustrations may vary from those in the original publication. The appendixes include substantial material which also should be of interest. In addition a glossary and an index are included to provide easy and quick access to the terms and concepts used in the text. For those interested in more technical detail than is provided in this handbook, the "Selected references" will be useful. Also, the publications of the professional societies listed in appendix 4 will provide technical information in detail.

  13. Efficiency Improvement of Dentistry Clinics: Introducing an Intervening Package for Dentistry Clinics, Isfahan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Alaghemandan, Hamed; Yarmohammadian, Mohammad H.; Khorasani, Elahe; Rezaee, Sobhan

    2014-01-01

    Background: In Isfahan, the second metropolitan in Iran, there are 1448 dentistry treatment centers that most of them are inefficient. Today, efficiency is the most important issue in health care centers as well as dentistry clinics. The goal of this research is to investigate the affordability and efficiency of dentistry clinics in Isfahan province, Iran. Methods: The current work is a quantitative research, designed in three methodological steps, including two surveys and experimental studies, for understanding current deficiencies of Iranian dentistry clinics. First, we ran a survey. Then, we analyzed the results of the questionnaires which guided us to find a particular intervening package to improve the efficiency of the clinics. At the second step, we chose an inefficient clinic named Mohtasham (Iran, Isfahan) to evaluate our intervening package. Results: Based on what the interviewees answered, we mention the most important issues to be considered for improving the efficiency of dental clinics in Isfahan. By considering mentioned problematic issues, an intervening package was designed. This intervening package was applied in Mohtasham clinic, since June 2010. It improved the clinic's income from 16328 US$ with 4125 clients in 2010, to 420,000 US$ with 14784 patients in 2012. Conclusions: The proposed intervening package changed this clinic to an efficient and economic one. Its income increased 5.08 times and its patient's numbers grew 4.01 times simultaneously. In other words, Mohtasham's experience demonstrates the reliability of the package and its potentiality to be applied in macro level to improve other dentistry clinics. PMID:24627744

  14. EVIDENCE OF CONTRIBUTION OF INTERVENING CLOUDS TO GAMMA-RAY BURST'S X-RAY COLUMN DENSITY

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.

    2013-10-20

    The origin of excess of X-ray column density with respect to optical extinction in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is still a puzzle. A proposed explanation of the excess is the photoelectric absorption due to the intervening clouds along a GRB's line of sight. Here, we test this scenario by using the intervening Mg II absorption as a tracer of the neutral hydrogen column density of the intervening clouds. We identify a connection between the large X-ray column density (and large column density ratio of log (N{sub H,X}/N{sub H{sub I}})∼0.5) and large neutral hydrogen column density probed by the Mg II doublet ratio (DR). In addition, GRBs with large X-ray column density (and large ratio of log (N{sub H,X}/N{sub H{sub I}})>0) tend to have multiple saturated intervening absorbers with DR < 1.2. These results therefore indicate an additional contribution from the intervening system to the observed X-ray column density in some GRBs, although the contribution from the host galaxy alone cannot be excluded based on this study.

  15. Characteristics of adolescents who intervene to stop the risky and dangerous behavior of their friends.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Lisa; Chapman, Rebekah L

    2016-03-01

    Adolescents value protecting friends from harm and report that they do intervene as bystanders in friends' risky and dangerous behavior. Moreover intervention can be effective in reducing such behaviors. The Protection-Risk Framework was used to explain bystander intervention. There were 962 students from 13 Australian high schools (mean age at time 1=13.44 years) surveyed in their 9th grade and again 1-year later when students were in 10th grade. We found that protective factors of self-efficacy, support, prosocial models, social control, and ease of opportunity related to greater intervening behavior after 12-months. Among those who reported that they had intervened in a 3-month period, a cumulative measure of protective factors was associated with their reports of intervening. Risk factors were non-significant predictors after accounting for earlier, time 1, bystander intervening behavior and demographic factors. The findings highlight potential mechanisms to promote adolescents' looking out for their friends and provide an assessment over time of bystander behavior. The theory-guided inquiry into such behavior provides a foundation on which to better develop our understanding of benefits to adolescent friendship in the injury field. PMID:26799326

  16. A coastal current in winter: Autonomous underwater vehicle observations of the coastal current east of Cape Cod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbina, Andrey Y.; Gawarkiewicz, Glen G.

    2008-07-01

    Evolution of the coastal current structure on the shallow continental shelf east of Cape Cod was studied using autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) surveys and moored observations during the winters of 2005 and 2006. A coastally bounded plume of relatively fresh water, characteristic of a coastal current, persisted throughout both winters despite strong mixing. Nondimensional parameter analysis classified the plume as a bottom-trapped gravity current over a moderately steep slope, placing it in the context of other buoyant coastal currents. The range of water properties within the coastal current, its spatial extent and temporal variability were characterized on the basis of the data from repeat hydrographic sections. Along-shore freshwater transport was dominated by highly variable barotropic flow driven by local wind and basin-wide pressure gradients. It eventually contributed substantially to the average southward along-shore freshwater transport, estimated at 1.1 ± 0.3 × 103 m3 s-1 in February and 1.8 ± 0.4 × 103 m3 s-1 in the first half of March 2006. The contribution of baroclinic buoyancy-driven freshwater transport was typically an order of magnitude lower during both winters. Despite the relative weakness of the baroclinic freshwater transport, the coastal current potentially had a major impact on water mass modification during the winter. Continual presence of the low-salinity plume prevented the formation of cold dense water near the coast and its export offshore. The coastal current effectively isolated the inner-shelf zone, reducing its potential role in ventilation of the intermediate layers of the Wilkinson Basin of the Gulf of Maine.

  17. Chapter 44: Geology and petroleum potential of the Lincoln Sea Basin, offshore North Greenland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sorensen, K.; Gautier, D.; Pitman, J.; Ruth, Jackson H.; Dahl-Jensen, T.

    2011-01-01

    A seismic refraction line crossing the Lincoln Sea was acquired in 2006. It proves the existence of a deep sedimentary basin underlying the Lincoln Sea. This basin appears to be comparable in width and depth to the Sverdrup Basin of the Canadian Arctic Islands. The stratigraphy of the Lincoln Sea Basin is modelled in analogy to the Sverdrup Basin and the Central Spitsbergen Basin, two basins between which the Lincoln Sea intervened before the onset of seafloor spreading in the Eurasian Basin. The refraction data indicates that the Lincoln Sea Basin is capped by a kilometre-thick, low-velocity layer, which is taken to indicate an uplift history similar to, or even more favourable than, the fairway part of the Sverdrup Basin. Tectonic activity in the Palaeogene is likely to constitute the major basin scale risk. We conclude that the Lincoln Sea Basin is likely to be petroliferous and contains risked resources on the order of 1 ?? 109 barrels of oil, to which comes an equivalent amount of (associated and nonassociated) gas. ?? 2011 The Geological Society of London.

  18. Historical pollution trends in coastal environments of India.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, R; Purvaja, R; Ramesh, S; James, R A

    2002-10-01

    Seventeen sediment cores were collected from different coastal ecosystems of Tamil Nadu, India that include coastal lagoon (Pulicat), polluted rivers in Chennai (Adyar and Cooum), Coral reef (Gulf of Mannar) and a perennial river (Tamiraparani). Radiometric dating has been used to determine the modern sedimentation rates in these ecosystems. The Pulicat Lake and the polluted rivers (Adyar and Cooum) yield an average sediment accumulation rate of 12.34 and 7.85 mm yr(-1), respectively. In the Gulf of Mannar coral reef, the sedimentation rate averages 17.37 mm yr(-1), while the rate in Tamiraparani River is 11.00 mm yr(-1). In the Tamiraparani River basin, the deposition rates were an order of magnitude higher when compared to the erosion rates, which may be due to bank erosion and the intense human activity. In general high rates of sedimentation observed in the coastal ecosystems not only reflect the capacity of the coastal regions as sinks for trace metals but also denote increased input of pollutants into the coastal environments in the recent past. The deposition rates of heavy metals--Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Cr and Ni in the depth profiles have been computed using sedimentation rates and their distribution is discussed. It can be seen that the mean deposition rates of all the measured elements in the Tamil Nadu coastal ecosystems are high compared with rates determined for the sediments of the deltaic regions of India and the Bay of Bengal. PMID:12413301

  19. The Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin : Volume XVII : Effects of Ocean Covariates and Release Timing on First Ocean-Year Survival of Fall Chinook Salmon from Oregon and Washington Coastal Hatcheries.

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, Caitlin; Skalski, John R.

    2001-05-01

    Effects of oceanographic conditions, as well as effects of release-timing and release-size, on first ocean-year survival of subyearling fall chinook salmon were investigated by analyzing CWT release and recovery data from Oregon and Washington coastal hatcheries. Age-class strength was estimated using a multinomial probability likelihood which estimated first-year survival as a proportional hazards regression against ocean and release covariates. Weight-at-release and release-month were found to significantly effect first year survival (p < 0.05) and ocean effects were therefore estimated after adjusting for weight-at-release. Negative survival trend was modeled for sea surface temperature (SST) during 11 months of the year over the study period (1970-1992). Statistically significant negative survival trends (p < 0.05) were found for SST during April, June, November and December. Strong pairwise correlations (r > 0.6) between SST in April/June, April/November and April/December suggest the significant relationships were due to one underlying process. At higher latitudes (45{sup o} and 48{sup o}N), summer upwelling (June-August) showed positive survival trend with survival and fall (September-November) downwelling showed positive trend with survival, indicating early fall transition improved survival. At 45{sup o} and 48{sup o}, during spring, alternating survival trends with upwelling were observed between March and May, with negative trend occurring in March and May, and positive trend with survival occurring in April. In January, two distinct scenarios of improved survival were linked to upwelling conditions, indicated by (1) a significant linear model effect (p < 0.05) showing improved survival with increasing upwelling, and (2) significant bowl-shaped curvature (p < 0.05) of survival with upwelling. The interpretation of the effects is that there was (1) significantly improved survival when downwelling conditions shifted to upwelling conditions in January (i

  20. Reprocessed COCORP southern Appalachian reflection data: Root zone to Coastal Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iverson, William P.; Smithson, Scott B.

    1983-07-01

    COCORP (Consortium for Continental Reflection Profiling) seismic reflection data from the Atlantic Coastal Plain and eastern Piedmont in Georgia have been reprocessed and interpreted. Dipping events correlated with the master decollement root zone may be the only features that can be correlated with other reflection lines. Farther southeast on the Coastal Plain the shallow section is improved to produce reflections corresponding to the base of the Coastal Plain. A Triassic basin is confirmed to be more than 2 km deep and is the only major basin accurately revealed by the seismic lines. Improvement of the shallow seismic data is important to understanding the deep data. Some apparently deep reflections are probably produced from within the shallow Coastal Plain. Even though these shallow data have been improved, the Augusta fault is not interpreted as a major reflective feature. *Present address: Sohio Research and Development, One Lincoln Center, Dallas, Texas, 75240

  1. Coastal geomorphology of arctic Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, Peter W.; Rawlinson, Stuart E.; Reimnitz, Erk

    1988-01-01

    The treeless, tundra-plain of northern Alaska merges with the Arctic Ocean along a coastal area characterized by low tundra bluffs, and sparse coastal and delta dunes. Coastal engineering projects that aggrade or degrade permafrost will alter the geomorphology and rates of coastal processes by changing coastal stability. Similarly, projects that modify the ice environment (artificial islands) or the coastal configuration (causeways) will cause nature to readjust to the new process regime, resulting in modification of the coast. In this paper the authors describe the coastal geomorphology from Barrow to the Canadian border. In addition, they provide a general outline and extensive references of the major coastal processes operating in this environment that will be useful on coastal environments elsewhere in the Arctic.

  2. Advanced geological modeling of coastal-marine cassiterite placers based on data on deposits in Russia'S Eastern Arctic Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lalomov, A. V.; Tabolich, S. E.; Chefranov, R. M.

    2016-03-01

    A mathematical model of coastal-marine tin placers formed in the alongshore drift flow is developed using the mass balance method. The physical meaning of the coefficients included in the model is considered. Coastal-marine placers are quantitatively estimated. The simulation adequacy is confirmed by the data on coastal-marine tin-bearing placer deposits at the Pevek ore cluster (Chaun Bay, East Siberian Sea). We suggest that the obtained equations be used for surveying and exploration. Identified patterns are used to estimate the tin placer potential in one of the coastal areas in the Eastern Arctic Basin.

  3. On the shedding of impaled droplets: The role of transient intervening layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamatopoulos, Christos; Schutzius, Thomas M.; Köppl, Christian J.; Hayek, Nicolas El; Maitra, Tanmoy; Hemrle, Jaroslav; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2016-01-01

    Maintaining the non-wetting property of textured hydrophobic surfaces is directly related to the preservation of an intervening fluid layer (gaseous or immiscible liquid) between the droplet and substrate; once displaced, it cannot be recovered spontaneously as the fully penetrated Wenzel wetting state is energetically favorable. Here, we identify pathways for the “lifting” of droplets from the surface texture, enabling a complete Wenzel-to-Cassie-Baxter wetting state transition. This is accomplished by the hemiwicking of a transient (limited lifetime due to evaporation) low surface tension (LST) liquid, which is capable of self-assembling as an intervening underlayer, lifting the droplet from its impaled state and facilitating a skating-like behavior. In the skating phase, a critical substrate tilting angle is identified, up to which underlayer and droplet remain coupled exhibiting a pseudo-Cassie-Baxter state. For greater titling angles, the droplet, driven by inertia, detaches itself from the liquid intervening layer and transitions to a traditional Cassie-Baxter wetting state, thereby accelerating and leaving the underlayer behind. A model is also presented that elucidates the mechanism of mobility recovery. Ultimately, this work provides a better understanding of multiphase mass transfer of immiscible LST liquid-water mixtures with respect to establishing facile methods towards retaining intervening layers.

  4. On the shedding of impaled droplets: The role of transient intervening layers

    PubMed Central

    Stamatopoulos, Christos; Schutzius, Thomas M.; Köppl, Christian J.; Hayek, Nicolas El; Maitra, Tanmoy; Hemrle, Jaroslav; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2016-01-01

    Maintaining the non-wetting property of textured hydrophobic surfaces is directly related to the preservation of an intervening fluid layer (gaseous or immiscible liquid) between the droplet and substrate; once displaced, it cannot be recovered spontaneously as the fully penetrated Wenzel wetting state is energetically favorable. Here, we identify pathways for the “lifting” of droplets from the surface texture, enabling a complete Wenzel-to-Cassie-Baxter wetting state transition. This is accomplished by the hemiwicking of a transient (limited lifetime due to evaporation) low surface tension (LST) liquid, which is capable of self-assembling as an intervening underlayer, lifting the droplet from its impaled state and facilitating a skating-like behavior. In the skating phase, a critical substrate tilting angle is identified, up to which underlayer and droplet remain coupled exhibiting a pseudo-Cassie-Baxter state. For greater titling angles, the droplet, driven by inertia, detaches itself from the liquid intervening layer and transitions to a traditional Cassie-Baxter wetting state, thereby accelerating and leaving the underlayer behind. A model is also presented that elucidates the mechanism of mobility recovery. Ultimately, this work provides a better understanding of multiphase mass transfer of immiscible LST liquid-water mixtures with respect to establishing facile methods towards retaining intervening layers. PMID:26743806

  5. 76 FR 65506 - Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Comments, Motions To Intervene, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-21

    ... Intervene, and Protests; Consolidated Water Power Company Take notice that the following hydroelectric..., 2011, and supplemented September 2 and 28, 2011. d. Applicant: Consolidated Water Power Company. e.... Applicant Contact: Thomas J. Witt, Consolidated Water Power Company, P.O. Box 8050, Wisconsin Rapids,...

  6. Alcohol and Other Chemicals. Adolescent Alcoholism: Recognizing, Intervening, and Treating Series No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gougelet, Robert M.; Nelson, E. Don

    This document is one of seven publications contained in a series of materials for physicians on recognizing, intervening with, and treating adolescent alcoholism. The materials in this unit of study are designed to help the physician know the different classes of drugs, recognize common presenting symptoms of drug overdose, and place use and abuse…

  7. 77 FR 29634 - Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments, Motions To Intervene...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments, Motions To Intervene, and Competing Applications; Corral Creek South Hydro, LLC On April 3, 2012, Corral Creek South Hydro, LLC, filed...

  8. Behavioral Intention of Teachers, School Psychologists, and Counselors to Intervene and Prevent Harassment of LGBTQ Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Paul C.; Rubinson, Florence; Dragowski, Eliza A.; Elizalde-Utnick, Graciela

    2013-01-01

    A national sample of educators were surveyed to identity the attitudes, beliefs, school culture, and perceived barriers that would predict whether educators would intervene to stop bias and harassment directed at lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered, and questioning (LGBTQ) youth in schools. The survey questionnaire was organized according to the…

  9. How Public Health Nurses Identify and Intervene in Child Maltreatment Based on the National Clinical Guideline

    PubMed Central

    Eija, Paavilainen; Mika, Helminen; Aune, Flinck; Leila, Lehtomäki

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To describe how Finnish public health nurses identify and intervene in child maltreatment and how they implement the National Clinical Guideline in their work. Design and Sample. Cross-sectional survey of 367 public health nurses in Finland. Measures. A web-based questionnaire developed based on the content areas of the guideline: identifying, intervening, and implementing. Results. The respondents reported they identify child maltreatment moderately (mean 3.38), intervene in it better (4.15), and implement the guideline moderately (3.43, scale between 1 and 6). Those with experience of working with maltreated children reported they identify them better (P < 0.001), intervene better (P < 0.001), and implement the guideline better (P < 0.001) than those with no experience. This difference was also found for those who were aware of the guideline, had read it, and participated in training on child maltreatment, as compared to those who were not aware of the guideline, had not read it, or had not participated in such training. Conclusions. The public health nurses worked quite well with children who had experienced maltreatment and families. However, the results point out several developmental targets for increasing training on child maltreatment, for devising recommendations for child maltreatment, and for applying these recommendations systematically in practice. PMID:25505986

  10. Willingness to Intervene in Bullying Episodes among Middle School Students: Individual and Peer-Group Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espelage, Dorothy; Green, Harold; Polanin, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the associations among gender, empathy, attitudes toward bullying, willingness to intervene, and bullying within peer groups in a sample of sixth and seventh-grade students (N = 346; M Age = 12.22 years). Peer groups were identified via social network analysis using NEGOPY (Richards, 1995) and peer-group predictors were…

  11. Adolescents and Substance Abuse: An Overview. Adolescent Alcoholism: Recognizing, Intervening, and Treating Series No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hostetler, Joyce

    This document is one of seven publications contained in a series of materials for physicians on recognizing, intervening with, and treating adolescent alcoholism. The materials in this unit of study are intended to provide a framework for physicians' awareness, to present selected facts and information, to outline current thinking regarding…

  12. Community and School Practices to Reduce Delinquent Behavior: Intervening on the School-to-Prison Pipeline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shippen, Margaret E.; Patterson, DaShaunda; Green, Kemeche L.; Smitherman, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    Youth at risk for school failure need community and school supports to reduce the likelihood of developing delinquent behavior. This article provides an overview of community and school approaches aimed at intervening on the school-to-prison pipeline. Community and school efforts are emerging that take into account empirical evidence demonstrating…

  13. The Intervening Role of Relational Aggression between Psychological Control and Friendship Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soenens, Bart; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Goossens, Luc; Duriez, Bart; Niemiec, Christopher P.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the associations among psychologically controlling parenting, relational aggression, friendship quality, and loneliness during adolescence. A model was proposed in which relational aggression plays an intervening role in the relations between both parental psychological control and friendship outcomes. In a sample comprised…

  14. Structure of a human beta-actin-related pseudogene which lacks intervening sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Moos, M; Gallwitz, D

    1982-01-01

    From a human genomic library we have isolated and sequenced a beta-actin-related pseudogene (Hbeta Ac-psi l) which is free of intervening sequences. Several nucleotide insertions and deletions and translational stop codons generated within the protein-coding region indicate that this gene is functionless. PMID:6296793

  15. Intervening Variables in the TV Violence-Aggression Relation: Evidence from Two Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huesmann, L. Rowell; And Others

    1984-01-01

    A longitudinal, cross-cultural field study was made to determine boundary conditions under which the television violence/aggression relation obtains, to determine intervening variables, and to illuminate the process through which television violence relates to aggression. Children from first through fifth grades in the United States, Australia,…

  16. 34 CFR Appendix D to Part 300 - Maintenance of Effort and Early Intervening Services

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maintenance of Effort and Early Intervening Services D Appendix D to Part 300 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued... THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Pt. 300, App. D Appendix D to Part 300—Maintenance...

  17. 34 CFR Appendix D to Part 300 - Maintenance of Effort and Early Intervening Services

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maintenance of Effort and Early Intervening Services D Appendix D to Part 300 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued... THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Pt. 300, App. D Appendix D to Part 300—Maintenance...

  18. 34 CFR Appendix D to Part 300 - Maintenance of Effort and Early Intervening Services

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Maintenance of Effort and Early Intervening Services D Appendix D to Part 300 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued... THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Pt. 300, App. D Appendix D to Part 300—Maintenance...

  19. 34 CFR Appendix D to Part 300 - Maintenance of Effort and Early Intervening Services

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Maintenance of Effort and Early Intervening Services D Appendix D to Part 300 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued... THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Pt. 300, App. D Appendix D to Part 300—Maintenance...

  20. Contextual Attributes of Indirect Bullying Situations that Influence Teachers' Decisions to Intervene

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blain-Arcaro, Christine; Smith, J. David; Cunningham, Charles E.; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Rimas, Heather

    2012-01-01

    Indirect bullying occurs frequently yet receives little attention by teachers. Using conjoint analysis, we examined the influence of situational attributes on teachers' decisions to intervene in indirect bullying. Results revealed that teachers (N = 235) were most influenced by victimized children's distress. Additional analyses identified two…

  1. The Intervening Galaxies Hypothesis of the Absorption Spectra of Quasi-Stellar Objects: Some Statistical Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duari, Debiprosad; Narlikar, Jayant V.

    This paper examines, in the light of the available data, the hypothesis that the heavy element absorption line systems in the spectra of QSOs originate through en-route absorption by intervening galaxies, halos etc. Several statistical tests are applied in two different ways to compare the predictions of the intervening galaxies hypothesis (IGH) with actual observations. The database is taken from a recent 1991 compilation of absorption line systems by Junkkarinen, Hewitt and Burbidge. Although, prima facie, a considerable gap is found between the predictions of the intervening galaxies hypothesis and the actual observations despite inclusion of any effects of clustering and some likely selection effects, the gap narrows after invoking evolution in the number density of absorbers and allowing for the incompleteness and inhomogeneity of samples examined. On the latter count the gap might be bridgeable by stretching the parameters of the theory. It is concluded that although the intervening galaxies hypothesis is a possible natural explanation to account for the absorption line systems and may in fact do so in several cases, it seems too simplistic to be able to account for all the available data. It is further stressed that the statistical techniques described here will be useful for future studies of complete and homogenous samples with a view to deciding the extent of applicability of the IGH.

  2. 77 FR 60415 - Newburgh Hydro, LLC, Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Motions To Intervene...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Newburgh Hydro, LLC, Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Motions To Intervene and Protests, Ready for Environmental Analysis, and Soliciting Comments, Recommendations, Preliminary Terms and...

  3. 77 FR 60413 - Uniontown Hydro, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Motions To Intervene...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Uniontown Hydro, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Motions To Intervene and Protests, Ready for Environmental Analysis, and Soliciting Comments, Recommendations, Preliminary Terms and...

  4. Linking integrated water resources management and integrated coastal zone management.

    PubMed

    Rasch, P S; Ipsen, N; Malmgren-Hansen, A; Mogensen, B

    2005-01-01

    Some of the world's most valuable aquatic ecosystems such as deltas, lagoons and estuaries are located in the coastal zone. However, the coastal zone and its aquatic ecosystems are in many places under environmental stress from human activities. About 50% of the human population lives within 200 km of the coastline, and the population density is increasing every day. In addition, the majority of urban centres are located in the coastal zone. It is commonly known that there are important linkages between the activities in the upstream river basins and the environment conditions in the downstream coastal zones. Changes in river flows, e.g. caused by irrigation, hydropower and water supply, have changed salinity in estuaries and lagoons. Land use changes, such as intensified agricultural activities and urban and industrial development, cause increasing loads of nutrients and a variety of chemicals resulting in considerable adverse impacts in the coastal zones. It is recognised that the solution to such problems calls for an integrated approach. Therefore, the terms Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) and Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) are increasingly in focus on the international agenda. Unfortunately, the concepts of IWRM and ICZM are mostly being developed independently from each other by separate management bodies using their own individual approaches and tools. The present paper describes how modelling tools can be used to link IWRM and ICZM. It draws a line from the traditional sectoral use of models for the Istanbul Master Planning and assessment of the water quality and ecological impact in the Bosphorus Strait and the Black Sea 10 years ago, to the most recent use of models in a Water Framework Directive (WFD) context for one of the selected Pilot River Basins in Denmark used for testing of the WFD Guidance Documents. PMID:16114636

  5. California coastal processes study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirie, D. M.; Steller, D. D.

    1974-01-01

    Preliminary findings are presented and applications derived from ERTS-1 satellite imagery of the nearshore coastal processes of the California coast. The objectives were to analyze nearshore currents, sediment transport, and estuarine and river discharges along the California coast through the use of synoptic and repetitive imagery from ERTS as well as aircraft underflights and surface data. The major conclusions are: (1) Distinct seasonal patterns for sediment transport as a function of the oceanic current systems and coastal morphology have been identified. (2) Large scale sediment plumes from intermittent streams and rivers extend offshore to previously unanticipated ranges. (3) Computer generated contouring of radiance levels from computer-compatible tapes result in charts that can be used for determination of surface and nearsurface suspended sediment distribution. (4) Flying spot scanner enhancements result in details of nearshore features. (5) Data is providing significant information for coastal planning and construction projects.

  6. Inland and coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouw, Colleen; Greb, Steven

    2012-09-01

    Workshop for Remote Sensing of Coastal and Inland Waters;Madison, Wisconsin, 20-22 June 2012 Coastal and inland water bodies, which have great value for recreation, food supply, commerce, transportation, and human health, have been experiencing external pressure from direct human activities and climate change. Given their societal and economic value, understanding issues of water quality, water quantity, and the impact of environmental change on the ecological and biogeochemical functioning of these water bodies is of interest to a broad range of communities. Remote sensing offers one of the most spatially and temporally comprehensive tools for observing these waters. While there has been some success with remotely observing these water bodies, many challenges still remain, including algorithm performance, atmospheric correction, the relationships between optical properties and biogeochemical parameters, sufficient spatial and spectral resolution, and a lack of uncertainty estimates over the wide range of environmental conditions encountered across these coastal and inland water bodies.

  7. Petroleum geology of Tembungo Area, Sabah Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Abdul Jalil, M. ); Komoo, I. )

    1994-07-01

    Tembungo area, located in the central part of the Sabah Basin, is a highly prolific hydrocarbon play. This is reflected by the discovery of Tembungo Field in 1971, which has been producing oil for more than 19 yr. Petronas (PRSS) has recently reassessed the remaining potential of the area by undertaking an integrated study to determine structural and stratigraphic evolution, reservoir characteristic, source rock potential, entrapment styles, and hydrocarbon potential. The results indicate that Tembungo oil has been generated from dominantly terrigenous organic matter derived from coastal and inland vegetation. The reservoir sandstones, which were deposited during middle to upper Miocene, were evidently transported from a shallow coastal region into a bathyal environment by turbidity current. These sandy sediments entered the basin from the south and southeast through canyons and channels, and spread into the basin in the form of deep-water fan complexes. Shales that dominated the sedimentary sequences in the basin formed an effective cap rock. Integrated study of Tembungo area reveals the presence of a number of structural and stratigraphic prospects significant for hydrocarbon exploration. Some stratigraphic prospects include wedge-out and pinch-out. Paleochannel distribution pattern is an important factor in controlling the highly potential prospects as it provides clues to the presence or absence of reservoir rocks. Combined with structural and stratigraphic features, several new prospects have been identified and ranked.

  8. Drainage divides, Massachusetts; Blackstone and Thames River basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krejmas, Bruce E.; Wandle, S. William

    1982-01-01

    Drainage boundaries for selected subbasins of the Blackstone and Thames River basins in eastern Hampden, eastern Hampshire, western Norfolk, southern Middlesex, and southern Worcester Counties, Massachusetts, are delineated on 12 topographic quadrangle maps at a scale of 1:24,000. Drainage basins are shown for all U.S. Geological Survey data-collection sites and for mouths of major rivers. Drainage basins are shown for the outlets of lakes or ponds and for streams where the drainage area is greater than 3 square miles. Successive sites along watercourses are indicated where the intervening area is at least 6 miles on tributary streams or 15 square miles along the Blackstone River, French River, or Quinebaug River. (USGS)

  9. Arctic Coastal Erosion Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravens, T. M.; Jones, B.; Zhang, J.; Tweedie, C. E.; Erikson, L. H.; Gibbs, A.; Richmond, B. M.

    2011-12-01

    A process-based coastal erosion/shoreline change model has been developed for Arctic coastal bluffs subject to niche erosion/block collapse. The model explicitly accounts for many environmental/geographic variables including: water temperature, water level, wave height, and bluff height. The model was originally developed for a small coastal segment near Drew Point, Beaufort Sea, Alaska. This coastal setting has experienced a dramatic increase in erosion since the early 2000's. The bluffs at this site are 3-4 m tall and consist of ice-wedge bounded blocks of fine-grained sediments cemented by ice-rich permafrost and capped with a thin organic layer. The bluffs are typically fronted by a narrow (~ 5 m wide) beach or none at all. During a storm surge, the sea contacts the base of the bluff and a niche is formed through thermal and mechanical erosion. The niche grows both vertically and laterally and eventually undermines the bluff, leading to block failure or collapse. The fallen block is then eroded both thermally and mechanically by waves and currents, which must occur before a new niche forming episode may begin. The model has been calibrated based on shoreline change data at Drew Point for two time periods: 1979-2002 and 2002-2007. Measured and modeled shoreline change rates were about 8 m/yr and 16 m/yr, for the earlier and later periods, respectively. In this paper, this work is extended to include modeling and measurement of coastal erosion at Drew Point on an annual basis for the period 2007-2010. In addition, the model is applied at three other Arctic coastal locations - Elson Lagoon, Cape Halkett, and Barter Island - where niche erosion/block collapse prevails.

  10. NATIONAL COASTAL CONDITION REPORT II

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coastal waters in the US include estuaries, coastalwetlands, coral reefs, mangrove and kep forests, seagrass meadows, and upwelling areas. Critical coastal habitats provide spawning grounds, nurseries, shelter, and food for finfish, shellfish, birds, and other wildlife. the nat...

  11. Temporal memory is shaped by encoding stability and intervening item reactivation.

    PubMed

    DuBrow, Sarah; Davachi, Lila

    2014-10-15

    Making sense of previous experience requires remembering the order in which events unfolded in time. Prior work has implicated the hippocampus and medial temporal lobe cortex in memory for temporal information associated with individual episodes. However, the processes involved in encoding and retrieving temporal information across extended sequences is relatively poorly understood. Here we used fMRI during the encoding and retrieval of extended sequences to test specific predictions about the type of information used to resolve temporal order and the role of the hippocampus in this process. Participants studied sequences of images of celebrity faces and common objects followed by a recency discrimination test. The main conditions of interest were pairs of items that had been presented with three intervening items, half of which included an intervening category shift. During encoding, hippocampal pattern similarity across intervening items was associated with subsequent successful order memory. To test for evidence of associative retrieval, we trained a classifier to discriminate encoding patterns associated with faces versus objects and applied the classifier on fMRI patterns during recency discrimination. We found evidence that the category content of intervening items was reactivated during recency judgments, and this was related to hippocampal encoding-retrieval similarity. A follow-up behavioral priming experiment revealed additional evidence for intervening item reinstatement during temporal order judgments. Reinstatement did not differ according to whether the items occurred within a single context or across context boundaries. Thus, these data suggest that inter-item associative encoding and retrieval mediated by the hippocampus contribute to temporal order memory. PMID:25319696

  12. A comparative study of intervening and associated H I 21-cm absorption profiles in redshifted galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curran, S. J.; Duchesne, S. W.; Divoli, A.; Allison, J. R.

    2016-08-01

    The star-forming reservoir in the distant Universe can be detected through H I 21-cm absorption arising from either cool gas associated with a radio source or from within a galaxy intervening the sight-line to the continuum source. In order to test whether the nature of the absorber can be predicted from the profile shape, we have compiled and analysed all of the known redshifted (z ≥ 0.1) H I 21-cm absorption profiles. Although between individual spectra there is too much variation to assign a typical spectral profile, we confirm that associated absorption profiles are, on average, wider than their intervening counterparts. It is widely hypothesised that this is due to high velocity nuclear gas feeding the central engine, absent in the more quiescent intervening absorbers. Modelling the column density distribution of the mean associated and intervening spectra, we confirm that the additional low optical depth, wide dispersion component, typical of associated absorbers, arises from gas within the inner parsec. With regard to the potential of predicting the absorber type in the absence of optical spectroscopy, we have implemented machine learning techniques to the 55 associated and 43 intervening spectra, with each of the tested models giving a ≳80% accuracy in the prediction of the absorber type. Given the impracticability of follow-up optical spectroscopy of the large number of 21-cm detections expected from the next generation of large radio telescopes, this could provide a powerful new technique with which to determine the nature of the absorbing galaxy.

  13. Modelling the transport and accumulation of floating marine debris in the Mediterranean basin.

    PubMed

    Mansui, J; Molcard, A; Ourmières, Y

    2015-02-15

    In the era of plastic and global environmental issues, when large garbage patches have been observed in the main oceanic basins, this work is the first attempt to explore the possibility that similar permanent accumulation structures may exist in the Mediterranean Sea. The questions addressed in this work are: can the general circulation, with its sub-basins scale gyres and mesoscale instabilities, foster the concentration of floating items in some regions? Where are the more likely coastal zones impacted from open ocean sources? Multi-annual simulations of advected surface passive debris depict the Tyrrhenian Sea, the north-western Mediterranean sub-basin and the Gulf of Sirte as possible retention areas. The western Mediterranean coasts present very low coastal impact, while the coastal strip from Tunisia to Syria appears as the favourite destination. No permanent structure able to retain floating items in the long-term were found, as the basin circulation variability brings sufficient anomalies. PMID:25534631

  14. Coastal laws strike a balance

    SciTech Connect

    Dennison, M.S.

    1993-04-01

    Although the coastal zone comprises less than 10% of the nation`s land mass, more than 75% of the population lives within 50 miles of coastal areas. Commercial enterprises, including manufacturing facilities, industrial plants, resort hotels and marinas, are built in coastal areas along with the usual beachfront homes condominiums. These enterprises can adversely impact coastal environment through pollution-generation activities. Government regulators have sought to curtail activities that give rise to pollution.

  15. Phase I for the Use of TOPEX-Poseidon and Jason-1 Radar Altimetry to Monitor Coastal Wetland Inundation and Sea Level Rise in Coastal Louisiana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brozen, Madeline; Batina, Matthew; Parker, Stephen; Brooks, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the first phase of this project was to determine the feasibility of applying satellite altimetry data to monitor sea level rise and inundation within coastal Louisiana. Global sea level is rising, and coastal Louisiana is subsiding. Therefore, there is a need to monitor these trends over time for coastal restoration and hazard mitigation efforts. TOPEX/POSEIDON and Jason-data are used for global sea level estimates and have also been demonstrated successfully in water level studies of lakes, river basins, and floodplains throughout the world. To employ TOPEX/POSEIDON and Jason-1 data in coastal regions, the numerous steps involved in processing the data over non-open ocean areas must be assessed. This project outlined the appropriate methodology for processing non-open ocean data, including retracking and atmospheric corrections. It also inventoried the many factors in coastal land loss including subsidence, sea level rise, coastal geomorphology, and salinity levels, among others, through a review of remote sensing and field methods. In addition, the project analyzed the socioeconomic factors within the Coastal Zone as compared to the rest of Louisiana. While sensor data uncertainty must be addressed, it was determined that it is feasible to apply radar altimetry data from TOPEX/POSEIDON and Jason 1 to see trends in change within Coastal Louisiana since

  16. The East Falcon Basin: Its Caribbean roots

    SciTech Connect

    Bartok, P.; Boesi, T.

    1996-08-01

    The East Falcon Basin has been described persistently in the context of the Maracaibo Basin tectonic framework. It is the objective of the present study to demonstrate that the Falcon Basin is, in effect, a Caribbean basin juxtaposed on South America and affected by Caribbean tectonics. The oldest rocks outcropping in the region are Late Paleozoic metamorphic and igneous rocks rafted from northcentral Colombia, Middle Jurassic ophiolite complexes, sediments and metasediments and Cretaceous ophiolites transported by a melange of late Cretaceous to early Tertiary sediments. The south vergence of the Caribbean Nappe province has been documented and extends to the present limit of the Andean uplift and to the southern limit of the Coastal Range. The migrating foredeep that developed during the Paleocene-Eocene deposited dominantly basinal shales and thin sandstones. During the Oligocene the Caribbean faults of the Oca system and conjugates began with a dominantly transtensional regime becoming progressively transpressional by Miocene time. The facies development of the Oligocene-Miocene documents the tectonic history. Unique blocks remained as resistant blocks creating ramparts and modifying the basin configuration. During transpression northward-verging thrusting progressively migrated towards the present coastline. The most evident structures of the region are Caribbean in affinity and combined with the sedimentary history of the region can serve to unravel the complex Caribbean-South American plate interaction.

  17. Coastal vulnerability across the Pacific dominated by El Niño-Southern Oscillation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Short, Andrew D.; Harley, Mitchell D.; Splinter, Kristen D.; Vitousek, Sean; Turner, Ian L.; Allan, Jonathan; Banno, Masayuki; Bryan, Karin R.; Doria, André; Hansen, Jeff E.; Kato, Shigeru; Kuriyama, Yoshiaki; Randall-Goodwin, Evan; Ruggiero, Peter; Walker, Ian J.; Heathfield, Derek K.

    2015-01-01

    To predict future coastal hazards, it is important to quantify any links between climate drivers and spatial patterns of coastal change. However, most studies of future coastal vulnerability do not account for the dynamic components of coastal water levels during storms, notably wave-driven processes, storm surges and seasonal water level anomalies, although these components can add metres to water levels during extreme events. Here we synthesize multi-decadal, co-located data assimilated between 1979 and 2012 that describe wave climate, local water levels and coastal change for 48 beaches throughout the Pacific Ocean basin. We find that observed coastal erosion across the Pacific varies most closely with El Niño/Southern Oscillation, with a smaller influence from the Southern Annular Mode and the Pacific North American pattern. In the northern and southern Pacific Ocean, regional wave and water level anomalies are significantly correlated to a suite of climate indices, particularly during boreal winter; conditions in the northeast Pacific Ocean are often opposite to those in the western and southern Pacific. We conclude that, if projections for an increasing frequency of extreme El Niño and La Niña events over the twenty-first century are confirmed, then populated regions on opposite sides of the Pacific Ocean basin could be alternately exposed to extreme coastal erosion and flooding, independent of sea-level rise.

  18. Coastal vulnerability across the Pacific dominated by El Niño/Southern Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Short, Andrew D.; Harley, Mitchell D.; Splinter, Kristen D.; Vitousek, Sean; Turner, Ian L.; Allan, Jonathan; Banno, Masayuki; Bryan, Karin R.; Doria, André; Hansen, Jeff E.; Kato, Shigeru; Kuriyama, Yoshiaki; Randall-Goodwin, Evan; Ruggiero, Peter; Walker, Ian J.; Heathfield, Derek K.

    2015-10-01

    To predict future coastal hazards, it is important to quantify any links between climate drivers and spatial patterns of coastal change. However, most studies of future coastal vulnerability do not account for the dynamic components of coastal water levels during storms, notably wave-driven processes, storm surges and seasonal water level anomalies, although these components can add metres to water levels during extreme events. Here we synthesize multi-decadal, co-located data assimilated between 1979 and 2012 that describe wave climate, local water levels and coastal change for 48 beaches throughout the Pacific Ocean basin. We find that observed coastal erosion across the Pacific varies most closely with El Niño/Southern Oscillation, with a smaller influence from the Southern Annular Mode and the Pacific North American pattern. In the northern and southern Pacific Ocean, regional wave and water level anomalies are significantly correlated to a suite of climate indices, particularly during boreal winter; conditions in the northeast Pacific Ocean are often opposite to those in the western and southern Pacific. We conclude that, if projections for an increasing frequency of extreme El Niño and La Niña events over the twenty-first century are confirmed, then populated regions on opposite sides of the Pacific Ocean basin could be alternately exposed to extreme coastal erosion and flooding, independent of sea-level rise.

  19. Sedimentary sequence evolution in a Foredeep basin: Eastern Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Bejarano, C.; Funes, D.; Sarzalho, S.; Audemard, F.; Flores, G.

    1996-08-01

    Well log-seismic sequence stratigraphy analysis in the Eastern Venezuela Foreland Basin leads to study of the evolution of sedimentary sequences onto the Cretaceous-Paleocene passive margin. This basin comprises two different foredeep sub-basins: The Guarico subbasin to the west, older, and the Maturin sub-basin to the east, younger. A foredeep switching between these two sub-basins is observed at 12.5 m.y. Seismic interpretation and well log sections across the study area show sedimentary sequences with transgressive sands and coastal onlaps to the east-southeast for the Guarico sub-basin, as well as truncations below the switching sequence (12.5 m.y.), and the Maturin sub-basin shows apparent coastal onlaps to the west-northwest, as well as a marine onlap (deeper water) in the west, where it starts to establish. Sequence stratigraphy analysis of these sequences with well logs allowed the study of the evolution of stratigraphic section from Paleocene to middle Miocene (68.0-12.0 m.y.). On the basis of well log patterns, the sequences were divided in regressive-transgressive-regressive sedimentary cycles caused by changes in relative sea level. Facies distributions were analyzed and the sequences were divided into simple sequences or sub- sequences of a greater frequencies than third order depositional sequences.

  20. Spatial Analysis of Coastal Erosion over Five Decades near Barrow, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manley, W. F.

    2004-12-01

    There has been increasing interest in processes affecting Arctic coastlines, including shoreline erosion. The prospect of continued -- and possibly accelerated -- coastal erosion is a major concern for many Arctic communities. Documenting and understanding spatial variability in erosion rates are increasingly attainable as high-resolution imagery becomes available, and as GIS and remote-sensing tools are more widely accepted. This study presents such an analysis for a broad area near Barrow, Alaska. Shoreline erosion and accretion were quantified by comparison of coregistered datasets and imagery. Orthorectified Radar Imagery (ORRI) was acquired in July, 2002 at 1.25 m resolution. Twenty frames of aerial photos from August, 1955 were scanned and georectified to the ORRI using a polynomial transformation in ArcGIS, with resulting resolution of about 1.4 m and RMS error of 2.6 m. The 2002 and 1955 shorelines were digitized with points spaced every 20 m along the 250 km of mainland coastline. For barrier islands and the Barrow Spit, the 1955 coastline was digitized from DRG files depicting the USGS 15-minute maps. Using a variety of vector ArcInfo commands, horizontal displacement of the mainland shoreline was converted to erosion and accretion rates for the intervening 47 years. (Note that time-averaged rates will underrepresent episodically high rates during storm events). Overall error considering georectification, digitizing, and transient waterline shifts due to microtidal fluctuation and wave-set up is approx. 3.1 m for the mainland coast, equating with 0.07 m/yr. For barrier features, where the DRG's are less accurate, error is about 28 m (0.6 m/yr). Nearly all of the mainland coast (91%) has experienced erosion. Highly variable, rates average -0.91 m/yr, with an average horizontal shoreline displacement of -42.5 m. (Rates and displacements are negative for erosion). Relatively low rates of about -0.3 m/yr occur along the Chukchi coast, where sand- and gravel

  1. Thermal evolution of coastal California with implications for hydrocarbon maturation

    SciTech Connect

    Heasler, H.P.

    1984-01-01

    The thermal constraints imposed by plate subduction, cooling oceanic lithosphere, and the migration of a fault-fault-trench triple junction are numerically modeled using finite differences in order to better understand the thermal evolution of coastal California. Numerical solutions for steady state heat transfer are used to estimate the effect of plate subduction in lowering temperatures in coastal California. Numerical solutions for time dependent heat transfer estimate the thermal effect of the passage of the Mendocino triple junction with consequent upwelling of asthenosphere. Calculated heat flow values from the models result in a heat flow distribution similar to measured values from north of Cape Mendocino to the Garlock fault zone. When the calculated paleotemperatures are applied to the Pismo Basin, the basal 300 meters of source rocks are predicted to have entered or be near the liquid oil window. Trends suggested by the thermal models indicate that the more southern basins and basins closer to the North American plate Pacific plate boundary have experienced higher paleotemperatures. Consequently, these basins potentially contain a greater amount of generated hydrocarbons.

  2. CHAPTER 7: COASTAL ZONES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Mid-Atlantic's coastal areas, especially the Chesapeake Bay, Delaware Bay, and Albemarle/Pamlico Sounds (Figure 3), have important aesthetic and economic values. In Delaware, for example, Parsons and Powell (1998) estimated that $90,000 of the value of a $200,000 home along t...

  3. MANAGING COASTAL DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    To answer broad-scale questions on environmental conditions, the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) and its partners have collected estuarine and coastal data from hundreds of stations along the coasts of the continental United States. Types of data include w...

  4. COASTAL EMAP PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several state and federal agencies are collecting monitoring data. One of the goals of the project is to assist the states in the implementation of their statewide coastal monitoring strategy by dealing with issues of statewide data comparability and information management. The ...

  5. Model for Coastal Restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Thom, Ronald M.; Judd, Chaeli

    2007-07-27

    Successful restoration of wetland habitats depends on both our understanding of our system and our ability to characterize it. By developing a conceptual model, looking at different spatial scales and integrating diverse data streams: GIS datasets and NASA products, we were able to develop a dynamic model for site prioritization based on both qualitative and quantitative relationships found in the coastal environment.

  6. Mesozoic-Cenozoic basins of Western China as example of partitioned retro-arc foreland basin system

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, S.A.; Zuchang, X.; Carroll, A.; McKnight, C.

    1988-01-01

    Mesozoic-Cenozoic sedimentary basins of Xinjiang Autonomous Region, western China, occupy a retro-arc foreland position with respect to the southern Eurasian convergent continental margin. Yet these basins differ in many ways from retro-arc foreland basins in other parts of the world. In North America, for instance, the Cretaceous Rocky Mountain foreland basin overlies basement that has been an integral part of cratonal North America since the Precambrian. The region had a long early Paleozoic history as a divergent continental margin and was later modified by relatively modest continental growth through accretionary tectonics. Once established in the Mesozoic, the Rocky Mountain foreland basin was a structurally simple, large, integrated basin, with the exception of the Laramide time-space segment of the foreland system. In contrast, the Mesozoic-Cenozoic foreland basins of Xinjiang are markedly partitioned, reflecting the process and architecture of major tectonic accretion from the Paleozoic through the collision of India in the Tertiary. The stage was set for a partitioned Mesozoic foreland with the Paleozoic suturing of the Siberia and Tarim cratons and intervening terranes. Although the margins of these blocks were deformed and uplifted during collision, their interiors persisted as depocenters into the foreland basin phase during the Mesozoic. The foreland basins of western China apparently represent poorly documented end members in the spectrum of retro-arc foreland basins. The Chinese examples occur in a region characterized by extreme continental growth through tectonic accretion. Reactivation of structural trends inherited from pre-foreland history were key factors in segmentation of the foreland.

  7. Sustainable Management of Coastal Environments Through Coupled Terrestrial-Coastal Ocean Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohrenz, S. E.; Cai, W.; Tian, H.; He, R.; Xue, Z.; Fennel, K.; Hopkinson, C.; Howden, S. D.

    2012-12-01

    Changing climate and land use practices have the potential to dramatically alter coupled hydrologic-biogeochemical processes and associated movement of water, carbon and nutrients through various terrestrial reservoirs into rivers, estuaries, and coastal ocean waters. Consequences of climate- and land use-related changes will be particularly evident in large river basins and their associated coastal outflow regions. The large spatial extent of such systems necessitates a combination of satellite observations and model-based approaches coupled with targeted ground-based site studies to adequately characterize relationships among climate forcing (e.g., wind, precipitation, temperature, solar radiation, humidity, extreme weather), land use practice/land cover change, and transport of materials through watersheds and, ultimately, to coastal regions. Here, we describe a NASA Interdisciplinary Science project that employs an integrated suite of models in conjunction with remotely sensed as well as targeted in situ observations with the objectives of describing processes controlling fluxes on land and their coupling to riverine, estuarine and ocean ecosystems. The objectives of this effort are to 1) assemble and evaluate long term datasets for the assessment of impacts of climate variability, extreme weather events, and land use practices on transport of water, carbon and nitrogen within terrestrial systems and the delivery of materials to waterways and rivers; 2) using the Mississippi River as a testbed, develop and evaluate an integrated suite of models to describe linkages between terrestrial and riverine systems, transport of carbon and nutrients in the Mississippi river and its tributaries, and associated cycling of carbon and nutrients in coastal ocean waters; and 3) evaluate uncertainty in model products and parameters and identify areas where improved model performance is needed through model refinement and data assimilation. The effort employs the Dynamic Land

  8. Coastal hazards: hurricanes, tsunamis, coastal erosion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vandas, Stephen; Mersfelder, Lynne; Farrar, Frank, (artist); France, Rigoberto Guardado, (translator); Yajimovich, Oscar Efraín González; Muñoz, Aurora R.; Rivera, María del C.

    1996-01-01

    Oceans are the largest geographic feature on the surface of the Earth, covering approximately 70% of the planet's surface. As a result, oceans have a tremendous impact on the Earth, its climate, and its inhabitants. The coast or shoreline is the boundary between ocean environments and land habitats. By the year 2025, it is estimated that approximately two-thirds of the world's population will be living within 200 kilometers of a coast. In many ways, we treat the coast just like any other type of land area, as a safe and stable place to live and play. However, coastal environments are dynamic, and they constantly change in response to natural processes and to human activities.

  9. Intensification and spatial homogenization of coastal upwelling under climate change.

    PubMed

    Wang, Daiwei; Gouhier, Tarik C; Menge, Bruce A; Ganguly, Auroop R

    2015-02-19

    The timing and strength of wind-driven coastal upwelling along the eastern margins of major ocean basins regulate the productivity of critical fisheries and marine ecosystems by bringing deep and nutrient-rich waters to the sunlit surface, where photosynthesis can occur. How coastal upwelling regimes might change in a warming climate is therefore a question of vital importance. Although enhanced land-ocean differential heating due to greenhouse warming has been proposed to intensify coastal upwelling by strengthening alongshore winds, analyses of observations and previous climate models have provided little consensus on historical and projected trends in coastal upwelling. Here we show that there are strong and consistent changes in the timing, intensity and spatial heterogeneity of coastal upwelling in response to future warming in most Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems (EBUSs). An ensemble of climate models shows that by the end of the twenty-first century the upwelling season will start earlier, end later and become more intense at high but not low latitudes. This projected increase in upwelling intensity and duration at high latitudes will result in a substantial reduction of the existing latitudinal variation in coastal upwelling. These patterns are consistent across three of the four EBUSs (Canary, Benguela and Humboldt, but not California). The lack of upwelling intensification and greater uncertainty associated with the California EBUS may reflect regional controls associated with the atmospheric response to climate change. Given the strong linkages between upwelling and marine ecosystems, the projected changes in the intensity, timing and spatial structure of coastal upwelling may influence the geographical distribution of marine biodiversity. PMID:25693571

  10. Coastal vulnerability assessment of the Northern Gulf of Mexico to sea-level rise and coastal change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pendleton, E.A.; Barras, J.A.; Williams, S.J.; Twichell, D.C.

    2010-01-01

    A coastal vulnerability index (CVI) was used to map the relative vulnerability of the coast to future sea-level rise along the Northern Gulf of Mexico from Galveston, TX, to Panama City, FL. The CVI ranks the following in terms of their physical contribution to sea-level rise-related coastal change: geomorphology, regional coastal slope, rate of relative sea-level rise, historical shoreline change rate, mean tidal range, and mean significant wave height. The rankings for each variable are combined and an index value is calculated for 1-kilometer grid cells along the coast. The CVI highlights those regions where the physical effects of sea-level rise might be the greatest. The CVI assessment presented here builds on an earlier assessment conducted for the Gulf of Mexico. Recent higher resolution shoreline change, land loss, elevation, and subsidence data provide the foundation for a better assessment for the Northern Gulf of Mexico. The areas along the Northern Gulf of Mexico that are likely to be most vulnerable to sea-level rise are parts of the Louisiana Chenier Plain, Teche-Vermillion Basin, and the Mississippi barrier islands, as well as most of the Terrebonne and Barataria Bay region and the Chandeleur Islands. These very high vulnerability areas have the highest rates of relative sea-level rise and the highest rates of shoreline change or land area loss. The information provided by coastal vulnerability assessments can be used in long-term coastal management and policy decision making.

  11. IR observations of the double quasar 0957 + 561 A, B and the intervening galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soifer, B. T.; Neugebauer, G.; Wynn-Williams, C. G.; Matthews, K.; Becklin, E. E.; Capps, R.

    1980-01-01

    Infrared observations of the double quasar 0957 + 561 A, B and the intervening galaxy believed to be responsible for its double appearance by gravitational light deflection are reported. Observations were obtained of each quasar at 1.6 and 2.2 microns and of the 12.5 arcsec region centered between the two quasars at 1.2, 1.6 and 2.2 microns. Extended IR emission is observed in the vicinity of both quasars and is attributed to emission from the intervening galaxy. The two quasars are found to have a constant flux ratio in all observed wavelength ranges, consistent with the achromatic imaging predicted by the gravitational lens model, and to exhibit an unusual continuum distribution in the region 0.35-2.2 microns. The infrared observations are also consistent with a giant elliptical lens galaxy at a redshift of approximately 0.40.

  12. Paleozoic basins in West Africa and the Mauritanide thrust belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villeneuve, Michel

    2005-10-01

    The evolution of the Paleozoic basins of West Africa is strongly depending on the structuration of the different belts which are surrounding the West African Craton. We distinguish the "Taoudeni Basin" located in the center of the craton from the basins located on the West African Craton margin (Tindouf, Tamale and several troughs limiting the western side of the Taoudeni Basin). Other basins are located on top of the Pan-African or Hercynian belts (Bové, Kandi, Ouallen in Semmen and Diourbel basins) or on top of the Proterozoic shields (The Ghana basins). Some are evidenced underneath the Mesozoic-Cenozoic coastal basins (Bové and Ghana basins). The sedimentation started with the Marinoan glacial event (620-580 Ma) and ended with the carbonates of the Early Carboniferous. The main tectonic or climatic events that occurred during this period are registered by the sediments. Among them are, the "Série pourprée glaciogenic deposits, the Pan-African II tectonic event (550-500 Ma) which affects the southwestern part of the Taoudeni Basin, the Late Ordovician glaciogenic event, the Early Silurian marine transgression, the Early Devonian marine regression and the Hercynian tectonic event (330-270 Ma) which affects the Paleozoic basins located on the western and northern parts of the West African Craton. The second part of this paper is devoted to a synthetic review of the Mauritanides Belt which is extending from Southern Senegal to the Moroccan High Atlas. This belt includes both old Pan-African belts and Paleozoic sediments (belonging to the western part of the Bové, Taoudeni and Tindouf basins) tectonised and metamorphosed during the Hercynian orogen. The third part points out the close relationships between the Paleozoic basins and the main tectonic event for the main periods of the West African Craton evolution.

  13. Geology of the Douala basin, offshore Cameroon, West Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Pauken, R.J.; Thompson, J.M.; Schumann, J.R. ); Cooke, J.C. )

    1991-03-01

    The Douala basin is predominantly an offshore basin extending from the Cameroon volcanic line in the north to the Corisco arch in the south near the Equatorial Guinea-Gabon border. The basin lies wholly within the territorial borders of Cameroon and Equatorial Guinea. The Douala basin is one of a series of divergent margin basins occurring along the southwest African coastline resulting from the rifting of Africa from South America. Continental rifting in the Doula basin was initiated at least by Aptian-Albian time and possibly as early as Jurassic. The rift stage persisted until Albian time when the onset of drifting occurred. The sedimentary section in the basin has a maximum thickness of 8-10 km, based on exploration drilling and gravity and magnetics modeling. The synrift section consists of Aptian-Albian sands and shales, deposited primarily as submarine fans, fan-deltas, and turbidite deposits. These are overlain by salt, thought to be equivalent to the Ezagna salt of Aptian age in the Gabon basin to the south. The synrift section is separated from the overlying postrift shale sequence of Late Cretaceous and Tertiary age by a major late Albian unconformity. The Douala basin has been explored for hydrocarbons intermittently over the last 25 years. Results show a distinct tendency for gas-proneness. The largest field recorded to date is the Sanaga Sud gas field, discovered in 1979, offshore, near the coastal city of Kribi.

  14. The queer sensitive interveners in the Little Sisters case: a response to Dr. Kendall.

    PubMed

    Busby, Karen

    2004-01-01

    Three queer sensitive organizations intervened before the Supreme Court of Canada in Little Sisters v. Canada, a case that challenged whether and how Canada Customs treated cross border shipments to a gay and lesbian bookstore. This paper reviews the queer sensitive organizations' arguments on some of the issues in the case, especially the scope of obscenity law, and challenges misconceptions about their positions, including those presented in Dr. Kendall's paper (appearing in this volume). PMID:15451707

  15. In-111 granulocyte response to intervening surgery. Evidence of sustained in vivo viability

    SciTech Connect

    Schauwecker, D.S.; Mock, B.H.; Burt, R.W.; Wellman, H.N.

    1984-08-01

    A patient with chronic osteomyelitis had surgery performed between the early and delayed images of an In-111 granulocyte scan. The early images showed no uptake, while the delayed images demonstrated marked soft tissue uptake, which was felt to be secondary to the inflammation of the intervening surgery. It was concluded that granulocytes, when labeled with In-111, remain viable and can respond to inflammation that occurs after their injection.

  16. Delineating Contaminants and Transport Pathways Within a Coastal Watershed in Southeast Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coastal water quality decline due to point and non-point source pollution from terrestrial sources is a serious concern throughout the Caribbean basin and worldwide. Toxic and noxious algal blooms, declines in mangrove forests and seagrass meadows, depletion of fishery stocks, coral reef die-off, pu...

  17. Simulating decadal coastal morphodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholls, Robert J.; French, Jon R.; van Maanen, Barend

    2016-03-01

    Coastal geomorphic systems provide many services of key importance to humankind, including protection from flood and erosion hazards, diverse habitats and amenity values (Agardy et al., 2005; Jones et al., 2011). However, these systems are widely undergoing degradation that can be substantially attributed to the cumulative direct and indirect effects of human interference. Declining sediment inputs and throughputs are frequently a factor driving a shift towards progressive coastal erosion (Valiela, 2006; Nicholls et al., 2007). Such sediment starved systems have reduced resilience and are further threatened by human-induced climate change, not only due to accelerated sea-level rise, but also through possible shifts in wave and surge climate (Wong et al., 2014).

  18. Coastal Research Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucey, Paul G.; Williams, Timothy; Horton, Keith A.

    2002-01-01

    The Coastal Research Imaging Spectrometer (CRIS) is an airborne remote-sensing system designed specifically for research on the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of coastal waters. The CRIS includes a visible-light hyperspectral imaging subsystem for measuring the color of water, which contains information on the biota, sediment, and nutrient contents of the water. The CRIS also includes an infrared imaging subsystem, which provides information on the temperature of the water. The combination of measurements enables investigation of biological effects of both natural and artificial flows of water from land into the ocean, including diffuse and point-source flows that may contain biological and/or chemical pollutants. Temperature is an important element of such measurements because temperature contrasts can often be used to distinguish among flows from different sources: for example, a sewage outflow could manifest itself in spectral images as a local high-temperature anomaly.

  19. COASTAL BASINS URBAN STORMWATER MONITORING FOR TMDL DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project involves conducting an extensive assessment of data needs and based on those findings, developing a monitoring plan to provide the needed data. From the monitoring plan that is developed, the grantee proposes to install operate, and maintain monitoring equipment at ...

  20. Reflected GPS Power for the Detection of Surface Roughness Patterns in Coastal Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oertel, George, F.; Allen, Thomas R.

    2000-01-01

    Coastal bays formed by the barrier islands of Delaware, Maryland and Virginia are parts of a coastal region known as a "Coastal Compartment". The coastal compartment between the Chesapeake and Delaware Bays is actually the mosaic of landscapes on the headland of the interfluve that separates these large drainage basins. The coastal compartments form a variety of different-shaped waterways landward of the coastline. Shape differences along the boundaries produce differences in exposure to wind and waves. Different shoreface topographies seaward of the coastline also influence surface roughness by changing wave-refraction patterns. Surface-water roughness (caused by waves) is controlled by a number of parameters, including fetch, shielding, exposure corridors, water-mass boundary conditions, wetland vegetation and water depth in coastal bays. In the coastal ocean, surface roughness patterns are controlled by shoreface shoaling and inlet refraction patterns in the coastal ocean. Knowledge of wave phenomena in the nearshore and backbarrier areas is needed to understand how wave climate influences important ecosystems in estuaries and bays.

  1. Oregon Coastal Observing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosro, M.; Allen, J. S.; Barth, J. A.; Egbert, G. D.; Huyer, A.; Smith, R. L.; Grantham, B. A.; Lubchenco, J.; Menge, B. A.

    2002-12-01

    Since 1997, a growing system of sustained coastal measurements, together with a high-resolution, data-assimilating coastal modeling program, have been used off Oregon to study the response of the coastal ocean to forcing at a range of space and time scales. The measurements include a large array of HF radars, which permit time-series mapping of the surface circulation over most of the Oregon coast; both long-term and short-term moored components, which provide time-series sampling through the water column; and repeat hydrographic, ADCP and surface drifter sampling, including the Newport Hydrographic Line (which has been sampled since the 1960s). At interannual frequencies, these measurements show changes in the alongshore circulation over the continental slope accompanying ENSO. At seasonal and storm frequencies, the strength and persistence of spatial patterns in wind-driven currents and the importance of bathymetry in steering the circulation are seen. Discovery of episodic phenomena, such as the recent finding of a hypoxic pool and associated die-off of fish and crabs on the continental shelf off Heceta Head, are made possible by repeated sampling.

  2. 76 FR 39857 - Alaska Coastal Management Program Withdrawal From the National Coastal Management Program Under...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration Alaska Coastal Management Program Withdrawal From the National Coastal Management Program Under the Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) AGENCY: Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management (OCRM), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Oceanic...

  3. Mercury in tropical and subtropical coastal environments

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Monica F.; Landing, William M.; Kehrig, Helena A.; Barletta, Mário; Holmes, Christopher D.; Barrocas, Paulo R. G.; Evers, David C.; Buck, David G.; Vasconcellos, Ana Claudia; Hacon, Sandra S.; Moreira, Josino C.; Malm, Olaf

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic activities influence the biogeochemical cycles of mercury, both qualitatively and quantitatively, on a global scale from sources to sinks. Anthropogenic processes that alter the temporal and spatial patterns of sources and cycling processes are changing the impacts of mercury contamination on aquatic biota and humans. Human exposure to mercury is dominated by the consumption of fish and products from aquaculture operations. The risk to society and to ecosystems from mercury contamination is growing, and it is important to monitor these expanding risks. However, the extent and manner to which anthropogenic activities will alter mercury sources and biogeochemical cycling in tropical and sub-tropical coastal environments is poorly understood. Factors as (1) lack of reliable local/regional data; (2) rapidly changing environmental conditions; (3) governmental priorities and; (4) technical actions from supra-national institutions, are some of the obstacles to overcome in mercury cycling research and policy formulation. In the tropics and sub-tropics, research on mercury in the environment is moving from an exploratory “inventory” phase towards more process-oriented studies. Addressing biodiversity conservation and human health issues related to mercury contamination of river basins and tropical coastal environments are an integral part of paragraph 221 paragraph of the United Nations document “The Future We Want” issued in Rio de Janeiro in June 2012. PMID:22901765

  4. Mercury Enrichment in Sediments of the Coastal Area of Northern Latium, Italy.

    PubMed

    Scanu, Sergio; Piazzolla, Daniele; Frattarelli, Francesco Manfredi; Mancini, Emanuele; Tiralongo, Francesco; Brundo, Maria Violetta; Tibullo, Daniele; Pecoraro, Roberta; Copat, Chiara; Ferrante, Margherita; Marcelli, Marco

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extent of the Hg geochemical anomaly arising in the Amiata and Tolfa complex to the coastal area of northern Latium and to examine the possible influence on this area by the Mignone River, and by the small coastal basins, which are characterized by both previous mining activities and decades of past industrial impact. The results confirm the extension of the anomaly of concentrations of Hg in the coastal area of northern Latium, with the northern sector influenced by the contributions of the Fiora and Mignone Rivers and the southern sector influenced by the contributions of minor basins. The results show high values of the Adverse Effect Index throughout the considered area and highlight the need for further investigation in order to assess the impact of human activities on the present and past values of Hg in marine sediments. PMID:26994618

  5. Assessment of suitable habitat for Phragmites australis (common reed) in the Great Lakes coastal zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carlson Mazur, Martha L.; Kowalski, Kurt P.; Galbraith, David

    2014-01-01

    In the Laurentian Great Lakes, the invasive form of Phragmites australis (common reed) poses a threat to highly productive coastal wetlands and shorelines by forming impenetrable stands that outcompete native plants. Large, dominant stands can derail efforts to restore wetland ecosystems degraded by other stressors. To be proactive, landscape-level management of Phragmites requires information on the current spatial distribution of the species and a characterization of areas suitable for future colonization. Using a recent basin-scale map of this invasive plant’s distribution in the U.S. coastal zone of the Great Lakes, environmental data (e.g., soils, nutrients, disturbance, climate, topography), and climate predictions, we performed analyses of current and predicted suitable coastal habitat using boosted regression trees, a type of species distribution modeling. We also investigated differential influences of environmental variables in the upper lakes (Lakes Superior, Michigan, and Huron) and lower lakes (Lakes St. Clair, Erie, and Ontario). Basin-wide results showed that the coastal areas most vulnerable to Phragmites expansion were in close proximity to developed lands and had minimal topographic relief, poorly drained soils, and dense road networks. Elevated nutrients and proximity to agriculture also influenced the distribution of Phragmites. Climate predictions indicated an increase in suitable habitat in coastal Lakes Huron and Michigan in particular. The results of this study, combined with a publicly available online decision support tool, will enable resource managers and restoration practitioners to target and prioritize Phragmites control efforts in the Great Lakes coastal zone.

  6. 77 FR 13591 - Nevada Irrigation District; Notice of Extension of Time for Filing of Motions To Intervene and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Nevada Irrigation District; Notice of Extension of Time for Filing of Motions To Intervene and Protests, Comments, Recommendations, Preliminary Terms and...

  7. An introduction to coastal geomorphology

    SciTech Connect

    Pethick, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    This book is an introduction to wave and tidally dominated coastal forms, including beaches, cliffs, dunes, estuaries, mudflats and marshlands. The book emphasises the physical mechanisms by which this variety of landforms is produced and maintained. It introduces the energy outputs - waves, currents, tides - into the coastal 'machine', examines the way in which this energy is converted into water and sediment movement, and leads to an account of coastal landform development.

  8. Spatial Scaling of Floods in Atlantic Coastal Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plank, C.

    2013-12-01

    Climate and land use changes are altering global, regional and local hydrologic cycles. As a result, past events may not accurately represent the events that will occur in the future. Methods for hydrologic prediction, both statistical and deterministic, require adequate data for calibration. Streamflow gauges tend to be located on large rivers. As a result, statistical flood frequency analysis, which relies on gauge data, is biased towards large watersheds. Conversely, the complexity of parameterizing watershed processes in deterministic hydrological models limits these to small watersheds. Spatial scaling relationships between drainage basin area and discharge can be used to bridge these two methodologies and provide new approaches to hydrologic prediction. The relationship of discharge (Q) to drainage basin area (A) can be expressed as a power function: Q = αAθ. This study compares scaling exponents (θ) and coefficients (α) for floods of varying magnitude across a selection of major Atlantic Coast watersheds. Comparisons are made by normalizing flood discharges to a reference area bankfull discharge for each watershed. These watersheds capture the geologic and geomorphic transitions along the Atlantic Coast from narrow bedrock-dominated river valleys to wide coastal plain watersheds. Additionally, there is a range of hydrometeorological events that cause major floods in these basins including tropical storms, thunderstorm systems and winter-spring storms. The mix of flood-producing events changes along a gradient as well, with tropical storms and hurricanes increasing in dominance from north to south as a significant cause of major floods. Scaling exponents and coefficients were determined for both flood quantile estimates (e.g. 1.5-, 10-, 100-year floods) and selected hydrometeorological events (e.g. hurricanes, summer thunderstorms, winter-spring storms). Initial results indicate that southern coastal plain watersheds have lower scaling exponents (θ) than

  9. Geology and petroleum resources of West Siberian Basin, USSR

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, J.W.; Klemme, H.D.; Peterson, J.A.

    1986-05-01

    The West Siberian basin occupies an area of approximately 3.3 million km/sup 2/ (1.3 million mi/sup 2/) in northwestern Siberia east of the Ural Mountains. Thickness of the Phanerozoic sedimentary cover ranges from approximately 3-5 km (10,000-15,000 ft) in the central area of the basin, to 8-12 km (25,000-40,000 ft) in the northern part. The basin is filled with approximately 10 million km/sup 3/ (2.4 million mi/sup 3/) of Mesozoic-Cenozoic clastic sedimentary rocks ranging in thickness from 3-4 km (10,000-13,000 ft) in the central area to 6-9 km (20,000-30,000 ft) in the north. The basement in the basin is Precambrian and Precambrian-Paleozoic granitic rocks and in places is highly metamorphosed Paleozoic sedimentary rocks. In other parts of the basin, Paleozoic carbonate and clastic rocks are only lightly metamorphosed and are targets for petroleum exploration. The Mesozoic-Cenozoic sedimentary basin fill was initiated in the northern part of the basin during the Triassic. By the Late Jurassic, marine clastic deposition had spread throughout the basin, and the basin configuration was established for the remainder of geologic time. Cretaceous and lower Tertiary rocks are primarily shallow marine shelf, coastal plain, and lowland clastic deposits formed during several transgressive-regressive phases. Major oil accumulations, mainly in Lower Cretaceous and Jurassic sandstone reservoirs, are located in the central and west-central parts of the basin. The largest reserves of natural gas in the world are located in the northern part of the basin, primarily in Upper Cretaceous (Cenomanian) sandstone reservoirs. In 1982, estimated cumulative production from the basin was approximately 10 billion bbl of oil. Estimated mean undiscovered resources (1981) are approximately 80 billion bbl of oil and 700 tcf of gas.

  10. The effects of intervening interference on working memory for sound location as a function of inter-comparison interval.

    PubMed

    Ries, Dennis T; Hamilton, Traci R; Grossmann, Aurora J

    2010-09-01

    This study examined the effects of inter-comparison interval duration and intervening interference on auditory working memory (AWM) for auditory location. Interaural phase differences were used to produce localization cues for tonal stimuli and the difference limen for interaural phase difference (DL-IPD) specified as the equivalent angle of incidence between two sound sources was measured in five different conditions. These conditions consisted of three different inter-comparison intervals [300 ms (short), 5000 ms (medium), and 15,000 ms (long)], the medium and long of which were presented both in the presence and absence of intervening tones. The presence of intervening stimuli within the medium and long inter-comparison intervals produced a significant increase in the DL-IPD compared to the medium and long inter-comparison intervals condition without intervening tones. The result obtained in the condition with a short inter-comparison interval was roughly equivalent to that obtained for the medium inter-comparison interval without intervening tones. These results suggest that the ability to retain information about the location of a sound within AWM decays slowly; however, the presence of intervening sounds readily disrupts the retention process. Overall, the results suggest that the temporal decay of information within AWM regarding the location of a sound from a listener's environment is so gradual that it can be maintained in trace memory for tens of seconds in the absence of intervening acoustic signals. Conversely, the presence of intervening sounds within the retention interval may facilitate the use of context memory, even for shorter retention intervals, resulting in a less detailed, but relevant representation of the location that is resistant to further degradation. PMID:20547219

  11. Hurricane Properties for KSC and Mid-Florida Coastal Sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Dale L.; Rawlins, Michael A.; Kross, Dennis A.

    2000-01-01

    Hurricane information and climatologies are needed at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Florida for launch operational planning purposes during the late summer and early fall Atlantic hurricane season. Also these results are needed to be used in estimating the potential magnitudes of hurricane and tropical storm impact on coastal Florida sites when passing within 50, 100 and 400 nm of that site. Roll-backs of the Space Shuttle and other launch vehicles, on pad, are very costly when a tropical storm approaches. A decision for the vehicle to roll-back or ride-out needs to be made. Therefore the historical Atlantic basin hurricane climatological properties were generated to be used for operational planning purposes and in the estimation of potential damage to launch vehicles, supporting equipment, buildings, etc.. The historical 1885-1998 Atlantic basin hurricane data were compiled and analyzed with respect to the coastal Florida site of KSC. Statistical information generated includes hurricane and tropical storm probabilities for path, maximum wind, and lowest pressure, presented for the areas within 50, 100 and 400 nm of KSC. These statistics are then compared to similar parametric statistics for the entire Atlantic basin.

  12. A NATIONAL COASTAL ASSESSMENT OF COASTAL SEDIMENT CONDITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    One element of the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program's National Coastal Assessment is to estimate the current status, extent, changes and trends in the condition of the Nation's coastal sediments on a national basis. Based on NCA monitoring activities from 1999-2001...

  13. Portable coastal observatories

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frye, Daniel; Butman, Bradford; Johnson, Mark; von der Heydt, Keith; Lerner, Steven

    2000-01-01

    Ocean observational science is in the midst of a paradigm shift from an expeditionary science centered on short research cruises and deployments of internally recording instruments to a sustained observational science where the ocean is monitored on a regular basis, much the way the atmosphere is monitored. While satellite remote sensing is one key way of meeting the challenge of real-time monitoring of large ocean regions, new technologies are required for in situ observations to measure conditions below the ocean surface and to measure ocean characteristics not observable from space. One method of making sustained observations in the coastal ocean is to install a fiber optic cable from shore to the area of interest. This approach has the advantage of providing power to offshore instruments and essentially unlimited bandwidth for data. The LEO-15 observatory offshore of New Jersey (yon Alt et al., 1997) and the planned Katama observatory offshore of Martha's Vineyard (Edson et al., 2000) use this approach. These sites, along with other cabled sites, will play an important role in coastal ocean science in the next decade. Cabled observatories, however, have two drawbacks that limit the number of sites that are likely to be installed. First, the cable and the cable installation are expensive and the shore station needed at the cable terminus is often in an environmentally sensitive area where competing interests must be resolved. Second, cabled sites are inherently limited geographically to sites within reach of the cable, so it is difficult to cover large areas of the coastal ocean.

  14. Sinking coastal cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkens, Gilles; Bucx, Tom; Dam, Rien; De Lange, Ger; Lambert, John

    2014-05-01

    In many coastal and delta cities land subsidence now exceeds absolute sea level rise up to a factor of ten. Without action, parts of Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Bangkok and numerous other coastal cities will sink below sea level. Land subsidence increases flood vulnerability (frequency, inundation depth and duration of floods), with floods causing major economic damage and loss of lives. In addition, differential land movement causes significant economic losses in the form of structural damage and high maintenance costs. This effects roads and transportation networks, hydraulic infrastructure - such as river embankments, sluice gates, flood barriers and pumping stations -, sewage systems, buildings and foundations. The total damage worldwide is estimated at billions of dollars annually. Excessive groundwater extraction after rapid urbanization and population growth is the main cause of severe land subsidence. In addition, coastal cities are often faced with larger natural subsidence, as they are built on thick sequences of soft soil. Because of ongoing urbanization and population growth in delta areas, in particular in coastal megacities, there is, and will be, more economic development in subsidence-prone areas. The impacts of subsidence are further exacerbated by extreme weather events (short term) and rising sea levels (long term).Consequently, detrimental impacts will increase in the near future, making it necessary to address subsidence related problems now. Subsidence is an issue that involves many policy fields, complex technical aspects and governance embedment. There is a need for an integrated approach in order to manage subsidence and to develop appropriate strategies and measures that are effective and efficient on both the short and long term. Urban (ground)water management, adaptive flood risk management and related spatial planning strategies are just examples of the options available. A major rethink is needed to deal with the 'hidden' but urgent

  15. Deciphering the forcing factors of coastal evolution from a numerical chronology for a coastal sediment succession, Eastern Hengchun Peninsula, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lüthgens, Christopher; Ho, Lih-Der; Jen, Chia-Hung; Chyi, Shyh-Jeng

    2016-04-01

    Taiwan, an island with a high mountain area attaining almost 4000 m, is located in a unique position in East Asia at the transition from the subtropical to the tropical zone. The climate is driven by the East-Asian monsoon, which is responsible for a humid climate during the whole year. In addition, earthquakes, tropical storms, and typhoons trigger morphodynamic processes. Taiwan's coastal landscape is the result of complex interactions between marine and subaerial processes, sediment supply and local geology, plate tectonics, climate change, and global sea-level fluctuations. Unconsolidated sediments in coastal areas are known to preserve valuable information about these processes driving the coastal landscape evolution. In the Ganko river basin, located on the Eastern Hengchun peninsula in south-eastern Taiwan, climatic and tectonic forcing factors may have significantly influenced the natural sediment yield and sediment storage over time. In addition, in the recent past human influence within the river catchment may significantly have altered the sediment yield in the coastal areas close to the rivermouth. In order to reconstruct such variations and ideally relate them to either tectonic, climatic and anthropogenic forcing, a detailed analysis of sedimentary archives is essential. The area under investigation comprises a complex terrestrial river terrace record as well as a coastal sediment succession at the river outlet, both in parts aggraded above presumably tectonically uplifted near-shore sediments. Establishing a high resolution numerical chronology for these sediments may allow a reconstruction of sediment aggradation phases and stability phases for different sections of the catchment area from upstream fluvial terraces to coastal deposits, as well as the underlying near-shore deposits. A combination of two independent dating methods, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating using the pIRIR150 signal of feldspar, as well as radiocarbon dating, was

  16. Allometry and prediction in hominoids: a solution to the problem of intervening variables.

    PubMed

    Hartwig-Scherer, S; Martin, R D

    1992-05-01

    To avoid misinterpretation of allometric exponents determined from interspecific allometric comparisons, specific conditions must be met with respect to the common reference variable. Body weight is considered to be the best general indication of overall size and is hence widely acknowledged to be the most suitable reference variable. However, because of the paucity of recorded body weights for museum specimens, various comparative studies have used other size indicators as intervening variables, although the allometric relationships to body size/weight were often unknown and possibly differed between species. Because of differences in the scaling properties of alternative intervening variables across the species investigated, conflicting conclusions may be drawn if different variables are chosen as substitutes for overall size. This is illustrated with two examples. In this study, series of skeletons with associated body weights of Gorilla, Pan, Pongo, and Homo were investigated. Both ontogenetic and static adult allometric relationships between several widely used reference variables and body weight were determined. Neither these variables nor additional estimators investigated in this study displayed allometric exponents and coefficients similar enough across species to justify direct interspecific comparison. To generate an alternative size estimator for both ontogenetic and static interspecific investigations, equations for combined sexes were derived to predict body weight from various long bone dimensions for individual hominoid species. From a total of 25 predictors, 12 prediction equations per species (six for nonadults and six for adults) were selected according to their relative suitability for reliable prediction of body weight. It is shown that the derived reference variable "predicted body weight" avoids problems of intervening variables, is valid for any interspecific ontogenetic and static allometric comparison, and displays less fluctuation in

  17. Neurophysiology of Hungarian subject-verb dependencies with varying intervening complexity.

    PubMed

    Jolsvai, Hajnal; Sussman, Elyse; Csuhaj, Roland; Csépe, Valéria

    2011-12-01

    Non-adjacent dependencies are thought to be more costly to process than sentences wherein dependents immediately follow or precede what they depend on. In English locality effects have been revealed, while in languages with rich case marking (German and Hindi) sentence final structures show anti-locality-effects. The motivation of the current study is to test whether locality effects can be directly applied to a typologically different language than those investigated so far. Hungarian is a "topic prominent" language; it permits a variation of possible word sequencing for semantic reasons, including SVO word order. Hungarian also has a rich morphological system (e.g., rich case system) and postpositions to indicate grammatical functions. In the present ERP study, Hungarian subject-verb dependencies were compared by manipulating the mismatch of number agreement between the sentence's initial noun phrase and the sentence's final intransitive verb as well as the complexity of the intervening sentence material, interrupting the dependencies. Possible lexical class and frequency or cloze-probability effects for the first two words of the intervening sentence material were revealed when used separate baseline for each word, while at the third word of the intervening material as well as at the main verb ERPs were not modulated by complexity but at the verb ERPs were enhanced by grammaticality. Ungrammatical sentences enlarged the amplitude of both LAN and P600 components at the main verb. These results are in line with studies suggesting that the retrieval of the first element of a dependency is not influenced by distance from the second element, as the first element is directly accessible when needed for integration (e.g., McElree, 2000). PMID:21740931

  18. Coastal hydrogeological system of Mar Piccolo (Taranto, Italy).

    PubMed

    Zuffianò, L E; Basso, A; Casarano, D; Dragone, V; Limoni, P P; Romanazzi, A; Santaloia, F; Polemio, M

    2016-07-01

    The Mar Piccolo basin is an internal sea basin located along the Ionian coast (Southern Italy), and it is surrounded primarily by fractured carbonate karstic environment. Because of the karstic features, the main continental water inflow is from groundwater discharge. The Mar Piccolo basin represents a peculiar and sensitive environment and a social emergency because of sea water and sediment pollution. This pollution appears to be caused by the overlapping effects of dangerous anthropogenic activities, including heavy industries and commercial and navy dockyards. The paper aims to define the contribution of subaerial and submarine coastal springs to the hydrological dynamic equilibrium of this internal sea basin. A general approach was defined, including a hydrogeological basin border assessment to detect inflowing springs, detailed geological and hydrogeological conceptualisation, in situ submarine and subaerial spring measurements, and flow numerical modelling. Multiple sources of data were obtained to define a relevant geodatabase, and it contained information on approximately 2000 wells, located in the study area (1600 km(2)). The conceptualisation of the hydrogeological basin, which is 978 km(2) wide, was supported by a 3D geological model that interpolated 716 stratigraphic logs. The variability in hydraulic conductivity was determined using hundreds of pumping tests. Five surveys were performed to acquire hydro-geochemical data and spring flow-yield measurements; the isotope groundwater age was assessed and used for model validation. The mean annual volume exchanged by the hydrogeological basin was assessed equal to 106.93 10(6) m(3). The numerical modelling permitted an assessment of the mean monthly yield of each spring outflow (surveyed or not), travel time, and main path flow. PMID:26201653

  19. Repulsive Casimir forces between solid materials with high-refractive-index intervening liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Zwol, P. J. van; Palasantzas, G.

    2010-06-15

    In order to explore repulsive Casimir or van der Waals forces between solid materials with liquid as the intervening medium, we analyze dielectric data for a wide range of materials as, for example, (p)olytetrafluoroethylene, polystyrene, silica, and more than 20 liquids. Although significant variation in the dielectric data from different sources exists, we provide a scheme based on measured static dielectric constants, refractive indices, and applying Kramers-Kronig consistency to dielectric data to create accurate dielectric functions at imaginary frequencies. The latter is necessary for more accurate force calculations via the Lifshitz theory, thereby allowing reliable predictions of repulsive Casimir forces.

  20. NATIONAL COASTAL CONDITION REPORT II

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of EPA's National Coastal Assessment (NCA) program is to estimate the status and trends of the condition of the nation's coastal resources on state, regional and national scales. During 1999-2003, 100% of the nation's estuarine waters were representatively sampled at ...

  1. NATIONAL COASTAL CONDITION REPORT IV

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Coastal Condition Report IV (NCCR IV) is the fourth in a series of environmental assessments of U.S. coastal waters and the Great Lakes. The report includes assessments of all the nation’s estuaries in the contiguous 48 states and Puerto Rico, south-eastern Alaska, ...

  2. A coastal current in winter: 2. Wind forcing and cooling of a coastal current east of Cape Cod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbina, Andrey Y.; Gawarkiewicz, Glen G.

    2008-10-01

    The combined effect of cooling and wind-driven buoyancy flux (WDBF) on a buoyant coastal current east of Cape Cod is investigated using observations and process-oriented numerical modeling. Theoretical considerations show that with the moderately strong surface density gradients observed in the Outer Cape Cod Coastal Current, WDBF can substantially exceed the buoyancy loss due to cooling, especially during intense winter storms. Evidence of deep convection associated with strong negative WDBF during downwelling-favorable winds is clearly seen in the moored observations. A simplified two-dimensional numerical model is used to illustrate the evolution of wind- and buoyancy-driven cross-shelf overturning circulation in response to surface cooling and episodic storm events. The simulation confirms that WDBF plays an important role in driving subduction of cold surface water at the offshore surface outcrop of the coastal current font. The presence of the coastal current is also shown to block onshore Ekman transport. As a result, the downwelling circulation in a cross-shore plane is predicted to have a complex multicell structure, in which exchange between the inner shelf and midshelf is restricted. The downwelling circulation has a major impact on the cross-shelf origin of cold, dense shelf waters contributing to intermediate layers of the Wilkinson Basin of the Gulf of Maine.

  3. Coastal energy sitting dilemmas

    SciTech Connect

    Randle, R.V.

    1981-01-01

    The construction of energy facilities in any port seems to assure a bitterly contested political decision, and paralysis or delay in the siting of necessary energy facilities. Analysis of this confrontation and delay is important in evaluating the Federal government's present approach to coastal energy siting. Part I examines the rural and urban patterns of opposition which have brought siting to a near standstill. Part II explores the possibility of using a tradeoff principle as a means to compromise these disputes and expedite siting. Disputes over the siting of a liquid propane gas (LPG) terminal and an oil refinery in coastal North Carolina are examined in order to understand the obstacles to using a tradeoff approach. The three major obstacles to a successful tradeoff policy for siting are preemption of important regulatory matters by the Federal government; fragmentation of permit processes and appeals; and failure of these state and Federal regulatory programs adequately to address liability and insurance aspects of these facilities. An institutional arrangement is suggested that could site these facilities at an acceptable speed in an acceptable manner through the use of the tradeoff principle, consolidated permit and appellate proceedings, and appropriate substantive protections. 165 references.

  4. Sinking coastal cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkens, G.; Bucx, T.; Dam, R.; de Lange, G.; Lambert, J.

    2015-11-01

    In many coastal and delta cities land subsidence now exceeds absolute sea level rise up to a factor of ten. A major cause for severe land subsidence is excessive groundwater extraction related to rapid urbanization and population growth. Without action, parts of Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Bangkok and numerous other coastal cities will sink below sea level. Land subsidence increases flood vulnerability (frequency, inundation depth and duration of floods), with floods causing major economic damage and loss of lives. In addition, differential land movement causes significant economic losses in the form of structural damage and high maintenance costs for (infra)structure. The total damage worldwide is estimated at billions of dollars annually. As subsidence is often spatially variable and can be caused by multiple processes, an assessment of subsidence in delta cities needs to answer questions such as: what are the main causes? What is the current subsidence rate and what are future scenarios (and interaction with other major environmental issues)? Where are the vulnerable areas? What are the impacts and risks? How can adverse impacts be mitigated or compensated for? Who is involved and responsible to act? In this study a quick-assessment of subsidence is performed on the following mega-cities: Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Dhaka, New Orleans and Bangkok. Results of these case studies will be presented and compared, and a (generic) approach how to deal with subsidence in current and future subsidence-prone areas is provided.

  5. Vulnerability assessment for preliminary flood risk mapping and management in coastal areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greco, Michele; Martino, Giovanni

    2013-04-01

    Planning and management of coastal environment, both terrestrial and marine, is affected by several actions in environment resource conservation and improvement paying specific attention to risk forecasting and preventing. In such context the EU flood Directive 2007/60/EC, which requires Member States the assessment and management of flood risk, and the EU water framework Directive (2000/60/EC) are the key factors in the integrated river basin management to assure an efficient and rational use of resources. Afterwards, coastal risk assessment and mapping is a propaedeutic phase to plan and manage coastal areas. In this work risk analysis refers to the results obtained by the combined application of coastal flooding and erosion risks in the activities carried out to prepare Regional Coast Management Plan for the Ionian coast of Basilicata Region located in the south of Italy. In order to define the driving forces acting on the shore, high resolution lidar data, bathymetric information and wave climate statistics acquired by meteorological analyses on wind field data referred to different acquisition times are used. The systemic vulnerability estimation is achieved by composing both hazard factors combined in the Criticality Coastal Index depending on of the assessment of Coastal Flood Index and Coastal Erosion Index based on morphologic and socio-economic variables.

  6. Coastal erosion in Sicily: geomorphologic impact and mitigation (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liguori, V.; Manno, G.

    2009-04-01

    coastal units, in low-coastline and mountainous, with average rates of 29%. The main methods available today for the protection of coastlines in Sicily, are falling in the first approximation in hard (structural), and soft and soft, based not only on nutrition artificial beaches but also on interventions with low environmental impact as the reduction of losses sediments. The right approach is not only in stabilizing the various shores, but also in not induce or accelerate the erosion of the adjacent areas. Indeed this impact accompanies almost all the hard interventions achieved in past years. It is essential to carry out a verification of the effectiveness of the defence of the coast from erosion and structural interventions of nourishment in terms of impact on coastal marine and coastal environment. We started a series of experimental analysis based on the application of new techniques for relief based on remote sensing as the major techniques performed with satellite radar (SAR), measurements morph-altitude high resolution made with the laser system by plane (LIDAR) and precise measurements on the behaviour of works and river mouths with intelligences cameras. The most dominant climate change involve the precipitation and temperature. Temperature is particularly important in snow-dominated basins and in coastal areas, the latter due to the impact of temperature on sea level. Moreover we must say that (as mentioned in 4th Report IPCC) the shores are projected to be exposed to increasing risks, including coastal erosion, due to climate change and sea level rise. Infrastructure in coastal areas is vulnerable to damage from sea-level rise, flooding, and other storms. This effect will be exacerbated by increasing human-induced pressures on coastal areas. Keywords: erosion, shores, coastal defend, monitoring.

  7. Patterns of pollution in the Hudson-Raritan Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Ayres, R.U.; Rod, S.R.

    1986-05-01

    By 1987 fully 100 percent of New York City's 1.6 billion gallons of waste water will receive at least primary sewage treatment. Eliminating the addition of raw sewage into New York Harbor is one example of the slow but steady progress being made in cleaning up the rivers and coastal waters of the Hudson-Raritan basin. This paper examined the historical patterns of pollution and the steps required to reduce future pollution of the Hudson-Raritan basin. 21 references, 8 figures, 5 tables.

  8. A Rossby whistle: A resonant basin mode observed in the Caribbean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Chris W.; Williams, Joanne; Hibbert, Angela; Boening, Carmen; Oram, James

    2016-07-01

    We show that an important source of coastal sea level variability around the Caribbean Sea is a resonant basin mode. The mode consists of a baroclinic Rossby wave which propagates westward across the basin and is rapidly returned to the east along the southern boundary as coastal shelf waves. Almost two wavelengths of the Rossby wave fit across the basin, and it has a period of 120 days. The porous boundary of the Caribbean Sea results in this mode exciting a mass exchange with the wider ocean, leading to a dominant mode of bottom pressure variability which is almost uniform over the Grenada, Venezuela, and Colombia basins and has a sharp spectral peak at 120 day period. As the Rossby waves have been shown to be excited by instability of the Caribbean Current, this resonant mode is dynamically equivalent to the operation of a whistle.

  9. Understanding Extreme Spanish Coastal Flood Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diez, J. Javier; Esteban, M. Dolores; Silvestre, J. Manuel

    2013-04-01

    The Santa Irene flood event, at the end of October 1982, is one of the most dramatically widely reported flood events in Spain. Its renown is mainly due to the collapse of the Tous dam, but its main message is to be the paradigm of the incidence of the maritime/littoral weather and its temporal sea level rise by storm surge accompanying rain process on the coastal plains inland floods. Looking at damages the presentation analyzes the adapted measures from the point of view of the aims of the FP7 SMARTeST Project related to the Flood Resilience improvement in urban areas through looking for Technologies, Systems and Tools an appropriate "road to de market". The event was due to the meteorological phenomenon known as "gota fría" (cold drop), a relatively frequent and intense rainy phenomenon affecting one or more basins on the Iberian Peninsula, particularly on the Spanish east to southeast inlands and coasts. There are some circumstances that can easily come together to unleash the cold drop there: cold and dry polar air masses coming onto the whole Iberian Peninsula and the north of Africa, high sea water temperatures, and low atmospheric pressure (cyclone) areas in the western Mediterranean basin; these circumstances are quite common during the autumn season there, and, as it happens, in other places around the world (East/Southeast Africa). Their occurrence, however shows a great space-temporal variability (in a similar way to hurricanes, on Caribbean and western North-Atlantic areas, or to typhoons do). As a matter of fact, all of these equivalent though different phenomena may have different magnitude each time. An overview of the very main events since 11th century in the East to Southeast areas in Spain is shown in the presentation, looking for relation with climatic conditions and Climate changes on one hand, and with geomorphologic and geotechnical conditions on the other It also describes the results of a detailed analysis and reflection about this cold

  10. Using an intervening sequence of Faecalibacterium 16S rDNA to identify poultry feces.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zhenyu; Duan, Chuanren; Zhang, Chao; Carson, Andrew; Xu, Dong; Zheng, Guolu

    2013-10-15

    This study was designed to identify poultry feces-specific marker(s) within sequences of Faecalibacterium 16S rDNA for detecting poultry fecal pollution in water. Bioinformatics tools were used in the comparative analysis of 7,458 sequences of Faecalibacterium 16S rDNA, reportedly associated with various poultry (chicken and turkey) and animal species. One intervening sequence (IVS) within between the hypervariable region 1 and the conserved region 2, designated as IVS-p, was found to be unique to poultry feces. Based on this sequence, a PCR assay (PCR-p) was developed. The PCR-p produced an amplicon of 132 bp only in the test when fecal or wastewater samples from poultry were used, but not when using fecal or wastewater samples from other sources. The non-poultry sources included feces of beef or dairy cattle, dog, horse, human, domestic or wild geese, seagull, sheep, swine, and wild turkey. These data indicate that IVS-p may prove to be a useful genetic marker for the specific identification of poultry fecal pollution in environmental waterways. Furthermore, results of data mining and PCR assay indicate that the IVS-p may have a broad geographic distribution. This report represents initial evidence of the potential utility of ribosomal intervening sequences as genetic markers for tracking host sources of fecal pollution in waterways. PMID:24011842

  11. Participation in High School Sports and Bystander Intentions, Efficacy to Intervene, and Rape Myth Beliefs.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Sarah

    2015-10-01

    Debate exists as to whether male athletes are more prone to commit acts of sexual violence and maintain problematic attitudes about sexual assault. To contribute to the literature on this relationship, this study posed the following research questions: (1) Do those students who participated in high school sports and those who did not differ significantly in their attitudes about sexual violence and willingness to intervene as a bystander? Do these differ among types of rape myths and bystander intervention situations? (2) Within a group of athletes, are there significant differences by gender or type of sport (contact sport vs. non-contact?) To answer these questions, surveys were analyzed with a sample of recent high school graduates the summer before entering college (N = 3,588). Results indicate that there were only minor differences between those students who participated in high school varsity sports and those who did not. Students who participated in sports had greater acceptance of three out of five types of rape myths, and less willingness to intervene with perpetrators after an assault; however, the effect sizes were small. There were no significant differences for bystander efficacy. The interaction between sport and gender was significant, but contact sport was not. The findings suggest that there may be aspects of male athletic participation in sports that needs to be addressed, yet there also exists the potential for engaging athletes as leaders who can act as prosocial bystanders. PMID:25392384

  12. The Auditory Comprehension of Wh-Questions in Aphasia: Support for the Intervener Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Walenski, Matthew; Love, Tracy; Shapiro, Lewis P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study examines 3 hypotheses about the processing of wh-questions in both neurologically healthy adults and adults with Broca's aphasia. Method We used an eye tracking while listening method with 32 unimpaired participants (Experiment 1) and 8 participants with Broca's aphasia (Experiment 2). Accuracy, response time, and online gaze data were collected. Results In Experiment 1, we established a baseline for how unimpaired processing and comprehension of 4 types of wh-question (subject- and object-extracted who- and which-questions) manifest. There was no unambiguous support found for any of the 3 hypotheses in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2 with the Broca's participants, however, we found significantly lower accuracy, slower response times, and increased interference in our gaze data in the object-extracted which-questions relative to the other conditions. Conclusions Our results provide support for the intervener hypothesis, which states that sentence constructions that contain an intervener (a lexical noun phrase) between a displaced noun phrase and its gap site result in a significant processing disadvantage relative to other constructions. We argue that this hypothesis offers a compelling explanation for the comprehension deficits seen in some participants with Broca's aphasia. PMID:25675427

  13. Systemic vulnerability model for coastal erosion processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greco, M.; Martino, G.; Guariglia, A.

    2010-09-01

    Many coastal areas constitute an extraordinary environmental worth and economic value resource continuously exposed to an unceasing transformation due to climatic and anthropic factors. The pressure factor overloads carry out an amplification of environmental degradation and economic rent decrease of these territories producing a disruption of normal and anticipated community growth. This paper copes with coastal erosion problem by a systemic vulnerability model application and environmental indicators approach. Through the definition of an original indicator depending on the observed annual rate of coastal erosion and wave climate parameters, such an approach allow scenario generation and it is useful and powerful planning and management tool. The model has been applied on the test case of Ionian Coast of Basilicata Region located in the southern part of Italy, in the middle of Mediterranean basin. The littoral area is constituted of sandy shores of about 50 km length and 5 river deltas take place. Looking at the shoreline in terms of displacements, a shift of a coastal part is a function of grain size characteristics of the shore sands and of the wave climate. Therefore the selected index taking into account the energy stress affecting the shore area, characterizing the territorial system state and finalized to vulnerability estimation, is defined through the maximum annual erosion,tE, and the surface-wave parameters (H,T) corresponding to the wave-generated bottom orbital velocities higher than critical velocity matches with the bottom incipient transport condition. The resulting coefficient ? (? = tE? ? gH2-?T) is obviously dimensionless and represents the part of the available power in the seas, dissipated by erosion processes. If ? increases, the system integrity decreases and the system vulnerability increases. Available data, in terms of topographic/bathymetric information referred to the period 1873-2008, were utilized to derive tE by the use of a GIS

  14. 76 FR 56189 - Symbiotics, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Motions to Intervene and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

    ... powerhouse located on the northwest side of the existing concrete stilling basin with one generating unit... powerhouse draft tube to prevent non-native fish species from surviving Kaplan turbine passage into...

  15. Sinking Coastal Cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkens, G.; Stuurman, R.; De Lange, G.; Bucx, T.; Lambert, J.

    2014-12-01

    In many coastal cities land subsidence now exceeds absolute sea level rise up to a factor of ten. Without action, parts of Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Bangkok and numerous other coastal cities will continue to sink, even below sea level. The ever increasing industrial and domestic demand for water in these cities results in excessive groundwater extraction, causing severe subsidence. In addition, coastal cities are often faced with larger natural subsidence, as they are built on thick sequences of soft soil. The impacts of subsidence are further exacerbated by climate-induced sea level rise. Land subsidence results in two types damage: foremost it increases flood vulnerability (frequency, inundation depth and duration of floods), with floods causing major economic damage and loss of lives. Secondly, differential land movement causes significant economic losses in the form of structural damage and high maintenance costs of roads and transportation networks, sewage systems, buildings and foundations. The total damage worldwide is estimated at billions of dollars annually. To survey the extent of groundwater associated subsidence, we conducted a quick-assessment of subsidence in a series of mega-cities (Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Dhaka, New Orleans and Bangkok). For each city research questions included: what are the main causes, how much is the current subsidence rate and what are predictions, where are the vulnerable areas, what are the impacts and risks, how can adverse impacts can be mitigated or compensated for, and what governmental bodies are involved and responsible to act? Using the assessment, this paper discusses subsidence modelling and measurement results from the selected cities. The focus is on the importance of delayed settlement after increases in hydraulic heads, the role of the subsurface composition for subsidence rates and best practice solutions for subsiding cities. For the latter, urban (ground)water management, adaptive flood risk management

  16. The neutral gas extent of galaxies as derived from weak intervening Ca ii absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, P.; Krause, F.; Fechner, C.; Charlton, J. C.; Murphy, M. T.

    2011-04-01

    We present a systematic study of weak intervening Ca ii absorbers at low redshift (z < 0.5), based on the analysis of archival high-resolution (R ≥ 45 000) optical spectra of 304 quasars and active galactic nuclei observed with VLT/UVES. Along a total redshift path of Δz ≈ 100 we detected 23 intervening Ca ii absorbers in both the Ca ii H & K lines, with rest frame equivalent widths Wr,3934 = 15-799 mÅ and column densities log N(Ca ii) = 11.25-13.04 (obtained by fitting Voigt-profile components). We obtain a bias-corrected number density of weak intervening Ca ii absorbers of {d{N}/dz=0.117 ± 0.044} at ⟨zabs⟩ = 0.35 for absorbers with log N(Ca ii) ≥ 11.65 (Wr,3934 ≥ 32 mÅ). This is 2.6 times the value obtained for damped Lyman α absorbers (DLAs) at low redshift. All Ca ii absorbers in our sample show associated absorption by other low ions such as Mg ii and Fe ii; 45 percent of them have associated Na i absorption. From ionization modelling we conclude that intervening Ca ii absorption with log N(Ca ii) ≥ 11.5 arises in DLAs, sub-DLAs and Lyman-limit systems (LLS) at H i column densities of log N(H i) ≥ 17.4. Using supplementary H i information for nine of the absorbers we find that the Ca ii/H i ratio decreases strongly with increasing H i column density, indicating a column-density-dependent dust depletion of Ca. The observed column density distribution function of Ca ii absorption components follows a relatively steep power law, f(N) ∝ N - β, with a slope of - β = -1.68, which again points towards an enhanced dust depletion in high column density systems. The relatively large cross section of these absorbers together with the frequent detection of Ca ii absorption in high-velocity clouds (HVCs) in the halo of the Milky Way suggests that a considerable fraction of the intervening Ca ii systems trace (partly) neutral gas structures in the halos and circumgalactic environment of galaxies (i.e., they are HVC analogs). Based on the recently

  17. Buried Mesozoic rift basins of the U. S. middle Atlantic continental margin

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, R.N. )

    1991-08-01

    The Atlantic continental margin is one of the frontier areas for oil and gas exploration in the US. Most the activity has been offshore where Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous siliciclastic and carbonate rocks have been the drilling objectives, with only one significant but noncommercial gas discover. Onshore, recent exploration activities have focused on early Mesozoic rift basins buried beneath the postrift sediments of the middle Atlantic coastal plain. Many of the basins are of interest because they contain fine-grained lacustrine rocks that have sufficient organic richness, if not lost through hydrocarbon generation, to be classified as source beds for oil or gas. Locations of inferred rift basins beneath the middle Atlantic coastal plain were determined by analysis of drill-hole data in combination with gravity anomaly and aeromagnetic maps. Two basins in Delaware and the Queen Anne basin of Maryland are imaged on a regional Vibroseis profile. Areas enclosing inferred rift basins in the offshore region were mapped from interpretation of seismic reflection profiles. Assuming that petroleum source beds are present in the basin (synrift) rocks, hydrocarbon-generation models (Lopatin method) indicate that for a basin just offshore Delaware that is buried by 7 km of postrift sediments, only dry gas would be present in reservoir rocks; for the Norfolk basin of the Virginia coast buried by only 3 km of postrift rocks, the upper few hundred meters of synrift rocks are still within the oil-generation window. The less deeply buried basins beneath the coastal plain likely are still within the oil window.

  18. Scenarios for coastal vulnerability assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nicholls, Robert J.; Woodroffe, Colin D.; Burkett, Virginia; Hay, John; Wong, Poh Poh; Nurse, Leonard

    2011-01-01

    Coastal vulnerability assessments tend to focus mainly on climate change and especially on sea-level rise. Assessment of the influence of nonclimatic environmental change or socioeconomic change is less well developed and these drivers are often completely ignored. Given that the most profound coastal changes of the twentieth century due to nonclimate drivers are likely to continue through the twenty-first century, this is a major omission. It may result in not only overstating the importance of climate change but also overlooking significant interactions of climate change and other drivers. To support the development of policies relating to climate change and coastal management, integrated assessments of climatic change in coastal areas are required, including the effects of all the relevant drivers. This chapter explores the development of scenarios (or "plausible futures") of relevant climate and nonclimate drivers that can be used for coastal analysis, with an emphasis on the nonclimate drivers. It shows the importance of analyzing the impacts of climate change and sea-level rise in a broader context of coastal change and all its drivers. This will improve the analysis of impacts, key vulnerabilities, and adaptation needs and, hence, inform climate and coastal policy. Stakeholder engagement is important in the development of scenarios, and the underlying assumptions need to be explicit, transparent, and open to scientific debate concerning their uncertainties/realism and likelihood.

  19. Coastal Research Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Coastal Research Imaging Spectrometer (CRIS) is an airborne remote-sensing system designed specifically for research on the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of coastal waters. The CRIS includes a visible-light hyperspectral imaging subsystem for measuring the color of water, which contains information on the biota, sediment, and nutrient contents of the water. The CRIS also includes an infrared imaging subsystem, which provides information on the temperature of the water. The combination of measurements enables investigation of biological effects of both natural and artificial flows of water from land into the ocean, including diffuse and point-source flows that may contain biological and/or chemical pollutants. Temperature is an important element of such measurements because temperature contrasts can often be used to distinguish among flows from different sources: for example, a sewage outflow could manifest itself in spectral images as a local high-temperature anomaly.anomaly. Both the visible and infrared subsystems scan in "pushbroom" mode: that is, an aircraft carrying the system moves along a ground track, the system is aimed downward, and image data are acquired in acrosstrack linear arrays of pixels. Both subsystems operate at a frame rate of 30 Hz. The infrared and visible-light optics are adjusted so that both subsystems are aimed at the same moving swath, which has across-track angular width of 15. Data from the infrared and visible imaging subsystems are stored in the same file along with aircraft-position data acquired by a Global Positioning System receiver. The combination of the three sets of data is used to construct infrared and hyperspectral maps of scanned areas shown.

  20. Estimating flood hydrographs for urban basins in North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mason, R.R., Jr.; Bales, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    A dimensionless hydrograph for North Carolina was developed from data collected in 29 urban and urbanizing basins in the State. The dimen- sionless hydrograph can be used with an estimate of peak flow and basin lagtime to synthesize a design flood hydrograph for urban basins in North Carolina. Peak flows can be estimated from a number of avail- able techniques; a procedure for estimating basin lagtime from main channel length, stream slope, and percentage of impervious area was developed from data collected at 50 sites and is presented in this report. The North Carolina dimensionless hydrograph provides satis- factory predictions of flood hydrographs in all regions of the State except for basins in or near Asheville where the method overestimated 11 of 12 measured hydrographs. A previously developed dimensionless hydrograph for urban basins in the Piedmont and upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina provides better flood-hydrograph predictions for the Asheville basins and has a standard error of 21 percent as compared to 41 percent for the North Carolina dimensionless hydrograph.

  1. Thermal and hydrocarbon maturation models for coastal California

    SciTech Connect

    Heasler, H.P.; Surdam, R.C.

    1985-02-01

    Hydrocarbon maturation models for coastal California must consider thermal and geochemical constraints imposed by plate tectonics, diagenetic reactions, and the sedimentation history of the region. Plate tectonism drastically effects the thermal history of California basins in many ways. Initially, temperatures in the crust of coastal California are suppressed during subduction of the Farallon plate. With the passage of the Mendocino triple junction, subduction ceases and a void is created into which asthenosphere moves. This elevates temperatures in the basins in a complex manner depending on the time of passage of the Mendocino triple junction and the location of a specific basin. Finite-difference numerical models were developed to approximate the thermal effects of subduction and lithospheric upwelling. Diagenetic reactions and sedimentation history affect both the maturation model and thermal history of a basin. Diagenetic reactions through time in the Miocene Monterey Formation may change thermal conductivity values by 70%. Facies changes also have an important effect on sediment thermal conductivity and hence sediment temperatures. Maturation models indicate varying levels of maturity depending on the method used. Models using the Time Temperature Index of Lopatin indicate the lowest level of maturity. Tissot and Espitalie's method, which uses multiple activation energies and varying constants for the kerogen types, results in an intermediate level of maturity. The highest level of maturity results in an intermediate level of maturity. The highest level of maturity results from the use of the Tissot and Espitalie method modified by using a single activation energy of 178.69 kJ mole/sup -1/ and a constant of 4.92 x 10/sup 13/ hour/sup -1/ as reported by M.D. Lewan for shale from the Phosphoria Formation.

  2. 24 CFR 574.645 - Coastal barriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coastal barriers. 574.645 Section....645 Coastal barriers. In accordance with the Coastal Barrier Resources Act, 16 U.S.C. 3501, no financial assistance under this part may be made available within the Coastal Barrier Resources System....

  3. COASTAL 2000 MONITORING IN THE NORTHEAST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coastal 2000 is a partnership between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and coastal states to develop a national coastal monitoring program. This joint effort will permit for the first time regional comparisons of coastal resource conditions. It will also provide a nationw...

  4. Dynamics of sea level variations in the coastal Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churchill, James; Abulnaja, Yasser; Nellayaputhenpeedika, Mohammedali; Limeburner, Richard; Lentz, Steven

    2016-04-01

    Sea level variations in the central Red Sea coastal zone span a range of roughly 1.2 m. Though relatively small, these water level changes can significantly impact the environment over the shallow reef tops prevalent in the central Red Sea, altering the water depth by a factor or two or more. While considerable scientific work has been directed at tidal and seasonal variations of Red Sea water level, very little attention has been given to elevation changes in an 'intermediate' frequency band, with periods of 2-30 d, even though motions in this band account for roughly half of the sea level variance in central Red Sea. We examined the sea level signal in this band using AVISO sea level anomaly (SLA) data, COARDAS wind data and measurements from pressure sensors maintained for more than five years at a number of locations in Saudi Arabian coastal waters. Empirical orthogonal function analysis of the SLA data indicates that longer-period (10-30 d) sea level variations in the intermediate band are dominated by coherent motions in a single mode that extends over most of the Red Sea axis. Idealized model results indicate that this large-scale mode of sea level motion is principally due to variations in the large-scale gradient of the along-axis wind. Our analysis indicates that coastal sea level motions at shorter periods (2-10 d) are principally generated by a combination of direct forcing by the local wind stress and forcing associated with large-scale wind stress gradients. However, also contributing to coastal sea level variations in the intermediate frequency band are mesoscale eddies, which are prevalent throughout the Red Sea basin, have a sea level signal of 10's of cm and produce relatively small-scale (order 50 km) changes in coastal sea level.

  5. Late Cenozoic history of Humboldt basin, Cape Mendocino area, California

    SciTech Connect

    McCrory, P.A.

    1988-03-01

    The Humboldt basin is a filled Neogene trench-slope basin within the accretionary complex immediately north of the Mendocino triple junction and adjacent to the underthrusting Juan de Fuca plate. This particular basin provides a unique opportunity for studying the transition from convergent to transform motion because of its proximity to the Mendocino triple junction. Moreover, the basin experienced almost continuous sedimentation throughout the late Neogene, and therefore yields a detailed stratigraphic record of basin deformation due to plate motion. Basin stratigraphy has recorded deformation of the upper surface of the Juan de Fuca accretionary complex as it was uplifted from lower bathyal to littoral depths during the Neogene. Geohistory analysis of Humboldt basin is based on key Neogene surface sections and detailed micropaleontologic and sedimentologic studies that are used to evaluate age and changing climate, water depth, and depositional environment through time along a trend perpendicular to the paleomargin. Oldest basin sediments consist mainly of hemipelagic mudstones deposited in a deep-water setting during elevated sea level 14-8 Ma. Turbidite sandstone intervals become common after about 3.5 Ma and can be divided into several discrete megasequence packages. Deposition of these megasequences was apparently influenced by climatically induced lowering of sea level and tectonic uplift of the adjacent coastal area. Turbidite deposition was followed by slope deposition starting about 2.2 Ma. A stratigraphic section near the eastern margin of the basin contains a thick slope, shelf, beach, fluvial sequence clearly influenced by eustatic sea level events. Humboldt basin has experienced uplift and deformation due to tectonic underthrusting and outbuilding of the accretionary prism associated with convergence of the Juan de Fuca plate.

  6. Factors affecting the evolution of coastal wetlands of the Laurential Great Lakes: an overview

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mayer, T.; Edsall, T.; Munawar, M.

    2004-01-01

    Coastal wetlands play a pivotal role in the Great Lakes ecosystem. As buffer zones between the land and open waters of the Great Lakes, they perform a variety of essential functions providing both direct and indirect anthropogenic benefits. Geology, morphology and climate are the dominant variables that influence Laurentian Great Lakes wetland development. However, anthropogenic factors are the major contributors to alteration of natural wetland processes. This paper provides an overview of natural and anthropogenic factors important in Great Lakes coastal wetland development and provides statistical information describing the Great Lakes Basin. A brief description of wetlands classification and research issues is also presented.

  7. Reserves in western basins

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, R.H.; Cotton, B.W.

    1992-06-01

    This project requires generation of producible tight gas sand reserve estimates for three western basins. The requirement is to perform such reserve estimates using industry accepted practices so that results will have high credibility and acceptance by the oil and gas industry. The ultimate goal of the project is to encourage development of the tight gas formation by industry through reduction of the technical and economic risks of locating, drilling and completing commercial gas wells. The three geological basins selected for study are the Greater Green River Basin, Uinta Basin and Piceance Basin, located in the Colorado, Utah and Wyoming Rocky Mountain region.

  8. Reserves in western basins

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, R.H.; Cotton, B.W.

    1992-01-01

    This project requires generation of producible tight gas sand reserve estimates for three western basins. The requirement is to perform such reserve estimates using industry accepted practices so that results will have high credibility and acceptance by the oil and gas industry. The ultimate goal of the project is to encourage development of the tight gas formation by industry through reduction of the technical and economic risks of locating, drilling and completing commercial gas wells. The three geological basins selected for study are the Greater Green River Basin, Uinta Basin and Piceance Basin, located in the Colorado, Utah and Wyoming Rocky Mountain region.

  9. Surface water data and geographic relation to Tertiary age intrusions and hydrothermal alteration in the Grand Mesa, Uncompahgre, and Gunnison National Forests (GMUG) and intervening Bureau of Land Management (BLM) lands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bove, Dana J.; Knepper, Daniel H.

    2000-01-01

    This data set covering the western part of Colorado includes water quality data from eight different sources (points), nine U.S. Geological Survey Digital Raster Graph (DRG) files for topographic bases, a compilation of Tertiary age intrusions (polygons and lines), and two geotiff files showing areas of hydrothermally altered rock. These data were compiled for use with an ongoing mineral resource assessment of theGrand Mesa, Uncompahgre, and Gunnison National Forests (GMUG) and intervening Bureau of Land Management(BLM) lands. This compilation was assembled to give federal land managers a preliminary view of water within sub-basinal areas, and to show possible relationships to Tertiary age intrusion and areas of hydrothermal alteration.

  10. Influences of peers, teachers, and climate on students' willingness to intervene when witnessing anti-transgender harassment.

    PubMed

    Wernick, Laura J; Kulick, Alex; Inglehart, M H

    2014-08-01

    Transgender young people are at increased risk for bullying, harassment, and negative mental health and academic outcomes compared to the general population as well as compared to other members of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, questioning, and similarly identified (LGBTQQ) communities. To inform interventions to support transgender students, the present study investigates students' willingness to intervene when witnessing anti-transgender harassment, using data collected from a participatory action research project investigating school climate. Multi-step linear regression was used to test the impacts of hearing transphobic language and witnessing teachers and others students intervene, while controlling for demographics and school. Hostile climate negatively predicted intervention intentions while witnessing peer intervention positively predicted likelihood to intervene. Witnessing teacher intervention did not significantly predict the outcome. These findings suggest that youth-led interventions in peer networks might be effective in diminishing transphobic bullying and supporting the healthy development of transgender young people. PMID:25032899

  11. Paluxy of the Central Basin-East Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Presley, M.W. )

    1993-09-01

    The Paluxy Formation (Lower Cretaceous) has been a consistent sandstone exploration objective in the central East Texas basin, occurring at moderate depths on the order of 5000-8000 ft with oil in reservoirs with good permeability and porosity and reserves in the range of 200,000 to 500,000 bbl per well. Since the 1940s, the pace of Paluxy field discovery has been steady, generally a new field or two every one or two years, and there is every reason to believe that there is continued potential for the Paluxy in the future. The central part of the East Texas basin, in Smith County and adjacent areas, has complex structure with numerous salt domes and intervening sediment wedges (turtles) that formed during movement of the salt. Paluxy oil and gas in this area occurs mainly in combination structural-stratigraphic traps along normal faults that cut turtles. Major exploration trends in the central basin include (1) the Lindale turtle with a number of widely spaced fields, generally with only a few wells but with relatively good per-well reserves, (2) the Tyler turtle with the largest fields and some of the most prolific Paluxy production in the central basin, (3) the Flint and Irene turtles with relatively thin sandstones and modest production, (4) the Lane Chapel turtle with some exciting new Paluxy discoveries, and (5) the rim areas of salt domes.

  12. Coastal biodiversity and bioresources: variation and sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Song; Liu, Zhengyi; Yu, Roger Ziye

    2016-03-01

    The 1st International Coastal Biology Congress (1st ICBC) was held in Yantai, China, in Sep. 26-30, 2014. Eighteen manuscripts of the meeting presentations were selected in this special issue. According to the four themes set in the ICBC meeting, this special issue include four sections, i.e., Coastal Biodiversity under Global Change, Adaptation and Evolution to Special Environment of Coastal Zone, Sustainable Utilization of Coastal Bioresources, and Coastal Biotechnology. Recent advances in these filed are presented.

  13. CONSTRAINING STELLAR PROPERTIES OF INTERVENING DAMPED Ly{alpha} AND Mg II ABSORBING GALAXIES TOWARD GRB 050730

    SciTech Connect

    Minowa, Y.; Okoshi, K.; Kobayashi, N.; Takami, H.

    2012-09-15

    We performed multiband deep imaging of the field around GRB 050730 to identify the host galaxies of intervening absorbers, which consist of a damped Ly{alpha} absorption (DLA) system at z{sub abs} = 3.564, a sub-DLA system at z{sub abs} = 3.022, and strong Mg II absorption systems at z{sub abs} = 1.773 and 2.253. Our observations were performed after the gamma-ray burst afterglow had disappeared. Thus, our imaging survey has a higher sensitivity to the host galaxies of the intervening absorbers than the normal imaging surveys in the direction of QSOs, for which the QSO glare tends to hide the foreground galaxies. In this deep imaging survey, we could not detect any unambiguous candidates for the host galaxies of the intervening absorbers. Using the 3{sigma} upper limit of the flux in the optical to mid-infrared observing bands, which corresponds to the UV to optical bands in the rest frame of the intervening absorbers, we constrained the star formation rates and stellar masses of the hosts. We estimated the star formation rates for the intervening absorbers to be {approx}< 2.5 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} for z > 3 DLAs and {approx}< 1.0 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} for z {approx} 2 Mg II systems. Their stellar masses are estimated to be several times 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun} or smaller for all intervening galaxies. These properties are comparable to dwarf galaxies, rather than the massive star-forming galaxies commonly seen in the z > 2 galaxy surveys based on emission-line selection or color selection.

  14. CLASSIFICATION FRAMEWORK FOR COASTAL SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Classification Framework for Coastal Systems. EPA/600/R-04/061. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Atlantic Ecology Division, Narragansett, RI, Gulf Ecology Division, Gulf Bree...

  15. North Atlantic Coastal Tidal Wetlands

    EPA Science Inventory

    The book chapter provides college instructors, researchers, graduate and advanced undergraduate students, and environmental consultants interested in wetlands with foundation information on the ecology and conservation concerns of North Atlantic coastal wetlands. The book c...

  16. Experiences Associated with Intervening with Homeless, Substance-abusing Mothers: The Importance of Success

    PubMed Central

    Slesnick, Natasha; Glassman, Michael; Katafiasz, Heather; Collins, Jennifer C.

    2015-01-01

    This article documents the experiences of providing housing and supportive services, or ecologically based treatment, to shelter-recruited, substance-abusing homeless women with young children in their care. Among clients, observed experiences related to housing, substance abuse, and health and mental health care are discussed. Among therapists, experiences related to managing the chaotic nature of the client's lives, wanting to manage the client's lives, and frustration with client's life trajectories are reviewed. Observations related to the therapeutic process include the client's relationship to the therapist, balancing the client's independence and need for assistance, and unrealistic expectations among the clients. Recommendations for successfully approaching these clinical situations and experiences are offered. The purpose of this article is to document these therapy experiences to facilitate the work of future teams seeking to intervene in the lives of homeless families through homeless shelters or other settings. PMID:23285834

  17. Intervening with everyday memory problems in dementia of Alzheimer type: an errorless learning approach.

    PubMed

    Clare, L; Wilson, B A; Carter, G; Breen, K; Gosses, A; Hodges, J R

    2000-02-01

    Dementia of Alzheimer Type (DAT) is increasingly detected at an earlier stage of the disorder, when interventions to assist with everyday memory difficulties might be most valuable. Some learning is possible in DAT and a number of factors have been identified which may facilitate performance, although applications to everyday memory problems have been limited. The concept of errorless learning has not previously been directly examined in relation to DAT, but might provide a useful additional strategy. In the present study, 6 participants with early stage DAT (MMSE scores 21 - 26) received individually tailored interventions, based on errorless learning principles and targeted at a specific everyday memory problem. Five of the participants showed significant improvement on the target measures, and maintained this improvement up to 6 months later. The results suggest that it is feasible to intervene with everyday memory problems in the early stages PMID:10649552

  18. Intervening in Earth's climate system through space-based solar reflectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, F. J. T.; McInnes, C. R.; Winter, O. C.

    2016-07-01

    Several space-based climate engineering methods, including shading the Earth with a particle ring for active cooling, or the use of orbital reflectors to increase the total insolation of Mars for climate warming have been considered to modify planetary climates in a controller manner. In this study, solar reflectors on polar orbits are proposed to intervene in the Earth's climate system, involving near circular polar orbits normal to the ecliptic plane of the Earth. Similarly, a family of displaced polar orbits (non-Keplerian orbits) are also characterized to mitigate future natural climate variability, producing a modest global temperature increase, again to compensate for possible future cooling. These include deposition of aerosols in the stratosphere from large volcanic events. The two-body problem is considered, taking into account the effects of solar radiation pressure and the Earth's J2 oblateness perturbation.

  19. An inhomogeneous reference catalogue of identified intervening heavy element systems in spectra of QSOs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    York, Donald G.; Yanny, Brian; Crotts, Arlin; Carilli, Chris; Garrison, Etoi

    1991-01-01

    Identifications of heavy element line systems, observed in spectra of quasi-stellar objects between 1965 and 1989 inclusive, are collected and tabulated with references. Each system is assigned a quality grade based on the apparent reliability of the data. The highest quality systems are used to characterize the absorbers as a sample. A decrease in C IV line strength with redshift (z), and the corresponding decrease in line density per unit z with z are confirmed. The weakest C IV systems, at high z, are accompanied by relatively stronger Si IV lines, compared to the relative line strengths at low z. The space density of systems with strong lines of first ions is nearly independent of z below z = 3, though it drops at z greater than 3. Preliminary tests for quasar lensing by intervening systems and for clustering of absorbers on large scales are presented.

  20. The South Westland Basin: seismic stratigraphy, basin geometry and evolution of a foreland basin within the Southern Alps collision zone, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sircombe, Keith N.; Kamp, Peter J. J.

    1998-12-01

    -depth mudstone, flysch sequence) and regressive (prograding shelf-slope complex followed by molasse deposits) components. In addition the inner margin of the basin has been inverted as a result of becoming involved in the mountain building, as revealed earlier by fission track thermochronological data. The timing and degree of inversion fits well with the geometrical and stratigraphic development of the basin. That the inversion zone and the coastal plain underlain by molasse deposits are narrow, and most of the basin is beneath the sea, highlights this as an underfilled active foreland basin. The basin is geodynamically part of the Southern Alps collision zone.

  1. Coastal Research Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucey, Paul G.; Williams, Timothy; Horton, Keith A.

    2004-01-01

    The Coastal Research Imaging Spectrometer (CRIS) is an airborne remote sensing system designed specifically for research on the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of coastal waters. The CRIS includes a visible-light hyperspectral imaging subsystem for measuring the color of water, which contains information on the biota, sediment, and nutrient contents of the water. The CRIS also includes an infrared imaging subsystem, which provides information on the temperature of the water. The combination of measurements enables investigation of biological effects of both natural and artificial flows of water from land into the ocean, including diffuse and point-source flows that may contain biological and/or chemical pollutants. Temperature is an important element of such measurements because temperature contrasts can often be used to distinguish among flows from different sources: for example, a sewage outflow could manifest itself in spectral images as a local high-temperature anomaly. Both the visible and infrared subsystems scan in pushbroom mode: that is, an aircraft carrying the system moves along a ground track, the system is aimed downward, and image data are acquired in across-track linear arrays of pixels. Both subsystems operate at a frame rate of 30 Hz. The infrared and visible-light optics are adjusted so that both subsystems are aimed at the same moving swath, which has across-track angular width of 15 . Data from the infrared and visible imaging subsystems are stored in the same file along with aircraft- position data acquired by a Global Positioning System receiver. The combination of the three sets of data is used to construct infrared and hyperspectral maps of scanned areas (see figure). The visible subsystem is based on a grating spectrograph and a rapid-readout charge-coupled-device camera. Images of the swatch are acquired in 256 spectral bands at wavelengths from 400 to 800 nm. The infrared subsystem, which is sensitive in a single

  2. Divergent/passive margin basins

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, J.D. ); Santogrossi, P.A. )

    1989-01-01

    This book discusses the detailed geology of the four divergent margin basins and establishes a set of analog scenarios which can be used for future petroleum exploration. The divergent margin basins are the Campos basin of Brazil, the Gabon basin, the Niger delta, and the basins of the northwest shelf of Australia. These four petroleum basins present a wide range of stratigraphic sequences and structural styles that represent the diverse evolution of this large and important class of world petroleum basins.

  3. Megacities in the Coastal Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Glasow, R.; Jickells, T.; Baklanov, A.; Carmichael, G. R.; Church, T. M.; Gallardo, L.; Hughes, C.; Kanakidou, M.; Liss, P. S.; Mee, L.; Raine, R.; Ramachandran, P.; Ramesh, R.; Sundseth, K.; Tsunogai, U.; Uematsu, M.; Zhu, T.

    2012-04-01

    Megacities have long been recognised as important drivers for socioeconomic development but also as sources of environmental challenges. A large number of megacities are located in the coastal zone where land, atmosphere and ocean meet, posing additional challenges for our understanding of the interactions. The atmospheric flow is complicated not only by urban heat island effects but also topographic flows and sea breezes which also lead to profound changes in clouds and precipitation. Inflow of oceanic air (rich in sea salt) into the polluted city's atmosphere and outflow of polluted air onto a much cleaner ocean lead to very specific interactions, the net effects of which are not well understood. The addition of contaminants to the coastal waters both by atmospheric deposition and fluvial inputs can affect the coastal ecosystems dramatically, limiting their ability to function and provide ecosystem services, e.g. fisheries and aquaculture. Changes to coastal ecosystems also affect fluxes of gases and particles to the atmosphere and can lead to harmful algal blooms. The scale of influence of megacities in the coastal zone is at least hundreds if not thousands of kilometres in the atmosphere and tens to hundreds of kilometres in the ocean, the latter strongly dependent on the hydrographic setting. Coastal megacities are at risk by sea level rise, floods and storms; they are at the forefront of change and scientifically well informed planning can improve livelihoods and ecosystem health but only if we take a holistic approach to study and monitor these regions.

  4. Coastal Staphylinidae (Coleoptera): A worldwide checklist, biogeography and natural history

    PubMed Central

    Frank, J. H.; Ahn, Kee-Jeong

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We provide a list of the 392 described species of Staphylinidae confined to coastal habitats worldwide. The list is in taxonomic sequence by subfamily, tribe, and genus and includes 91 genera. We provide the page reference of the original description of every species and genus listed and of many synonyms. We note the existence of recent reviews, phylogenies and keys of each of the tribes and genera included. Coastal Staphylinidae contain eight subfamilies: Microsilphinae, Omaliinae, Pselaphinae, Aleocharinae, Oxytelinae, Scydmaeninae, Paederinae, and Staphylininae. By ‘coastal habitats’ we mean habitats existing on the sea coast and subject to inundation or at least splashing by the very highest tides. This includes rocky, boulder, coral, sandy, and muddy seashores, and at least portions of salt-marshes, estuaries, and mangrove swamps. We exclude the sand dune habitat and higher parts of sea-cliffs. The list notes distribution of all the species, first according to the ocean or sea on whose shores it has been recorded, and second by country (and for the larger countries by province or state). Although this distribution is undoubtedly incomplete, it provides a basis for future development of a dedicated database. The ‘Habitats, Habits, and Classificatory Notes’ section is designed to provide ecologists with further taxonomic and ecological information. It includes references to descriptions of the immature stages, behavior of adults and immatures, their food, natural enemies, and habitat. We would have preferred to separate these entities, but current knowledge of ecology is developed in few instances beyond natural history. The Pacific Ocean basin was the origin and contributed to the dispersal of the majority of specialist coastal Staphylinidae at the level of genus. However, at the level of species, species belonging to non-coastal-specialist genera are about as likely to occur on the shores of other oceans as on the shores of the Pacific. This

  5. Basin and range-age reactivation of the ancestral Rocky Mountains in Texas Panhandle: evidence from Ogallala Formation

    SciTech Connect

    Budnik, R.T.

    1984-04-01

    The Ogallala Formation (Neogene) is a widespread syntectonic alluvial apron that was shed eastward from the Rio Grande rift and related uplifts in Colorado and New Mexico during Basin and Range extension. In the Texas Panhandle, the Ogallala completely buried Ancestral Rocky Mountain (Pennsylvanian) structures. Renewed movement on these older structures during the Neogene influenced the thickness and facies distribution of the Ogallala. The Ogallala thickens into the Palo Duro, Dalhart, and Anadarko basins. Major distributary channels on Ogallala alluvial fans coincide with the axes of these basins, whereas major interchannel areas overlie intervening uplifts. Second-order structures subtly influenced the unit as well. For example, the Carson basin, a Pennsylvanian rhomb graben along the Amarillo uplift, the Ogallala is over 250 m (820 ft) thick compared with 90 m (275 ft) in adjacent areas. Within the Palo Duro basin, local highs controlled the distribution of thin, interchannel flood-basin and lacustrine deposits. Thicker, braided-stream channel deposits follow local lows. Later movement on the Amarillo uplift broadly folded the Ogallala. The southern high plains surface subtly reflects basement structure, with topographic highs overlying basement highs, suggesting post-Ogallala deformation within the Palo Duro basin. The Amarillo uplift is approximately perpendicular to the Rio Grande rift and parallel to the direction of Basin and Range extension. Thus, the stress field that produced the rift may have caused strike-slip movement and reactivation of the Carson basin along the Amarillo uplift.

  6. Geology of the Eel River basin and adjacent region: implications for late Cenozoic tectonics of the southern Cascadia subduction zone and Mendocino triple junction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clarke, S.H., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Two upper Cenozoic depositional sequences of principally marine strata about 4000m thick overlie accreted basement terranes of the Central and Coastal belts of the Franciscan Complex in the onshore-offshore Eel River basin of northwestern California. The older depositional sequence is early to middle Miocene in age and represents slope basin and slope-blanket deposition, whereas the younger sequence, late Miocene to middle Pleistocene in age, consists largely of forearc basin deposits. -from Author

  7. Studies of the Northern Alaskan Coastal System: Ongoing project work and synthesis activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, T. A.; Sturm, M.; Ashjian, C. J.; Jorgensen, T.; Oechel, W. C.; Ping, C.; Rhew, R. C.; Stieglitz, M.

    2006-12-01

    Six ongoing projects focus on a better understanding of processes occurring along the Arctic Alaskan Coast. These projects, grouped as "Studies of the Northern Alaskan Coastal System", or SNACS, combine field, laboratory, modeling and human dimensions research. They include: 1) an investigation of climate variability, ocean processes, sea ice, bowhead whales, and Inupiat subsistence whaling, 2) research on the impact of variability within the ocean and atmosphere on terrestrial fluxes of carbon dioxide, dissolved organic matter and energy, 3) an inventory and description of soil organic carbon fluxes and ground ice in the coastal environment, 4) a determination of whether arctic coastal terrestrial ecosystems are significant sources or sinks of atmospheric methyl halides, chloroform and methane, 5) development of generalized discharge- constituent relationships for arctic basins, and 6) an investigation of the processes controlling mercury deposition to the coastal system. Three broad themes unite the projects: 1) nutrient fluxes from rivers and shoreline erosion in the Arctic coastal zone, 2) impacts of cryospheric changes on the Alaskan Arctic Coast, and 3) potential rapid regime shifts controlled by atmospheric and meteorological processes that could affect the Alaskan Arctic Coast. Warming of the Arctic, particularly its impact on sea ice and nutrient transport in arctic rivers is already affecting fundamental coastal system processes. The six SNACS projects are helping to understand how these impacts will evolve and what their ramifications will be both within and outside of the Arctic.

  8. Coastal sediment dynamics in Spitsbergen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deloffre, J.; Lafite, R.; Baltzer, A.; Marlin, C.; Delangle, E.; Dethleff, D.; Petit, F.

    2010-12-01

    In arctic knowledge on coastal sediment dynamics and sedimentary processes is limited. The studied area is located in the microtidal Kongsfjorden glacial fjord on the North-western coast of Spitsbergen in the Artic Ocean (79°N). In this area sediment contributions to the coastal zone is provided by small temporary rivers that flows into the fjord. The objectives of this study are to (i) assess the origin and fate of fine-grained particles (<63µm) from the piedmont glacier to the coastal zone (0-30m depth), (ii) establish the role of this coastal zone in sediment transfer and (iii) identify the impact of sea ice cover on sediment dynamics. The sampling strategy is based on characterization of sediment and SPM (grain-size, X-rays diffraction, SEM images, carbonates and organic matter contents) from the glacier to the coastal zone completed by a bottom-sediment map on the nearshore using side-scan sonar validated with Ekman binge sampling. River inputs (i.e. river plumes) to the coastal zone were punctually followed using CTD (conductivity, temperature, depth and turbidity) profiles. OBS (water level, temperature and turbidity) operating at high-frequency and during at least 1 years (including under sea ice cover) was settled at the mouth of rivers at 10m depth. In the coastal zone the fine-grained sediment deposit is limited to mud patches located at river mouths that originate the piedmont glacier. However a significant amount of sediment originates the coastal glacier located in the eastern part of the fjord via two processes: direct transfer and ice-drop. Results from turbidity measurements show that the sediment dynamics is controlled by river inputs in particular during melting period. During winter sediment resuspension can occurs directly linked to significant wind-events. When the sea ice cover is present (January to April) no sediment dynamics is observed. Sediment processes in the coastal zone of arctic fjords is significant however only a small amount of

  9. Tectonic control of coastal onlap cycles, southwest Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Armentrout, J.M.

    1987-05-01

    Local coastal onlap and paleobiobathymetric curves for 14 sections define three Cenozoic depositional onlap-offlap cycles separated by regionally significant unconformities. A paleoclimatic curve for western Oregon and Washington, based on paleoecologic data sets, demonstrates that the local transgressions are coincident with cool climates and the regressions with warm climates, and are therefore not driven by glacioeustatic cycles. Comparison of the local coastal onlap and paleobiobathymetric curves with the global Cenozoic Cycle Chart (modified Exxon Sea Level Chart - May, 1986) further demonstrates the uniqueness of the western Washington curves. The global Cenozoic cycle Chart curve represents coastal onlap and sea level curves based on integration of both climate and tectonic variations. The non-parallel cycle pattern for southwest Washington suggests a unique tectonically forced system. Evidence derived from stratigraphic sequences, igneous rock geochemistry, radiometric dating, remnant magnetic patterns, sandstone provenance studies, and paleogeographic reconstructions is used to identify the tectonic events controlling the local depositional cycles. The principal events are (1) middle Eocene accretion of a seamount chain; (2) early-late Eocene westward relocation of subduction; (3) late Eocene onset of Cascade arc volcanism; (4) late-early Miocene plate readjustment due to back-arc extension in the Columbia River Plateau and Great Basin; and (5) late Pliocene to early Pleistocene northeast compression forced by continued subduction of remnants of the Kula Plate beneath North America.

  10. PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF NITRATE AEROSOLS IN THE LOS ANGELES AIR BASIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The atmospheric aerosol was sampled with a low pressure impactor at a coastal, an urban, and an agricultural site in the Los Angeles air basin. The material collected on each stage was analyzed for nitrate by direct vaporization into a chemiluminescent analyzer, sensitive at nano...

  11. 78 FR 26807 - Vista Grande Drainage Basin Improvement Project, Fort Funston, Golden Gate National Recreation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-08

    ... the Vista Grande Watershed Drainage Basin and the effects of coastal erosion. The National Park... reduce future erosion. The existing force main would also be removed and replaced with a similar... renovated to protect it from erosion and extend its operating life. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:...

  12. The Choptank Basin in transition: intensifying agriculture, slow urbanization, and estuarine eutrophication

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Choptank basin and estuary are located on the Mid-Atlantic coastal plain on the Delmarva Peninsula. The regional hydrology is characterized by nearly uniform rainfall, but large seasonal variations in temperature and evapotranspiration (maximum in summer) drive large seasonal changes in groundwa...

  13. THE GREAT LAKES BASIN LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY METRIC DATA BROWSER (BETA V1.0)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The principal focus of this project is the mapping and interpretation of landscape scale (i.e., broad scale) ecological metrics among hydrologic units and within 1 km, 5 km, and 10 km regions of coastal land in the Great Lakes Basin (GLB). Much is still unknown about the ecologic...

  14. Neotectonics of coastal Jeffara (southern Tunisia): State of the art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghedhoui, Rim; Deffontaines, Benoît; Rabia, Mohamed Chedly

    2016-04-01

    Helped by the studies and results of previous researchers, we herein study the neotectonic of the coastal Jeffara with the input of numerous 2D reflection seismic profiles onshore, combined with Digital Elevation Model analyses (issued from SRTM) and field works. Acquired and available data were then integrated within a GIS Geodatabase, where Jerba, Zarzis and Jorf appear to be part of a N-S pull-apart basin within a NW-SE transtensive right-lateral major fault zone. Our structural geologic and geomorphologic analyses confirm and prove the presence of NNW-SSE right-lateral en-echelon tension gashes, NW-SE aligned salt diapirs, numerous active folds offsets, en-echelon folds, and so-on… They are associated with this major right-lateral NW-SE transtensive major coastal Jeffara fault zone that affect the Holocene and the Villafranchian deposits. We therefore confirm herein a new structural geodynamic Jeffara model, due to the post Lower Cretaceous northward migration of northern African to the Eurasian plates, this NW-SE transtensive fault zone is interpreted as a part of the southern branch of the eastward Sahel block extrusion toward the free Mediterranean Sea boundary. Therefore this geodynamic movement may explain the presence, offshore, of small elongated NW-SE, N-S and NE-SW transtensive basins and grabens with petroleum interest. To conclude, at the regional scale, the structural geomorphologic approach combined with both field work and 2D reflection seismic profile analyses appear to be an excellent tool to prove and confirm the NW-SE right-lateral transtensive extrusion fault zone of the coastal Jeffara.

  15. Sediment budget variation at watershed scale due to anthropogenic pressures, and its relationship to coastal erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiello, Antonello; Adamo, Maria; Canora, Filomena

    2014-05-01

    The transfer of sediments from hydrographic basins towards the coast is a significant pathway of material transfer on Earth. In sedimentary environment, the main portion of sediment that enters the coastal areas is derived originally from erosion in the coastal watersheds. Extensive anthropogenic pressures carried out within coastal basins have long shown negative impacts on littoral environments. In fluvial systems, sediments trapped behind dams and in-stream gravel mining cause the reduction in sediment supply to the coast. Along the Jonian littoral of the Basilicata Region (southern Italy), natural coastal processes have been severely disrupted since the second half of the 20th century as a result of riverbed sand and gravel mining and dam construction, when economic advantages were measured in terms of the development of infrastructure, water storage, and hydropower production for the agricultural, industrial and socio-economic development of the area. Particularly, the large numbers of dams and impoundments that have been built in the hydrographic basins have led a signi?cant reduction on river sediment loads. As a result, the Jonian littoral is experiencing a catalysed erosion phenomenon. In order to increase understanding of the morpho-dynamics of the Jonian littoral environment and more fully appreciate the amount of coastal erosion, an evaluation of the sediment budget change due to dam construction within the hydrographic basins of the Basilicata Region needs to be explored. Since quantitative data on decadal trends in river sediment supply before and after dam construction are lacking, as well as updated dam silting values, river basin assessment of the spatial patterns and estimated amount of sediment erosion and deposition are important in evaluating changes in the sediment budget. As coastal areas are being affected by an increasing number of population and socio-economic activities, the amount of sediment deficit at the littoral can permit to

  16. Quantifying Holocene Coastal Retreat From River Morphology in Southern England and Wales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attal, M.; Mudd, S. M.; Hurst, M. D.; Crickmore, B. A.

    2013-12-01

    Southern England and Wales have been undergoing subsidence since the end of the Last Glacial Maximum, with average rates varying between 0.5 and 1.2 mm/yr over the last 10 ka (Shennan and Horton, 2002). Rivers typically respond to subsidence by aggrading (e.g., Ishihara et al., 2012), yet many English and Welsh rivers incise into bedrock at their outlet and exhibit river profiles convexities typical of systems experiencing a drop in base level (e.g., Snyder et al., 2002; Attal et al., 2011). Scientists have proposed that coastal erosion could result in such river morphology (Snyder et al., 2002; Leyland & Darby, 2008, 2009). We combine modelling with topographic analysis of a series of basins along the coast of Southern England and Wales to test whether coastal erosion could explain the occurrence of rivers incising into bedrock at the coast. We further assess whether the distribution of such rivers and the shape of river profiles could be used to constrain amounts of coastal erosion during the Holocene. Within zones characterized by similar lithologies and coastal exposure (i.e. the orientation of the coast and the type of water body it faces), we find that rivers with the smallest basins incise into bedrock at their mouth while rivers with the largest basins experience aggradation. The transition between these two types of basins occurs at a consistent basin size. This signal conforms to model predictions, assuming that the slope of rivers at the coast decreases with increasing basin size. Whereas rivers in basins comprising igneous and/or metamorphic rocks tend to be steeper than rivers flowing on sedimentary bedrock, we find that the critical drainage area does not vary significantly with varying lithology, suggesting that other factors such as spatial variations in coastal retreat exert a stronger control on the spatial distribution of the two types of rivers throughout the study area. Reconstruction of river profiles prior to base level rise allows estimates

  17. First dedicated hydrographic survey of the Comoros Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, C.; Hermes, J. C.; Roman, R. E.; Reason, C. J. C.

    2016-02-01

    The Comoros Basin, a region of eddies that propagate into the Mozambique Channel and subsequently the Agulhas Current, has not been well studied. This paper presents the findings from the first dedicated research cruise in the basin. ADCP data collected during the cruise show that the circulation in the Comoros Basin is dominated by the strong westward flowing North East Madagascar Current, which bifurcates twice: once upon encountering the Davie Ridge and again upon reaching the East African coast. One of the branches flows southward along the African coastline and appears to continue into the Mozambique Channel while the other branch turns northward to become the East African Coastal Current. The ADCP data also show evidence of a cyclonic eddy along the northwest coast of Madagascar. Water mass analysis indicates that all the major Indian Ocean water masses are present in the Comoros Basin. Surprisingly, North Atlantic Deep Water, a water mass previously assumed to only occur south of ˜16°S in the Mozambique Channel, was found to be present in the basin at depths below 2000 m. Antarctic Intermediate Water is found to enter the basin via two routes; from the west within the North East Madagascar Current and from the south within the northward flowing Mozambique Undercurrent.

  18. 18-Month-Olds Predict Specific Action Mistakes through Attribution of False Belief, Not Ignorance, and Intervene Accordingly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knudsen, Birgit; Liszkowski, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    This study employed a new "anticipatory intervening" paradigm to tease apart false belief and ignorance-based interpretations of 18-month-olds' helpful informing. We investigated in three experiments whether 18-month-old infants inform an adult selectively about one of the two locations depending on the adult's belief about which of the two…

  19. Individual and contextual predictors of cyberbullying: the influence of children's provictim attitudes and teachers' ability to intervene.

    PubMed

    Christian Elledge, L; Williford, Anne; Boulton, Aaron J; Depaolis, Kathryn J; Little, Todd D; Salmivalli, Christina

    2013-05-01

    Electronic social communication has provided a new context for children to bully and harass their peers and it is clear that cyberbullying is a growing public health concern in the US and abroad. The present study examined individual and contextual predictors of cyberbullying in a sample of 16, 634 students in grades 3-5 and 7-8. Data were obtained from a large cluster-randomized trial of the KiVa antibullying program that occurred in Finland between 2007 and 2009. Students completed measures at pre-intervention assessing provictim attitudes (defined as children's beliefs that bullying is unacceptable, victims are acceptable, and defending victims is valued), perceptions of teachers' ability to intervene in bullying, and cyberbullying behavior. Students with higher scores on provictim attitudes reported lower frequencies of cyberbullying. This relationship was true for individual provictim attitudes as well as the collective attitudes of students within classrooms. Teachers' ability to intervene assessed at the classroom level was a unique, positive predictor of cyberbullying. Classrooms in which students collectively considered their teacher as capable of intervening to stop bullying had higher mean levels of cyberbullying frequency. Our findings suggest that cyberbullying and other indirect or covert forms of bullying may be more prevalent in classrooms where students collectively perceive their teacher's ability to intervene in bullying as high. We found no evidence that individual or contextual effects were conditional on age or gender. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:23371005

  20. The Effect of Perceived Child Anxiety Status on Parental Latency to Intervene with Anxious and Nonanxious Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aschenbrand, Sasha G.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We examined the effect of perceived child anxiety status on parental latency to intervene with anxious and nonanxious youth. Method: Parents (68) of anxiety-disordered (PAD) and nonanxiety-disordered (PNAD; 56) children participated. Participants listened and responded to an audio vignette of a parent-child interaction: Half were told…

  1. Health promotion messages in entertainment media: crime drama viewership and intentions to intervene in a sexual assault situation.

    PubMed

    Hust, Stacey J T; Marett, Emily Garrigues; Lei, Ming; Chang, Hua; Ren, Chunbo; McNab, Anna Lazárová; Adams, Paula M

    2013-01-01

    Popular crime dramas have tackled sensitive issues such as sexual assault with increasing frequency over the past 20 years. These popular programs increasingly demonstrate the emotional and physical effect of sexual assault on its victims, and in some instances they depict individuals being rewarded for intervening to prevent or stop an assault in progress. It is possible that this content could affect attitudes related to sexual assault prevention. However, no previous research has examined this possibility. In the fall 2008 semester, 508 undergraduates at a large northwestern university completed a questionnaire about media use and bystander intervention in a sexual assault situation. Results from hierarchical regressions lend support for the integrative model of behavioral prediction in that instrumentality, rape myth acceptance, perceived social norms, perceived efficacy related to intervening, and exposure to primetime crime dramas were associated with participants' intentions to intervene in a sexual assault. The results suggest that crime dramas may be a useful venue for prevention messages as exposure to crime dramas uniquely contributed to intentions to intervene in a sexual assault. PMID:23020668

  2. Intervening in Bullying: Differences across Elementary School Staff Members in Attitudes, Perceptions, and Self-Efficacy Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williford, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Although a growing body of research has investigated the experiences of certified school staff in antibullying efforts, a dearth of research exists on noncertified staff. To that end, the present study examined differences in attitudes, perceptions, and self-efficacy beliefs to intervene among certified (for example, teachers, counselors, school…

  3. 18 CFR 4.34 - Hearings on applications; consultation on terms and conditions; motions to intervene; alternative...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... applications; consultation on terms and conditions; motions to intervene; alternative procedures. 4.34 Section 4.34 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT LICENSES, PERMITS, EXEMPTIONS, AND DETERMINATION...

  4. 18 CFR 4.34 - Hearings on applications; consultation on terms and conditions; motions to intervene; alternative...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... applications; consultation on terms and conditions; motions to intervene; alternative procedures. 4.34 Section 4.34 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT LICENSES, PERMITS, EXEMPTIONS, AND DETERMINATION...

  5. 18 CFR 4.34 - Hearings on applications; consultation on terms and conditions; motions to intervene; alternative...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... applications; consultation on terms and conditions; motions to intervene; alternative procedures. 4.34 Section 4.34 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT LICENSES, PERMITS, EXEMPTIONS, AND DETERMINATION...

  6. 18 CFR 4.34 - Hearings on applications; consultation on terms and conditions; motions to intervene; alternative...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... applications; consultation on terms and conditions; motions to intervene; alternative procedures. 4.34 Section 4.34 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT LICENSES, PERMITS, EXEMPTIONS, AND DETERMINATION...

  7. 18 CFR 4.34 - Hearings on applications; consultation on terms and conditions; motions to intervene; alternative...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... applications; consultation on terms and conditions; motions to intervene; alternative procedures. 4.34 Section 4.34 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT LICENSES, PERMITS, EXEMPTIONS, AND DETERMINATION...

  8. 78 FR 66913 - Notice of Application for Amendment of License and Soliciting Comments, Motions To Intervene, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ..., Motions To Intervene, and Protests; Eagle Creek RE, LLC Take notice that the following hydroelectric...: 10482-111. c. Date Filed: June 24, 2013. d. Applicant: Eagle Creek RE, LLC. e. Name of Project: Swinging... President Operations, Eagle Creek RE, LLC, 65 Madison Avenue, Suite 500, Morristown, NJ 07960, (973)...

  9. Teacher and Staff Perceptions of School Environment as Predictors of Student Aggression, Victimization, and Willingness to Intervene in Bullying Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espelage, Dorothy L.; Polanin, Joshua R.; Low, Sabina K.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines how teacher and staff perceptions of the school environment correlate with student self-reports of bullying, aggression, victimization, and willingness to intervene in bullying incidents using multi-informant, multilevel modeling. Data were derived from 3,616 6th grade students across 36 middle schools in the Midwest, who…

  10. 10 CFR 2.311 - Interlocutory review of rulings on requests for hearings/petitions to intervene, selection of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interlocutory review of rulings on requests for hearings/petitions to intervene, selection of hearing procedures, and requests by potential parties for access to sensitive unclassified non-safeguards information and safeguards information. 2.311 Section 2.311...

  11. 10 CFR 2.311 - Interlocutory review of rulings on requests for hearings/petitions to intervene, selection of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interlocutory review of rulings on requests for hearings/petitions to intervene, selection of hearing procedures, and requests by potential parties for access to sensitive unclassified non-safeguards information and safeguards information. 2.311 Section 2.311...

  12. 10 CFR 2.311 - Interlocutory review of rulings on requests for hearings/petitions to intervene, selection of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interlocutory review of rulings on requests for hearings/petitions to intervene, selection of hearing procedures, and requests by potential parties for access to sensitive unclassified non-safeguards information and safeguards information. 2.311 Section 2.311...

  13. 10 CFR 2.311 - Interlocutory review of rulings on requests for hearings/petitions to intervene, selection of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interlocutory review of rulings on requests for hearings/petitions to intervene, selection of hearing procedures, and requests by potential parties for access to sensitive unclassified non-safeguards information and safeguards information. 2.311 Section 2.311...

  14. 10 CFR 2.311 - Interlocutory review of rulings on requests for hearings/petitions to intervene, selection of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interlocutory review of rulings on requests for hearings/petitions to intervene, selection of hearing procedures, and requests by potential parties for access to sensitive unclassified non-safeguards information and safeguards information. 2.311 Section 2.311 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION...

  15. Teacher-Child Conflict and Aggressive Behaviour in First Grade: The Intervening Role of Children's Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doumen, Sarah; Buyse, Evelien; Colpin, Hilde; Verschueren, Karine

    2011-01-01

    High levels of teacher-child conflict have repeatedly been found to amplify children's aggressive behaviour. Up to now, however, research on possible mechanisms explaining this link is largely lacking. The current study aimed to test whether children's self-esteem is an intervening mechanism. Participants were 139 children (70 boys, M age = 6.18…

  16. Peer Victimization and Social Dominance as Intervening Variables of the Link between Peer Liking and Relational Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Ryan E.; Bartlett, Nancy H.; Bukowski, William M.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined social dominance and peer victimization as possible intervening and moderating variables of the association between peer liking and relational aggression because previous findings suggest that social dominance and peer victimization are important for predicting the acceptableness and success of aggression. A total of 367…

  17. Coordinated Early Intervening Services: Programs in Local Education Agencies that Are Required to Reserve IDEA Funds. inForum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdette, Paula; Sopko, Kimberly Moherek

    2010-01-01

    Disproportionate representation of children from diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds in special education has been a longstanding concern that the 2004 reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) sought to address. The IDEA contains new requirements related to the provision of early intervening services designed to…

  18. Modeling Black Sea circulation with high resolution in the coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalesnyi, V. B.; Gusev, A. V.; Agoshkov, V. I.

    2016-05-01

    We present a numerical model of Black Sea circulation based on primitive equations with improved spatial resolution in the coastal zone. The model equations are formulated in a two-pole orthogonal coordinate system with arbitrary locations of the poles and a vertical σ coordinate. Increased horizontal resolution is gained by displacing the pole into the vicinity of the separated subdomain. The problem is solved over a grid with a variable step. The northern coordinate pole is displaced to the vicinity of Gelendzhik; the grid step varies from 150 m in the coastal zone to 4.6 km in the main basin. We simulated the fields of currents, sea level, temperature, and salinity under the given atmospheric forcing in 2007. The model is capable of reproducing the large-scale Black Sea circulation and submesoscale variations in the coastal currents.

  19. Modelling the global coastal ocean.

    PubMed

    Holt, Jason; Harle, James; Proctor, Roger; Michel, Sylvain; Ashworth, Mike; Batstone, Crispian; Allen, Icarus; Holmes, Robert; Smyth, Tim; Haines, Keith; Bretherton, Dan; Smith, Gregory

    2009-03-13

    Shelf and coastal seas are regions of exceptionally high biological productivity, high rates of biogeochemical cycling and immense socio-economic importance. They are, however, poorly represented by the present generation of Earth system models, both in terms of resolution and process representation. Hence, these models cannot be used to elucidate the role of the coastal ocean in global biogeochemical cycles and the effects global change (both direct anthropogenic and climatic) are having on them. Here, we present a system for simulating all the coastal regions around the world (the Global Coastal Ocean Modelling System) in a systematic and practical fashion. It is based on automatically generating multiple nested model domains, using the Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory Coastal Ocean Modelling System coupled to the European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model. Preliminary results from the system are presented. These demonstrate the viability of the concept, and we discuss the prospects for using the system to explore key areas of global change in shelf seas, such as their role in the carbon cycle and climate change effects on fisheries. PMID:19087928

  20. Nitrous oxide in coastal waters

    SciTech Connect

    Bange, H.W.; Rapsomanikis, S.; Andreae, M.O.

    1996-03-01

    Measurements of dissolved and atmospheric nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) are presented for three coastal environments: (1) the central North Sea, (2) the German Bight, and (3) the Gironde estuary. The contribution of coastal regions to the oceanic emissions of atmospheric N{sub 2}O were also determined. N{sub 2}O was measured with a gas chromatograph equipped with an electron capture detector and analyzed. The surface waters of the central North Sea and the German bight were found to be near equilibrium with the overlying atmosphere, while the mean saturation in the Gironde estuary was 132%. Mean saturations in coastal regions without estuaries or upwelling phenomena were only slightly higher than in the open ocean. When estuaries and regions with upwelling are included, however, approximately 60% of the oceanic N{sub 2}O flux is attributable to coastal regions. A review of published data indicated that previous studies have seriously underestimated N{sub 2}O sea-to-air flux from coastal regions. 69 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Emergence of MD type infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in Washington State coastal steelhead trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breyta, Rachel; Jones, Amelia; Stewart, Bruce; Brunson, Ray; Thomas, Joan; Kerwin, John; Bertolini, Jim; Mumford, Sonia; Patterson, Chris; Kurath, Gael

    2013-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) occurs in North America as 3 major phylogenetic groups designated U, M, and L. In coastal Washington State, IHNV has historically consisted of U genogroup viruses found predominantly in sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka. M genogroup IHNV, which has host-specific virulence for rainbow and steelhead trout O. mykiss, was detected only once in coastal Washington prior to 2007, in an epidemic among juvenile steelhead trout in 1997. Beginning in 2007 and continuing through 2011, there were 8 IHNV epidemics in juvenile steelhead trout, involving 7 different fish culture facilities in 4 separate watersheds. During the same time period, IHNV was also detected in asymptomatic adult steelhead trout from 6 coastal watersheds. Genetic typing of 283 recent virus isolates from coastal Washington revealed that the great majority were in the M genogroup of IHNV and that there were 2 distinct waves of viral emergence between the years 2007 and 2011. IHNV type mG110M was dominant in coastal steelhead trout during 2007 to 2009, and type mG139M was dominant between 2010 and 2011. Phylogenetic analysis of viral isolates indicated that all coastal M genogroup viruses detected in 1997 and 2007 to 2011 were part of the MD subgroup and that several novel genetic variants related to the dominant types arose in the coastal sites. Comparison of spatial and temporal incidence of coastal MD viruses with that of the rest of the Pacific Northwest indicated that the likely source of the emergent viruses was Columbia River Basin steelhead trout. 

  2. Emergence of MD type infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in Washington State coastal steelhead trout.

    PubMed

    Breyta, Rachel; Jones, Amelia; Stewart, Bruce; Brunson, Ray; Thomas, Joan; Kerwin, John; Bertolini, Jim; Mumford, Sonia; Patterson, Chris; Kurath, Gael

    2013-06-13

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) occurs in North America as 3 major phylogenetic groups designated U, M, and L. In coastal Washington State, IHNV has historically consisted of U genogroup viruses found predominantly in sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka. M genogroup IHNV, which has host-specific virulence for rainbow and steelhead trout O. mykiss, was detected only once in coastal Washington prior to 2007, in an epidemic among juvenile steelhead trout in 1997. Beginning in 2007 and continuing through 2011, there were 8 IHNV epidemics in juvenile steelhead trout, involving 7 different fish culture facilities in 4 separate watersheds. During the same time period, IHNV was also detected in asymptomatic adult steelhead trout from 6 coastal watersheds. Genetic typing of 283 recent virus isolates from coastal Washington revealed that the great majority were in the M genogroup of IHNV and that there were 2 distinct waves of viral emergence between the years 2007 and 2011. IHNV type mG110M was dominant in coastal steelhead trout during 2007 to 2009, and type mG139M was dominant between 2010 and 2011. Phylogenetic analysis of viral isolates indicated that all coastal M genogroup viruses detected in 1997 and 2007 to 2011 were part of the MD subgroup and that several novel genetic variants related to the dominant types arose in the coastal sites. Comparison of spatial and temporal incidence of coastal MD viruses with that of the rest of the Pacific Northwest indicated that the likely source of the emergent viruses was Columbia River Basin steelhead trout. PMID:23759556

  3. Aeromagnetic and aeromagnetic-based geologic maps of the Coastal Belt, Franciscan Complex, northern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langenheim, V.E.; Jachens, R.C.; McLaughlin, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    The Coastal belt of the Franciscan Complex represents a Late Cretaceous to Miocene accretionary prism and overlying slope deposits. Its equivalents may extend from the offshore outer borderland of southern California to north of the Mendocino Triple Junction under the Eel River Basin and in the offshore of Cascadia. The Coastal belt is exposed on land in northern California, yet its structure and stratigraphy are incompletely known because of discontinuous exposure, structural disruption, and lithologically non-distinctive clastic rocks. The intent of this report is to make available, in map form, aeromagnetic data covering the Coastal belt that provide a new dataset to aid in mapping, understanding, and interpreting the incompletely understood geology and structure in northern California. The newly merged aeromagnetic data over the Coastal belt of the Franciscan Complex reveal long, linear anomalies that indicate remarkably coherent structure within a terrane where mapping at the surface indicates complex deformation and that has been described as "broken formation" and, even locally as "melange". The anomalies in the Coastal belt are primarily sourced by volcanic-rich graywackes and exotic blocks of basalt. Some anomalies along the contact of the Coastal belt with the Central belt are likely caused by local interleaving of components of the Coast Ranges ophiolite. These data can be used to map additional exotic blocks within the Coastal belt and to distinguish lithologically indistinct graywackes within the Coastal terrane. Using anomaly asymmetry allows projection of these "layers" into the subsurface. This analysis indicates predominant northeast dips consistent with tectonic interleaving of blocks within a subduction zone.

  4. College Men's Perception of the Risks and Benefits of Intervening against Sexual Assault and the Influence of Social Norms and Masculine Ideology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Stephen C.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual assault is a major problem facing colleges and universities, and prevention efforts have begun to examine how student peers can be encouraged to intervene as active bystanders. This study investigated what male students perceived as the most salient risks and benefits of intervening in a situation involving a hypothetical sexual assault and…

  5. Teacher and staff perceptions of school environment as predictors of student aggression, victimization, and willingness to intervene in bullying situations.

    PubMed

    Espelage, Dorothy L; Polanin, Joshua R; Low, Sabina K

    2014-09-01

    This study examines how teacher and staff perceptions of the school environment correlate with student self-reports of bullying, aggression, victimization, and willingness to intervene in bullying incidents using multi-informant, multilevel modeling. Data were derived from 3,616 6th grade students across 36 middle schools in the Midwest, who completed survey measures of bullying, aggression, victimization, and willingness to intervene in bullying situations. Teachers and staff (n = 1,447) completed a school environment survey. Bivariate associations between school-level and student self-reports indicated that as teacher and staff perceive aggression as a problem in their school, students reported greater bully perpetration, fighting, peer victimization, and less willingness to intervene. Further, as staff and teacher report greater commitment to prevent bullying and viewed positive teacher and student relationships, there was less bullying, fighting, and peer victimization, and greater willingness to intervene. In a model where all school environment scales were entered together, a school commitment to prevent bullying was associated with less bullying, fighting, and peer victimization. Student-reports of bully perpetration and peer victimization were largely explained by staff and teacher commitment to bully prevention, whereas fighting and willingness to intervene were largely explained by student characteristics (e.g., gender). We conclude that efforts to address bullying and victimization should involve support from the school administration. School psychologists should play an active role in the school climate improvement process, by creating a school climate council consisting of students, parents, and teachers; administering school climate measures; identifying specific school improvement targets from these data, and engaging all stakeholders in the ongoing school improvement plan. PMID:25089334

  6. Origin of cratonic basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dev. Klein, George; Hsui, Albert T.

    1987-12-01

    Tectonic subsidence curves show that the Illinois, Michigan, and Williston basins formed by initial fault-controlled mechanical subsidence during rifting and by subsequent thermal subsidence. Thermal subsidence began around 525 Ma in the Illinois Basin, 520 460 Ma in the Michigan Basin, and 530 500 Ma in the Williston Basin. In the Illinois Basin, a second subsidence episode (middle Mississippian through Early Permian) was caused by flexural foreland subsidence in response to the Alleghanian-Hercynian orogeny. Resurgent Permian rifting in the Illinois Basin is inferred because of intrusion of well-dated Permian alnoites; such intrusive rocks are normally associated with rifting processes. The process of formation of these cratonic basins remains controversial. Past workers have suggested mantle phase changes at the base of the crust, mechanical subsidence in response to isostatically uncompensated excess mass following igneous intrusions, intrusion of mantle plumes into the crust, or regional thermal metamorphic events as causes of basin initiation. Cratonic basins of North America, Europe, Africa, and South America share common ages of formation (around 550 to 500 Ma), histories of sediment accumulation, temporal volume changes of sediment fills, and common dates of interregional unconformities. Their common date of formation suggests initiation of cratonic basins in response to breakup of a late Precambrian super-continent. This supercontinent acted as a heat lens that caused partial melting of the lower crust and upper mantle followed by emplacement of anorogenic granites during extensional tectonics in response to supercontinent breakup. Intrusion of anorogenic granites and other partially melted intrusive rocks weakened continental lithosphere, thus providing a zone of localized regional stretching and permitting formation of cratonic basins almost simultaneously over sites of intrusion of these anorogenic granites and other partially melted intrusive rocks.

  7. Hydrogeologic setting and potential for denitrification in ground water, coastal plain of southern Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krantz, David E.; Powars, David S.

    2000-01-01

    The types and distribution of Coastal Plain sediments in the Patuxent River Basin may contribute to relatively low concentrations of nitrate (typically less than 1 milligram per liter) in stream base flow because of the chemical reduction of dissolved nitrate (denitrification) in ground water. Water chemistry data from synoptic stream base-flow surveys in the Patuxent River Basin show higher dissolved nitrate concentrations in the Piedmont than in the Coastal Plain section of the watershed. Stream base flow reflects closely the chemistry of ground water discharging from the surficial (unconfined) aquifer to the stream. Because land use in the sampled subbasins is virtually the same in each section, differences in the physical and geochemical characteristics of the surficial aquifer may explain the observed differences in water chemistry. One possible cause of lower nitrate concentrations in the Coastal Plain is denitrification within marine sediments that contain chemically reduced compounds. During denitrification, the oxygen atoms on the nitrate (N03-) molecule are transferred to a reduced compound and N gas is produced. Organic carbon and ferrous iron (Fe2+), derived from the dissolution of minerals such as pyrite (FeS2) and glauconite (an iron aluminosilicate clay), can act as reducing substrates; these reduced chemical species are common in the marine and estuarine deposits in Southern Maryland. The spatial distribution of geologic units and their lithology (sediment type) has been used to create a map of the potential for denitrification of ground water in the surficial aquifer of the Coastal Plain in Southern Maryland.

  8. Shape and intrusion style of the Coastal Batholith, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haederle, Mike; Atherton, Michael P.

    2002-02-01

    The Coastal Batholith of Peru extends over 1600 km parallel to the coast along the Andean trend. Gravity profiles on three traverses across the batholith indicate the geometry is essentially that of a flat slab with average thickness from 2.0-3.2 km, and a thick root 4-10 km wide to the west. Granitic material does not extend to depths greater than 3 km below sea level datum. This study supports recent gravity work which indicates plutons are commonly thin, 5 km or less in thickness. Detailed mapping in the Lima segment of the Coastal Batholith reveals thin plutons where space was made dominantly by downward displacement via floor depression. However, early roof uplift also created some space. Stoping occurs but is not a major space maker. Floor depression may be modelled by cantilever or piston mechanisms and although the strong marginal deformation with mylonites, tuffisites, microbreccia, faults and shear zones suggests the piston model best describes the mechanism of emplacement of much of the Coastal Batholith some space was probably made by a cantilever mechanism. In brief, space making processes involved early roof uplift and regional doming, then floor depression mainly by piston and probably subsidiary cantilever mechanisms and, finally, local stoping producing the cut-out rectilinear nature of the batholith. The Coastal Batholith formed on shallow partial melting of hydrous basaltic marginal basin rocks between 5 and 10 km. Floor depression occurred as the crustal column foundered into an actively deflating layer of partial melt. This is an efficient space making process and is limited here to shallow levels of the upper crust only. The melts ascended to within 2 or 3 km of the surface, up dyke-like conduits then spread horizontally to form tabular plutons.

  9. Regional Risk Assessment for climate change impacts on coastal aquifers.

    PubMed

    Iyalomhe, F; Rizzi, J; Pasini, S; Torresan, S; Critto, A; Marcomini, A

    2015-12-15

    Coastal aquifers have been identified as particularly vulnerable to impacts on water quantity and quality due to the high density of socio-economic activities and human assets in coastal regions and to the projected rising sea levels, contributing to the process of saltwater intrusion. This paper proposes a Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology integrated with a chain of numerical models to evaluate potential climate change-related impacts on coastal aquifers and linked natural and human systems (i.e., wells, river, agricultural areas, lakes, forests and semi-natural environments). The RRA methodology employs Multi Criteria Decision Analysis methods and Geographic Information Systems functionalities to integrate heterogeneous spatial data on hazard, susceptibility and risk for saltwater intrusion and groundwater level variation. The proposed approach was applied on the Esino River basin (Italy) using future climate hazard scenarios based on a chain of climate, hydrological, hydraulic and groundwater system models running at different spatial scales. Models were forced with the IPCC SRES A1B emission scenario for the period 2071-2100 over four seasons (i.e., winter, spring, summer and autumn). Results indicate that in future seasons, climate change will cause few impacts on the lower Esino River valley. Groundwater level decrease will have limited effects: agricultural areas, forests and semi-natural environments will be at risk only in a region close to the coastline which covers less than 5% of the total surface of the considered receptors; less than 3.5% of the wells will be exposed in the worst scenario. Saltwater intrusion impact in future scenarios will be restricted to a narrow region close to the coastline (only few hundred meters), and thus it is expected to have very limited effects on the Esino coastal aquifer with no consequences on the considered natural and human systems. PMID:26282744

  10. Pliocene-Pleistocene coastal events and history along the western margin of Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kendrick, G.W.; Wyrwoll, K.-H.; Szabo, B. J.

    1991-01-01

    Coastal deposits along the western coastal margin of Australia, a region of relative tectonic stability, record Plio-Pleistocene events and processes affecting the inner shelf and adjacent hinterland. Tectonic deformation of these deposits is more apparent in the Carnarvon Basin, and rather less so in the Perth Basin. The most complete record comes from the Perth Basin, where units of Pliocene and Pleistocene ages are well represented. In the Perth Basin, the predominantly siliciclastic Yoganup Formation, Ascot Formation and Bassendean Sand represent a complex of shoreline, inner shelf and regressive-dune facies equivalents, the deposition of which began at an undetermined stage of the Pliocene, through to the Early Pleistocene. The deposition of this sequence closed with a major regression and significant faunal extinction. Bioclastic carbonates characterize the Middle and Late Pleistocene of the Perth and Carnarvon basins. Fossil assemblages include a distinct subtropical element, unknown from the Ascot Formation and suggesting a strengthening of the Leeuwin Current. The estuarine arcoid bivalve Anadara trapezia characterizes assemblages of Oxygen Isotope Stages 5 and 7 in the Perth and Carnarvon basins, where it is now extinct. Deposits of Substage 5e (Perth Basin) also record a southerly expansion of warm-water corals and other fauna consistent with shelf temperatures warmer than present. New uranium-series ages on corals from marine sequences of the Tantabiddi Member, of the Bundera Calcarenite of the western Cape Range are consistent with the 'double peak' hypothesis for levels of Substage 5e but the evidence remains less than conclusive. Initial uranium-series dates from the Bibra and Dampier formations of Shark Bay indicate that both derive from the Late Pleistocene. These numerical ages contradict previous interpretations of relative ages obtained from field studies. The age relationship of the units requires further investigation. ?? 1991.

  11. Coastal eutrophication and temperature variation

    SciTech Connect

    Ganoulis, J.; Rafailidis, S.; Bogardi, I.; Duckstein, L.; Matyasovszky, I.

    1994-12-31

    A 3-D hydroecological model has been developed to simulate the impact of climate-change-induced daily temperature variation on coastal water quality and eutrophication. Historical daily temperature time series over a thirty-year period have been used to link local meteorological variables to large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns (CPs). Then, CPs generated under a 2{times}CO{sub 2} scenario have been used to simulate climate-change-induced local daily temperature variations. Both historical and climate-change-induced temperature time series have been introduced as inputs into the hydroecological model to simulate coastal water quality and eutrophication. Subject to model validation with available data, a case study in the bay of Thessaloniki (N. Greece) indicates a risk of increasing eutrophication and oxygen depletion in coastal areas due to possible climate change.

  12. Flood Damage Estimation of Coastal Area Considering Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.; Kim, K.; Choi, C.; Han, D.; Kim, H. S.

    2015-12-01

    There are various researches to respond to the natural disasters efficiently such as floods caused by climate change. Most of the studies have assessed the impact of climate change on floods by the increase of future rainfall and the sea level rise separately. However, we have to consider the effects of the combined floods by future heavy rainfall and sea level rise. This means the urban floods in coastal area can be occurred due to the combined inundation by overflow of urban drainage system and by sea level rise. Then we can estimate the flood damage from the combined floods due to the climate change. Hence, this study selected Taehwa River basin, Korea which flows from the west to the east and extends to Ulsan bay. This study analysed on the influence of hydrologic alteration in the coastal area by considering the sea level rise as well as the future precipitation according to climate change. It is prepared the flood inundation map which is related to the increase of precipitation and sea level for assuring how the sea level rise effects on the coastal area caused by the climate change, and the flood damage assessment is estimated to compare the hydrologic alteration quantitatively. The study result showed that flood level in the channel flows to the mouth rose as the water surface elevation rose due to the rise in sea level. In addition, the extent of increase in flood level caused by sea level rise was greater at a location nearer the outlet and it was smaller at a place farther from the outlet. It could be verified that the change of the inundation depth and damage area caused by the rise in sea level can have an effect on the flood damage assessment. It is important factor to analyse not only the increase of precipitation cuased of climate change in coastal rivers but also the change of rise in sea level, the flood water level, the flood inundation and the flood damage assessment. The result of this study could be used as basic data for creating technology

  13. Coastal flood management in Semarang, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marfai, Muh Aris; King, Lorenz

    2008-10-01

    Semarang is one of the biggest cities in Indonesia and is nowadays suffering from coastal flooding. Land subsidences, high water tide, and inadequate structural measures play important roles in the coastal inundations. Structural and non-structural methods for controlling coastal flooding including dykes, drainage systems, pump stations, polder systems, coastal-land reclamations, coastal planning and management, public education, as well as the establishment of an institutional framework for disaster management have been implemented in the Semarang coastal area. Although some improvements have been made, the current flood management system has generally failed to address a wide range of coastal inundation problems. Some improvement actions have been proposed including stakeholders involvement on the disaster mitigation. For a long period coastal management, accelerated sea level rises due to global warming should also be taken into account.

  14. REGION 4-SESD COASTAL PROGRAM PROJECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Region 4 Science and Ecosystem Support Division (SESD) coastal activities include projects to support the Region 4 Water Management Division Coastal programs. These field investigations include development of a Quality Assurance Project Plan for field sample collection and a sub...

  15. The Oquirrh basin revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Erskine, M.C.

    1997-04-01

    The upper Paleozoic succession in the Oquirrh basin in unusually thick, up to 9300 m, and consists mainly of a Pennsylvanian-middle Permian miogeocline of northwestern Utah. Previous workers have suggested a tectonic origin for the Oquirrh basin that is incompatible with the basin location in both time and space. There is no evidence for Pennsylvanian and Lower Permian tectonism in the middle of the miogeocline. Thermal evidence from the Mississippian Mission Canyon shale does no support the implied deep burial of the crustal sag models of basin formation. Stratigraphic and facies evidence indicates a growth fault origin for the basin. Regional isopach maps and facies maps are powerful tools in interpreting depositional environments and in reconstructing fold-and-thrust belts. However, the location of measured sections relative to the location of the growth fault basin. The Charleston-Nebo thrust may have essentially reversed the movement on a growth fault. Thick Oquirrh basin sedimentary rocks may not be required to balance structural sections across this thrust fault. A thin-skinned, extensional growth fault origin for the Oquirrh basin implies that the Cordilleran miogeocline did not participate in the Pennsylvanian north-vergent uplifts of the Ancestral Rocky Mountains.

  16. K Basin safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Porten, D.R.; Crowe, R.D.

    1994-12-16

    The purpose of this accident safety analysis is to document in detail, analyses whose results were reported in summary form in the K Basins Safety Analysis Report WHC-SD-SNF-SAR-001. The safety analysis addressed the potential for release of radioactive and non-radioactive hazardous material located in the K Basins and their supporting facilities. The safety analysis covers the hazards associated with normal K Basin fuel storage and handling operations, fuel encapsulation, sludge encapsulation, and canister clean-up and disposal. After a review of the Criticality Safety Evaluation of the K Basin activities, the following postulated events were evaluated: Crane failure and casks dropped into loadout pit; Design basis earthquake; Hypothetical loss of basin water accident analysis; Combustion of uranium fuel following dryout; Crane failure and cask dropped onto floor of transfer area; Spent ion exchange shipment for burial; Hydrogen deflagration in ion exchange modules and filters; Release of Chlorine; Power availability and reliability; and Ashfall.

  17. Electronic structure, vibrational spectral and intervening orbital interactions studies of NLO material: Guanidinium 4-nitrobenzoate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasikala, V.; Sajan, D.; Job Sabu, K.; Arumanayagam, T.; Murugakoothan, P.

    2015-03-01

    Single crystals of guanidinium 4-nitrobenzoate (GPNB) have been grown by slow evaporation method. Grown crystals were characterized by FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV-Vis absorption and UV-Vis transmission spectroscopies. Crystal defects and surface morphology were studied by etching method. Dielectric properties of the crystal such as dielectric constant, dielectric loss and AC electrical conductivity as function of frequency (50 Hz-5 MHz) at two temperatures (35 °C and 100 °C) were measured. The frequency and temperature dependence of dielectric behaviour were investigated. The equilibrium geometry, vibrational spectral analysis, intramolecular charge transfer interactions using NBO method, first order hyperpolarizability, molecular electrostatic potential and frontier molecular orbital analysis for GPNB have been studied using density functional theory at B3LYP/cc-pVTZ level. Vibrational spectral study reveals the presence of moderate and weak Nsbnd H⋯O bonds in GPNB. NBO analysis also confirms the presence of intramolecular Nsbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonding and investigates the stability as well as the intervening orbital interactions. The electronic absorption spectrum of the gas and water phases of GPNB were simulated using time dependent density functional theory and NBO transitions for the three lowest excited states were assigned and studied.

  18. Effect of a partial coverage of quasar broad-line regions by intervening -bearing clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ofengeim, D. D.; Balashev, S. A.; Ivanchik, A. V.; Kaminker, A. D.; Klimenko, V. V.

    2015-09-01

    We consider the effect of a partial coverage of quasar broad-line regions (QSO BLRs) by intervening -bearing clouds when a part of quasar (QSO) radiation passes by a cloud not taking part in absorption-line system formation of the QSO spectrum. That leads to modification of observable absorption line profiles and consequently to a bias in physical parameters derived from standard absorption line analysis. In application to the absorption systems the effect has been revealed in the analysis of absorption system in the spectrum of Q 1232+082 (see Ivanchik et al. in Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 404:1583, 2010, Balashev et al. in Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 418:357, 2011). We estimate a probability of the effect to be detected in QSO spectra. To do this we derive distribution of BLR sizes of high-z QSOs from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 9 (DR9) catalogue and assume different distributions of cloud sizes. We conclude that the low limit of the probability is about 11 %. The latest researches shows that about a fifth of observed absorption systems can be partially covered. Accounting of the effect may allow to revise significantly physical parameters of interstellar clouds obtained by the spectral analysis.

  19. Tentative detection of warm intervening gas towards PKS 0548-322 with XMM-Newton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barcons, X.; Paerels, F. B. S.; Carrera, F. J.; Ceballos, M. T.; Sako, M.

    2005-06-01

    We present the results of a long (~93 ks) XMM-Newton observation of the bright BL-Lac object PKS 0548-322 (z= 0.069). Our Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) spectrum shows a single absorption feature at an observed wavelength λ= 23.33 +/- 0.01 Å, which we interpret as OVI Kα absorption at z= 0.058, i.e. ~3000 km s-1 from the background object. The observed equivalent width of the absorption line, ~30 mÅ, coupled with the lack of the corresponding absorption edge in the EPIC pn data, implies a column density of NOVI~ 2 × 1016 cm-2 and turbulence with a Doppler velocity parameter b > 100 km s-1. Within the limitations of our RGS spectrum, no OVII or OV Kα absorption are detected. Under the assumption of ionization equilibrium by both collisions and the extragalactic background, this is only marginally consistent if the gas temperature is ~2.5 × 105 K, with significantly lower or higher values being excluded by our limits on OV or OVII. If confirmed, this would be the first X-ray detection of a large amount of intervening warm absorbing gas through OVI absorption. The existence of such a high column density absorber, much stronger than any previously detected one in OVI, would place stringent constraints on the large-scale distribution of baryonic gas in the Universe.

  20. Core self-evaluations and training effectiveness: prediction through motivational intervening mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Stanhope, Daniel S; Pond, Samuel B; Surface, Eric A

    2013-09-01

    Understanding the processes through which trainee characteristics influence learning is important for identifying mechanisms that drive training effectiveness. We examine the direct and indirect paths through which core self-evaluations (CSE) impact learning. We also include general cognitive ability (GCA) to explore whether CSE's paths to effectiveness differ from those of a well-documented predictor of learning. We proposed a model in which CSE contributes to training effectiveness through its influence on motivational intervening mechanisms, and we tested this model empirically with military personnel (N = 638) who participated in job-required training. The data supported a partially mediated model. Irrespective of inclusion of GCA as a control variable, motivation and effort allocation (MEA) process variables (i.e., training motivation, midtraining self-efficacy, and midtraining goal setting) mediated (or partially mediated) the relationship between CSE and training outcomes that included affective (e.g., intentions to transfer), cognitive (e.g., declarative knowledge), and skill-based (e.g., proficiency) learning. Conversely, GCA had neither direct nor indirect effects on affective learning but did demonstrate direct effects on cognitive and skill-based learning. Results support the utility of including CSE in training research and practice, suggest that MEA serves as an explanatory mechanism for CSE's relation to learning outcomes, and demonstrate that CSE and GCA differentially influence training effectiveness and do so through different explanatory mechanisms. PMID:23565894

  1. Eye-movements intervening between two successive sounds disrupt comparisons of auditory location

    PubMed Central

    Pavani, Francesco; Husain, Masud; Driver, Jon

    2008-01-01

    Summary Many studies have investigated how saccades may affect the internal representation of visual locations across eye-movements. Here we studied instead whether eye-movements can affect auditory spatial cognition. In two experiments, participants judged the relative azimuth (same/different) of two successive sounds presented from a horizontal array of loudspeakers, separated by a 2.5 secs delay. Eye-position was either held constant throughout the trial (being directed in a fixed manner to the far left or right of the loudspeaker array), or had to be shifted to the opposite side of the array during the retention delay between the two sounds, after the first sound but before the second. Loudspeakers were either visible (Experiment1) or occluded from sight (Experiment 2). In both cases, shifting eye-position during the silent delay-period affected auditory performance in the successive auditory comparison task, even though the auditory inputs to be judged were equivalent. Sensitivity (d′) for the auditory discrimination was disrupted, specifically when the second sound shifted in the opposite direction to the intervening eye-movement with respect to the first sound. These results indicate that eye-movements affect internal representation of auditory location. PMID:18566808

  2. Electronic structure, vibrational spectral and intervening orbital interactions studies of NLO material: guanidinium 4-nitrobenzoate.

    PubMed

    Sasikala, V; Sajan, D; Sabu, K Job; Arumanayagam, T; Murugakoothan, P

    2015-03-15

    Single crystals of guanidinium 4-nitrobenzoate (GPNB) have been grown by slow evaporation method. Grown crystals were characterized by FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV-Vis absorption and UV-Vis transmission spectroscopies. Crystal defects and surface morphology were studied by etching method. Dielectric properties of the crystal such as dielectric constant, dielectric loss and AC electrical conductivity as function of frequency (50 Hz-5 MHz) at two temperatures (35°C and 100°C) were measured. The frequency and temperature dependence of dielectric behaviour were investigated. The equilibrium geometry, vibrational spectral analysis, intramolecular charge transfer interactions using NBO method, first order hyperpolarizability, molecular electrostatic potential and frontier molecular orbital analysis for GPNB have been studied using density functional theory at B3LYP/cc-pVTZ level. Vibrational spectral study reveals the presence of moderate and weak N-H⋯O bonds in GPNB. NBO analysis also confirms the presence of intramolecular N-H⋯O hydrogen bonding and investigates the stability as well as the intervening orbital interactions. The electronic absorption spectrum of the gas and water phases of GPNB were simulated using time dependent density functional theory and NBO transitions for the three lowest excited states were assigned and studied. PMID:25600681

  3. Geology and total petroleum systems of the West-Central Coastal province (7203), West Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.

    2006-01-01

    The West-Central Coastal Province of the Sub-Saharan Africa Region consists of the coastal and offshore areas of Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Angola (including the disputed Cabinda Province), and Namibia. The area stretches from the east edge of the Niger Delta south to the Walvis Ridge. The West-Central Coastal Province includes the Douala, Kribi-Campo, Rio Muni, Gabon, Congo, Kwanza, Benguela, and Namibe Basins, which together form the Aptian salt basin of equatorial west Africa. The area has had significant exploration for petroleum; more than 295 oil fields have been discovered since 1954. Since 1995, several giant oil fields have been discovered, especially in the deep-water area of the Congo Basin. Although many total petroleum systems may exist in the West-Central Coastal Province, only four major total petroleum systems have been defined. The area of the province north of the Congo Basin contains two total petroleum systems: the Melania-Gamba Total Petroleum System, consisting of Lower Cretaceous source and reservoir rocks, and the Azile-Senonian Total Petroleum System, consisting of Albian to Turonian source rocks and Cretaceous reservoir rocks. Two assessment units are defined in the West-Central Coastal Province north of the Congo Basin: the Gabon Subsalt and the Gabon Suprasalt Assessment Units. The Congo Basin contains the Congo Delta Composite Total Petroleum System, consisting of Lower Cretaceous to Tertiary source and reservoir rocks. The Central Congo Delta and Carbonate Platform and the Central Congo Turbidites Assessment Units are defined in the Congo Delta Composite Total Petroleum System. The area south of the Congo Basin contains the Cuanza Composite Total Petroleum System, consisting of Lower Cretaceous to Tertiary source and reservoir rocks. The Cuanza-Namibe Assessment Unit is defined in the Cuanza Composite Total Petroleum System. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessed the

  4. Late Quaternary environments and biogeography in the Great Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, R. S.; Mead, J. I.

    1982-01-01

    Plant and animal remains found in packrat ( Neotoma spp.) middens and cave fill from the eastern and southern Great Basin region reveal the presence of subalpine conifers and boreal mammals at relatively low elevations during the Late Wisconsin. Limber pine ( Pinus flexilis) and bristlecone pine ( P. longaeva) were important in the late Pleistocene plant communities throughout this region. Spruce ( Picea cf. engelmannii) and common juniper ( Juniperus communis) were present in some of the more northerly localities, and Douglas fir ( Pseudotsuga menziesii) and white fir ( Abies concolor) were present in southern and eastern localities. Single needle pinyon pine ( Pinus monophylla), common across this region today, was apparently not present north of the Sheep Range of southern Nevada during the Late Wisconsin. Pikas ( Ochotona cf. princeps), small boreal mammals present in only a few Great Basin mountain ranges today, were common throughout the region. Heather voles ( Phenacomys cf. intermedius) have been found in two cave fill deposits in Nevada, though they are unknown in the Great Basin today. Limber and bristlecone pines are generally restricted to rocky substrates in modern subalpine habitats in the Great Basin, and this may also have been the case when these plants grew at lower elevations during the Late Wisconsin. Subalpine conifers were present on the rock outcrops sampled by the packrat middens, but shrub communities, perhaps dominated by sagebrush ( Artemisia spp.), may have been present on alluvial valley-bottom substrates. Forested habitats would thus have been isolated habitat islands, as they are today. Boreal small mammals, including pikas and heather voles, were able to colonize the Great Basin mountain ranges during the late Pleistocene. We suggest that these mammals were able to survive in the intervening valley-bottoms under a cool-summer climatic regime, and that continuous forest or woodland corridors were not necessary for migration.

  5. Coastal floods and decadal changes: the climate factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diez, J. Javier; Silvestre, J. Manuel; Lopez-Gutierrez, Jose S.

    2013-04-01

    Observation has widely shown for nearly all last century that the Spanish (Dynamic) Maritime Climate was following around 10 to 11 year cycles in its most significant figure, wind wave, despite it being better to register cycles of 20 to 22 years, in analogical way with the semi-diurnal and diurnal cycles of Cantabrian tides. Those cycles were soon linked to sun activity and, at the end of the century, the latter was related to the Solar System evolution. We know now that waves and storm surges are coupled and that (Dynamic) Maritime Climate forms part of a more complex "Thermal Machine" including Hydrological cycle. The analysis of coastal floods could so facilitate the extension of that experience. According to their immediate cause, simple flood are usually sorted out into flash, pluvial, fluvial, groundwater and coastal types, considering the last as caused by sea waters. But the fact is that most of coastal floods are the result of the concomitance of several former simple types. Actually, the several Southeastern Mediterranean coastal flood events show to be the result of the superposition within the coastal zone of flash, fluvial, pluvial and groundwater flood types under boundary condition imposed by the concomitant storm sea level rise. This work shall be regarded as an attempt to clarify that cyclic experience, through an in-depth review of a past flood events in Valencia (Turia and Júcar basins), as in Murcia (Segura's) as well. The Valencia case study has been specifically studied in relation to the FP7 SMARTeST Project. The historical records of the Turia/Jucar River basins floods are highly large, most of them affecting to Valencia City or surroundings. The following years are considered as having registered great major floods: 1321, 1328, 1340, 1358, 1406, 1427, 1475, 1476, 1487, 1517, 1540, 1546, 1555, 1557, 1577, 1581, 1589, 1590, 1610, 1651, 1672, 1731, 1737, 1766, 1770, 1776, 1783, 1793, 1845, 1860, 1864, 1870, 1897, 1949, 1957, 1982 and 2000

  6. Groundwater hydrology--coastal flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanford, Ward E.

    2010-01-01

    How groundwater flow varies when long-term external conditions change is little documented. Geochemical evidence shows that sea-level rise at the end of the last glacial period led to a shift in the flow patterns of coastal groundwater beneath Florida.

  7. MARYLAND COASTAL BAYS IR 2002

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Maryland Coastal Bays Program Implementation Review (IR) summarizes the progress and challenges ahead for the Program through examination of its activities in relation to the CCMP. During the CCMP planning phase the stakeholders prioritized the actions and determined the impl...

  8. Coastal Adaptation and Ecological Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheong, S. M.

    2014-12-01

    Ecological engineering combines ecology and engineering to sustain coastal environment and facilitate adaptation to climate change. This paper discusses how the cases of mangroves, oyster reefs, and marshes help mainstream climate change with ecosystem conservation. It demonstrates the benefits of combining strategies to combat changing climate given the financial and political constraints.

  9. Climate Change and Coastal Eutrophication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabalais, N. N.

    2014-12-01

    The world's climate has changed and human activities will continue to contribute to the acceleration of greenhouse gases and temperature rise. The major drivers of these changes are increased temperature, altered hydrological cycles and shifts in wind patterns that might alter coastal currents. Increasing temperatures alone have the potential to strengthen pycnoclines in estuarine and coastal waters, but lower surface salinity (e.g., from increased freshwater runoff) would be more of a factor in stratifying the water column. The combination of increased nutrient loads (from human activities) and increased freshwater discharge (from GCC) will aggravate the already high loads of nutrients from the Mississippi River to the northern Gulf of Mexico, strengthen stratification (all other factors remaining the same), and worsen the hypoxia situation. Reduced precipitation, on the other hand, would lower the amount of nutrients and water reaching the coastal zone and, perhaps, lead to oligotrophication and reduced fisheries productivity, or perhaps alleviate hypoxia. The increase or decrease in flow (whichever occurs), flux of nutrients and water temperature are likely to have important, but as yet not clearly identifiable, influences on hypoxia. In anticipation of the negative effects of global change, nutrient loadings to coastal waters need to be reduced now, so that further water quality degradation is prevented.

  10. Coastal storm monitoring in Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wicklein, Shaun M.; Bennett, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Coastal communities in Virginia are prone to flooding, particularly during hurricanes, nor’easters, and other coastal low-pressure systems. These weather systems affect public safety, personal and public property, and valuable infrastructure, such as transportation, water and sewer, and electric-supply networks. Local emergency managers, utility operators, and the public are tasked with making difficult decisions regarding evacuations, road closures, and post-storm recovery efforts as a result of coastal flooding. In coastal Virginia these decisions often are made on the basis of anecdotal knowledge from past events or predictions based on data from monitoring sites located far away from the affected area that may not reflect local conditions. Preventing flood hazards, such as hurricane-induced storm surge, from becoming human disasters requires an understanding of the relative risks that flooding poses to specific communities. The risk to life and property can be very high if decisions about evacuations and road closures are made too late or not at all.

  11. Coastal Studies for Primary Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Venetia R.; Roach, Ellen M.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a set of field trips for participants of the Coastal Environmental Education for Primary Grades program in Georgia. Includes a sample of the activities used by first- and second-grade students. Discusses follow-up activities and the need for more educational programs dealing with sand dunes and saltwater marshes. (TW)

  12. Issues in Coastal Zone Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Derrin

    1992-01-01

    Addresses the following issues relevant to coastal zone management: overcrowding, resource exploitation, pollution, agriculture, fisheries, industrial, and other uses. Describes conflicts and trade-offs in management typified by fragmented agency decision making. Discusses implications of the greenhouse effect, sustainable development, and the…

  13. Vulnerability to coastal cholera ecology.

    PubMed

    Collins, Andrew E

    2003-10-01

    The battle to completely control cholera continues. Multiple strains, high levels of morbidity in some regions of the world, and a complex of influences on its distribution in people and the environment are accompanied by only rough resolution prediction of outbreaks. Uncertainty as to the most effective array of interventions for one of the most researched infectious diseases thwarts further progress in providing cost-effective solutions. Progress on the research front consistently points towards the importance of disease ecology, coastal environments, and the sea. However, evaluation of the link between cholera in people and environment can only be effective with analysis of human vulnerability to variable coastal cholera ecologies. As there are some clear links between the organism, cholera incidence and the sea, it is appropriate that cholera research should examine the nature of coastal population vulnerability to the disease. The paper reviews the cholera risks of human-environment interactions in coastal areas as one component of the evaluation of cholera management. This points to effective intervention through integrative knowledge of changing human and environmental ecologies, requiring improved detection, but also an acceptance of complex causality. The challenge is to identify indicators and interventions for case specific ecologies in variable locales of human vulnerability and disease hazard. Further work will therefore aim to explore improved surveillance and intervention across the socio-behavioural and ecological spectrum. Furthermore, the story of cholera continues to inform us about how we should more effectively view emergent and resurgent infectious disease hazards more generally. PMID:12927470

  14. FLORIDA ATLANTIC COASTAL ENVIRONMENTAL INITIATIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Florida Atlantic Coastal Environmental Initiative (FACEI) will consist of a multiyear, multidisciplinary research and monitoring program designed to detect and trace a variety of nutrient sources (point and non-point sources) and other major environmental stressors to the coa...

  15. Seasonal sea surface temperature anomaly prediction for coastal ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stock, Charles A.; Pegion, Kathy; Vecchi, Gabriel A.; Alexander, Michael A.; Tommasi, Desiree; Bond, Nicholas A.; Fratantoni, Paula S.; Gudgel, Richard G.; Kristiansen, Trond; O'Brien, Todd D.; Xue, Yan; Yang, Xiasong

    2015-09-01

    Sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies are often both leading indicators and important drivers of marine resource fluctuations. Assessment of the skill of SST anomaly forecasts within coastal ecosystems accounting for the majority of global fish yields, however, has been minimal. This reflects coarse global forecast system resolution and past emphasis on the predictability of ocean basin-scale SST variations. This paper assesses monthly to inter-annual SST anomaly predictions in coastal "Large Marine Ecosystems" (LMEs). We begin with an analysis of 7 well-observed LMEs adjacent to the United States and then examine how mechanisms responsible for prediction skill in these systems are reflected in predictions for LMEs globally. Historical SST anomaly estimates from the 1/4° daily Optimal Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature reanalysis (OISST.v2) were first found to be highly consistent with in-situ measurements for 6 of the 7 U.S. LMEs. Thirty years of retrospective forecasts from climate forecast systems developed at NOAA's Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (CM2.5-FLOR) and the National Center for Environmental Prediction (CFSv2) were then assessed against OISST.v2. Forecast skill varied widely by LME, initialization month, and lead but there were many cases of high skill that also exceeded that of a persistence forecast, some at leads greater than 6 months. Mechanisms underlying skill above persistence included accurate simulation of (a) seasonal transitions between less predictable locally generated and more predictable basin-scale SST variability; (b) seasonal transitions between different basin-scale influences; (c) propagation of SST anomalies across seasons through sea ice; and (d) re-emergence of previous anomalies upon the breakdown of summer stratification. Globally, significant skill above persistence across many tropical systems arises via mechanisms (a) and (b). Combinations of all four mechanisms contribute to less prevalent but nonetheless

  16. Coastal change analysis program implemented in Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramsey, Elijah W., III; Nelson, G.A.; Sapkota, S.K.

    2001-01-01

    Landsat Thematic Mapper images from 1990 to 1996 and collateral data sources were used to classify the land cover of the Mermentau River Basin (MRB) within the Chenier Plain of coastal Louisiana. Landcover classes followed the definition of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Coastal Change Analysis Program; however, classification methods had to be developed as part of this study for attainment of these national classification standards. Classification method developments were especially important when classes were spectrally inseparable, when classes were part of spatial and spectral continuums, when the spatial resolution of the sensor included more than one landcover type, and when human activities caused abnormal transitions in the landscape. Most classification problems were overcome by using one or a combination of techniques, such as separating the MRB into subregions of commonality, applying masks to specific land mixtures, and highlighting class transitions between years that were highly unlikely. Overall, 1990, 1993, and 1996 classification accuracy percentages (associated kappa statistics) were 80% (0.79), 78% (0.76), and 86% (0.84), respectively. Most classification errors were associated with confusion between managed (cultivated land) and unmanaged grassland classes; scrub shrub, grasslands and forest classes; water, unconsolidated shore and bare land classes; and especially in 1993, between water and floating vegetation classes. Combining cultivated land and grassland classes and water and floating vegetation classes into single classes accuracies for 1990, 1993, and 1996 increased to 82%, 83%, and 90%, respectively. To improve the interpretation of landcover change, three indicators of landcover class stability were formulated. Location stability was defined as the percentage of a landcover class that remained as the same class in the same location at the beginning and the end of the monitoring period. Residence stability was

  17. Scenario Planning for Coastal Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parris, A.; Obeysekera, J.; Knuuti, K.; Moss, R. H.; Horton, R. M.; Weiss, J. L.

    2012-12-01

    Sea level rise (SLR) is a persistent environmental change observed globally for more than a century, and its expected continuation poses significant challenges to the United States (US). We summarize a process associated with the United States National Climate Assessment for identifying four scenarios of global mean sea level rise (SLR). The main finding is that global mean sea level is expected to rise no less than 0.2 meters and no more than 2.0 meters by the end of the century. Recent publications suggest that a 4 C world would result in global mean SLR towards the upper end of that range. Aside from this process, there is currently no coordinated, interagency effort in the US to identify agreed upon global mean sea level rise projections for the purpose of coastal planning, policy, and management. This is an important gap because identifying global mean SLR estimates is a critical step in assessing coastal impacts and vulnerabilities. At present, coastal managers are left to identify global SLR estimates through their own interpretation of the scientific literature or the advice of experts on an ad-hoc basis. Yet, relative SLR at over one hundred tide gages (~80%) along the US coast reflect the global trend (1.7 - 3.2 mm/yr). No widely accepted method is currently available for producing probabilistic projections of SLR at actionable scales (i.e., regional to local). The desire to have a most probable or likely outcome can lead to paralysis or inaction for coastal decision-making. Given the range of uncertainty in future global SLR, scenario planning offers an opportunity to overcome decision-making paralysis and initiate actions now that may reduce future impacts and vulnerabilities. Scenarios do not predict future changes, but describe future potential conditions in a manner that supports decision-making under uncertainty. Using multiple scenarios, none more likely than the other, encourages experts and decision makers to rehearse multiple, plausible futures

  18. Reserves in western basins

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, R.H.; Cotton, B.W.

    1995-04-01

    The objective of this project is to investigate the reserves potential of tight gas reservoirs in three Rocky Mountain basins: the Greater Green River (GGRB), Uinta and Piceance basins. The basins contain vast gas resources that have been estimated in the thousands of Tcf hosted in low permeability clastic reservoirs. This study documents the productive characteristics of these tight reservoirs, requantifies gas in place resources, and characterizes the reserves potential of each basin. The purpose of this work is to promote understanding of the resource and to encourage its exploitation by private industry. At this point in time, the GGRB work has been completed and a final report published. Work is well underway in the Uinta and Piceance basins which are being handled concurrently, with reports on these basins being scheduled for the middle of this year. Since the GGRB portion of the project has been completed, this presentation win focus upon that basin. A key conclusion of this study was the subdivision of the resource, based upon economic and technological considerations, into groupings that have distinct properties with regard to potential for future producibility, economics and risk profile.

  19. Observations of the Eastern Maine Coastal Current and its offshore extensions in 1994

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettigrew, Neal R.; Townsend, David W.; Xue, Huijie; Wallinga, John P.; Brickley, Peter J.; Hetland, Robert D.

    1998-12-01

    Cold surface temperatures, reflecting Scotian Shelf origins and local tidal mixing, serve as a tracer of the Eastern Maine Coastal Current and its offshore extensions, which appear episodically as cold plumes erupting from the eastern Maine shelf. A cold water plume emanating from the Eastern Maine Coastal Current in May 1994 was investigated using advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) imagery, shipboard surveys of physical and biochemical properties, and satellite-tracked drifters. Evidence is presented that suggests that some of the plume waters were entrained within the cyclonic circulation over Jordan Basin, while the major portion participated in an anticyclonic eddy at the distal end of the plume. Calculations of the nitrate transported offshore by the plume show that this feature can episodically export significant quantities of nutrients from the Eastern Maine Coastal Current to offshore regions that are generally nutrient depleted during spring-summer. A series of AVHRR images is used to document the seasonal along-shelf progression of the coastal plume separation point. We speculate on potential causes and consequences of plume separation from the coastal current and suggest that this feature may be an important factor influencing the patterns and overall biological productivity of the eastern Gulf of Maine.

  20. Characterisation of coastal counter-currents on the inner shelf of the Gulf of Cadiz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garel, E.; Laiz, I.; Drago, T.; Relvas, P.

    2016-03-01

    At the Gulf of Cadiz (GoC), poleward currents leaning along the coast alternate with coastal upwelling jets of opposite direction. Here the patterns of these coastal countercurrents (CCCs) are derived from ADCP data collected during 7 deployments at a single location on the inner shelf. The multiyear (2008-2014) time-series, constituting ~ 18 months of hourly records, are further analysed together with wind data from several sources representing local and basin-scale conditions. During one deployment, temperature sensors were also installed near the mooring site to examine the vertical thermal stratification associated with periods of poleward flow. These observations indicate that the coastal circulation is mainly alongshore and barotropic. However, a baroclinic flow is often observed shortly at the time of flow inversion to poleward. CCCs develop all year-round and exclusively control the occurrence of warm coastal water during the upwelling season. On average, one poleward flow lasting 3 days was observed every week, corresponding to CCCs during ~ 40% of the time without seasonal variability. Thus, the studied region is distinct from typical upwelling systems where equatorward coastal upwelling jets largely predominate. CCCs often start to develop near the bed and are frequently associated with 2-layer cross-shore flows characteristic of downwelling conditions (offshore near the bed). In general, the action of alongshore wind stress alone does not justify the development of CCCs. The coastal circulation is best correlated and shows the highest coherence with south-eastward wind in the basin that proceeds from the rotation of southward wind at the West coast of Portugal, hence suggesting a dominant control of large-scale wind conditions. In agreement, wavelet analyses indicate that CCCs are best correlated with alongshore wind occurring in a band period characteristic of the upwelling system (8-32 days). Furthermore, in the absence of wind coastal currents tend

  1. Coastal dynamics in western Sicily

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liguori, Vincenzo; Manno, Giorgio; Agate, Francesca

    2014-05-01

    The study of the evolution of the beaches plays a fundamental role in every territorial politics regarding the coastal band. More than half the world population lives in coastal regions which support a florid touristic activity in many countries. The beach constitutes, in terms of economic value, the most important element of the coastal system, but also the more fragile and morphologically variable. Thus, studying its evolutions is fundamental in order to adopt the best management of this complex, densely populated and economically interesting zone. In this regard, the western coast of Sicily (Italy) is an effective example. It took its origin from variation of the sea middle level (Quaternary), with the consequent formation of marine terraces. Morphologically, the shore is made up by low and rock coast alternating beaches. The historical evolution of the coast has been performed through the use of aerial images identifying, despite several uncertainties, the position of the shoreline. Indeed the shoreline position extracted from an aerial image is a wet/dry line that describes the instantaneous land-water boundary at the time of imaging rather than a "normal" or "average" condition. Each wave instantaneously influences the shoreline position and hence, to take into account shoreline oscillations due to wave motion. Even if from a conceptual point of view the shore line is defined as a border between the emerged earth and the sea, its perennial variability makes it difficult to determine. In order to start a correct management, a cognitive geomorphological study has been carried on, as well as a study of high strategic value and environmental sustainability. It was based on a continuous decisional process based on objectives defined by the UE, in order to classify the beaches and to define the characteristic which are necessary for a correct coastal management. This study has been fundamental to start a monitoring of the coast; moreover, it has shown

  2. Source facies and oil families of the Malay Basin, Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Creaney, S.; Hussein, A.H. ); Curry, D.J.; Bohacs, K.M. ); Hassan, R. )

    1994-07-01

    The Malay Basin consists of a number of separate petroleum systems, driven exclusively by nonmarine source rocks. These systems range from lower Oligocene to middle Miocene and show a progression from lacustrine-dominated source facies in the lower Oligocene to lower Miocene section to coastal plain/delta plain coal-related sources in the lower to middle Miocene section. Two lacustrine sources are recognized in the older section, and multiple source/reservoir pairs are recognized in the younger coaly section. The lacustrine sources can be recognized using well-log analysis combined with detailed core and sidewall core sampling. Chemically, they are characterized by low pristane/phytane ratios, low oleanane contents, and a general absence of resin-derived terpanes. These sources have TOCs in the 1.0-4.0% range and hydrogen indices of up to 750. In contrast, the coal-related sources are chemically distinct with pristane/phytane ratios of up to 8, very high oleanane contents, and often abundant resinous compounds. All these sources are generally overmature in the basin center and immature toward the basin margin. The oils sourced from all sources in the Malay Basin are generally low in sulfur and of very high economic value. Detailed biomarker analysis of the oils in the Malay Basin has allowed the recognition of families associated with the above sources and demonstrated that oil migration has been largely strata parallel with little cross-stratal mixing of families.

  3. Hydrocarbon potential of the Lamu basin of south-east Kenya

    SciTech Connect

    Nyagah, K.; Cloeter, J.J.; Maende, A. )

    1996-01-01

    The Lamu basin occupies the coastal onshore and offshore areas of south-east Kenya. This fault bounded basin formed as a result of the Paleozoic-early Mesozoic phase of rifting that developed at the onset of Gondwana dismemberment. The resultant graben was filled by Karroo (Permian-Early Jurassic) continental siliciclastic sediments. Carbonate deposits associated with the Tethyan sea invasion, dominate the Middle to Late Jurassic basin fill. Cessation of the relative motion between Madagascar and Africa in the Early Cretaceous, heralded passive margin development and deltaic sediment progradation until the Paleogene. Shallow seas transgressed the basin in the Miocene when another carbonate regime prevailed. The basin depositional history is characterized by pulses of transgressive and regressive cycles, bounded by tectonically enhanced unconformities dividing the total sedimentary succession into discrete megasequences. Source rock strata occur within Megasequence III (Paleogene) depositional cycle and were lowered into the oil window in Miocene time, when the coastal parts of the basin experienced the greatest amount of subsidence. The tectono-eustatic pulses of the Tertiary brought about source and reservoir strata into a spatial relationship in which hydrocarbons could be entrapped. A basement high on the continental shelf has potential for Karroo sandstone and Jurassic limestone reservoirs. Halokinesis of Middle Jurassic salt in Miocene time provides additional prospects in the offshore area. Paleogene deltaic sands occur in rotated listric fault blacks. A Miocene reef Play coincides with an Eocene source rock kitchen.

  4. Hydrocarbon potential of the Lamu basin of south-east Kenya

    SciTech Connect

    Nyagah, K.; Cloeter, J.J.; Maende, A.

    1996-12-31

    The Lamu basin occupies the coastal onshore and offshore areas of south-east Kenya. This fault bounded basin formed as a result of the Paleozoic-early Mesozoic phase of rifting that developed at the onset of Gondwana dismemberment. The resultant graben was filled by Karroo (Permian-Early Jurassic) continental siliciclastic sediments. Carbonate deposits associated with the Tethyan sea invasion, dominate the Middle to Late Jurassic basin fill. Cessation of the relative motion between Madagascar and Africa in the Early Cretaceous, heralded passive margin development and deltaic sediment progradation until the Paleogene. Shallow seas transgressed the basin in the Miocene when another carbonate regime prevailed. The basin depositional history is characterized by pulses of transgressive and regressive cycles, bounded by tectonically enhanced unconformities dividing the total sedimentary succession into discrete megasequences. Source rock strata occur within Megasequence III (Paleogene) depositional cycle and were lowered into the oil window in Miocene time, when the coastal parts of the basin experienced the greatest amount of subsidence. The tectono-eustatic pulses of the Tertiary brought about source and reservoir strata into a spatial relationship in which hydrocarbons could be entrapped. A basement high on the continental shelf has potential for Karroo sandstone and Jurassic limestone reservoirs. Halokinesis of Middle Jurassic salt in Miocene time provides additional prospects in the offshore area. Paleogene deltaic sands occur in rotated listric fault blacks. A Miocene reef Play coincides with an Eocene source rock kitchen.

  5. [Sample of high school students with a demonstration of intervening factors in school achievement and failure].

    PubMed

    Piquilloud, C

    1984-01-01

    This research investigates the relationship and link between intellectual cathexis, school achievement and personality functioning in a representative sample of secondary school students aged 12 to 15 years. The level of structure of the personality plays a most significant role. Good school achievement does not necessarily depend on an optimal psychological equilibrium. In fact, the most determining factor seems to be the part played by the defense mechanisms--particularly those which aim at controlling libidinal drives--developed and elaborated during the period of latency. A certain intellectual potential, however, is a necessary but not sufficient condition for school achievement - indeed, an end of school certificate i.e. the Swiss "certificat de maturité" could be obtained by students of average intelligence. The capacity of maintaining an active intellectual investment seems to be an equally determining factor. This quality of functioning contains an oedipal component - particularly the ability of taking one's stand and of competing - as well as a pre-oedipal one - the narcissistic integrity, allowing one to preserve one's self-esteem facing difficulties. Contrary to our hypothesis, the quality of subject-environment interaction with family, peers, teachers, plays a relatively minor role. A more important aspect concerns the effects and results of relations established during childhood such as the interiorization of parental expectations, the quality of the superego, the degree of internal autonomy allowing compromise with external demands, etc. Underlying conflicts can intervene at several levels. One of these levels could result in the subject's incapacity to utilize his own resources and these imply consequences ranging from difficulties in basic school achievement to non-acquisition of cognitive mecanisms and under-development of symbolization. Psychological testing is a means of identifying the underlying difficulties and determining their nature

  6. Tentative detection of warm intervening gas towards PKS 0548-322 with XMM-Newton

    SciTech Connect

    Barcons, X.

    2005-03-17

    We present the results of a long ({approx} 93 ksec) XMM-Newton observation of the bright BL-Lac object PKS 0548-322 (z = 0.069). Our Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) spectrum shows a single absorption feature at an observed wavelength {lambda} = 23.33 {+-} 0.01 {angstrom} which we interpret as OVI K{alpha} absorption at z = 0.058, i.e., {approx} 3000 km s{sup -1} from the background object. The observed equivalent width of the absorption line {approx} 30m {angstrom}, coupled with the lack of the corresponding absorption edge in the EPIC pn data, implies a column density N{sub OVI} {approx} 2 x 10{sup 16} cm{sup -2} and turbulence with a Doppler velocity parameter b > 100 km s{sup -1}. Within the limitations of our RGS spectrum, no OVII or OV K{alpha} absorption are detected. Under the assumption of ionization equilibrium by both collisions and the extragalactic background, this is only marginally consistent if the gas temperature is {approx} 2.5 x 10{sup 5} K, with significantly lower or higher values being excluded by our limits on OV or OVII. If confirmed, this would be the first X-ray detection of a large amount of intervening warm absorbing gas through OVI absorption. The existence of such a high column density absorber, much stronger than any previously detected one in OVI, would place stringent constraints on the large-scale distribution of baryonic gas in the Universe.

  7. Representing and intervening: 'doing' good care in first trimester prenatal knowledge production and decision-making.

    PubMed

    Schwennesen, Nete; Koch, Lene

    2012-02-01

    This article investigates processes of knowledge production and decision-making in the practice of the first trimester prenatal risk assessment (FTPRA) at an ultrasound clinic in Denmark. On the basis of ethnographic material and interviews with professionals facilitating FTPRAs in Denmark, we draw attention to the active engagement of health professionals in this process. Current professional and policy debate over the use of prenatal testing emphasises the need for informed choice making and for services that provide prospective parents with what is referred to as 'non-directive counselling'. Studies focusing on professional practice of prenatal counselling tend to deal mainly with how professionals fail to live up to such ideals in practice. In this article we extend such studies by drawing attention to practices of care in prenatal testing and counselling. In doing so, we identify three modes of 'doing' good care: attuning expectations and knowledge, allowing resistance and providing situated influence in the relationship between the pregnant woman and the professional. Such practices may not be seen as immediately compatible with the non-directive ethos, but they express ways of reducing emotional suffering and supporting a pregnant woman's ability to make meaningful choices on the basis of uncertain knowledge. As such, these practices can be seen as representing another (caring) solution to the problem of paternalism and authoritarian power. In opposition to an ethics aiming at non-interference (non-directiveness) such modes of doing good care express an ethics of being locally accountable for the ways in which programmes of prenatal testing intervene in pregnant women's lives and of taking responsibility for the entities and phenomena that emerge through such knowledge production. PMID:22257243

  8. Natural and human-induced hypoxia and consequences for coastal areas: synthesis and future development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Gilbert, D.; Gooday, A. J.; Levin, L.; Naqvi, S. W. A.; Middelburg, J. J.; Scranton, M.; Ekau, W.; Peña, A.; Dewitte, B.; Oguz, T.; Monteiro, P. M. S.; Urban, E.; Rabalais, N. N.; Ittekkot, V.; Kemp, W. M.; Ulloa, O.; Elmgren, R.; Escobar-Briones, E.; van der Plas, A. K.

    2010-05-01

    Hypoxia has become a world-wide phenomenon in the global coastal ocean and causes a deterioration of the structure and function of ecosystems. Based on the collective contributions of members of SCOR Working Group #128, the present study provides an overview of the major aspects of coastal hypoxia in different biogeochemical provinces, including estuaries, coastal waters, upwelling areas, fjords and semi-enclosed basins, with various external forcings, ecosystem responses, feedbacks and potential impact on the sustainability of the fishery and economics. The obvious external forcings include freshwater runoff and other factors contributing to stratification, organic matter and nutrient loadings, as well as exchange between coastal and open ocean water masses. Their different interactions set up mechanisms that drive the system towards hypoxia. Coastal systems also vary in their relative susceptibility to hypoxia depending on their physical and geographic settings. It is understood that coastal hypoxia has a profound impact on the sustainability of ecosystems, which can be seen, for example, by the change in the food-web structure and system function; other influences include compression and loss of habitat, as well as changes in organism life cycles and reproduction. In most cases, the ecosystem responds to the low dissolved oxygen in non-linear ways with pronounced feedbacks to other compartments of the Earth System, including those that affect human society. Our knowledge and previous experiences illustrate that there is a need to develop new observational tools and models to support integrated research of biogeochemical dynamics and ecosystem behavior that will improve confidence in remediation management strategies for coastal hypoxia.

  9. Integrated modelling and management of nutrients and eutrophication in river basin - coast - sea systems: A southern Baltic Sea perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schernewski, Gerald

    2014-05-01

    The Odra river basin (area: 120,000 km2, average discharge: 550 m³/s, annual N-load 60,000 t) and the Oder (Szczecin) Lagoon (687 km²) are the eutrophication hot-spot in the south-western Baltic region. To be able to carry out large scale, spatially integrative analyses, we linked the river basin nutrient flux model MONERIS to the coastal 3D-hydrodynamic and ecosystem model ERGOM. Objectives were a) to analyse the eutrophication history in the river basin and the resulting functional changes in the coastal waters between early 1960's and today and b) to analyse the effects of nitrogen and phosphorus management scenarios in the Oder/Odra river basin on coastal and Baltic Sea water quality. The models show that an optimal river basin management with reduced nutrient loads (e.g. N-load reduction of 35%) would have positive effects on lagoon water quality and algae biomass. The availability of nutrients, N/P ratios and processes like denitrification and nitrogen-fixation would show spatial and temporal changes. It would have positive consequences for ecosystems functions, like the nutrient retention capacity, as well. However, this optimal scenario is by far not sufficient to ensure a good coastal water quality according to the European Water Framework Directive. A "good" water quality in the river will not be sufficient to ensure a "good" water quality in the coastal waters. Further, nitrogen load reductions bear the risk of increased potentially toxic, blue-green algae blooms. The presentation will a) summarize recent results (Schernewski et al. 2009, Schernewski et al. 2011, 2012), b) give an overview how the models were used to provide a comprehensive and consistent set of water quality thresholds and maximum allowable riverine loads for the Water Framework Directive and c) will show the implications for an optimised river basin - lagoon quality management.

  10. Sedimentological Signatures of Transient Depositional Events in the Cariaco Basin, Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmore, A. C.; Thunell, R. C.; Black, D. E.; Murray, R. W.; Martinez, N. C.

    2004-12-01

    The varved sediments that have accumulated in the Cariaco Basin throughout the Holocene provide a detailed archive of the region's climatic history, and act as a historical record for the occurrence of phenomena such as earthquakes and coastal flooding. In this study we compare the sedimentological characteristics of lithogenic material collected from the water column during transient depositional events to those of normal hemipelagic sedimentation in the basin. Specifically, we have examined the clay mineralogy and grain size distribution of detrital material delivered to the basin by the July 9, 1997 earthquake near Cumana, Venezuela and the coastal flooding of Venezuela in late 1999. The sample material used in our study was collected as part of an ongoing sediment trap time series in the Cariaco Basin. The sedimentological signatures associated with these two events are distinctive from the typical lithogenic input to the basin. Preliminary data for biweekly samples collected from 1997-1999 shows a tri-modal particle size distribution, with peaks at 3, 22, and 80 im. However, material collected from the deep basin immediately following the 1997 earthquake is characterized by a particle diameter distribution at 6 and 22 im with a smaller than normal peak at 80 im; this variance suggests an alternate source of material was delivered to the basin via a turbidity flow induced by the earthquake. Supporting this theory, the clay mineralogy of the same sediment trap samples shows a higher than average ratio of kaolinite to quartz for sediments delivered to the basin following both the earthquake and flooding. We hope to extend the use of these sedimentological methods to identify past transient depositional events in Cariaco Basin cores.

  11. Synthesis of natural flows at selected sites in and near the Milk River basin, Montana, 1928-89

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cary, L.E.; Parrett, Charles

    1995-01-01

    Natural monthly streamflows were synthesized for the years 1928-89 at 2 sites in the St. Mary River Basin and 11 sites in the Milk River Basin in north- central Montana. The sites are represented as nodes in a streamflow accounting model being developed by the Bureau of Reclamation for the Milk River Basin. Recorded flows at most sites have been affected by human activities, including reservoir storage and irrigation diversions. The flows at the model nodes were corrected for the effects of these activities to obtain synthesized flows. The synthesized flows at nodes with seasonal and short-term records were extended using a statistical technique. The methods of synthesis varied, depending on upstream activities and information available. Flows at sites in the St. Mary River Basin and at the Milk River at Eastern Crossing of International Boundary pre- viously had been synthesized. The flows at mainstem sites downstream from the Milk River at Eastern Crossing were synthesized by adding synthesized natural runoff from intervening drainage areas to natural flows for Milk River at Eastern Crossing. Natural runoff from intervening drainage areas was estimated by multiplying recorded flows at selected index gaging stations on tributary streams by the ratio of the intervening drainage area to the combined drainage area of the index stations. The recorded flows for Milk River at Western Crossing of International Boundary and for Peoples Creek near Dodson, Montana, were assumed to be natural flows. The synthesized annual flows at the mouth of the Milk River compared favorably with the recorded flows near the mouth when the effects of upstream irrigation were considered.

  12. K Basin Hazard Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    PECH, S.H.

    2000-08-23

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Final Safety Analysis Report. This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report.

  13. K Basins Hazard Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    WEBB, R.H.

    1999-12-29

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Safety Analysis Report (HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062, Rev.4). This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report.

  14. Developing a NIDIS Drought Early Warning Information System for Coastal Ecosystems in the Carolinas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darby, L. S.; Dow, K.; Lackstrom, K.; Brennan, A.; Tufford, D. L.; Conrads, P.; Pulwarty, R. S.; Webb, R. S.; Verdin, J. P.; Mcnutt, C. A.; Deheza, V.

    2013-12-01

    The National Integrated Drought Information System (NIDIS) is in the process of developing drought early warning systems in areas of the U.S. where the coordination of drought information is critically needed. These regional drought early warning systems will become the backbone of a national drought early warning information system. Plans for the first drought early warning system started in the fall of 2008 in the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB), with an initial focus on the water supply in the head waters region of the Colorado River and the impacts of changes in the water supply on the UCRB. Since the establishment of the UCRB drought early warning system, other regional programs have begun in the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River Basin, four regions in the state of California, the Southern Plains, and the Four Corners region. (At this time these are considered pilot drought early warning programs, not full-fledged drought early warning systems such as the UCRB.) Activities in each of these regions are tailored to the needs of stakeholders, and all incorporate hydrometeorological predictions. However, in all of these areas NIDIS has not focused on the specific needs of coastal ecosystems during times of drought. Over the past year, NIDIS has started a pilot drought early warning system that addresses drought in the coastal ecosystems of North and South Carolina. This pilot is being developed in partnership with the Carolinas Integrated Sciences and Assessments (CISA), a NOAA Regional Sciences and Assessments program housed at the University of South Carolina. Currently the focus of the Carolinas pilot includes the promotion of enhanced drought impact reporting to better understand the impacts of low flows on coastal ecosystems and the development of a USGS real-time salinity network for a few coastal gage stations in the Carolinas. The roles of the enhanced drought impact assessments in coastal ecosystems and the knowledge gained from a real

  15. Land-cover change in upper Barataria Basin estuary, Louisiana, 1972-1992: increases in Wetland area.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Stacy A C; Soranno, Patricia A; Qi, Jiaguo

    2002-05-01

    The Barataria Basin, Louisiana, USA, is an extensive wetland and coastal estuary system of great economic and intrinsic value. Although high rates of wetland loss along the coastal margin of the Barataria Basin have been well documented, little information exists on whether freshwater wetlands in the upper basin have changed. Our objectives were to quantify land-cover change in the upper basin over 20 years from 1972-1992 and to determine land-cover transition rates among land-cover types. Using 80-m resolution Landsat MSS data from the North American Landscape Characterization (NALC) data archive, we classified images from three time steps (1972, 1985, 1992) into six land-cover types: agriculture, urban, bottomland hardwood forest, swamp forest, freshwater marsh, and open water. Significant changes in land cover occurred within the upper Barataria Basin over the study period. Urban land increased from 8% to 17% of the total upper basin area, primarily due to conversions from agricultural land, and to a lesser degree, bottomland forest. Swamp forest increased from 30% to 41%, associated with conversions from bottomland hardwood forest and freshwater marsh. Overall, bottomland forest decreased 38% and total wetland area increased 21%. Within the upper Barataria, increases in total wetland area may be due to land subsidence. Based on our results, if present trends in the reduction of bottomland forest land cover were to continue, the upper Barataria Basin may have no bottomland hardwood forests left by the year 2025, as it is subjected to multiple stressors both in the higher elevations (from urbanization) and lower elevations (most likely from land subsidence). These results suggest that changes in the upper freshwater portions of coastal estuaries can be large and quite different from patterns observed in the more saline coastal margins. PMID:12180184

  16. Structure of the la VELA Offshore Basin, Western Venezuela: AN Obliquely-Opening Rift Basin Within the South America-Caribbean Strike-Slip Plate Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco, J. M.; Mann, P.

    2015-12-01

    Bathymetric, gravity and magnetic maps show that the east-west trend of the Cretaceous Great Arc of the Caribbean in the Leeward Antilles islands is transected by an en echelon series of obliquely-sheared rift basins that show right-lateral offsets ranging from 20 to 40 km. The basins are 75-100 km in length and 20-30 km in width and are composed of sub-parallel, oblique slip normal faults that define deep, bathymetric channels that bound the larger islands of the Leeward Antilles including Aruba, Curacao and Bonaire. A single basin of similar orientation and structure, the Urumaco basin, is present to the southwest in the Gulf of Venezuela. We mapped structures and sedimentation in the La Vela rift basin using a 3D seismic data volume recorded down to 6 seconds TWT. The basin can be mapped from the Falcon coast where it is correlative with the right-lateral Adicora fault mapped onshore, and its submarine extension. To the southeast of the 3D survey area, previous workers have mapped a 70-km-wide zone of northeast-striking, oblique, right-lateral faults, some with apparent right-lateral offsets of the coastline. On seismic data, the faults vary in dip from 45 to 60 degrees and exhibit maximum vertical offsets of 600 m. The La Vela and other obliquely-opening rifts accommodate right-lateral shear with linkages to intervening, east-west-striking right-lateral faults like the Adicora. The zone of oblique rifts is restricted to the trend of the Great Arc of the Caribbean and may reflect the susceptiblity of this granitic basement to active shearing. The age of onset for the basins known from previous studies on the Leeward Antilles is early Miocene. As most of these faults occur offshore their potential to generate damaging earthquakes in the densely populated Leeward Antilles is not known.

  17. A coastal perspective on security.

    PubMed

    Emerson, Steven D; Nadeau, John

    2003-11-14

    This paper examines security issues from the unique perspective of our nation's coastlines and associated infrastructure. It surveys ongoing efforts to secure offshore shipping lanes, as well as the transportation systems and huge capital investments on the narrow strip of land intersecting with coastal waters. The paper recounts the extraordinary demands recently placed on the Coast Guard, port authorities and other agencies charged with offshore security. New federal requirements such as port assessments continue to be mandated, while solutions to finding are still unfolding. An up-to-date summary of maritime security functions is provided. Those requirements are compared and contrasted with security guidelines and regulatory demands placed upon mobile and fixed assets of the Chemical Process Industry (CPI) in coastal environs. These span the gamut from recommendations by industry groups and professional organizations, to federal and state requirements, to insurance demands, to general duty obligations. PMID:14602395

  18. Metagenomes of Mediterranean Coastal Lagoons

    PubMed Central

    Ghai, Rohit; Hernandez, Claudia Mella; Picazo, Antonio; Mizuno, Carolina Megumi; Ininbergs, Karolina; Díez, Beatriz; Valas, Ruben; DuPont, Christopher L.; McMahon, Katherine D.; Camacho, Antonio; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Coastal lagoons, both hypersaline and freshwater, are common, but still understudied ecosystems. We describe, for the first time, using high throughput sequencing, the extant microbiota of two large and representative Mediterranean coastal lagoons, the hypersaline Mar Menor, and the freshwater Albufera de Valencia, both located on the south eastern coast of Spain. We show there are considerable differences in the microbiota of both lagoons, in comparison to other marine and freshwater habitats. Importantly, a novel uncultured sulfur oxidizing Alphaproteobacteria was found to dominate bacterioplankton in the hypersaline Mar Menor. Also, in the latter prokaryotic cyanobacteria were almost exclusively comprised by Synechococcus and no Prochlorococcus was found. Remarkably, the microbial community in the freshwaters of the hypertrophic Albufera was completely in contrast to known freshwater systems, in that there was a near absence of well known and cosmopolitan groups of ultramicrobacteria namely Low GC Actinobacteria and the LD12 lineage of Alphaproteobacteria. PMID:22778901

  19. Assessment of differences in physical watershed characteristics between gaged and ungaged portions of the Great Lakes basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, T. S.; Fry, L. M.; Gronewold, A. D.; Kult, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    Prediction of hydrologic response in ungaged basins often relies on regression relationships between physical watershed characteristics in gaged basins and either calibrated rainfall-runoff model parameters or model-independent hydrologic response indices (e.g. runoff, runoff ratio, baseflow index, etc.). Predictive skill using these types of modeling approaches may be compromised when watershed characteristics in the ungaged areas are substantially different from those in the gaged areas used to establish the regression relationships. In the case of the Great Lakes basin, regionalization may be complicated by characteristics unique to coastal regions. For example, coastal regions of the Great Lakes contain eight large urbanized metro areas (Milwaukee, Chicago, Detroit, Toledo, Cleveland, Windsor, Toronto, and Buffalo), unique coastal wetland areas, and distinctive meteorological conditions (e.g. lake effect snow). This research investigates the extent to which a set of physical watershed characteristics may vary between gaged (inland) and ungaged (coastal) portions of the Great Lakes basin and therefore complicate regionalization schemes. The work is conducted alongside development of a new regionalization scheme for simulating discharge to the Great Lakes.

  20. DETECTION OF GROUNDWATER AGES WITH 85 KR IN ARSENIC-BEARING, FRACTURED CRYSTALLINE BEDROCK OF THE GOOSE RIVER BASIN, MAINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Young groundwater from various depths in crystalline bedrock of the Goose River basin, mid-coastal Maine, is documented from 85Kr isotope age analyses (1963 ? 1987) but not from 3H isotope age analyses. Elevated geogenic arsenic in drinking water from groundwater wells and sprin...

  1. Estimation of coastal density gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howarth, M. J.; Palmer, M. R.; Polton, J. A.; O'Neill, C. K.

    2012-04-01

    Density gradients in coastal regions with significant freshwater input are large and variable and are a major control of nearshore circulation. However their measurement is difficult, especially where the gradients are largest close to the coast, with significant uncertainties because of a variety of factors - spatial and time scales are small, tidal currents are strong and water depths shallow. Whilst temperature measurements are relatively straightforward, measurements of salinity (the dominant control of spatial variability) can be less reliable in turbid coastal waters. Liverpool Bay has strong tidal mixing and receives fresh water principally from the Dee, Mersey, Ribble and Conwy estuaries, each with different catchment influences. Horizontal and vertical density gradients are variable both in space and time. The water column stratifies intermittently. A Coastal Observatory has been operational since 2002 with regular (quasi monthly) CTD surveys on a 9 km grid, an situ station, an instrumented ferry travelling between Birkenhead and Dublin and a shore-based HF radar system measuring surface currents and waves. These measurements are complementary, each having different space-time characteristics. For coastal gradients the ferry is particularly useful since measurements are made right from the mouth of Mersey. From measurements at the in situ site alone density gradients can only be estimated from the tidal excursion. A suite of coupled physical, wave and ecological models are run in association with these measurements. The models, here on a 1.8 km grid, enable detailed estimation of nearshore density gradients, provided appropriate river run-off data are available. Examples are presented of the density gradients estimated from the different measurements and models, together with accuracies and uncertainties, showing that systematic time series measurements within a few kilometres of the coast are a high priority. (Here gliders are an exciting prospect for

  2. Geohydrologic summary of the Pearl River basin, Mississippi and Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lang, Joseph W.

    1972-01-01

    little or no treatment for most uses. The water is a soft, sodium bicarbonate type and therefore has a low to moderate dissolved-solids content. Mineral content increases generally downdip in an aquifer. Excessive iron, common in shallow aquifers, is objectionable for some water uses. Water from the streams, except in salty tidal reaches, is less mineralized than ground water; in 10 sites the median dissolved-solids content in streamflow was 50 milligrams per liter or less. Moderately intensive ground-water development has been made in the Bogalusa area, Louisiana; at the Mississippi Test Facility, Hancock County, Miss. ; and in the Jackson area, Mississippi. Wells with pumping rates of 500 to 1,000 gallons per minute each are common throughout the Pearl River basin, and some deep wells flow more than 3,000 gallons per minute in the coastal lowland areas. Probably 20 million gallons per day of artesian water flows uncontrolled from wells in the southern part of the basin. Ground-water levels, except in the higher altitudes, are within 60 feet of the surface, and flowing wells are common in the valleys and in the coastal Pine Meadows. Decline of water level is a problem in only a few small areas. Saline water as a resource is available for development from aquifers and streams near the coast and from aquifers at considerable depth in most of the Pearl River basin. Pollution is a problem in oil fields and in reaches of some streams below sewage and other waste-disposal points. The basin estuary contains water of variable quality but has potential for certain water-use developments that will require special planning and management.

  3. Holocene coastal glaciation of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calkin, Parker E.; Wiles, Gregory C.; Barclay, David J.

    2001-01-01

    Holocene fluctuations of the three cirque glaciers on the Seward Peninsula and five groups of tidewater- and land-terminating glaciers along the northernmost Gulf of Alaska, provide a proxy record of late Holocene climatic change. Furthermore, the movements of the coastal glaciers were relevant to late Holocene native American migration. The earliest expansion was recorded about 6850 yr BP by Hubbard Glacier at the head of Yakutat Bay in the Gulf of Alaska; however, its down-fjord advance to the bay mouth was delayed until ˜2700 BP. Similarly, expansions of the Icy Bay, Bering, and McCarty glaciers occurred near their present termini by ˜3600-3000 BP, compatible with marked cooling and precipitation increases suggested by the Alaskan pollen record. Decrease in glacier activity ˜2000 BP was succeeded by advances of Gulf coastal glaciers between 1500 and 1300 BP, correlative with early Medieval expansions across the Northern Hemisphere. A Medieval Optimum, encompassing at least a few centuries prior to AD 1200 is recognized by general retreat of land-terminating glaciers, but not of all tidewater glaciers. Little Ice Age advances of land-based glaciers, many dated with the precision of tree-ring cross-dating, were centered on the middle 13th or early 15th centuries, the middle 17th and the last half of the 19th century A.D. Strong synchrony of these events across coastal Alaska is evident.

  4. Coastal eutrophication in Europe caused by production of energy crops.

    PubMed

    van Wijnen, Jikke; Ivens, Wilfried P M F; Kroeze, Carolien; Löhr, Ansje J

    2015-04-01

    In Europe, the use of biodiesel may increase rapidly in the coming decades as a result of policies aiming to increase the use of renewable fuels. Therefore, the production of biofuels from energy crops is expected to increase as well as the use of fertilisers to grow these crops. Since fertilisers are an important cause of eutrophication, the use of biodiesel may have an effect on the water quality in rivers and coastal seas. In this study we explored the possible effects of increased biodiesel use on coastal eutrophication in European seas in the year 2050. To this end, we defined a number of illustrative scenarios in which the biodiesel production increases to about 10-30% of the current diesel use. The scenarios differ with respect to the assumptions on where the energy crops are cultivated: either on land that is currently used for agriculture, or on land used for other purposes. We analysed these scenarios with the Global NEWS (Nutrient Export from WaterSheds) model. We used an existing Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Scenario for 2050, Global Orchestration (GO2050), as a baseline. In this baseline scenario the amount of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) exported by European rivers to coastal seas decreases between 2000 and 2050 as a result of environmental and agricultural policies. In our scenarios with increased biodiesel production the river export of N and P increases between 2000 and 2050, indicating that energy crop production may more than counterbalance this decrease. Largest increases in nutrient export were calculated for the Mediterranean Sea and the Black Sea. Differences in nutrient export among river basins are large. PMID:25536176

  5. Tanzania wildcats to evaluate Jurassic Mandawa salt basin

    SciTech Connect

    Nagati, M.

    1996-10-07

    After 5 years of stagnant exploration in East Africa, Canadian independent Tanganyika Oil Co. of Vancouver, B.C., will drill two wildcats in Tanzania to evaluate the hydrocarbon potential of the coastal Jurassic Mandawa salt basin. Mita-1, spudded around Oct. 1, will be drilled to about 7,000 ft, East Lika-1 will be drilled in early December 1996 to approximately 6,000 ft. The two wells will test different structures and play concepts. The paper describes the exploration history, source rock potential, hydrocarbon shows, potential reservoir, and the prospects.

  6. Geologic map of the Redwood Creek drainage basin, Humboldt County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harden, Deborah Reid; Kelsey, H.M.; Morrison, S.D.; Stephens, T.A.

    1982-01-01

    A 1:62,500-scale geologic map with 14 rock stratigraphic units and an accompanying explanatory text are used to describe the geology of the Redwood Creek drainage basin of northwestern California. A large part of Redwood National Park is located in the downstream part of this actively eroding drainage basin. The bedrock consists primarily of Mesozoic sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. The structurally complex Franciscan assemblage of rocks underlies most of the basin, but rocks of the Klammath Mountain tectonic province occurs in a small eastern part of the basin. Most major boundaries between Mesozoic rock units are north-northwest trending faults parallel to the regional structural trend. Extensive areas of surficial coastal plain sediments, landslide deposits, stream terrace deposits and modern alluvium are also present; these areas help identify loci of vigorous recent erosion. (USGS)

  7. Paleogeography of the upper Paleozoic basins of southern South America: An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limarino, Carlos O.; Spalletti, Luis A.

    2006-12-01

    The paleogeographic evolution of Late Paleozoic basins located in southern South America is addressed. Three major types of basins are recognized: infracratonic or intraplate, arc-related, and retroarc. Intraplate basins (i.e., Paraná, Chaco-Paraná, Sauce Grande-Colorado, and La Golondrina) are floored by continental or quasi-continental crust, with low or moderate subsidence rates and limited magmatic and tectonic activity. Arc-related basins (northern and central Chile, Navidad-Arizaro, Río Blanco, and Calingasta-Uspallata basins and depocenters along Chilean Patagonia) show a very complex tectonic history, widespread magmatic activity, high subsidence rates, and in some cases metamorphism of Late Paleozoic sediments. An intermediate situation corresponds to the retroarc basins (eastern Madre de Dios, Tarija, Paganzo, and Tepuel-Genoa), which lack extensive magmatism and metamorphism but in which coeval tectonism and sedimentation rates were likely more important than those in the intraplate region. According to the stratigraphic distribution of Late Paleozoic sediments, regional-scale discontinuities, and sedimentation pattern changes, five major paleogeographic stages are proposed. The lowermost is restricted to the proto-Pacific and retroarc basins, corresponds to the Mississippian (stage 1), and is characterized by shallow marine and transitional siliciclastic sediments. During stage 2 (Early Pennsylvanian), glacial-postglacial sequences dominated the infracratonic (or intraplate) and retroarc basins, and terrigenous shallow marine sediments prevailed in arc-related basins. Stage 3 (Late Pennsylvanian-Early Cisuralian) shows the maximum extension of glacial-postglacial sediments in the Paraná and Sauce Grande-Colorado basins (intraplate region), whereas fluvial deposits interfingering with thin intervals of shallow marine sediments prevailed in the retroarc basins. To the west, arc-related basins were dominated by coastal to deep marine conditions

  8. Control of sedimentation by active tectonics, glaciation and contourite-depositing currents in Endurance Basin, South Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, Matthew J.; Day, Simon J.; Leat, Philip T.; Tate, Alex J.; Martin, Tara J.

    2014-12-01

    Endurance Basin is an elongate broadly WNW-ESE trending basin located on the northern margin of the Scotia Sea, adjacent to the southern margin of the South Georgia micro-continent. Bathymetric and TOPAS sub-bottom profile data acquired in 2010 by the British research ship RRS James Clark Ross map this basin and its sedimentology for the first time. Endurance Basin contains a number of sub-basins and a substantial glaciogenic fan. The northern margin of Endurance Basin is formed by a series of steep slopes and intervening troughs. These are interpreted as a left-stepping en echelon array of oblique, strike-slip faults whilst the sub-basins are separated by compressional dip-slip faults. It appears that South Georgia is moving NW with respect to the basin. We interpret five seismic facies from TOPAS data, which are associated with distinct sedimentologies. The most striking units in the basin fill are: substantial contourite drifts located in the NW of the basin and on its southern margin; and two distinct mass transport deposits that pond in the centre of the basin. Combined with the known regional oceanographic setting, the contourites provide evidence of broadly eastward flowing bottom currents, entering the basin from at least two locations. Although landslide scars are present on the steep northern basin margin, the imaged mass transport deposits are interpreted to have been sourced from the glaciogenic fan, located in the SE of the basin, and from a contourite unit located on the basin's southern margin. Sediments from these events are transported at least 40 km. The contourite drift sequence is at least 100 m thick in the west of the basin and may contain a palaeoenvironmental archive of Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) flow and the climate of South Georgia extending to the Pliocene. Such an archive would allow the reconstruction of ACC flow through the Pleistocene glaciations and provide a means of linking ocean circulation and climate records in the sub

  9. Response of ground-water levels of flood control operations in three basins, south-eastern Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pitt, William A.J.

    1974-01-01

    Three basins in southeastern Florida were investigated to determine the changes in ground-water levels and canal flows that occurred in response to operation of coastal water-control structures in each canal. All three basins are underlain by the Biscayne aquifer. They are, Snapper Creek Canal basin, where the Biscayne aquifer is of high permeability; the Snake Creek Canal basin, where the aquifer is of moderate permeability; and the Pompano-Cypress Canal basin, where the aquifer is of low permeability. In each basin, drainage is a function of permeability; thus, where the permeability of the aquifer is high, drainage is excellent. The coastal water-conrol structures are intended to afford flood protection in the three basins. In general the control operation criteria for flood control in newly developing areas in southeastern Florida do not provide adequate protection from flooding because of the time required for the aquifer to respond to changes in the controls. Adequate protection would require increasing the density of secondary drainage canals, but this could achieved only by reducing the quantity of water available for recharging those segments of the Biscayne aquifer adjacent to the canals. (Woodrad-USGS)

  10. Tectono-stratigraphic evolution of the northeastern Pyrenean Foreland Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christophoul, Frédéric; Ford, Mary; Grool, Arjan; Géraldine, Rougier; Louis, Hemmer

    2016-04-01

    The Aquitaine basin, on the northern flank of the Pyrenees was subject to intense hydrocarbon exploration until the 1990's, generating a huge dataset that has been under-exploited until now. In the framework of the French Pyramid ANR project this dataset was used, together with new field data, to reconstruct the evolution of this retroforeland basin. This study focuses on the eastern retroforeland, from the Corbières to east to the Toulouse Fault to the west. In terms of age, the main depocentres are however contemporary along the whole eastern basin: 1) From Upper Cretaceous to Paleocene (Campanian to Selandian) the early foreland basin, known as the "Flysch Trough", was filled by a succession of turbidites passing upward into fluvial sediments that prograded axially from the east. 2) From Thanetian to Oligocene, a second cycle started with a deepening upward trend until the Ypresian (inner carbonate platform to mixed open marine) and changed to a shallowing upward succession, passing from open marine sediments, coastal clastic deposits and then to coarse fluvial deposits from Upper Ypresian to Oligocene. Progradation was again initially axial from the east. However, a new south to north fluvial drainage developed from the emerging relief of the Pyrenees to the south. In terms of location and structural style of these depocentres, the salt-free eastern basin (from the Corbières in the east to the Toulouse Fault to the west) reveals a distinctive style to the salt-rich western basin. In eastern foreland (Corbières to Aude Valley), syntectonic depocentres migrated north as a series of wedge-top basins between Late Cretaceous and Late Eocene. The thick-skinned syn-sedimentary foreland structures progressively die out westward. In the western part of the study area (Plantaurel to Petites Pyrenees) stacked depocentres of the same age are preserved in the footwall of the North Pyrenean Frontal thrust recording a slower northward migration associated with a northward

  11. Resolving coastal conflicts using marine spatial planning.

    PubMed

    Tuda, Arthur O; Stevens, Tim F; Rodwell, Lynda D

    2014-01-15

    We applied marine spatial planning (MSP) to manage conflicts in a multi-use coastal area of Kenya. MSP involves several steps which were supported by using geographical information systems (GISs), multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) and optimization. GIS was used in identifying overlapping coastal uses and mapping conflict hotspots. MCDA was used to incorporate the preferences of user groups and managers into a formal decision analysis procedure. Optimization was applied in generating optimal allocation alternatives to competing uses. Through this analysis three important objectives that build a foundation for future planning of Kenya's coastal waters were achieved: 1) engaging competing stakeholders; 2) illustrating how MSP can be adapted to aid decision-making in multi-use coastal regions; and 3) developing a draft coastal use allocation plan. The successful application of MSP to resolve conflicts in coastal regions depends on the level of stakeholder involvement, data availability and the existing knowledge base. PMID:24361729

  12. Communicative challenges of bystander intervention: impact of goals and message design logic on strategies college students use to intervene in drinking situations.

    PubMed

    White, Cindy H; Malkowski, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    A key concern on college campuses is how to help students avoid negative outcomes related to alcohol use. One way to address this is to encourage students to intervene when they see others engaged in high-risk behavior. This approach, referred to as bystander intervention, requires that individuals seek to influence others; however, research on bystander intervention has not explored how students communicate when they intervene. Drawing from a multiple goals perspective, we examined individuals' goals during intervention, the types of messages individuals use to intervene, and the relationship of design logic to sense of efficacy and messages used. Participants (n = 212) identified their goals and indicated what they would say to intervene in two college-drinking scenarios. We found that differences in goals were related to the types of messages used, with more specific goals leading to messages better aligned with achieving those goals. Additionally, more sophisticated design logic was related to a higher sense of efficacy and was reflected in the types of messages individuals used to intervene. The study views bystander intervention as an influence process and highlights the communicative challenges that can impact how people intervene. PMID:23402306

  13. 75 FR 9158 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Coastal Sharks Fishery

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-01

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XU54 Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Coastal Sharks Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National.... SUMMARY: NMFS announces that on February 4, 2010, the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries...

  14. The coastal use structure within the coastal system. A sustainable development-consistent approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallega, A.

    1996-01-01

    To contribute to the development of methodological approaches to coastal area management consistent with the sustainable development concept and guidelines provided by UNCED Agenda 21, Chapter 17, first the classifications of coastal uses provided by literature and those adopted by coastal management programmes are presented and discussed. Moving from this basis and reasoning in terms of general system-sustained approach the following concepts and methodological issues are considered: a goal-oriented concept of coastal use; the sustainable development-grounded coastal use framework and the role of discriminants through which it is conceived and described; the relationships between coastal uses; in particular, conflicting relationships focusing attention on conflicts between decision-making centres, as well as users, motivations and tractability of uses; the relationships between coastal uses and the ecosystem; the basic options for sustainability-consistent coastal use development.

  15. USGS Western Coastal and Marine Geology Team

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Sam; Gibbons, Helen

    2007-01-01

    The Western Coastal and Marine Geology Team of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) studies the coasts of the western United States, including Alaska and Hawai‘i. Team scientists conduct research, monitor processes, and develop information about coastal and marine geologic hazards, environmental conditions, habitats, and energy and mineral resources. This information helps managers at all levels of government and in the private sector make informed decisions about the use and protection of national coastal and marine resources.

  16. Nam Con Son Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Tin, N.T.; Ty, N.D.; Hung, L.T.

    1994-07-01

    The Nam Con Son basin is the largest oil and gas bearing basin in Vietnam, and has a number of producing fields. The history of studies in the basin can be divided into four periods: Pre-1975, 1976-1980, 1981-1989, and 1990-present. A number of oil companies have carried out geological and geophysical studies and conducted drilling activities in the basin. These include ONGC, Enterprise Oil, BP, Shell, Petro-Canada, IPL, Lasmo, etc. Pre-Tertiary formations comprise quartz diorites, granodiorites, and metamorphic rocks of Mesozoic age. Cenozoic rocks include those of the Cau Formation (Oligocene and older), Dua Formation (lower Miocene), Thong-Mang Cau Formation (middle Miocene), Nam Con Son Formation (upper Miocene) and Bien Dong Formation (Pliocene-Quaternary). The basement is composed of pre-Cenozoic formations. Three fault systems are evident in the basin: north-south fault system, northeast-southwest fault system, and east-west fault system. Four tectonic zones can also be distinguished: western differentiated zone, northern differentiated zone, Dua-Natuna high zone, and eastern trough zone.

  17. SURVEY OF CROSS-BASIN BOAT TRAFFIC, ATCHAFALAYA BASIN, LOUISIANA

    EPA Science Inventory

    For flood control and for the preservation and enhancement of environmental quality of overflow swamp habitats, introduction of sediment from the Atchafalaya Basin Main Channel into backwater areas of the Atchafalaya Basin Floodway should be minimized. This introduction occurs ma...

  18. Deformation of the Bellingham Basin in the Northern Cascadia Forearc as Inferred from Potential Field Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, J.; Wolf, L. W.; Blakely, R. J.; Sherrod, B. L.; Brown, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Bellingham basin, spanning onshore and offshore regions of northwestern Washington state and southwestern British Columbia, is deforming under north-south shortening in the north Cascadia forearc. Accommodating the regional strain are Holocene-active faults within the basin that have been traced both offshore and onshore on the basis of gravity, aeromagnetic, and limited seismic data. In this study, we add 160 new gravity measurements to an existing database to better define the geometry of the Bellingham basin and its relation to recently discovered NW-trending faults. The new gravity data, spaced at ~ 1 km in the study area, were collected to address gaps in the irregular spatial distribution of existing data and extrapolate deformation recorded in coastal areas eastward into the basin. Regional-residual separation methods and derivative maps suggest that the Bellingham basin is segmented into three smaller basins. The southeast-trending Birch Bay fault extends 30 km into the basin, in agreement with previous work. The Sandy Point fault to the south of Birch Bay and the Drayton Harbor fault to the north appear as pronounced NW-SE trending lineations in magnetic data but are not as apparent as the Birch Bay fault in the new gravity data. The new data indicate that the northern margin of the Bellingham basin follows an arcuate path, southeastward from Birch Bay, then curving northeastward to connect with the Boulder Creek Fault. Two cross-sectional 2.5D models crossing the Bellingham basin show that the Birch Bay fault is steeply dipping and closely associated with a NW-SE trending anticlinal structure involving the underlying Chuckanut Formation and older rocks. An industry seismic line located ~2 km north of the Birch Bay fault shows an anticline involving Quaternary strata, consistent with the cross-sectional models. Results from the study suggest that the Bellingham basin contains evidence of Holocene-active faulting that, like other forearc basins to the

  19. Integrated Research Approaches to Coastal Zone Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandini Menon, N.; Singh, Tanya; Pettersson, Lasse H.

    2014-12-01

    Coastal zones around the world are extremely vulnerable today because of the unprecedented pressures of industrial and urban development as well as climate change related devastations, such as the growing intensities of cyclonic storms, the rise in sea surface temperature, sea surges, and sea level rise. In India, where about 35% of the population lives within 100 kilometers of the coastline, fisheries are a major driver and safety net for economic development and coastal livelihoods. Coastal ecosystems are closely linked with socio-economic systems, which require carefully planned coastal zone management (CZM) actions.

  20. The wave criteria for coastal zoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monnot, J. V.; Diez Gonzalez, J. J.; del Saz Cordero, S.

    2012-04-01

    THE WAVE CRITERIA FOR THE COASTAL ZONE DEFINITION Coastal nations define along their shores a strip of intense administrative intervention entailing strong restrictions to landowners domainial powers. The exact determination of the spatial extent of this zone is always blurred by coastal dynamics which cast some degree of legal uncertainty on the adjacent real rights. Criterion adopted for this determination shall seek to be practical enough to be effectively implemented, and at the same time robust enough in order to remain reliable at least in the mid term. In short, the aim of this paper is to integrate technical tools taken from coastal engineering and coastal law in order to better understand the relationship between human societies and the coastal substratum. The first step of our document aims to highlight those reasons that lead human societies to set back from the coast, and for this purpose we will proceed to a systematical scanning through the "Legal Findings" sections of several coastal laws. As a second step, we will make a review of the most common coastal features that constitute the final object of the administrative protection. Those coastal features, present in almost all coastal laws, are cliffs, dunes, wetlands and beaches, all of them closely related to waves. In this second point, the review will point out the reasons for the protection of those geomorphological elements and their role and utility for coastal human societies. The last part of this document will take advantage of the elements resulting from the first two steps in order to draw some conclusions. As a first achievement, and at the light of the fundamentals for coastal administrative protection identified in the first part, we will sort out a classification of coastal setbacks, according to the leading idea by which they are based. Finally will we will put into practice the concepts obtained from both the first and second steps - fundamentals for coastal administrative

  1. Coastal scale operational oceanography with structural interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Arcilla, Agustín; García León, Manuel; Gracia, Vicente; Pau Sierra, Joan; Espino, Manuel; Grifoll, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    Operational oceanography predictions are now starting to include coupled wind, wave and current fields for open ocean and shelf domains. However the same product for coastal scales, including a) the non-linearity of coastal processes, b) the effect of continental rain driven discharge and c) the interaction with coastal structures are still in an early stage of development, both for the physical and numerical aspects. In this paper we shall explore a coupled wind-wave-current model based on the COWAST system but including also the continental discharge and the effect of coastal structures, in particular shore parallel detached breakwaters. We shall apply such a pre-operational code to a test case near Barcelona, where the concept of transient coastal defences is being considered. The available in-situ and remote observations should also allow a robust calibration. The operational oceanography simulations will be used to support the activation of these transient coastal defences and therefore illustrate the challenges required by coastal scales under rapid storm development such as is commonly found in the Western Mediterranean. The benefits of applying a robust and high resolution coupled hydro-dynamic system will become apparent from the stand point of transient coastal defence deployment and risk mitigation in heavily populated coastal areas.

  2. Decomposition of saltmeadow cordgrass (Spartina patens) in Louisiana coastal marshes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foote, A.L.; Reynolds, K.A.

    1997-01-01

    In Louisiana, plant production rates and associated decomposition rates may be important in offsetting high rates of land loss and subsidence in organic marsh soils. Decomposition of Spartina patens shoot and leaf material was studied by using litter bags in mesohaline marshes in the Barataria and Terrebonne basins of coastal Louisiana. Spartina patens decomposed very slowly with an average decay constant of 0.0007, and approximately 50% of the material remained after 2 years in the field. Material at the Barataria site decomposed faster than did Terrebonne material with trend differences apparent during the first 150 days. This difference might be explained by the higher content of phosphorus in the Barataria material or a flooding period experienced by the Barataria bags during their first 10 days of deployment. Nitrogen and carbon content of the plant material studied did not differ between the two basins. We detected no consistent significant differences in decomposition above, at, or below sediment/water level. Because S. patens is the dominant plant in these marshes, and because it is so slow to decompose, we believe that S. patens shoots are an important addition to vertical accretion and, therefore, marsh elevation.

  3. Upper Permian (Guadalupian) facies and their association with hydrocarbons - Permian basin, west Texas and New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, R.F.; Kendall, C.G.S.C.; Harris, P.M.

    1986-03-01

    Outcrops of Guadalupian sedimentary rocks in the Permian basin of west Texas and southeastern New Mexico are a classic example of the facies relationships that span a carbonate shelf. In the subsurface, these rocks form classic hydrocarbon-facies taps. Proceeding from basin to the updip termination of the shelf, the facies are (1) deep-water basin, (2) an apron of allochthonous carbonates, (3) carbonate shelf margin or reef, (4) carbonate sand flats, (5) carbonate barrier islands, (6) lagoon, and (7) coastal playas and supratidal salt flats (sabkhas). Over a half century of exploration drilling has shown that hydrocarbons in the Permian rocks of the Permian basin have accumulated at the updip contact of the lagoonal dolomites and clastics with the coastal evaporites, and in the basinal channel-fill clastics. The shelf marginal (reef) facies contain cavernous porosity, but commonly are water saturated. These facies relationships and hydrocarbon occurrences provide an exploration model with which to explore and rank hydrocarbon potential in other carbonate provinces. 16 figures, 3 tables.

  4. River basin management

    SciTech Connect

    Newsome, D.H.; Edwards, A.M.C.

    1984-01-01

    The quality of water is of paramount importance in the management of water resources - including marine waters. A quantitative knowledge of water quality and the factors governing it is required to formulate and implement strategies requiring an inter-disciplinary approach. The overall purpose of this conference was to bring together the latest work on water quality aspects of river basin management. These proceedings are structured on the basis of five themes: problems in international river basins; the contribution of river systems to estuarial and marine pollution; the setting of standards; monitoring; and practical water quality management including use of mathematical models. They are followed by papers from the workshop on advances in the application of mathematical modelling to water quality management, which represent some of the current thinking on the problems and concepts of river basin management.

  5. Characterizing the role benthos plays in large coastal seas and estuaries: A modular approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tenore, K.R.; Zajac, R.N.; Terwin, J.; Andrade, F.; Blanton, J.; Boynton, W.; Carey, D.; Diaz, R.; Holland, Austin F.; Lopez-Jamar, E.; Montagna, P.; Nichols, F.; Rosenberg, R.; Queiroga, H.; Sprung, M.; Whitlatch, R.B.

    2006-01-01

    Ecologists studying coastal and estuarine benthic communities have long taken a macroecological view, by relating benthic community patterns to environmental factors across several spatial scales. Although many general ecological patterns have been established, often a significant amount of the spatial and temporal variation in soft-sediment communities within and among systems remains unexplained. Here we propose a framework that may aid in unraveling the complex influence of environmental factors associated with the different components of coastal systems (i.e. the terrestrial and benthic landscapes, and the hydrological seascape) on benthic communities, and use this information to assess the role played by benthos in coastal ecosystems. A primary component of the approach is the recognition of system modules (e.g. marshes, dendritic systems, tidal rivers, enclosed basins, open bays, lagoons). The modules may differentially interact with key forcing functions (e.g. temperature, salinity, currents) that influence system processes and in turn benthic responses and functions. Modules may also constrain benthic characteristics and related processes within certain ecological boundaries and help explain their overall spatio-temporal variation. We present an example of how benthic community characteristics are related to the modular structure of 14 coastal seas and estuaries, and show that benthic functional group composition is significantly related to the modular structure of these systems. We also propose a framework for exploring the role of benthic communities in coastal systems using this modular approach and offer predictions of how benthic communities may vary depending on the modular composition and characteristics of a coastal system. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Natural and human-induced hypoxia and consequences for coastal areas: synthesis and future development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Gilbert, D.; Gooday, A.; Levin, L.; Naqvi, W.; Middelburg, J.; Scranton, M.; Ekau, W.; Pena, A.; Dewitte, B.; Oguz, T.; Monteiro, P. M. S.; Urban, E.; Rabalais, N.; Ittekkot, V.; Kemp, W. M.; Ulloa, O.; Elmgren, R.; Escobar-Briones, E.; van der Plas, A.

    2009-11-01

    Hypoxia has become a world-wide phenomenon in the global coastal ocean and causes deterioration of structure and function of ecosystems. Based on the collective contributions of members of SCOR Working Group #128, the present study provides an overview of the major aspects of coastal hypoxia in different biogeochemical provinces, including estuaries, upwelling areas, fjords and semi-enclosed basins, with various external forcings, ecosystem responses, feedbacks and potential impact on the sustainability of the fishery and economics. The obvious external forcings include fresh water runoff and other factors contributing to stratification, organic matter and nutrient loadings, as well as exchange between coastal and open ocean water masses; their different interactions set up mechanisms that drive the system towards hypoxia. However, whether the coastal environment becomes hypoxic or not, under the combination of external forcings, depends also on the nature of the ecosystem, e.g. physical and geographic settings. It is understood that coastal hypoxia has a profound impact on the sustainability of ecosystems, which can be seen, for example, by the change in the food-web structure and system function; other influences can be compression and loss of habitat, as well as change in life cycle and reproduction. In most cases, the ecosystem responds to the low dissolved oxygen in a non-linear way and has pronounced feedbacks to other compartments of the Earth System, hence affecting human society. Our knowledge and previous experiences illustrate that there is a need to develop new observational tools and models to support integrated research of biogeochemical dynamics and ecosystem behaviour that will improve confidence in remediation management strategies for coastal hypoxia.

  7. Observed 1970-2005 cooling of summer daytime temperatures in coastal California

    SciTech Connect

    Lebassi, B.; Gonzalez, J.; Fabris, D.; Maurer, E.; Miller, N.; Milesi, C.; Bornstein, R.

    2009-05-15

    The study evaluated 1948-2004 summer (JJA) mean monthly air temperatures for two California air basins: SoCAB and SFBA. The study focuses on the more rapid post-1970 warming period, and its daily T{sub min} and T{sub max} values were used to produce average monthly values and spatial distributions of trends for each air basins. Additional analyses included T{sub D} values at two NWS sites, SSTs, NCEP reanalysis sea-level pressures, and GCM T{sub ave}-values. Results for all California COOP sites together showed increased JJA T{sub ave}-values; asymmetric warming, as T{sub min}-values increase faster than T{sub max}-values; and thus decreased DTR values. The spatial distribution of observed SoCAB and SFBA T{sub max} values exhibited a complex pattern, with cooling in low-elevation coastal-areas open to marine air penetration and warming at inland areas. Results also showed that decreased DTR values in the valleys arose from small increases at 'inland' sites combined with large decreases at 'coastal' sites. Previous studies suggest that cooling JJA T{sub max}-values in coastal California were due to increased irrigation, coastal upwelling, or cloud cover, while the current hypothesis is that they arises from GHG-induced global-warming of 'inland' areas, which results in increased sea breeze flow activity. Sea level pressure trends showed increases in the oceanic Pacific High and decreases in the central-California Thermal Low. The corresponding gradient thus showed a trend of 0.02 hPa 100-km{sup -1} decade{sup -1}, supportive of the hypothesis of increased sea breeze activity. Trends in T{sub D} values showed a larger value at coastal SFO than at inland SEC, which indicative of increased sea breeze activity; calculated SST trends (0.15 C decade{sup -1}) could also have increase T{sub D}-values. GCM model Tave-values showed warming that decreases from 0.13 C decade{sup -1} at inland California to 0.08 C decade{sup -1} at coastal areas. Significant societal impacts may

  8. Turbidity and suspended-sediment transport in the Russian River Basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ritter, John R.; Brown, William M., III

    1971-01-01

    The Russian River in north coastal California has a persistent turbidness, which has reportedly caused a decline in the success of the sports fishermen. As a consequence, the number of sports fishermen angling in the river has declined, and industries dependent on their business have suffered. To determine the source of the turbidity and the rate of sediment transport in the basin, a network of sampling station was established in February 1964 along the river, on some of its tributaries, and near Lake Pillsbury in the upper Eel River basin.

  9. The Mimallonidae (Lepidoptera, Mimallonoidea) of the Caribbean Basin,
    with the descriptions of two new species.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Ryan A St; Mccabe, Timothy L

    2016-01-01

    Mimallonidae of the Caribbean Basin are discussed, with attention primarily given to species endemic to the Caribbean islands and the northern coast of Venezuela. The Caribbean Basin is a political term for tropical regions circumscribed by the Gulf of Mexico. Cicinnus bahamensis sp. n. is described from the Bahamas, the first species of Mimallonidae from this country. The Cuban species Cicinnus packardii (Grote, 1865), the closest relative of C. bahamensis sp. n., is figured and compared. A third, similar, species from northern coastal Venezuela, C. falcoargenteus sp. n., is described and compared to the previous two species. PMID:27394281

  10. Regional implications of Triassic or Jurassic age for basalt and sedimentary red beds in the South Carolina coastal plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gohn, G.S.; Gottfried, D.; Lanphere, M.A.; Higgins, B.B.

    1978-01-01

    Whole rock potassium-argon ages for samples of subsurface basalt recovered near Charleston, South Carolina, are interpreted to indicate a Triassic or Jurassic age for the basalt and underlying sedimentary red beds. This age is consistent with existing evidence indicating that an early Mesozoic basin is present in the subsurface of a large part of the coastal plain of South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, and Alabama.

  11. Portraits of our coastal waters. Supplement to the national water quality inventory. Report from the EPA regions

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    Contents: pathogen contamination in great bay, new hampshire; water quality problems in the middle atlantic bight; red tide in the eastern Gulf of Mexico; oxygen depleted coastal and estuarine waters in Louisiana and Texas; sediment deficit and saltwater intrusion in Barataria Basin, Louisiana; toxic contamination in San Diego Bay, California; salmon mortality problems in Port Townsend Bay, Washington; multimedia pollutants effect Green Bay/Fox River, Wisconsin.

  12. Geology, exploration status of Uruguay's sedimentary basins

    SciTech Connect

    Goso, C.; Santa Ana, H. de )

    1994-02-07

    This article attempts to present the geological characteristics and tectonic and sedimentary evolution of Uruguayan basins and the extent to which they have been explored. Uruguay is on the Atlantic coast of South America. The country covers about 318,000 sq km, including offshore and onshore territories corresponding to more than 65% of the various sedimentary basins. Four basins underlie the country: the Norte basin, the Santa Lucia basin, the offshore Punta del Este basin, and the offshore-onshore Pelotas-Merin basin. The Norte basin is a Paleozoic basin while the others are Mesozoic basins. Each basin has been explored to a different extent, as this paper explains.

  13. Flood risk trends in coastal watersheds in South Spain: direct and indirect impact of river regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egüen, M.; Polo, M. J.; Gulliver, Z.; Contreras, E.; Aguilar, C.; Losada, M. A.

    2015-06-01

    Spain is one of the world's countries with a large number of reservoirs per inhabitant. This intense regulation of the fluvial network during the 20th century has resulted in a decrease in flood events, a higher availability of water resources, and a high development of the irrigated crop area, even in the drier regions. For decades, flood perception was reduced since the development of reservoirs protected the floodplains of river; this resulted in later occupation of soil by urban, agricultural and industrial uses. In recent years, an increasing perception of flood events is observed, associated to the higher damage associated to extreme events in the now occupied areas, especially in coastal watersheds. This work shows the change on flood risk in the coastal areas of three hydrographic basins in Andalusia (South Spain) during the reservoir expansion period: the Guadalete, Guadalquivir and Guadalhorce river basins. The results differentiate the impact of the regulation level on both the cumulative distribution functions of the fluvial discharge near the river mouth, for different time scales, and the associated damage related to the enhanced soil occupation during this period. The different impact on the final medium and long term flood risk is also assessed in terms of the storage capacity per unit area throughout the basins, the effective annual runoff/precipitation index, the frequency of sea storms, and the human factor (change in social perception of floods), for different intervals in the flood extreme regime. The implications for adaptation actions is also assessed.

  14. August median streamflow on ungaged streams in Eastern Coastal Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lombard, Pamela J.

    2004-01-01

    Methods for estimating August median streamflow were developed for ungaged, unregulated streams in eastern coastal Maine. The methods apply to streams with drainage areas ranging in size from 0.04 to 73.2 square miles and fraction of basin underlain by a sand and gravel aquifer ranging from 0 to 71 percent. The equations were developed with data from three long-term (greater than or equal to 10 years of record) continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations, 23 partial-record streamflow- gaging stations, and 5 short-term (less than 10 years of record) continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations. A mathematical technique for estimating a standard low-flow statistic, August median streamflow, at partial-record streamflow-gaging stations and short-term continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations was applied by relating base-flow measurements at these stations to concurrent daily streamflows at nearby long-term continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations (index stations). Generalized least-squares regression analysis (GLS) was used to relate estimates of August median streamflow at streamflow-gaging stations to basin characteristics at these same stations to develop equations that can be applied to estimate August median streamflow on ungaged streams. GLS accounts for different periods of record at the gaging stations and the cross correlation of concurrent streamflows among gaging stations. Thirty-one stations were used for the final regression equations. Two basin characteristics?drainage area and fraction of basin underlain by a sand and gravel aquifer?are used in the calculated regression equation to estimate August median streamflow for ungaged streams. The equation has an average standard error of prediction from -27 to 38 percent. A one-variable equation uses only drainage area to estimate August median streamflow when less accuracy is acceptable. This equation has an average standard error of prediction from -30 to 43 percent. Model error is larger than

  15. The Men's Program: does it impact college men's self-reported bystander efficacy and willingness to intervene?

    PubMed

    Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Foubert, John D; Brasfield, Hope M; Hill, Brent; Shelley-Tremblay, Shannon

    2011-06-01

    This study considered whether a rape prevention program could reduce men's rape myth acceptance, enhance the perceived effectiveness of college men's bystander behavior, and increase men's willingness to intervene as bystanders in potentially dangerous situations. As predicted, college men who experienced The Men's Program significantly increased their self-reported willingness to help as a bystander and their perceived bystander efficacy in comparison to college men who experienced the comparison condition. Men's Program participants also significantly decreased their self-reported rape myth acceptance in comparison with comparison condition participants. The college policy and rape prevention program planning implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:21571743

  16. Peru onshore-deepwater basins should have large potential

    SciTech Connect

    Zuniga-Rivero, F.; Keeling, J.A.; Hay-Roe, H.

    1998-10-19

    Perupetro`s recent announcement that 13 offshore exploration blocks of nearly 1 million acres each will be offered for bids in the fourth quarter of 1998 has reawakened interest in this extensive, largely unexplored area. The new government policy, combined with the results of modern, deep-probing seismic surveys, has already led to a stepped-up search for oil and gas that will probably escalate. Most of Peru`s ten coastal basins are entirely offshore, but at both ends of the 1,500-mile coastline the sedimentary basins stretch from onshore across the continental shelf and down the continental slope. Two of these basin areas, both in the north, have commercial production. The third, straddling the country`s southern border, has never been drilled either on land or offshore. The Peruvian sectors of these three basins total roughly 50,000 sq miles in area, 75% offshore. All have major oil and gas potential. They are described individually in this article, an update in the ongoing studies last reported at the 1998 Offshore Technology Conference and in the first article of this series.

  17. Seasonal thaw settlement at drained thermokarst lake basins, Arctic Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.; Schaefer, K.; Gusmeroli, A.; Grosse, G.; Jones, B. M.; Zhang, T.; Parsekian, A. D.; Zebker, H. A.

    2013-12-01

    Drained thermokarst lake basins (DTLBs) are ubiquitous landforms on arctic tundra lowlands, but their present-day dynamic states are seldom investigated. Here we report results based on high-resolution Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) measurements using space-borne data for a study area located near Prudhoe Bay, Alaska where we focus on the seasonal thaw settlement within DTLBs, averaged between 2006 and 2010. The majority (14) of the 18 DTLBs in the study area analyzed exhibited seasonal thaw settlement of 3-4 cm. However, four of the DTLBs analyzed exceeded 4 cm of thaw settlement, with one basin experiencing up to 12 cm. Combining the InSAR observations with the in situ active layer thickness measured using ground penetrating radar and mechanical probing, we calculated thaw strain, an index of thaw settlement strength along a transect across the basin that underwent large thaw settlement. We found thaw strains of 10-35% at the basin center, suggesting the seasonal melting of ground ice as a possible mechanism for the large settlement. These findings emphasize the dynamic nature of permafrost landforms, demonstrate the capability of the InSAR technique to remotely monitor surface deformation of individual DTLBs, and illustrate the combination of ground-based and remote sensing observations to estimate thaw strain. Our study highlights the need for better description of the spatial heterogeneity of landscape-scale processes for regional assessment of surface dynamics on arctic coastal lowlands.

  18. Land area changes in coastal Louisiana after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita: Chapter 5B in Science and the storms-the USGS response to the hurricanes of 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barras, John A.

    2007-01-01

    Comparison of classified Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite imagery acquired before and after the landfalls of Hurricanes Katrina (August 29, 2005) and Rita (September 24, 2005) demonstrated that water area increased by 217 mi2 (562 km2) in coastal Louisiana. Approximately 82 mi2 (212 km2) of new water areas were in areas primarily impacted by Katrina (Mississippi River Delta basin, Breton Sound basin, Pontchartrain basin, Pearl River basin), whereas 117 mi2 (303 km2) were in areas primarily impacted by Rita (Calcasieu/ Sabine basin, Mermentau basin, Teche/Vermilion basin, Atchafalaya basin, Terrebonne basin). Barataria basin contained new water areas caused by both hurricanes, resulting in some 18 mi2 (46.6 km2) of new water areas. The fresh marsh and intermediate marsh communities' land areas decreased by 122 mi2 (316 km2) and 90 mi2 (233.1 km2), respectively. The brackish marsh and saline marsh communities' land areas decreased by 33 mi2 (85.5 km2) and 28 mi2 (72.5 km2), respectively. These new water areas identify permanent losses caused by direct removal of wetlands. They also indicate transitory water area changes caused by remnant flooding, removal of aquatic vegetation, scouring of marsh vegetation, and water-level variation attributed to normal tidal and meteorological variation between satellite images. Permanent losses cannot be estimated until several growing seasons have passed and the transitory impacts of the hurricanes are minimized. The purpose of this study was to provide preliminary information on water area changes in coastal Louisiana acquired shortly after both hurricanes' landfalls (detectable with Landsat TM imagery) and to serve as a regional baseline for monitoring posthurricane wetland recovery.

  19. 76 FR 57022 - Coastal Zone Management Program: Illinois

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-15

    ... National Oceanic And Atmospheric Administration Coastal Zone Management Program: Illinois AGENCY: Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management (OCRM), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... Impact Statement (DEIS) prepared by NOAA's Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management. The...

  20. Trinity river basin, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ulery, Randy L.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Crossfield, Allison S.

    1993-01-01

    In 1991 the Trinity River Basin National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) will include assessments of surface-water and ground-water quality. Initial efforts have focused on identifying water-quality issues in the basin and on the environmental factors underlying those issues. Physical characteristics described include climate, geology, soils, vegetation, physiography, and hydrology. Cultural characteristics discussed include population distribution, land use and land cover, agricultural practices, water use, an reservoir operations. Major water-quality categories are identified and some of the implications of the environmental factors for water quality are presented.

  1. Integration of the Gila River drainage system through the Basin and Range province of southern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico (USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickinson, William R.

    2015-05-01

    The Gila River and its tributaries in southern Arizona and adjoining states incorporate several dozen individual extensional basins of the central Basin and Range province into a single integrated drainage network. Forty basins in the Gila domain contain more than 1000 m (maximum ~ 3500 m) of post-12 Ma basin fill. Subsurface evaporites in many basins document internal drainages terminating in isolated playa lakes during early phases of basin history. The nature of intrabasinal and interbasinal divides and of eroded or sedimented stream passages through mountain ranges intervening between the basins reveal the geomorphic mechanisms that achieved drainage integration over late Miocene to early Pleistocene time. Drainage integration accompanied by headward erosion eastward toward Gila headwaters was a response to Miocene opening of the Gulf of California, into which the Gila River debouched directly before the Pliocene (< 5 Ma) lower course of the Colorado River was established. Residual basins of internal drainage where headward erosion has not yet penetrated into basin fill are most common in the easternmost Gila domain but also persist locally farther west. Most basin fill was dissected during drainage integration within the upstream Gila domain but continued accumulation of undissected basin fill by sediment aggradation is dominant in the downstream Gila domain. Basin dissection was initiated by Pliocene time in the central Gila domain but was delayed until Pleistocene time farther east. In the westernmost Gila domain, interaction with erosional and depositional episodes along the Colorado River influenced the development of Quaternary landscapes along the tributary Gila River. The sedimentary history of the Gila drainage network illustrates the means by which trunk rivers can establish courses across corrugated topography produced by the extensional rupture of continental blocks.

  2. GREATEM survey in coastal area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd allah, S.; Mogi, T.; Femonko, E.

    2014-12-01

    To determine the electric-resistivity structure in coastal areas, airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys have been used many places. These results showed AEM can reveal seawater depth, sediment thickness, and depth to bedrock. However, until now, AEM could only reveal the resistivity structure to a depth of ˜200 m in coastal areas. Conventional AEM, using an airborne inductive source limits the depth of exploration because the presence of a conductor, such as saline surface water, decreases the penetration of the AEM signal. In order to enhance the depth of exploration, we used a grounded electrical source aligned parallel to the coast line and towed a magnetic receiver in the air. The method, called grounded-electrical-source airborne transient electromagnetics, or GREATEM (Mogi et al., 1998), should enhance survey depth in coastal areas, since this method galvanically injects electric current into the ground. The method has increased the depth of exploration to 800 m in on-shore areas (Mogi et al., 2009, Ito et al. 2014). We have carried out a GREATEM survey at Kujukuri beach in central Japan, where an alluvial plain is dominated by sedimentary rocks and shallow water. Another GREATEM survey was performed at northwestern Awaji Island, where granitic rocks crop out onshore. In these studies, we faced issues how do we evaluate an effect of sea water on the data. To circumvent this problem, we used a three-dimensional (3D) electromagnetic (EM) modeling scheme based on the staggered-grid finite-difference (FD) method (Fomenko and Mogi, 2002) to study the effects of oceanic saltwater on GREATEM survey data at coastal areas. The models consisted of two adjacent layers where sea is a conductive thin sheet placed on top of a unifirm half space ( 100 Ohm-m). Then, we performed numerical forward modeling using the SFD method to generate a 3-D resistivity structure models from GREATEM field survey data at both of Kujukuri beach and the Nojima fault. As a result, we have

  3. Analysis of sedimentary facies and petrofacies of lower Morrowan-upper Chesterian sandstones, Anadarko Basin, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keighin, C. William; Flores, Romeo M.

    1989-01-01

    Three major lithofacies have been identified within the Morrow (Pennsylvanian) and Springer (Pennsylvanian-Mississippian) units, in core from 30 drill holes ranging from the Oklahoma Panhandle to the southwestern portion of the Anadarko basin. The study included inspection of ~6,500 ft of core, examination of ~100 thin sections, and a scanning-electron-microscope study of butts of the material used for thin-section preparation. The lithofacies identified are (1) fluvial-influenced coastal, which includes the deltaic facies described by Swanson (1979), (2) tidal-influenced nearshore, and (3) mixed, which shows mixed tidal and nontidal marine influence. Our interpretation is supported by the investigations of Moore (1979), Haiduk (1987), and Swanson (1979). The fluvial-influenced coastal facies is restricted to the northwestern (Panhandle) portion of the Anadarko basin.

  4. Impacts on the Deep-Sea Ecosystem by a Severe Coastal Storm

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Vidal, Anna; Canals, Miquel; Calafat, Antoni M.; Lastras, Galderic; Pedrosa-Pàmies, Rut; Menéndez, Melisa; Medina, Raúl; Company, Joan B.; Hereu, Bernat; Romero, Javier; Alcoverro, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Major coastal storms, associated with strong winds, high waves and intensified currents, and occasionally with heavy rains and flash floods, are mostly known because of the serious damage they can cause along the shoreline and the threats they pose to navigation. However, there is a profound lack of knowledge on the deep-sea impacts of severe coastal storms. Concurrent measurements of key parameters along the coast and in the deep-sea are extremely rare. Here we present a unique data set showing how one of the most extreme coastal storms of the last decades lashing the Western Mediterranean Sea rapidly impacted the deep-sea ecosystem. The storm peaked the 26th of December 2008 leading to the remobilization of a shallow-water reservoir of marine organic carbon associated with fine particles and resulting in its redistribution across the deep basin. The storm also initiated the movement of large amounts of coarse shelf sediment, which abraded and buried benthic communities. Our findings demonstrate, first, that severe coastal storms are highly efficient in transporting organic carbon from shallow water to deep water, thus contributing to its sequestration and, second, that natural, intermittent atmospheric drivers sensitive to global climate change have the potential to tremendously impact the largest and least known ecosystem on Earth, the deep-sea ecosystem. PMID:22295084

  5. River diversions, avulsions and captures in the Tortuguero coastal plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galve, Jorge Pedro; Alvarado, Guillermo; Pérez Peña, José Vicente; Azañón, José Miguel; Mora, Mauricio; Booth-Rea, Guillermo

    2016-04-01

    The Tortuguero area is a coastal plain that forms part of the North Limón sedimentary basin, the back-arc region of the Caribbean side of Costa Rica. This coastal plain is characterised by an abnormal drainage pattern with river captures, diversions and shifts in channel directions. We are analyzing this anomalous drainage network adopting a classical geomorphological approach combined with geomorphometric techniques. The SRTM DEM at 1 arc-second of resolution (~30 m) from NASA, topographic maps 1:50,000, satellital images and the digital cartography of the drainage network have been used for inventorying the channel pattern anomalies. River segments were categorized according to sinuosity, orientation, slope changes and incision using GIS tools. Initially, anomalies in the analyzed river courses suggested that buried thrust fronts could disrupt their natural pattern. However, we have not identified any evidence to link the activity of buried structures with the disruption of natural drainage. Blind thrusts detected through seismic subsurface exploration in the SE sector of the Tortuguero plain do not seem to produce changes in the sinuosity, orientation, slope and incision of rivers as those observed in the deeply studied tectonically active area of the Po Plain (Italy). The identified river pattern anomalies have been explained due to other alternative causes: (1) the migration of the mouths of Reventazón, Pacuare and Matina rivers is produced by sand sedimentation in the coast because of a successive ridge beach formation. This migration to the SE has the same direction than the main ocean currents those deposited the sand. (2) The anomalous course of Parismina river is most probably conditioned by the fracturation of the dissected volcanic apron of Turrialba volcano. (3) Channel migration and capture of Barbilla river by Matina river can be triggered by the tectonic tilting of the coastal plain towards the SE. The subsidence of the SE sector of the plain was

  6. Origins of wind-driven intraseasonal sea level variations in the North Indian Ocean coastal waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh, I.; Vialard, J.; Lengaigne, M.; Han, W.; McCreary, J.; Durand, F.; Muraleedharan, P. M.

    2013-11-01

    this paper, we show that a linear, continuously stratified ocean model reproduces observed wind-driven intraseasonal sea level variability in the coastal waveguide of the Northern Indian Ocean (NIO). Sensitivity experiments with intraseasonal wind forcing selectively applied in the equatorial region, Bay of Bengal, and Arabian Sea show that a large part of the basin-scale sea level variations are driven by zonal wind fluctuations along the equator. Within the NIO coastal waveguide, the contribution of remote equatorial forcing decreases from ~80-90% in the Andaman Sea to ~50% northeast of Sri Lanka and then increases to ~60-70% along the west coast of India. During the southwest monsoon, intraseasonal wind variations become stronger over the NIO, resulting in a larger contribution of local wind forcing to sea level variability along the west (up to 60%) and east (up to 40%) coasts of India.

  7. Sequence stratigraphy of Middle Triassic carbonates and terrigenous deposits (Muschelkalk and Lower Keuper) in the SW Germanic Basin: maximum flooding versus maximum depth in intracratonic basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vecsei, A.; Duringer, P.

    2003-08-01

    We analyze the sequence stratigraphy of the Middle Muschelkalk to the Lower Keuper strata (Middle Triassic) in the SW Germanic Basin. The sequences are interpreted on the basis of a synthesis of facies in the neritic carbonates, terrigenous sediments and evaporites along a basin margin to center transect. Continental sediments (CS, lower Middle Muschelkalk) occur at the base of the Middle-Upper Muschelkalk sequence. Thick retrogradational marginal-marine sediments overlain by open-marine deposits (middle Middle Muschelkalk to lower Upper Muschelkalk) form the transgressive systems tract. In the basin center, only bathymetric criteria are available for recognition of this systems tract. The maximum flooding surface (mfs) at the basin margin differs in age from the maximum depth interval in the basin center. Maximum depth surfaces or intervals (mdi, new term) should be recognized in many deep basins where flooding is not recorded. The highstand systems tract (upper Upper Muschelkalk) is strongly progradational. The upper sequence boundary (Muschelkalk/Keuper boundary) is characterized by subaerial exposure at the basin margin and submarine erosion in most other sections. Along this boundary, the low paleo-relief resulted in a lack of coarse-grained clastic deposits. In the basin center, a strongly regressive succession (lower Lower Keuper) allows, possibly for the first time in an intracratonic basin, the distinction of an early or late lowstand systems tract (ELST or LLST). High-frequency, low-amplitude sea-level fluctuations resulted in parasequences in the open-marine Upper Muschelkalk, but in high-frequency sequences in the coastal plain sediments of the overlying parts of the Lower Keuper.

  8. Paleogeography of the Mesozoic Jeanne d'Arc basin, Grand Banks, Newfoundland, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Mccracken, J.N. )

    1991-03-01

    The major stratigraphic sequences of the Jeanne d'Arc basin, Grand Banks, offshore Newfoundland, Canada, and their relationship to the tectonic events involved in the opening of the North Atlantic are summarized. This basin has been a major exploration area for Mobil and industry since 1971. This activity has resulted in the shooting of over 300,000 km of reflection seismic lines and the drilling of 65 wells. Fifteen discoveries have been found in the basin to date by industry. The Hibernia project is underway with production planned in 1996. Government basin analysis estimates for total ultimate recoverable reserves in the Jeanne d'Arc basin range from 3.3 to 10 billion bbl of oil equivalent. The major stratigraphic events from the Late Jurassic to the Early Eocene within the Jeanne d'Arc basin are illustrated by six isometric paleogeographic reconstructions. These geological sequences are then related on the stratigraphic column to the tectonics and coastal onlap curves. The major controls on Jeanne d'Arc basin deposition were the tectonics created as a result of the northward propagation of the rifting of the Atlantic Ocean and its effect locally on the broad arch to the south called the Avalon Uplift. This provided the major clastic source throughout the Mesozoic. Changes in relative sea level then overprinted these tectonic events.

  9. Long-term accumulation and transport of anthropogenic phosphorus in three river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powers, Stephen M.; Bruulsema, Thomas W.; Burt, Tim P.; Chan, Neng Iong; Elser, James J.; Haygarth, Philip M.; Howden, Nicholas J. K.; Jarvie, Helen P.; Lyu, Yang; Peterson, Heidi M.; Sharpley, Andrew N.; Shen, Jianbo; Worrall, Fred; Zhang, Fusuo

    2016-05-01

    Global food production depends on phosphorus. Phosphorus is broadly applied as fertilizer, but excess phosphorus contributes to eutrophication of surface water bodies and coastal ecosystems. Here we present an analysis of phosphorus fluxes in three large river basins, including published data on fertilizer, harvested crops, sewage, food waste and river fluxes. Our analyses reveal that the magnitude of phosphorus accumulation has varied greatly over the past 30-70 years in mixed agricultural-urban landscapes of the Thames Basin, UK, the Yangtze Basin, China, and the rural Maumee Basin, USA. Fluxes of phosphorus in fertilizer, harvested crops, food waste and sewage dominate over the river fluxes. Since the late 1990s, net exports from the Thames and Maumee Basins have exceeded inputs, suggesting net mobilization of the phosphorus pool accumulated in earlier decades. In contrast, the Yangtze Basin has consistently accumulated phosphorus since 1980. Infrastructure modifications such as sewage treatment and dams may explain more recent declines in total phosphorus fluxes from the Thames and Yangtze Rivers. We conclude that human-dominated river basins may undergo a prolonged but finite accumulation phase when phosphorus inputs exceed agricultural demand, and this accumulated phosphorus may continue to mobilize long after inputs decline.

  10. Tectono-stratigraphic evolution of the Eastern Maturin Foreland basin (Eastern Venezuela)

    SciTech Connect

    Azavache, A.; Flinch, J.; Giffuni, G.; Martinez, R.

    1996-08-01

    The Eastern Venezuelan Basin is a classical foreland basin related to the loading of the Serrania del Interior thrust-sheets. The flexure of the basin started during Upper Oligocene-Lower Miocene time and is evidenced by a major unconformity between the Cretaceous and the Lower Miocene Oficina Formation (Basal Foredeep Unconformity). The sedimentary-filling of the Basin commences with coastal transgressive sandstones of the Oficina Formation (Lower Miocene) that constitute the main reservoir of this petroleum province. The overlying deposits of the basin can be subdivided into: (1) Deep-water stage represented by the upper Oficina shales and the Freites Formation in the south and the Carapita Formation in the north (Middle Miocene). This shale interval constitutes the main seal of the region. This stage is characterized by major onlap and a major flooding surface. (2) Progradational stage characterized by shelf-slope deposits of the Lower-Middle La Pica Formation (Upper Miocene). Siliciclastic shelf wedges consisting of deltaic facies. (3) Aggradational stage fluvial-alluvial delta plain deposits represented by the Upper La Pica, Mesa and Las Piedras Formations (Pliocene-Pleistocene). In the northern part of the basin, southward-vergent thrusting deformed the basement and its thin Cretaceous-Lower Miocene cover. South of the Rio Tigre area compressional structures are combined with normal faults related to flexural extension. The boundary between basement-involved thrusting and flexural extension controls the type of structural traps within the basin.

  11. 'East Basin' Panorama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for 'East Basin' Panorama (QTVR)

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its panoramic camera to obtain this view of the impact feature called 'East Basin' to the northeast of 'Husband Hill.' The images combined into this mosaic were taken during Spirit's 653rd Martian day, or sol (Nov. 3, 2005), just before Spirit descended eastward onto 'Haskin Ridge.' The view is about 150 degrees wide. It is an approximately true-color rendering generated using the camera's 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer, and 480-nanometer filters.

    Dark features on the far side of the basin, just left of center in this view, are basaltic sand deposits that were emplaced on the lee sides of hills by northwesterly winds. Haskin Ridge is visible along the right margin of the image, capped by a light-toned layer of rock. Spirit investigated the light-toned rock unit after taking this image. The basaltic plains located east of the 'Columbia Hills' can be seen in the distance beyond 'East Basin.' The rim of Thira crater is just visible on the distant horizon some 15 kilometers (9.3 miles) away.

  12. Remote sensing of coastal processes and resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V.

    1981-01-01

    The use of remote sensors and multispectral analysis techniques in solving environmental and resource management problems in the coastal zone is illustrated. The specific applications discussed include the analysis of coastal vegetation and productivity, remote sensing of estuarine fronts and their effects on oil dispersion, drift and dispersion of ocean-dumped wastes, and multispectral analysis of water pollutants and suspended sediment concentration.

  13. Nature, Humans, and the Coastal Zone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, H. Jesse

    1990-01-01

    Considers the interface of humans and seacoasts over time. Explains how coastal zones are formed and human attempts to defend against sea level changes. Charts the percentage of major world cities that also are ports. Postulates how the greenhouse effect could influence sea level, examining potential human responses to changes in coastal zones.…

  14. DIAGNOSING CAUSES OF IMPAIRMENT IN COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Engle, Virginia D. and Stephen J. Jordan. In press. Diagnosing Causes of Impairment in Coastal Ecosystems (Abstract). To be presented at the SETAC Fourth World Congress, 14-18 November 2004, Portland, OR. 1 p. (ERL,GB R1008).

    Estuarine and coastal ecosystems are challenge...

  15. Seagrasses and the Coastal Marine Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Ronald C.

    1978-01-01

    Coastal ecosystems are the most highly productive in the world. This article discusses seagrasses, major coastal producers, and provides information on their ecology, productivity, position in food chains, and role in sediment stabilization. Recent attempts to restore seagrasses in areas of massive kills are described. (MA)

  16. Southern Taiwan - an Evolving "Coastal Range"?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, F. T.; McIntosh, K.; Lavier, L. L.

    2008-12-01

    As a part of the TAIGER research, existing tectonic concepts are continuously being reviewed in light of new data and for experimental design. One of the critical areas for understanding the tectonics of Taiwan is southern Taiwan. Seismicity and recent tomographic imaging confirm that the tectonics of Taiwan is controlled by the subduction and collision of two plates: the Philippine Sea plate (PSP) and the Eurasian plate (EUR). In northern and central Taiwan the PSP is in collision with EUR, and at the same time subducts northward under northern Taiwan [Wu et al., 2008]. Before the PSP subducts to sufficient depth, the collision of PSP and EUR produced the Foothills and the Central Range on the EUR and the Coastal Range on the PSP side. For southern Taiwan, with 22.7°N as a rough demarcation, the tectonic interpretation is at variance and still in debate. To the east of southern Taiwan the inactive andesitic volcanic islands of Lutao and Lanhsu mark the top of the Luzon arc, separated from Taiwan by a somewhat deformed fore-arc basin [McIntosh et al., 2005]. To its west the Manila Trench is the western limit of a series of trend-parallel small thrusts on the ocean floor [Lunberg et al., 1997]. As the Trench approaches the continental shelf from the south it gradually loses its bathymetric signature. Southern Taiwan itself is commonly viewed as a part of the accretionary prism, and yet is also considered a continuation of the Central Range, produced by the collision of the Luzon arc and continental shelf. Suppe [1981] and many others had long recognized the central Taiwan orogeny, as a result of the collision of the Luzon Arc with the EUR continental shelf and Central Range, is built from rocks of the continental shelf. Inspection of a map of bathymetry around Taiwan shows that the continental shelf turns noticeably westward offshore of southwestern Taiwan, and that southern Taiwan is situated off the continental shelf. The presence of the Benioff zone under

  17. Southern Alaska Coastal Relief Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, E.; Eakins, B.; Wigley, R.

    2009-12-01

    The National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC), an office of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), in conjunction with the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES) at the University of Colorado at Boulder, has developed a 24 arc-second integrated bathymetric-topographic digital elevation model of Southern Alaska. This Coastal Relief Model (CRM) was generated from diverse digital datasets that were obtained from NGDC, the United States Geological Survey, and other U.S. and international agencies. The CRM spans 170° to 230° E and 48.5° to 66.5° N, including the Gulf of Alaska, Bering Sea, Aleutian Islands, and Alaska’s largest communities: Anchorage, Fairbanks, and Juneau. The CRM provides a framework for enabling scientists to refine tsunami propagation and ocean circulation modeling through increased resolution of geomorphologic features. It may also be useful for benthic habitat research, weather forecasting, and environmental stewardship. Shaded-relief image of the Southern Alaska Coastal Relief Model.

  18. Numerical simulation of coastal flooding after potential reactivation of an active normal fault in northern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Yu-Chang; Kuo, Chih-Yu; Chang, Kuo-Jen; Chen, Rou-Fei; Hsieh, Yu-Chung

    2016-04-01

    Rapid coastal flooding from seawards may be resulted from storm surge, tsunamis, and sudden land subsidence due to fault activities. Many observations and numerical modeling of flooding have been made for cases resulted from storm surge and tsunami events; however, coastal flooding caused by a potential normal faulting event nearby coastal areas is rarely reported. In addition to the earthquake hazards from fault rupturing and ground shaking, the accompanied hazards of earthquake-induced flooding is also important to be investigated. The Jinshan area in northern Taiwan was reported to have been flooded by a tsunami event in the year of 1867 possibly resulted from the reactivation of the Shanchiao normal fault offshore. Historical records have shown that the Shanchiao Fault that extends from Shulin along the western edge of the Taipei Basin to the town of Jinshan may have also ruptured in the year of 1694. The rupturing event has created a depression on the western side of the Taipei Basin that was later filled by sea water called the Taipei Lake. The geological conditions in northern Taiwan provide an opportunity for numerically simulating the dynamic processes of sea water flooding nearby the coastal area immediately after an earthquake-induced normal faulting event. In this study, we focused on the potential active normal faulting that may occur and result in an expected catastrophic flooding in lowland area of Jinshan in northern Taiwan. We applied the continuum shallow water equation to evaluate the unknown inundation processes including location, extent, velocity and water depths after the flooding initiated and the final state of the flooding event. The modeling results were well compared with borehole observations of the extent of previous flooding events possibly due to tsunami events. In addition, the modeling results may provide a future basis for safety evaluation of the two nuclear power plants nearby the region.

  19. Geologic controls on oil and gas occurrence in Taranaki basin, New Zealand

    SciTech Connect

    King, P.R.; Beggs, J.M. )

    1991-03-01

    Taranaki basin contains all the commercial oil and gas fields in New Zealand as well as several marginal and subeconomic accumulations. The basin has a polyphase tectonic history, with different phases controlling specific aspects of hydrocarbon occurrence. Basin formation began with oblique rifting in the mid-Late Cretaceous. Principal petroleum source rocks are coal measures deposited in southern, central, and eastern parts of the basin during the rift and immediate postrift phase. In the Latest Cretaceous and early Cenozoic, the Taranaki basin was part of a western passive margin bordering proto-New Zealand, a large region of thinned continental crust separating from Australia and Antarctica. Clastic sediment supply to the basin progressively diminished as the sea transgressed the land to the south and east. Coastal and fluvial sandstones deposited during this phase are major petroleum reservoirs; a late Eocene turbidite reservoir in the north contains a noncommercial accumulation. In the mid-Cenozoic, the modern plate boundary began to propagate through New Zealand. In initial response, the Taranaki basin evolved into a submerged foreland basin. A recent significant oil discovery is reservoired in fractured limestones deposited in the foredeep. Taranaki basin Neogene development is characterized by structure reactivation, eversion, overthrusting, and differential subsidence along its eastern margin and in the south. Mountain building adjacent to the basin caused an increase in clastic sediment supply and concomitant regression, during which some minor reservoirs were deposited. However, the major significance of the Neogene tectonic phase lies in the formation of all proven traps, and in maturation of source rocks with increasing burial.

  20. Metaproteomic analysis of a winter to spring succession in coastal northwest Atlantic Ocean microbial plankton.

    PubMed

    Georges, Anna A; El-Swais, Heba; Craig, Susanne E; Li, William K W; Walsh, David A

    2014-06-01

    In this study, we used comparative metaproteomics to investigate the metabolic activity of microbial plankton inhabiting a seasonally hypoxic basin in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean (Bedford Basin). From winter to spring, we observed a seasonal increase in high-affinity membrane transport proteins involved in scavenging of organic substrates; Rhodobacterales transporters were strongly associated with the spring phytoplankton bloom, whereas SAR11 transporters were abundant in the underlying waters. A diverse array of transporters for organic compounds were similar to the SAR324 clade, revealing an active heterotrophic lifestyle in coastal waters. Proteins involved in methanol oxidation (from the OM43 clade) and carbon monoxide (from a wide variety of bacteria) were identified throughout Bedford Basin. Metabolic niche partitioning between the SUP05 and ARCTIC96BD-19 clades, which together comprise the Gamma-proteobacterial sulfur oxidizers group was apparent. ARCTIC96BD-19 proteins involved in the transport of organic compounds indicated that in productive coastal waters this lineage tends toward a heterotrophic metabolism. In contrast, the identification of sulfur oxidation proteins from SUP05 indicated the use of reduced sulfur as an energy source in hypoxic bottom water. We identified an abundance of Marine Group I Thaumarchaeota proteins in the hypoxic deep layer, including proteins for nitrification and carbon fixation. No transporters for organic compounds were detected among the thaumarchaeal proteins, suggesting a reliance on autotrophic carbon assimilation. In summary, our analyses revealed the spatiotemporal structure of numerous metabolic activities in the coastal ocean that are central to carbon, nitrogen and sulfur cycling in the sea. PMID:24401863

  1. Genetic characterization of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus of coastal salmonid stocks in Washington State

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emmenegger, E.J.; Kurath, G.

    2002-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is a pathogen that infects many Pacific salmonid stocks from the watersheds of North America. Previous studies have thoroughly characterized the genetic diversity of IHNV isolates from Alaska and the Hagerman Valley in Idaho. To enhance understanding of the evolution and viral transmission patterns of IHNV within the Pacific Northwest geographic range, we analyzed the G gene of IHNV isolates from the coastal watersheds of Washington State by ribonuclease protection assay (RPA) and nucleotide sequencing. The RPA analysis of 23 isolates indicated that the Skagit basin IHNV isolates were relatively homogeneous as a result of the dominance of one G gene haplotype (S). Sequence analysis of 303 bases in the middle of the G gene (midG region) of 61 isolates confirmed the high frequency of a Skagit River basin sequence and identified another sequence commonly found in isolates from the Lake Washington basin. Overall, both the RPA and sequence analysis showed that the Washington coastal IHNV isolates are genetically homogeneous and have little genetic diversity. This is similar to the genetic diversity pattern of IHNV from Alaska and contrasts sharply with the high genetic diversity demonstrated for IHNV isolates from fish farms along the Snake River in Idaho. The high degree of sequence and haplotype similarity between the Washington coastal IHNV isolates and those from Alaska and British Columbia suggests that they have a common viral ancestor. Phylogenetic analyses of the isolates we studied and those from different regions throughout the virus's geographic range confirms a conserved pattern of evolution of the virus in salmonid stocks north of the Columbia River, which forms Washington's southern border.

  2. Implications from vitrinite reflectance in two profiles of Coastal Range, Eastern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lih Kae, Chim; Loung-Yie, Tsai; Chung-Pai, Chang; Horng-Yen, Yen; Jiun-Yee, Yen; Ying-San, Liou

    2013-04-01

    Taiwan orogeny was formed by the oblique collision of Luzon arc with the Eurasian continent. The collision started from north and propagated to south. The eroded sediments from Taiwan Orogeny dispersed at adjacent fore arc basin areas. Clay mineralogy and illite crystallinity measurements in Madagida section, southern coastal range indicate illite/smectite decrease and illite crystallinity increase gradationally from old lower section to young upper section. This phenomenon can not record the in-situ burial temperature only reflect the materials being derived from Taiwan central range to adjacent basins. In this study, we try to measure the mudstones samples collected from other sections in coastal range. We chose two profile, Fengpin section and Loho section fore study. These two sections located in northern and central coastal range respectively, 10 and 11 samples were collected for each section. Maceral and carbonaceous materials were extracted do into pellet for measurements of vitrinite reflectance. We use vitrinite reflectance to deduce the basin thermal history. Some sample strata also contain coalified woods and can be analysed to constraint the in-situ burial thermal record. In Loho section, the older Pliocene Fanshuliao Formation samples decrease gradationally to younger whereas the Pleistocene Paliwan Formation samples increase gradationally vitrinite reflectance upward. Beside the younger Pleistocene strata, the Lichi Mélange and the normal sedimentary sequence Paliwan and Fanshuliao Formation revealed significant variation in vitrinite reflectance. However in Fengpin section, we found two significant vitrinite reflectance gaps, this two significant gaps imply evidence of faults. The field geological structure measurement and Raman Spectrocopy carbonaceous materials (RSCM) could be good constraints with the vitrinite reflectance data.

  3. Reactivated basement structures in the central Savannah River area and their relationship to coastal plain deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Cumbest, R.J.; Price, V. ); Temples, T.J. ); Fallaw, W.C. . Dept. of Geology); Snipes, D.S. . Dept. of Earth Sciences)

    1993-03-01

    Structural surface mapping and geophysical studies have identified several faults in the crystalline basement and overlying Coastal Plain sedimentary sequences in the central Savannah River area. Major subsurface basement shear zones occur parallel to and near Upper Three Runs Creek and Tinker Creek and are associated with linear aeromagnetic anomalies. Reflection seismic imaging of the basement shows a band of southeast dipping events parallel to Upper Three Runs Creek. Drill core from basement contain phyllonites, mylonites, fault breccia and pseudotachylite. The magnetic anomalies also mark the boundary separating greenschist facies metavolcanic rocks from amphibolite facies felsic gneiss, schist, and amphibolite. These features are similar to those that characterize other Paleozoic faults of the Eastern Piedmont Fault system. Reflection seismic imaging shows the sub-Cretaceous unconformity as well defined and easily identified event as well as easily traced laterally extensive events in Coastal Plain sequences. The unconformity and sedimentary sequences are faulted or deformed in several locations which also coincide with changes in dip of the unconformity. In the vicinity of Upper Three Runs Creek the unconformity shows a broad warping across which the elevation drops to the southeast and sedimentary sequences show a marked rate of thickening southeast. This indicates deformation of the basement exerted a control on deposition of the Coastal Plain sediments with down to the southeast movement. The basement shear zones are closely associated with the Dunbarton basin and are probable reactivated Paleozoic structures associated with extensional basin development as commonly seen associated with extensional basins on the east coast of North America.

  4. Bransfield Basin and Cordilleran Orogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalziel, I. W.; Austin, J. A.; Barker, D. H.; Christensen, G. L.

    2003-12-01

    Tectonic uplift of the Andean Cordillera was initiated in the mid-Cretaceous with inversion of a composite marginal basin along 7500 km of the continental margin of South America, from Peru to Tierra del Fuego and the North Scotia Ridge. In the southernmost Andes, from 50-56 degrees S, the quasi-oceanic floor of this basin is preserved in the obducted ophiolitic rocks of the Rocas Verdes (Green Rocks) basin. We suggest that the basin beneath Bransfield Strait, 61-64 degrees S, separating the South Shetland Islands from the Antarctic Peninsula, constitutes a modern analog for the Rocas Verdes basin. Marine geophysical studies of Bransfield basin have been undertaken over the past 12 years by the Institute for Geophysics, University of Texas at Austin, under the auspices of the Ocean Sciences Division and United States Antarctic Program, National Science Foundation. These studies have elucidated the structure and evolution of Bransfield basin for comparison with the Rocas Verdes basin, with a view to eventual forward modeling of the evolution of a hypothetical cordilleran orogen by compression and inversion of the basin. These are the processes that can be observed in the tectonic transformation of the Rocas Verdes basin into the southernmost Andean cordillera, as South America moved rapidly westward in an Atlantic-Indian ocean hot-spot reference frame during the mid-Cretaceous. Multi-channel reflection seismic data from the Bransfield basin reveal an asymmetric structural architecture characterized by steeply-dipping normal faults flanking the South Shetlands island arc and gently dipping listric normal faults along the Antarctic Peninsula margin. Normal fault polarity reversals appear to be related to distributed loci of magmatic activity within the basin. This architecture is remarkably similar to that deduced from field structural studies of the Rocas Verdes basin. Notably, the oceanward-dipping, low angle normal faults along the Antarctic Peninsula margin

  5. Coastal-ocean uptake of anthropogenic carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourgeois, Timothée; Orr, James C.; Resplandy, Laure; Terhaar, Jens; Ethé, Christian; Gehlen, Marion; Bopp, Laurent

    2016-07-01

    Anthropogenic changes in atmosphere-ocean and atmosphere-land CO2 fluxes have been quantified extensively, but few studies have addressed the connection between land and ocean. In this transition zone, the coastal ocean, spatial and temporal data coverage is inadequate to assess its global budget. Thus we use a global ocean biogeochemical model to assess the coastal ocean's global inventory of anthropogenic CO2 and its spatial variability. We used an intermediate resolution, eddying version of the NEMO-PISCES model (ORCA05), varying from 20 to 50 km horizontally, i.e. coarse enough to allow multiple century-scale simulations but finer than coarse-resolution models (˜ 200 km) to better resolve coastal bathymetry and complex coastal currents. Here we define the coastal zone as the continental shelf area, excluding the proximal zone. Evaluation of the simulated air-sea fluxes of total CO2 for 45 coastal regions gave a correlation coefficient R of 0.8 when compared to observation-based estimates. Simulated global uptake of anthropogenic carbon results averaged 2.3 Pg C yr-1 during the years 1993-2012, consistent with previous estimates. Yet only 0.1 Pg C yr-1 of that is absorbed by the global coastal ocean. That represents 4.5 % of the anthropogenic carbon uptake of the global ocean, less than the 7.5 % proportion of coastal-to-global-ocean surface areas. Coastal uptake is weakened due to a bottleneck in offshore transport, which is inadequate to reduce the mean anthropogenic carbon concentration of coastal waters to the mean level found in the open-ocean mixed layer.

  6. Newly Discovered Martian Impact Basins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stam, M.

    1985-01-01

    Three previously unrecognized Martian impact basins were discovered through detailed mapping of landforms, structures and terrains near Cassini and Al Qahira basins. Al Qahira A lies on the Martian dichotomy boundary and intersects the older basin, Al Qahira. It has four rings that are expressed by a variety of landforms. Southwestward Al Qahira A is out by a younger Basin, Al Qahira B. Al Qahira B is a highly degraded basin with one identifiable ring. Its ring is expressed by a few massifs, knobs and inward-facing scarps, but is recognized by the distributions of wrinkle ridges and plains units. Cassini A lies southward of the younger Cassini Basin and is intersected by it. It probably has four rings. The importance of detailed mapping of various types of landforms and terrains to the discovery of basins on Mars are demonstrated.

  7. Natural frequency of regular basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjandra, Sugih S.; Pudjaprasetya, S. R.

    2014-03-01

    Similar to the vibration of a guitar string or an elastic membrane, water waves in an enclosed basin undergo standing oscillatory waves, also known as seiches. The resonant (eigen) periods of seiches are determined by water depth and geometry of the basin. For regular basins, explicit formulas are available. Resonance occurs when the dominant frequency of external force matches the eigen frequency of the basin. In this paper, we implement the conservative finite volume scheme to 2D shallow water equation to simulate resonance in closed basins. Further, we would like to use this scheme and utilizing energy spectra of the recorded signal to extract resonant periods of arbitrary basins. But here we first test the procedure for getting resonant periods of a square closed basin. The numerical resonant periods that we obtain are comparable with those from analytical formulas.

  8. Equilibrium and Disequilibrium of River Basins: Effects on Stream Captures in Serra do Mar and Serra da Mantiqueira, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DA Silva, L. M.

    2015-12-01

    Landscapes are mainly driven by river processes that control the dynamic reorganization of networks. Discovering and identifying whether river basins are in geometric equilibrium or disequilibrium requires an analysis of water divides, channels that shift laterally or expand upstream and river captures. Issues specifically discussed include the variation of drainage area change and erosion rates of the basins. In southeastern Brazil there are two main escarpments with extensive geomorphic surfaces: Serra do Mar and Serra da Mantiqueira Mountains. These landscapes are constituted of Neoproterozoic and early Paleozoic rocks, presenting steep escarpments with low-elevation coastal plains and higher elevation interior plateaus. To identify whether river basins and river profiles are in equilibrium or disequilibrium in Serra do Mar and Serra da Mantiqueira Mountains, we used the proxy (χ), evaluating the effect of drainage area change and erosion rates. We selected basins that drain both sides of these two main escarpments (oceanic and continental sides) and have denudation rates derived from pre-existing cosmogenic isotopes data (Rio de Janeiro, Paraná and Minas Gerais). Despite being an ancient and tectonically stable landscape, part of the coastal plain of Serra do Mar Mountain in Rio de Janeiro and Paraná is in geometric disequilibrium, with water divides moving in the direction of higher χ values. To achieve equilibrium, some basins located in the continental side are retracting and disappearing, losing area to the coastal basins. On the contrary, there are some adjacent sub-basins that are close to equilibrium, without strong contrasts in χ values. The same pattern was observed in Serra da Mantiqueira (Minas Gerais state), with stream captures and river network reorganization in its main rivers. The initial results suggest a strong contrast between erosion rates in the continental and the oceanic portions of the escarpments.

  9. Shoreline variations and coastal dynamics: A space-time data analysis of the Jonian littoral, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiello, Antonello; Canora, Filomena; Pasquariello, Guido; Spilotro, Giuseppe

    2013-09-01

    Morphological variations of coastlines are caused by several key processes that are influenced by climate conditions, sea level variations, wave energy, tectonics and human-induced phenomena. These processes affect the dynamics of catchment basins and the coastal environment. Since the second half of the 20th century, the Jonian coast of the Basilicata Region (Italy) has witnessed a widespread retreating phenomenon, predominantly due to anthropogenic causes affecting transport processes along the riverbeds and causing reductions in the sediment supply to the coast. The disturbance in the balance between sediment transport carried out by the sea and the sediment supply performed by rivers has led to a deficit in the sediment budget. To understand the morphological dynamics of the littoral environment and quantify the amount of coastal erosion, an analysis of coastline change has been carried out using various data sources: historical cartography, aerial photographs and GPS surveys. Between 1870 and 1954, the 32-km-long Jonian littoral under examination showed an accretion trend, while the loss in beach surface steadily increased between 1954 and 2005. The average change in beach surface has been calculated as about +55,000 m2/yr (accretion) between 1870 and 1954 and -16,500 m2/yr (erosion) between 1954 and 2005. Overall, 640,000 m2 of sandy beaches were lost along the entire Jonian coast of the Basilicata Region between 1954 and 2005. Comparing the shoreline between 1870 and 1954, the average net shoreline movement (NSM) is +110 m vs. -30 m between 1954 and 2005. This analysis approach has proven to be effective in quantifying the erosion phenomenon and its effects, despite the lack of homogeneous data series and the variety of spatial and temporal scales over which coastal evolution occurs. The study represents an important step in understanding coastal dynamics in this region. As coastal areas are being affected by an increasing number of population and socio

  10. Global analysis of intraplate basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heine, C.; Mueller, D. R.; Dyksterhuis, S.

    2005-12-01

    Broad intraplate sedimentary basins often show a mismatch of lithospheric extension factors compared to those inferred from sediment thickness and subsidence modelling, not conforming to the current understanding of rift basin evolution. Mostly, these basins are underlain by a very heterogeneous and structurally complex basement which has been formed as a product of Phanerozoic continent-continent or terrane/arc-continent collision and is usually referred to as being accretionary. Most likely, the basin-underlying substrate is one of the key factors controlling the style of extension. In order to investigate and model the geodynamic framework and mechanics controlling formation and evolution of these long-term depositional regions, we have been analysing a global set of more than 200 basins using various remotely sensed geophysical data sets and relational geospatial databases. We have compared elevation, crustal and sediment thickness, heatflow, crustal structure, basin ages and -geometries with computed differential beta, anomalous tectonic subsidence, and differential extension factor grids for these basins. The crust/mantle interactions in the basin regions are investigated using plate tectonic reconstructions in a mantle convection framework for the last 160 Ma. Characteristic parameters and patterns derived from this global analysis are then used to generate a classification scheme, to estimate the misfit between models derived from either crustal thinning or sediment thickness, and as input for extension models using particle-in-cell finite element codes. Basins with high differential extension values include the ``classical'' intraplate-basins, like the Michigan Basin in North America, the Zaire Basin in Africa, basins of the Arabian Penisula, and the West Siberian Basin. According to our global analysis so far, these basins show, that with increasing basin age, the amount of crustal extension vs. the extension values estimated from sediment thickness

  11. Applicability of LOICZ catchment coast continuum in a major Caribbean basin: The Magdalena River, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restrepo, Juan D.

    2008-04-01

    Within the Land Ocean Interactions in the Coastal Zone (LOICZ)-Basins approach, the Magdalena River Project (MRP) is an interdisciplinary research, which aims to improve the scientific understanding of the linkages between the Magdalena drainage basin and its associated coastal environments. The MRP is an outgrowth of the initial regional planning that resulted from the LOICZ South American Basins (SamBas) and Caribbean Basins (CariBas) studies on land use and hydrological changes during approximately the past century in tropical and temperate benchmark river basins. The results of the MRP presented in this article show that the extent of land-cover change and erosion within the catchment has increased over the last 10-20 yr. The overall increasing trends in sediment load on a regional scale may be attributed to a range of anthropogenic influences including: a 40% decrease in forests over a 20-yr period; a 65% increase in agricultural and pasture; poor practices of land use; mining; and increasing rates of urbanization. These increasing trends in sediment load coincide with the overall decline of live coral cover in a 145-km 2 coral reef complex in the Caribbean Sea. In addition, the impacts of heavy sediment loads and freshwater discharges have greatly contributed not only to the total disappearance of coral formations but also to a considerable reduction in abundance of seagrass beds in Cartagena Bay and neighbouring areas. The synthesis and analysis presented in this article are just first steps toward understanding the natural and human-induced factors that have produced the observed patterns of water discharge and sediment load of the Magdalena River into the Caribbean Sea, and to relating these processes to the impact on coastal ecosystems.

  12. Buried-euxenic-basin model sets Tarim basin potential

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, K.J. )

    1994-11-28

    The Tarim basin is the largest of the three large sedimentary basins of Northwest China. The North and Southwest depressions of Tarim are underlain by thick sediments and very thin crust. The maximum sediment thickness is more than 15 km. Of the several oil fields of Tarim, the three major fields were discovered during the last decade, on the north flank of the North depression and on the Central Tarim Uplift. The major targets of Tarim, according to the buried-euxenic-basin model, should be upper Paleozoic and lower Mesozoic reservoirs trapping oil and gas condensates from lower Paleozoic source beds. The paper describes the basin and gives a historical perspective of exploration activities and discoveries. It then explains how this basin can be interpreted by the buried-euxenic-basin model. The buried-euxenic-basin model postulates four stages of geologic evolution: (1) Sinian and early Paleozoic platform sedimentation on relic arcs and deep-marine sedimentation in back-arc basins in Xinjiang; (2) Late Paleozoic foreland-basin sedimentation in north Tarim; (3) Mesozoic and Paleogene continental deposition, subsidence under sedimentary load; and (4) Neogene pull-apart basin, wrench faulting and extension.

  13. Highlights of Coastal Waves 1996.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, David P.; Dorman, Clive E.; Edwards, Kathleen A.; Brooks, Ian M.; Melville, W. Kendall; Burk, Stephen D.; Thompson, William T.; Holt, Teddy; Ström, Linda M.; Tjernström, Michael; Grisogono, Branko; Bane, John M.; Nuss, Wendell A.; Morley, Bruce M.; Schanot, Allen J.

    1998-07-01

    Some of the highlights of an experiment designed to study coastal atmospheric phenomena along the California coast (Coastal Waves 1996 experiment) are described. This study was designed to address several problems, including the cross-shore variability and turbulent structure of the marine boundary layer, the influence of the coast on the development of the marine layer and clouds, the ageostrophy of the flow, the dynamics of trapped events, the parameterization of surface fluxes, and the supercriticality of the marine layer.Based in Monterey, California, the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) C-130 Hercules and the University of North Carolina Piper Seneca obtained a comprehensive set of measurements on the structure of the marine layer. The study focused on the effects of prominent topographic features on the wind. Downstream of capes and points, narrow bands of high winds are frequently encountered. The NCAR-designed Scanning Aerosol Backscatter Lidar (SABL) provided a unique opportunity to connect changes in the depth of the boundary layer with specific features in the dynamics of the flow field.An integral part of the experiment was the use of numerical models as forecast and diagnostic tools. The Naval Research Laboratory's Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Model System (COAMPS) provided high-resolution forecasts of the wind field in the vicinity of capes and points, which aided the deployment of the aircraft. Subsequently, this model and the MIUU (University of Uppsala) numerical model were used to support the analysis of the field data.These are some of the most comprehensive measurements of the topographically forced marine layer that have been collected. SABL proved to be an exceptionally useful tool to resolve the small-scale structure of the boundary layer and, combined with in situ turbulence measurements, provides new insight into the structure of the marine atmosphere. Measurements were made sufficiently far offshore to distinguish between the

  14. Satellite Images and Aerial Photographs of the Effects of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita on Coastal Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barras, John A.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Hurricane Katrina made landfall on the eastern coastline of Louisiana on August 29, 2005; Hurricane Rita made landfall on the western coastline of Louisiana on September 24, 2005. Comparison of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite imagery acquired before and after the landfalls of Katrina and Rita and classified to identify land and water demonstrated that water area increased by 217 mi2 (562 km2) in coastal Louisiana as a result of the storms. Approximately 82 mi2 (212 km2) of new water areas were in areas primarily impacted by Hurricane Katrina (Mississippi River Delta basin, Breton Sound basin, Pontchartrain basin, and Pearl River basin), whereas 99 mi2 (256 km2) were in areas primarily impacted by Hurricane Rita (Calcasieu/Sabine basin, Mermentau basin, Teche/Vermilion basin, Atchafalaya basin, and Terrebonne basin). Barataria basin contained new water areas caused by both hurricanes, resulting in some 18 mi2 (46.6 km2) of new water areas. The fresh marsh and intermediate marsh communities' land areas decreased by 122 mi2 (316 km2) and 90 mi2 (233.1 km2), respectively, and the brackish marsh and saline marsh communities' land areas decreased by 33 mi2 (85.5 km2) and 28 mi2 (72.5 km2), respectively. These new water areas represent land losses caused by direct removal of wetlands. They also indicate transitory changes in water area caused by remnant flooding, removal of aquatic vegetation, scouring of marsh vegetation, and water-level variation attributed to normal tidal and meteorological variation between satellite images. Permanent losses cannot be estimated until several growing seasons have passed and the transitory impacts of the hurricanes are minimized. The purpose of this study was to provide preliminary information on water area changes in coastal Louisiana acquired shortly after the landfalls of both hurricanes (detectable with Landsat TM imagery) and to serve as a regional baseline for monitoring posthurricane wetland recovery. The land

  15. Canada Basin revealed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mosher, David C.; Shimeld, John; Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Chian, D; Lebedeva-Ivanova, Nina; Jackson, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    More than 15,000 line-km of new regional seismic reflection and refraction data in the western Arctic Ocean provide insights into the tectonic and sedimentologic history of Canada Basin, permitting development of new geologic understanding in one of Earth's last frontiers. These new data support a rotational opening model for southern Canada Basin. There is a central basement ridge possibly representing an extinct spreading center with oceanic crustal velocities and blocky basement morphology characteristic of spreading centre crust surrounding this ridge. Basement elevation is lower in the south, mostly due to sediment loading subsidence. The sedimentary succession is thickest in the southern Beaufort Sea region, reaching more than 15 km, and generally thins to the north and west. In the north, grabens and half-grabens are indicative of extension. Alpha-Mendeleev Ridge is a large igneous province in northern Amerasia Basin, presumably emplaced synchronously with basin formation. It overprints most of northern Canada Basin structure. The seafloor and sedimentary succession of Canada Basin is remarkably flat-lying in its central region, with little bathymetric change over most of its extent. Reflections that correlate over 100s of kms comprise most of the succession and on-lap bathymetric and basement highs. They are interpreted as representing deposits from unconfined turbidity current flows. Sediment distribution patterns reflect changing source directions during the basin’s history. Initially, probably late Cretaceous to Paleocene synrift sediments sourced from the Alaska and Mackenzie-Beaufort margins. This unit shows a progressive series of onlap unconformities with a younging trend towards Alpha and Northwind ridges, likely a response to contemporaneous subsidence. Sediment source direction appeared to shift to the Canadian Arctic Archipelago margin for the Eocene and Oligocene, likely due to uplift of Arctic islands during the Eurekan Orogeny. The final

  16. Sedimentary record and climatic implications of recurrent deformation in the Tian Shan: Evidence from Mesozoic strata of the north Tarim, south Junggar, and Turpan basins, northwest China

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrix, M.S.; Graham, S.A.; Sobel, E.R.

    1992-01-01

    Detailed stratigraphic, sedimentologic, paleocurrent, and subsidence analyses were conducted on Mesozoic nonmarine sedimentary sections of the south Junggar, north Tarim, and Turpan basins, Xinjang Uygur Autonomous Region, northwest China. These three basins have been foreland basins throughout the Mesozoic and Cenozoic eras, as demonstrated by asymmetrically distributed basinwide sediment accumulations, foreland-style subsidence profiles, and a variety of outcrop and subsurface facies data. Mesozoic paleocurrent indicators measured in the south Junggar and north Tarim basins, as well as Mesozoic sandstone compositions from both basins, indicate that the intervening Tian Shan has existed as a positive physiographic feature partitioning the two basins throughout Mesozoic and Cenozoic time. Paleocurrent, facies, and subsurface isopach data suggest that the Turpan basin was established as a discrete feature by the Early Jurassic period. The timing and style of depositional systems within the north Tarim Mesozoic depocenter, the south Junggar Mesozoic depocenter, and the central Turpan basin are remarkably similar. Upper Triassic strata of each basin consist of alluvial conglomerate and associated braided-fluvial sandstone and siltstone which fine upward into lower through Middle Jurassic, locally organic-rich, meandering-fluvial, and lacustrine strata. Upper Jurassic braided-fluvial red beds in each basin are overlain by a distinct pulse of uppermost Jurassic alluvial conglomerate. Lower Cretaceous exposures consist of fine-grained red beds in north Tarim and Turpan and interbedded red and gray shale with local silty carbonates in south Junggar. Upper Cretaceous strata of the north Tarim and south Junggar basins are composed of alluvial conglomerate with associated braided-fluvial sandstone and siltstone. 94 refs., 17 figs.

  17. Dissolved and particulate heavy metals distribution in coastal lagoons. A case study from Mar Chiquita Lagoon, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beltrame, María Ornela; De Marco, Silvia G.; Marcovecchio, Jorge E.

    2009-10-01

    Mar Chiquita Coastal Lagoon is located on the Atlantic coast of Argentina, and it has been declared a Biosphere Reserve under the UNESCO Man and Biosphere Programme (MAB). This coastal lagoon constitutes an estuarine environment with a very particular behaviour and it is ecologically important due to its biological diversity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the distribution and geochemical behaviour of several heavy metals in this coastal system, focusing on their distribution in both the dissolved phase (<0.45 μm) and the suspended particulate matter. Therefore, the general hydrochemical parameters (salinity, temperature, turbidity, pH and dissolved oxygen) and concentration of total particulate and dissolved metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Zn, Fe, Pb, Cr and Mn) were measured along 2 years (2004-2006) at two different sites. As regards their distribution, hydrological parameters did not present any evidence of deviation with respect to historical values. Suspended particulate matter showed no seasonal variation or any relationship with the tide, thus indicating that in this shallow coastal lagoon neither tides nor freshwater sources regulate the particulate matter input. Heavy metals behaviour, both in dissolved and particulate phases did not reveal any relationship with tide or seasons. Mar Chiquita Coastal Lagoon showed a large input of dissolved and particulate metals, which is probably due to intensive agriculture within the drainage basin of this system.

  18. Refraction of coastal ocean waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuchman, R. A.; Kasischke, E. S.

    1981-01-01

    Refraction of gravity waves in the coastal area off Cape Hatteras, NC as documented by synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery from Seasat orbit 974 (collected on September 3, 1978) is discussed. An analysis of optical Fourier transforms (OFTs) from more than 70 geographical positions yields estimates of wavelength and wave direction for each position. In addition, independent estimates of the same two quantities are calculated using two simple theoretical wave-refraction models. The OFT results are then compared with the theoretical results. A statistical analysis shows a significant degree of linear correlation between the data sets. This is considered to indicate that the Seasat SAR produces imagery whose clarity is sufficient to show the refraction of gravity waves in shallow water.

  19. Comparative oceanography of coastal lagoons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kjerfve, Bjorn

    1986-01-01

    The hypothesis that physical lagoon characteristics and variability depend on the channel connecting the lagoon to the adjacent coastal ocean is evaluated. The geographical, hydrological, and oceanographic characteristics of 10 lagoon systems are described and analyzed; these oceanographic features are utilized to classify the lagoon systems. Choked lagoons (Laguna Joyuda, Coorong, Lake St.Lucia, Gippsland Lakes, Lake Songkla/Thale Luang/Thale Noi, and Lagoa dos Patos) are prevalent on coasts with high wave energy and low tidal range; restricted lagoons (Lake Pontchartrain and Laguna de Terminos) are located on low/medium wave energy coasts with a low tidal range; and leaky lagoons (Mississippi Sound and Belize Lagoon/Chetumal Bay) are connected to the ocean by wide tidal p