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Sample records for intra market optimization

  1. Trajectory optimization for intra-operative nuclear tomographic imaging.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Jakob; Lasser, Tobias; Gardiazabal, José; Navab, Nassir

    2013-10-01

    Diagnostic nuclear imaging modalities like SPECT typically employ gantries to ensure a densely sampled geometry of detectors in order to keep the inverse problem of tomographic reconstruction as well-posed as possible. In an intra-operative setting with mobile freehand detectors the situation changes significantly, and having an optimal detector trajectory during acquisition becomes critical. In this paper we propose an incremental optimization method based on the numerical condition of the system matrix of the underlying iterative reconstruction method to calculate optimal detector positions during acquisition in real-time. The performance of this approach is evaluated using simulations. A first experiment on a phantom using a robot-controlled intra-operative SPECT-like setup demonstrates the feasibility of the approach. PMID:23706624

  2. Shape optimization of an accommodative intra-ocular lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jouve, François; Hanna, Khalil

    2005-03-01

    Cataract surgery consists in replacing the clouded or opacified crystalline lens by an Intra-Ocular Lens (IOL) having the same mean dioptrical power. Clear vision is then achieved at a given distance and glasses are needed in many situations. A new kind of IOL, potentially accommodative, is proposed. Its design is based on the deep understanding of the accommodation mechanism and on the mathematical modeling and the numerical simulation of the IOL's comportment in vivo. A preliminary version of this IOL is now commercialized by the company HumanOptics under the name '1CU'. In a second phase, shape optimization techniques equipped with strong mechanical and physiological constraints, are used to enhance the IOL performance and build a new design. To cite this article: F. Jouve, K. Hanna, C. R. Mecanique 333 (2005).

  3. Intra-day variability of the stock market activity versus stationarity of the financial time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubiec, T.; Wiliński, M.

    2015-08-01

    In this paper we propose a new approach to a well-known phenomena of intra-day activity pattern on the stock market. We suggest that seasonality of inter-transaction times has a more significant impact than intra-day pattern of volatility. Our aim is not to remove the intra-day pattern from the data but to describe its impact on autocorrelation function estimators. We obtain an exact, analytical formula relating estimators of the autocorrelation functions of non-stationary (seasonal) process to its stationary counterpart. Hence, we prove that the day seasonality of inter-transaction times extends the memory of the process. That is, autocorrelation of both, price returns and their absolute values, relaxation to zero is longer.

  4. Optimal ranking regime analysis of intra- to multidecadal U.S. climate variability. Part I: Temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Optimal Ranking Regime (ORR) method was used to identify intra- to multi-decadal (IMD) time windows containing significant ranking sequences in U.S. climate division temperature data. The simplicity of the ORR procedure’s output – a time series’ most significant non-overlapping periods of high o...

  5. Antimicrobials: a global alliance for optimizing their rational use in intra-abdominal infections (AGORA).

    PubMed

    Sartelli, Massimo; Weber, Dieter G; Ruppé, Etienne; Bassetti, Matteo; Wright, Brian J; Ansaloni, Luca; Catena, Fausto; Coccolini, Federico; Abu-Zidan, Fikri M; Coimbra, Raul; Moore, Ernest E; Moore, Frederick A; Maier, Ronald V; De Waele, Jan J; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W; Griffiths, Ewen A; Eckmann, Christian; Brink, Adrian J; Mazuski, John E; May, Addison K; Sawyer, Rob G; Mertz, Dominik; Montravers, Philippe; Kumar, Anand; Roberts, Jason A; Vincent, Jean-Louis; Watkins, Richard R; Lowman, Warren; Spellberg, Brad; Abbott, Iain J; Adesunkanmi, Abdulrashid Kayode; Al-Dahir, Sara; Al-Hasan, Majdi N; Agresta, Ferdinando; Althani, Asma A; Ansari, Shamshul; Ansumana, Rashid; Augustin, Goran; Bala, Miklosh; Balogh, Zsolt J; Baraket, Oussama; Bhangu, Aneel; Beltrán, Marcelo A; Bernhard, Michael; Biffl, Walter L; Boermeester, Marja A; Brecher, Stephen M; Cherry-Bukowiec, Jill R; Buyne, Otmar R; Cainzos, Miguel A; Cairns, Kelly A; Camacho-Ortiz, Adrian; Chandy, Sujith J; Che Jusoh, Asri; Chichom-Mefire, Alain; Colijn, Caroline; Corcione, Francesco; Cui, Yunfeng; Curcio, Daniel; Delibegovic, Samir; Demetrashvili, Zaza; De Simone, Belinda; Dhingra, Sameer; Diaz, José J; Di Carlo, Isidoro; Dillip, Angel; Di Saverio, Salomone; Doyle, Michael P; Dorj, Gereltuya; Dogjani, Agron; Dupont, Hervé; Eachempati, Soumitra R; Enani, Mushira Abdulaziz; Egiev, Valery N; Elmangory, Mutasim M; Ferrada, Paula; Fitchett, Joseph R; Fraga, Gustavo P; Guessennd, Nathalie; Giamarellou, Helen; Ghnnam, Wagih; Gkiokas, George; Goldberg, Staphanie R; Gomes, Carlos Augusto; Gomi, Harumi; Guzmán-Blanco, Manuel; Haque, Mainul; Hansen, Sonja; Hecker, Andreas; Heizmann, Wolfgang R; Herzog, Torsten; Hodonou, Adrien Montcho; Hong, Suk-Kyung; Kafka-Ritsch, Reinhold; Kaplan, Lewis J; Kapoor, Garima; Karamarkovic, Aleksandar; Kees, Martin G; Kenig, Jakub; Kiguba, Ronald; Kim, Peter K; Kluger, Yoram; Khokha, Vladimir; Koike, Kaoru; Kok, Kenneth Y Y; Kong, Victory; Knox, Matthew C; Inaba, Kenji; Isik, Arda; Iskandar, Katia; Ivatury, Rao R; Labbate, Maurizio; Labricciosa, Francesco M; Laterre, Pierre-François; Latifi, Rifat; Lee, Jae Gil; Lee, Young Ran; Leone, Marc; Leppaniemi, Ari; Li, Yousheng; Liang, Stephen Y; Loho, Tonny; Maegele, Marc; Malama, Sydney; Marei, Hany E; Martin-Loeches, Ignacio; Marwah, Sanjay; Massele, Amos; McFarlane, Michael; Melo, Renato Bessa; Negoi, Ionut; Nicolau, David P; Nord, Carl Erik; Ofori-Asenso, Richard; Omari, AbdelKarim H; Ordonez, Carlos A; Ouadii, Mouaqit; Pereira Júnior, Gerson Alves; Piazza, Diego; Pupelis, Guntars; Rawson, Timothy Miles; Rems, Miran; Rizoli, Sandro; Rocha, Claudio; Sakakhushev, Boris; Sanchez-Garcia, Miguel; Sato, Norio; Segovia Lohse, Helmut A; Sganga, Gabriele; Siribumrungwong, Boonying; Shelat, Vishal G; Soreide, Kjetil; Soto, Rodolfo; Talving, Peep; Tilsed, Jonathan V; Timsit, Jean-Francois; Trueba, Gabriel; Trung, Ngo Tat; Ulrych, Jan; van Goor, Harry; Vereczkei, Andras; Vohra, Ravinder S; Wani, Imtiaz; Uhl, Waldemar; Xiao, Yonghong; Yuan, Kuo-Ching; Zachariah, Sanoop K; Zahar, Jean-Ralph; Zakrison, Tanya L; Corcione, Antonio; Melotti, Rita M; Viscoli, Claudio; Viale, Perluigi

    2016-01-01

    Intra-abdominal infections (IAI) are an important cause of morbidity and are frequently associated with poor prognosis, particularly in high-risk patients. The cornerstones in the management of complicated IAIs are timely effective source control with appropriate antimicrobial therapy. Empiric antimicrobial therapy is important in the management of intra-abdominal infections and must be broad enough to cover all likely organisms because inappropriate initial antimicrobial therapy is associated with poor patient outcomes and the development of bacterial resistance. The overuse of antimicrobials is widely accepted as a major driver of some emerging infections (such as C. difficile), the selection of resistant pathogens in individual patients, and for the continued development of antimicrobial resistance globally. The growing emergence of multi-drug resistant organisms and the limited development of new agents available to counteract them have caused an impending crisis with alarming implications, especially with regards to Gram-negative bacteria. An international task force from 79 different countries has joined this project by sharing a document on the rational use of antimicrobials for patients with IAIs. The project has been termed AGORA (Antimicrobials: A Global Alliance for Optimizing their Rational Use in Intra-Abdominal Infections). The authors hope that AGORA, involving many of the world's leading experts, can actively raise awareness in health workers and can improve prescribing behavior in treating IAIs. PMID:27429642

  6. Using Data to Optimize Community College Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clagett, Craig A.

    2012-01-01

    Marketing is an essential component of an effective enrollment management plan. The broad mission of a comprehensive community college requires multiple, targeted communications campaigns. Institutional research can contribute to marketing success at all phases of decision making.

  7. Portfolio optimization for index tracking modelling in Malaysia stock market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siew, Lam Weng; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ismail, Hamizun

    2016-06-01

    Index tracking is an investment strategy in portfolio management which aims to construct an optimal portfolio to generate similar mean return with the stock market index mean return without purchasing all of the stocks that make up the index. The objective of this paper is to construct an optimal portfolio using the optimization model which adopts regression approach in tracking the benchmark stock market index return. In this study, the data consists of weekly price of stocks in Malaysia market index which is FTSE Bursa Malaysia Kuala Lumpur Composite Index from January 2010 until December 2013. The results of this study show that the optimal portfolio is able to track FBMKLCI Index at minimum tracking error of 1.0027% with 0.0290% excess mean return over the mean return of FBMKLCI Index. The significance of this study is to construct the optimal portfolio using optimization model which adopts regression approach in tracking the stock market index without purchasing all index components.

  8. Adaptive Portfolio Optimization for Multiple Electricity Markets Participation.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Tiago; Morais, Hugo; Sousa, Tiago M; Sousa, Tiago; Vale, Zita; Praca, Isabel; Faia, Ricardo; Pires, Eduardo Jose Solteiro

    2016-08-01

    The increase of distributed energy resources, mainly based on renewable sources, requires new solutions that are able to deal with this type of resources' particular characteristics (namely, the renewable energy sources intermittent nature). The smart grid concept is increasing its consensus as the most suitable solution to facilitate the small players' participation in electric power negotiations while improving energy efficiency. The opportunity for players' participation in multiple energy negotiation environments (smart grid negotiation in addition to the already implemented market types, such as day-ahead spot markets, balancing markets, intraday negotiations, bilateral contracts, forward and futures negotiations, and among other) requires players to take suitable decisions on whether to, and how to participate in each market type. This paper proposes a portfolio optimization methodology, which provides the best investment profile for a market player, considering different market opportunities. The amount of power that each supported player should negotiate in each available market type in order to maximize its profits, considers the prices that are expected to be achieved in each market, in different contexts. The price forecasts are performed using artificial neural networks, providing a specific database with the expected prices in the different market types, at each time. This database is then used as input by an evolutionary particle swarm optimization process, which originates the most advantage participation portfolio for the market player. The proposed approach is tested and validated with simulations performed in multiagent simulator of competitive electricity markets, using real electricity markets data from the Iberian operator-MIBEL. PMID:26353382

  9. Antagonistic and Bargaining Games in Optimal Marketing Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipovetsky, S.

    2007-01-01

    Game theory approaches to find optimal marketing decisions are considered. Antagonistic games with and without complete information, and non-antagonistic games techniques are applied to paired comparison, ranking, or rating data for a firm and its competitors in the market. Mix strategy, equilibrium in bi-matrix games, bargaining models with…

  10. Optimal times above MICs of ceftibuten and cefaclor in experimental intra-abdominal infections.

    PubMed

    Onyeji, C O; Nicolau, D P; Nightingale, C H; Quintiliani, R

    1994-05-01

    The duration of time that serum drug levels remain above the MIC (time above the MIC) for the pathogen has been shown to be the most significant parameter determining the efficacies of beta-lactam antibiotics. In the described study, we investigated the optimal time above the MIC of ceftibuten and cefaclor using a nonneutropenic mouse model of intra-abdominal infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. The abilities of the drugs to protect mice against the organisms were determined in mouse protection tests, and the doses were fractionated to produce various dosing regimens with different times above the MIC. All drug-organism combinations showed a significant correlation (r > 0.9) between drug efficacy and the time above the MIC. Also, with ceftibuten treatment, the different dosing regimens that produced equal times above the MIC resulted in the same efficacy, whereas with cefaclor, an apparent dose-dependent effect was observed. These results showed that for a 100% recovery from K. pneumoniae and E. coli infections, the optimal times above the MIC with ceftibuten treatment were 2.2 and 1.6 h, respectively. Relatively high doses of both antibiotics were required to ensure recovery from S. pneumoniae infections. In vitro time-kill studies demonstrated that cefaclor exhibits a marked inoculum effect against the pathogens, and there was a concentration-dependent killing at a large inoculum size. On the other hand, ceftibuten showed no inoculum effect. It is suggested that optimization of both dose and time above the MIC appears to be necessary for the treatment of S. aureus infections with cefaclor, and this may apply to other beta-lactams tht exhibit marked inoculum effects. PMID:8067747

  11. Protein docking using an ensemble of spin labels optimized by intra-molecular paramagnetic relaxation enhancement.

    PubMed

    Schilder, Jesika; Liu, Wei-Min; Kumar, Pravin; Overhand, Mark; Huber, Martina; Ubbink, Marcellus

    2016-02-17

    Paramagnetic NMR is a useful technique to study proteins and protein complexes and the use of paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) for this purpose has become wide-spread. PREs are commonly generated using paramagnetic spin labels (SLs) that contain an unpaired electron in the form of a nitroxide radical, with 1-oxyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-2,5-dihydropyrrol-3-ylmethyl methane thiosulfonate (MTSL) being the most popular tag. The inherent flexibility of the SL causes sampling of several conformations in solution, which can be problematic as over- or underestimation of the spatial distribution of the unpaired electron in structural calculations will lead to errors in the distance restraints. We investigated the effect of this mobility on the accuracy of protein-protein docking calculations using intermolecular PRE data by comparing MTSL and the less mobile 3-methanesulfonilthiomethyl-4-(pyridin-3-yl)-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-2,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrol-1-yloxyl (pyMTSL) on the dynamic complex of cytochrome c and cytochrome c peroxidase. No significant differences were found between the two SLs. Docking was performed using either single or multiple conformers and either fixed or flexible SLs. It was found that mobility of the SLs is the limiting factor for obtaining accurate solutions. Optimization of SL conformer orientations using intra-molecular PRE improves the accuracy of docking. PMID:26356049

  12. Optimizing cosmological surveys in a crowded market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassett, Bruce A.

    2005-04-01

    Optimizing the major next-generation cosmological surveys (such as SNAP, KAOS, etc.) is a key problem given our ignorance of the physics underlying cosmic acceleration and the plethora of surveys planned. We propose a Bayesian design framework which (1) maximizes the discrimination power of a survey without assuming any underlying dark-energy model, (2) finds the best niche survey geometry given current data and future competing experiments, (3) maximizes the cross section for serendipitous discoveries and (4) can be adapted to answer specific questions (such as “is dark energy dynamical?”). Integrated parameter-space optimization (IPSO) is a design framework that integrates projected parameter errors over an entire dark energy parameter space and then extremizes a figure of merit (such as Shannon entropy gain which we show is stable to off-diagonal covariance matrix perturbations) as a function of survey parameters using analytical, grid or MCMC techniques. We discuss examples where the optimization can be performed analytically. IPSO is thus a general, model-independent and scalable framework that allows us to appropriately use prior information to design the best possible surveys.

  13. Optimizing cosmological surveys in a crowded market

    SciTech Connect

    Bassett, Bruce A.

    2005-04-15

    Optimizing the major next-generation cosmological surveys (such as SNAP, KAOS, etc.) is a key problem given our ignorance of the physics underlying cosmic acceleration and the plethora of surveys planned. We propose a Bayesian design framework which (1) maximizes the discrimination power of a survey without assuming any underlying dark-energy model, (2) finds the best niche survey geometry given current data and future competing experiments, (3) maximizes the cross section for serendipitous discoveries and (4) can be adapted to answer specific questions (such as 'is dark energy dynamical?'). Integrated parameter-space optimization (IPSO) is a design framework that integrates projected parameter errors over an entire dark energy parameter space and then extremizes a figure of merit (such as Shannon entropy gain which we show is stable to off-diagonal covariance matrix perturbations) as a function of survey parameters using analytical, grid or MCMC techniques. We discuss examples where the optimization can be performed analytically. IPSO is thus a general, model-independent and scalable framework that allows us to appropriately use prior information to design the best possible surveys.

  14. Intra-day response of foreign exchange markets after the Tohoku-Oki earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Shuhei; Hirata, Yoshito; Iwayama, Koji; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2015-02-01

    Although an economy is influenced by a natural disaster, the market response to the disaster during the first 24 hours is not clearly understood. Here we show that an earthquake quickly causes temporal changes in a foreign exchange market by examining the case of the Tohoku-Oki earthquake. Recurrence plots and statistical change point detection independently show that the United States dollar-Japanese yen market responded to the earthquake activity without delay and with the delay of about 2 minutes, respectively. These findings support that the efficient market hypothesis nearly holds now in the time scale of minutes.

  15. Optimal Advanced Credit Releases in Ecosystem Service Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    BenDor, Todd K.; Guo, Tianshu; Yates, Andrew J.

    2014-03-01

    Ecosystem service markets are popular policy tools for ecosystem protection. Advanced credit releases are an important factor affecting the supply side of ecosystem markets. Under an advanced credit release policy, regulators give ecosystem suppliers a fraction of the total ecosystem credits generated by a restoration project before it is verified that the project actually achieves the required ecological thresholds. In spite of their prominent role in ecosystem markets, there is virtually no regulatory or research literature on the proper design of advanced credit release policies. Using U.S. aquatic ecosystem markets as an example, we develop a principal-agent model of the behavior of regulators and wetland/stream mitigation bankers to determine and explore the optimal degree of advance credit release. The model highlights the tension between regulators' desire to induce market participation, while at the same time ensuring that bankers successfully complete ecological restoration. Our findings suggest several simple guidelines for strengthening advanced credit release policy.

  16. Multiperiod Mean-Variance Portfolio Optimization via Market Cloning

    SciTech Connect

    Ankirchner, Stefan; Dermoune, Azzouz

    2011-08-15

    The problem of finding the mean variance optimal portfolio in a multiperiod model can not be solved directly by means of dynamic programming. In order to find a solution we therefore first introduce independent market clones having the same distributional properties as the original market, and we replace the portfolio mean and variance by their empirical counterparts. We then use dynamic programming to derive portfolios maximizing a weighted sum of the empirical mean and variance. By letting the number of market clones converge to infinity we are able to solve the original mean variance problem.

  17. Optimality problem of network topology in stocks market analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djauhari, Maman Abdurachman; Gan, Siew Lee

    2015-02-01

    Since its introduction fifteen years ago, minimal spanning tree has become an indispensible tool in econophysics. It is to filter the important economic information contained in a complex system of financial markets' commodities. Here we show that, in general, that tool is not optimal in terms of topological properties. Consequently, the economic interpretation of the filtered information might be misleading. To overcome that non-optimality problem, a set of criteria and a selection procedure of an optimal minimal spanning tree will be developed. By using New York Stock Exchange data, the advantages of the proposed method will be illustrated in terms of the power-law of degree distribution.

  18. Intra-unit-cell magnetic correlations near optimal doping in YBa2Cu3O6.85

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangin-Thro, L.; Sidis, Y.; Wildes, A.; Bourges, P.

    2015-07-01

    The pseudo-gap phenomenon in copper oxide superconductors is central to any description of these materials as it prefigures the superconducting state itself. A magnetic intra-unit-cell order was found to occur just at the pseudo-gap temperature in four cuprate high-Tc superconducting families. Here we present polarized neutron-scattering measurements of nearly optimally doped YBa2Cu3O6.85, carried out on two different spectrometers, that reveal several features. The intra-unit-cell order consists of finite-sized planar domains that are very weakly correlated along the c axis. At high temperature, only the out-of-plane magnetic components correlate, indicating a strong Ising anisotropy. An aditional in-plane response develops at low temperature, giving rise to an apparent tilt of the magnetic moment. The discovery of these two regimes puts stringent constraints, which are tightly bound to the pseudo-gap physics, on the intrinsic nature of intra-unit-cell order.

  19. Intra-unit-cell magnetic correlations near optimal doping in YBa2Cu3O6.85

    PubMed Central

    Mangin-Thro, L.; Sidis, Y.; Wildes, A.; Bourges, P.

    2015-01-01

    The pseudo-gap phenomenon in copper oxide superconductors is central to any description of these materials as it prefigures the superconducting state itself. A magnetic intra-unit-cell order was found to occur just at the pseudo-gap temperature in four cuprate high-Tc superconducting families. Here we present polarized neutron-scattering measurements of nearly optimally doped YBa2Cu3O6.85, carried out on two different spectrometers, that reveal several features. The intra-unit-cell order consists of finite-sized planar domains that are very weakly correlated along the c axis. At high temperature, only the out-of-plane magnetic components correlate, indicating a strong Ising anisotropy. An aditional in-plane response develops at low temperature, giving rise to an apparent tilt of the magnetic moment. The discovery of these two regimes puts stringent constraints, which are tightly bound to the pseudo-gap physics, on the intrinsic nature of intra-unit-cell order. PMID:26138869

  20. Intra-Operative Radiation Therapy Optimization Using the Monte Carlo Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosetti, M.; Benassi, M.; Bruzzaniti, V.; Bufacchi, A.; D'Andrea, M.

    Intra-Operative Radiation Therapy (IORT) [1] is an innovative cancer treatment technique which consists in delivering during a surgical operation a radiation dose on the order of 10-20 Gy to a tumor bed or to a tumor residual after the resection. In this way it is possible to destroy the residual malignant cells. IORT is generally performed by means of electron beams produced by linear accelerators (linacs) in the range 3-12 MeV.

  1. Injectable long acting chitosan/tripolyphosphate microspheres for the intra-articular delivery of lornoxicam: Optimization and in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Abd-Allah, Hend; Kamel, Amany O; Sammour, Omaima A

    2016-09-20

    Chitosan microspheres were formulated for the intra-articular delivery of lornoxicam in knee osteoarthritis, to minimize associated side-effects after prolonged oral administration. Ionotropic-gelation technique was employed using tripolyphosphate as anionic cross-linker. Full-factorial design experiment was conducted to optimize lornoxicam entrapment-efficiency%. Formulations were assessed for their particle size, in-vitro drug release, Scanning electron microscopy, Differential-scanning-calorimetry and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy studies. Changing independent variables, chitosan pH, TPP pH and lornoxicam concentration resulted in different values of entrapment-efficiency% ranging from 13.5%±0.35 to 59.5%±2.2. Particle size ranged from 3.57μm±0.02 to 6.12μm±0.00 and lornoxicam%release was prolonged for up to 8days. SEM results showed spherical shape of the microspheres. FTIR and DSC studies confirmed the crosslinking of chitosan with tripolyphosphate. In-vivo therapeutic effect of lornoxicam microspheres was investigated using Monosodiumiodoacetate (MIA) induced osteoarthritis model in rats. Optimized formula showed long-term in-vivo anti-inflammatory effect relative to lornoxicam solution injected intra-articularly with significant reduction of histological, inflammatory and biochemical parameters of osteoarthritis. PMID:27261750

  2. Optimizing the scale of markets for water quality trading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Martin W.; Patterson, Lauren A.; Chen, Yanyou; Schnier, Kurt E.; Yates, Andrew J.

    2014-09-01

    Applying market approaches to environmental regulations requires establishing a spatial scale for trading. Spatially large markets usually increase opportunities for abatement cost savings but increase the potential for pollution damages (hot spots), vice versa for spatially small markets. We develop a coupled hydrologic-economic modeling approach for application to point source emissions trading by a large number of sources and apply this approach to the wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) within the watershed of the second largest estuary in the U.S. We consider two different administrative structures that govern the trade of emission permits: one-for-one trading (the number of permits required for each unit of emission is the same for every WWTP) and trading ratios (the number of permits required for each unit of emissions varies across WWTP). Results show that water quality regulators should allow trading to occur at the river basin scale as an appropriate first-step policy, as is being done in a limited number of cases via compliance associations. Larger spatial scales may be needed under conditions of increased abatement costs. The optimal scale of the market is generally the same regardless of whether one-for-one trading or trading ratios are employed.

  3. Optimized measurements of separations and angles between intra-molecular fluorescent markers

    PubMed Central

    Mortensen, Kim I.; Sung, Jongmin; Flyvbjerg, Henrik; Spudich, James A.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a novel, yet simple tool for the study of structure and function of biomolecules by extending two-colour co-localization microscopy to fluorescent molecules with fixed orientations and in intra-molecular proximity. From each colour-separated microscope image in a time-lapse movie and using only simple means, we simultaneously determine both the relative (x,y)-separation of the fluorophores and their individual orientations in space with accuracy and precision. The positions and orientations of two domains of the same molecule are thus time-resolved. Using short double-stranded DNA molecules internally labelled with two fixed fluorophores, we demonstrate the accuracy and precision of our method using the known structure of double-stranded DNA as a benchmark, resolve 10-base-pair differences in fluorophore separations, and determine the unique 3D orientation of each DNA molecule, thereby establishing short, double-labelled DNA molecules as probes of 3D orientation of anything to which one can attach them firmly. PMID:26509412

  4. Optimized measurements of separations and angles between intra-molecular fluorescent markers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortensen, Kim I.; Sung, Jongmin; Flyvbjerg, Henrik; Spudich, James A.

    2015-10-01

    We demonstrate a novel, yet simple tool for the study of structure and function of biomolecules by extending two-colour co-localization microscopy to fluorescent molecules with fixed orientations and in intra-molecular proximity. From each colour-separated microscope image in a time-lapse movie and using only simple means, we simultaneously determine both the relative (x,y)-separation of the fluorophores and their individual orientations in space with accuracy and precision. The positions and orientations of two domains of the same molecule are thus time-resolved. Using short double-stranded DNA molecules internally labelled with two fixed fluorophores, we demonstrate the accuracy and precision of our method using the known structure of double-stranded DNA as a benchmark, resolve 10-base-pair differences in fluorophore separations, and determine the unique 3D orientation of each DNA molecule, thereby establishing short, double-labelled DNA molecules as probes of 3D orientation of anything to which one can attach them firmly.

  5. Effects of nutrient optimization on intra-annual wood formation in Norway spruce.

    PubMed

    Kalliokoski, Tuomo; Mäkinen, Harri; Jyske, Tuula; Nöjd, Pekka; Linder, Sune

    2013-11-01

    In the Nordic countries, growth of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) is generally limited by low availability of nutrients, especially nitrogen. Optimizing forest management requires better insight on how growth responds to the environmental conditions and their manipulation. The aim of this study was to analyse the effects of nutrient optimization on timing and the rate of tracheid formation of Norway spruce and to follow the differentiation of newly formed tracheids. The study was performed during two growing seasons in a long-term nutrient optimization experiment in northern Sweden, where all essential macro- and micronutrients were supplied in irrigation water every second day from mid-June to mid-August. The control plots were without additional nutrients and water. Tracheid formation in the stem was monitored throughout the growing season by weekly sampling of microcores at breast height. The onset of xylogenesis occurred in early June, but in early summer there were no significant between-treatment differences in the onset and relative rate of tracheid formation. In both treatments, the onset of secondary cell wall formation occurred in mid-June. The maximum rate of tracheid formation occurred close to the summer solstice and 50% of the tracheids had been accumulated in early July. Optimized nutrition resulted in the formation of ∼50% more tracheids and delayed the cessation of tracheid formation, which extended the tracheid formation period by 20-50%, compared with control trees. The increased growth was mainly an effect of enhanced tracheid formation rate during the mid- and later-part of the growing season. In the second year, the increased growth rate also resulted in 11% wider tracheids. We conclude that the onset and rate of tracheid formation and differentiation during summer is primarily controlled by photoperiod, temperature and availability of nutrients, rather than supply of carbohydrates. PMID:24169103

  6. Pareto-optimal solutions for environmental flow schemes incorporating the intra-annual and interannual variability of the natural flow regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiau, Jenq-Tzong; Wu, Fu-Chun

    2007-06-01

    The temporal variations of natural flows are essential elements for preserving the ecological health of a river which are addressed in this paper by the environmental flow schemes that incorporate the intra-annual and interannual variability of the natural flow regime. We present an optimization framework to find the Pareto-optimal solutions for various flow schemes. The proposed framework integrates (1) the range of variability approach for evaluating the hydrologic alterations; (2) the standardized precipitation index approach for establishing the variation criteria for the wet, normal, and dry years; (3) a weir operation model for simulating the system of flows; and (4) a multiobjective optimization genetic algorithm for search of the Pareto-optimal solutions. The proposed framework is applied to the Kaoping diversion weir in Taiwan. The results reveal that the time-varying schemes incorporating the intra-annual variability in the environmental flow prescriptions promote the ecosystem and human needs fitness. Incorporation of the interannual flow variability using different criteria established for three types of water year further promotes both fitnesses. The merit of incorporating the interannual variability may be superimposed on that of incorporating only the intra-annual flow variability. The Pareto-optimal solutions searched with a limited range of flows replicate satisfactorily those obtained with a full search range. The limited-range Pareto front may be used as a surrogate of the full-range one if feasible prescriptions are to be found among the regular flows.

  7. Development of a Market Optimized Condensing Gas Water Heater

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Pescatore

    2006-01-11

    This program covered the development of a market optimized condensing gas water heater for residential applications. The intent of the program was to develop a condensing design that minimized the large initial cost premium associated with traditional condensing water heater designs. Equally important was that the considered approach utilizes design and construction methods that deliver the desired efficiency without compromising product reliability. Standard condensing water heater approaches in the marketplace utilize high cost materials such as stainless steel tanks and heat exchangers as well as expensive burner systems to achieve the higher efficiencies. The key in this program was to develop a water heater design that uses low-cost, available components and technologies to achieve higher efficiency at a modest cost premium. By doing this, the design can reduce the payback to a more reasonable length, increasing the appeal of the product to the marketplace. Condensing water heaters have been in existence for years, but have not been able to significantly penetrate the market. The issue has typically been cost. The high purchase price associated with existing condensing water heaters, sometimes as much as $2000, has been a very difficult hurdle to overcome in the marketplace. The design developed under this program has the potential to reduce the purchase price of this condensing design by as much as $1000 as compared to traditional condensing units. The condensing water heater design developed over the course of this program led to an approach that delivered the following performance attributes: 90%+ thermal efficiency; 76,000 Btu/hr input rate in a 50 gallon tank; First hour rating greater than 180 gph; Rapid recovery time; and Overall operating condition well matched to combination heat and hot water applications. Over the final three years of the program, TIAX worked very closely with A.O. Smith Water Products Company as our commercial partner to optimize

  8. Effect of C/N Ratio and Media Optimization through Response Surface Methodology on Simultaneous Productions of Intra- and Extracellular Inulinase and Invertase from Aspergillus niger ATCC 20611

    PubMed Central

    Dinarvand, Mojdeh; Rezaee, Malahat; Masomian, Malihe; Jazayeri, Seyed Davoud; Zareian, Mohsen; Abbasi, Sahar; Ariff, Arbakariya B.

    2013-01-01

    The study is to identify the extraction of intracellular inulinase (exo- and endoinulinase) and invertase as well as optimization medium composition for maximum productions of intra- and extracellular enzymes from Aspergillus niger ATCC 20611. From two different methods for extraction of intracellular enzymes, ultrasonic method was found more effective. Response surface methodology (RSM) with a five-variable and three-level central composite design (CCD) was employed to optimize the medium composition. The effect of five main reaction parameters including sucrose, yeast extract, NaNO3, Zn+2, and Triton X-100 on the production of enzymes was analyzed. A modified quadratic model was fitted to the data with a coefficient of determination (R2) more than 0.90 for all responses. The intra-extracellular inulinase and invertase productions increased in the range from 16 to 8.4 times in the optimized medium (10% (w/v) sucrose, 2.5% (w/v) yeast extract, 2% (w/v) NaNO3, 1.5 mM (v/v) Zn+2, and 1% (v/v) Triton X-100) by RSM and from around 1.2 to 1.3 times greater than in the medium optimized by one-factor-at-a-time, respectively. The results of bioprocesses optimization can be useful in the scale-up fermentation and food industry. PMID:24151605

  9. Effect of C/N ratio and media optimization through response surface methodology on simultaneous productions of intra- and extracellular inulinase and invertase from Aspergillus niger ATCC 20611.

    PubMed

    Dinarvand, Mojdeh; Rezaee, Malahat; Masomian, Malihe; Jazayeri, Seyed Davoud; Zareian, Mohsen; Abbasi, Sahar; Ariff, Arbakariya B

    2013-01-01

    The study is to identify the extraction of intracellular inulinase (exo- and endoinulinase) and invertase as well as optimization medium composition for maximum productions of intra- and extracellular enzymes from Aspergillus niger ATCC 20611. From two different methods for extraction of intracellular enzymes, ultrasonic method was found more effective. Response surface methodology (RSM) with a five-variable and three-level central composite design (CCD) was employed to optimize the medium composition. The effect of five main reaction parameters including sucrose, yeast extract, NaNO₃, Zn⁺², and Triton X-100 on the production of enzymes was analyzed. A modified quadratic model was fitted to the data with a coefficient of determination (R²) more than 0.90 for all responses. The intra-extracellular inulinase and invertase productions increased in the range from 16 to 8.4 times in the optimized medium (10% (w/v) sucrose, 2.5% (w/v) yeast extract, 2% (w/v) NaNO₃, 1.5 mM (v/v) Zn⁺², and 1% (v/v) Triton X-100) by RSM and from around 1.2 to 1.3 times greater than in the medium optimized by one-factor-at-a-time, respectively. The results of bioprocesses optimization can be useful in the scale-up fermentation and food industry. PMID:24151605

  10. The benefits of social influence in optimized cultural markets.

    PubMed

    Abeliuk, Andrés; Berbeglia, Gerardo; Cebrian, Manuel; Van Hentenryck, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Social influence has been shown to create significant unpredictability in cultural markets, providing one potential explanation why experts routinely fail at predicting commercial success of cultural products. As a result, social influence is often presented in a negative light. Here, we show the benefits of social influence for cultural markets. We present a policy that uses product quality, appeal, position bias and social influence to maximize expected profits in the market. Our computational experiments show that our profit-maximizing policy leverages social influence to produce significant performance benefits for the market, while our theoretical analysis proves that our policy outperforms in expectation any policy not displaying social signals. Our results contrast with earlier work which focused on showing the unpredictability and inequalities created by social influence. Not only do we show for the first time that, under our policy, dynamically showing consumers positive social signals increases the expected profit of the seller in cultural markets. We also show that, in reasonable settings, our profit-maximizing policy does not introduce significant unpredictability and identifies "blockbusters". Overall, these results shed new light on the nature of social influence and how it can be leveraged for the benefits of the market. PMID:25831093

  11. The Benefits of Social Influence in Optimized Cultural Markets

    PubMed Central

    Abeliuk, Andrés; Berbeglia, Gerardo; Cebrian, Manuel; Van Hentenryck, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Social influence has been shown to create significant unpredictability in cultural markets, providing one potential explanation why experts routinely fail at predicting commercial success of cultural products. As a result, social influence is often presented in a negative light. Here, we show the benefits of social influence for cultural markets. We present a policy that uses product quality, appeal, position bias and social influence to maximize expected profits in the market. Our computational experiments show that our profit-maximizing policy leverages social influence to produce significant performance benefits for the market, while our theoretical analysis proves that our policy outperforms in expectation any policy not displaying social signals. Our results contrast with earlier work which focused on showing the unpredictability and inequalities created by social influence. Not only do we show for the first time that, under our policy, dynamically showing consumers positive social signals increases the expected profit of the seller in cultural markets. We also show that, in reasonable settings, our profit-maximizing policy does not introduce significant unpredictability and identifies “blockbusters”. Overall, these results shed new light on the nature of social influence and how it can be leveraged for the benefits of the market. PMID:25831093

  12. An implementation of particle swarm optimization to evaluate optimal under-voltage load shedding in competitive electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini-Bioki, M. M.; Rashidinejad, M.; Abdollahi, A.

    2013-11-01

    Load shedding is a crucial issue in power systems especially under restructured electricity environment. Market-driven load shedding in reregulated power systems associated with security as well as reliability is investigated in this paper. A technoeconomic multi-objective function is introduced to reveal an optimal load shedding scheme considering maximum social welfare. The proposed optimization problem includes maximum GENCOs and loads' profits as well as maximum loadability limit under normal and contingency conditions. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) as a heuristic optimization technique, is utilized to find an optimal load shedding scheme. In a market-driven structure, generators offer their bidding blocks while the dispatchable loads will bid their price-responsive demands. An independent system operator (ISO) derives a market clearing price (MCP) while rescheduling the amount of generating power in both pre-contingency and post-contingency conditions. The proposed methodology is developed on a 3-bus system and then is applied to a modified IEEE 30-bus test system. The obtained results show the effectiveness of the proposed methodology in implementing the optimal load shedding satisfying social welfare by maintaining voltage stability margin (VSM) through technoeconomic analyses.

  13. Optimal Dynamic Advertising Strategy Under Age-Specific Market Segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krastev, Vladimir

    2011-12-01

    We consider the model proposed by Faggian and Grosset for determining the advertising efforts and goodwill in the long run of a company under age segmentation of consumers. Reducing this model to optimal control sub problems we find the optimal advertising strategy and goodwill.

  14. Bidding strategy for microgrid in day-ahead market based on hybrid stochastic/robust optimization

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Liu, Guodong; Xu, Yan; Tomsovic, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an optimal bidding strategy in the day-ahead market of a microgrid consisting of intermittent distributed generation (DG), storage, dispatchable DG and price responsive loads. The microgrid coordinates the energy consumption or production of its components and trades electricity in both the day-ahead and real-time markets to minimize its operating cost as a single entity. The bidding problem is challenging due to a variety of uncertainties, including power output of intermittent DG, load variation, day-ahead and real-time market prices. A hybrid stochastic/robust optimization model is proposed to minimize the expected net cost, i.e., expected total costmore » of operation minus total benefit of demand. This formulation can be solved by mixed integer linear programming. The uncertain output of intermittent DG and day-ahead market price are modeled via scenarios based on forecast results, while a robust optimization is proposed to limit the unbalanced power in real-time market taking account of the uncertainty of real-time market price. Numerical simulations on a microgrid consisting of a wind turbine, a PV panel, a fuel cell, a micro-turbine, a diesel generator, a battery and a responsive load show the advantage of stochastic optimization in addition to robust optimization.« less

  15. Bidding strategy for microgrid in day-ahead market based on hybrid stochastic/robust optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Guodong; Xu, Yan; Tomsovic, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an optimal bidding strategy in the day-ahead market of a microgrid consisting of intermittent distributed generation (DG), storage, dispatchable DG and price responsive loads. The microgrid coordinates the energy consumption or production of its components and trades electricity in both the day-ahead and real-time markets to minimize its operating cost as a single entity. The bidding problem is challenging due to a variety of uncertainties, including power output of intermittent DG, load variation, day-ahead and real-time market prices. A hybrid stochastic/robust optimization model is proposed to minimize the expected net cost, i.e., expected total cost of operation minus total benefit of demand. This formulation can be solved by mixed integer linear programming. The uncertain output of intermittent DG and day-ahead market price are modeled via scenarios based on forecast results, while a robust optimization is proposed to limit the unbalanced power in real-time market taking account of the uncertainty of real-time market price. Numerical simulations on a microgrid consisting of a wind turbine, a PV panel, a fuel cell, a micro-turbine, a diesel generator, a battery and a responsive load show the advantage of stochastic optimization in addition to robust optimization.

  16. Toward an Agent-Based Model of Socially Optimal Water Rights Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehlen, M. A.

    2004-12-01

    There has been considerable interest lately in using public markets for buying and selling the rights to local water usage. Such water rights markets, if designed correctly, should be socially optimal, that is, should sell rights at prices that reflect the true value of water in the region, taking into account that water rights buyers and sellers represent a disparate group of private industry, public authorities, and private users, each having different water needs and different priority to local government. Good market design, however, is hard. As was experienced in California short-run electric power markets, a market design that on paper looks reasonable but in practice is mal-constructed can have devastating effects: firms can learn to manipulate prices by `playing' both sides of the market, and sellers can under-provide so as to create exorbitant prices which buyers have no choice but to pay. Economic theory provides several frameworks for developing a good water rights market design; for example, the structure-conduct-performance paradigm (SCPP) suggests that, among other things, the number and types of buyers and sellers (structure), and transaction clearing rules and government policies (conduct) affect in very particular ways the prices and quantities (performance) in the market. In slow-moving or static markets, SCPP has been a useful predictor of market performance; in faster markets the market dynamics that endogenously develop over time are often too complex to predict with SCPP or other existing modeling techniques. New, more sophisticated combinations of modeling and simulation are needed. Toward developing a good (i.e., socially optimal) water rights market design that can take into account the dynamics inherent in the water sector, we are developing an agent-based model of water rights markets. The model serves two purposes: first, it provides an SCPP-based framework of water rights markets that takes into account the particular structure of

  17. Market power, private information and the optimal scale of pollution permit markets with application to North Carolina’s Neuse River

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We extend the analysis of optimal scale in pollution permit markets by allowing for both market power and private information. The effect of these considerations on optimal scale is determined by analyzing pollution of nitrogen from Waste Water Treatment Plants (WWTP) into North Carolina’s Neuse Riv...

  18. Predicting the Direction of Stock Market Index Movement Using an Optimized Artificial Neural Network Model

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Mingyue; Song, Yu

    2016-01-01

    In the business sector, it has always been a difficult task to predict the exact daily price of the stock market index; hence, there is a great deal of research being conducted regarding the prediction of the direction of stock price index movement. Many factors such as political events, general economic conditions, and traders’ expectations may have an influence on the stock market index. There are numerous research studies that use similar indicators to forecast the direction of the stock market index. In this study, we compare two basic types of input variables to predict the direction of the daily stock market index. The main contribution of this study is the ability to predict the direction of the next day’s price of the Japanese stock market index by using an optimized artificial neural network (ANN) model. To improve the prediction accuracy of the trend of the stock market index in the future, we optimize the ANN model using genetic algorithms (GA). We demonstrate and verify the predictability of stock price direction by using the hybrid GA-ANN model and then compare the performance with prior studies. Empirical results show that the Type 2 input variables can generate a higher forecast accuracy and that it is possible to enhance the performance of the optimized ANN model by selecting input variables appropriately. PMID:27196055

  19. Predicting the Direction of Stock Market Index Movement Using an Optimized Artificial Neural Network Model.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Mingyue; Song, Yu

    2016-01-01

    In the business sector, it has always been a difficult task to predict the exact daily price of the stock market index; hence, there is a great deal of research being conducted regarding the prediction of the direction of stock price index movement. Many factors such as political events, general economic conditions, and traders' expectations may have an influence on the stock market index. There are numerous research studies that use similar indicators to forecast the direction of the stock market index. In this study, we compare two basic types of input variables to predict the direction of the daily stock market index. The main contribution of this study is the ability to predict the direction of the next day's price of the Japanese stock market index by using an optimized artificial neural network (ANN) model. To improve the prediction accuracy of the trend of the stock market index in the future, we optimize the ANN model using genetic algorithms (GA). We demonstrate and verify the predictability of stock price direction by using the hybrid GA-ANN model and then compare the performance with prior studies. Empirical results show that the Type 2 input variables can generate a higher forecast accuracy and that it is possible to enhance the performance of the optimized ANN model by selecting input variables appropriately. PMID:27196055

  20. Intra-articular drug delivery from an optimized topical patch containing teriflunomide and lornoxicam for rheumatoid arthritis treatment: does the topical patch really enhance a local treatment?

    PubMed

    Xi, Honglei; Cun, Dongmei; Xiang, Rongwu; Guan, Yanli; Zhang, Yuxiu; Li, Yuanru; Fang, Liang

    2013-07-10

    Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) often bear joint destruction and symptomatic pain. The aim of this work is to develop a compound transdermal patch containing teriflunomide (TEF) and lornoxicam (LOX) to transport these drugs across the skin with the isochronous permeation rates for RA therapy and investigate intra-articular delivery of TEF and LOX following transdermal patches applied topically. The salts of TEF and LOX with organic amines diethylamine (DEtA), triethylamine (TEtA), diethanolamine (DEA), triethanolamine (TEA) and N-(2'-hydroxy-ethanol)-piperdine (NP) were prepared to improve the skin permeation of the parent drug. The optimized patch formulation is obtained from a 3-factor, 2-level central composite design. After topical application of the optimized compound patch to only one knee joint in rabbit, intra-articular delivery of TEF and LOX on the application site was compared with that on the non-application site. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of the optimized compound patch were evaluated using the adjuvant arthritis model and the pain model induced by acetic acid, respectively. The in vitro experiment results showed that the amine salts of TEF and LOX, especially TEF-TEtA and LOX-TEtA, enhanced the skin permeation of TEF and LOX from the transdermal patch system. The optimal formulation successfully displayed isochronous permeation rates for TEF and LOX across rabbit skin, and was defined with 5% of TEF-TEtA, 10% of LOX-TEtA and 15% of azone. The in vivo study showed that TEF and LOX from transdermal patches were transferred into skin, ligament and fat pad on the application site by direct diffusion and on the non-application site by the redistribution of systemic blood supply, while local absorption of TEF and LOX in synovial fluid originated from the systemic blood supply rather than direct diffusion. In the RA rat model, the results of swelling inhibition on primary arthritis of bilateral hind paws further confirmed the above

  1. Calibration of optimal execution of financial transactions in the presence of transient market impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busseti, Enzo; Lillo, Fabrizio

    2012-09-01

    Trading large volumes of a financial asset in order driven markets requires the use of algorithmic execution dividing the volume into many transactions in order to minimize costs due to market impact. A proper design of an optimal execution strategy strongly depends on a careful modeling of market impact, i.e. how the price reacts to trades. In this paper we consider a recently introduced market impact model (Bouchaud et al 2004 Quant. Finance, 4 176-90), which has the property of describing both the volume and the temporal dependence of price change due to trading. We show how this model can be used to describe price impact also in aggregated trade time or in real time. We then solve analytically and calibrate with real data the optimal execution problem both for risk neutral and for risk averse investors and we derive an efficient frontier of optimal execution. When we include spread costs the problem must be solved numerically and we show that the introduction of such costs regularizes the solution.

  2. Optimizing Treatment of Intra-amniotic Infection and Early-Onset Postpartum Endometritis: Advantages of Single-Agent Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Stiglich, Norma; Alston, Meredith; vanSwam, Simone

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Intra-amniotic infection (IAI) and early-onset postpartum endometritis (PPE) require prompt antibiotic treatment and are generally treated by either of two regimens. A complicated multi-agent regimen is most commonly used, despite a lack of clear evidence that it produces better outcomes than a simpler single-agent regimen. Objective: We compared treatment outcomes between a multi-agent regimen of ampicillin, gentamicin, and clindamycin versus a single-agent regimen of ampicillin/sulbactam for IAI and early-onset PPE. Methods: We conducted an observational retrospective cohort study by collecting data from the records of all patients at Denver Health Medical Center treated for IAI or PPE during two 6-month periods: a baseline period during which a regimen of ampicillin, gentamicin, and clindamycin was used and a subsequent period when ampicillin/sulbactam was used. Primary outcomes were prolonged antibiotic treatment and readmission for endometritis or wound cellulitis. Results: Of potential study participants, 323 women met inclusion criteria; 179 were treated with the multi-agent regimen and 144 were treated with the single-agent regimen. The groups were statistically similar for demographic and intrapartum characteristics, except for a lower rate of premature rupture of membranes in the single-agent treatment group. Twelve patients required prolonged treatment, and 2 were readmitted; these subgroups were combined for statistical analyses. The primary outcomes were significantly associated with cesarean delivery and blood loss >500 mL for vaginal deliveries and >1000 mL for cesarean deliveries; however, there was no significant difference in the incidence of the primary outcomes between the 2 treatment groups when adjusted for these variables. Treatment with ampicillin/sulbactam resulted in fewer antibiotic doses administered to patients with an uncomplicated treatment course. Conclusion: Ampicillin/sulbactam treatment of IAI and early-onset PPE

  3. Optimization of a Future RLV Business Case using Multiple Strategic Market Prices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charania, A.; Olds, J. R.

    2002-01-01

    There is a lack of depth in the current paradigm of conceptual level economic models used to evaluate the value and viability of future capital projects such as a commercial reusable launch vehicle (RLV). Current modeling methods assume a single price is charged to all customers, public or private, in order to optimize the economic metrics of interest. This assumption may not be valid given the different utility functions for space services of public and private entities. The government's requirements are generally more inflexible than its commercial counterparts. A government's launch schedules are much more rigid, choices of international launch services restricted, and launch specifications generally more stringent as well as numerous. These requirements generally make the government's demand curve more inelastic. Subsequently, a launch vehicle provider will charge a higher price (launch price per kg) to the government and may obtain a higher level of financial profit compared to an equivalent a commercial payload. This profit is not a sufficient condition to enable RLV development by itself but can help in making the financial situation slightly better. An RLV can potentially address multiple payload markets; each market has a different price elasticity of demand for both the commercial and government customer. Thus, a more resilient examination of the economic landscape requires optimization of multiple prices in which each price affects a different demand curve. Such an examination is performed here using the Cost and Business Analysis Module (CABAM), an MS-Excel spreadsheet-based model that attempts to couple both the demand and supply for space transportation services in the future. The demand takes the form of market assumptions (both near-term and far-term) and the supply comes from user-defined vehicles that are placed into the model. CABAM represents RLV projects as commercial endeavors with the possibility to model the effects of government

  4. Evaluation and Verification of Channel Transmission Characteristics of Human Body for Optimizing Data Transmission Rate in Electrostatic-Coupling Intra Body Communication System: A Comparative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Yuhwai; Su, Chauchin; Ho, Yingchieh

    2016-01-01

    Background Intra-body communication is a new wireless scheme for transmitting signals through the human body. Understanding the transmission characteristics of the human body is therefore becoming increasingly important. Electrostatic-coupling intra-body communication system in a ground-free situation that integrate electronic products that are discretely located on individuals, such as mobile phones, PDAs, wearable computers, and biomedical sensors, are of particular interest. Materials and Methods The human body is modeled as a simplified Resistor-Capacitor network. A virtual ground between the transmitter and receiver in the system is represented by a resister-capacitor network. Value of its resistance and capacitance are determined from a system perspective. The system is characterized by using a mathematical unit step function in digital baseband transmission scheme with and without Manchester code. As a result, the signal-to-noise and to-intersymbol-interference ratios are improved by manipulating the load resistor. The data transmission rate of the system is optimized. A battery-powered transmitter and receiver are developed to validate the proposal. Results A ground-free system fade signal energy especially for a low-frequency signal limited system transmission rate. The system transmission rate is maximized by simply manipulating the load resistor. Experimental results demonstrate that for a load resistance of 10k−50k Ω, the high-pass 3 dB frequency of the band-pass channel is 400kHz−2MHz in the worst-case scenario. The system allows a Manchester-coded baseband signal to be transmitted at speeds of up to 20M bit per second with signal-to-noise and signal-to-intersymbol-interference ratio of more than 10 dB. Conclusion The human body can function as a high speed transmission medium with a data transmission rate of 20Mbps in an electrostatic-coupling intra-body communication system. Therefore, a wideband signal can be transmitted directly through the

  5. Co-optimization of RegC and TWINSCAN corrections to improve the intra-field on-product overlay performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorhad, Kujan; Sharoni, Ofir; Dmitriev, Vladimir; Cohen, Avi; van Haren, Richard; Roelofs, Christian; Cekli, Hakki Ergun; Gallagher, Emily; Leray, Philippe; Beyer, Dirk; Trautzsch, Thomas; Steinert, Steffen

    2016-03-01

    Improving wafer On Product Overlay (OPO) is becoming a major challenge in lithography, especially for multipatterning techniques like N-repetitive Litho-Etch steps (LEN, N >= 2). When using different scanner settings and litho processes between inter-layer overlays, intra-field overlay control becomes more complicated. In addition to the Image Placement Error (IPE) contribution, the TWINSCANTM lens fingerprint in combination with the exposure settings is playing a significant role as well. Furthermore the scanner needs to deal with dynamic fingerprints caused by for instance lens and/or reticle heating. This paper will demonstrate the complementary RegC® and TWINSCANTM solution for improving the OPO by cooptimizing the correction capabilities of the individual tools, respectively. As a consequence, the systematic intra-field fingerprints can be decreased along with the overlay (OVL) error at wafer level. Furthermore, the application could be utilized for extending some of the scanner actuators ranges by inducing a pre-determined signatures. These solutions perfectly fit into the ASML Litho InSight (LIS) product in which feedforward and feedback corrections based on YieldStar overlay and other measurements are used to improve the OPO. While the TWINSCANTM scanner corrects for global distortions (up to third order) - scanner Correctable Errors ( CE), the RegC® application can correct for the None Correctable Errors (NCE) by making the high frequency NCE into a CE with low frequency nature. The RegC® induces predictable deformation elements inside the quartz (Qz) material of the reticle, and by doing so it can induce a desired pre-defined signature into the reticle. The deformation introduced by the RegC® is optimized for the actual wafer print taking into account the scale and ortho compensation by the scanner, to correct for the systematic fingerprints and the wafer overlay. These two applications might be very powerful and could contribute to achieve a better

  6. Optimization models and techniques for implementation and pricing of electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madrigal Martinez, Marcelino

    Vertically integrated electric power systems extensively use optimization models and solution techniques to guide their optimal operation and planning. The advent of electric power systems re-structuring has created needs for new optimization tools and the revision of the inherited ones from the vertical integration era into the market environment. This thesis presents further developments on the use of optimization models and techniques for implementation and pricing of primary electricity markets. New models, solution approaches, and price setting alternatives are proposed. Three different modeling groups are studied. The first modeling group considers simplified continuous and discrete models for power pool auctions driven by central-cost minimization. The direct solution of the dual problems, and the use of a Branch-and-Bound algorithm to solve the primal, allows to identify the effects of disequilibrium, and different price setting alternatives over the existence of multiple solutions. It is shown that particular pricing rules worsen the conflict of interest that arise when multiple solutions exist under disequilibrium. A price-setting alternative based on dual variables is shown to diminish such conflict. The second modeling group considers the unit commitment problem. An interior-point/cutting-plane method is proposed for the solution of the dual problem. The new method has better convergence characteristics and does not suffer from the parameter tuning drawback as previous methods The robustness characteristics of the interior-point/cutting-plane method, combined with a non-uniform price setting alternative, show that the conflict of interest is diminished when multiple near optimal solutions exist. The non-uniform price setting alternative is compared to a classic average pricing rule. The last modeling group concerns to a new type of linear network-constrained clearing system models for daily markets for power and spinning reserve. A new model and

  7. Optimal fluorescence excitation wavelengths for detection of squamous intra-epithelial neoplasia: results from an animal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coghlan, Lezlee; Utzinger, Urs; Drezek, Rebekah A.; Heintzelmann, Doug; Zuluaga, Andres F.; Brookner, Carrie; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca R.; Gimenez-Conti, Irma; Follen, Michele

    2000-12-01

    Using the hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis model, we explore which fluorescence excitation wavelengths are useful for the detection of neoplasia. 42 hamsters were treated with DMBA to induce carcinogenesis, and 20 control animals were treated only with mineral oil. Fluorescence excitation emission matrices were measured from the cheek pouches of the hamsters weekly. Results showed increased fluorescence near 350-370 nm and 410 nm excitation and decreased fluorescence near 450-470 nm excitation with neoplasia. The optimal diagnostic excitation wavelengths identified using this model - 350-370 nm excitation and 400-450 nm excitation - are similar to those identified for detection of human oral cavity neoplasia.

  8. Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Explores the role of marketing in the modern firm and the key tasks of marketing management. Defines the term "marketing" and discusses it as an economic concept. Discusses three key marketing principals. (RKM)

  9. Optimal operational strategies for a day-ahead electricity market in the presence of market power using multi-objective evolutionary algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigo, Deepal

    2007-12-01

    This dissertation introduces a novel approach for optimally operating a day-ahead electricity market not only by economically dispatching the generation resources but also by minimizing the influences of market manipulation attempts by the individual generator-owning companies while ensuring that the power system constraints are not violated. Since economic operation of the market conflicts with the individual profit maximization tactics such as market manipulation by generator-owning companies, a methodology that is capable of simultaneously optimizing these two competing objectives has to be selected. Although numerous previous studies have been undertaken on the economic operation of day-ahead markets and other independent studies have been conducted on the mitigation of market power, the operation of a day-ahead electricity market considering these two conflicting objectives simultaneously has not been undertaken previously. These facts provided the incentive and the novelty for this study. A literature survey revealed that many of the traditional solution algorithms convert multi-objective functions into either a single-objective function using weighting schemas or undertake optimization of one function at a time. Hence, these approaches do not truly optimize the multi-objectives concurrently. Due to these inherent deficiencies of the traditional algorithms, the use of alternative non-traditional solution algorithms for such problems has become popular and widely used. Of these, multi-objective evolutionary algorithms (MOEA) have received wide acceptance due to their solution quality and robustness. In the present research, three distinct algorithms were considered: a non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA II), a multi-objective tabu search algorithm (MOTS) and a hybrid of multi-objective tabu search and genetic algorithm (MOTS/GA). The accuracy and quality of the results from these algorithms for applications similar to the problem investigated here

  10. Method of Power System Suistanable Development Optimization in Liberalized Market Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turcik, M.; Oleinikova, I.; Krishans, Z.

    2011-01-01

    The paper is focused on the development of the Baltic Sea region taking into account the new EU energy policy. The authors elucidate the current situation and the power system infrastructure projects of the region. For the economic analysis and optimization of the development plans a method is proposed that takes into account the outlooks for upcoming 20-50 years and the initial information uncertainty. The method makes possible estimation of the technically-economic state, including market conditions, for a given power system.

  11. Co-optimization of Energy and Demand-Side Reserves in Day-Ahead Electricity Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surender Reddy, S.; Abhyankar, A. R.; Bijwe, P. R.

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents a new multi-objective day-ahead market clearing (DAMC) mechanism with demand-side reserves/demand response (DR) offers, considering realistic voltage-dependent load modeling. The paper proposes objectives such as social welfare maximization (SWM) including demand-side reserves, and load served error (LSE) minimization. In this paper, energy and demand-side reserves are cleared simultaneously through co-optimization process. The paper clearly brings out the unsuitability of conventional SWM for DAMC in the presence of voltage-dependent loads, due to reduction of load served (LS). Under such circumstances multi-objective DAMC with DR offers is essential. Multi-objective Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm 2+ (SPEA 2+) has been used to solve the optimization problem. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme is confirmed with results obtained from IEEE 30 bus system.

  12. Short-Term Stochastic Optimization of Hydropower Production and Marketing under Meteorological Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwanenberg, D.; Naumann, S.; Allen, C.

    2015-12-01

    Hydroelectric power systems are characterized by variability and uncertainty in yield and water resources obligations. Market volatility and the growing number of operational constraints for flood control, navigation, environmental obligations and ancillary services (including load balancing requirements for renewable resources) further the need to quantify sources of uncertainty. This research presents an integrated framework to handle several sources of uncertainty. Main focus is on the meteorological forecast uncertainty represented by a probabilistic Numerical Weather Predictions (NWP), its consistent propagation through load and streamflow forecasts, and the generation of scenario trees with multi-dimensional distance metrics. The short-term management approach adapts to this forecast uncertainty and its resolution by the use of multi-stage stochastic optimization. The Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS), managed by the Bonneville Power Administration, the US Army Corps of Engineers and the Bureau of Reclamation, serves as a large-scale test case for the application of the new framework. It is used to quantify the operational flexibility of the hydropower system and to propagate the forecast uncertainty through the system. Objectives and constraints enable the operating staff to shape and direct the system such that variability remains in the hydropower system or gets absorbs by the energy market.

  13. A Two-Stage Method to Determine Optimal Product Sampling considering Dynamic Potential Market

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zhineng; Lu, Wei; Han, Bing

    2015-01-01

    This paper develops an optimization model for the diffusion effects of free samples under dynamic changes in potential market based on the characteristics of independent product and presents a two-stage method to figure out the sampling level. The impact analysis of the key factors on the sampling level shows that the increase of the external coefficient or internal coefficient has a negative influence on the sampling level. And the changing rate of the potential market has no significant influence on the sampling level whereas the repeat purchase has a positive one. Using logistic analysis and regression analysis, the global sensitivity analysis gives a whole analysis of the interaction of all parameters, which provides a two-stage method to estimate the impact of the relevant parameters in the case of inaccuracy of the parameters and to be able to construct a 95% confidence interval for the predicted sampling level. Finally, the paper provides the operational steps to improve the accuracy of the parameter estimation and an innovational way to estimate the sampling level. PMID:25821847

  14. Tracing the transition path between optimal strategies combinations within a competitive market of innovative industrial products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batzias, Dimitris F.; Pollalis, Yannis A.

    2012-12-01

    In several cases, a competitive market can be simulated by a game, where each company/opponent is referred to as a player. In order to accommodate the fact that each player (alone or with alliances) is working against some others' interest, the rather conservative maximin criterion is frequently used for selecting the strategy or the combination of strategies that yield the best of the worst possible outcomes for each one of the players. Under this criterion, an optimal solution is obtained when neither player finds it beneficial to alter his strategy, which means that an equilibrium has been achieved, giving also the value of the game. If conditions change as regards a player, e.g., because of either achieving an unexpected successful result in developing an innovative industrial product or obtaining higher liquidity permitting him to increase advertisement in order to acquire a larger market share, then a new equilibrium is reached. The identification of the path between the old and the new equilibrium points may prove to be valuable for investigating the robustness of the solution by means of sensitivity analysis, since uncertainty plays a critical role in this situation, where evaluation of the payoff matrix is usually based on experts' estimates. In this work, the development of a standard methodology (including 16 activity stages and 7 decision nodes) for tracing this path is presented while a numerical implementation follows to prove its functionality.

  15. Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appel, David L.

    This booklet suggests ways in which institutions--Catholic schools in particular--can move beyond public relations and advertising to engage in the broader arena of marketing with its focus on consumer satisfaction. The first of the book's three chapters reviews the concept of marketing, providing definitions of key terms, clarification of…

  16. An optimization-based approach for facility energy management with uncertainties, and, Power portfolio optimization in deregulated electricity markets with risk management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jun

    Topic 1. An Optimization-Based Approach for Facility Energy Management with Uncertainties. Effective energy management for facilities is becoming increasingly important in view of the rising energy costs, the government mandate on the reduction of energy consumption, and the human comfort requirements. This part of dissertation presents a daily energy management formulation and the corresponding solution methodology for HVAC systems. The problem is to minimize the energy and demand costs through the control of HVAC units while satisfying human comfort, system dynamics, load limit constraints, and other requirements. The problem is difficult in view of the fact that the system is nonlinear, time-varying, building-dependent, and uncertain; and that the direct control of a large number of HVAC components is difficult. In this work, HVAC setpoints are the control variables developed on top of a Direct Digital Control (DDC) system. A method that combines Lagrangian relaxation, neural networks, stochastic dynamic programming, and heuristics is developed to predict the system dynamics and uncontrollable load, and to optimize the setpoints. Numerical testing and prototype implementation results show that our method can effectively reduce total costs, manage uncertainties, and shed the load, is computationally efficient. Furthermore, it is significantly better than existing methods. Topic 2. Power Portfolio Optimization in Deregulated Electricity Markets with Risk Management. In a deregulated electric power system, multiple markets of different time scales exist with various power supply instruments. A load serving entity (LSE) has multiple choices from these instruments to meet its load obligations. In view of the large amount of power involved, the complex market structure, risks in such volatile markets, stringent constraints to be satisfied, and the long time horizon, a power portfolio optimization problem is of critical importance but difficulty for an LSE to serve the

  17. Optimal Operation and Value Evaluation of Pumped Storage Power Plants Considering Spot Market Trading and Uncertainty of Bilateral Demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Kenta; Hara, Ryoichi; Kita, Hiroyuki; Hasegawa, Jun

    In recent years, as the deregulation in electric power industry has advanced in many countries, a spot market trading of electricity has been done. Generation companies are allowed to purchase the electricity through the electric power market and supply electric power for their bilateral customers. Under this circumstance, it is important for the generation companies to procure the required electricity with cheaper cost to increase their profit. The market price is volatile since it is determined by bidding between buyer and seller. The pumped storage power plant, one of the storage facilities is promising against such volatile market price since it can produce a profit by purchasing electricity with lower-price and selling it with higher-price. This paper discusses the optimal operation of the pumped storage power plants considering bidding strategy to an uncertain spot market. The volatilities in market price and demand are represented by the Vasicek model in our estimation. This paper also discusses the allocation of operational reserve to the pumped storage power plant.

  18. IntraFace

    PubMed Central

    De la Torre, Fernando; Chu, Wen-Sheng; Xiong, Xuehan; Vicente, Francisco; Ding, Xiaoyu; Cohn, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Within the last 20 years, there has been an increasing interest in the computer vision community in automated facial image analysis algorithms. This has been driven by applications in animation, market research, autonomous-driving, surveillance, and facial editing among others. To date, there exist several commercial packages for specific facial image analysis tasks such as facial expression recognition, facial attribute analysis or face tracking. However, free and easy-to-use software that incorporates all these functionalities is unavailable. This paper presents IntraFace (IF), a publicly-available software package for automated facial feature tracking, head pose estimation, facial attribute recognition, and facial expression analysis from video. In addition, IFincludes a newly develop technique for unsupervised synchrony detection to discover correlated facial behavior between two or more persons, a relatively unexplored problem in facial image analysis. In tests, IF achieved state-of-the-art results for emotion expression and action unit detection in three databases, FERA, CK+ and RU-FACS; measured audience reaction to a talk given by one of the authors; and discovered synchrony for smiling in videos of parent-infant interaction. IF is free of charge for academic use at http://www.humansensing.cs.cmu.edu/intraface/.

  19. A Chaotic Particle Swarm Optimization-Based Heuristic for Market-Oriented Task-Level Scheduling in Cloud Workflow Systems

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xuejun; Xu, Jia; Yang, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Cloud workflow system is a kind of platform service based on cloud computing. It facilitates the automation of workflow applications. Between cloud workflow system and its counterparts, market-oriented business model is one of the most prominent factors. The optimization of task-level scheduling in cloud workflow system is a hot topic. As the scheduling is a NP problem, Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) have been proposed to optimize the cost. However, they have the characteristic of premature convergence in optimization process and therefore cannot effectively reduce the cost. To solve these problems, Chaotic Particle Swarm Optimization (CPSO) algorithm with chaotic sequence and adaptive inertia weight factor is applied to present the task-level scheduling. Chaotic sequence with high randomness improves the diversity of solutions, and its regularity assures a good global convergence. Adaptive inertia weight factor depends on the estimate value of cost. It makes the scheduling avoid premature convergence by properly balancing between global and local exploration. The experimental simulation shows that the cost obtained by our scheduling is always lower than the other two representative counterparts. PMID:26357510

  20. A Chaotic Particle Swarm Optimization-Based Heuristic for Market-Oriented Task-Level Scheduling in Cloud Workflow Systems.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuejun; Xu, Jia; Yang, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Cloud workflow system is a kind of platform service based on cloud computing. It facilitates the automation of workflow applications. Between cloud workflow system and its counterparts, market-oriented business model is one of the most prominent factors. The optimization of task-level scheduling in cloud workflow system is a hot topic. As the scheduling is a NP problem, Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) have been proposed to optimize the cost. However, they have the characteristic of premature convergence in optimization process and therefore cannot effectively reduce the cost. To solve these problems, Chaotic Particle Swarm Optimization (CPSO) algorithm with chaotic sequence and adaptive inertia weight factor is applied to present the task-level scheduling. Chaotic sequence with high randomness improves the diversity of solutions, and its regularity assures a good global convergence. Adaptive inertia weight factor depends on the estimate value of cost. It makes the scheduling avoid premature convergence by properly balancing between global and local exploration. The experimental simulation shows that the cost obtained by our scheduling is always lower than the other two representative counterparts. PMID:26357510

  1. Optimal Dispatch of Competitive Power Markets by Using PowerWorld Simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dong; Li, Shuhui

    2013-10-01

    The transition to competitive and retail markets for electric utilities around the world has been a difficult and controversial process. One of the difficulties that hindered the development and growth of competitive power markets is the absence of efficient computational tools to assist the design, analysis, and operation of competitive power markets. PowerWorld simulator is a software package that has strong analytical and visualization functions suitable for extensive power flow study of an electric power system. However, like many other power flow simulators, PowerWorld cannot be used directly for analysis and evaluation of a competitive power market. This article investigates mathematical models associated with a competitive power market and how these models can be converted and transformed in such a way that makes it possible to use PowerWorld for the competitive power market study. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed strategy, models of several small-scale competitive power markets are built in MatLab by using conventional approaches. Results generated by both PowerWorld and MatLab are compared. Finally, the article demonstrates how the PowerWorld simulator is used to investigate a larger and practical competitive power system.

  2. Optimizing route-specific marketing strategies to increase public transit ridership. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, C.A.; Lede, N.W.

    1994-03-01

    The document reflects the responses of a portion of the university community in a large urban area regarding travel mode and marketing strategies. The regular, single occupant drivers who were questioned are likely representative of those who drive alone to work in the larger community. The findings from this analysis will provide background data for many upcoming projects in the community, including the employer trip reduction requirement (part of the Clean Air Act Amendment) and a university transit program under examination by the local transit authority. The findings can also be a beginning point for other activity centers, universities and marketing departments within transit agencies.

  3. Mathematical model of microbicidal flow dynamics and optimization of rheological properties for intra-vaginal drug delivery: Role of tissue mechanics and fluid rheology.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Md Rajib; Camarda, Kyle V; Kieweg, Sarah L

    2015-06-25

    Topically applied microbicide gels can provide a self-administered and effective strategy to prevent sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We have investigated the interplay between vaginal tissue elasticity and the yield-stress of non-Newtonian fluids during microbicide deployment. We have developed a mathematical model of tissue deformation driven spreading of microbicidal gels based on thin film lubrication approximation and demonstrated the effect of tissue elasticity and fluid yield-stress on the spreading dynamics. Our results show that both elasticity of tissue and yield-stress rheology of gel are strong determinants of the coating behavior. An optimization framework has been demonstrated which leverages the flow dynamics of yield-stress fluid during deployment to maximize retention while reaching target coating length for a given tissue elasticity. PMID:25798760

  4. Intra-beam scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piwinski, A.

    Intra-beam scattering is analysed and the rise times or damping times of the beam dimensions are derived. The theoretical results are compared with experimental values obtained on the CERN AA and SPS machines.

  5. Optimal Mandates and The Welfare Cost of Asymmetric Information: Evidence from The U.K. Annuity Market*

    PubMed Central

    Einav, Liran; Finkelstein, Amy; Schrimpf, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Much of the extensive empirical literature on insurance markets has focused on whether adverse selection can be detected. Once detected, however, there has been little attempt to quantify its welfare cost, or to assess whether and what potential government interventions may reduce these costs. To do so, we develop a model of annuity contract choice and estimate it using data from the U.K. annuity market. The model allows for private information about mortality risk as well as heterogeneity in preferences over different contract options. We focus on the choice of length of guarantee among individuals who are required to buy annuities. The results suggest that asymmetric information along the guarantee margin reduces welfare relative to a first best symmetric information benchmark by about £127 million per year, or about 2 percent of annuitized wealth. We also find that by requiring that individuals choose the longest guarantee period allowed, mandates could achieve the first-best allocation. However, we estimate that other mandated guarantee lengths would have detrimental effects on welfare. Since determining the optimal mandate is empirically difficult, our findings suggest that achieving welfare gains through mandatory social insurance may be harder in practice than simple theory may suggest. PMID:20592943

  6. Suboptimal and optimal order policies for fixed and varying replenishment interval with declining market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jonas C. P.; Wee, H. M.; Yang, P. C.; Wu, Simon

    2016-06-01

    One of the supply chain risks for hi-tech products is the result of rapid technological innovation; it results in a significant decline in the selling price and demand after the initial launch period. Hi-tech products include computers and communication consumer's products. From a practical standpoint, a more realistic replenishment policy is needed to consider the impact of risks; especially when some portions of shortages are lost. In this paper, suboptimal and optimal order policies with partial backordering are developed for a buyer when the component cost, the selling price, and the demand rate decline at a continuous rate. Two mathematical models are derived and discussed: one model has the suboptimal solution with the fixed replenishment interval and a simpler computational process; the other one has the optimal solution with the varying replenishment interval and a more complicated computational process. The second model results in more profit. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the two replenishment models. Sensitivity analysis is carried out to investigate the relationship between the parameters and the net profit.

  7. An Agent-Based Optimization Framework for Engineered Complex Adaptive Systems with Application to Demand Response in Electricity Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haghnevis, Moeed

    The main objective of this research is to develop an integrated method to study emergent behavior and consequences of evolution and adaptation in engineered complex adaptive systems (ECASs). A multi-layer conceptual framework and modeling approach including behavioral and structural aspects is provided to describe the structure of a class of engineered complex systems and predict their future adaptive patterns. The approach allows the examination of complexity in the structure and the behavior of components as a result of their connections and in relation to their environment. This research describes and uses the major differences of natural complex adaptive systems (CASs) with artificial/engineered CASs to build a framework and platform for ECAS. While this framework focuses on the critical factors of an engineered system, it also enables one to synthetically employ engineering and mathematical models to analyze and measure complexity in such systems. In this way concepts of complex systems science are adapted to management science and system of systems engineering. In particular an integrated consumer-based optimization and agent-based modeling (ABM) platform is presented that enables managers to predict and partially control patterns of behaviors in ECASs. Demonstrated on the U.S. electricity markets, ABM is integrated with normative and subjective decision behavior recommended by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC). The approach integrates social networks, social science, complexity theory, and diffusion theory. Furthermore, it has unique and significant contribution in exploring and representing concrete managerial insights for ECASs and offering new optimized actions and modeling paradigms in agent-based simulation.

  8. Electric System Intra-hour Operation Simulator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2014-03-07

    ESIOS is a software program developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that performs intra-hour dispatch and automatic generation control (AGC) simulations for electric power system frequency regulation and load/variable generation following. The program dispatches generation resources at minute interval to meet control performance requirements, while incorporating stochastic models of forecast errors and variability with generation, load, interchange and market behaviors. The simulator also contains an operator model that mimics manual actions to adjust resourcemore » dispatch and maintain system reserves. Besides simulating generation fleet intra-hour dispatch, ESIOS can also be used as a test platform for the design and verification of energy storage, demand response, and other technologies helping to accommodate variable generation.« less

  9. Intra Nucleon Cascade Program

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1998-08-18

    The package consists of three programs ISABEL, EVA, and PACE-2. ISABEL and PACE-2 are part of the LAHET code. ISABEL is an intra-nucleon cascade program. The output cascades are used as directly as input files to the two evaporation programs EVA and PACE-2. EVA ignores the effect of the angular momentum of the excited nuclei on the deexcitation and also ignores the possibility of gamma emission as long as particle emission is energetically allowed. PACE-2more » takes full account of angular momentum effects including irast levels and gamma emission at all stages of the evaporation chain.« less

  10. High-speed, intra-system networks

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, Heather M; Graham, Paul S; Manuzzato, Andrea; Fairbanks, Tom; Dallmann, Nicholas; Desgeorges, Rose

    2010-06-28

    Recently, engineers have been studying on-payload networks for fast communication paths. Using intra-system networks as a means to connect devices together allows for a flexible payload design that does not rely on dedicated communication paths between devices. In this manner, the data flow architecture of the system can be dynamically reconfigured to allow data routes to be optimized for the application or configured to route around devices that are temporarily or permanently unavailable. To use intra-system networks, devices will need network controllers and switches. These devices are likely to be affected by single-event effects, which could affect data communication. In this paper we will present radiation data and performance analysis for using a Broadcom network controller in a neutron environment.

  11. Antibiotic penetration of experimental intra-abdominal abscesses.

    PubMed

    Galandiuk, S; Lamos, J; Montgomery, W; Young, S; Polk, H C

    1995-06-01

    Intra-abdominal abscess is seldom adequately treated by systemic antibiotics alone and often requires surgical or computed tomography-guided drainage for resolution. Abscess penetration of six currently used antibiotics was examined in a murine intra-abdominal abscess model. Ampicillin/sulbactam, cefmetazole, clindamycin, and trospectomycin penetrated intra-abdominal abscesses to a greater degree than cefoxitin and ceftriaxone. Abscess pus antibiotic levels were not significantly higher after multiple doses than after a single dose. Pus antibiotic levels below the MIC90 for Bacteroides and E. coli within intra-abdominal abscess were observed for most antibiotics with the doses used in this study. Selection of antibiotics with a greater ability to penetrate abscess may be important in optimally treating patients with abdominal infection. PMID:7762902

  12. Modeling hydro power plants in deregulated electricity markets : integration and application of EMCAS and VALORAGUA.

    SciTech Connect

    Thimmapuram, P.; Veselka, T.; Koritarov, V.; Vilela, S.; Pereira, R.; Silva, R.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present details of integrating an agent-based model, Electricity Market Complex Adaptive System (EMCAS) with a hydro-thermal coordination model, VALORAGUA. EMCAS provides a framework for simulating deregulated markets with flexible regulatory structure along with bidding strategies for supply offers and demand bids. VALORAGUA provides longer-term operation plans by optimizing hydro and thermal power plant operation for the entire year. In addition, EMCAS uses the price forecasts and weekly hydro schedules from VALORAGUA to provide intra-week hydro plant optimization for hourly supply offers. The integrated model is then applied to the Iberian electricity market which includes about 111 thermal plants and 38 hydro power plants. We then analyze the impact of hydro plant supply offers on the market prices and ways to minimize the Gencospsila exposure to price risk.

  13. Intra-axial brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Rapalino, Otto; Batchelor, Tracy; González, R Gilberto

    2016-01-01

    There is a wide variety of intra-axial primary and secondary brain neoplasms. Many of them have characteristic imaging features while other tumors can present in a similar fashion. There are peculiar posttreatment imaging phenomena that can present as intra-axial mass-like lesions (such as pseudoprogression or radiation necrosis), further complicating the diagnosis and clinical follow-up of patients with intracerebral tumors. The purpose of this chapter is to present a general overview of the most common intra-axial brain tumors and peculiar posttreatment changes that are very important in the diagnosis and clinical follow-up of patients with brain tumors. PMID:27432670

  14. Intra-spike crosslinking overcomes antibody evasion by HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Galimidi, Rachel P; Klein, Joshua S; Politzer, Maria S; Bai, Shiyu; Seaman, Michael S; Nussenzweig, Michel C; West, Anthony P; Bjorkman, Pamela J

    2015-01-29

    Antibodies developed during HIV-1 infection lose efficacy as the viral spike mutates. We postulated that anti-HIV-1 antibodies primarily bind monovalently because HIV's low spike density impedes bivalent binding through inter-spike crosslinking, and the spike structure prohibits bivalent binding through intra-spike crosslinking. Monovalent binding reduces avidity and potency, thus expanding the range of mutations permitting antibody evasion. To test this idea, we engineered antibody-based molecules capable of bivalent binding through intra-spike crosslinking. We used DNA as a "molecular ruler" to measure intra-epitope distances on virion-bound spikes and construct intra-spike crosslinking molecules. Optimal bivalent reagents exhibited up to 2.5 orders of magnitude increased potency (>100-fold average increases across virus panels) and identified conformational states of virion-bound spikes. The demonstration that intra-spike crosslinking lowers the concentration of antibodies required for neutralization supports the hypothesis that low spike densities facilitate antibody evasion and the use of molecules capable of intra-spike crosslinking for therapy or passive protection. PMID:25635457

  15. The Use of Market Intelligence Tools to Optimize the Economic Impact of a Chronic Disease in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arce, Jaqueline Alejandra Haces

    2009-01-01

    The pharmaceutical products market in Mexico involves four main actors: health providers, health payers, patients and pharmaceutical companies. The relationship between health providers and the pharmaceutical companies that supply the products required to prevent and treat illnesses is of particular interest. This relationship can be described…

  16. On intra-supply chain system with an improved distribution plan, multiple sales locations and quality assurance.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Singa Wang; Huang, Chao-Chih; Chiang, Kuo-Wei; Wu, Mei-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Transnational companies, operating in extremely competitive global markets, always seek to lower different operating costs, such as inventory holding costs in their intra- supply chain system. This paper incorporates a cost reducing product distribution policy into an intra-supply chain system with multiple sales locations and quality assurance studied by [Chiu et al., Expert Syst Appl, 40:2669-2676, (2013)]. Under the proposed cost reducing distribution policy, an added initial delivery of end items is distributed to multiple sales locations to meet their demand during the production unit's uptime and rework time. After rework when the remaining production lot goes through quality assurance, n fixed quantity installments of finished items are then transported to sales locations at a fixed time interval. Mathematical modeling and optimization techniques are used to derive closed-form optimal operating policies for the proposed system. Furthermore, the study demonstrates significant savings in stock holding costs for both the production unit and sales locations. Alternative of outsourcing product delivery task to an external distributor is analyzed to assist managerial decision making in potential outsourcing issues in order to facilitate further reduction in operating costs. PMID:26576330

  17. Cardiopulmonary monitoring in intra-abdominal hypertension.

    PubMed

    Malbrain, Manu L N G; Ameloot, Koen; Gillebert, Carl; Cheatham, Michael L

    2011-07-01

    Cardiopulmonary dysfunction and failure are commonly encountered in the patient with intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) or abdominal compartment syndrome. Accurate assessment and optimization of preload, contractility, and afterload in conjunction with appropriate goal-directed resuscitation and assessment of fluid responsiveness are essential to restore end-organ perfusion. In patients with IAH, the traditional "barometric" preload indicators such as pulmonary artery occlusion pressure and central venous pressure are erroneously increased. Volumetric monitoring techniques have been proven to be superior in directing the appropriate resuscitation together with targeted abdominal perfusion pressure. If such limitations are not recognized, misinterpretation of the patient's cardiac status is likely, resulting in inappropriate and potentially detrimental therapy. IAH also markedly affects the mechanical properties of the chest wall and consequently also the respiratory function. Altered mechanical properties of the chest wall may limit ventilation, influence the work of breathing, affect the interaction between the respiratory muscles, hasten the development of respiratory failure, and interfere with gas exchange. Pulmonary monitoring is important to understand the relationships between intra-abdominal pressure and chest wall mechanics and the impact of IAH on ventilator-induced lung injury, lung distention, recruitment, and lung edema. PMID:21944448

  18. Optimization of health-care organization and perceived improvement of patient comfort by switching from intra-venous BU four-times-daily infusions to a once-daily administration scheme in adult hematopoietic stem cell recipients.

    PubMed

    Xhaard, A; Rzepecki, P; Valcarcel, D; Santarone, S; Fürst, S; Serrano, D; De Angelis, G; Krüger, W; Scheid, C

    2014-04-01

    Previous studies have shown an equivalent pharmacokinetic profile between four-times-daily (4QD) and once-daily (QD) administration of intra-venous (IV) BU, without increased toxicity. We assess the impact of a switch in IV BU from a 4QD to a QD schedule, in terms of health-care organization, staff working conditions, quality of care dispensed and perceived patient comfort. Clinicians, nurses and pharmacists from nine allogeneic transplantation units in five European countries were interviewed face to face. Overall perception of QD versus 4QD BU was very positive. Both administration schemes were evaluated to be equally efficaciousZ. QD BU was perceived to be safer and more convenient. Clinicians and nurses perceived that patient comfort was improved, due to fewer complications associated with repeated infusions, and avoiding night infusions associated with stress, anxiety and decreased quality of sleep. Switching from 4QD to QD BU had a significant impact on health-care organization, with a better integration in the overall management and usual timelines in the pharmacies and transplantation units. Time spent to prepare and administer BU was significantly reduced, leading to potential financial savings that merit further assessment and would be of particular interest in the current economic climate. PMID:24419513

  19. Optimal portfolio strategy with cross-correlation matrix composed by DCCA coefficients: Evidence from the Chinese stock market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xuelian; Liu, Zixian

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, a new estimator of correlation matrix is proposed, which is composed of the detrended cross-correlation coefficients (DCCA coefficients), to improve portfolio optimization. In contrast to Pearson's correlation coefficients (PCC), DCCA coefficients acquired by the detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA) method can describe the nonlinear correlation between assets, and can be decomposed in different time scales. These properties of DCCA make it possible to improve the investment effect and more valuable to investigate the scale behaviors of portfolios. The minimum variance portfolio (MVP) model and the Mean-Variance (MV) model are used to evaluate the effectiveness of this improvement. Stability analysis shows the effect of two kinds of correlation matrices on the estimation error of portfolio weights. The observed scale behaviors are significant to risk management and could be used to optimize the portfolio selection.

  20. Improving Intra Prediction in High-Efficiency Video Coding.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haoming; Zhang, Tao; Sun, Ming-Ting; Saxena, Ankur; Budagavi, Madhukar

    2016-08-01

    Intra prediction is an important tool in intra-frame video coding to reduce the spatial redundancy. In current coding standard H.265/high-efficiency video coding (HEVC), a copying-based method based on the boundary (or interpolated boundary) reference pixels is used to predict each pixel in the coding block to remove the spatial redundancy. We find that the conventional copying-based method can be further improved in two cases: 1) the boundary has an inhomogeneous region and 2) the predicted pixel is far away from the boundary that the correlation between the predicted pixel and the reference pixels is relatively weak. This paper performs a theoretical analysis of the optimal weights based on a first-order Gaussian Markov model and the effects when the pixel values deviate from the model and the predicted pixel is far away from the reference pixels. It also proposes a novel intra prediction scheme based on the analysis that smoothing the copying-based prediction can derive a better prediction block. Both the theoretical analysis and the experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed intra prediction method. An average gain of 2.3% on all intra coding can be achieved with the HEVC reference software. PMID:27249831

  1. Intra-amniotic Candida albicans infection induces mucosal injury and inflammation in the ovine fetal intestine

    PubMed Central

    Nikiforou, Maria; Jacobs, Esmee M.R.; Kemp, Matthew W.; Hornef, Mathias W.; Payne, Matthew S.; Saito, Masatoshi; Newnham, John P.; Janssen, Leon E.W.; Jobe, Alan H.; Kallapur, Suhas G.; Kramer, Boris W.; Wolfs, Tim G.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Chorioamnionitis is caused by intrauterine infection with microorganisms including Candida albicans (C.albicans). Chorioamnionitis is associated with postnatal intestinal pathologies including necrotizing enterocolitis. The underlying mechanisms by which intra-amniotic C.albicans infection adversely affects the fetal gut remain unknown. Therefore, we assessed whether intra-amniotic C.albicans infection would cause intestinal inflammation and mucosal injury in an ovine model. Additionally, we tested whether treatment with the fungistatic fluconazole ameliorated the adverse intestinal outcome of intra-amniotic C.albicans infection. Pregnant sheep received intra-amniotic injections with 107 colony-forming units C.albicans or saline at 3 or 5 days before preterm delivery at 122 days of gestation. Fetuses were given intra-amniotic and intra-peritoneal fluconazole treatments 2 days after intra-amniotic administration of C.albicans. Intra-amniotic C.albicans caused intestinal colonization and invasive growth within the fetal gut with mucosal injury and intestinal inflammation, characterized by increased CD3+ lymphocytes, MPO+ cells and elevated TNF-α and IL-17 mRNA levels. Fluconazole treatment in utero decreased intestinal C.albicans colonization, mucosal injury but failed to attenuate intestinal inflammation. Intra-amniotic C.albicans caused intestinal infection, injury and inflammation. Fluconazole treatment decreased mucosal injury but failed to ameliorate C.albicans-mediated mucosal inflammation emphasizing the need to optimize the applied antifungal therapeutic strategy. PMID:27411776

  2. Intra-amniotic Candida albicans infection induces mucosal injury and inflammation in the ovine fetal intestine.

    PubMed

    Nikiforou, Maria; Jacobs, Esmee M R; Kemp, Matthew W; Hornef, Mathias W; Payne, Matthew S; Saito, Masatoshi; Newnham, John P; Janssen, Leon E W; Jobe, Alan H; Kallapur, Suhas G; Kramer, Boris W; Wolfs, Tim G A M

    2016-01-01

    Chorioamnionitis is caused by intrauterine infection with microorganisms including Candida albicans (C.albicans). Chorioamnionitis is associated with postnatal intestinal pathologies including necrotizing enterocolitis. The underlying mechanisms by which intra-amniotic C.albicans infection adversely affects the fetal gut remain unknown. Therefore, we assessed whether intra-amniotic C.albicans infection would cause intestinal inflammation and mucosal injury in an ovine model. Additionally, we tested whether treatment with the fungistatic fluconazole ameliorated the adverse intestinal outcome of intra-amniotic C.albicans infection. Pregnant sheep received intra-amniotic injections with 10(7) colony-forming units C.albicans or saline at 3 or 5 days before preterm delivery at 122 days of gestation. Fetuses were given intra-amniotic and intra-peritoneal fluconazole treatments 2 days after intra-amniotic administration of C.albicans. Intra-amniotic C.albicans caused intestinal colonization and invasive growth within the fetal gut with mucosal injury and intestinal inflammation, characterized by increased CD3(+) lymphocytes, MPO(+) cells and elevated TNF-α and IL-17 mRNA levels. Fluconazole treatment in utero decreased intestinal C.albicans colonization, mucosal injury but failed to attenuate intestinal inflammation. Intra-amniotic C.albicans caused intestinal infection, injury and inflammation. Fluconazole treatment decreased mucosal injury but failed to ameliorate C.albicans-mediated mucosal inflammation emphasizing the need to optimize the applied antifungal therapeutic strategy. PMID:27411776

  3. Mechanical ventilation and intra-abdominal hypertension: 'Beyond Good and Evil'.

    PubMed

    Pelosi, Paolo; Vargas, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Intra-abdominal hypertension is frequent in surgical and medical critically ill patients. Intra-abdominal hypertension has a serious impact on the function of respiratory as well as peripheral organs. In the presence of alveolar capillary damage, which occurs in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), intra-abdominal hypertension promotes lung injury as well as edema, impedes the pulmonary lymphatic drainage, and increases intra-thoracic pressures, leading to atelectasis, airway closure, and deterioration of respiratory mechanics and gas exchange. The optimal setting of mechanical ventilation and its impact on respiratory function and hemodynamics in ARDS associated with intra-abdominal hypertension are far from being assessed. We suggest that the optimal ventilator management of patients with ARDS and intra-abdominal hypertension would include the following: (a) intra-abdominal, esophageal pressure, and hemodynamic monitoring; (b) ventilation setting with protective tidal volume, recruitment maneuver, and level of positive end-expiratory pressure set according to the 'best' compliance of the respiratory system or the lung; (c) deep sedation with or without neuromuscular paralysis in severe ARDS; and (d) open abdomen in selected patients with severe abdominal compartment syndrome. PMID:23256904

  4. Intra-Company Communication: A Key Element in Marketing Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Fred A.

    Rapid technological development, rising standards of living, and greater pressures of consumerism and consumer expectations have caused shorter product life cycles. Future organizational success will depend on organizations' abilities to respond to the changing opportunities and threats in the marketplace. As companies and products move through…

  5. Intra-amniotic thyroxine to treat fetal goiter.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Jung; Chae, Yong-Hwa; Park, So-Young; Kim, Moon-Young

    2016-01-01

    A 35-year-old pregnant woman visited our department and had been treated with 100 µg of daily oral levothyroxine for hypothyroidism. An ultrasonography screening was performed at 25 weeks gestation and revealed a fetal goiter and an increased amniotic fluid volume. Fetal hypothyroidism was confirmed by cordocentesis and amniotic hormone levels at 26 weeks gestation. We treated the mother with 200 µg of daily oral levothyroxine to optimize the transplacental transfer. A total of four intra-amniotic injections of levothyroxine were administered, resulting in progressive reduction in the fetal thyroid volume of goiter as measured by 3D ultrasonography and increased amniotic fluid volume. Following birth, neonatal serum thyroid stimulating hormone level was within the normal range, but free T4 was reduced. Based on this case, we suggest that monitoring amniotic fluid thyroid hormone concentration and intra-amniotic levothyroxine injection can be used to reduce the thyroid volume of goiters and to prevent polyhydramnios. PMID:26866040

  6. Intra-amniotic thyroxine to treat fetal goiter

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Jung; Chae, Yong-Hwa; Park, So-Young

    2016-01-01

    A 35-year-old pregnant woman visited our department and had been treated with 100 µg of daily oral levothyroxine for hypothyroidism. An ultrasonography screening was performed at 25 weeks gestation and revealed a fetal goiter and an increased amniotic fluid volume. Fetal hypothyroidism was confirmed by cordocentesis and amniotic hormone levels at 26 weeks gestation. We treated the mother with 200 µg of daily oral levothyroxine to optimize the transplacental transfer. A total of four intra-amniotic injections of levothyroxine were administered, resulting in progressive reduction in the fetal thyroid volume of goiter as measured by 3D ultrasonography and increased amniotic fluid volume. Following birth, neonatal serum thyroid stimulating hormone level was within the normal range, but free T4 was reduced. Based on this case, we suggest that monitoring amniotic fluid thyroid hormone concentration and intra-amniotic levothyroxine injection can be used to reduce the thyroid volume of goiters and to prevent polyhydramnios. PMID:26866040

  7. DCT/DST-based transform coding for intra prediction in image/video coding.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Ankur; Fernandes, Felix C

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, we present a DCT/DST based transform scheme that applies either the conventional DCT or type-7 DST for all the video-coding intra-prediction modes: vertical, horizontal, and oblique. Our approach is applicable to any block-based intra prediction scheme in a codec that employs transforms along the horizontal and vertical direction separably. Previously, Han, Saxena, and Rose showed that for the intra-predicted residuals of horizontal and vertical modes, the DST is the optimal transform with performance close to the KLT. Here, we prove that this is indeed the case for the other oblique modes. The optimal choice of using DCT or DST is based on intra-prediction modes and requires no additional signaling information or rate-distortion search. The DCT/DST scheme presented in this paper was adopted in the HEVC standardization in March 2011. Further simplifications, especially to reduce implementation complexity, which remove the mode-dependency between DCT and DST, and simply always use DST for the 4 × 4 intra luma blocks, were adopted in the HEVC standard in July 2012. Simulation results conducted for the DCT/DST algorithm are shown in the reference software for the ongoing HEVC standardization. Our results show that the DCT/DST scheme provides significant BD-rate improvement over the conventional DCT based scheme for intra prediction in video sequences. PMID:23744679

  8. Intra-Fuel Cell Stack Measurements of Transient Concentration Distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Partridge Jr, William P; Toops, Todd J; Green Jr, Johney Boyd; Armstrong, Timothy R.

    2006-01-01

    Intra-fuel-cell measurements are required to understand detailed fuel-cell chemistry and physics, validate models, optimize system design and control, and realize enhanced efficiency regimes; in comparison, conventional integrated fuel-cell supply and effluent measurements are fundamentally limited in value. Intra-reactor measurements are needed for all fuel cell types. This paper demonstrates the ability of a capillary-inlet mass spectrometer to resolve transient species distributions within operating polymer-electrolyte-membrane (PEM) fuel cells and at temperatures typical of solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFC). This is the first such demonstration of a diagnostic that is sufficiently minimally invasive as to allow measurements throughout an operating fuel cell stack. Measurements of transient water, hydrogen, oxygen and diluent concentration dynamics associated with fuel-cell load switching suggest oxygen-limited chemistry. Intra-PEM fuel cell measurements of oxygen distribution at various fuel-cell loads are used to demonstrate concentration gradients, non-uniformities, and anomalous fuel cell operation.

  9. To Market, to Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barden, Dennis M.

    2006-01-01

    The institution is part of a national market and its presidential options are dictated by that market, the reputation, the challenges of the position, and the relative compensation for the opportunity to lead the organization. Many in academe are uncomfortable with the idea that hiring in higher education should be governed by the laws of supply…

  10. Intra voxel analysis in MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrosanio, Michele; Baselice, Fabio; Ferraioli, Giampaolo; Pascazio, Vito

    2014-03-01

    A new application of Compressive Sensing (CS) in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) field is presented. In particular, first results of the Intra Voxel Analysis (IVA) technique are reported. The idea is to exploit CS peculiarities in order to distinguish different contributions inside the same resolution cell, instead of reconstructing images from not fully sampled k-space acquisition. Applied to MRI field, this means the possibility of estimating the presence of different tissues inside the same voxel, i.e. in one pixel of the obtained image. In other words, the method is the first attempt, as far as we know, of achieving Spectroscopy-like results starting from each pixel of MR images. In particular, tissues are distinguished each others by evaluating their spin-spin relaxation times. Within this manuscript, first results on clinical dataset, in particular a phantom made by aqueous solution and oil and an occipital brain lesion corresponding to a metastatic breast cancer nodule, are reported. Considering the phantom dataset, in particular focusing on the slice where the separation between water and oil occurs, the methodology is able to distinguish the two components with different spin-spin relaxation times. With respect to clinical dataset,focusing on a voxel of the lesion area, the approach is able to detect the presence of two tissues, namely the healthy and the cancer related ones, while in other location outside the lesion only the healthy tissue is detected. Of course, these are the first results of the proposed methodology, further studies on different types of clinical datasets are required in order to widely validate the approach. Although few datasets have been considered, results seem both interesting and promising.

  11. Managing hybrid marketing systems.

    PubMed

    Moriarty, R T; Moran, U

    1990-01-01

    As competition increases and costs become critical, companies that once went to market only one way are adding new channels and using new methods - creating hybrid marketing systems. These hybrid marketing systems hold the promise of greater coverage and reduced costs. But they are also hard to manage; they inevitably raise questions of conflict and control: conflict because marketing units compete for customers; control because new indirect channels are less subject to management authority. Hard as they are to manage, however, hybrid marketing systems promise to become the dominant design, replacing the "purebred" channel strategy in all kinds of businesses. The trick to managing the hybrid is to analyze tasks and channels within and across a marketing system. A map - the hybrid grid - can help managers make sense of their hybrid system. What the chart reveals is that channels are not the basic building blocks of a marketing system; marketing tasks are. The hybrid grid forces managers to consider various combinations of channels and tasks that will optimize both cost and coverage. Managing conflict is also an important element of a successful hybrid system. Managers should first acknowledge the inevitability of conflict. Then they should move to bound it by creating guidelines that spell out which customers to serve through which methods. Finally, a marketing and sales productivity (MSP) system, consisting of a central marketing database, can act as the central nervous system of a hybrid marketing system, helping managers create customized channels and service for specific customer segments. PMID:10107959

  12. Livestock Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Futrell, Gene; And Others

    This marketing unit focuses on the seasonal and cyclical patterns of livestock markets. Cash marketing, forward contracting, hedging in the futures markets, and the options markets are examined. Examples illustrate how each marketing tool may be useful in gaining a profit on livestock and cutting risk exposure. The unit is organized in the…

  13. Power systems locational marginal pricing in deregulated markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui-Fung Francis

    Since the beginning of the 1990s, the electricity business is transforming from a vertical integrating business to a competitive market operations. The generation, transmission, distribution subsystem of an electricity utility are operated independently as Genco (generation subsystem), Transco (transmission subsystem), and Distco (distribution subsystem). This trend promotes more economical inter- and intra regional transactions to be made by the participating companies and the users of electricity to achieve the intended objectives of deregulation. There are various types of electricity markets that are implemented in the North America in the past few years. However, transmission congestion management becomes a key issue in the electricity market design as more bilateral transactions are traded across long distances competing for scarce transmission resources. It directly alters the traditional concept of energy pricing and impacts the bottom line, revenue and cost of electricity, of both suppliers and buyers. In this research, transmission congestion problem in a deregulated market environment is elucidated by implementing by the Locational Marginal Pricing (LMP) method. With a comprehensive understanding of the LMP method, new mathematical tools will aid electric utilities in exploring new business opportunities are developed and presented in this dissertation. The dissertation focuses on the development of concept of (LMP) forecasting and its implication to the market participants in deregulated market. Specifically, we explore methods of developing fast LMP calculation techniques that are differ from existing LMPs. We also explore and document the usefulness of the proposed LMP in determining electricity pricing of a large scale power system. The developed mathematical tools use of well-known optimization techniques such as linear programming that are support by several flow charts. The fast and practical security constrained unit commitment methods are the

  14. Intra- to Multi-Decadal Temperature Variability over the Continental United States: 1896-2012

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Optimal Ranking Regime (ORR) method was used to identify intra- to multi-decadal (IMD) time windows containing significant ranking sequences in U.S. climate division temperature data. The simplicity of the ORR procedure’s output – a time series’ most significant non-overlapping periods of high o...

  15. Adaptive use of technical indicators for the prediction of intra-day stock prices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka-Yamawaki, Mieko; Tokuoka, Seiji

    2007-09-01

    We examine the effectiveness of frequently used technical indicators for intra-day forecast by applying them on the tick data of various stock prices. We show that the optimal combination of a few indicators chosen for each stock by using evolutional computation provides us a good forecast on the level of the future price at several ticks ahead.

  16. A focus on intra-abdominal infections

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Complicated intra-abdominal infections are an important cause of morbidity and are frequently associated with poor prognosis, particularly in higher risk patients. Well defined evidence-based recommendations for intra-abdominal infections treatment are partially lacking because of the limited number of randomized-controlled trials. Factors consistently associated with poor outcomes in patients with intra-abdominal infections include increased illness severity, failed source control, inadequate empiric antimicrobial therapy and healthcare-acquired infection. Early prognostic evaluation of complicated intra-abdominal infections is important to select high-risk patients for more aggressive therapeutic procedures. The cornerstones in the management of complicated intra-abdominal infections are both source control and antibiotic therapy. The timing and the adequacy of source control are the most important issues in the management of intra-abdominal infections, because inadequate and late control of septic source may have a negative effect on the outcomes. Recent advances in interventional and more aggressive techniques could significantly decrease the morbidity and mortality of physiologically severe complicated intra-abdominal infections, even if these are still being debated and are yet not validated by limited prospective trials. Empiric antimicrobial therapy is nevertheless important in the overall management of intra-abdominal infections. Inappropriate antibiotic therapy may result in poor patient outcomes and in the appearance of bacterial resistance. Antimicrobial management is generally standardised and many regimens, either with monotherapy or combination therapy, have proven their efficacy. Routine coverage especially against Enterococci and candida spp is not always recommended, but can be useful in particular clinical conditions. A de escalation approach may be recommended in patients with specific risk factors for multidrug resistant infections such as

  17. Evolution of microbial markets

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Gijsbert D. A.; Strassmann, Joan E.; Ivens, Aniek B. F.; Engelmoer, Daniel J. P.; Verbruggen, Erik; Queller, David C.; Noë, Ronald; Johnson, Nancy Collins; Hammerstein, Peter; Kiers, E. Toby

    2014-01-01

    Biological market theory has been used successfully to explain cooperative behavior in many animal species. Microbes also engage in cooperative behaviors, both with hosts and other microbes, that can be described in economic terms. However, a market approach is not traditionally used to analyze these interactions. Here, we extend the biological market framework to ask whether this theory is of use to evolutionary biologists studying microbes. We consider six economic strategies used by microbes to optimize their success in markets. We argue that an economic market framework is a useful tool to generate specific and interesting predictions about microbial interactions, including the evolution of partner discrimination, hoarding strategies, specialized versus diversified mutualistic services, and the role of spatial structures, such as flocks and consortia. There is untapped potential for studying the evolutionary dynamics of microbial systems. Market theory can help structure this potential by characterizing strategic investment of microbes across a diversity of conditions. PMID:24474743

  18. Evolution of microbial markets.

    PubMed

    Werner, Gijsbert D A; Strassmann, Joan E; Ivens, Aniek B F; Engelmoer, Daniel J P; Verbruggen, Erik; Queller, David C; Noë, Ronald; Johnson, Nancy Collins; Hammerstein, Peter; Kiers, E Toby

    2014-01-28

    Biological market theory has been used successfully to explain cooperative behavior in many animal species. Microbes also engage in cooperative behaviors, both with hosts and other microbes, that can be described in economic terms. However, a market approach is not traditionally used to analyze these interactions. Here, we extend the biological market framework to ask whether this theory is of use to evolutionary biologists studying microbes. We consider six economic strategies used by microbes to optimize their success in markets. We argue that an economic market framework is a useful tool to generate specific and interesting predictions about microbial interactions, including the evolution of partner discrimination, hoarding strategies, specialized versus diversified mutualistic services, and the role of spatial structures, such as flocks and consortia. There is untapped potential for studying the evolutionary dynamics of microbial systems. Market theory can help structure this potential by characterizing strategic investment of microbes across a diversity of conditions. PMID:24474743

  19. Effect of Intra-Medullar and Intra-Venous Infusions of Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Cell Engraftment by In-Vivo Cell Tracking and Osteoinductivity in Rabbit Long Bones: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Ishihara, Akikazu; Ohmine, Ken; Weisbrode, Steve E; Bertone, Alicia L

    2014-01-01

    Objective Stem cell therapy can be an efficacious treatment option for bone fragility disorders (eg, osteogenesis imperfecta, disuse osteopenia, and osteoporosis), and successful cell therapy application may be dependent on optimal cell engraftment in target bones. The objective of this study was to compare the efficiency of intra-medullar and intra-venous delivery of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) to improve cell engraftment rate, bone mineral density, and micro-architecture. Methods By using six healthy juvenile New Zealand White rabbits, MSC were isolated from cancellous bone harvests and confirmed to have osteogenic capacity by inducing ectopic bone formation. The MSC were cultured, transduced by foamy viral vectors with marker genes for in vivo cell tracking, and expanded. All rabbits had one randomly selected limb receive intra-medullar infusion of 3×107 to 1×108 autologous MSC in the distal femur or the distal femur and proximal tibia. Two of six rabbits also received an intra-venous MSC infusion. At 28 days, MSC bone engraftment was assessed by PCR and the bone density and microstructure assessed by computed tomography and histomorphometry. Results The intra-medullar-infused MSC were detected in epiphysis or diaphysis of the distal femurs and/or proximal tibiae. Infused MSC comprised 0.01 to 0.3% of all cells in the bone tissues. The intra-venous-infused MSC were not detected in any location. Neither intra-medullar nor intra-venous MSC infusion altered bone volume, bone mineral density, or cortical bone porosity/thickness. Systemic biodistribution of intra-medullar-infused MSC was not evident. Conclusions Our results indicated that intra-medullar infusion can be an effective cell delivery route for stem cell therapy potentially for orthopedic disorders, in preference to systemic administration. Further research is warranted to demonstrate an efficacy of intra-medullar MSC infusion on bone density and micro-architecture using animal models of bone disorders

  20. Intra-observer reliability of Prechtl’s method for the qualitative assessment of general movements in Taiwanese infants

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Kuo-Kuang; Liu, Wen-Yu; Wong, Alice May-Kuen; Chung, Chia-Ying; Lien, Reyin; Chuang, Yu-Fen

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the intra-observer reliability for Prechtl’s General Movements Assessment in Taiwanese infants. This includes the global General Movements Assessment, the Optimality List for Preterm General Movements and Writhing Movements, and the Assessment of Motor Repertoire—3 to 5 Months. [Subjects and Methods] Fifty-nine videos of 37 infants were observed and rated by one physical therapist twice. [Results] The intra-observer reliability ranged from good to very good for the global General Movements Assessment. The overall intra-observer reliabilities for the total score of the Optimality List from preterm up to postmenstrual age 46 weeks and the total score of the Assessment of Motor Repertoire for postmenstrual age 49 to 60 weeks were both good. [Conclusion] The results suggest that the intra-observer reliability of a certified physical therapist was satisfactory for Prechtl’s method in Taiwanese infants. PMID:27313378

  1. Intra-observer reliability of Prechtl's method for the qualitative assessment of general movements in Taiwanese infants.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Kuo-Kuang; Liu, Wen-Yu; Wong, Alice May-Kuen; Chung, Chia-Ying; Lien, Reyin; Chuang, Yu-Fen

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the intra-observer reliability for Prechtl's General Movements Assessment in Taiwanese infants. This includes the global General Movements Assessment, the Optimality List for Preterm General Movements and Writhing Movements, and the Assessment of Motor Repertoire-3 to 5 Months. [Subjects and Methods] Fifty-nine videos of 37 infants were observed and rated by one physical therapist twice. [Results] The intra-observer reliability ranged from good to very good for the global General Movements Assessment. The overall intra-observer reliabilities for the total score of the Optimality List from preterm up to postmenstrual age 46 weeks and the total score of the Assessment of Motor Repertoire for postmenstrual age 49 to 60 weeks were both good. [Conclusion] The results suggest that the intra-observer reliability of a certified physical therapist was satisfactory for Prechtl's method in Taiwanese infants. PMID:27313378

  2. Breast cancer intra-tumor heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In recent years it has become clear that cancer cells within a single tumor can display striking morphological, genetic and behavioral variability. Burgeoning genetic, epigenetic and phenomenological data support the existence of intra-tumor genetic heterogeneity in breast cancers; however, its basis is yet to be fully defined. Two of the most widely evoked concepts to explain the origin of heterogeneity within tumors are the cancer stem cell hypothesis and the clonal evolution model. Although the cancer stem cell model appeared to provide an explanation for the variability among the neoplastic cells within a given cancer, advances in massively parallel sequencing have provided several lines of evidence to suggest that intra-tumor genetic heterogeneity likely plays a fundamental role in the phenotypic heterogeneity observed in cancers. Many challenges remain, however, in the interpretation of the next generation sequencing results obtained so far. Here we review the models that explain tumor heterogeneity, the causes of intra-tumor genetic diversity and their impact on our understanding and management of breast cancer, methods to study intra-tumor heterogeneity and the assessment of intra-tumor genetic heterogeneity in the clinic. PMID:25928070

  3. Intra-articular therapy in osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Uthman, I; Raynauld, J; Haraoui, B

    2003-01-01

    The medical literature was reviewed from 1968–2002 using Medline and the key words "intra-articular" and "osteoarthritis" to determine the various intra-articular therapies used in the treatment of osteoarthritis. Corticosteroids and hyaluronic acid are the most frequently used intra-articular therapies in osteoarthritis. Other intra-articular substances such as orgotein, radiation synovectomy, dextrose prolotherapy, silicone, saline lavage, saline injection without lavage, analgesic agents, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, glucosamine, somatostatin, sodium pentosan polysulfate, chloroquine, mucopolysaccharide polysulfuric acid ester, lactic acid solution, and thiotepa cytostatica have been investigated as potentially therapeutic in the treatment of arthritic joints. Despite the lack of strong, convincing, and reproducible evidence that any of the intra-articular therapies significantly alters the progression of osteoarthritis, corticosteroids and hyaluronic acid are widely used in patients who have failed other therapeutic modalities for lack of efficacy or toxicity. As a practical approach for a knee with effusion, steroid injections should be considered while the presence of symptomatic "dry" knees may favour the hyaluronic acid approach. The virtual absence of serious side effects, coupled with the perceived benefits, make these approaches attractive. PMID:12954956

  4. Extra and Intra-articular Synovial Chondromatosis.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, R K; Banskota, B; Rijal, S; Banskota, A K

    2015-01-01

    Synovial chondromatosis is not so rare intra-articular condition secondary to synovial metaplasia, that affects the knee joint. Extra-articular synovial chondromatosis however is an extremely rare condition that usually involves the synovial sheath or bursa of the foot or hand. We present two cases of synovial chondromatosis, one intra and one extra-articular. The first case was a 25 year old lady who presented with pain, swelling and restricted range of motion of left knee and was found to have an intra-articular synovial chondromatosis which was treated successfully by joint debridement. The second case was that of a 22 year old man who presented with right knee pain and was diagnosed to have an extra-articular synovial chondromatosis of his right medial hamstring tendon sheath, excision of which resulted in complete relief of symptoms. PMID:27549506

  5. A novel intra-operative positron imager for rapid localization of tumor margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabet, Hamid; Stack, Brendan C.; Nagarkar, Vivek V.

    2014-03-01

    We have developed an intra-operative and compact imaging tool for surgeons to detect PET- positive lesions. Currently, most such probes on the market are non-imaging, and provide no ancillary information of surveyed areas, such as clear delineations of malignant tissues. Our probe consists of a novel hybrid scintillator coupled to a compact silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) array with associated front-end electronics encapsulated in an ergonomic housing. Pulse shape discrimination electronics has been implemented and integrated into the downstream data acquisition system. The hybrid scintillator consists of a 0.4 mm thick layer of CsI:Tl scintillator coupled to a 1 mm thick LYSO crystal. To achieve high spatial resolution, CsI:Tl is pixelated to 0.5×0.5 mm2 pixels using laser ablation technique. While CsI:Tl act as beta-sensitive scintillator, LYSO senses the gamma radiation and can be used to navigate the probe to the locations of interest. The gamma response is also subtracted from the beta image for improved SNR and contrast. To achieve accurate centroid position estimation and uniform beta sensitivity over the entire imaging area, the LYSO thickness is optimized such that it acts as scintillation light diffuser by spreading CsI:Tl light over multiple SiPM pixels. The results show that the response of the two scintillators exposed to radiation could be easily distinguished based on their pulse shapes. The probe's spatial resolution is <1.5 mm FWHM in its 10×10 mm2 effective imaging area. The probe can rapidly detect and localize nCi levels of F-18 beta radiation even in presence of strong gamma background.

  6. A psychology of religious plurality: from intra-religious dialogue to intra-psychic reality.

    PubMed

    Kramp, Joseph M

    2012-09-01

    Panikkar's (The intra-religious dialogue, 1978) classic, re-issued by Paulist Press in 1999, grapples with the theological challenges in the disciplines of comparative theology and the theology of religions through what he terms, "intra-religious dialogue." In this psychology of religious plurality, I use works from a variety of disciplines to highlight the achievements of Panikkar's intra-religious dialogue, as well as to critique his work in the hope of finding categories of understanding that can be profitably used to face the inter-personal crises of the contemporary world, namely religious terrorism. PMID:20607410

  7. Intra-abdominal hypertension in the ICU – a prospective epidemiological study

    PubMed Central

    ARABADZHIEV, GEORGI M.; TZANEVA, VALENTINA G.; PEEVA, KATYA G.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this prospective study is to examine the frequency and the severity of intra-abdominal hypertension in a mixed ICU of the University hospital. Methods A closed system for intravesical intermittent measurement of IAP was constructed. Results The frequency and the severity of IAH were examined in the period from June 2009 to December 2012 in 240 ICU patients divided into 3 groups (patients submitted to elective surgery, emergency surgery, and medical patients) in the University Hospital. In the elective surgery group there was 12.5% IAH, while in the emergency group IAH was 43.75%, and in the medical patients it was 42.5%. There was no statistical significant difference in the frequency of IAH among the mixed population of patients we examined and those studied by other authors with the same type of population. Conclusions The standardized measurement of intra-abdominal pressure is fundamental for defining intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome. The measurement of intra-abdominal pressure should be a part of the basic monitoring of patients at risk of intra-abdominal hypertension. Our point of view is that before there are indications for a surgical decompression, less invasive treatment options should be optimized. PMID:26528070

  8. Intra-abdominal sepsis after hepatic resection.

    PubMed Central

    Pace, R F; Blenkharn, J I; Edwards, W J; Orloff, M; Blumgart, L H; Benjamin, I S

    1989-01-01

    One hundred and thirty hepatic resections performed over an 8-year period were reviewed for evidence of postoperative intra-abdominal sepsis. Of 126 patients who survived for more than 24 hours after operation, 36 developed culture positive intra-abdominal collections (28.6%). Significant independent variables associated with the development of intra-abdominal sepsis were diagnoses of trauma or cholangiocarcinoma, and the need for reoperation to control hemorrhage during the postoperative period. Before 1984, infected fluid collections were treated predominantly by operative drainage, but this has largely been replaced by percutaneous methods, which have proven effective in most cases. Eighteen (50%) of the infections were caused by a mixed bacterial culture, with Streptococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli being the most common isolates. Six patients with clinical signs of sepsis had a sterile fluid collection drained with complete relief of symptoms. This review suggests that intra-abdominal sepsis is a frequent complication after hepatic resection, and can often be managed successfully by nonoperative percutaneous drainage. PMID:2493775

  9. Intra-Organizational Conflict in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wynn, Richard

    There is no abundance of research on intra-organizational conflict, and there are no simple answers to the tricky business of managing organizational conflicts. This paper states some propositions about conflict and suggests some management stratagems that can be used in sustaining constructive organizational characteristics. The propositions are…

  10. [The patient with intra-abdominal hypertension].

    PubMed

    Sakka, Samir G

    2016-01-01

    An intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) defined as a pathological increase in intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) is commonly found on ICU admission or during the ICU stay. Several studies confirmed that an IAH is an independent predictor for mortality of critically ill patients. The abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) which is defined as a sustained IAP>20 mmHg (with or without an abdominal perfusion pressure [APP]<60mmHg) that is associated with new organ dysfunction or failure has a mortality of up to 60%. In general, an IAH may be induced by several intra-abdominal as well as extra-abdominal conditions. Reduced abdominal wall compliance, intra-abdominal pathologies (either of the peritoneal space or parenchymateous organs) may lead to an IAH. Most commonly, intra-abdominal infections and/or sepsis and severe trauma or burns are predisposing for an IAH. An early sign may be a decrease in urinary output. The effects of an increased IAP on cardiovascular function are well recognized and include negative effects on preload, afterload and contractility. However, all other compartments of the body may be affected by an IAH. Thus, by an increase of the respective compartment pressure, e.g. intracranial pressure, a poly-compartment syndrome may result. Adequate prevention, a forward-looking strategy, and objective techniques for measurement of IAP are required to avoid or early detect an IAH or ACS. Finally, an immediate and consequent interdisciplinary management using conservative, interventional and operative options are necessary to solve an IAH or ACS. PMID:26863642

  11. Intra-abdominal pressures during activity in women using an intra-vaginal pressure transducer.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Janet M; Hamad, Nadia M; Coleman, Tanner J; Egger, Marlene J; Hsu, Yvonne; Hitchcock, Robert; Nygaard, Ingrid E

    2014-01-01

    Strenuous physical activity has been linked to pelvic floor disorders in women. Using a novel wireless intra-vaginal pressure transducer, intra-abdominal pressure was measured during diverse activities in a laboratory. Fifty-seven women performed a prescribed protocol using the intra-vaginal pressure transducer. We calculated maximal, area under the curve and first moment of the area intra-abdominal pressure for each activity. Planned comparisons of pressure were made between levels of walking and cycling and between activities with reported high pressure in the literature. Findings indicate variability in intra-abdominal pressure amongst individuals doing the same activity, especially in activities that required regulation of effort. There were statistically significant differences in maximal pressure between levels of walking, cycling and high pressure activities. Results for area under the curve and first moment of the area were not always consistent with maximal pressure. Coughing had the highest maximal pressure, but had lower area under the curve and first moment of the area compared to most activities. Our data reflect novel findings of maximal, area under the curve and first moment of the area measures of intra-abdominal pressure, which may have clinical relevance for how physical activity relates to pelvic floor dysfunction. PMID:24575741

  12. Marketing fundamentals.

    PubMed

    Redmond, W H

    2001-01-01

    This chapter outlines current marketing practice from a managerial perspective. The role of marketing within an organization is discussed in relation to efficiency and adaptation to changing environments. Fundamental terms and concepts are presented in an applied context. The implementation of marketing plans is organized around the four P's of marketing: product (or service), promotion (including advertising), place of delivery, and pricing. These are the tools with which marketers seek to better serve their clients and form the basis for competing with other organizations. Basic concepts of strategic relationship management are outlined. Lastly, alternate viewpoints on the role of advertising in healthcare markets are examined. PMID:11401791

  13. Usability Considerations in Developing a Graphic Interface for Intra Office Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yammiyavar, Pradeep; Jain, Piyush

    This paper outlines the basis of incorporating functional features in a new GUI based software under development for addressing comprehensive communication and interaction needs within an office environment. Bench marking of features in existing communication software products such as Microsoft Outlook, IBM Lotusnotes, Office Communicator, Mozilla Thunderbird etc. was done by asking a set of questions related to the usage of these existing softwares. Usability issues were identified through a user survey involving 30 subjects of varied profiles (domain, designation, age etc.) in a corporate office. It is posited that existing software products that have been developed for a universal market may be highly underutilized or have redundant features especially for use as an intra office (within the same office) communication medium. Simultaneously they may not cater to some very contextual requirements of intra office communications. Based on the findings of the survey of feature preferences & usability of existing products, a simple 'person to person' communicating medium for intra office situations was visualized with a new interactive GUI. Usability issues that need to be considered for a new intra-office product have been brought out.

  14. Fast prediction unit selection method for HEVC intra prediction based on salient regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Lei; Dai, Ming; Zhao, Chun-lei; Xiong, Jing-ying

    2016-07-01

    In order to reduce the computational complexity of the high efficiency video coding (HEVC) standard, a new algorithm for HEVC intra prediction, namely, fast prediction unit (PU) size selection method for HEVC based on salient regions is proposed in this paper. We first build a saliency map for each largest coding unit (LCU) to reduce its texture complexity. Secondly, the optimal PU size is determined via a scheme that implements an information entropy comparison among sub-blocks of saliency maps. Finally, we apply the partitioning result of saliency map on the original LCUs, obtaining the optimal partitioning result. Our algorithm can determine the PU size in advance to the angular prediction in intra coding, reducing computational complexity of HEVC. The experimental results show that our algorithm achieves a 37.9% reduction in encoding time, while producing a negligible loss in Bjontegaard delta bit rate ( BDBR) of 0.62%.

  15. 2013 WSES guidelines for management of intra-abdominal infections

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Despite advances in diagnosis, surgery, and antimicrobial therapy, mortality rates associated with complicated intra-abdominal infections remain exceedingly high. The 2013 update of the World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) guidelines for the management of intra-abdominal infections contains evidence-based recommendations for management of patients with intra-abdominal infections. PMID:23294512

  16. Intra-Engine Trace Species Chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waitz, Ian A.; Lukachko, S. P.; Chobot, A.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; Brown, R.

    2002-01-01

    Prompted by the needs of downstream plume-wake models, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and Aerodyne Research Incorporated (ART) initiated a collaborative effort, with funding from the NASA AEAP, to develop tools that would assist in understanding the fundamental drivers of chemical change within the intra-engine exhaust flow path. Efforts have been focused on the development of a modeling methodology that can adequately investigate the complex intra-engine environment. Over the history of this project, our research has increasingly pointed to the intra-engine environment as a possible site for important trace chemical activity. Modeling studies we initiated for the turbine and exhaust nozzle have contributed several important capabilities to the atmospheric effects of aviation assessment. These include a more complete understanding of aerosol precursor production, improved initial conditions for plume-wake modeling studies, and a more comprehensive analysis of ground-based test cell and in-flight exhaust measurement data. In addition, establishing a physical understanding of important flow and chemical processes through computational investigations may eventually assist in the design of engines to reduce undesirable species.

  17. Information and Pollution Permit Markets: Another View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colander, David

    2006-01-01

    In a recent article, Smith and Yates (2003) argued that regulators could gain additional information about the optimal number of permits to issue from two-sided markets. The author argues that they are incorrect in their assertion because the market they refer to is an asymmetric two-sided market in which individuals are only allowed to decrease…

  18. Marketing 101.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Karla A.

    1997-01-01

    A marketing model for camps includes a mix of services, presentation, and communication elements that promote the virtues of camp, convince potential campers and their families of the benefits of camp, and successfully distinguish the camp from others. Includes resources related to marketing strategies, theme merchandise, and market trends…

  19. Capacity Markets and Market Stability

    SciTech Connect

    Stauffer, Hoff

    2006-04-15

    The good news is that market stability can be achieved through a combination of longer-term contracts, auctions for far enough in the future to permit new entry, a capacity management system, and a demand curve. The bad news is that if and when stable capacity markets are designed, the markets may seem to be relatively close to where we started - with integrated resource planning. Market ideologues will find this anathema. (author)

  20. Assessing the Factors Associated With Iran’s Intra-Industry Trade in Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Yusefzadeh, Hassan; Hadian, Mohammad; Gorji, Hassan Abolghasem; Ghaderi, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pharmaceutical industry is a sensitive and profitable industry. If this industry wants to survive, it should be able to compete well in international markets. So, study of Iran’s intra-industry trade (IIT) in pharmaceuticals is essential in order to identify competitiveness potential of country and boost export capability in the global arena. Methods: This study assessed the factors associated with Iran’s intra-industry trade in pharmaceuticals with the rest of the world during the 2001–2012 periods using seasonal time series data at the four-digit SITC level. The data was collected from Iran’s pharmaceutical Statistics, World Bank and International Trade Center. Finally, we discussed a number of important policy recommendations to increase Iran’s IIT in pharmaceuticals. Results: The findings indicated that economies of scale, market structure and degree of economic development had a significantly positive impact on Iran’s intra-industry trade in pharmaceuticals and tariff trade barriers were negatively related to IIT. Product differentiation and technological advancement didn’t have the expected signs. In addition, we found that Iran’s IIT in pharmaceuticals have shown an increasing trend during the study period. Thus, the composition of Iran trade in pharmaceuticals has changed from inter-industry trade to intra-industry trade. Conclusions: In order to get more prepared for integration into the global economy, the development of Iran’s IIT in pharmaceuticals should be given priority. Therefore, paying attention to IIT could have an important role in serving pharmaceutical companies in relation to pharmaceutical trade. PMID:26156931

  1. [Intra-abdominal infection and new quinolones].

    PubMed

    Gnocchi, C A

    1999-01-01

    Intra-abdominal infection is defined as the presence of an infectious process within the peritoneal cavity. It may be local or have a systemic consequence generating multiple organic disfunction. Most of the studies report a mortality of 30% in severe intra-abdominal infection. Secondary peritonitis is caused by the loss of integrity of the gastrointestinal apparatus, which contaminates with pathogens the peritoneal cavity. Invariably they are polymicrobial infections, mostly due to facultative anaerobic and anaerobic Gram negative bacilli. Prognosis of peritonitis depends on the struggle between two forces: local and systemic immunity of the host and the volume, nature and length of the contamination. Microorganisms and their products estimulate cellular defenses in the host and activate numerous inflammatory mediators responsible for sepsis. Antibiotic treatment of secondary peritonitis must act mainly against Escherichia coli and Bacteroides fragilis. The adequate and early empirical administration of antibiotics against these bacteria is well established. It is necessary to consider if the infection is localized or generalized and if it is accompanied or not by organic disfunction. It also has to be taken into account if peritonitis is community or hospital-acquired when choosing the antibiotic scheme. In community-acquired peritonitis with low to moderate infections a combination of metronidazole-ceftriaxone, metronidazole-gentamycin or a monodrug like ampicillin-sulbactam may be used. In severe hospital-acquired peritonitis imipenem or the combination piperacillin-tazobactam are effective. New quinolones such as trovafloxacin or clinafloxacin, with excellent activity against aerobes and anaerobes producing intra-abdominal infections, may be effective. Future clinical trials are needed to determine their utility. Tertiary peritonitis represent a systemic inflammatory response with multiorganic failure due to the uncontrolled activation of the inflammatory

  2. Intra-uterine hematoma in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Glavind, K; Nøhr, S; Nielsen, P H; Ipsen, L

    1991-06-01

    In 60 patients with a live fetus and an intra-uterine hematoma (IUH) proven by ultrasonic scanning the outcome of pregnancy was spontaneous abortion in 12% and premature delivery in 10%. No correlation between the outcome of the pregnancy and the maximum size of the hematoma or the week of detection was found. A subplacentar localization of the hematoma was associated with a higher, but not statistically significant, incidence of spontaneous abortion than a subchorionic localization. Spontaneous abortion most often occurred in the first weeks after the formation of the hematoma. PMID:1855608

  3. Design and analysis of electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sioshansi, Ramteen Mehr

    Restructured competitive electricity markets rely on designing market-based mechanisms which can efficiently coordinate the power system and minimize the exercise of market power. This dissertation is a series of essays which develop and analyze models of restructured electricity markets. Chapter 2 studies the incentive properties of a co-optimized market for energy and reserves that pays reserved generators their implied opportunity cost---which is the difference between their stated energy cost and the market-clearing price for energy. By analyzing the market as a competitive direct revelation mechanism we examine the properties of efficient equilibria and demonstrate that generators have incentives to shade their stated costs below actual costs. We further demonstrate that the expected energy payments of our mechanism is less than that in a disjoint market for energy only. Chapter 3 is an empirical validation of a supply function equilibrium (SFE) model. By comparing theoretically optimal supply functions and actual generation offers into the Texas spot balancing market, we show the SFE to fit the actual behavior of the largest generators in market. This not only serves to validate the model, but also demonstrates the extent to which firms exercise market power. Chapters 4 and 5 examine equity, incentive, and efficiency issues in the design of non-convex commitment auctions. We demonstrate that different near-optimal solutions to a central unit commitment problem which have similar-sized optimality gaps will generally yield vastly different energy prices and payoffs to individual generators. Although solving the mixed integer program to optimality will overcome such issues, we show that this relies on achieving optimality of the commitment---which may not be tractable for large-scale problems within the allotted timeframe. We then simulate and compare a competitive benchmark for a market with centralized and self commitment in order to bound the efficiency

  4. Optimal GENCO bidding strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Feng

    Electricity industries worldwide are undergoing a period of profound upheaval. The conventional vertically integrated mechanism is being replaced by a competitive market environment. Generation companies have incentives to apply novel technologies to lower production costs, for example: Combined Cycle units. Economic dispatch with Combined Cycle units becomes a non-convex optimization problem, which is difficult if not impossible to solve by conventional methods. Several techniques are proposed here: Mixed Integer Linear Programming, a hybrid method, as well as Evolutionary Algorithms. Evolutionary Algorithms share a common mechanism, stochastic searching per generation. The stochastic property makes evolutionary algorithms robust and adaptive enough to solve a non-convex optimization problem. This research implements GA, EP, and PS algorithms for economic dispatch with Combined Cycle units, and makes a comparison with classical Mixed Integer Linear Programming. The electricity market equilibrium model not only helps Independent System Operator/Regulator analyze market performance and market power, but also provides Market Participants the ability to build optimal bidding strategies based on Microeconomics analysis. Supply Function Equilibrium (SFE) is attractive compared to traditional models. This research identifies a proper SFE model, which can be applied to a multiple period situation. The equilibrium condition using discrete time optimal control is then developed for fuel resource constraints. Finally, the research discusses the issues of multiple equilibria and mixed strategies, which are caused by the transmission network. Additionally, an advantage of the proposed model for merchant transmission planning is discussed. A market simulator is a valuable training and evaluation tool to assist sellers, buyers, and regulators to understand market performance and make better decisions. A traditional optimization model may not be enough to consider the distributed

  5. Extracting a shape function for a signal with intra-wave frequency modulation.

    PubMed

    Hou, Thomas Y; Shi, Zuoqiang

    2016-04-13

    In this paper, we develop an effective and robust adaptive time-frequency analysis method for signals with intra-wave frequency modulation. To handle this kind of signals effectively, we generalize our data-driven time-frequency analysis by using a shape function to describe the intra-wave frequency modulation. The idea of using a shape function in time-frequency analysis was first proposed by Wu (Wu 2013 Appl. Comput. Harmon. Anal. 35, 181-199. (doi:10.1016/j.acha.2012.08.008)). A shape function could be any smooth 2π-periodic function. Based on this model, we propose to solve an optimization problem to extract the shape function. By exploring the fact that the shape function is a periodic function with respect to its phase function, we can identify certain low-rank structure of the signal. This low-rank structure enables us to extract the shape function from the signal. Once the shape function is obtained, the instantaneous frequency with intra-wave modulation can be recovered from the shape function. We demonstrate the robustness and efficiency of our method by applying it to several synthetic and real signals. One important observation is that this approach is very stable to noise perturbation. By using the shape function approach, we can capture the intra-wave frequency modulation very well even for noise-polluted signals. In comparison, existing methods such as empirical mode decomposition/ensemble empirical mode decomposition seem to have difficulty in capturing the intra-wave modulation when the signal is polluted by noise. PMID:26953176

  6. Inferomedial or Inferolateral Intra-articular Injections of the Knee to Minimize Pain Intensity.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Todd P; Elmallah, Randa K; Jauregui, Julio J; Cherian, Jeffrey J; Harwin, Steven F; Mont, Michael A

    2016-05-01

    Pain levels of 3 knee intra-articular corticosteroid injection sites were assessed to determine if an optimal site exists. Patients were stratified by site, demographic, and disease characteristics. All injections were performed by 1 surgeon using a uniform technique. Pain severity was assessed before, 1 minute after, and 5 minutes after injection using a visual analog scale. Mean visual analog scale scores for the lateral suprapatellar, medial infrapatellar, and lateral infrapatellar injection sites were 7, 4, and 2 points, respectively, but this was not statistically significant. These results suggest intra-articular injections should be administered from an inferomedial or inferolateral site to minimize pain intensity. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(3):e578-e581.]. PMID:27064778

  7. Marketing Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, Eric

    1998-01-01

    All of our ideas have been field tested and have proven effective in our environment. Our objectives are: We will share our ideas about marketing training and what we've implemented at Michoud Space Systems. You will go away with at least one new idea or insight about how to more effectively market your training.

  8. Tourism Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This document contains teacher materials for a 6-unit, 1-year distributive education course in marketing tourism offered in grades 11 and 12 in North Carolina. Although in general the material presented concerns marketing tourism anywhere, some of it is specifically related to tourism within North Carolina. A purpose statement explains the…

  9. Marketing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stancil, Ronald A., Sr.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the Marketing Education program at West Haven (CT) High School in West Haven, Connecticut, that promotes skills for life and attributes, enhances the academic program, and develops leaders out of ordinary students through an interactive curriculum. The three components of West Haven's marketing and management program are (1)…

  10. Nutrition marketing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Given the obesity epidemic, marketing of non-nutrient dense food has been debated as a policy issue. This research sought to determine how frequently nutrition marketing (health claims, nutrient content claims, or implied claims) is used on labels of foods containing high amounts (>20% daily value) ...

  11. Agricultural Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helt, Lawrence; And Others

    Designed for use in farm business management adult programs, this marketing curriculum includes six teaching lessons and professional staff products. The following topics are covered in the lessons: introduction to marketing; interpretation of price/demand/supply cycles and fundamental outlook trends (carryover/projections/disappearance); farmers'…

  12. Intra-fraction motion of the prostate is a random walk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballhausen, H.; Li, M.; Hegemann, N.-S.; Ganswindt, U.; Belka, C.

    2015-01-01

    isocenter during a fraction, and this variance increases with time, such that shorter fractions are beneficial to the problem of intra-fraction motion. As a consequence, fixed safety margins (which would over-compensate at the beginning and under-compensate at the end of a fraction) cannot optimally account for intra-fraction motion. Instead, online tracking and position correction on-the-fly should be considered as the preferred approach to counter intra-fraction motion.

  13. Intra-Extra Vehicular Activity Apollo Spacesuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Kenneth S.

    2016-01-01

    Kenneth Thomas will discuss the Apollo Intra-Extra Vehicular Activity (IEVA) spacesuits, which supported launch and reentry and extra-vehicular activity. This program was NASA's first attempt to develop a new suit design from requirements and concepts. Mr. Thomas will chronicle the challenges, developments, struggles, and solutions that culminated in the system that allowed the first human exploration of the Moon and deep space (outside low-Earth orbit). Apollo pressure suit designs allowed the heroic repair of the Skylab space station and supported the first U.S. and Russian spacecraft docking during the Apollo Soyuz Test Project. Mr. Thomas will also discuss the IEVA suits' successes and challenges associated with the IEVA developments of the 1960s.

  14. Market trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzsimmons, R. D.

    1976-01-01

    A very large segment of the over water, long haul passenger market, 31% of the passengers who provide 42% of the passenger revenue, offers a significant market for an advanced supersonic transport. This is for both the first class and full-fare economy passenger markets. The supersonic transport may be more competitive here in spite of lower costs of subsonic transports, as passenger preference is a more powerful variable than DOC. This latter fact was amply demonstrated in the late fifties when the jets completely replaced the reciprocating engine transports on most world routes, in spite of slightly higher fares.

  15. [Ultra sonography for the localization of intra-uterine contraceptive devices (i.u.d.'s) (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Meyenburg, M

    1978-11-01

    The localization of uterine devices by ultra-sound techniques was investigated. Seven different types of intra-uterine contraceptive devices were checked under immersion in water and in the uterus of 585 wearers of I.U.D.'s. The quality of the ultra-sound pictures is mostly determined by the type of intra-uterine device. Under optimal conditions the investigated types of I.U.D.'s produced standard ultra-sound pictures which permitted their identification. The evaluation of the localization of the intra-uterine contraceptive devices in the uterus was reasonably accurate. At first the classification of normal localization, lower segment localization and cervical localization was used, and this was later enlarged by the measurement of the distance between the uterine fundus and the end of the device closest to the fundus. It was possible to estimate the contraceptive efficiency with these measurements. In 486 cases (83%) the intra-uterine device was found in normal position. In 24 (4.1%) of the cases removal and repeat insertion of the device was suggested. In 18 (3.1%) cases the device was not localized despite normal intra-uterine localization. PMID:710881

  16. Intra-specific association between carbon isotope composition and productivity in woody plants: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Fardusi, Most Jannatul; Ferrio, Juan Pedro; Comas, Carles; Voltas, Jordi; Resco de Dios, Víctor; Serrano, Luis

    2016-10-01

    The study of intra-specific variations in growth and plant physiological response to drought is crucial to understand the potential for plant adaptation to global change. Carbon isotope composition (δ(13)C) in plant tissues offers an integrated measure of intrinsic water-use efficiency (WUEi). The intra-specific association between δ(13)C and productivity has been extensively studied in herbaceous crops, but species-specific information on woody plants is still limited and has so far provided contradictory results. In this work we explored the general patterns of the relationship between δ(13)C and growth traits (height, diameter and biomass) using a meta-analysis. We compiled information from 49 articles, including 176 studies performed on 34 species from 16 genera. We found a positive global intra-specific correlation between δ(13)C and growth (Gr=0.28, P<0.0001), stronger for biomass than for height, and non-significant for diameter. The extent of this intra-specific association increased from Mediterranean to subtropical, temperate and boreal biomes, i.e. from water-limited to energy-limited environments. Conifers and shrubs, but not broadleaves, showed consistent positive intra-specific correlations. The meta-analysis also revealed that the relationship between δ(13)C and growth is better characterized at juvenile stages, under near-optimal and controlled conditions, and by analyzing δ(13)C in leaves rather than in wood. PMID:27593469

  17. The Professional Woman: Inter and Intra Role Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Jeanne Brett; Kuczynski, Karen Ann

    This study hypothesizes that professional women will have more intra- and inter-role conflict than their male professional counterparts. Data were collected from male and female employees at a major midwestern university in three occupational groups--faculty, academic-professional, and nonacademic. Inter- and intra-role conflict data were…

  18. Wireless Intra-Spacecraft Communication: The Benefits and the Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, Will H.; Armstrong, John T.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a systematic study of how intra-spacecraft wireless communication can be adopted to various subsystems of the spacecraft including C&DH (Command & Data Handling), Telecom, Power, Propulsion, and Payloads, and the interconnects between them. We discuss the advantages of intra-spacecraft wireless communication and the disadvantages and challenges and a proposal to address them.

  19. Structured Set Intra Prediction With Discriminative Learning in a Max-Margin Markov Network for High Efficiency Video Coding

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Wenrui; Xiong, Hongkai; Jiang, Xiaoqian; Chen, Chang Wen

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel model on intra coding for High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC), which simultaneously predicts blocks of pixels with optimal rate distortion. It utilizes the spatial statistical correlation for the optimal prediction based on 2-D contexts, in addition to formulating the data-driven structural interdependences to make the prediction error coherent with the probability distribution, which is desirable for successful transform and coding. The structured set prediction model incorporates a max-margin Markov network (M3N) to regulate and optimize multiple block predictions. The model parameters are learned by discriminating the actual pixel value from other possible estimates to maximize the margin (i.e., decision boundary bandwidth). Compared to existing methods that focus on minimizing prediction error, the M3N-based model adaptively maintains the coherence for a set of predictions. Specifically, the proposed model concurrently optimizes a set of predictions by associating the loss for individual blocks to the joint distribution of succeeding discrete cosine transform coefficients. When the sample size grows, the prediction error is asymptotically upper bounded by the training error under the decomposable loss function. As an internal step, we optimize the underlying Markov network structure to find states that achieve the maximal energy using expectation propagation. For validation, we integrate the proposed model into HEVC for optimal mode selection on rate-distortion optimization. The proposed prediction model obtains up to 2.85% bit rate reduction and achieves better visual quality in comparison to the HEVC intra coding. PMID:25505829

  20. 14 CFR 399.34 - Intra-Hawaii and Intra-Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands fare flexibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Intra-Hawaii and Intra-Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands fare flexibility. 399.34 Section 399.34 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) POLICY STATEMENTS STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY Policies Relating to Rates and Tariffs §...

  1. Identification of an intra-cranial intra-axial porcupine quill foreign body with computed tomography in a canine patient.

    PubMed

    Sauvé, Christopher P; Sereda, Nikki C; Sereda, Colin W

    2012-02-01

    An intra-cranial intra-axial foreign body was diagnosed in a golden retriever dog through the use of computed tomography (CT). Confirmed by necropsy, a porcupine quill had migrated to the patient's left cerebral hemisphere, likely through the oval foramen. This case study demonstrates the efficacy of CT in visualizing a quill in the canine brain. PMID:22851782

  2. Identification of an intra-cranial intra-axial porcupine quill foreign body with computed tomography in a canine patient

    PubMed Central

    Sauvé, Christopher P.; Sereda, Nikki C.; Sereda, Colin W.

    2012-01-01

    An intra-cranial intra-axial foreign body was diagnosed in a golden retriever dog through the use of computed tomography (CT). Confirmed by necropsy, a porcupine quill had migrated to the patient’s left cerebral hemisphere, likely through the oval foramen. This case study demonstrates the efficacy of CT in visualizing a quill in the canine brain. PMID:22851782

  3. Intra-tumor heterogeneity: lessons from microbial evolution and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    de Bruin, Elza C; Taylor, Tiffany B; Swanton, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Multiple subclonal populations of tumor cells can coexist within the same tumor. This intra-tumor heterogeneity will have clinical implications and it is therefore important to identify factors that drive or suppress such heterogeneous tumor progression. Evolutionary biology can provide important insights into this process. In particular, experimental evolution studies of microbial populations, which exist as clonal populations that can diversify into multiple subclones, have revealed important evolutionary processes driving heterogeneity within a population. There are transferrable lessons that can be learnt from these studies that will help us to understand the process of intra-tumor heterogeneity in the clinical setting. In this review, we summarize drivers of microbial diversity that have been identified, such as mutation rate and environmental influences, and discuss how knowledge gained from microbial experimental evolution studies may guide us to identify and understand important selective factors that promote intra-tumor heterogeneity. Furthermore, we discuss how these factors could be used to direct and optimize research efforts to improve patient care, focusing on therapeutic resistance. Finally, we emphasize the need for longitudinal studies to address the impact of these potential tumor heterogeneity-promoting factors on drug resistance, metastatic potential and clinical outcome. PMID:24267946

  4. Desktop MRI as a promising tool for mapping intra-aneurismal flow.

    PubMed

    Perlo, Josefina; Silletta, Emilia V; Danieli, Ernesto; Cattaneo, Giorgio; Acosta, Rodolfo H; Blümich, Bernhard; Casanova, Federico

    2015-04-01

    In this work we evaluate the performance of a 40-mm diameter bore 0.2T desktop Halbach tomograph to obtain 2D and 3D velocity maps for studying intra-aneurismal flow in the presence or absence of nitinol meshed implants with the aim of optimizing the flow diverter efficacy. Phantoms with known spatial velocity distribution were used to determine the performance of the MRI system. Maximum velocities of about 200mm/s could be measured with a precision of 1% at a spatial resolution of 0.5×0.5×1mm(3). This accuracy is suitable to evaluate in vitro intra-aneurismal flow under different conditions such as variable flow rates, different vessel-aneurysm geometry, as well as the influence of metallic flow diverters on the intra-aneurismal flow distribution. The information obtained non-invasively with desktop tomographs can be used to complement in vivo studies in order to decide the optimum flow diverter. PMID:25527392

  5. Intra-abdominal hypertension and acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Mifkovic, A; Skultety, J; Sykora, P; Prochotsky, A; Okolicany, R

    2013-01-01

    Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) contributes to organ dysfunction and leads to the development of the abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). IAH and ACS are relatively frequent findings in patiens with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) and are associated with deterioration in organ functions. The most affected are cardiovascular, respiratory and renal functions. The incidence of IAH in patients with SAP is approximately 60-80%. There is an accumulating evidence in human and animal studies that changes of perfusion, particularly to the microvasculature, are crucial events in the progression of acute pancreatitis (AP). The perfusion of the small and large intestine is impaired due to reduced arterial pressure, increased vascular resistence and diminished portal blood flow. Bacterial translocation has been described in patients with ACS, and this may apply to patients with SAP. Approximately 30-40% of SAP patients develop ACS because of pancreatic (retroperitoneal) inflammation, peripancreatic tissue edema, formation of fluid collections or abdominal distension. Surgical debridement was the preferred treatment to control necrotizing pancreatitis in the past. However, the management of necrotizing pancreatitis has changed over the last decade. The main objective of this article is to describe the association between IAH and AP and to emphasize this situation in clinical praxis as well (Fig. 1, Ref. 38). PMID:23406186

  6. Intra-operative visualization of brain tumors with 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Widhalm, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Precise histopathological diagnosis of brain tumors is essential for the correct patient management. Furthermore, complete resection of brain tumors is associated with an improved patient prognosis. However, histopathological undergrading and incomplete tumor removal are not uncommon, especially due to insufficient intra-operative visualization of brain tumor tissue. The fluorescent dye 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) is currently applied for fluorescence-guided resections of high-grade gliomas. The value of 5-ALA-induced protoporphyrin (PpIX) fluorescence for intra-operative visualization of other tumors than high-grade gliomas remains unclear. Within the frame of this thesis, we found a significantly higher rate of complete resections of our high-grade gliomas as compared to control cases by using the newly established 5-ALA fluorescence technology at our department. Additionally, we showed that MRI spectroscopy-based chemical shift imaging (CSI) is capable to identify intratumoral high-grade glioma areas (= anaplastic foci) during navigation guided resections to avoid histopathological undergrading. However, the accuracy of navigation systems with integrated pre-operative imaging data such as CSI declines during resections due to intra-operative brainshift. In two further studies, we found that 5-ALA induced PpIX fluorescence is capable as a novel intra-operative marker to detect anaplastic foci within initially suspected low-grade gliomas independent of brainshift. Finally, we showed that the application of 5-ALA is also of relevance in needle biopsies for intra-operative identification of representative brain tumor tissue. These data indicate that 5-ALA is not only of major importance for resection of high-grade gliomas, but also for intra-operative visualization of anaplastic foci as well as representative brain tumor tissue in needle biopsies unaffected by brainshift. Consequently, this new technique might become a novel standard in brain tumor surgery that

  7. Detrending the realized volatility in the global FX market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Anatoly B.

    2009-05-01

    There has been growing interest in realized volatility (RV) of financial assets that is calculated using intra-day returns. The choice of optimal time grid for these calculations is not trivial and generally requires analysis of RV dependence on the grid spacing (so-called RV signature). Typical RV signatures have a maximum at the finest time grid spacing available, which is attributed to the microstructure effects. This maximum decays into a plateau at lower frequencies, which implies (almost) stationary return variance. We found that the RV signatures in the modern global FX market may have no plateau or even have a maximum at lower frequencies. Simple averaging methods used to address the microstructure effects in equities have no practical effect on the FX RV signatures. We show that local detrending of the high-frequency FX rate samples yields RV signatures with a pronounced plateau. This implies that FX rates can be described with a Brownian motion having non-stationary trend and stationary variance. We point at a role of algorithmic trading as a possible cause of micro-trends in FX rates.

  8. Expert review--identification of intra-partum fetal compromise.

    PubMed

    Prior, Tomas; Kumar, Sailesh

    2015-07-01

    Whilst most cases of cerebral palsy occur as a consequence of an ante-natal insult, a significant proportion, particularly in the term fetus, are attributable to intra-partum hypoxia. Intra-partum monitoring using continuous fetal heart rate assessment has led to an increased incidence of operative delivery without a concurrent reduction in the incidence of cerebral palsy. Despite this, birth asphyxia remains the strongest and most consistent risk factor for cerebral palsy in term infants. This review evaluates current intra-partum monitoring techniques as well as alternative approaches aimed at better identification of the fetus at risk of compromise in labour. PMID:25917435

  9. Intra-metropolitan migration in the Warsaw agglomeration.

    PubMed

    Rykiel, Z

    1984-01-01

    "Two questions of intra-metropolitan migration are analyzed in the paper, intra-metropolitan hierarchy and intra-metropolitan spatial barriers. The former embraces four detailed questions: ranking of centers; spatial pattern of hierarchical subordination; degree of unequivocalness of the subordinations, or degree of dominance; and degree of hierarchicality of interrelationships. Two specialties of the Warsaw [Poland] agglomeration are discussed, the influence of the present crisis, and the administrative restrictions to migration to the city, or the spatial barriers. Social connotations of the latter are also presented." PMID:12312885

  10. The Charlotte (TM) intra-vehicular robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swaim, Patrick L.; Thompson, Clark J.; Campbell, Perry D.

    1994-01-01

    NASA has identified telerobotics and telescience as essential technologies to reduce the crew extra-vehicular activity (EVA) and intra-vehicular activity (IVA) workloads. Under this project, we are developing and flight testing a novel IVA robot to relieve the crew of tedious and routine tasks. Through ground telerobotic control of this robot, we will enable ground researchers to routinely interact with experiments in space. Our approach is to develop an IVA robot system incrementally by employing a series of flight tests with increasing complexity. This approach has the advantages of providing an early IVA capability that can assist the crew, demonstrate capabilities that ground researchers can be confident of in planning for future experiments, and allow incremental refinement of system capabilities and insertion of new technology. In parallel with this approach to flight testing, we seek to establish ground test beds, in which the requirements of payload experimenters can be further investigated. In 1993 we reviewed manifested SpaceHab experiments and defined IVA robot requirements to assist in their operation. We also examined previous IVA robot designs and assessed them against flight requirements. We rejected previous design concepts on the basis of threat to crew safety, operability, and maintainability. Based on this insight, we developed an entirely new concept for IVA robotics, the CHARLOTTE robot system. Ground based testing of a prototype version of the system has already proven its ability to perform most common tasks demanded of the crew, including operation of switches, buttons, knobs, dials, and performing video surveys of experiments and switch panels.

  11. Intra-fraction setup variability: IR optical localization vs. X-ray imaging in a hypofractionated patient population

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to investigate intra-fraction setup variability in hypo-fractionated cranial and body radiotherapy; this is achieved by means of integrated infrared optical localization and stereoscopic kV X-ray imaging. Method and Materials We analyzed data coming from 87 patients treated with hypo-fractionated radiotherapy at cranial and extra-cranial sites. Patient setup was realized through the ExacTrac X-ray 6D system (BrainLAB, Germany), consisting of 2 infrared TV cameras for external fiducial localization and X-ray imaging in double projection for image registration. Before irradiation, patients were pre-aligned relying on optical marker localization. Patient position was refined through the automatic matching of X-ray images to digitally reconstructed radiographs, providing 6 corrective parameters that were automatically applied using a robotic couch. Infrared patient localization and X-ray imaging were performed at the end of treatment, thus providing independent measures of intra-fraction motion. Results According to optical measurements, the size of intra-fraction motion was (median ± quartile) 0.3 ± 0.3 mm, 0.6 ± 0.6 mm, 0.7 ± 0.6 mm for cranial, abdominal and lung patients, respectively. X-ray image registration estimated larger intra-fraction motion, equal to 0.9 ± 0.8 mm, 1.3 ± 1.2 mm, 1.8 ± 2.2 mm, correspondingly. Conclusion Optical tracking highlighted negligible intra-fraction motion at both cranial and extra-cranial sites. The larger motion detected by X-ray image registration showed significant inter-patient variability, in contrast to infrared optical tracking measurement. Infrared localization is put forward as the optimal strategy to monitor intra-fraction motion, featuring robustness, flexibility and less invasivity with respect to X-ray based techniques. PMID:21496255

  12. Development of a wireless intra-vaginal transducer for monitoring intra-abdominal pressure in women

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Tanner J.; Thomsen, Jens C.; Maass, Sean D.; Hsu, Yvonne; Nygaard, Ingrid E.

    2011-01-01

    Pelvic floor disorders (PFD) affect one of every four women in the United States. Elevated intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) during daily activity or strenuous physical activity has been identified as a risk factor in the prevalence of PFD. However, the relationship between IAP and physical activity is poorly understood and oftentimes activity restrictions are prescribed by physicians without clinical evidence linking various activities to elevated IAP. There are currently no pressure transducers capable of monitoring IAP non-invasively out of a clinical environment. To overcome this shortcoming, a novel intra-vaginal pressure transducer (IVT) was developed to continuously monitor IAP. Improvements were made to the first generation IVT by incorporating wireless capability to enhance the device’s mobility while creating a more robust IAP monitoring system. To ensure the changes maintained the functionality of the original device design, comparison testing with standard clinical pressure transducers in both bench top and clinical settings was conducted. The wireless device was found to have high linearity, robust signal transmission, and dynamic response that outperforms the clinical standard rectal transducer and is similar to the original first generation non-wireless design. The wireless IVT presented here is a mobile wireless device capable of measuring, storing and transmitting IAP data during various physical activities. PMID:22147020

  13. INTRA-UNDULATOR MEASUREMENTS AT VISA FEL.

    SciTech Connect

    MUROKH,A.; FRIGOLA,P.; ET AL; JOHNSON,E.; WANG,X.J.; YAKIMENKO,V.

    2000-08-13

    We describe a diagnostics system developed, to measure exponential gain properties and the electron beam dynamics inside the strong focusing 4-m long undulator for the VISA (Visible to Infrared SASE Amplifier) FEL. The technical challenges included working inside the small undulator gap, optimizing the electron beam diagnostics in the high background environment of the spontaneous undulator radiation, multiplexing and transporting the photon beam. Initial results are discussed.

  14. Intra-undulator measurements at VISA FEL

    SciTech Connect

    Murokh, A; Frigola, P; Pellegrini, C; Rosenzweig, J; Tremaine, A; Johnson, E; Wang, X J; Yakimenko, V; Klaisner, L; Nuhn, H D; Toor, A

    2000-08-10

    We describe a diagnostics system developed, to measure exponential gain properties and the electron beam dynamics inside the strong focusing 4-m long undulator for the VISA (Visible to Infrared SASE Amplifier) FEL. The technical challenges included working inside the small undulator gap, optimizing the electron beam diagnostics in the high background environment of the spontaneous undulator radiation, multiplexing and transporting the photon beam. Initial results are discussed.

  15. Marketing Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, O. Gene

    1995-01-01

    Relates the marketing concept to library reference services. Highlights include a review of the literature and an overview of marketing, including research, the marketing mix, strategic plan, marketing plan, and marketing audit. Marketing principles are applied to reference services through the marketing mix elements of product, price, place, and…

  16. Sports Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Career-Technical and Adult Education.

    This document presents the Ohio Integrated Technical and Academic Competency profile for sports marketing. The profile is to serve as the basis for curriculum development in Ohio's secondary, adult, and postsecondary programs. The profile includes a comprehensive listing of 999 specialty key indicators for evaluating mastery of 113 competencies in…

  17. Intra-channel nonlinearity compensation with scaled translational symmetry.

    PubMed

    Wei, Haiqing; Plant, David

    2004-09-01

    It is proposed and demonstrated that two fiber spans in a scaled translational symmetry could cancel out their intra-channel nonlinear effects to a large extent without using optical phase conjugation. Significant reduction of intra-channel nonlinear effects may be achieved in a long-distance transmission line consisting of multiple pairs of translationally symmetric spans. The results have been derived analytically from the nonlinear Schrödinger equation and verified by numerical simulations using commercial software. PMID:19483975

  18. Role of Transcatheter Intra-arterial Therapies for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Shashi B.; Sharma, Hanish

    2014-01-01

    Transcatheter intra-arterial therapies play a vital role in treatment of HCC due to the unique tumor vasculature. Evolution of techniques and newer efficacious modalities of tumor destruction have made these techniques popular. Various types of intra-arterial therapeutic options are currently available. These constitute: bland embolization, trans-arterial chemotherapy, trans-arterial chemo embolization with or without drug-eluting beads and trans-arterial radio embolization, which are elaborated in this review. PMID:25755602

  19. Computational pharmacokinetic rationale for intra-arterial delivery to the brain.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Johann N R; Ellis, Jason A; Hossain, Shaolie; Nguyen, Juliane; Bruce, Jeffrey N; Joshi, Shailendra

    2016-10-01

    Intra-arterial (IA) drug delivery has been proposed for the treatment of a wide range of brain diseases, including malignant brain tumors. However, pharmacokinetic optimization for IA drug delivery to the brain remains a challenge. In this report, we apply and expand the well-established Dedrick model of IA drug delivery to the brain and test the effects of modifying drug and delivery parameters. These simulations show that altering the properties of candidate drugs and physiological variables can have profound effects on regional deposition after IA injections. We show that drug and physiological optimization aimed at rapid drug extraction and sustained retention is necessary to maximize regional deposition after of IA injections. PMID:27431401

  20. [Intra and extra-familiar sexual abuse].

    PubMed

    Taveira, Francisco; Frazão, Sofia; Dias, Ricardo; Matos, Eduarda; Magalhães, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    The sexual abuse of a child or young person constitutes a major social and public health problem and there is recent evidence that intra-familial (IF) sexual abuses are more serious in their consequences than extra-familial (EF). However, there are no studies on this phenomenon in Portugal. Thus, the aim of the present study is to contribute to a better characterization of these types of abuses and to identify possible differences between IF and EF cases. A retrospective study was preformed based on medico-legal reports related to victims below the age of 18, suspected of being sexually abused (n = 764), corresponding to 67% of the total of observed sexual crimes. Results revealed that 34.9% of the abuses are IF and they show statistically significant differences when compared to EF cases. These are due to the following factors found in IF situations: a) lower victim age; b) closeness between victim and abuser; c) abusers with a higher rate of previous sexual abuse; d) sexual practices of reduced physical intrusion; e) decreased physical violence but increased emotional violence; f) greater delay between last abuse and the forensic exam; g) reduced number of injuries or biological evidence (none in the great majority of the cases). Results point out the existence of several characteristics in IF abuse that have been identified as factors that influence the severity of the abuse consequences. Among them are: a) lower victim age; b) greater proximity to the abuser; c) increased amount of emotional violence. These factors account for the reduced visibility of this kind of cases and therefore explain their delayed disclosure and diagnosis. The association of this fact with the reduced intrusiveness of this sort of practice and the consequent decrease in number of injuries and other evidence leads to a marked reduction of the number of cases where evidence of the abuse can be found by physical examination alone. The above aspects underlie the need of using different

  1. A general model of intra-annual tree growth using dendrometer bands.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Sean M; Parker, Geoffrey G

    2015-01-01

    Tree growth is an important indicator of forest health, productivity, and demography. Knowing precisely how trees' grow within a year, instead of across years, can lead to a finer understanding of the mechanisms that drive these larger patterns. The growing use of dendrometer bands in research forests has only rarely been used to measure growth at resolutions finer than yearly, but intra-annual growth patterns can be observed from dendrometer bands using precision digital calipers and weekly measurements. Here we present a workflow to help forest ecologists fit growth models to intra-annual measurements using standard optimization functions provided by the R platform. We explain our protocol, test uncertainty in parameter estimates with respect to sample sizes, extend the optimization protocol to estimate robust lower and upper annual diameter bounds, and discuss potential challenges to optimal fits. We offer R code to implement this workflow. We found that starting values and initial optimization routines are critical to fitting the best functional forms. After using a bounded, broad search method, a more focused search algorithm obtained consistent results. To estimate starting and ending annual diameters, we combined the growth function with early and late estimates of beginning and ending growth. Once we fit the functions, we present extension algorithms that estimate periodic reductions in growth, total growth, and present a method of controlling for the shifting allocation to girth during the growth season. We demonstrate that with these extensions, an analysis of growth response to weather (e.g., the water available to a tree) can be derived in a way that is comparable across trees, years, and sites. Thus, this approach, when applied across broader data sets, offers a pathway to build inference about the effects of seasonal weather on growth, size- and light-dependent patterns of growth, species-specific patterns, and phenology. PMID:25691954

  2. A general model of intra-annual tree growth using dendrometer bands

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Sean M; Parker, Geoffrey G

    2015-01-01

    Tree growth is an important indicator of forest health, productivity, and demography. Knowing precisely how trees' grow within a year, instead of across years, can lead to a finer understanding of the mechanisms that drive these larger patterns. The growing use of dendrometer bands in research forests has only rarely been used to measure growth at resolutions finer than yearly, but intra-annual growth patterns can be observed from dendrometer bands using precision digital calipers and weekly measurements. Here we present a workflow to help forest ecologists fit growth models to intra-annual measurements using standard optimization functions provided by the R platform. We explain our protocol, test uncertainty in parameter estimates with respect to sample sizes, extend the optimization protocol to estimate robust lower and upper annual diameter bounds, and discuss potential challenges to optimal fits. We offer R code to implement this workflow. We found that starting values and initial optimization routines are critical to fitting the best functional forms. After using a bounded, broad search method, a more focused search algorithm obtained consistent results. To estimate starting and ending annual diameters, we combined the growth function with early and late estimates of beginning and ending growth. Once we fit the functions, we present extension algorithms that estimate periodic reductions in growth, total growth, and present a method of controlling for the shifting allocation to girth during the growth season. We demonstrate that with these extensions, an analysis of growth response to weather (e.g., the water available to a tree) can be derived in a way that is comparable across trees, years, and sites. Thus, this approach, when applied across broader data sets, offers a pathway to build inference about the effects of seasonal weather on growth, size- and light-dependent patterns of growth, species-specific patterns, and phenology. PMID:25691954

  3. Market maturity

    SciTech Connect

    Meade, B.; Bowden, S.; Ellis, M

    1995-02-01

    The power sector in the Philipines provides one of the most mature independent power markets in Asia. Over the past five years, National Power Corp. (NPC), the government owned utility, has actively invited the power sector into power generation. Distribution has remained in the hands of private and rural cooperative utilities. Private utilities have been operating as full requirements customers of NPC while the growth in capacity additions by independent power producers (IPPs) has outpaced NPC`s for the second year in a row. With a recovering economy and regulatory reform proceeding, the outlook for independent power remains strong through the end of the decade. The Philipine Congress is now reviewing draft legislation that will decentralize NPC and begin the process of privatization and market-based reforms throughout the country`s power sector.

  4. HOMER® Micropower Optimization Model

    SciTech Connect

    Lilienthal, P.

    2005-01-01

    NREL has developed the HOMER micropower optimization model. The model can analyze all of the available small power technologies individually and in hybrid configurations to identify least-cost solutions to energy requirements. This capability is valuable to a diverse set of energy professionals and applications. NREL has actively supported its growing user base and developed training programs around the model. These activities are helping to grow the global market for solar technologies.

  5. 78 FR 24282 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; the NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... contract side. See Securities Exchange Act Release No. 68025 (October 10, 2012), 77 FR 63398 (October 16... proposal creates a burden on intra-market competition because the Exchange is applying the same Routing... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; the NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and...

  6. 21 CFR 870.2855 - Implantable Intra-aneurysm Pressure Measurement System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Implantable Intra-aneurysm Pressure Measurement... § 870.2855 Implantable Intra-aneurysm Pressure Measurement System. (a) Identification. Implantable intra-aneurysm pressure measurement system is a device used to measure the intra-sac pressure in a...

  7. 21 CFR 870.2855 - Implantable Intra-aneurysm Pressure Measurement System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Implantable Intra-aneurysm Pressure Measurement... § 870.2855 Implantable Intra-aneurysm Pressure Measurement System. (a) Identification. Implantable intra-aneurysm pressure measurement system is a device used to measure the intra-sac pressure in a...

  8. 21 CFR 870.2855 - Implantable Intra-aneurysm Pressure Measurement System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Implantable Intra-aneurysm Pressure Measurement... § 870.2855 Implantable Intra-aneurysm Pressure Measurement System. (a) Identification. Implantable intra-aneurysm pressure measurement system is a device used to measure the intra-sac pressure in a...

  9. 21 CFR 870.2855 - Implantable Intra-aneurysm Pressure Measurement System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Implantable Intra-aneurysm Pressure Measurement... § 870.2855 Implantable Intra-aneurysm Pressure Measurement System. (a) Identification. Implantable intra-aneurysm pressure measurement system is a device used to measure the intra-sac pressure in a...

  10. 21 CFR 870.2855 - Implantable Intra-aneurysm Pressure Measurement System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Implantable Intra-aneurysm Pressure Measurement... § 870.2855 Implantable Intra-aneurysm Pressure Measurement System. (a) Identification. Implantable intra-aneurysm pressure measurement system is a device used to measure the intra-sac pressure in a...

  11. [Preparation and evaluation of intra-articular injectable sinomenine hydrochloride-loaded in situ liquid crystals].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-lin; Gui, Shuang-ying; Liang, Xin; Wang, Sheng-mei; Jiang, Xiao-jing

    2016-01-01

    Phytantriol (PT), ethanol (ET) and water were used to prepare in situ cubic liquid crystal (ISV2). The pseudo-ternary phase diagram of PT-ET-water was constructed and isotropic solution formulations were chosen for further optimization. The physicochemical properties of isotropic solution formulations were evaluated to optimize the composition of ISV2. In situ hexagonal liquid crystals (ISH2) were prepared based on the composition of ISV2 with the addition of vitamin E acetate (VitEA) and the amount of VitEA was optimized by in vitro release behavior. The phase structures of liquid crystalline gels formed by ISV2 and ISH2 in excess water were confirmed by crossed polarized light microscopy and small angle X-ray scattering, respectively. Rheological properties of ISV2 and ISH2 were studied by a DHR-2 rheometer. In vitro drug release studies were conducted by using a dialysis membrane diffusion method. Pharmacokinetics was investigated by determination of sinomenine hydrochloride (SMH) concentration in synovial membrane after intra-articular injection of SMH-loaded ISH2 in adjuvant-induced arthritis rats. The optimal ISV2 (PT/ET/water, 64 : 16 : 20, w/w/w) loaded with 6 mg x g(-1) of SMH showed a suitable pH, injectable and formed a cubic liquid crystalline gel in situ with minimum water absorption in the shortest time. The optimal ISV2 was able to sustain the drug release for 144 h. The optimal ISH2 system was prepared by addition of 5% VitEA into PT in the optimal ISV2 system. This ISH2 (PT/VitEA/ET/water, 60.8 : 3.2 : 16 : 20, w/w/w/w) was an injectable isotropic solution with suitable pH. The new ISH2 was able to sustain the drug release for more than 240 h. Local pharmacokinetics study indicated that the retention time and AUC(0-∞) of ISH2 group were increased significantly compared with that of SMH solution group and the AUC(0-∞) of ISH2 group was 6.01 times higher than that of SMH solution group. The developed ISH2 was suitable for intra

  12. Intra-oral PTH Administration Promotes Tooth Extraction Socket Healing

    PubMed Central

    Kuroshima, S.; Kovacic, B.L.; Kozloff, K.M.; McCauley, L.K.; Yamashita, J.

    2013-01-01

    Intermittent parathyroid hormone (PTH) administration increases systemic and craniofacial bone mass. However, the effect of PTH therapy on healing of tooth extraction sites is unknown. The aims of this study were to determine the effect of PTH therapy on tooth extraction socket healing and to examine whether PTH intra-oral injection promotes healing. The mandibular first molars were extracted in rats, and subcutaneous PTH was administered intermittently for 7, 14, and 28 days. In a second study, maxillary second molars were extracted, and PTH was administered by either subcutaneous or intra-oral injection to determine the efficacy of intra-oral PTH administration. Healing was assessed by micro-computed tomography and histomorphometric analyses. PTH therapy accelerated the entire healing process and promoted both hard- and soft-tissue healing by increasing bone fill and connective tissue maturation. PTH therapy by intra-oral injection was as effective as subcutaneous injection in promoting tooth extraction socket healing. The findings suggest that PTH therapy promotes tooth extraction socket healing and that intra-oral injections can be used to administer PTH. PMID:23611925

  13. Marketing Maps: Illustrating How Marketing Works

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gyure, James F.; Arnold, Susan G.

    2003-01-01

    Today's colleges and universities may tolerate the "idea" of marketing more easily, but marketers must continue to educate campus communities about marketing theories and practice. To promote a useful appreciation of how theories translate into initiatives, we propose incorporating "marketing maps"-user-friendly graphic representations of how…

  14. The flow and asset markets of a nonrenewable resource

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, T.A.

    1988-01-01

    A theoretical model of the flow and asset markets for a nonrenewable resource was constructed. The flow market is the market for the extracted resource. The asset market is represented by the market for reserves of the resource. The flow and asset markets are combined as a simultaneous system to represent the behavior of a nonrenewable resource market. A key feature of this approach is the specification of an explicit and endogenous asset market. Conventional models of nonrenewable resource markets are based on the optimal depletion of the resource over time. These optimal depletion models effectively specify an implicit asset market and assume that the resource market adjusts by changes in extraction. In contrast, the flow-asset specification recognizes a simultaneous adjustment process in the asset market and flow market. The flow-asset framework is modeled in the case of certainty and uncertainty. Comparative statics for both models are derived. Several extensions are developed from the flow-asset framework. First, the price dynamics and stability properties are evaluated from an excess demand price adjustment model. Second, exploration is added to the flow-asset model to allow for the discovery of new reserves. Third, empirical estimates are derived in an application of the flow-asset framework to the domestic oil and natural gas markets.

  15. Locoregional intra-arterial therapies for unresectable intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hong, Kelvin; Geschwind, Jean-Francois H

    2010-04-01

    Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is a rare hepatic malignancy that for patients with unresectable disease is uniformly fatal. Only approximately 30% of patients are eligible for resection because of the advanced nature of the disease at the time of diagnosis. Systemic chemotherapy has been disappointing in regard to its efficacy, with most regimens resulting in a median survival of 6 to12 months. There has been great interest in other modalities of treatment, particularly intra-arterial therapies, which consist of a catheter-based group of treatments where therapeutic and/or embolic agents are intra-arterially injected to target the liver tumors. In this report, we attempt to employ an evidence-based approach to critically review and comprehend the current role and future potential of intra-arterial therapies for ICC. PMID:20494703

  16. Intra-articular Placement of an Intraosseous Catheter.

    PubMed

    Grabel, Zachary; DePasse, J Mason; Lareau, Craig R; Born, Christopher T; Daniels, Alan H

    2015-02-01

    Gaining vascular access is essential in the resuscitation of critically ill patients. Intraosseous (IO) placement is a fundamentally important alternative to intravenous (IV) access in conditions where IV access delays resuscitation or is not possible. This case report presents a previously unreported example of prehospital misplacement of an IO catheter into the intra-articular space of the knee joint. This report serves to inform civilian and military first responders, as well as emergency medicine physicians, of intra-articular IO line placement as a potential complication of IO vascular access. Infusion of large amounts of fluid into the joint space could damage the joint and be catastrophic to a patient who needs immediate IV fluids or medications. In addition, intra-articular IO placement could result in septic arthritis of the knee. PMID:25483729

  17. The Topical Application of Rosuvastatin in Preventing Knee Intra-Articular Adhesion in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Haixiao; Germanov, Alexey V.; Goryaeva, Galina L.; Yachmenev, Alexander N.; Gordienko, Dmitriy I.; Kuzin, Victor V.; Skoroglyadov, Alexander V.

    2016-01-01

    Background Intra-articular adhesion is one of the common complications of post knee surgery and injury. The formation of joint adhesion can lead to serious dysfunction. Rosuvastatin (ROS) is a new 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor, with multiple biological effects. In our study, the object was to evaluate the effectiveness of ROS in the prevention of post-operative knee adhesion in rats. Material/Methods Femoral condyle exposing surgery was performed on 45 healthy Sprague Dawley rats. Gelatin sponges soaked with 20 mg/kg of ROS, 10 mg/kg of ROS, or saline were used to cover the surgical site. The post-operative knee joints were fixed in a flexed position with micro Kirschner wires for four weeks. ROS effectiveness for treating intra-articular adhesion was determined with visual score evaluation, hydroxyproline content, histological analyses, immunohistochemistry, and inflammatory and vascular endothelial growth factors expression. Results The animals’ recovery was stable after surgery. The hydroxyproline content, visual score, and inflammatory vascular growth factors expression levels suggested that, compared with the control group, the ROS treatment groups showed better outcomes. ROS prevented joint adhesion formation, collagen deposition, and vascularization at the surgical site, and also inhibited inflammatory activity post-operatively. Compared with the 10 mg/kg ROS group, the 20 mg/kg ROS group showed significantly better outcomes. Conclusions The local application of ROS reduced intra-articular adhesion formation, collagen deposition, and vascularization at the surgical site, and inhibited inflammatory activity post-operatively. These results suggested optimal concentration of ROS to be 20 mg/kg. PMID:27115197

  18. Chemical enrichment history of the intra-cluster medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cora, S. A.; Borgani, S.

    We investigate the evolution of the chemical enrichment of the intra-cluster medium by applying a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation to N-Body/SPH non-radiative numerical simulations of clusters of galaxies (Cora 2006). The results of this hybrid model for a set of clusters of different masses contribute to the theoretical interpretation of recent observational X-ray data, which indicate a decrease of the iron content of the intra-cluster gas with redshift (Balestra et al. 2006).

  19. Intra-cranial Toxoplasmosis in an Immunocompetent Female.

    PubMed

    Hoti, Yaser Ud Din; Aziz, Amir; Ishaque, Khurram; Abbas, Sadia; Ud Din, Tariq Salah

    2016-06-01

    Intra-cranial toxoplasmosis is a rare entity occurring mostly in immunosuppressed individuals. It is extremely rare in an immune competent patient. Toxoplasmosis is the third leading cause of food borne illness. Depending upon the site, degree of inflammation and local damage, toxoplasmosis encephalitis and cranial abscess can cause long lasting neurologic sequel. With modern imaging techniques, toxoplasmosis antibody titers, slit lamp examination and brain biopsy, there is improvement in diagnosis along with reduction in the mortality rate. We present a case illustrating the radiological manifestations, complications, potential pitfalls in diagnosis and treatment of intra-cranial toxoplasmosis in immunocompetent patient. PMID:27376217

  20. Physician’ entrepreneurship explained: a case study of intra-organizational dynamics in Dutch hospitals and specialty clinics

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Challenges brought about by developments such as continuing market reforms and budget reductions have strained the relation between managers and physicians in hospitals. By applying neo-institutional theory, we research how intra-organizational dynamics between physicians and managers induce physicians to become entrepreneurs by starting a specialty clinic. In addition, we determine the nature of this change by analyzing the intra-organizational dynamics in both hospitals and clinics. Methods For our research, we interviewed a total of fifteen physicians and eight managers in four hospitals and twelve physicians and seven managers in twelve specialty clinics. Results We found evidence that in becoming entrepreneurs, physicians are influenced by intra-organizational dynamics, including power dependence, interest dissatisfaction, and value commitments, between physicians and managers as well as among physicians’ groups. The precise motivation for starting a new clinic can vary depending on the medical or business logic in which the entrepreneurs are embedded, but also the presence of an entrepreneurial nature or nurture. Finally we found that the entrepreneurial process of starting a specialty clinic is a process of sedimented change or hybridized professionalism in which elements of the business logic are added to the existing logic of medical professionalism, leading to a hybrid logic. Conclusions These findings have implications for policy at both the national and hospital level. Shared ownership and aligned incentives may provide the additional cement in which the developing entrepreneurial values are ‘glued’ to the central medical logic. PMID:24885912

  1. Pricing of Electricity: Network Optimization and Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jeremy

    The constrained optimization problem of electricity pricing and its optimal solution lie at the core of any operating electricity market. Electricity prices at the nodal (bus) level provide more granular form of economic signals to the market participants, so as to help them make better economic decisions. This way, allocation of scarce resources can be done more efficiently. Since the electricity market operation is based on a particular transmission system, the underlying network plays an important role in the formation of final market prices. Using novel null space methods, we showed a more efficient way of pricing electricity, provided that we have a priori knowledge of binding transmission lines and/or voltage limits. This method does not require selection of a reference system bus, and thus is computationally more efficient. Observations of numerical results from the application of this method to IEEE test systems reveal some promise. The application of this method to larger real-world power system is more challenging. We also investigated the optimization of voltage stability-constrained market clearing prices. When these constraints are considered and incorporated into the current optimization problem, the optimal prices can be quite different from the case without voltage stability-constraints. Our understanding of interaction between electricity market operations and voltage stability is quite limited. More research work is needed to better understand about the complex interaction between voltage stability and electricity market.

  2. Fast coding unit selection method for high efficiency video coding intra prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Jian

    2013-07-01

    The high efficiency video coding (HEVC) video coding standard under development can achieve higher compression performance than previous standards, such as MPEG-4, H.263, and H.264/AVC. To improve coding performance, a quad-tree coding structure and a robust rate-distortion (RD) optimization technique is used to select an optimum coding mode. Since the RD costs of all possible coding modes are computed to decide an optimum mode, high computational complexity is induced in the encoder. A fast learning-based coding unit (CU) size selection method is presented for HEVC intra prediction. The proposed algorithm is based on theoretical analysis that shows the non-normalized histogram of oriented gradient (n-HOG) can be used to help select CU size. A codebook is constructed offline by clustering n-HOGs of training sequences for each CU size. The optimum size is determined by comparing the n-HOG of the current CU with the learned codebooks. Experimental results show that the CU size selection scheme speeds up intra coding significantly with negligible loss of peak signal-to-noise ratio.

  3. Visualization of hepatic arteries with 3D ultrasound during intra-arterial therapies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gérard, Maxime; Tang, An; Badoual, Anaïs.; Michaud, François; Bigot, Alexandre; Soulez, Gilles; Kadoury, Samuel

    2016-03-01

    Liver cancer represents the second most common cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. The prognosis is poor with an overall mortality of 95%. Moreover, most hepatic tumors are unresectable due to their advanced stage at discovery or poor underlying liver function. Tumor embolization by intra-arterial approaches is the current standard of care for advanced cases of hepatocellular carcinoma. These therapies rely on the fact that the blood supply of primary hepatic tumors is predominantly arterial. Feedback on blood flow velocities in the hepatic arteries is crucial to ensure maximal treatment efficacy on the targeted masses. Based on these velocities, the intra-arterial injection rate is modulated for optimal infusion of the chemotherapeutic drugs into the tumorous tissue. While Doppler ultrasound is a well-documented technique for the assessment of blood flow, 3D visualization of vascular anatomy with ultrasound remains challenging. In this paper we present an image-guidance pipeline that enables the localization of the hepatic arterial branches within a 3D ultrasound image of the liver. A diagnostic Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) is first processed to automatically segment the hepatic arteries. A non-rigid registration method is then applied on the portal phase of the MRA volume with a 3D ultrasound to enable the visualization of the 3D mesh of the hepatic arteries in the Doppler images. To evaluate the performance of the proposed workflow, we present initial results from porcine models and patient images.

  4. Dynamic Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laird, Philip

    1992-01-01

    We distinguish static and dynamic optimization of programs: whereas static optimization modifies a program before runtime and is based only on its syntactical structure, dynamic optimization is based on the statistical properties of the input source and examples of program execution. Explanation-based generalization is a commonly used dynamic optimization method, but its effectiveness as a speedup-learning method is limited, in part because it fails to separate the learning process from the program transformation process. This paper describes a dynamic optimization technique called a learn-optimize cycle that first uses a learning element to uncover predictable patterns in the program execution and then uses an optimization algorithm to map these patterns into beneficial transformations. The technique has been used successfully for dynamic optimization of pure Prolog.

  5. Greenhouse-gas-trading markets.

    PubMed

    Sandor, Richard; Walsh, Michael; Marques, Rafael

    2002-08-15

    This paper summarizes the extension of new market mechanisms for environmental services, explains of the importance of generating price information indicative of the cost of mitigating greenhouse gases (GHGs) and presents the rationale and objectives for pilot GHG-trading markets. It also describes the steps being taken to define and launch pilot carbon markets in North America and Europe and reviews the key issues related to incorporating carbon sequestration into an emissions-trading market. There is an emerging consensus to employ market mechanisms to help address the threat of human-induced climate changes. Carbon-trading markets are now in development around the world. A UK market is set to launch in 2002, and the European Commission has called for a 2005 launch of an European Union (EU)-wide market, and a voluntary carbon market is now in formation in North America. These markets represent an initial step in resolving a fundamental problem in defining and implementing appropriate policy actions to address climate change. Policymakers currently suffer from two major information gaps: the economic value of potential damages arising from climate changes are highly uncertain, and there is a lack of reliable information on the cost of mitigating GHGs. These twin gaps significantly reduce the quality of the climate policy debate. The Chicago Climate Exchange, for which the authors serve as lead designers, is intended to provide an organized carbon-trading market involving energy, industry and carbon sequestration in forests and farms. Trading among these diverse sectors will provide price discovery that will help clarify the cost of combating climate change when a wide range of mitigation options is employed. By closing the information gap on mitigation costs, society and policymakers will be far better prepared to identify and implement optimal policies for managing the risks associated with climate change. Establishment of practical experience in providing

  6. Marketing the College Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoef, Ted; Howe, Nanci

    Theory underlying marketing in the public sector is presented in combination with specific examples of marketing strategies and techniques used in college unions and student activities programs across the country. The subject of marketing is discussed under six major subject headings: (1) why marketing? (2) analyzing marketing opportunities; (3)…

  7. Marketing Manual: Workplace Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fanshawe Coll., Strathroy (Ontario).

    This manual applies marketing concepts and methods, selling techniques and principles to the workplace literacy program for the purpose of assisting individuals involved in promoting and selling these programs. Part I provides a rationale for marketing and discusses the following: the role of the sponsor in marketing, market versus marketing,…

  8. Markets for compost

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    Table of Contents: Introduction; Characteristics and Benefits of Compost and Competing/Complementary Products; Compost Uses and Markets; Factors Pertinent to Developing Compost Markets; Compost Specifications; Compost Testing Requirements; Compost Distribution; Compost Policies; Economic and Noneconomic Barriers to Developing Compost Markets; Strategies to Mitigate/Overcome Barriers to Developing Compost Markets; and Examples of Existing Programs and Markets (as of 1989).

  9. The Market Linkage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Victor E.

    The Market Linkage Project (ML) for Special Education and the Basic Skills Validation and Marketing Program are two federally sponsored marketing projects developed under contract by LINC Resources, Inc., a professional marketing organization, for the U.S. Department of Education. LINC developed the marketing programs to provide the option for the…

  10. Marketing II Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Cheryl

    This combination curriculum and workbook, which was originally developed for use in a training workshop, is intended to assist adult educators in learning to market their adult literacy programs. The first chapter reviews basic marketing concepts (the definition of marketing, 10 truths about marketing, marketing versus promotion, steps in…

  11. Introduction to Electronic Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilbeck, Lettie

    These materials for a five-unit course were developed to introduce secondary and postsecondary students to the use of electronic equipment in marketing. The units cover the following topics: electronic marketing as a valid marketing approach; telemarketing; radio electronic media marketing; television electronic media marketing; and cable TV…

  12. Modeling intra-crown and intra-canopy interactions in red maple: assessment of light transfer on carbon dioxide and water vapor exchange.

    PubMed

    Bauerle, William L; Bowden, Joseph D; McLeod, Michael F; Toler, Joe E

    2004-05-01

    Daily and seasonal net photosynthesis (Anet), transpiration (E), absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (Qa) and light-use efficiency (epsilonc) in a red maple container nursery were simulated with MAESTRA, a three-dimensional canopy model. Effects of canopy heterogeneity were simulated by imposing changes in crown spacing. The light transfer sub-model, a distribution model of incident, direct, diffuse and scattered radiation within MAESTRA, was validated against field measurements of light interception on an intra-crown scale. In the container nursery, we found that a fiber-optic-based method of integrating photosynthetically active radiation (Q) was more suitable for crown-layer light transfer measurements and adjustments than either orthogonal line or individual quantum sensor measurements. The model underestimated intercepted Q by 9.3, 18 and 11.1% for crown layers 1, 2 and 3, respectively; however, there were linear relationships between model estimates and observations made with each of the three measurement methods. We used the validated and parameterized light transfer model to assess intra-crown and intra-canopy light transfer on a layer, crown and canopy basis, and investigated effects of tree size ratio and tree spacing interactions on Anet, E, Qa and epsilonc in the container nursery. Heterogeneous crown and canopy photosynthesis were predicted to exceed values for a uniform canopy under space-limiting conditions. Tree size ratio had large effects on Anet, E, Qa and epsilonc when light to lower-canopy layers was limited by inadequate space between crowns. Increasing Qa at lower-crown layers had the largest impact on whole-crown and whole-canopy Anet, E, Qa and epsilonc. Increases in canopy productivity led to increased water use. Simulations of heterogeneous stands with adequate soil water indicated that light absorption is maximized under space-limiting conditions as a canopy crown moves toward heterogeneity. Nursery and plantation productivity

  13. On the search for in vitro in vivo correlations in the field of intra-articular drug delivery: administration of sodium diatrizoate to the horse.

    PubMed

    Frost, Anna Buus; Larsen, Frank; Ostergaard, Jesper; Larsen, Susan Weng; Lindegaard, Casper; Hansen, Helle Rüsz; Larsen, Claus

    2010-09-11

    Development of suitable in vitro release models for formulation development as well as quality control purposes has to be initiated in the early design phase of injectable depots. Optimally, construction of an in vitro release model may lead to the establishment of in vitro in vivo correlations. By using a model compound (sodium diatrizoate, DTZ), the purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of establishing in vitro in vivo relations between the DTZ disappearance profile obtained from the donor compartment of the rotating dialysis cell model and the joint disappearance profile following intra-articular administration. In vitro experiments were conducted by applying solutions of DTZ to the donor compartment. In the in vivo experiments, five horses were subjected to both intravenous and intra-articular administration of an aqueous solution of 3.9 mg DTZ/kg. A strong relation (R(2)=0.99) was obtained between the disappearance data from the donor compartment of the in vitro model and the disappearance data from the synovial fluid after intra-articular administration of DTZ. Furthermore, a relation (R(2)=0.91) between the appearance data obtained from the acceptor compartment and the deconvolved appearance serum data upon intra-articular administration of DTZ was obtained. The correlations obtained in this study hold promise that the rotating dialysis cell model has a role in the prediction of the intra-articular fate of drugs injected as solutions. PMID:20580670

  14. Intra-Word Inconsistency in Apraxic Hebrew-Speaking Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tubul-Lavy, Gila

    2012-01-01

    Intra-word inconsistency in a child is perceived as an indicator of speech impairment. Because the speech of typically developing children is highly variable, the extent and nature of the inconsistency must be defined when used as a diagnostic marker of speech impairment (McLeod, S., & Hewett, S. R. (2008). Variability in the production of words…

  15. Intra-radicuar Disc Herniation mimicking a Nerve Root Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Pillai, Suresh Sivadasan

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Intra-radicular disc herniations are rare disorders with only few cases reported in literature. In most of these cases there is evidence of some part of the disc in adjacent area. We present a case of completely intra-radicular disc which was misdiagnosed as nerve root tumor as there was no evidence of disc prolapse at the time of diagnosis. Case Presentation: 51 year old male presented with history of severe back pain radiating to right lower limb since 11/2 month. MRI showed hypointense lesion completely inside the S1 root and a provisional diagnosis of nerve root tumor was done. At surgery, fluffy material was removed from the lesion which was histopathologically confirmed as intervertebral disc. Post operatively all symptoms of patient was relieved except dysesthesia in sole which lasted for a year post surgery. At 5 year follow up patient has no symptoms. Conclusion: A diagnosis of intra-radicular disc should be considered in differential of nerve root tumor. Surgical excision of intra-radicular disc gives good clinical and functional results.

  16. Rapid intra-adrenal feedback regulation of glucocorticoid synthesis.

    PubMed

    Walker, J J; Spiga, F; Gupta, R; Zhao, Z; Lightman, S L; Terry, J R

    2015-01-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is a vital neuroendocrine system that regulates the secretion of glucocorticoid hormones from the adrenal glands. This system is characterized by a dynamic ultradian hormonal oscillation, and in addition is highly responsive to stressful stimuli. We have recently shown that a primary mechanism generating this ultradian rhythm is a systems-level interaction where adrenocorticotrophin hormone (ACTH) released from the pituitary stimulates the secretion of adrenal glucocorticoids, which in turn feedback at the level of the pituitary to rapidly inhibit ACTH secretion. In this study, we combine experimental physiology and mathematical modelling to investigate intra-adrenal mechanisms regulating glucocorticoid synthesis. Our modelling results suggest that glucocorticoids can inhibit their own synthesis through a very rapid (within minutes), presumably non-genomic, intra-adrenal pathway. We present further evidence for the existence of a short time delay in this intra-adrenal inhibition, and also that at the initiation of each ACTH stimulus, this local feedback mechanism is rapidly antagonized, presumably via activation of the specific ACTH receptor (MC2R) signalling pathway. This mechanism of intra-adrenal inhibition enables the gland to rapidly release glucocorticoids while at the same time preventing uncontrolled release of glucocorticoids in response to large surges in ACTH associated with stress. PMID:25392395

  17. Optomechatronic System For Automated Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shulev, Assen; Tiankov, Tihomir; Ignatova, Detelina; Kostadinov, Kostadin; Roussev, Ilia; Trifonov, Dimitar; Penchev, Valentin

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents a complex optomechatronic system for In-Vitro Fertilization (IVF), offering almost complete automation of the Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) procedure. The compound parts and sub-systems, as well as some of the computer vision algorithms, are described below. System capabilities for ICSI have been demonstrated on infertile oocyte cells.

  18. Iron Deficiency Impairs Intra-Hepatic Lymphocyte Mediated Immune Response.

    PubMed

    Bonaccorsi-Riani, Eliano; Danger, Richard; Lozano, Juan José; Martinez-Picola, Marta; Kodela, Elisavet; Mas-Malavila, Roser; Bruguera, Miquel; Collins, Helen L; Hider, Robert C; Martinez-Llordella, Marc; Sanchez-Fueyo, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic expression of iron homeostasis genes and serum iron parameters predict the success of immunosuppression withdrawal following clinical liver transplantation, a phenomenon known as spontaneous operational tolerance. In experimental animal models, spontaneous liver allograft tolerance is established through a process that requires intra-hepatic lymphocyte activation and deletion. Our aim was to determine if changes in systemic iron status regulate intra-hepatic lymphocyte responses. We used a murine model of lymphocyte-mediated acute liver inflammation induced by Concanavalin A (ConA) injection employing mice fed with an iron-deficient (IrDef) or an iron-balanced diet (IrRepl). While the mild iron deficiency induced by the IrDef diet did not significantly modify the steady state immune cell repertoire and systemic cytokine levels, it significantly dampened inflammatory liver damage after ConA challenge. These findings were associated with a marked decrease in T cell and NKT cell activation following ConA injection in IrDef mice. The decreased liver injury observed in IrDef mice was independent from changes in the gut microflora, and was replicated employing an iron specific chelator that did not modify intra-hepatic hepcidin secretion. Furthermore, low-dose iron chelation markedly impaired the activation of isolated T cells in vitro. All together, these results suggest that small changes in iron homeostasis can have a major effect in the regulation of intra-hepatic lymphocyte mediated responses. PMID:26287688

  19. Telemedicine in the control of intra-ocular pressure.

    PubMed

    Michelson, G; Striebel, W; Prihoda, W; Schmidt, V

    2000-01-01

    Glaucoma is one of the most common causes of blindness in the Western world and a major risk factor is increased intra-ocular pressure. We therefore used telemedicine in its control. Patients measured their intra-ocular pressure several times a day with a portable instrument and the values were then entered into a portable digital assistant. These data were transmitted by a modem to a central server. If the intra-ocular pressure was pathologically high, an email message was automatically sent to the ophthalmologist. The pressure curve, including a statistical analysis, was displayed in an easily readable chart format. Ten patients with glaucoma participated in a trial. Self-tonometry with telemedicine enabled continuous evaluation of the patient by the ophthalmologist. This approach offered the advantage of controlling the treatment remotely. Advantages for the patient were that the measurements were easily done at home under normal conditions, and the patient could control when the measurement and data transmission would be performed. Telemedicine is a cost-effective technique enabling the early diagnosis of pathologically increased intra-ocular pressure. PMID:10793996

  20. Testicular ascent as a mechanism for intra-abdominal torsion.

    PubMed

    Plitt, David C; Fotos, Joseph S; Hulse, Michael A; Neutze, Janet A

    2010-01-01

    Testicular ascent, while uncommon, can occur. A testicle that has ascended out of the scrotum can torse and may present as an acute inguinal mass or acute abdomen. Testicle ascent can occur even if previous intra-scrotal location has been documented. PMID:27307855

  1. Corrective Osteotomy for Intra-Articular Distal Humerus Malunion

    PubMed Central

    Kinaci, Ahmet; Buijze, Geert A.; Leeuwen, Diederik H.van; Jupiter, Jesse B.; Marti, Rene K.; Kloen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background: An intra-articular distal humerus malunion can be disabling. To improve function, reduce pain and/or prevent further secondary osteoarthritis an intra-articular corrective osteotomy can be considered. Herein we present the indications, practical guidelines for pre- operative planning and surgical technique. Subsequently, we provide long-term results in a small series. Methods: We included six consecutive patients operated for intra-articular distal humerus malunion. Mean follow-up was 88 months. At lastest follow up elbow function was assessed according to standardized questionnaires and classification systems. Results: All six patients healed their osteotomies. Three patients had a postoperative complication which were treated succesfully. Range of motion improved significantly and all patients were satisfied with the outcome. The elbow performance scores were good to excellent in all. Correlation analyses showed that age and level of osteoarthritis are very strong predictors for the long-term elbow function and quality of life. Conclusion: An intra-articular corrective osteotomy for a malunited distal humerus fracture is a worthwhile procedure. Based on our results it should particularly be considered in young patients with minimal osteoarthritis and moderate to severe functional disability and/or pain. PMID:27200396

  2. Market Transformation (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    Through the SunShot Initiative, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) works with manufacturers, communities, states, utilities, and other partners to enable the solar market by reducing non-hardware balance-of-system (BOS) costs, developing a skilled workforce, and eliminating market barriers to widespread adoption of solar technologies. The DOE SunShot Initiative is a collaborative national initiative to make solar energy technologies cost-competitive with other forms of energy by reducing the cost of solar energy systems by about 75% by the end of the decade. Reducing the total installed cost for utility-scale solar electricity to roughly 6 cents per kilowatt hour without subsidies will result in rapid, large-scale adoption of solar electricity across the United States. Reaching this goal will re-establish American technological leadership, improve the nation's energy security, and strengthen U.S. economic competitiveness in the global clean energy race. SunShot will work to bring down the full cost of solar - including the costs of solar cells and installation by focusing on four main pillars: (1) Technologies for solar cells and arrays that convert sunlight to energy; (2) Electronics that optimize the performance of the installation; (3) Improvements in the efficiency of solar manufacturing processes; and (4) Installation, design, and permitting for solar energy systems.

  3. Jagged Tiling for Intra-tile Parallelism and Fine-Grain Multithreading

    SciTech Connect

    Shrestha, Sunil; Manzano Franco, Joseph B.; Marquez, Andres; Feo, John T.; Gao, Guang R.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we have developed a novel methodology that takes into consideration multithreaded many-core designs to better utilize memory/processing resources and improve memory residence on tileable applications. It takes advantage of polyhedral analysis and transformation in the form of PLUTO, combined with a highly optimized finegrain tile runtime to exploit parallelism at all levels. The main contributions of this paper include the introduction of multi-hierarchical tiling techniques that increases intra tile parallelism; and a data-flow inspired runtime library that allows the expression of parallel tiles with an efficient synchronization registry. Our current implementation shows performance improvements on an Intel Xeon Phi board up to 32.25% against instances produced by state-of-the-art compiler frameworks for selected stencil applications.

  4. Intra-specific competition (crowding) of giant sequoias (Sequoiadendron giganteum)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.

    1993-01-01

    Information on the size and location of 1916 giant sequoias (Sequoiadendron giganteum (Lindl.) Buchholz) in Muir Grove, Sequoia National Park, in the southern Sierra Nevada of California was used to assess intra-specific crowding. Study objectives were to: (1) determine which parameters associated with intra-specific competition (i.e. size and distance to nearest neighbor, crowding/root system area overlap, or number of neighbors) might be important in spatial pattern development, growth, and survivorship of established giant sequoias; (2) quantify the level of intra-specific crowding of different sized live sequoias based on a model of estimated overlapping root system areas (i.e. an index of relative crowding); (3) compare the level of intra-specific crowding of similarly sized live and dead giant sequoias (less than 30 cm diameter at breast height (dbh) at the time of inventory (1969). Mean distances to the nearest live giant sequoia neighbor were not significantly different (at α = 0.05) for live and dead sequoias in similar size classes. A zone of influence competition model (i.e. index of crowding) based on horizontal overlap of estimated root system areas was developed for 1753 live sequoias. The model, based only on the spatial arrangement of live sequoias, was then tested on dead sequoias of less than 30 cm dbh (n = 163 trees; also recorded in 1969). The dead sequoias had a significantly higher crowding index than 561 live trees of similar diameter. Results showed that dead sequoias of less than 16.6 cm dbh had a significantly greater mean number of live neighbors and mean crowding index than live sequoias of similar size. Intra-specific crowding may be an important mechanism in determining the spatial distribution of sequoias in old-growth forests.

  5. Optimization of inclusive fitness.

    PubMed

    Grafen, Alan

    2006-02-01

    The first fully explicit argument is given that broadly supports a widespread belief among whole-organism biologists that natural selection tends to lead to organisms acting as if maximizing their inclusive fitness. The use of optimization programs permits a clear statement of what this belief should be understood to mean, in contradistinction to the common mathematical presumption that it should be formalized as some kind of Lyapunov or even potential function. The argument reveals new details and uncovers latent assumptions. A very general genetic architecture is allowed, and there is arbitrary uncertainty. However, frequency dependence of fitnesses is not permitted. The logic of inclusive fitness immediately draws together various kinds of intra-genomic conflict, and the concept of 'p-family' is introduced. Inclusive fitness is thus incorporated into the formal Darwinism project, which aims to link the mathematics of motion (difference and differential equations) used to describe gene frequency trajectories with the mathematics of optimization used to describe purpose and design. Important questions remain to be answered in the fundamental theory of inclusive fitness. PMID:16046225

  6. Marketing Data Warehouse

    SciTech Connect

    Underwood, C.V.

    1994-11-01

    In January 1993 the New Products and Services (NP&S) department of Tennessee Valley Authority`s (TVA) Marketing Organization embarked on a project to provide greater access and sharing of market data. This project is the Marketing Data Warehouse (MDW). The goal of the MDW is to provide for the integration and access of market relevant data collected by TVA internally or purchased from external sources. The MDW is a repository of secondary information, allowing marketing analysts to answer market questions in a matter of minutes rather hours or days. The application of the data warehouse approach allows marketing groups to take full advantage of new market data sources, market analysis software and marketing techniques. Marketers can perform impact analysis of market relevant legislation, business trends and technology breakthroughs much quicker with greater confinence in the results.

  7. Electric power market agent design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Hyungseon

    The electric power industry in many countries has been restructured in the hope of a more economically efficient system. In the restructured system, traditional operating and planning tools based on true marginal cost do not perform well since information required is strictly confidential. For developing a new tool, it is necessary to understand offer behavior. The main objective of this study is to create a new tool for power system planning. For the purpose, this dissertation develops models for a market and market participants. A new model is developed in this work for explaining a supply-side offer curve, and several variables are introduced to characterize the curve. Demand is estimated using a neural network, and a numerical optimization process is used to determine the values of the variables that maximize the profit of the agent. The amount of data required for the optimization is chosen with the aid of nonlinear dynamics. To suggest an optimal demand-side bidding function, two optimization problems are constructed and solved for maximizing consumer satisfaction based on the properties of two different types of demands: price-based demand and must-be-served demand. Several different simulations are performed to test how an agent reacts in various situations. The offer behavior depends on locational benefit as well as the offer strategies of competitors.

  8. Marketing is everything.

    PubMed

    McKenna, R

    1991-01-01

    Technology is creating customer choice, and choice is altering the marketplace. Gone are the days of the marketer as salesperson. Gone as well is marketing that tries to trick the customer into buying whatever the company makes. There is a new paradigm for marketing, a model that depends on the marketer's knowledge, experience, and ability to integrate the customer and the company. Six principles are at the heart of the new marketing. The first, "Marketing is everything and everything is marketing," suggests that marketing is like quality. It is not a function but an all-pervasive way of doing business. The second, "The goal of marketing is to own the market, not just to sell the product," is a remedy for companies that adopt a limiting "market-share mentality." When you own a market, you lead the market. The third principle says that "marketing evolves as technology evolves." Programmable technology means that companies can promise customers "any thing, any way, any time." Now marketing is evolving to deliver on that promise. The fourth principle, "Marketing moves from monologue to dialogue," argues that advertising is obsolete. Talking at customers is no longer useful. The new marketing requires a feedback loop--a dialogue between company and customer. The fifth principle says that "marketing a product is marketing a service is marketing a product." The line between the categories is fast eroding: the best manufacturing companies provide great service, the best service companies think of themselves as offering high-quality products. The sixth principle, "Technology markets technology," points out the inevitable marriage of marketing and technology and predicts the emergence of marketing workstations, a marketing counterpart to engineers' CAD/CAM systems. PMID:10109473

  9. Market review - Market values summary/July market review/current market data

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This article is the July 1995 uranium market review. Data for current uranium market is presented, and a summary of recent transactions is also given. During this reporting period, there was one concentrate deal, two transactions in the long-term natural uranium market and conversion market, and three spot market transactions in the enrichment market. Active uranium supply fell, as did demand, and prices in all sectors were relatively stable.

  10. Marketing Online Services: Product, Market and Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trudell, Libby

    1991-01-01

    Describes characteristics of the online marketplace. Topics discussed include technology barriers; data ownership; markets for online services, including libraries and end users; marketing and promotion tactics, including exhibits and conferences, advertising, direct mail, and user groups; international marketing and service; strategic marketing…

  11. Mining Marketing Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    MarketMiner(R) Products, a line of automated marketing analysis tools manufactured by MarketMiner, Inc., can benefit organizations that perform significant amounts of direct marketing. MarketMiner received a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract from NASA's Johnson Space Center to develop the software as a data modeling tool for space mission applications. The technology was then built into the company current products to provide decision support for business and marketing applications. With the tool, users gain valuable information about customers and prospects from existing data in order to increase sales and profitability. MarketMiner(R) is a registered trademark of MarketMiner, Inc.

  12. Natural gas marketing II

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This book covers all aspects of gas marketing, from the basic regulatory structure to the latest developments in negotiating agreements and locating markets. Topics include: Federal regulation of the gas industry; Fundamentals of gas marketing contracts; FERC actions encouraging competitive markets; Marketing conditions from the pipelines' perspective; State non-utility regulation of natural gas production, transportation, and marketing; Natural gas wellhead agreements and tariffs; Natural gas processing agreements; Effective management of producer's natural gas contracts; Producer-pipeline litigation; Natural gas purchasing from the perspective of industrial gas users; Gas marketing by co-owners: problems of disproportionate sales, gas balancing, and accounting to royalty owners; Alternatives and new directions in marketing.

  13. How to Optimize Your Web Site

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dysart, Joe

    2008-01-01

    Given Google's growing market share--69% of all searches by the close of 2007--it's absolutely critical for any school on the Web to ensure its site is Google-friendly. A Google-optimized site ensures that students and parents can quickly find one's district on the Web even if they don't know the address. Plus, good search optimization simply…

  14. Experimental demonstration of time-aware software defined networking for OpenFlow-based intra-datacenter optical interconnection networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hui; Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Yongli; Ji, Yuefeng; Han, Jianrui; Lin, Yi; Qiu, Shaofeng; Lee, Young

    2014-06-01

    Nowadays, most service providers offer their services and support their applications through federated sets of data centers which need to be interconnected using high-capacity optical networks in intra-datacenter networks. Many datacenter applications in the environment require lower delay and higher availability with the end-to-end guaranteed quality of service. In this paper, we propose a novel time-aware software defined networking (TaSDN) architecture for OpenFlow-based intra-datacenter optical interconnection networks. Based on the proposed architecture, a time-aware service scheduling (TaSS) strategy is introduced to allocate the network and datacenter resources optimally, which considers the datacenter service scheduling with flexible service time and service bandwidth according to the various time sensitivity requirements. The TaSDN can arrange and accommodate the applications with required QoS considering the time factor, and enhance the data center responsiveness to quickly provide for intra-datacenter service demands. The overall feasibility of the proposed architecture is experimentally verified on our testbed with real OpenFlow-enabled tunable optical modules. The performance of TaSS strategy under heavy traffic load scenario is also evaluated based on TaSDN architecture in terms of blocking probability and resource occupation rate.

  15. Multiscale Detrended Cross-Correlation Analysis of STOCK Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Yi; Shang, Pengjian

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we employ the detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA) to investigate the cross-correlations between different stock markets. We report the results of cross-correlated behaviors in US, Chinese and European stock markets in period 1997-2012 by using DCCA method. The DCCA shows the cross-correlated behaviors of intra-regional and inter-regional stock markets in the short and long term which display the similarities and differences of cross-correlated behaviors simply and roughly and the persistence of cross-correlated behaviors of fluctuations. Then, because of the limitation and inapplicability of DCCA method, we propose multiscale detrended cross-correlation analysis (MSDCCA) method to avoid "a priori" selecting the ranges of scales over which two coefficients of the classical DCCA method are identified, and employ MSDCCA to reanalyze these cross-correlations to exhibit some important details such as the existence and position of minimum, maximum and bimodal distribution which are lost if the scale structure is described by two coefficients only and essential differences and similarities in the scale structures of cross-correlation of intra-regional and inter-regional markets. More statistical characteristics of cross-correlation obtained by MSDCCA method help us to understand how two different stock markets influence each other and to analyze the influence from thus two inter-regional markets on the cross-correlation in detail, thus we get a richer and more detailed knowledge of the complex evolutions of dynamics of the cross-correlations between stock markets. The application of MSDCCA is important to promote our understanding of the internal mechanisms and structures of financial markets and helps to forecast the stock indices based on our current results demonstrated the cross-correlations between stock indices. We also discuss the MSDCCA methods of secant rolling window with different sizes and, lastly, provide some relevant implications and

  16. Intra-operative 3D guidance and edema detection in prostate brachytherapy using a non-isocentric C-arm

    PubMed Central

    Jain, A.; Deguet, A.; Iordachita, I.; Chintalapani, G.; Vikal, S.; Blevins, J.; Le, Y.; Armour, E.; Burdette, C.; Song, D.; Fichtinger, G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Brachytherapy (radioactive seed insertion) has emerged as one of the most effective treatment options for patients with prostate cancer, with the added benefit of a convenient outpatient procedure. The main limitation in contemporary brachytherapy is faulty seed placement, predominantly due to the presence of intra-operative edema (tissue expansion). Though currently not available, the capability to intra-operatively monitor the seed distribution, can make a significant improvement in cancer control. We present such a system here. Methods Intra-operative measurement of edema in prostate brachytherapy requires localization of inserted radioactive seeds relative to the prostate. Seeds were reconstructed using a typical non-isocentric C-arm, and exported to a commercial brachytherapy treatment planning system. Technical obstacles for 3D reconstruction on a non-isocentric C-arm include pose-dependent C-arm calibration; distortion correction; pose estimation of C-arm images; seed reconstruction; and C-arm to TRUS registration. Results In precision-machined hard phantoms with 40–100 seeds and soft tissue phantoms with 45–87 seeds, we correctly reconstructed the seed implant shape with an average 3D precision of 0.35 mm and 0.24 mm, respectively. In a DoD Phase-1 clinical trial on six patients with 48–82 planned seeds, we achieved intra-operative monitoring of seed distribution and dosimetry, correcting for dose inhomogeneities by inserting an average of over four additional seeds in the six enrolled patients (minimum 1; maximum 9). Additionally, in each patient, the system automatically detected intra-operative seed migration induced due to edema (mean 3.84 mm, STD 2.13 mm, Max 16.19 mm). Conclusions The proposed system is the first of a kind that makes intra-operative detection of edema (and subsequent re-optimization) possible on any typical non-isocentric C-arm, at negligible additional cost to the existing clinical installation. It achieves a

  17. Market Orientation in Universities: A Comparative Study of Two National Higher Education Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemsley-Brown, Jane; Oplatka, Izhar

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The paper's purpose is to test: whether there are significant differences between England and Israel, in terms of perceptions of market orientation (MO) in higher education (HE); which MO dimensions (student, competition, intra-functional) indicate more positive attitudes and whether the differences are significant; and the reliability of…

  18. Optimal hub location in pipeline networks

    SciTech Connect

    Dott, D.R.; Wirasinghe, S.C.; Chakma, A.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses optimization strategies and techniques for the location of natural gas marketing hubs in the North American gas pipeline network. A hub is a facility at which inbound and outbound network links meet and freight is redirected towards their destinations. Common examples of hubs used in the gas pipeline industry include gas plants, interconnects and market centers. Characteristics of the gas pipeline industry which are relevant to the optimization of transportation costs using hubs are presented. Allocation techniques for solving location-allocation problems are discussed. An outline of the research in process by the authors in the field of optimal gas hub location concludes the paper.

  19. Intra-individual Change in Personality Stability and Age

    PubMed Central

    Terracciano, Antonio; McCrae, Robert R.; Costa, Paul T.

    2009-01-01

    The stability of individual differences in personality traits is typically examined at the group level with test-retest correlations across two assessments. For 684 subjects (age range 17–76) we computed individual coefficients from three sequential assessments to evaluate intra-individual (i.e., within-person) change in stability over time. For both trait and profile (ipsative) stability, results indicate that intra-individual stability increases up to age 30 and then plateaus. Neither demographic variables (sex, ethnicity, education, and secular trends), nor the standing on the five major dimensions of personality, were predictors of change in trait stability. Contrary to results from studies of adolescents, personality “maturity” was unrelated to personality stability in adulthood. These findings support the notion that personality stability plateaus early in adulthood. PMID:20305728

  20. Factors affecting intra-oral pH - a review.

    PubMed

    Loke, C; Lee, J; Sander, S; Mei, L; Farella, M

    2016-10-01

    One of the greatest challenges to modern dentistry is the progressive destruction of tooth material due to chemical erosion. Dental erosion is the loss of dental hard tissue, without the action of bacteria, in which demineralisation of enamel and dentine results due to a decrease in intra-oral pH. The aim of this review was to appraise the scientific literature on the factors that can affect intra-oral pH. The review will examine (i) the protective role of human saliva, in terms of its mineral composition, flow rates and buffering systems and (ii) sources of in-mouth acids such as extrinsic acids, which are derived from the diet and environment, as well as intrinsic acids, which are related to disorders of the gastro-oesophageal tract. This review may assist clinicians to identify the risk factors for tooth wear and to recommend adequate preventive measures to patients. PMID:27573678

  1. An Imaging Review of Intra-ocular Calcifications.

    PubMed

    Kachewar, Sushil G; Kulkarni, Devidas S

    2014-01-01

    Intra-ocular calcifications can occur due to a variety of reasons. In cataract, the lovely lens gets calcified and the bright beautiful world becomes dark and dreadful. Cataract comes in various forms like; congenital, traumatic and senile. Asteroid Hyalosis (AH) occurs because of the accumulation of calcium soaps in vitreous of the eyes. Although it is asymptomatic and unilateral, it is seen more often in diabetic patients. Tumours of eye like retinoblastoma and optic nerve meningioma too are known to show calcifications. This review has focussed on imaging appearances of intra-ocular calcifications, a small process in a small organ that nevertheless has a wide impact on the entire organs. PMID:24596775

  2. A New Wireless Biosensor for Intra-Vaginal Temperature Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Caldeira, João M. L. P.; Rodrigues, Joel J. P. C.; Garcia, João F. R.; de la Torre, Isabel

    2010-01-01

    Wireless Body Sensors for medical purposes offer valuable contributions to improve patients’ healthcare, including diagnosis and/or therapeutics monitoring. Body temperature is a crucial parameter in healthcare diagnosis. In gynecology and obstetrics it is measured at the skin’s surface, which is very influenced by the environment. This paper proposes a new intra-body sensor for long-term intra-vaginal temperature collection. The embedded IEEE 802.15.4 communication module allows the integration of this sensor in a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) for remote data access and monitoring. We present the sensor architecture, the construction of the corresponding testbed, and its performance evaluation. This sensor may be used in different medical applications, including preterm labor prevention and fertility and ovulation period detection. The features of the constructed testbed were validated in laboratory tests verifying its accuracy and performance. PMID:22163471

  3. Balancing Authority Cooperation Concepts - Intra-Hour Scheduling

    SciTech Connect

    Hunsaker, Matthew; Samaan, Nader; Milligan, Michael; Guo, Tao; Liu, Guangjuan; Toolson, Jacob

    2013-03-29

    The overall objective of this study was to understand, on an Interconnection-wide basis, the effects intra-hour scheduling compared to hourly scheduling. Moreover, the study sought to understand how the benefits of intra-hour scheduling would change by altering the input assumptions in different scenarios. This report describes results of three separate scenarios with differing key assumptions and comparing the production costs between hourly scheduling and 10-minute scheduling performance. The different scenarios were chosen to provide insight into how the estimated benefits might change by altering input assumptions. Several key assumptions were different in the three scenarios, however most assumptions were similar and/or unchanged among the scenarios.

  4. [Excrement of the meconium and the intra-partum cardiotocogram].

    PubMed

    Santeler, P; Hochuli, E

    1976-01-01

    Of 2233 parturients, 170 cases with evidence of meconium during delivery were examined. We tried to establish the correlation between the appearance of meconium and the occurance of contraction induced FHR-decelerations in continuous intra partum monitoring. In addition we purposed to determine, whether the appearing of meconium during labor can be used as a clinical prognosite sign for fetal outcome. Our data support the assumption that the passage of meconium during any stage of labor only represents a sign of potential fetal distress showing the intra partum records pathology FHF-patterns. The appearance of meconium alone -- diagnosed at the time of the entrance of parturients or in an advanced stage of labor -- demands supplemented diagnostic methods for a better interpreting of an actual or compensated fetal distress. PMID:961190

  5. Intra-abdominal esophageal duplication cyst in an adult.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Wan; Sohn, Tai Il; Shim, Hyo Sup; Kim, Choong Bai

    2005-12-31

    Esophageal duplication cysts are congenital anomalies of the foregut that are rarely found in the abdomen. An accurate preoperative diagnosis is not always possible, so the definitive diagnosis can be made by histologic examination of the surgical specimen. We experienced a case of Intra-abdominal esophageal duplication cyst in a 52-year-old female, who initially presented with an esophageal submucosal tumor on upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. She did not have any gastrointestinal symptoms. Barium esophagography, chest computed tomography scan and endoscopic ultrasonography demonstrated the cystic lesion in the intra-abdominal esophagus. Transhiatal enucleation of the lesion was performed successfully via the abdominal approach with no postoperative complications. Histologic study showed that the cyst wall contained a two-layered muscle coat and the surface of the lumen was lined by pseudo-ciliated columnar epithelium. The patient has been doing well without any complaints for 3 months of follow-up period. PMID:16385665

  6. 21 CFR 870.3535 - Intra-aortic balloon and control system

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Intra-aortic balloon and control system 870.3535... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3535 Intra-aortic balloon and control system (a) Identification. A intra-aortic balloon and control system is a device...

  7. 21 CFR 870.3535 - Intra-aortic balloon and control system

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intra-aortic balloon and control system 870.3535... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3535 Intra-aortic balloon and control system (a) Identification. A intra-aortic balloon and control system is a device...

  8. 21 CFR 870.3535 - Intra-aortic balloon and control system

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Intra-aortic balloon and control system 870.3535... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3535 Intra-aortic balloon and control system (a) Identification. A intra-aortic balloon and control system is a device...

  9. 21 CFR 870.3535 - Intra-aortic balloon and control system

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Intra-aortic balloon and control system 870.3535... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3535 Intra-aortic balloon and control system (a) Identification. A intra-aortic balloon and control system is a device...

  10. What is the optimum social marketing mix to market energy conservation behaviour: an empirical study.

    PubMed

    Sheau-Ting, Low; Mohammed, Abdul Hakim; Weng-Wai, Choong

    2013-12-15

    This study attempts to identify the optimum social marketing mix for marketing energy conservation behaviour to students in Malaysian universities. A total of 2000 students from 5 major Malaysian universities were invited to provide their preferred social marketing mix. A choice-based conjoint analysis identified a mix of five social marketing attributes to promote energy conservation behaviour; the mix is comprised of the attributes of Product, Price, Place, Promotion, and Post-purchase Maintenance. Each attribute of the mix is associated with a list of strategies. The Product and Post-purchase Maintenance attributes were identified by students as the highest priority attributes in the social marketing mix for energy conservation behaviour marketing, with shares of 27.12% and 27.02%, respectively. The least preferred attribute in the mix is Promotion, with a share of 11.59%. This study proposes an optimal social marketing mix to university management when making decisions about marketing energy conservation behaviour to students, who are the primary energy consumers in the campus. Additionally, this study will assist university management to efficiently allocate scarce resources in fulfilling its social responsibility and to overcome marketing shortcomings by selecting the right marketing mix. PMID:24178312

  11. Enhanced index tracking modelling in portfolio optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, W. S.; Hj. Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ismail, Hamizun bin

    2013-09-01

    Enhanced index tracking is a popular form of passive fund management in stock market. It is a dual-objective optimization problem, a trade-off between maximizing the mean return and minimizing the risk. Enhanced index tracking aims to generate excess return over the return achieved by the index without purchasing all of the stocks that make up the index by establishing an optimal portfolio. The objective of this study is to determine the optimal portfolio composition and performance by using weighted model in enhanced index tracking. Weighted model focuses on the trade-off between the excess return and the risk. The results of this study show that the optimal portfolio for the weighted model is able to outperform the Malaysia market index which is Kuala Lumpur Composite Index because of higher mean return and lower risk without purchasing all the stocks in the market index.

  12. Intra-abdominal sepsis: the role of surgery.

    PubMed

    Gallinaro, R N; Polk, H C

    1991-09-01

    The role of the surgeon in intra-abdominal sepsis is multifactorial. A comprehensive understanding of the incidence and pathophysiology of diseases which cause intra-abdominal sepsis is the key to the diagnosis and treatment of such ailments. In simplest terms, the aetiology has two basic mechanisms: (a) violation of the 'bug-body barrier' and (b) obstruction to the flow of a body fluid with subsequent bacterial overgrowth. Either of these mechanisms may affect any of the organs within the abdomen, leading to sepsis. The peritoneal cavity is a dynamic structure which responds to insults in certain predictable manners which notify the alert physician that danger is present. Recognition of these signs through history and physical examination are the most important aspects of diagnosis. Confirmation of suspicions can be obtained with radiological modalities, but they are not a substitute for clinical judgement. Treatment of intra-abdominal sepsis should always begin with resuscitation and systemic antibiotics. Alleviation of the septic source is mandatory, and this may be achieved either operatively or non-operatively (i.e. percutaneous or endoscopic procedures). When the patient does not improve after the initial procedure, then a missed focus of infection must be investigated. In some cases, a planned or staged second operation may be needed to further debride necrotic tissue. Antibiotics should be of adequate spectrum and bioavailability to kill the species of bacteria most likely to cause the infection. This regimen may be altered when culture and sensitivity reports are completed. Finally, patients whose immune system function has been altered by disease or treatment must be assumed very ill until proven otherwise. These are general guidelines in the management of patients with intra-abdominal sepsis. Individual cases may necessitate slight modifications, but all require a high level of vigilance and expertise in order to combat a very lethal disease. PMID

  13. INTRA-BEAM SCATTERING SCALING FOR VERY LARGE HADRON COLLIDERS.

    SciTech Connect

    WEI,J.; PARZEN,G.

    2001-06-18

    For Very Large Hadron Colliders (VLHC), flat hadron beams [2] with their vertical emittance much smaller than their horizontal emittance are proposed to maximize the design luminosity. Emittance growth caused by intra-beam scattering (IBS) is a concern on the realization of such flat-beam conditions. Based on existing IBS formalism on beams of Gaussian distribution, we analytically derive [6] the IBS growth rate and determine the IBS limit on the aspect ratio for a flat beam.

  14. Laser speckle imaging of intra organ drug distribution

    PubMed Central

    Postnov, Dmitry D; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik; Sosnovtseva, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Laminar flow in arteries causes streaming and uneven distribution of infused agents within the organ. This may lead to misinterpretation of experimental results and affect treatment outcomes. We monitor dynamical changes of superficial cortical blood flow in the rat kidney following different routes of administration of the vasoconstrictor angiotensin II. Our analysis reveals the appearance of large scale oscillations of the blood flow caused by inhomogeneous intra organ drug distribution. PMID:26713217

  15. Intra-tumor Genetic Heterogeneity in Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hardiman, Karin M.; Ulintz, Peter J.; Kuick, Rork; Hovelson, Daniel H.; Gates, Christopher M.; Bhasi, Ashwini; Grant, Ana Rodrigues; Liu, Jianhua; Cani, Andi K.; Greenson, Joel; Tomlins, Scott; Fearon, Eric R.

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer arises in part from the cumulative effects of multiple gene lesions. Recent studies in selected cancer types have revealed significant intra-tumor genetic heterogeneity and highlighted its potential role in disease progression and resistance to therapy. We hypothesized the existence of significant intra-tumor genetic heterogeneity in rectal cancers involving variations in localized somatic mutations and copy number abnormalities. Two or three spatially disparate regions from each of six rectal tumors were dissected and subjected to next-generation whole exome DNA sequencing, Oncoscan SNP arrays, and targeted confirmatory sequencing and analysis. The resulting data were integrated to define subclones using SciClone. Mutant-allele tumor heterogeneity (MATH) scores, mutant allele frequency correlation, and mutation percent concordance were calculated, and copy number analysis including measurement of correlation between samples was performed. Somatic mutations profiles in individual cancers were similar to prior studies, with some variants found in previously reported significantly mutated genes and many patient-specific mutations in each tumor. Significant intra-tumor heterogeneity was identified in the spatially disparate regions of individual cancers. All tumors had some heterogeneity but the degree of heterogeneity was quite variable in the samples studied. We found that 67–97% of exonic somatic mutations were shared among all regions of an individual’s tumor. The SciClone computational method identified 2 to 8 shared and unshared subclones in the spatially disparate areas in each tumor. MATH scores ranged from 7 to 41. Allele frequency correlation scores ranged from R2 = 0.69 to 0.96. Measurements of correlation between samples for copy number changes varied from R2 = 0.74 to 0.93. All tumors had some heterogeneity, but the degree was highly variable in the samples studied. The occurrence of significant intra-tumor heterogeneity may allow

  16. Implantable image sensor based on intra-brain image transmission.

    PubMed

    Sasagawa, Kiyotaka; Ishii, Yoshiaki; Yokota, Shogo; Matsuda, Takashi; Davis, Peter; Zhang, Bing; Li, Keren; Noda, Toshihiko; Tokuda, Takashi; Ohta, Jun

    2013-01-01

    We developed and fabricated a micro-imager based on wireless intra-brain communication using conductive property of living tissues. An pixel array, analog-to-digital converter and transmitter are integrated on a single chip. The dimensions of the chip are 1 mm × 1mm × 0.15 mm. We demonstrate wireless image transmission through phosphate buffer saline as a brain phantom. PMID:24110074

  17. Veterinary practice marketeer.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Justin

    2015-01-24

    Justin Phillips is marketing manager at White Cross Vets and the Veterinary Marketing Association's (VMA's) Young Veterinary Marketeer of the Year. Here, he describes what he does and why he believes other practices should embrace marketing to improve their quality and client care. PMID:25614552

  18. Marketing Human Resource Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Eric, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    Describes three human resource development activities: training, education, and development. Explains marketing from the practitioners's viewpoint in terms of customer orientation; external and internal marketing; and market analysis, research, strategy, and mix. Shows how to design, develop, and implement strategic marketing plans and identify…

  19. Strategic Marketing for Agribusiness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Mary A., Ed.

    1993-01-01

    The steps for strategic market planning are discussed including: (1) assessing the situation with market conditions, customers, competitors, and your firm; and (2) crafting a strategy to prioritize target markets, develop a core strategy, and create a marketing mix. Examples of agribusiness successes are presented. The booklet concludes with a…

  20. Marketing in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalili, Farid

    The use of marketing activities by educational institutions and the transfer of marketing activities from business to higher education are considered. Market analysis helps colleges and universities determine what programs, scheduling, or services are strong and to which student market the institution should appeal. It is suggested that the…

  1. Hospital marketing revisited.

    PubMed

    Costello, M M

    1987-05-01

    With more hospitals embracing the marketing function in their organizational management over the past decade, hospital marketing can no longer be considered a fad. However, a review of hospital marketing efforts as reported in the professional literature indicates that hospitals must pay greater attention to the marketing mix elements of service, price and distribution channels as their programs mature. PMID:10283019

  2. Cooperative Market Research Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carels, Peter; McCullough, Lynette

    A pilot project was developed in which the Advertising and Market Research Center of the Vienna School of Economics and Business in Austria and the German Department as well as the Marketing Department of Miami University in Ohio are working together to collect market research data and formulate a market entry strategy for Roemerquelle, an…

  3. Market review - Market values summary/August market review/current market data

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This article is the August 1995 uranium market review. During this reporting period, there were three transactions in the long-term concentrates sector, no transactions in the UF6 market, and limited activity in the spot conversion market and the enrichment services market. Active supply rose, as did active demand. Prices were stable to slightly increasing.

  4. Improved intra-species collision models for PIC simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, M.E.; Lemons, D.S.; Winske, D.

    1998-07-01

    In recent years, the authors have investigated methods to improve the effectiveness of modeling collisional processes in particle-in-cell codes. Through the use of generalized collision models, plasma dynamics can be followed both in the regime of nearly collisionless plasmas as well as in the hydrodynamic limit of collisional plasmas. They have developed a collision-field method to treat both the case of collisions between unlike plasma species (inter-species collisions), through the use of a deterministic, grid-based force, and between particles of the same species (intra-species collisions), through the use of a Langevin equation. While the approach used for inter-species collisions is noise-free in that the collision experienced by a particle does not require any random numbers, such random numbers are used for intra-species collisions. This gives rise to a stochastic cooling effect inherent in the Langevin approach. In this paper, the authors concentrate on intra-species collisions and describe how the accuracy of the model can be improved by appropriate corrections to velocity and spatial moments.

  5. Moderate Intra-Group Bias Maximizes Cooperation on Interdependent Populations

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Changbing; Wang, Zhen; Li, Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary game theory on spatial structures has received increasing attention during the past decades. However, the majority of these achievements focuses on single and static population structures, which is not fully consistent with the fact that real structures are composed of many interactive groups. These groups are interdependent on each other and present dynamical features, in which individuals mimic the strategy of neighbors and switch their partnerships continually. It is however unclear how the dynamical and interdependent interactions among groups affect the evolution of collective behaviors. In this work, we employ the prisoner's dilemma game to investigate how the dynamics of structure influences cooperation on interdependent populations, where populations are represented by group structures. It is found that the more robust the links between cooperators (or the more fragile the links between cooperators and defectors), the more prevalent of cooperation. Furthermore, theoretical analysis shows that the intra-group bias can favor cooperation, which is only possible when individuals are likely to attach neighbors within the same group. Yet, interestingly, cooperation can be even inhibited for large intra-group bias, allowing the moderate intra-group bias maximizes the cooperation level. PMID:24533084

  6. Moderate intra-group bias maximizes cooperation on interdependent populations.

    PubMed

    Tang, Changbing; Wang, Zhen; Li, Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary game theory on spatial structures has received increasing attention during the past decades. However, the majority of these achievements focuses on single and static population structures, which is not fully consistent with the fact that real structures are composed of many interactive groups. These groups are interdependent on each other and present dynamical features, in which individuals mimic the strategy of neighbors and switch their partnerships continually. It is however unclear how the dynamical and interdependent interactions among groups affect the evolution of collective behaviors. In this work, we employ the prisoner's dilemma game to investigate how the dynamics of structure influences cooperation on interdependent populations, where populations are represented by group structures. It is found that the more robust the links between cooperators (or the more fragile the links between cooperators and defectors), the more prevalent of cooperation. Furthermore, theoretical analysis shows that the intra-group bias can favor cooperation, which is only possible when individuals are likely to attach neighbors within the same group. Yet, interestingly, cooperation can be even inhibited for large intra-group bias, allowing the moderate intra-group bias maximizes the cooperation level. PMID:24533084

  7. Marketing the pathology practice.

    PubMed

    Berkowitz, E N

    1995-07-01

    Effective marketing of the pathology practice is essential in the face of an increasingly competitive market. Successful marketing begins with a market-driven planning process. As opposed to the traditional planning process used in health care organizations, a market-driven approach is externally driven. Implementing a market-driven plan also requires recognition of the definition of the service. Each market to which pathologists direct their service defines the service differently. Recognition of these different service definitions and creation of a product to meet these needs could lead to competitive advantages in the marketplace. PMID:7625911

  8. A Marketing Case History Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weirick, Margaret C.

    1978-01-01

    A current marketing plan from Temple University illustrates many marketing techniques, including those dealing with enrollment objectives, market objectives, demographic characteristics of Temple students, market share analysis, and the marketing plan. Specific guidelines are provided. (LBH)

  9. Dispositional Optimism

    PubMed Central

    Carver, Charles S.; Scheier, Michael F.

    2014-01-01

    Optimism is a cognitive construct (expectancies regarding future outcomes) that also relates to motivation: optimistic people exert effort, whereas pessimistic people disengage from effort. Study of optimism began largely in health contexts, finding positive associations between optimism and markers of better psychological and physical health. Physical health effects likely occur through differences in both health-promoting behaviors and physiological concomitants of coping. Recently, the scientific study of optimism has extended to the realm of social relations: new evidence indicates that optimists have better social connections, partly because they work harder at them. In this review, we examine the myriad ways this trait can benefit an individual, and our current understanding of the biological basis of optimism. PMID:24630971

  10. 7 CFR 1218.11 - Market or marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Market or marketing. 1218.11 Section 1218.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Market or marketing. (a) Marketing means the sale or other disposition of blueberries in any channel...