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Sample records for intra market optimization

  1. Trajectory optimization for intra-operative nuclear tomographic imaging.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Jakob; Lasser, Tobias; Gardiazabal, José; Navab, Nassir

    2013-10-01

    Diagnostic nuclear imaging modalities like SPECT typically employ gantries to ensure a densely sampled geometry of detectors in order to keep the inverse problem of tomographic reconstruction as well-posed as possible. In an intra-operative setting with mobile freehand detectors the situation changes significantly, and having an optimal detector trajectory during acquisition becomes critical. In this paper we propose an incremental optimization method based on the numerical condition of the system matrix of the underlying iterative reconstruction method to calculate optimal detector positions during acquisition in real-time. The performance of this approach is evaluated using simulations. A first experiment on a phantom using a robot-controlled intra-operative SPECT-like setup demonstrates the feasibility of the approach. PMID:23706624

  2. Shape optimization of an accommodative intra-ocular lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jouve, François; Hanna, Khalil

    2005-03-01

    Cataract surgery consists in replacing the clouded or opacified crystalline lens by an Intra-Ocular Lens (IOL) having the same mean dioptrical power. Clear vision is then achieved at a given distance and glasses are needed in many situations. A new kind of IOL, potentially accommodative, is proposed. Its design is based on the deep understanding of the accommodation mechanism and on the mathematical modeling and the numerical simulation of the IOL's comportment in vivo. A preliminary version of this IOL is now commercialized by the company HumanOptics under the name '1CU'. In a second phase, shape optimization techniques equipped with strong mechanical and physiological constraints, are used to enhance the IOL performance and build a new design. To cite this article: F. Jouve, K. Hanna, C. R. Mecanique 333 (2005).

  3. Intra-day variability of the stock market activity versus stationarity of the financial time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubiec, T.; Wiliński, M.

    2015-08-01

    In this paper we propose a new approach to a well-known phenomena of intra-day activity pattern on the stock market. We suggest that seasonality of inter-transaction times has a more significant impact than intra-day pattern of volatility. Our aim is not to remove the intra-day pattern from the data but to describe its impact on autocorrelation function estimators. We obtain an exact, analytical formula relating estimators of the autocorrelation functions of non-stationary (seasonal) process to its stationary counterpart. Hence, we prove that the day seasonality of inter-transaction times extends the memory of the process. That is, autocorrelation of both, price returns and their absolute values, relaxation to zero is longer.

  4. Optimal ranking regime analysis of intra- to multidecadal U.S. climate variability. Part I: Temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Optimal Ranking Regime (ORR) method was used to identify intra- to multi-decadal (IMD) time windows containing significant ranking sequences in U.S. climate division temperature data. The simplicity of the ORR procedure’s output – a time series’ most significant non-overlapping periods of high o...

  5. Antimicrobials: a global alliance for optimizing their rational use in intra-abdominal infections (AGORA).

    PubMed

    Sartelli, Massimo; Weber, Dieter G; Ruppé, Etienne; Bassetti, Matteo; Wright, Brian J; Ansaloni, Luca; Catena, Fausto; Coccolini, Federico; Abu-Zidan, Fikri M; Coimbra, Raul; Moore, Ernest E; Moore, Frederick A; Maier, Ronald V; De Waele, Jan J; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W; Griffiths, Ewen A; Eckmann, Christian; Brink, Adrian J; Mazuski, John E; May, Addison K; Sawyer, Rob G; Mertz, Dominik; Montravers, Philippe; Kumar, Anand; Roberts, Jason A; Vincent, Jean-Louis; Watkins, Richard R; Lowman, Warren; Spellberg, Brad; Abbott, Iain J; Adesunkanmi, Abdulrashid Kayode; Al-Dahir, Sara; Al-Hasan, Majdi N; Agresta, Ferdinando; Althani, Asma A; Ansari, Shamshul; Ansumana, Rashid; Augustin, Goran; Bala, Miklosh; Balogh, Zsolt J; Baraket, Oussama; Bhangu, Aneel; Beltrán, Marcelo A; Bernhard, Michael; Biffl, Walter L; Boermeester, Marja A; Brecher, Stephen M; Cherry-Bukowiec, Jill R; Buyne, Otmar R; Cainzos, Miguel A; Cairns, Kelly A; Camacho-Ortiz, Adrian; Chandy, Sujith J; Che Jusoh, Asri; Chichom-Mefire, Alain; Colijn, Caroline; Corcione, Francesco; Cui, Yunfeng; Curcio, Daniel; Delibegovic, Samir; Demetrashvili, Zaza; De Simone, Belinda; Dhingra, Sameer; Diaz, José J; Di Carlo, Isidoro; Dillip, Angel; Di Saverio, Salomone; Doyle, Michael P; Dorj, Gereltuya; Dogjani, Agron; Dupont, Hervé; Eachempati, Soumitra R; Enani, Mushira Abdulaziz; Egiev, Valery N; Elmangory, Mutasim M; Ferrada, Paula; Fitchett, Joseph R; Fraga, Gustavo P; Guessennd, Nathalie; Giamarellou, Helen; Ghnnam, Wagih; Gkiokas, George; Goldberg, Staphanie R; Gomes, Carlos Augusto; Gomi, Harumi; Guzmán-Blanco, Manuel; Haque, Mainul; Hansen, Sonja; Hecker, Andreas; Heizmann, Wolfgang R; Herzog, Torsten; Hodonou, Adrien Montcho; Hong, Suk-Kyung; Kafka-Ritsch, Reinhold; Kaplan, Lewis J; Kapoor, Garima; Karamarkovic, Aleksandar; Kees, Martin G; Kenig, Jakub; Kiguba, Ronald; Kim, Peter K; Kluger, Yoram; Khokha, Vladimir; Koike, Kaoru; Kok, Kenneth Y Y; Kong, Victory; Knox, Matthew C; Inaba, Kenji; Isik, Arda; Iskandar, Katia; Ivatury, Rao R; Labbate, Maurizio; Labricciosa, Francesco M; Laterre, Pierre-François; Latifi, Rifat; Lee, Jae Gil; Lee, Young Ran; Leone, Marc; Leppaniemi, Ari; Li, Yousheng; Liang, Stephen Y; Loho, Tonny; Maegele, Marc; Malama, Sydney; Marei, Hany E; Martin-Loeches, Ignacio; Marwah, Sanjay; Massele, Amos; McFarlane, Michael; Melo, Renato Bessa; Negoi, Ionut; Nicolau, David P; Nord, Carl Erik; Ofori-Asenso, Richard; Omari, AbdelKarim H; Ordonez, Carlos A; Ouadii, Mouaqit; Pereira Júnior, Gerson Alves; Piazza, Diego; Pupelis, Guntars; Rawson, Timothy Miles; Rems, Miran; Rizoli, Sandro; Rocha, Claudio; Sakakhushev, Boris; Sanchez-Garcia, Miguel; Sato, Norio; Segovia Lohse, Helmut A; Sganga, Gabriele; Siribumrungwong, Boonying; Shelat, Vishal G; Soreide, Kjetil; Soto, Rodolfo; Talving, Peep; Tilsed, Jonathan V; Timsit, Jean-Francois; Trueba, Gabriel; Trung, Ngo Tat; Ulrych, Jan; van Goor, Harry; Vereczkei, Andras; Vohra, Ravinder S; Wani, Imtiaz; Uhl, Waldemar; Xiao, Yonghong; Yuan, Kuo-Ching; Zachariah, Sanoop K; Zahar, Jean-Ralph; Zakrison, Tanya L; Corcione, Antonio; Melotti, Rita M; Viscoli, Claudio; Viale, Perluigi

    2016-01-01

    Intra-abdominal infections (IAI) are an important cause of morbidity and are frequently associated with poor prognosis, particularly in high-risk patients. The cornerstones in the management of complicated IAIs are timely effective source control with appropriate antimicrobial therapy. Empiric antimicrobial therapy is important in the management of intra-abdominal infections and must be broad enough to cover all likely organisms because inappropriate initial antimicrobial therapy is associated with poor patient outcomes and the development of bacterial resistance. The overuse of antimicrobials is widely accepted as a major driver of some emerging infections (such as C. difficile), the selection of resistant pathogens in individual patients, and for the continued development of antimicrobial resistance globally. The growing emergence of multi-drug resistant organisms and the limited development of new agents available to counteract them have caused an impending crisis with alarming implications, especially with regards to Gram-negative bacteria. An international task force from 79 different countries has joined this project by sharing a document on the rational use of antimicrobials for patients with IAIs. The project has been termed AGORA (Antimicrobials: A Global Alliance for Optimizing their Rational Use in Intra-Abdominal Infections). The authors hope that AGORA, involving many of the world's leading experts, can actively raise awareness in health workers and can improve prescribing behavior in treating IAIs. PMID:27429642

  6. Using Data to Optimize Community College Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clagett, Craig A.

    2012-01-01

    Marketing is an essential component of an effective enrollment management plan. The broad mission of a comprehensive community college requires multiple, targeted communications campaigns. Institutional research can contribute to marketing success at all phases of decision making.

  7. Portfolio optimization for index tracking modelling in Malaysia stock market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siew, Lam Weng; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ismail, Hamizun

    2016-06-01

    Index tracking is an investment strategy in portfolio management which aims to construct an optimal portfolio to generate similar mean return with the stock market index mean return without purchasing all of the stocks that make up the index. The objective of this paper is to construct an optimal portfolio using the optimization model which adopts regression approach in tracking the benchmark stock market index return. In this study, the data consists of weekly price of stocks in Malaysia market index which is FTSE Bursa Malaysia Kuala Lumpur Composite Index from January 2010 until December 2013. The results of this study show that the optimal portfolio is able to track FBMKLCI Index at minimum tracking error of 1.0027% with 0.0290% excess mean return over the mean return of FBMKLCI Index. The significance of this study is to construct the optimal portfolio using optimization model which adopts regression approach in tracking the stock market index without purchasing all index components.

  8. Adaptive Portfolio Optimization for Multiple Electricity Markets Participation.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Tiago; Morais, Hugo; Sousa, Tiago M; Sousa, Tiago; Vale, Zita; Praca, Isabel; Faia, Ricardo; Pires, Eduardo Jose Solteiro

    2016-08-01

    The increase of distributed energy resources, mainly based on renewable sources, requires new solutions that are able to deal with this type of resources' particular characteristics (namely, the renewable energy sources intermittent nature). The smart grid concept is increasing its consensus as the most suitable solution to facilitate the small players' participation in electric power negotiations while improving energy efficiency. The opportunity for players' participation in multiple energy negotiation environments (smart grid negotiation in addition to the already implemented market types, such as day-ahead spot markets, balancing markets, intraday negotiations, bilateral contracts, forward and futures negotiations, and among other) requires players to take suitable decisions on whether to, and how to participate in each market type. This paper proposes a portfolio optimization methodology, which provides the best investment profile for a market player, considering different market opportunities. The amount of power that each supported player should negotiate in each available market type in order to maximize its profits, considers the prices that are expected to be achieved in each market, in different contexts. The price forecasts are performed using artificial neural networks, providing a specific database with the expected prices in the different market types, at each time. This database is then used as input by an evolutionary particle swarm optimization process, which originates the most advantage participation portfolio for the market player. The proposed approach is tested and validated with simulations performed in multiagent simulator of competitive electricity markets, using real electricity markets data from the Iberian operator-MIBEL. PMID:26353382

  9. Antagonistic and Bargaining Games in Optimal Marketing Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipovetsky, S.

    2007-01-01

    Game theory approaches to find optimal marketing decisions are considered. Antagonistic games with and without complete information, and non-antagonistic games techniques are applied to paired comparison, ranking, or rating data for a firm and its competitors in the market. Mix strategy, equilibrium in bi-matrix games, bargaining models with…

  10. Optimal times above MICs of ceftibuten and cefaclor in experimental intra-abdominal infections.

    PubMed

    Onyeji, C O; Nicolau, D P; Nightingale, C H; Quintiliani, R

    1994-05-01

    The duration of time that serum drug levels remain above the MIC (time above the MIC) for the pathogen has been shown to be the most significant parameter determining the efficacies of beta-lactam antibiotics. In the described study, we investigated the optimal time above the MIC of ceftibuten and cefaclor using a nonneutropenic mouse model of intra-abdominal infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. The abilities of the drugs to protect mice against the organisms were determined in mouse protection tests, and the doses were fractionated to produce various dosing regimens with different times above the MIC. All drug-organism combinations showed a significant correlation (r > 0.9) between drug efficacy and the time above the MIC. Also, with ceftibuten treatment, the different dosing regimens that produced equal times above the MIC resulted in the same efficacy, whereas with cefaclor, an apparent dose-dependent effect was observed. These results showed that for a 100% recovery from K. pneumoniae and E. coli infections, the optimal times above the MIC with ceftibuten treatment were 2.2 and 1.6 h, respectively. Relatively high doses of both antibiotics were required to ensure recovery from S. pneumoniae infections. In vitro time-kill studies demonstrated that cefaclor exhibits a marked inoculum effect against the pathogens, and there was a concentration-dependent killing at a large inoculum size. On the other hand, ceftibuten showed no inoculum effect. It is suggested that optimization of both dose and time above the MIC appears to be necessary for the treatment of S. aureus infections with cefaclor, and this may apply to other beta-lactams tht exhibit marked inoculum effects. PMID:8067747

  11. Protein docking using an ensemble of spin labels optimized by intra-molecular paramagnetic relaxation enhancement.

    PubMed

    Schilder, Jesika; Liu, Wei-Min; Kumar, Pravin; Overhand, Mark; Huber, Martina; Ubbink, Marcellus

    2016-02-17

    Paramagnetic NMR is a useful technique to study proteins and protein complexes and the use of paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) for this purpose has become wide-spread. PREs are commonly generated using paramagnetic spin labels (SLs) that contain an unpaired electron in the form of a nitroxide radical, with 1-oxyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-2,5-dihydropyrrol-3-ylmethyl methane thiosulfonate (MTSL) being the most popular tag. The inherent flexibility of the SL causes sampling of several conformations in solution, which can be problematic as over- or underestimation of the spatial distribution of the unpaired electron in structural calculations will lead to errors in the distance restraints. We investigated the effect of this mobility on the accuracy of protein-protein docking calculations using intermolecular PRE data by comparing MTSL and the less mobile 3-methanesulfonilthiomethyl-4-(pyridin-3-yl)-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-2,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrol-1-yloxyl (pyMTSL) on the dynamic complex of cytochrome c and cytochrome c peroxidase. No significant differences were found between the two SLs. Docking was performed using either single or multiple conformers and either fixed or flexible SLs. It was found that mobility of the SLs is the limiting factor for obtaining accurate solutions. Optimization of SL conformer orientations using intra-molecular PRE improves the accuracy of docking. PMID:26356049

  12. Optimizing cosmological surveys in a crowded market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassett, Bruce A.

    2005-04-01

    Optimizing the major next-generation cosmological surveys (such as SNAP, KAOS, etc.) is a key problem given our ignorance of the physics underlying cosmic acceleration and the plethora of surveys planned. We propose a Bayesian design framework which (1) maximizes the discrimination power of a survey without assuming any underlying dark-energy model, (2) finds the best niche survey geometry given current data and future competing experiments, (3) maximizes the cross section for serendipitous discoveries and (4) can be adapted to answer specific questions (such as “is dark energy dynamical?”). Integrated parameter-space optimization (IPSO) is a design framework that integrates projected parameter errors over an entire dark energy parameter space and then extremizes a figure of merit (such as Shannon entropy gain which we show is stable to off-diagonal covariance matrix perturbations) as a function of survey parameters using analytical, grid or MCMC techniques. We discuss examples where the optimization can be performed analytically. IPSO is thus a general, model-independent and scalable framework that allows us to appropriately use prior information to design the best possible surveys.

  13. Optimizing cosmological surveys in a crowded market

    SciTech Connect

    Bassett, Bruce A.

    2005-04-15

    Optimizing the major next-generation cosmological surveys (such as SNAP, KAOS, etc.) is a key problem given our ignorance of the physics underlying cosmic acceleration and the plethora of surveys planned. We propose a Bayesian design framework which (1) maximizes the discrimination power of a survey without assuming any underlying dark-energy model, (2) finds the best niche survey geometry given current data and future competing experiments, (3) maximizes the cross section for serendipitous discoveries and (4) can be adapted to answer specific questions (such as 'is dark energy dynamical?'). Integrated parameter-space optimization (IPSO) is a design framework that integrates projected parameter errors over an entire dark energy parameter space and then extremizes a figure of merit (such as Shannon entropy gain which we show is stable to off-diagonal covariance matrix perturbations) as a function of survey parameters using analytical, grid or MCMC techniques. We discuss examples where the optimization can be performed analytically. IPSO is thus a general, model-independent and scalable framework that allows us to appropriately use prior information to design the best possible surveys.

  14. Intra-day response of foreign exchange markets after the Tohoku-Oki earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Shuhei; Hirata, Yoshito; Iwayama, Koji; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2015-02-01

    Although an economy is influenced by a natural disaster, the market response to the disaster during the first 24 hours is not clearly understood. Here we show that an earthquake quickly causes temporal changes in a foreign exchange market by examining the case of the Tohoku-Oki earthquake. Recurrence plots and statistical change point detection independently show that the United States dollar-Japanese yen market responded to the earthquake activity without delay and with the delay of about 2 minutes, respectively. These findings support that the efficient market hypothesis nearly holds now in the time scale of minutes.

  15. Optimal Advanced Credit Releases in Ecosystem Service Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    BenDor, Todd K.; Guo, Tianshu; Yates, Andrew J.

    2014-03-01

    Ecosystem service markets are popular policy tools for ecosystem protection. Advanced credit releases are an important factor affecting the supply side of ecosystem markets. Under an advanced credit release policy, regulators give ecosystem suppliers a fraction of the total ecosystem credits generated by a restoration project before it is verified that the project actually achieves the required ecological thresholds. In spite of their prominent role in ecosystem markets, there is virtually no regulatory or research literature on the proper design of advanced credit release policies. Using U.S. aquatic ecosystem markets as an example, we develop a principal-agent model of the behavior of regulators and wetland/stream mitigation bankers to determine and explore the optimal degree of advance credit release. The model highlights the tension between regulators' desire to induce market participation, while at the same time ensuring that bankers successfully complete ecological restoration. Our findings suggest several simple guidelines for strengthening advanced credit release policy.

  16. Multiperiod Mean-Variance Portfolio Optimization via Market Cloning

    SciTech Connect

    Ankirchner, Stefan; Dermoune, Azzouz

    2011-08-15

    The problem of finding the mean variance optimal portfolio in a multiperiod model can not be solved directly by means of dynamic programming. In order to find a solution we therefore first introduce independent market clones having the same distributional properties as the original market, and we replace the portfolio mean and variance by their empirical counterparts. We then use dynamic programming to derive portfolios maximizing a weighted sum of the empirical mean and variance. By letting the number of market clones converge to infinity we are able to solve the original mean variance problem.

  17. Optimality problem of network topology in stocks market analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djauhari, Maman Abdurachman; Gan, Siew Lee

    2015-02-01

    Since its introduction fifteen years ago, minimal spanning tree has become an indispensible tool in econophysics. It is to filter the important economic information contained in a complex system of financial markets' commodities. Here we show that, in general, that tool is not optimal in terms of topological properties. Consequently, the economic interpretation of the filtered information might be misleading. To overcome that non-optimality problem, a set of criteria and a selection procedure of an optimal minimal spanning tree will be developed. By using New York Stock Exchange data, the advantages of the proposed method will be illustrated in terms of the power-law of degree distribution.

  18. Intra-unit-cell magnetic correlations near optimal doping in YBa2Cu3O6.85

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangin-Thro, L.; Sidis, Y.; Wildes, A.; Bourges, P.

    2015-07-01

    The pseudo-gap phenomenon in copper oxide superconductors is central to any description of these materials as it prefigures the superconducting state itself. A magnetic intra-unit-cell order was found to occur just at the pseudo-gap temperature in four cuprate high-Tc superconducting families. Here we present polarized neutron-scattering measurements of nearly optimally doped YBa2Cu3O6.85, carried out on two different spectrometers, that reveal several features. The intra-unit-cell order consists of finite-sized planar domains that are very weakly correlated along the c axis. At high temperature, only the out-of-plane magnetic components correlate, indicating a strong Ising anisotropy. An aditional in-plane response develops at low temperature, giving rise to an apparent tilt of the magnetic moment. The discovery of these two regimes puts stringent constraints, which are tightly bound to the pseudo-gap physics, on the intrinsic nature of intra-unit-cell order.

  19. Intra-unit-cell magnetic correlations near optimal doping in YBa2Cu3O6.85

    PubMed Central

    Mangin-Thro, L.; Sidis, Y.; Wildes, A.; Bourges, P.

    2015-01-01

    The pseudo-gap phenomenon in copper oxide superconductors is central to any description of these materials as it prefigures the superconducting state itself. A magnetic intra-unit-cell order was found to occur just at the pseudo-gap temperature in four cuprate high-Tc superconducting families. Here we present polarized neutron-scattering measurements of nearly optimally doped YBa2Cu3O6.85, carried out on two different spectrometers, that reveal several features. The intra-unit-cell order consists of finite-sized planar domains that are very weakly correlated along the c axis. At high temperature, only the out-of-plane magnetic components correlate, indicating a strong Ising anisotropy. An aditional in-plane response develops at low temperature, giving rise to an apparent tilt of the magnetic moment. The discovery of these two regimes puts stringent constraints, which are tightly bound to the pseudo-gap physics, on the intrinsic nature of intra-unit-cell order. PMID:26138869

  20. Intra-Operative Radiation Therapy Optimization Using the Monte Carlo Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosetti, M.; Benassi, M.; Bruzzaniti, V.; Bufacchi, A.; D'Andrea, M.

    Intra-Operative Radiation Therapy (IORT) [1] is an innovative cancer treatment technique which consists in delivering during a surgical operation a radiation dose on the order of 10-20 Gy to a tumor bed or to a tumor residual after the resection. In this way it is possible to destroy the residual malignant cells. IORT is generally performed by means of electron beams produced by linear accelerators (linacs) in the range 3-12 MeV.

  1. Injectable long acting chitosan/tripolyphosphate microspheres for the intra-articular delivery of lornoxicam: Optimization and in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Abd-Allah, Hend; Kamel, Amany O; Sammour, Omaima A

    2016-09-20

    Chitosan microspheres were formulated for the intra-articular delivery of lornoxicam in knee osteoarthritis, to minimize associated side-effects after prolonged oral administration. Ionotropic-gelation technique was employed using tripolyphosphate as anionic cross-linker. Full-factorial design experiment was conducted to optimize lornoxicam entrapment-efficiency%. Formulations were assessed for their particle size, in-vitro drug release, Scanning electron microscopy, Differential-scanning-calorimetry and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy studies. Changing independent variables, chitosan pH, TPP pH and lornoxicam concentration resulted in different values of entrapment-efficiency% ranging from 13.5%±0.35 to 59.5%±2.2. Particle size ranged from 3.57μm±0.02 to 6.12μm±0.00 and lornoxicam%release was prolonged for up to 8days. SEM results showed spherical shape of the microspheres. FTIR and DSC studies confirmed the crosslinking of chitosan with tripolyphosphate. In-vivo therapeutic effect of lornoxicam microspheres was investigated using Monosodiumiodoacetate (MIA) induced osteoarthritis model in rats. Optimized formula showed long-term in-vivo anti-inflammatory effect relative to lornoxicam solution injected intra-articularly with significant reduction of histological, inflammatory and biochemical parameters of osteoarthritis. PMID:27261750

  2. Optimizing the scale of markets for water quality trading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Martin W.; Patterson, Lauren A.; Chen, Yanyou; Schnier, Kurt E.; Yates, Andrew J.

    2014-09-01

    Applying market approaches to environmental regulations requires establishing a spatial scale for trading. Spatially large markets usually increase opportunities for abatement cost savings but increase the potential for pollution damages (hot spots), vice versa for spatially small markets. We develop a coupled hydrologic-economic modeling approach for application to point source emissions trading by a large number of sources and apply this approach to the wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) within the watershed of the second largest estuary in the U.S. We consider two different administrative structures that govern the trade of emission permits: one-for-one trading (the number of permits required for each unit of emission is the same for every WWTP) and trading ratios (the number of permits required for each unit of emissions varies across WWTP). Results show that water quality regulators should allow trading to occur at the river basin scale as an appropriate first-step policy, as is being done in a limited number of cases via compliance associations. Larger spatial scales may be needed under conditions of increased abatement costs. The optimal scale of the market is generally the same regardless of whether one-for-one trading or trading ratios are employed.

  3. Optimized measurements of separations and angles between intra-molecular fluorescent markers

    PubMed Central

    Mortensen, Kim I.; Sung, Jongmin; Flyvbjerg, Henrik; Spudich, James A.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a novel, yet simple tool for the study of structure and function of biomolecules by extending two-colour co-localization microscopy to fluorescent molecules with fixed orientations and in intra-molecular proximity. From each colour-separated microscope image in a time-lapse movie and using only simple means, we simultaneously determine both the relative (x,y)-separation of the fluorophores and their individual orientations in space with accuracy and precision. The positions and orientations of two domains of the same molecule are thus time-resolved. Using short double-stranded DNA molecules internally labelled with two fixed fluorophores, we demonstrate the accuracy and precision of our method using the known structure of double-stranded DNA as a benchmark, resolve 10-base-pair differences in fluorophore separations, and determine the unique 3D orientation of each DNA molecule, thereby establishing short, double-labelled DNA molecules as probes of 3D orientation of anything to which one can attach them firmly. PMID:26509412

  4. Optimized measurements of separations and angles between intra-molecular fluorescent markers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortensen, Kim I.; Sung, Jongmin; Flyvbjerg, Henrik; Spudich, James A.

    2015-10-01

    We demonstrate a novel, yet simple tool for the study of structure and function of biomolecules by extending two-colour co-localization microscopy to fluorescent molecules with fixed orientations and in intra-molecular proximity. From each colour-separated microscope image in a time-lapse movie and using only simple means, we simultaneously determine both the relative (x,y)-separation of the fluorophores and their individual orientations in space with accuracy and precision. The positions and orientations of two domains of the same molecule are thus time-resolved. Using short double-stranded DNA molecules internally labelled with two fixed fluorophores, we demonstrate the accuracy and precision of our method using the known structure of double-stranded DNA as a benchmark, resolve 10-base-pair differences in fluorophore separations, and determine the unique 3D orientation of each DNA molecule, thereby establishing short, double-labelled DNA molecules as probes of 3D orientation of anything to which one can attach them firmly.

  5. Effects of nutrient optimization on intra-annual wood formation in Norway spruce.

    PubMed

    Kalliokoski, Tuomo; Mäkinen, Harri; Jyske, Tuula; Nöjd, Pekka; Linder, Sune

    2013-11-01

    In the Nordic countries, growth of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) is generally limited by low availability of nutrients, especially nitrogen. Optimizing forest management requires better insight on how growth responds to the environmental conditions and their manipulation. The aim of this study was to analyse the effects of nutrient optimization on timing and the rate of tracheid formation of Norway spruce and to follow the differentiation of newly formed tracheids. The study was performed during two growing seasons in a long-term nutrient optimization experiment in northern Sweden, where all essential macro- and micronutrients were supplied in irrigation water every second day from mid-June to mid-August. The control plots were without additional nutrients and water. Tracheid formation in the stem was monitored throughout the growing season by weekly sampling of microcores at breast height. The onset of xylogenesis occurred in early June, but in early summer there were no significant between-treatment differences in the onset and relative rate of tracheid formation. In both treatments, the onset of secondary cell wall formation occurred in mid-June. The maximum rate of tracheid formation occurred close to the summer solstice and 50% of the tracheids had been accumulated in early July. Optimized nutrition resulted in the formation of ∼50% more tracheids and delayed the cessation of tracheid formation, which extended the tracheid formation period by 20-50%, compared with control trees. The increased growth was mainly an effect of enhanced tracheid formation rate during the mid- and later-part of the growing season. In the second year, the increased growth rate also resulted in 11% wider tracheids. We conclude that the onset and rate of tracheid formation and differentiation during summer is primarily controlled by photoperiod, temperature and availability of nutrients, rather than supply of carbohydrates. PMID:24169103

  6. Pareto-optimal solutions for environmental flow schemes incorporating the intra-annual and interannual variability of the natural flow regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiau, Jenq-Tzong; Wu, Fu-Chun

    2007-06-01

    The temporal variations of natural flows are essential elements for preserving the ecological health of a river which are addressed in this paper by the environmental flow schemes that incorporate the intra-annual and interannual variability of the natural flow regime. We present an optimization framework to find the Pareto-optimal solutions for various flow schemes. The proposed framework integrates (1) the range of variability approach for evaluating the hydrologic alterations; (2) the standardized precipitation index approach for establishing the variation criteria for the wet, normal, and dry years; (3) a weir operation model for simulating the system of flows; and (4) a multiobjective optimization genetic algorithm for search of the Pareto-optimal solutions. The proposed framework is applied to the Kaoping diversion weir in Taiwan. The results reveal that the time-varying schemes incorporating the intra-annual variability in the environmental flow prescriptions promote the ecosystem and human needs fitness. Incorporation of the interannual flow variability using different criteria established for three types of water year further promotes both fitnesses. The merit of incorporating the interannual variability may be superimposed on that of incorporating only the intra-annual flow variability. The Pareto-optimal solutions searched with a limited range of flows replicate satisfactorily those obtained with a full search range. The limited-range Pareto front may be used as a surrogate of the full-range one if feasible prescriptions are to be found among the regular flows.

  7. Development of a Market Optimized Condensing Gas Water Heater

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Pescatore

    2006-01-11

    This program covered the development of a market optimized condensing gas water heater for residential applications. The intent of the program was to develop a condensing design that minimized the large initial cost premium associated with traditional condensing water heater designs. Equally important was that the considered approach utilizes design and construction methods that deliver the desired efficiency without compromising product reliability. Standard condensing water heater approaches in the marketplace utilize high cost materials such as stainless steel tanks and heat exchangers as well as expensive burner systems to achieve the higher efficiencies. The key in this program was to develop a water heater design that uses low-cost, available components and technologies to achieve higher efficiency at a modest cost premium. By doing this, the design can reduce the payback to a more reasonable length, increasing the appeal of the product to the marketplace. Condensing water heaters have been in existence for years, but have not been able to significantly penetrate the market. The issue has typically been cost. The high purchase price associated with existing condensing water heaters, sometimes as much as $2000, has been a very difficult hurdle to overcome in the marketplace. The design developed under this program has the potential to reduce the purchase price of this condensing design by as much as $1000 as compared to traditional condensing units. The condensing water heater design developed over the course of this program led to an approach that delivered the following performance attributes: 90%+ thermal efficiency; 76,000 Btu/hr input rate in a 50 gallon tank; First hour rating greater than 180 gph; Rapid recovery time; and Overall operating condition well matched to combination heat and hot water applications. Over the final three years of the program, TIAX worked very closely with A.O. Smith Water Products Company as our commercial partner to optimize

  8. Effect of C/N ratio and media optimization through response surface methodology on simultaneous productions of intra- and extracellular inulinase and invertase from Aspergillus niger ATCC 20611.

    PubMed

    Dinarvand, Mojdeh; Rezaee, Malahat; Masomian, Malihe; Jazayeri, Seyed Davoud; Zareian, Mohsen; Abbasi, Sahar; Ariff, Arbakariya B

    2013-01-01

    The study is to identify the extraction of intracellular inulinase (exo- and endoinulinase) and invertase as well as optimization medium composition for maximum productions of intra- and extracellular enzymes from Aspergillus niger ATCC 20611. From two different methods for extraction of intracellular enzymes, ultrasonic method was found more effective. Response surface methodology (RSM) with a five-variable and three-level central composite design (CCD) was employed to optimize the medium composition. The effect of five main reaction parameters including sucrose, yeast extract, NaNO₃, Zn⁺², and Triton X-100 on the production of enzymes was analyzed. A modified quadratic model was fitted to the data with a coefficient of determination (R²) more than 0.90 for all responses. The intra-extracellular inulinase and invertase productions increased in the range from 16 to 8.4 times in the optimized medium (10% (w/v) sucrose, 2.5% (w/v) yeast extract, 2% (w/v) NaNO₃, 1.5 mM (v/v) Zn⁺², and 1% (v/v) Triton X-100) by RSM and from around 1.2 to 1.3 times greater than in the medium optimized by one-factor-at-a-time, respectively. The results of bioprocesses optimization can be useful in the scale-up fermentation and food industry. PMID:24151605

  9. Effect of C/N Ratio and Media Optimization through Response Surface Methodology on Simultaneous Productions of Intra- and Extracellular Inulinase and Invertase from Aspergillus niger ATCC 20611

    PubMed Central

    Dinarvand, Mojdeh; Rezaee, Malahat; Masomian, Malihe; Jazayeri, Seyed Davoud; Zareian, Mohsen; Abbasi, Sahar; Ariff, Arbakariya B.

    2013-01-01

    The study is to identify the extraction of intracellular inulinase (exo- and endoinulinase) and invertase as well as optimization medium composition for maximum productions of intra- and extracellular enzymes from Aspergillus niger ATCC 20611. From two different methods for extraction of intracellular enzymes, ultrasonic method was found more effective. Response surface methodology (RSM) with a five-variable and three-level central composite design (CCD) was employed to optimize the medium composition. The effect of five main reaction parameters including sucrose, yeast extract, NaNO3, Zn+2, and Triton X-100 on the production of enzymes was analyzed. A modified quadratic model was fitted to the data with a coefficient of determination (R2) more than 0.90 for all responses. The intra-extracellular inulinase and invertase productions increased in the range from 16 to 8.4 times in the optimized medium (10% (w/v) sucrose, 2.5% (w/v) yeast extract, 2% (w/v) NaNO3, 1.5 mM (v/v) Zn+2, and 1% (v/v) Triton X-100) by RSM and from around 1.2 to 1.3 times greater than in the medium optimized by one-factor-at-a-time, respectively. The results of bioprocesses optimization can be useful in the scale-up fermentation and food industry. PMID:24151605

  10. The Benefits of Social Influence in Optimized Cultural Markets

    PubMed Central

    Abeliuk, Andrés; Berbeglia, Gerardo; Cebrian, Manuel; Van Hentenryck, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Social influence has been shown to create significant unpredictability in cultural markets, providing one potential explanation why experts routinely fail at predicting commercial success of cultural products. As a result, social influence is often presented in a negative light. Here, we show the benefits of social influence for cultural markets. We present a policy that uses product quality, appeal, position bias and social influence to maximize expected profits in the market. Our computational experiments show that our profit-maximizing policy leverages social influence to produce significant performance benefits for the market, while our theoretical analysis proves that our policy outperforms in expectation any policy not displaying social signals. Our results contrast with earlier work which focused on showing the unpredictability and inequalities created by social influence. Not only do we show for the first time that, under our policy, dynamically showing consumers positive social signals increases the expected profit of the seller in cultural markets. We also show that, in reasonable settings, our profit-maximizing policy does not introduce significant unpredictability and identifies “blockbusters”. Overall, these results shed new light on the nature of social influence and how it can be leveraged for the benefits of the market. PMID:25831093

  11. The benefits of social influence in optimized cultural markets.

    PubMed

    Abeliuk, Andrés; Berbeglia, Gerardo; Cebrian, Manuel; Van Hentenryck, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Social influence has been shown to create significant unpredictability in cultural markets, providing one potential explanation why experts routinely fail at predicting commercial success of cultural products. As a result, social influence is often presented in a negative light. Here, we show the benefits of social influence for cultural markets. We present a policy that uses product quality, appeal, position bias and social influence to maximize expected profits in the market. Our computational experiments show that our profit-maximizing policy leverages social influence to produce significant performance benefits for the market, while our theoretical analysis proves that our policy outperforms in expectation any policy not displaying social signals. Our results contrast with earlier work which focused on showing the unpredictability and inequalities created by social influence. Not only do we show for the first time that, under our policy, dynamically showing consumers positive social signals increases the expected profit of the seller in cultural markets. We also show that, in reasonable settings, our profit-maximizing policy does not introduce significant unpredictability and identifies "blockbusters". Overall, these results shed new light on the nature of social influence and how it can be leveraged for the benefits of the market. PMID:25831093

  12. Optimal Dynamic Advertising Strategy Under Age-Specific Market Segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krastev, Vladimir

    2011-12-01

    We consider the model proposed by Faggian and Grosset for determining the advertising efforts and goodwill in the long run of a company under age segmentation of consumers. Reducing this model to optimal control sub problems we find the optimal advertising strategy and goodwill.

  13. An implementation of particle swarm optimization to evaluate optimal under-voltage load shedding in competitive electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini-Bioki, M. M.; Rashidinejad, M.; Abdollahi, A.

    2013-11-01

    Load shedding is a crucial issue in power systems especially under restructured electricity environment. Market-driven load shedding in reregulated power systems associated with security as well as reliability is investigated in this paper. A technoeconomic multi-objective function is introduced to reveal an optimal load shedding scheme considering maximum social welfare. The proposed optimization problem includes maximum GENCOs and loads' profits as well as maximum loadability limit under normal and contingency conditions. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) as a heuristic optimization technique, is utilized to find an optimal load shedding scheme. In a market-driven structure, generators offer their bidding blocks while the dispatchable loads will bid their price-responsive demands. An independent system operator (ISO) derives a market clearing price (MCP) while rescheduling the amount of generating power in both pre-contingency and post-contingency conditions. The proposed methodology is developed on a 3-bus system and then is applied to a modified IEEE 30-bus test system. The obtained results show the effectiveness of the proposed methodology in implementing the optimal load shedding satisfying social welfare by maintaining voltage stability margin (VSM) through technoeconomic analyses.

  14. Bidding strategy for microgrid in day-ahead market based on hybrid stochastic/robust optimization

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Liu, Guodong; Xu, Yan; Tomsovic, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an optimal bidding strategy in the day-ahead market of a microgrid consisting of intermittent distributed generation (DG), storage, dispatchable DG and price responsive loads. The microgrid coordinates the energy consumption or production of its components and trades electricity in both the day-ahead and real-time markets to minimize its operating cost as a single entity. The bidding problem is challenging due to a variety of uncertainties, including power output of intermittent DG, load variation, day-ahead and real-time market prices. A hybrid stochastic/robust optimization model is proposed to minimize the expected net cost, i.e., expected total costmore » of operation minus total benefit of demand. This formulation can be solved by mixed integer linear programming. The uncertain output of intermittent DG and day-ahead market price are modeled via scenarios based on forecast results, while a robust optimization is proposed to limit the unbalanced power in real-time market taking account of the uncertainty of real-time market price. Numerical simulations on a microgrid consisting of a wind turbine, a PV panel, a fuel cell, a micro-turbine, a diesel generator, a battery and a responsive load show the advantage of stochastic optimization in addition to robust optimization.« less

  15. Bidding strategy for microgrid in day-ahead market based on hybrid stochastic/robust optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Guodong; Xu, Yan; Tomsovic, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an optimal bidding strategy in the day-ahead market of a microgrid consisting of intermittent distributed generation (DG), storage, dispatchable DG and price responsive loads. The microgrid coordinates the energy consumption or production of its components and trades electricity in both the day-ahead and real-time markets to minimize its operating cost as a single entity. The bidding problem is challenging due to a variety of uncertainties, including power output of intermittent DG, load variation, day-ahead and real-time market prices. A hybrid stochastic/robust optimization model is proposed to minimize the expected net cost, i.e., expected total cost of operation minus total benefit of demand. This formulation can be solved by mixed integer linear programming. The uncertain output of intermittent DG and day-ahead market price are modeled via scenarios based on forecast results, while a robust optimization is proposed to limit the unbalanced power in real-time market taking account of the uncertainty of real-time market price. Numerical simulations on a microgrid consisting of a wind turbine, a PV panel, a fuel cell, a micro-turbine, a diesel generator, a battery and a responsive load show the advantage of stochastic optimization in addition to robust optimization.

  16. Toward an Agent-Based Model of Socially Optimal Water Rights Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehlen, M. A.

    2004-12-01

    There has been considerable interest lately in using public markets for buying and selling the rights to local water usage. Such water rights markets, if designed correctly, should be socially optimal, that is, should sell rights at prices that reflect the true value of water in the region, taking into account that water rights buyers and sellers represent a disparate group of private industry, public authorities, and private users, each having different water needs and different priority to local government. Good market design, however, is hard. As was experienced in California short-run electric power markets, a market design that on paper looks reasonable but in practice is mal-constructed can have devastating effects: firms can learn to manipulate prices by `playing' both sides of the market, and sellers can under-provide so as to create exorbitant prices which buyers have no choice but to pay. Economic theory provides several frameworks for developing a good water rights market design; for example, the structure-conduct-performance paradigm (SCPP) suggests that, among other things, the number and types of buyers and sellers (structure), and transaction clearing rules and government policies (conduct) affect in very particular ways the prices and quantities (performance) in the market. In slow-moving or static markets, SCPP has been a useful predictor of market performance; in faster markets the market dynamics that endogenously develop over time are often too complex to predict with SCPP or other existing modeling techniques. New, more sophisticated combinations of modeling and simulation are needed. Toward developing a good (i.e., socially optimal) water rights market design that can take into account the dynamics inherent in the water sector, we are developing an agent-based model of water rights markets. The model serves two purposes: first, it provides an SCPP-based framework of water rights markets that takes into account the particular structure of

  17. Market power, private information and the optimal scale of pollution permit markets with application to North Carolina’s Neuse River

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We extend the analysis of optimal scale in pollution permit markets by allowing for both market power and private information. The effect of these considerations on optimal scale is determined by analyzing pollution of nitrogen from Waste Water Treatment Plants (WWTP) into North Carolina’s Neuse Riv...

  18. Predicting the Direction of Stock Market Index Movement Using an Optimized Artificial Neural Network Model

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Mingyue; Song, Yu

    2016-01-01

    In the business sector, it has always been a difficult task to predict the exact daily price of the stock market index; hence, there is a great deal of research being conducted regarding the prediction of the direction of stock price index movement. Many factors such as political events, general economic conditions, and traders’ expectations may have an influence on the stock market index. There are numerous research studies that use similar indicators to forecast the direction of the stock market index. In this study, we compare two basic types of input variables to predict the direction of the daily stock market index. The main contribution of this study is the ability to predict the direction of the next day’s price of the Japanese stock market index by using an optimized artificial neural network (ANN) model. To improve the prediction accuracy of the trend of the stock market index in the future, we optimize the ANN model using genetic algorithms (GA). We demonstrate and verify the predictability of stock price direction by using the hybrid GA-ANN model and then compare the performance with prior studies. Empirical results show that the Type 2 input variables can generate a higher forecast accuracy and that it is possible to enhance the performance of the optimized ANN model by selecting input variables appropriately. PMID:27196055

  19. Predicting the Direction of Stock Market Index Movement Using an Optimized Artificial Neural Network Model.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Mingyue; Song, Yu

    2016-01-01

    In the business sector, it has always been a difficult task to predict the exact daily price of the stock market index; hence, there is a great deal of research being conducted regarding the prediction of the direction of stock price index movement. Many factors such as political events, general economic conditions, and traders' expectations may have an influence on the stock market index. There are numerous research studies that use similar indicators to forecast the direction of the stock market index. In this study, we compare two basic types of input variables to predict the direction of the daily stock market index. The main contribution of this study is the ability to predict the direction of the next day's price of the Japanese stock market index by using an optimized artificial neural network (ANN) model. To improve the prediction accuracy of the trend of the stock market index in the future, we optimize the ANN model using genetic algorithms (GA). We demonstrate and verify the predictability of stock price direction by using the hybrid GA-ANN model and then compare the performance with prior studies. Empirical results show that the Type 2 input variables can generate a higher forecast accuracy and that it is possible to enhance the performance of the optimized ANN model by selecting input variables appropriately. PMID:27196055

  20. Intra-articular drug delivery from an optimized topical patch containing teriflunomide and lornoxicam for rheumatoid arthritis treatment: does the topical patch really enhance a local treatment?

    PubMed

    Xi, Honglei; Cun, Dongmei; Xiang, Rongwu; Guan, Yanli; Zhang, Yuxiu; Li, Yuanru; Fang, Liang

    2013-07-10

    Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) often bear joint destruction and symptomatic pain. The aim of this work is to develop a compound transdermal patch containing teriflunomide (TEF) and lornoxicam (LOX) to transport these drugs across the skin with the isochronous permeation rates for RA therapy and investigate intra-articular delivery of TEF and LOX following transdermal patches applied topically. The salts of TEF and LOX with organic amines diethylamine (DEtA), triethylamine (TEtA), diethanolamine (DEA), triethanolamine (TEA) and N-(2'-hydroxy-ethanol)-piperdine (NP) were prepared to improve the skin permeation of the parent drug. The optimized patch formulation is obtained from a 3-factor, 2-level central composite design. After topical application of the optimized compound patch to only one knee joint in rabbit, intra-articular delivery of TEF and LOX on the application site was compared with that on the non-application site. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of the optimized compound patch were evaluated using the adjuvant arthritis model and the pain model induced by acetic acid, respectively. The in vitro experiment results showed that the amine salts of TEF and LOX, especially TEF-TEtA and LOX-TEtA, enhanced the skin permeation of TEF and LOX from the transdermal patch system. The optimal formulation successfully displayed isochronous permeation rates for TEF and LOX across rabbit skin, and was defined with 5% of TEF-TEtA, 10% of LOX-TEtA and 15% of azone. The in vivo study showed that TEF and LOX from transdermal patches were transferred into skin, ligament and fat pad on the application site by direct diffusion and on the non-application site by the redistribution of systemic blood supply, while local absorption of TEF and LOX in synovial fluid originated from the systemic blood supply rather than direct diffusion. In the RA rat model, the results of swelling inhibition on primary arthritis of bilateral hind paws further confirmed the above

  1. Calibration of optimal execution of financial transactions in the presence of transient market impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busseti, Enzo; Lillo, Fabrizio

    2012-09-01

    Trading large volumes of a financial asset in order driven markets requires the use of algorithmic execution dividing the volume into many transactions in order to minimize costs due to market impact. A proper design of an optimal execution strategy strongly depends on a careful modeling of market impact, i.e. how the price reacts to trades. In this paper we consider a recently introduced market impact model (Bouchaud et al 2004 Quant. Finance, 4 176-90), which has the property of describing both the volume and the temporal dependence of price change due to trading. We show how this model can be used to describe price impact also in aggregated trade time or in real time. We then solve analytically and calibrate with real data the optimal execution problem both for risk neutral and for risk averse investors and we derive an efficient frontier of optimal execution. When we include spread costs the problem must be solved numerically and we show that the introduction of such costs regularizes the solution.

  2. Optimization of a Future RLV Business Case using Multiple Strategic Market Prices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charania, A.; Olds, J. R.

    2002-01-01

    There is a lack of depth in the current paradigm of conceptual level economic models used to evaluate the value and viability of future capital projects such as a commercial reusable launch vehicle (RLV). Current modeling methods assume a single price is charged to all customers, public or private, in order to optimize the economic metrics of interest. This assumption may not be valid given the different utility functions for space services of public and private entities. The government's requirements are generally more inflexible than its commercial counterparts. A government's launch schedules are much more rigid, choices of international launch services restricted, and launch specifications generally more stringent as well as numerous. These requirements generally make the government's demand curve more inelastic. Subsequently, a launch vehicle provider will charge a higher price (launch price per kg) to the government and may obtain a higher level of financial profit compared to an equivalent a commercial payload. This profit is not a sufficient condition to enable RLV development by itself but can help in making the financial situation slightly better. An RLV can potentially address multiple payload markets; each market has a different price elasticity of demand for both the commercial and government customer. Thus, a more resilient examination of the economic landscape requires optimization of multiple prices in which each price affects a different demand curve. Such an examination is performed here using the Cost and Business Analysis Module (CABAM), an MS-Excel spreadsheet-based model that attempts to couple both the demand and supply for space transportation services in the future. The demand takes the form of market assumptions (both near-term and far-term) and the supply comes from user-defined vehicles that are placed into the model. CABAM represents RLV projects as commercial endeavors with the possibility to model the effects of government

  3. Optimizing Treatment of Intra-amniotic Infection and Early-Onset Postpartum Endometritis: Advantages of Single-Agent Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Stiglich, Norma; Alston, Meredith; vanSwam, Simone

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Intra-amniotic infection (IAI) and early-onset postpartum endometritis (PPE) require prompt antibiotic treatment and are generally treated by either of two regimens. A complicated multi-agent regimen is most commonly used, despite a lack of clear evidence that it produces better outcomes than a simpler single-agent regimen. Objective: We compared treatment outcomes between a multi-agent regimen of ampicillin, gentamicin, and clindamycin versus a single-agent regimen of ampicillin/sulbactam for IAI and early-onset PPE. Methods: We conducted an observational retrospective cohort study by collecting data from the records of all patients at Denver Health Medical Center treated for IAI or PPE during two 6-month periods: a baseline period during which a regimen of ampicillin, gentamicin, and clindamycin was used and a subsequent period when ampicillin/sulbactam was used. Primary outcomes were prolonged antibiotic treatment and readmission for endometritis or wound cellulitis. Results: Of potential study participants, 323 women met inclusion criteria; 179 were treated with the multi-agent regimen and 144 were treated with the single-agent regimen. The groups were statistically similar for demographic and intrapartum characteristics, except for a lower rate of premature rupture of membranes in the single-agent treatment group. Twelve patients required prolonged treatment, and 2 were readmitted; these subgroups were combined for statistical analyses. The primary outcomes were significantly associated with cesarean delivery and blood loss >500 mL for vaginal deliveries and >1000 mL for cesarean deliveries; however, there was no significant difference in the incidence of the primary outcomes between the 2 treatment groups when adjusted for these variables. Treatment with ampicillin/sulbactam resulted in fewer antibiotic doses administered to patients with an uncomplicated treatment course. Conclusion: Ampicillin/sulbactam treatment of IAI and early-onset PPE

  4. Optimization models and techniques for implementation and pricing of electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madrigal Martinez, Marcelino

    Vertically integrated electric power systems extensively use optimization models and solution techniques to guide their optimal operation and planning. The advent of electric power systems re-structuring has created needs for new optimization tools and the revision of the inherited ones from the vertical integration era into the market environment. This thesis presents further developments on the use of optimization models and techniques for implementation and pricing of primary electricity markets. New models, solution approaches, and price setting alternatives are proposed. Three different modeling groups are studied. The first modeling group considers simplified continuous and discrete models for power pool auctions driven by central-cost minimization. The direct solution of the dual problems, and the use of a Branch-and-Bound algorithm to solve the primal, allows to identify the effects of disequilibrium, and different price setting alternatives over the existence of multiple solutions. It is shown that particular pricing rules worsen the conflict of interest that arise when multiple solutions exist under disequilibrium. A price-setting alternative based on dual variables is shown to diminish such conflict. The second modeling group considers the unit commitment problem. An interior-point/cutting-plane method is proposed for the solution of the dual problem. The new method has better convergence characteristics and does not suffer from the parameter tuning drawback as previous methods The robustness characteristics of the interior-point/cutting-plane method, combined with a non-uniform price setting alternative, show that the conflict of interest is diminished when multiple near optimal solutions exist. The non-uniform price setting alternative is compared to a classic average pricing rule. The last modeling group concerns to a new type of linear network-constrained clearing system models for daily markets for power and spinning reserve. A new model and

  5. Evaluation and Verification of Channel Transmission Characteristics of Human Body for Optimizing Data Transmission Rate in Electrostatic-Coupling Intra Body Communication System: A Comparative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Yuhwai; Su, Chauchin; Ho, Yingchieh

    2016-01-01

    Background Intra-body communication is a new wireless scheme for transmitting signals through the human body. Understanding the transmission characteristics of the human body is therefore becoming increasingly important. Electrostatic-coupling intra-body communication system in a ground-free situation that integrate electronic products that are discretely located on individuals, such as mobile phones, PDAs, wearable computers, and biomedical sensors, are of particular interest. Materials and Methods The human body is modeled as a simplified Resistor-Capacitor network. A virtual ground between the transmitter and receiver in the system is represented by a resister-capacitor network. Value of its resistance and capacitance are determined from a system perspective. The system is characterized by using a mathematical unit step function in digital baseband transmission scheme with and without Manchester code. As a result, the signal-to-noise and to-intersymbol-interference ratios are improved by manipulating the load resistor. The data transmission rate of the system is optimized. A battery-powered transmitter and receiver are developed to validate the proposal. Results A ground-free system fade signal energy especially for a low-frequency signal limited system transmission rate. The system transmission rate is maximized by simply manipulating the load resistor. Experimental results demonstrate that for a load resistance of 10k−50k Ω, the high-pass 3 dB frequency of the band-pass channel is 400kHz−2MHz in the worst-case scenario. The system allows a Manchester-coded baseband signal to be transmitted at speeds of up to 20M bit per second with signal-to-noise and signal-to-intersymbol-interference ratio of more than 10 dB. Conclusion The human body can function as a high speed transmission medium with a data transmission rate of 20Mbps in an electrostatic-coupling intra-body communication system. Therefore, a wideband signal can be transmitted directly through the

  6. Co-optimization of RegC and TWINSCAN corrections to improve the intra-field on-product overlay performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorhad, Kujan; Sharoni, Ofir; Dmitriev, Vladimir; Cohen, Avi; van Haren, Richard; Roelofs, Christian; Cekli, Hakki Ergun; Gallagher, Emily; Leray, Philippe; Beyer, Dirk; Trautzsch, Thomas; Steinert, Steffen

    2016-03-01

    Improving wafer On Product Overlay (OPO) is becoming a major challenge in lithography, especially for multipatterning techniques like N-repetitive Litho-Etch steps (LEN, N >= 2). When using different scanner settings and litho processes between inter-layer overlays, intra-field overlay control becomes more complicated. In addition to the Image Placement Error (IPE) contribution, the TWINSCANTM lens fingerprint in combination with the exposure settings is playing a significant role as well. Furthermore the scanner needs to deal with dynamic fingerprints caused by for instance lens and/or reticle heating. This paper will demonstrate the complementary RegC® and TWINSCANTM solution for improving the OPO by cooptimizing the correction capabilities of the individual tools, respectively. As a consequence, the systematic intra-field fingerprints can be decreased along with the overlay (OVL) error at wafer level. Furthermore, the application could be utilized for extending some of the scanner actuators ranges by inducing a pre-determined signatures. These solutions perfectly fit into the ASML Litho InSight (LIS) product in which feedforward and feedback corrections based on YieldStar overlay and other measurements are used to improve the OPO. While the TWINSCANTM scanner corrects for global distortions (up to third order) - scanner Correctable Errors ( CE), the RegC® application can correct for the None Correctable Errors (NCE) by making the high frequency NCE into a CE with low frequency nature. The RegC® induces predictable deformation elements inside the quartz (Qz) material of the reticle, and by doing so it can induce a desired pre-defined signature into the reticle. The deformation introduced by the RegC® is optimized for the actual wafer print taking into account the scale and ortho compensation by the scanner, to correct for the systematic fingerprints and the wafer overlay. These two applications might be very powerful and could contribute to achieve a better

  7. Optimal fluorescence excitation wavelengths for detection of squamous intra-epithelial neoplasia: results from an animal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coghlan, Lezlee; Utzinger, Urs; Drezek, Rebekah A.; Heintzelmann, Doug; Zuluaga, Andres F.; Brookner, Carrie; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca R.; Gimenez-Conti, Irma; Follen, Michele

    2000-12-01

    Using the hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis model, we explore which fluorescence excitation wavelengths are useful for the detection of neoplasia. 42 hamsters were treated with DMBA to induce carcinogenesis, and 20 control animals were treated only with mineral oil. Fluorescence excitation emission matrices were measured from the cheek pouches of the hamsters weekly. Results showed increased fluorescence near 350-370 nm and 410 nm excitation and decreased fluorescence near 450-470 nm excitation with neoplasia. The optimal diagnostic excitation wavelengths identified using this model - 350-370 nm excitation and 400-450 nm excitation - are similar to those identified for detection of human oral cavity neoplasia.

  8. Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Explores the role of marketing in the modern firm and the key tasks of marketing management. Defines the term "marketing" and discusses it as an economic concept. Discusses three key marketing principals. (RKM)

  9. Optimal operational strategies for a day-ahead electricity market in the presence of market power using multi-objective evolutionary algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigo, Deepal

    2007-12-01

    This dissertation introduces a novel approach for optimally operating a day-ahead electricity market not only by economically dispatching the generation resources but also by minimizing the influences of market manipulation attempts by the individual generator-owning companies while ensuring that the power system constraints are not violated. Since economic operation of the market conflicts with the individual profit maximization tactics such as market manipulation by generator-owning companies, a methodology that is capable of simultaneously optimizing these two competing objectives has to be selected. Although numerous previous studies have been undertaken on the economic operation of day-ahead markets and other independent studies have been conducted on the mitigation of market power, the operation of a day-ahead electricity market considering these two conflicting objectives simultaneously has not been undertaken previously. These facts provided the incentive and the novelty for this study. A literature survey revealed that many of the traditional solution algorithms convert multi-objective functions into either a single-objective function using weighting schemas or undertake optimization of one function at a time. Hence, these approaches do not truly optimize the multi-objectives concurrently. Due to these inherent deficiencies of the traditional algorithms, the use of alternative non-traditional solution algorithms for such problems has become popular and widely used. Of these, multi-objective evolutionary algorithms (MOEA) have received wide acceptance due to their solution quality and robustness. In the present research, three distinct algorithms were considered: a non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA II), a multi-objective tabu search algorithm (MOTS) and a hybrid of multi-objective tabu search and genetic algorithm (MOTS/GA). The accuracy and quality of the results from these algorithms for applications similar to the problem investigated here

  10. Method of Power System Suistanable Development Optimization in Liberalized Market Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turcik, M.; Oleinikova, I.; Krishans, Z.

    2011-01-01

    The paper is focused on the development of the Baltic Sea region taking into account the new EU energy policy. The authors elucidate the current situation and the power system infrastructure projects of the region. For the economic analysis and optimization of the development plans a method is proposed that takes into account the outlooks for upcoming 20-50 years and the initial information uncertainty. The method makes possible estimation of the technically-economic state, including market conditions, for a given power system.

  11. Co-optimization of Energy and Demand-Side Reserves in Day-Ahead Electricity Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surender Reddy, S.; Abhyankar, A. R.; Bijwe, P. R.

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents a new multi-objective day-ahead market clearing (DAMC) mechanism with demand-side reserves/demand response (DR) offers, considering realistic voltage-dependent load modeling. The paper proposes objectives such as social welfare maximization (SWM) including demand-side reserves, and load served error (LSE) minimization. In this paper, energy and demand-side reserves are cleared simultaneously through co-optimization process. The paper clearly brings out the unsuitability of conventional SWM for DAMC in the presence of voltage-dependent loads, due to reduction of load served (LS). Under such circumstances multi-objective DAMC with DR offers is essential. Multi-objective Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm 2+ (SPEA 2+) has been used to solve the optimization problem. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme is confirmed with results obtained from IEEE 30 bus system.

  12. Short-Term Stochastic Optimization of Hydropower Production and Marketing under Meteorological Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwanenberg, D.; Naumann, S.; Allen, C.

    2015-12-01

    Hydroelectric power systems are characterized by variability and uncertainty in yield and water resources obligations. Market volatility and the growing number of operational constraints for flood control, navigation, environmental obligations and ancillary services (including load balancing requirements for renewable resources) further the need to quantify sources of uncertainty. This research presents an integrated framework to handle several sources of uncertainty. Main focus is on the meteorological forecast uncertainty represented by a probabilistic Numerical Weather Predictions (NWP), its consistent propagation through load and streamflow forecasts, and the generation of scenario trees with multi-dimensional distance metrics. The short-term management approach adapts to this forecast uncertainty and its resolution by the use of multi-stage stochastic optimization. The Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS), managed by the Bonneville Power Administration, the US Army Corps of Engineers and the Bureau of Reclamation, serves as a large-scale test case for the application of the new framework. It is used to quantify the operational flexibility of the hydropower system and to propagate the forecast uncertainty through the system. Objectives and constraints enable the operating staff to shape and direct the system such that variability remains in the hydropower system or gets absorbs by the energy market.

  13. A Two-Stage Method to Determine Optimal Product Sampling considering Dynamic Potential Market

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zhineng; Lu, Wei; Han, Bing

    2015-01-01

    This paper develops an optimization model for the diffusion effects of free samples under dynamic changes in potential market based on the characteristics of independent product and presents a two-stage method to figure out the sampling level. The impact analysis of the key factors on the sampling level shows that the increase of the external coefficient or internal coefficient has a negative influence on the sampling level. And the changing rate of the potential market has no significant influence on the sampling level whereas the repeat purchase has a positive one. Using logistic analysis and regression analysis, the global sensitivity analysis gives a whole analysis of the interaction of all parameters, which provides a two-stage method to estimate the impact of the relevant parameters in the case of inaccuracy of the parameters and to be able to construct a 95% confidence interval for the predicted sampling level. Finally, the paper provides the operational steps to improve the accuracy of the parameter estimation and an innovational way to estimate the sampling level. PMID:25821847

  14. Tracing the transition path between optimal strategies combinations within a competitive market of innovative industrial products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batzias, Dimitris F.; Pollalis, Yannis A.

    2012-12-01

    In several cases, a competitive market can be simulated by a game, where each company/opponent is referred to as a player. In order to accommodate the fact that each player (alone or with alliances) is working against some others' interest, the rather conservative maximin criterion is frequently used for selecting the strategy or the combination of strategies that yield the best of the worst possible outcomes for each one of the players. Under this criterion, an optimal solution is obtained when neither player finds it beneficial to alter his strategy, which means that an equilibrium has been achieved, giving also the value of the game. If conditions change as regards a player, e.g., because of either achieving an unexpected successful result in developing an innovative industrial product or obtaining higher liquidity permitting him to increase advertisement in order to acquire a larger market share, then a new equilibrium is reached. The identification of the path between the old and the new equilibrium points may prove to be valuable for investigating the robustness of the solution by means of sensitivity analysis, since uncertainty plays a critical role in this situation, where evaluation of the payoff matrix is usually based on experts' estimates. In this work, the development of a standard methodology (including 16 activity stages and 7 decision nodes) for tracing this path is presented while a numerical implementation follows to prove its functionality.

  15. Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appel, David L.

    This booklet suggests ways in which institutions--Catholic schools in particular--can move beyond public relations and advertising to engage in the broader arena of marketing with its focus on consumer satisfaction. The first of the book's three chapters reviews the concept of marketing, providing definitions of key terms, clarification of…

  16. An optimization-based approach for facility energy management with uncertainties, and, Power portfolio optimization in deregulated electricity markets with risk management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jun

    Topic 1. An Optimization-Based Approach for Facility Energy Management with Uncertainties. Effective energy management for facilities is becoming increasingly important in view of the rising energy costs, the government mandate on the reduction of energy consumption, and the human comfort requirements. This part of dissertation presents a daily energy management formulation and the corresponding solution methodology for HVAC systems. The problem is to minimize the energy and demand costs through the control of HVAC units while satisfying human comfort, system dynamics, load limit constraints, and other requirements. The problem is difficult in view of the fact that the system is nonlinear, time-varying, building-dependent, and uncertain; and that the direct control of a large number of HVAC components is difficult. In this work, HVAC setpoints are the control variables developed on top of a Direct Digital Control (DDC) system. A method that combines Lagrangian relaxation, neural networks, stochastic dynamic programming, and heuristics is developed to predict the system dynamics and uncontrollable load, and to optimize the setpoints. Numerical testing and prototype implementation results show that our method can effectively reduce total costs, manage uncertainties, and shed the load, is computationally efficient. Furthermore, it is significantly better than existing methods. Topic 2. Power Portfolio Optimization in Deregulated Electricity Markets with Risk Management. In a deregulated electric power system, multiple markets of different time scales exist with various power supply instruments. A load serving entity (LSE) has multiple choices from these instruments to meet its load obligations. In view of the large amount of power involved, the complex market structure, risks in such volatile markets, stringent constraints to be satisfied, and the long time horizon, a power portfolio optimization problem is of critical importance but difficulty for an LSE to serve the

  17. Optimal Operation and Value Evaluation of Pumped Storage Power Plants Considering Spot Market Trading and Uncertainty of Bilateral Demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Kenta; Hara, Ryoichi; Kita, Hiroyuki; Hasegawa, Jun

    In recent years, as the deregulation in electric power industry has advanced in many countries, a spot market trading of electricity has been done. Generation companies are allowed to purchase the electricity through the electric power market and supply electric power for their bilateral customers. Under this circumstance, it is important for the generation companies to procure the required electricity with cheaper cost to increase their profit. The market price is volatile since it is determined by bidding between buyer and seller. The pumped storage power plant, one of the storage facilities is promising against such volatile market price since it can produce a profit by purchasing electricity with lower-price and selling it with higher-price. This paper discusses the optimal operation of the pumped storage power plants considering bidding strategy to an uncertain spot market. The volatilities in market price and demand are represented by the Vasicek model in our estimation. This paper also discusses the allocation of operational reserve to the pumped storage power plant.

  18. IntraFace

    PubMed Central

    De la Torre, Fernando; Chu, Wen-Sheng; Xiong, Xuehan; Vicente, Francisco; Ding, Xiaoyu; Cohn, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Within the last 20 years, there has been an increasing interest in the computer vision community in automated facial image analysis algorithms. This has been driven by applications in animation, market research, autonomous-driving, surveillance, and facial editing among others. To date, there exist several commercial packages for specific facial image analysis tasks such as facial expression recognition, facial attribute analysis or face tracking. However, free and easy-to-use software that incorporates all these functionalities is unavailable. This paper presents IntraFace (IF), a publicly-available software package for automated facial feature tracking, head pose estimation, facial attribute recognition, and facial expression analysis from video. In addition, IFincludes a newly develop technique for unsupervised synchrony detection to discover correlated facial behavior between two or more persons, a relatively unexplored problem in facial image analysis. In tests, IF achieved state-of-the-art results for emotion expression and action unit detection in three databases, FERA, CK+ and RU-FACS; measured audience reaction to a talk given by one of the authors; and discovered synchrony for smiling in videos of parent-infant interaction. IF is free of charge for academic use at http://www.humansensing.cs.cmu.edu/intraface/.

  19. A Chaotic Particle Swarm Optimization-Based Heuristic for Market-Oriented Task-Level Scheduling in Cloud Workflow Systems

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xuejun; Xu, Jia; Yang, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Cloud workflow system is a kind of platform service based on cloud computing. It facilitates the automation of workflow applications. Between cloud workflow system and its counterparts, market-oriented business model is one of the most prominent factors. The optimization of task-level scheduling in cloud workflow system is a hot topic. As the scheduling is a NP problem, Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) have been proposed to optimize the cost. However, they have the characteristic of premature convergence in optimization process and therefore cannot effectively reduce the cost. To solve these problems, Chaotic Particle Swarm Optimization (CPSO) algorithm with chaotic sequence and adaptive inertia weight factor is applied to present the task-level scheduling. Chaotic sequence with high randomness improves the diversity of solutions, and its regularity assures a good global convergence. Adaptive inertia weight factor depends on the estimate value of cost. It makes the scheduling avoid premature convergence by properly balancing between global and local exploration. The experimental simulation shows that the cost obtained by our scheduling is always lower than the other two representative counterparts. PMID:26357510

  20. A Chaotic Particle Swarm Optimization-Based Heuristic for Market-Oriented Task-Level Scheduling in Cloud Workflow Systems.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuejun; Xu, Jia; Yang, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Cloud workflow system is a kind of platform service based on cloud computing. It facilitates the automation of workflow applications. Between cloud workflow system and its counterparts, market-oriented business model is one of the most prominent factors. The optimization of task-level scheduling in cloud workflow system is a hot topic. As the scheduling is a NP problem, Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) have been proposed to optimize the cost. However, they have the characteristic of premature convergence in optimization process and therefore cannot effectively reduce the cost. To solve these problems, Chaotic Particle Swarm Optimization (CPSO) algorithm with chaotic sequence and adaptive inertia weight factor is applied to present the task-level scheduling. Chaotic sequence with high randomness improves the diversity of solutions, and its regularity assures a good global convergence. Adaptive inertia weight factor depends on the estimate value of cost. It makes the scheduling avoid premature convergence by properly balancing between global and local exploration. The experimental simulation shows that the cost obtained by our scheduling is always lower than the other two representative counterparts. PMID:26357510

  1. Optimal Dispatch of Competitive Power Markets by Using PowerWorld Simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dong; Li, Shuhui

    2013-10-01

    The transition to competitive and retail markets for electric utilities around the world has been a difficult and controversial process. One of the difficulties that hindered the development and growth of competitive power markets is the absence of efficient computational tools to assist the design, analysis, and operation of competitive power markets. PowerWorld simulator is a software package that has strong analytical and visualization functions suitable for extensive power flow study of an electric power system. However, like many other power flow simulators, PowerWorld cannot be used directly for analysis and evaluation of a competitive power market. This article investigates mathematical models associated with a competitive power market and how these models can be converted and transformed in such a way that makes it possible to use PowerWorld for the competitive power market study. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed strategy, models of several small-scale competitive power markets are built in MatLab by using conventional approaches. Results generated by both PowerWorld and MatLab are compared. Finally, the article demonstrates how the PowerWorld simulator is used to investigate a larger and practical competitive power system.

  2. Optimizing route-specific marketing strategies to increase public transit ridership. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, C.A.; Lede, N.W.

    1994-03-01

    The document reflects the responses of a portion of the university community in a large urban area regarding travel mode and marketing strategies. The regular, single occupant drivers who were questioned are likely representative of those who drive alone to work in the larger community. The findings from this analysis will provide background data for many upcoming projects in the community, including the employer trip reduction requirement (part of the Clean Air Act Amendment) and a university transit program under examination by the local transit authority. The findings can also be a beginning point for other activity centers, universities and marketing departments within transit agencies.

  3. Mathematical model of microbicidal flow dynamics and optimization of rheological properties for intra-vaginal drug delivery: Role of tissue mechanics and fluid rheology.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Md Rajib; Camarda, Kyle V; Kieweg, Sarah L

    2015-06-25

    Topically applied microbicide gels can provide a self-administered and effective strategy to prevent sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We have investigated the interplay between vaginal tissue elasticity and the yield-stress of non-Newtonian fluids during microbicide deployment. We have developed a mathematical model of tissue deformation driven spreading of microbicidal gels based on thin film lubrication approximation and demonstrated the effect of tissue elasticity and fluid yield-stress on the spreading dynamics. Our results show that both elasticity of tissue and yield-stress rheology of gel are strong determinants of the coating behavior. An optimization framework has been demonstrated which leverages the flow dynamics of yield-stress fluid during deployment to maximize retention while reaching target coating length for a given tissue elasticity. PMID:25798760

  4. Intra-beam scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piwinski, A.

    Intra-beam scattering is analysed and the rise times or damping times of the beam dimensions are derived. The theoretical results are compared with experimental values obtained on the CERN AA and SPS machines.

  5. Optimal Mandates and The Welfare Cost of Asymmetric Information: Evidence from The U.K. Annuity Market*

    PubMed Central

    Einav, Liran; Finkelstein, Amy; Schrimpf, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Much of the extensive empirical literature on insurance markets has focused on whether adverse selection can be detected. Once detected, however, there has been little attempt to quantify its welfare cost, or to assess whether and what potential government interventions may reduce these costs. To do so, we develop a model of annuity contract choice and estimate it using data from the U.K. annuity market. The model allows for private information about mortality risk as well as heterogeneity in preferences over different contract options. We focus on the choice of length of guarantee among individuals who are required to buy annuities. The results suggest that asymmetric information along the guarantee margin reduces welfare relative to a first best symmetric information benchmark by about £127 million per year, or about 2 percent of annuitized wealth. We also find that by requiring that individuals choose the longest guarantee period allowed, mandates could achieve the first-best allocation. However, we estimate that other mandated guarantee lengths would have detrimental effects on welfare. Since determining the optimal mandate is empirically difficult, our findings suggest that achieving welfare gains through mandatory social insurance may be harder in practice than simple theory may suggest. PMID:20592943

  6. Suboptimal and optimal order policies for fixed and varying replenishment interval with declining market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jonas C. P.; Wee, H. M.; Yang, P. C.; Wu, Simon

    2016-06-01

    One of the supply chain risks for hi-tech products is the result of rapid technological innovation; it results in a significant decline in the selling price and demand after the initial launch period. Hi-tech products include computers and communication consumer's products. From a practical standpoint, a more realistic replenishment policy is needed to consider the impact of risks; especially when some portions of shortages are lost. In this paper, suboptimal and optimal order policies with partial backordering are developed for a buyer when the component cost, the selling price, and the demand rate decline at a continuous rate. Two mathematical models are derived and discussed: one model has the suboptimal solution with the fixed replenishment interval and a simpler computational process; the other one has the optimal solution with the varying replenishment interval and a more complicated computational process. The second model results in more profit. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the two replenishment models. Sensitivity analysis is carried out to investigate the relationship between the parameters and the net profit.

  7. An Agent-Based Optimization Framework for Engineered Complex Adaptive Systems with Application to Demand Response in Electricity Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haghnevis, Moeed

    The main objective of this research is to develop an integrated method to study emergent behavior and consequences of evolution and adaptation in engineered complex adaptive systems (ECASs). A multi-layer conceptual framework and modeling approach including behavioral and structural aspects is provided to describe the structure of a class of engineered complex systems and predict their future adaptive patterns. The approach allows the examination of complexity in the structure and the behavior of components as a result of their connections and in relation to their environment. This research describes and uses the major differences of natural complex adaptive systems (CASs) with artificial/engineered CASs to build a framework and platform for ECAS. While this framework focuses on the critical factors of an engineered system, it also enables one to synthetically employ engineering and mathematical models to analyze and measure complexity in such systems. In this way concepts of complex systems science are adapted to management science and system of systems engineering. In particular an integrated consumer-based optimization and agent-based modeling (ABM) platform is presented that enables managers to predict and partially control patterns of behaviors in ECASs. Demonstrated on the U.S. electricity markets, ABM is integrated with normative and subjective decision behavior recommended by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC). The approach integrates social networks, social science, complexity theory, and diffusion theory. Furthermore, it has unique and significant contribution in exploring and representing concrete managerial insights for ECASs and offering new optimized actions and modeling paradigms in agent-based simulation.

  8. Electric System Intra-hour Operation Simulator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2014-03-07

    ESIOS is a software program developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that performs intra-hour dispatch and automatic generation control (AGC) simulations for electric power system frequency regulation and load/variable generation following. The program dispatches generation resources at minute interval to meet control performance requirements, while incorporating stochastic models of forecast errors and variability with generation, load, interchange and market behaviors. The simulator also contains an operator model that mimics manual actions to adjust resourcemore » dispatch and maintain system reserves. Besides simulating generation fleet intra-hour dispatch, ESIOS can also be used as a test platform for the design and verification of energy storage, demand response, and other technologies helping to accommodate variable generation.« less

  9. Intra Nucleon Cascade Program

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1998-08-18

    The package consists of three programs ISABEL, EVA, and PACE-2. ISABEL and PACE-2 are part of the LAHET code. ISABEL is an intra-nucleon cascade program. The output cascades are used as directly as input files to the two evaporation programs EVA and PACE-2. EVA ignores the effect of the angular momentum of the excited nuclei on the deexcitation and also ignores the possibility of gamma emission as long as particle emission is energetically allowed. PACE-2more » takes full account of angular momentum effects including irast levels and gamma emission at all stages of the evaporation chain.« less

  10. High-speed, intra-system networks

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, Heather M; Graham, Paul S; Manuzzato, Andrea; Fairbanks, Tom; Dallmann, Nicholas; Desgeorges, Rose

    2010-06-28

    Recently, engineers have been studying on-payload networks for fast communication paths. Using intra-system networks as a means to connect devices together allows for a flexible payload design that does not rely on dedicated communication paths between devices. In this manner, the data flow architecture of the system can be dynamically reconfigured to allow data routes to be optimized for the application or configured to route around devices that are temporarily or permanently unavailable. To use intra-system networks, devices will need network controllers and switches. These devices are likely to be affected by single-event effects, which could affect data communication. In this paper we will present radiation data and performance analysis for using a Broadcom network controller in a neutron environment.

  11. Antibiotic penetration of experimental intra-abdominal abscesses.

    PubMed

    Galandiuk, S; Lamos, J; Montgomery, W; Young, S; Polk, H C

    1995-06-01

    Intra-abdominal abscess is seldom adequately treated by systemic antibiotics alone and often requires surgical or computed tomography-guided drainage for resolution. Abscess penetration of six currently used antibiotics was examined in a murine intra-abdominal abscess model. Ampicillin/sulbactam, cefmetazole, clindamycin, and trospectomycin penetrated intra-abdominal abscesses to a greater degree than cefoxitin and ceftriaxone. Abscess pus antibiotic levels were not significantly higher after multiple doses than after a single dose. Pus antibiotic levels below the MIC90 for Bacteroides and E. coli within intra-abdominal abscess were observed for most antibiotics with the doses used in this study. Selection of antibiotics with a greater ability to penetrate abscess may be important in optimally treating patients with abdominal infection. PMID:7762902

  12. Modeling hydro power plants in deregulated electricity markets : integration and application of EMCAS and VALORAGUA.

    SciTech Connect

    Thimmapuram, P.; Veselka, T.; Koritarov, V.; Vilela, S.; Pereira, R.; Silva, R.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present details of integrating an agent-based model, Electricity Market Complex Adaptive System (EMCAS) with a hydro-thermal coordination model, VALORAGUA. EMCAS provides a framework for simulating deregulated markets with flexible regulatory structure along with bidding strategies for supply offers and demand bids. VALORAGUA provides longer-term operation plans by optimizing hydro and thermal power plant operation for the entire year. In addition, EMCAS uses the price forecasts and weekly hydro schedules from VALORAGUA to provide intra-week hydro plant optimization for hourly supply offers. The integrated model is then applied to the Iberian electricity market which includes about 111 thermal plants and 38 hydro power plants. We then analyze the impact of hydro plant supply offers on the market prices and ways to minimize the Gencospsila exposure to price risk.

  13. Intra-axial brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Rapalino, Otto; Batchelor, Tracy; González, R Gilberto

    2016-01-01

    There is a wide variety of intra-axial primary and secondary brain neoplasms. Many of them have characteristic imaging features while other tumors can present in a similar fashion. There are peculiar posttreatment imaging phenomena that can present as intra-axial mass-like lesions (such as pseudoprogression or radiation necrosis), further complicating the diagnosis and clinical follow-up of patients with intracerebral tumors. The purpose of this chapter is to present a general overview of the most common intra-axial brain tumors and peculiar posttreatment changes that are very important in the diagnosis and clinical follow-up of patients with brain tumors. PMID:27432670

  14. Intra-spike crosslinking overcomes antibody evasion by HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Galimidi, Rachel P; Klein, Joshua S; Politzer, Maria S; Bai, Shiyu; Seaman, Michael S; Nussenzweig, Michel C; West, Anthony P; Bjorkman, Pamela J

    2015-01-29

    Antibodies developed during HIV-1 infection lose efficacy as the viral spike mutates. We postulated that anti-HIV-1 antibodies primarily bind monovalently because HIV's low spike density impedes bivalent binding through inter-spike crosslinking, and the spike structure prohibits bivalent binding through intra-spike crosslinking. Monovalent binding reduces avidity and potency, thus expanding the range of mutations permitting antibody evasion. To test this idea, we engineered antibody-based molecules capable of bivalent binding through intra-spike crosslinking. We used DNA as a "molecular ruler" to measure intra-epitope distances on virion-bound spikes and construct intra-spike crosslinking molecules. Optimal bivalent reagents exhibited up to 2.5 orders of magnitude increased potency (>100-fold average increases across virus panels) and identified conformational states of virion-bound spikes. The demonstration that intra-spike crosslinking lowers the concentration of antibodies required for neutralization supports the hypothesis that low spike densities facilitate antibody evasion and the use of molecules capable of intra-spike crosslinking for therapy or passive protection. PMID:25635457

  15. The Use of Market Intelligence Tools to Optimize the Economic Impact of a Chronic Disease in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arce, Jaqueline Alejandra Haces

    2009-01-01

    The pharmaceutical products market in Mexico involves four main actors: health providers, health payers, patients and pharmaceutical companies. The relationship between health providers and the pharmaceutical companies that supply the products required to prevent and treat illnesses is of particular interest. This relationship can be described…

  16. On intra-supply chain system with an improved distribution plan, multiple sales locations and quality assurance.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Singa Wang; Huang, Chao-Chih; Chiang, Kuo-Wei; Wu, Mei-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Transnational companies, operating in extremely competitive global markets, always seek to lower different operating costs, such as inventory holding costs in their intra- supply chain system. This paper incorporates a cost reducing product distribution policy into an intra-supply chain system with multiple sales locations and quality assurance studied by [Chiu et al., Expert Syst Appl, 40:2669-2676, (2013)]. Under the proposed cost reducing distribution policy, an added initial delivery of end items is distributed to multiple sales locations to meet their demand during the production unit's uptime and rework time. After rework when the remaining production lot goes through quality assurance, n fixed quantity installments of finished items are then transported to sales locations at a fixed time interval. Mathematical modeling and optimization techniques are used to derive closed-form optimal operating policies for the proposed system. Furthermore, the study demonstrates significant savings in stock holding costs for both the production unit and sales locations. Alternative of outsourcing product delivery task to an external distributor is analyzed to assist managerial decision making in potential outsourcing issues in order to facilitate further reduction in operating costs. PMID:26576330

  17. Cardiopulmonary monitoring in intra-abdominal hypertension.

    PubMed

    Malbrain, Manu L N G; Ameloot, Koen; Gillebert, Carl; Cheatham, Michael L

    2011-07-01

    Cardiopulmonary dysfunction and failure are commonly encountered in the patient with intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) or abdominal compartment syndrome. Accurate assessment and optimization of preload, contractility, and afterload in conjunction with appropriate goal-directed resuscitation and assessment of fluid responsiveness are essential to restore end-organ perfusion. In patients with IAH, the traditional "barometric" preload indicators such as pulmonary artery occlusion pressure and central venous pressure are erroneously increased. Volumetric monitoring techniques have been proven to be superior in directing the appropriate resuscitation together with targeted abdominal perfusion pressure. If such limitations are not recognized, misinterpretation of the patient's cardiac status is likely, resulting in inappropriate and potentially detrimental therapy. IAH also markedly affects the mechanical properties of the chest wall and consequently also the respiratory function. Altered mechanical properties of the chest wall may limit ventilation, influence the work of breathing, affect the interaction between the respiratory muscles, hasten the development of respiratory failure, and interfere with gas exchange. Pulmonary monitoring is important to understand the relationships between intra-abdominal pressure and chest wall mechanics and the impact of IAH on ventilator-induced lung injury, lung distention, recruitment, and lung edema. PMID:21944448

  18. Optimization of health-care organization and perceived improvement of patient comfort by switching from intra-venous BU four-times-daily infusions to a once-daily administration scheme in adult hematopoietic stem cell recipients.

    PubMed

    Xhaard, A; Rzepecki, P; Valcarcel, D; Santarone, S; Fürst, S; Serrano, D; De Angelis, G; Krüger, W; Scheid, C

    2014-04-01

    Previous studies have shown an equivalent pharmacokinetic profile between four-times-daily (4QD) and once-daily (QD) administration of intra-venous (IV) BU, without increased toxicity. We assess the impact of a switch in IV BU from a 4QD to a QD schedule, in terms of health-care organization, staff working conditions, quality of care dispensed and perceived patient comfort. Clinicians, nurses and pharmacists from nine allogeneic transplantation units in five European countries were interviewed face to face. Overall perception of QD versus 4QD BU was very positive. Both administration schemes were evaluated to be equally efficaciousZ. QD BU was perceived to be safer and more convenient. Clinicians and nurses perceived that patient comfort was improved, due to fewer complications associated with repeated infusions, and avoiding night infusions associated with stress, anxiety and decreased quality of sleep. Switching from 4QD to QD BU had a significant impact on health-care organization, with a better integration in the overall management and usual timelines in the pharmacies and transplantation units. Time spent to prepare and administer BU was significantly reduced, leading to potential financial savings that merit further assessment and would be of particular interest in the current economic climate. PMID:24419513

  19. Optimal portfolio strategy with cross-correlation matrix composed by DCCA coefficients: Evidence from the Chinese stock market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xuelian; Liu, Zixian

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, a new estimator of correlation matrix is proposed, which is composed of the detrended cross-correlation coefficients (DCCA coefficients), to improve portfolio optimization. In contrast to Pearson's correlation coefficients (PCC), DCCA coefficients acquired by the detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA) method can describe the nonlinear correlation between assets, and can be decomposed in different time scales. These properties of DCCA make it possible to improve the investment effect and more valuable to investigate the scale behaviors of portfolios. The minimum variance portfolio (MVP) model and the Mean-Variance (MV) model are used to evaluate the effectiveness of this improvement. Stability analysis shows the effect of two kinds of correlation matrices on the estimation error of portfolio weights. The observed scale behaviors are significant to risk management and could be used to optimize the portfolio selection.

  20. Improving Intra Prediction in High-Efficiency Video Coding.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haoming; Zhang, Tao; Sun, Ming-Ting; Saxena, Ankur; Budagavi, Madhukar

    2016-08-01

    Intra prediction is an important tool in intra-frame video coding to reduce the spatial redundancy. In current coding standard H.265/high-efficiency video coding (HEVC), a copying-based method based on the boundary (or interpolated boundary) reference pixels is used to predict each pixel in the coding block to remove the spatial redundancy. We find that the conventional copying-based method can be further improved in two cases: 1) the boundary has an inhomogeneous region and 2) the predicted pixel is far away from the boundary that the correlation between the predicted pixel and the reference pixels is relatively weak. This paper performs a theoretical analysis of the optimal weights based on a first-order Gaussian Markov model and the effects when the pixel values deviate from the model and the predicted pixel is far away from the reference pixels. It also proposes a novel intra prediction scheme based on the analysis that smoothing the copying-based prediction can derive a better prediction block. Both the theoretical analysis and the experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed intra prediction method. An average gain of 2.3% on all intra coding can be achieved with the HEVC reference software. PMID:27249831

  1. Intra-amniotic Candida albicans infection induces mucosal injury and inflammation in the ovine fetal intestine

    PubMed Central

    Nikiforou, Maria; Jacobs, Esmee M.R.; Kemp, Matthew W.; Hornef, Mathias W.; Payne, Matthew S.; Saito, Masatoshi; Newnham, John P.; Janssen, Leon E.W.; Jobe, Alan H.; Kallapur, Suhas G.; Kramer, Boris W.; Wolfs, Tim G.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Chorioamnionitis is caused by intrauterine infection with microorganisms including Candida albicans (C.albicans). Chorioamnionitis is associated with postnatal intestinal pathologies including necrotizing enterocolitis. The underlying mechanisms by which intra-amniotic C.albicans infection adversely affects the fetal gut remain unknown. Therefore, we assessed whether intra-amniotic C.albicans infection would cause intestinal inflammation and mucosal injury in an ovine model. Additionally, we tested whether treatment with the fungistatic fluconazole ameliorated the adverse intestinal outcome of intra-amniotic C.albicans infection. Pregnant sheep received intra-amniotic injections with 107 colony-forming units C.albicans or saline at 3 or 5 days before preterm delivery at 122 days of gestation. Fetuses were given intra-amniotic and intra-peritoneal fluconazole treatments 2 days after intra-amniotic administration of C.albicans. Intra-amniotic C.albicans caused intestinal colonization and invasive growth within the fetal gut with mucosal injury and intestinal inflammation, characterized by increased CD3+ lymphocytes, MPO+ cells and elevated TNF-α and IL-17 mRNA levels. Fluconazole treatment in utero decreased intestinal C.albicans colonization, mucosal injury but failed to attenuate intestinal inflammation. Intra-amniotic C.albicans caused intestinal infection, injury and inflammation. Fluconazole treatment decreased mucosal injury but failed to ameliorate C.albicans-mediated mucosal inflammation emphasizing the need to optimize the applied antifungal therapeutic strategy. PMID:27411776

  2. Intra-amniotic Candida albicans infection induces mucosal injury and inflammation in the ovine fetal intestine.

    PubMed

    Nikiforou, Maria; Jacobs, Esmee M R; Kemp, Matthew W; Hornef, Mathias W; Payne, Matthew S; Saito, Masatoshi; Newnham, John P; Janssen, Leon E W; Jobe, Alan H; Kallapur, Suhas G; Kramer, Boris W; Wolfs, Tim G A M

    2016-01-01

    Chorioamnionitis is caused by intrauterine infection with microorganisms including Candida albicans (C.albicans). Chorioamnionitis is associated with postnatal intestinal pathologies including necrotizing enterocolitis. The underlying mechanisms by which intra-amniotic C.albicans infection adversely affects the fetal gut remain unknown. Therefore, we assessed whether intra-amniotic C.albicans infection would cause intestinal inflammation and mucosal injury in an ovine model. Additionally, we tested whether treatment with the fungistatic fluconazole ameliorated the adverse intestinal outcome of intra-amniotic C.albicans infection. Pregnant sheep received intra-amniotic injections with 10(7) colony-forming units C.albicans or saline at 3 or 5 days before preterm delivery at 122 days of gestation. Fetuses were given intra-amniotic and intra-peritoneal fluconazole treatments 2 days after intra-amniotic administration of C.albicans. Intra-amniotic C.albicans caused intestinal colonization and invasive growth within the fetal gut with mucosal injury and intestinal inflammation, characterized by increased CD3(+) lymphocytes, MPO(+) cells and elevated TNF-α and IL-17 mRNA levels. Fluconazole treatment in utero decreased intestinal C.albicans colonization, mucosal injury but failed to attenuate intestinal inflammation. Intra-amniotic C.albicans caused intestinal infection, injury and inflammation. Fluconazole treatment decreased mucosal injury but failed to ameliorate C.albicans-mediated mucosal inflammation emphasizing the need to optimize the applied antifungal therapeutic strategy. PMID:27411776

  3. Mechanical ventilation and intra-abdominal hypertension: 'Beyond Good and Evil'.

    PubMed

    Pelosi, Paolo; Vargas, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Intra-abdominal hypertension is frequent in surgical and medical critically ill patients. Intra-abdominal hypertension has a serious impact on the function of respiratory as well as peripheral organs. In the presence of alveolar capillary damage, which occurs in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), intra-abdominal hypertension promotes lung injury as well as edema, impedes the pulmonary lymphatic drainage, and increases intra-thoracic pressures, leading to atelectasis, airway closure, and deterioration of respiratory mechanics and gas exchange. The optimal setting of mechanical ventilation and its impact on respiratory function and hemodynamics in ARDS associated with intra-abdominal hypertension are far from being assessed. We suggest that the optimal ventilator management of patients with ARDS and intra-abdominal hypertension would include the following: (a) intra-abdominal, esophageal pressure, and hemodynamic monitoring; (b) ventilation setting with protective tidal volume, recruitment maneuver, and level of positive end-expiratory pressure set according to the 'best' compliance of the respiratory system or the lung; (c) deep sedation with or without neuromuscular paralysis in severe ARDS; and (d) open abdomen in selected patients with severe abdominal compartment syndrome. PMID:23256904

  4. Intra-Company Communication: A Key Element in Marketing Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Fred A.

    Rapid technological development, rising standards of living, and greater pressures of consumerism and consumer expectations have caused shorter product life cycles. Future organizational success will depend on organizations' abilities to respond to the changing opportunities and threats in the marketplace. As companies and products move through…

  5. Intra-amniotic thyroxine to treat fetal goiter.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Jung; Chae, Yong-Hwa; Park, So-Young; Kim, Moon-Young

    2016-01-01

    A 35-year-old pregnant woman visited our department and had been treated with 100 µg of daily oral levothyroxine for hypothyroidism. An ultrasonography screening was performed at 25 weeks gestation and revealed a fetal goiter and an increased amniotic fluid volume. Fetal hypothyroidism was confirmed by cordocentesis and amniotic hormone levels at 26 weeks gestation. We treated the mother with 200 µg of daily oral levothyroxine to optimize the transplacental transfer. A total of four intra-amniotic injections of levothyroxine were administered, resulting in progressive reduction in the fetal thyroid volume of goiter as measured by 3D ultrasonography and increased amniotic fluid volume. Following birth, neonatal serum thyroid stimulating hormone level was within the normal range, but free T4 was reduced. Based on this case, we suggest that monitoring amniotic fluid thyroid hormone concentration and intra-amniotic levothyroxine injection can be used to reduce the thyroid volume of goiters and to prevent polyhydramnios. PMID:26866040

  6. Intra-amniotic thyroxine to treat fetal goiter

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Jung; Chae, Yong-Hwa; Park, So-Young

    2016-01-01

    A 35-year-old pregnant woman visited our department and had been treated with 100 µg of daily oral levothyroxine for hypothyroidism. An ultrasonography screening was performed at 25 weeks gestation and revealed a fetal goiter and an increased amniotic fluid volume. Fetal hypothyroidism was confirmed by cordocentesis and amniotic hormone levels at 26 weeks gestation. We treated the mother with 200 µg of daily oral levothyroxine to optimize the transplacental transfer. A total of four intra-amniotic injections of levothyroxine were administered, resulting in progressive reduction in the fetal thyroid volume of goiter as measured by 3D ultrasonography and increased amniotic fluid volume. Following birth, neonatal serum thyroid stimulating hormone level was within the normal range, but free T4 was reduced. Based on this case, we suggest that monitoring amniotic fluid thyroid hormone concentration and intra-amniotic levothyroxine injection can be used to reduce the thyroid volume of goiters and to prevent polyhydramnios. PMID:26866040

  7. DCT/DST-based transform coding for intra prediction in image/video coding.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Ankur; Fernandes, Felix C

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, we present a DCT/DST based transform scheme that applies either the conventional DCT or type-7 DST for all the video-coding intra-prediction modes: vertical, horizontal, and oblique. Our approach is applicable to any block-based intra prediction scheme in a codec that employs transforms along the horizontal and vertical direction separably. Previously, Han, Saxena, and Rose showed that for the intra-predicted residuals of horizontal and vertical modes, the DST is the optimal transform with performance close to the KLT. Here, we prove that this is indeed the case for the other oblique modes. The optimal choice of using DCT or DST is based on intra-prediction modes and requires no additional signaling information or rate-distortion search. The DCT/DST scheme presented in this paper was adopted in the HEVC standardization in March 2011. Further simplifications, especially to reduce implementation complexity, which remove the mode-dependency between DCT and DST, and simply always use DST for the 4 × 4 intra luma blocks, were adopted in the HEVC standard in July 2012. Simulation results conducted for the DCT/DST algorithm are shown in the reference software for the ongoing HEVC standardization. Our results show that the DCT/DST scheme provides significant BD-rate improvement over the conventional DCT based scheme for intra prediction in video sequences. PMID:23744679

  8. Intra-Fuel Cell Stack Measurements of Transient Concentration Distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Partridge Jr, William P; Toops, Todd J; Green Jr, Johney Boyd; Armstrong, Timothy R.

    2006-01-01

    Intra-fuel-cell measurements are required to understand detailed fuel-cell chemistry and physics, validate models, optimize system design and control, and realize enhanced efficiency regimes; in comparison, conventional integrated fuel-cell supply and effluent measurements are fundamentally limited in value. Intra-reactor measurements are needed for all fuel cell types. This paper demonstrates the ability of a capillary-inlet mass spectrometer to resolve transient species distributions within operating polymer-electrolyte-membrane (PEM) fuel cells and at temperatures typical of solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFC). This is the first such demonstration of a diagnostic that is sufficiently minimally invasive as to allow measurements throughout an operating fuel cell stack. Measurements of transient water, hydrogen, oxygen and diluent concentration dynamics associated with fuel-cell load switching suggest oxygen-limited chemistry. Intra-PEM fuel cell measurements of oxygen distribution at various fuel-cell loads are used to demonstrate concentration gradients, non-uniformities, and anomalous fuel cell operation.

  9. To Market, to Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barden, Dennis M.

    2006-01-01

    The institution is part of a national market and its presidential options are dictated by that market, the reputation, the challenges of the position, and the relative compensation for the opportunity to lead the organization. Many in academe are uncomfortable with the idea that hiring in higher education should be governed by the laws of supply…

  10. Intra voxel analysis in MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrosanio, Michele; Baselice, Fabio; Ferraioli, Giampaolo; Pascazio, Vito

    2014-03-01

    A new application of Compressive Sensing (CS) in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) field is presented. In particular, first results of the Intra Voxel Analysis (IVA) technique are reported. The idea is to exploit CS peculiarities in order to distinguish different contributions inside the same resolution cell, instead of reconstructing images from not fully sampled k-space acquisition. Applied to MRI field, this means the possibility of estimating the presence of different tissues inside the same voxel, i.e. in one pixel of the obtained image. In other words, the method is the first attempt, as far as we know, of achieving Spectroscopy-like results starting from each pixel of MR images. In particular, tissues are distinguished each others by evaluating their spin-spin relaxation times. Within this manuscript, first results on clinical dataset, in particular a phantom made by aqueous solution and oil and an occipital brain lesion corresponding to a metastatic breast cancer nodule, are reported. Considering the phantom dataset, in particular focusing on the slice where the separation between water and oil occurs, the methodology is able to distinguish the two components with different spin-spin relaxation times. With respect to clinical dataset,focusing on a voxel of the lesion area, the approach is able to detect the presence of two tissues, namely the healthy and the cancer related ones, while in other location outside the lesion only the healthy tissue is detected. Of course, these are the first results of the proposed methodology, further studies on different types of clinical datasets are required in order to widely validate the approach. Although few datasets have been considered, results seem both interesting and promising.

  11. Managing hybrid marketing systems.

    PubMed

    Moriarty, R T; Moran, U

    1990-01-01

    As competition increases and costs become critical, companies that once went to market only one way are adding new channels and using new methods - creating hybrid marketing systems. These hybrid marketing systems hold the promise of greater coverage and reduced costs. But they are also hard to manage; they inevitably raise questions of conflict and control: conflict because marketing units compete for customers; control because new indirect channels are less subject to management authority. Hard as they are to manage, however, hybrid marketing systems promise to become the dominant design, replacing the "purebred" channel strategy in all kinds of businesses. The trick to managing the hybrid is to analyze tasks and channels within and across a marketing system. A map - the hybrid grid - can help managers make sense of their hybrid system. What the chart reveals is that channels are not the basic building blocks of a marketing system; marketing tasks are. The hybrid grid forces managers to consider various combinations of channels and tasks that will optimize both cost and coverage. Managing conflict is also an important element of a successful hybrid system. Managers should first acknowledge the inevitability of conflict. Then they should move to bound it by creating guidelines that spell out which customers to serve through which methods. Finally, a marketing and sales productivity (MSP) system, consisting of a central marketing database, can act as the central nervous system of a hybrid marketing system, helping managers create customized channels and service for specific customer segments. PMID:10107959

  12. Livestock Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Futrell, Gene; And Others

    This marketing unit focuses on the seasonal and cyclical patterns of livestock markets. Cash marketing, forward contracting, hedging in the futures markets, and the options markets are examined. Examples illustrate how each marketing tool may be useful in gaining a profit on livestock and cutting risk exposure. The unit is organized in the…

  13. Evolution of microbial markets

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Gijsbert D. A.; Strassmann, Joan E.; Ivens, Aniek B. F.; Engelmoer, Daniel J. P.; Verbruggen, Erik; Queller, David C.; Noë, Ronald; Johnson, Nancy Collins; Hammerstein, Peter; Kiers, E. Toby

    2014-01-01

    Biological market theory has been used successfully to explain cooperative behavior in many animal species. Microbes also engage in cooperative behaviors, both with hosts and other microbes, that can be described in economic terms. However, a market approach is not traditionally used to analyze these interactions. Here, we extend the biological market framework to ask whether this theory is of use to evolutionary biologists studying microbes. We consider six economic strategies used by microbes to optimize their success in markets. We argue that an economic market framework is a useful tool to generate specific and interesting predictions about microbial interactions, including the evolution of partner discrimination, hoarding strategies, specialized versus diversified mutualistic services, and the role of spatial structures, such as flocks and consortia. There is untapped potential for studying the evolutionary dynamics of microbial systems. Market theory can help structure this potential by characterizing strategic investment of microbes across a diversity of conditions. PMID:24474743

  14. Evolution of microbial markets.

    PubMed

    Werner, Gijsbert D A; Strassmann, Joan E; Ivens, Aniek B F; Engelmoer, Daniel J P; Verbruggen, Erik; Queller, David C; Noë, Ronald; Johnson, Nancy Collins; Hammerstein, Peter; Kiers, E Toby

    2014-01-28

    Biological market theory has been used successfully to explain cooperative behavior in many animal species. Microbes also engage in cooperative behaviors, both with hosts and other microbes, that can be described in economic terms. However, a market approach is not traditionally used to analyze these interactions. Here, we extend the biological market framework to ask whether this theory is of use to evolutionary biologists studying microbes. We consider six economic strategies used by microbes to optimize their success in markets. We argue that an economic market framework is a useful tool to generate specific and interesting predictions about microbial interactions, including the evolution of partner discrimination, hoarding strategies, specialized versus diversified mutualistic services, and the role of spatial structures, such as flocks and consortia. There is untapped potential for studying the evolutionary dynamics of microbial systems. Market theory can help structure this potential by characterizing strategic investment of microbes across a diversity of conditions. PMID:24474743

  15. Power systems locational marginal pricing in deregulated markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui-Fung Francis

    Since the beginning of the 1990s, the electricity business is transforming from a vertical integrating business to a competitive market operations. The generation, transmission, distribution subsystem of an electricity utility are operated independently as Genco (generation subsystem), Transco (transmission subsystem), and Distco (distribution subsystem). This trend promotes more economical inter- and intra regional transactions to be made by the participating companies and the users of electricity to achieve the intended objectives of deregulation. There are various types of electricity markets that are implemented in the North America in the past few years. However, transmission congestion management becomes a key issue in the electricity market design as more bilateral transactions are traded across long distances competing for scarce transmission resources. It directly alters the traditional concept of energy pricing and impacts the bottom line, revenue and cost of electricity, of both suppliers and buyers. In this research, transmission congestion problem in a deregulated market environment is elucidated by implementing by the Locational Marginal Pricing (LMP) method. With a comprehensive understanding of the LMP method, new mathematical tools will aid electric utilities in exploring new business opportunities are developed and presented in this dissertation. The dissertation focuses on the development of concept of (LMP) forecasting and its implication to the market participants in deregulated market. Specifically, we explore methods of developing fast LMP calculation techniques that are differ from existing LMPs. We also explore and document the usefulness of the proposed LMP in determining electricity pricing of a large scale power system. The developed mathematical tools use of well-known optimization techniques such as linear programming that are support by several flow charts. The fast and practical security constrained unit commitment methods are the

  16. A focus on intra-abdominal infections

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Complicated intra-abdominal infections are an important cause of morbidity and are frequently associated with poor prognosis, particularly in higher risk patients. Well defined evidence-based recommendations for intra-abdominal infections treatment are partially lacking because of the limited number of randomized-controlled trials. Factors consistently associated with poor outcomes in patients with intra-abdominal infections include increased illness severity, failed source control, inadequate empiric antimicrobial therapy and healthcare-acquired infection. Early prognostic evaluation of complicated intra-abdominal infections is important to select high-risk patients for more aggressive therapeutic procedures. The cornerstones in the management of complicated intra-abdominal infections are both source control and antibiotic therapy. The timing and the adequacy of source control are the most important issues in the management of intra-abdominal infections, because inadequate and late control of septic source may have a negative effect on the outcomes. Recent advances in interventional and more aggressive techniques could significantly decrease the morbidity and mortality of physiologically severe complicated intra-abdominal infections, even if these are still being debated and are yet not validated by limited prospective trials. Empiric antimicrobial therapy is nevertheless important in the overall management of intra-abdominal infections. Inappropriate antibiotic therapy may result in poor patient outcomes and in the appearance of bacterial resistance. Antimicrobial management is generally standardised and many regimens, either with monotherapy or combination therapy, have proven their efficacy. Routine coverage especially against Enterococci and candida spp is not always recommended, but can be useful in particular clinical conditions. A de escalation approach may be recommended in patients with specific risk factors for multidrug resistant infections such as

  17. Intra- to Multi-Decadal Temperature Variability over the Continental United States: 1896-2012

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Optimal Ranking Regime (ORR) method was used to identify intra- to multi-decadal (IMD) time windows containing significant ranking sequences in U.S. climate division temperature data. The simplicity of the ORR procedure’s output – a time series’ most significant non-overlapping periods of high o...

  18. Adaptive use of technical indicators for the prediction of intra-day stock prices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka-Yamawaki, Mieko; Tokuoka, Seiji

    2007-09-01

    We examine the effectiveness of frequently used technical indicators for intra-day forecast by applying them on the tick data of various stock prices. We show that the optimal combination of a few indicators chosen for each stock by using evolutional computation provides us a good forecast on the level of the future price at several ticks ahead.

  19. Effect of Intra-Medullar and Intra-Venous Infusions of Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Cell Engraftment by In-Vivo Cell Tracking and Osteoinductivity in Rabbit Long Bones: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Ishihara, Akikazu; Ohmine, Ken; Weisbrode, Steve E; Bertone, Alicia L

    2014-01-01

    Objective Stem cell therapy can be an efficacious treatment option for bone fragility disorders (eg, osteogenesis imperfecta, disuse osteopenia, and osteoporosis), and successful cell therapy application may be dependent on optimal cell engraftment in target bones. The objective of this study was to compare the efficiency of intra-medullar and intra-venous delivery of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) to improve cell engraftment rate, bone mineral density, and micro-architecture. Methods By using six healthy juvenile New Zealand White rabbits, MSC were isolated from cancellous bone harvests and confirmed to have osteogenic capacity by inducing ectopic bone formation. The MSC were cultured, transduced by foamy viral vectors with marker genes for in vivo cell tracking, and expanded. All rabbits had one randomly selected limb receive intra-medullar infusion of 3×107 to 1×108 autologous MSC in the distal femur or the distal femur and proximal tibia. Two of six rabbits also received an intra-venous MSC infusion. At 28 days, MSC bone engraftment was assessed by PCR and the bone density and microstructure assessed by computed tomography and histomorphometry. Results The intra-medullar-infused MSC were detected in epiphysis or diaphysis of the distal femurs and/or proximal tibiae. Infused MSC comprised 0.01 to 0.3% of all cells in the bone tissues. The intra-venous-infused MSC were not detected in any location. Neither intra-medullar nor intra-venous MSC infusion altered bone volume, bone mineral density, or cortical bone porosity/thickness. Systemic biodistribution of intra-medullar-infused MSC was not evident. Conclusions Our results indicated that intra-medullar infusion can be an effective cell delivery route for stem cell therapy potentially for orthopedic disorders, in preference to systemic administration. Further research is warranted to demonstrate an efficacy of intra-medullar MSC infusion on bone density and micro-architecture using animal models of bone disorders

  20. Intra-observer reliability of Prechtl’s method for the qualitative assessment of general movements in Taiwanese infants

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Kuo-Kuang; Liu, Wen-Yu; Wong, Alice May-Kuen; Chung, Chia-Ying; Lien, Reyin; Chuang, Yu-Fen

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the intra-observer reliability for Prechtl’s General Movements Assessment in Taiwanese infants. This includes the global General Movements Assessment, the Optimality List for Preterm General Movements and Writhing Movements, and the Assessment of Motor Repertoire—3 to 5 Months. [Subjects and Methods] Fifty-nine videos of 37 infants were observed and rated by one physical therapist twice. [Results] The intra-observer reliability ranged from good to very good for the global General Movements Assessment. The overall intra-observer reliabilities for the total score of the Optimality List from preterm up to postmenstrual age 46 weeks and the total score of the Assessment of Motor Repertoire for postmenstrual age 49 to 60 weeks were both good. [Conclusion] The results suggest that the intra-observer reliability of a certified physical therapist was satisfactory for Prechtl’s method in Taiwanese infants. PMID:27313378

  1. Intra-observer reliability of Prechtl's method for the qualitative assessment of general movements in Taiwanese infants.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Kuo-Kuang; Liu, Wen-Yu; Wong, Alice May-Kuen; Chung, Chia-Ying; Lien, Reyin; Chuang, Yu-Fen

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the intra-observer reliability for Prechtl's General Movements Assessment in Taiwanese infants. This includes the global General Movements Assessment, the Optimality List for Preterm General Movements and Writhing Movements, and the Assessment of Motor Repertoire-3 to 5 Months. [Subjects and Methods] Fifty-nine videos of 37 infants were observed and rated by one physical therapist twice. [Results] The intra-observer reliability ranged from good to very good for the global General Movements Assessment. The overall intra-observer reliabilities for the total score of the Optimality List from preterm up to postmenstrual age 46 weeks and the total score of the Assessment of Motor Repertoire for postmenstrual age 49 to 60 weeks were both good. [Conclusion] The results suggest that the intra-observer reliability of a certified physical therapist was satisfactory for Prechtl's method in Taiwanese infants. PMID:27313378

  2. Breast cancer intra-tumor heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In recent years it has become clear that cancer cells within a single tumor can display striking morphological, genetic and behavioral variability. Burgeoning genetic, epigenetic and phenomenological data support the existence of intra-tumor genetic heterogeneity in breast cancers; however, its basis is yet to be fully defined. Two of the most widely evoked concepts to explain the origin of heterogeneity within tumors are the cancer stem cell hypothesis and the clonal evolution model. Although the cancer stem cell model appeared to provide an explanation for the variability among the neoplastic cells within a given cancer, advances in massively parallel sequencing have provided several lines of evidence to suggest that intra-tumor genetic heterogeneity likely plays a fundamental role in the phenotypic heterogeneity observed in cancers. Many challenges remain, however, in the interpretation of the next generation sequencing results obtained so far. Here we review the models that explain tumor heterogeneity, the causes of intra-tumor genetic diversity and their impact on our understanding and management of breast cancer, methods to study intra-tumor heterogeneity and the assessment of intra-tumor genetic heterogeneity in the clinic. PMID:25928070

  3. Intra-articular therapy in osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Uthman, I; Raynauld, J; Haraoui, B

    2003-01-01

    The medical literature was reviewed from 1968–2002 using Medline and the key words "intra-articular" and "osteoarthritis" to determine the various intra-articular therapies used in the treatment of osteoarthritis. Corticosteroids and hyaluronic acid are the most frequently used intra-articular therapies in osteoarthritis. Other intra-articular substances such as orgotein, radiation synovectomy, dextrose prolotherapy, silicone, saline lavage, saline injection without lavage, analgesic agents, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, glucosamine, somatostatin, sodium pentosan polysulfate, chloroquine, mucopolysaccharide polysulfuric acid ester, lactic acid solution, and thiotepa cytostatica have been investigated as potentially therapeutic in the treatment of arthritic joints. Despite the lack of strong, convincing, and reproducible evidence that any of the intra-articular therapies significantly alters the progression of osteoarthritis, corticosteroids and hyaluronic acid are widely used in patients who have failed other therapeutic modalities for lack of efficacy or toxicity. As a practical approach for a knee with effusion, steroid injections should be considered while the presence of symptomatic "dry" knees may favour the hyaluronic acid approach. The virtual absence of serious side effects, coupled with the perceived benefits, make these approaches attractive. PMID:12954956

  4. Extra and Intra-articular Synovial Chondromatosis.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, R K; Banskota, B; Rijal, S; Banskota, A K

    2015-01-01

    Synovial chondromatosis is not so rare intra-articular condition secondary to synovial metaplasia, that affects the knee joint. Extra-articular synovial chondromatosis however is an extremely rare condition that usually involves the synovial sheath or bursa of the foot or hand. We present two cases of synovial chondromatosis, one intra and one extra-articular. The first case was a 25 year old lady who presented with pain, swelling and restricted range of motion of left knee and was found to have an intra-articular synovial chondromatosis which was treated successfully by joint debridement. The second case was that of a 22 year old man who presented with right knee pain and was diagnosed to have an extra-articular synovial chondromatosis of his right medial hamstring tendon sheath, excision of which resulted in complete relief of symptoms. PMID:27549506

  5. A novel intra-operative positron imager for rapid localization of tumor margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabet, Hamid; Stack, Brendan C.; Nagarkar, Vivek V.

    2014-03-01

    We have developed an intra-operative and compact imaging tool for surgeons to detect PET- positive lesions. Currently, most such probes on the market are non-imaging, and provide no ancillary information of surveyed areas, such as clear delineations of malignant tissues. Our probe consists of a novel hybrid scintillator coupled to a compact silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) array with associated front-end electronics encapsulated in an ergonomic housing. Pulse shape discrimination electronics has been implemented and integrated into the downstream data acquisition system. The hybrid scintillator consists of a 0.4 mm thick layer of CsI:Tl scintillator coupled to a 1 mm thick LYSO crystal. To achieve high spatial resolution, CsI:Tl is pixelated to 0.5×0.5 mm2 pixels using laser ablation technique. While CsI:Tl act as beta-sensitive scintillator, LYSO senses the gamma radiation and can be used to navigate the probe to the locations of interest. The gamma response is also subtracted from the beta image for improved SNR and contrast. To achieve accurate centroid position estimation and uniform beta sensitivity over the entire imaging area, the LYSO thickness is optimized such that it acts as scintillation light diffuser by spreading CsI:Tl light over multiple SiPM pixels. The results show that the response of the two scintillators exposed to radiation could be easily distinguished based on their pulse shapes. The probe's spatial resolution is <1.5 mm FWHM in its 10×10 mm2 effective imaging area. The probe can rapidly detect and localize nCi levels of F-18 beta radiation even in presence of strong gamma background.

  6. A psychology of religious plurality: from intra-religious dialogue to intra-psychic reality.

    PubMed

    Kramp, Joseph M

    2012-09-01

    Panikkar's (The intra-religious dialogue, 1978) classic, re-issued by Paulist Press in 1999, grapples with the theological challenges in the disciplines of comparative theology and the theology of religions through what he terms, "intra-religious dialogue." In this psychology of religious plurality, I use works from a variety of disciplines to highlight the achievements of Panikkar's intra-religious dialogue, as well as to critique his work in the hope of finding categories of understanding that can be profitably used to face the inter-personal crises of the contemporary world, namely religious terrorism. PMID:20607410

  7. Intra-abdominal hypertension in the ICU – a prospective epidemiological study

    PubMed Central

    ARABADZHIEV, GEORGI M.; TZANEVA, VALENTINA G.; PEEVA, KATYA G.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this prospective study is to examine the frequency and the severity of intra-abdominal hypertension in a mixed ICU of the University hospital. Methods A closed system for intravesical intermittent measurement of IAP was constructed. Results The frequency and the severity of IAH were examined in the period from June 2009 to December 2012 in 240 ICU patients divided into 3 groups (patients submitted to elective surgery, emergency surgery, and medical patients) in the University Hospital. In the elective surgery group there was 12.5% IAH, while in the emergency group IAH was 43.75%, and in the medical patients it was 42.5%. There was no statistical significant difference in the frequency of IAH among the mixed population of patients we examined and those studied by other authors with the same type of population. Conclusions The standardized measurement of intra-abdominal pressure is fundamental for defining intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome. The measurement of intra-abdominal pressure should be a part of the basic monitoring of patients at risk of intra-abdominal hypertension. Our point of view is that before there are indications for a surgical decompression, less invasive treatment options should be optimized. PMID:26528070

  8. Intra-abdominal sepsis after hepatic resection.

    PubMed Central

    Pace, R F; Blenkharn, J I; Edwards, W J; Orloff, M; Blumgart, L H; Benjamin, I S

    1989-01-01

    One hundred and thirty hepatic resections performed over an 8-year period were reviewed for evidence of postoperative intra-abdominal sepsis. Of 126 patients who survived for more than 24 hours after operation, 36 developed culture positive intra-abdominal collections (28.6%). Significant independent variables associated with the development of intra-abdominal sepsis were diagnoses of trauma or cholangiocarcinoma, and the need for reoperation to control hemorrhage during the postoperative period. Before 1984, infected fluid collections were treated predominantly by operative drainage, but this has largely been replaced by percutaneous methods, which have proven effective in most cases. Eighteen (50%) of the infections were caused by a mixed bacterial culture, with Streptococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli being the most common isolates. Six patients with clinical signs of sepsis had a sterile fluid collection drained with complete relief of symptoms. This review suggests that intra-abdominal sepsis is a frequent complication after hepatic resection, and can often be managed successfully by nonoperative percutaneous drainage. PMID:2493775

  9. Intra-Organizational Conflict in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wynn, Richard

    There is no abundance of research on intra-organizational conflict, and there are no simple answers to the tricky business of managing organizational conflicts. This paper states some propositions about conflict and suggests some management stratagems that can be used in sustaining constructive organizational characteristics. The propositions are…

  10. [The patient with intra-abdominal hypertension].

    PubMed

    Sakka, Samir G

    2016-01-01

    An intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) defined as a pathological increase in intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) is commonly found on ICU admission or during the ICU stay. Several studies confirmed that an IAH is an independent predictor for mortality of critically ill patients. The abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) which is defined as a sustained IAP>20 mmHg (with or without an abdominal perfusion pressure [APP]<60mmHg) that is associated with new organ dysfunction or failure has a mortality of up to 60%. In general, an IAH may be induced by several intra-abdominal as well as extra-abdominal conditions. Reduced abdominal wall compliance, intra-abdominal pathologies (either of the peritoneal space or parenchymateous organs) may lead to an IAH. Most commonly, intra-abdominal infections and/or sepsis and severe trauma or burns are predisposing for an IAH. An early sign may be a decrease in urinary output. The effects of an increased IAP on cardiovascular function are well recognized and include negative effects on preload, afterload and contractility. However, all other compartments of the body may be affected by an IAH. Thus, by an increase of the respective compartment pressure, e.g. intracranial pressure, a poly-compartment syndrome may result. Adequate prevention, a forward-looking strategy, and objective techniques for measurement of IAP are required to avoid or early detect an IAH or ACS. Finally, an immediate and consequent interdisciplinary management using conservative, interventional and operative options are necessary to solve an IAH or ACS. PMID:26863642

  11. Intra-abdominal pressures during activity in women using an intra-vaginal pressure transducer.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Janet M; Hamad, Nadia M; Coleman, Tanner J; Egger, Marlene J; Hsu, Yvonne; Hitchcock, Robert; Nygaard, Ingrid E

    2014-01-01

    Strenuous physical activity has been linked to pelvic floor disorders in women. Using a novel wireless intra-vaginal pressure transducer, intra-abdominal pressure was measured during diverse activities in a laboratory. Fifty-seven women performed a prescribed protocol using the intra-vaginal pressure transducer. We calculated maximal, area under the curve and first moment of the area intra-abdominal pressure for each activity. Planned comparisons of pressure were made between levels of walking and cycling and between activities with reported high pressure in the literature. Findings indicate variability in intra-abdominal pressure amongst individuals doing the same activity, especially in activities that required regulation of effort. There were statistically significant differences in maximal pressure between levels of walking, cycling and high pressure activities. Results for area under the curve and first moment of the area were not always consistent with maximal pressure. Coughing had the highest maximal pressure, but had lower area under the curve and first moment of the area compared to most activities. Our data reflect novel findings of maximal, area under the curve and first moment of the area measures of intra-abdominal pressure, which may have clinical relevance for how physical activity relates to pelvic floor dysfunction. PMID:24575741

  12. Marketing fundamentals.

    PubMed

    Redmond, W H

    2001-01-01

    This chapter outlines current marketing practice from a managerial perspective. The role of marketing within an organization is discussed in relation to efficiency and adaptation to changing environments. Fundamental terms and concepts are presented in an applied context. The implementation of marketing plans is organized around the four P's of marketing: product (or service), promotion (including advertising), place of delivery, and pricing. These are the tools with which marketers seek to better serve their clients and form the basis for competing with other organizations. Basic concepts of strategic relationship management are outlined. Lastly, alternate viewpoints on the role of advertising in healthcare markets are examined. PMID:11401791

  13. Usability Considerations in Developing a Graphic Interface for Intra Office Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yammiyavar, Pradeep; Jain, Piyush

    This paper outlines the basis of incorporating functional features in a new GUI based software under development for addressing comprehensive communication and interaction needs within an office environment. Bench marking of features in existing communication software products such as Microsoft Outlook, IBM Lotusnotes, Office Communicator, Mozilla Thunderbird etc. was done by asking a set of questions related to the usage of these existing softwares. Usability issues were identified through a user survey involving 30 subjects of varied profiles (domain, designation, age etc.) in a corporate office. It is posited that existing software products that have been developed for a universal market may be highly underutilized or have redundant features especially for use as an intra office (within the same office) communication medium. Simultaneously they may not cater to some very contextual requirements of intra office communications. Based on the findings of the survey of feature preferences & usability of existing products, a simple 'person to person' communicating medium for intra office situations was visualized with a new interactive GUI. Usability issues that need to be considered for a new intra-office product have been brought out.

  14. Fast prediction unit selection method for HEVC intra prediction based on salient regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Lei; Dai, Ming; Zhao, Chun-lei; Xiong, Jing-ying

    2016-07-01

    In order to reduce the computational complexity of the high efficiency video coding (HEVC) standard, a new algorithm for HEVC intra prediction, namely, fast prediction unit (PU) size selection method for HEVC based on salient regions is proposed in this paper. We first build a saliency map for each largest coding unit (LCU) to reduce its texture complexity. Secondly, the optimal PU size is determined via a scheme that implements an information entropy comparison among sub-blocks of saliency maps. Finally, we apply the partitioning result of saliency map on the original LCUs, obtaining the optimal partitioning result. Our algorithm can determine the PU size in advance to the angular prediction in intra coding, reducing computational complexity of HEVC. The experimental results show that our algorithm achieves a 37.9% reduction in encoding time, while producing a negligible loss in Bjontegaard delta bit rate ( BDBR) of 0.62%.

  15. 2013 WSES guidelines for management of intra-abdominal infections

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Despite advances in diagnosis, surgery, and antimicrobial therapy, mortality rates associated with complicated intra-abdominal infections remain exceedingly high. The 2013 update of the World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) guidelines for the management of intra-abdominal infections contains evidence-based recommendations for management of patients with intra-abdominal infections. PMID:23294512

  16. Intra-Engine Trace Species Chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waitz, Ian A.; Lukachko, S. P.; Chobot, A.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; Brown, R.

    2002-01-01

    Prompted by the needs of downstream plume-wake models, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and Aerodyne Research Incorporated (ART) initiated a collaborative effort, with funding from the NASA AEAP, to develop tools that would assist in understanding the fundamental drivers of chemical change within the intra-engine exhaust flow path. Efforts have been focused on the development of a modeling methodology that can adequately investigate the complex intra-engine environment. Over the history of this project, our research has increasingly pointed to the intra-engine environment as a possible site for important trace chemical activity. Modeling studies we initiated for the turbine and exhaust nozzle have contributed several important capabilities to the atmospheric effects of aviation assessment. These include a more complete understanding of aerosol precursor production, improved initial conditions for plume-wake modeling studies, and a more comprehensive analysis of ground-based test cell and in-flight exhaust measurement data. In addition, establishing a physical understanding of important flow and chemical processes through computational investigations may eventually assist in the design of engines to reduce undesirable species.

  17. Information and Pollution Permit Markets: Another View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colander, David

    2006-01-01

    In a recent article, Smith and Yates (2003) argued that regulators could gain additional information about the optimal number of permits to issue from two-sided markets. The author argues that they are incorrect in their assertion because the market they refer to is an asymmetric two-sided market in which individuals are only allowed to decrease…

  18. Marketing 101.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Karla A.

    1997-01-01

    A marketing model for camps includes a mix of services, presentation, and communication elements that promote the virtues of camp, convince potential campers and their families of the benefits of camp, and successfully distinguish the camp from others. Includes resources related to marketing strategies, theme merchandise, and market trends…

  19. Capacity Markets and Market Stability

    SciTech Connect

    Stauffer, Hoff

    2006-04-15

    The good news is that market stability can be achieved through a combination of longer-term contracts, auctions for far enough in the future to permit new entry, a capacity management system, and a demand curve. The bad news is that if and when stable capacity markets are designed, the markets may seem to be relatively close to where we started - with integrated resource planning. Market ideologues will find this anathema. (author)

  20. Assessing the Factors Associated With Iran’s Intra-Industry Trade in Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Yusefzadeh, Hassan; Hadian, Mohammad; Gorji, Hassan Abolghasem; Ghaderi, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pharmaceutical industry is a sensitive and profitable industry. If this industry wants to survive, it should be able to compete well in international markets. So, study of Iran’s intra-industry trade (IIT) in pharmaceuticals is essential in order to identify competitiveness potential of country and boost export capability in the global arena. Methods: This study assessed the factors associated with Iran’s intra-industry trade in pharmaceuticals with the rest of the world during the 2001–2012 periods using seasonal time series data at the four-digit SITC level. The data was collected from Iran’s pharmaceutical Statistics, World Bank and International Trade Center. Finally, we discussed a number of important policy recommendations to increase Iran’s IIT in pharmaceuticals. Results: The findings indicated that economies of scale, market structure and degree of economic development had a significantly positive impact on Iran’s intra-industry trade in pharmaceuticals and tariff trade barriers were negatively related to IIT. Product differentiation and technological advancement didn’t have the expected signs. In addition, we found that Iran’s IIT in pharmaceuticals have shown an increasing trend during the study period. Thus, the composition of Iran trade in pharmaceuticals has changed from inter-industry trade to intra-industry trade. Conclusions: In order to get more prepared for integration into the global economy, the development of Iran’s IIT in pharmaceuticals should be given priority. Therefore, paying attention to IIT could have an important role in serving pharmaceutical companies in relation to pharmaceutical trade. PMID:26156931

  1. [Intra-abdominal infection and new quinolones].

    PubMed

    Gnocchi, C A

    1999-01-01

    Intra-abdominal infection is defined as the presence of an infectious process within the peritoneal cavity. It may be local or have a systemic consequence generating multiple organic disfunction. Most of the studies report a mortality of 30% in severe intra-abdominal infection. Secondary peritonitis is caused by the loss of integrity of the gastrointestinal apparatus, which contaminates with pathogens the peritoneal cavity. Invariably they are polymicrobial infections, mostly due to facultative anaerobic and anaerobic Gram negative bacilli. Prognosis of peritonitis depends on the struggle between two forces: local and systemic immunity of the host and the volume, nature and length of the contamination. Microorganisms and their products estimulate cellular defenses in the host and activate numerous inflammatory mediators responsible for sepsis. Antibiotic treatment of secondary peritonitis must act mainly against Escherichia coli and Bacteroides fragilis. The adequate and early empirical administration of antibiotics against these bacteria is well established. It is necessary to consider if the infection is localized or generalized and if it is accompanied or not by organic disfunction. It also has to be taken into account if peritonitis is community or hospital-acquired when choosing the antibiotic scheme. In community-acquired peritonitis with low to moderate infections a combination of metronidazole-ceftriaxone, metronidazole-gentamycin or a monodrug like ampicillin-sulbactam may be used. In severe hospital-acquired peritonitis imipenem or the combination piperacillin-tazobactam are effective. New quinolones such as trovafloxacin or clinafloxacin, with excellent activity against aerobes and anaerobes producing intra-abdominal infections, may be effective. Future clinical trials are needed to determine their utility. Tertiary peritonitis represent a systemic inflammatory response with multiorganic failure due to the uncontrolled activation of the inflammatory

  2. Intra-uterine hematoma in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Glavind, K; Nøhr, S; Nielsen, P H; Ipsen, L

    1991-06-01

    In 60 patients with a live fetus and an intra-uterine hematoma (IUH) proven by ultrasonic scanning the outcome of pregnancy was spontaneous abortion in 12% and premature delivery in 10%. No correlation between the outcome of the pregnancy and the maximum size of the hematoma or the week of detection was found. A subplacentar localization of the hematoma was associated with a higher, but not statistically significant, incidence of spontaneous abortion than a subchorionic localization. Spontaneous abortion most often occurred in the first weeks after the formation of the hematoma. PMID:1855608

  3. Design and analysis of electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sioshansi, Ramteen Mehr

    Restructured competitive electricity markets rely on designing market-based mechanisms which can efficiently coordinate the power system and minimize the exercise of market power. This dissertation is a series of essays which develop and analyze models of restructured electricity markets. Chapter 2 studies the incentive properties of a co-optimized market for energy and reserves that pays reserved generators their implied opportunity cost---which is the difference between their stated energy cost and the market-clearing price for energy. By analyzing the market as a competitive direct revelation mechanism we examine the properties of efficient equilibria and demonstrate that generators have incentives to shade their stated costs below actual costs. We further demonstrate that the expected energy payments of our mechanism is less than that in a disjoint market for energy only. Chapter 3 is an empirical validation of a supply function equilibrium (SFE) model. By comparing theoretically optimal supply functions and actual generation offers into the Texas spot balancing market, we show the SFE to fit the actual behavior of the largest generators in market. This not only serves to validate the model, but also demonstrates the extent to which firms exercise market power. Chapters 4 and 5 examine equity, incentive, and efficiency issues in the design of non-convex commitment auctions. We demonstrate that different near-optimal solutions to a central unit commitment problem which have similar-sized optimality gaps will generally yield vastly different energy prices and payoffs to individual generators. Although solving the mixed integer program to optimality will overcome such issues, we show that this relies on achieving optimality of the commitment---which may not be tractable for large-scale problems within the allotted timeframe. We then simulate and compare a competitive benchmark for a market with centralized and self commitment in order to bound the efficiency

  4. Optimal GENCO bidding strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Feng

    Electricity industries worldwide are undergoing a period of profound upheaval. The conventional vertically integrated mechanism is being replaced by a competitive market environment. Generation companies have incentives to apply novel technologies to lower production costs, for example: Combined Cycle units. Economic dispatch with Combined Cycle units becomes a non-convex optimization problem, which is difficult if not impossible to solve by conventional methods. Several techniques are proposed here: Mixed Integer Linear Programming, a hybrid method, as well as Evolutionary Algorithms. Evolutionary Algorithms share a common mechanism, stochastic searching per generation. The stochastic property makes evolutionary algorithms robust and adaptive enough to solve a non-convex optimization problem. This research implements GA, EP, and PS algorithms for economic dispatch with Combined Cycle units, and makes a comparison with classical Mixed Integer Linear Programming. The electricity market equilibrium model not only helps Independent System Operator/Regulator analyze market performance and market power, but also provides Market Participants the ability to build optimal bidding strategies based on Microeconomics analysis. Supply Function Equilibrium (SFE) is attractive compared to traditional models. This research identifies a proper SFE model, which can be applied to a multiple period situation. The equilibrium condition using discrete time optimal control is then developed for fuel resource constraints. Finally, the research discusses the issues of multiple equilibria and mixed strategies, which are caused by the transmission network. Additionally, an advantage of the proposed model for merchant transmission planning is discussed. A market simulator is a valuable training and evaluation tool to assist sellers, buyers, and regulators to understand market performance and make better decisions. A traditional optimization model may not be enough to consider the distributed

  5. Extracting a shape function for a signal with intra-wave frequency modulation.

    PubMed

    Hou, Thomas Y; Shi, Zuoqiang

    2016-04-13

    In this paper, we develop an effective and robust adaptive time-frequency analysis method for signals with intra-wave frequency modulation. To handle this kind of signals effectively, we generalize our data-driven time-frequency analysis by using a shape function to describe the intra-wave frequency modulation. The idea of using a shape function in time-frequency analysis was first proposed by Wu (Wu 2013 Appl. Comput. Harmon. Anal. 35, 181-199. (doi:10.1016/j.acha.2012.08.008)). A shape function could be any smooth 2π-periodic function. Based on this model, we propose to solve an optimization problem to extract the shape function. By exploring the fact that the shape function is a periodic function with respect to its phase function, we can identify certain low-rank structure of the signal. This low-rank structure enables us to extract the shape function from the signal. Once the shape function is obtained, the instantaneous frequency with intra-wave modulation can be recovered from the shape function. We demonstrate the robustness and efficiency of our method by applying it to several synthetic and real signals. One important observation is that this approach is very stable to noise perturbation. By using the shape function approach, we can capture the intra-wave frequency modulation very well even for noise-polluted signals. In comparison, existing methods such as empirical mode decomposition/ensemble empirical mode decomposition seem to have difficulty in capturing the intra-wave modulation when the signal is polluted by noise. PMID:26953176

  6. Nutrition marketing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Given the obesity epidemic, marketing of non-nutrient dense food has been debated as a policy issue. This research sought to determine how frequently nutrition marketing (health claims, nutrient content claims, or implied claims) is used on labels of foods containing high amounts (>20% daily value) ...

  7. Tourism Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This document contains teacher materials for a 6-unit, 1-year distributive education course in marketing tourism offered in grades 11 and 12 in North Carolina. Although in general the material presented concerns marketing tourism anywhere, some of it is specifically related to tourism within North Carolina. A purpose statement explains the…

  8. Marketing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stancil, Ronald A., Sr.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the Marketing Education program at West Haven (CT) High School in West Haven, Connecticut, that promotes skills for life and attributes, enhances the academic program, and develops leaders out of ordinary students through an interactive curriculum. The three components of West Haven's marketing and management program are (1)…

  9. Marketing Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, Eric

    1998-01-01

    All of our ideas have been field tested and have proven effective in our environment. Our objectives are: We will share our ideas about marketing training and what we've implemented at Michoud Space Systems. You will go away with at least one new idea or insight about how to more effectively market your training.

  10. Agricultural Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helt, Lawrence; And Others

    Designed for use in farm business management adult programs, this marketing curriculum includes six teaching lessons and professional staff products. The following topics are covered in the lessons: introduction to marketing; interpretation of price/demand/supply cycles and fundamental outlook trends (carryover/projections/disappearance); farmers'…

  11. Inferomedial or Inferolateral Intra-articular Injections of the Knee to Minimize Pain Intensity.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Todd P; Elmallah, Randa K; Jauregui, Julio J; Cherian, Jeffrey J; Harwin, Steven F; Mont, Michael A

    2016-05-01

    Pain levels of 3 knee intra-articular corticosteroid injection sites were assessed to determine if an optimal site exists. Patients were stratified by site, demographic, and disease characteristics. All injections were performed by 1 surgeon using a uniform technique. Pain severity was assessed before, 1 minute after, and 5 minutes after injection using a visual analog scale. Mean visual analog scale scores for the lateral suprapatellar, medial infrapatellar, and lateral infrapatellar injection sites were 7, 4, and 2 points, respectively, but this was not statistically significant. These results suggest intra-articular injections should be administered from an inferomedial or inferolateral site to minimize pain intensity. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(3):e578-e581.]. PMID:27064778

  12. Intra-fraction motion of the prostate is a random walk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballhausen, H.; Li, M.; Hegemann, N.-S.; Ganswindt, U.; Belka, C.

    2015-01-01

    isocenter during a fraction, and this variance increases with time, such that shorter fractions are beneficial to the problem of intra-fraction motion. As a consequence, fixed safety margins (which would over-compensate at the beginning and under-compensate at the end of a fraction) cannot optimally account for intra-fraction motion. Instead, online tracking and position correction on-the-fly should be considered as the preferred approach to counter intra-fraction motion.

  13. Intra-Extra Vehicular Activity Apollo Spacesuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Kenneth S.

    2016-01-01

    Kenneth Thomas will discuss the Apollo Intra-Extra Vehicular Activity (IEVA) spacesuits, which supported launch and reentry and extra-vehicular activity. This program was NASA's first attempt to develop a new suit design from requirements and concepts. Mr. Thomas will chronicle the challenges, developments, struggles, and solutions that culminated in the system that allowed the first human exploration of the Moon and deep space (outside low-Earth orbit). Apollo pressure suit designs allowed the heroic repair of the Skylab space station and supported the first U.S. and Russian spacecraft docking during the Apollo Soyuz Test Project. Mr. Thomas will also discuss the IEVA suits' successes and challenges associated with the IEVA developments of the 1960s.

  14. Market trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzsimmons, R. D.

    1976-01-01

    A very large segment of the over water, long haul passenger market, 31% of the passengers who provide 42% of the passenger revenue, offers a significant market for an advanced supersonic transport. This is for both the first class and full-fare economy passenger markets. The supersonic transport may be more competitive here in spite of lower costs of subsonic transports, as passenger preference is a more powerful variable than DOC. This latter fact was amply demonstrated in the late fifties when the jets completely replaced the reciprocating engine transports on most world routes, in spite of slightly higher fares.

  15. Intra-specific association between carbon isotope composition and productivity in woody plants: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Fardusi, Most Jannatul; Ferrio, Juan Pedro; Comas, Carles; Voltas, Jordi; Resco de Dios, Víctor; Serrano, Luis

    2016-10-01

    The study of intra-specific variations in growth and plant physiological response to drought is crucial to understand the potential for plant adaptation to global change. Carbon isotope composition (δ(13)C) in plant tissues offers an integrated measure of intrinsic water-use efficiency (WUEi). The intra-specific association between δ(13)C and productivity has been extensively studied in herbaceous crops, but species-specific information on woody plants is still limited and has so far provided contradictory results. In this work we explored the general patterns of the relationship between δ(13)C and growth traits (height, diameter and biomass) using a meta-analysis. We compiled information from 49 articles, including 176 studies performed on 34 species from 16 genera. We found a positive global intra-specific correlation between δ(13)C and growth (Gr=0.28, P<0.0001), stronger for biomass than for height, and non-significant for diameter. The extent of this intra-specific association increased from Mediterranean to subtropical, temperate and boreal biomes, i.e. from water-limited to energy-limited environments. Conifers and shrubs, but not broadleaves, showed consistent positive intra-specific correlations. The meta-analysis also revealed that the relationship between δ(13)C and growth is better characterized at juvenile stages, under near-optimal and controlled conditions, and by analyzing δ(13)C in leaves rather than in wood. PMID:27593469

  16. [Ultra sonography for the localization of intra-uterine contraceptive devices (i.u.d.'s) (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Meyenburg, M

    1978-11-01

    The localization of uterine devices by ultra-sound techniques was investigated. Seven different types of intra-uterine contraceptive devices were checked under immersion in water and in the uterus of 585 wearers of I.U.D.'s. The quality of the ultra-sound pictures is mostly determined by the type of intra-uterine device. Under optimal conditions the investigated types of I.U.D.'s produced standard ultra-sound pictures which permitted their identification. The evaluation of the localization of the intra-uterine contraceptive devices in the uterus was reasonably accurate. At first the classification of normal localization, lower segment localization and cervical localization was used, and this was later enlarged by the measurement of the distance between the uterine fundus and the end of the device closest to the fundus. It was possible to estimate the contraceptive efficiency with these measurements. In 486 cases (83%) the intra-uterine device was found in normal position. In 24 (4.1%) of the cases removal and repeat insertion of the device was suggested. In 18 (3.1%) cases the device was not localized despite normal intra-uterine localization. PMID:710881

  17. Wireless Intra-Spacecraft Communication: The Benefits and the Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, Will H.; Armstrong, John T.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a systematic study of how intra-spacecraft wireless communication can be adopted to various subsystems of the spacecraft including C&DH (Command & Data Handling), Telecom, Power, Propulsion, and Payloads, and the interconnects between them. We discuss the advantages of intra-spacecraft wireless communication and the disadvantages and challenges and a proposal to address them.

  18. The Professional Woman: Inter and Intra Role Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Jeanne Brett; Kuczynski, Karen Ann

    This study hypothesizes that professional women will have more intra- and inter-role conflict than their male professional counterparts. Data were collected from male and female employees at a major midwestern university in three occupational groups--faculty, academic-professional, and nonacademic. Inter- and intra-role conflict data were…

  19. Structured Set Intra Prediction With Discriminative Learning in a Max-Margin Markov Network for High Efficiency Video Coding

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Wenrui; Xiong, Hongkai; Jiang, Xiaoqian; Chen, Chang Wen

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel model on intra coding for High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC), which simultaneously predicts blocks of pixels with optimal rate distortion. It utilizes the spatial statistical correlation for the optimal prediction based on 2-D contexts, in addition to formulating the data-driven structural interdependences to make the prediction error coherent with the probability distribution, which is desirable for successful transform and coding. The structured set prediction model incorporates a max-margin Markov network (M3N) to regulate and optimize multiple block predictions. The model parameters are learned by discriminating the actual pixel value from other possible estimates to maximize the margin (i.e., decision boundary bandwidth). Compared to existing methods that focus on minimizing prediction error, the M3N-based model adaptively maintains the coherence for a set of predictions. Specifically, the proposed model concurrently optimizes a set of predictions by associating the loss for individual blocks to the joint distribution of succeeding discrete cosine transform coefficients. When the sample size grows, the prediction error is asymptotically upper bounded by the training error under the decomposable loss function. As an internal step, we optimize the underlying Markov network structure to find states that achieve the maximal energy using expectation propagation. For validation, we integrate the proposed model into HEVC for optimal mode selection on rate-distortion optimization. The proposed prediction model obtains up to 2.85% bit rate reduction and achieves better visual quality in comparison to the HEVC intra coding. PMID:25505829

  20. Identification of an intra-cranial intra-axial porcupine quill foreign body with computed tomography in a canine patient.

    PubMed

    Sauvé, Christopher P; Sereda, Nikki C; Sereda, Colin W

    2012-02-01

    An intra-cranial intra-axial foreign body was diagnosed in a golden retriever dog through the use of computed tomography (CT). Confirmed by necropsy, a porcupine quill had migrated to the patient's left cerebral hemisphere, likely through the oval foramen. This case study demonstrates the efficacy of CT in visualizing a quill in the canine brain. PMID:22851782

  1. 14 CFR 399.34 - Intra-Hawaii and Intra-Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands fare flexibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Intra-Hawaii and Intra-Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands fare flexibility. 399.34 Section 399.34 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) POLICY STATEMENTS STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY Policies Relating to Rates and Tariffs §...

  2. Identification of an intra-cranial intra-axial porcupine quill foreign body with computed tomography in a canine patient

    PubMed Central

    Sauvé, Christopher P.; Sereda, Nikki C.; Sereda, Colin W.

    2012-01-01

    An intra-cranial intra-axial foreign body was diagnosed in a golden retriever dog through the use of computed tomography (CT). Confirmed by necropsy, a porcupine quill had migrated to the patient’s left cerebral hemisphere, likely through the oval foramen. This case study demonstrates the efficacy of CT in visualizing a quill in the canine brain. PMID:22851782

  3. Desktop MRI as a promising tool for mapping intra-aneurismal flow.

    PubMed

    Perlo, Josefina; Silletta, Emilia V; Danieli, Ernesto; Cattaneo, Giorgio; Acosta, Rodolfo H; Blümich, Bernhard; Casanova, Federico

    2015-04-01

    In this work we evaluate the performance of a 40-mm diameter bore 0.2T desktop Halbach tomograph to obtain 2D and 3D velocity maps for studying intra-aneurismal flow in the presence or absence of nitinol meshed implants with the aim of optimizing the flow diverter efficacy. Phantoms with known spatial velocity distribution were used to determine the performance of the MRI system. Maximum velocities of about 200mm/s could be measured with a precision of 1% at a spatial resolution of 0.5×0.5×1mm(3). This accuracy is suitable to evaluate in vitro intra-aneurismal flow under different conditions such as variable flow rates, different vessel-aneurysm geometry, as well as the influence of metallic flow diverters on the intra-aneurismal flow distribution. The information obtained non-invasively with desktop tomographs can be used to complement in vivo studies in order to decide the optimum flow diverter. PMID:25527392

  4. Intra-tumor heterogeneity: lessons from microbial evolution and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    de Bruin, Elza C; Taylor, Tiffany B; Swanton, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Multiple subclonal populations of tumor cells can coexist within the same tumor. This intra-tumor heterogeneity will have clinical implications and it is therefore important to identify factors that drive or suppress such heterogeneous tumor progression. Evolutionary biology can provide important insights into this process. In particular, experimental evolution studies of microbial populations, which exist as clonal populations that can diversify into multiple subclones, have revealed important evolutionary processes driving heterogeneity within a population. There are transferrable lessons that can be learnt from these studies that will help us to understand the process of intra-tumor heterogeneity in the clinical setting. In this review, we summarize drivers of microbial diversity that have been identified, such as mutation rate and environmental influences, and discuss how knowledge gained from microbial experimental evolution studies may guide us to identify and understand important selective factors that promote intra-tumor heterogeneity. Furthermore, we discuss how these factors could be used to direct and optimize research efforts to improve patient care, focusing on therapeutic resistance. Finally, we emphasize the need for longitudinal studies to address the impact of these potential tumor heterogeneity-promoting factors on drug resistance, metastatic potential and clinical outcome. PMID:24267946

  5. Intra-abdominal hypertension and acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Mifkovic, A; Skultety, J; Sykora, P; Prochotsky, A; Okolicany, R

    2013-01-01

    Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) contributes to organ dysfunction and leads to the development of the abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). IAH and ACS are relatively frequent findings in patiens with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) and are associated with deterioration in organ functions. The most affected are cardiovascular, respiratory and renal functions. The incidence of IAH in patients with SAP is approximately 60-80%. There is an accumulating evidence in human and animal studies that changes of perfusion, particularly to the microvasculature, are crucial events in the progression of acute pancreatitis (AP). The perfusion of the small and large intestine is impaired due to reduced arterial pressure, increased vascular resistence and diminished portal blood flow. Bacterial translocation has been described in patients with ACS, and this may apply to patients with SAP. Approximately 30-40% of SAP patients develop ACS because of pancreatic (retroperitoneal) inflammation, peripancreatic tissue edema, formation of fluid collections or abdominal distension. Surgical debridement was the preferred treatment to control necrotizing pancreatitis in the past. However, the management of necrotizing pancreatitis has changed over the last decade. The main objective of this article is to describe the association between IAH and AP and to emphasize this situation in clinical praxis as well (Fig. 1, Ref. 38). PMID:23406186

  6. Intra-operative visualization of brain tumors with 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Widhalm, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Precise histopathological diagnosis of brain tumors is essential for the correct patient management. Furthermore, complete resection of brain tumors is associated with an improved patient prognosis. However, histopathological undergrading and incomplete tumor removal are not uncommon, especially due to insufficient intra-operative visualization of brain tumor tissue. The fluorescent dye 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) is currently applied for fluorescence-guided resections of high-grade gliomas. The value of 5-ALA-induced protoporphyrin (PpIX) fluorescence for intra-operative visualization of other tumors than high-grade gliomas remains unclear. Within the frame of this thesis, we found a significantly higher rate of complete resections of our high-grade gliomas as compared to control cases by using the newly established 5-ALA fluorescence technology at our department. Additionally, we showed that MRI spectroscopy-based chemical shift imaging (CSI) is capable to identify intratumoral high-grade glioma areas (= anaplastic foci) during navigation guided resections to avoid histopathological undergrading. However, the accuracy of navigation systems with integrated pre-operative imaging data such as CSI declines during resections due to intra-operative brainshift. In two further studies, we found that 5-ALA induced PpIX fluorescence is capable as a novel intra-operative marker to detect anaplastic foci within initially suspected low-grade gliomas independent of brainshift. Finally, we showed that the application of 5-ALA is also of relevance in needle biopsies for intra-operative identification of representative brain tumor tissue. These data indicate that 5-ALA is not only of major importance for resection of high-grade gliomas, but also for intra-operative visualization of anaplastic foci as well as representative brain tumor tissue in needle biopsies unaffected by brainshift. Consequently, this new technique might become a novel standard in brain tumor surgery that

  7. Detrending the realized volatility in the global FX market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Anatoly B.

    2009-05-01

    There has been growing interest in realized volatility (RV) of financial assets that is calculated using intra-day returns. The choice of optimal time grid for these calculations is not trivial and generally requires analysis of RV dependence on the grid spacing (so-called RV signature). Typical RV signatures have a maximum at the finest time grid spacing available, which is attributed to the microstructure effects. This maximum decays into a plateau at lower frequencies, which implies (almost) stationary return variance. We found that the RV signatures in the modern global FX market may have no plateau or even have a maximum at lower frequencies. Simple averaging methods used to address the microstructure effects in equities have no practical effect on the FX RV signatures. We show that local detrending of the high-frequency FX rate samples yields RV signatures with a pronounced plateau. This implies that FX rates can be described with a Brownian motion having non-stationary trend and stationary variance. We point at a role of algorithmic trading as a possible cause of micro-trends in FX rates.

  8. Expert review--identification of intra-partum fetal compromise.

    PubMed

    Prior, Tomas; Kumar, Sailesh

    2015-07-01

    Whilst most cases of cerebral palsy occur as a consequence of an ante-natal insult, a significant proportion, particularly in the term fetus, are attributable to intra-partum hypoxia. Intra-partum monitoring using continuous fetal heart rate assessment has led to an increased incidence of operative delivery without a concurrent reduction in the incidence of cerebral palsy. Despite this, birth asphyxia remains the strongest and most consistent risk factor for cerebral palsy in term infants. This review evaluates current intra-partum monitoring techniques as well as alternative approaches aimed at better identification of the fetus at risk of compromise in labour. PMID:25917435

  9. Intra-metropolitan migration in the Warsaw agglomeration.

    PubMed

    Rykiel, Z

    1984-01-01

    "Two questions of intra-metropolitan migration are analyzed in the paper, intra-metropolitan hierarchy and intra-metropolitan spatial barriers. The former embraces four detailed questions: ranking of centers; spatial pattern of hierarchical subordination; degree of unequivocalness of the subordinations, or degree of dominance; and degree of hierarchicality of interrelationships. Two specialties of the Warsaw [Poland] agglomeration are discussed, the influence of the present crisis, and the administrative restrictions to migration to the city, or the spatial barriers. Social connotations of the latter are also presented." PMID:12312885

  10. The Charlotte (TM) intra-vehicular robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swaim, Patrick L.; Thompson, Clark J.; Campbell, Perry D.

    1994-01-01

    NASA has identified telerobotics and telescience as essential technologies to reduce the crew extra-vehicular activity (EVA) and intra-vehicular activity (IVA) workloads. Under this project, we are developing and flight testing a novel IVA robot to relieve the crew of tedious and routine tasks. Through ground telerobotic control of this robot, we will enable ground researchers to routinely interact with experiments in space. Our approach is to develop an IVA robot system incrementally by employing a series of flight tests with increasing complexity. This approach has the advantages of providing an early IVA capability that can assist the crew, demonstrate capabilities that ground researchers can be confident of in planning for future experiments, and allow incremental refinement of system capabilities and insertion of new technology. In parallel with this approach to flight testing, we seek to establish ground test beds, in which the requirements of payload experimenters can be further investigated. In 1993 we reviewed manifested SpaceHab experiments and defined IVA robot requirements to assist in their operation. We also examined previous IVA robot designs and assessed them against flight requirements. We rejected previous design concepts on the basis of threat to crew safety, operability, and maintainability. Based on this insight, we developed an entirely new concept for IVA robotics, the CHARLOTTE robot system. Ground based testing of a prototype version of the system has already proven its ability to perform most common tasks demanded of the crew, including operation of switches, buttons, knobs, dials, and performing video surveys of experiments and switch panels.

  11. Intra-fraction setup variability: IR optical localization vs. X-ray imaging in a hypofractionated patient population

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to investigate intra-fraction setup variability in hypo-fractionated cranial and body radiotherapy; this is achieved by means of integrated infrared optical localization and stereoscopic kV X-ray imaging. Method and Materials We analyzed data coming from 87 patients treated with hypo-fractionated radiotherapy at cranial and extra-cranial sites. Patient setup was realized through the ExacTrac X-ray 6D system (BrainLAB, Germany), consisting of 2 infrared TV cameras for external fiducial localization and X-ray imaging in double projection for image registration. Before irradiation, patients were pre-aligned relying on optical marker localization. Patient position was refined through the automatic matching of X-ray images to digitally reconstructed radiographs, providing 6 corrective parameters that were automatically applied using a robotic couch. Infrared patient localization and X-ray imaging were performed at the end of treatment, thus providing independent measures of intra-fraction motion. Results According to optical measurements, the size of intra-fraction motion was (median ± quartile) 0.3 ± 0.3 mm, 0.6 ± 0.6 mm, 0.7 ± 0.6 mm for cranial, abdominal and lung patients, respectively. X-ray image registration estimated larger intra-fraction motion, equal to 0.9 ± 0.8 mm, 1.3 ± 1.2 mm, 1.8 ± 2.2 mm, correspondingly. Conclusion Optical tracking highlighted negligible intra-fraction motion at both cranial and extra-cranial sites. The larger motion detected by X-ray image registration showed significant inter-patient variability, in contrast to infrared optical tracking measurement. Infrared localization is put forward as the optimal strategy to monitor intra-fraction motion, featuring robustness, flexibility and less invasivity with respect to X-ray based techniques. PMID:21496255

  12. Sports Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Career-Technical and Adult Education.

    This document presents the Ohio Integrated Technical and Academic Competency profile for sports marketing. The profile is to serve as the basis for curriculum development in Ohio's secondary, adult, and postsecondary programs. The profile includes a comprehensive listing of 999 specialty key indicators for evaluating mastery of 113 competencies in…

  13. Marketing Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, O. Gene

    1995-01-01

    Relates the marketing concept to library reference services. Highlights include a review of the literature and an overview of marketing, including research, the marketing mix, strategic plan, marketing plan, and marketing audit. Marketing principles are applied to reference services through the marketing mix elements of product, price, place, and…

  14. Development of a wireless intra-vaginal transducer for monitoring intra-abdominal pressure in women

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Tanner J.; Thomsen, Jens C.; Maass, Sean D.; Hsu, Yvonne; Nygaard, Ingrid E.

    2011-01-01

    Pelvic floor disorders (PFD) affect one of every four women in the United States. Elevated intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) during daily activity or strenuous physical activity has been identified as a risk factor in the prevalence of PFD. However, the relationship between IAP and physical activity is poorly understood and oftentimes activity restrictions are prescribed by physicians without clinical evidence linking various activities to elevated IAP. There are currently no pressure transducers capable of monitoring IAP non-invasively out of a clinical environment. To overcome this shortcoming, a novel intra-vaginal pressure transducer (IVT) was developed to continuously monitor IAP. Improvements were made to the first generation IVT by incorporating wireless capability to enhance the device’s mobility while creating a more robust IAP monitoring system. To ensure the changes maintained the functionality of the original device design, comparison testing with standard clinical pressure transducers in both bench top and clinical settings was conducted. The wireless device was found to have high linearity, robust signal transmission, and dynamic response that outperforms the clinical standard rectal transducer and is similar to the original first generation non-wireless design. The wireless IVT presented here is a mobile wireless device capable of measuring, storing and transmitting IAP data during various physical activities. PMID:22147020

  15. INTRA-UNDULATOR MEASUREMENTS AT VISA FEL.

    SciTech Connect

    MUROKH,A.; FRIGOLA,P.; ET AL; JOHNSON,E.; WANG,X.J.; YAKIMENKO,V.

    2000-08-13

    We describe a diagnostics system developed, to measure exponential gain properties and the electron beam dynamics inside the strong focusing 4-m long undulator for the VISA (Visible to Infrared SASE Amplifier) FEL. The technical challenges included working inside the small undulator gap, optimizing the electron beam diagnostics in the high background environment of the spontaneous undulator radiation, multiplexing and transporting the photon beam. Initial results are discussed.

  16. Intra-undulator measurements at VISA FEL

    SciTech Connect

    Murokh, A; Frigola, P; Pellegrini, C; Rosenzweig, J; Tremaine, A; Johnson, E; Wang, X J; Yakimenko, V; Klaisner, L; Nuhn, H D; Toor, A

    2000-08-10

    We describe a diagnostics system developed, to measure exponential gain properties and the electron beam dynamics inside the strong focusing 4-m long undulator for the VISA (Visible to Infrared SASE Amplifier) FEL. The technical challenges included working inside the small undulator gap, optimizing the electron beam diagnostics in the high background environment of the spontaneous undulator radiation, multiplexing and transporting the photon beam. Initial results are discussed.

  17. Intra-channel nonlinearity compensation with scaled translational symmetry.

    PubMed

    Wei, Haiqing; Plant, David

    2004-09-01

    It is proposed and demonstrated that two fiber spans in a scaled translational symmetry could cancel out their intra-channel nonlinear effects to a large extent without using optical phase conjugation. Significant reduction of intra-channel nonlinear effects may be achieved in a long-distance transmission line consisting of multiple pairs of translationally symmetric spans. The results have been derived analytically from the nonlinear Schrödinger equation and verified by numerical simulations using commercial software. PMID:19483975

  18. Role of Transcatheter Intra-arterial Therapies for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Shashi B.; Sharma, Hanish

    2014-01-01

    Transcatheter intra-arterial therapies play a vital role in treatment of HCC due to the unique tumor vasculature. Evolution of techniques and newer efficacious modalities of tumor destruction have made these techniques popular. Various types of intra-arterial therapeutic options are currently available. These constitute: bland embolization, trans-arterial chemotherapy, trans-arterial chemo embolization with or without drug-eluting beads and trans-arterial radio embolization, which are elaborated in this review. PMID:25755602

  19. Computational pharmacokinetic rationale for intra-arterial delivery to the brain.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Johann N R; Ellis, Jason A; Hossain, Shaolie; Nguyen, Juliane; Bruce, Jeffrey N; Joshi, Shailendra

    2016-10-01

    Intra-arterial (IA) drug delivery has been proposed for the treatment of a wide range of brain diseases, including malignant brain tumors. However, pharmacokinetic optimization for IA drug delivery to the brain remains a challenge. In this report, we apply and expand the well-established Dedrick model of IA drug delivery to the brain and test the effects of modifying drug and delivery parameters. These simulations show that altering the properties of candidate drugs and physiological variables can have profound effects on regional deposition after IA injections. We show that drug and physiological optimization aimed at rapid drug extraction and sustained retention is necessary to maximize regional deposition after of IA injections. PMID:27431401

  20. [Intra and extra-familiar sexual abuse].

    PubMed

    Taveira, Francisco; Frazão, Sofia; Dias, Ricardo; Matos, Eduarda; Magalhães, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    The sexual abuse of a child or young person constitutes a major social and public health problem and there is recent evidence that intra-familial (IF) sexual abuses are more serious in their consequences than extra-familial (EF). However, there are no studies on this phenomenon in Portugal. Thus, the aim of the present study is to contribute to a better characterization of these types of abuses and to identify possible differences between IF and EF cases. A retrospective study was preformed based on medico-legal reports related to victims below the age of 18, suspected of being sexually abused (n = 764), corresponding to 67% of the total of observed sexual crimes. Results revealed that 34.9% of the abuses are IF and they show statistically significant differences when compared to EF cases. These are due to the following factors found in IF situations: a) lower victim age; b) closeness between victim and abuser; c) abusers with a higher rate of previous sexual abuse; d) sexual practices of reduced physical intrusion; e) decreased physical violence but increased emotional violence; f) greater delay between last abuse and the forensic exam; g) reduced number of injuries or biological evidence (none in the great majority of the cases). Results point out the existence of several characteristics in IF abuse that have been identified as factors that influence the severity of the abuse consequences. Among them are: a) lower victim age; b) greater proximity to the abuser; c) increased amount of emotional violence. These factors account for the reduced visibility of this kind of cases and therefore explain their delayed disclosure and diagnosis. The association of this fact with the reduced intrusiveness of this sort of practice and the consequent decrease in number of injuries and other evidence leads to a marked reduction of the number of cases where evidence of the abuse can be found by physical examination alone. The above aspects underlie the need of using different

  1. A general model of intra-annual tree growth using dendrometer bands.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Sean M; Parker, Geoffrey G

    2015-01-01

    Tree growth is an important indicator of forest health, productivity, and demography. Knowing precisely how trees' grow within a year, instead of across years, can lead to a finer understanding of the mechanisms that drive these larger patterns. The growing use of dendrometer bands in research forests has only rarely been used to measure growth at resolutions finer than yearly, but intra-annual growth patterns can be observed from dendrometer bands using precision digital calipers and weekly measurements. Here we present a workflow to help forest ecologists fit growth models to intra-annual measurements using standard optimization functions provided by the R platform. We explain our protocol, test uncertainty in parameter estimates with respect to sample sizes, extend the optimization protocol to estimate robust lower and upper annual diameter bounds, and discuss potential challenges to optimal fits. We offer R code to implement this workflow. We found that starting values and initial optimization routines are critical to fitting the best functional forms. After using a bounded, broad search method, a more focused search algorithm obtained consistent results. To estimate starting and ending annual diameters, we combined the growth function with early and late estimates of beginning and ending growth. Once we fit the functions, we present extension algorithms that estimate periodic reductions in growth, total growth, and present a method of controlling for the shifting allocation to girth during the growth season. We demonstrate that with these extensions, an analysis of growth response to weather (e.g., the water available to a tree) can be derived in a way that is comparable across trees, years, and sites. Thus, this approach, when applied across broader data sets, offers a pathway to build inference about the effects of seasonal weather on growth, size- and light-dependent patterns of growth, species-specific patterns, and phenology. PMID:25691954

  2. A general model of intra-annual tree growth using dendrometer bands

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Sean M; Parker, Geoffrey G

    2015-01-01

    Tree growth is an important indicator of forest health, productivity, and demography. Knowing precisely how trees' grow within a year, instead of across years, can lead to a finer understanding of the mechanisms that drive these larger patterns. The growing use of dendrometer bands in research forests has only rarely been used to measure growth at resolutions finer than yearly, but intra-annual growth patterns can be observed from dendrometer bands using precision digital calipers and weekly measurements. Here we present a workflow to help forest ecologists fit growth models to intra-annual measurements using standard optimization functions provided by the R platform. We explain our protocol, test uncertainty in parameter estimates with respect to sample sizes, extend the optimization protocol to estimate robust lower and upper annual diameter bounds, and discuss potential challenges to optimal fits. We offer R code to implement this workflow. We found that starting values and initial optimization routines are critical to fitting the best functional forms. After using a bounded, broad search method, a more focused search algorithm obtained consistent results. To estimate starting and ending annual diameters, we combined the growth function with early and late estimates of beginning and ending growth. Once we fit the functions, we present extension algorithms that estimate periodic reductions in growth, total growth, and present a method of controlling for the shifting allocation to girth during the growth season. We demonstrate that with these extensions, an analysis of growth response to weather (e.g., the water available to a tree) can be derived in a way that is comparable across trees, years, and sites. Thus, this approach, when applied across broader data sets, offers a pathway to build inference about the effects of seasonal weather on growth, size- and light-dependent patterns of growth, species-specific patterns, and phenology. PMID:25691954

  3. Market maturity

    SciTech Connect

    Meade, B.; Bowden, S.; Ellis, M

    1995-02-01

    The power sector in the Philipines provides one of the most mature independent power markets in Asia. Over the past five years, National Power Corp. (NPC), the government owned utility, has actively invited the power sector into power generation. Distribution has remained in the hands of private and rural cooperative utilities. Private utilities have been operating as full requirements customers of NPC while the growth in capacity additions by independent power producers (IPPs) has outpaced NPC`s for the second year in a row. With a recovering economy and regulatory reform proceeding, the outlook for independent power remains strong through the end of the decade. The Philipine Congress is now reviewing draft legislation that will decentralize NPC and begin the process of privatization and market-based reforms throughout the country`s power sector.

  4. HOMER® Micropower Optimization Model

    SciTech Connect

    Lilienthal, P.

    2005-01-01

    NREL has developed the HOMER micropower optimization model. The model can analyze all of the available small power technologies individually and in hybrid configurations to identify least-cost solutions to energy requirements. This capability is valuable to a diverse set of energy professionals and applications. NREL has actively supported its growing user base and developed training programs around the model. These activities are helping to grow the global market for solar technologies.

  5. 78 FR 24282 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; the NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... contract side. See Securities Exchange Act Release No. 68025 (October 10, 2012), 77 FR 63398 (October 16... proposal creates a burden on intra-market competition because the Exchange is applying the same Routing... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; the NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and...

  6. 21 CFR 870.2855 - Implantable Intra-aneurysm Pressure Measurement System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Implantable Intra-aneurysm Pressure Measurement... § 870.2855 Implantable Intra-aneurysm Pressure Measurement System. (a) Identification. Implantable intra-aneurysm pressure measurement system is a device used to measure the intra-sac pressure in a...

  7. 21 CFR 870.2855 - Implantable Intra-aneurysm Pressure Measurement System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Implantable Intra-aneurysm Pressure Measurement... § 870.2855 Implantable Intra-aneurysm Pressure Measurement System. (a) Identification. Implantable intra-aneurysm pressure measurement system is a device used to measure the intra-sac pressure in a...

  8. 21 CFR 870.2855 - Implantable Intra-aneurysm Pressure Measurement System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Implantable Intra-aneurysm Pressure Measurement... § 870.2855 Implantable Intra-aneurysm Pressure Measurement System. (a) Identification. Implantable intra-aneurysm pressure measurement system is a device used to measure the intra-sac pressure in a...

  9. 21 CFR 870.2855 - Implantable Intra-aneurysm Pressure Measurement System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Implantable Intra-aneurysm Pressure Measurement... § 870.2855 Implantable Intra-aneurysm Pressure Measurement System. (a) Identification. Implantable intra-aneurysm pressure measurement system is a device used to measure the intra-sac pressure in a...

  10. 21 CFR 870.2855 - Implantable Intra-aneurysm Pressure Measurement System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Implantable Intra-aneurysm Pressure Measurement... § 870.2855 Implantable Intra-aneurysm Pressure Measurement System. (a) Identification. Implantable intra-aneurysm pressure measurement system is a device used to measure the intra-sac pressure in a...

  11. [Preparation and evaluation of intra-articular injectable sinomenine hydrochloride-loaded in situ liquid crystals].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-lin; Gui, Shuang-ying; Liang, Xin; Wang, Sheng-mei; Jiang, Xiao-jing

    2016-01-01

    Phytantriol (PT), ethanol (ET) and water were used to prepare in situ cubic liquid crystal (ISV2). The pseudo-ternary phase diagram of PT-ET-water was constructed and isotropic solution formulations were chosen for further optimization. The physicochemical properties of isotropic solution formulations were evaluated to optimize the composition of ISV2. In situ hexagonal liquid crystals (ISH2) were prepared based on the composition of ISV2 with the addition of vitamin E acetate (VitEA) and the amount of VitEA was optimized by in vitro release behavior. The phase structures of liquid crystalline gels formed by ISV2 and ISH2 in excess water were confirmed by crossed polarized light microscopy and small angle X-ray scattering, respectively. Rheological properties of ISV2 and ISH2 were studied by a DHR-2 rheometer. In vitro drug release studies were conducted by using a dialysis membrane diffusion method. Pharmacokinetics was investigated by determination of sinomenine hydrochloride (SMH) concentration in synovial membrane after intra-articular injection of SMH-loaded ISH2 in adjuvant-induced arthritis rats. The optimal ISV2 (PT/ET/water, 64 : 16 : 20, w/w/w) loaded with 6 mg x g(-1) of SMH showed a suitable pH, injectable and formed a cubic liquid crystalline gel in situ with minimum water absorption in the shortest time. The optimal ISV2 was able to sustain the drug release for 144 h. The optimal ISH2 system was prepared by addition of 5% VitEA into PT in the optimal ISV2 system. This ISH2 (PT/VitEA/ET/water, 60.8 : 3.2 : 16 : 20, w/w/w/w) was an injectable isotropic solution with suitable pH. The new ISH2 was able to sustain the drug release for more than 240 h. Local pharmacokinetics study indicated that the retention time and AUC(0-∞) of ISH2 group were increased significantly compared with that of SMH solution group and the AUC(0-∞) of ISH2 group was 6.01 times higher than that of SMH solution group. The developed ISH2 was suitable for intra

  12. Marketing Maps: Illustrating How Marketing Works

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gyure, James F.; Arnold, Susan G.

    2003-01-01

    Today's colleges and universities may tolerate the "idea" of marketing more easily, but marketers must continue to educate campus communities about marketing theories and practice. To promote a useful appreciation of how theories translate into initiatives, we propose incorporating "marketing maps"-user-friendly graphic representations of how…

  13. Intra-oral PTH Administration Promotes Tooth Extraction Socket Healing

    PubMed Central

    Kuroshima, S.; Kovacic, B.L.; Kozloff, K.M.; McCauley, L.K.; Yamashita, J.

    2013-01-01

    Intermittent parathyroid hormone (PTH) administration increases systemic and craniofacial bone mass. However, the effect of PTH therapy on healing of tooth extraction sites is unknown. The aims of this study were to determine the effect of PTH therapy on tooth extraction socket healing and to examine whether PTH intra-oral injection promotes healing. The mandibular first molars were extracted in rats, and subcutaneous PTH was administered intermittently for 7, 14, and 28 days. In a second study, maxillary second molars were extracted, and PTH was administered by either subcutaneous or intra-oral injection to determine the efficacy of intra-oral PTH administration. Healing was assessed by micro-computed tomography and histomorphometric analyses. PTH therapy accelerated the entire healing process and promoted both hard- and soft-tissue healing by increasing bone fill and connective tissue maturation. PTH therapy by intra-oral injection was as effective as subcutaneous injection in promoting tooth extraction socket healing. The findings suggest that PTH therapy promotes tooth extraction socket healing and that intra-oral injections can be used to administer PTH. PMID:23611925

  14. The flow and asset markets of a nonrenewable resource

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, T.A.

    1988-01-01

    A theoretical model of the flow and asset markets for a nonrenewable resource was constructed. The flow market is the market for the extracted resource. The asset market is represented by the market for reserves of the resource. The flow and asset markets are combined as a simultaneous system to represent the behavior of a nonrenewable resource market. A key feature of this approach is the specification of an explicit and endogenous asset market. Conventional models of nonrenewable resource markets are based on the optimal depletion of the resource over time. These optimal depletion models effectively specify an implicit asset market and assume that the resource market adjusts by changes in extraction. In contrast, the flow-asset specification recognizes a simultaneous adjustment process in the asset market and flow market. The flow-asset framework is modeled in the case of certainty and uncertainty. Comparative statics for both models are derived. Several extensions are developed from the flow-asset framework. First, the price dynamics and stability properties are evaluated from an excess demand price adjustment model. Second, exploration is added to the flow-asset model to allow for the discovery of new reserves. Third, empirical estimates are derived in an application of the flow-asset framework to the domestic oil and natural gas markets.

  15. Intra-articular Placement of an Intraosseous Catheter.

    PubMed

    Grabel, Zachary; DePasse, J Mason; Lareau, Craig R; Born, Christopher T; Daniels, Alan H

    2015-02-01

    Gaining vascular access is essential in the resuscitation of critically ill patients. Intraosseous (IO) placement is a fundamentally important alternative to intravenous (IV) access in conditions where IV access delays resuscitation or is not possible. This case report presents a previously unreported example of prehospital misplacement of an IO catheter into the intra-articular space of the knee joint. This report serves to inform civilian and military first responders, as well as emergency medicine physicians, of intra-articular IO line placement as a potential complication of IO vascular access. Infusion of large amounts of fluid into the joint space could damage the joint and be catastrophic to a patient who needs immediate IV fluids or medications. In addition, intra-articular IO placement could result in septic arthritis of the knee. PMID:25483729

  16. Locoregional intra-arterial therapies for unresectable intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hong, Kelvin; Geschwind, Jean-Francois H

    2010-04-01

    Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is a rare hepatic malignancy that for patients with unresectable disease is uniformly fatal. Only approximately 30% of patients are eligible for resection because of the advanced nature of the disease at the time of diagnosis. Systemic chemotherapy has been disappointing in regard to its efficacy, with most regimens resulting in a median survival of 6 to12 months. There has been great interest in other modalities of treatment, particularly intra-arterial therapies, which consist of a catheter-based group of treatments where therapeutic and/or embolic agents are intra-arterially injected to target the liver tumors. In this report, we attempt to employ an evidence-based approach to critically review and comprehend the current role and future potential of intra-arterial therapies for ICC. PMID:20494703

  17. The Topical Application of Rosuvastatin in Preventing Knee Intra-Articular Adhesion in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Haixiao; Germanov, Alexey V.; Goryaeva, Galina L.; Yachmenev, Alexander N.; Gordienko, Dmitriy I.; Kuzin, Victor V.; Skoroglyadov, Alexander V.

    2016-01-01

    Background Intra-articular adhesion is one of the common complications of post knee surgery and injury. The formation of joint adhesion can lead to serious dysfunction. Rosuvastatin (ROS) is a new 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor, with multiple biological effects. In our study, the object was to evaluate the effectiveness of ROS in the prevention of post-operative knee adhesion in rats. Material/Methods Femoral condyle exposing surgery was performed on 45 healthy Sprague Dawley rats. Gelatin sponges soaked with 20 mg/kg of ROS, 10 mg/kg of ROS, or saline were used to cover the surgical site. The post-operative knee joints were fixed in a flexed position with micro Kirschner wires for four weeks. ROS effectiveness for treating intra-articular adhesion was determined with visual score evaluation, hydroxyproline content, histological analyses, immunohistochemistry, and inflammatory and vascular endothelial growth factors expression. Results The animals’ recovery was stable after surgery. The hydroxyproline content, visual score, and inflammatory vascular growth factors expression levels suggested that, compared with the control group, the ROS treatment groups showed better outcomes. ROS prevented joint adhesion formation, collagen deposition, and vascularization at the surgical site, and also inhibited inflammatory activity post-operatively. Compared with the 10 mg/kg ROS group, the 20 mg/kg ROS group showed significantly better outcomes. Conclusions The local application of ROS reduced intra-articular adhesion formation, collagen deposition, and vascularization at the surgical site, and inhibited inflammatory activity post-operatively. These results suggested optimal concentration of ROS to be 20 mg/kg. PMID:27115197

  18. Intra-cranial Toxoplasmosis in an Immunocompetent Female.

    PubMed

    Hoti, Yaser Ud Din; Aziz, Amir; Ishaque, Khurram; Abbas, Sadia; Ud Din, Tariq Salah

    2016-06-01

    Intra-cranial toxoplasmosis is a rare entity occurring mostly in immunosuppressed individuals. It is extremely rare in an immune competent patient. Toxoplasmosis is the third leading cause of food borne illness. Depending upon the site, degree of inflammation and local damage, toxoplasmosis encephalitis and cranial abscess can cause long lasting neurologic sequel. With modern imaging techniques, toxoplasmosis antibody titers, slit lamp examination and brain biopsy, there is improvement in diagnosis along with reduction in the mortality rate. We present a case illustrating the radiological manifestations, complications, potential pitfalls in diagnosis and treatment of intra-cranial toxoplasmosis in immunocompetent patient. PMID:27376217

  19. Chemical enrichment history of the intra-cluster medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cora, S. A.; Borgani, S.

    We investigate the evolution of the chemical enrichment of the intra-cluster medium by applying a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation to N-Body/SPH non-radiative numerical simulations of clusters of galaxies (Cora 2006). The results of this hybrid model for a set of clusters of different masses contribute to the theoretical interpretation of recent observational X-ray data, which indicate a decrease of the iron content of the intra-cluster gas with redshift (Balestra et al. 2006).

  20. Physician’ entrepreneurship explained: a case study of intra-organizational dynamics in Dutch hospitals and specialty clinics

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Challenges brought about by developments such as continuing market reforms and budget reductions have strained the relation between managers and physicians in hospitals. By applying neo-institutional theory, we research how intra-organizational dynamics between physicians and managers induce physicians to become entrepreneurs by starting a specialty clinic. In addition, we determine the nature of this change by analyzing the intra-organizational dynamics in both hospitals and clinics. Methods For our research, we interviewed a total of fifteen physicians and eight managers in four hospitals and twelve physicians and seven managers in twelve specialty clinics. Results We found evidence that in becoming entrepreneurs, physicians are influenced by intra-organizational dynamics, including power dependence, interest dissatisfaction, and value commitments, between physicians and managers as well as among physicians’ groups. The precise motivation for starting a new clinic can vary depending on the medical or business logic in which the entrepreneurs are embedded, but also the presence of an entrepreneurial nature or nurture. Finally we found that the entrepreneurial process of starting a specialty clinic is a process of sedimented change or hybridized professionalism in which elements of the business logic are added to the existing logic of medical professionalism, leading to a hybrid logic. Conclusions These findings have implications for policy at both the national and hospital level. Shared ownership and aligned incentives may provide the additional cement in which the developing entrepreneurial values are ‘glued’ to the central medical logic. PMID:24885912

  1. Pricing of Electricity: Network Optimization and Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jeremy

    The constrained optimization problem of electricity pricing and its optimal solution lie at the core of any operating electricity market. Electricity prices at the nodal (bus) level provide more granular form of economic signals to the market participants, so as to help them make better economic decisions. This way, allocation of scarce resources can be done more efficiently. Since the electricity market operation is based on a particular transmission system, the underlying network plays an important role in the formation of final market prices. Using novel null space methods, we showed a more efficient way of pricing electricity, provided that we have a priori knowledge of binding transmission lines and/or voltage limits. This method does not require selection of a reference system bus, and thus is computationally more efficient. Observations of numerical results from the application of this method to IEEE test systems reveal some promise. The application of this method to larger real-world power system is more challenging. We also investigated the optimization of voltage stability-constrained market clearing prices. When these constraints are considered and incorporated into the current optimization problem, the optimal prices can be quite different from the case without voltage stability-constraints. Our understanding of interaction between electricity market operations and voltage stability is quite limited. More research work is needed to better understand about the complex interaction between voltage stability and electricity market.

  2. Fast coding unit selection method for high efficiency video coding intra prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Jian

    2013-07-01

    The high efficiency video coding (HEVC) video coding standard under development can achieve higher compression performance than previous standards, such as MPEG-4, H.263, and H.264/AVC. To improve coding performance, a quad-tree coding structure and a robust rate-distortion (RD) optimization technique is used to select an optimum coding mode. Since the RD costs of all possible coding modes are computed to decide an optimum mode, high computational complexity is induced in the encoder. A fast learning-based coding unit (CU) size selection method is presented for HEVC intra prediction. The proposed algorithm is based on theoretical analysis that shows the non-normalized histogram of oriented gradient (n-HOG) can be used to help select CU size. A codebook is constructed offline by clustering n-HOGs of training sequences for each CU size. The optimum size is determined by comparing the n-HOG of the current CU with the learned codebooks. Experimental results show that the CU size selection scheme speeds up intra coding significantly with negligible loss of peak signal-to-noise ratio.

  3. Visualization of hepatic arteries with 3D ultrasound during intra-arterial therapies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gérard, Maxime; Tang, An; Badoual, Anaïs.; Michaud, François; Bigot, Alexandre; Soulez, Gilles; Kadoury, Samuel

    2016-03-01

    Liver cancer represents the second most common cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. The prognosis is poor with an overall mortality of 95%. Moreover, most hepatic tumors are unresectable due to their advanced stage at discovery or poor underlying liver function. Tumor embolization by intra-arterial approaches is the current standard of care for advanced cases of hepatocellular carcinoma. These therapies rely on the fact that the blood supply of primary hepatic tumors is predominantly arterial. Feedback on blood flow velocities in the hepatic arteries is crucial to ensure maximal treatment efficacy on the targeted masses. Based on these velocities, the intra-arterial injection rate is modulated for optimal infusion of the chemotherapeutic drugs into the tumorous tissue. While Doppler ultrasound is a well-documented technique for the assessment of blood flow, 3D visualization of vascular anatomy with ultrasound remains challenging. In this paper we present an image-guidance pipeline that enables the localization of the hepatic arterial branches within a 3D ultrasound image of the liver. A diagnostic Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) is first processed to automatically segment the hepatic arteries. A non-rigid registration method is then applied on the portal phase of the MRA volume with a 3D ultrasound to enable the visualization of the 3D mesh of the hepatic arteries in the Doppler images. To evaluate the performance of the proposed workflow, we present initial results from porcine models and patient images.

  4. Greenhouse-gas-trading markets.

    PubMed

    Sandor, Richard; Walsh, Michael; Marques, Rafael

    2002-08-15

    This paper summarizes the extension of new market mechanisms for environmental services, explains of the importance of generating price information indicative of the cost of mitigating greenhouse gases (GHGs) and presents the rationale and objectives for pilot GHG-trading markets. It also describes the steps being taken to define and launch pilot carbon markets in North America and Europe and reviews the key issues related to incorporating carbon sequestration into an emissions-trading market. There is an emerging consensus to employ market mechanisms to help address the threat of human-induced climate changes. Carbon-trading markets are now in development around the world. A UK market is set to launch in 2002, and the European Commission has called for a 2005 launch of an European Union (EU)-wide market, and a voluntary carbon market is now in formation in North America. These markets represent an initial step in resolving a fundamental problem in defining and implementing appropriate policy actions to address climate change. Policymakers currently suffer from two major information gaps: the economic value of potential damages arising from climate changes are highly uncertain, and there is a lack of reliable information on the cost of mitigating GHGs. These twin gaps significantly reduce the quality of the climate policy debate. The Chicago Climate Exchange, for which the authors serve as lead designers, is intended to provide an organized carbon-trading market involving energy, industry and carbon sequestration in forests and farms. Trading among these diverse sectors will provide price discovery that will help clarify the cost of combating climate change when a wide range of mitigation options is employed. By closing the information gap on mitigation costs, society and policymakers will be far better prepared to identify and implement optimal policies for managing the risks associated with climate change. Establishment of practical experience in providing

  5. Dynamic Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laird, Philip

    1992-01-01

    We distinguish static and dynamic optimization of programs: whereas static optimization modifies a program before runtime and is based only on its syntactical structure, dynamic optimization is based on the statistical properties of the input source and examples of program execution. Explanation-based generalization is a commonly used dynamic optimization method, but its effectiveness as a speedup-learning method is limited, in part because it fails to separate the learning process from the program transformation process. This paper describes a dynamic optimization technique called a learn-optimize cycle that first uses a learning element to uncover predictable patterns in the program execution and then uses an optimization algorithm to map these patterns into beneficial transformations. The technique has been used successfully for dynamic optimization of pure Prolog.

  6. The Market Linkage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Victor E.

    The Market Linkage Project (ML) for Special Education and the Basic Skills Validation and Marketing Program are two federally sponsored marketing projects developed under contract by LINC Resources, Inc., a professional marketing organization, for the U.S. Department of Education. LINC developed the marketing programs to provide the option for the…

  7. Marketing the College Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoef, Ted; Howe, Nanci

    Theory underlying marketing in the public sector is presented in combination with specific examples of marketing strategies and techniques used in college unions and student activities programs across the country. The subject of marketing is discussed under six major subject headings: (1) why marketing? (2) analyzing marketing opportunities; (3)…

  8. Marketing Manual: Workplace Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fanshawe Coll., Strathroy (Ontario).

    This manual applies marketing concepts and methods, selling techniques and principles to the workplace literacy program for the purpose of assisting individuals involved in promoting and selling these programs. Part I provides a rationale for marketing and discusses the following: the role of the sponsor in marketing, market versus marketing,…

  9. Markets for compost

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    Table of Contents: Introduction; Characteristics and Benefits of Compost and Competing/Complementary Products; Compost Uses and Markets; Factors Pertinent to Developing Compost Markets; Compost Specifications; Compost Testing Requirements; Compost Distribution; Compost Policies; Economic and Noneconomic Barriers to Developing Compost Markets; Strategies to Mitigate/Overcome Barriers to Developing Compost Markets; and Examples of Existing Programs and Markets (as of 1989).

  10. Marketing II Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Cheryl

    This combination curriculum and workbook, which was originally developed for use in a training workshop, is intended to assist adult educators in learning to market their adult literacy programs. The first chapter reviews basic marketing concepts (the definition of marketing, 10 truths about marketing, marketing versus promotion, steps in…

  11. Introduction to Electronic Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilbeck, Lettie

    These materials for a five-unit course were developed to introduce secondary and postsecondary students to the use of electronic equipment in marketing. The units cover the following topics: electronic marketing as a valid marketing approach; telemarketing; radio electronic media marketing; television electronic media marketing; and cable TV…

  12. Modeling intra-crown and intra-canopy interactions in red maple: assessment of light transfer on carbon dioxide and water vapor exchange.

    PubMed

    Bauerle, William L; Bowden, Joseph D; McLeod, Michael F; Toler, Joe E

    2004-05-01

    Daily and seasonal net photosynthesis (Anet), transpiration (E), absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (Qa) and light-use efficiency (epsilonc) in a red maple container nursery were simulated with MAESTRA, a three-dimensional canopy model. Effects of canopy heterogeneity were simulated by imposing changes in crown spacing. The light transfer sub-model, a distribution model of incident, direct, diffuse and scattered radiation within MAESTRA, was validated against field measurements of light interception on an intra-crown scale. In the container nursery, we found that a fiber-optic-based method of integrating photosynthetically active radiation (Q) was more suitable for crown-layer light transfer measurements and adjustments than either orthogonal line or individual quantum sensor measurements. The model underestimated intercepted Q by 9.3, 18 and 11.1% for crown layers 1, 2 and 3, respectively; however, there were linear relationships between model estimates and observations made with each of the three measurement methods. We used the validated and parameterized light transfer model to assess intra-crown and intra-canopy light transfer on a layer, crown and canopy basis, and investigated effects of tree size ratio and tree spacing interactions on Anet, E, Qa and epsilonc in the container nursery. Heterogeneous crown and canopy photosynthesis were predicted to exceed values for a uniform canopy under space-limiting conditions. Tree size ratio had large effects on Anet, E, Qa and epsilonc when light to lower-canopy layers was limited by inadequate space between crowns. Increasing Qa at lower-crown layers had the largest impact on whole-crown and whole-canopy Anet, E, Qa and epsilonc. Increases in canopy productivity led to increased water use. Simulations of heterogeneous stands with adequate soil water indicated that light absorption is maximized under space-limiting conditions as a canopy crown moves toward heterogeneity. Nursery and plantation productivity

  13. On the search for in vitro in vivo correlations in the field of intra-articular drug delivery: administration of sodium diatrizoate to the horse.

    PubMed

    Frost, Anna Buus; Larsen, Frank; Ostergaard, Jesper; Larsen, Susan Weng; Lindegaard, Casper; Hansen, Helle Rüsz; Larsen, Claus

    2010-09-11

    Development of suitable in vitro release models for formulation development as well as quality control purposes has to be initiated in the early design phase of injectable depots. Optimally, construction of an in vitro release model may lead to the establishment of in vitro in vivo correlations. By using a model compound (sodium diatrizoate, DTZ), the purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of establishing in vitro in vivo relations between the DTZ disappearance profile obtained from the donor compartment of the rotating dialysis cell model and the joint disappearance profile following intra-articular administration. In vitro experiments were conducted by applying solutions of DTZ to the donor compartment. In the in vivo experiments, five horses were subjected to both intravenous and intra-articular administration of an aqueous solution of 3.9 mg DTZ/kg. A strong relation (R(2)=0.99) was obtained between the disappearance data from the donor compartment of the in vitro model and the disappearance data from the synovial fluid after intra-articular administration of DTZ. Furthermore, a relation (R(2)=0.91) between the appearance data obtained from the acceptor compartment and the deconvolved appearance serum data upon intra-articular administration of DTZ was obtained. The correlations obtained in this study hold promise that the rotating dialysis cell model has a role in the prediction of the intra-articular fate of drugs injected as solutions. PMID:20580670

  14. Intra-radicuar Disc Herniation mimicking a Nerve Root Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Pillai, Suresh Sivadasan

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Intra-radicular disc herniations are rare disorders with only few cases reported in literature. In most of these cases there is evidence of some part of the disc in adjacent area. We present a case of completely intra-radicular disc which was misdiagnosed as nerve root tumor as there was no evidence of disc prolapse at the time of diagnosis. Case Presentation: 51 year old male presented with history of severe back pain radiating to right lower limb since 11/2 month. MRI showed hypointense lesion completely inside the S1 root and a provisional diagnosis of nerve root tumor was done. At surgery, fluffy material was removed from the lesion which was histopathologically confirmed as intervertebral disc. Post operatively all symptoms of patient was relieved except dysesthesia in sole which lasted for a year post surgery. At 5 year follow up patient has no symptoms. Conclusion: A diagnosis of intra-radicular disc should be considered in differential of nerve root tumor. Surgical excision of intra-radicular disc gives good clinical and functional results.

  15. Rapid intra-adrenal feedback regulation of glucocorticoid synthesis.

    PubMed

    Walker, J J; Spiga, F; Gupta, R; Zhao, Z; Lightman, S L; Terry, J R

    2015-01-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is a vital neuroendocrine system that regulates the secretion of glucocorticoid hormones from the adrenal glands. This system is characterized by a dynamic ultradian hormonal oscillation, and in addition is highly responsive to stressful stimuli. We have recently shown that a primary mechanism generating this ultradian rhythm is a systems-level interaction where adrenocorticotrophin hormone (ACTH) released from the pituitary stimulates the secretion of adrenal glucocorticoids, which in turn feedback at the level of the pituitary to rapidly inhibit ACTH secretion. In this study, we combine experimental physiology and mathematical modelling to investigate intra-adrenal mechanisms regulating glucocorticoid synthesis. Our modelling results suggest that glucocorticoids can inhibit their own synthesis through a very rapid (within minutes), presumably non-genomic, intra-adrenal pathway. We present further evidence for the existence of a short time delay in this intra-adrenal inhibition, and also that at the initiation of each ACTH stimulus, this local feedback mechanism is rapidly antagonized, presumably via activation of the specific ACTH receptor (MC2R) signalling pathway. This mechanism of intra-adrenal inhibition enables the gland to rapidly release glucocorticoids while at the same time preventing uncontrolled release of glucocorticoids in response to large surges in ACTH associated with stress. PMID:25392395

  16. Optomechatronic System For Automated Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shulev, Assen; Tiankov, Tihomir; Ignatova, Detelina; Kostadinov, Kostadin; Roussev, Ilia; Trifonov, Dimitar; Penchev, Valentin

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents a complex optomechatronic system for In-Vitro Fertilization (IVF), offering almost complete automation of the Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) procedure. The compound parts and sub-systems, as well as some of the computer vision algorithms, are described below. System capabilities for ICSI have been demonstrated on infertile oocyte cells.

  17. Iron Deficiency Impairs Intra-Hepatic Lymphocyte Mediated Immune Response.

    PubMed

    Bonaccorsi-Riani, Eliano; Danger, Richard; Lozano, Juan José; Martinez-Picola, Marta; Kodela, Elisavet; Mas-Malavila, Roser; Bruguera, Miquel; Collins, Helen L; Hider, Robert C; Martinez-Llordella, Marc; Sanchez-Fueyo, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic expression of iron homeostasis genes and serum iron parameters predict the success of immunosuppression withdrawal following clinical liver transplantation, a phenomenon known as spontaneous operational tolerance. In experimental animal models, spontaneous liver allograft tolerance is established through a process that requires intra-hepatic lymphocyte activation and deletion. Our aim was to determine if changes in systemic iron status regulate intra-hepatic lymphocyte responses. We used a murine model of lymphocyte-mediated acute liver inflammation induced by Concanavalin A (ConA) injection employing mice fed with an iron-deficient (IrDef) or an iron-balanced diet (IrRepl). While the mild iron deficiency induced by the IrDef diet did not significantly modify the steady state immune cell repertoire and systemic cytokine levels, it significantly dampened inflammatory liver damage after ConA challenge. These findings were associated with a marked decrease in T cell and NKT cell activation following ConA injection in IrDef mice. The decreased liver injury observed in IrDef mice was independent from changes in the gut microflora, and was replicated employing an iron specific chelator that did not modify intra-hepatic hepcidin secretion. Furthermore, low-dose iron chelation markedly impaired the activation of isolated T cells in vitro. All together, these results suggest that small changes in iron homeostasis can have a major effect in the regulation of intra-hepatic lymphocyte mediated responses. PMID:26287688

  18. Intra-Word Inconsistency in Apraxic Hebrew-Speaking Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tubul-Lavy, Gila

    2012-01-01

    Intra-word inconsistency in a child is perceived as an indicator of speech impairment. Because the speech of typically developing children is highly variable, the extent and nature of the inconsistency must be defined when used as a diagnostic marker of speech impairment (McLeod, S., & Hewett, S. R. (2008). Variability in the production of words…

  19. Telemedicine in the control of intra-ocular pressure.

    PubMed

    Michelson, G; Striebel, W; Prihoda, W; Schmidt, V

    2000-01-01

    Glaucoma is one of the most common causes of blindness in the Western world and a major risk factor is increased intra-ocular pressure. We therefore used telemedicine in its control. Patients measured their intra-ocular pressure several times a day with a portable instrument and the values were then entered into a portable digital assistant. These data were transmitted by a modem to a central server. If the intra-ocular pressure was pathologically high, an email message was automatically sent to the ophthalmologist. The pressure curve, including a statistical analysis, was displayed in an easily readable chart format. Ten patients with glaucoma participated in a trial. Self-tonometry with telemedicine enabled continuous evaluation of the patient by the ophthalmologist. This approach offered the advantage of controlling the treatment remotely. Advantages for the patient were that the measurements were easily done at home under normal conditions, and the patient could control when the measurement and data transmission would be performed. Telemedicine is a cost-effective technique enabling the early diagnosis of pathologically increased intra-ocular pressure. PMID:10793996

  20. Testicular ascent as a mechanism for intra-abdominal torsion.

    PubMed

    Plitt, David C; Fotos, Joseph S; Hulse, Michael A; Neutze, Janet A

    2010-01-01

    Testicular ascent, while uncommon, can occur. A testicle that has ascended out of the scrotum can torse and may present as an acute inguinal mass or acute abdomen. Testicle ascent can occur even if previous intra-scrotal location has been documented. PMID:27307855

  1. Corrective Osteotomy for Intra-Articular Distal Humerus Malunion

    PubMed Central

    Kinaci, Ahmet; Buijze, Geert A.; Leeuwen, Diederik H.van; Jupiter, Jesse B.; Marti, Rene K.; Kloen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background: An intra-articular distal humerus malunion can be disabling. To improve function, reduce pain and/or prevent further secondary osteoarthritis an intra-articular corrective osteotomy can be considered. Herein we present the indications, practical guidelines for pre- operative planning and surgical technique. Subsequently, we provide long-term results in a small series. Methods: We included six consecutive patients operated for intra-articular distal humerus malunion. Mean follow-up was 88 months. At lastest follow up elbow function was assessed according to standardized questionnaires and classification systems. Results: All six patients healed their osteotomies. Three patients had a postoperative complication which were treated succesfully. Range of motion improved significantly and all patients were satisfied with the outcome. The elbow performance scores were good to excellent in all. Correlation analyses showed that age and level of osteoarthritis are very strong predictors for the long-term elbow function and quality of life. Conclusion: An intra-articular corrective osteotomy for a malunited distal humerus fracture is a worthwhile procedure. Based on our results it should particularly be considered in young patients with minimal osteoarthritis and moderate to severe functional disability and/or pain. PMID:27200396

  2. Market Transformation (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    Through the SunShot Initiative, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) works with manufacturers, communities, states, utilities, and other partners to enable the solar market by reducing non-hardware balance-of-system (BOS) costs, developing a skilled workforce, and eliminating market barriers to widespread adoption of solar technologies. The DOE SunShot Initiative is a collaborative national initiative to make solar energy technologies cost-competitive with other forms of energy by reducing the cost of solar energy systems by about 75% by the end of the decade. Reducing the total installed cost for utility-scale solar electricity to roughly 6 cents per kilowatt hour without subsidies will result in rapid, large-scale adoption of solar electricity across the United States. Reaching this goal will re-establish American technological leadership, improve the nation's energy security, and strengthen U.S. economic competitiveness in the global clean energy race. SunShot will work to bring down the full cost of solar - including the costs of solar cells and installation by focusing on four main pillars: (1) Technologies for solar cells and arrays that convert sunlight to energy; (2) Electronics that optimize the performance of the installation; (3) Improvements in the efficiency of solar manufacturing processes; and (4) Installation, design, and permitting for solar energy systems.

  3. Jagged Tiling for Intra-tile Parallelism and Fine-Grain Multithreading

    SciTech Connect

    Shrestha, Sunil; Manzano Franco, Joseph B.; Marquez, Andres; Feo, John T.; Gao, Guang R.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we have developed a novel methodology that takes into consideration multithreaded many-core designs to better utilize memory/processing resources and improve memory residence on tileable applications. It takes advantage of polyhedral analysis and transformation in the form of PLUTO, combined with a highly optimized finegrain tile runtime to exploit parallelism at all levels. The main contributions of this paper include the introduction of multi-hierarchical tiling techniques that increases intra tile parallelism; and a data-flow inspired runtime library that allows the expression of parallel tiles with an efficient synchronization registry. Our current implementation shows performance improvements on an Intel Xeon Phi board up to 32.25% against instances produced by state-of-the-art compiler frameworks for selected stencil applications.

  4. Marketing Data Warehouse

    SciTech Connect

    Underwood, C.V.

    1994-11-01

    In January 1993 the New Products and Services (NP&S) department of Tennessee Valley Authority`s (TVA) Marketing Organization embarked on a project to provide greater access and sharing of market data. This project is the Marketing Data Warehouse (MDW). The goal of the MDW is to provide for the integration and access of market relevant data collected by TVA internally or purchased from external sources. The MDW is a repository of secondary information, allowing marketing analysts to answer market questions in a matter of minutes rather hours or days. The application of the data warehouse approach allows marketing groups to take full advantage of new market data sources, market analysis software and marketing techniques. Marketers can perform impact analysis of market relevant legislation, business trends and technology breakthroughs much quicker with greater confinence in the results.

  5. Intra-specific competition (crowding) of giant sequoias (Sequoiadendron giganteum)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.

    1993-01-01

    Information on the size and location of 1916 giant sequoias (Sequoiadendron giganteum (Lindl.) Buchholz) in Muir Grove, Sequoia National Park, in the southern Sierra Nevada of California was used to assess intra-specific crowding. Study objectives were to: (1) determine which parameters associated with intra-specific competition (i.e. size and distance to nearest neighbor, crowding/root system area overlap, or number of neighbors) might be important in spatial pattern development, growth, and survivorship of established giant sequoias; (2) quantify the level of intra-specific crowding of different sized live sequoias based on a model of estimated overlapping root system areas (i.e. an index of relative crowding); (3) compare the level of intra-specific crowding of similarly sized live and dead giant sequoias (less than 30 cm diameter at breast height (dbh) at the time of inventory (1969). Mean distances to the nearest live giant sequoia neighbor were not significantly different (at α = 0.05) for live and dead sequoias in similar size classes. A zone of influence competition model (i.e. index of crowding) based on horizontal overlap of estimated root system areas was developed for 1753 live sequoias. The model, based only on the spatial arrangement of live sequoias, was then tested on dead sequoias of less than 30 cm dbh (n = 163 trees; also recorded in 1969). The dead sequoias had a significantly higher crowding index than 561 live trees of similar diameter. Results showed that dead sequoias of less than 16.6 cm dbh had a significantly greater mean number of live neighbors and mean crowding index than live sequoias of similar size. Intra-specific crowding may be an important mechanism in determining the spatial distribution of sequoias in old-growth forests.

  6. Electric power market agent design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Hyungseon

    The electric power industry in many countries has been restructured in the hope of a more economically efficient system. In the restructured system, traditional operating and planning tools based on true marginal cost do not perform well since information required is strictly confidential. For developing a new tool, it is necessary to understand offer behavior. The main objective of this study is to create a new tool for power system planning. For the purpose, this dissertation develops models for a market and market participants. A new model is developed in this work for explaining a supply-side offer curve, and several variables are introduced to characterize the curve. Demand is estimated using a neural network, and a numerical optimization process is used to determine the values of the variables that maximize the profit of the agent. The amount of data required for the optimization is chosen with the aid of nonlinear dynamics. To suggest an optimal demand-side bidding function, two optimization problems are constructed and solved for maximizing consumer satisfaction based on the properties of two different types of demands: price-based demand and must-be-served demand. Several different simulations are performed to test how an agent reacts in various situations. The offer behavior depends on locational benefit as well as the offer strategies of competitors.

  7. Optimization of inclusive fitness.

    PubMed

    Grafen, Alan

    2006-02-01

    The first fully explicit argument is given that broadly supports a widespread belief among whole-organism biologists that natural selection tends to lead to organisms acting as if maximizing their inclusive fitness. The use of optimization programs permits a clear statement of what this belief should be understood to mean, in contradistinction to the common mathematical presumption that it should be formalized as some kind of Lyapunov or even potential function. The argument reveals new details and uncovers latent assumptions. A very general genetic architecture is allowed, and there is arbitrary uncertainty. However, frequency dependence of fitnesses is not permitted. The logic of inclusive fitness immediately draws together various kinds of intra-genomic conflict, and the concept of 'p-family' is introduced. Inclusive fitness is thus incorporated into the formal Darwinism project, which aims to link the mathematics of motion (difference and differential equations) used to describe gene frequency trajectories with the mathematics of optimization used to describe purpose and design. Important questions remain to be answered in the fundamental theory of inclusive fitness. PMID:16046225

  8. Marketing is everything.

    PubMed

    McKenna, R

    1991-01-01

    Technology is creating customer choice, and choice is altering the marketplace. Gone are the days of the marketer as salesperson. Gone as well is marketing that tries to trick the customer into buying whatever the company makes. There is a new paradigm for marketing, a model that depends on the marketer's knowledge, experience, and ability to integrate the customer and the company. Six principles are at the heart of the new marketing. The first, "Marketing is everything and everything is marketing," suggests that marketing is like quality. It is not a function but an all-pervasive way of doing business. The second, "The goal of marketing is to own the market, not just to sell the product," is a remedy for companies that adopt a limiting "market-share mentality." When you own a market, you lead the market. The third principle says that "marketing evolves as technology evolves." Programmable technology means that companies can promise customers "any thing, any way, any time." Now marketing is evolving to deliver on that promise. The fourth principle, "Marketing moves from monologue to dialogue," argues that advertising is obsolete. Talking at customers is no longer useful. The new marketing requires a feedback loop--a dialogue between company and customer. The fifth principle says that "marketing a product is marketing a service is marketing a product." The line between the categories is fast eroding: the best manufacturing companies provide great service, the best service companies think of themselves as offering high-quality products. The sixth principle, "Technology markets technology," points out the inevitable marriage of marketing and technology and predicts the emergence of marketing workstations, a marketing counterpart to engineers' CAD/CAM systems. PMID:10109473

  9. Market review - Market values summary/July market review/current market data

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This article is the July 1995 uranium market review. Data for current uranium market is presented, and a summary of recent transactions is also given. During this reporting period, there was one concentrate deal, two transactions in the long-term natural uranium market and conversion market, and three spot market transactions in the enrichment market. Active uranium supply fell, as did demand, and prices in all sectors were relatively stable.

  10. Marketing Online Services: Product, Market and Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trudell, Libby

    1991-01-01

    Describes characteristics of the online marketplace. Topics discussed include technology barriers; data ownership; markets for online services, including libraries and end users; marketing and promotion tactics, including exhibits and conferences, advertising, direct mail, and user groups; international marketing and service; strategic marketing…

  11. Natural gas marketing II

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This book covers all aspects of gas marketing, from the basic regulatory structure to the latest developments in negotiating agreements and locating markets. Topics include: Federal regulation of the gas industry; Fundamentals of gas marketing contracts; FERC actions encouraging competitive markets; Marketing conditions from the pipelines' perspective; State non-utility regulation of natural gas production, transportation, and marketing; Natural gas wellhead agreements and tariffs; Natural gas processing agreements; Effective management of producer's natural gas contracts; Producer-pipeline litigation; Natural gas purchasing from the perspective of industrial gas users; Gas marketing by co-owners: problems of disproportionate sales, gas balancing, and accounting to royalty owners; Alternatives and new directions in marketing.

  12. Mining Marketing Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    MarketMiner(R) Products, a line of automated marketing analysis tools manufactured by MarketMiner, Inc., can benefit organizations that perform significant amounts of direct marketing. MarketMiner received a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract from NASA's Johnson Space Center to develop the software as a data modeling tool for space mission applications. The technology was then built into the company current products to provide decision support for business and marketing applications. With the tool, users gain valuable information about customers and prospects from existing data in order to increase sales and profitability. MarketMiner(R) is a registered trademark of MarketMiner, Inc.

  13. How to Optimize Your Web Site

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dysart, Joe

    2008-01-01

    Given Google's growing market share--69% of all searches by the close of 2007--it's absolutely critical for any school on the Web to ensure its site is Google-friendly. A Google-optimized site ensures that students and parents can quickly find one's district on the Web even if they don't know the address. Plus, good search optimization simply…

  14. Multiscale Detrended Cross-Correlation Analysis of STOCK Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Yi; Shang, Pengjian

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we employ the detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA) to investigate the cross-correlations between different stock markets. We report the results of cross-correlated behaviors in US, Chinese and European stock markets in period 1997-2012 by using DCCA method. The DCCA shows the cross-correlated behaviors of intra-regional and inter-regional stock markets in the short and long term which display the similarities and differences of cross-correlated behaviors simply and roughly and the persistence of cross-correlated behaviors of fluctuations. Then, because of the limitation and inapplicability of DCCA method, we propose multiscale detrended cross-correlation analysis (MSDCCA) method to avoid "a priori" selecting the ranges of scales over which two coefficients of the classical DCCA method are identified, and employ MSDCCA to reanalyze these cross-correlations to exhibit some important details such as the existence and position of minimum, maximum and bimodal distribution which are lost if the scale structure is described by two coefficients only and essential differences and similarities in the scale structures of cross-correlation of intra-regional and inter-regional markets. More statistical characteristics of cross-correlation obtained by MSDCCA method help us to understand how two different stock markets influence each other and to analyze the influence from thus two inter-regional markets on the cross-correlation in detail, thus we get a richer and more detailed knowledge of the complex evolutions of dynamics of the cross-correlations between stock markets. The application of MSDCCA is important to promote our understanding of the internal mechanisms and structures of financial markets and helps to forecast the stock indices based on our current results demonstrated the cross-correlations between stock indices. We also discuss the MSDCCA methods of secant rolling window with different sizes and, lastly, provide some relevant implications and

  15. Experimental demonstration of time-aware software defined networking for OpenFlow-based intra-datacenter optical interconnection networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hui; Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Yongli; Ji, Yuefeng; Han, Jianrui; Lin, Yi; Qiu, Shaofeng; Lee, Young

    2014-06-01

    Nowadays, most service providers offer their services and support their applications through federated sets of data centers which need to be interconnected using high-capacity optical networks in intra-datacenter networks. Many datacenter applications in the environment require lower delay and higher availability with the end-to-end guaranteed quality of service. In this paper, we propose a novel time-aware software defined networking (TaSDN) architecture for OpenFlow-based intra-datacenter optical interconnection networks. Based on the proposed architecture, a time-aware service scheduling (TaSS) strategy is introduced to allocate the network and datacenter resources optimally, which considers the datacenter service scheduling with flexible service time and service bandwidth according to the various time sensitivity requirements. The TaSDN can arrange and accommodate the applications with required QoS considering the time factor, and enhance the data center responsiveness to quickly provide for intra-datacenter service demands. The overall feasibility of the proposed architecture is experimentally verified on our testbed with real OpenFlow-enabled tunable optical modules. The performance of TaSS strategy under heavy traffic load scenario is also evaluated based on TaSDN architecture in terms of blocking probability and resource occupation rate.

  16. Market Orientation in Universities: A Comparative Study of Two National Higher Education Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemsley-Brown, Jane; Oplatka, Izhar

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The paper's purpose is to test: whether there are significant differences between England and Israel, in terms of perceptions of market orientation (MO) in higher education (HE); which MO dimensions (student, competition, intra-functional) indicate more positive attitudes and whether the differences are significant; and the reliability of…

  17. Intra-operative 3D guidance and edema detection in prostate brachytherapy using a non-isocentric C-arm

    PubMed Central

    Jain, A.; Deguet, A.; Iordachita, I.; Chintalapani, G.; Vikal, S.; Blevins, J.; Le, Y.; Armour, E.; Burdette, C.; Song, D.; Fichtinger, G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Brachytherapy (radioactive seed insertion) has emerged as one of the most effective treatment options for patients with prostate cancer, with the added benefit of a convenient outpatient procedure. The main limitation in contemporary brachytherapy is faulty seed placement, predominantly due to the presence of intra-operative edema (tissue expansion). Though currently not available, the capability to intra-operatively monitor the seed distribution, can make a significant improvement in cancer control. We present such a system here. Methods Intra-operative measurement of edema in prostate brachytherapy requires localization of inserted radioactive seeds relative to the prostate. Seeds were reconstructed using a typical non-isocentric C-arm, and exported to a commercial brachytherapy treatment planning system. Technical obstacles for 3D reconstruction on a non-isocentric C-arm include pose-dependent C-arm calibration; distortion correction; pose estimation of C-arm images; seed reconstruction; and C-arm to TRUS registration. Results In precision-machined hard phantoms with 40–100 seeds and soft tissue phantoms with 45–87 seeds, we correctly reconstructed the seed implant shape with an average 3D precision of 0.35 mm and 0.24 mm, respectively. In a DoD Phase-1 clinical trial on six patients with 48–82 planned seeds, we achieved intra-operative monitoring of seed distribution and dosimetry, correcting for dose inhomogeneities by inserting an average of over four additional seeds in the six enrolled patients (minimum 1; maximum 9). Additionally, in each patient, the system automatically detected intra-operative seed migration induced due to edema (mean 3.84 mm, STD 2.13 mm, Max 16.19 mm). Conclusions The proposed system is the first of a kind that makes intra-operative detection of edema (and subsequent re-optimization) possible on any typical non-isocentric C-arm, at negligible additional cost to the existing clinical installation. It achieves a

  18. Optimal hub location in pipeline networks

    SciTech Connect

    Dott, D.R.; Wirasinghe, S.C.; Chakma, A.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses optimization strategies and techniques for the location of natural gas marketing hubs in the North American gas pipeline network. A hub is a facility at which inbound and outbound network links meet and freight is redirected towards their destinations. Common examples of hubs used in the gas pipeline industry include gas plants, interconnects and market centers. Characteristics of the gas pipeline industry which are relevant to the optimization of transportation costs using hubs are presented. Allocation techniques for solving location-allocation problems are discussed. An outline of the research in process by the authors in the field of optimal gas hub location concludes the paper.

  19. What is the optimum social marketing mix to market energy conservation behaviour: an empirical study.

    PubMed

    Sheau-Ting, Low; Mohammed, Abdul Hakim; Weng-Wai, Choong

    2013-12-15

    This study attempts to identify the optimum social marketing mix for marketing energy conservation behaviour to students in Malaysian universities. A total of 2000 students from 5 major Malaysian universities were invited to provide their preferred social marketing mix. A choice-based conjoint analysis identified a mix of five social marketing attributes to promote energy conservation behaviour; the mix is comprised of the attributes of Product, Price, Place, Promotion, and Post-purchase Maintenance. Each attribute of the mix is associated with a list of strategies. The Product and Post-purchase Maintenance attributes were identified by students as the highest priority attributes in the social marketing mix for energy conservation behaviour marketing, with shares of 27.12% and 27.02%, respectively. The least preferred attribute in the mix is Promotion, with a share of 11.59%. This study proposes an optimal social marketing mix to university management when making decisions about marketing energy conservation behaviour to students, who are the primary energy consumers in the campus. Additionally, this study will assist university management to efficiently allocate scarce resources in fulfilling its social responsibility and to overcome marketing shortcomings by selecting the right marketing mix. PMID:24178312

  20. [Excrement of the meconium and the intra-partum cardiotocogram].

    PubMed

    Santeler, P; Hochuli, E

    1976-01-01

    Of 2233 parturients, 170 cases with evidence of meconium during delivery were examined. We tried to establish the correlation between the appearance of meconium and the occurance of contraction induced FHR-decelerations in continuous intra partum monitoring. In addition we purposed to determine, whether the appearing of meconium during labor can be used as a clinical prognosite sign for fetal outcome. Our data support the assumption that the passage of meconium during any stage of labor only represents a sign of potential fetal distress showing the intra partum records pathology FHF-patterns. The appearance of meconium alone -- diagnosed at the time of the entrance of parturients or in an advanced stage of labor -- demands supplemented diagnostic methods for a better interpreting of an actual or compensated fetal distress. PMID:961190

  1. Intra-individual Change in Personality Stability and Age

    PubMed Central

    Terracciano, Antonio; McCrae, Robert R.; Costa, Paul T.

    2009-01-01

    The stability of individual differences in personality traits is typically examined at the group level with test-retest correlations across two assessments. For 684 subjects (age range 17–76) we computed individual coefficients from three sequential assessments to evaluate intra-individual (i.e., within-person) change in stability over time. For both trait and profile (ipsative) stability, results indicate that intra-individual stability increases up to age 30 and then plateaus. Neither demographic variables (sex, ethnicity, education, and secular trends), nor the standing on the five major dimensions of personality, were predictors of change in trait stability. Contrary to results from studies of adolescents, personality “maturity” was unrelated to personality stability in adulthood. These findings support the notion that personality stability plateaus early in adulthood. PMID:20305728

  2. Factors affecting intra-oral pH - a review.

    PubMed

    Loke, C; Lee, J; Sander, S; Mei, L; Farella, M

    2016-10-01

    One of the greatest challenges to modern dentistry is the progressive destruction of tooth material due to chemical erosion. Dental erosion is the loss of dental hard tissue, without the action of bacteria, in which demineralisation of enamel and dentine results due to a decrease in intra-oral pH. The aim of this review was to appraise the scientific literature on the factors that can affect intra-oral pH. The review will examine (i) the protective role of human saliva, in terms of its mineral composition, flow rates and buffering systems and (ii) sources of in-mouth acids such as extrinsic acids, which are derived from the diet and environment, as well as intrinsic acids, which are related to disorders of the gastro-oesophageal tract. This review may assist clinicians to identify the risk factors for tooth wear and to recommend adequate preventive measures to patients. PMID:27573678

  3. An Imaging Review of Intra-ocular Calcifications.

    PubMed

    Kachewar, Sushil G; Kulkarni, Devidas S

    2014-01-01

    Intra-ocular calcifications can occur due to a variety of reasons. In cataract, the lovely lens gets calcified and the bright beautiful world becomes dark and dreadful. Cataract comes in various forms like; congenital, traumatic and senile. Asteroid Hyalosis (AH) occurs because of the accumulation of calcium soaps in vitreous of the eyes. Although it is asymptomatic and unilateral, it is seen more often in diabetic patients. Tumours of eye like retinoblastoma and optic nerve meningioma too are known to show calcifications. This review has focussed on imaging appearances of intra-ocular calcifications, a small process in a small organ that nevertheless has a wide impact on the entire organs. PMID:24596775

  4. A New Wireless Biosensor for Intra-Vaginal Temperature Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Caldeira, João M. L. P.; Rodrigues, Joel J. P. C.; Garcia, João F. R.; de la Torre, Isabel

    2010-01-01

    Wireless Body Sensors for medical purposes offer valuable contributions to improve patients’ healthcare, including diagnosis and/or therapeutics monitoring. Body temperature is a crucial parameter in healthcare diagnosis. In gynecology and obstetrics it is measured at the skin’s surface, which is very influenced by the environment. This paper proposes a new intra-body sensor for long-term intra-vaginal temperature collection. The embedded IEEE 802.15.4 communication module allows the integration of this sensor in a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) for remote data access and monitoring. We present the sensor architecture, the construction of the corresponding testbed, and its performance evaluation. This sensor may be used in different medical applications, including preterm labor prevention and fertility and ovulation period detection. The features of the constructed testbed were validated in laboratory tests verifying its accuracy and performance. PMID:22163471

  5. Balancing Authority Cooperation Concepts - Intra-Hour Scheduling

    SciTech Connect

    Hunsaker, Matthew; Samaan, Nader; Milligan, Michael; Guo, Tao; Liu, Guangjuan; Toolson, Jacob

    2013-03-29

    The overall objective of this study was to understand, on an Interconnection-wide basis, the effects intra-hour scheduling compared to hourly scheduling. Moreover, the study sought to understand how the benefits of intra-hour scheduling would change by altering the input assumptions in different scenarios. This report describes results of three separate scenarios with differing key assumptions and comparing the production costs between hourly scheduling and 10-minute scheduling performance. The different scenarios were chosen to provide insight into how the estimated benefits might change by altering input assumptions. Several key assumptions were different in the three scenarios, however most assumptions were similar and/or unchanged among the scenarios.

  6. Intra-abdominal esophageal duplication cyst in an adult.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Wan; Sohn, Tai Il; Shim, Hyo Sup; Kim, Choong Bai

    2005-12-31

    Esophageal duplication cysts are congenital anomalies of the foregut that are rarely found in the abdomen. An accurate preoperative diagnosis is not always possible, so the definitive diagnosis can be made by histologic examination of the surgical specimen. We experienced a case of Intra-abdominal esophageal duplication cyst in a 52-year-old female, who initially presented with an esophageal submucosal tumor on upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. She did not have any gastrointestinal symptoms. Barium esophagography, chest computed tomography scan and endoscopic ultrasonography demonstrated the cystic lesion in the intra-abdominal esophagus. Transhiatal enucleation of the lesion was performed successfully via the abdominal approach with no postoperative complications. Histologic study showed that the cyst wall contained a two-layered muscle coat and the surface of the lumen was lined by pseudo-ciliated columnar epithelium. The patient has been doing well without any complaints for 3 months of follow-up period. PMID:16385665

  7. 21 CFR 870.3535 - Intra-aortic balloon and control system

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Intra-aortic balloon and control system 870.3535... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3535 Intra-aortic balloon and control system (a) Identification. A intra-aortic balloon and control system is a device...

  8. 21 CFR 870.3535 - Intra-aortic balloon and control system

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intra-aortic balloon and control system 870.3535... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3535 Intra-aortic balloon and control system (a) Identification. A intra-aortic balloon and control system is a device...

  9. 21 CFR 870.3535 - Intra-aortic balloon and control system

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Intra-aortic balloon and control system 870.3535... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3535 Intra-aortic balloon and control system (a) Identification. A intra-aortic balloon and control system is a device...

  10. 21 CFR 870.3535 - Intra-aortic balloon and control system

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Intra-aortic balloon and control system 870.3535... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3535 Intra-aortic balloon and control system (a) Identification. A intra-aortic balloon and control system is a device...

  11. Cooperative Market Research Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carels, Peter; McCullough, Lynette

    A pilot project was developed in which the Advertising and Market Research Center of the Vienna School of Economics and Business in Austria and the German Department as well as the Marketing Department of Miami University in Ohio are working together to collect market research data and formulate a market entry strategy for Roemerquelle, an…

  12. Market review - Market values summary/August market review/current market data

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This article is the August 1995 uranium market review. During this reporting period, there were three transactions in the long-term concentrates sector, no transactions in the UF6 market, and limited activity in the spot conversion market and the enrichment services market. Active supply rose, as did active demand. Prices were stable to slightly increasing.

  13. Veterinary practice marketeer.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Justin

    2015-01-24

    Justin Phillips is marketing manager at White Cross Vets and the Veterinary Marketing Association's (VMA's) Young Veterinary Marketeer of the Year. Here, he describes what he does and why he believes other practices should embrace marketing to improve their quality and client care. PMID:25614552

  14. Marketing Human Resource Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Eric, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    Describes three human resource development activities: training, education, and development. Explains marketing from the practitioners's viewpoint in terms of customer orientation; external and internal marketing; and market analysis, research, strategy, and mix. Shows how to design, develop, and implement strategic marketing plans and identify…

  15. Strategic Marketing for Agribusiness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Mary A., Ed.

    1993-01-01

    The steps for strategic market planning are discussed including: (1) assessing the situation with market conditions, customers, competitors, and your firm; and (2) crafting a strategy to prioritize target markets, develop a core strategy, and create a marketing mix. Examples of agribusiness successes are presented. The booklet concludes with a…

  16. Marketing in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalili, Farid

    The use of marketing activities by educational institutions and the transfer of marketing activities from business to higher education are considered. Market analysis helps colleges and universities determine what programs, scheduling, or services are strong and to which student market the institution should appeal. It is suggested that the…

  17. Hospital marketing revisited.

    PubMed

    Costello, M M

    1987-05-01

    With more hospitals embracing the marketing function in their organizational management over the past decade, hospital marketing can no longer be considered a fad. However, a review of hospital marketing efforts as reported in the professional literature indicates that hospitals must pay greater attention to the marketing mix elements of service, price and distribution channels as their programs mature. PMID:10283019

  18. Enhanced index tracking modelling in portfolio optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, W. S.; Hj. Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ismail, Hamizun bin

    2013-09-01

    Enhanced index tracking is a popular form of passive fund management in stock market. It is a dual-objective optimization problem, a trade-off between maximizing the mean return and minimizing the risk. Enhanced index tracking aims to generate excess return over the return achieved by the index without purchasing all of the stocks that make up the index by establishing an optimal portfolio. The objective of this study is to determine the optimal portfolio composition and performance by using weighted model in enhanced index tracking. Weighted model focuses on the trade-off between the excess return and the risk. The results of this study show that the optimal portfolio for the weighted model is able to outperform the Malaysia market index which is Kuala Lumpur Composite Index because of higher mean return and lower risk without purchasing all the stocks in the market index.

  19. Intra-tumor Genetic Heterogeneity in Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hardiman, Karin M.; Ulintz, Peter J.; Kuick, Rork; Hovelson, Daniel H.; Gates, Christopher M.; Bhasi, Ashwini; Grant, Ana Rodrigues; Liu, Jianhua; Cani, Andi K.; Greenson, Joel; Tomlins, Scott; Fearon, Eric R.

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer arises in part from the cumulative effects of multiple gene lesions. Recent studies in selected cancer types have revealed significant intra-tumor genetic heterogeneity and highlighted its potential role in disease progression and resistance to therapy. We hypothesized the existence of significant intra-tumor genetic heterogeneity in rectal cancers involving variations in localized somatic mutations and copy number abnormalities. Two or three spatially disparate regions from each of six rectal tumors were dissected and subjected to next-generation whole exome DNA sequencing, Oncoscan SNP arrays, and targeted confirmatory sequencing and analysis. The resulting data were integrated to define subclones using SciClone. Mutant-allele tumor heterogeneity (MATH) scores, mutant allele frequency correlation, and mutation percent concordance were calculated, and copy number analysis including measurement of correlation between samples was performed. Somatic mutations profiles in individual cancers were similar to prior studies, with some variants found in previously reported significantly mutated genes and many patient-specific mutations in each tumor. Significant intra-tumor heterogeneity was identified in the spatially disparate regions of individual cancers. All tumors had some heterogeneity but the degree of heterogeneity was quite variable in the samples studied. We found that 67–97% of exonic somatic mutations were shared among all regions of an individual’s tumor. The SciClone computational method identified 2 to 8 shared and unshared subclones in the spatially disparate areas in each tumor. MATH scores ranged from 7 to 41. Allele frequency correlation scores ranged from R2 = 0.69 to 0.96. Measurements of correlation between samples for copy number changes varied from R2 = 0.74 to 0.93. All tumors had some heterogeneity, but the degree was highly variable in the samples studied. The occurrence of significant intra-tumor heterogeneity may allow

  20. Intra-abdominal sepsis: the role of surgery.

    PubMed

    Gallinaro, R N; Polk, H C

    1991-09-01

    The role of the surgeon in intra-abdominal sepsis is multifactorial. A comprehensive understanding of the incidence and pathophysiology of diseases which cause intra-abdominal sepsis is the key to the diagnosis and treatment of such ailments. In simplest terms, the aetiology has two basic mechanisms: (a) violation of the 'bug-body barrier' and (b) obstruction to the flow of a body fluid with subsequent bacterial overgrowth. Either of these mechanisms may affect any of the organs within the abdomen, leading to sepsis. The peritoneal cavity is a dynamic structure which responds to insults in certain predictable manners which notify the alert physician that danger is present. Recognition of these signs through history and physical examination are the most important aspects of diagnosis. Confirmation of suspicions can be obtained with radiological modalities, but they are not a substitute for clinical judgement. Treatment of intra-abdominal sepsis should always begin with resuscitation and systemic antibiotics. Alleviation of the septic source is mandatory, and this may be achieved either operatively or non-operatively (i.e. percutaneous or endoscopic procedures). When the patient does not improve after the initial procedure, then a missed focus of infection must be investigated. In some cases, a planned or staged second operation may be needed to further debride necrotic tissue. Antibiotics should be of adequate spectrum and bioavailability to kill the species of bacteria most likely to cause the infection. This regimen may be altered when culture and sensitivity reports are completed. Finally, patients whose immune system function has been altered by disease or treatment must be assumed very ill until proven otherwise. These are general guidelines in the management of patients with intra-abdominal sepsis. Individual cases may necessitate slight modifications, but all require a high level of vigilance and expertise in order to combat a very lethal disease. PMID

  1. INTRA-BEAM SCATTERING SCALING FOR VERY LARGE HADRON COLLIDERS.

    SciTech Connect

    WEI,J.; PARZEN,G.

    2001-06-18

    For Very Large Hadron Colliders (VLHC), flat hadron beams [2] with their vertical emittance much smaller than their horizontal emittance are proposed to maximize the design luminosity. Emittance growth caused by intra-beam scattering (IBS) is a concern on the realization of such flat-beam conditions. Based on existing IBS formalism on beams of Gaussian distribution, we analytically derive [6] the IBS growth rate and determine the IBS limit on the aspect ratio for a flat beam.

  2. Implantable image sensor based on intra-brain image transmission.

    PubMed

    Sasagawa, Kiyotaka; Ishii, Yoshiaki; Yokota, Shogo; Matsuda, Takashi; Davis, Peter; Zhang, Bing; Li, Keren; Noda, Toshihiko; Tokuda, Takashi; Ohta, Jun

    2013-01-01

    We developed and fabricated a micro-imager based on wireless intra-brain communication using conductive property of living tissues. An pixel array, analog-to-digital converter and transmitter are integrated on a single chip. The dimensions of the chip are 1 mm × 1mm × 0.15 mm. We demonstrate wireless image transmission through phosphate buffer saline as a brain phantom. PMID:24110074

  3. Laser speckle imaging of intra organ drug distribution

    PubMed Central

    Postnov, Dmitry D; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik; Sosnovtseva, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Laminar flow in arteries causes streaming and uneven distribution of infused agents within the organ. This may lead to misinterpretation of experimental results and affect treatment outcomes. We monitor dynamical changes of superficial cortical blood flow in the rat kidney following different routes of administration of the vasoconstrictor angiotensin II. Our analysis reveals the appearance of large scale oscillations of the blood flow caused by inhomogeneous intra organ drug distribution. PMID:26713217

  4. Marketing the pathology practice.

    PubMed

    Berkowitz, E N

    1995-07-01

    Effective marketing of the pathology practice is essential in the face of an increasingly competitive market. Successful marketing begins with a market-driven planning process. As opposed to the traditional planning process used in health care organizations, a market-driven approach is externally driven. Implementing a market-driven plan also requires recognition of the definition of the service. Each market to which pathologists direct their service defines the service differently. Recognition of these different service definitions and creation of a product to meet these needs could lead to competitive advantages in the marketplace. PMID:7625911

  5. Improved intra-species collision models for PIC simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, M.E.; Lemons, D.S.; Winske, D.

    1998-07-01

    In recent years, the authors have investigated methods to improve the effectiveness of modeling collisional processes in particle-in-cell codes. Through the use of generalized collision models, plasma dynamics can be followed both in the regime of nearly collisionless plasmas as well as in the hydrodynamic limit of collisional plasmas. They have developed a collision-field method to treat both the case of collisions between unlike plasma species (inter-species collisions), through the use of a deterministic, grid-based force, and between particles of the same species (intra-species collisions), through the use of a Langevin equation. While the approach used for inter-species collisions is noise-free in that the collision experienced by a particle does not require any random numbers, such random numbers are used for intra-species collisions. This gives rise to a stochastic cooling effect inherent in the Langevin approach. In this paper, the authors concentrate on intra-species collisions and describe how the accuracy of the model can be improved by appropriate corrections to velocity and spatial moments.

  6. Moderate intra-group bias maximizes cooperation on interdependent populations.

    PubMed

    Tang, Changbing; Wang, Zhen; Li, Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary game theory on spatial structures has received increasing attention during the past decades. However, the majority of these achievements focuses on single and static population structures, which is not fully consistent with the fact that real structures are composed of many interactive groups. These groups are interdependent on each other and present dynamical features, in which individuals mimic the strategy of neighbors and switch their partnerships continually. It is however unclear how the dynamical and interdependent interactions among groups affect the evolution of collective behaviors. In this work, we employ the prisoner's dilemma game to investigate how the dynamics of structure influences cooperation on interdependent populations, where populations are represented by group structures. It is found that the more robust the links between cooperators (or the more fragile the links between cooperators and defectors), the more prevalent of cooperation. Furthermore, theoretical analysis shows that the intra-group bias can favor cooperation, which is only possible when individuals are likely to attach neighbors within the same group. Yet, interestingly, cooperation can be even inhibited for large intra-group bias, allowing the moderate intra-group bias maximizes the cooperation level. PMID:24533084

  7. Moderate Intra-Group Bias Maximizes Cooperation on Interdependent Populations

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Changbing; Wang, Zhen; Li, Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary game theory on spatial structures has received increasing attention during the past decades. However, the majority of these achievements focuses on single and static population structures, which is not fully consistent with the fact that real structures are composed of many interactive groups. These groups are interdependent on each other and present dynamical features, in which individuals mimic the strategy of neighbors and switch their partnerships continually. It is however unclear how the dynamical and interdependent interactions among groups affect the evolution of collective behaviors. In this work, we employ the prisoner's dilemma game to investigate how the dynamics of structure influences cooperation on interdependent populations, where populations are represented by group structures. It is found that the more robust the links between cooperators (or the more fragile the links between cooperators and defectors), the more prevalent of cooperation. Furthermore, theoretical analysis shows that the intra-group bias can favor cooperation, which is only possible when individuals are likely to attach neighbors within the same group. Yet, interestingly, cooperation can be even inhibited for large intra-group bias, allowing the moderate intra-group bias maximizes the cooperation level. PMID:24533084

  8. A Marketing Case History Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weirick, Margaret C.

    1978-01-01

    A current marketing plan from Temple University illustrates many marketing techniques, including those dealing with enrollment objectives, market objectives, demographic characteristics of Temple students, market share analysis, and the marketing plan. Specific guidelines are provided. (LBH)

  9. Dispositional Optimism

    PubMed Central

    Carver, Charles S.; Scheier, Michael F.

    2014-01-01

    Optimism is a cognitive construct (expectancies regarding future outcomes) that also relates to motivation: optimistic people exert effort, whereas pessimistic people disengage from effort. Study of optimism began largely in health contexts, finding positive associations between optimism and markers of better psychological and physical health. Physical health effects likely occur through differences in both health-promoting behaviors and physiological concomitants of coping. Recently, the scientific study of optimism has extended to the realm of social relations: new evidence indicates that optimists have better social connections, partly because they work harder at them. In this review, we examine the myriad ways this trait can benefit an individual, and our current understanding of the biological basis of optimism. PMID:24630971

  10. 7 CFR 1218.11 - Market or marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Market or marketing. 1218.11 Section 1218.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Market or marketing. (a) Marketing means the sale or other disposition of blueberries in any channel...

  11. 7 CFR 1208.12 - Market or marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Market or marketing. 1208.12 Section 1208.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... § 1208.12 Market or marketing. (a) Marketing means the sale or other disposition of processed...

  12. 7 CFR 1218.11 - Market or marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Market or marketing. 1218.11 Section 1218.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Market or marketing. (a) Marketing means the sale or other disposition of blueberries in any channel...

  13. 7 CFR 1218.11 - Market or marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Market or marketing. 1218.11 Section 1218.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Market or marketing. (a) Marketing means the sale or other disposition of blueberries in any channel...

  14. 7 CFR 1218.11 - Market or marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Market or marketing. 1218.11 Section 1218.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Market or marketing. (a) Marketing means the sale or other disposition of blueberries in any channel...

  15. 7 CFR 1208.12 - Market or marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Market or marketing. 1208.12 Section 1208.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... § 1208.12 Market or marketing. (a) Marketing means the sale or other disposition of processed...

  16. Market assessment overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib-Agahi, H.

    1981-01-01

    Market assessment, refined with analysis disaggregated from a national level to the regional level and to specific market applications, resulted in more accurate and detailed market estimates. The development of an integrated set of computer simulations, coupled with refined market data, allowed progress in the ability to evaluate the worth of solar thermal parabolic dish systems. In-depth analyses of both electric and thermal market applications of these systems are described. The following market assessment studies were undertaken: (1) regional analysis of the near term market for parabolic dish systems; (2) potential early market estimate for electric applications; (3) potential early market estimate for industrial process heat/cogeneration applications; and (4) selection of thermal and electric application case studies for fiscal year 1981.

  17. Intra-specific variation in genome size in maize: cytological and phenotypic correlates.

    PubMed

    Realini, María Florencia; Poggio, Lidia; Cámara-Hernández, Julián; González, Graciela Esther

    2015-01-01

    Genome size variation accompanies the diversification and evolution of many plant species. Relationships between DNA amount and phenotypic and cytological characteristics form the basis of most hypotheses that ascribe a biological role to genome size. The goal of the present research was to investigate the intra-specific variation in the DNA content in maize populations from Northeastern Argentina and further explore the relationship between genome size and the phenotypic traits seed weight and length of the vegetative cycle. Moreover, cytological parameters such as the percentage of heterochromatin as well as the number, position and sequence composition of knobs were analysed and their relationships with 2C DNA values were explored. The populations analysed presented significant differences in 2C DNA amount, from 4.62 to 6.29 pg, representing 36.15 % of the inter-populational variation. Moreover, intra-populational genome size variation was found, varying from 1.08 to 1.63-fold. The variation in the percentage of knob heterochromatin as well as in the number, chromosome position and sequence composition of the knobs was detected among and within the populations. Although a positive relationship between genome size and the percentage of heterochromatin was observed, a significant correlation was not found. This confirms that other non-coding repetitive DNA sequences are contributing to the genome size variation. A positive relationship between DNA amount and the seed weight has been reported in a large number of species, this relationship was not found in the populations studied here. The length of the vegetative cycle showed a positive correlation with the percentage of heterochromatin. This result allowed attributing an adaptive effect to heterochromatin since the length of this cycle would be optimized via selection for an appropriate percentage of heterochromatin. PMID:26644343

  18. Intra-specific variation in genome size in maize: cytological and phenotypic correlates

    PubMed Central

    Realini, María Florencia; Poggio, Lidia; Cámara-Hernández, Julián; González, Graciela Esther

    2016-01-01

    Genome size variation accompanies the diversification and evolution of many plant species. Relationships between DNA amount and phenotypic and cytological characteristics form the basis of most hypotheses that ascribe a biological role to genome size. The goal of the present research was to investigate the intra-specific variation in the DNA content in maize populations from Northeastern Argentina and further explore the relationship between genome size and the phenotypic traits seed weight and length of the vegetative cycle. Moreover, cytological parameters such as the percentage of heterochromatin as well as the number, position and sequence composition of knobs were analysed and their relationships with 2C DNA values were explored. The populations analysed presented significant differences in 2C DNA amount, from 4.62 to 6.29 pg, representing 36.15 % of the inter-populational variation. Moreover, intra-populational genome size variation was found, varying from 1.08 to 1.63-fold. The variation in the percentage of knob heterochromatin as well as in the number, chromosome position and sequence composition of the knobs was detected among and within the populations. Although a positive relationship between genome size and the percentage of heterochromatin was observed, a significant correlation was not found. This confirms that other non-coding repetitive DNA sequences are contributing to the genome size variation. A positive relationship between DNA amount and the seed weight has been reported in a large number of species, this relationship was not found in the populations studied here. The length of the vegetative cycle showed a positive correlation with the percentage of heterochromatin. This result allowed attributing an adaptive effect to heterochromatin since the length of this cycle would be optimized via selection for an appropriate percentage of heterochromatin. PMID:26644343

  19. Distributed Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macready, William; Wolpert, David

    2005-01-01

    We demonstrate a new framework for analyzing and controlling distributed systems, by solving constrained optimization problems with an algorithm based on that framework. The framework is ar. information-theoretic extension of conventional full-rationality game theory to allow bounded rational agents. The associated optimization algorithm is a game in which agents control the variables of the optimization problem. They do this by jointly minimizing a Lagrangian of (the probability distribution of) their joint state. The updating of the Lagrange parameters in that Lagrangian is a form of automated annealing, one that focuses the multi-agent system on the optimal pure strategy. We present computer experiments for the k-sat constraint satisfaction problem and for unconstrained minimization of NK functions.

  20. Optimizing haemodialysate composition

    PubMed Central

    Locatelli, Francesco; La Milia, Vincenzo; Violo, Leano; Del Vecchio, Lucia; Di Filippo, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    Survival and quality of life of dialysis patients are strictly dependent on the quality of the haemodialysis (HD) treatment. In this respect, dialysate composition, including water purity, plays a crucial role. A major aim of HD is to normalize predialysis plasma electrolyte and mineral concentrations, while minimizing wide swings in the patient's intradialytic plasma concentrations. Adequate sodium (Na) and water removal is critical for preventing intra- and interdialytic hypotension and pulmonary edema. Avoiding both hyper- and hypokalaemia prevents life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias. Optimal calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) dialysate concentrations may protect the cardiovascular system and the bones, preventing extraskeletal calcifications, severe secondary hyperparathyroidism and adynamic bone disease. Adequate bicarbonate concentration [HCO3−] maintains a stable pH in the body fluids for appropriate protein and membrane functioning and also protects the bones. An adequate dialysate glucose concentration prevents severe hyperglycaemia and life-threating hypoglycaemia, which can lead to severe cardiovascular complications and a worsening of diabetic comorbidities. PMID:26413285

  1. Program the Market, Market the Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Ellen

    1993-01-01

    In an interview, Dorothy A. Durkin, a successful marketing specialist at a major university's school of continuing education, discusses her approach to marketing, specific strategies, and techniques for using and storing information. She offers five guiding principles for reaching prospects personally and persuasively. (MSE)

  2. FOOD ACQUISITION AND INTRA-HOUSEHOLD CONSUMPTION PATTERNS: A STUDY OF LOW AND MIDDLE INCOME URBAN HOUSEHOLDS IN DELHI, INDIA

    PubMed Central

    Pradhan, MR; Taylor, FC; Agrawal, S; Prabhakaran, D; Ebrahim, S

    2014-01-01

    Background Food habits and choices in India are shifting due to many factors: changing food markets, fast urbanization, food price inflation, uncertain food production and unequal distribution during the past decade. This study aims to explore food acquisition and intra-household consumption patterns in urban low and middle income (LMI) households in Delhi. Methods Twenty households were randomly selected from the Center for Cardio-metabolic Risk Reduction in South Asia (CARRS) surveillance study. Data were derived from 20 questionnaires administered to women responsible for food preparation, four key-informant-interviews, and 20 in-depth interviews with household heads during September-November 2011. STATA and ATLAS.ti software were used for data analysis. Results Half of the households spent at least two-thirds of their income on food. The major expenditures were on vegetables (22% of total food expenditure), milk and milk products (16%), and cereal and related products (15%). Income, food prices, food preferences, and seasonal variation influenced food expenditure. Adults usually ate two to three times a day while children ate more frequently. Eating sequence was based on the work pattern within the household and cultural beliefs. Contrary to previous evidence, there was no gender bias in intra-household food distribution. Women considered food acquisition, preparation and distribution part of their self-worth and played a major role in food related issues in the household. Conclusion Women’s key roles in food acquisition, preparation and intra household food consumption should be considered in formulating food policies and programs. PMID:25473147

  3. Microstructure and Execution Strategies in the Global Spot FX Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Anatoly B.

    Modern global inter-bank spot foreign exchange is essentially a limit-order market. Execution strategies in such a market may differ from those in markets that permit market orders. Here we describe microstructure and dynamics of the EBS market (EBS being an ICAP company is the leading institutional spot FX electronic brokerage). In order to illustrate specifics of the limit-order market, we discuss two problems. First, we describe our simulations of maker loss in case when the EUR/USD maker order is pegged to the market best price. We show that the expected maker loss is lower than the typical bid/offer spread. Second, we discuss the problem of optimal slicing of large orders for minimizing execution costs. We start with analysis of the expected execution times for the EUR/USD orders submitted at varying market depth. Then we introduce a loss function that accounts for the market volatility risk and the order's P/L in respect to the market best price. This loss function can be optimized for given risk aversion. Finally, we apply this approach to slicing large limit orders.

  4. Reliability of Intra-Retinal Layer Thickness Estimates

    PubMed Central

    Oberwahrenbrock, Timm; Weinhold, Maria; Mikolajczak, Janine; Zimmermann, Hanna; Paul, Friedemann; Beckers, Ingeborg; Brandt, Alexander U.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Measurement of intra-retinal layer thickness using optical coherence tomography (OCT) has become increasingly prominent in multiple sclerosis (MS) research. Nevertheless, the approaches used for determining the mean layer thicknesses vary greatly. Insufficient data exist on the reliability of different thickness estimates, which is crucial for their application in clinical studies. This study addresses this lack by evaluating the repeatability of different thickness estimates. Methods Studies that used intra-retinal layer segmentation of macular OCT scans in patients with MS were retrieved from PubMed. To investigate the repeatability of previously applied layer estimation approaches, we generated datasets of repeating measurements of 15 healthy subjects and 13 multiple sclerosis patients using two OCT devices (Cirrus HD-OCT and Spectralis SD-OCT). We calculated each thickness estimate in each repeated session and analyzed repeatability using intra-class correlation coefficients and coefficients of repeatability. Results We identified 27 articles, eleven of them used the Spectralis SD-OCT, nine Cirrus HD-OCT, two studies used both devices and two studies applied RTVue-100. Topcon OCT-1000, Stratus OCT and a research device were used in one study each. In the studies that used the Spectralis, ten different thickness estimates were identified, while thickness estimates of the Cirrus OCT were based on two different scan settings. In the simulation dataset, thickness estimates averaging larger areas showed an excellent repeatability for all retinal layers except the outer plexiform layer (OPL). Conclusions Given the good reliability, the thickness estimate of the 6mm-diameter area around the fovea should be favored when OCT is used in clinical research. Assessment of the OPL was weak in general and needs further investigation before OPL thickness can be used as a reliable parameter. PMID:26349053

  5. Primary intra-osseous myoepithelioma of phalanx mimicking an enchondroma.

    PubMed

    Nambirajan, Aruna; Mridha, Asit Ranjan; Sharma, Mehar Chand; Panda, Ananya; Palaniswamy, Aravindh

    2016-10-01

    Myoepitheliomas (MEs) are uncommon tumours of the soft tissue with an intermediate biological behaviour and uncertain differentiation. Primary intra-osseous MEs are rare and occur predominantly in the axial and proximal appendicular skeleton in middle-aged patients. The morphological variation of the tumour cells and stromal metaplasia may cause considerable diagnostic confusion, especially when it occurs in an unusual location. A wide panel of immunohistochemical markers is required to exclude other histological mimics. A 37-year-old male presented with a recurrent swelling in the right middle finger for 1-month duration. Radiographic images showed an expansile, lytic, intra-osseous lesion with high signal intensity on T2W fat-suppressed MR images in the proximal phalanx of the right middle finger without cortical breach, highly suggestive of an enchondroma. Histopathology revealed a lobulated tumour comprising of polygonal to spindle cells in groups and cords in a chondromyxoid stroma. No cellular atypia was noted. The tumour cells were immunopositive for epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), p63, S100 and smooth muscle actin (SMA), compatible with the diagnosis of an intraosseous ME. The proximal phalanx of the right middle finger was excised, revealing a similar tumour, and the patient has been on regular follow-up for the last 18 months without any recurrence. Primary intra-osseous MEs are extremely rare, and this is the second reported occurrence in small bones. A differential diagnosis of ME should be kept for enchondroma-like lesions of the bone for proper histopathological assessment and accurate diagnosis. Documentation of such cases and follow-up will enhance our understanding of their clinical course and prognosis. PMID:27524490

  6. Quantifying intra- and inter-fractional motion in breast radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Scott; Fitzgerald, Rhys; Owen, Rebecca; Ramsay, Jonathan

    2015-03-15

    The magnitude of intra- and inter-fractional variation in the set up of breast cancer patients treated with tangential megavoltage photon beams was investigated using an electronic portal imaging device (EPID). Daily cine-EPID images were captured during delivery of the tangential fields for ten breast cancer patients treated in the supine position. Measurements collected from each image included the central lung distance (CLD), central flash distance (CFD), superior axial measurement (SAM) and the inferior axial measurement (IAM). The variation of motion within a fraction (intra-fraction) and the variation between fractions (inter-fraction) was analysed to quantify set up variation and motion due to respiration. Altogether 3775 EPID images were collected from 10 patients. The effect of respiratory motion during treatment was <0.1 cm standard deviation (SD) in the anterior–posterior (AP) direction. The inter-fraction movement caused by variations in daily set up was larger at 0.28 cm SD in the AP direction. Superior–inferior (SI) variation was more difficult to summarise and proved unreliable as the measurements were taken to an ambiguous point on the images. It was difficult to discern true SI movement from that implicated by AP movement. There is minimal intra-fractional chest wall motion due to respiration during treatment. Inter-fractional variation was larger, however, on average it remained within departmental tolerance (0.5 cm) for set up variations. This review of our current breast technique provides confidence in the feasibility of utilising advanced treatment techniques (field-in-field, intensity modulated radiotherapy or volumetric modulated arc therapy) following a review of the current imaging protocol.

  7. Intra-Arterial Radionuclide Therapies for Liver Tumors.

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, Murat Fani; Salanci, Bilge Volkan; Uğur, Ömer

    2016-07-01

    Intra-arterial radionuclide therapies serve essentially as internal radiation treatment options for both primary and metastatic liver tumors, which imply delivering implantable radioactive microspheres into branches of hepatic arteries that feed liver tumors to provide a high dose of targeted radiation to tumor tissue, while sparing the healthy liver tissue from hazardous effects of radiation. The principle of this therapeutic option depends on the unique preferential arterial supply of malignant liver tumors in contrast with mostly portal venous supply of normal hepatocytes as well as excess amount of arterial neovascularization in the tumor bed. Therefore, intra-arterial radionuclide therapy can provide very high radiation exposure to tumor tissue, which is impossible to reach with external radiation therapy due to serious side effects and moreover, radiation can be targeted to tumor tissue selectively with less side effects. Yttrium-90 (Y-90), a high-energetic beta emitter is the most preferred radionuclide, which is used to label microspheres. Two types of Y-90 microspheres are commercially available that are made of resin and glass. Many studies in the literature have demonstrated that Y-90 microsphere therapy is an efficient and safe locoregional therapeutic option for unresectable primary and metastatic liver tumors such as hepatocellular carcinoma and liver metastases from colorectal cancer and breast cancer as well as neuroendocrine tumors. Furthermore, limited number of studies has reported its use in some relatively uncommon metastatic liver tumors from melanoma, pancreatic, renal, and lung cancer. Besides Y-90 microspheres, Iodine-131 lipiodol, Rhenium-188 lipiodol, Rhenium-188 microspheres, Holmium-166 chitosan, and Holmium-166 microspheres have been introduced as alternative radiopharmaceuticals for intra-arterial therapy for liver tumors. PMID:27237442

  8. Optimal Retirement with Increasing Longevity*

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, David E.; Canning, David; Moore, Michael

    2014-01-01

    We develop an optimizing life-cycle model of retirement with perfect capital markets. We show that longer healthy life expectancy usually leads to later retirement, but with an elasticity less than unity. We calibrate our model using data from the US and find that, over the last century, the effect of rising incomes, which promote early retirement, has dominated the effect of rising lifespans. Our model predicts continuing declines in the optimal retirement age, despite rising life expectancy, provided the rate of real wage growth remains as high as in the last century. PMID:24954970

  9. [Brucine chitosan thermosensitive hydrogel for intra-articular injection].

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi-Peng; Liu, Wen; Chen, Hong-Xuan; Cai, Bao-Chang

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a sustained release converse thermosensitive hydrogel for intra-articular injection using chitosan-glycerol-borax as matrix, its physical properties and biocompatibility were investigated. Taking gelation time and gelation condition as index, the influence of concentration of chitosan, ratio of chitosan to glycerol, pH on physical properties of hydrogel were investigated. And then the in vitro drug release, rheological properties and biocompatibility were studied. The thermosensitive hydrogel flows easily at room temperature and turns to gelation at body temperature, which can certainly prolong the release of drug and has good biocompatibility. PMID:22812012

  10. A Unified Approach to Intra-Domain Security

    SciTech Connect

    Shue, Craig A; Kalafut, Andrew J.; Gupta, Prof. Minaxi

    2009-01-01

    While a variety of mechanisms have been developed for securing individual intra-domain protocols, none address the issue in a holistic manner. We develop a unified framework to secure prominent networking protocols within a single domain. We begin with a secure version of the DHCP protocol, which has the additional feature of providing each host with a certificate. We then leverage these certificates to secure ARP, prevent spoofing within the domain, and secure SSH and VPN connections between the domain and hosts which have previously interacted with it locally. In doing so, we also develop an incrementally deployable public key infrastructure which can later be leveraged to support inter-domain authentication.

  11. [Intra-arterial fibrinolytic therapy for acute mesenteric ischemia].

    PubMed

    Michel, C; Laffy, P; Leblanc, G; Riou, J Y; Chaloum, S; Maklouf, M; Le Guen, O; Pitre, J

    2001-01-01

    We report a case of mesenteric ischemia secondary to embolic occlusion treated by percutaneous intra-arterial thrombolysis. Early initial radiographic evaluation included abdominal plain film, ultrasonography, abdominal CT, and arteriography. Only selective superior mesenteric artery angiography provided definite diagnosis. The duration of ischemic symptoms before thrombolysis was 6 hours. Post procedure angiogram at 12 hours showed complete resolution of the mesenteric arterial thrombus with clinical improvement. The most important criteria for patient survival is early diagnosis and immediate treatment. Direct infusion of urokinase into the superior mesentric artery may be an alternative to surgery in selected patients and particularly in patients without evidence of frank bowel necrosis. PMID:11223630

  12. Grossesse intra murale à propos d'un cas

    PubMed Central

    de Tové, Kofi-Mensa Savi; Salifou, Kabibou; Imorou, Rachidi Sidi; Biaou, Olivier; Boco, Vicentia

    2015-01-01

    La grossesse intra-murale est la variété la plus rare de grossesse extra-utérine. Il s'agit de la localisation de l’œuf dans l’épaisseur du myomètre. En cas de retard diagnostic, l’évolution peut être catastrophique avec rupture utérine et hémorragie cataclysmique. L’échographie permet dans certains cas un diagnostic pré opératoire. Les auteurs rapportent un cas survenu chez une patiente aux antécédents de curetage. PMID:26448812

  13. Generation of continental crust in intra-oceanic arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazel, E.; Hayes, J. L.; Kelemen, P. B.; Everson, E. D.; Holbrook, W. S.; Vance, E.

    2014-12-01

    The origin of continental crust is still an unsolved mystery in the evolution of our planet. Although the best candidates to produce juvenile continental crust are intra-oceanic arcs these systems are dominated by basaltic lavas, and when silicic magmas are produced, the incompatible-element compositions are generally too depleted to be a good match for continental crust estimates. Others, such as the W. Aleutians, are dominated by andesitic melts with trace element compositions similar to average continental crust. In order to evaluate which intra-oceanic arcs produced modern continental crust, we developed a geochemical continental index (CI) through a statistical analysis that compared all available data from modern intra-oceanic arcs with global estimates of continental crust. Our results suggest that magmas from Costa Rica (<10 Ma) have a CI <50, closer to the CI (~20) computed from available average continental crust estimates. Transitional CI values of 50-100 were found in the Aleutians, the Iwo-Jima segment of Izu-Bonin, the L. Antilles, Panama, Nicaragua, and Vanuatu. The geochemical signature of the Costa Rican lavas is controlled by melts from the subducting Galapagos tracks. Iwo-Jima and Vanuatu are in a similar tectonic scenario with subducting intraplate seamounts. Melts from the subducting oceanic crust are thought to significantly control the geochemical signature in the W. Aleutians and Panama. In the L. Antilles and E. Aleutians the continental signature may reflect recycling of a component derived from subducting continental sediments. Most of Izu-Bonin, Marianas, S. Scotia and Tonga arcs with a CI >100 have the least continent-like geochemical signatures. In these arcs the subducting plate is old (>100 Ma), not overprinted by enriched intraplate volcanism and the geochemistry may be dominated by slab-derived, aqueous fluids. We also found a strong correlation between the CI and average crustal P-wave velocity, validating the geochemical index

  14. Retained Intra- Thoracic Surgical Pack Mimicking as Recurrent Aspergilloma

    PubMed Central

    Mir, Ruquaya; Singh, Vikram P.

    2012-01-01

    An intrathoracic gossypiboma is a rare condition. We are reporting a case of intrathoracicgossypiboma which was misdiagnosed as a recurrent aspergilloma. In our patient, the gossypiboma manifested as a pleural- based extra pulmonary mass which had a large contact area with the pleura and it displayed an extra pulmonary location. A retained surgical swab (gossypiboma) is a rare but an important complication of an intra- thoracic surgery. The diagnosis is usually overlooked, as in our case, resulting in delay of treatment, complications and a prolonged hospitalization. PMID:23373051

  15. Coupling News Sentiment with Web Browsing Data Improves Prediction of Intra-Day Price Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Ranco, Gabriele; Bordino, Ilaria; Bormetti, Giacomo; Caldarelli, Guido; Lillo, Fabrizio; Treccani, Michele

    2016-01-01

    The new digital revolution of big data is deeply changing our capability of understanding society and forecasting the outcome of many social and economic systems. Unfortunately, information can be very heterogeneous in the importance, relevance, and surprise it conveys, affecting severely the predictive power of semantic and statistical methods. Here we show that the aggregation of web users' behavior can be elicited to overcome this problem in a hard to predict complex system, namely the financial market. Specifically, our in-sample analysis shows that the combined use of sentiment analysis of news and browsing activity of users of Yahoo! Finance greatly helps forecasting intra-day and daily price changes of a set of 100 highly capitalized US stocks traded in the period 2012-2013. Sentiment analysis or browsing activity when taken alone have very small or no predictive power. Conversely, when considering a news signal where in a given time interval we compute the average sentiment of the clicked news, weighted by the number of clicks, we show that for nearly 50% of the companies such signal Granger-causes hourly price returns. Our result indicates a "wisdom-of-the-crowd" effect that allows to exploit users' activity to identify and weigh properly the relevant and surprising news, enhancing considerably the forecasting power of the news sentiment. PMID:26808833

  16. Urinary profile of methylprednisolone acetate metabolites in patients following intra-articular and intramuscular administration.

    PubMed

    Panusa, Alessia; Regazzoni, Luca; Aldini, Giancarlo; Orioli, Marica; Giombini, Arrigo; Minghetti, Paola; Tranquilli, Carlo; Carini, Marina

    2011-04-01

    A study on urinary metabolites of methylprednisolone acetate (MPA) has been performed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) in precursor ion scanning (PIS) and neutral loss (NL) modes. Patients suffering from joint inflammation have been treated with Depo-Medrol® (MPA marketed suspension, 40 mg) intra-articularly (IA) and after a wash-out period, intramuscularly (IM) at the same dose. Urine samples have been collected after both the administration routes. Metabolites were identified in PIS mode by setting the fragment ion at m/z 161 which is specific for MPA, methylprednisolone (MP), methylprednisolone hemisuccinate, and in NL mode by selecting the losses of 54, 72, 176 and 194 Da. The MP-related structure of each target ion detected in both the MS modes was then confirmed by MS/MS acquisitions, and by accurate mass experiments. By using this approach, 13 MPA metabolites (M1-M13) have been identified, nine already reported in the literature and four unknown and for which the chemical structures have been proposed. No differences in the metabolic pattern of MPA when administered IM or IA were observed. The relative abundances of metabolites compared with the internal standard (MP-D2) were monitored by multiple reaction monitoring analysis for 19 days after both the administration routes. PMID:21336796

  17. Coupling News Sentiment with Web Browsing Data Improves Prediction of Intra-Day Price Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Ranco, Gabriele; Bordino, Ilaria; Bormetti, Giacomo; Caldarelli, Guido; Lillo, Fabrizio; Treccani, Michele

    2016-01-01

    The new digital revolution of big data is deeply changing our capability of understanding society and forecasting the outcome of many social and economic systems. Unfortunately, information can be very heterogeneous in the importance, relevance, and surprise it conveys, affecting severely the predictive power of semantic and statistical methods. Here we show that the aggregation of web users’ behavior can be elicited to overcome this problem in a hard to predict complex system, namely the financial market. Specifically, our in-sample analysis shows that the combined use of sentiment analysis of news and browsing activity of users of Yahoo! Finance greatly helps forecasting intra-day and daily price changes of a set of 100 highly capitalized US stocks traded in the period 2012–2013. Sentiment analysis or browsing activity when taken alone have very small or no predictive power. Conversely, when considering a news signal where in a given time interval we compute the average sentiment of the clicked news, weighted by the number of clicks, we show that for nearly 50% of the companies such signal Granger-causes hourly price returns. Our result indicates a “wisdom-of-the-crowd” effect that allows to exploit users’ activity to identify and weigh properly the relevant and surprising news, enhancing considerably the forecasting power of the news sentiment. PMID:26808833

  18. [Measurement of intra-abdominal pressure with intravesical system Unometer Abdo-Pressure].

    PubMed

    Marín Vivó, G; Revuelta Escuté, M; Rodríguez Martínez, X

    2014-04-01

    The measurement of intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) has been incorporated routinely in Critical Units in order to monitor and control those clinical situations that make us suspicious of intraabdominal hypertension (IAH). There are several methods to measure IAP [1-3]: direct measurement, a catheter inserted through suprapubic aspiration, although it is a discouraged procedure by being very invasive; and indirect measurement. In this method there are mainly three different techniques: Through femoral vein puncture: a catheter into the inferior vena cava is channeled. It is a technique being deprecated invasive, associated with venous thrombosis, retroperitoneal hematoma and infection. Through a gastric tube: impractical, requires managing large amounts of water associated with leakage through the pylorus risk. Through intravesical measurement: is the most commonly used method. The bladder catheter allows monitoring the PIA and diuresis and electrolyte control. This method has potential for infection associated with catheterization risk. Although this risk, it is considered the gold standard for the measurement of IAP. Have now been introduced to the market each measuring intravesical kits guaranteeing sterility circuit without disconnections. It is necessary to know the material and the correct procedure for measuring the PIA and how to interpret the results. PMID:24864414

  19. The President As Marketer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickford, Robert I.

    1978-01-01

    Advocates a marketing orientation to community college management as demonstrated by the successful implementation of four-state (service, promotion, delivery, and evaluation) marketing plan at Prince George's Community College in Washington D.C. (TP)

  20. Going to Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topor, Robert S.

    1985-01-01

    Ways to create and implement a master marketing plan for college campuses are described. The best marketing plans describe both objectives and methods for all appropriate areas within the institution. (MLW)

  1. Marketing Youth Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimick, Barbara

    1995-01-01

    Marketing techniques in youth services are useful for designing programs, collections, and services and for determining customer needs. The marketing mix--product, place, price, and practice--provides a framework for service analysis. (AEF)

  2. Marketing to maximize profitability.

    PubMed

    Duboff, R S

    1992-01-01

    An effective marketing strategy should focus on serving profitable customers, not just adding new ones. The author offers five steps that marketers can follow to ensure that their efforts provide the greatest boost to the bottom line. PMID:10122965

  3. Marketing Your Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calderon, Jewell R.

    1978-01-01

    In this conference presentation, the author, contrary to traditional views, offers a marketing definition that is compatible with continuing education goals. She then points out five reasons why continuing education activities for nurses should be marketed. (EM)

  4. Why We Need Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Nancy

    1984-01-01

    An interview with Philip Kotler, the Harold T. Martin Professor of Marketing at Northwestern University, is presented. Three approaches to marketing are identified: product-oriented, hard-sell, and building satisfaction in a long-term clientele. (MLW)

  5. Supply options. [hydrogen market

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The use of captive hydrogen (produced and consumed on site) and merchant hydrogen (externally supplied) is considered. A low-merchant-captive ratio market and a high-merchant-captive ratio market are described and compared.

  6. Marketing Your Advising Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flickinger, Jan

    1989-01-01

    A tour of centralized university advising centers revealed that the busiest centers had done an excellent job of marketing themselves to their campus clientele. Factors affecting successful marketing include image, location, service, advertising, and innovative problem-solving. (MSE)

  7. Pre-eclampsia renamed and reframed: Intra-abdominal hypertension in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Sawchuck, Diane J; Wittmann, Bernd K

    2014-11-01

    This hypothesis proposes pre-eclampsia is caused by intra-abdominal hypertension in pregnancy. Sustained or increasing intra-abdominal pressure ⩾12mmHg causes impaired venous return to the heart, systemic vascular resistance, ischemia reperfusion injury, intestinal permeability, translocation of lipopolysaccharide endotoxin to the liver, cytotoxic immune response, systemic inflammatory response, pressure transmission to thoracic and intra-cranial compartments, and multi-organ dysfunction. This hypothesis is predicated on Pascal's law, evidence founded in the intra-abdominal hypertension literature, and the adapted equation ΔIAP-P=ΔIAVF/Cab, where ΔIAP-P=change in intra-abdominal pressure in pregnancy, ΔIAVF=change in intra-abdominal vector force (volume and force direction) and Cab=abdominal compliance. Factors causing increased intra-abdominal pressure in pregnancy include: progressive uterine expansion, obstetrical factors that increase intra-uterine volume excessively or acutely, maternal anthropometric measurements that affect intra-abdominal pressure thresholds, maternal postures that increase abdominal force direction, abdominal compliance that is decreased, diminished with advancing gestation, or has reached maximum expansion, habitation at high altitude, and rapid drops in barometric pressure. We postulate that the threshold for lipopolysaccharide translocation depends on the magnitude of intra-abdominal pressure, the intestinal microbiome complex, and the degree of intestinal permeability. We advance that delivery cures pre-eclampsia through the mechanism of abdominal decompression. PMID:25189485

  8. Dynamics of Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCauley, Joseph L.

    2004-06-01

    Standard texts and research in economics and finance ignore the absence of evidence from the analysis of real, unmassaged market data to support the notion of Adam Smith's stabilizing Invisible Hand. In stark contrast, this text introduces a new empirically-based model of financial market dynamics that explains the volatility of prices options correctly and clarifies the instability of financial markets. The emphasis is on understanding how real markets behave, not how they hypothetically 'should' behave.

  9. Marketing for Camp Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biddle, Alicia

    1998-01-01

    To effectively market a camp, current trends and issues must be considered: specialty programming, the Americans With Disabilities Act, competing recreational programs, changes in the school year, programming for seniors, and accountability. Camps should have a marketing strategy that includes public relations, a marketing plan, a pricing…

  10. Marketing Farm Grain Crops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridenour, Harlan E.

    This vocational agriculture curriculum on grain marketing contains three parts: teacher guide, student manual, and student workbook. All three are coordinated and cross-referenced. The course is designed to give students of grain marketing a thorough background in the subject and provide practical help in developing grain marketing strategies for…

  11. Creating a Marketing Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevier, Robert A.

    1989-01-01

    A guide to developing a college marketing plan defines key marketing terms, outlines the development of a plan (including institutional analysis, market research, strategy formation and execution, and program evaluation), and provides a list of important principles with which to operate a program. (MSE)

  12. Marketing University Outreach Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Ralph S., Jr., Ed.; And Others

    A collection of 12 essays and model program descriptions addresses issues in the marketing of university extension, outreach, and distance education programs. They include: (1) "Marketing and University Outreach: Parallel Processes" (William I. Sauser, Jr. and others); (2) "Segmenting and Targeting the Organizational Market" (Vaughan C. Judd); (3)…

  13. Entering the Corporate Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenshields, Garry W.

    This seminar guide was designed for use with a series of slides in training administrators to market an educational program or service to corporations. The seminar explains the following eight stages in planning entry into the corporate market: identifying appropriate publics; researching the market (analyzing supply and demand, collecting data,…

  14. Marketing Across the Board.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauer, Larry D.

    1999-01-01

    Outlines an eight-step approach to launching an integrated college or university marketing/fund-raising program: finding a visionary campus leader; getting presidential support; assembling a three-tier marketing structure; considering new ways of defining quality; developing a marketing "blueprint"; selling the program on campus; embracing…

  15. Plugging into Marketing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunkenheimer, Gary; Swift, Teri

    This text contains activities that allow marketing education instructors to integrate their curriculum with word-processing, spreadsheet, and presentation software. Their students can gain experience with technology, fulfill marketing education learner outcomes, and meet the demands of a marketing job. The instructor provides an outline for…

  16. Marketing occupational therapy.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, K

    1987-05-01

    Marketing is emerging as an important aspect of the delivery of health care services, including occupational therapy. An understanding of marketing and a knowledge of how to apply its principles will permit therapists to keep pace with the changing health care environment. This article introduces terminology, strategies, and applications of marketing. PMID:3688145

  17. Marketing home care services.

    PubMed

    Moore, S T

    1987-08-01

    With the decline in inpatients, hospital administrators and marketers are seeking revenue opportunities in meeting the needs of a new market, home care patients. The challenge for managers in the home care arena is to target their marketing efforts towards the important decision makers. Managers who can best meet the goal of patients, families and professionals will be most successful. PMID:10301949

  18. Strategic Marketing for Presidents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappas, Richard J., Ed.

    Designed to inform the marketing efforts of community college presidents, this document describes the importance of marketing, presents a targeted approach, and outlines the specific roles and skills needed by the president to ensure successful efforts and effective institutions. The first chapter, "Developing a Marketing-Strategic Plan," by…

  19. Rewards for Good Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germain, Carol Anne, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    Many professional library associations and affiliates "strongly encourage" the marketing of libraries and their wares. These organizations present awards, certificates, and monetary enticements to honor outstanding marketing programs. For most individuals or teams who are already working on and implementing marketing programs, the added effort of…

  20. Introduction to Agricultural Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Futrell, Gene; And Others

    This marketing unit focuses on the importance of forecasting in order for a farm family to develop marketing plans. It describes sources of information and includes a glossary of marketing terms and exercises using both fundamental and technical methods to predict prices in order to improve forecasting ability. The unit is organized in the…

  1. Connecticut Marketing Education Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West Haven Board of Education, CT.

    This revised marketing education handbook is intended to assist marketing education teachers and administrators in Connecticut in preparing students to enter meaningful careers in marketing, merchandising, and management positions. The 17 units of this reference guide cover the following topics: introduction; mission and scope of marketing…

  2. The New Learning Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mager, Caroline; Robinson, Peter; Fletcher, Mick; Stanton, Geoff; Perry, Adrian; Westwood, Andy

    This document contains seven papers examining the implications of proposed major reforms to the United Kingdom's post-16 sector. "The New Learning Market--Overview" (Caroline Mager) argues for balancing market-driven and planning-driven approaches to planning post-16 education. "Education and Training as a Learning Market" (Peter Robinson)…

  3. Prospective Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Poizner, Howard; Lynch, Gary; Gepshtein, Sergei; Greenspan, Ralph J.

    2014-01-01

    Human performance approaches that of an ideal observer and optimal actor in some perceptual and motor tasks. These optimal abilities depend on the capacity of the cerebral cortex to store an immense amount of information and to flexibly make rapid decisions. However, behavior only approaches these limits after a long period of learning while the cerebral cortex interacts with the basal ganglia, an ancient part of the vertebrate brain that is responsible for learning sequences of actions directed toward achieving goals. Progress has been made in understanding the algorithms used by the brain during reinforcement learning, which is an online approximation of dynamic programming. Humans also make plans that depend on past experience by simulating different scenarios, which is called prospective optimization. The same brain structures in the cortex and basal ganglia that are active online during optimal behavior are also active offline during prospective optimization. The emergence of general principles and algorithms for goal-directed behavior has consequences for the development of autonomous devices in engineering applications. PMID:25328167

  4. Neurobrucellosis presenting as an intra-medullary spinal cord abscess

    PubMed Central

    Vajramani, Girish V; Nagmoti, Mahantesh B; Patil, Chidanand S

    2005-01-01

    Background Of the diverse presentation of neurobrucellosis, intra-medullary spinal cord abscess is extremely rare. Only four other cases have been reported so far. We present a case of spinal cord intra-medullary abscess due to Brucella melitensis. Case presentation A forty-year-old female presented with progressive weakness of both lower limb with urinary incontinence of 6 months duration. She was febrile. Neurological examination revealed flaccid areflexic paraplegia with T10 below sensory impairment including perianal region. An intramedullary mass was diagnosed on Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI) scan extending from T12 to L2. At surgery, a large abscess was encountered at the conus medullaris, from which Brucella melitensis was grown on culture. She was started on streptomycin and doxycycline for 1 month, followed by rifampicin and doxycycline for 1 month. At 2-year follow-up, she had recovered only partially and continued to have impaired bladder function. Conclusion Neurobrucellosis, if not treated early, can result in severe neurological morbidity and sequale, which may be irreversible. Hence it is important to consider the possibility of neurobrucellosis in endemic region and treat aggressively. PMID:16168059

  5. Intra-host dynamics of Ebola virus during 2014.

    PubMed

    Ni, Ming; Chen, Chen; Qian, Jun; Xiao, Hai-Xia; Shi, Wei-Feng; Luo, Yang; Wang, Hai-Yin; Li, Zhen; Wu, Jun; Xu, Pei-Song; Chen, Su-Hong; Wong, Gary; Bi, Yuhai; Xia, Zhi-Ping; Li, Wei; Lu, Hui-Jun; Ma, Juncai; Tong, Yi-Gang; Zeng, Hui; Wang, Sheng-Qi; Gao, George F; Bo, Xiao-Chen; Liu, Di

    2016-01-01

    Since 2013, West Africa has encountered the largest Ebola virus (EBOV) disease outbreak on record, and Sierra Leone is the worst-affected country, with nearly half of the infections. By means of next-generation sequencing and phylogeographic analysis, the epidemiology and transmission of EBOV have been well elucidated. However, the intra-host dynamics that mainly reflect viral-host interactions still need to be studied. Here, we show a total of 710 intra-host single nucleotide variations (iSNVs) from deep-sequenced samples from EBOV-infected patients, through a well-tailored bioinformatics pipeline. We present a comprehensive distribution of iSNVs during this outbreak and along the EBOV genome. Analyses of iSNV and its allele frequency reveal that VP40 is the most conserved gene during this outbreak, and thus it would be an ideal therapeutic target. In the co-occurring iSNV network, varied iSNV sites present different selection features. Intriguingly, the T-to-C substitutions at the 3'-UTR of the nucleoprotein (NP; positions 3008 and 3011), observed in many patients, result in the upregulation of the transcription of NP through an Ebola mini-genome reporting system. Additionally, no iSNV enrichment within B-cell epitopes of GP has been observed. PMID:27595345

  6. Intra-operative nuclear medicine in surgical practice.

    PubMed

    Perkins, A C; Hardy, J G

    1996-12-01

    The use of radionuclides for the intra-operative localization of tumours has increased steadily over the past 15 years. We reviewed more than 15 years experience of a peripatetic service using a sterilizable probe system in operating theatres throughout the UK for localizing bone and soft tissue lesions. The technique requires the positive concentration of an appropriate radiopharmaceutical, together with a suitably designed detector system which can be sterilized for use during surgery. All surgical procedures were undertaken following initial positive imaging studies. A well-collimated nuclear probe with a 5 mm diameter CdTe detector was sterilized with ethylene oxide gas and coupled to a digital counter and ratemeter for use in the operating theatre. A total of 68 surgical procedures have been undertaken at 35 hospitals. Fifty-eight patients underwent excision of osteoid osteoma subsequently proven by histology. The other lesions successfully resected included osteoblastoma, hamartoma, Brodie's abscess, chronic bone infection, ectopic parathyroid adenoma and metastatic neuroblastoma. The technique can now be regarded as the method of choice for the surgical localization of osteoid osteoma. The successful detection of lesions at surgery can be assured providing that clear localization of the radiopharmaceutical occurs on the pre-operative images. The intra-operative use of conventional and new tumour-specific radiopharmaceuticals is reviewed and we confirm an increasing role for the surgical-probe-guided localization of primary and metastatic tumours. PMID:9004295

  7. Subtalar versus triple arthrodesis after intra-articular calcaneal fractures

    PubMed Central

    Kieboom, Brenda C. T.; Bessems, Gert H. J. M.; Vogels, Lucas M. M.; van Lieshout, Esther M. M.; Patka, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Depending upon initial treatment, between 2 and 30% of patients with a displaced intra-articular calcaneal fracture require a secondary arthrodesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of subtalar versus triple arthrodesis on functional outcome. A total of 33 patients with 37 secondary arthrodeses (17 subtalar and 20 triple) with a median follow-up of 116 months were asked to complete questionnaires regarding disease-specific functional outcome (Maryland Foot Score, MFS), quality of life (SF-36) and overall satisfaction with the treatment (Visual Analogue Scale, VAS). Patient groups were comparable considering median age at fracture, initial treatment (conservative or operative), time to arthrodesis, median follow-up, and post-arthrodesis radiographic angles. The MFS score was similar after subtalar versus triple arthrodesis (59 vs. 56 points; P = 0.79). No statistically significant difference was found for the SF-36 (84 vs. 83 points; P = 0.67) and the VAS (5 vs. 6; P = 0.21). Smoking was statistically significantly associated with a non-union (χ2 = 6.60, P = 0.017). The current study suggests that there is no significant difference in functional outcome between an in situ subtalar or triple arthrodesis as a salvage technique for symptomatic arthrosis after an intra-articular calcaneal fracture. Smoking is a risk factor for non-union. PMID:21811905

  8. Multiple giant intra abdominal lipomas: A rare presentation

    PubMed Central

    Kshirsagar, Ashok Y.; Nangare, Nitin R.; Gupta, Vaibhav; Vekariya, Mayank A.; Patankar, Ritvij; Mahna, Abhishek; Wader, J.V.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Solitary or multiple lipomas, composed of mature fat, represents by far the most common benign mesenchymal neoplasm occurring throughout the whole body, but they rarely originate in the intestinal mesentery. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 60-year-old male presented with left sided abdominal distension and pain since 4 months, ultrasonography and computerized tomography abdomen was suggestive of multiple well-defined fat density lesions in the lower abdomen and pelvis. USG guided fine needle aspiration cytology was conclusive of a spindle cell lesion. Exploratory laparotomy was performed and multiple major fat tissue swellings were excised. Histopathology confirmed it to be spindle cell type of lipoma. DISCUSSION Because of the silent nature the exact prevalence of lipomas is unknown. It can arise in any location in which fat is normally present, reported intra abdominal lipomas have been very rare. Clinical manifestations depend on the size and location of the growth. In most patients, symptoms are few or absent. USG and CT scan abdomen are used for the diagnosis. Complete surgical excision being the only treatment. CONCLUSION Intra abdominal lipoma is a very rare entity, and many cases might be ignored due to their silent nature. They might or might not present with any symptoms. Complete surgical excision being the only treatment, with a very good prognosis. PMID:24862028

  9. Mild to moderate intra-abdominal hypertension: Does it matter?

    PubMed Central

    Maddison, Liivi; Starkopf, Joel; Reintam Blaser, Annika

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes the epidemiology, pathophysiological consequences and impact on outcome of mild to moderate (Grade I to II) intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH), points out possible pitfalls in available treatment recommendations and focuses on tasks for future research in the field. IAH occurs in about 40% of ICU patients. Whereas the prevalence of abdominal compartment syndrome seems to be decreasing, the prevalence of IAH does not. More than half of IAH patients present with IAH grade I and approximately a quarter with IAH grade II. However, most of the studies have addressed IAH as a yes-or-no variable, with little or no attention to different severity grades. Even mild IAH can have a negative impact on tissue perfusion and microcirculation and be associated with an increased length of stay and duration of mechanical ventilation. However, the impact of IAH and its different grades on mortality is controversial. The influence of intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) on outcome most likely depends on patient and disease characteristics and the concomitant macro- and microcirculation. Therefore, management might differ significantly. Today, clear triggers for interventions in different patient groups with mild to moderate IAH are not defined. Further studies are needed to clarify the clinical importance of mild to moderate IAH identifying clear triggers for interventions to lower the IAP. PMID:26855899

  10. Quantitation of Intra-peritoneal Ovarian Cancer Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Lewellen, Kyle A; Metzinger, Matthew N; Liu, Yueying; Stack, M Sharon

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the leading cause of death from gynecologic malignancy in the United States. Mortality is due to diagnosis of 75% of women with late stage disease, when metastasis is already present. EOC is characterized by diffuse and widely disseminated intra-peritoneal metastasis. Cells shed from the primary tumor anchor in the mesothelium that lines the peritoneal cavity as well as in the omentum, resulting in multi-focal metastasis, often in the presence of peritoneal ascites. Efforts in our laboratory are directed at a more detailed understanding of factors that regulate EOC metastatic success. However, quantifying metastatic tumor burden represents a significant technical challenge due to the large number, small size and broad distribution of lesions throughout the peritoneum. Herein we describe a method for analysis of EOC metastasis using cells labeled with red fluorescent protein (RFP) coupled with in vivo multispectral imaging. Following intra-peritoneal injection of RFP-labelled tumor cells, mice are imaged weekly until time of sacrifice. At this time, the peritoneal cavity is surgically exposed and organs are imaged in situ. Dissected organs are then placed on a labeled transparent template and imaged ex vivo. Removal of tissue auto-fluorescence during image processing using multispectral unmixing enables accurate quantitation of relative tumor burden. This method has utility in a variety of applications including therapeutic studies to evaluate compounds that may inhibit metastasis and thereby improve overall survival. PMID:27500635

  11. A user's guide to intra-abdominal pressure measurement.

    PubMed

    Sugrue, Michael; De Waele, Jan J; De Keulenaer, Bart L; Roberts, Derek J; Malbrain, Manu L N G

    2015-01-01

    The intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) measurement is a key to diagnosing and managing critically ill medical and surgical patients. There are an increasing number of techniques that allow us to measure the IAP at the bedside. This paper reviews these techniques. IAP should be measured at end-expiration, with the patient in the supine position and ensuring that there is no abdominal muscle activity. The intravesicular IAP measurement is convenient and considered the gold standard. The level where the mid-axillary line crosses the iliac crest is the recommended zero reference for the transvesicular IAP measurement; moreover, marking this level on the patient increases reproducibility. Protocols for IAP measurement should be developed for each ICU based on the locally available tools and equipment. IAP measurement techniques are safe, reproducible and accurate and do not increase the risk of urinary tract infection. Continuous IAP measurement may offer benefits in specific situations in the future. In conclusion, the IAP measurement is a reliable and essential adjunct to the management of patients at risk of intra-abdominal hypertension. PMID:25973661

  12. Market segmentation strategy in internet market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Yawei; Yang, Deli; Diao, Xinjun

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents a model to describe the competitive dynamics of web sites on the WWW market and analyze the stability of the model which is composed of one powerful site and two small sites. One of the most important results that emerge from this simple model is that strong competition among websites does not necessarily lead to the demise of the small website on the WWW market. From the stability analysis of the model, we obtain a series of conditions in which small sites can obtain competitive advantages by using the market segmentation strategy.

  13. 14 CFR 399.34 - Intra-Hawaii and Intra-Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands fare flexibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Fare and Service Data for Seattle-Alaska Markets Market Ratemaking mileage Actual July 1977 Y fare DPFI formula fare May 1980 1 SIFLformula fare May 1980 10 Y fare as of June 1980 2 Alaska Airlines Wien Alaska... 117.62 155.56 182.99 175 1,500 AS Kenai 5 1,468 124.28 198.37 193.35 159 2,470 WC King Salmon 6...

  14. 14 CFR 399.34 - Intra-Hawaii and Intra-Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands fare flexibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Fare and Service Data for Seattle-Alaska Markets Market Ratemaking mileage Actual July 1977 Y fare DPFI formula fare May 1980 1 SIFLformula fare May 1980 10 Y fare as of June 1980 2 Alaska Airlines Wien Alaska... 117.62 155.56 182.99 175 1,500 AS Kenai 5 1,468 124.28 198.37 193.35 159 2,470 WC King Salmon 6...

  15. 7 CFR 1212.14 - Market or marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Market or marketing. 1212.14 Section 1212.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING..., Promotion, Consumer Education, and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1212.14 Market or marketing....

  16. 7 CFR 1212.14 - Market or marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Market or marketing. 1212.14 Section 1212.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING..., Promotion, Consumer Education, and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1212.14 Market or marketing....

  17. 7 CFR 1212.14 - Market or marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Market or marketing. 1212.14 Section 1212.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING..., Promotion, Consumer Education, and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1212.14 Market or marketing....

  18. 7 CFR 1212.14 - Market or marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Market or marketing. 1212.14 Section 1212.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING..., Promotion, Consumer Education, and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1212.14 Market or marketing....

  19. UK Higher Education Viewed through the Marketization and Marketing Lenses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nedbalová, Eva; Greenacre, Luke; Schulz, John

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses the Economic Market mechanisms and the 4P Marketing Mix as lenses to review the context of UK higher education (HE) and to explore the relationship between the market and marketing disciplines and practice. Four Economic Market mechanisms--autonomy, competition, price and information--are contrasted with the four Ps of marketing:…

  20. Optimal Fluoridation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, John R.

    1975-01-01

    Optimal fluoridation has been defined as that fluoride exposure which confers maximal cariostasis with minimal toxicity and its values have been previously determined to be 0.5 to 1 mg per day for infants and 1 to 1.5 mg per day for an average child. Total fluoride ingestion and urine excretion were studied in Marin County, California, children in 1973 before municipal water fluoridation. Results showed fluoride exposure to be higher than anticipated and fulfilled previously accepted criteria for optimal fluoridation. Present and future water fluoridation plans need to be reevaluated in light of total environmental fluoride exposure. PMID:1130041

  1. Market review - Market values summary/October market review/current market data

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    This article is the October 1995 uranium market summary. In this reporting period, there were four transactions in the natural uranium market, no activity in the spot UF6 market, no activity in the spot conversion market, and only a single activity in the enrichment services market. Spot uranium volume dropped sharply, and active uranium supply rose. The rise in demand, however, more than offset this increase. Unrestricted exchange prices rose slightly, as did the unrestricted UF6 value. All other prices remained steady.

  2. [Healthcare marketing elements].

    PubMed

    Ameri, Cinzia; Fiorini, Fulvio

    2014-01-01

    Marketing puts its foundation on a few key concepts: need-demand, product-service, satisfaction, exchange, market, or business structure manufacturing / supply. The combination of these elements allows you to build an effective marketing strategy. Crucial in this respect is to remember the Porter matrix, which shows that for a correct analysis of the relevant market is necessary to refer to the "five forces at play", ie: customers, competitors, new entrants and substitutes threat. Another key lever for proper marketing oriented approach is the continuous and constant monitoring of the application, anticipating their dissatisfactions. PMID:24777920

  3. Marketing the hospital library.

    PubMed

    Bridges, Jane

    2005-01-01

    Many librarians do not see themselves as marketers, but marketing is an essential role for hospital librarians. Library work involves education, and there are parallels between marketing and education as described in this article. It is incumbent upon hospital librarians actively to pursue ways of reminding their customers about library services. This article reinforces the idea that marketing is an element in many of the things that librarians already do, and includes a list of suggested marketing strategies intended to remind administrators, physicians, and other customers that they have libraries in their organizations. PMID:15982957

  4. An area-efficient VLSI architecture for AVS intra frame encoder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ke; Yu, Lu

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a VLSI architecture for AVS intra frame encoder. Reconstruction loop hinders the parallelism exploration and becomes the critical path in an intra frame encoder. A First Selection Then Prediction (FSTP) method is proposed to break the loop and enable the parallel process of intra mode selection and reconstruction on neighboring blocks. In addition, area-efficient modules were developed. Configurable intra predictor can support all the intra prediction modes. A CA-2D-VLC engine with an area-efficient Exp-Golomb encoder was developed to meet the encoding speed demand with comparably low hardware cost. Synthesized with 0.18 m CMOS standard-cell library, the overall hardware cost of the proposed intra frame encoder is 89k logic gates at the clock frequency constraint of 125MHz. Proposed encoder can satisfy real time encoding of 720x576 4:2:0 25fps video at the working frequency of 54MHz.

  5. Lobbying as Marketing. Marketing Community Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Phylis A. W.

    1990-01-01

    The secret of marketing community education effectively at various government levels is unification, both of people and purpose. Although lobbying for community education may constitute a lengthy political process, the benefits derived may far exceed the labor expended. (Author)

  6. Biofuel supply chain, market, and policy analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Leilei

    Renewable fuel is receiving an increasing attention as a substitute for fossil based energy. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has employed increasing effort on promoting the advanced biofuel productions. Although the advanced biofuel remains at its early stage, it is expected to play an important role in climate policy in the future in the transportation sector. This dissertation studies the emerging biofuel supply chain and markets by analyzing the production cost, and the outcomes of the biofuel market, including blended fuel market price and quantity, biofuel contract price and quantity, profitability of each stakeholder (farmers, biofuel producers, biofuel blenders) in the market. I also address government policy impacts on the emerging biofuel market. The dissertation is composed with three parts, each in a paper format. The first part studies the supply chain of emerging biofuel industry. Two optimization-based models are built to determine the number of facilities to deploy, facility locations, facility capacities, and operational planning within facilities. Cost analyses have been conducted under a variety of biofuel demand scenarios. It is my intention that this model will shed light on biofuel supply chain design considering operational planning under uncertain demand situations. The second part of the dissertation work focuses on analyzing the interaction between the key stakeholders along the supply chain. A bottom-up equilibrium model is built for the emerging biofuel market to study the competition in the advanced biofuel market, explicitly formulating the interactions between farmers, biofuel producers, blenders, and consumers. The model simulates the profit maximization of multiple market entities by incorporating their competitive decisions in farmers' land allocation, biomass transportation, biofuel production, and biofuel blending. As such, the equilibrium model is capable of and appropriate for policy analysis, especially for those policies

  7. The Changes of Tear Status after Conventional and Wavefront-Guided IntraLASIK

    PubMed Central

    Foo, Say Kiang; Kaur, Sharanjeet; Abd Manan, Faudziah; Low, Aloysius Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Background: IntraLASIK is a LASIK surgery that involved IntraLase femtosecond laser for the corneal flap creating. The objective of this research was to investigate and compare the changes in tear status at 1 and 3 months after undergoing conventional IntraLASIK with Bausch & Lomb PlanoScan (PS) algorithm, Bausch & Lomb Zyoptix Tissue Saving (ZTS) algorithm, and wavefront-guided (WG) IntraLASIK with VISX CustomVue. Methods: Tear status of 36 patients who were divided into 3 groups depending on the type of IntraLASIK they underwent (PS, n = 13; ZTS, n = 9; WG, n = 14) was evaluated. Tear status was determined by classifying the category of the thickness of pre-corneal tear lipid layer, non-invasive tear break-up time, and tear meniscus height. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and one way ANOVA were used for the statistical analyses. Results: The category of the thickness of tear lipid layer, non-invasive tear break up time and tear meniscus height were neither significantly changed after IntraLASIK for all groups nor showed significant difference among groups at 1 and 3 months post-IntraLASIK (P > 0.05). Blinking rate and palpebral aperture also had no significant changed after IntraLASIK. Conclusion: Both conventional (PS and ZTS) and WG IntraLASIK did not affect tear status up to 3 months post-IntraLASIK. WG IntraLASIK did not show superiority in preserving tear status 1 and 3 months post-surgery compared with conventional IntraLASIK. PMID:22135584

  8. [Community marketing of contraceptives].

    PubMed

    Urrutia, J M

    1987-09-01

    The 5-year-old community contraceptive distribution program developed by PROFAMILIA, Colombia's private family planning organization, has given excellent results, but several cost-effectiveness comparisons with social marketing programs have suggested that commercial distribution programs are superior. The community contraceptive distribution program has a high content of information and education activities, which produced significant increases in knowledge and use of contraception in the communities covered. It has been a fundamental support for the social marketing program, creating much of the demand for contraceptive products that the social marketing program has filled. The social marketing program has given good results in terms of volume of sales and in cost-effectiveness since 1976, prompting calls for replacement of the community contraceptive distribution program by the social marketing program in those sectors where knowledge and use of contraception have achieved acceptable levels. An experiment in the Department of Santander in 1984 and 1985 gave very favorable results, suggesting that community contraceptive distribution programs should be replaced by social marketing programs in all more developed markets. But economic problems in 1985 and the decision of manufacturers to decrease the profit margin for PROFAMILIA jeopardized the social marketing program. The community distribution program covered about 20% of the market. Reduced profits in the social marketing program threatened its continued expansion, at the same time that potential demand was growing because of increases in the fertile aged population and increased use of contraception. To meet the need, PROFAMILIA combined the community contraceptive distribution and social marketing programs into a new entity to be called community marketing. The strategy of the community marketing program will be to maintain PROFAMILIA's participation in the market and aid the growth of demand for

  9. Gear optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderplaats, G. N.; Chen, Xiang; Zhang, Ning-Tian

    1988-01-01

    The use of formal numerical optimization methods for the design of gears is investigated. To achieve this, computer codes were developed for the analysis of spur gears and spiral bevel gears. These codes calculate the life, dynamic load, bending strength, surface durability, gear weight and size, and various geometric parameters. It is necessary to calculate all such important responses because they all represent competing requirements in the design process. The codes developed here were written in subroutine form and coupled to the COPES/ADS general purpose optimization program. This code allows the user to define the optimization problem at the time of program execution. Typical design variables include face width, number of teeth and diametral pitch. The user is free to choose any calculated response as the design objective to minimize or maximize and may impose lower and upper bounds on any calculated responses. Typical examples include life maximization with limits on dynamic load, stress, weight, etc. or minimization of weight subject to limits on life, dynamic load, etc. The research codes were written in modular form for easy expansion and so that they could be combined to create a multiple reduction optimization capability in future.

  10. CFS-1686 Causes Cell Cycle Arrest at Intra-S Phase by Interference of Interaction of Topoisomerase 1 with DNA

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Cheng-Jung; Huang, Shih-Bo; Yang, Min-Chi; Chang, Hsin-Wen; Lin, Chun-Mao; Hwang, Jaulang; Chen, Yeh-Long; Tzeng, Cherg-Chyi; Wang, Chihuei

    2014-01-01

    CFS-1686 (chemical name (E)-N-(2-(diethylamino)ethyl)-4-(2-(2-(5-nitrofuran-2-yl)vinyl)quinolin-4-ylamino)benzamide) inhibits cell proliferation and triggers late apoptosis in prostate cancer cell lines. Comparing the effect of CFS-1686 on cell cycle progression with the topoisomerase 1 inhibitor camptothecin revealed that CFS-1686 and camptothecin reduced DNA synthesis in S-phase, resulting in cell cycle arrest at the intra-S phase and G1-S boundary, respectively. The DNA damage in CFS-1686 and camptothecin treated cells was evaluated by the level of ATM phosphorylation, γH2AX, and γH2AX foci, showing that camptothecin was more effective than CFS-1686. However, despite its lower DNA damage capacity, CFS-1686 demonstrated 4-fold higher inhibition of topoisomerase 1 than camptothecin in a DNA relaxation assay. Unlike camptothecin, CFS-1686 demonstrated no activity on topoisomerase 1 in a DNA cleavage assay, but nevertheless it reduced the camptothecin-induced DNA cleavage of topoisomerase 1 in a dose-dependent manner. Our results indicate that CFS-1686 might bind to topoisomerase 1 to inhibit this enzyme from interacting with DNA relaxation activity, unlike campothecin's induction of a topoisomerase 1-DNA cleavage complex. Finally, we used a computer docking strategy to localize the potential binding site of CFS-1686 to topoisomerase 1, further indicating that CFS-1686 might inhibit the binding of Top1 to DNA. PMID:25460368

  11. Market-based control of active surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berlin, Andrew A.; Hogg, Tad; Jackson, Warren B.

    1998-12-01

    This paper describes a market-based approach to controlling a smart matter-based object transport system, in which an array of distributed air jets applies forces to levitate and control the motion of a planar object. In the smart matter regime, the effects of spatial and temporal variation of operating parameters among a multiplicity of sensor, actuators, and controllers make it desirable for a control strategy to exhibit a minimal dependence on system models, and to be able to arbitrate among conflicting goals. A market-based strategy is introduced that aggregates the control requirements of multiple relatively simple local controllers, each of which seeks to optimize the performance of the system within a limited spatial and temporal range. These local controllers act as the market's consumers, and two sets of distributed air jets act as the producers. Experiments are performed comparing the performance of the market-based strategy to a near-optimal model-derived benchmark, as well as to a hand-tuned PD controller. Results indicate that even though the local controllers in the market are not based on a detailed model of the system dynamics, the market is able to effectively approximate the performance of the model-based benchmark. In certain specialized cases, such as tracking a step trajectory, the performance of the market surpasses the performance of the model-based benchmark by balancing the needs of conflicting control goals. A brief overview of the active surface smart matter prototype being developed at Xerox PARC that is the motivation behind this work is also presented.

  12. Optimizing the technological and informational relationship of the health care process and of the communication between physician and patient. The impact of Preventive Medicine and social marketing applied in Health Care on youth awareness–Preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Gheorghe, IR; Petrescu, GD

    2011-01-01

    Rationale. In this case study we wanted to find out the impact of Preventive Medicine and implicitly social marketing upon young students with the average age of 19, belonging to the academic environment in Romania. Methods The study lasted one month and consisted of a questionnaire that was conceived and applied to 304 adolescents. The questionnaire contained demographic and personal information, such as age, origin, gender, marital status and some questions related to the respondents' attitude towards several issues that are inserted in the preventive medicine discipline, such as the date of their last consultation, if the respondents were registered to a family physician, suffered from chronic diseases, what was the rate of doing physical exercises, if they ate salty and fat meals, if they were on a diet, their rate of alcohol, caffeine and tobacco consumption. Discussion. Ostium secundum defect is the most common type of atrial septal defect and accounts for 60–70% of all cases. The malformation often goes unnoticed for decades because symptoms may be absent and because physical signs are subtle. Symptoms usually take 30–40 years to develop. They are the consequences of pulmonary hypertension, atrial tachyarrhythmias and, sometimes, associated mitral valve disease. ResultsThe panel was made up of more female respondents than male, with the average age rate of 19, who had medical consultations in the last 3 months, are included in the evidence of a family physician, had no chronic diseases, usually do workout exercises moderately, are not on a diet and have 3 meals per day. The meals are medium salty and rarely rich in fats. They drink 2 cups of tea per day and are non–alcohol drinkers and non-smokers. DiscussionAfter applying several statistical tests to find a correlation between our variables, we reached the conclusion that even if the results are encouraging; there is no correlation between the impact of Preventive Medicine and the respondents' health

  13. Minimally Invasive Surgery Combined with Regenerative Biomaterials in Treating Intra-Bony Defects: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Li, Wenyang; Song, Jinlin

    2016-01-01

    Background With the popularity of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) in periodontics, numerous publications have evaluated the benefits of MIS with or without various regenerative biomaterials in the treatment of periodontal intra-bony defects. However, it is unclear if it is necessary to use biomaterials in MIS. Thus, we conducted a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials in patients with intra-bony defects to compare the clinical outcomes of MIS with regenerative biomaterials for MIS alone. Methods The authors retrieved English publications on relevant studies from Cochrane CENTRAL, PubMed, Medline, Embase, Clinical Evidence, and ClinicalTrails.gov (up to June 30, 2015). The main clinical outcomes were the reduction of probing pocket depths (PPDs), gain of clinical attachment level (CAL), recession of gingival margin (REC) and radiographic bone fill. Review Manager 5.2 (Cochrane Collaboration, Oxford, England) was used to calculate the heterogeneity and mean differences of the main clinical outcomes. Results In total, 464 studies in the literature were identified but only four were ultimately feasible. The results showed no significant difference regarding CAL gain (P = 0.32) and PPD reduction (P = 0.40) as well as REC increase (P = 0.81) and radiographic bone fill (P = 0.64) between the MIS plus biomaterials group and the MIS alone group. Conclusions The meta-analysis suggested no significant difference in treatment of intra-bony defects between the MIS plus biomaterials group and the MIS alone group, indicating that it is important to take costs and benefits into consideration when a decision is made about a therapeutic approach. There needs to be an in-depth exploration of the induction of intrinsic tissue healing of MIS without biomaterials to achieve optimal outcomes. PMID:26785405

  14. Choice of the Optimum Cross-Sections for 20-110-330 kV Overhead Lines Under Market Conditions / 20-110-330 Kv Gaisvadu Līniju Optimālo Šķērsgriezumu Izvēle Tirgus Apstākļos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guseva, S.; Petrichenko, L.

    2012-12-01

    Approach is proposed to the choice of overhead line cross-sections that would be optimal under market conditions. For this purpose, in the design practice and at network reconstruction two methods exist: of the economic current density, and of the economic intervals. As of now, none of them works properly, since the cost of electrical materials, of building and construction as well as the total investments in a line are determined by the market prices. Therefore, a modified economic intervals’ method has been developed that can work under market conditions. The method allows also considering the discrete character of standard cross-sections for the lines and concrete technical and technically-economic parameters. For practical application of the proposed method, universal economic nomograms for 20-110-330 kV overhead lines have been calculated and constructed. In the paper, a user interface is proposed for realization of the modified method in Matlab environment. Viens no pilsētas elektriskā tīkla ekonomiskuma paaugstināšanas būtiskiem veidiem ir tīkla racionālā projektēšana. Elektriskā tīkla projekta ekonomiskuma kritērijs ir minimālās summārās ikgadējās izmaksas pie vienādām peļņas vērtībām projekta variantos. Elektropārvādes līniju optimālo šķērsgriezumu izvēle un summāro ikgadējo izmaksu minimums to izbūvei tiek nodrošināts ar ekonomisko intervālu metodes pielietojumu. Sakarā ar ekonomiskās politikas izmaiņām valstī ir izstrādāta un tiek piedāvāta ekonomisko intervālu metodes adaptācija tirgus ekonomikas apstākļiem. Tiek piedāvāts algoritms elektropārvades gaisvadu līniju optimālo šķērsgriezumu izvēlei. Metodes praktiskai realizācijai izstrādātas ekonomisko intervālu nomogrammas. Tiek izveidots lietotāja grafiskais interfeiss Matlab programmēšanas vidē. Ar šīs programmas palīdzību ir konstruētas universālās strāvu ekonomisko intervālu nomogrammas 20-110-330 kV gaisvadu l

  15. Cryopegs as destabilization factor of intra-permafrost gas hydrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuvilin, Evgeny; Bukhanov, Boris; Istomin, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    A characteristic feature of permafrost soils in the Arctic is widespread intra-permafrost unfrozen brine lenses - cryopegs. They are often found in permafrost horizons in the north part of Western Siberia, in particular, on the Yamal Peninsula. Cryopegs depths in permafrost zone can be tens and hundreds of meters from the top of frozen strata. The chemical composition of natural cryopegs is close to sea waters, but is characterized by high mineralization. They have a sodium-chloride primary composition with a minor amount of sulphate. Mineralization of cryopegs brine is often hundreds of grams per liter, and the temperature is around -6…-8 °C. The formation of cryopegs in permafrost is associated with processes of long-term freezing of sediments and cryogenic concentration of salts and salt solutions in local areas. The cryopegs' formation can take place in the course of permafrost evolution at the sea transgressions and regressions during freezing of saline sea sediments. Very important feature of cryopegs in permafrost is their transformation in the process of changing temperature and pressure conditions. As a result, the salinity and chemical composition are changed and in addition the cryopegs' location can be changed during their migration. The cryopegs migration violates the thermodynamic conditions of existence intra-permafrost gas hydrate formations, especially the relic gas hydrates deposits, which are situated in the shallow permafrost up to 100 meters depth in a metastable state [1]. The interaction cryopegs with gas hydrates accumulations can cause decomposition of intra-permafrost hydrates. Moreover, the increasing of salt and unfrozen water content in sedimentary rocks sharply reduce the efficiency of gas hydrates self-preservation in frozen soils. It is confirmed by experimental investigations of interaction of frozen gas hydrate bearing sediments with salt solutions [2]. So, horizons with elevated pressure can appear, as a result of gas hydrate

  16. Transferring diffractive optics from research to commercial applications: Part II - size estimations for selected markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunner, Robert

    2014-04-01

    In a series of two contributions, decisive business-related aspects of the current process status to transfer research results on diffractive optical elements (DOEs) into commercial solutions are discussed. In part I, the focus was on the patent landscape. Here, in part II, market estimations concerning DOEs for selected applications are presented, comprising classical spectroscopic gratings, security features on banknotes, DOEs for high-end applications, e.g., for the semiconductor manufacturing market and diffractive intra-ocular lenses. The derived market sizes are referred to the optical elements, itself, rather than to the enabled instruments. The estimated market volumes are mainly addressed to scientifically and technologically oriented optical engineers to serve as a rough classification of the commercial dimensions of DOEs in the different market segments and do not claim to be exhaustive.

  17. Line managers as marketers.

    PubMed

    Rynne, T J

    1986-09-01

    Many hospital administrators and boards of directors, having overcome their initial opposition to advertising and hired a marketing professional, are wondering why their marketing programs have not accomplished all that they had hoped. The answer lies in their perception of who is responsible for marketing. Marketing is not a specialty separate from the disciplines of management--it is a basic management skill. Its goal is to satisfy the customer by providing products and services that meet the customer's needs, wants, and preferences. Line managers must understand the hospital's customers and make the critical day-to-day differences in satisfying them. They are the hospital's front-line marketers, and the marketing department's role is to support them in this function. The marketing department should develop the line managers' marketing skills by furnishing them with the appropriate tools: formats, models, examples, and instructions. In addition, the marketing staff should provide such specialized services as marketing research, ad agency management, and development of communications. PMID:10277616

  18. Intra-shot MSE Calibration Technique For LHCD Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Ko, Jinseok; Scott, Steve; Shiraiwa, Syun'ichi; Greenwald, Martin; Parker, Ronald; Wallace, Gregory

    2009-11-23

    The spurious drift in pitch angle of order several degrees measured by the Motional Stark Effect (MSE) diagnostic in the Alcator C-Mod tokamak1 over the course of an experimental run day has precluded direct utilization of independent absolute calibrations. Recently, the underlying cause of the drift has been identified as thermal stress-induced birefringence in a set of in-vessel lenses. The shot-to-shot drift can be avoided by using MSE to measure only the change in pitch angle between a reference phase and a phase of physical interest within a single plasma discharge. This intra-shot calibration technique has been applied to the Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD) experiments and the measured current profiles qualitatively demonstrate several predictions of LHCD theory such as an inverse dependence of current drive efficiency on the parallel refractive index and the presence of off-axis current drive.

  19. Neuromuscular block after intra-arterially injected acetylcholine

    PubMed Central

    Tonali, P.; Gambi, D.

    1973-01-01

    The neuromuscular depolarizing block induced by intra-arterially injected ACh was studied to determine the variability in the same subject and in different subjects without disorders at the motor end-plate. Amplitude of action potentials of the opponens pollicis muscle evoked by intermittent repetitive supramaximal stimulation of the median nerve at the wrist were recorded for one hour from the beginning of ACh injection. The features of prompt and late depression stages after the injection were analysed statistically. Re-testing of the same subjects after a while shows that, in spite of all efforts to maintain the same experimental conditions, variations do occur in late depression. Time course and duration are particularly affected, while the degree of depression is altered but slightly. The presence of such variations limits this test to evaluation of the influence of other factors only within their already established statistical limits. Images PMID:4350703

  20. Advances in Surgical Management of Intra-articular Calcaneus Fractures.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Andrew R; Anderson, Robert B; Cohen, Bruce E

    2015-07-01

    Intra-articular calcaneus fractures are commonly sustained after high-energy trauma, and a variety of techniques exists for anatomic reduction and surgical fixation. Traditional approaches using an extended L-shaped lateral incision with lateral plating for open reduction and internal fixation have relatively high complication rates. Common complications include hematoma formation, skin edge necrosis, wound breakdown, and superficial or deep infection. As a result, less invasive techniques have been developed in recent years, including limited-incision sinus tarsi open reduction and internal fixation, percutaneous fixation, and arthroscopic-assisted fixation. These techniques are associated with lower complication rates and equivalent clinical and radiographic outcomes in certain fracture patterns and patient populations. PMID:26111874

  1. Transetherification on Polyols by Intra- and Intermolecular Nucleophilic Substitutions

    PubMed Central

    Muraoka, Takahiro; Adachi, Kota; Chowdhury, Rainy; Kinbara, Kazushi

    2014-01-01

    Transetherification on polyols involving intra- and intermolecular nucleophilic substitutions is reported. Di- or trialkoxide formation of propane-1,3-diol or 2-(hydroxymethyl)propane-1,3-diol derivatives by NaH triggers the reaction via oxetanes formation, where the order to add NaH and a polyol significantly influences the yields of products. It was demonstrated that the protective group on the pentaerythritol skeleton is apparently transferred to the hydrophilic and hydrophobic chain molecules bearing a leaving group in one-step, and a protective group conversion from tosyl to benzyl was successful using a benzyl-appending triol to afford a desired product in 67% yield. PMID:24663293

  2. Annular pancreas intra operatively discovered: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Zeineb, Mzoughi; Sadri, Ben Abid; Nizar, Miloudi; Hassen, Hentati; Nafaa, Arfa; Taher, Khalfallah

    2011-01-01

    Annular pancreas is a rare congenital abnormality. This entity can rarely be symptomatic. Patients can present with gastrointestinal obstruction or acute pancreatitis. We report a case with a rich iconography, of an annular pancreas discovered intraoperatively. A 46-year-old woman was operated with the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis with common bile duct stones. At operation, a strip of pancreatic tissue (2 cm) completely encircled the second duodenum. Open cholecytectomy with choledocotomy and stones extractionwas done. Postoperatively, she developed an acute pancreatitis. The post-operative cholangiography showed the annular duct surrounding the second duodenum. Annular pancreas is rare. Symptoms may occur in newborn children. In adults, annular pancreas discovering is radiological or intra operatively. PMID:24765382

  3. Retrograde intra-vesical reconstructive surgery (RIVRS): A novel technique

    PubMed Central

    Laddha, Abhishek; Ganpule, Arvind; Mishra, Sahshikant; Sabnis, Ravindra; Desai, Mahesh

    2016-01-01

    Management of distal ureter by en block resection during radical nephrectomy for upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is considered as standard of care. In this report, we describe our technique for management of lower ureter which utilizes both the endoscopic and laparoscopic approach. The nephrectomy including the dissection of the lower ureter was completed laproscopically. The ureteral orifice was scored using a hook passed through a 24 Fr nephroscope and secured .Transurethral suturing of the defect with SewRight SR5 device passed through the working channel of the 24 Fr nephroscope was done. Our report highlights the fact that management of lower ureter in TCC pelvis can be done endoscopically/laproscopically without compromising the oncological principles. Our novel technique demonstrates feasibility of intra mural resection of the ureter and primary closure of the bladder endoscopically. PMID:27279408

  4. Improved technique for insertion of intra-aortic balloon pump.

    PubMed

    Cutler, B S; Vander Salm, T J

    1980-06-01

    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE, Gortex) grafts have several advantages over woven Dacron grafts for the insertion of intra-aortic balloons (IABP). Because of the smooth inner surface of the PTFE graft, an 8-mm graft may be used instead of the 10-mm minimum size with Dacron. The pliability of the PTFE graft makes it easier to sew with fine suture material, and its comformability permits a "blood tight" seal to be obtained with a single Dacron umbilical tape tie. We have used PTFE grafts for IABP insertion in 24 patients, with no infectious or thrombotic complications. This graft material seems to offer substantial technical advantages over woven Dacron for the insertion of IABP and subsequent arterial repair. PMID:7387373

  5. Intra-Arterial Treatment Methods in Acute Stroke Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thanh N.; Babikian, Viken L.; Romero, Rafael; Pikula, Aleksandra; Kase, Carlos S.; Jovin, Tudor G.; Norbash, Alexander M.

    2011-01-01

    Acute revascularization is associated with improved outcomes in ischemic stroke patients. It is unclear which method of intra-arterial intervention, if any, is ideal. Promising approaches in acute stroke treatment are likely a combination of intravenous and endovascular revascularization efforts, combining early treatment initiation with direct clot manipulation and/or PTA/stenting. In this review, we will discuss available thrombolytic therapies and endovascular recanalization techniques, beginning with chemical thrombolytic agents, followed by mechanical devices, and a review of ongoing trials. Further randomized studies comparing medical therapy, intravenous and endovascular treatments are essential, and their implementation will require the wide support and enthusiasm from the neurologic, neuroradiologic, and neurosurgical stroke communities. PMID:21516256

  6. Retrograde intra-vesical reconstructive surgery (RIVRS): A novel technique.

    PubMed

    Laddha, Abhishek; Ganpule, Arvind; Mishra, Sahshikant; Sabnis, Ravindra; Desai, Mahesh

    2016-01-01

    Management of distal ureter by en block resection during radical nephrectomy for upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is considered as standard of care. In this report, we describe our technique for management of lower ureter which utilizes both the endoscopic and laparoscopic approach. The nephrectomy including the dissection of the lower ureter was completed laproscopically. The ureteral orifice was scored using a hook passed through a 24 Fr nephroscope and secured .Transurethral suturing of the defect with SewRight SR5 device passed through the working channel of the 24 Fr nephroscope was done. Our report highlights the fact that management of lower ureter in TCC pelvis can be done endoscopically/laproscopically without compromising the oncological principles. Our novel technique demonstrates feasibility of intra mural resection of the ureter and primary closure of the bladder endoscopically. PMID:27279408

  7. Relating Land Use and Human Intra-City Mobility

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Minjin; Holme, Petter

    2015-01-01

    Understanding human mobility patterns—how people move in their everyday lives—is an interdisciplinary research field. It is a question with roots back to the 19th century that has been dramatically revitalized with the recent increase in data availability. Models of human mobility often take the population distribution as a starting point. Another, sometimes more accurate, data source is land-use maps. In this paper, we discuss how the intra-city movement patterns, and consequently population distribution, can be predicted from such data sources. As a link between land use and mobility, we show that the purposes of people’s trips are strongly correlated with the land use of the trip’s origin and destination. We calibrate, validate and discuss our model using survey data. PMID:26445147

  8. Edge adaptive intra field de-interlacing of video images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachine, Vladimir; Smith, Gregory; Lee, Louie

    2013-02-01

    Expanding image by an arbitrary scale factor and thereby creating an enlarged image is a crucial image processing operation. De-interlacing is an example of such operation where a video field is enlarged in vertical direction with 1 to 2 scale factor. The most advanced de-interlacing algorithms use a few consequent input fields to generate one output frame. In order to save hardware resources in video processors, missing lines in each field may be generated without reference to the other fields. Line doubling, known as "bobbing", is the simplest intra field de-interlacing method. However, it may generate visual artifacts. For example, interpolation of an inserted line from a few neighboring lines by vertical filter may produce such visual artifacts as "jaggies." In this work we present edge adaptive image up-scaling and/or enhancement algorithm, which can produce "jaggies" free video output frames. As a first step, an edge and its parameters in each interpolated pixel are detected from gradient squared tensor based on local signal variances. Then, according to the edge parameters including orientation, anisotropy and variance strength, the algorithm determines footprint and frequency response of two-dimensional interpolation filter for the output pixel. Filter's coefficients are defined by edge parameters, so that quality of the output frame is controlled by local content. The proposed method may be used for image enlargement or enhancement (for example, anti-aliasing without resampling). It has been hardware implemented in video display processor for intra field de-interlacing of video images.

  9. Separation of intra- and intermolecular contributions to the PELDOR signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöps, Philipp; Plackmeyer, Jörn; Marko, Andriy

    2016-08-01

    Pulsed Electron-electron Double Resonance (PELDOR) is commonly used to measure distances between native paramagnetic centers or spin labels attached to complex biological macromolecules. In PELDOR the energies of electron magnetic dipolar interactions are measured by analyzing the oscillation frequencies of the recorded time resolved signal. Since PELDOR is an ensemble method, the detected signal contains contributions from intramolecular, as well as intermolecular electron spin interactions. The intramolecular part of the signal contains the information about the structure of the studied molecules, thus it is very important to accurately separate intra- and intermolecular contributions to the total signal. This separation can become ambiguous, when the length of the PELDOR signal is not much longer than twice the oscillation period of the signal. In this work we suggest a modulation depth scaling method, which can use short PELDOR signals in order to extract the intermolecular contribution. Using synthetic data we demonstrate the advantages of the new approach and analyze its stability with regard to signal noise. The method was also successfully tested on experimental data of three systems measured at Q-Band frequencies, two model compounds in deuterated and protonated solvents and one biological sample, namely BetP. The application of the new method with an assigned value of the signal modulation depth enables us to determine the interspin distances in all cases. This is especially interesting for the model compound with an interspin distance of 5.2 nm in the protonated solvent and the biological sample, since an accurate separation of the intra- and intermolecular PELDOR signal contributions would be difficult with the standard approach in those cases.

  10. Separation of intra- and intermolecular contributions to the PELDOR signal.

    PubMed

    Schöps, Philipp; Plackmeyer, Jörn; Marko, Andriy

    2016-08-01

    Pulsed Electron-electron Double Resonance (PELDOR) is commonly used to measure distances between native paramagnetic centers or spin labels attached to complex biological macromolecules. In PELDOR the energies of electron magnetic dipolar interactions are measured by analyzing the oscillation frequencies of the recorded time resolved signal. Since PELDOR is an ensemble method, the detected signal contains contributions from intramolecular, as well as intermolecular electron spin interactions. The intramolecular part of the signal contains the information about the structure of the studied molecules, thus it is very important to accurately separate intra- and intermolecular contributions to the total signal. This separation can become ambiguous, when the length of the PELDOR signal is not much longer than twice the oscillation period of the signal. In this work we suggest a modulation depth scaling method, which can use short PELDOR signals in order to extract the intermolecular contribution. Using synthetic data we demonstrate the advantages of the new approach and analyze its stability with regard to signal noise. The method was also successfully tested on experimental data of three systems measured at Q-Band frequencies, two model compounds in deuterated and protonated solvents and one biological sample, namely BetP. The application of the new method with an assigned value of the signal modulation depth enables us to determine the interspin distances in all cases. This is especially interesting for the model compound with an interspin distance of 5.2nm in the protonated solvent and the biological sample, since an accurate separation of the intra- and intermolecular PELDOR signal contributions would be difficult with the standard approach in those cases. PMID:27243966

  11. POCI: A compact high resolution {gamma} camera for intra-operative surgical use

    SciTech Connect

    Menard, L.; Charon, Y.; Solal, M.; Laniece, P.; Mastrippolito, R.; Pinot, L.; Ploux, L.; Valentin, L. |; Ricard, M.

    1998-06-01

    The development of a hand-held {gamma} imaging probe for inside body localization of small tumors is of first interest for radio-guided operative cancer surgery. In that context, the authors have developed a sub-millimeter spatial resolution, small field of view, {gamma} per-operative compact imager (POCI). It consists of a head module composed of a high resolution tungsten collimator and a YAP:Ce crystal plate, optically coupled to an intensified position sensitive diode (IPSD). The authors report here the essential imaging performance characteristics of the POCI camera (spatial resolution, position linearity, efficiency and energy response). These were obtained by studying the influence of the collimator and the crystal design to evaluate the optimal configuration. The present version of POCI has a 24 mm diameter usable field of view and an intrinsic spatial resolution of 0.9 mm to 1.2 mm FWHM at 120 keV. These good detection performance characteristics combined with the small size of the camera make the device well suited to provide intra-operative monitoring in several medical procedures, such as thyroid and breast tumor removal.

  12. Bidirectional RF-modulated fiber optic link for intra-satellite communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suter, Joseph J.; Poret, Jay C.; Bhatnagar, Vipul

    1994-06-01

    Use of optical carriers to distribute RF and microwave signals can significantly reduce the size and weight of spacecraft communication systems. Optical carriers can accommodate several RF signals per fiber while permitting noise requirements for communications systems to be met. We previously reported the development of a space-qualified fiber-optic intra-satellite link that meets the requirements on single-side-band phase noise for precision RF signals. The radar altimeter radar chirp signals distributed by these links also meet system requirements. This paper reports our progress in designing a fiber-optic link that transmits RF signals in both directions on the same fiber. Tests at 5, 15, and 80 MHz showed that, for radar altimeter system applications onboard spacecraft, the bidirectional link meets the altimeter RF section's requirements on single-side-band phase noise. However, the severe attenuation requires that the modulated signals be amplified, which may increase the noise levels in the receiver section. Further work is needed to optimize the link for phase noise performance and to address power losses.

  13. Early embryonic intra-cardiac flow fields at three idealized ventricular morphologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekkan, Kerem; Jamaly, Mohammad; Kara, Burak; Keller, Bradley; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2009-11-01

    Pulsatile 3D multiple inlet/outlet flow within tiny (100-300μm dia) embryonic ventricles feature distinct intra-cardiac flow streams whose role in regulating the morphogenesis of spiral aorto-pulmonary septum has long been debated. The low Re number flow regimes limit mixing of these streams as replicated in our flow-visualization experiments with chick embryos. A state-of-the art high-resolution immersed boundary CFD solver which was developed for complex patient-specific cardiovascular internal flow problems is applied and optimized for this problem. Idealized tubular ventricles at 3 major embryonic stages (straight, C- and D- loops) are created by our sketch-based anatomical editing tool. CFD results are validated with PIV measurements acquired from a micro-fabricated C-loop stage replica and in vivo flow vis data from confocal microscopy. This model provided the inlet velocity profile for arterial models and flow fields at the inner curvature of embryonic hearts for different ventricular topologies are compared for off-design modes.

  14. Precise modelling of the eye for proton therapy of intra-ocular tumours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobler, Barbara; Bendl, Rolf

    2002-02-01

    A new method is described that allows precise modelling of organs at risk and target volume for radiation therapy of intra-ocular tumours. The aim is to optimize the dose distribution and thus to reduce normal tissue complication probability. A geometrical 3D model based on elliptic shapes was developed that can be used for multimodal model-based segmentation of 3D patient data. The tumour volume cannot be clearly identified in CT and MR data, whereas the tumour outline can be discriminated very precisely in fundus photographs. Therefore, a multimodal 2D fundus diagram was developed, which allows us to correlate and display simultaneously information extracted from the eye model, 3D data and the fundus photograph. Thus, the connection of fundus diagram and 3D data is well-defined and the 3D volume can be calculated directly from the tumour outline drawn onto the fundus photograph and the tumour height measured by ultrasound. The method allows the calculation of a precise 3D eye model of the patient, including the different structures of the eye as well as the tumour volume. The method was developed as part of the new 3D treatment planning system OCTOPUS for proton therapy of ocular tumours within a national research project together with the Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin.

  15. Intra- and extracellular carbohydrates in plant cell cultures investigated by (1)H-NMR.

    PubMed

    Schripsema, J; Erkelens, C; Verpoorte, R

    1991-01-01

    With the aim of quantifying intra- and extracellular carbohydrates media and cell-extracts from a Tabernaemontana divaricata plant cell-suspension culture were investigated with (1)H-NMR.For suppression of the solvent peak the Meiboom-Gill modification of the Carr-Purcell (CPMG) spin-echo sequence was used after addition of a paramagnetic relaxation agent (Mn(2+)) to the sample. Several aspects of this method were optimized (the manganese concentration, the interpulse delay and the number of spin-echo cycles) so as to obtain a rapid and easy method in which no pretreatment of media or cell-extracts was needed. Besides the speed and ease of the method, also the direct identification of carbohydrates and other main components is an advantage.The exhaustion of extracellular carbohydrates was found to coincide with the maximum amount of intracellular carbohydrates. The intracellular carbohydrates, i.e. glucose and fructose, were consumed at a low rate, during several weeks. PMID:24213796

  16. Effect of varying heart rate on intra-ventricular filling fluid dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santhanakrishnan, Arvind; Okafor, Ikechukwu; Angirish, Yagna; Yoganathan, Ajit

    2013-11-01

    Impaired exercise tolerance is used to delineate asymptomatic patients during the clinical diagnosis of diastolic left heart failure. Examining the effects of varying heart rate on intra-ventricular filling can provide a physical understanding of the specific flow characteristics that are impacted during exercise. In this study, diastolic filling was investigated with an anatomical left ventricle (LV) physical model under normal heart rate of 70 bpm, and varying exercise conditions of 100 bpm and 120 bpm. The LV model was incorporated into a flow loop and tuned for physiological inflow rates and outflow pressures. 2D PIV measurements were conducted along 3 parallel longitudinal planes. The systemic pressure was maintained the same across all test conditions. The E/A ratio was maintained within 1.0-1.2 across all heart rates. The strength of the mitral vortex ring formed during E-wave, as well as the peak incoming jet velocity, decreased with increasing heart rate. During peak flow of the A-wave, the vortex ring propagated farther into the LV for 120 bpm as compared to 70 bpm. The results point to the heightened role of the atrial kick for optimal LV filling during exercise conditions. This study was funded by a grant from the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (RO1HL70262).

  17. Morals and markets.

    PubMed

    Falk, Armin; Szech, Nora

    2013-05-10

    The possibility that market interaction may erode moral values is a long-standing, but controversial, hypothesis in the social sciences, ethics, and philosophy. To date, empirical evidence on decay of moral values through market interaction has been scarce. We present controlled experimental evidence on how market interaction changes how human subjects value harm and damage done to third parties. In the experiment, subjects decide between either saving the life of a mouse or receiving money. We compare individual decisions to those made in a bilateral and a multilateral market. In both markets, the willingness to kill the mouse is substantially higher than in individual decisions. Furthermore, in the multilateral market, prices for life deteriorate tremendously. In contrast, for morally neutral consumption choices, differences between institutions are small. PMID:23661753

  18. Two essays on problems of deregulated electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perekhodtsev, Dmitri

    Empirical test of models of unilateral and collusive market power in California's electricity market in 2000. The data from California energy crisis of 2000 suggests that the largest departures of observed electricity prices from the estimates of the competitive price occur when demand approaches market capacity. This paper studies models of unilateral and collusive market power applicable to electricity markets. Both suggest a unique mechanism explaining the increase of the price-cost margin with demand. The empirical test of these models provides more evidence for unilateral market power than for behavior suggesting tacit collusion. Economics of hydro generating plants operating in markets for energy and ancillary services. In order to preserve the stability of electricity supply, electric generators have to provide ancillary services in addition to energy production. Hydro generators are believed to be the most efficient source of ancillary services because of their good dynamic flexibility. This paper studies optimal operation decisions for river dams and pumped storage facilities operating in markets for energy and ancillary services as well as the change in the water shadow price in presence of ancillary services markets. The analysis is applied to valuation of the ancillary services provided by hydro resources in the Tennessee Valley Authority. A simulation of ancillary services markets shows that TVA's hydro resources providing ancillary services can allow for substantial savings in total costs of energy provision. Optimal hydro scheduling in markets for energy and ancillary services increases the value of TVA's hydro resources by 9% on average and up to 26% for particular units. As a result of hydro participation in ancillary services markets water shadow prices of river dams drop significantly allowing for tightening hydro constraints in favor of other water uses.

  19. Historical market data

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    Historical financial data is provided for the uranium market in graphic and tabular form. Market data includes restricted and unrestricted uranium price ranges; exchange, transaction, uranium hexafluoride, conversion, and separative work values; and annual world uranium production and requirements. Selected historical economic indicators are listed for Australia, Canada, South Africa, and the United States. Natural uranium deliveries to the European Union and U.S. uranium marketing data are provided.

  20. Derived enriched uranium market

    SciTech Connect

    Rutkowski, E.

    1996-12-01

    The potential impact on the uranium market of highly enriched uranium from nuclear weapons dismantling in the Russian Federation and the USA is analyzed. Uranium supply, conversion, and enrichment factors are outlined for each country; inventories are also listed. The enrichment component and conversion components are expected to cause little disruption to uranium markets. The uranium component of Russian derived enriched uranium hexafluoride is unresolved; US legislation places constraints on its introduction into the US market.

  1. Communication impacting financial markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitting Andersen, Jørgen; Vrontos, Ioannis; Dellaportas, Petros; Galam, Serge

    2014-10-01

    Since the attribution of the Nobel prize in 2002 to Kahneman for prospect theory, behavioral finance has become an increasingly important subfield of finance. However the main parts of behavioral finance, prospect theory included, understand financial markets through individual investment behavior. Behavioral finance thereby ignores any interaction between participants. We introduce a socio-financial model (Vitting Andersen J. and Nowak A., An Introduction to Socio-Finance (Springer, Berlin) 2013) that studies the impact of communication on the pricing in financial markets. Considering the simplest possible case where each market participant has either a positive (bullish) or negative (bearish) sentiment with respect to the market, we model the evolution of the sentiment in the population due to communication in subgroups of different sizes. Nonlinear feedback effects between the market performance and changes in sentiments are taken into account by assuming that the market performance is dependent on changes in sentiments (e.g., a large sudden positive change in bullishness would lead to more buying). The market performance in turn has an impact on the sentiment through the transition probabilities to change an opinion in a group of a given size. The idea is that if for example the market has observed a recent downturn, it will be easier for even a bearish minority to convince a bullish majority to change opinion compared to the case where the meeting takes place in a bullish upturn of the market. Within the framework of our proposed model, financial markets stylized facts such as volatility clustering and extreme events may be perceived as arising due to abrupt sentiment changes via ongoing communication of the market participants. The model introduces a new volatility measure which is apt of capturing volatility clustering and from maximum-likelihood analysis we are able to apply the model to real data and give additional long term insight into where a market is

  2. Marketing pastoral counseling.

    PubMed

    Lageman, A G

    1984-12-01

    Identifies, suggests understandings, and illustrates applications of marketing principles as they relate to pastoral counseling services. Describes four approaches to marketing pastoral counseling--traditional, educational, marketing, and fund raising--and gives illustrations of each. A director of an established pastoral counseling center responds to the article in terms of "high density" and "low density" principles and suggests that strategies which emulate the medical model may need to be re-examined by contemporary pastoral counselors. PMID:10269463

  3. Targeting biodefense markets.

    PubMed

    Olinger, Gene Garrard

    2009-10-01

    The "World Vaccine Congress 2009" held in Washington D.C. (April 20-23, 2009) sponsored several sessions focused on the vaccine market targeting biodefense. On day one of the congress, a panel discussion outlined the federal progress in medical countermeasure preparedness that included emerging infections, influenza, and biodefense focuses. The second day, a session focused on the biodefense vaccine market with both government and industry members discussing the opportunities and challenges associated with the budding market. PMID:19855169

  4. Market Review: Market values summary/April market review/current market data

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    This article is the April 1996 Uranium transactions summary. Data is presented on the supply, demand, and prices of U3O8, conversion services, and separative work units. During this period, market activity slowed, with only four transactions in the spot market. Prices strengthened slightly. There were five deals in the long-term U3O8 market and one deal in the conversion market. Active demand increased to 1.1 million pounds U3O8, while active supply increased to 4.8 million pounds U3O8.

  5. Market review: Market values summary July market review/current market data

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    A summary of financial data for the uranium spot market is provided. Recent transactions are tabulated, including uranium sales, natural uranium loans, conversion sales, and enrichment sales. A market values summary and long-term price indicators are also provided. The July 1996 market review data includes summaries of near-term uranium sales, near-term supply/demand, NUEXCO values, USEC prices, and calculated worth of enriched uranium. Active projects in uranium, conversion, and separative work supply and demand are listed. International market values are tabulated for 22 selected currencies.

  6. Marketing veterinary services.

    PubMed

    Lee, David E

    2006-03-01

    Marketing is a holistic process that goes far beyond a Yellow Page advertisement or a glossy brochure. A thorough evaluation of a market before entry, including best and worst case scenarios, is critical to mak-ing good investments. Veterinarians are fortunate to have a market that is largely protected by barriers to entry and characterized by reasonably high rates of return given minimal risk. Our market base continues to expand and, overall, remains fairly price insensitive. The extent to which a practice can align its capabilities with a product mix that ideally meets its clients' needs will ultimately determine its success. PMID:16442443

  7. World helicopter market study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleary, B.; Pearson, R. W.; Greenwood, S. W.; Kaplan, L.

    1978-01-01

    The extent of the threat to the US helicopter industry posed by a determined effort by foreign manufacturers, European companies in particular, to supply their own domestic markets and also to penetrate export markets, including the USA is assessed. Available data on US and world markets for civil and military uses are collated and presented in both graphic and tabular form showing the past history of production and markets and, where forecasts are available, anticipated future trends. The data are discussed on an item-by-item basis and inferences are drawn in as much depth as appears justified.

  8. Practical approaches to marketing.

    PubMed

    Chaney, H S

    1986-09-01

    Marketing in health care is the process of developing, promoting, and administrating health care services to a client for the benefit of both. The success of a nurse executive in the area of marketing is dependent on the appropriate application of marketing principles, including assessment and/or awareness of needs, development of new services, promotion of current and new services, and target market development. The author discusses how the nurse executive can aggressively promote services based on consumer demand states and effectively use advertising, publicity, and personal promotion strategies. PMID:3638339

  9. The Marketing Plan: An Integrative Device for Teaching Marketing Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berdine, W. R.; Petersen, James C.

    1980-01-01

    The importance of the marketing plan is stressed as an integrative device for teaching marketing management, and a structure is presented to assist students in designing a marketing plan. Components of this plan include marketing objectives, targeting market and buying motives, external environment and competition, product, price, and promotion.…

  10. 7 CFR 1206.12 - Market or marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.12 Market or marketing... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Market or marketing. 1206.12 Section 1206.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE...

  11. 7 CFR 1206.12 - Market or marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Market or marketing. 1206.12 Section 1206.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.12 Market or...

  12. 7 CFR 1206.12 - Market or marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Market or marketing. 1206.12 Section 1206.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.12 Market or...

  13. 7 CFR 1206.12 - Market or marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Market or marketing. 1206.12 Section 1206.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.12 Market or...

  14. 7 CFR 1206.12 - Market or marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Market or marketing. 1206.12 Section 1206.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.12 Market or...

  15. 21 CFR 20.62 - Inter- or intra-agency memoranda or letters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inter- or intra-agency memoranda or letters. 20.62 Section 20.62 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION Exemptions § 20.62 Inter- or intra-agency memoranda or letters. All...

  16. Intra-uterine devices, A SEM study on the Dalkon Shield.

    PubMed

    Guidoin, R; Courtney, J M; Brault, R; Domurado, D; Haggis, G H

    1976-01-01

    A SEM study carried on intra-uterine devices (Dalkon Shield) is reported. The poor manufacturing of the devices is stressed, which could increase their efficiency but also the risks of penetration, or worse, perforation. The solution for the future could be copper bearing intra-uterine devices coated by hydrogels. This should maintain efficiency and improve security. PMID:1276332

  17. 49 CFR 801.55 - Interagency and intra-agency exchanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interagency and intra-agency exchanges. 801.55 Section 801.55 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION Exemption From Public Disclosure § 801.55 Interagency and intra-agency exchanges. (a)...

  18. Diagnostic imaging of intra-abdominal cyst in heifer using the computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    OTOMARU, Konosuke; FUJIKAWA, Takuro; SAITO, Yasuo; ANDO, Takaaki; OBI, Takeshi; MIURA, Naoki; KUBOTA, Chikara

    2015-01-01

    A 10-month-old Japanese black heifer was diagnosed as having an intra-abdominal cyst using computed tomography (CT). Through a posterior ventral midline incision, the cyst was removed, and the heifer completely recovered after the surgery. CT scans enabled detection of the intra-abdominal cyst and measurements of the diameter of the cyst before the surgery. PMID:25924971

  19. Investigating Inter-Individual Differences in Short-Term Intra-Individual Variability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lijuan; Hamaker, Ellen; Bergeman, C. S.

    2012-01-01

    Intra-individual variability over a short period of time may contain important information about how individuals differ from each other. In this article we begin by discussing diverse indicators for quantifying intra-individual variability and indicate their advantages and disadvantages. Then we propose an alternative method that models…

  20. Inter-Group and Intra-Group Assertiveness: Adolescents' Social Skills Following Cultural Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korem, Anat; Horenczyk, Gabriel; Tatar, Moshe

    2012-01-01

    The goals of this study were to examine intra-group and inter-group assertiveness among adolescents, and to compare these two domains of assertiveness between cultural groups in Israel. Measures of intra-group and inter-group assertiveness were developed, and questionnaires were administrated to 441 immigrants from the Former Soviet Union (FSU),…

  1. Inter-Industry Trade and Intra-Industry Trade: Some Recent Developments in International Trade Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenaway, David

    1978-01-01

    Contends that the analysis of intra-industry trade supplements the subject of trade theory in undergraduate economics courses. Intra-industry trade is the situation in which a country both exports and imports the products of a particular industry, e.g. automobiles. Questions for discussion are included. (KC)

  2. Revisiting "Rodriguez v. Los Angeles Unified School District": A Case of Intra-District Inequities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espinosa, Ruben W.

    2010-01-01

    The educational community and the courts continue to struggle with the challenges of intra-district resource inequality revealed by the California Supreme Court landmark case "Rodriguez v. Los Angeles Unified School District" (1992). Intra-district school resource inequality is one of the remaining bastions of major inequalities in the United…

  3. A necessary evil? Intra-abdominal hypertension complicating burn patient resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective Severe burns are devastating injuries that result in considerable systemic inflammation and often require resuscitation with large volumes of fluid. The result of massive resuscitation is often raised intra-abdominal pressures leading to Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and the secondary abdominal compartment syndrome. The objective of this study is to conduct (1) a 10 year retrospective study to investigate epidemiological factors contributing to burn injuries in Alberta, (2) to characterize fluid management and incidence of IAH and ACS and (3) to review fluid resuscitation with a goal to identify optimal strategies for fluid resuscitation. Design A comprehensive 10-year retrospective review of burn injuries from 1999. Outcome Measures Age, sex, date, mechanism of injury, location of incident, on scene vitals and GCS, type of transport to hospital and routing, ISS, presenting vitals and GCS, diagnoses, procedures, complications, hospital LOS, ICU LOS, and events surrounding the injury. Results One hundred and seventy five patients (79.4% M, 20.6% F) were identified as having traumatic burn injuries with a mean ISS score of 21.8 (±8.3). The mean age was 41.6 (±17.5) (range 14-94) years. Nearly half (49.7%) of patients suffered their injuries at home, 17.7% were related to industrial incidents and 14.3% were MVC related. One hundred and ten patients required ICU admission. ICU LOS 18.5 (±8.8) days. Hospital LOS 38.0 (±37.8) days. The mean extent of burn injury was 31.4 (±20.9) % TBSA. Nearly half of the patients suffered inhalational injuries (mild 12.5%, moderate 13.7%, severe 9.1%). Thirty-nine (22.2%) of patients died from their injuries. Routine IAP monitoring began in September, 2005 with 15 of 28 patients having at least two IAP measurements. The mean IAP was 16.5 (±5.7) cm H2O (range: 1-40) with an average of 58 (±97) IAP measurements per patient. Those patients with IAP monitoring had an average TBSA of 35.0 (±16.0)%, ISS of 47.5 (±7

  4. Simulating water markets with transaction costs

    PubMed Central

    Erfani, Tohid; Binions, Olga; Harou, Julien J

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an optimization model to simulate short-term pair-wise spot-market trading of surface water abstraction licenses (water rights). The approach uses a node-arc multicommodity formulation that tracks individual supplier-receiver transactions in a water resource network. This enables accounting for transaction costs between individual buyer-seller pairs and abstractor-specific rules and behaviors using constraints. Trades are driven by economic demand curves that represent each abstractor's time-varying water demand. The purpose of the proposed model is to assess potential hydrologic and economic outcomes of water markets and aid policy makers in designing water market regulations. The model is applied to the Great Ouse River basin in Eastern England. The model assesses the potential weekly water trades and abstractions that could occur in a normal and a dry year. Four sectors (public water supply, energy, agriculture, and industrial) are included in the 94 active licensed water diversions. Each license's unique environmental restrictions are represented and weekly economic water demand curves are estimated. Rules encoded as constraints represent current water management realities and plausible stakeholder-informed water market behaviors. Results show buyers favor sellers who can supply large volumes to minimize transactions. The energy plant cooling and agricultural licenses, often restricted from obtaining water at times when it generates benefits, benefit most from trades. Assumptions and model limitations are discussed. Key Points Transaction tracking hydro-economic optimization models simulate water markets Proposed model formulation incorporates transaction costs and trading behavior Water markets benefit users with the most restricted water access PMID:25598558

  5. Emissions markets, power markets and market power: A study of the interactions between contemporary emissions markets and deregulated electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dormady, Noah Christopher

    Chapter 1: A Monte Carlo Approach. The use of auctions to distribute tradeable property rights to firms in already heavily concentrated markets may further exacerbate the problems of market power that exist within those markets. This chapter provides a model of a two-stage emissions market modeled after a contemporary regional permit trading market in the United States, the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative, Inc. (RGGI). It then introduces Oligopsony 1.0, a C# software package constructed in the .NET environment that simulates uniform-price auctions using stochastic Monte Carlo simulation for modeling market power in tradeable property rights auctions. Monte Carlo methods add a probabilistic element to standard auction theoretic equilibria. The results of these simulations indicate that there can be significant non-linearities between profit and market power as exercised through strategic demand reduction. This analysis finds the optimum point of strategic demand reduction that enables the firm to exploit these non-linearities, and it determines the probability distributions of these optima using kernel density analysis. Chapter 2: An Experimental Approach. How will emerging auction-based emissions markets function within the context of today's deregulated auction-based electricity markets? This chapter provides an experimental analysis of a joint energy-emissions market. The impact of market power and collusion among dominant firms is evaluated to determine the extent to which an auction-based tradeable permit market influences performance in an adjacent electricity market. The experimental treatment design controls for a variety of real-world institutional features, including variable demand, permit banking, inter-temporal (multi-round) dynamics, a tightening cap, and resale. Results suggest that the exercise of market power significantly increases electricity auction clearing prices, without significantly increasing emissions

  6. Inverse statistics in the foreign exchange market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, M. H.; Johansen, A.; Petroni, F.; Simonsen, I.

    2004-09-01

    We investigate intra-day foreign exchange (FX) time series using the inverse statistic analysis developed by Simonsen et al. (Eur. Phys. J. 27 (2002) 583) and Jensen et al. (Physica A 324 (2003) 338). Specifically, we study the time-averaged distributions of waiting times needed to obtain a certain increase (decrease) ρ in the price of an investment. The analysis is performed for the Deutsch Mark (DM) against the US for the full year of 1998, but similar results are obtained for the Japanese Yen against the US. With high statistical significance, the presence of “resonance peaks” in the waiting time distributions is established. Such peaks are a consequence of the trading habits of the market participants as they are not present in the corresponding tick (business) waiting time distributions. Furthermore, a new stylized fact, is observed for the (normalized) waiting time distribution in the form of a power law Pdf. This result is achieved by rescaling of the physical waiting time by the corresponding tick time thereby partially removing scale-dependent features of the market activity.

  7. Coil Embolization of an Arteriobiliary Fistula Caused by Hepatic Intra-Arterial Chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Takao, Hidemasa Doi, Ippei; Makita, Kohzoh; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2005-12-15

    Arteriobiliary fistula is a rare complication of hepatic intra-arterial chemotherapy. We report successful coil embolization of an arteriobiliary fistula. An 80-year-old woman underwent percutaneous placement of an indwelling catheter into the replaced right hepatic artery for intra-arterial chemotherapy of liver metastases. Coil embolization of the left hepatic artery was not performed. The patient complained of abdominal pain during intra-arterial chemotherapy. Angiography revealed a fistula between the replaced right hepatic artery and the common bile duct. The fistula was successfully treated by coil embolization via the indwelling catheter, and the indwelling catheter was removed. Although such complications usually herald the termination of intra-arterial chemotherapy, the patient underwent percutaneous implantation of a new catheter-port system, and intra-arterial chemotherapy was restarted.

  8. A political economic theory of the dental care market.

    PubMed Central

    Lipscomb, J; Douglass, C W

    1982-01-01

    A theory of the dental care market is introduced which proposes that the vertically integrated (local/state/national) structure of the profession services as an organizational vehicle both for intra-professional debate and for developing provider-oriented dental care policy. We suggest that a special relationship exists between professionalism and professional regulation. Such regulation has functioned simultaneously to limit competition and to foster a prized consumption commodity for providers: professionalism and professional esteem. The organized pursuit of this commodity inherently dampens competition. Professionalism itself plays a crucial role in: 1) securing for organized dentistry a form of state regulation in which the providers themselves are the principal decision-makers; and 2) influencing provider and consumer market behavior in several significant respects, the net result being the formation of maintenance of a type of "leadership cartel" in the local market. Thus, a political-economic theory of the dental care market formally acknowledges professionalism as valued by established dentists and recent graduates as a central determining influence. Traditional models of pure competition and monopoly emerge as special, extreme cases of the general theory. Hypotheses are offered regarding consumer and provider behavior, market dynamics, and health policy and regulation. PMID:7091455

  9. Neutralizer optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Michael J.; Mohajeri, Kayhan

    1991-01-01

    The preliminary results of a test program to optimize a neutralizer design for 30 cm xenon ion thrusters are discussed. The impact of neutralizer geometry, neutralizer axial location, and local magnetic fields on neutralizer performance is discussed. The effect of neutralizer performance on overall thruster performance is quantified, for thruster operation in the 0.5-3.2 kW power range. Additionally, these data are compared to data published for other north-south stationkeeping (NSSK) and primary propulsion xenon ion thruster neutralizers.

  10. Analgesic efficacy of three different dosages of intra-articular morphine in arthroscopic knee surgeries: Randomised double-blind trial

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Babita; Banerjee, Sumantra; Prasad, Arunima; Farooque, Kamran; Sharma, Vijay; Trikha, Vivek

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: Arthroscopic knee surgery is a common procedure and may cause enough pain to delay rehabilitation. Intra-articular (IA) morphine is a known modality for post-operative pain relief. However, the optimal dose of IA morphine has not been studied. The current study has been conducted to find out the optimal dosage of IA morphine when administered with 0.25% bupivacaine. Methods: Sixty adult patients of either sex, aged between 18 and 60 years, undergoing diagnostic/therapeutic knee arthroscopic surgery were included in the study and randomised into three groups. All patients underwent surgery under subarachnoid block. After the surgical closure, 20 ml of 0.25% bupivacaine with 1 mg, 3 mg and 5 mg of morphine as additive was injected intra-articularly in Group A, B and C patients, respectively. Post-operative pain assessment was performed with visual analogue scale score in the 1st, 2nd, 6th, 12th and 24th post-operative hour. The common complications were also recorded. Results: There was statistically significant analgesia in Group B and C than Group A in the 1st and 2nd post-operative hour; while at the 24th post-operative hour, Group C had statistically significant analgesia than the other two groups. Time to first rescue analgesia was statistically significantly less and consumption of supplemental analgesia was significantly higher in Group A than the other two groups. Conclusion: IA dose of 3 mg and 5 mg morphine with 20 ml of 0.25% bupivacaine provided adequate analgesia. However, 3 mg morphine group patients had fewer side effects than 5 mg group patients although the difference was not statistically significant. PMID:26644611

  11. Electricity market pricing, risk hedging and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Xu

    In this dissertation, we investigate the pricing, price risk hedging/arbitrage, and simplified system modeling for a centralized LMP-based electricity market. In an LMP-based market model, the full AC power flow model and the DC power flow model are most widely used to represent the transmission system. We investigate the differences of dispatching results, congestion pattern, and LMPs for the two power flow models. An appropriate LMP decomposition scheme to quantify the marginal costs of the congestion and real power losses is critical for the implementation of financial risk hedging markets. However, the traditional LMP decomposition heavily depends on the slack bus selection. In this dissertation we propose a slack-independent scheme to break LMP down into energy, congestion, and marginal loss components by analyzing the actual marginal cost of each bus at the optimal solution point. The physical and economic meanings of the marginal effect at each bus provide accurate price information for both congestion and losses, and thus the slack-dependency of the traditional scheme is eliminated. With electricity priced at the margin instead of the average value, the market operator typically collects more revenue from power sellers than that paid to power buyers. According to the LMP decomposition results, the revenue surplus is then divided into two parts: congestion charge surplus and marginal loss revenue surplus. We apply the LMP decomposition results to the financial tools, such as financial transmission right (FTR) and loss hedging right (LHR), which have been introduced to hedge against price risks associated to congestion and losses, to construct a full price risk hedging portfolio. The two-settlement market structure and the introduction of financial tools inevitably create market manipulation opportunities. We investigate several possible market manipulation behaviors by virtual bidding and propose a market monitor approach to identify and quantify such

  12. Behavioral effects of intra-cranial self-stimulation in an animal model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Johansen, Espen Borgå; Sagvolden, Terje

    2005-07-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), characterized by inappropriate levels of activity, attention, and impulsivity, has been suggested to be caused by changes in reinforcement and extinction processes possibly linked to dysfunctioning dopamine systems. The present study investigated reinforcement processes in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), an animal model of ADHD. Using intra-cranial self-stimulation (ICSS), behavioral effects of varying current intensity, reinforcer density, and reinforcer delay were tested. Current was varied in order to find the weakest current producing the maximal response rate (optimal current) in the SHR and the controls during high (120 reinforcers/min) and low reinforcer densities (1 reinforcer/min). The results showed that optimal current was significantly lower in the SHR than in the controls during high reinforcer density while maximal response rates were not significantly different. During low reinforcer density, optimal current was not significantly different in the two strains, but maximal response rate was significantly higher in the SHR than in the controls. The SHR produced more responses during the testing of reinforcer density, but changes in reinforcer density affected response rates similarly in the two strains. The decrease in response rate as a function of reinforcer delay was more pronounced in the SHR than in the controls. Overall, more responses with short inter-response times (IRT) were found in the SHR compared to the controls during intermittent reinforcement. The results are consistent with a steepened delay-of-reinforcement gradient in SHR. PMID:15922065

  13. Data-Based Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leach, Ernest R.

    The discipline of marketing, applied to higher education, has the potential for increasing enrollments, reducing attrition, and making college services more responsive to the needs of consumers. Faced with enrollments that were below projections, Prince George's Community College devised a four-stage marketing plan that focused on service,…

  14. Marketing Your Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Susan

    2009-01-01

    A marketing plan outlines the specific actions a person intends to carry out to interest potential customers in his/her service and to persuade them to buy the services he/she offers. In other words, a marketing plan defines what his/her organization will do to interest new families in his/her facility and encourage them to enroll their children…

  15. The Marketing of Margaret.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elebash, Camille

    The 1983 British general election saw greater use than ever before in that country of sophisticated marketing research and techniques in the promotion of a party (the Conservatives) and a personality (Margaret Thatcher). With the help of an outside advertising agency, the Conservative Central Office had more marketing expertise than ever before,…

  16. Coping with Marketing Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Ralph E.; Ross, Herbert L.

    1975-01-01

    The effective teacher-coordinator is actively aware of changes occurring in marketing today: impact of ethnic group purchasing power, retailing response to variables, marketing of services, and using data processing in decision-making. Teaching strategies and instructional materials should be chosen accordingly. (BP)

  17. Marketing Schools for Survival

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padgett, Raven

    2007-01-01

    Principals desiring recognition in the community have added marketing to their job description. Faced with falling enrollments and more school choice for parents, they create strategies to market and brand their schools to potential parents and students, from promoting programs in school newsletters and websites to direct mailings and ads in real…

  18. Postmodernism and Educational Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Francis

    2001-01-01

    Explains two problems of the postmodern era-fragmentation (disintegration of social, economic, and political institutions) and symbolic consumption. Discusses two postmodernist epistemological challenges to educational marketers-anti-foundationalism and poststructuralism. Transactional views of marketing must yield to relational and interactive…

  19. The Engineering Labor Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryoo, Jaewoo; Rosen, Sherwin

    2004-01-01

    This paper develops a dynamic supply and demand model of occupational choice and applies it to the engineering profession. The model is largely successful in understanding data in the U.S. engineering labor market. The engineering market responds strongly to economic forces. The demand for engineers responds to the price of engineering services…

  20. Market Madness: Condition Critical

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Playfair, Eddie

    2015-01-01

    For over a quarter of a century there has been a creeping marketization of the English education system. No part of the system remains unscathed. In this article the consequences of marketization are set out clearly and alternative models of the future are presented. The author calls for another "Great Debate"--but one that mobilises…

  1. Deployment & Market Transformation (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-04-01

    NREL's deployment and market transformation (D and MT) activities encompass the laboratory's full range of technologies, which span the energy efficiency and renewable energy spectrum. NREL staff educates partners on how they can advance sustainable energy applications and also provides clients with best practices for reducing barriers to innovation and market transformation.

  2. Marketing for Black Alums.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Tracy A.

    1994-01-01

    Considers need for colleges and universities to develop effective marketing plan for recruitment of black students. Highlights advantages of designing marketing plan for recruitment of black alumni to assist in recruitment and retention of black students. Identifies key indicators that often hinder institutions in their recruitment of black…

  3. Marketing Folk Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Phillips, Jr., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    "Marketing Folk Art" is a special section (pages 43-89) of this serial issue addressing the folklorists' role in developing marketing strategies to improve the lot of folk artists and protect their traditional forms of expression from commercial exploitation. The following six articles, introduced by Rosemary Joyce, focus on these topics: (1) "The…

  4. Creating a Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazimirski, J.; And Others

    The second in a series of programmed books, "Creating a Market" is published by the International Labour Office as a manual for persons studying marketing. This manual was designed to meet the needs of the labor organization's technical cooperation programs and is primarily concerned with consumer goods industries. Using a fill-in-the-blanks and…

  5. College Access Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremblay, Christopher W.

    2011-01-01

    College Access Marketing (CAM) is a relatively new phenomenon that seeks to positively influence the college-going rate. This report defines CAM, describes CAM examples, and discusses how CAM seeks to counter barriers to college. It explores four main elements of CAM: information, marketing, advocacy, and social mobilization. Further, it…

  6. A Stock Market Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Christine; Cook, Stan

    1990-01-01

    Offers a field-tested stock market unit designed to develop mathematical skills involving fractions and decimals, basic understanding of the stock market, and hypothesis testing skills in real world situations. Includes tables displaying questions, tally sheets, and instructions, as well as a list of related activities. (MDH)

  7. Financial Services Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lucretia Maria

    This manual contains student assignments in the financial services area of the marketing process. The individualized competency-based materials are intended to enhance and supplement instruction or to provide the basis for a course of instruction by the teacher-coordinator. Information on skills needed in jobs in financial marketing is first…

  8. Marketing Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. Div. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This handbook contains a competency-based curriculum for teaching marketing education in Alaska. The handbook is organized in seven sections. Section 1 introduces the competency-based curriculum, while Section 2 provides the scope and sequence and hierarchy of marketing education competencies. Section 3, the core of the curriculum, includes the…

  9. Marketing technology in macroeconomics.

    PubMed

    Tamegawa, Kenichi

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we incorporate a marketing technology into a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model by assuming a matching friction for consumption. An improvement in matching can be interpreted as an increase in matching technology, which we call marketing technology because of similar properties. Using a simulation analysis, we confirm that a positive matching technology shock can increase output and consumption. PMID:23961358

  10. Software Marketing Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Victor E.

    Seven factors that currently affect the potential for marketing and publishing computer software for education are discussed: (1) computers as an inplace technology in education, (2) marketing and distribution patterns for software, (3) consumer demand, (4) quality, (5) timelessenss, (6) basic skills, and (7) the future. The proliferation of…

  11. Demographics: People and Markets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrick, Thomas W.; Tordella, Stephen J.

    1988-01-01

    Population shifts directly affect the bottom line, so the basics of demography are now basic to business as well. Demographics combine demographic data with socioeconomic and geographic factors to help business and other managers know the market for the goods and services they offer. This guide explains market, product, and site analyses,…

  12. Marketing Education Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This curriculum guide is intended to provide a common core of competencies from which to design an effective secondary marketing education program. Introductory materials include a definition of marketing education, objectives, outline of instructional content, and questions and answers regarding the curriculum guide. These practical materials are…

  13. Marketing ACE in Victoria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This publication presents options raised through various forums for marketing adult and community education (ACE) in Victoria, Australia, and suggested strategies. After an introduction (chapter 1), chapters 2 and 3 provide a broad view of the current situation for marketing ACE. Chapter 2 discusses general issues in the current position--ACE…

  14. Evaluating the ISDN Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liss, Alan

    1996-01-01

    Discusses bandwidth on demand technologies, including frame relay and ISDNs (integrated services digital networks). Topics include tariff policies; lack of standards; market conditions; growth in the Internet market and the World Wide Web; and the growing need for remote access. (LRW)

  15. Marketing Transformation (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program

    2011-10-13

    Through the SunShot Initiative, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) works with manufacturers, communities, states, utilities, and other partners to enable the solar market by reducing non-hardware balance-of-system (BOS) costs, developing a skilled workforce, and eliminating market barriers to widespread adoption of solar technologies.

  16. Marketing Prior Learning Assessment Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heeger, Gerald A.

    1983-01-01

    Experiential learning programs must be marketed effectively if they are to succeed. The formulation of market strategy is discussed including: strategic planning; identification of a market target; and development of a market mix. A commitment to marketing academic programs is seen as a commitment to self-assessment. (MW)

  17. How Can Marketing Academics Serve Marketing Practice? The New Marketing DNA as a Model for Marketing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrigan, Paul; Hulbert, Bev

    2011-01-01

    This article seeks to address how marketing academics can best serve marketing practice through marketing education. It is contended that, where technology is driving marketing in practice, it is afforded significantly less attention in both theory and education. Thus, the marketing graduates being produced from universities are often lacking in…

  18. Health Monitoring System Based on Intra-Body Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razak, A. H. A.; Ibrahim, I. W.; Ayub, A. H.; Amri, M. F.; Hamzi, M. H.; Halim, A. K.; Ahmad, A.; Junid, S. A. M. Al

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents a model of a Body Area Network (BAN) health monitoring system based on Intra-Body Communication. Intra-body Communication (IBC) is a communication technique that uses the human body as a medium for electrical signal communication. One of the visions in the health care industry is to provide autonomous and continuous self and the remote health monitoring system. This can be achieved via BAN, LAN and WAN integration. The BAN technology itself consists of short range data communication modules, sensors, controller and actuators. The information can be transmitted to the LAN and WAN via the RF technology such as Bluetooth, ZigBee and ANT. Although the implementations of RF communication have been successful, there are still limitations in term of power consumption, battery lifetime, interferences and signal attenuations. One of the solutions for Medical Body Area Network (MBANs) to overcome these issues is by using an IBC technique because it can operate at lower frequencies and power consumption compared to the existing techniques. The first objective is to design the IBC's transmitter and receiver modules using the off the shelf components. The specifications of the modules such as frequency, data rate, modulation and demodulation coding system were defined. The individual module were designed and tested separately. The modules was integrated as an IBC system and tested for functionality then was implemented on PCB. Next objective is to model and implement the digital parts of the transmitter and receiver modules on the Altera's FPGA board. The digital blocks were interfaced with the FPGA's on board modules and the discrete components. The signals that have been received from the transmitter were converted into a proper waveform and it can be viewed via external devices such as oscilloscope and Labview. The signals such as heartbeats or pulses can also be displayed on LCD. In conclusion, the IBC project presents medical health monitoring model

  19. The Faculty's Future--Marketer or Marketed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Sherry

    1976-01-01

    The significance of our findings is that as the population enrolling in postsecondary education shifts from the traditional student to the nontraditional, as the new market for postsecondary education becomes a greater proportion of the total, the response on the part of all the players in our institutions must change. (Author)

  20. Empirical investigation of stock price dynamics in an emerging market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palágyi, Zoltán; Mantegna, Rosario N.

    1999-07-01

    We study the development of an emerging market - the Budapest Stock Exchange - by investigating the time evolution of some statistical properties of heavily traded stocks. Moving quarter by quarter over a period of two and a half years we analyze the scaling properties of the standard deviation of intra-day log-price changes. We observe scaling using both seconds and ticks as units of time. For the investigated stocks a Levy shape is a good approximation to the probability density function of tick-by-tick log-price changes in each quarter: the index of the distribution follows an increasing trend, suggesting it could be used as a measure of market efficiency.

  1. Essays on optimal capacity and optimal regulation of interconnection infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boffa, Federico

    The integration between geographically differentiated markets or between vertically related industries generate effects on welfare that depend on the structure of the underlying markets. My thesis investigates the impact of geographical interconnection on welfare, and illustrates welfare-enhancing modes of regulation of vertically integrated industries and of geographically integrated markets. The first chapter analyzes the effects of interconnection between two formerly fully-separated markets under the assumptions that producers in the two markets are capacity-constrained, and tacitly collude whenever it is rational for them to do so. I find that there exists a set of assumptions under which interconnection brings about greater collusion, hence it reduces overall welfare. The second chapter analyzes the optimal interconnection capacity allocation mechanism for a benevolent electricity regulator when generation is not competitive. The regulator's intervention should not only ensure that interconnection capacity is efficiently allocated to the most efficient firms, but it should also induce a higher welfare in the upstream generation market. In a two-node setting, with one firm per node, I show that the regulatory intervention becomes more effective as the cost asymmetries between the two firms become more pronounced. The third chapter illustrates a regulation mechanism for vertically related industries. Ownership shares of the upstream industry (that displays economies of scale) are allocated to the downstream (competitive) firms in proportion to their shares in the final goods market. I show that the mechanism combines the benefits of vertical integration with those of vertical separation. The advantages of vertical integration consist in avoiding double marginalization, and in internalizing the reduction in average cost resulting from the upstream increase in output; on the other hand, vertical separation allows to preserve the competitiveness of the downstream

  2. Optimal strategies for electric energy contract decision making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Haili

    2000-10-01

    The power industry restructuring in various countries in recent years has created an environment where trading of electric energy is conducted in a market environment. In such an environment, electric power companies compete for the market share through spot and bilateral markets. Being profit driven, electric power companies need to make decisions on spot market bidding, contract evaluation, and risk management. New methods and software tools are required to meet these upcoming needs. In this research, bidding strategy and contract pricing are studied from a market participant's viewpoint; new methods are developed to guide a market participant in spot and bilateral market operation. A supplier's spot market bidding decision is studied. Stochastic optimization is formulated to calculate a supplier's optimal bids in a single time period. This decision making problem is also formulated as a Markov Decision Process. All the competitors are represented by their bidding parameters with corresponding probabilities. A systematic method is developed to calculate transition probabilities and rewards. The optimal strategy is calculated to maximize the expected reward over a planning horizon. Besides the spot market, a power producer can also trade in the bilateral markets. Bidding strategies in a bilateral market are studied with game theory techniques. Necessary and sufficient conditions of Nash Equilibrium (NE) bidding strategy are derived based on the generators' cost and the loads' willingness to pay. The study shows that in any NE, market efficiency is achieved. Furthermore, all Nash equilibria are revenue equivalent for the generators. The pricing of "Flexible" contracts, which allow delivery flexibility over a period of time with a fixed total amount of electricity to be delivered, is analyzed based on the no-arbitrage pricing principle. The proposed algorithm calculates the price based on the optimality condition of the stochastic optimization formulation

  3. A Simulation Model for Intra-Urban Movements

    PubMed Central

    Serok, Nimrod; Blumenfeld-Lieberthal, Efrat

    2015-01-01

    Human mobility patterns (HMP) have become of interest to a variety of disciplines. The increasing availability of empirical data enables researchers to analyze patterns of people’s movements. Recent work suggested that HMP follow a Levy-flight distribution and present regularity. Here, we present an innovative agent-based model that simulates HMP for various purposes. It is based on the combination of regular movements with spatial considerations, represented by an expanded gravitation model. The agents in this model have different attributes that affect their choice of destination and the duration they stay in each location. Thus, their movement mimics real-life situations. This is a stochastic, bottom-up model, yet it yields HMP that qualitatively fit HMP empirical data in terms of individuals, as well as the entire population. Our results also correspond to real-life phenomena in terms of urban spatial dynamics, that is, the emergence of popular locations in the city due to bottom-up behavior of people. Our model is novel in being based on the assumption that HMP are space-dependent as well as follow high regularity. To our knowledge, we are the first to succeed in simulating HMP not only at the inter-city scale but also at the intra-urban one. PMID:26161640

  4. Autonomous Motion Learning for Intra-Vehicular Activity Space Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Yutaka; Yairi, Takehisa; Machida, Kazuo

    Space robots will be needed in the future space missions. So far, many types of space robots have been developed, but in particular, Intra-Vehicular Activity (IVA) space robots that support human activities should be developed to reduce human-risks in space. In this paper, we study the motion learning method of an IVA space robot with the multi-link mechanism. The advantage point is that this space robot moves using reaction force of the multi-link mechanism and contact forces from the wall as space walking of an astronaut, not to use a propulsion. The control approach is determined based on a reinforcement learning with the actor-critic algorithm. We demonstrate to clear effectiveness of this approach using a 5-link space robot model by simulation. First, we simulate that a space robot learn the motion control including contact phase in two dimensional case. Next, we simulate that a space robot learn the motion control changing base attitude in three dimensional case.

  5. Understanding intra-urban trip patterns from taxi trajectory data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yu; Kang, Chaogui; Gao, Song; Xiao, Yu; Tian, Yuan

    2012-10-01

    Intra-urban human mobility is investigated by means of taxi trajectory data that are collected in Shanghai, China, where taxis play an important role in urban transportation. From the taxi trajectories, approximately 1.5 million trips of anonymous customers are extracted on seven consecutive days. The globally spatio-temporal patterns of trips exhibit a significant daily regularity. Since each trip can be viewed as a displacement in the random walk model, the distributions of the distance and direction of the extracted trips are investigated in this research. The direction distribution shows an NEE-SWW-dominant direction, and the distance distribution can be well fitted by an exponentially truncated power law, with the scaling exponent β = 1.2 ± 0.15. The observed patterns are attributed to the geographical heterogeneity of the study area, which makes the spatial distribution of trajectory stops to be non-uniform. We thus construct a model that integrates both the geographical heterogeneity and distance decay effect, to interpret the observed patterns. Our Monte Carlo simulation results closely match to the observed patterns and thus validate the proposed model. According to the proposed model, in a single-core urban area, the geographical heterogeneity and distance decay effect improve each other when influencing human mobility patterns. Geographical heterogeneity leads to a faster observed decay, and the distance decay effect makes the spatial distribution of trips more concentrated.

  6. [Intra-graft balloon pumping--a clinical case report].

    PubMed

    Nagata, M; Tashiro, T; Tanaka, K; Haruta, Y; Todo, K

    1991-12-01

    A 29-year-old female underwent tube graft replacement of distal aortic arch and descending aorta for dissecting aneurysm. After 42 minutes of aortic cross-clamping the patient was initially weaned satisfactorily from cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). However, cardiac arrhythmia and cardiac arrest necessitated reestablishment of CPB. Electro-cardiography showed inferior myocardial infarction. To wean CPB intraaortic balloon pumping (IABP) was mandatory. But because of dissecting aortic aneurysm IABP in conventional method was contra-indicated. Intra graft balloon pumping (IGBP) was initiated while the patient was on full CPB. A low-porosity woven Dacron tube graft (22 mm) was anastomosed end-to-side to ascending aorta. A balloon was inserted into the tube graft to establish IGBP. This IGBP provided effective circulatory assist. The patient was weaned from CPB 1 hours after reestablishment of IGBP. Postoperative course was stable. The patient was returned to the operating room for removal of the balloon 3 days postoperatively. We reported the case for whom IGBP was effective. IGBP was effective circulatory support for the patient when conventional use of IABP was contra-indicated. PMID:1774515

  7. Anatomical Connectivity Influences both Intra- and Inter-Brain Synchronizations

    PubMed Central

    Dumas, Guillaume; Chavez, Mario; Nadel, Jacqueline; Martinerie, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Recent development in diffusion spectrum brain imaging combined to functional simulation has the potential to further our understanding of how structure and dynamics are intertwined in the human brain. At the intra-individual scale, neurocomputational models have already started to uncover how the human connectome constrains the coordination of brain activity across distributed brain regions. In parallel, at the inter-individual scale, nascent social neuroscience provides a new dynamical vista of the coupling between two embodied cognitive agents. Using EEG hyperscanning to record simultaneously the brain activities of subjects during their ongoing interaction, we have previously demonstrated that behavioral synchrony correlates with the emergence of inter-brain synchronization. However, the functional meaning of such synchronization remains to be specified. Here, we use a biophysical model to quantify to what extent inter-brain synchronizations are related to the anatomical and functional similarity of the two brains in interaction. Pairs of interacting brains were numerically simulated and compared to real data. Results show a potential dynamical property of the human connectome to facilitate inter-individual synchronizations and thus may partly account for our propensity to generate dynamical couplings with others. PMID:22590539

  8. Anatomical connectivity influences both intra- and inter-brain synchronizations.

    PubMed

    Dumas, Guillaume; Chavez, Mario; Nadel, Jacqueline; Martinerie, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Recent development in diffusion spectrum brain imaging combined to functional simulation has the potential to further our understanding of how structure and dynamics are intertwined in the human brain. At the intra-individual scale, neurocomputational models have already started to uncover how the human connectome constrains the coordination of brain activity across distributed brain regions. In parallel, at the inter-individual scale, nascent social neuroscience provides a new dynamical vista of the coupling between two embodied cognitive agents. Using EEG hyperscanning to record simultaneously the brain activities of subjects during their ongoing interaction, we have previously demonstrated that behavioral synchrony correlates with the emergence of inter-brain synchronization. However, the functional meaning of such synchronization remains to be specified. Here, we use a biophysical model to quantify to what extent inter-brain synchronizations are related to the anatomical and functional similarity of the two brains in interaction. Pairs of interacting brains were numerically simulated and compared to real data. Results show a potential dynamical property of the human connectome to facilitate inter-individual synchronizations and thus may partly account for our propensity to generate dynamical couplings with others. PMID:22590539

  9. Increased intra- and extracellular granzyme expression in patients with tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Laorden, M Isabel; Blok, Dana C; Kager, Liesbeth M; Hoogendijk, Arie J; van Mierlo, Gerard J; Lede, Ivar O; Rahman, Wahid; Afroz, Rumana; Ghose, Aniruddha; Visser, Caroline E; Md Zahed, Abu Shahed; Husain, Md Anwar; Alam, Khan Mashrequl; Chandra Barua, Pravat; Hassan, Mahtabuddin; Hossain, Ahmed; Tayab, Md Abu; Day, Nick; Dondorp, Arjen M; de Vos, Alex F; van der Poll, Tom

    2015-09-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Granzymes (gzms) are proteases mainly found in cytotoxic lymphocytes, but also extracellularly. While the role of gzms in target cell death has been widely characterized, considerable evidence points towards broader roles related to infectious and inflammatory responses. To investigate the expression of the gzms in TB, intracellular gzms A, B and K were measured by flow cytometry in lymphocyte populations from peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 18 TB patients and 12 healthy donors from Bangladesh, and extracellular levels of gzmA and B were measured in serum from 58 TB patients and 31 healthy controls. TB patients showed increased expression of gzmA in CD8(+) T, CD4(+) T and CD56(+) T, but not NK, cells, and of gzmB in CD8(+) T cells, when compared to controls. GzmK expression was not altered in TB patients in any lymphocyte subset. The extracellular levels of gzmA and, to a lesser extent, of gzmB, were increased in TB patients, but did not correlate with intracellular gzm expression in lymphocyte subsets. Our results reveal enhanced intra- and extracellular expression of gzmA and B in patients with pulmonary TB, suggesting that gzms are part of the host response to tuberculosis. PMID:26156785

  10. Intra- and intergenerational discounting in the climate game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacquet, Jennifer; Hagel, Kristin; Hauert, Christoph; Marotzke, Jochem; Röhl, Torsten; Milinski, Manfred

    2013-12-01

    The difficulty of avoiding dangerous climate change arises from a tension between group and self-interest and is exacerbated by climate change's intergenerational nature. The present generation bears the costs of cooperation, whereas future generations accrue the benefits if present cooperation succeeds, or suffer if present cooperation fails. Although temporal discounting has long been known to matter in making individual choices, the extent of temporal discounting is poorly understood in a group setting. We represent the effect of both intra- and intergenerational discounting through a collective-risk group experiment framed around climate change. Participants could choose to cooperate or to risk losing an additional endowment with a high probability. The rewards of defection were immediate, whereas the rewards of cooperation were delayed by one day, delayed by seven weeks (intragenerational discounting), or delayed by several decades and spread over a much larger number of potential beneficiaries (intergenerational discounting). We find that intergenerational discounting leads to a marked decrease in cooperation; all groups failed to reach the collective target. Intragenerational discounting was weaker by comparison. Our results experimentally confirm that international negotiations to mitigate climate change are unlikely to succeed if individual countries' short-term gains can arise only from defection.

  11. Intra-species sequence comparisons for annotating genomes

    SciTech Connect

    Boffelli, Dario; Weer, Claire V.; Weng, Li; Lewis, Keith D.; Shoukry, Malak I.; Pachter, Lior; Keys, David N.; Rubin, Edward M.

    2004-07-15

    Analysis of sequence variation among members of a single species offers a potential approach to identify functional DNA elements responsible for biological features unique to that species. Due to its high rate of allelic polymorphism and ease of genetic manipulability, we chose the sea squirt, Ciona intestinalis, to explore intra-species sequence comparisons for genome annotation. A large number of C. intestinalis specimens were collected from four continents and a set of genomic intervals amplified, resequenced and analyzed to determine the mutation rates at each nucleotide in the sequence. We found that regions with low mutation rates efficiently demarcated functionally constrained sequences: these include a set of noncoding elements, which we showed in C intestinalis transgenic assays to act as tissue-specific enhancers, as well as the location of coding sequences. This illustrates that comparisons of multiple members of a species can be used for genome annotation, suggesting a path for the annotation of the sequenced genomes of organisms occupying uncharacterized phylogenetic branches of the animal kingdom and raises the possibility that the resequencing of a large number of Homo sapiens individuals might be used to annotate the human genome and identify sequences defining traits unique to our species. The sequence data from this study has been submitted to GenBank under accession nos. AY667278-AY667407.

  12. Intra-oral Dirofilaria repens infection: report of seven cases.

    PubMed

    Tilakaratne, W M; Pitakotuwage, T N

    2003-09-01

    Cutaneous dirofilariasis usually affects animals such as cats and dogs which are known to be the natural host of Dirofilaria. Dirofilariasis displays a worldwide distribution. Certain geographic regions account for the majority of reported cases. South-eastern United States, Australia and Europe have been identified as endemic regions (1, 2). However, new endemic areas are arising with increased awareness in African and Asian regions. Out of about 40 different species of Dirofilaria only a few species are commonly known to infect man, namely Dirofilaria immitus, D. tenices and D. repens. Human infection occurs when a human becomes a blood meal of an infected arthropod vector and on accidental entering of the worm. Rarely this zoonotic infection affects the oral mucosa (3). Man is the dead end of this parasite. Since the human body is an abnormal environment for the parasite, the development of the larvae is inhibited by means of retardation of sexual maturity. Lesions are presented as single non-tender subcutaneous nodules, and most patients are asymptomatic. Diagnosis is established by H&E sections prepared from excised nodules. In a majority of the cases, only a single worm either a male or a female could be identified. The worm is usually dead and degenerated with a massive inflammatory cell infiltration. Seven new cases presented as intra-oral nodules with their clinicopathological correlation are discussed. PMID:12901735

  13. Practice effects on intra-team synergies in football teams.

    PubMed

    Silva, Pedro; Chung, Dante; Carvalho, Thiago; Cardoso, Tiago; Davids, Keith; Araújo, Duarte; Garganta, Júlio

    2016-04-01

    Developing synchronised player movements for fluent competitive match play is a common goal for coaches of team games. An ecological dynamics approach advocates that intra-team synchronization is governed by locally created information, which specifies shared affordances responsible for synergy formation. To verify this claim we evaluated coordination tendencies in two newly-formed teams of recreational players during association football practice games, weekly, for fifteen weeks (thirteen matches). We investigated practice effects on two central features of synergies in sports teams - dimensional compression and reciprocal compensation here captured through near in-phase modes of coordination and time delays between coupled players during forward and backwards movements on field while attacking and defending. Results verified that synergies were formed and dissolved rapidly as a result of the dynamic creation of informational properties, perceived as shared affordances among performers. Practising once a week led to small improvements in the readjustment delays between co-positioning team members, enabling faster regulation of coordinated team actions. Mean values of the number of player and team synergies displayed only limited improvements, possibly due to the timescales of practice. No relationship between improvements in dimensional compression and reciprocal compensation were found for number of shots, amount of ball possession and number of ball recoveries made. Findings open up new perspectives for monitoring team coordination processes in sport. PMID:26707679

  14. Intra-binary Shock Heating of Black Widow Companions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romani, Roger W.; Sanchez, Nicolas

    2016-09-01

    The low-mass companions of evaporating binary pulsars (black widows and similar) are strongly heated on the side facing the pulsar. However, in high-quality photometric and spectroscopic data, the heating pattern does not match that expected for direct pulsar illumination. Here we explore a model where the pulsar power is intercepted by an intra-binary shock (IBS) before heating the low-mass companion. We develop a simple analytic model and implement it in the popular “ICARUS” light curve code. The model is parameterized by the wind momentum ratio β and the companion wind speed {f}v{v}{{orb}}, and assumes that the reprocessed pulsar wind emits prompt particles or radiation to heat the companion surface. We illustrate an interesting range of light curve asymmetries controlled by these parameters. The code also computes the IBS synchrotron emission pattern, and thus can model black widow X-ray light curves. As a test, we apply the results to the high-quality asymmetric optical light curves of PSR J2215+5135; the resulting fit gives a substantial improvement upon direct heating models and produces an X-ray light curve consistent with that seen. The IBS model parameters imply that at the present loss rate, the companion evaporation has a characteristic timescale of {τ }{{evap}}≈ 150 Myr. Still, the model is not fully satisfactory, indicating that there are additional unmodeled physical effects.

  15. Removal of intra-abdominal mislocated intrauterine devices by laparoscopy.

    PubMed

    Balci, O; Capar, M; Mahmoud, A S; Colakoglu, M C

    2011-10-01

    This retrospective study was carried out on 15 patients who underwent laparoscopy for the removal of a mislocated IUD from 2003 to 2009. The mean duration of usage of an IUD was 16.1 months. The IUD was found in the Pouch of Douglas in six patients; in the posterior wall of the uterus in three patients; in the adnexa in three patients; in the omentum in two patients and it was embedded in the rectal serosa in one patient. The types of the IUDs were TCu-380A (n = 13) and Mirena(®) (n = 2). The mean laparoscopic operation time was 25 min. No major complications occurred. A second ancillary port was required in three patients. All patients were discharged within 24 h. Laparoscopic removal of the intra-abdominal IUD must be the first choice of therapy. If possible, a single ancillary port should be preferred for the removal of mislocated IUDs. We advise that surgical removal and surgical risk should be discussed with the patients, even if asymptomatic. PMID:21973139

  16. Intra-Abdominal Pressure Correlates with Extracellular Water Content

    PubMed Central

    Dąbrowski, Wojciech; Kotlinska-Hasiec, Edyta; Jaroszynski, Andrzej; Zadora, Przemyslaw; Pilat, Jacek; Rzecki, Ziemowit; Zaluska, Wojciech; Schneditz, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Background Secondary increase in intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) may result from extra-abdominal pathology, such as massive fluid resuscitation, capillary leak or sepsis. All these conditions increase the extravascular water content. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between IAP and body water volume. Material and Methods Adult patients treated for sepsis or septic shock with acute kidney injury (AKI) and patients undergoing elective pharyngolaryngeal or orthopedic surgery were enrolled. IAP was measured in the urinary bladder. Total body water (TBW), extracellular water content (ECW) and volume excess (VE) were measured by whole body bioimpedance. Among critically ill patients, all parameters were analyzed over three consecutive days, and parameters were evaluated perioperatively in surgical patients. Results One hundred twenty patients were studied. Taken together, the correlations between IAP and VE, TBW, and ECW were measured at 408 time points. In all participants, IAP strongly correlated with ECW and VE. In critically ill patients, IAP correlated with ECW and VE. In surgical patients, IAP correlated with ECW and TBW. IAP strongly correlated with ECW and VE in the mixed population. IAP also correlated with VE in critically ill patients. ROC curve analysis showed that ECW and VE might be discriminative parameters of risk for increased IAP. Conclusion IAP strongly correlates with ECW. PMID:25849102

  17. INTRA ARTICULAR CALCANEAL FRACTURES: A CLINICAL AND BIOMECHANICAL ANALYSIS

    PubMed Central

    Kuschnaroff Contreras, Marcos Emilio; Kroth, Luciano Manoel; Kotani, Keith Lúcia; Da Silva Junior, Jorge Luiz; De Andrade, Mário Cesar; Vargas Ávila, Aluísio Otávio; Berral, Francisco José

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Verify the variables of plantar pressure distribution of patients submitted to surgical procedure for calcaneal fracture, and correlate them with two different surgical approaches. Method: The authors studied 15 patients between 20 and 53 years of age (average 40.06 yrs.) who had intra-joint calcaneal fractures, submitted to surgical treatment by means of two different approaches: the lateral and the sinus tarsi. The authors checked the plantar pressure distribution by correlating these variables with the two different surgical approaches. The plantar pressure distribution was assessed using the Pedar System (Novel, Gmbh, Munich, Germany), by checking the maximum peak of the hindfoot and forefoot pressure on the affected and the normal sides. Results: the mean maximum pressure of the hindfoot plantigram in both approaches showed no statistical difference (t=0.11; p=0.91), as well as the mean maximum pressure of the forefoot plantigram (t=-0,48; p=0,64). Conclusion: The authors have concluded that there were no significant statistical differences between the average maximum peak of the hindfoot and forefoot pressure on the affected side as compared to the normal side, and these variables have showed no differences when compared to the surgical approach used. PMID:27077059

  18. Genetic and phenotypic intra-species variation in Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Hirakawa, Matthew P.; Martinez, Diego A.; Sakthikumar, Sharadha; Anderson, Matthew Z.; Berlin, Aaron; Gujja, Sharvari; Zeng, Qiandong; Zisson, Ethan; Wang, Joshua M.; Greenberg, Joshua M.; Berman, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans is a commensal fungus of the human gastrointestinal tract and a prevalent opportunistic pathogen. To examine diversity within this species, extensive genomic and phenotypic analyses were performed on 21 clinical C. albicans isolates. Genomic variation was evident in the form of polymorphisms, copy number variations, chromosomal inversions, subtelomeric hypervariation, loss of heterozygosity (LOH), and whole or partial chromosome aneuploidies. All 21 strains were diploid, although karyotypic changes were present in eight of the 21 isolates, with multiple strains being trisomic for Chromosome 4 or Chromosome 7. Aneuploid strains exhibited a general fitness defect relative to euploid strains when grown under replete conditions. All strains were also heterozygous, yet multiple, distinct LOH tracts were present in each isolate. Higher overall levels of genome heterozygosity correlated with faster growth rates, consistent with increased overall fitness. Genes with the highest rates of amino acid substitutions included many cell wall proteins, implicating fast evolving changes in cell adhesion and host interactions. One clinical isolate, P94015, presented several striking properties including a novel cellular phenotype, an inability to filament, drug resistance, and decreased virulence. Several of these properties were shown to be due to a homozygous nonsense mutation in the EFG1 gene. Furthermore, loss of EFG1 function resulted in increased fitness of P94015 in a commensal model of infection. Our analysis therefore reveals intra-species genetic and phenotypic differences in C. albicans and delineates a natural mutation that alters the balance between commensalism and pathogenicity. PMID:25504520

  19. Intra-arrest hypothermia during cardiac arrest: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Therapeutic hypothermia is largely used to protect the brain following return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) after cardiac arrest (CA), but it is unclear whether we should start therapeutic hypothermia earlier, that is, before ROSC. Methods We performed a systematic search of PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library and Ovid/Medline databases using "arrest" OR "cardiac arrest" OR "heart arrest" AND "hypothermia" OR "therapeutic hypothermia" OR "cooling" as keywords. Only studies using intra-arrest therapeutic hypothermia (IATH) were selected for this review. Three authors independently assessed the validity of included studies and extracted data regarding characteristics of the studied cohort (animal or human) and the main outcomes related to the use of IATH: Mortality, neurological status and cardiac function (particularly, rate of ROSC). Results A total of 23 animal studies (level of evidence (LOE) 5) and five human studies, including one randomized controlled trial (LOE 1), one retrospective and one prospective controlled study (LOE 3), and two prospective studies without a control group (LOE 4), were identified. IATH improved survival and neurological outcomes when compared to normothermia and/or hypothermia after ROSC. IATH was also associated with improved ROSC rates and with improved cardiac function, including better left ventricular function, and reduced myocardial infarct size, when compared to normothermia. Conclusions IATH improves survival and neurological outcome when compared to normothermia and/or conventional hypothermia in experimental models of CA. Clinical data on the efficacy of IATH remain limited. PMID:22397519

  20. Limitations and benefits of ARISA intra-genomic diversity fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Popa, Radu; Popa, Rodica; Mashall, Matthew J; Nguyen, Hien; Tebo, Bradley M; Brauer, Suzanna

    2009-08-01

    Monitoring diversity changes and contamination in mixed cultures and simple microcosms is challenged by fast community structure dynamics, and the need for means allowing fast, cost-efficient and accurate identification of microorganisms at high phylogenetic resolution. The method we explored is a variant of Automated rRNA Intergenic Spacer Analysis based on Intra-Genomic Diversity Fingerprinting (ARISA-IGDF), and identifies phylotypes with multiple 16S-23S rRNA gene Intergenic Transcribed Spacers. We verified the effect of PCR conditions (annealing temperature, duration of final extension, number of cycles, group-specific primers and formamide) on ARISA-IGD fingerprints of 44 strains of Shewanella. We present a digitization algorithm and data analysis procedures needed to determine confidence in strain identification. Though using stringent PCR conditions and group-specific primers allow reasonably accurate identification of strains with three ARISA-IGD amplicons within the 82-1000 bp size range, ARISA-IGDF is best for phylotypes with >or=4 unambiguously different amplicons. This method allows monitoring the occurrence of culturable microbes and can be implemented in applications requiring high phylogenetic resolution, reproducibility, low cost and high throughput such as identifying contamination and monitoring the evolution of diversity in mixed cultures and low diversity microcosms and periodic screening of small microbial culture libraries. PMID:19538993

  1. Data-Centric Routing for Intra Wireless Body Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Bangash, Javed Iqbal; Khan, Abdul Waheed; Abdullah, Abdul Hanan

    2015-09-01

    A significant proportion of the worldwide population is of the elderly people living with chronic diseases that result in high health-care cost. To provide continuous health monitoring with minimal health-care cost, Wireless Body Sensor Networks (WBSNs) has been recently emerged as a promising technology. Depending on nature of sensory data, WBSNs might require a high level of Quality of Service (QoS) both in terms of delay and reliability during data reporting phase. In this paper, we propose a data-centric routing for intra WBSNs that adapts the routing strategy in accordance with the nature of data, temperature rise issue of the implanted bio-medical sensors due to electromagnetic wave absorption, and high and dynamic path loss caused by postural movement of human body and in-body wireless communication. We consider the network models both with and without relay nodes in our simulations. Due to the multi-facet routing strategy, the proposed data-centric routing achieves better performance in terms of delay, reliability, temperature rise, and energy consumption when compared with other state-of-the-art. PMID:26242749

  2. Intra-night Optical Variability in Radio Quiet Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiita, P. J.; Gopal-Krishna; Sagar, R.

    1993-12-01

    We report results from a search for small-amplitude intra-night optical variability microvariability in 11 radio quiet, but optically bright and luminous, quasi-stellar objects. The observations were made using CCD's as N-star photometers on telescopes in Chile and India. The reduced data reveal indications of microvariability for several of the sources, but in no case has the reality of the fluctuations been clearly established. Observations of this type can discriminate among various theoretical mechanisms proposed for the origin of optical microvariability in AGNs. In particular, clear detections of microvariability in radio quiet QSOs would favor models where flares or other instabilities on accretion disks are responsible for the small fluctuations. On the other hand, statistically convincing evidence that such fluctuations are absent in radio quiet objects would support models based on shocks propagating down the relativistic jets which are only associated with radio loud AGN. Preliminary data for several sources have been published (Gopal-Krishna, Sagar & Wiita, 1993, MNRAS, 262, 963) and final results on the newer observations will be submitted soon (Gopal-Krishna et al. 1994). This work was supported in part by NSF grant AST9102106.

  3. A Simulation Model for Intra-Urban Movements.

    PubMed

    Serok, Nimrod; Blumenfeld-Lieberthal, Efrat

    2015-01-01

    Human mobility patterns (HMP) have become of interest to a variety of disciplines. The increasing availability of empirical data enables researchers to analyze patterns of people's movements. Recent work suggested that HMP follow a Levy-flight distribution and present regularity. Here, we present an innovative agent-based model that simulates HMP for various purposes. It is based on the combination of regular movements with spatial considerations, represented by an expanded gravitation model. The agents in this model have different attributes that affect their choice of destination and the duration they stay in each location. Thus, their movement mimics real-life situations. This is a stochastic, bottom-up model, yet it yields HMP that qualitatively fit HMP empirical data in terms of individuals, as well as the entire population. Our results also correspond to real-life phenomena in terms of urban spatial dynamics, that is, the emergence of popular locations in the city due to bottom-up behavior of people. Our model is novel in being based on the assumption that HMP are space-dependent as well as follow high regularity. To our knowledge, we are the first to succeed in simulating HMP not only at the inter-city scale but also at the intra-urban one. PMID:26161640

  4. Intra-cluster correlation selection for cluster randomized trials.

    PubMed

    Westgate, Philip M

    2016-08-30

    In this paper, we give focus to cluster randomized trials, also known as group randomized trials, which randomize clusters, or groups, of subjects to different trial arms, such as intervention or control. Outcomes from subjects within the same cluster tend to exhibit an exchangeable correlation measured by the intra-cluster correlation coefficient (ICC). Our primary interest is to test if the intervention has an impact on the marginal mean of an outcome. Using recently developed methods, we propose how to select a working ICC structure with the goal of choosing the structure that results in the smallest standard errors for regression parameter estimates and thus the greatest power for this test. Specifically, we utilize small-sample corrections for the estimation of the covariance matrix of regression parameter estimates. This matrix is incorporated within correlation selection criteria proposed in the generalized estimating equations literature to choose one of multiple working ICC structures under consideration. We demonstrate the potential power and utility of this approach when used in cluster randomized trial settings via a simulation study and application example, and we discuss practical considerations for its use in practice. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26924419

  5. Intra-aneurysmal thrombus modification after flow-diversion.

    PubMed

    Zanaty, Mario; Jabbour, Pascal M; Bou Sader, Roula; Chalouhi, Nohra; Tjoumakaris, Stavropoula; Rosenwasser, Robert H; Fernando Gonzalez, L

    2015-01-01

    Flow diversion has been successfully used to treat large and giant intracranial aneurysms that present with mass effect. We conducted a retrospective review, evaluating the modification of thrombi in this aneurysm type after treatment with the Pipeline Embolization Device (ev3 Endovascular, Plymouth, MN, USA) and the effects of these modifications on symptoms. Eight patients, seven of whom were female, harbored eight partially thrombosed large or giant aneurysms. Five of the eight aneurysms presented with symptomatic mass effect. At 1 year follow-up, complete occlusion occurred in 75% (6/8) of patients. On average, the longest thrombus diameter measured 22.31 mm before treatment and 14.05 mm 1 year afterwards. Seven of the eight thrombi regressed, as did their aneurysms. All six patients with shrunken thrombi had tremendous symptom improvement and became asymptomatic in the following year. The current findings seem to reflect the size variation of the intra-aneurysmal thrombus rather than the size of the aneurysm itself. PMID:25192591

  6. The health care market audit.

    PubMed

    Macstravic, R E

    1978-10-01

    With marketing increasingly being accepted as a mechanism by which hospitals can more effectively meet community needs, a hospital can begin a marketing program by auditing its markets. This involves identifying, collecting, and evaluating information. PMID:689659

  7. Ancillary services market in California

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, T.; Marnay, C.; Siddiqui, A.; Liew, L.; Khavkin, M.

    1999-07-01

    This report includes sections on the following topics: (1) California restructured electricity system overview; (2) Reliability criteria; (3) Design of the California ISO ancillary services market; (4) Operation of ancillary services markets; (5) Ancillary services markets redesign; and (6) Conclusions.

  8. Quantum spatial-periodic harmonic model for daily price-limited stock markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Xiangyi; Zhang, Jian-Wei; Xu, Jingjing; Guo, Hong

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the behaviors of stocks in daily price-limited stock markets by purposing a quantum spatial-periodic harmonic model. The stock price is considered to be oscillating and damping in a quantum spatial-periodic harmonic oscillator potential well. A complicated non-linear relation including inter-band positive correlation and intra-band negative correlation between the volatility and trading volume of a stock is numerically derived with the energy band structure of the model concerned. The effectiveness of price limit is re-examined, with some observed characteristics of price-limited stock markets in China studied by applying our quantum model.

  9. Marketing on a shoestring.

    PubMed

    Sutton, J

    1999-01-01

    Marketing includes the many steps taken to sell a product or service from its conception to its purchase or use. In healthcare, three cost-effective audiences to target are referring physicians and their staffs, local HMOs and PPOs, facility employees and patients. The potential users of such services--your target audience--should be made aware of new offerings such as the addition of special procedures, a new piece of equipment, or perhaps a new physician with special capabilities. To ensure a productive effort, a marketing attempt must follow two cardinal rules: first, the product or service offered must be of high quality and, second, the marketing effort must be carried out consistently. An effective marketing campaign should create an impression within the community about the facility by emphasizing those aspects of the department or facility that make it unique. Are its hours of operation adequate? Do its personnel project a professional attitude and demeanor? Does it have a specialty that makes it unique within the healthcare community? The most powerful marketing tool of all is word of mouth, which is based on the judgments clients make after visiting the facility-department or facility employees smile and greet visitors, they are polite and helpful on the telephone, their attitudes are professional, and so forth. Such impressions are worth millions in goodwill and can be used as a marketing tool. Last, an actual case study from my hospital explains how we determined the need for and marketed an open MRI system. PMID:10346650

  10. [SIAM conference on optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-10

    Abstracts are presented of 63 papers on the following topics: large-scale optimization, interior-point methods, algorithms for optimization, problems in control, network optimization methods, and parallel algorithms for optimization problems.

  11. Intra-grain Pore-Scale Reactive Diffusion of Uranium and Upscaling in Subsurface Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C.; Shang, J.; Kerisit, S.; Wang, Z.; Zachara, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    Uranium contamination is a major environmental concern in subsurface environments at various radionuclide materials processing and waste discharging sites. Recent studies at the US DOE Hanford site have found that uranium is primarily associated with intra-grain porous media as surface-complexed and precipitated uranyl [U(VI)] phases. Intra-grain reactive diffusion strongly affects U(VI) reactive transport in sediments at both laboratory and field scales. In this presentation, we will describe our experimental and modeling studies to characterize and upscale U(VI) reactive diffusion in the intra-grain pore regions. Spectroscopic and microscopic characterizations were performed to define U(VI) speciation/distribution and intra-grain porous medium properties (pore-size, volume, and connectivity); stirred-flow cell experiments were performed to investigate the macroscopic manifestation of the intra-grain U(VI) reactive diffusion; and pore-scale simulations in the intra-grain regions were used to provide insights into the spatiotemporal variability of U(VI) reactive diffusion. Molecular dynamics simulations were used to calculate the uranyl species diffusion coefficients and to provide insights into the pore-size restriction on species diffusion. Two alternative macroscopic kinetic models were developed to evaluate the upscaling of intra-grain reactive diffusion and to illustrate the challenges in upscaling reactive diffusion processes.

  12. Host intra-clutch variation, cuckoo egg matching and egg rejection by great reed warblers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherry, Michael I.; Bennett, Andrew T. D.; Moskát, Csaba

    2007-06-01

    Prevailing theory predicts that lower levels of intra-clutch variation in host eggs facilitate the detection of brood parasitism. We assessed egg matching using both human vision and UV-VIS spectrophotometry and then followed the nest fate of great reed warblers naturally parasitised by European cuckoos. Rejection was predicted by the following three variables: matching between cuckoo and host eggs on the main chromatic variable defined by principal components analysis of the egg spectra (which has a strong loading in the UV); the number of host eggs in the nest; and human estimates of intra-clutch variation. The first variable is not correlated to human estimates of matching, which do not predict rejection. In line with another recent study, rejection rates were predicted by higher levels of intra-clutch variation in the host eggs, suggesting that higher rather than lower levels of intra-clutch variation can facilitate the discrimination of cuckoo eggs by hosts. We suggest that the importance of intra-clutch variation is context dependent, with intra-clutch variation being important when there is good matching between the host and the cuckoo eggs. Our results also suggest that both spectrometric and human visual assessments of egg matching and intra-clutch variation are prudent: the former provide the best method of estimating reflectance variation, whereas the latter include some assessment of patterns of maculation.

  13. Optimal ranking regime analysis of U.S. climate variablility. Part II: Precipitation and streamflow

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a preceding companion paper the Optimal Ranking Regime (ORR) method was used to identify intra- to multi-decadal (IMD) regimes in U.S. climate division temperature data during 1896-2012. Here, the method is used to test for annual and seasonal precipitation regimes during that same period. In add...

  14. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 prevents intra-abdominal adhesions by decreasing activity of peritoneal fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Guangbing; Chen, Xin; Wang, Guanghui; Jia, Pengbo; Xu, Qinhong; Ping, Gaofeng; Wang, Kang; Li, Xuqi

    2015-01-01

    Background Postoperative intra-abdominal adhesions are common complications after abdominal surgery. The exact molecular mechanisms that are responsible for these complications remain unclear, and there are no effective methods for preventing adhesion formation or reformation. The aim of the study reported here was to investigate the preventive effects and underlying potential molecular mechanisms of selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors in a rodent model of postoperative intra-abdominal adhesions. Materials and methods The expression of COX-2 in postoperative intra-abdominal adhe-sions and normal peritoneal tissue was examined by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. Assays were performed to elucidate the effect of COX-2 inhibition on hypoxia-induced fibroblast activity in vitro and on intra-abdominal adhesion formation in vivo. Results Hypoxia-induced COX-2 expression in peritoneal fibroblasts was increased in postoperative intra-abdominal adhesions. Inhibition of COX-2 attenuated the activating effect of hypoxia on normal peritoneal fibroblasts in vitro. Data indicate that selective COX-2 inhibitor prevents in vivo intra-abdominal adhesion by inhibition of basic fibroblast growth factor and transforming growth factor-beta expression, but not through an antiangiogenic mechanism. Furthermore, using selective COX-2 inhibitors to prevent intra-abdominal adhesions did not adversely affect the weight, bowel motility, or healing of intestinal anastomoses in a rat model. Conclusion These results show that hypoxia-induced COX-2 expression in peritoneal fibroblasts is involved in the formation of intra-abdominal adhesions. Inhibition of COX-2 prevents postoperative intra-abdominal adhesions through suppression of inflammatory cytokines. PMID:26109851

  15. SPS market analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goff, H. C.

    1980-05-01

    A market analysis task included personal interviews by GE personnel and supplemental mail surveys to acquire statistical data and to identify and measure attitudes, reactions and intentions of prospective small solar thermal power systems (SPS) users. Over 500 firms were contacted, including three ownership classes of electric utilities, industrial firms in the top SIC codes for energy consumption, and design engineering firms. A market demand model was developed which utilizes the data base developed by personal interviews and surveys, and projected energy price and consumption data to perform sensitivity analyses and estimate potential markets for SPS.

  16. a Cultural Market Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    HerdaǦDELEN, Amaç; Bingol, Haluk

    Social interactions and personal tastes shape our consumption behavior of cultural products. In this study, we present a computational model of a cultural market and we aim to analyze the behavior of the consumer population as an emergent phenomena. Our results suggest that the final market shares of cultural products dramatically depend on consumer heterogeneity and social interaction pressure. Furthermore, the relation between the resulting market shares and social interaction is robust with respect to a wide range of variation in the parameter values and the type of topology.

  17. Demonstrating marketing accountability.

    PubMed

    Gombeski, William R; Britt, Jason; Taylor, Jan; Riggs, Karen; Wray, Tanya; Adkins, Wanda; Springate, Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    Pressure on health care marketers to demonstrate effectiveness of their strategies and show their contribution to organizational goals is growing. A seven-tiered model based on the concepts of structure (having the right people, systems), process (doing the right things in the right way), and outcomes (results) is discussed. Examples of measures for each tier are provided and the benefits of using the model as a tool for measuring, organizing, tracking, and communicating appropriate information are provided. The model also provides a framework for helping management understand marketing's value and can serve as a vehicle for demonstrating marketing accountability. PMID:19064476

  18. Microbolometers: a market perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mounier, E.

    2012-03-01

    The Long Wave IR camera market has grown significantly in the last ten years thanks to the strong cost reduction brought by low cost IR detectors/ microbolometers. This led to the development of many new commercial markets and it is expected that IR camera volumes will be multiplied by 4 to reach 1.18 M units in 2016 thanks to the strong price reduction of the cameras meaning +29% CAGR in volume. The uncooled IR camera revenues will grow from 2.1B in 2010 to 3.4 B in 2016. In our paper, we have both analyzed market and technical trends for uncooled infrared imagers' civilian and military applications.

  19. Opitmal Platform Strategies in the Smartphone Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unno, Masaru; Xu, Hua

    In a smartphone market, smartphone makers encourage smartphone application providers (AP) to create more popular smartphone applications through making a revenue-sharing contract with AP and providing application-purchasing support to end users. In this paper, we study revenue-sharing and application-purchasing support problem between a risk-averse smartphone maker and a smartphone application provider. The problem is formulated as the smartphone makers's risk-sensitive stochastic control problem. The sufficient conditions for the existence of the optimal revenue-sharing strategy, the optimal application-purchasing support strategy and the incentive compatible effort recommended to AP are obtained. The effects of the smartphone makers's risk-sensitivity on the optimal strategies are also discussed. A numerical example is solved to show the computation aspects of the problem.

  20. Increasing market efficiency in the stock markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jae-Suk; Kwak, Wooseop; Kaizoji, Taisei; Kim, In-Mook

    2008-01-01

    We study the temporal evolutions of three stock markets; Standard and Poor's 500 index, Nikkei 225 Stock Average, and the Korea Composite Stock Price Index. We observe that the probability density function of the log-return has a fat tail but the tail index has been increasing continuously in recent years. We have also found that the variance of the autocorrelation function, the scaling exponent of the standard deviation, and the statistical complexity decrease, but that the entropy density increases as time goes over time. We introduce a modified microscopic spin model and simulate the model to confirm such increasing and decreasing tendencies in statistical quantities. These findings indicate that these three stock markets are becoming more efficient.

  1. Market Simulations for Irrigation Water Rights: A Hypothetical Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Benedict D. C.; Eheart, J. Wayland

    1983-10-01

    The efficiency of two marketable water rights systems in a lentic (lakelike) structure is assessed quantitatively for a case study based on hypothetical irrigation water use. Water rights are simulated on the bases of (1) the expected values of water rights to the users and (2) perfect foresight on the parts of users, and the economic outcomes of these markets are evaluated from both ex ante and ex post perspectives. The market outcomes are compared to the optimal (efficient) scheme and to two alternative nonmarket policies. Distributional aspects of the markets are examined on the basis of individual payoff. Simulation results show that higher efficiency is obtained for the two market systems than for the nonmarket policies and that the market systems recoup about 95% of the economic value of the optimal distribution. The results suggest that most of the 5% efficiency loss should be attributed to the design of the market system itself (i.e., the restrictions imposed by the definition of the rights and/or the water rights allocation policy), rather than the users' inability to predict future events.

  2. Intra-rater reliability when using a tympanic thermometer under different self-measurement conditions.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated intra-rater reliability when using a tympanic thermometer under different self-measurement conditions. [Subjects and Methods] Ten males participated. Intra-rater reliability was assessed by comparing the values under three conditions of measurement using a tympanic thermometer. Intraclass correlation coefficients were used to assess intra-rater reliability. [Results] According to the intraclass correlation coefficient analysis, reliability could be ranked according to the conditions of measurement. [Conclusion] The results showed that self-measurement of body temperature is more precise when combined with common sense and basic education about the anatomy of the eardrum. PMID:27512269

  3. Intra-rater reliability when using a tympanic thermometer under different self-measurement conditions

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Won-gyu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated intra-rater reliability when using a tympanic thermometer under different self-measurement conditions. [Subjects and Methods] Ten males participated. Intra-rater reliability was assessed by comparing the values under three conditions of measurement using a tympanic thermometer. Intraclass correlation coefficients were used to assess intra-rater reliability. [Results] According to the intraclass correlation coefficient analysis, reliability could be ranked according to the conditions of measurement. [Conclusion] The results showed that self-measurement of body temperature is more precise when combined with common sense and basic education about the anatomy of the eardrum. PMID:27512269

  4. Terrane Stations: intra-oceanic subduction assembled western North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigloch, K.; Mihalynuk, M. G.

    2012-12-01

    The western quarter of North America consists of accreted terranes, crustal blocks that were added to the margin in a series of collisions over the past 200 million years - but why? The most widely accepted explanation posits a scenario analogous to Andean subduction, with these terranes conveyed to the continental margin while the oceanic Farallon plate subducted under it. Yet purely Andean-style subduction under North America is questionable as a terrane delivery mechanism, since no comparable accretion sequence took place along the South American margin, and since North American terranes are of very varied provenance. We consider this geological question directly related to a geodynamical one: Why has it been so difficult to reconcile - even on the largest scale - the geometries and locations of slabs in the lower-mantle, as imaged by seismic tomography, with Cretaceous plate reconstructions of the North American west coast (unless anomalous mantle rheology or ad hoc shifts of absolute reference frame are invoked)? This problem was recognized soon after the discovery of the massive, lower-mantle "Farallon slabs" by Grand (1994), but has recently been aggravated by the discovery of additional, more westerly deep slabs (Sigloch et al. 2008), thanks to USArray. Not all of these slabs can be Farallon, unless very non-vertical and/or uneven slab sinking behavior is allowed for. As a joint solution, we offer a radical reinterpretation of paleogeography and test it quantitatively: The seas west of Cretaceous North America must have resembled today's western Pacific. The Farallon and two more plates subducted into the intra-oceanic trenches of a vast archipelago in the eastern Panthalassa (proto-Pacific) ocean, both from the east and the west. The trenches remained stationary throughout much of Jurassic and Cretaceous times, depositing the massive, near-vertical slab walls imaged in the lower mantle today. On their overriding plates, island arcs and subduction complexes

  5. Origin and intra-island diversification of Sulawesi endemic Adrianichthyidae.

    PubMed

    Mokodongan, Daniel F; Yamahira, Kazunori

    2015-12-01

    Although the family Adrianichthyidae is broadly distributed throughout East and Southeast Asia, 19 endemic species, over half of the family, are distributed in Sulawesi, which is an island in Wallacea. However, it remains unclear how this Adrianichthyidae biodiversity hotspot was shaped. In this study, we reconstructed molecular phylogenies for the Sulawesi adrianichthyids and estimated the divergence times of major lineages to infer the detailed history of their origin and subsequent intra-island diversification. The mitochondrial and nuclear phylogenies revealed that Sulawesi adrianichthyids are monophyletic, which indicates that they diverged from a single common ancestor. Species in the earliest branching lineages are currently distributed in the central and southeastern parts of the island, indicating that the common ancestor colonized Sula Spur, which is a large promontory that projects from the Australian continental margin, from Asia by oversea dispersal c.a. 20Mya. The first diversification event on Sulawesi, the split of the genus Adrianichthys, occurred c.a. 16Mya, and resulted in the nesting of Adrianichthys within Oryzias. Strong geographic structure was evident in the phylogeny; many species in the lineages branching off early are riverine and widely distributed in the southeastern and southwestern arms of Sulawesi, which suggests that oversea dispersal between tectonic subdivisions of this island during the late Miocene (7-5Mya) contributed to the distributions and diversification of the early branching lineages. In contrast, most species in the lineages branched off later are endemic to a single tectonic lake or lake system in the central Sulawesi, suggesting that habitat fragmentation due to the Pliocene collisions (c.a. 4Mya) among the tectonic subdivisions was the primary factor for diversification of the late branching, lacustrine lineages. Adrianichthys and some Oryzias in a certain late branching lineage are sympatric in Lake Poso, which

  6. Intra-arterial chemotherapy for retinoblastoma: First Indian report

    PubMed Central

    Rishi, Pukhraj; Sharma, Tarun; Koundanya, Vikram; Bansal, Nishat; Saravanan, M; Ravikumar, R; Ramamurthy, Satheesh

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To describe treatment outcomes and complications of selective intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC) for retinoblastoma (RB) in Indian eyes. Materials and Methods: Single center, retrospective interventional case series of 6 eyes with RB who underwent IAC using Melphalan (3 mg/5 mg/7.5 mg) and topetecan (1 mg) (n = 4) or melphalan (3 mg/5 mg/7.5 mg) alone (n = 2) between December 2013 and June 2014. In all, 17 IAC procedures were performed using selective ophthalmic artery cannulation. Treatment outcomes were evaluated in terms of tumor control, vitreous and subretinal seeds control and globe salvage rates. Results: IAC was employed as primary (n = 1) or secondary (n = 5) modality of treatment. Each eye received mean 3 IAC sessions (median: 3; range: 1-4 sessions). Eyes were classified according to international classification of RB as Group B (n = 1), C (n = 1), D (n = 2) and E (n = 2). Following IAC, complete regression of the main tumor was seen in 3 cases (50%), partial regression in 2 (33%), while 1 case (15%) showed no response. Of 4 eyes with subretinal seeds, 1 (25%) eye had complete regression while 3 (75%) eyes had partial regression. Of 5 eyes with vitreous seeds, 2 (40%) eyes had complete regression while 3 (60%) eyes had a partial response. Globe salvage was achieved in 5 of 6 eyes (83%). Diffuse choroidal atrophy and vitreous hemorrhage were observed in 1 (17%) eye, each. No hematologic toxicity or cerebro-vascular events were observed. Mean follow-up period was 5.5 months (median: 6 months, range: 1-6 months). Conclusion: IAC is an effective therapy for globe preservation in eyes with RB. Larger studies with longer follow-up are required to validate these results. PMID:26044473

  7. White matter lesions and intra-arterial thrombolysis.

    PubMed

    Jung, Simon; Mono, Marie Luise; Findling, Oliver; Fischer, Urs; Galimanis, Aekaterini; Weck, Anja; De Marchis, Gian Marco; Ballinari, Pietro; Gralla, Jan; Brekenfeld, Caspar; Schroth, Gerhard; Arnold, Marcel; Mattle, Heinrich P; El-Koussy, Marwan

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the influence of white matter lesions in patients with acute ischemic stroke treated with intra-arterial thrombolysis (IAT). From September 2003 to January 2010, we treated 400 patients with IAT at our institution. Of these patients, 292 were evaluated with MRI scans and included in this observational study. Clinical data were collected prospectively. Outcome after 3 months was measured with the modified Rankin Scale (mRS); mRS 0-1 was considered as favorable outcome. White matter lesions were scored visually by two observers using the semiquantitative Scheltens and Fazekas scores. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify the association of white matter lesions and clinical outcome, recanalization, and cerebral hemorrhage. The severity of white matter lesions was inversely correlated with favorable outcome, survival and successful recanalization. White matter lesions were an independent predictor of outcome (OR 0.569, p = 0.007) and survival (OR 0.550, p = 0.018) and a weak but independent predictor for recanalization (OR 0.949, p = 0.038). Asymptomatic intracerebral bleeding after IAT was associated with white matter lesions in the basal ganglia in the univariate analysis (p = 0.036), but not after multivariable analysis. The severity of white matter lesions independently predicts clinical outcome and survival in patients treated with IAT. White matter lesions are also a weak but independent predictor for recanalization. Symptomatic intracranial bleeding after IAT are not associated with white matter lesions. Therefore, white matter lesions should not be considered as a contraindication against IAT. PMID:22249288

  8. A Search for AGN Intra-Day Variability with KVN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Taeseok; Trippe, Sascha; Oh, Junghwan; Byun, Do-Young; Sohn, Bong-Won; Lee, Sang-Sung

    2015-10-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGN) are known for irregular variability on all time scales, down to intra-day variability with relative variations of a few percent within minutes to hours. On such short timescales, unexplored territory, such as the possible existence of a shortest characteristic time scale of activity and the shape of the high frequency end of AGN power spectra, still exists. We present the results of AGN single-dish fast photometry performed with the Korean VLBI Network (KVN). Observations were done in a "anti-correlated" mode using two antennas, with always at least one antenna pointing at the target. This results in an effective time resolution of less than three minutes. We used all four KVN frequencies, 22, 43, 86, and 129 GHz, in order to trace spectral variability, if any. We were able to derive high-quality light curves for 3C 111, 3C 454.3, and BL Lacertae at 22 and 43 GHz, and for 3C 279 at 86 GHz, between May 2012 and April 2013. We performed a detailed statistical analysis in order to assess the levels of variability and the corresponding upper limits. We found upper limits on flux variability ranging from ∼1.6% to ∼7.6%. The upper limits on the derived brightness temperatures exceed the inverse Compton limit by three to six orders of magnitude. From our results, plus comparison with data obtained by the University of Michigan Radio Astronomy Observatory, we conclude that we have not detected source-intrinsic variability which would have to occur at sub-per cent levels.

  9. Subtalar arthrodesis for complications of intra-articular calcaneal fractures.

    PubMed

    Flemister, A S; Infante, A F; Sanders, R W; Walling, A K

    2000-05-01

    Eighty six subtalar arthrodeses performed between 1985 and 1996 for complications associated with intra-articular calcaneal fractures were retrospectively evaluated. Patients were divided into three Groups: (I) 59 patients with calcaneal malunions (II) 13 patients with failed open reduction and internal fixation, and (III) eight patients undergoing open reductions and primary fusion for highly comminuted fractures. In each scenario, internal fixation was achieved with cancellous lag screws. Bone graft material consisted of either autogenous iliac crest graft, local graft obtained from the lateral wall exostectomy of the malunion, or freeze-dried cancellous allograft. Fusions in Groups II and III were performed in situ. Fusions in Group I were performed either in situ or utilizing a variety of reconstructive procedures depending upon the type of malunion encountered. Eighty three of the 86 fusion attempts were successful following the initial operations for a union rate of 96%. Fusion rates were similar regardless of the graft material used. Complications included four varus malunions, four cases of osteomyelitis, and two cases of reflex sympathetic dystrophy. A statistically significant shorter hospital stay was found for patients not undergoing iliac crest bone graft procedures. Eighty patients with at least two year follow up achieved a mean American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) ankle-hindfoot score of 75.0. Scores were similar for all three groups and for the various types of reconstructive procedures used. No correlation was found between postoperative talar declination angle and the AOFAS ankle-hindfoot score. Worker's compensation patients tended to have a poorer clinical outcome. PMID:10830657

  10. Analysis of intra-country virtual water trade strategy to alleviate water scarcity in Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faramarzi, M.; Yang, H.; Mousavi, J.; Schulin, R.; Binder, C. R.; Abbaspour, K. C.

    2010-04-01

    Increasing water scarcity has posed a major constraint to sustain food production in many parts of the world. To study the situation at the regional level, we took Iran as an example and analyzed how an intra-country "virtual water trade strategy" (VWTS) may help improve cereal production as well as alleviate the water scarcity problem. This strategy calls, in part, for the adjustment of the structure of cropping pattern (ASCP) and interregional food trade where crop yield and crop water productivity as well as local economic and social conditions are taken into account. We constructed a systematic framework to assess ASCP at the provincial level under various driving forces and constraints. A mixed-integer, multi-objective, linear optimization model was developed and solved by linear programming. Data from 1990-2004 were used to account for yearly fluctuations of water availability and food production. Five scenarios were designed aimed at maximizing the national cereal production while meeting certain levels of wheat self-sufficiency under various water and land constraints in individual provinces. The results show that under the baseline scenario, which assumes a continuation of the existing water use and food policy at the national level, some ASCP scenarios could produce more wheat with less water. Based on different scenarios in ASCP, we calculated that 31% to 100% of the total wheat shortage in the deficit provinces could be supplied by the wheat surplus provinces. As a result, wheat deficit provinces would receive 3.5 billion m3 to 5.5 billion m3 of virtual water by importing wheat from surplus provinces.

  11. Analysis of intra-country virtual water trade strategy to alleviate water scarcity in Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faramarzi, M.; Yang, H.; Mousavi, J.; Schulin, R.; Binder, C. R.; Abbaspour, K. C.

    2010-08-01

    Increasing water scarcity has posed a major constraint to sustain food production in many parts of the world. To study the situation at the regional level, we took Iran as an example and analyzed how an intra-country "virtual water trade strategy" (VWTS) may help improve cereal production as well as alleviate the water scarcity problem. This strategy calls, in part, for the adjustment of the structure of cropping pattern (ASCP) and interregional food trade where crop yield and crop water productivity as well as local economic and social conditions are taken into account. We constructed a systematic framework to assess ASCP at the provincial level under various driving forces and constraints. A mixed-integer, multi-objective, linear optimization model was developed and solved by linear programming. Data from 1990-2004 were used to account for yearly fluctuations of water availability and food production. Five scenarios were designed aimed at maximizing the national cereal production while meeting certain levels of wheat self-sufficiency under various water and land constraints in individual provinces. The results show that under the baseline scenario, which assumes a continuation of the existing water use and food policy at the national level, some ASCP scenarios could produce more wheat with less water. Based on different scenarios in ASCP, we calculated that 31% to 100% of the total wheat shortage in the deficit provinces could be supplied by the wheat surplus provinces. As a result, wheat deficit provinces would receive 3.5 billion m3 to 5.5 billion m3 of virtual water by importing wheat from surplus provinces.

  12. Modeling the Intra- and Extracellular Cytokine Signaling Pathway under Heat Stroke in the Liver

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Fernandez, Maria; Grosman, Benyamin; Yuraszeck, Theresa M.; Helwig, Bryan G.; Leon, Lisa R.; Doyle III, Francis J.

    2013-01-01

    Heat stroke (HS) is a life-threatening illness induced by prolonged exposure to a hot environment that causes central nervous system abnormalities and severe hyperthermia. Current data suggest that the pathophysiological responses to heat stroke may not only be due to the immediate effects of heat exposure per se but also the result of a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). The observation that pro- (e.g., IL-1) and anti-inflammatory (e.g., IL-10) cytokines are elevated concomitantly during recovery suggests a complex network of interactions involved in the manifestation of heat-induced SIRS. In this study, we measured a set of circulating cytokine/soluble cytokine receptor proteins and liver cytokine and receptor mRNA accumulation in wild-type and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor knockout mice to assess the effect of neutralization of TNF signaling on the SIRS following HS. Using a systems approach, we developed a computational model describing dynamic changes (intra- and extracellular events) in the cytokine signaling pathways in response to HS that was fitted to novel genomic (liver mRNA accumulation) and proteomic (circulating cytokines and receptors) data using global optimization. The model allows integration of relevant biological knowledge and formulation of new hypotheses regarding the molecular mechanisms behind the complex etiology of HS that may serve as future therapeutic targets. Moreover, using our unique modeling framework, we explored cytokine signaling pathways with three in silico experiments (e.g. by simulating different heat insult scenarios and responses in cytokine knockout strains in silico). PMID:24039931

  13. Functional Brain Network Modularity Captures Inter- and Intra-Individual Variation in Working Memory Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Alexander A.; Tappon, Sarah C.; Garg, Arun; Fair, Damien A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Cognitive abilities, such as working memory, differ among people; however, individuals also vary in their own day-to-day cognitive performance. One potential source of cognitive variability may be fluctuations in the functional organization of neural systems. The degree to which the organization of these functional networks is optimized may relate to the effective cognitive functioning of the individual. Here we specifically examine how changes in the organization of large-scale networks measured via resting state functional connectivity MRI and graph theory track changes in working memory capacity. Methodology/Principal Findings Twenty-two participants performed a test of working memory capacity and then underwent resting-state fMRI. Seventeen subjects repeated the protocol three weeks later. We applied graph theoretic techniques to measure network organization on 34 brain regions of interest (ROI). Network modularity, which measures the level of integration and segregation across sub-networks, and small-worldness, which measures global network connection efficiency, both predicted individual differences in memory capacity; however, only modularity predicted intra-individual variation across the two sessions. Partial correlations controlling for the component of working memory that was stable across sessions revealed that modularity was almost entirely associated with the variability of working memory at each session. Analyses of specific sub-networks and individual circuits were unable to consistently account for working memory capacity variability. Conclusions/Significance The results suggest that the intrinsic functional organization of an a priori defined cognitive control network measured at rest provides substantial information about actual cognitive performance. The association of network modularity to the variability in an individual's working memory capacity suggests that the organization of this network into high connectivity within modules

  14. Hydraulic and hemodynamic performance of a minimally invasive intra-arterial right ventricular assist device.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Po-Lin; Graefe, Roland; Boehning, Fiete; Wu, Chen; Parker, Jack; Autschbach, Rüdiger; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Steinseifer, Ulrich

    2014-09-01

    Right ventricular assistance is still in the early phase of development compared to left ventricular assist device (LVAD) technology. In order to provide flexible pulmonary support and potentially reduce the known complications, we propose a minimally invasive right ventricular assist device (MIRVAD), located in the pulmonary artery (PA) and operating in series with the right ventricle (RV). The MIRVAD is an intra-arterial rotary blood pump containing a single axial impeller, which is not enclosed by a rigid housing but stent-fixed within the vessel. The impeller geometry has been designed with the assistance of analytical methods and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The hydraulic performance of the impeller was evaluated experimentally with a customized test setup using blood synthetic medium (HES). The blade-tip clearance (BTC) was varied between 0.25-4.25 mm to evaluate the effect of different PA sizes on impeller performance. Furthermore, the Langrangian particle-tracking method was used to estimate the level of hemolysis and generate numerical blood damage indexes.The impeller design generated 25.6 mmHg for flow rates of 5 lpm at a speed of 6,000 rpm at the baseline condition, capable of providing sufficient support for the RV. The BTC presented a significant effect on the static pressure generation and the efficiency, but the operational range is suitable for most vessel sizes. The numerical results demonstrated a low risk of blood damage at the design point (mean Lagrangian damage index 2.6*10(-7)). The preliminary results have encouraged further impeller optimization and development of the MIRVAD. PMID:25262631

  15. Flooding the market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horn, Diane; McShane, Michael

    2013-11-01

    A flood insurance market with risk-based prices in the UK will only stimulate climate change adaptation if it is part of a wider strategy that includes land-use planning, building regulations and water management.

  16. Coal markets squeeze producers

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, M.

    2005-12-01

    Supply/demand fundamentals seem poised to keep prices of competing fossil fuels high, which could cushion coal prices, but increased mining and transportation costs may squeeze producer profits. Are markets ready for more volatility?

  17. Marketing Trends to Watch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Circle, Alison

    2009-01-01

    This article identifies 13 cultural trends that libraries can turn into opportunites to reach patrons. These trends include: Twitter, online reputation management, value added content, mobile marketing, and emotional connection.

  18. Marketing Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brian, Edward J.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the 4 basic areas in which institutional marketing can be put to use in higher educational institutions: educational services offered, pricing (tuition), promotion to prospective students, and distribution (extension courses and courses that go to the student). (PG)

  19. Marketing the Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dragon, Andrea C.

    1979-01-01

    Describes the positive action using marketing strategies that libraries must take to capture their share of the post-Proposition 13 tax dollar. Strategies discussed relate to price, product, promotion, and place. (JD)

  20. Optimal refrigerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allahverdyan, Armen E.; Hovhannisyan, Karen; Mahler, Guenter

    2010-05-01

    We study a refrigerator model which consists of two n -level systems interacting via a pulsed external field. Each system couples to its own thermal bath at temperatures Th and Tc , respectively (θ≡Tc/Th<1) . The refrigerator functions in two steps: thermally isolated interaction between the systems driven by the external field and isothermal relaxation back to equilibrium. There is a complementarity between the power of heat transfer from the cold bath and the efficiency: the latter nullifies when the former is maximized and vice versa. A reasonable compromise is achieved by optimizing the product of the heat-power and efficiency over the Hamiltonian of the two systems. The efficiency is then found to be bounded from below by ζCA=(1)/(1-θ)-1 (an analog of the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency), besides being bound from above by the Carnot efficiency ζC=(1)/(1-θ)-1 . The lower bound is reached in the equilibrium limit θ→1 . The Carnot bound is reached (for a finite power and a finite amount of heat transferred per cycle) for lnn≫1 . If the above maximization is constrained by assuming homogeneous energy spectra for both systems, the efficiency is bounded from above by ζCA and converges to it for n≫1 .

  1. Optimal refrigerator.

    PubMed

    Allahverdyan, Armen E; Hovhannisyan, Karen; Mahler, Guenter

    2010-05-01

    We study a refrigerator model which consists of two n -level systems interacting via a pulsed external field. Each system couples to its own thermal bath at temperatures T h and T c, respectively (θ ≡ T c/T h < 1). The refrigerator functions in two steps: thermally isolated interaction between the systems driven by the external field and isothermal relaxation back to equilibrium. There is a complementarity between the power of heat transfer from the cold bath and the efficiency: the latter nullifies when the former is maximized and vice versa. A reasonable compromise is achieved by optimizing the product of the heat-power and efficiency over the Hamiltonian of the two systems. The efficiency is then found to be bounded from below by [formula: see text] (an analog of the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency), besides being bound from above by the Carnot efficiency [formula: see text]. The lower bound is reached in the equilibrium limit θ → 1. The Carnot bound is reached (for a finite power and a finite amount of heat transferred per cycle) for ln n > 1. If the above maximization is constrained by assuming homogeneous energy spectra for both systems, the efficiency is bounded from above by ζ CA and converges to it for n > 1. PMID:20866207

  2. Marketing new medical devices.

    PubMed

    LoBuglio, R J

    1988-01-01

    The marketing concept says that a firm should focus all of its efforts on satisfying its customers, at a profit. This is really a a new philosophy of business, replacing a production-oriented philosophy which focused on organizing a firm's resources to make products and then selling them. The marketing concept calls for reorienting the firm's ways of doing things. Instead of trying to get customers to buy what the firm has produced, a marketing-oriented firm would try to sell what the customers want. The underlying principle of the marketing concept is that a firm should seek to meet the needs of customers, at a profit, rather than place its main emphasis on its own internal activities and utilization of its resources. These latter factors are also important, of course, but those who believe in the marketing concept feel that customers' needs should be the firm's primary focus and that resources should be organized to satisfy those needs. Give the customer what he needs--this may seem so obvious and logical that it is difficult to understand why the marketing concept is considered such a breakthrough. However, people haven't always done the logical and obvious. In a typical company, production men thought mainly about getting the product out. Accountants were only interested in balancing the books. Financial people were absorbed in the company's cash position. And salesmen were mainly concerned with getting orders. No one was particularly concerned with whether the whole system made sense. As long as the company made a profit, each department went merrily on its independent way, "doing its own thing." Unfortunately, they still do in the majority of companies today. Finding out customer's attitudes can avoid prejudices and stereotypes commonly found in the typical organization. The need for market research to avoid stereotypes can be dramatized by the following results from a large-scale survey of European adults: The average Frenchman uses almost twice as many

  3. What value market research?

    PubMed

    Maris, L

    1993-08-01

    Whether you have just left your hotel, purchased a new car or eaten at a roadside café, the chances are someone will have asked your views about their services, products and delivery. Why? Perhaps because the market oriented business knows better than to assume it understands its customers. A safer approach is to seek their views through market research, and that is the approach the new Quality Development Awards initiated by the BDJ, Denplan and Colgate have taken. PMID:8357665

  4. Market review: Market values summary/May market review/current market data

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    This article is the May 1996 Uranium transactions summary. Data on Uranium supply and demand is included, as is data on conversion services and separative work units supply and demand. The spot market was active during this period, with 3.6 million pounds U3O8 changing hands in nine transactions. This brought a strengthing of prices. There were also five deals in the long-term market and three deals for natural UF6.

  5. Market review - market values summary/February market review/current market data

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    This article is the February 1996 uranium market report. As reflected by the rising demand and decreasing supply of uranium, prices for UF6 and U3O8 increased. Separation services and conversion services prices remained constant. Data is presented for the recent trades, blocks or uranium for sale or loan, inquiries to purchase or borrow uranium, SWUs available and inquiries to purchase SWUs, and market values of U3O8 and UF6 expressed in selected currencies.

  6. Forward capacity market CONEfusion

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, James F.

    2010-11-15

    In ISO New England and PJM it was assumed that sponsors of new capacity projects would offer them into the newly established forward centralized capacity markets at prices based on their levelized net cost of new entry, or ''Net CONE.'' But the FCCMs have not operated in the way their proponents had expected. To clear up the CONEfusion, FCCM designs should be reconsidered to adapt them to the changing circumstances and to be grounded in realistic expectations of market conduct. (author)

  7. Marketing and Market Research for Adult and Continuing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckmaster, Annette

    Marketing is an essential part of conducting a continuing education program, but marketing consists of more than just promotion. According to Kotler, exchange is the central concept underlying marketing. Marketing involves understanding, planning, implementing, and controlling this exchange. The exchange situation contains all the elements of the…

  8. 76 FR 3679 - Market Test of Marketing Mail Made Easy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ... Market Test of Marketing Mail Made Easy AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service proposal to conduct a 2-year market test involving the sale of Marketing Mail Made Easy. This document describes the proposed test,...

  9. 7 CFR 1218.11 - Market or marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Market or marketing. 1218.11 Section 1218.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING..., AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions §...

  10. SU-E-T-250: New IMRT Sequencing Strategy: Towards Intra-Fraction Plan Adaptation for the MR-Linac

    SciTech Connect

    Kontaxis, C; Bol, G; Lagendijk, J; Raaymakers, B

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To develop a new sequencer for IMRT planning that during treatment makes the inclusion of external factors possible and by doing so accounts for intra-fraction anatomy changes. Given a real-time imaging modality that will provide the updated patient anatomy during delivery, this sequencer is able to take these changes into account during the calculation of subsequent segments. Methods: Pencil beams are generated for each beam angle of the treatment and a fluence optimization is performed. The pencil beams, together with the patient anatomy and the above optimal fluence form the input of our algorithm. During each iteration the following steps are performed: A fluence optimization is done and each beam's fluence is then split to discrete intensity levels. Deliverable segments are calculated for each one of these. Each segment's area multiplied by its intensity describes its efficiency. The most efficient segment among all beams is then chosen to deliver a part of the calculated fluence and the dose that will be delivered by this segment is calculated. This delivered dose is then subtracted from the remaining dose. This loop is repeated until 90% of the dose has been delivered and a final segment weight optimization is performed to reach full convergence. Results: This algorithm was tested in several prostate cases yielding results that meet all clinical constraints. Quality assurance was performed on Delta4 and film phantoms for one of these prostate cases and received clinical acceptance after passing both gamma analyses with the 3%/3mm criteria. Conclusion: A new sequencing algorithm was developed to facilitate the needs of intensity modulated treatment. The first results on static anatomy confirm that it can calculate clinical plans equivalent to those of the commercially available planning systems. We are now working towards 100% dose convergence which will allow us to handle anatomy deformations. This work is financially supported by Elekta AB

  11. Social marketing of contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Schellstede, W P; Derr, B B

    1986-12-01

    Application of commercial marketing techniques has not only increased awareness, acceptability, and use of modern contraceptives in developing countries, but also overcome logistic problems in service delivery. The ability of contraceptive social marketing to reach large numbers and to treat contraceptives as common consumer products has helped to diminish social and religious constraints associated with family planning. Each contraceptive social marketing program is built around a theme tailored to meet specific cultural, social, and management requirements. The primary target populations are those who cannot afford regular commercial products and those who are not adequately reached by government programs. In countries such as Sri Lanka and Jamaica, profit is not a primary sales objective and retail prices are highly subsidized to make products affordable to low-income people. In contrast, the Colombian and Thai programs use contraceptive social marketing to help offset the operating costs of rural community-based programs and seek profits. The most impressive contraceptive social marketing sales performances have been recorded in Bangladesh, Colombia, Egypt, and Jamaica. The main reason contraceptive social marketing is more cost-efficient than other modes of contraceptive distribution is that the cost of product delivery is assumed by the commercial system. Although there has been some interest in making these programs self-sufficient financially, this step has tended to undermine the purpose of serving lower income groups. PMID:12341233

  12. Essays on environmental regulations in electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yanming

    Reducing the Greenhouse Gas pollution and promoting energy efficiency among consumers' energy use have been major public policy issues recently. Currently, both the United States and the European Union have set up explicit percentage requirements that require energy generators or consumers to undertake a certain percentage of their energy production or consumption from renewable sources. To achieve their renewable targets, the Tradable Green Certificates (TGC) system has been introduced in their electricity markets. Moreover, in order to promote energy conservation and achieve energy efficiency targets, price policies and price changes derived from environmental regulations have played a more important role in reducing electricity consumption. My research studies problems associated with these policy implementations. In Chapter 1, I analyze a competitive electricity market with two countries operated under a common TGC system. By using geometric illustrations, I compare the two countries' welfare when the renewable quota is chosen optimally under the common certificate market with three different situations. The policy recommendation is that when the value of damage parameter is sufficiently small, full integration with a TGC market is welfare superior to full integration of an all fossil-fuel based market with an optimal emissions standard. In Chapter 2, by analyzing a stylized theoretical model and numerical examples, I investigate the performance of the optimal renewables policy under full separation and full integration scenarios for two countries' electricity markets operated under TGC systems. In my third chapter, I look at residential electricity consumption responsiveness to increases of electricity price in the U.S. and the different effect of a price increase on electricity use for states of different income levels. My analysis reveals that raising the energy price in the short run will not give consumers much incentive to adjust their appliances and make

  13. Unsteady laryngeal airflow simulations of the intra-glottal vortical structures

    PubMed Central

    Mihaescu, Mihai; Khosla, Sid M.; Murugappan, Shanmugam; Gutmark, Ephraim J.

    2010-01-01

    The intra-glottal vortical structures developed in a static divergent glottis with continuous flow entering the glottis are characterized. Laryngeal airflow calculations are performed using the Large Eddy Simulation approach. It has been shown that intra-glottal vortices are formed on the divergent wall of the glottis, immediately downstream of the separation point. Even with non-pulsatile flow entering the glottis, the vortices are intermittently shed, producing unsteady flow at the glottal exit. The vortical structures are characterized by significant negative static pressure relative to the ambient pressure. These vortices increase in size and strength as they are convected downstream by the flow due to the entrained air from the supra-glottal region. The negative static pressures associated with the intra-glottal vortical structures suggest that the closing phase during phonation may be accelerated by such vortices. The intra-glottal negative pressures can affect both vocal fold vibration and voice production. PMID:20058989

  14. Analysis of the Relationship Between Intra-Urban Vegetation Change and Socio-Economic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, L. M. G.; Boggione, G. A.; Monteiro, A. M. V.; Santos, R.

    2012-07-01

    Understanding the vegetation dynamics in urban areas in both quantitative and qualitative aspects is essential to population welfare and also to economic, social and environmental development. However, it is necessary appropriate tools for monitoring and analysis of the landscape dynamic in a systematic way. Therefore, this study proposes a methodology to analyze the relationship between intra-urban vegetation and the social-economic data using the integrated techniques of remote sensing and GIS as well as data mining. This research intends to answer questions such as: Is it possible to extract the intra-urban vegetation as well as identify the intra-urban vegetation changes from medium spatial resolution images and digital image processing techniques? Is it possible to establish a relationship between the intra-urban vegetation changes and social-economic information using data mining techniques?

  15. Intestinal strangulation caused by intra-abdominal lipomas in a dog.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, R; Kuzma, A B

    1991-12-01

    Pedunculated, intra-abdominal lipomas caused intestinal strangulation in a Doberman Pinscher. The dog was treated surgically to remove the lipomas and the devitalized intestine but died soon after surgery. Histologic evaluation confirmed the diagnosis of lipoma. PMID:1778747

  16. Sex differences in senescence: the role of intra-sexual competition in early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Beirne, Christopher; Delahay, Richard; Young, Andrew

    2015-07-22

    Males and females frequently differ in their rates of ageing, but the origins of these differences are poorly understood. Sex differences in senescence have been hypothesized to arise, because investment in intra-sexual reproductive competition entails costs to somatic maintenance, leaving the sex that experiences stronger reproductive competition showing higher rates of senescence. However, evidence that sex differences in senescence are attributable to downstream effects of the intensity of intra-sexual reproductive competition experienced during the lifetime remains elusive. Here, we show using a 35 year study of wild European badgers (Meles meles), that (i) males show higher body mass senescence rates than females and (ii) this sex difference is largely attributable to sex-specific downstream effects of the intensity of intra-sexual competition experienced during early adulthood. Our findings provide rare support for the view that somatic maintenance costs arising from intra-sexual competition can cause both individual variation and sex differences in senescence. PMID:26156771

  17. Clinical trials of interference-based extended depth of focus intra ocular lens design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalevsky, Zeev; Raveh, Ido; Limon, Ofer; ben Yaish, Shai; Lahav Yacouel, Karen; Doron, Ravid; Zlotnik, Alex

    2015-03-01

    In this paper we present the clinical trials performed with intra ocular lens (IOL) design having interference based extended depth of focus. The purpose of such IOL design is to allow cataract patients avoid using glasses after doing their surgery.

  18. Blue Spruce Chairs HEW's New Intra-Departmental Council for Indians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Journal of the Institute for the Development of Indian Law, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Created in April of 1975, the Intra-Departmental Council on Indian Affairs constitutes an effort toward coordination, cooperation, and complementary utilization of Department of Health, Education, and Welfare resources with respect to American Indians. (JC)

  19. Sex differences in senescence: the role of intra-sexual competition in early adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Beirne, Christopher; Delahay, Richard; Young, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Males and females frequently differ in their rates of ageing, but the origins of these differences are poorly understood. Sex differences in senescence have been hypothesized to arise, because investment in intra-sexual reproductive competition entails costs to somatic maintenance, leaving the sex that experiences stronger reproductive competition showing higher rates of senescence. However, evidence that sex differences in senescence are attributable to downstream effects of the intensity of intra-sexual reproductive competition experienced during the lifetime remains elusive. Here, we show using a 35 year study of wild European badgers (Meles meles), that (i) males show higher body mass senescence rates than females and (ii) this sex difference is largely attributable to sex-specific downstream effects of the intensity of intra-sexual competition experienced during early adulthood. Our findings provide rare support for the view that somatic maintenance costs arising from intra-sexual competition can cause both individual variation and sex differences in senescence. PMID:26156771

  20. The use of anti-gravity suits for the control of critical intra-abdominal hemmorhage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kravik, S.; Landmark, K.

    1980-01-01

    The history and use as well as the physiology of the use of antigravity suits for the control of critical intra-abdominal hemorrhages is reviewed. The use of this suit is highly recommended, especially for first aid.