Sample records for intracellular antioxidant enzymes

  1. Intracellular Oxidant Activity, Antioxidant Enzyme Defense System, and Cell Senescence in Fibroblasts with Trisomy 21

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Sureda, Víctor; Vilches, Ángel; Sánchez, Olga; Audí, Laura; Domínguez, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Down's syndrome (DS) is characterized by a complex phenotype associated with chronic oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Overexpression of genes on chromosome-21 is thought to underlie the pathogenesis of the major phenotypic features of DS, such as premature aging. Using cultured fibroblasts with trisomy 21 (T21F), this study aimed to ascertain whether an imbalance exists in activities, mRNA, and protein expression of the antioxidant enzymes SOD1, SOD2, glutathione-peroxidase, and catalase during the cell replication process in vitro. T21F had high SOD1 expression and activity which led to an interenzymatic imbalance in the antioxidant defense system, accentuated with replicative senescence. Intracellular ROS production and oxidized protein levels were significantly higher in T21F compared with control cells; furthermore, a significant decline in intracellular ATP content was detected in T21F. Cell senescence was found to appear prematurely in DS cells as shown by SA-?-Gal assay and p21 assessment, though not apoptosis, as neither p53 nor the proapoptotic proteins cytochrome c and caspase 9 were altered in T21F. These novel findings would point to a deleterious role of oxidatively modified molecules in early cell senescence of T21F, thereby linking replicative and stress-induced senescence in cultured cells to premature aging in DS.

  2. Antioxidant enzymes and human diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JosÉ M. MatÉs; Cristina Pérez-Gómez; Ignacio Núńez De Castro

    1999-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the importance of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase working together in human cells against toxic reactive oxygen species, their relationship with several pathophysiologic processes and their possible therapeutic implications.Conclusions: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in the cell growth, differentiation, progression, and death. Low concentrations of ROS may be beneficial or even indispensable

  3. Enzyme Mimic to Develop Antioxidant Nanoreactors: From Synthesis to Application

    E-print Network

    Amrhein, Valentin

    Enzyme Mimic to Develop Antioxidant Nanoreactors: From Synthesis to Application.................................................................................................................20 1.10.1. Administration of antioxidant enzymes................................................................................20 1.10. 2. Administration of enzyme mimics

  4. Antioxidant enzyme deficiencies and vascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Loscalzo, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Cellular respiration in an oxygen-rich environment leads to the generation of reactive oxygen species. These partially reduced forms of molecular oxygen can readily react with biological molecules, often modifying their normal biological function. Antioxidant enzyme mechanisms have evolved to eliminate reactive oxygen species and minimize the oxidant stress caused by their reactivity. Inherited and acquired deficiencies of key antioxidant enzymes lead to a dysregulated redox environment, which can promote pathobiology; when this redox dysfunction occurs in the blood vessel, vascular disease ensues. In this article, we consider three distinct antioxidant enzyme deficiencies – glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glutathione peroxidase-1 and glutathione peroxidase-3 – and their consequences for vascular disease. PMID:20190873

  5. Reactive oxygen species and antioxidant enzymes activity of Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 (Cyanobacterium) under simulated microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gen-bao; Liu, Yong-ding; Wang, Gao-hong; Song, Li-rong

    2004-12-01

    It was found that reactive oxygen species in Anabaena cells increased under simulated microgravity provided by clinostat. Activities of intracellular antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase were higher than those in the controlled samples during the 7 days' experiment. However, the contents of gluathione, an intracellular antioxidant, decreased in comparison with the controlled samples. The results suggested that microgravity provided by clinostat might break the oxidative/antioxidative balance. It indicated a protective mechanism in algal cells, that the total antioxidant system activity increased, which might play an important role for algal cells to adapt the environmental stress of microgravity.

  6. Isoflavone daidzein possesses no antioxidant activities in cell-free assays but induces the antioxidant enzyme catalase.

    PubMed

    Kampkötter, Andreas; Chovolou, Yvonni; Kulawik, Andreas; Röhrdanz, Elke; Weber, Nadine; Proksch, Peter; Wätjen, Wim

    2008-09-01

    Epidemiologic studies have shown that dietary intake of isoflavonones is associated with several properties beneficial to human health. It has been suggested that at least some of these effects are related to the antioxidant activity of isoflavonoids. We analyzed the antioxidant activity of the major isoflavones found in soybeans, but none of these compounds showed prominent antioxidant effects in cell-free assay systems (trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay). Therefore, we examined the hypothesis that the antioxidative effects of isoflavones are caused indirectly by up-regulation of antioxidative enzymes, thereby lowering intracellular concentration of reactive oxygene species. Daidzein shows a significant induction of catalase promoter activity at 100 micromol/L in a reporter gene assay and at 200 micromol/L in Northern blot experiments. Another hypothesis for antioxidant effects caused by isoflavones is due to metabolism by intestinal bacteria. Analyzing the daidzein metabolites 3'-OH-daidzein and 6-OH-daidzein in our cell culture model, we found strong antioxidant effects (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay). We conclude that isoflavone daidzein up-regulates the antioxidant enzyme catalase but shows only little antioxidant capacity per se. Antioxidant effects of this dietary isoflavonone may also be due to formation of the antioxidant metabolites 6-OH-daidzein and 3'-OH-daidzein. PMID:19083468

  7. Enzyme encapsulated hollow silica nanospheres for intracellular biocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Feng-Peng; Hung, Yann; Chang, Jen-Hsuan; Lin, Chen-Han; Mou, Chung-Yuan

    2014-05-14

    Hollow silica nanospheres (HSN) with low densities, large interior spaces and permeable silica shells are suitable for loading enzymes in the cavity to carry out intracellular biocatalysis. The porous shell can protect the encapsulated enzymes against proteolysis and attenuate immunological response. We developed a microemulsion-templating method for confining horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in the cavity of HSN. This simple one-pot enzyme encapsulation method allows entrapping of the enzyme, which retains high catalytic activity. Compared with HRP supported on solid silica spheres, HRP@HSN with thin porous silica shells displayed better enzyme activity. The small HRP@HSN (?50 nm in diameter), giving satisfactory catalytic activity, can act as an intracellular catalyst for the oxidation of the prodrug indole-3-acetic acid to produce toxic free radicals for killing cancer cells. We envision this kind of hollow nanosystem could encapsulate multiple enzymes or other synergistic drugs and function as therapeutic nanoreactors. PMID:24694065

  8. The Assessments of the Intracellular Antioxidant Protection of the Organism after LLLT Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Freitinger-Skalicka, Zuzana; Navratil, Leos; Zolzer, Friedo; Hon, Zdenek [University of South Bohemia, Faculty of Health and Social Studies, Department of Radiology and Toxicology, Ceske Budejovice-Czech Republic (Czech Republic)

    2009-06-19

    The antioxidants are chemical compounds that can bind to free oxygen radicals preventing these radicals from damaging healthy cells. Low levels of antioxidants, or inhibition of the antioxidant enzymes causes oxidative stress and may damage or kill cells. The purpose of this project was to establish the changes at intracellular antioxidant protection of the organism after LLLT irradiation. We used female mice of the strain CD1. The mice were exposed in the abdomen region to laser light. From the blood was assessment the Glutathione peroxidase, Reduced Glutathione and Plasma Antioxidant Capacity. The results obtained in the present study demonstrated that in vivo irradiation of the mice with low level lasers did not cause any statistically significant changes in superoxide dismutase and Glutathione peroxidase but we found changes in Reduced Glutathione and Plasma Antioxidant Capacity after exposing the mice to the LLLT during the 30 minutes after irradiation, as well on the 4th day. Do not replace the word ''abstract,'' but do replace the rest of this text. If you must insert a hard line break, please use Shift+Enter rather than just tapping your ''Enter'' key. You may want to print this page and refer to it as a style sample before you begin working on your paper.

  9. Rapid upregulation of heart antioxidant enzymes during arousal from estivation in the Giant African snail (Achatina fulica)

    E-print Network

    Tattersall, Glenn

    Rapid upregulation of heart antioxidant enzymes during arousal from estivation in the Giant African by upregulating intracellular antioxidant defenses in the heart, kidney, hepatopancreas and foot tissues increased in heart, hepatopancreas and foot. In heart, a rapid increase in MnSOD protein levels was observed

  10. A new strategy for intracellular delivery of enzyme using mesoporous silica nanoparticles: superoxide dismutase.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Ping; Chen, Chien-Tsu; Hung, Yann; Chou, Chih-Ming; Liu, Tsang-Pai; Liang, Ming-Ren; Chen, Chao-Tsen; Mou, Chung-Yuan

    2013-01-30

    We developed mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN) as a multifunctional vehicle for enzyme delivery. Enhanced transmembrane delivery of a superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme embedded in MSN was demonstrated. Conjugation of the cell-penetrating peptide derived from the human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV) transactivator protein (TAT) to mesoporous silica nanoparticle is shown to be an effective way to enhance transmembrane delivery of nanoparticles for intracellular and molecular therapy. Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) is a key antioxidant enzyme that detoxifies intracellular reactive oxygen species, ROS, thereby protecting cells from oxidative damage. In this study, we fused a human Cu,Zn-SOD gene with TAT in a bacterial expression vector to produce a genetic in-frame His-tagged TAT-SOD fusion protein. The His-tagged TAT-SOD fusion protein was expressed in E. coli using IPTG induction and purified using FMSN-Ni-NTA. The purified TAT-SOD was conjugated to FITC-MSN forming FMSN-TAT-SOD. The effectiveness of FMSN-TAT-SOD as an agent against ROS was investigated, which included the level of ROS and apoptosis after free radicals induction and functional recovery after ROS damage. Confocal microscopy on live unfixed cells and flow cytometry analysis showed characteristic nonendosomal distribution of FMSN-TAT-SOD. Results suggested that FMSN-TAT-SOD may provide a strategy for the therapeutic delivery of antioxidant enzymes that protect cells from ROS damage. PMID:23289802

  11. Antioxidant enzyme alterations in experimental and clinical diabetes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David V. Godin; Saleh A. Wohaieb; Maureen E. Garnett; A. D. Goumeniouk

    1988-01-01

    Previous studies from our laboratory have demonstrated the presence of complex alterations in the activities of antioxidant enzymes in various tissues of rats with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. In the present investigation, it is shown that rats made diabetic with alloxan (ALX), an agent differing from STZ both chemically and in its mechanism of diabetogenesis, show virtually identical tissue antioxidant enzyme

  12. Alterations in Antioxidant Enzymes During Aging in Humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Syed Ibrahim Rizvi; Pawan Kumar Maurya

    2007-01-01

    The oxidative stress theory of aging offers the best mechanistic elucidation of the aging phenomenon and other age-related\\u000a diseases. The susceptibility of an individual depends on the antioxidant status of the body. In humans, the antioxidant system\\u000a includes a number of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), nonenzymatic antioxidants\\u000a such as glutathione (GSH), protein –SH, ascorbic

  13. Correlation of Antioxidants and Antioxidant Enzymes to Oxygen Radical Scavenging Activities in Berries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shiow Y. Wang

    \\u000a Berry fruits contain high levels of antioxidant compounds. In addition to the usual nutrients such as vitamins and minerals,\\u000a berry fruits are also rich in flavonols, anthocyanidins, proanthocyanidins, catechins, flavones, and glycosides. These antioxidants\\u000a are capable of performing a number of functions including free radical scavenging, peroxide decomposition, singlet and triplet\\u000a oxygen quenching, enzyme inhibition, and synergism. Some antioxidants exhibit

  14. Aspergillus flavus impairs antioxidative enzymes of Sternochetus mangiferae during mycosis.

    PubMed

    Jayanthi, Kamala P D; Ayyasamy, Arthikirubha; Kempraj, Vivek; Aurade, Ravindra M; Govindan, Selvakumar; Verghese, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    Insects depend upon cuticular, humoral and cellular defenses to resist mycosis. However, entomopathogenic fungi through co-evolution have developed mechanisms to counter such defenses. Although a plethora of mechanisms of mycosis by entomopathogenic fungi are well-established, studies on the impairment of insects' antioxidative enzymes during mycosis remain elusive. Here, we used the interaction of Sternochetus mangiferae and its associated entomopathogenic fungus, Aspergillus flavus, as a model to validate our hypothesis. Uninfected insects were exposed to fungal spores for infection to occur. We observed symptoms of mycosis within 48 h of incubation period. Biochemical studies on antioxidative enzymes namely catalase, peroxidase and phenoloxidase, in infected and uninfected insects revealed decreased activity of these enzymes. It appears that A. flavus disables the host's antioxidative enzyme system that plays a crucial role in elimination of oxidative toxins produced during mycosis. PMID:25446036

  15. EFFECT OF NATURAL VOLATILE COMPOUNDS ON ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY AND ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES IN RASPBERRIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Changes in antioxidant capacity and antioxidant enzyme activities in raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) treated with methyl jasmonate (MJ), allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree oil or TTO), and ethanol (EtOH) were studied. All of the natural volatile compounds test...

  16. Antioxidant Enzyme Gene Transfer for Ischemic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jian; Hecker, James G.; Chiamvimonvat, Nipavan

    2009-01-01

    The balance of redox is pivotal for normal function and integrity of tissues. Ischemic insults occur as results of a variety of conditions, leading to an accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and an imbalanced redox status in the tissues. The oxidant stress may activate signaling mechanisms provoking more toxic events, and eventually cause tissue damage. Therefore, treatments with antioxidants, free radical scavengers and their mimetics, as well as gene transfer approaches to overexpress antioxidant genes represent potential therapeutic options to correct the redox imbalance. Among them, antioxidant gene transfer may enhance the production of antioxidant scavengers, and has been employed to experimentally prevent or treat ischemic injury in cardiovascular, pulmonary, hepatic, intestinal, central nervous or other systems in animal models. With improvements in vector systems and delivery approaches, innovative antioxidant gene therapy has conferred better outcomes for myocardial infarction, reduced restenosis after coronary angioplasty, improved the quality and function of liver grafts, as well as outcome of intestinal and cerebral ischemic attacks. However, it is crucial to be mindful that like other therapeutic armentarium, the efficacy of antioxidant gene transfer requires extensive preclinical investigation before it can be used in patients, and that it may have unanticipated short- or long-term adverse effects. Thus, it is critical to balance between the therapeutic benefits and potential risks, to develop disease-specific antioxidant gene transfer strategies, to deliver the therapy with an optimal time window and in a safe manner. This review attempts to provide the rationale, the most effective approaches and the potential hurdles of available antioxidant gene transfer approaches for ischemic injury in various organs, as well as the possible directions of future preclinical and clinical investigations of this highly promising therapeutic modality. PMID:19233238

  17. Original Contribution Willow bark extract increases antioxidant enzymes and reduces

    E-print Network

    Blackwell, Keith

    stress through activation of Nrf2 in vascular endothelial cells and Caenorhabditis elegans Atsushi Available online 28 December 2012 Keywords: Willow bark extract Nrf2 Antioxidant enzyme HUVEC Caenorhabditis levels of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) target genes heme oxygenase-1, g

  18. Enzyme-catalyzed change of antioxidants content and antioxidant activity of asparagus juice.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ting; Powers, Joseph R; Tang, Juming

    2007-01-10

    A pectolytic enzyme preparation from Aspergillus niger (pectinase AN) decreased most rutin content and antioxidant activity of asparagus juice. To investigate the mechanism of such loss, we analyzed several possible related enzyme activities in pectinase AN. We found that the activity of pectinase AN to oxidize guaiacol had no significant difference with or without the presence of H2O2; thus it was laccase activity, not peroxidase (PO) activity, that pectinase AN contained. We did not find any polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity in pectinase AN. Laccase in pectinase AN could be the major cause of loss of rutin and antioxidant activity of asparagus juice. When most laccase activity of pectinase AN was inactivated after heating at 70 degrees C for 1.5 min and incubated with asparagus juice, the loss rate of rutin was only 9% of that treated with unheated pectinase AN, and the antioxidant activity was even increased. Rhamnosidase activity was detected in pectinase AN and can change rutin in asparagus juice to quercetin-3-glucoside, which has higher antioxidant activity than rutin. This may explain the increase of antioxidant activity of asparagus juice treated with heated pectinase AN that still contained some rhamnosidase activity. The discovery of our research is helpful to produce juice with high antioxidant activity and high health benefits in the juice industry. PMID:17199313

  19. Isolation and characterization of a thermostable intracellular enzyme with peroxidase activity from Bacillus sphaericus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anke Apitz; Karl-Heinz van Pée

    2001-01-01

    During a screening for bacteria producing enzymes with peroxidase activity, a Bacillus sphaericus strain was isolated. This strain was found to contain an intracellular enzyme with peroxidase activity. The native enzyme had a molecular mass of above 300 kDa and precipitated at a salt concentration higher than 0.1 M. Proteolytic digestion with trypsin reduced the molecular mass of the active

  20. Effect of UV treatment on antioxidant capacity, antioxidant enzyme activity and decay in strawberry fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The changes in antioxidant capacity, enzyme activity and decay inhibition in strawberry fruit (Fragaria x ananassa) illuminated with different UV-C dosages were investigated. Three UV-C illumination durations and dosages, 1 min, 5 min and 10 min, (0.43, 2.15 and 4.30 kJ m-2) tested promoted the anti...

  1. Monitoring antioxidant enzymes in red cells during allergen immunotherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Lukan; O. Racz; I. Mocnejova; I. Tkac

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this report was to answer the question how specific immunotherapy influences the antioxidant enzyme system in patients\\u000a with respiratory allergy and in longer perspective to find markers suitable to assess the efficacy of treatment. In open prospective\\u000a randomised study 28 patients (18 females and 10 males, age 14–48 years) with seasonal respiratory allergy were treated with\\u000a allergen

  2. Influence of methylglyoxal on antioxidant enzymes and oxidative damage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dharamainder Choudhary; Dhyan Chandra; Raosaheb K Kale

    1997-01-01

    The effect of different doses of methylglyoxal (50–400 mg\\/kg body wt.) were examined using enzymes involved in the antioxidant function, glutathione (GSH) content and lipid peroxidation in the liver and spleen of Swiss albino mice (7–8 week old) after 6, 12 and 24 h. Significant changes were observed predominantly in the liver. The specific activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase

  3. Nigella sativa fixed and essential oil improves antioxidant status through modulation of antioxidant enzymes and immunity.

    PubMed

    Sultan, Muhammad Tauseef; Butt, Masood Sadiq; Karim, Roselina; Ahmad, Nisar; Ahmad, Rabia Shabbir; Ahmad, Waqas

    2015-03-01

    The onset of 21st century witnessed the awareness among the masses regarding the diet-health linkages. The researchers attempted to explore traditional products/plants were in the domain of pharmacy and nutrition focussing on their health benefits. In the present research intervention, we investigate the role of Nigella sativa fixed oil (NSFO) and essential oil (NSEO) in improving antioxidant status and modulation of enzymes. The National Institute of Health (NIH) provided us 30 Sprague Dawley rats that were equally placed in three groups. The groups were fed on their respective diets (56 days) two experimental diets i.e. D2 (NSFO @ 4.0%) and D3 (NSEO @ 0.30%) and control. The indices pertaining to antioxidant status, antioxidant enzymes, and parameters pertaining to immunity were evaluated at 4 weeks interval. The experimental diets (NSFO@ 4.0% & NSEO@ 0.30%) modulated the activities of antioxidant enzymes i.e., catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), positively. Indices of antioxidant status like tocopherols and glutathione were in linear relationship with that of GPx, GR and GST (P<0.01). Myeloperoxidase activities were in negative correlation with GST (P<0.01) but positive correlation with some other parameters. In the nutshell, the fixed and essential oil of Nigella sativa are effective in improving the indices pertaining to antioxidant status, however, the immune boosting potential needs further clarification. However, authors are of the view that there is need to explore the molecular targets of Nigella sativa fixed and essential oils. Findings from such studies would be useful to validate this instant study for health promoting potential against diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disorders. PMID:25730812

  4. Analytical modeling of the interaction of enzyme catalysis and diffusion processes at the intracellular level

    E-print Network

    Faith, Duane Willbern

    1977-01-01

    ANALYTICAL MODELING OF THE INTERACTION OF ENZYME CATALYSIS AND DIFFUSION PROCESSES AT THE INTRACELLULAR LEVEL A Thesis by Duane Nillbern Faith Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1977 Major Subject: Bioengineering ANALYTICAL MODELING OF THE INTERACTION OF ENZYME CATALYSIS AND DIFFUSION PROCESSES AT THE INTRACELLULAR LEVEL A Thesis by Duane Willbern Faith Approved as to style and content by...

  5. Antioxidant enzyme activity in endemic Baikalean versus Palaearctic amphipods: Tagma and size-related changes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Timofeyev

    2006-01-01

    The activities of key antioxidant enzymes in two endemic Baikalean amphipod species: Pallasea cancelloides (Gerstf), Eulimnogammarus verrucosus (Gerstf) and the widely distributed Palearctic species Gammarus lacustris (Sars) were studied. This work was done to prove or disprove the hypothesis that Baikalean endemics have specifics in antioxidants system different from Palearctic species. The activities of antioxidant enzymes peroxidase, catalase and glutathione-S-transferase

  6. GENETIC VARIATION IN ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES AND LUNG FUNCTION

    PubMed Central

    Bentley, Amy R.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Harris, Tamara B.; Newman, Anne B.; Bauer, Douglas C.; Meibohm, Bernd; Clark, Andrew G.; Cassano, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    Not all cigarette smokers develop chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and discovering susceptibility factors is an important research priority. The oxidative burden of smoking may overwhelm antioxidant defenses, and vulnerabilities may exist as a result of sequence variants in genes encoding antioxidant enzymes. This study explored the association between genetic variation in a network of antioxidant enzymes and lung phenotypes. Linear models evaluated single locus marker associations in 2,387 European and African American participants in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC) Study. After correcting for multiple comparisons, 15 statistically significant associations were identified, all of which were for SNP by smoking interactions. The most statistically significant findings were in genes encoding members of the isocitrate dehydrogenase gene family (IDH3A, IDH3B, IDH2). For rs6107100 (IDH3B) the variant genotype was associated with a difference of 6% in the FEV1/FVC ratio in African American current smokers, but the SNP had little or no association with FEV1/FVC in former and never smokers (nominal pinteraction=5 × 10?6). A variant in peroxiredoxin gene (rs9787810, PRDX5) was associated with lower %predicted FEV1 and a lower ratio in European American current smokers, with little or no association in other smoking groups (nominal pinteraction=0.0001 and 0.0003, respectively). The studied genes have not been reported in previous candidate gene association studies, and thus the findings suggest novel mechanisms and targets for future research, and provide evidence for a contribution of sequence variation in genes encoding antioxidant enzymes to susceptibility in smokers. PMID:22387199

  7. Regulation of antioxidant enzymes in lung after oxidant injury.

    PubMed Central

    Quinlan, T; Spivack, S; Mossman, B T

    1994-01-01

    Studies have implicated active oxygen species (AOS) in the pathogenesis of various lung diseases. Many chemical and physical agents in the environment are potent generators of AOS, including ozone, hyperoxia, mineral dusts, paraquat, etc. These agents produce AOS by different mechanisms, but frequently the lung is the primary target of toxicity, and exposure results in damage to lung tissue to varying degrees. The lung has developed defenses to AOS-mediated damage, which include antioxidant enzymes, the superoxide dismutases [copper-zinc (CuZnSOD) and manganese-containing (MnSOD)], catalase, and glutathione peroxidase (GPX). In this review, antioxidant defenses to environmental stresses in the lung as well as in isolated pulmonary cells following exposure to a number of different oxidants, are summarized. Each oxidant appears to induce a different pattern of antioxidant enzyme response in the lung, although some common trends, i.e., induction of MnSOD following oxidants inducing inflammation or pulmonary fibrosis, in responses to oxidants occur. Responses may vary between the different cell types in the lung as a function of cell-cycle or other factors. Increases in MnSOD mRNA or immunoreactive protein in response to certain oxidants may serve as a biomarker of AOS-mediated damage in the lung. Images Figure 3. PMID:7523104

  8. [Effect of ionol and dimethylsulfoxide on activity of enzymes of the antioxidant system in chickens].

    PubMed

    Kalytka, V V; Savrans'ka, O V; Kaluhina, I P

    1994-01-01

    We have researched the influence of ionol, dimethylsulfoxide and distinol preparation with different mole correlation of ingredients on the intensity of formation of malonic aldehyde and the activity of antioxidant enzymes in chickens' tissues. Results showed that distinol preparation with mole correlation of ionol and dimethylsulfoxide 1:2 parallel with anti-radical and antioxidant action, increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes in chickens' organs, exerting great indirect antioxidative effect. PMID:7747341

  9. Activity of Glutathione-Metabolizing and Antioxidant Enzymes in Malignant and Benign Tumors of Human Lungs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. N. Korotkina; G. N. Matskevich; A. Sh. Devlikanova; A. A. Vishnevskii; A. G. Kunitsyn; A. A. Karelin

    2002-01-01

    We measured the content of glutathione and activity of glutathione-metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase in samples obtained from 52 patients with malignant lung tumors and 20 patients with benign lung tumors. The content of glutathione and activity of glutathione-metabolizing enzymes underwent similar changes, but these changes were most pronounced in malignant tumors. Antioxidant enzyme activity changed insignificantly

  10. Standardized Assay Medium To Measure Lactococcus lactis Enzyme Activities while Mimicking Intracellular Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Anisha; Santos, Filipe; de Vos, Willem M.; Teusink, Bas

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of how the activity of enzymes is affected under in vivo conditions is essential for analyzing their regulation and constructing models that yield an integrated understanding of cell behavior. Current kinetic parameters for Lactococcus lactis are scattered through different studies and performed under different assay conditions. Furthermore, assay conditions often diverge from conditions prevailing in the intracellular environment. To establish uniform assay conditions that resemble intracellular conditions, we analyzed the intracellular composition of anaerobic glucose-limited chemostat cultures of L. lactis subsp. cremoris MG 1363. Based on this, we designed a new assay medium for enzyme activity measurements of growing cells of L. lactis, mimicking as closely as practically possible its intracellular environment. Procedures were optimized to be carried out in 96-well plates, and the reproducibility and dynamic range were checked for all enzyme activity measurements. The effects of freezing and the carryover of ammonium sulfate from the addition of coupling enzymes were also established. Activities of all 10 glycolytic and 4 fermentative enzymes were measured. Remarkably, most in vivo-like activities were lower than previously published data. Yet, the ratios of Vmax over measured in vivo fluxes were above 1. With this work, we have developed and extensively validated standard protocols for enzyme activity measurements for L. lactis. PMID:22020503

  11. Antioxidant enzyme activities are not broadly correlated with longevity in 14 vertebrate endotherm species

    PubMed Central

    Page, Melissa M.; Richardson, Jean; Wiens, Brent E.; Tiedtke, Esther; Peters, Craig W.; Faure, Paul A.; Burness, Gary

    2010-01-01

    The free radical theory of ageing posits that accrual of oxidative damage underlies the increased cellular, tissue and organ dysfunction and failure associated with advanced age. In support of this theory, cellular resistance to oxidative stress is highly correlated with life span, suggesting that prevention or repair of oxidative damage might indeed be essential for longevity. To test the hypothesis that the prevention of oxidative damage underlies longevity, we measured the activities of the five major intracellular antioxidant enzymes in brain, heart and liver tissue of 14 mammalian and avian species with maximum life spans (MLSPs) ranging from 3 years to over 100 years. Our data set included Snell dwarf mice in which life span is increased by ?50% compared to their normal littermates. We found that CuZn superoxide dismutase, the major cytosolic superoxide dismutase, showed no correlation with MLSP in any of the three organs. Similarly, neither glutathione peroxidase nor glutathione reductase activities correlated with MLSP. MnSOD, the sole mitochondrial superoxide dismutase in mammals and birds, was positively correlated with MLSP only for brain tissue. This same trend was observed for catalase. For all correlational data, effects of body mass and phylogenetic relatedness were removed using residual analysis and Felsenstein’s phylogenetically independent contrasts. Our results are not consistent with a causal role for intracellular antioxidant enzymes in longevity, similar to recent reports from studies utilising genetic modifications of mice (Pérez et al., Biochim Biophys Acta 1790:1005–1014, 2009). However, our results indicate a specific augmentation of reactive oxygen species neutralising activities in brain associated with longevity. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11357-010-9131-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20431992

  12. Dieckol enhances the expression of antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes by the activation of Nrf2-MAPK signalling pathway in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min-Sup; Lee, Bonggi; Park, Kyoung-Eun; Utsuki, Tadanobu; Shin, Taisun; Oh, Chul Woong; Kim, Hyeung-Rak

    2015-05-01

    Dieckol was previously reported to exhibit antioxidant and anticancer activities in vitro studies. In this study, we characterised the mechanism underlying the dieckol-mediated expression of antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes. Dieckol suppressed the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species in the presence or absence of H2O2 and increased glutathione level in HepG2 cells. Dieckol enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes, and the expression of detoxifying enzymes including heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), NAD(P)H:quinine oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) in HepG2 cells. Enhanced expression of antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes by dieckol was presumed to be the activation of the nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2) demonstrated by its nuclear translocation and transcriptional activity via activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated dieckol induced the expression of HO-1 in mouse liver. These results demonstrate that the dieckol-mediated cytoprotection in HepG2 cells is mediated through a ROS-independent up-regulation of antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes via Nrf2 activation as well as its intrinsic antioxidant activity, suggesting that dieckol may be used as a natural cytoprotective agent. PMID:25529716

  13. FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING CAPACITY AND ANTIOXIDANT ENZYME ACTIVITY IN DEERBERRY (Vaccinium stamineum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit from three genotypes (B-76, B-59 and SHF-3A) of deerberry [Vaccinium stamineum L.] were evaluated for fruit quality, total anthocyanin and phenolic contents, antioxidants, antioxidant capacity, and antioxidant enzyme activity. The fruit soluble solids, titratable acids, total anthocyanins, an...

  14. Organochlorine pesticides and antioxidant enzymes are inversely correlated with liver enzyme gene expression in Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Karaca, Melis; Var??l?, Lokman; Korkmaz, Kemal; Özayd?n, Okan; Perçin, Fatih; Orhan, Hilmi

    2014-10-15

    The present study was designed to investigate the association between levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and liver enzyme responses in Cyprinus carpio. Fish were caught at three stations in the Büyük Menderes River (BMR): the origin, the Sarayköy station, and the estuary. Seventeen OCPs were quantified in liver tissue, as well as in river water by gas chromatography (GC)-electron capture detection, and structures were confirmed by negative chemical ionization-GC-mass spectrometry. The activities of CYP1A, GST, Se-GPx, CAT, and SODs were determined by spectrophotometry or fluorimetry. The mRNA levels of CYP1A, GST, and SOD1 were quantified by real-time RT-PCR. CYP1A and antioxidant enzyme activities were dramatically higher at the Sarayköy station, where OCP pollution is higher than the other two stations. Mn-SOD is responsible for the increase in total SOD activity in the Sarayköy samples. However, gene expression levels of certain enzymes were heavily suppressed. Our findings show that the transcriptional and functional responses of CYP1A and antioxidant enzymes are inversely correlated. PMID:24583044

  15. Antioxidant action of soy isoflavones on oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activities in exercised rats

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sunmin

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Isoflavones are widely believed to be beneficial to human health, in relation to their antioxidant potentials. Exercise can cause an imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidants. This study was conducted in order to investigate the ability of isoflavones in amelioration of oxidative stress induced by exercise. MATERIALS/METHODS Male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to one of four groups: isoflavone-free with no exercise (CON-sd), isoflavone-free with exercise (CON-ex), isoflavone-supplemented with no exercise (ISF-sd), and isoflavone-supplemented with exercise (ISF-ex). Animals exercised on the treadmill for 30 minutes per day, five days per week. TBARS as a marker of oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activity, including SOD, GSH-px, and catalase were determined in liver tissue. Serum lipid profile was also examined. RESULTS A significant effect of isoflavone alone was observed on abdominal fat pad mass. ISF-ex had significantly less abdominal fat pad than CON-ex. Both exercise and isoflavone treatment had significant effects on lowering plasma triglyceride (TG), thus, the ISF-ex group had a significantly lower TG level than the CON-sd group, by 30.9%. However, no differences were observed in plasma cholesterol, HDL-C, and cholesterol/HDL-C ratio. Exercise, isoflavone, and exercise-isoflavone interaction effects were significant on thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) (P = 0.001, 0.002, and 0.005, respectively). The CON-ex group showed a higher TBARS level than the other three groups. By contrast, in the ISF-ex group, TBARS was restored to the level of the ISF-sd or CON-sd group. Isoflavone had a significant effect on superoxide dismutase (SOD) (P = 0.022) and catalase activities (P = 0.049). Significantly higher SOD and catalase activities were observed in ISF-ex than CON-ex. SOD and catalase activities showed an inverse pattern of TBARS. Taken together, isoflavones increased the activities of SOD and catalase with concomitant decreases in TBARS, indicative of decreased oxidative stress. CONCLUSIONS Isoflavone supplementation enhances antioxidant action with attenuation of exercise-induced oxidative stress, as measured by decreases in TBARS, and inhibits body fat accumulation and plasma TG increase. Antioxidative effects ascribed to isoflavones may be partially exerted via enhancement of antioxidant enzyme activities. PMID:25489400

  16. Engineering of the yeast antioxidant enzyme Mpr1 for enhanced activity and stability.

    PubMed

    Iinoya, Kaoru; Kotani, Tetsuya; Sasano, Yu; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2009-06-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sigma1278b has the MPR1 gene, which confers resistance to the proline analogue azetidine-2-carboxylate (AZC). This gene encodes an N-acetyltransferase Mpr1 that detoxifies AZC, and the homologous genes have been found in many yeasts. Recently, we found that Mpr1 protects yeast cells by reducing the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels under oxidative stresses, such as heat-shock, freezing, or ethanol treatment. Unlike the known antioxidant enzymes, Mpr1 is thought to acetylate toxic metabolite(s) involved in ROS generation via oxidative events. To improve the enzymatic functions of Mpr1, we applied PCR random mutagenesis to MPR1. The mutagenized plasmid library was introduced into the S. cerevisiae S288C strain lacking MPR1, and we successfully isolated two Mpr1 variants with higher AZC resistance (K63R and F65L/L117V). Interestingly, overexpression of the K63R variant was found to increase cell viability or decrease intracellular ROS levels after exposure to H(2)O(2) or ethanol compared with the wild-type Mpr1. In vitro studies with the recombinant enzymes showed that the catalytic efficiency of the K63R variant for AZC and acetyl-CoA was higher than that of the wild-type Mpr1 and that the F65L mutation greatly enhanced the thermal stability. The mutational analysis and molecular modeling suggest that an alpha-helix containing Lys63 and Phe65 has important roles in the function of Mpr1. In addition, the wild-type and K63R variant Mpr1 reduced intracellular ROS levels under ethanol stress conditions on haploid sake yeast cells. These results suggest that engineering Mpr1 might be useful in breeding oxidative stress-tolerant yeast strains. PMID:19170243

  17. Modulatory effect of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides on serum antioxidant enzymes activities in ovarian cancer rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chen YouGuo; Shen ZongJi; Chen XiaoPing

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, we isolated polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum and investigated its effect on serum antioxidant enzymes activity in ovarian cancer rats to explore the mechanism underlying the pharmacological anti-cancer activity of the polysaccharides. Rats were grouped into the control, model and polysaccharides-treated groups. After experiment ended, serum antioxidant enzymes activity in rats were measured. Results showed that polysaccharides

  18. Disparate Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Cultured Human Cutaneous Fibroblasts, Keratinocytes, and Melanocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph J. Yohn; David A. Norris; David G. Yrastorza; Irene J. Buno; Jonathan A. Leff; Steven S. Hake; John E. Repine

    1991-01-01

    Antioxidant enzyme activities of cultured human foreskin fibroblasts, keratinocytes and melanocytes from healthy black and Caucasian donors were measured and compared. Fibroblasts had more (p < 0.05) peroxidase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity than keratinocytes. Keratinocytes had more (p < 0.05) peroxidase, catalase, glutathione peroxidas, and superoxide dismutase activity than melanocytes. No differences in antioxidant enzyme activities were

  19. Tandem antioxidant enzymes confer synergistic protective responses in experimental filariasis.

    PubMed

    Prince, P R; Madhumathi, J; Anugraha, G; Jeyaprita, P J; Reddy, M V R; Kaliraj, P

    2014-12-01

    Helminth parasites use antioxidant defence strategies for survival during oxidative stress due to free radicals in the host. Accordingly, tissue-dwelling filarial parasites counteract host responses by releasing a number of antioxidants. Targeting these redox regulation proteins together, would facilitate effective parasite clearance. Here, we report the combined effect of protective immune responses trigged by recombinant Wuchereria bancrofti thioredoxin (WbTRX) and thioredoxin peroxidase (WbTPX) in an experimental filarial model. The expression of WbTRX and WbTPX in different stages of the parasite and their cross-reactivity were analysed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The immunogenicity of recombinant proteins and their protective efficacy were studied in animal models when immunized in single or cocktail mode. The antigens showed cross-reactive epitopes and induced high humoral and cellular immune responses in mice. Further, parasite challenge against Brugia malayi L3 larvae in Mastomys coucha conferred significant protection of 57% and 62% against WbTRX and WbTPX respectively. The efficacy of L3 clearance was significantly higher (71%) (P <  0.001) when the antigens were immunized together, showing a synergistic effect in multiple-mode vaccination. Hence, the study suggests WbTRX and WbTPX to be attractive vaccine candidates when immunized together and provides a tandem block for parasite elimination in the control of lymphatic filariasis. PMID:23676147

  20. Investigating the robustness of the classical enzyme kinetic equations in small intracellular compartments

    E-print Network

    Ramon Grima

    2009-10-23

    Classical descriptions of enzyme kinetics ignore the physical nature of the intracellular environment. Main implicit assumptions behind such approaches are that reactions occur in compartment volumes which are large enough so that molecular discreteness can be ignored and that molecular transport occurs via diffusion. Starting from a master equation description of enzyme reaction kinetics and assuming metabolic steady-state conditions, we derive novel mesoscopic rate equations which take into account (i) the intrinsic molecular noise due to the low copy number of molecules in intracellular compartments (ii) the physical nature of the substrate transport process, i.e. diffusion or vesicle-mediated transport. These equations replace the conventional macroscopic and deterministic equations in the context of intracellular kinetics. The latter are recovered in the limit of infinite compartment volumes. We find that deviations from the predictions of classical kinetics are pronounced (hundreds of percent in the estimate for the reaction velocity) for enzyme reactions occurring in compartments which are smaller than approximately 200nm, for the case of substrate transport to the compartment being mediated principally by vesicle or granule transport and in the presence of competitive enzyme inhibitors. This has implications for the common approach of modelling large intracellular reaction networks using ordinary differential equations and also for the calculation of the effective dosage of competitive inhibitor drugs.

  1. Antioxidant Enzyme Gene Expression in Rats with Remnant Kidney Induced Chronic Renal Failure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christiane Van den Branden; Bart Ceyssens; Dirk De Craemer; Pieter De Bleser; Karine Hellemans; Albert Geerts; Dierik Verbeelen

    2000-01-01

    Reactive oxygen intermediates play a role in chronic renal injury and glomerulosclerosis. We investigate changes in renal cortex antioxidant enzyme gene expression in the rat remnant-kidney model of chronic renal failure and compare the new data to enzyme activities published earlier. Antioxidant enzyme gene expression is evaluated by Northern blot analysis of cortex mRNA, using cDNA probes for catalase, copper\\/zinc-containing

  2. Tamarind seed coat extract restores reactive oxygen species through attenuation of glutathione level and antioxidant enzyme expression in human skin fibroblasts in response to oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Nakchat, Oranuch; Nalinratana, Nonthaneth; Meksuriyen, Duangdeun; Pongsamart, Sunanta

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role and mechanism of tamarind seed coat extract (TSCE) on normal human skin fibroblast CCD-1064Sk cells under normal and oxidative stress conditions induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Methods Tamarind seed coats were extracted with boiling water and then partitioned with ethyl acetate before the cell analysis. Effect of TSCE on intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), glutathione (GSH) level, antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase activity including antioxidant protein expression was investigated. Results TSCE significantly attenuated intracellular ROS in the absence and presence of H2O2 by increasing GSH level. In the absence of H2O2, TSCE significantly enhanced SOD and catalase activity but did not affected on GPx. Meanwhile, TSCE significantly increased the protein expression of SOD and GPx in H2O2-treated cells. Conclusions TSCE exhibited antioxidant activities by scavenging ROS, attenuating GSH level that could protect human skin fibroblast cells from oxidative stress. Our results highlight the antioxidant mechanism of tamarind seed coat through an antioxidant enzyme system, the extract potentially benefits for health food and cosmeceutical application of tamarind seed coat. PMID:25182723

  3. Rapid upregulation of heart antioxidant enzymes during arousal from estivation in the Giant African snail (Achatina fulica).

    PubMed

    Salway, Kurtis D; Tattersall, Glenn J; Stuart, Jeffrey A

    2010-11-01

    Estivation is an adaptive response to environments characterized by elevated temperatures and desiccative stress, as may occur during summer dry seasons. Similar to diapause and hibernation, it is characterized by low levels of activity, a drastically suppressed metabolic rate and enhanced stress resistance. We tested the hypothesis that Achatina fulica, a pulmonate land snail, enhances stress resistance during estivation and/or arousal by upregulating intracellular antioxidant defenses in the heart, kidney, hepatopancreas and foot tissues. No statistically significant changes in mitochondrial or cytosolic superoxide dismutase levels or activities, or glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase or catalase activities were associated with estivation in any tissue, however. In contrast, during arousal from estivation, activities of several antioxidant enzymes increased in heart, hepatopancreas and foot. In heart, a rapid increase in MnSOD protein levels was observed that peaked at 2h post arousal, but no such change was observed in CuZnSOD protein levels. Glutathione peroxidase activity was upregulated at 1h post arousal and remained elevated until 8h post arousal in heart tissue. Glutathione peroxidase was also upregulated at 24h post arousal in foot tissue. Glutathione reductase activity was upregulated at 4h post arousal in heart and foot tissues whereas catalase activity showed no changes. Markers of lipid peroxidation and protein damage revealed no significant increases during estivation or arousal. Therefore, antioxidant enzymes may play a role in oxidative stress defense specifically during arousal from estivation in A. fulica. PMID:20621194

  4. Effect of dietary supplementation of probiotics and palm fruits extracts on the antioxidant enzyme gene expression in the mucosae of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.).

    PubMed

    Esteban, M A; Cordero, H; Martínez-Tomé, M; Jiménez-Monreal, A M; Bakhrouf, A; Mahdhi, A

    2014-08-01

    Antioxidant activity is particularly important, since oxidation is an unavoidable reaction in all living bodies. At present, natural antioxidants to be used on food as an alternative to synthetic ones are being sought. Gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) specimens were fed for 4 weeks with diets enriched with bacterial probiotics (Shewanella putrefaciens Pdp11 and Bacillus sp), single or in combination with Tunisian dates palm fruit extracts. The expression of the main antioxidant enzyme genes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione reductase) in the mucosae (gut, skin and gill) was evaluated after 2 and 4 weeks. Previously, free radical scavenging and several antioxidant assays were developed to know the antioxidant properties present on the palm fruits extracts. The results demonstrated that experimental diets alter the expression of the studied antioxidant genes, primarily in the gill and skin. Furthermore, the tested probiotics and mainly, the aqueous date palm fruits extracts had significant antioxidant properties based on their protective effect against the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species, especially when administering during 4 weeks. For this reason, probiotics and date palm fruit extracts may serve as good natural antioxidants and could potentially be considered as a functional food ingredient for fish in farms. PMID:24952087

  5. Hydrogel microspheres for stabilization of an antioxidant enzyme: effect of emulsion cross-linking of a dual polysaccharide system on the protection of enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Tang, Deh-Wei; Yu, Shu-Huei; Wu, Wen-Shin; Hsieh, Hao-Ying; Tsai, Yi-Chin; Mi, Fwu-Long

    2014-01-01

    Catalase is an antioxidant enzyme abundant in natural resources. However, the enzyme is usually inactivated by gastric acid and digestive enzymes after oral ingestion. In this study, carboxymethyl chitosan (CM-chitosan) and hyaluronic acid (HA) conjugate hydrogel microspheres have been prepared by an emulsion cross-linking technique to retain the activity of catalase in simulated gastrointestinal (GI) fluids. Cross-linking reduced the swelling capability and increased the resistance toward hyaluronidase digestion of prepared HA-CM-chitosan hydrogel microspheres. Catalase entrapped in the hydrogel microspheres exhibited superior stability over a wide pH range (pH 2.0 and 6.0-8.0) as compared to the native enzyme. The entrapped catalase was also protected against degradation by digestive enzymes. Following the treatments, the catalase-loaded microspheres, in contrast to native catalase, could effectively decrease the intracellular H2O2 level and protect HT-29 colonic epithelial cells against H2O2-induced oxidative damage to preserve cell viability. These results suggested that the HA-CM-chitosan hydrogel microspheres can be used for entrapment, protection and intestinal delivery of catalase for H2O2 scavenging. PMID:24055882

  6. Effects of antiemetic drugs on glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and some antioxidant enzymes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ?smail Özmen; Ö. ?rfan Küfrev?o?lu

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate effect of antiemetics on G6PD and antioxidant enzymes. Antiemetics are currently being used to reduce or prevent nausea and vomiting in patients. This is the first study to show effect of antiemetics on glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and antioxidant enzyme activities. For in vitro studies, G6PD was purified from human erythrocyte, 10, 26-fold

  7. Effects of antioxidant enzyme polymorphisms on ozone-induced lung function changes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Chen; M. Arjomandi; I. B. Tager; N. Holland; J. R. Balmes

    2007-01-01

    Chronic exposure to ozone (O3) can cause changes in lung function that may reflect remodelling of small airways. It is likely that antioxidant enzyme function affects susceptibility to O3. The aim of the present study was to determine whether polymorphisms in antioxidant enzyme (GSTM1, GSTP1 and NQO1) genes affect the risk of lung function changes related to chronic exposure to

  8. Tissue differences in antioxidant enzyme gene expression in response to endotoxin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bidyut Ghosh; Coral Dawn Hanevold; Kazushige Dobashi; John Kenneth Orak; Inderjit Singh

    1996-01-01

    The effect of endotoxin on antioxidant gene expression and antioxidant enzyme activity in homogenates of the heart, liver, and kidney from Sprague-Dawley rats was compared by quantitation of m-RNA and enzyme activities. Alterations in the message level for Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD), Mn SOD, and catalase varied with the tissue type, length of exposure to endotoxin, and dose of endotoxin.

  9. Antioxidant Constituents and Enzyme Activities in Chilli Peppers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Bhattacharya; A. Chattopadhyay; D. Mazumdar; A. Chakravarty; S. Pal

    2010-01-01

    It is important that the antioxidant quality of green chilli (Capsicum annuum var. longum L.) be improved through selection or breeding. To better understand antioxidant levels in existing germplasm, biochemical screening of 10 cultivars was performed. The level of the antioxidant constituents vitamin C, carotene, phenol, and capsaicin ranged between 0.160 and 2.987 mg·g wet weight, 0.167 and 0.913 mg·g

  10. Potential Degradation of Swainsonine by Intracellular Enzymes of Arthrobacter sp. HW08

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Li, Yanhong; Hu, Yanchun; Li, Jincheng; Yang, Guodong; Kang, Danju; Li, Haili; Wang, Jianhua

    2013-01-01

    Swainsonine (SW) is a toxin produced by locoweeds and harmful to the livestock industry. Degrading SW by Arthrobacter sp. HW08 was demonstrated as a promising way to deal with SW poisoning. However, it is unknown which part of the subcellular enzymes in Arthrobacter sp. HW08 is responsible for biodegrading SW and whether the metabolites are atoxic. In this study, intracellular and extracellular enzymes of Arthrobacter sp. HW08 were isolated and their enzyme activity was evaluated. The metabolites were fed to mice, and physiological and histological properties of the treated mice were investigated. The results showed that only intracellular enzyme of Arthrobacter sp. HW08 (IEHW08) could degrade SW efficiently. Compared with mice in SW treatment group, mice in SW + IEHW08 treatment group (1) increased their body weights; (2) showed higher number of platelets and lower number of white blood cells; (3) decreased the levels of creatinine, urea nitrogen, alanine transaminase and aspartate aminotransferase in serum; (4) reduced the number of vacuolated cells in cerebellum, liver and kidney. All these data demonstrate that IEHW08 was potentially safe for mice, while keeping the capacity of degrading SW. This study indicates a possible application of IEHW08 as an additive in the livestock industry to protect animals from SW poisoning. PMID:24240642

  11. Copper toxicity in Ceratophyllum demersum L. (Coontail), a free floating macrophyte: Response of antioxidant enzymes and antioxidants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Rama Devi; M. N. V Prasad

    1998-01-01

    Copper-induced oxidative stress, response of antioxidative enzymes and substances were investigated in Ceratophyllumdemersum L. (Coontail), a free floating macrophyte to understand the mechanisms of Cu resistance. Bioconcentration of Cu in plants treated with 2 and 4 ?M Cu for 24 h was dependent on external Cu concentration. Cu uptake decreased the chlorophyll content and increased both lipid peroxidation and leakage

  12. Toxic effects of chlorpyrifos on antioxidant enzymes and target enzyme acetylcholinesterase interaction in mosquito fish, Gambusia affinis.

    PubMed

    Kavitha, P; Rao, J Venkateswara

    2008-09-01

    The recovery effect of chlorpyrifos (CPF) on antioxidant enzymes, locomotor behaviour and the target enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) interaction were studied after exposure to 297?gL(-1) (LC(50) for 96h) in mosquito fish, Gambusia affinis. Activities of the antioxidant enzymes-superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase in viscera, and AChE in brain were inhibited at 96h of exposure. However, induction in lipid peroxidation was observed. The antioxidant levels were restored to near control by 16-18 days. Similarly, swimming speed and AChE were also recovered but comparatively needs longer period. In vitro AChE study indicated that CPF alters the apparent K(m) values, resulting in a competitive type of inhibition and the inhibitory constant K(i) was found to be 4.57×10(-4)M. The results showed that the organophosphate CPF besides its inhibitory effect on target enzyme AChE also inhibits antioxidant enzymes, which can be used as biomarkers in the pesticide-contaminated aquatic streams. PMID:21783910

  13. ORIGINAL PAPER Antioxidant and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    calcium caseinate (SCC) and whey protein concentrate (WPC) on the antioxidant and angiotensin, SCC, and WPC at 2% and 4% ratios. The antioxidant activity was determined using 2,2,-diphenyl-1 methods. Yoghurt fortified with 4% WPC had the highest DPPH· scavenging activity, whereas there were

  14. Antioxidant Enzymes and Oxidative Stress in the Erythrocytes of Iron Deficiency Anemic Patients Supplemented with Vitamins

    PubMed Central

    Laxmi Madhikarmi, Nirjala; Rudraiah Siddalinga Murthy, Kora

    2014-01-01

    Background: Iron deficiency anemia is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Evidences from epidemiological and clinical studies suggest a possible correlation between antioxidant levels and the anemic disease risk. The present work is to investigate antioxidant levels and lipid peroxidation in anemic patients. Methods: A number of 30 patients (15 males and 15 females) were selected for the study. Likewise, 30 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers (15 males and 15 females) were selected with their informed consent. Patients and healthy subjects were supplemented with vitamins C and E for 15 days. The lipid peroxidation both in plasma and erythrocyte lysates was determined by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and lipid peroxides. The antioxidant vitamins A, C, and E and total antioxidant activity were also analyzed. The antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase were also determined. Results: Based on analysis, we found that the increase in lipid peroxidation was higher in the anemic subjects before vitamin supplementation, which was statistically significant at P<0.05. The antioxidant enzymes were higher in the patients before antioxidant supplementation when compared with patients after vitamin supplementation. Conclusion: Our data revealed higher oxidative stress before vitamin supplementation in iron deficiency anemic patients and after supplementation, lower lipid peroxidation and increased antioxidant vitamins were achieved. PMID:24518548

  15. [Effects of macrophytes pyrolysis bio-oil on Skeletonema costatum antioxidant enzyme activities].

    PubMed

    Yao, Yuan; Li, Feng-Min; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Shan, Shi; Li, Jie; Wang, Zhen-Yu

    2013-02-01

    In order to reveal the preliminary inhibition mechanisms of aquatic plants bio-oils on Skeletonema costatum, effects of Arundo donax L. 300 degees C, Ph. australis Trin. 400 degrees C and Typha orientalis Pres1 400 degrees C bio-oils on the concentration change of malondialdehyde (MDA) and the activity of antioxidant enzymes system (SOD, POD and CAT) were evaluated. The results showed that the higher Ihe Bio-oil concentrations, the higher the MDA contents in Skeletonema costatum was, and when the Bio-oil concentration was 10 mg.L-1 the MDA concentration increased with the reaction time. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity also increased with the increase of bio-oil concentration. For Arundo donax L 300 degrees C and Typha orientalis Presl 400 degrees C bio-oil, when the reaction time was longer, the S0D activity of Skeletonema costatum first increased and then decreased, and in both cases the maximum SOD activity was measured at 24 h. reaching 93.6 U (10(7) cells)-1 and 8.23 U (10(7) cells)-1, respectively. For Ph. australis Trin 400 degrees C bio-oil, the SOD activity kept increasing within 72 h. The peroxidase ( POD) activity of Skeletonema costatum also increased with the increase of bio-il concentrations. In the presence of Arundo donax L. 300 degrees C and Ph. australis Trin 400 degrees C bio-oil, the POD activity of Skeletonma, costatum first increased and then decreased, while with Typha orientalis Presl 400 degrees C bio-oil the POD activity increased with fluctuations. For all the three bio-oils, the catalase (CAT) activities increased first and then decreased when the reaction time was prolonged, and the higher the bio-oils concentration, the greater the CAT activity was. Pyrolysis bio-oils enhance the activity of antioxidant enzymes, leading to intracellular oxidative stress in the algae, which seems to be the main inhibitory mechanism for algae PMID:23668127

  16. Correlation of antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes to oxygen radical scavenging activities in berries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Berry fruits contain high levels of antioxidant compounds. In addition to the usual nutrients such as vitamins and minerals, berry fruits are also rich in flavonols, anthocyanidins, proanthocyanidins, catechins, flavones, and their glycosides. These antioxidants are capable of performing a number of...

  17. Effects of mate tea (Ilex paraguariensis) ingestion on mRNA expression of antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation, and total antioxidant status in healthy young women.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Ruth L T; Bastos, Deborah H M; Mendonça, Simone; Nunes, Valéria S; Bartchewsky, Waldemar; Ribeiro, Marcelo L; de Oliveira Carvalho, Patrícia

    2009-03-11

    The antioxidant activity of mate tea, the roasted product derived from yerba mate (Ilex paraguarienis), was observed in vitro and in animal models, but studies in humans are lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of mate tea supplementation on plasma susceptibility to oxidation and on antioxidant enzyme gene expression in healthy nonsmoking women, after acute or prolonged ingestion. We evaluated plasma total antioxidant status (TAS), the kinetics of diene conjugate generation, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) contents in plasma, as well as mRNA levels of antioxidant gluthatione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT). After the supplementation period with mate tea, lipid peroxidation was acutely lowered, an effect that was maintained after prolonged administration. Total antioxidant status and the level of antioxidant enzyme gene expression were also demonstrated after prolonged consumption. These results suggest that regular consumption of mate tea may increase antioxidant defense of the body by multiple mechanisms. PMID:19219987

  18. Free radical scavenging of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides and its effect on antioxidant enzymes and immunity activities in cervical carcinoma rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chen XiaoPing; Chen Yan; Li ShuiBing; Chen YouGuo; Lan JianYun; Liu LanPing

    2009-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum are used as traditional edible and medicinal materials in China. In this study, antioxidant activities of polysaccharides from G. lucidum in China were investigated. The influence of G. lucidum polysaccharides upon activities of serum antioxidant enzymes and immunity in rats with cervical cancer. The antioxidant activity was measured by DPPH?, O?, and OH? free radicals scavenging. Results showed

  19. Evaluation of Indian sacred tree Crataeva magna (Lour.) DC. for antioxidant activity and inhibition of key enzymes relevant to hyperglycemia.

    PubMed

    Loganayaki, Nataraj; Manian, Sellamuthu

    2012-03-01

    In the present investigation, leaf and stem bark of Crataeva magna are evaluated for their antioxidant activity and inhibition of key enzymes relevant to hyperglycemia. Both the parts exhibited significant antioxidant and anti-?-glucosidase activity. The results will lead in favor of the use of this plant as a potential additive/nutraceutical antioxidant compound. PMID:22196938

  20. Major Shifts in the Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Lung Antioxidant Enzymes during Influenza Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Yoshiyuki; Limmon, Gino V.; Zheng, Dahai; Li, Na; Li, Liang; Yin, Lu; Chow, Vincent T. K.; Chen, Jianzhu; Engelward, Bevin P.

    2012-01-01

    With the incessant challenge of exposure to the air we breathe, lung tissue suffers the highest levels of oxygen tension and thus requires robust antioxidant defenses. Furthermore, following injury or infection, lung tissue faces the additional challenge of inflammation-induced reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS). Little is known about the identity or distribution of lung antioxidant enzymes under normal conditions or during infection-induced inflammation. Using a mouse model of influenza (H1N1 influenza virus A/PR/8/34 [PR8]) in combination with bioinformatics, we identified seven lung-abundant antioxidant enzymes: Glutathione peroxidase 3 (Gpx3), Superoxide dismutase 3 (Sod3), Transferrin (Tf), peroxyredoxin6 (Prdx6), glutathione S-transferase kappa 1 (Gstk1), Catalase (Cat), and Glutathione peroxidase 8 (Gpx8). Interestingly, despite the demand for antioxidants during inflammation, influenza caused depletion in two key antioxidants: Cat and Prdx6. As Cat is highly expressed in Clara cells, virus-induced Clara cell loss contributes to the depletion in Cat. Prdx6 is also reduced due to Clara cell loss, however there is a coincident increase in Prdx6 levels in the alveoli, resulting in only a subtle reduction of Prdx6 overall. Analogously, Gpx3 shifts from the basement membranes underlying the bronchioles and blood vessels to the alveoli, thus maintaining balanced expression. Taken together, these studies identify key lung antioxidants and reveal their distribution among specific cell types. Furthermore, results show that influenza depletes key antioxidants, and that in some cases there is coincident increased expression, consistent with compensatory expression. Given that oxidative stress is known to be a key risk factor during influenza infection, knowledge about the antioxidant repertoire of lungs, and the spatio-temporal distribution of antioxidants, contributes to our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of influenza-induced morbidity and mortality. PMID:22355371

  1. Occurrence and distribution of antioxidant enzymes in the haemolymph of the shore crab Carcinus maenas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. L. Bell; V. J. Smith

    1995-01-01

    The haemocytes and cell-free haemolymph of the shore crab Carcinus maenas were examined for the presence of the antioxidant enzymes, catalase (EC 1.11.1.6), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) (EC 1.11.1.9) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) (EC 1.15.1.1) by biochemical assay and immunocytochemistry. The results show that all three enzymes are present in the haemocytes, but vary in distribution and amount. Catalase was detected

  2. Citrus juice modulates antioxidant enzymes and lipid profiles in orchidectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Deyhim, Farzad; Lopez, Erica; Gonzalez, Julia; Garcia, Michelle; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2006-01-01

    Oxidative stress and hypogonadism are two factors linked to the increased incidence of cardiovascular disease in males. Eating fruits and vegetables is known to reduce the incidences of oxidative stress. The objective of this research was to delineate whether drinking daily squeezed orange juice (OJ) or grapefruit juice (GJ) modulates oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymes while impacting cardiovascular risk factors in hypogonad male rats. In the present study, 36 1-year-old male rats were equally divided among the following four treatments: sham (control), orchidectomized (ORX), ORX + OJ, and ORX + GJ. After 60 days of drinking OJ or GJ, antioxidant capacity, cholesterol, and triglycerides in serum and superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), cholesterol, and triglycerides in liver were evaluated. Serum antioxidant capacity and SOD and CAT activities decreased (P < .05), while serum cholesterol and liver triglycerides increased (P < .05) in the ORX group compared with the sham group. In contrast to the ORX group, drinking OJ was ineffective while drinking GJ decreased (P < .05) cholesterol concentration in liver and in serum. Nevertheless, OJ and GJ decreased (P < .05) triglyceride concentration in liver and increased (P < .05) serum antioxidant capacity and SOD and CAT activities compared with the ORX group. In conclusion, drinking OJ or GJ prevented oxidative stress by enhancing total antioxidant capacity and elevating liver antioxidant enzymes while modulating cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:17004910

  3. [Activity of antioxidant enzymes of the rat kidneys under mercury dichloride effect].

    PubMed

    Velyka, A Ia; Pshak, V P; Lopushins'ka, I V

    2014-01-01

    Salts of heavy metals are excreted by the kidneys and, as pro-oxidants, stimulate the processes of free radical oxidation. Mercury ions are accumulated in the kidneys. So the study of the features of antioxidant enzymes adaptive response of different kidney layers in response to mercury dichloride is important. Catalase and glytathionperoxidase activity within rat kidneys 72 hours after mercury dichloride intoxication in the ratio of 5 ml per 1 kg of the animal weight was studied. It was important to reveal the influence of the mercury salts on rat kidney antioxidative system. Decreasing glytathionperoxidase activity in cortical and cerebral substances and renal papillae were accompanied by increased contents of oxidative modified proteins and lipids and morphological changes in renal tissue under salt and water loading after mercury dichloride poisoning. The results obtained evidence for the inhibition of antioxidative protection of enzymes in rat kidneys under the mercury dichloride effect. PMID:24834726

  4. Involvement of detergent-insoluble complexes in the intracellular transport of intestinal brush border enzymes.

    PubMed

    Danielsen, E M

    1995-02-01

    A number of transmembrane digestive enzymes of the porcine small intestinal brush border membrane were found to be partially Triton X-100-insoluble at 0 degree C and colocalized in gradient centrifugation experiments with the GPI-anchored alkaline phosphatase in low-density, detergent-insoluble complexes commonly known as glycolipid "rafts". Thus, aminopeptidase N (EC 3.4.11.2), aminopeptidase A (EC 3.4.11.7), dipeptidyl peptidase IV (EC 3.4.14.5), and sucrase-isomaltase (EC 3.2.1.48-10) were 34-48% detergent-insoluble. Maltase-glucoamylase (EC 3.2.1.20) was markedly less detergent-insoluble (20%), and lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (EC 3.2.1.23-62) was essentially fully soluble in detergent. In radioactively labeled, mucosal explants, the newly synthesized brush border enzymes began to associate with detergent-insoluble complexes while still in their transient, high mannose-glycosylated form, and their insolubility increased to that of the steady-state level soon after they achieved their mature, complex glycosylation, i.e., after passage through the Golgi complex. Detergent-insoluble complexes isolated by density gradient centrifugation were highly enriched in brush border enzymes, and the enrichment was apparent after only 1 h of labeling, where aminopeptidase N, sucrase-isomaltase, and alkaline phosphatase together comprised 25-30% of the total labeled, detergent-insoluble proteins, showing that sorting of newly made brush border membrane proteins into the glycolipid "rafts" does take place intracellularly. I therefore propose that, in the enterocyte, the brush border enzymes are targeted directly from the trans-Golgi network toward the apical cell surface. PMID:7849019

  5. Association of Age-Related Macular Degeneration with Erythrocyte Antioxidant Enzymes Activity and Serum Total Antioxidant Status

    PubMed Central

    Plestina-Borjan, Ivna; Katusic, Damir; Medvidovic-Grubisic, Maria; Supe-Domic, Daniela; Bucan, Kajo; Tandara, Leida; Rogosic, Veljko

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to estimate association of the oxidative stress with the occurrence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The activities of erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT) and additionally serum total antioxidant status (TAS) were used as indicators of the oxidative stress level. 57 AMD patients (32 early and 25 late AMD) and 50 healthy, age and gender matched controls were included. GPx activity (P < 0.001) and serum TAS (P = 0.015) were significantly lower in AMD patients. The difference was not significant for SOD or CAT activities. Significant interaction between GPx and SOD was detected (P = 0.003). At high levels of SOD activity (over 75th percentile), one standard deviation decrease in GPx increases the odds for AMD for six times (OR = 6.22; P < 0.001). ROC analysis revealed that combined values of GPx activity and TAS are significant determinants of AMD status. Accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were 75%, 95%, 52%, 69%, and 90%, respectively. The study showed that low GPx activity and TAS are associated with AMD. SOD modulates the association of GPx and AMD. The results suggest that erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes activity and serum TAS could be promising markers for the prediction of AMD.

  6. Antioxidative enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation in major depression: alterations by antidepressant treatments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mustafa Bilici; Hasan Efe; M. Arif Köro?lu; Hüseyin Avni Uydu; M. Bekaro?lu; O. De?er

    2001-01-01

    Background: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) may play a role in some neuropsychiatric disorders. There is some evidence that the activation of immune-inflammatory process, increase of monoamines catabolism, and abnormalities in lipid compounds may cause overproduction of ROS and, in turn, antioxidative enzyme activities (AEAs) and lipid peroxidation (LP), and that these phenomena may be related to pathophysiology of major depression.

  7. White spot syndrome virus infection decreases the activity of antioxidant enzymes in Fenneropenaeus indicus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Mohankumar; P. Ramasamy

    2006-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the causative agent of White Spot disease of shrimp, causing mass mortalities in aquaculture. WSSV infection causes oxidative stress by the release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are toxic to the cells. The antioxidant enzymes associated with oxidative stress during the process of pathogenesis of WSSV in the infected tissues (hemolymph, hepatopancreas, gills

  8. DNA base modifications and antioxidant enzyme activities in human benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryszard Olinski; Tomasz H. Zastawny; Marek Foksinski; Anrzej Barecki; Miral Dizdaroglu

    1995-01-01

    The authors have studied DNA base damage and activities of antioxidant enzymes in human benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) tissues and surrounding disease-free tissues removed from prostate glands of 15 patients. In these tissues, endogenous levels of various typical hydroxyl radical-induced products of DNA bases and activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase were measured. The majority of patients had higher levels

  9. Effects of Cooking Techniques on Antioxidant Enzyme Activities of Some Fruits and Vegetables

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate possible effects of cooking techniques on antioxidant enzyme activities in broccoli, tomato, red cabbage, parsley, carrot, green pepper, lemon, onion, and garlic, which are consumed frequently in our daily diet. Materials and Methods: Superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase (CAT) activities were measured in fresh and thermally treated (boiling,

  10. Pine bark extract prevents low-density lipoprotein oxidation and regulates monocytic expression of antioxidant enzymes.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Shiori; Kishimoto, Yoshimi; Saita, Emi; Sugihara, Norie; Toyozaki, Miku; Taguchi, Chie; Tani, Mariko; Kamiya, Tomoyasu; Kondo, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Polyphenols are widely distributed in leaves, seeds, bark, and flowers and considered to have beneficial effects on cardiovascular health. We hypothesized that the potent antioxidant properties of pine bark extract (PBE) are exerted by its ability to scavenge free radicals and induce antioxidant enzymes. Therefore, we investigated the effects of PBE on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and the antioxidant defense system in monocytes. Oxidative susceptibility of LDL was determined by lag time assay in vitro and by using a human umbilical vein endothelial cell-mediated oxidation model. THP-1 monocytic cells were treated with PBE, and the expression of antioxidant enzymes was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Pine bark extract showed radical scavenging ability and significantly inhibited free radical-induced and endothelial cell-mediated LDL oxidation in vitro. Pine bark extract treatment resulted in increases in the expressions of antioxidant enzymes, glutathione peroxidase-1, catalase, and heme oxygenase-1 in THP-1 cells. In addition, PBE induced nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor 2 activation, which was accompanied by the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and Akt despite a down-regulation of reactive oxygen species. After the monocyte investigations, we further examined the antioxidant effect after the intake of PBE by 10 healthy male volunteers. Pine bark extract significantly prolonged the lag time of LDL oxidation. Based on our findings, it appears that PBE enhances the antioxidant defense capacity of LDL and monocytes and may play a preventive role in atherosclerosis progression. PMID:25458248

  11. NAD(P)H:quinone acceptor oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), a multifunctional antioxidant enzyme and exceptionally versatile cytoprotector

    PubMed Central

    Dinkova-Kostova, Albena T.; Talalay, Paul

    2010-01-01

    NAD(P)H:quinone acceptor oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) is a widely-distributed FAD-dependent flavoprotein that promotes obligatory 2-electron reductions of quinones, quinoneimines, nitroaromatics, and azo dyes, at rates that are comparable with NADH or NADPH. These reductions depress quinone levels and thereby minimize opportunities for generation of reactive oxygen intermediates by redox cycling, and for depletion of intracellular thiol pools. NQO1 is a highly-inducible enzyme that is regulated by the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE pathway. Evidence for the importance of the antioxidant functions of NQO1 in combating oxidative stress is provided by demonstrations that induction of NQO1 levels or their depletion (knockout, or knockdown) are associated with decreased and increased susceptibilities to oxidative stress, respectively. Furthermore, benzene genotoxicity is markedly enhanced when NQO1 activity is compromised. Not surprisingly, human polymorphisms that suppress NQO1 activities are associated with increased predisposition to disease. Recent studies have uncovered protective roles for NQO1 that apparently are unrelated to its enzymatic activities. NQO1 binds to and thereby stabilizes the important tumor suppressor p53 against proteasomal degradation. Indeed, NQO1 appears to regulate the degradative fate of other proteins. These findings suggest that NQO1 may exercise a selective “gatekeeping” role in regulating the proteasomal degradation of specific proteins, thereby broadening the cytoprotective role of NQO1 far beyond its highly effective antioxidant functions. PMID:20361926

  12. Interspecific diversity in root antioxidative enzyme activities reflect root turnover strategies and preferred habitats in wetland graminoids

    PubMed Central

    Yücel, Ça?da? Kera; Bor, Melike; Ryser, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Antioxidant enzymes protect cells against oxidative stress and are associated with stress tolerance and longevity. In animals, variation in their activities has been shown to relate to species ecology, but in plants, comparative studies with wild species are rare. We investigated activities of five antioxidant enzymes – ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), peroxidase (POX), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) – in roots of four perennial graminoid wetland species over a growing season to find out whether differences in root turnover or habitat preferences would be associated with variation in seasonal patterns of antioxidant enzyme activities. The investigated species differ in their root turnover strategies (fine roots senesce in the fall or fine roots survive the winter) and habitat preferences (nutrient-poor vs. productive wetlands). Roots were collected both in the field and from garden-grown plants. Antioxidant enzyme activities were higher and lipid peroxidation rates lower in species with annual root systems, and for species of the nutrient-poor wetland, compared with perennial roots and species of productive wetlands, respectively. There was variation in the activities of individual antioxidant enzymes, but discriminant analyses with all enzymes revealed a clear picture, indicating consistent associations of antioxidant enzyme activities with the type of root turnover strategy and with the preferred habitat. We conclude that antioxidant enzyme activities in plant roots are associated with the species' ecological strategies and can be used as traits for the characterization of the species' position along plant economics spectrum. PMID:24683465

  13. The influence of cadmium on the antioxidant enzyme activities in polychaete Perinereis aibuhitensis Grube (Annelida: Polychaeta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xiutang; Chen, Aihua; Zhou, Yibing; Liu, Haiying; Yang, Dazuo

    2010-07-01

    The infaunal polychaete Perinereis aibuhitensis Grube, distributed widely along Asian coasts and estuaries, is considered a useful animal model in ecotoxicological tests and a promising candidate in biomonitoring programs. This paper deals with the activities of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidases (GSH-Px) in infaunal polychaete P. aibuhitensis exposed to a series of sublethal water-bound cadmium (Cd) concentrations (0, 0.34, 1.72, 3.44, 6.89, and 17.22 mg L-1) under a short-term exposure (1-8 d). The results indicate that the SOD and GSH-Px activities in P. aibuhitensis are stimulated first and then renewed to the original level. The CAT activity of worms decreases at an earlier exposure time but increases to the control values at a later exposure time. Our study suggests that Cd can interfere with the antioxidant defense system of P. aibuhitensis. However, the changes in antioxidant enzyme activities for this species do not show the best promise as biomarkers in Cd biomonitoring of estuarine and coastal zones because weak or non-dose-effect relationships between the antioxidant enzymes activities and Cd levels are found.

  14. Expression of hepatic antioxidant enzymes in non-obese type-2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Chang Seon; Oh, Soo Jin; Oh, Jung Min; Lee, Sang Yoon; Kwak, Hui Chan; Yun, Kang Uk; Lee, Ji-Yoon; Park, Song-Kyu; Kim, Bong-Hee; Ma, Jin Yeul; Kim, Sang Kyum

    2014-10-01

    Diabetes mellitus and its complications have been attributed in part to oxidative stress, against which antioxidant enzymes constitute a major protective mechanism. The present study was performed to investigate the effects of early stage type 2 diabetes in the absence of obesity and liver damage on hepatic antioxidant enzyme expression and oxidative stress using 9-week-old Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats. Hepatic total antioxidant capacity determined by total oxygen radical scavenging capacity and lipid peroxidation determined by malondialdehyde in plasma and liver were not significantly different between normal Wistar rats and GK rats. These results indicated that oxidative stress is not evident in these type 2 diabetic rats. Hepatic expression levels of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase-1, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and reductase, thioredoxin-1, mu- and pi-class glutathione S-transferase (GST), and the gamma-glutamylcysteine ligase catalytic subunit, were not different between normal rats and GK rats. But, hepatic level and activity of alpha-class GST were decreased and peroxiredoxin-1 level was increased in GK rats, suggesting that upregulation of peroxiredoxin-1 compensates for downregulation of alpha-class GST. These results suggest that alpha-class GST and peroxiredoxin-1 in liver can be altered during the early stages of type 2 diabetes in the absence of obesity and severe oxidative stress. PMID:24254933

  15. Wheat bran feruloyl oligosaccharides modulate the phase II detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes via Nrf2 signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huijuan; Wang, Jing; Liu, Yingli; Sun, Baoguo

    2015-03-01

    The antioxidant activities of wheat bran feruloyl oligosaccharides (FOs) were determined in rats by determining the activities and mRNA expression levels of phase II detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in rat organs. FOs was given by gavage at doses of 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75mmol/kg body weight every day for 15 days. Compared with the control group, the activities of SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px in FOs treatment groups significantly (P<0.05) increased in heart, liver, and kidney. All the FOs treatment also significantly (P<0.05) increased the glutathione (GSH) contents in heart (28-58%), liver (32-71%), and kidney (31-73%) compared with the control. FOs up regulated the mRNA expression levels of SOD, CAT, and HO-1 in organs. Moreover, the immunoblot analysis revealed increased nuclear factor-E2-related factor (Nrf2) protein expression levels in organs and there were positive correlations between the mRNA expression of phase II detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes and the expressions of Nrf2 protein, which demonstrated FOs treatment could modulate the detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes via Nrf2 signaling. PMID:25542177

  16. trans-Resveratrol Protects Ischemic PC12 Cells by Inhibiting the Hypoxia Associated Transcription Factors and Increasing the Levels of Antioxidant Defense Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    An in vitro model of ischemic cerebral stroke [oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) for 6 h followed by 24 h reoxygenation (R)] with PC12 cells increases Ca2+ influx by upregulating native L-type Ca2+ channels and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. This reactive oxygen species generation and increase in intracellular Ca2+ triggers the expression of hypoxic homeostasis transcription factors such as hypoxia induced factor-1 alpha (HIF-1?), Cav-beta 3 (Cav ?3), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), heat shock protein 27 (hsp-27), and cationic channel transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7). OGD insulted PC12 cells were subjected to biologically safe doses (5, 10, and 25 ?M) of trans-resveratrol in three different treatment groups: 24 h prior to OGD (pre-treatment); 24 h post OGD (post-treatment); and from 24 h before OGD to end of reoxygenation period (whole-treatment). Here, we demonstrated that OGD-R-induced neuronal injury/death is by reactive oxygen species generation, increase in intracellular calcium levels, and decrease in antioxidant defense enzymes. trans-Resveratrol increases the viability of OGD-R insulted PC12 cells, which was assessed by using MTT, NRU, and LDH release assay. In addition, trans-resveratrol significantly decreases reactive oxygen species generation, intracellular Ca2+ levels, and hypoxia associated transcription factors and also increases the level of antioxidant defense enzymes. Our data shows that the whole-treatment group of trans-resveratrol is most efficient in decreasing hypoxia induced cell death through its antioxidant properties. PMID:23421680

  17. The Antioxidant Profiles, Lysosomal and Membrane Enzymes Activity in Patients with Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Milnerowicz, Halina; Bukowski, Rados?aw; Jab?onowska, Monika; ?ciskalska, Milena; Milnerowicz, Stanis?aw

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators, such as IL-6, play an important role in the pathophysiology of acute pancreatitis. The study was aimed to assess the degree of the pro/antioxidative imbalance and estimate which antioxidant plays a role in the maintenance of pro/antioxidative balance during acute pancreatitis. The study was investigated in the blood of 32 patients with acute pancreatitis and 37 healthy subjects. IL-6 concentration as early marker of inflammation was determinated. The intensity of oxidative stress was assessed by TBARS concentration. To investigate antioxidative status, the GPx and Cu/Zn SOD activities and the levels of GSH, MT, SH groups, and TRAP were measured. The concentrations of Cu and Zn as ions participating in the maintenance of antioxidant enzymes stability and playing a role in the course of disease were determinated. The activities of GGT, AAP, NAG, and ?-GD as markers of tissue damage were also measured. An increase in IL-6 concentration, which correlated with Ranson criteria, and an increase in GPx activity, levels of MT, TBARS, or GGT, and NAG activities in patients group compared to healthy subjects were demonstrated. A decrease in GSH level in patients group compared to control group was noted. The studies suggest that GPx/GSH and MT play the role of the first line of defence against oxidative stress and pro/antioxidant imbalance in the course of acute pancreatitis. PMID:25298618

  18. Endothelial delivery of antioxidant enzymes loaded into non-polymeric magnetic nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Chorny, Michael; Hood, Elizabeth; Levy, Robert J.; Muzykantov, Vladimir R.

    2010-01-01

    Antioxidant enzymes have shown promise as a therapy for pathological conditions involving increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However the efficiency of their use for combating oxidative stress is dependent on the ability to achieve therapeutically adequate levels of active enzymes at the site of ROS-mediated injury. Thus, the implementation of antioxidant enzyme therapy requires a strategy enabling both guided delivery to the target site and effective protection of the protein in its active form. To address these requirements we developed magnetically responsive nanoparticles (MNP) formed by precipitation of calcium oleate in the presence of magnetite-based ferrofluid (controlled aggregation/precipitation) as a carrier for magnetically guided delivery of therapeutic proteins. We hypothesized that antioxidant enzymes, catalase and superoxide dismutase, can be protected from proteolytic inactivation by encapsulation in MNP. We also hypothesized that catalase-loaded MNP applied with a high-gradient magnetic field can rescue endothelial cells from hydrogen peroxide toxicity in culture. To test these hypotheses, a family of enzyme-loaded MNP formulations were prepared and characterized with respect to their magnetic properties, enzyme entrapment yields and protection capacity. SOD- and catalase-loaded MNP were formed with average sizes ranging from 300 to 400 nm, and a protein loading efficiency of 20–33%. MNP were strongly magnetically responsive (magnetic moment at saturation of 14.3 emu/g) in the absence of magnetic remanence, and exhibited a protracted release of their cargo protein in plasma. Catalase stably associated with MNP was protected from proteolysis and retained 20% of its initial enzymatic activity after 24 hr of exposure to pronase. Under magnetic guidance catalase-loaded MNP were rapidly taken up by cultured endothelial cells providing increased resistance to oxidative stress (62±12% cells rescued from hydrogen peroxide induced cell death vs. 10±4% under non-magnetic conditions). We conclude that non-polymeric MNP formed using the controlled aggregation/precipitation strategy are a promising carrier for targeted antioxidant enzyme therapy, and in combination with magnetic guidance can be applied to protect endothelial cells from oxidative stress mediated damage. This protective effect of magnetically targeted MNP impregnated with antioxidant enzymes can be highly relevant for the treatment of cardiovascular disease and should be further investigated in animal models. PMID:20483366

  19. Effect of cold adaptation on activities of relevant enzymes and antioxidant system in rats

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Ji-Qing; Zhou, Yang; Chen, Jian-Feng; Li, Shang-Bin; Fang, Wei; Yang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Exercise in cold environments can cause significant metabolic regulation and antioxidant behavior. For discussing enzymatic responses towards cold adaptation, we investigated enzyme activities of adenylate cyclase (AC) and phosphodiesterase (PDE) in liver, skeletal muscle, and brown adipose tissue (BAT), as well as Na+·K+ ATPase and Na+/K+ ratio in blood. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in blood were also studied to address the effect of cold adaptation on oxidative damage and antioxidant system. Experimental results indicated that enzyme activities in liver, skeletal muscle and BAT maintained relatively constant for the control group. For the cold adaptation group, enzyme activities in liver and skeletal muscle were in high levels at the beginning, and then gradually decreased to similar values with the control group. However, enzyme activities in BAT performed an increasing trend and significantly higher than the control at the end. In addition, decreased oxidative damage and activated antioxidant system was observed along with the cold adaptation process. PMID:25550936

  20. Effects of antiemetic drugs on glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and some antioxidant enzymes.

    PubMed

    Ozmen, Ismail; Küfrevioglu, O Irfan

    2004-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate effect of antiemetics on G6PD and antioxidant enzymes. Antiemetics are currently being used to reduce or prevent nausea and vomiting in patients. This is the first study to show effect of antiemetics on glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and antioxidant enzyme activities. For in vitro studies, G6PD was purified from human erythrocyte, 10, 26-fold in a yield of 51.3% by using ammonium sulphate precipitation and 2',5'-ADP-Sepharose 4B affinity gel. The purified enzyme showed a single band on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The effects of four different antiemetics (granisetron hydrochloride, ondansetron hydrochloride, metoclopramide hydrochloride, trimethobenzamide hydrochloride) were investigated on the purified enzyme. Granisetron hydrochloride and ondansetron hydrochloride inhibited the enzyme activity (Ki values; 5.05 mM and 0.034 mM, I50 values; 3.9 mM and 0.036 mM, respectively). Metoclopramide hydrochloride, trimethobenzamide hydrochloride showed no inhibition effects. In addition, in vivo studies, effects of ondansetron hydrochloride on the G6PD, glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT) were examined in the rat erythrocytes. G6PD (49% of control), GR (55% of control), CAT (60% of control) activities in erythrocytes were significantly decreased whereas GPx (183% of control) was significantly increased. A marked alteration in these enzymes may be result of oxidative stress in the rats receiving ondansetron hydrochloride. PMID:15458770

  1. An Nrf2\\/Small Maf Heterodimer Mediates the Induction of Phase II Detoxifying Enzyme Genes through Antioxidant Response Elements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ken Itoh; Tomoki Chiba; Satoru Takahashi; Tetsuro Ishii; Kazuhiko Igarashi; Yasutake Katoh; Tatsuya Oyake; Norio Hayashi; Kimihiko Satoh; Ichiro Hatayama; Masayuki Yamamoto; Yo-ichi Nabeshima

    1997-01-01

    The induction of phase II detoxifying enzymes is an important defense mechanism against intake of xenobiotics. While this group of enzymes is believed to be under the transcriptional control of antioxidant response elements (AREs), this contention is experimentally unconfirmed. Since the ARE resembles the binding sequence of erythroid transcription factor NF-E2, we investigated the possibility that the phase II enzyme

  2. Moringa oleifera Enhances Liver Antioxidant Status via Elevation of Antioxidant Enzymes Activity and Counteracts Paracetamol-induced Hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Uma, N; Fakurazi, S; Hairuszah, I

    2010-08-01

    This study investigated the role of antioxidant enzyme system following crude hydroethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaves (MO) in acute paracetamol (PCM) induced hepatotoxicity. Hydroethanolic extract (80%) of MO (200 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg; p.o) was pre-administered before a single oral dose of 3 g/kg PCM intoxication to male Sprague-Dawley rats. Pre-treatment of the extract was found to have reduced lipid peroxidation level when compared to the group treated with PCM only. The level of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-Stransferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) was restored to near normal in groups that were pre-treated with MO. Histopathological studies have further confirmed the hepatoprotective activity of MO compared to group treated with PCM only. The results obtained were comparable to silymarin (200 mg/kg; p.o). The MO extract was found to have significantly protected the liver against toxicity following PCM intoxication by enhancing the level of antioxidant enzyme activity. PMID:22691934

  3. Resveratrol Provides Cardioprotection after Ischemia/reperfusion Injury via Modulation of Antioxidant Enzyme Activities.

    PubMed

    Mokni, Meherzia; Hamlaoui, Sonia; Karkouch, Ines; Amri, Mohamed; Marzouki, Lamjed; Limam, Ferid; Aouani, Ezzedine

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the cardioprotective effects of resveratrol. Rats were intraperitoneally administered with resveratrol (25 mg/kg bw) or vehicle (ethanol 10%) for 7 days and their heart subjected to ischemia/reperfusion injury. Isolated hearts were langendorff perfused, left ventricular functions as heart rate and developed pressure, as well as, heart antioxidant status were determined. Data showed that resveratrol improved recovery of post-ischemic ventricular functions when compared to control. Resveratrol also improved myocardial lipoperoxidation, free iron and antioxidant enzyme activities. Resveratrol decreased significantly catalase while it increased peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities. In this later case, native PAGE analysis of superoxide dismutase isoforms revealed that resveratrol up regulated iron and manganese isoforms. Resveratrol exerted potential cardioprotection partly by its antioxidant properties. PMID:24523766

  4. Resveratrol Provides Cardioprotection after Ischemia/reperfusion Injury via Modulation of Antioxidant Enzyme Activities

    PubMed Central

    Mokni, Meherzia; Hamlaoui, Sonia; Karkouch, Ines; Amri, Mohamed; Marzouki, Lamjed; Limam, Ferid; Aouani, Ezzedine

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the cardioprotective effects of resveratrol. Rats were intraperitoneally administered with resveratrol (25 mg/kg bw) or vehicle (ethanol 10%) for 7 days and their heart subjected to ischemia/reperfusion injury. Isolated hearts were langendorff perfused, left ventricular functions as heart rate and developed pressure, as well as, heart antioxidant status were determined. Data showed that resveratrol improved recovery of post-ischemic ventricular functions when compared to control. Resveratrol also improved myocardial lipoperoxidation, free iron and antioxidant enzyme activities. Resveratrol decreased significantly catalase while it increased peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities. In this later case, native PAGE analysis of superoxide dismutase isoforms revealed that resveratrol up regulated iron and manganese isoforms. Resveratrol exerted potential cardioprotection partly by its antioxidant properties. PMID:24523766

  5. Region-specific induction of hypoxic tolerance by expression of stress proteins and antioxidant enzymes.

    PubMed

    Omata, N; Murata, T; Takamatsu, S; Maruoka, N; Yonekura, Y; Fujibayashi, Y; Wada, Y

    2006-04-01

    We examined the induction of hypoxic tolerance after hypoxic preconditioning in the frontal cortex, caudate putamen and thalamus using the dynamic positron autoradiography technique and [18F]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose with rat brain slices. Hypoxic tolerance induction was confirmed in the frontal cortex, but not in the caudate putamen and thalamus. Next, we compared the gene expression in the frontal cortex and caudate putamen using the ATLAS Rat Stress Array, and found that the expression of 150-kDa oxygen-regulated protein and mitochondrial heat shock protein 70 as stress proteins, and copper-zinc-containing superoxide dismutase and manganese-containing superoxide dismutase as antioxidant enzymes was elevated only in the frontal cortex. These results suggest that the induction of hypoxic tolerance after hypoxic preconditioning is region-specific, and stress proteins and antioxidant enzymes participate in this phenomenon. PMID:16688605

  6. Dual Targeting of Antioxidant and Metabolic Enzymes to the Mitochondrion and the Apicoplast of Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    Kwok, Lai-Yu; Sheiner, Lilach; Schepers, Rebecca; Soldati, Thierry; Soldati-Favre, Dominique

    2007-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an aerobic protozoan parasite that possesses mitochondrial antioxidant enzymes to safely dispose of oxygen radicals generated by cellular respiration and metabolism. As with most Apicomplexans, it also harbors a chloroplast-like organelle, the apicoplast, which hosts various biosynthetic pathways and requires antioxidant protection. Most apicoplast-resident proteins are encoded in the nuclear genome and are targeted to the organelle via a bipartite N-terminal targeting sequence. We show here that two antioxidant enzymes—a superoxide dismutase (TgSOD2) and a thioredoxin-dependent peroxidase (TgTPX1/2)—and an aconitase are dually targeted to both the apicoplast and the mitochondrion of T. gondii. In the case of TgSOD2, our results indicate that a single gene product is bimodally targeted due to an inconspicuous variation within the putative signal peptide of the organellar protein, which significantly alters its subcellular localization. Dual organellar targeting of proteins might occur frequently in Apicomplexans to serve important biological functions such as antioxidant protection and carbon metabolism. PMID:17784785

  7. Effects of Launaea procumbens on brain antioxidant enzymes and cognitive performance of rat

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Launaea procumbens is used in the treatment of oxidative stress and mental disorders. The effects of Launaea procumbens methanolic extracts (LPMEs), i.e., 100 and 200 LPME mg/kg body weight (b.w.), on cognitive performance as well as on the activity of acetylcholinesterase, and antioxidant enzymes in rat brain tissue homogenates were evaluated. Methods Thirty male Sprague–Dawley rats were divided equally into three groups. Rats in group I (control) were given saline (vehicle), group II received LPME (100 mg/kg b.w., p.o.), and group III were treated with LPME (200 mg/kg b.w., p.o.) in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for 7 days. Antioxidant potential was assessed by measuring the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSHpx), glutathione reductase (GSR) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) as well as lipid peroxidation and glutathione (GSH) contents in brain tissue homogenates. Activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and cognitive performance were also assessed. Results LPME administration reduced the levels of lipid peroxidation products (TBARS contents), increased GSH levels and enhanced the activities of SOD, CAT, GSHpx, GSR and GST. AChE activity was reduced by LPME treatment compared with untreated controls. Conclusion These findings suggested the significant impact of LPMEs on brain function. These effects could be through the antioxidant effects of the bioactive constituents present in LPME. PMID:23151029

  8. Effect of temperature on secondary metabolites production and antioxidant enzyme activities in Eleutherococcus senticosus somatic embryos

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdullah Mohammad Shohael; Mohammad Babar Ali; Kee-Won Yu; Eun-Joo Hahn; Kee-Yoeup Paek

    2006-01-01

    Somatic embryos of Eleutherococcus senticosus were exposed at 12, 16, 24 and 30 °C for duration of 45 days in bioreactor. The effects of such treatments on the growth, eleutheroside B, E, E1, total phenolics, flavonoids, chlorogenic acid concentrations and antioxidant enzymes activities were investigated. The results revealed that low (12 and 18 °C) and high (30 °C) temperature caused significant decrease in fresh

  9. Ultraviolet-B- and ozone-induced biochemical changes in antioxidant enzymes of Arabidopsis thaliana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. V. Rao; G. Paliyath; D. P. Ormrod

    1996-01-01

    Earlier studies with Arabidopsis thaliana exposed to ultraviolet B (UV-B) and ozone (Oâ) have indicated the differential responses of superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase. In this study, we have investigated whether A. thaliana genotype Landsberg erecta and its flavonoid-deficient mutant transparent testa (tt5) is capable of metabolizing UV-B- and Oâ-induced activated oxygen species by invoking similar antioxidant enzymes. UV-B exposure

  10. [Dynamics of the activity of antioxidant enzymes in the blood of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Safarian, M D; Karapetian, E T

    1990-01-01

    The given article deals with the results of analysing antioxidative enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GP) and glutathione reductase (GR) in the blood of pulmonary tuberculosis patients. It is demonstrated that with focal tuberculosis, lipid peroxidation rises, compensatory increase in SOD, GP and GR levels takes place. In infiltrative and disseminated tuberculosis, multidirectional changes of SOD, GP and GR levels are observed depending on a certain stage of the disease accompanied by an increased lipid peroxidation. PMID:2255703

  11. Antioxidant enzyme activities as affected by trivalent and hexavalent chromium species in Fontinalis antipyretica Hedw

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc Dazy; Eric Béraud; Sylvie Cotelle; Eric Meux; Jean-François Masfaraud; Jean-François Férard

    2008-01-01

    The detoxification mechanisms of the aquatic moss, Fontinalis antipyretica Hedw., exposed to Cr was analyzed. In addition, the influence of Cr salts (as Cr nitrate, chloride and potassium bichromate) on these mechanisms has also been studied. The activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1.), catalase (EC 1.11.1.6.), ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11.), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX, EC 1.11.1.7.) and

  12. Antioxidant enzyme activity in endemic Baikalean versus Palaearctic amphipods: tagma- and size-related changes.

    PubMed

    Timofeyev, M A

    2006-03-01

    The activities of key antioxidant enzymes in two endemic Baikalean amphipod species: Pallasea cancelloides (Gerstf), Eulimnogammarus verrucosus (Gerstf) and the widely distributed Palearctic species Gammarus lacustris (Sars) were studied. This work was done to prove or disprove the hypothesis that Baikalean endemics have specifics in antioxidants system different from Palearctic species. The activities of antioxidant enzymes peroxidase, catalase and glutathione-S-transferase were measured in different sections (tagmata) of the amphipods' bodies as well as in different size groups. Well expressed tagma-related differences in peroxidase activity as well as smaller differences in catalase activity were shown in all studied species. There were no measured differences in glutathione-S-transferase activity among body sections. The existence of size-related changes in some antioxidant enzymes and the difference in such changes between Baikalean and Palearctic amphipods were noted. A significant increase in peroxidase activity with the size was found in both Baikalean species while a significant decrease in peroxidase activity was observed in the Palearctic G. lacustris. In Baikalean P. cancelloides, a significant decrease of catalase activity with the increase in age of crustaceans was noted, while in E. verrucosus no such relationship was found. In the Palearctic G. lacustris, a significant increase in catalase activity with the increase in size was noted. All species are shown to have no size-related differences in glutathione-S-transferase activity. The differences between species as well as between both different tagmata and size-classes within a particular species were estimated. It was assumed that the estimated differences in enzymes activity most likely depend on interspecific variation, rather than on conditional specifics in Lake Baikal. PMID:16460977

  13. ROS generation, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities in the aging brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Leutner; A. Eckert; W. E. Müller

    2001-01-01

    Summary.   The objective of this study was to determine the specific relationship between brain aging and changes in the level of oxidative\\u000a stress, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and in the activities of antioxidant enzymes. We used four different age groups (2–3 months,\\u000a 10–11 months, 16–17 months and 20–21 months) which represented young adults, adults, beginning senescence and senescence,\\u000a respectively. Basal levels

  14. Antioxidant enzyme activities in Pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) in response to environmental hypoxia and reoxygenation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Delia Patricia Parrilla-Taylor; Tania Zenteno-Savín

    2011-01-01

    Hypoxia–reoxygenation represents a relevant physiological challenge for shrimp culture. The sudden input of oxygen (O2) after environmental hypoxia increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). It has been postulated that a relatively high activity of the main antioxidant enzymes allows several adapted invertebrate species to survive repetitive cycles of hypoxia–reoxygenation by counteracting ROS production and,

  15. Response of antioxidant enzymes in Nicotiana tabacum clones during phytoextraction of heavy metals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lyudmila Lyubenova; Erika Nehnevajova; Rolf Herzig; Peter Schröder

    2009-01-01

    Background, aim, and scope  Tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum, is a widely used model plant for growth on heavy-metal-contaminated sites. Its high biomass and deep rooting system make\\u000a it interesting for phytoextraction. In the present study, we investigated the antioxidative activities and glutathione-dependent\\u000a enzymes of different tobacco clones optimized for better Cd and Zn accumulation in order to characterize their performance\\u000a in the

  16. Peroxiredoxin 2 ( PRDX2 ), an antioxidant enzyme, is underexpressed in Down syndrome fetal brains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Sebastiŕ; C. Sanfeliu; R. Cristňfol; G. Marfany; R. Gonzŕles-Duarte

    2003-01-01

    Suppression subtractive hybridization performed on Down syndrome (DS) versus control fetal brains revealed differential expression of peroxiredoxin 2 ( PRDX2), mapped at 13q12. Peroxiredoxins are antioxidant enzymes involved in protein and lipid protection against oxidative injury and in cellular signalling pathways regulating apoptosis. The under-expression of PRDX2 observed in DS samples was confirmed by realtime PCR (0.73-fold). To test whether

  17. Copper-induced changes in antioxidant enzymes activities in fronds of duckweed ( Lemna minor)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henri Teisseire; Vernet Guy

    2000-01-01

    Changes in activity of antioxidant enzymes caused by copper sulfate were examined in fronds of duckweed (Lemna minor) during time- and concentration-dependent exposure to the metal salt. Glutathione S-transferase and glutathione reductase activities were inhibited by the high CuSO4 concentrations while a strong stimulation of catalase, guaiacol peroxidase and pyrogallol peroxidase activities were observed from the lowest concentration tested (0.25

  18. Effects of the Fungicide Folpet on the Activities of Antioxidative Enzymes in Duckweed (Lemna minor)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Teisseire; G. Vernet

    2001-01-01

    In a previous paper we reported the phytotoxicity of the fungicide folpet [N-(trichloromethylthio)phtalimide] in the aquatic floating macrophyte Lemna minor. The objectives of this study were to investigate the modifications of several antioxidative enzymatic activities in fronds of L. minor during a 96-h exposure to a sublethal folpet concentration (33 ?M). The specific activities of enzymes of the Halliwell-Asada pathway,

  19. Adaptive response of antioxidant enzymes to catalase inhibition by aminotriazole in goldfish liver and kidney

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tetyana V. Bagnyukova; Kenneth B. Storey; Volodymyr I. Lushchak

    2005-01-01

    This study was undertaken to clarify the physiological role of catalase in the maintenance of pro\\/antioxidant balance in goldfish tissues by inhibiting the enzyme in vivo with 3-amino 1,2,4-triazole. Intraperitoneal injection of aminotriazole (0.5 mg\\/g wet mass) caused a decrease in liver catalase activity by 83% after 24 h that was sustained after 168 h post-injection. In kidney catalase activity

  20. Antioxidant Enzyme Activities and Malondialdehyde Levels in Patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Murat Kuloglu; Murad Atmaca; Ertan Tezcan; Ömer Gecici; Hikmet Tunckol; Bilal Ustundag

    2002-01-01

    To examine the importance of free radicals in the pathogenesis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), we aimed to evaluate whether malondialdehyde (MDA), a product of lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant enzyme [superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase (CAT)] activity levels were associated with OCD. The patients were divided into two subgroups according to whether DSM-IV major depressive disorder (MDD) was

  1. The effects of pycnogenol on antioxidant enzymes in a mouse model of ozone exposure

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Min-Sung; Moon, Kuk-Young; Bae, Da-Jeong; Park, Moo-Kyun

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims Ozone is an environmentally reactive oxidant, and pycnogenol is a mixture of flavonoid compounds extracted from pine tree bark that have antioxidant activity. We investigated the effects of pycnogenol on reactive nitrogen species, antioxidant responses, and airway responsiveness in BALB/c mice exposed to ozone. Methods Antioxidant levels were determined using high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Nitric oxide (NO) metabolites in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid from BALB/c mice in filtered air and 2 ppm ozone with pycnogenol pretreatment before ozone exposure (n = 6) were quantified colorimetrically using the Griess reaction. Results Uric acid and ascorbic acid concentrations were significantly higher in BAL fluid following pretreatment with pycnogenol, whereas ?-tocopherol concentrations were higher in the ozone exposed group but were similar in the ozone and pycnogenol pretreatment groups. Retinol and ?-tocopherol concentrations tended to increase in the ozone exposure group but were similar in the ozone and pycnogenol pretreatment groups following ozone exposure. Malonylaldehyde concentrations increased in the ozone exposure group but were similar in the ozone and pycnogenol plus ozone groups. The nitrite and total NO metabolite concentrations in BAL fluid, which parallel the in vivo generation of NO in the airways, were significantly greater in the ozone exposed group than the group exposed to filtered air, but decreased with pycnogenol pretreatment. Conclusions Pycnogenol may increase levels of antioxidant enzymes and decrease levels of nitrogen species, suggesting that antioxidants minimize the effects of acute ozone exposure via a protective mechanism. PMID:23526176

  2. Dietary açai modulates ROS production by neutrophils and gene expression of liver antioxidant enzymes in rats

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Joyce Ferreira da Costa; Magalhăes, Cíntia Lopes de Brito; Costa, Daniela Caldeira; Silva, Marcelo Eustáquio; Pedrosa, Maria Lúcia

    2011-01-01

    Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) has recently emerged as a promising source of natural antioxidants. Because increased oxidative stress and impaired antioxidant defense mechanisms are important factors in the development of diabetic complications and many health claims have been reported for açai, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the possible protective effects of açai on the production of reactive oxygen species by neutrophils and on the liver antioxidant defense system in control and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diet supplementation with 2% açai was found to increase mRNA levels for gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase and glutathione peroxidase in liver tissue and to decrease reactive oxygen species production by neutrophils. Compared to control animals, diabetic rats exhibited lower levels of mRNA coding for Zn-superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase and higher levels of reactive oxygen species production by neutrophils, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and carbonyl proteins in hepatic tissues. Although açai supplementation was not effective in restore gene expression of antioxidant enzymes in diabetic rats, it showed a protective effect, decreasing thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances levels and increasing reduced glutathione content in the liver. These findings suggest that açai can modulate reactive oxygen species production by neutrophils and that it has a significant favorable effect on the liver antioxidant defense system under fisiological conditions of oxidative stress and partially revert deleterious effects of diabetes in the liver. PMID:22128218

  3. Status of lipid peroxidation, some antioxidant enzymes and erythrocytic fragility of crossbred cattle naturally infected with Theileria annulata.

    PubMed

    Grewal, A; Ahuja, C S; Singha, S P S; Chaudhary, K C

    2005-07-01

    Erythrocytic lipid peroxidation, activities of some antioxidant enzymes and osmotic fragility of red blood cells was studied in adult (>1 year) crossbred cattle naturally infected with Theileria annulata. Twenty clinically healthy animals (group I) and 15 clinical cases (group II) of tropical theileriosis were selected. Cattle suffering from theileriosis had significantly higher (p<0.01) erythrocytic lipid peroxidation and osmotic fragility. Activities of antioxidant enzymes, viz. glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and glutamate peroxidase (GPx) were also significantly increased (p<0.01) in group II. However, superoxide dismutase and catalase did not show significant changes. The results indicated that infection with theileria led to increased oxidative stress to the animals, and even a significant rise in the activities of antioxidant enzymes. G6PD and GPx could not lower this oxidative stress. However, the increase in the activities of antioxidant enzymes pointed towards the body's defence mechanism against lipid peroxidation during oxidative stress in theileriosis. PMID:16195933

  4. Effect of grazing pastures of different botanical composition on antioxidant enzyme activities and oxidative stability of lamb meat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Petron; K. Raes; E. Claeys; M. Lourenço; D. Fremaut; S. De Smet

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the influence of different pastures (Intensive ryegrass, Botanically diverse and Leguminosa rich pastures) on the antioxidant status and oxidative stability of meat from lambs that had been exclusively grazing for three months. Lipid, colour and protein oxidation, ?-tocopherol content and activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (Cat) and glutathione peroxidase

  5. Antioxidant enzymes expression and activity in liver of stressed wistar rat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djordjevi?, J.; Ni?iforovi?, A.; Radoj?i?, M. B.

    2009-09-01

    Altered activities of antioxidant defence system enzymes and the levels of free radicals scavengers have been found to correlate with various physiological or pathological conditions, including stress. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of chronic 21 day isolation stress on antioxidant enzymes (AOEs) expression and activity in Wistar rat liver tissue. The serum corticosterone (CORT) and glucose (GLU) levels were also measured, as one of the most important indicators of stress. Our data revealed that in chronic stress conditions, when both CORT and GLU were low, the AOEs expression was markedly induced. This increase in MnSOD, CuZnSOD, and catalase exhibited similar trend implying efficient detoxification of O_2^{ - .} and H2O2. However, this trend was not followed by the respective enzyme activity. While the total SOD activity was induced by the stress, catalase activity remained unaltered. This discrepancy led us to a conclusion that chronic isolation stress may cause oxidant-antioxidant imbalance in rat liver tissue, favoring H2O2 accumulation.

  6. Therapeutic Approach to Neurodegenerative Diseases by Medical Gases: Focusing on Redox Signaling and Related Antioxidant Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Kyota; Yamafuji, Megumi; Nakabeppu, Yusaku; Noda, Mami

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress in the central nervous system is strongly associated with neuronal cell death in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. In order to overcome the oxidative damage, there are some protective signaling pathways related to transcriptional upregulation of antioxidant enzymes, such as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)-1/-2. Their expression is regulated by several transcription factors and/or cofactors like nuclear factor-erythroid 2 (NF-E2) related factor 2 (Nrf2) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? coactivator 1? (PGC-1?). These antioxidant enzymes are associated with, and in some cases, prevent neuronal death in animal models of neurodegenerative diseases. They are activated by endogenous mediators and phytochemicals, and also by several gases such as carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen sulphide (H2S), and hydrogen (H2). These might thereby protect the brain from severe oxidative damage and resultant neurodegenerative diseases. In this paper, we discuss how the expression levels of these antioxidant enzymes are regulated. We also introduce recent advances in the therapeutic uses of medical gases against neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:22811764

  7. Mitochondria-targeted antioxidant enzyme activity regulates radioresistance in human pancreatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Carolyn J; Goswami, Prabhat C

    2008-08-01

    In recent years, cellular redox environment gained significant attention as a critical regulator of cellular responses to oxidative stress. Cellular redox environment is a balance between production of reactive oxygen species and their removal by antioxidant enzymes. We investigated the hypothesis that mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme activity regulates radioresistance in human pancreatic cancer cells. Vector-control and manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) overexpressing human pancreatic cancer cells were irradiated and assayed for cell survival and activation of the G(2)-checkpoint pathway. Increased MnSOD activity significantly increased cell survival following irradiation with 6 Gy of gamma-radiation (p < 0.05). The MnSOD overexpressing irradiated cells also revealed 3-4 folds increase in the percentage of G(2) cells compared to irradiated vector-control. Furthermore, MnSOD overexpressing irradiated cells exhibited increased loss of phosphorylated histone H2AX protein levels. The radiation-induced increase in cyclin B1 protein levels in irradiated vector-control cells was suppressed in irradiated MnSOD overexpressing cells. Mitochondria-targeted catalase overexpression increased the survival of irradiated cells. These results support the hypothesis that mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme activity and mitochondria-generated reactive oxygen species-signaling (superoxide and hydrogen peroxide) could regulate radiation-induced G(2) checkpoint activation and radioresistance in human pancreatic cancer cells. PMID:18497575

  8. A potential link among antioxidant enzymes, histopathology and trace elements in canine visceral leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Carolina C; Barreto, Tatiane de O; da Silva, Sydnei M; Pinto, Aldair W J; Figueiredo, Maria M; Ferreira Rocha, Olguita G; Cangussú, Silvia D; Tafuri, Wagner L

    2014-01-01

    Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is a severe and fatal systemic chronic inflammatory disease. We investigated the alterations in, and potential associations among, antioxidant enzymes, trace elements and histopathology in CVL. Blood and tissue levels of Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase were measured in mixed-breed dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum chagasi, symptomatic (n = 19) and asymptomatic (n = 11). Serum levels of copper, iron, zinc, selenium and nitric oxide, and plasma lipid peroxidation were measured. Histological and morphometric analyses were conducted of lesions in liver, spleen and lymph nodes. We found lower blood catalase and glutathione peroxidase activity to be correlated with lower iron and selenium respectively. However, higher activity of Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase was not correlated with the increase in copper and decreased in zinc observed in infected animals compared to controls. Organ tissue was characterized by lower enzyme activity in infected dogs than in controls, but this was not correlated with trace elements. Lipid peroxidation was higher in symptomatic than in asymptomatic and control dogs and was associated with lesions such as chronic inflammatory reaction, congestion, haemosiderin and fibrosis. Systemic iron deposition was observed primarily in the symptomatic dogs showing a higher tissue parasite load. Dogs with symptomatic CVL displayed enhanced LPO and Fe tissue deposition associated with decreased levels of antioxidant enzymes. These results showed new points in the pathology of CVL and might open new treatment perspectives associated with antioxidants and the role of iron in the pathogenesis of CVL. PMID:24766461

  9. Cadmium phytotoxicity: Quantitative sensitivity relationships between classical endpoints and antioxidative enzyme biomarkers.

    PubMed

    da Rosa Corręa, Albertina Xavier; Rörig, Leonardo Rubi; Verdinelli, Miguel A; Cotelle, Sylvie; Férard, Jean-François; Radetski, Claudemir Marcos

    2006-03-15

    In this work, cadmium phytotoxicity and quantitative sensitivity relationships between different hierarchical endpoints in plants cultivated in a contaminated soil were studied. Thus, germination rate, biomass growth and antioxidative enzyme activity (i.e. superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase and glutathione reductase) in three terrestrial plants (Avena sativa L., Brassica campestris L. cv. Chinensis, Lactuca sativa L. cv. hanson) were analyzed. Plant growth tests were carried out according to an International Standard Organization method and the results were analyzed by ANOVA followed by Williams' test. The concentration of Cd2+ that had the smallest observed significant negative effect (LOEC) on plant biomass was 6.25, 12.5 and 50 mg Cd/kg dry soil for lettuce, oat and Chinese cabbage, respectively. Activity of all enzymes studied increased significantly compared to enzyme activity in plant controls. For lettuce, LOEC values (mg Cd/kg dry soil) for enzymic activity ranged from 0.05 (glutathione reductase) to 0.39 (catalase). For oat, LOEC values (mg Cd/kg dry soil) ranged from 0.19 (for superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase) to 0.39 (for catalase and peroxidase). For Chinese cabbage, LOEC values (mg Cd/kg dry soil) ranged from 0.19 (peroxidase, catalase and glutathione reductase) to 0.39 (superoxide dismutase). Classical (i.e. germination and biomass) and biochemical (i.e. enzyme activity) endpoints were compared to establish a sensitivity ranking, which was: enzyme activity>biomass>germination rate. For cadmium-soil contamination, the determination of quantitative sensitivity relationships (QSR) between classical and antioxidative enzyme biomarkers showed that the most sensitive plant species have, generally, the lowest QSR values. PMID:15982719

  10. Endothelial targeting of nanocarriers loaded with antioxidant enzymes for protection against vascular oxidative stress and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Hood, Elizabeth D; Chorny, Michael; Greineder, Colin F; S Alferiev, Ivan; Levy, Robert J; Muzykantov, Vladimir R

    2014-04-01

    Endothelial-targeted delivery of antioxidant enzymes, catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD), is a promising strategy for protecting organs and tissues from inflammation and oxidative stress. Here we describe Protective Antioxidant Carriers for Endothelial Targeting (PACkET), the first carriers capable of targeted endothelial delivery of both catalase and SOD. PACkET formed through controlled precipitation loaded ~30% enzyme and protected it from proteolytic degradation, whereas attachment of PECAM monoclonal antibodies to surface of the enzyme-loaded carriers, achieved without adversely affecting their stability and functionality, provided targeting. Isotope tracing and microscopy showed that PACkET exhibited specific endothelial binding and internalization in vitro. Endothelial targeting of PACkET was validated in vivo by specific (vs IgG-control) accumulation in the pulmonary vasculature after intravenous injection achieving 33% of injected dose at 30 min. Catalase loaded PACkET protects endothelial cells from killing by H2O2 and alleviated the pulmonary edema and leukocyte infiltration in mouse model of endotoxin-induced lung injury, whereas SOD-loaded PACkET mitigated cytokine-induced endothelial pro-inflammatory activation and endotoxin-induced lung inflammation. These studies indicate that PACkET offers a modular approach for vascular targeting of therapeutic enzymes. PMID:24480537

  11. Endothelial targeting of nanocarriers loaded with antioxidant enzymes for protection against vascular oxidative stress and inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Hood, Elizabeth D.; Chorny, Michael; Greineder, Colin F.; Alferiev, Ivan; Levy, Robert J.; Muzykantov, Vladimir R.

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial-targeted delivery of antioxidant enzymes, catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD), is promising strategy for protecting organs and tissues from inflammation and oxidative stress. Here we describe Protective Antioxidant Carriers for Endothelial Targeting (PACkET), the first carriers capable of targeted endothelial delivery of both catalase and SOD. PACkET formed through controlled precipitation loaded ~30% enzyme and protected it from proteolytic degradation, whereas attachment of PECAM monoclonal antibodies to surface of the enzyme-loaded carriers, achieved without adversely affecting their stability and functionality, provided targeting. Isotope tracing and microscopy showed that PACkET exhibited specific endothelial binding and internalization in vitro. Endothelial targeting of PACkET was validated in vivo by specific (vs IgG-control) accumulation in the pulmonary vasculature after intravenous injection achieving 33% of injected dose at 30 min. Catalase loaded PACkET protects endothelial cells from killing by H2O2 and alleviated the pulmonary edema and leukocyte infiltration in mouse model of endotoxin-induced lung injury, whereas SOD-loaded PACkET mitigated cytokine-induced endothelial pro-inflammatory activation and endotoxin-induced lung inflammation. These studies indicate that PACkET offers a modular approach for vascular targeting of therapeutic enzymes. PMID:24480537

  12. Antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes status of rats fed on n-3 PUFA rich Garden cress (Lepidium Sativum L) seed oil and its blended oils.

    PubMed

    Umesha, Shankar Shetty; Naidu, K Akhilender

    2015-04-01

    Garden cress (Lepidium sativum L) seed oil (GCO) is a rich source of ?-linolenic acid (ALA, 33.6 %) and the oil has a fairly balanced SFA, MUFA and PUFA ratio. In this study we have investigated the effect of GCO and its blends with n-6 PUFA rich edible vegetable oils sunflower oil (SFO), rice bran oil (RBO) and sesame oil (SESO) on antioxidant status of oils and antioxidative enzymes in Wistar rats. Physical blending of GCO with n-6 PUFA rich vegetable oils (SFO, RBO and SESO) increased content of natural antioxidants such as tocopherols, oryzanol and lignans, decreased the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio and improved the radical scavenging activity of blended oils. Dietary feeding of GCO and its blended oils for 60 days, increased the tocopherols levels (12.2-21.6 %) and activity of antioxidant enzymes namely catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), but did not affect the activity of glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) in liver compared to native oil fed rats. Thus, blending of GCO with other vegetable oil decreased n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio (>2.0) and dietary feeding of GCO blended oils increased the antioxidant status and activity of antioxidant enzymes (catalase and GPx) in experimental rats. PMID:25829579

  13. Flavonoids in Juglans regia L. Leaves and Evaluation of In Vitro Antioxidant Activity via Intracellular and Chemical Methods

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ming-Hui; Liu, Tao; Li, Rong

    2014-01-01

    Flavonoids are rich in Juglans regia L. leaves. They have potent antioxidant properties, which have been related to regulating immune function and enhancing anticancer activity. Herein, qualitative and quantitative determination of flavonoids from J. regia leaves was carried out using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization and negative ion detection (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) by comparison of the retention times and mass spectral fragments with standard substances or related literatures. Seventeen compounds were identified and major components are quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside (453.11??g/g, dry weight), quercetin-3-O-arabinoside (73.91??g/g), quercetin-3-O-xyloside (70.04??g/g), kaempferol-O-pentoside derivative (49.04??g/g), quercetin-3-O-galactoside (48.61??g/g), and kaempferol-O-pentoside (48.46??g/g). The in vitro intracellular antioxidation indicated that flavonoids from J. regia leaves could reduce the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in RAW264.7 cells and showed good radical scavenging activities. These results proved to be more related to the flavonoids that could be considered in the design of new formulations of dietary supplements or functional foods. PMID:25133218

  14. Description of a new Mycobacterium intracellulare pattern of PCR restriction enzyme analysis of hsp65 gene.

    PubMed

    Caldas, Paulo Cesar de Souza; Campos, Carlos Eduardo Dias; Dos Reis, Lusiano Motta; Ferreira, Nicole Victor; de Carvalho, Luciana Distásio; da Silva, Mariza Villas Boas; Medeiros, Reginalda Ferreira de Melo; Montes, Fátima Cristina Onofre Fandinho; Ramos, Jesus Pais

    2014-06-01

    This work comprises 9 pulmonary nontuberculous mycobateria isolates obtained from sputum of 4 different patients from Brazil. The sequencing and phylogenetic analysis allowed their accurate identification as Mycobacterium intracellulare. We report a mutation at position 453 creating a new HaeIII cutting site and, therefore, a new PRA-hsp65 M. intracellulare profile. PMID:24655570

  15. Antioxidant activities of 5-hydroxyoxindole and its 3-hydroxy-3-phenacyl derivatives: the suppression of lipid peroxidation and intracellular oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Daisuke; Takahashi, Kyoko; Ohe, Tomoyuki; Nakamura, Shigeo; Mashino, Tadahiko

    2013-12-15

    The antioxidant activities of 5-hydroxyoxindole (1) and newly synthesized 3,5-dihydroxy-3-phenacyl-2-oxindole derivatives against rat liver microsome/tert-butylhydroperoxide system-induced lipid peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide-induced intracellular oxidative stress were investigated. Compound 1 and its derivatives showed significant suppression of lipid peroxidation and an intracellular oxidative stress. The effects of the more lipophilic derivatives tended to be greater than that of the original compound 1. The cytotoxicity of all of the oxindole derivatives on human promyelocytic leukemia HL60 cells was lower than that of 2,6-di(tert-butyl)-4-hydroxytoluene (BHT), a widely used phenolic antioxidant. These results show that compound 1 and its 3-substituted derivatives could be good lead candidates for future novel antioxidant therapeutics. PMID:24216095

  16. Effect of Alpinia zerumbet components on antioxidant and skin diseases-related enzymes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The skin is chronically exposed to endogenous and environmental pro-oxidant agents, leading to the harmful generation of reactive oxygen species. Antioxidant is vital substances which possess the ability to protect the body from damage cause by free radicals induce oxidative stress. Alpinia zerumbet, a traditionally important economic plant in Okinawa, contains several interesting bioactive constituents and possesses health promoting properties. In this regard, we carried out to test the inhibitory effect of crude extracts and isolated compounds from A. zerumbet on antioxidant and skin diseases-related enzymes. Methods The antioxidant activities were examined by DPPH, ABTS and PMS-NADH radical scavenging. Collagenase, elastase, hyaluronidase and tyrosinase were designed for enzymatic activities to investigate the inhibitory properties of test samples using a continuous spectrophotometric assay. The inhibitory capacity of test samples was presented at half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50). Results The results showed that aqueous extract of the rhizome was found to have greater inhibitory effects than the others on both of antioxidant and skin diseases-related enzymes. Furthermore, 5,6-dehydrokawain (DK), dihydro-5,6-dehydrokawain (DDK) and 8(17),12-labdadiene-15,16-dial (labdadiene), isolated from rhizome, were tested for antioxidant and enzyme inhibitions. We found that DK showed higher inhibitory activities on DPPH, ABTS and PMS-NADH scavenging (IC50?=?122.14?±?1.40, 110.08?±?3.34 and 127.78?±?4.75??g/ml, respectively). It also had stronger inhibitory activities against collagenase, elastase, hyaluronidase and tyrosinase (IC50?=?24.93?±?0.97, 19.41?±?0.61, 19.48?±?0.24 and 76.67?±?0.50??g/ml, respectively) than DDK and labdadiene. Conclusion Our results indicate that the rhizome aqueous extract proved to be the source of bioactive compounds against enzymes responsible for causing skin diseases. Moreover, DK could be used as a potent inhibitor and be further exploited to be used in anti-skin disease formulations. PMID:22827920

  17. Effect of spaceflight on oxidative and antioxidant enzyme activity in rat diaphragm and intercostal muscles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Mona D.; Tuttle, Ronald; Girten, Beverly

    1995-01-01

    There are limited data regarding changes in oxidative and antioxidant enzymes induced by simulated or actual weightlessness, and any additional information would provide insight into potential mechanisms involving other changes observed in muscles from animals previously flown in space. Thus, the NASA Biospecimen Sharing Program was an opportunity to collect valuable information. Oxidative and antioxidant enzyme levels, as well as lipid peroxidation, were measured in respiratory muscles from rates flown on board Space Shuttle mission STS-54. The results indicated that there was an increasing trend in citrate synthase activity in the flight diaphragm when compared to ground based controls, and there were no significant changes observed in the intercostal muscles for any of the parameters. However, the lipid peroxidation was significantly (p less than 0.05) decreased in the flight diaphragm. These results indicate that 6 day exposure to microgravity may have a different effect on oxidative and antioxidant activity in rat respiratory muscles when compared to data from previous 14 day hindlimb suspension studies.

  18. Response of antioxidant enzymes in coontail (Ceratophyllum demersum L.) plants under cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Seema; Srivastava, Sudhakar; Tripathi, R D; Dwivedi, Sanjay; Shukla, M K

    2008-06-01

    Cadmium (Cd) contamination of aquatic systems is of major concern since it is a nonessential element and hampers plant growth upon accumulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the Cd accumulation behavior of coontail plant, Ceratophyllum demersum L., toxicity induced and response of the antioxidant system. Plants were exposed to various concentrations of Cd (0-10 microM) for a period of 1-7 days. Accumulation of Cd was found to be a concentration duration dependent phenomenon. The maximum accumulation of Cd, 1293 microg g(-1) dw, was observed after 7 days at 10 microM. Plants showed significant stimulation of the activities of various antioxidant enzymes viz., superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1), ascorbate peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.11), guaiacol peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7), catalase (EC 1.11.1.6), and glutathione reductase (EC 1.6.4.2) and tolerated toxicity of Cd up to moderate concentration of 5 microM. At 10 microM exposure, enzyme activities declined and plants experienced toxicity, which was evident by the significant decrease in the photosynthetic pigments and by increase in the levels of H(2)O(2), lipid peroxidation and ion leakage. In conclusion, modulation of antioxidant system in a coordinated manner in response to Cd accumulation appears to help plants tolerate toxicity of Cd up to 5 microM. PMID:18214904

  19. Hymenolepis diminuta: Activity of anti-oxidant enzymes in different parts of rat gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Kosik-Bogacka, Danuta I; Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena; Noce?, Iwona; Jakubowska, Katarzyna; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the intensity of oxidative stress by measuring levels of lipid peroxidation products in the duodenum, jejunum and colon of rats infected with Hymenolepis diminuta and evaluate the effectiveness of protection against oxidative stress by measuring the glutathione levels and activity of anti-oxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase. In exposed rats we observed a significant increase of lipid peroxidation products in the duodenum and jejunum. A significant decrease in superoxide dismutase activity in all the examined parts of the digestive tract was observed. Additionally, rats from 16 to 40 days post H. diminuta infection (dpi) had a decreased catalase activity in the colon, while at 60dpi it increased. The glutathione peroxidase activity increased significantly in the colon at 60dpi. The increase in glutathione reductase activity was observed in the colon in rats 60dpi. There was a lack of changes in the levels of glutathione in the duodenum and a significant increase in its concentration in the jejunum and colon from 40 to 60dpi and from 16 to 40dpi, respectively. In this study we observed altered activity of anti-oxidant enzymes and glutathione level in experimental hymenolepidosis, as a consequence of oxidative stress. It may indicate a decrease in the efficiency of intestinal protection against oxidative stress induced by the presence of the parasite. The imbalance between oxidant and anti-oxidant processes may play a major role in pathology associated with hymenolepidosis. PMID:21376042

  20. Effect of norfloxacin and moxifloxacin on melanin synthesis and antioxidant enzymes activity in normal human melanocytes.

    PubMed

    Beberok, Artur; Wrze?niok, Dorota; Otr?ba, Micha?; Mili?ski, Maciej; Rok, Jakub; Buszman, Ewa

    2015-03-01

    Fluoroquinolone antibiotics provide broad-spectrum coverage for a number of infectious diseases, including respiratory as well as urinary tract infections. One of the important adverse effects of these drugs is phototoxicity which introduces a serious limitation to their use. To gain insight the molecular mechanisms underlying the fluoroquinolones-induced phototoxic side effects, the impact of two fluoroquinolone derivatives with different phototoxic potential, norfloxacin and moxifloxacin, on melanogenesis and antioxidant enzymes activity in normal human melanocytes HEMa-LP was determined. Both drugs induced concentration-dependent loss in melanocytes viability. The value of EC50 for these drugs was found to be 0.5 mM. Norfloxacin and moxifloxacin suppressed melanin biosynthesis; antibiotics were shown to inhibit cellular tyrosinase activity and to reduce melanin content in melanocytes. When comparing the both analyzed fluoroquinolones, it was observed that norfloxacin possesses greater inhibitory effect on tyrosinase activity in melanocytes than moxifloxacin. The extent of oxidative stress in cells was assessed by measuring the activity of antioxidant enzymes: SOD, CAT, and GPx. It was observed that norfloxacin caused higher depletion of antioxidant status in melanocytes when compared with moxifloxacin. The obtained results give a new insight into the mechanisms of fluoroquinolones toxicity directed to pigmented tissues. Moreover, the presented differences in modulation of biochemical processes in melanocytes may be an explanation for various phototoxic activities of the analyzed fluoroquinolone derivatives in vivo. PMID:25433710

  1. Chromium induced lipid peroxidation in the plants of Pistia stratiotes L.: role of antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Sarita; Saxena, Rohit; Singh, Shraddha

    2005-02-01

    In the plant, Pistia stratiotes L., the effect of different concentrations of chromium (0, 10, 40, 80 and 160 microM) applied for 48, 96 and 144 h was assessed by measuring changes in the chlorophyll, protein, malondialdehyde (MDA), cysteine, non-protein thiol, ascorbic acid contents and superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and guiacol peroxidase (GPX) activity of the plants. Both in roots and leaves, an increase in MDA content was observed with increase in metal concentration and exposure periods. In roots, the activity of antioxidant enzymes viz. SOD and APX increased at all the concentrations of Cr at 144 h than their controls. The GPX activity of the treated roots increased with increase in Cr concentration at 48 and 96 h of exposures, however, at 144 h its activity was found declined beyond 10 microM Cr. The level of antioxidants in the roots of the treated plant viz. cysteine and ascorbic acid was also found increased at all the concentrations of Cr at 144 h than their respective controls, however, an increase in the non-protein thiol content was recorded up to 40 microM Cr followed by decrease. The chlorophyll content decreased with increase in Cr concentrations and exposure periods. However, the protein content of both roots and leaves were found decreased with increase in Cr concentrations at all the exposure periods except an increase was recorded at 10 microM Cr at 48 h. In Cr treated plants, the no observed effect concentration (NOEC) and lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC) for leaves chlorophyll and protein contents were 40 and 80 microM Cr, respectively after 48 h exposure while NOEC and LOEC for root protein content were 10 and 40 microM, respectively after 48 h. The analysis of correlation coefficient data revealed that the metal accumulation in the roots of the plant was found positively correlated with antioxidant parameters except SOD after 48 h of exposure, however, negatively correlated with most of all the parameters studied at 144 h in both part of the plant. It may be suggested from the present study that toxic concentrations of Cr cause oxidative damage as evidenced by increased lipid peroxidation and decreased chlorophyll and protein contents. However, the higher levels of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants suggest the reason for tolerating higher levels of metals. PMID:15620753

  2. Age-related protective effect of deprenyl on changes in the levels of diagnostic marker enzymes and antioxidant defense enzymes activities in cerebellar tissue in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    James, T. J.

    2010-01-01

    Antioxidants are free radical scavengers and protect living organisms against oxidative damage to tissues. Experimental evidence implicates oxygen-derived free radicals as important causative agents of aging and the present study was designed to evaluate the age-related effects of deprenyl on the antioxidant defense in the cerebellum of male Wistar rats. Experimental rats of three age groups (6, 12, and 18 months old) were administered with liquid deprenyl (2 mg/kg body weight/day for a period of 15 days i.p) and levels of diagnostic marker enzymes (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase and creatine phosphokinase) in plasma, lipid peroxides, reduced glutathione and activities of glutathione-dependent antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase) and antiperoxidative enzymes (catalase and superoxide dismutase) in the cerebellar tissue were determined. Intraperitonial administration of deprenyl (2 mg/kg body weight/day for a period of 15 days) significantly (p?enzymes plasma of experimental animals. Deprenyl also exerted an antioxidant effect against aging process by hindering lipid peroxidation to an extent. Moderate rise in the levels of reduced glutathione and activities of glutathione-dependent antioxidant enzymes and antiperoxidative enzymes was also observed. The results of the present investigation indicated that the protective potential of deprenyl was probably due to the increase of the activity of the free radical scavenging enzymes or to a counteraction of free radicals by its antioxidant nature or to a strengthening of neuronal membrane by its membrane-stabilizing action. Histopathological observations also confirmed the protective effect of deprenyl against the age-related aberrations in rat cerebellum. These data on the effect of deprenyl on parameters of normal aging provides new additional information concerning the anti-aging potential of deprenyl. PMID:20224915

  3. Role of intracellular labile iron, ferritin, and antioxidant defence in resistance of chronically adapted Jurkat T cells to hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Al-Qenaei, Abdullah; Yiakouvaki, Anthie; Reelfs, Olivier; Santambrogio, Paolo; Levi, Sonia; Hall, Nick D; Tyrrell, Rex M; Pourzand, Charareh

    2014-03-01

    To examine the role of intracellular labile iron pool (LIP), ferritin (Ft), and antioxidant defence in cellular resistance to oxidative stress on chronic adaptation, a new H2O2-resistant Jurkat T cell line "HJ16" was developed by gradual adaptation of parental "J16" cells to high concentrations of H2O2. Compared to J16 cells, HJ16 cells exhibited much higher resistance to H2O2-induced oxidative damage and necrotic cell death (up to 3mM) and had enhanced antioxidant defence in the form of significantly higher intracellular glutathione and mitochondrial ferritin (FtMt) levels as well as higher glutathione-peroxidase (GPx) activity. In contrast, the level of the Ft H-subunit (FtH) in the H2O2-adapted cell line was found to be 7-fold lower than in the parental J16 cell line. While H2O2 concentrations higher than 0.1mM fully depleted the glutathione content of J16 cells, in HJ16 cells the same treatments decreased the cellular glutathione content to only half of the original value. In HJ16 cells, H2O2 concentrations higher than 0.1mM increased the level of FtMt up to 4-fold of their control values but had no effect on the FtMt levels in J16 cells. Furthermore, while the basal cytosolic level of LIP was similar in both cell lines, H2O2 treatment substantially increased the cytosolic LIP levels in J16 but not in HJ16 cells. H2O2 treatment also substantially decreased the FtH levels in J16 cells (up to 70% of the control value). In contrast in HJ16 cells, FtH levels were not affected by H2O2 treatment. These results indicate that chronic adaptation of J16 cells to high concentrations of H2O2 has provoked a series of novel and specific cellular adaptive responses that contribute to higher resistance of HJ16 cells to oxidative damage and cell death. These include increased cellular antioxidant defence in the form of higher glutathione and FtMt levels, higher GPx activity, and lower FtH levels. Further adaptive responses include the significantly reduced cellular response to oxidant-mediated glutathione depletion, FtH modulation, and labile iron release and a significant increase in FtMt levels following H2O2 treatment. PMID:24333634

  4. Emerging Roles of Nrf2 and Phase II Antioxidant Enzymes in Neuroprotection

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Meijuan; An, Chengrui; Gao, Yanqin; Leak, Rehana K.; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Phase II metabolic enzymes are a battery of critical proteins that detoxify xenobiotics by increasing their hydrophilicity and enhancing their disposal. These enzymes have long been studied for their preventative and protective effects against mutagens and carcinogens and for their regulation via the Keap1 (Kelch-like ECH associated protein 1) / Nrf2 (Nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2) / ARE (antioxidant response elements) pathway. Recently, a series of studies have reported the altered expression of phase II genes in postmortem tissue of patients with various neurological diseases. These observations hint at a role for phase II enzymes in the evolution of such conditions. Furthermore, promising findings reveal that overexpression of phase II genes, either by genetic or chemical approaches, confers neuroprotection in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, there is a need to summarize the current literature on phase II genes in the central nervous system (CNS). This should help guide future studies on phase II genes as therapeutic targets in neurological diseases. In this review, we first briefly introduce the concept of phase I, II and III enzymes, with a special focus on phase II enzymes. We then discuss their expression regulation, their inducers and executors. Following this background, we expand our discussion to the neuroprotective effects of phase II enzymes and the potential application of Nrf2 inducers to the treatment of neurological diseases. PMID:23025925

  5. Effects of dietary menadione on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Jinghua; Xu, Wei; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Wenbing; Feng, Xiuni; Liufu, Zhiguo

    2012-01-01

    A 240-day growth experiment in a re-circulating water system was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary menadione on the growth and antioxidant responses of abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino. Triplicate groups of juvenile abalone (initial weight: 1.19 ± 0.01 g; shell length: 19.23 ± 0.01 mm) were fed to satiation with 3 semi-purified diets containing 0, 10, and 1 000 mg menadione sodium bisulfite (MSB)/kg, respectively. Results show that there were no significant differences in the rate of weight gain or in the daily increment in shell length of abalone among different treatments. Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) in viscera were significantly decreased with dietary menadione. However, activities of these enzymes except for GPX in muscle were increased. Therefore, antioxidant responses of abalone were increased in muscle and decreased in viscera by dietary menadione.

  6. Chronic intermittent hypobaric hypoxia protects the heart against ischemia/reperfusion injury through upregulation of antioxidant enzymes in adult guinea pigs

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Hui-cai; Zhang, Zhe; Zhang, Li-nan; Xiong, Chen; Feng, Chen; Liu, Qian; Liu, Xu; Shi, Xiao-lu; Wang, Yong-li

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the protection and the anti-oxidative mechanism afforded by chronic intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (CIHH) against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in guinea pig hearts. Methods: Adult male guinea pigs were exposed to CIHH by mimicking a 5000 m high altitude (pB=404 mmHg, pO2=84 mmHg) in a hypobaric chamber for 6 h/day for 28 days. Langendorff-perfused isolated guinea pig hearts were used to measure variables of left ventricular function during baseline perfusion, ischemia and the reperfusion period. The activity and protein expression of antioxidant enzymes in the left myocardium were evaluated using biochemical methods and Western blotting, respectively. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were assessed using ROS-sensitive fluorescence. Results: After 30 min of global no-flow ischemia followed by 60 min of reperfusion, myocardial function had better recovery rates in CIHH guinea pig hearts than in control hearts. The activity and protein expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were significantly increased in the myocardium of CIHH guinea pigs. Pretreatment of control hearts with an antioxidant mixture containing SOD and CAT exerted cardioprotective effects similar to CIHH. The irreversible CAT inhibitor aminotriazole (ATZ) abolished the cardioprotection of CIHH. Cardiac contractile dysfunction and oxidative stress induced by exogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were attenuated by CIHH and CAT. Conclusions: These data suggest that CIHH protects the heart against I/R injury through upregulation of antioxidant enzymes in guinea pig. PMID:19543301

  7. Changes in nitrogen metabolism and antioxidant enzyme activities of maize tassel in black soils region of northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hongwen; Lu, Yan; Xie, Zhiming; Song, Fengbin

    2014-01-01

    Two varieties of maize (Zea mays L.) grown in fields in black soils of northeast China were tested to study the dynamic changes of nitrogen metabolism and antioxidant enzyme activity in tassels of maize. Results showed that antioxidant enzyme activity in tassels of maize increased first and then decreased with the growing of maize, and reached peak value at shedding period. Pattern of proline was consistent with antioxidant enzyme activity, showing that osmotic adjustment could protect many enzymes, which are important for cell metabolism. Continuous reduction of soluble protein content along with the growing of maize was observed in the study, which indicated that quantitative material and energy were provided for pollen formation. Besides, another major cause was that a large proportion of nitrogen was used for the composition of structural protein. Nitrate nitrogen concentrations of tassels were more variable than ammonium nitrogen, which showed that nitrate nitrogen was the favored nitrogen source for maize. PMID:25324855

  8. Enzyme-mimetic effects of gold@platinum nanorods on the antioxidant activity of ascorbic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yu-Ting; He, Weiwei; Wamer, Wayne G.; Hu, Xiaona; Wu, Xiaochun; Lo, Y. Martin; Yin, Jun-Jie

    2013-01-01

    Au@Pt nanorods were prepared by growing platinum nanodots on gold nanorods. Using electron spin resonance (ESR), we determined that the mechanisms for oxidation of ascorbic acid (AA) by Au@Pt nanorods and ascorbic acid oxidase (AAO) were kinetically similar and yielded similar products. In addition we observed that Au@Pt nanorods were stable with respect to temperature and pH. Using UV-VIS spectroscopy, the apparent kinetics of enzyme-mimetic activity of Au@Pt nanorods were studied and compared with the activity of AAO. With the help of ESR, we found that Au@Pt nanorods did not scavenge hydroxyl radicals but inhibited the antioxidant ability of AA for scavenging hydroxyl radicals produced by photoirradiating solutions containing titanium dioxide and zinc oxide. Moreover, the Au@Pt nanorods reduced the ability of AA to scavenge DPPH radicals and superoxide radicals. These results demonstrate that Au@Pt nanorods can reduce the antioxidant activity of AA. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the effects of using Pt nanoparticles together with other reducing agents or antioxidants such as AA due to the oxidase-like property of Au@Pt nanorods.Au@Pt nanorods were prepared by growing platinum nanodots on gold nanorods. Using electron spin resonance (ESR), we determined that the mechanisms for oxidation of ascorbic acid (AA) by Au@Pt nanorods and ascorbic acid oxidase (AAO) were kinetically similar and yielded similar products. In addition we observed that Au@Pt nanorods were stable with respect to temperature and pH. Using UV-VIS spectroscopy, the apparent kinetics of enzyme-mimetic activity of Au@Pt nanorods were studied and compared with the activity of AAO. With the help of ESR, we found that Au@Pt nanorods did not scavenge hydroxyl radicals but inhibited the antioxidant ability of AA for scavenging hydroxyl radicals produced by photoirradiating solutions containing titanium dioxide and zinc oxide. Moreover, the Au@Pt nanorods reduced the ability of AA to scavenge DPPH radicals and superoxide radicals. These results demonstrate that Au@Pt nanorods can reduce the antioxidant activity of AA. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the effects of using Pt nanoparticles together with other reducing agents or antioxidants such as AA due to the oxidase-like property of Au@Pt nanorods. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Ascorbic acid oxidase activity of Pt NPs and the effects of Au@Pt nanorods on hydroxyl radicals generated from the Fenton reactions and TiO2 exposed to UV radiation. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr33072e

  9. Induction of the expressions of antioxidant enzymes by luteinizing hormone in the bovine corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Syota; Sakumoto, Ryosuke; Okuda, Kiyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Luteoprotective mechanisms of luteinizing hormone (LH) involved in the maintenance of bovine corpus luteum (CL) function have not been completely clarified. Since antioxidant enzymes are well documented as antiapoptotic factors in the CL of many mammals, we hypothesized that the luteoprotective action of LH is mediated by stimulating the local production and action of antioxidant enzymes. To test the above hypothesis, in the present study, we examined the mechanisms involved in the luteoprotective actions of LH. Cultured bovine luteal cells obtained from the CL at the mid-luteal stage (days 8-12 of the estrous cycle) were treated with LH (10 ng/ml), onapristone (OP; a specific progesterone receptor antagonist, 100 ?M) and diethyldithiocarbamate [DETC; an inhibitor of superoxide dismutase (SOD), 100 ?M] for 24 h. LH in combination with or without OP significantly increased the mRNA and protein expressions of manganese SOD (Mn-SOD) and catalase (CATA) and SOD activity. While LH alone significantly increased the mRNA and protein expressions of SOD containing copper and zinc (Cu,Zn-SOD), OP in combination with or without LH significantly decreased the mRNA and protein expressions of Cu,Zn-SOD. In addition, Cu,Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD and CATA mRNA expressions were higher at the mid luteal phase than the other luteal phases. LH in combination with DETC significantly decreased LH-increased cell viability. The overall results suggest that LH increases cell viability by LH-increased antioxidant enzymes, resulting in maintenance of CL function during the luteal phase in cattle. PMID:23386101

  10. Induction of the Expressions of Antioxidant Enzymes by Luteinizing Hormone in the Bovine Corpus Luteum

    PubMed Central

    KAWAGUCHI, Syota; SAKUMOTO, Ryosuke; OKUDA, Kiyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Luteoprotective mechanisms of luteinizing hormone (LH) involved in the maintenance of bovine corpus luteum (CL) function have not been completely clarified. Since antioxidant enzymes are well documented as antiapoptotic factors in the CL of many mammals, we hypothesized that the luteoprotective action of LH is mediated by stimulating the local production and action of antioxidant enzymes. To test the above hypothesis, in the present study, we examined the mechanisms involved in the luteoprotective actions of LH. Cultured bovine luteal cells obtained from the CL at the mid-luteal stage (days 8–12 of the estrous cycle) were treated with LH (10 ng/ml), onapristone (OP; a specific progesterone receptor antagonist, 100 ?M) and diethyldithiocarbamate [DETC; an inhibitor of superoxide dismutase (SOD), 100 ?M] for 24 h. LH in combination with or without OP significantly increased the mRNA and protein expressions of manganese SOD (Mn-SOD) and catalase (CATA) and SOD activity. While LH alone significantly increased the mRNA and protein expressions of SOD containing copper and zinc (Cu,Zn-SOD), OP in combination with or without LH significantly decreased the mRNA and protein expressions of Cu,Zn-SOD. In addition, Cu,Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD and CATA mRNA expressions were higher at the mid luteal phase than the other luteal phases. LH in combination with DETC significantly decreased LH-increased cell viability. The overall results suggest that LH increases cell viability by LH-increased antioxidant enzymes, resulting in maintenance of CL function during the luteal phase in cattle. PMID:23386101

  11. Antioxidant enzymes regulate reactive oxygen species during pod elongation in Pisum sativum and Brassica chinensis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Nan; Lin, Zhifang; Guan, Lanlan; Gaughan, Gerald; Lin, Guizhu

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has focused on the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cell wall loosening and cell extension in plant vegetative growth, but few studies have investigated ROS functions specifically in plant reproductive organs. In this study, ROS levels and antioxidant enzyme activities were assessed in Pisum sativum and Brassica chinensis pods at five developmental stages. In juvenile pods, the high levels of O2.- and .OH indicates that they had functions in cell wall loosening and cell elongation. In later developmental stages, high levels of .OH were also related to increases in cell wall thickness in lignified tissues. Throughout pod development, most of the O2.- was detected on plasma membranes of parenchyma cells and outer epidermis cells of the mesocarp, while most of the H2O2 was detected on plasma membranes of most cells throughout the mesocarp. This suggests that these sites are presumably the locations of ROS generation. The antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) apparently contributed to ROS accumulation in pod wall tissues. Furthermore, specifically SOD and POD were found to be associated with pod growth through the regulation of ROS generation and transformation. Throughout pod development, O2.- decreases were associated with increased SOD activity, while changes in H2O2 accumulation were associated with changes in CAT and POD activities. Additionally, high POD activity may contribute to the generation of(.)OH in the early development of pods. It is concluded that the ROS are produced in different sites of plasma membranes with the regulation of antioxidant enzymes, and that substantial ROS generation and accumulation are evident in cell elongation and cell wall loosening in pod wall cells. PMID:24503564

  12. Antioxidant Enzymes Regulate Reactive Oxygen Species during Pod Elongation in Pisum sativum and Brassica chinensis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Nan; Lin, Zhifang; Guan, Lanlan; Gaughan, Gerald; Lin, Guizhu

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has focused on the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cell wall loosening and cell extension in plant vegetative growth, but few studies have investigated ROS functions specifically in plant reproductive organs. In this study, ROS levels and antioxidant enzyme activities were assessed in Pisum sativum and Brassica chinensis pods at five developmental stages. In juvenile pods, the high levels of O2.? and.OH indicates that they had functions in cell wall loosening and cell elongation. In later developmental stages, high levels of.OH were also related to increases in cell wall thickness in lignified tissues. Throughout pod development, most of the O2.? was detected on plasma membranes of parenchyma cells and outer epidermis cells of the mesocarp, while most of the H2O2 was detected on plasma membranes of most cells throughout the mesocarp. This suggests that these sites are presumably the locations of ROS generation. The antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) apparently contributed to ROS accumulation in pod wall tissues. Furthermore, specifically SOD and POD were found to be associated with pod growth through the regulation of ROS generation and transformation. Throughout pod development, O2.? decreases were associated with increased SOD activity, while changes in H2O2 accumulation were associated with changes in CAT and POD activities. Additionally, high POD activity may contribute to the generation of.OH in the early development of pods. It is concluded that the ROS are produced in different sites of plasma membranes with the regulation of antioxidant enzymes, and that substantial ROS generation and accumulation are evident in cell elongation and cell wall loosening in pod wall cells. PMID:24503564

  13. Induction of Phase 2 Antioxidant Enzymes by Broccoli Sulforaphane: Perspectives in Maintaining the Antioxidant Activity of Vitamins A, C, and E

    PubMed Central

    Boddupalli, Sekhar; Mein, Jonathan R.; Lakkanna, Shantala; James, Don R.

    2012-01-01

    Consumption of fruits and vegetables is recognized as an important part of a healthy diet. Increased consumption of cruciferous vegetables in particular has been associated with a decreased risk of several degenerative and chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease and certain cancers. Members of the cruciferous vegetable family, which includes broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, and cabbage, accumulate significant concentrations of glucosinolates, which are metabolized in vivo to biologically active isothiocyanates (ITCs). The ITC sulforaphane, which is derived from glucoraphanin, has garnered particular interest as an indirect antioxidant due to its extraordinary ability to induce expression of several enzymes via the KEAP1/Nrf2/ARE pathway. Nrf2/ARE gene products are typically characterized as Phase II detoxification enzymes and/or antioxidant (AO) enzymes. Over the last decade, human clinical studies have begun to provide in vivo evidence of both Phase II and AO enzyme induction by SF. Many AO enzymes are redox cycling enzymes that maintain redox homeostasis and activity of free radical scavengers such as vitamins A, C, and E. In this review, we present the existing evidence for induction of PII and AO enzymes by SF, the interactions of SF-induced AO enzymes and proposed maintenance of the essential vitamins A, C, and E, and, finally, the current view of genotypic effects on ITC metabolism and AO enzyme induction and function. PMID:22303412

  14. Edaravone mitigates hexavalent chromium-induced oxidative stress and depletion of antioxidant enzymes while estrogen restores antioxidant enzymes in the rat ovary in F1 offspring.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Jone A; Sivakumar, Kirthiram K; Arosh, Joe A; Burghardt, Robert C; Banu, Sakhila K

    2014-07-01

    Environmental contamination of drinking water with chromium (Cr) has been increasing in more than 30 cities in the United States. Previous studies from our group have shown that Cr affects reproductive functions in female Sprague Dawley rats. Although it is impossible to completely remove Cr from the drinking water, it is imperative to develop effective intervention strategies to inhibit Cr-induced deleterious health effects. Edaravone (EDA), a potential inhibitor of free radicals, has been clinically used to treat cancer and cardiac ischemia. This study evaluated the efficacy of EDA against Cr-induced ovarian toxicity. Results showed that maternal exposure to CrVI in rats increased follicular atresia, decreased steroidogenesis, and delayed puberty in F1 offspring. CrVI increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant (AOX) enzyme levels in the ovary. CrVI increased follicle atresia by increased expression of cleaved caspase 3, and decreased expression of Bcl2 and Bcl2l1 in the ovary. EDA mitigated or inhibited the effects of CrVI on follicle atresia, pubertal onset, steroid hormone levels, and AOX enzyme activity, as well as the expression of Bcl2 and Bcl2l1 in the ovary. In a second study, CrVI treatment was withdrawn, and F1 rats were injected with estradiol (E?) (10 ?g in PBS/ethanol per 100 g body weight) for a period of 2 wk to evaluate whether E? treatment will restore Cr-induced depletion of AOX enzymes. E? restored CrVI-induced depletion of glutathione peroxidase 1, catalase, thioredoxin 2, and peroxiredoxin 3 in the ovary. This is the first study to demonstrate the protective effects of EDA against any toxicant in the ovary. PMID:24804965

  15. Effects of the anticancer dehydrotarplatin on cytochrome P450 and antioxidant enzymes in male rat tissues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annalisa Nannelli; Andrea Messina; Sandra Marini; Silvia Trasciatti; Vincenzo Longo; Pier Giovanni Gervasi

    2007-01-01

    The effect of dehydrotarplatin (DTP), a new antineoplastic drug analogous to cisplatin, and its metabolite (Triacid) on the\\u000a hepatic, renal and testicular CYP and antioxidant enzymes of male rats was investigated. The rats were treated i.p. with a\\u000a single dose of DTP (25 mg kg?1 day?1) or Triacid (17.5 mg kg?1 day?1) and analysed 3 or 7 days post treatment. Three days after treatment, both drugs

  16. Effects of phthalate ester treatment on seed germination and antioxidant enzyme activities of Phaseolus radiatus L.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenli; Zhang, Chongbang; Liu, Shuyuan

    2014-05-01

    Effects of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and di-n-butyl phthalate on seed germination rate and antioxidant enzymes activities of mung bean (Phaseolus radiatus L.) were investigated. Results showed that under the treatment with 10 mg/kg of phthalate esters (PAEs), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase and catalase (CAT) activities were higher than those of the control (p > 0.05). But SOD and CAT activities decreased with the PAEs concentrations and the treatment duration, and were significantly lower than those of the control (p < 0.05). Effect of PAEs stress on SOD activity in germinating seeds of mung bean displayed a significant dose-effect relationship. PMID:24535285

  17. Cadmium accumulation, activities of antioxidant enzymes, and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in Pistia stratiotes L.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong; Zhang, Shanshan; Jiang, Wusheng; Liu, Donghua

    2013-02-01

    The aquatic plant Pistia stratiotes L. (water lettuce) was studied due to its capability of absorption of contaminants in water and its subsequent use in wetlands constructed for wastewater treatment. The effects of Cd on root growth, accumulation of Cd, antioxidant enzymes, and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in P. stratiotes were investigated. The results indicated that P. stratiotes has considerable ability to accumulate Cd. Cadmium induced higher superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities than catalase activity, suggesting that SOD and POD provided a better defense mechanism against Cd-induced oxidative damage. The accumulation of Cd promoted MDA production. PMID:22791349

  18. Peptides derived from Rhopilema esculentum hydrolysate exhibit angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory and antioxidant abilities.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Li, Qian; Li, Jingyun; Zhou, Bei

    2014-01-01

    Jellyfish (Rhopilema esculentum) was hydrolyzed using alcalase, and two peptides with angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory and antioxidant activities were purified by ultrafiltration and consecutive chromatographic methods. The amino acid sequences of the two peptides were identified as VKP (342 Da) and VKCFR (651 Da) by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. The IC50 values of ACE inhibitory activities of the two peptides were 1.3 ?M and 34.5 ?M, respectively. Molecular docking results suggested that VKP and VKCFR bind to ACE through coordinating with the active site Zn(II) atom. Free radical scavenging activity and protection against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced rat cerebral microvascular endothelial cell (RCMEC) injury were used to evaluate the antioxidant activities of the two peptides. As the results clearly showed that the peptides increased the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px) activities in RCMEC cells), it is proposed that the R. esculentum peptides exert significant antioxidant effects. PMID:25185066

  19. Neuroprotection of antioxidant enzymes against transient global cerebral ischemia in gerbils.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Chul; Won, Moo-Ho

    2014-09-01

    Experimentally transient global cerebral ischemia using animal models have been thoroughly studied and numerous reports suggest the involvement of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of neuronal death in ischemic lesions. In animal models, during the reperfusion period after ischemia, increased oxygen supply results in the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are involved in the process of cell death. ROS, such as superoxide anions, hydroxyl free radicals, hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide are produced as a consequence of metabolic reactions and central nervous system activity. These reactive species are directly involved in the oxidative damage of cellular macromolecules such as nucleic acids, lipids and proteins in ischemic tissues, which can lead to cell death. Antioxidant enzymes are believed to be among the major mechanisms by which cells counteract the deleterious effect of ROS after cerebral ischemia. Consequently, antioxidant strategies have been long suggested as a therapy for experimental ischemic stroke; however, clinical trials have not yet been able to promote the translation of this concept into patient treatment regimens. This article focuses on the contribution of oxidative stress or antioxidants to the post-ischemic neuronal death following transient global cerebral ischemia by using a gerbil model. PMID:25276473

  20. Neuroprotection of antioxidant enzymes against transient global cerebral ischemia in gerbils

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae-Chul

    2014-01-01

    Experimentally transient global cerebral ischemia using animal models have been thoroughly studied and numerous reports suggest the involvement of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of neuronal death in ischemic lesions. In animal models, during the reperfusion period after ischemia, increased oxygen supply results in the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are involved in the process of cell death. ROS, such as superoxide anions, hydroxyl free radicals, hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide are produced as a consequence of metabolic reactions and central nervous system activity. These reactive species are directly involved in the oxidative damage of cellular macromolecules such as nucleic acids, lipids and proteins in ischemic tissues, which can lead to cell death. Antioxidant enzymes are believed to be among the major mechanisms by which cells counteract the deleterious effect of ROS after cerebral ischemia. Consequently, antioxidant strategies have been long suggested as a therapy for experimental ischemic stroke; however, clinical trials have not yet been able to promote the translation of this concept into patient treatment regimens. This article focuses on the contribution of oxidative stress or antioxidants to the post-ischemic neuronal death following transient global cerebral ischemia by using a gerbil model. PMID:25276473

  1. The radical induced cell death protein 1 (RCD1) supports transcriptional activation of genes for chloroplast antioxidant enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Hiltscher, Heiko; Rudnik, Radoslaw; Shaikhali, Jehad; Heiber, Isabelle; Mellenthin, Marina; Meirelles Duarte, Iuri; Schuster, Günter; Kahmann, Uwe; Baier, Margarete

    2014-01-01

    The rimb1 (redox imbalanced 1) mutation was mapped to the RCD1 locus (radical-induced cell death 1; At1g32230) demonstrating that a major factor involved in redox-regulation genes for chloroplast antioxidant enzymes and protection against photooxidative stress, RIMB1, is identical to the regulator of disease response reactions and cell death, RCD1. Discovering this link let to our investigation of its regulatory mechanism. We show in yeast that RCD1 can physically interact with the transcription factor Rap2.4a which provides redox-sensitivity to nuclear expression of genes for chloroplast antioxidant enzymes. In the rimb1 (rcd1-6) mutant, a single nucleotide exchange results in a truncated RCD1 protein lacking the transcription factor binding site. Protein-protein interaction between full-length RCD1 and Rap2.4a is supported by H2O2, but not sensitive to the antioxidants dithiotreitol and ascorbate. In combination with transcript abundance analysis in Arabidopsis, it is concluded that RCD1 stabilizes the Rap2.4-dependent redox-regulation of the genes encoding chloroplast antioxidant enzymes in a widely redox-independent manner. Over the years, rcd1-mutant alleles have been described to develop symptoms like chlorosis, lesions along the leaf rims and in the mesophyll and (secondary) induction of extra- and intra-plastidic antioxidant defense mechanisms. All these rcd1 mutant characteristics were observed in rcd1-6 to succeed low activation of the chloroplast antioxidant system and glutathione biosynthesis. We conclude that RCD1 protects plant cells from running into reactive oxygen species (ROS)-triggered programs, such as cell death and activation of pathogen-responsive genes (PR genes) and extra-plastidic antioxidant enzymes, by supporting the induction of the chloroplast antioxidant system. PMID:25295044

  2. Zinc Affects Differently Growth, Photosynthesis, Antioxidant Enzyme Activities and Phytochelatin Synthase Expression of Four Marine Diatoms

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen-Deroche, Thi Le Nhung; Caruso, Aurore; Le, Thi Trung; Bui, Trang Viet; Schoefs, Benoît; Tremblin, Gérard; Morant-Manceau, Annick

    2012-01-01

    Zinc-supplementation (20??M) effects on growth, photosynthesis, antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, catalase), and the expression of phytochelatin synthase gene were investigated in four marine diatoms (Amphora acutiuscula, Nitzschia palea, Amphora coffeaeformis and Entomoneis paludosa). Zn-supplementation reduced the maximum cell density. A linear relationship was found between the evolution of gross photosynthesis and total chlorophyll content. The Zn treatment decreased the electron transport rate except in A. coffeaeformis and in E. paludosa at high irradiance. A linear relationship was found between the efficiency of light to evolve oxygen and the size of the light-harvesting antenna. The external carbonic anhydrase activity was stimulated in Zn-supplemented E. paludosa but was not correlated with an increase of photosynthesis. The total activity of the antioxidant enzymes did not display any clear increase except in ascorbate peroxidase activity in N. palea. The phytochelatin synthase gene was identified in the four diatoms, but its expression was only revealed in N. palea, without a clear difference between control and Zn-supplemented cells. Among the four species, A. paludosa was the most sensitive and A. coffeaeformis, the most tolerant. A. acutiuscula seemed to be under metal starvation, whereas, to survive, only N. palea developed several stress responses. PMID:22645501

  3. Induction of salt tolerance in Azolla microphylla Kaulf through modulation of antioxidant enzymes and ion transport.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Gerard; Dhar, Dolly Wattal

    2010-09-01

    Azolla microphylla plants exposed directly to NaCl (13 dsm(-1)) did not survive the salinity treatment beyond a period of one day, whereas plants exposed directly to 4 and 9 dsm(-1) NaCl were able to grow and produce biomass. However, plants pre-exposed to NaCl (2 dsm(-1)) for 7 days on subsequent exposure to 13 dsm(-1) NaCl were able to grow and produce biomass although at a slow rate and are hereinafter designated as pre-exposed plants. The pre-exposed and directly exposed plants distinctly differed in their response to salt in terms of lipid peroxidation, proline accumulation, activity of antioxidant enzymes, such as SOD, APX, and CAT, and Na(+)/K(+) ratio. Efficient modulation of antioxidant enzymes coupled with regulation of ion transport play an important role in the induction of salt tolerance. Results show that it is possible to induce salt adaptation in A. microphylla by pre-exposing them to low concentrations of NaCl. PMID:20422236

  4. Antioxidant enzymes in oligodendroglial brain tumors: association with proliferation, apoptotic activity and survival.

    PubMed

    Järvelä, Sally; Sally, Järvelä; Bragge, Helena; Helena, Bragge; Paunu, Niina; Niina, Paunu; Järvelä, Timo; Timo, Järvelä; Paljärvi, Leo; Leo, Paljärvi; Kalimo, Hannu; Hannu, Kalimo; Helén, Pauli; Pauli, Helén; Kinnula, Vuokko; Vuokko, Kinnula; Soini, Ylermi; Ylermi, Soini; Haapasalo, Hannu; Hannu, Haapasalo

    2006-04-01

    Purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between antioxidant enzyme expression and clinicopathological features in oligodendroglial tumors. The expression of antioxidant enzymes and related proteins (AOEs), manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), thioredoxin (Trx), thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) and gammaglutamylcysteine synthetase catalytic and regulatory subunits (GLCL-C and GLCL-R), was studied in 85 oligodendroglial tumors. The material included 71 primary (43 grade II and 28 grade III) and 14 recurrent (6 grade II and 8 grade III) tumors. Fifty-seven cases were pure oligodendrogliomas and 28 were mixed oligoastrocytomas. Immunoreactivity for MnSOD was found in 89%, Trx in 29%, TrxR in 76%, GLCL-C in 70% and GLCL-R in 68% of cases. Increased Trx expression was associated with higher tumor grade, cell proliferation and apoptosis (P=0.006, P=0.001 and P=0.003, Mann-Whitney test). Pure oligodendrogliomas showed more intense staining than oligoastrocytomas, especially for MnSOD (P=0.002, Mann-Whitney test). In the total series Trx was associated with poor prognosis in univariate survival analysis (P=0.0343, log-rank test) and furthermore in Cox multivariate analysis (P=0.009) along with age (P=0.002). The results suggest that the expression of Trx has a correlation to patient outcome and that there may be some association between AOEs, like MnSOD and Trx, and clinicopathological features of oligodendrogliomas. PMID:16292483

  5. Antioxidant enzyme activities as affected by trivalent and hexavalent chromium species in Fontinalis antipyretica Hedw.

    PubMed

    Dazy, Marc; Béraud, Eric; Cotelle, Sylvie; Meux, Eric; Masfaraud, Jean-François; Férard, Jean-François

    2008-09-01

    The detoxification mechanisms of the aquatic moss, Fontinalis antipyretica Hedw., exposed to Cr was analyzed. In addition, the influence of Cr salts (as Cr nitrate, chloride and potassium bichromate) on these mechanisms has also been studied. The activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1.), catalase (EC 1.11.1.6.), ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11.), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX, EC 1.11.1.7.) and glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.6.4.2.) increased in plants treated with Cr concentrations ranging from 6.25x10(-5) to 6.25mM when given as Cr(NO3)3. Antioxidant enzymes responded to the other two salts CrCl3 and K2Cr2O7 only with Cr concentrations higher than 6.25x10(-2)mM. Glutathione level and GSSG/GSH ratio also responded to Cr exposure but no dose-effect relationship could be observed. Moreover, two unknown thiol compounds were observed in mosses exposed to the highest Cr concentrations. Effects on chlorophyll contents and chlorophyll a/b ratios were also shown even at low Cr concentrations. Our results indicated that environmentally realistic concentrations of Cr could lead to impairment of the cellular activity towards F. antipyretica and that Cr(III), when present as a nitrate salt, was as harmful as Cr(VI). PMID:18692218

  6. Zinc affects differently growth, photosynthesis, antioxidant enzyme activities and phytochelatin synthase expression of four marine diatoms.

    PubMed

    Nguyen-Deroche, Thi Le Nhung; Caruso, Aurore; Le, Thi Trung; Bui, Trang Viet; Schoefs, Benoît; Tremblin, Gérard; Morant-Manceau, Annick

    2012-01-01

    Zinc-supplementation (20 ?M) effects on growth, photosynthesis, antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, catalase), and the expression of phytochelatin synthase gene were investigated in four marine diatoms (Amphora acutiuscula, Nitzschia palea, Amphora coffeaeformis and Entomoneis paludosa). Zn-supplementation reduced the maximum cell density. A linear relationship was found between the evolution of gross photosynthesis and total chlorophyll content. The Zn treatment decreased the electron transport rate except in A. coffeaeformis and in E. paludosa at high irradiance. A linear relationship was found between the efficiency of light to evolve oxygen and the size of the light-harvesting antenna. The external carbonic anhydrase activity was stimulated in Zn-supplemented E. paludosa but was not correlated with an increase of photosynthesis. The total activity of the antioxidant enzymes did not display any clear increase except in ascorbate peroxidase activity in N. palea. The phytochelatin synthase gene was identified in the four diatoms, but its expression was only revealed in N. palea, without a clear difference between control and Zn-supplemented cells. Among the four species, A. paludosa was the most sensitive and A. coffeaeformis, the most tolerant. A. acutiuscula seemed to be under metal starvation, whereas, to survive, only N. palea developed several stress responses. PMID:22645501

  7. Tocopherol Succinate: Modulation of Antioxidant Enzymes and Oncogene Expression, and Hematopoietic Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Vijay K., E-mail: singh@afrri.usuhs.mi [Radiation Countermeasures Program, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD (United States); Parekh, Vaishali I.; Brown, Darren S.; Kao, Tzu-Cheg [Radiation Countermeasures Program, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD (United States); Mog, Steven R. [Veterinary Sciences Department, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2011-02-01

    Purpose: A class of naturally occurring isoforms of tocopherol (tocols) was shown to have varying degrees of protection when administered before radiation exposure. We recently demonstrated that {alpha}-tocopherol succinate (TS) is a potential radiation prophylactic agent. Our objective in this study was to further investigate the mechanism of action of TS in mice exposed to {sup 60}Co {gamma}-radiation. Methods and Materials: We evaluated the effects of TS on expression of antioxidant enzymes and oncogenes by quantitative RT-PCR in bone marrow cells of {sup 60}Co {gamma}-irradiated mice. Further, we tested the ability of TS to rescue and repopulate hematopoietic stem cells by analyzing bone marrow cellularity and spleen colony forming unit in spleen of TS-injected and irradiated mice. Results: Our results demonstrate that TS modulated the expression of antioxidant enzymes and inhibited expression of oncogenes in irradiated mice at different time points. TS also increased colony forming unit-spleen numbers and bone marrow cellularity in irradiated mice. Conclusions: Results provide additional support for the observed radioprotective efficacy of TS and insight into mechanisms.

  8. Amelioration of municipal sludge by Pistia stratiotes L.: role of antioxidant enzymes in detoxification of metals.

    PubMed

    Tewari, Anamika; Singh, Ragini; Singh, Naveen Kumar; Rai, U N

    2008-12-01

    Pistia stratiotes when exposed to mixture of municipal sludge and effluent accumulated substantial amount of metals in the fronds and roots. With the increase in the metal accumulation by the plants, a reduction in the concentration of metals was found in leachates. The treated plants showed reduced level in chlorophylls but enhanced level of carotenoids and protein. The plant showed a concomitant increase in the activities of antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase, guiacol peroxidase and also an enhanced level of lipid peroxidation. The activities were more in the root tissues as compared to frond. Initially a reduced level of cysteine content in roots of sludge treated plant as compared to control was found, but with time duration it increased progressively. The level of non-protein thiols also increased gradually at all the durations in both fronds and roots. Thus, beside the reduction of metals from municipal sludge, the ability of P. stratiotes to combat metal generated damages by induced synthesis of antioxidant enzymes and other metal binding ligands shows its suitability for the phytoremediation of the waste. PMID:18499446

  9. Genetically Engineered Immunomodulatory Streptococcus thermophilus Strains Producing Antioxidant Enzymes Exhibit Enhanced Anti-Inflammatory Activities

    PubMed Central

    del Carmen, Silvina; de Moreno de LeBlanc, Alejandra; Martin, Rebeca; Chain, Florian; Langella, Philippe; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G.

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to develop strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) having both immunomodulatory and antioxidant properties and to evaluate their anti-inflammatory effects both in vitro, in different cellular models, and in vivo, in a mouse model of colitis. Different Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus strains were cocultured with primary cultures of mononuclear cells. Analysis of the pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines secreted by these cells after coincubation with candidate bacteria revealed that L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 864 and S. thermophilus CRL 807 display the highest anti-inflammatory profiles in vitro. Moreover, these results were confirmed in vivo by the determination of the cytokine profiles in large intestine samples of mice fed with these strains. S. thermophilus CRL 807 was then transformed with two different plasmids harboring the genes encoding catalase (CAT) or superoxide dismutase (SOD) antioxidant enzymes, and the anti-inflammatory effects of recombinant streptococci were evaluated in a mouse model of colitis induced by trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS). Our results showed a decrease in weight loss, lower liver microbial translocation, lower macroscopic and microscopic damage scores, and modulation of the cytokine production in the large intestines of mice treated with either CAT- or SOD-producing streptococci compared to those in mice treated with the wild-type strain or control mice without any treatment. Furthermore, the greatest anti-inflammatory activity was observed in mice receiving a mixture of both CAT- and SOD-producing streptococci. The addition of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 864 to this mixture did not improve their beneficial effects. These findings show that genetically engineering a candidate bacterium (e.g., S. thermophilus CRL 807) with intrinsic immunomodulatory properties by introducing a gene expressing an antioxidant enzyme enhances its anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:24242245

  10. Oxidative Stress and Anti-Oxidant Enzyme Activities in the Trophocytes and Fat Cells of Queen Honeybees (Apis mellifera)

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Yu-Shan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Trophocytes and fat cells of queen honeybees have been used for delayed cellular senescence studies, but their oxidative stress and anti-oxidant enzyme activities with advancing age are unknown. In this study, we assayed reactive oxygen species (ROS) and anti-oxidant enzymes in the trophocytes and fat cells of young and old queens. Young queens had lower ROS levels, lower superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, and higher thioredoxin reductase (TR) activity compared to old queens. These results show that oxidative stress and anti-oxidant enzyme activities in trophocytes and fat cells increase with advancing age in queens and suggest that an increase in oxidative stress and a consequent increase in stress defense mechanisms are associated with the longevity of queen honeybees. PMID:23738955

  11. Differential Expression of Antioxidant Enzymes During Degradation of Azo Dye Reactive black 8 in Hairy roots of Physalis minima L.

    PubMed

    Jha, Pamela; Modi, Nikita; Jobby, Renitta; Desai, Neetin

    2015-01-01

    The enzymes involved in the protection of plant metabolism in presence of azo dye was characterized by studying activities of the role of antioxidant enzymes in the hairy roots (HRs) of Physalis minima L. during degradation of an azo dye, Reactive Black 8 (RB8). When the HRs were exposed to RB8 (30 mg L(-1)), a  nine fold increase in SOD activity was observed after 24 h, while 22 and 50 fold increase in activity was observed for POX and APX respectively after 72 h, whereas there was no significant change in activity of CAT. The activation of different antioxidant enzymes at different time intervals under dye stress suggests the synchronized functioning of antioxidant machinery to protect the HRs from oxidative damage. FTIR analysis confirmed the degradation of dye and the non-toxic nature of metabolites formed after dye degradation was confirmed by phytotoxicity study. PMID:25409242

  12. Measuring Intracellular Enzyme Concentrations: Assessing the Effect of Oxidative Stress on the Amount of Glyoxalase I

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Hugo Vicente; Ferreira, Antonio E. N.; Quintas, Alexandre; Cordeiro, Carlos; Freire, Ana Ponces

    2008-01-01

    Enzymology is one of the fundamental areas of biochemistry and involves the study of the structure, kinetics, and regulation of enzyme activity. Research in this area is often conducted with purified enzymes and extrapolated to "in vivo" conditions. The specificity constant, k[subscript S], is the ratio between k[subscript cat] (the catalytic…

  13. Hepatoprotective effects of Nigella sativa L and Urtica dioica L on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme systems and liver enzymes in carbon tetrachloride-treated rats

    PubMed Central

    Kanter, Mehmet; Coskun, Omer; Budancamanak, Mustafa

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of Nigella sativa L (NS) and Urtica dioica L (UD) on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme systems and liver enzymes in CCl4-treated rats. METHODS: Fifty-six healthy male Wistar albino rats were used in this study. The rats were randomly allotted into one of the four experimental groups: A (CCl4-only treated), B (CCl4+UD treated), C (CCl4+NS treated) and D (CCl4+UD+NS treated), each containing 14 animals. All groups received CCl4 (0.8 mL/kg of body weight, sc, twice a week for 60 d). In addition, B, C and D groups also received daily i.p. injections of 0.2 mL/kg NS or/and 2 mL/kg UD oils for 60 d. Group A, on the other hand, received only 2 mL/kg normal saline solution for 60 d. Blood samples for the biochemical analysis were taken by cardiac puncture from randomly chosen-seven rats in each treatment group at beginning and on the 60th d of the experiment. RESULTS: The CCl4 treatment for 60 d increased the lipid peroxidation and liver enzymes, and also decreased the antioxidant enzyme levels. NS or UD treatment (alone or combination) for 60 d decreased the elevated lipid peroxidation and liver enzyme levels and also increased the reduced antioxidant enzyme levels. The weight of rats decreased in group A, and increased in groups B, C and D. CONCLUSION: NS and UD decrease the lipid per-oxidation and liver enzymes, and increase the anti-oxidant defense system activity in the CCl4-treated rats. PMID:16425366

  14. Molecular Basis for Antioxidant Enzymes in Mediating Copper Detoxification in the Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Song, Shaojuan; Zhang, Xueyao; Wu, Haihua; Han, Yan; Zhang, Jianzhen; Ma, Enbo; Guo, Yaping

    2014-01-01

    Antioxidant enzymes play a major role in defending against oxidative damage by copper. However, few studies have been performed to determine which antioxidant enzymes respond to and are necessary for copper detoxification. In this study, we examined both the activities and mRNA levels of SOD, CAT, and GPX under excessive copper stress in Caenorhabditis elegans, which is a powerful model for toxicity studies. Then, taking advantage of the genetics of this model, we assessed the lethal concentration (LC50) values of copper for related mutant strains. The results showed that the SOD, CAT, and GPX activities were significantly greater in treated groups than in controls. The mRNA levels of sod-3, sod-5, ctl-1, ctl-2, and almost all gpx genes were also significantly greater in treated groups than in controls. Among tested mutants, the sod-5, ctl-1, gpx-3, gpx-4, and gpx-6 variants exhibited hypersensitivity to copper. The strains with SOD or CAT over expression were reduced sensitive to copper. Mutations in daf-2 and age-1, which are involved in the insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1 signaling pathway, result in reduced sensitivity to stress. Here, we showed that LC50 values for copper in daf-2 and age-1 mutants were significantly greater than in N2 worms. However, the LC50 values in daf-16;daf-2 and daf-16;age-1 mutants were significantly reduced than in daf-2 and age-1 mutants, implying that reduced copper sensitivity is influenced by DAF-16-related functioning. SOD, CAT, and GPX activities and the mRNA levels of the associated copper responsive genes were significantly increased in daf-2 and age-1 mutants compared to N2. Additionally, the activities of SOD, CAT, and GPX were greater in these mutants than in N2 when treated with copper. Our results not only support the theory that antioxidant enzymes play an important role in copper detoxification but also identify the response and the genes involved in these processes. PMID:25243607

  15. Ultraviolet-B- and ozone-induced biochemical changes in antioxidant enzymes of Arabidopsis thaliana

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, M.V.; Paliyath, G.; Ormrod, D.P. [Univ. of Guelph, Ontario (Canada)] [Univ. of Guelph, Ontario (Canada)

    1996-01-01

    Earlier studies with Arabidopsis thaliana exposed to ultraviolet B (UV-B) and ozone (O{sub 3}) have indicated the differential responses of superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase. In this study, we have investigated whether A. thaliana genotype Landsberg erecta and its flavonoid-deficient mutant transparent testa (tt5) is capable of metabolizing UV-B- and O{sub 3}-induced activated oxygen species by invoking similar antioxidant enzymes. UV-B exposure preferentially enhanced guaiacol-peroxidases, ascorbate peroxidase, and peroxidases specific to coniferyl alcohol and modified the substrate affinity of ascorbate peroxidase. O{sub 3} exposure enhanced superoxide dismutase, peroxidases, glutathione reductase, and ascorbate peroxidase to a similar degree and modified the substrate affinity of both glutathione reductase and ascorbate peroxidase. Both UV-B and O{sub 3} exposure enhanced similar Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase isoforms. New isoforms of peroxidases and ascorbate peroxidase were synthesized in tt5 plants irradiated with UV-B. UV-B radiation, in contrast to O{sub 3}, enhanced the activation oxygen species by increasing membrane-localized NADPH-oxidase activity and decreasing catalase activities. These results collectively suggest that (a) UV-B exposure preferentially induces peroxidase-related enzymes, whereas O{sub 3} exposure invokes the enzymes of superoxide dismutase/ascorbate-glutathione cycle, and (b) in contrast to O{sub 3}, UV-B exposure generated activated oxygen species by increasing NADPH-oxidase activity. 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. [The study of the antioxidant enzymes in erythrocytes in lung diseases].

    PubMed

    Matskevich, G N; Korotkina, R N; Devlikanova, A Sh; Vishnevski?, A A; Karelin, A A

    2003-01-01

    The activity of antioxidative enzymes Cu, Zn-superoxidedismutase (SOD) and catalase as well as content of glutathione and activity of its metabolism enzymes--glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GP) were studied in red blood cells of 82 patients: with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD, n = 26), chest osteomyelitis (n = 12), malignant (n = 21) and benign (n = 23) pulmonary lesions. Red blood cells from 26 donors served as a control. Enzymes of glutathione and catalase metabolism in the red cells inhibited their activity in all the above pulmonary diseases vs those of the controls: GR activity in COPD and chest osteomyelitis decreased by 40% and more, lung tumors--by 32-36%. GP activity--by 24-27%, 14-19%, respectively. Catalase activity in pulmonary diseases was suppressed by 38-45%. SOD activity in chest osteomyelitis and pulmonary tumors is lower by 37-40% while in COPD is higher by 36%. Activation of SOD in red cells in COPD may be regarded as a compensatory-adaptive response to excessive accumulation of free oxygen radicals in alveoli in COPD. PMID:12838770

  17. Chemomodulation of carcinogen metabolising enzymes, antioxidant profiles and skin and fore-stomach papillomagenesis by Spirulina platensis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Trisha Dasgupta; S. Banerjee; P. K. Yadav; A. R. Rao

    2001-01-01

    Numerous reports have revealed an inverse association between consumption of some selective natural products and risk of developing cancer. In the present study the effect of 250 and 500 mg\\/kg body weight of Spirulina was examined on drug metabolising phase I and phase II enzymes, antioxidant enzymes, glutathione content, lactate dehydrogenase and lipid peroxidation in the liver of 7-week-old Swiss

  18. The Protective Roles of the Antioxidant Enzymes Superoxide Dismutase and Catalase in the Green Photosynthetic Bacterium Chloroflexus Aurantiacus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blankenship, Robert E.; Rothschild, Lynn (Technical Monitor)

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the biochemical response of the green thermophilic photosynthetic bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus to oxidative stress. Lab experiments focused primarily on characterizing the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase and the response of this organism to oxidative stress. Experiments in the field at the hotsprings in Yellowstone National Park focused on the changes in the level of these enzymes during the day in response to oxidants and to the different types of ultraviolet radiation.

  19. Anti-oxidant enzyme activities and expression and oxidative damage in patients with non-immediate reactions to drugs

    PubMed Central

    Cornejo-Garcia, J A; Mayorga, C; Torres, M J; Fernandez, T D; R-Pena, R; Bravo, I; Mates, J M; Blanca, M

    2006-01-01

    Adverse drug reactions with an immunological basis (ADRIB) may involve activation of other concomitant, non-specific mechanisms, amplifying the specific response and contributing to the severity and duration. One concomitant mechanism could be the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and/or their detoxification by anti-oxidants, including anti-oxidant enzymes. We analysed the activity of the anti-oxidant enzymes Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and cellular glutathione peroxidase (GPX), as well as certain markers of oxidative damage (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and carbonyl content) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with non-immediate ADRIB using spectrophotometric methods and the anti-oxidant enzymes expression by quantitative real-time reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction. SOD activity and expression were increased in all types of non-immediate reactions (urticaria, maculopapular exanthema and toxic epidermal necrolysis). Regarding oxidative damage, TBARS were increased in urticaria and maculopapular exanthema, and carbonyl groups in all types of reactions. Our observations indicate that oxidative damage occurs in non-immediate reactions. Carbonyl stress and the inadequacy of the anti-oxidant defences are probable causes. PMID:16879248

  20. Effects of alginate on frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa quality, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes activities.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jinghua; Geng, Guoxia; Li, Qingwang; Sun, Xiuzhu; Cao, Hualin; Liu, Yawei

    2014-06-30

    Although alginate was reported to play an important role as free radical scavengers in vitro and could be used as sources of natural antioxidants, there was no study about the cryoprotective effects of alginate on boar spermatozoa freezing. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of different concentrations of alginate added to the freezing extenders on boar spermatozoa motility, plasma membrane integrity, acrosomal integrity, mitochondrial activities, lipid peroxidation and antioxidative enzymes activities (SOD and GSH-Px) after thawing. Alginate was added to the TCG extender to yield six different final concentrations: 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0mg/mL. The semen extender supplemented with various doses of alginate increased (P<0.05) total motility. The spermatozoa plasma membrane integrity and mitochondrial activity were improved at four different concentrations: 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0mg/mL. The addition of alginate also provided significantly positive effect on post-thaw boar spermatozoa acrosomal integrity at concentrations of 0.6, 0.8, 1.0mg/mL, compared with that of the control (P<0.05). The freezing extenders with the presence of alginate led to higher SOD and GSH-Px activities and lower MDA levels, in comparison to the control (P<0.05). In summary, alginate exhibited a dose-related response on frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa motility, functional integrity and antioxidative capacity at appropriate concentrations. Therefore alginate could be employed as an effective cryoprotectant in boar spermatozoa cryopreservation. PMID:24814905

  1. Antioxidative Properties and Inhibition of Key Enzymes Relevant to Type-2 Diabetes and Hypertension by Essential Oils from Black Pepper

    PubMed Central

    Oboh, Ganiyu; Ademosun, Ayokunle O.; Odubanjo, Oluwatoyin V.; Akinbola, Ifeoluwa A.

    2013-01-01

    The antioxidant properties and effect of essential oil of black pepper (Piper guineense) seeds on ?-amylase, ?-glucosidase (key enzymes linked to type-2 diabetes), and angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) (key enzyme linked to hypertension) were assessed. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and dried with anhydrous Na2SO4, and the phenolic content, radical [1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2?-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and nitric oxide (NO)] scavenging abilities as well as the ferric reducing antioxidant property (FRAP) and Fe2+-chelating ability of the essential oil were investigated. Furthermore, the effect on ?-amylase, ?-glucosidase, and ACE enzyme activities was also investigated. The characterization of the constituents was done using GC. The essential oil scavenged DPPH?, NO?, and ABTS? and chelated Fe2+. ?-Pinene, ?-pinene, cis-ocimene, myrcene, allo-ocimene, and 1,8-cineole were among the constituents identified by GC. The essential oil inhibited ?-amylase, ?-glucosidase, and ACE enzyme activities in concentration-dependent manners, though exhibiting a stronger inhibition of ?-glucosidase than ?-amylase activities. Conclusively, the phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and inhibition of ?-amylase, ?-glucosidase, and angiotensin-1 converting enzyme activities by the essential oil extract of black pepper could be part of the mechanism by which the essential oil could manage and/or prevent type-2 diabetes and hypertension. PMID:24348547

  2. Antioxidant enzymes and proteins of wetland plants: their relation to Pb tolerance and accumulation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Junxing; Ye, Zhihong

    2015-02-01

    Constructed wetlands used to clean up toxic metals such as lead (Pb) from contaminated wastewater are considered as an effective and low-cost technology. The effect of Pb on the biomass, tolerance, soluble protein, and antioxidant enzymes in 18 candidate wetland plant species grown in soils without (control) and spiked with 900 and 1800 mg Pb kg(-1) was studied in a pot trial. Our pot experiment showed that the biomass, tolerance, and leaf protein contents decreased with increasing concentrations of Pb in soil. There were significant differences between the plants in their Pb tolerance indices (29-82 % in the 900 mg Pb kg(-1) amended soil) and also Pb uptake (13-749 mg kg(-1) in shoots and 1112-4891 mg kg(-1) in roots, in the same treatments). Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) in leaves of most of the plants increased with increasing level of soil Pb concentration. Conversely, catalase (CAT) activity in leaves declined when plants were subjected to Pb stress. Lead accumulation by the 18 wetland plant species screened was strongly dependent on the species and Pb concentrations in the soil. However, Pb translocation from root to shoot was generally low in all species. Increases in SOD and POD activities suggest that the antioxidant system may play an important role in alleviating Pb toxicity in wetland plants. The data obtained should help in future species selection for the use in designing wetlands in Pb-contaminated environments. PMID:25269838

  3. The effects of dopamine on antioxidant enzymes activities and reactive oxygen species levels in soybean roots.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Bruno Ribeiro; Siqueira-Soares, Rita de Cássia; Dos Santos, Wanderley Dantas; Marchiosi, Rogério; Soares, Anderson Ricardo; Ferrarese-Filho, Osvaldo

    2014-01-01

    In the current work, we investigated the effects of dopamine, an neurotransmitter found in several plant species on antioxidant enzyme activities and ROS in soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) roots. The effects of dopamine on SOD, CAT and POD activities, as well as H2O2, O2(•-), melanin contents and lipid peroxidation were evaluated. Three-day-old seedlings were cultivated in half-strength Hoagland nutrient solution (pH 6.0), without or with 0.1 to 1.0 mM dopamine, in a growth chamber (25°C, 12 h photoperiod, irradiance of 280 ?mol m(-2) s(-1)) for 24 h. Significant increases in melanin content were observed. The levels of ROS and lipid peroxidation decreased at all concentrations of dopamine tested. The SOD activity increased significantly under the action of dopamine, while CT activity was inhibited and POD activity was unaffected. The results suggest a close relationship between a possible antioxidant activity of dopamine and melanin and activation of SOD, reducing the levels of ROS and damage on membranes of soybean roots. PMID:25482756

  4. Antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities of Plebeian herba (Salvia plebeia R. Br.) under different cultivation conditions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Kang, Young-Hwa

    2014-03-12

    An adaptation of cultural management to the specific cultural system, as well as crop demand, can further result in the improvement of the quality of horticultural products. Therefore, this study focused on the antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities of Plebeian herba (Salvia plebeia R. Br.) grown in hydroponics in comparison with those of the plant grown in soil. The antioxidant activities of Plebeian herba extract were measured as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging abilities as well as the reducing power by decreasing nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) in vitro. Interestingly, by comparison with hydroponics and traditional cultivation, Plebeian herba cultivated in nutrition-based soil improved inhibitory effect on free radicals of DPPH, ABTS, and NO and increased the contents of phenolics such as caffeic acid (1), luteolin-7-glucoside (2), homoplantaginin (3), hispidulin (4), and eupatorin. Free radical scavenging and SOD activity, as well as ?-glucosidase inhibitory effect, were higher in Plebeian herba grown in nutrition-based soil than in plants grown in hydroponics and traditional condition. PMID:24422962

  5. [Antioxidative enzymes play key roles in cadmium tolerance of Phytolacca americana].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Xiu; Zhang, Hong-Mei; Huang, Zhi-Bo; Li, Lin-Feng; Liu, Jin-Guang; Li, Xia

    2011-03-01

    Phytolacca americana L. has the capacity to take up and accumulate to very high levels heavy metals such as Mn and Cd, and is used for phytoextraction of heavy metal contaminated soils. The role of antioxidative enzyme of Phytolacca americana in response to Cd stress is unknown. The 6-week-old seedlings of Phytolacca americana were exposed to half strength Hoagland solution with 200 micromol/L CdCl2 or 400 micromol/L CdCl2 for 4 days. The content of H2O2 and MDA, and electrolyte leakage increased, while the photosynthetic rate decreased, indicated that the oxidative damage induced by Cd stress in Phytolacca americana was one of the metal toxicity mechanism. The activities of SOD and POD increased rapidly with elevated Cd concentration and exposure time, CAT activity was stable in response to 200 micromol/L CdCl2 stress, and increased only at 3 d later upon 400 micromol/L CdCl2, treatment. Suggested that the enzymatic antioxidation capacity played important role in Cd tolerance of hyperaccumulator plant. PMID:21634194

  6. Differential antioxidative enzyme responses of Jatropha curcas L. to chromium stress.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Santosh Kumar; Dhote, Monika; Kumar, Phani; Sharma, Jitendra; Chakrabarti, Tapan; Juwarkar, Asha A

    2010-08-15

    Chromium (Cr) tolerant and accumulation capability of Jatropha curcas L. was tested in Cr spiked soil amended with biosludge and biofertilizer. Plants were cultivated in soils containing 0, 25, 50, 100 and 250 mg kg(-1) of Cr for one year with and without amendment. Plant tissue analysis showed that combined application of biosludge and biofertilizer could significantly reduce Cr uptake and boost the plant biomass, whereas biofertilizer alone did not affect the uptake and plant growth. Antioxidative responses of catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were increased with increasing Cr concentration in plant. Hyperactivity of the CAT and GST indicated that antioxidant enzymes played an important role in protecting the plant from Cr toxicity. However, APX took a little part in detoxification of H(2)O(2) due to its sensitivity to Cr. Therefore, reduced APX activity was recorded. Reduced glutathione (GSH) activity was recorded in plant grown on/above 100 mg kg(-1) of Cr in soil. The study concludes that J. curcas could grow under chromium stress. Furthermore, the results encouraged that J. curcas is a suitable candidate for the restoration of Cr contaminated soils with the concomitant application of biosludge and biofertilizer. PMID:20478653

  7. Selenium Accumulation in Unicellular Green Alga Chlorella vulgaris and Its Effects on Antioxidant Enzymes and Content of Photosynthetic Pigments

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xian; Zhong, Yu; Huang, Zhi; Yang, Yufeng

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate selenite effects in the unicellular green algae Chlorella vulgaris as a primary producer and the relationship with intracellular bioaccumulation. The effects of selenite were evaluated by measuring the effect of different selenite concentrations on algal growth during a 144 h exposure period. It was found that lower Se concentrations (?75 mg L?1) positively promoted C. vulgaris growth and acted as antioxidant by inhibiting lipid peroxidation (LPO) and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). The antioxidative effect was associated with an increase in guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and photosynthetic pigments. Meanwhile, significant increase in the cell growth rate and organic Se content was also detected in the algae. In contrast, these changes were opposite in C. vulgaris exposed to Se higher than 100 mg L?1. The antioxidation and toxicity appeared to be correlated to Se bioaccumulation, which suggests the appropriate concentration of Se in the media accumulation of C. vulgaris should be 75 mg L?1. Taken together, C. vulgaris possesses tolerance to Se, and Se-Chlorella could be developed as antioxidative food for aquaculture and human health. PMID:25375113

  8. Butyrate modulates antioxidant enzyme expression in malignant and non-malignant human colon tissues.

    PubMed

    Jahns, Franziska; Wilhelm, Anne; Jablonowski, Nadja; Mothes, Henning; Greulich, Karl Otto; Glei, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The induction of antioxidant enzymes is an important mechanism in colon cancer chemoprevention, but the response of human colon tissue to butyrate, a gut fermentation product derived from dietary fiber, remains largely unknown. Therefore, our study investigated the effect of a butyrate treatment on catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD2) in matched human colon tissues of different transformation stages (n?=?3-15 in each group) ex vivo. By performing quantitative real-time PCR, Western blot, and spectrophotometric measurements, we found an increase in SOD2 at expression and activity level in colonic adenocarcinomas (mRNA: 1.96-fold; protein: 1.41-fold, activity: 1.8-fold; P?enzymes showed an age-dependent decrease in activity in normal colon epithelium (CAT: r?=?-0.49, P?=?0.09; SOD2: r?=?-0.58, P?=?0.049). In conclusion, butyrate exhibited potential antioxidant features ex vivo but cellular consequences need to be investigated more in depth. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24677319

  9. Potent induction of cellular antioxidants and phase 2 enzymes by resveratrol in cardiomyocytes: protection against oxidative and electrophilic injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhuoxiao Cao; Yunbo Li

    2004-01-01

    Resveratrol is known to be protective against oxidative cardiovascular disorders. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This study was undertaken to determine if resveratrol could increase endogenous antioxidants and phase 2 enzymes in cardiomyocytes, and if such increased cellular defenses could provide protection against oxidative and electrophilic cell injury. Incubation of cardiac H9C2 cells with low micromolar resveratrol resulted in

  10. Certain antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation of radish ( Raphanus sativus L.) as early warning biomarkers of soil copper exposure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bai-Ye Sun; Shi-Hong Kan; Yan-Zong Zhang; Shi-Huai Deng; Jun Wu; Hao Yuan; Hui Qi; Gang Yang; Li Li; Xiao-Hong Zhang; Hong Xiao; Ying-Jun Wang; Hong Peng; Yuan-Wei Li

    2010-01-01

    Copper (Cu) is a major heavy metal contaminant with various anthropogenic and natural sources. Recently, using biomarkers to monitor the effects of pollutants has attracted increased interest. Pot culture experiments using radish (Raphanus sativus L.) was performed to investigate Cu phytotoxic effects on antioxidant enzymes and other early warning biomarkers of soil Cu exposure. Under low dose Cu stress (lower

  11. Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in the Cyanobacteria Planktothrix Agardhii, Planktothrix Perornata, Raphidiopsis Brookii, and the Green Alga Selenastrum Capricornutum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies have demonstrated that compounds generating reactive oxygen species (ROS) are selectively toxic towards certain species of cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) when compared to green algae (e.g., Selenastrum capricornutum). The antioxidant enzyme activities of S. capricornutum and seve...

  12. Interplay Between Oncoproteins and Antioxidant Enzymes in Esophageal Carcinoma Treated Without and With Chemoradiotherapy: A Prospective Study

    SciTech Connect

    Kaur, Tranum [Department of Biophysics, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh (India); Gupta, Rajesh [Department of General Surgery, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh (India); Vaiphei, Kim [Department of Histopathology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh (India); Kapoor, Rakesh [Department of Radiotherapy, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh (India); Gupta, N.M. [Department of General Surgery, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh (India); Khanduja, K.L. [Department of Biophysics, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh (India); Department of Biophysics, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh (India)], E-mail: klkhanduja@gmail.com

    2008-02-01

    Purpose: To analyze p53, bcl-2, c-myc, and cyclooxygenase-2 protein expression changes and examine their relationship with various antioxidant enzymes in esophageal carcinoma patients. Methods and Materials: Patients in Group 1 underwent transhiatal esophagectomy and those in Group 2 were administered chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery after 4 weeks of neoadjuvant therapy. Results: The relationship analysis among the various protein markers and antioxidant enzymes showed an inverse correlation between bcl-2 and superoxide dismutase/catalase in tumor tissues, irrespective of the treatment arm followed. An important positive association was observed between bcl-2 and reduced glutathione levels in the tumor tissue of patients receiving neoadjuvant therapy. Another apoptosis-modulating marker, c-myc, in the tumor tissue of Group 2 patients showed similar pattern levels (high and low) as that of superoxide dismutase/catalase. The association of cyclooxygenase-2 and p53 with various antioxidant enzymes showed a significant positive correlation between cyclooxygenase-2 expression and catalase activity and an inverse trend between p53 expression and superoxide dismutase and catalase activity in the tumor tissue of patients given neoadjuvant therapy. In addition, patients with overexpressed p53 protein levels had lower glutathione peroxidase enzyme levels and vice versa in the tumor tissue of patients who had undergone surgery as their main mode of treatment. Conclusion: The results of this study broaden the insight into the relationships shared among oncoproteins and the antioxidant defense system, and this could be helpful in the clinical management of esophageal carcinoma.

  13. Monitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using ‘moss bags’: Bioaccumulation and responses of antioxidant enzymes in Fontinalis antipyretica Hedw

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sashwati Roy; Chandan K. Sen; Osmo Hänninen

    1996-01-01

    The accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and responses of antioxidant enzymes were studied in an aquatic moss, Fontinalis antipyretica (Hedw.) transplanted around a city harbor. Glass fiber bags containing Fontinalis antipyretica (‘moss bags’) were transplanted at five sites on Lake Kallavesi of Finland in summer. Three sites were located south (downstream) and near (0.2–4 km) to the Kuopio city

  14. Influence of salt stress on growth, lipid peroxidation and antioxidative enzyme activity in borage (Borago officinalis L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Jaffel; S. Sai; N. K. Bouraoui; R. B. Ammar; L. Legendre; M. Lachâal; B. Marzouk

    2011-01-01

    The effects of increasing salt concentrations on the growth, electrolyte leakage, lipid peroxidation, and major antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase) of borage plants were investigated. Plants were grown in half strength of Hoagland nutrient solution added with 0, 25, 50, and 75 mM of NaCl. Most measured parameters were affected by salinity. Increasing salt

  15. Association of Polymorphic Markers of the Antioxidant Enzyme Genes with Diabetic Polyneuropathy in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. V. Zotova; K. V. Savost'yanov; D. A. Chistyakov; T. R. Bursa; I. V. Galeev; I. A. Strokov; V. V. Nosikov

    2004-01-01

    The allele and genotype frequency distributions of polymorphic markers of genes coding for antioxidant enzymes were compared for type 1 diabetes mellitus patients with or without diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN). The groups (total 180 patients) had nonoverlapping (polar) phenotypes. Group DPN+ included 86 patients with DPN and diabetic record no more than 5 years. Control group DPN– included patients without DPN

  16. Induction of Heat Shock Proteins and Antioxidant Enzymes in 2,3,7,8-TCDD-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Sook; Park, So-Young; Yoo, Ki-Yeol

    2012-01-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) is an environmental toxicant with a polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbon structure and is one of the most toxic man-made chemicals. Exposure to 2,3,7,8-TCDD induces reproductive toxicity, immunotoxicity, and hepatotoxicity. In this study, we evaluated how 2,3,7,8-TCDD-induced hepatotoxicity affect the expression of heat shock proteins and antioxidant enzymes using the real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in rat. 2,3,7,8-TCDD increased heat shock protein (Hsp27, ?-B-crystallin, Mortalin, Hsp105, and Hsp90s) and antioxidant enzymes (SOD-3, GST and catalase) expression after a 1 day exposure in livers of rats, whereas heat shock protein (?-B-crystallin, Hsp90, and GRP78) and antioxidant enzymes (SOD-1, SOD-3, catalase, GST, and GPXs) expression decreased on day 2 and then slowly recovered back to control levels on day 8. These results suggest that heat shock proteins and antioxidant enzymes were induced as protective mechanisms against 2,3,7,8-TCDD induced hepatotoxicity, and that prolonged exposure depressed their levels, which recovered to control levels due to reduced 2,3,7,8-TCDD induced hepatotoxicity. PMID:23269910

  17. Induction of Heat Shock Proteins and Antioxidant Enzymes in 2,3,7,8-TCDD-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Sook; Park, So-Young; Yoo, Ki-Yeol; Lee, Seung Kwan; Jung, Woon-Won

    2012-12-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) is an environmental toxicant with a polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbon structure and is one of the most toxic man-made chemicals. Exposure to 2,3,7,8-TCDD induces reproductive toxicity, immunotoxicity, and hepatotoxicity. In this study, we evaluated how 2,3,7,8-TCDD-induced hepatotoxicity affect the expression of heat shock proteins and antioxidant enzymes using the real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in rat. 2,3,7,8-TCDD increased heat shock protein (Hsp27, ?-B-crystallin, Mortalin, Hsp105, and Hsp90s) and antioxidant enzymes (SOD-3, GST and catalase) expression after a 1 day exposure in livers of rats, whereas heat shock protein (?-B-crystallin, Hsp90, and GRP78) and antioxidant enzymes (SOD-1, SOD-3, catalase, GST, and GPXs) expression decreased on day 2 and then slowly recovered back to control levels on day 8. These results suggest that heat shock proteins and antioxidant enzymes were induced as protective mechanisms against 2,3,7,8-TCDD induced hepatotoxicity, and that prolonged exposure depressed their levels, which recovered to control levels due to reduced 2,3,7,8-TCDD induced hepatotoxicity. PMID:23269910

  18. The Role of Antioxidant Enzymes in Adaptive Responses to Sheath Blight Infestation under Different Fertilization Rates and Hill Densities

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Xuejie; Shah, Farooq; Fahad, Shah; Huang, Jianliang

    2014-01-01

    Sheath blight of rice, caused by Rhizoctonia solani, is one of the most devastating rice diseases worldwide. No rice cultivar has been found to be completely resistant to this fungus. Identifying antioxidant enzymes activities (activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT)) and malondialdehyde content (MDA) responding to sheath blight infestation is imperative to understand the defensive mechanism systems of rice. In the present study, two inoculation methods (toothpick and agar block method) were tested in double-season rice. Toothpick method had greater lesion length than agar block method in late season. A higher MDA content was found under toothpick method compared with agar block method, which led to greater POD and SOD activities. Dense planting caused higher lesion length resulting in a higher MDA content, which also subsequently stimulated higher POD and SOD activity. Sheath blight severity was significantly related to the activity of antioxidant enzyme during both seasons. The present study implies that rice plants possess a system of antioxidant protective enzymes which helps them in adaptation to sheath blight infection stresses. Several agronomic practices, such as rational use of fertilizers and optimum planting density, involved in regulating antioxidant protective enzyme systems can be regarded as promising strategy to suppress the sheath blight development. PMID:25136671

  19. Palm oil induced changes in ocular tissue lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymes and ATPases of rabbits in cadmium toxicity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. E. Eriyamremu; S. E. Ojimogho; S. O. Asagba; V. E. Osagie

    2008-01-01

    This study determined the effect of supplementing rabbit diet with palm oil (PO) on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymes and ATPases of different sections of the eyes in ocular cadmium toxicity. Twenty male New Zealand rabbits were randomly assigned to 4 groups of 5 rabbits in a study that lasted for 4 weeks. The control was given deionised water as eye

  20. Effect of temperature on antioxidant enzyme gene expression and stress protein response in white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Zhou; Lei Wang; Yu Xin; Wei-Na Wang; Wen-Yin He; An-Li Wang; Yuan Liu

    2010-01-01

    The white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei is one of the most important economic species in shrimp farming and are frequently exposed to multiple stressors (including temperature) in aquaculture. The differential expression of seven genes encoding antioxidant enzymes and stressor biomarkers was investigated by real-time quantitative PCR in haemocytes and hepatopancreas and gill extracted from L. vannamei following acute temperature stress. Temperature

  1. Response of Antioxidative Enzymes and Apoplastic Bypass Transport in Thlaspi Caerulescens and Raphanus Sativus to Cadmium Stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saoussen Benzarti; Helmi Hamdi; Shino Mohri; Yoshiro Ono

    2010-01-01

    A hydroponics experiment using hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens (alpine pennycress) and non-specific accumulator Raphanus sativus (common radish) was conducted to investigate the short-term effect of increasing Cd concentrations (0, 25, 50, 75, 100 ?M) on metal uptake, chlorophyll content, antioxidative enzymes, and apoplastic bypass flow. As expected, T. caerulescens generally showed better resistance to metal stress, which was reflected by higher

  2. Effect of curcumin on hepatic antioxidant enzymes activities and gene expressions in rats intoxicated with aflatoxin B1.

    PubMed

    El-Bahr, S M

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight rats were examined in a 5-week experiment to investigate the effect of curcumin on gene expression and activities of hepatic antioxidant enzymes in rats intoxicated with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 ). The rats were divided into four groups. Rats in 1-4 groups served as control, oral curcumin treated (15?mg/kg body weight), single i.p. dose of AFB1 (3?mg/kg body weight) and combination of single i.p. dose of AFB1 with oral curcumin treated, respectively. AFB1 Liver damage and oxidative stress were evident in untreated AFB1 -intoxicated rats as indicated by a significant elevation in hepatic transaminases, elevation in lipid peroxide biomarkers (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances; TBARS), reduction of reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration, reduction in the activities of antioxidant enzymes namely catalase (CAT), total superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and down-regulation of gene expression of these antioxidant enzymes compared to control. Liver sections of rats intoxicated with AFB1 showed a disrupted lobular architecture, scattered necrotic cells and biliary proliferation. Administration of curcumin with AFB1 resulted in amelioration of AFB1 -induced effects compared to untreated AFB1 -intoxicated rats via an up-regulation of antioxidant enzyme gene expression, activation of the expressed genes and increase in the availability of GSH. PMID:25639897

  3. Enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant activities of traditional medicinal plants: Potential application in the management of hyperglycemia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Traditional Indian and Australian medicinal plant extracts were investigated to determine their therapeutic potential to inhibit key enzymes in carbohydrate metabolism, which has relevance to the management of hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes. The antioxidant activities were also assessed. Methods The evaluation of enzyme inhibitory activity of seven Australian aboriginal medicinal plants and five Indian Ayurvedic plants was carried out against ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase. Antioxidant activity was determined by measuring (i) the scavenging effect of plant extracts against 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) and 2, 2?-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate (ABTS) and (ii) ferric reducing power. Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents were also determined. Results Of the twelve plant extracts evaluated, the highest inhibitory activity against both ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase enzymes was exerted by Santalum spicatum and Pterocarpus marsupium with IC50 values of 5.43??g/ml and 0.9??g/ml, respectively, and 5.16??g/ml and 1.06??g/ml, respectively. However, the extracts of Acacia ligulata (IC50?=?1.01??g/ml), Beyeria leshnaultii (0.39??g/ml), Mucuna pruriens (0.8??g/ml) and Boerhaavia diffusa (1.72??g/ml) exhibited considerable activity against ?-glucosidase enzyme only. The free radical scavenging activity was found to be prominent in extracts of Acacia kempeana, Acacia ligulata followed by Euphorbia drummondii against both DPPH and ABTS. The reducing power was more pronounced in Euphorbia drummondii and Pterocarpus marsupium extracts. The phenolic and flavonoid contents ranged from 0.42 to 30.27??g/mg equivalent of gallic acid and 0.51 to 32.94??g/mg equivalent of quercetin, respectively, in all plant extracts. Pearson’s correlation coefficient between total flavonoids and total phenolics was 0.796. Conclusion The results obtained in this study showed that most of the plant extracts have good potential for the management of hyperglycemia, diabetes and the related condition of oxidative stress. PMID:22713130

  4. Strawberry Polyphenols Attenuate Ethanol-Induced Gastric Lesions in Rats by Activation of Antioxidant Enzymes and Attenuation of MDA Increase

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Suarez, José M.; Dekanski, Dragana; Risti?, Slavica; Radonji?, Nevena V.; Petronijevi?, Nataša D.; Giampieri, Francesca; Astolfi, Paola; González-Paramás, Ana M.; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Tulipani, Sara; Quiles, José L.; Mezzetti, Bruno; Battino, Maurizio

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aim Free radicals are implicated in the aetiology of gastrointestinal disorders such as gastric ulcer, colorectal cancer and inflammatory bowel disease. Strawberries are common and important fruit due to their high content of essential nutrient and beneficial phytochemicals which seem to have relevant biological activity on human health. In the present study we investigated the antioxidant and protective effects of three strawberry extracts against ethanol-induced gastric mucosa damage in an experimental in vivo model and to test whether strawberry extracts affect antioxidant enzyme activities in gastric mucosa. Methods/Principal Findings Strawberry extracts were obtained from Adria, Sveva and Alba cultivars. Total antioxidant capacity and radical scavenging capacity were performed by TEAC, ORAC and electron paramagnetic resonance assays. Identification and quantification of anthocyanins was carried out by HPLC-DAD-MS analyses. Different groups of animals received 40 mg/day/kg body weight of strawberry crude extracts for 10 days. Gastric damage was induced by ethanol. The ulcer index was calculated together with the determination of catalase and SOD activities and MDA contents. Strawberry extracts are rich in anthocyanins and present important antioxidant capacity. Ethanol caused severe gastric damage and strawberry consumption protected against its deleterious role. Antioxidant enzyme activities increased significantly after strawberry extract intake and a concomitantly decrease in gastric lipid peroxidation was found. A significant correlation between total anthocyanin content and percent of inhibition of ulcer index was also found. Conclusions Strawberry extracts prevented exogenous ethanol-induced damage to rats' gastric mucosa. These effects seem to be associated with the antioxidant activity and phenolic content in the extract as well as with the capacity of promoting the action of antioxidant enzymes. A diet rich in strawberries might exert a beneficial effect in the prevention of gastric diseases related to generation of reactive oxygen species. PMID:22016781

  5. Effects of Microgravity On Oxidative and Antioxidant Enzymes In Mouse Hindlimb Muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Girten, B.; Hoopes, R.; Steele, M.; Morony, S.; Bateman, T. A.; Sun, S. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Gastrocnemius muscle of mice were analyzed in order to examine the effects of 12 days of microgravity on the oxidative enzyme climate synthase (CS) and the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD). The female C57BL/6J mice utilized for this study were part of the Commercial Biomedical Testing Module (CBTM) payload that flew aboard STS-108. Mice were housed in Animal Enclosure Modules (AEMs) provided by NASA Ames. The flight (FLT) group and the ground control (CON) group each had 12 mice per group. The AEMs that held the CON group operated on a 48-hour delay from the FLT group and were located inside the Orbital Environmental Simulator (OES) at Kennedy Space Center. The temperature, CO2 and relative humidity inside the OES was regulated based on downlinked information from the shuttle middeck. Student T tests were used to compare groups and a p < 0.05 was used to determine statistical significance. Results indicated that CS levels for the FLT group were significantly lower than the CON group while the SOD levels were significantly higher. The CS FLT mean was 19% lower and the SOD FLT mean was 17% higher than the respective CON group means. Although these findings are among the first muscle enzyme values reported for mice from a shuttle mission, these results are similar to some results previously reported for rats exposed to microgravity or hindlimb suspension. The changes seen during the CBTM payload are reflective of the deconditioning that takes place with disuse of the hindlimbs and indicate that muscle enzyme changes induced by disuse deconditioning are similar in both rodent species.

  6. Impact of amyloid ?25-35 on membrane stability, energy metabolism, and antioxidant enzymes in erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Tikhonova, Lyudmila A; Kaminsky, Yury G; Reddy, V Prakash; Li, Yi; Solomadin, Ilya N; Kosenko, Elena A; Aliev, Gjumrakch

    2014-12-01

    Amyloid ?25-35 (A?25-35) represents a neurotoxic fragment of A?1-40 or A?1-42, and is implicated in the progressive neurodegeneration in cases of the Alzheimer disease (AD). Amyloid ?25-35 was shown to lyse rat erythrocytes (RBCs) of all ages, and the extent of the RBC toxicity is directly correlated with A?25-35 concentration and cell age. Activities of glycolytic, antioxidant, and Na(+)/K(+)-adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) enzymes, in vivo, are significantly decreased in older RBCs as compared to the young RBCs. In vitro, A?25-35 reduced activities of hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione transferase and increased Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity; these effects are significantly greater in aged RBCs as compared to those of the younger cells. The diminution in activity of certain enzymes may determine the life span of the RBCs in vivo and may be relevant to the human AD; higher sensitivity of older RBCs to A?25-35 toxicity may contribute to the ultimate death of the RBCs in patients with AD. PMID:24838531

  7. Superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase are constitutively more thermotolerant than other antioxidant enzymes in Chenopodium album.

    PubMed

    Khanna-Chopra, Renu; Semwal, Vimal Kumar

    2011-10-01

    Thermal stability of antioxidant defense enzymes was investigated in leaf and inflorescence of heat adaptive weed Chenopodium album. Leaf samples were taken at early and late seedling stage in December (LD, 20 °C/4 °C) and March (LM, 31 °C/14 °C). Young inflorescence (INF) was sampled at flowering in April (40 °C/21 °C). LD, LM and INF crude protein extracts were subjected to elevated temperatures (5 to 100 °C) for 30'. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) was the most heat stable enzyme followed by Ascorbate peroxidase (APX). Two heat stable SOD isozymes were visible on native-PAGE at 100 °C in both leaf and INF. Some heat stable APX isozymes were more abundant in INF than leaf. Thermostability of catalase (CAT) increased with age and increasing ambient temperatures in leaves. CAT activity was observed up to 60 °C in leaves and INF while peroxidase (POX) retained activity up to 100 °C in INF due to one thermostable isozyme. Glutathione reductase (GR), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR, EC 1.8.5.1) and monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR) showed activity up to 70 °C in both leaves and INF. DHAR activity was stable up to 60 °C while GR and MDHAR declined sharply after 40 °C. Constitutive heat stable isozymes of SOD and APX in leaves and INF may contribute towards heat tolerance in C. album. PMID:23573027

  8. The Deubiquitinating Enzyme AMSH3 Is Required for Intracellular Trafficking and Vacuole Biogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Isono, Erika; Katsiarimpa, Anthi; Müller, Isabel Karin; Anzenberger, Franziska; Stierhof, York-Dieter; Geldner, Niko; Chory, Joanne; Schwechheimer, Claus

    2010-01-01

    Ubiquitination, deubiquitination, and the formation of specific ubiquitin chain topologies have been implicated in various cellular processes. Little is known, however, about the role of ubiquitin in the development of cellular organelles. Here, we identify and characterize the deubiquitinating enzyme AMSH3 from Arabidopsis thaliana. AMSH3 hydrolyzes K48- and K63-linked ubiquitin chains in vitro and accumulates both ubiquitin chain types in vivo. amsh3 mutants fail to form a central lytic vacuole, accumulate autophagosomes, and mis-sort vacuolar protein cargo to the intercellular space. Furthermore, AMSH3 is required for efficient endocytosis of the styryl dye FM4-64 and the auxin efflux facilitator PIN2. We thus present evidence for a role of deubiquitination in intracellular trafficking and vacuole biogenesis. PMID:20543027

  9. The influence of cell growth and enzyme activity changes on intracellular metabolite dynamics in AGE1.HN.AAT cells.

    PubMed

    Rath, Alexander G; Rehberg, Markus; Janke, Robert; Genzel, Yvonne; Scholz, Sebastian; Noll, Thomas; Rose, Thomas; Sandig, Volker; Reichl, Udo

    2014-05-20

    Optimization of bioprocesses with mammalian cells mainly concentrates on cell engineering, cell screening and medium optimization to achieve enhanced cell growth and productivity. For improving cell lines by cell engineering techniques, in-depth understandings of the regulation of metabolism and product formation as well as the resulting demand for the different medium components are needed. In this work, the relationship of cell specific growth and uptake rates and of changes in maximum in vitro enzyme activities with intracellular metabolite pools of glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, citric acid cycle and energy metabolism were determined for batch cultivations with AGE1.HN.AAT cells. Results obtained by modeling cell growth and consumption of main substrates showed that the dynamics of intracellular metabolite pools is primarily linked to the dynamics of specific glucose and glutamine uptake rates. By analyzing maximum in vitro enzyme activities we found low activities of pyruvate dehydrogenase and pyruvate carboxylase which suggest a reduced metabolite transfer into the citric acid cycle resulting in lactate release (Warburg effect). Moreover, an increase in the volumetric lactate production rate during the transition from exponential to stationary growth together with a transient accumulation of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, fructose 1-phosphate and ribose 5-phosphate point toward an upregulation of PK via FBP. Glutaminase activity was about 44-fold lower than activity of glutamine synthetase. This seemed to be sufficient for the supply of intermediates for biosynthesis but might lead to unnecessary dissipation of ATP. Taken together, our results elucidate regulation of metabolic networks of immortalized mammalian cells by changes of metabolite pools over the time course of batch cultivations. Eventually, it enables the use of cell engineering strategies to improve the availability of building blocks for biomass synthesis by increasing glucose as well as glutamine fluxes. An additional knockdown of the glutamine synthetase might help to prevent unnecessary dissipation of ATP, to yield a cell line with optimized growth characteristics and increased overall productivity. PMID:24657347

  10. Mercury-induced oxidative stress and impact on antioxidant enzymes in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Elbaz, Abdelrahman; Wei, Yuan Yuan; Meng, Qian; Zheng, Qi; Yang, Zhi Min

    2010-10-01

    Investigation of mercury toxicology in green algae is of great importance from ecological point of view, because mercury has become a major contaminant in recent years. In higher plants, accumulation of mercury modifies many aspects of cellular functions. However, the process that mercury exerts detrimental effects on green algae is largely unknown. In this study, we performed an experiment focusing on the biological responses of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a unicellular model organism, to Hg(2+)-induced toxicity. C. reinhardtii was exposed to 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 ?M Hg in media. Concentrations of Hg were negatively correlated with the cell growth. Treatment with Hg induced accumulation of reactive oxygen species and peroxidative products. Endogenous proline levels increased in Hg-exposed algae. Hg exposure activated superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX). To get insights into the molecular response, a RT-PCR-based assay was performed to analyze the transcript abundance of Mn-SOD, CAT and APX. Our analysis revealed that expression of the genes was up-regulated by Hg exposure, with a pattern similar to the enzyme activities. Additional investigation was undertaken on the effect of Hg on the transcript amount of ?(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase, a key enzyme of proline biosynthesis and on that of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), an enzyme regulating heavy metal tolerance. Expressions of both P5CS and HO-1 were up-regulated by Hg. These data indicate that Hg-induced oxidative stress was responsible for the disturbance of the growth and antioxidant defensive systems in C. reinhardtii. PMID:20571879

  11. Antioxidant activity of leaves of Salvia species in enzyme-dependent and enzyme-independent systems of lipid peroxidation and their phenolic constituents.

    PubMed

    Zupkó, I; Hohmann, J; Rédei, D; Falkay, G; Janicsák, G; Máthé, I

    2001-06-01

    The protective effects of eleven Salvia species native to Europe against enzyme-dependent and enzyme-independent lipid peroxidation were evaluated. The 50% aqueous methanolic extracts of the leaves of all tested plants were found to be more effective than the positive control alpha-tocopherol acid succinate. The extracts of S. candelabrum, S. ringens, S. tomentosa, S. nemorosa, and S. glutinosa displayed considerable concentration-dependent antioxidative effects that were comparable to those of the medicinal and aromatic plant S. officinalis. The concentrations of flavonoids, hydroxycinnamic acids and total phenolic compounds in each extract were quantified with the aim of clarifying the connection between activity and chemical composition. PMID:11458459

  12. Genetic Variation in Antioxidant Enzymes, Cigarette Smoking and Longitudinal Change in Lung Function

    PubMed Central

    Tang, W; Bentley, AR; Kritchevsky, SB; Harris, TB; Newman, AB; Bauer, DC; Meibohm, B; Cassano, PA

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Antioxidant enzymes play an important role in the defense against oxidative stress in the lung and in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Sequence variation in genes encoding antioxidant enzymes may alter susceptibility to COPD by affecting longitudinal change in lung function in adults. Methods We genotyped 384 sequence variants in 56 candidate genes in 1,281 African-American and 1,794 European-American elderly adults of the Health, Aging, and Body Composition study. Single-marker associations and gene-by-smoking interactions with rate of change in FEV1 and FEV1/ FVC were evaluated using linear mixed effects models, stratified by race/ethnicity. Results In European-Americans, rs17883901 in GCLC was statistically significantly associated with rate of change in FEV1/FVC; the recessive genotype (TT) was associated with a 0.9% per year steeper decline (P = 4.50 × 10?5). Statistically significant gene-by-smoking interactions were observed for variants in two genes in European-Americans: the minor allele of rs2297765 in mGST3 attenuated the accelerated decline in FEV1/FVC in smokers by 0.45% per year (P = 1.13 × 10?4); for participants with greater baseline smoking pack-years, the minor allele of rs2073192 in IDH3B was associated with an accelerated decline in FEV1/FVC (P = 2.10 × 10?4). For both genes, nominally significant interactions (P < 0.01) were observed at the gene-level in African-Americans (P = 0.007 and 4.60 × 10?4, respectively). Nominally significant evidence of association was observed for variants in SOD3 and GLRX2 in multiple analyses. Conclusions This study identifies two novel genes associated with longitudinal lung function phenotypes in both African- and European-Americans, and confirms a prior finding for GCLC. These findings suggest novel mechanisms and molecular targets for future research and advance the understanding of genetic determinants of lung function and COPD risk. PMID:23688726

  13. Antioxidant activity of protein hydrolysates from aqueous extract of velvet antler (Cervus elaphus) as influenced by molecular weight and enzymes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lei; Luo, Yang-Chao; Wang, Cheng-Tao; Ji, Bao-Ping

    2011-11-01

    The crude protein hydrolysates from aqueous extract of velvet antler (AEVA) were prepared by simulated gastrointestinal digestion (SGI, pepsin-pancreatin) using pancreatin-pepsin, alcalase and neutrase. The resulting hydrolysates were separated by sequential ultrafiltration into four fractions. The antioxidant activities of peptide fractions were evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging and Fe(2+)-chelating assays. Results showed that the hydrolysate prepared by SGI had a low degree of hydrolysis, which was significantly improved with altered proteases, such as pancreatin-pepsin and alcalase. Antioxidant activities of peptide fractions varied with molecular weight (MW) and the enzyme used. Generally, low-MW peptide fractions had higher ABTS radical scavenging activity and Fe(2+)-chelating ability, and high-MW peptide fractions were more effective in DPPH radical scavenging activity and reducing power. PMID:22224289

  14. Apoplastic antioxidant enzyme responses to chronic free-air ozone exposure in two different ozone-sensitive wheat cultivars.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junli; Zeng, Qing; Zhu, Jianguo; Chen, Chen; Liu, Gang; Tang, Haoye

    2014-09-01

    The effects of elevated ozone concentrations [O3] on two different ozone-sensitive wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars [Yangmai16 (Y16) and Yannong19 (Y19)] were investigated to determine the different apoplastic antioxidant mechanisms under O3-FACE (free-air controlled enrichment) condition. The results indicated that elevated [O3] (1.5 × ambient [O3]) induced increases in the production of superoxide anion (O2(-)), hydroxyl radical (HO), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and lipid peroxidation, and these results were more pronounced in the apoplasts of Y19 than in those of Y16. Apoplastic antioxidant enzymes were developmentally regulated and the effect of elevated [O3] depended on the developmental stage of wheat for both cultivars. In cultivar Y19, continuous O3 stress induced a decrease in the activity of apoplastic superoxide dismutase (SOD; EC 1.15.1.1), peroxidase (POD; EC 1.11.1.7) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX; EC 1.11.1.11) in the later growing stages, indicating Y19 appears to be the more sensitive cultivar and is prone to oxidative stress. The strategic response of antioxidant enzymes activities by Y16 in four different plant development stages (booting, flowering, filling and ripening) resulted in O3 stress-induced antioxidant defense responses, which indicated its higher tolerance to O3 stress. The same patterns of activity of apoplastic SOD and APX isozymes were observed in both Y16 and Y19 cultivars, while POD isozymes differed by cultivar in terms of the pattern of bands. The results of the present study show that O3 tolerance can be improved by regulating apoplastic ROS metabolism through the responses of apoplastic antioxidant enzymes to O3 stress in different plant development stages. PMID:24973575

  15. Seasonal variations of melatonin in ram seminal plasma are correlated to those of testosterone and antioxidant enzymes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Some breeds of sheep are highly seasonal in terms of reproductive capability, and these changes are regulated by photoperiod and melatonin secretion. These changes affect the reproductive performance of rams, impairing semen quality and modifying hormonal profiles. Also, the antioxidant defence systems seem to be modulated by melatonin secretion, and shows seasonal variations. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of melatonin and testosterone in ram seminal plasma and their variations between the breeding and non-breeding seasons. In addition, we analyzed the possible correlations between these hormones and the antioxidant enzyme defence system activity. Methods Seminal plasma from nine Rasa Aragonesa rams were collected for one year, and their levels of melatonin, testosterone, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GRD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and catalase (CAT) were measured. Results All samples presented measurable quantities of hormones and antioxidant enzymes. Both hormones showed monthly variations, with a decrease after the winter solstice and a rise after the summer solstice that reached the maximum levels in October-November, and a marked seasonal variation (P < 0.01) with higher levels in the breeding season. The yearly pattern of GRD and catalase was close to that of melatonin, and GRD showed a significant seasonal variation (P < 0.01) with a higher activity during the breeding season. Linear regression analysis between the studied hormones and antioxidant enzymes showed a significant correlation between melatonin and testosterone, GRD, SOD and catalase. Conclusions These results show the presence of melatonin and testosterone in ram seminal plasma, and that both hormones have seasonal variations, and support the idea that seasonal variations of fertility in the ram involve interplay between melatonin and the antioxidant defence system. PMID:20540737

  16. Evaluation of erythrocyte antioxidant mechanisms: antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation, and serum trace elements associated with progressive anemia in ovine malignant theileriosis.

    PubMed

    Nazifi, S; Razavi, S M; Kianiamin, P; Rakhshandehroo, E

    2011-08-01

    Ovine malignant theileriosis is a fatal disease that is characterized by severe progressive anemia. In order to elucidate the underlying mechanisms involved in anemia, this study was designed to assess the antioxidant status and erythrocyte oxidative injuries in Iranian fat-tailed sheep that suffered from malignant theileriosis. The infected animals (infected group), composed of 50 Iranian sheep about 1-2 years old, naturally infected with Theileria sp., were divided into three subgroups according to parasitemia rates (<1%, 1-3%, 3-5%), and ten non-infected animals were also selected as the control group. Blood samples were taken and hematological parameters, the activities of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and catalase, erythrocyte osmotic fragility, and serum concentrations of some trace elements (copper, iron, zinc, manganese, and selenium), were measured. As an index of lipid peroxidation, the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) was also determined. According to the results, a significant decrease in red blood cell (RBC) count, packed cell volume, the activities of SOD, GPX, and catalase (P <0.001), and also serum concentrations of Cu, Zn, Mn, and Se (P < 0.05) were evident in the infected sheep. In contrast, significantly increased levels of MDA and erythrocyte osmotic fragility (P < 0.001) as well as serum concentration of iron (P < 0.05) were recorded in the infected animals. The significant decrease in antioxidant enzyme activities and substantial elevated levels of lipid peroxidation and erythrocyte osmotic fragility associated with the increase in parasitemia indicate increased exposure of RBCs to oxidative damage. Also, it appears that disturbed antioxidant defense mechanisms can promote the development of anemia in ovine theileriosis. PMID:21301875

  17. Alterations in seedling vigour and antioxidant enzyme activities in Catharanthus roseus under seed priming with native diazotrophs

    PubMed Central

    Karthikeyan, B.; Jaleel, C.A.; Gopi, R.; Deiveekasundaram, M.

    2007-01-01

    An experiment was conducted on Catharanthus roseus to study the effect of seed treatments with native diazotrophs on its seedling growth and antioxidant enzyme activities. The treatments had significant influence on various seedling parameters. There is no significant influence on dry matter production with the diazotrophs, Azospirillum and Azotobacter. However, the vital seedling parameters such as germination percentage and vigour index were improved. Azotobacter treatment influenced maximum of 50% germination, whereas Azospirillum and Azotobacter were on par with C. roseus with respect to their vigour index. There was significant difference in the population of total diazotrophs. Azospirillum and Azotobacter between rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils of C. roseus had the same trend and were observed at various locations of the study. The activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POX) and catalase (CAT) were increased to a significant extent due to the treatment with diazotrophs. PMID:17610323

  18. Alterations in seedling vigour and antioxidant enzyme activities in Catharanthus roseus under seed priming with native diazotrophs.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, B; Jaleel, C A; Gopi, R; Deiveekasundaram, M

    2007-07-01

    An experiment was conducted on Catharanthus roseus to study the effect of seed treatments with native diazotrophs on its seedling growth and antioxidant enzyme activities. The treatments had significant influence on various seedling parameters. There is no significant influence on dry matter production with the diazotrophs, Azospirillum and Azotobacter. However, the vital seedling parameters such as germination percentage and vigour index were improved. Azotobacter treatment influenced maximum of 50% germination, whereas Azospirillum and Azotobacter were on par with C. roseus with respect to their vigour index. There was significant difference in the population of total diazotrophs. Azospirillum and Azotobacter between rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils of C. roseus had the same trend and were observed at various locations of the study. The activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POX) and catalase (CAT) were increased to a significant extent due to the treatment with diazotrophs. PMID:17610323

  19. Antidiabetic effect of Punica granatum flowers: effect on hyperlipidemia, pancreatic cells lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in experimental diabetes.

    PubMed

    Bagri, Priyanka; Ali, Mohd; Aeri, Vidhu; Bhowmik, Malay; Sultana, Shahnaz

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of Punica granatum aqueous extract (PgAq) on streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats by measuring fasting blood glucose, lipid profiles (atherogenic index), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and activities of both non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidants. Diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (60 mg/kg) to albino Wistar rats. The increase in blood glucose level, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), LPO level with decrease in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), reduced glutathione (GSH) content and antioxidant enzymes namely, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were the salient features observed in diabetic rats. On the other hand, oral administration of PgAq at doses of 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg for 21 days resulted in a significant reduction in fasting blood glucose, TC, TG, LDL-C, VLDL-C and tissue LPO levels coupled with elevation of HDL-C, GSH content and antioxidant enzymes in comparison with diabetic control group. The results suggest that PG could be used, as a dietary supplement, in the treatment of chronic diseases characterized by atherogenous lipoprotein profile, aggravated antioxidant status and impaired glucose metabolism and also in their prevention. PMID:18950673

  20. Parmotrema tinctorum exhibits antioxidant, antiglycation and inhibitory activities against aldose reductase and carbohydrate digestive enzymes: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Raj, P Salin; Prathapan, A; Sebastian, Jomon; Antony, Antu K; Riya, Mariam Philip; Rani, M R Preetha; Biju, H; Priya, S; Raghu, K G

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the inhibitory potential of ethyl acetate extract of Parmotrema tinctorum (PTEE), an edible lichen, against aldose reductase (AR) and carbohydrate digestive enzymes such as ?-glucosidase and ?-amylase. It was also screened for antioxidant activities by using DPPH, ABTS, superoxide and hydroxyl radical-scavenging assays. PTEE exhibited ?-glucosidase, ?-amylase and AR inhibition along with significant antiglycation potential with an estimated IC50 value of 58.45 ± 1.24, 587.74 ± 3.27, 139.28 ± 2.6 and 285.78 ± 1.287 ?g/mL, respectively. Antioxidant activity of PTEE against DPPH (IC50 396.83 ± 2.98 ?g/mL), ABTS (151.34 ± 1.79 ?g/mL), superoxide (30.29 ± 1.17 ?g/mL) and hydroxyl (35.42 ± 1.22 ?g/mL) radicals suggests the antioxidant potential of P. tinctorum. Significant antioxidant activity and inhibitory potential against carbohydrate digestive enzymes and AR suggest that P. tinctorum can be developed as functional food/nutraceuticals for diabetes after detailed study. PMID:24735436

  1. Rhodiola-induced inhibition of adipogenesis involves antioxidant enzyme response associated with pentose phosphate pathway.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ok-Hwan; Kwon, Young-In; Apostolidis, Emmanouil; Shetty, Kalidas; Kim, Young-Cheul

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether Rhodiola crenulata extract and tyrosol, a major bioactive phenolic compound present in Rhodiola, change the activities of endogenous antioxidant enzyme response (AER) and energy pathways linked to proline-mediated pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) during adipogenesis. Treatment with Rhodiola extracts inhibited the activities of proline dehydrogenase (PDH) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) as well as lipid accumulation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. The inhibition of PDH and G6PDH activities by Rhodiola likely prevented proline oxidation required for critical ATP generation that is coupled to AER via the PPP, leading to inhibition of adipogenesis. Rhodiola extracts dose-dependently increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, resulting in a reduced ROS level during adipogenesis. Moreover, the effects of tyrosol, a major bioactive compound in Rhodiola species, were directly correlated with all observed effects by Rhodiola extracts. These results indicate that the antiadipogenic effects of Rhodiola extracts can be attributed to a phenolic tyrosol that may potentially disrupt proline-mediated energy generation and AER via PPP, resulting in the suppression of adipogenesis and lipid accumulation. This further provides a biochemical rationale to identify the roles of phenolics that modulate the cellular redox environment and therefore have relevance for obesity management. PMID:20623718

  2. Antioxidant enzymes are induced by phenol in the marine microalga Lingulodinium polyedrum.

    PubMed

    Martins, P L G; Marques, L G; Colepicolo, P

    2015-06-01

    Knowing the impacts of different anthropogenic activities on ecosystems promotes preservation of aquatic organisms. Aiming to facilitate the identification of polluted or contaminated areas, the study of microalga Lingulodinium polyedrum in phenol-containing medium comprises the determination of toxic and metabolic phenol effects, featuring a possible use of this microorganism as bioindicator for this pollutant. Marine microalga L. polyedrum exposure to phenol increases superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities. The 20% and 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC20 and IC50) of cells exposed to phenol were 40?molL(-1) and 120?molL(-1), respectively. Phenol biodegradation by L. polyedrum was 0.02?molh(-1)cell(-1), and its biotransformation was catalyzed by glutathione S-transferase (GST), phenol hydroxylase and catechol 2,3-dihydroxygenase metabolic pathways. Phenol exposure produced the metabolites 2-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde acid, 1,2-dihydroxybenzene (catechol), and 2-oxo-4-pentenoic acid; also, it induced the activity of key antioxidant biomarker enzymes SOD and CAT by three folds compared to that in the controls. Further, phenol decreased the glutathione/oxidized glutathione ratio (GSH/GSSG), highlighting the effective glutathione oxidation in L. polyedrum. Overall, our results suggest that phenol alters microalga growth conditions and microalgae are sensitive bioindicators to pollution by phenol in marine environments. PMID:25770655

  3. DNA damage and effects on antioxidative enzymes in earthworm (Eisenia fetida) induced by flumorph.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiangyu; Yang, Chao; Liu, Jianli; Hui, Xiujuan; Yang, Wei; Li, Shuangshuang; Tian, Yanan; Cai, Leiming

    2014-02-01

    Flumorph is an Oomycete fungicide, which is used extensively as an effective fungicide in vegetables and fruits, but little is known about its effect on nontarget soil organisms. In the present study, biochemical responses including changes in the activity of antioxidative enzymes catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), malondialdehyde (MDA), and DNA damage induced by flumorph were investigated in earthworms (Eisenis fetida). The CAT concentrations were stimulated at 5.0 mg kg(-1) over 28 days and inhibited at 10 and 20 mg kg(-1), except 10 mg kg(-1) on days 21 and 28 compared with the controls. The overall SOD activities were inhibited except 5 mg kg(-1) on day 28 and 10 mg kg(-1) on days 7 and 14. Meanwhile, the GST activities were stimulated on day 7 and decreased on the other days in summary. The MDA activities were increased notably at 5, 10, and 20 mg kg(-1) after 14 days. Clear dose-dependent DNA damage to Eisenia fetida was observed by olive tail moments in comet assay compared with controls. The results demonstrate that flumorph induces oxidative stress and DNA damage to earthworms, and the effects may be the important mechanisms of its toxicity. PMID:24352618

  4. Antioxidative enzymes and biochemical changes in paclobutrazol induced flowering in mango (M. indica) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Pooja; Singh, V K; Pathak, Neelam

    2014-11-01

    A study was conducted to examine the level of nonstructural carbohydrate, protein concentration and the activity of antioxidative enzymes viz. catalase and peroxidase in buds of different stages (Stages: I-before flower bud differentiation, II-flower bud differentiation, III-bud burst, IV-panicle elongation) and their adjacent leaves of biennial (Chausa, Dashehari, Langra) and the regular (Amrapali) cultivars. In the present study, Amrapali being the regular cultivar, contained higher levels of total and reducing sugar (4.49 to 12.67 mg g(-1) f.wt.) and protein content (1.90 to 6.78 mg g(-1)) in all the developmental stages of flowering as compared to biennial cultivars. However, in leaves gradual reduction in sugar and protein content was noticed in the advance stages of flowering. Paclobutrazol (2-8 g.a.i.), a flower inducing chemical, enhanced the catalase and peroxidase activities over the untreated control and maximum enhancement was recorded at 8 g.a.i. On the other hand, decreasing trend of protein with paclobutrazol treatment was recorded in adjacent leaves of flower buds. The results implicated the possible role of catalase and peroxidase and other associated biochemical changes in paclobutrazol induced flowering in mango. PMID:25522506

  5. Traditional medicine Taeeumjowitangkagambang exerts antiobesity and hypolipidemic effects via antioxidant enzyme enhancement.

    PubMed

    Park, Cheol-Hwan; Jeong, Soo-Jin; Lee, Hyo-Jeong; Lee, Eun-Ok; Bae, Hyunsu; Lee, Min-Ho; Kim, Sun-Hyung; Jung, Hee-Jae; Ahn, Kyoo Seok; Kim, Sung-Hoon

    2010-11-01

    Taeeumjowitangkagambang (ETJKB) is a traditional Korean medicine that has been clinically used for obesity with little mechanistic understanding. The present study investigated antiobesity and hypolipidemic effects of ETJKB in high fat diet fed rats as well as a 3T3-L1 pre-adipocyte differentiation model. ETJKB significantly inhibited the lipidogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes in a concentration-dependent manner as well as reduced the cellular adipokine leptin level. Daily oral gavage of ETJKB to rats fed a high fat diet significantly attenuated body weight gain and abdominal and epididymal fat weights. ETJKB treatment also reduced the levels of total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglyceride as well as increased high density lipoprotein (HDL) in serum compared with the untreated control. Similarly, the ETJKB treatment decreased the levels of total lipid, triglyceride and cholesterol in liver tissue in high fat diet fed rats. Interestingly, ETJKB significantly increased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase in liver tissue, while decreasing the hydroxyl radical, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), carbonyl concentration. An improvement of antioxidant enzymes was associated with improved body weight control and healthier lipid profiles and therefore may play an important role in the antiobesity and hypolipidemic effects of ETJKB. PMID:21031632

  6. Biochemical effect of carbaryl on oxidative stress, antioxidant enzymes and osmolytes of cyanobacterium Calothrix brevissima.

    PubMed

    Habib, Khalid; Kumar, Satyendra; Manikar, Ningthoujam; Zutshi, Sunaina; Fatma, Tasneem

    2011-12-01

    Carbaryl is used in Indian agriculture for control of rice field pests and it is next to Benzene hexachloride in pesticide consumption. In present study, carbaryl (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 mg/L) induced toxic effects were observed after 21 days exposure on a non target rice field biofertilizer Calothrix brevissima with special reference to oxidative stress, antioxidant enzymes and osmolytes. At 40 mg/L carbaryl the decrease in carotenoid, chlorophyll, phycobilin and protein were 63%, 43%, 40% and 40% respectively in comparison to control. Total carbohydrate, malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, catalase and osmolytes showed enhancement at all the treated concentration. Increased amount of MDA (46% at 40 mg/L) indicated free radical mediated deleterious effect of carbaryl. Enhancement of SOD, APX, CAT and osmolytes in presence of carbaryl indicated their involvement in free radical scavenging. SOD, CAT and APX showed maximum activities (79%, 64% and 39% respectively) at 40 mg/L carbaryl. The order of enhancement in osmolytes was glycine-betaine (66%) > proline (54%) > sucrose (50%) at 40 mg/L which might be another adaptive defense strategy of the cyanobacterium against the pesticide. PMID:21979138

  7. Effects of ghrelin on protein expression of antioxidative enzymes and iNOS in the rat liver

    PubMed Central

    Dobutovic, Branislava; Sudar, Emina; Tepavcevic, Snezana; Djordjevic, Jelena; Djordjevic, Ana; Radojcic, Marija

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We investigated the effects of ghrelin on protein expression of the liver antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutases (SODs), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR), nuclear factor ?B (NF?B) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Furthermore, we aimed to investigate whether extracellular regulated protein kinase (ERK1/2) and protein kinase B (Akt) are involved in ghrelin-regulated liver antioxidant enzymes and iNOS protein expression. Material and methods Male Wistar rats were treated with ghrelin (0.3 nmol/5 µl) injected into the lateral cerebral ventricle every 24 h for 5 days, and 2 h after the last treatment the animals were sacrificed and the liver excised. The Western blot method was used to determine expression of antioxidant enzymes, iNOS, phosphorylation of Akt, ERK1/2 and nuclear factor ?B (NF?B) subunits 50 and 65. Results There was significantly higher protein expression of CuZnSOD (p < 0.001), MnSOD (p < 0.001), CAT (p < 0.001), GPx, (p < 0.001), and GR (p < 0.01) in the liver isolated from ghrelin-treated animals compared with control animals. In contrast, ghrelin significantly (p < 0.01) reduced protein expression of iNOS. In addition, phosphorylation of NF?B subunits p65 and p50 was significantly (p < 0.001 for p65; p < 0.05 for p50) reduced by ghrelin when compared with controls. Phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and of Akt was significantly higher in ghrelin-treated than in control animals (p < 0.05 for ERK1/2; p < 0.01 for Akt). Conclusions The results show that activation of Akt and ERK1/2 is involved in ghrelin-mediated regulation of protein expression of antioxidant enzymes and iNOS in the rat liver. PMID:25276168

  8. Joint effects of Penta-BDE and heavy metals on Daphnia magna survival, its antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Baohua Tang; Lingyan Zhu; Qixing Zhou

    2011-01-01

    The joint toxicity of Penta-BDE (Pe-BDE) and heavy metals including cadmium and copper on Daphnia magna (D. magna) was evaluated on the basis of determining the 48 h survival, antioxidative enzyme responses, and lipid peroxidation. The\\u000a response was classified as additive, greater than additive, or less than additive by comparing the measured “toxic units,\\u000a TU” with one. Based on the

  9. c-Maf negatively regulates ARE-mediated detoxifying enzyme genes expression and anti-oxidant induction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saravanakumar Dhakshinamoorthy; Anil K Jaiswal

    2002-01-01

    Anti-oxidant response element (ARE) and nuclear factors including Nrf2 and small Maf (MafG and MafK) proteins are known to regulate expression and induction of detoxifying enzyme genes including quinone oxidoreductase1 (NQO1). Nrf2 upregulates and small Maf proteins lacking the transcriptional activation domain down regulates ARE-mediated expression and induction. In this report, we have investigated the role of c-Maf (large Maf)

  10. Alterations in seedling vigour and antioxidant enzyme activities in Catharanthus roseus under seed priming with native diazotrophs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Karthikeyan; C. A. Jaleel; R. Gopi; M. Deiveekasundaram

    2007-01-01

    An experiment was conducted on Catharanthus roseus to study the effect of seed treatments with native diazotrophs on its seedling growth and antioxidant enzyme activities.\\u000a The treatments had significant influence on various seedling parameters. There is no significant influence on dry matter production\\u000a with the diazotrophs, Azospirillum and Azotobacter. However, the vital seedling parameters such as germination percentage and vigour

  11. Effects of High Temperature on Antioxidant Enzymes and Lipid Peroxidation in Flag Leaves of Wheat During Grain Filling Period

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ping LIU; Wen-shan GUO; Han-chun PU; Chao-nian FENG; Xin-kai ZHU; Yong-xin PENG

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of the phytotron, the effects of high temperature (daily average temperature 25, 30, 35 and 40°C, respectively) on antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation in flag leaves of wheat at 50% relative air moisture during grain fastest filling stage [19–21 days after anthesis (DAA)] were studied. The wheat cultivars tested were Yangmai 9 with weak-gluten and Yangmai 12

  12. Selenium modulates the activities of antioxidant enzymes, osmotic homeostasis and promotes the growth of sorrel seedlings under salt stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lingan Kong; Mao Wang; Dongling Bi

    2005-01-01

    Using physiological assays coupled with ultrathin tissue sections, we investigated the impacts of exogenous selenium (Se) on the growth, antioxidant enzymes, osmotic regulation and ultrastructural modifications of leaf mesophyll and root tip cells of 100 mM NaCl-stressed sorrel (Rumex patientia × R. tianshanicus) seedlings. At low concentrations (1–5 µM), Se tended to stimulate the growth, the activities of superoxide dismutase and peroxidase

  13. Oxidative stress and antioxidative enzyme activities in chronic kidney disease and different types of renal replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Stepniewska, Joanna; Golembiewska, Edyta; Dolegowska, Barbara; Domanski, Maciej; Ciechanowski, Kazimierz

    2015-01-01

    The incidence and diagnosis of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is on the rise all over the world. CKD is related to ageing of the society and high morb idity due to lif estyle diseases like diabetes, atherosclerosis, and hypertension. CKD is associated with increased oxidative stress generated by uremic toxicity, chronic inflammatory state, lack of vitamins and microelements, parenteral iron administration, and dialysis procedure itself. In terms of cellular physiology, erythrocytes and blood platelets in particular have effective enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidative system. The most efficient enzymatic antioxidants include superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Glutathione is the leading non-enzymatic free radical scavenger. In CKD, antioxidative defense is impaired and the abnormal activity of the enzymes and glutathione concentration is described in literature. The imbalance between the formation of reactive oxygen species and antioxidative system efficiency takes part in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular complications. It contributes to increased morbidity and mortality in patients with CKD. The severity of these processes depends on the type of renal replacement therapy; haemodialysis (HD) is more predisposing to such disorders than peritoneal dialysis (PD), or even conservative treatment. This can influence the outcome and the possibility of kidney transplantation. Moreover, the early function of kidney allograft seems to be dependent on perioperative antioxidative ability of platelets, which can play a potential protective role in kidney transplantation. PMID:25707472

  14. What is the main driver of ageing in long-lived winter honeybees: antioxidant enzymes, innate immunity, or vitellogenin?

    PubMed

    Aurori, Cristian M; Buttstedt, Anja; Dezmirean, Daniel S; M?rghita?, Liviu A; Moritz, Robin F A; Erler, Silvio

    2014-06-01

    To date five different theories compete in explaining the biological mechanisms of senescence or ageing in invertebrates. Physiological, genetical, and environmental mechanisms form the image of ageing in individuals and groups. Social insects, especially the honeybee Apis mellifera, present exceptional model systems to study developmentally related ageing. The extremely high phenotypic plasticity for life expectancy resulting from the female caste system provides a most useful system to study open questions with respect to ageing. Here, we used long-lived winter worker honeybees and measured transcriptional changes of 14 antioxidative enzyme, immunity, and ageing-related (insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling pathway) genes at two time points during hibernation. Additionally, worker bees were challenged with a bacterial infection to test ageing- and infection-associated immunity changes. Gene expression levels for each group of target genes revealed that ageing had a much higher impact than the bacterial challenge, notably for immunity-related genes. Antimicrobial peptide and antioxidative enzyme genes were significantly upregulated in aged worker honeybees independent of bacterial infections. The known ageing markers vitellogenin and IlP-1 were opposed regulated with decreasing vitellogenin levels during ageing. The increased antioxidative enzyme and antimicrobial peptide gene expression may contribute to a retardation of senescence in long-lived hibernating worker honeybees. PMID:24077437

  15. Evaluation of the Inhibition of Carbohydrate Hydrolyzing Enzymes, the Antioxidant Activity, and the Polyphenolic Content of Citrus limetta Peel Extract

    PubMed Central

    Flores-Fernandez, José Miguel; Owolabi, Moses S.; Villanueva-Rodríguez, Socorro

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is one of the most frequent causes of death in Mexico, characterized by chronic hyperglycemia. One alternative strategy for this metabolic abnormality is inhibiting the enzymes responsible for the metabolism of carbohydrates. We evaluated whether the aqueous Citrus limetta peel extract could inhibit the metabolism of carbohydrates. We found that this extract inhibited primarily the enzyme ?-amylase by 49.6% at a concentration of 20?mg/mL and to a lesser extent the enzyme ?-glucosidase with an inhibition of 28.2% at the same concentration. This inhibition is likely due to the high polyphenol content in the Citrus limetta peel (19.1?mg?GAE/g). Antioxidant activity of the Citrus limetta peel demonstrated dose-dependent antioxidant activity, varying from 6.5% at 1.125?mg/mL to 42.5% at 20?mg/mL. The study of these polyphenolic compounds having both antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activities may provide a new approach to the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:25587557

  16. Effects of rosmarinic acid on liver and kidney antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation and tissue ultrastructure in aging mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Chen, Xiaoqiang; Yang, Lei; Zu, Yuangang; Lu, Qi

    2015-03-11

    Rosmarinic acid (RA), which is a natural polyphenol, was isolated from Rosmarinus. officinalis L. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of rosmarinic acid on liver and kidney antioxidant enzymes and the tissue ultrastructure in aging mice. RA was administrated at a dosage of 50, 100 or 200 mg kg(-1) once a day with a normal control group and an aging control group for 30 days. The livers and kidneys of the mice were harvested for antioxidant enzyme activities and histological assessments. RA produced significant (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01) increases in the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) with a decrease in malondialdehyde (MDA) at 200 mg kg(-1) compared to the aging control. The histopathological study showed RA may induce significant structural changes in liver and kidney tissues at 200 mg kg(-1). The results in this study demonstrate that RA has the potential for promoting in vivo antioxidant enzyme activity. PMID:25635678

  17. Evaluation of the inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes, the antioxidant activity, and the polyphenolic content of Citrus limetta peel extract.

    PubMed

    Padilla-Camberos, Eduardo; Lazcano-Díaz, Estefania; Flores-Fernandez, José Miguel; Owolabi, Moses S; Allen, Kirk; Villanueva-Rodríguez, Socorro

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is one of the most frequent causes of death in Mexico, characterized by chronic hyperglycemia. One alternative strategy for this metabolic abnormality is inhibiting the enzymes responsible for the metabolism of carbohydrates. We evaluated whether the aqueous Citrus limetta peel extract could inhibit the metabolism of carbohydrates. We found that this extract inhibited primarily the enzyme ?-amylase by 49.6% at a concentration of 20?mg/mL and to a lesser extent the enzyme ?-glucosidase with an inhibition of 28.2% at the same concentration. This inhibition is likely due to the high polyphenol content in the Citrus limetta peel (19.1?mg?GAE/g). Antioxidant activity of the Citrus limetta peel demonstrated dose-dependent antioxidant activity, varying from 6.5% at 1.125?mg/mL to 42.5% at 20?mg/mL. The study of these polyphenolic compounds having both antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activities may provide a new approach to the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:25587557

  18. Coal-burning endemic fluorosis is associated with reduced activity in antioxidative enzymes and Cu/Zn-SOD gene expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Cui, Kang-ping; Xu, Yuan-yuan; Gao, Yan-ling; Zhao, Jing; Li, Da-sheng; Li, Xiao-lei; Huang, Hou-jin

    2014-02-01

    To study the effect of fluorine on the oxidative stress in coal-burning fluorosis, we investigated the environmental characteristics of coal-burning endemic fluorosis combined with fluorine content surveillance in air, water, food, briquette, and clay binder samples from Bijie region, Guizhou Province, southwest of China. The activities of antioxidant enzymes including copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and level of lipid peroxidation such as malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured in serum samples obtained from subjects residing in the Bijie region. Expression of the Cu/Zn-SOD gene was assessed by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR). Our results showed that people suffering from endemic fluorosis (the high and low exposure groups) had much higher MDA level. Their antioxidant enzyme activities and Cu/Zn-SOD gene expression levels were lower when compared to healthy people (the control group). Fluorosis can decrease the activities of antioxidant enzymes, which was associated with exposure level of fluorine. Down-regulation of Cu/Zn-SOD expression may play an important role in the aggravation of oxidative stress in endemic fluorosis. PMID:23567976

  19. Activity levels and expression of antioxidant enzymes in the ascorbate-glutathione cycle in artificially aged rice seed.

    PubMed

    Yin, Guangkun; Xin, Xia; Song, Chao; Chen, Xiaoling; Zhang, Jinmei; Wu, Shuhua; Li, Ruifang; Liu, Xu; Lu, Xinxiong

    2014-07-01

    Reactive oxygen species are the main contributors to seed deterioration. In order to study scavenging systems for reactive oxygen species in aged seed, we performed analyses using western blotting, real-time quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, high-performance liquid chromatography, and antioxidant enzyme activity analyses in artificially aged rice seeds (Oryza sativa L. cv. wanhua no.11). Aging seeds by storing them at 50 °C for 1, 9, or 17 months increased the superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide levels and reduced the germination percentage from 99% to 92%, 55%, and 2%, respectively. The activity levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR), and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) did not change in aged seeds. In contrast, the activity levels of catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR) were significantly decreased in aged seeds, as were the expression of catalase and cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase protein. Transcript accumulation analysis showed that specific expression patterns were complex for each of the antioxidant enzyme types in the rice embryos. Overall, the expression of most genes was down-regulated, along with their protein expression. In addition, the reduction in the amount of ascorbate and glutathione was associated with the reduction in scavenging enzymes activity in aged rice embryos. Our data suggest that the depression of the antioxidant system, especially the reduction in the expression of CAT1, APX1 and MDHAR1, may be responsible for the accumulation of reactive oxygen species in artificially aged seed embryos, leading to a loss of seed vigor. PMID:24705135

  20. [Activity of detoxifying and antioxidant enzymes in the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis (gastropoda: pulmonata) during invasion by trematode cercariae].

    PubMed

    Vorontsova, Ia L; Iurlova, N I; Vodianitskaia, S N; Glupov, V V

    2010-01-01

    A comparative analysis of changes of activities of detoxifying and antioxidant enzymes was carried out in the body homogenate of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis. Juvenile snails with the shell size of 4-6 mm were infested with cercariae of one (Echinoparyphium aconiatum or E. recurvatum or Moliniella anceps) or two (E. aconiatum +M. anceps or E. aconiatum + E. recurvatum or E. recurvatum + M. anceps) trematode species. It has been revealed that activities of detoxifying and antioxidant enzymes in the body of the snail L. stagnalis change at invasion with trematodes and that the character of the changes depends on the stage of development of the trematodes in the host body, the variant of infestation (monoinvasion or mixed infestation), and the species of the parasite. The first 2 h after penetration of the trematode cercariae into the molluse tissues is accompanied by an increase of activities of the detoxifying and antioxidant enzymes. A long coexistence of metacercariae in the host body (no less than for 13 days) is accompanied by a decrease of activities of non-specific esterases and glutathione-S-transferase and by an increase of superoxide dismutase. PMID:20297666

  1. Nrf2 and Nrf1 in association with Jun proteins regulate antioxidant response element-mediated expression and coordinated induction of genes encoding detoxifying enzymes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Radjendirane Venugopal; Anil K Jaiswal

    1998-01-01

    Antioxidant response element (ARE)-mediated expression and coordinated induction of genes encoding detoxifying enzymes is one mechanism of critical importance to cellular protection against oxidative stress. In the present report, we demonstrate that nuclear transcription factors Nrf2 and Nrf1 associate with Jun (c-Jun, Jun-B and Jun-D) proteins to upregulate ARE-mediated expression and coordinated induction of detoxifying enzymes in response to antioxidants

  2. Identification and characterization of the intracellular poly-3-hydroxybutyrate depolymerase enzyme PhaZ of Sinorhizobium meliloti

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background S. meliloti forms indeterminate nodules on the roots of its host plant alfalfa (Medicago sativa). Bacteroids of indeterminate nodules are terminally differentiated and, unlike their non-terminally differentiated counterparts in determinate nodules, do not accumulate large quantities of Poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) during symbiosis. PhaZ is in intracellular PHB depolymerase; it represents the first enzyme in the degradative arm of the PHB cycle in S. meliloti and is the only enzyme in this half of the PHB cycle that remains uncharacterized. Results The S. meliloti phaZ gene was identified by in silico analysis, the ORF was cloned, and a S. meliloti phaZ mutant was constructed. This mutant exhibited increased PHB accumulation during free-living growth, even when grown under non-PHB-inducing conditions. The phaZ mutant demonstrated no reduction in symbiotic capacity; interestingly, analysis of the bacteroids showed that this mutant also accumulated PHB during symbiosis. This mutant also exhibited a decreased capacity to tolerate long-term carbon starvation, comparable to that of other PHB cycle mutants. In contrast to other PHB cycle mutants, the S. meliloti phaZ mutant did not exhibit any decrease in rhizosphere competitiveness; however, this mutant did exhibit a significant increase in succinoglycan biosynthesis. Conclusions S. meliloti bacteroids retain the capacity to synthesize PHB during symbiosis; interestingly, accumulation does not occur at the expense of symbiotic performance. phaZ mutants are not compromised in their capacity to compete for nodulation in the rhizosphere, perhaps due to increased succinoglycan production resulting from upregulation of the succinoglycan biosynthetic pathway. The reduced survival capacity of free-living cells unable to access their accumulated stores of PHB suggests that PHB is a crucial metabolite under adverse conditions. PMID:20346169

  3. Tempol, an Intracellular Antioxidant, Inhibits Tissue Factor Expression, Attenuates Dendritic Cell Function, and Is Partially Protective in a Murine Model of Cerebral Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Francischetti, Ivo M. B.; Gordon, Emile; Bizzarro, Bruna; Gera, Nidhi; Andrade, Bruno B.; Oliveira, Fabiano; Ma, Dongying; Assumpçăo, Teresa C. F.; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Pena, Mirna; Qi, Chen-Feng; Diouf, Ababacar; Moretz, Samuel E.; Long, Carole A.; Ackerman, Hans C.; Pierce, Susan K.; Sá-Nunes, Anderson; Waisberg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background The role of intracellular radical oxygen species (ROS) in pathogenesis of cerebral malaria (CM) remains incompletely understood. Methods and Findings We undertook testing Tempol—a superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetic and pleiotropic intracellular antioxidant—in cells relevant to malaria pathogenesis in the context of coagulation and inflammation. Tempol was also tested in a murine model of CM induced by Plasmodium berghei Anka infection. Tempol was found to prevent transcription and functional expression of procoagulant tissue factor in endothelial cells (ECs) stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This effect was accompanied by inhibition of IL-6, IL-8, and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1) production. Tempol also attenuated platelet aggregation and human promyelocytic leukemia HL60 cells oxidative burst. In dendritic cells, Tempol inhibited LPS-induced production of TNF-?, IL-6, and IL-12p70, downregulated expression of co-stimulatory molecules, and prevented antigen-dependent lymphocyte proliferation. Notably, Tempol (20 mg/kg) partially increased the survival of mice with CM. Mechanistically, treated mice had lowered plasma levels of MCP-1, suggesting that Tempol downmodulates EC function and vascular inflammation. Tempol also diminished blood brain barrier permeability associated with CM when started at day 4 post infection but not at day 1, suggesting that ROS production is tightly regulated. Other antioxidants—such as ?-phenyl N-tertiary-butyl nitrone (PBN; a spin trap), MnTe-2-PyP and MnTBAP (Mn-phorphyrin), Mitoquinone (MitoQ) and Mitotempo (mitochondrial antioxidants), M30 (an iron chelator), and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG; polyphenol from green tea) did not improve survival. By contrast, these compounds (except PBN) inhibited Plasmodium falciparum growth in culture with different IC50s. Knockout mice for SOD1 or phagocyte nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (gp91phox–/–) or mice treated with inhibitors of SOD (diethyldithiocarbamate) or NADPH oxidase (diphenyleneiodonium) did not show protection or exacerbation for CM. Conclusion Results with Tempol suggest that intracellular ROS contribute, in part, to CM pathogenesis. Therapeutic targeting of intracellular ROS in CM is discussed. PMID:24586264

  4. Leaf carbohydrate metabolism during defense: Intracellular sucrose-cleaving enzymes do not compensate repression of cell wall invertase.

    PubMed

    Essmann, Jutta; Bones, Philipp; Weis, Engelbert; Scharte, Judith

    2008-10-01

    The significance of cell wall invertase (cwINV) for plant defense was investigated by comparing wild type (wt) tobacco Nicotiana tabacum L. Samsun NN (SNN) with plants with RNA interference-mediated repression of cwINV (SNN::cwINV) during the interaction with the oomycetic phytopathogen Phytophthora nicotianae. We have previously shown that the transgenic plants developed normally under standard growth conditions, but exhibited weaker defense reactions in infected source leaves and were less tolerant to the pathogen. Here, we show that repression of cwINV was not accompanied by any compensatory activities of intracellular sucrose-cleaving enzymes such as vacuolar and alkaline/neutral invertases or sucrose synthase (SUSY), neither in uninfected controls nor during infection. In wt source leaves vacuolar invertase did not respond to infection, and the activity of alkaline/neutral invertases increased only slightly. SUSY however, was distinctly stimulated, in parallel to enhanced cwINV. In SNN::cwINV SUSY-activation was largely repressed upon infection. SUSY may serve to allocate sucrose into callose deposition and other carbohydrate-consuming defense reactions. Its activity, however, seems to be directly affected by cwINV and the related reflux of carbohydrates from the apoplast into the mesophyll cells. PMID:19704530

  5. AmiA is a penicillin target enzyme with dual activity in the intracellular pathogen Chlamydia pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Klöckner, Anna; Otten, Christian; Derouaux, Adeline; Vollmer, Waldemar; Bühl, Henrike; De Benedetti, Stefania; Münch, Daniela; Josten, Michaele; Mölleken, Katja; Sahl, Hans-Georg; Henrichfreise, Beate

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular Chlamydiaceae do not need to resist osmotic challenges and a functional cell wall was not detected in these pathogens. Nevertheless, a recent study revealed evidence for circular peptidoglycan-like structures in Chlamydiaceae and penicillin inhibits cytokinesis, a phenomenon known as the chlamydial anomaly. Here, by characterizing a cell wall precursor-processing enzyme, we provide insights into the mechanisms underlying this mystery. We show that AmiA from Chlamydia pneumoniae separates daughter cells in an Escherichia coli amidase mutant. Contrary to homologues from free-living bacteria, chlamydial AmiA uses lipid II as a substrate and has dual activity, acting as an amidase and a carboxypeptidase. The latter function is penicillin sensitive and assigned to a penicillin-binding protein motif. Consistent with the lack of a regulatory domain in AmiA, chlamydial CPn0902, annotated as NlpD, is a carboxypeptidase, rather than an amidase activator, which is the case for E. coli NlpD. Functional conservation of AmiA implicates a role in cytokinesis and host response modulation. PMID:24953137

  6. AmiA is a penicillin target enzyme with dual activity in the intracellular pathogen Chlamydia pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Klöckner, Anna; Otten, Christian; Derouaux, Adeline; Vollmer, Waldemar; Bühl, Henrike; De Benedetti, Stefania; Münch, Daniela; Josten, Michaele; Mölleken, Katja; Sahl, Hans-Georg; Henrichfreise, Beate

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular Chlamydiaceae do not need to resist osmotic challenges and a functional cell wall was not detected in these pathogens. Nevertheless, a recent study revealed evidence for circular peptidoglycan-like structures in Chlamydiaceae and penicillin inhibits cytokinesis, a phenomenon known as the chlamydial anomaly. Here, by characterizing a cell wall precursor-processing enzyme, we provide insights into the mechanisms underlying this mystery. We show that AmiA from Chlamydia pneumoniae separates daughter cells in an Escherichia coli amidase mutant. Contrary to homologues from free-living bacteria, chlamydial AmiA uses lipid II as a substrate and has dual activity, acting as an amidase and a carboxypeptidase. The latter function is penicillin sensitive and assigned to a penicillin-binding protein motif. Consistent with the lack of a regulatory domain in AmiA, chlamydial CPn0902, annotated as NlpD, is a carboxypeptidase, rather than an amidase activator, which is the case for E. coli NlpD. Functional conservation of AmiA implicates a role in cytokinesis and host response modulation. PMID:24953137

  7. Schisandra Chinensis Baillon regulates the gene expression of phase II antioxidant/detoxifying enzymes in hepatic damage induced rats

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Han I; Do, Gyeong-Min; Lee, Hye Min; Ok, Hyang Mok; Shin, Jae-Ho

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES This study investigated the antioxidant activities and hepatoprotective effects of Schisandra chinensis Baillon extract (SCE) against tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced oxidative hepatic damage in rats. MATERIALS/METHODS Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were pretreated with SCE (300, 600, and 1,200 mg/kg BW) or saline once daily for 14 consecutive days. On day 14, each animal, except those belonging to the normal control group, were injected with t-BHP (0.8 mmol/kg BW/i.p.), and all of the rats were sacrificed 16 h after t-BHP injection. RESULTS Although no significant differences in AST and ALT levels were observed among the TC and SCE groups, the high-dose SCE group showed a decreasing tendency compared to the TC group. However, erythrocyte SOD activity showed a significant increase in the low-dose SCE group compared with the TC group. On the other hand, no significant differences in hepatic total glutathione (GSH) level, glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were observed among the TC and SCE groups. Hepatic histopathological evaluation revealed that pretreatment with SCE resulted in reduced t-BHP-induced incidence of lesions, such as neutrophil infiltration, swelling of liver cells, and necrosis. In particular, treatment with a high dose of SCE resulted in induction of phase II antioxidant/detoxifying enzyme expression, such as glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC). CONCLUSIONS Based on these results, we conclude that SCE exerts protective effects against t-BHP induced oxidative hepatic damage through the reduction of neutrophil infiltration, swelling of liver cells, and necrosis. In addition, SCE regulates the gene expression of phase II antioxidant/detoxifying enzymes independent of hepatic antioxidant enzyme activity. PMID:24944771

  8. Seasonal changes in antioxidant enzyme activities of freshwater biofilms in a metal polluted Mediterranean stream.

    PubMed

    Bonet, Berta; Corcoll, Natŕlia; Acu?a, Vicenç; Sigg, Laura; Behra, Renata; Guasch, Helena

    2013-02-01

    While seasonal variations in fluvial communities have been extensively investigated, effects of seasonality on community responses to environmental and/or chemical stress are poorly documented. The aim of this study was to describe antioxidant enzyme activity (AEA) variability in fluvial biofilms over an annual cycle, under multi-stress scenarios due to environmental variability (e.g., light intensity, water flow, and temperature) and metal pollution (Zn, Mn and Fe). The annual monitoring study was performed at three sites according to their water and biofilm metal concentrations. Metal concentration was affected by water flow due to dilution. Low flow led to higher dissolved Zn concentrations, and thus to higher Zn accumulation in the biofilm. Water temperature, light intensity and phosphate concentration were the environmental factors which determined the seasonality of biofilm responses, whereas dissolved Zn and Zn accumulation in biofilms were the parameters linked to sites and periods of highest metal pollution. Community algal succession, from diatoms in cold conditions to green algae in warm conditions, was clearer in the non metal-polluted site than in those metal-polluted, presumably due to the selection pressure exerted by metals. Most AEA were related with seasonal environmental variability at the sites with low or no-metal pollution, except glutathione-S-transferase (GST) which was related with Zn (dissolved and accumulated in biofilm) pollution occurring at the most polluted site. We can conclude that seasonal variations of community composition and function are masked by metal pollution. From this study we suggest the use of a multi-biomarker approach, including AEA and a set of biological and physicochemical parameters as an effect-based field tool to assess metal pollution. PMID:23262325

  9. Influence of thermal treatment on color, enzyme activities, and antioxidant capacity of innovative pastelike parsley products.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Andrea; Brinkmann, Maike; Carle, Reinhold; Kammerer, Dietmar R

    2012-03-28

    Conventional spice powders are often characterized by low sensory quality and high microbial loads. Furthermore, genuine enzymes are only inhibited but not entirely inactivated upon drying, so that they may regain their activity upon rehydration of dried foods. To overcome these problems, initial heating was applied in the present study as the first process step for the production of innovative pastelike parsley products. For this purpose, fresh parsley was blanched (80, 90, and 100 °C for 1-10 min) and subsequently comminuted to form a paste. Alternatively, mincing was carried out prior to heat treatment. Regardless of temperature, the color of the latter product did not show any change after heating for 1 min. With progressing exposure time the green color turned to olive hues due to marked pheophytin formation. Inactivation of genuine peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was achieved at all temperature-time regimes applied. In contrast, the parsley products obtained after immediate water-blanching were characterized by brighter green colors and enhanced pigment retention. With the exception of the variants water-blanched at 80 °C, POD and PPO were completely inactivated at any of the thermal treatments. Furthermore, in water-blanched samples, antioxidant capacities as determined by the TEAC and FRAP assays were even enhanced compared to unheated parsley, whereas a decrease of phenolic contents could not be prevented. Consequently, the innovative process presented in this study allows the production of novel herb and spice products characterized by improved sensory quality as compared to conventional spice products. PMID:22375822

  10. A novel stress-inducible antioxidant enzyme identified from the resurrection plant Xerophyta viscosa Baker.

    PubMed

    Mowla, Shaheen B; Thomson, Jennifer A; Farrant, Jill M; Mundree, Sagadevan G

    2002-09-01

    A cDNA corresponding to 1-Cys peroxiredoxin, an evolutionarily conserved thiol-specific antioxidant enzyme, was isolated from Xerophyta viscosa Baker, a resurrection plant indigenous to Southern Africa and belonging to the family Velloziaceae. The cDNA, designated XvPer1, contains an open reading frame that encodes a polypeptide of 219 residues with a predicted molecular weight of 24.2 kDa. The XvPer1 polypeptide shows significant sequence identity (approx. 70%) to other recently identified plant 1-Cys peroxiredoxins and relatively high levels of sequence similarity (approx. 40%) to non-plant 1-Cys peroxiredoxins. The XvPer1 cDNA contains a putative polyadenylation site. As for all 1-Cys peroxiredoxins identified to date, the amino acid sequence proposed to constitute the active site of the enzyme, PVCTTE, is highly conserved in XvPer1. It also contains a putative bipartite nuclear localization signal. Southern blot analysis revealed that there is a single copy of XvPer1 in the X. viscosa genome. All angiosperm 1-Cys peroxiredoxins described to date are seed-specific and absent in vegetative tissues even under stress conditions; therefore, XvPer1 is unique in that it is expressed in the vegetative tissues of X. viscosa. The XvPer1 transcript was absent in fully hydrated X. viscosa tissue but levels increased in tissues subjected to abiotic stresses such as dehydration, heat (42 degrees C), high light intensity (1,500 micro mol photons m(-2) s(-1)) and when treated with abscisic acid (100 micro M ABA) and sodium chloride (100 mM NaCl). Western blot analyses correlated with the patterns of expression of XvPer1 transcripts under different stress conditions. Immunofluorescence analyses revealed that XvPer1 is localized in the nucleus of dehydrated X. viscosa leaf cells. These results suggest that XvPer1 is a stress-inducible gene, which may function to protect nucleic acids within the nucleus against oxidative injury. PMID:12244436

  11. Existing and potential therapeutic uses for N-acetylcysteine: the need for conversion to intracellular glutathione for antioxidant benefits.

    PubMed

    Rushworth, Gordon F; Megson, Ian L

    2014-02-01

    N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) has long been used therapeutically for the treatment of acetaminophen (paracetamol) overdose, acting as a precursor for the substrate (l-cysteine) in synthesis of hepatic glutathione (GSH) depleted through drug conjugation. Other therapeutic uses of NAC have also emerged, including the alleviation of clinical symptoms of cystic fibrosis through cysteine-mediated disruption of disulfide cross-bridges in the glycoprotein matrix in mucus. More recently, however, a wide range of clinical studies have reported on the use of NAC as an antioxidant, most notably in the protection against contrast-induced nephropathy and thrombosis. The results from these studies are conflicting and a consensus is yet to be reached regarding the merits or otherwise of NAC in the antioxidant setting. This review seeks to re-evaluate the mechanism of action of NAC as a precursor for GSH synthesis in the context of its activity as an "antioxidant". Results from recent studies are examined to establish whether the pre-requisites for effective NAC-induced antioxidant activity (i.e. GSH depletion and the presence of functional metabolic pathways for conversion of NAC to GSH) have received adequate consideration in the interpretation of the data. A key conclusion is a reinforcement of the concept that NAC should not be considered to be a powerful antioxidant in its own right: its strength is the targeted replenishment of GSH in deficient cells and it is likely to be ineffective in cells replete in GSH. PMID:24080471

  12. Curcumin Attenuates CFA Induced Thermal Hyperalgesia by Modulation of Antioxidant Enzymes and Down Regulation of TNF-?, IL-1? and IL-6.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ajeet Kumar; Vinayak, Manjula

    2015-03-01

    Reactive oxygen species are signaling mediators of nociceptive pathways. Exogenous administrations of antioxidants show anti-hyperalgesic effect. However, very little is known about the role of endogenous antioxidant defense system in pain pathology. Curcumin is a dietary antioxidant which shows ameliorative effect on thermal hypersensitivity, however detailed study is lacking. Present study was aimed to analyze the changes in oxidative stress, modulation of antioxidant enzymes and pro-inflammatory cytokines in complete Freund's adjuvant induced inflammatory hyperalgesia and the effect of curcumin on antioxidant defense system and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Anti-hyperalgesic activity of curcumin was evidenced after 6 h of treatment. Oxidative stress was evidenced in paw skin and spinal cord of hyperalgesic rats by high level of lipid peroxidation. A decrease in activity of antioxidant enzymes like catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and an increase in level of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-?, IL-1? and IL-6 in paw skin was observed as compared to normal rats. However, activity of antioxidant enzymes was enhanced in spinal cord. The changes were brought towards normal level after curcumin treatment. The results suggest that modulation of antioxidant defense system is early event in initiation of inflammatory hyperalgesia which might lead to initiation of other signaling pathways mediated by lipid peroxide, TNF-?, IL-1? and IL-6. Decrease in oxidative stress and down regulation of these cytokines by curcumin is suggested to be involved in its anti-hyperalgesic effect. PMID:25479948

  13. Function of antioxidant enzymes and metabolites during maturation of pea fruits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manuel A. Matamoros; Jorge Loscos; Karl-Josef Dietz; Pedro M. Aparicio-Tejo; Manuel Becana

    2010-01-01

    In plant cells, antioxidants keep reactive oxygen species at low concentrations, avoiding oxidative damage while allowing them to play crucial functions in signal transduction. However, little is known about the role of antioxidants during fruit maturation, especially in legumes. Snap pea (Pisum sativum) plants, which have edible fruits, were grown under nodulating and non-nodulating conditions. Fruits were classified in three

  14. Effects of antimony and arsenic on antioxidant enzyme activities of two steppic plant species in an old antimony mining area.

    PubMed

    Benhamdi, Asma; Bentellis, Alima; Rached, Oualida; Du Laing, Gijs; Mechakra, Aicha

    2014-04-01

    The present work was undertaken to determine strategies and antioxidant enzyme activities involved in the adaptation of two wild steppic plants (Hedysarum pallidum Desf. and Lygeum spartum L.) to the toxic environment of the abandoned antimony mining area of Djebel Hamimat (Algeria). For this purpose, soils and plants were collected in different zones coinciding with a Sb and As concentrations gradient in the soil. Antimony (Sb) and arsenic (As) were analyzed by ICP-OES in the soils and the aboveground parts and roots of the plants. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and antioxidant enzyme activities were measured by spectrometry. Results show levels of Sb and As exceptionally high in most soil and plant samples. The two species accumulate differently Sb and As in their above and belowground parts. MDA levels, in the two parts of both species, increase significantly with increasing soil Sb and As concentrations, but they are significantly higher in H. pallidum than in L. spartum. The activities of antioxidant enzymes differ significantly according to the soil metalloid concentrations, the plant species considered and the plant part. Apart from superoxide dismutase (SOD) whose activity is, overall, higher in H. pallidum than in L. spartum, the activities of all the other enzymes studied (glutathione S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX)) are generally higher in L. spartum than in H. pallidum. For both species, APX and GST are overall more active in the upper parts than in the roots, while it is the reverse for SOD and CAT. POD is more active in the upper parts than in the roots of L. spartum and the reverse applies to H. pallidum. It appears that the two studied plant species use different tolerance strategies to protect themselves against elevated As and Sb concentrations. PMID:24563031

  15. Effect of Nigella sativa fixed and essential oils on antioxidant status, hepatic enzymes, and immunity in streptozotocin induced diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nigella sativa fixed (NSFO) and essential (NSEO) oils have been used to treat diabetes mellitus and its complications. Present study was undertaken to explore and validate these folkloric uses. Methods Sprague dawley rats having streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes mellitus were used to assess the role of NSFO and NSEO in the management of diabetes complications. Parameters investigated were antioxidant potential, oxidative stress, and the immunity by in vivo experiments. Results The results indicated that STZ decreased the glutathione contents (25.72%), while NSFO and NSEO increased the trait significantly (P?enzymes (P?antioxidant potential is positively associated (P?enzymes and the decrease of the nitric oxide production thus controlling the diabetes complications. Conclusions Overall, results of present study supported the traditional use of N. sativa and its derived products as a treatment for hyperglycemia and allied abnormalities. Moreover, N. sativa fixed and essential oils significantly ameliorate free radicals and improve antioxidant capacity thus reducing the risk of diabetic complications. PMID:24939518

  16. HPLC analysis of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides and its effect on antioxidant enzymes activity and Bax, Bcl-2 expression.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qian; Wang, SiWang; Xie, YanHua; Sun, JiYuan; Wang, JianBo

    2010-03-01

    The polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum (GLP) were prepared using boiling water extraction methods. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) showed that GLP was composed of five monosaccharides and disaccharides, including xylose, fructose, glucose, sucrose and maltose, were identified for polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum. The relative molar percentages of xylose, fructose, glucose, sucrose and maltose in polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum were 0.4%, 14.4%, 12.8%, 0.7% and 50.9%, respectively. GLP (100, 200, 300mg/kg) was administered to diabetic rats. Effect of extract on antioxidant enzymes activities and lipid peroxidation levels of pancreas was studied in diabetic rats. The mechanism of anti-apoptosis of GLP in STZ-induced diabetic rats was further investigated using Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and protein. Result showed that GLP extracts effectively reduced oxidative injury and inhibited apoptosis by increasing antioxidant enzyme activities and modifying bcl-2 expression and bax/bcl-2 ratio. The GLP extract exhibited potent antioxidant effect in vivo. The effect can contribute, at least in part, to the inhibition of apoptosis. PMID:19941892

  17. Ubiad1 is an antioxidant enzyme that regulates eNOS activity by CoQ10 synthesis.

    PubMed

    Mugoni, Vera; Postel, Ruben; Catanzaro, Valeria; De Luca, Elisa; Turco, Emilia; Digilio, Giuseppe; Silengo, Lorenzo; Murphy, Michael P; Medana, Claudio; Stainier, Didier Y R; Bakkers, Jeroen; Santoro, Massimo M

    2013-01-31

    Protection against oxidative damage caused by excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) by an antioxidant network is essential for the health of tissues, especially in the cardiovascular system. Here, we identified a gene with important antioxidant features by analyzing a null allele of zebrafish ubiad1, called barolo (bar). bar mutants show specific cardiovascular failure due to oxidative stress and ROS-mediated cellular damage. Human UBIAD1 is a nonmitochondrial prenyltransferase that synthesizes CoQ10 in the Golgi membrane compartment. Loss of UBIAD1 reduces the cytosolic pool of the antioxidant CoQ10 and leads to ROS-mediated lipid peroxidation in vascular cells. Surprisingly, inhibition of eNOS prevents Ubiad1-dependent cardiovascular oxidative damage, suggesting a crucial role for this enzyme and nonmitochondrial CoQ10 in NO signaling. These findings identify UBIAD1 as a nonmitochondrial CoQ10-forming enzyme with specific cardiovascular protective function via the modulation of eNOS activity. PMID:23374346

  18. Ubiad1 Is an Antioxidant Enzyme that Regulates eNOS Activity by CoQ10 Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Mugoni, Vera; Postel, Ruben; Catanzaro, Valeria; De Luca, Elisa; Turco, Emilia; Digilio, Giuseppe; Silengo, Lorenzo; Murphy, Michael P.; Medana, Claudio; Stainier, Didier Y.R.; Bakkers, Jeroen; Santoro, Massimo M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Protection against oxidative damage caused by excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) by an antioxidant network is essential for the health of tissues, especially in the cardiovascular system. Here, we identified a gene with important antioxidant features by analyzing a null allele of zebrafish ubiad1, called barolo (bar). bar mutants show specific cardiovascular failure due to oxidative stress and ROS-mediated cellular damage. Human UBIAD1 is a nonmitochondrial prenyltransferase that synthesizes CoQ10 in the Golgi membrane compartment. Loss of UBIAD1 reduces the cytosolic pool of the antioxidant CoQ10 and leads to ROS-mediated lipid peroxidation in vascular cells. Surprisingly, inhibition of eNOS prevents Ubiad1-dependent cardiovascular oxidative damage, suggesting a crucial role for this enzyme and nonmitochondrial CoQ10 in NO signaling. These findings identify UBIAD1 as a nonmitochondrial CoQ10-forming enzyme with specific cardiovascular protective function via the modulation of eNOS activity. PMID:23374346

  19. Copper-stress induced alterations in protein profile and antioxidant enzymes activities in the in vitro grown Withania somnifera L.

    PubMed

    Rout, Jyoti R; Ram, Shidharth S; Das, Ritarani; Chakraborty, Anindita; Sudarshan, Mathummal; Sahoo, Santi L

    2013-07-01

    Withania somnifera L. seedlings were grown in half-strength MS (Murashige and Skoog) basal medium for 4 weeks and then transferred to full-strength MS liquid medium for 3 weeks. The sustainable plants were subcultured in the same medium but with different concentrations (0, 25, 50, 100 and 200 ?M) of Cu for 7 and 14 days. The growth parameters (root length, shoot length, leaf length and total number of leaves per plant) showed a declining trend in the treated plants in a concentration dependant manner. Roots and leaves were analyzed for protein profiling and antioxidant enzymes [catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6), superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) and guaiacol peroxidase (GPX, EC 1.11.1.7)]. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of crude protein extracts showed the appearance of some new proteins due to Cu treatment. In plant samples grown with 25 and 50 ?M of Cu, a rapid increase in antioxidant activities were noticed but at higher concentration (100 and 200 ?M) the activities declined. Isoforms of CAT, SOD and GPX were separated using non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and concentration specific new isoforms were noticed during the study. Isoforms of the antioxidant enzymes synthesized due to Cu stress may be used as biomarkers for other species grown under metal stress. PMID:24431504

  20. Changes in plant communities along soil pollution gradients: responses of leaf antioxidant enzyme activities and phytochelatin contents.

    PubMed

    Dazy, Marc; Béraud, Eric; Cotelle, Sylvie; Grévilliot, Frédérique; Férard, Jean-François; Masfaraud, Jean-François

    2009-10-01

    This work describes an ecological and ecotoxicological study of polluted wasteland plant communities in a former coke-factory located in Homécourt (France). Ecological analyses were performed along two transects to investigate changes in plant community structure through species richness (S), biological diversity (H') and evenness (J). Five species (Arrhenatherum elatius, Bromus tectorum, Euphorbia cyparissias, Hypericum perforatum and Tanacetum vulgare) were then selected to assess cellular responses through antioxidant enzyme activities and phytochelatins (PCs) contents. The results showed that species richness and biological diversity correlated negatively to Cd and Hg concentrations in soil suggesting that soil concentration of non-essential heavy metals was the primary factor governing vegetation structure in the industrial wasteland. Moreover, for all studied species, abundances were partly related to metal levels in the soils, but also to plant antioxidant systems, suggesting their role in plant establishment success in polluted areas. Data for PC contents led to less conclusive results. PMID:19692108

  1. Function of antioxidant enzymes and metabolites during maturation of pea fruits

    PubMed Central

    Matamoros, Manuel A.; Loscos, Jorge; Dietz, Karl-Josef; Aparicio-Tejo, Pedro M.; Becana, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    In plant cells, antioxidants keep reactive oxygen species at low concentrations, avoiding oxidative damage while allowing them to play crucial functions in signal transduction. However, little is known about the role of antioxidants during fruit maturation, especially in legumes. Snap pea (Pisum sativum) plants, which have edible fruits, were grown under nodulating and non-nodulating conditions. Fruits were classified in three maturity stages and antioxidants were determined in the seeds and seedless pods. Maturation or prolonged storage of fruits at 25 °C led to a decline in antioxidant activities and metabolites and in ?-glutamylcysteine synthetase protein. Notable exceptions were superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione peroxidase protein, which increased in one or both of these processes. During maturation, cytosolic peroxiredoxin decreased in seeds but increased in pods, and ascorbate oxidase activity was largely reduced in seeds. In stored fruits, ascorbate oxidase activity was nearly abolished in seeds but doubled in pods. It is concluded that symbiotic nitrogen fixation is as effective as nitrogen fertilization in maintaining the antioxidant capacity of pea fruits and that, contrary to climacteric fruits, a general decrease in antioxidants during maturation does not involve oxidative stress. Results underscore the importance of the antioxidant system in reproductive organs and point to ascorbate–glutathione metabolism and cytosolic peroxiredoxin as key players in pea fruit development. PMID:19822534

  2. Enzyme-responsive intracellular-controlled release using silica mesoporous nanoparticles capped with ?-poly-L-lysine.

    PubMed

    Mondragón, Laura; Mas, Núria; Ferragud, Vicente; de la Torre, Cristina; Agostini, Alessandro; Martínez-Máńez, Ramón; Sancenón, Félix; Amorós, Pedro; Pérez-Payá, Enrique; Orzáez, Mar

    2014-04-25

    The synthesis and characterization of two new capped silica mesoporous nanoparticles for controlled delivery purposes are described. Capped hybrid systems consist of MCM-41 nanoparticles functionalized on the outer surface with polymer ?-poly-L-lysine by two different anchoring strategies. In both cases, nanoparticles were loaded with model dye molecule [Ru(bipy)3](2+). An anchoring strategy involved the random formation of urea bonds by the treatment of propyl isocyanate-functionalized MCM-41 nanoparticles with the lysine amino groups located on the ?-poly-L-lysine backbone (solid Ru-rLys-S1). The second strategy involved a specific attachment through the carboxyl terminus of the polypeptide with azidopropyl-functionalized MCM-41 nanoparticles (solid Ru-tLys-S1). Once synthesized, both nanoparticles showed a nearly zero cargo release in water due to the coverage of the nanoparticle surface by polymer ?-poly-L-lysine. In contrast, a remarkable payload delivery was observed in the presence of proteases due to the hydrolysis of the polymer's amide bonds. Once chemically characterized, studies of the viability and the lysosomal enzyme-controlled release of the dye in intracellular media were carried out. Finally, the possibility of using these materials as drug-delivery systems was tested by preparing the corresponding ?-poly-L-lysine capped mesoporous silica nanoparticles loaded with cytotoxic drug camptothecin (CPT), CPT-rLys-S1 and CPT-tLys-S1. Cellular uptake and cell-death induction were studied. The efficiency of both nanoparticles as new potential platforms for cancer treatment was demonstrated. PMID:24700694

  3. Bioaccumulation of glyphosate and its formulation Roundup Ultra in Lumbriculus variegatus and its effects on biotransformation and antioxidant enzymes.

    PubMed

    Contardo-Jara, Valeska; Klingelmann, Eva; Wiegand, Claudia

    2009-01-01

    The bioaccumulation potential of glyphosate and the formulation Roundup Ultra, as well as possible effects on biotransformation and antioxidant enzymes in Lumbriculus variegatus were compared by four days exposure to concentrations between 0.05 and 5 mg L(-1) pure glyphosate and its formulation. Bioaccumulation was determined using (14)C labeled glyphosate. The bioaccumulation factor (BCF) varied between 1.4 and 5.9 for the different concentrations, and was higher than estimated from logP(ow). Glyphosate and its surfactant POEA caused elevation of biotransformation enzyme soluble glutathione S-transferase at non-toxic concentrations. Membrane bound glutathione S-transferase activity was significantly elevated in Roundup Ultra exposed worms, compared to treatment with equal glyphosate concentrations, but did not significantly differ from the control. Antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase was significantly increased by glyphosate but in particular by Roundup Ultra exposure indicating oxidative stress. The results show that the formulation Roundup Ultra is of more ecotoxicological relevance than the glyphosate itself. PMID:18790555

  4. Antioxidant effects of the sarsaparilla via scavenging of reactive oxygen species and induction of antioxidant enzymes in human dermal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Park, Gunhyuk; Kim, Tae-mi; Kim, Jeong Hee; Oh, Myung Sook

    2014-07-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation from sunlight causes distinct changes in collagenous skin tissues as a result of the breakdown of collagen, a major component of the extracellular matrix. UV irradiation downregulates reactive oxygen species (ROS)-elimination pathways, thereby promoting the production of ROS, which are implicated in skin aging. Smilax glabra Roxb (sarsaparilla) has been used in folk medicine because of its many effects. However, no study on the protective effects of sarsaparilla root (SR) on human dermal fibroblasts has been reported previously. Here, we investigated the protective effect of SR against oxidative stress in dermal fibroblasts. SR significantly inhibited oxidative damage and skin-aging factor via mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. Also, SR decreased Ca(2+) and ROS, mitochondrial membrane potential, dysfunction, and increased glutathione, NAD(P)H dehydrogenase and heme oxygenase-1. These results demonstrate that SR can protect dermal fibroblasts against UVB-induced skin aging via antioxidant effects. PMID:25022355

  5. Antioxidative activity and inhibition of key enzymes linked to type-2 diabetes (?-glucosidase and ?-amylase) by Khaya senegalensis.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mohammed Auwal; Koorbanally, Neil Anthony; Islam, Md Shahidul

    2014-09-01

    This study evaluated the in vitro antioxidative activity of Khaya senegalensis extracts and inhibitory effects of some solvent fractions on ?-glucosidase and ?-amylase activities. The stem bark, root and leaf samples of the plant were sequentially extracted with ethyl acetate, ethanol and water and then tested for antioxidative activity. Our findings revealed that the ethanolic extract of the root had the highest antioxidative activity. Solvent-solvent fractionation of the root ethanolic extract yielded a butanol fraction that showed higher antioxidative activity than other fractions. Furthermore, the butanol fraction had significantly higher (p < 0.05) ?-glucosidase and ?-amylase inhibitory activities with IC50 values of 2.89 ± 0.46 and 97.51 ± 5.72 ?g mL?ą, respectively. Enzyme kinetic studies indicated that the butanol fraction is a non-competitive inhibitor for ?-glucosidase with an inhibition binding constant K(i) of 1.30 ?g mL?ą and a competitive inhibitor of ?-amylase with a K(i) of 7.50 ?g mL?ą. GC-MS analysis revealed that the butanol fraction contained two chromones, p-anilinophenol and 3-ethyl-5-(3-ethyl-(3H)-benzothiazol-2-ylidene)-2-(p-tolylvinylamino)-4-thiazolidinone. Data obtained in the study suggest that the butanol fraction derived from the ethanolic extract of K. senegalensis root possessed excellent antioxidative as well as ?-glucosidase and a-amylase inhibitory activities while chromones and/or p-anilinophenol could be the main bioactive compounds responsible for the observed activities. PMID:25296677

  6. The effect of sulfite and chronic restraint stress on brain lipid peroxidation and anti-oxidant enzyme activities.

    PubMed

    Derin, Narin; Yargiço?lu, Piraye; Aslan, Mutay; Elmas, O?uz; Agar, Aysel; Aicigüzel, Yakup

    2006-07-01

    Sulfites are used as anti-microbial and anti-oxidant agents in a variety of drugs, and function as a preservative in many food preparations. In addition to these effects, sulfites oxidize to sulfite radicals initiating lipid peroxidation. The objective of our study was to investigate the effect of restraint stress and sulfite on brain lipid peroxidation and anti-oxidant enzyme activities. Forty male Wistar rats, aged three months, were randomized to one of the following groups: control, restraint stress, sulfite-treated and restraint stress + sulfite-treated. Chronic restraint stress was applied for 21 days (1 h/day) and sodium metabisulfite (520 mg/kg per day) was given by gavage for the same period. Lipid peroxidation was measured using the thiobarbituric acid (TBA) fluorometric assay. TBA-reactive substances (TBARS) were found increased in all treatment groups when compared to the control group. Spectrophotometric measurement of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn SOD) and catalase (CAT) revealed decreased enzyme activities in rats exposed to restraint stress compared to control and sulfite-treated rats. GSH-Px activities were significantly decreased in the restraint stress and sulfite-treated rats compared with the control rats. GSH-Px activity measured in restraint stress + sulfite-treated rats was significantly lower than in the other groups. The presented data confirms the pro-oxidant activity of restraint stress and establishes that decreased anti-oxidant enzyme activities in restraint stress-treated rats enhances brain lipid peroxidation caused via the ingestion of sulfites. PMID:16924954

  7. Alteration of antioxidant enzymes and impairment of DNA in the SiO2 nanoparticles exposed zebra fish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Ramesh, R; Kavitha, P; Kanipandian, N; Arun, S; Thirumurugan, R; Subramanian, P

    2013-07-01

    The incorporation of nanoparticles in industrial and biomedical applications has increased significantly in recent years, yet their hazardous and toxic effects have not been studied extensively. While standard toxicological test methods are generally capable of detecting the toxic effects, the choice of relevant methods for nanomaterials is still discussed. Among the various oxide nanomaterials, silica nanoparticles are widely used in biological applications that include nano-medicine. But studies on adverse effects of silica nanoparticle exposure to fish remain unclear. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the oxidative toxic effects of silicon dioxide nanoparticles using fish model. The size of the SiO2 nanoparticles was between 68 and 100 nm which was confirmed by X-ray diffractometer, dynamic light scattering, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. The zebra fish were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations (5 and 2.5 mg/L) of characterized SiO2 nanoparticles for a period of 7 days. After 7 days, SiO2 nanoparticle-treated fishes were sacrificed, and tissues such as liver, muscle and gill were dissected out for the analysis of antioxidant enzymes and DNA fragmentation. The DNA profiles were analysed in the tissues of zebra fish that treated with SiO2 nanoparticles. Tissues of fish from clean water were used as control, and DNA profiles were analysed. It is found that DNA from control tissues was intact, whereas the tissues treated with SiO2 were all fragmented. SiO2 nanoparticle-mediated antioxidant enzymes activities, such as catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione (GSH)-S-transferase, glutathione reductase and GSH, in the tissues of zebra fish were measured. The results revealed that alteration of antioxidant enzymes due to SiO2 nanoparticle can be considered as a biomarker to SiO2-mediated oxidative stress in biological samples. PMID:23196406

  8. 24-Epibrassinolide regulates photosynthesis, antioxidant enzyme activities and proline content of Cucumis sativus under salt and/or copper stress.

    PubMed

    Fariduddin, Q; Khalil, Radwan R A E; Mir, Bilal A; Yusuf, M; Ahmad, A

    2013-09-01

    Brassinosteroids have been extensively used to overcome various abiotic stresses. But its role in combined stress of salt and excess copper remains unexplored. Seeds of two cultivars (Rocket and Jumbo) of Cucumis sativus were grown in sand amended with copper (100 mg kg(-1)), and developed seedlings were exposed to salt stress in the form of NaCl (150 mM) at the 30-day stage of growth for 3 days. These seedlings were subsequently sprayed with 0 or 0.01 ?M of 24-epibrassinolide (EBL) at the 35-day stage. The plants exposed to NaCl and Cu in combination exhibited a significant decline in fresh and dry mass of plant, chlorophyll content, activities of carbonic anhydrase, net photosynthetic rate and maximum quantum yield of the PSII primary photochemistry followed by NaCl and Cu stress alone, more severely in Jumbo than in Rocket. However, the follow-up treatment with EBL to the stressed and nonstressed plant improved growth, chlorophyll content, carbonic anhydrase activity and photosynthetic efficiency, and further enhanced the activity of various antioxidant enzymes viz. catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase and content of proline at the 40-day stage of growth, and the response of the hormone was more effective in Rocket than in Jumbo. The elevated level of antioxidant enzymes as well as proline could have conferred tolerance to the NaCl- and/or Cu-stressed plants resulting in improved growth, water relations and photosynthetic attributes. Furthermore, antioxidant enzyme activity and proline content were more enhanced in Rocket than in Jumbo cultivar. PMID:23443638

  9. Major Shifts in the Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Lung Antioxidant Enzymes during Influenza Pneumonia

    E-print Network

    Yamada, Yoshiyuki

    With the incessant challenge of exposure to the air we breathe, lung tissue suffers the highest levels of oxygen tension and thus requires robust antioxidant defenses. Furthermore, following injury or infection, lung tissue ...

  10. Antioxidant enzymes stimulation in Aspergillus parasiticus by Lentinula edodes inhibits aflatoxin production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Reverberi; A. A. Fabbri; S. Zjalic; A. Ricelli; F. Punelli; C. Fanelli

    2005-01-01

    Biosynthesis of aflatoxins, toxic metabolites produced by Aspergillus parasiticus, is correlated to the fungal oxidative stress and cell ageing. In this paper, the mechanism underlying the aflatoxin-inhibiting effect of the Lentinula edodes culture filtrates was studied by analysing their anti-oxidant activity and ?-glucan content. Mushroom ?-glucans are pharmacologically active compounds stimulating anti-oxidant responses in animal cells. L. edodes lyophilised filtrates

  11. Antioxidant enzyme activities of iron-saturated bovine lactoferrin (Fe-bLf) in human gut epithelial cells under oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Burrow, Hannah; Kanwar, Rupinder K; Kanwar, Jagat R

    2011-05-01

    Chemoprevention by dietary constituents in the form of functional food has emerged as a novel approach to control inflammatory diseases and cancers. Recently we reported for the first time that iron content is a critical determinant in the anti-tumour activity of bovine milk lactoferrin (bLf). We therefore wanted to evaluate the chemo-preventative efficacy of Apo-bLF and 100% iron-saturated bLF (Fe-bLF) on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced colon carcinogenesis, and their influence on antioxidant enzyme activities within colon carcinogenesis. This was undertaken through observing how oxidative stress induced by H2O2 alters antioxidant enzyme activity within HT29 colon cancer cells, and then observing changes in this activity by treatments with the different antioxidants ascorbic acid (AA), Apo-bLF and Fe-bLF. All antioxidant enzymes (catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-s-transferase (GsT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) appeared to be increased within HT29 cells, even prior to H2O2 exposure, and all enzymes showed significant decreased activity when cells were treated with the antioxidants AA, Apo-bLF or Fe-bLF, with or without H2O2 exposure. The results indicate that all three antioxidants have the ability to scavenge ROS, lower antioxidant enzyme activities within already excited states, and possibly allow colon cancer cells to be overcome by oxidative stress that would normally be prevented, perhaps leading to damage and potential apoptosis of the cancer cells. In conclusion, the anti-oxidative effects of Apo-bLF and Fe-bLf studied for the first time, show dynamic changes that may allow for necessary protection from imbalanced oxidative conditions, and potential at reducing the ability of cancer cells to protect themselves from oxidative stress states. PMID:21486205

  12. Enzymatic Biomarker Measurement and Study on Pollution-induced Antioxidant Enzymes Responses in Freshwater Fish Liver, Brocarded Carp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongyan Shen; Cunyi Song; Fangfang Zhen; Fang Wang; Hongqiang Ren

    2007-01-01

    The acute toxicity of M-DNB (m-dinitrobenzene) to Brocarded Carp and antioxidant enzyme activities in liver of fish were investigated. The acute toxicity test showed that 24h, 48h, 72h, 96h value of median lethal concentration (LC50) at 20-22 square were 27.19, 20.65, 16.17 and 14.04mg\\/L, respectively. Fish was exposed to different concentrations (1\\/6LC50, 1\\/4LC50, 1\\/3LC50, 1\\/2LC50) and killed at 6, 12,18,

  13. Response of enzymes involved in the processes of antioxidation towards benthiocarb and methylparathion in cyanobacteria Nostoc muscorum

    SciTech Connect

    Bhunia, A.K.; Roy, D.; Basu, N.K.; Chakrabarti, A.; Banerjee, S.K. (Univ. College of Science, Calcutta (India))

    1991-08-01

    Recently, it has been observed in the authors' laboratory that growth, nitrogen fixation, protein content of cyanobacteria Nostoc muscorum were reduced by methylparathion and benthiocarb treatment. Though many works on toxicity of pesticides on cyanobacteria, specially on growth, photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation are available, the effects of pesticides on antioxidant enzyme levels is still unclear. In this communication, studies have been presented on the effects of organophosphate insecticide methyl-parathione and carbamate herbicide benthiocarb, on glutathione content, glutathione reductase (GR) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities of filamentous, nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria Nostoc muscorum.

  14. [Changes in mRNA and protein expression of antioxidant enzymes in children with bronchial asthma after interval hypoxic training].

    PubMed

    Nesvita?lova, K V; Honchar, O O; Drevyts'ka, T I; Arabs'ka, L P; Steshenko, M M; Bakunovs'ky?, O M; Serebrovs'ka, T V; Man'kovs'ka, I M

    2011-01-01

    The effect of 10 days of interval hypoxic training (IHT) on the mRNA expression and protein content of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione-S-transferase) in leukocytes of children with bronchial asthma (BA) was investigated. It was shown that after sessions of IHT the mRNA expression of superoxide dismutase decreased by 32.5% (P < 0,05), but the level of protein was unchanged. The level of catalase gene mRNA and protein content in leukocytes after IHT increased by 67% and 13% accordingly. We detected a 90% increase in glutathione S-transferase level following IHT. PMID:22420155

  15. Effect of the French Oak Wood Extract Robuvit on Markers of Oxidative Stress and Activity of Antioxidant Enzymes in Healthy Volunteers: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Orszaghova, Zuzana; Laubertova, Lucia; Sabaka, Peter; Rohdewald, Peter; Durackova, Zdenka; Muchova, Jana

    2014-01-01

    We examined in vitro antioxidant capacity of polyphenolic extract obtained from the wood of oak Quercus robur (QR), Robuvit, using TEAC (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) method and the effect of its intake on markers of oxidative stress, activity of antioxidant enzymes, and total antioxidant capacity in plasma of 20 healthy volunteers. Markers of oxidative damage to proteins, DNA, and lipids and activities of Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were determined in the erythrocytes. We have found an in vitro antioxidant capacity of Robuvit of 6.37 micromole Trolox equivalent/mg of Robuvit. One month intake of Robuvit in daily dose of 300?mg has significantly decreased the serum level of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) and lipid peroxides (LP). Significantly increased activities of SOD and CAT as well as total antioxidant capacity of plasma after one month intake of Robuvit have been shown. In conclusion, we have demonstrated for the first time that the intake of Robuvit is associated with decrease of markers of oxidative stress and increase of activity of antioxidant enzymes and total antioxidant capacity of plasma in vivo. PMID:25254080

  16. The Level of an Intracellular Antioxidant during Development Determines the Adult Phenotype in a Bird Species: A Potential Organizer Role for Glutathione.

    PubMed

    Romero-Haro, Ana Angela; Alonso-Alvarez, Carlos

    2015-03-01

    Abstract Life-history traits are often involved in trade-offs whose outcome would depend on the availability of resources but also on the state of specific molecular signals. Early conditions can influence trade-offs and program the phenotype throughout the lifetime, with oxidative stress likely involved in many taxa. Here we address the potential regulatory role of a single intracellular antioxidant in life-history trade-offs. Blood glutathione levels were reduced in a large sample of birds (zebra finch Taeniopygia guttata) during development using the synthesis inhibitor buthionine sulfoximine (BSO). Results revealed several modifications in the adult phenotype. BSO-treated nestlings showed lower glutathione and plasma antioxidant levels. In adulthood, BSO birds endured greater oxidative damage in erythrocytes but stronger expression of a sexual signal. Moreover, adult BSO females also showed weaker resistance to oxidative stress but were heavier and showed better body condition. Results suggest that low glutathione values during growth favor the investment in traits that should improve fitness returns, probably in the form of early reproduction. Higher oxidative stress in adulthood may be endured if this cost is paid later in life. Either the presence of specific signaling mechanisms or the indirect effect of increased oxidative stress can explain our findings. PMID:25674693

  17. Postnatal exposure to chromium through mother’s milk accelerates follicular atresia in F1 offspring through increased oxidative stress and depletion of antioxidant enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Jone A.; Sivakumar, Kirthiram K.; Nithy, Thamizh K.; Arosh, Joe A.; Hoyer, Patricia B.; Burghardt, Robert C.; Banu, Sakhila K.

    2013-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium, CrVI, is a heavy metal endocrine disruptor, known as a mutagen, teratogen, and a group A carcinogen. Environmental contamination with CrVI, including drinking water, has been increasing in more than 30 cities in the United States. CrVI is rapidly converted to CrIII intracellularly, and CrIII can cause DNA strand breaks and cancer or apoptosis through different mechanisms. Our previous study demonstrated that lactational exposure to chromium results in a delay or arrest in follicle development and a decrease in steroid hormone levels in F1 female rats, both of which are mitigated (partial inhibition) by vitamin C. The current study tested the hypothesis that lactational exposure to CrIII accelerates follicle atresia in F1 offspring by increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decreasing cellular antioxidants. Results showed that lactational exposure to CrIII dose-dependently increased follicular atresia and decreased steroidogenesis in postnatal day 25, 45, and 65 rats. Vitamin C mitigated or inhibited the effects of CrIII at all doses. CrIII increased hydrogen peroxide and lipid hydroperoxide in plasma and ovary; decreased the antioxidant enzymes (AOXs) GPx1, GR, SOD, and catalase; and increased glutathione S-transferase in plasma and ovary. To understand the effects of CrVI on ROS and AOXs in granulosa (GC) and theca (TC) cell compartments in the ovary, ROS levels and mRNA expression of cytosolic and mitochondrial AOXs, such as SOD1, SOD2, catalase, GLRX1, GSTM1, GSTM2, GSTA4, GR, TXN1, TXN2, TXNRD2, and PRDX3, were studied in GCs and TCs and in a spontaneously immortalized granulosa cell line (SIGC). Overall, CrVI downregulated each of the AOXs; and vitamin C mitigated the effects of CrVI on these enzymes in GCs and SIGCs, but failed to mitigate CrVI effects on GSTM1, GSTM2, TXN1, and TXN2 in TCs. Thus, these data for the first time reveal that lactational exposure to CrIII accelerated follicular atresia and decreased steroidogenesis in F1 female offspring by altering the ratio of ROS and AOXs in the ovary. Vitamin C is able to protect the ovary from CrIII-induced oxidative stress and follicle atresia through protective effects on GCs rather than TCs. PMID:23470461

  18. Early Low Protein Diet Aggravates Unbalance between Antioxidant Enzymes Leading to Islet Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Theys, Nicolas; Clippe, André; Bouckenooghe, Thomas; Reusens, Brigitte; Remacle, Claude

    2009-01-01

    Background Islets from adult rat possess weak antioxidant defense leading to unbalance between superoxide dismutase (SOD) and hydrogen peroxide-inactivating enzymatic activities, catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) rending them susceptible to oxidative stress. We have shown that this vulnerability is influenced by maternal diet during gestation and lactation. Methodology/Principal Findings The present study investigated if low antioxidant activity in islets is already observed at birth and if maternal protein restriction influences the development of islet antioxidant defenses. Rats were fed a control diet (C group) or a low protein diet during gestation (LP) or until weaning (LPT), after which offspring received the control diet. We found that antioxidant enzymatic activities varied with age. At birth and after weaning, normal islets possessed an efficient GPX activity. However, the antioxidant capacity decreased thereafter increasing the potential vulnerability to oxidative stress. Maternal protein malnutrition changed the antioxidant enzymatic activities in islets of the progeny. At 3 months, SOD activity was increased in LP and LPT islets with no concomitant activation of CAT and GPX. This unbalance could lead to higher hydrogen peroxide production, which may concur to oxidative stress causing defective insulin gene expression due to modification of critical factors that modulate the insulin promoter. We found indeed that insulin mRNA level was reduced in both groups of malnourished offspring compared to controls. Analyzing the expression of such critical factors, we found that c-Myc expression was strongly increased in islets from both protein-restricted groups compared to controls. Conclusion and Significance Modification in antioxidant activity by maternal low protein diet could predispose to pancreatic islet dysfunction later in life and provide new insights to define a molecular mechanism responsible for intrauterine programming of endocrine pancreas. PMID:19568427

  19. Metabolite profile, antioxidant capacity, and inhibition of digestive enzymes in infusions of peppermint (Mentha piperita) grown under drought stress.

    PubMed

    Figueroa-Pérez, Marely G; Rocha-Guzmán, Nuria Elizabeth; Pérez-Ramírez, Iza F; Mercado-Silva, Edmundo; Reynoso-Camacho, Rosalía

    2014-12-10

    Peppermint (Mentha piperita) infusions represent an important source of antioxidants, which can be enhanced by inducing abiotic stress in plants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of drought stress on peppermint cultivation as well as the metabolite profile, antioxidant capacity, and inhibition of digestive enzymes of resulting infusions. At 45 days after planting, irrigation was suppressed until 85 (control), 65, 35, 24, and 12% soil moisture (SM) was reached. The results showed that 35, 24, and 12% SM decreased fresh (20%) and dry (5%) weight. The 35 and 24% SM treatments significantly increased total phenolic and flavonoid contents as well as antioxidant capacity. Coumaric acid, quercetin, luteolin, and naringenin were detected only in some drought treatments; however, in these infusions, fewer amino acids and unsaturated fatty acids were identified. The 24 and 12% SM treatments slightly improved inhibition of pancreatic lipase and ?-amylase activity. Therefore, induction of moderate water stress in peppermint is recommended to enhance its biological properties. PMID:25439559

  20. Association between maternal micronutrient status, oxidative stress, and common genetic variants in antioxidant enzymes at 15 weeks? gestation in nulliparous women who subsequently develop preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Mistry, Hiten D.; Gill, Carolyn A.; Kurlak, Lesia O.; Seed, Paul T.; Hesketh, John E.; Méplan, Catherine; Schomburg, Lutz; Chappell, Lucy C.; Morgan, Linda; Poston, Lucilla

    2015-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific condition affecting 2–7% of women and a leading cause of perinatal and maternal morbidity and mortality. Deficiencies of specific micronutrient antioxidant activities associated with copper, selenium, zinc, and manganese have previously been linked to preeclampsia at the time of disease. Our aims were to investigate whether maternal plasma micronutrient concentrations and related antioxidant enzyme activities are altered before preeclampsia onset and to examine the dependence on genetic variations in these antioxidant enzymes. Predisease plasma samples (15±1 weeks? gestation) were obtained from women enrolled in the international Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints (SCOPE) study who subsequently developed preeclampsia (n=244) and from age- and BMI-matched normotensive controls (n=472). Micronutrient concentrations were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry; associated antioxidant enzyme activities, selenoprotein-P, ceruloplasmin concentration and activity, antioxidant capacity, and markers of oxidative stress were measured by colorimetric assays. Sixty-four tag–single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within genes encoding the antioxidant enzymes and selenoprotein-P were genotyped using allele-specific competitive PCR. Plasma copper and ceruloplasmin concentrations were modestly but significantly elevated in women who subsequently developed preeclampsia (both P<0.001) compared to controls (median (IQR), copper, 1957.4 (1787, 2177.5) vs 1850.0 (1663.5, 2051.5) µg/L; ceruloplasmin, 2.5 (1.4, 3.2) vs 2.2 (1.2, 3.0) µg/ml). There were no differences in other micronutrients or enzymes between groups. No relationship was observed between genotype for SNPs and antioxidant enzyme activity. This analysis of a prospective cohort study reports maternal micronutrient concentrations in combination with associated antioxidant enzymes and SNPs in their encoding genes in women at 15 weeks? gestation that subsequently developed preeclampsia. The modest elevation in copper may contribute to oxidative stress, later in pregnancy, in those women that go on to develop preeclampsia. The lack of evidence to support the hypothesis that functional SNPs influence antioxidant enzyme activity in pregnant women argues against a role for these genes in the etiology of preeclampsia. PMID:25463281

  1. The Effect of Extra Virgin Olive Oil and Soybean on DNA, Cytogenicity and Some Antioxidant Enzymes in Rats

    PubMed Central

    El-Kholy, Thanaa A.; Abu Hilal, Mohammad; Ali Al-Abbadi, Hatim; Salim Serafi, Abdulhalim; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmad K.; Sobhy, Hanan M.; Richardson, John R. C.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effect of extra virgin (EV) olive oil and genetically modified (GM) soybean on DNA, cytogenicity and some antioxidant enzymes in rodents. Forty adult male albino rats were used in this study and divided into four groups. The control group of rodents was fed basal ration only. The second group was given basal ration mixed with EV olive oil (30%). The third group was fed basal ration mixed with GM (15%), and the fourth group survived on a combination of EV olive oil, GM and the basal ration for 65 consecutive days. On day 65, blood samples were collected from each rat for antioxidant enzyme analysis. In the group fed on basal ration mixed with GM soyabean (15%), there was a significant increase in serum level of lipid peroxidation, while glutathione transferase decreased significantly. Interestingly, GM soyabean increased not only the percentage of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MPCE), but also the ratio of polychromatic erythrocytes to normochromatic erythrocytes (PEC/NEC); however, the amount of DNA and NCE were significantly decreased. Importantly, the combination of EV olive oil and GM soyabean significantly altered the tested parameters towards normal levels. This may suggest an important role for EV olive oil on rodents’ organs and warrants further investigation in humans. PMID:24959949

  2. Placental extracts induce the expression of antioxidant enzyme genes and suppress melanogenesis in B16 melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Masahiro; Hasegawa, Shinya; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Yuka; Sakai, Chihiro; Ashizawa, Yoko; Asai, Yuuki; Kanzaki, Mamiko; Fukui, Tetsuya

    2014-12-01

    One of the activities of placental extracts (PEs) is skin-whitening effect, but the physiological and genetic mechanism for this effect has not yet been clarified. Here, we focus on PE as a regulator of antioxidant enzyme genes. Porcine PE was prepared, and its activity was investigated in B16 melanoma cells. PE treatment decreased the melanin content of UV-irradiated B16 cells in a dose-dependent manner. PE directly reduced the enzyme activity of tyrosinase in a cell-free assay. In addition, PE treatment increased the gene expression of cytosolic superoxide dismutase (SOD-1), extracellular SOD (SOD-3) and catalase but did not affect the expression of tyrosinase. Moreover, PE protected the B16 cells from H2O2-induced cell death. Taken together, our data suggest that PEs could play a role not only as a suppressor of melanin synthesis but also as a regulator of antioxidant genes and might protect the skin against oxidative stress. PMID:25435062

  3. The effect of extra virgin olive oil and soybean on DNA, cytogenicity and some antioxidant enzymes in rats.

    PubMed

    El-Kholy, Thanaa A; Abu Hilal, Mohammad; Al-Abbadi, Hatim Ali; Serafi, Abdulhalim Salim; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmad K; Sobhy, Hanan M; Richardson, John R C

    2014-06-01

    We investigated the effect of extra virgin (EV) olive oil and genetically modified (GM) soybean on DNA, cytogenicity and some antioxidant enzymes in rodents. Forty adult male albino rats were used in this study and divided into four groups. The control group of rodents was fed basal ration only. The second group was given basal ration mixed with EV olive oil (30%). The third group was fed basal ration mixed with GM (15%), and the fourth group survived on a combination of EV olive oil, GM and the basal ration for 65 consecutive days. On day 65, blood samples were collected from each rat for antioxidant enzyme analysis. In the group fed on basal ration mixed with GM soyabean (15%), there was a significant increase in serum level of lipid peroxidation, while glutathione transferase decreased significantly. Interestingly, GM soyabean increased not only the percentage of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MPCE), but also the ratio of polychromatic erythrocytes to normochromatic erythrocytes (PEC/NEC); however, the amount of DNA and NCE were significantly decreased. Importantly, the combination of EV olive oil and GM soyabean significantly altered the tested parameters towards normal levels. This may suggest an important role for EV olive oil on rodents' organs and warrants further investigation in humans. PMID:24959949

  4. Isolation and characterization of antioxidation enzymes from cells of zedoary (Curcuma zedoaria Roscoe) cultured in a 5-l bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Loc, Nguyen-Hoang; Diem, Doan-Thi-Hong; Binh, Doan-Huu-Nhat; Huong, Dao-Thi; Kim, Tae-Geum; Yang, Moon-Sik

    2008-01-01

    In this study, a cell suspension culture system for zedoary (Curcuma zedoaria Roscoe) was developed, using 50 g/l of fresh weight inoculum in a batch culture. The highest cell biomass obtained from a 5-l bioreactor equipped with three impellers after 14 days of culture was utilized to extract secondary metabolites (essential oil and curcumin) and determine the activities of antioxidant enzymes (peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase). For essential oil and curcumin, zedoary extracts were recovered via a variety of methods: steam distillation, volatile solvents, and Soxhlet. After 14 days of culture using volatile solvents, the optimal yield of essential oil (1.78%) was obtained when using petroleum ether at 40 degrees C in 6 h of extraction, and the best curcumin yield (9.69%) was obtained at 60 degrees C in 6 h via extraction with 90% ethanol. The activities of antioxidant enzymes from zedoary cells were also assessed. The specific activities of peroxidase, superoxide-dismutase, and catalase reached maximum values of 0.63 U/mg of protein, 16.60 U/mg of protein, and 19.59 U/mg of protein after 14 days of culture, respectively. PMID:18046518

  5. Flixweed Is More Competitive than Winter Wheat under Ozone Pollution: Evidences from Membrane Lipid Peroxidation, Antioxidant Enzymes and Biomass

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yong; Zheng, Yan-Hai; Jiang, Gao-Ming

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effects of ozone on winter wheat and flixweed under competition, two species were exposed to ambient, elevated and high [O3] for 30 days, planted singly or in mixculture. Eco-physiological responses were examined at different [O3] and fumigating time. Ozone reduced the contents of chlorophyll, increased the accumulation of H2O2 and malondialdehyde in both wheat and flixweed. The effects of competition on chlorophyll content of wheat emerged at elevated and high [O3], while that of flixweed emerged only at high [O3]. The increase of H2O2 and malondialdehyde of flixweed was less than that of wheat under the same condition. Antioxidant enzyme activities of wheat and flixweed were seriously depressed by perennial and serious treatment using O3. However, short-term and moderate fumigation increased the activities of SOD and POD of wheat, and CAT of flixweed. The expression levels of antioxidant enzymes related genes provided explanation for these results. Furthermore, the increase of CAT expression of flixweed was much higher than that of SOD and POD expression of wheat. Ozone and competition resulted in significant reductions in biomass and grain yield in both winter wheat and flixweed. However, the negative effects on flixweed were less than wheat. Our results demonstrated that winter wheat is more sensitive to O3 and competition than flixweed, providing valuable data for further investigation on responses of winter wheat to ozone pollution, in particular combined with species competition. PMID:23533669

  6. Response of antioxidative enzymes to arsenic-induced phytotoxicity in leaves of a medicinal daisy, Wedelia chinensis Merrill

    PubMed Central

    Talukdar, Tulika; Talukdar, Dibyendu

    2013-01-01

    Background: Wedelia chinensis Merrill (Asteraceae) is a medicinally important herb, grown abundantly in soils contaminated with heavy metals, including toxic metalloid arsenic (As). The leaves have immense significance in treatment of various ailments. Objective: The present study was undertaken to ascertain whether the edible/usable parts experience oxidative stress in the form of membrane damage during As exposure or not. Materials and Methods: Responses of seven antioxidant enzymes were studied in leaves under 20 mg/L of As treatment in pot experiment. Results: When compared to control, activities of superoxide dismutase, monodehydroascorbatereductase, dehydroascorbatereductase, glutathione reductase, and gluathione peroxidase had increased, while the catalase level reduced and ascorbate peroxidase activity changed non-significantly in As-treated seedlings. This suggested overall positive response of antioxidant enzymes to As-induced oxidative stress. Although hydrogen peroxide content increased, level of lipid peroxidation and magnitude of membrane damage was quite normal, leading to normal growth (dry weight of shoot) of plant under Astreatment. Conclusion: W.chinensis is tolerant of As-toxicity, and thus, can be grown in As-contaminated zones. PMID:24082737

  7. Correlation between Sperm Parameters and Protein Expression of Antioxidative Defense Enzymes in Seminal Plasma: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Macanovic, Biljana; Vucetic, Milica; Jankovic, Aleksandra; Buzadzic, Biljana; Garalejic, Eliana; Otasevic, Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Background. Semen analysis is the cornerstone in the evaluation of male (in)fertility. However, there are men with normal semen tests but with impaired fertilizing ability, as well as fertile men with poor sperm characteristics. Thus, there is rising interest to find novel parameters that will help to predict and define the functional capacity of spermatozoa. Methods. We examined whether there is a correlation between semen parameters (count, progressive motility, and morphology) and protein expression/activity of antioxidative defense enzymes in seminal plasma from 10 normospermic subjects. Results. Sperm progressive motility was in positive correlation with seminal plasma protein expression of both superoxide dismutase (SOD) isoforms (MnSOD and CuZnSOD) and catalase. Also, positive correlation was observed between sperm count and MnSOD protein expression, as well as between sperm morphology and protein expression of catalase in seminal plasma. In contrast, protein expression of glutathione peroxidase was not in correlation with any sperm parameter, while its activity negatively correlated with sperm morphology and motility. Conclusions. These data suggest that evaluation of protein expression of antioxidative defense enzymes in seminal plasma might be of importance in the evaluation of male fertility status and that could be used as an additional biomarker along with classic semen analysis in assessment of semen quality. PMID:25691806

  8. Changes in antioxidant enzyme activities in Eichhornia crassipes (Pontederiaceae) and Pistia stratiotes (Araceae) under heavy metal stress.

    PubMed

    Odjegba, V J; Fasidi, I O

    2007-01-01

    Whole plants of Eichhornia crassipes and Pistia stratiotes were exposed to various concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0 and 5.0 mM) of 8 heavy metals (Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn) hydroponically for 21 days. Spectrometric assays for the total activity of catalase, peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase in the leaves were studied. At the end of the experimental period, data referred to metal treated plants were compared to data of untreated ones (control). Heavy metals increased the activity of catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in both species and there was differential inducement among metals. Overall, Zn had the least inducement of antioxidant enzymes in both species while Hg had the highest inducement. The increase in antioxidant enzymes in relation to the control plants was more in E. crassipes than P. stratiotes. The results showed that E. crassipes tolerated higher metal concentrations in a greater number of metals than P. stratiotes. PMID:19086387

  9. Effect of a polybrominated diphenyl ether congener (BDE-47) on growth and antioxidative enzymes of two mangrove plant species, Kandelia obovata and Avicennia marina, in South China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Zhu, Haowen; Tam, Nora Fung Yee

    2014-08-30

    The effects of BDE-47 on the growth and antioxidative responses of the seedlings of Kandelia obovata (Ko) and Avicennia marina (Am) were compared in an 8-week hydroponic culture spiked with different levels of BDE-47, 0.1, 1, 5 and 10 mg l(-1). The two highest BDE-47 levels significantly suppressed the growth and increased the activities of three antioxidative enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT), of Ko in week 1. However, SOD and POD activities at high levels of BDE-47 became lower than the control in week 8. On the contrary, growth of Am was not affected at all contamination levels, and the activities of three enzymes were enhanced by BDE-47 in weeks 1 and 4, but such stimulatory effect became insignificant in week 8. Avicennia was more tolerant to BDE-47 toxicity than Kandelia, as its antioxidative enzymes could better counter-balance the oxidative stress caused by BDE-47. PMID:24631399

  10. High-intensity physical exercise disrupts implicit memory in mice: involvement of the striatal glutathione antioxidant system and intracellular signaling.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, A S; Boemer, G; Rial, D; Cordova, F M; Mancini, G; Walz, R; de Bem, A F; Latini, A; Leal, R B; Pinho, R A; Prediger, R D S

    2010-12-29

    Physical exercise is a widely accepted behavioral strategy to enhance overall health, including mental function. However, there is controversial evidence showing brain mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative damage and decreased neurotrophin levels after high-intensity exercise, which presumably worsens cognitive performance. Here we investigated learning and memory performance dependent on different brain regions, glutathione antioxidant system, and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), serine/threonine protein kinase (AKT), cAMP response element binding (CREB) and dopamine- and cyclic AMP-regulated phosphoprotein (DARPP)-32 signaling in adult Swiss mice submitted to 9 weeks of high-intensity exercise. The exercise did not alter the animals' performance in the reference and working memory versions of the water maze task. On the other hand, we observed a significant impairment in the procedural memory (an implicit memory that depends on basal ganglia) accompanied by a reduced antioxidant capacity and ERK1/2 and CREB signaling in this region. In addition, we found increased striatal DARPP-32-Thr-75 phosphorylation in trained mice. These findings indicate an increased vulnerability of the striatum to high-intensity exercise associated with the disruption of implicit memory in mice and accompanied by alteration of signaling proteins involved in the plasticity of this brain structure. PMID:20888397

  11. Proline induces heat tolerance in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) plants by protecting vital enzymes of carbon and antioxidative metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kaushal, Neeru; Gupta, Kriti; Bhandhari, Kalpna; Kumar, Sanjeev; Thakur, Prince; Nayyar, Harsh

    2011-07-01

    Chickpea is a heat sensitive crop hence its potential yield is considerably reduced under high temperatures exceeding 35 °C. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of proline in countering the damage caused by heat stress to growth and to enzymes of carbon and antioxidative metabolism in chickpea. The chickpea seeds were raised without (control) and with proline (10 ?M) at temperatures of 30/25 °C, 35/30 °C, 40/35 °C and 45/40 °C as day/ night (12 h/12 h) in a growth chamber. The shoot and root length at 40/35 °C decreased by 46 and 37 %, respectively over control while at 45/40 °C, a decrease of 63 and 47 %, respectively over control was observed. In the plants growing in the presence of 10 ?M proline at 40/35 °C and 45/40 °C, the shoot length showed improvement of 32 and 53 %, respectively over untreated plants, while the root growth was improved by 22 and 26 %, respectively. The stress injury (as membrane damage) increased with elevation of temperatures while cellular respiration, chlorophyll content and relative leaf water content reduced as the temperature increased to 45/40 °C. The endogenous proline was elevated to 46 ?mol g(-1) dw at 40/35 °C but declined to 19 ?mol g(-1) dw in plants growing at 45/40 °C that was associated with considerable inhibition of growth at this temperature. The oxidative damage measured as malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide content increased manifolds in heat stressed plants coupled with inhibition in the activities of enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase) and levels of non-enzymatic (ascorbic acid, glutathione, proline) antioxidants. The enzymes associated with carbon fixation (RUBISCO), sucrose synthesis (sucrose phosphate synthase) and sucrose hydrolysis (invertase) were strongly inhibited at 45/40 °C. The plants growing in the presence of proline accumulated proline up to 63 ?mol g(-1) dw and showed less injury to membranes, had improved content of chlorophyll and water, especially at 45/40 °C. Additionally, the oxidative injury was significantly reduced coupled with elevated levels of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. A significant improvement was also noticed in the activities of enzymes of carbon metabolism in proline-treated plants. We report here that proline imparts partial heat tolerance to chickpea's growth by reducing the cellular injury and protection of some vital enzymes related to carbon and oxidative metabolism and exogenous application of proline appears to have a countering effect against elevated high temperatures on chickpea. PMID:23573011

  12. Variations of antioxidant enzymes in Daphnia species and populations as related to ambient UV exposure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Borgeraas; Dag O. Hessen

    2002-01-01

    To assess their role in photoprotection in the crustacean zooplankton Daphnia spp., activities of the antioxidants catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione transferase (GST) and content of carotenoids (CAR) were studied in 4 Daphniaspecies from a total of 50 populations. Included in the survey were alpine and lowland populations of both pigmented and non-pigmented D. longispina, rock-pool and laboratory clones

  13. Dietary blueberries sttenuate atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice by upregulating antioxidant enzymes expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blueberries (BB) contain high levels of polyphenols and exhibit high antioxidant capacity. In this study, protective effects of BB against atherosclerosis and possible underlying mechanisms in reducing oxidative stress were examined in ApoE deficient (apoE-/-) mice. ApoE-/- mice were fed AIN-93G die...

  14. Antioxidant Enzyme Activities and Mitochondrial Fatty Acids in Pulmonary Hypertension Syndrome (PHS) in Broilers1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Iqbal; D. Cawthon; K. Beers; R. F. Wideman; W. G. Bottje

    Major objectives of this study were to as- sess antioxidant protection and fatty acid profile in lung mitochondria and whole liver in broilers with pulmonary hypertension syndrome ((PHS; with and without high dietary vitamin E (VE)) (Experiment 1) and in broilers that did not develop PHS but were genetically selected (S) or not selected (NS) for resistance to PHS (Experiment

  15. Antioxidant Enzyme Activity and Meat Quality of Meat Type Ducks Fed with Dried Oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) Powder.

    PubMed

    Park, J H; Kang, S N; Shin, D; Shim, K S

    2015-01-01

    One-day-old Cherry valley meat-strain ducks were used to investigate the effect of supplemental dried oregano powder (DOP) in feed on the productivity, antioxidant enzyme activity, and breast meat quality. One hundred sixty five ducks were assigned to 5 dietary treatments for 42 days. The dietary treatment groups were control group (CON; no antibiotic, no DOP), antibiotic group (ANT; CON+0.1% Patrol), 0.1% DOP (CON+0.1% DOP), 0.5% DOP (CON+0.5% DOP), and 1.0% DOP (CON+1.0% DOP). Upon feeding, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity of oregano extracts was higher than that of tocopherol, although it was less than that of ascorbic acid. As a result of in vivo study, DOP in the diet showed no effects on final body weight, feed intake, or feed conversion ratio. However, dietary 0.5% and 1% DOP supplementation caused a significant increase in the serum enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) compared with CON and ANT, while glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in tissue was increased as compared to ANT (p<0.05). Cooking loss from ducks fed with DOP decreased compared with the control ducks. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values of duck breast meat at 5 d post slaughter was found to be significantly reduced in ducks whose diets were supplemented with 0.5% and 1% DOP (p<0.05). These results suggest that diets containing 0.5% and 1% DOP may beneficially affect antioxidant enzyme activity of GPx and SOD, improve meat cooking loss, and reduce TBARS values in breast meat at 5 d of storage in ducks. PMID:25557678

  16. Effects of copper on induction of thiol-compounds and antioxidant enzymes by the fruiting body of Oudemansiella radicata.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Juan; Qin, Chuixin; Shu, Xueqin; Chen, Rong; Song, Haihai; Li, Qiao; Xu, Heng

    2015-01-01

    Oudemansiella radicata has been found to have ability to tolerate and accumulate heavy metals. In this study, to know about the metal tolerance and detoxification strategy of O. radicata, the tolerance responses in both cap and stipe of the fruiting body, including the copper content, the changes of thiol compounds production and antioxidant enzymes activities, caused by various copper stress (150-600 mg kg(-1)) during 2-6 days were investigated. Results showed that Cu content in the fruiting bodies increased with the increasing Cu concentrations and growing time, which was higher in cap than that in stipe. For thiols contents, the maximum level was in the sample at 300 mg kg(-1) Cu after 2 d both in cap and stipe, in accordance with superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities. Guaicol peroxidase (POD) activities reached maximum at 150 mg kg(-1) Cu after 4 d and 6 d, respectively in cap and stipe, while the maximum of catalase (CAT) activities was recorded at 300 and 600 mg kg(-1) Cu after 4 d in the cap and stipe, respectively. As a whole, low concentration of Cu stimulated the production of thiols and activated the antioxidant enzymes activities in the fruiting body of O. radicata after 2/4 d, while high-level Cu decreased the thiols production and enzymes activities after 4/6 d. Furthermore, the cap was more sensitive than the stipe to Cu exposure. Different indicators showed different responses to copper accumulation and the different fruiting part (cap and stipe) of O. radicata had ability to response the oxidative stress caused by Cu. Considering the metal accumulation and its own detoxification with short growing time, mushroom might have the potential to be used as bio-accumulator to deal with Cu exposure in the Cu-contaminated farmland soil. PMID:25450915

  17. Antioxidant Enzyme Activity and Meat Quality of Meat Type Ducks Fed with Dried Oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) Powder

    PubMed Central

    Park, J. H.; Kang, S. N.; Shin, D.; Shim, K. S.

    2015-01-01

    One-day-old Cherry valley meat-strain ducks were used to investigate the effect of supplemental dried oregano powder (DOP) in feed on the productivity, antioxidant enzyme activity, and breast meat quality. One hundred sixty five ducks were assigned to 5 dietary treatments for 42 days. The dietary treatment groups were control group (CON; no antibiotic, no DOP), antibiotic group (ANT; CON+0.1% Patrol), 0.1% DOP (CON+0.1% DOP), 0.5% DOP (CON+0.5% DOP), and 1.0% DOP (CON+1.0% DOP). Upon feeding, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity of oregano extracts was higher than that of tocopherol, although it was less than that of ascorbic acid. As a result of in vivo study, DOP in the diet showed no effects on final body weight, feed intake, or feed conversion ratio. However, dietary 0.5% and 1% DOP supplementation caused a significant increase in the serum enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) compared with CON and ANT, while glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in tissue was increased as compared to ANT (p<0.05). Cooking loss from ducks fed with DOP decreased compared with the control ducks. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values of duck breast meat at 5 d post slaughter was found to be significantly reduced in ducks whose diets were supplemented with 0.5% and 1% DOP (p<0.05). These results suggest that diets containing 0.5% and 1% DOP may beneficially affect antioxidant enzyme activity of GPx and SOD, improve meat cooking loss, and reduce TBARS values in breast meat at 5 d of storage in ducks. PMID:25557678

  18. Cold acclimation induces freezing tolerance via antioxidative enzymes, proline metabolism and gene expression changes in two chrysanthemum species.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Jiang, Jiafu; Chang, Qingshan; Gu, Chunsun; Song, Aiping; Chen, Sumei; Dong, Bin; Chen, Fadi

    2014-02-01

    Cold acclimation is necessary for chrysanthemum to achieve its genetically determined maximum freezing tolerance, but the underlying physiological and molecular mechanisms are unclear. The aim of this study was to discover whether changes in antioxidative enzymes, proline metabolism and frost-related gene expression induced by cold acclimation are related to freezing tolerance. Our results showed that the semi-lethal temperature (LT50) decreased from -7.3 to -23.5 °C in Chrysanthemum dichrum and -2.1 to -7.1 °C in Chrysanthemum makinoi, respectively, after cold acclimation for 21 days. The activities of SOD, CAT and APX showed a rapid and transient increase in the two chrysanthemum species after 1 day of cold acclimation, followed by a gradual increase during the subsequent days and then stabilization. qRT-PCR analysis showed that the expression levels of some isozyme genes (Mn SOD, CAT and APX) were upregulated, which was consistent with the SOD, CAT and APX activities, while others remained relatively constant (Fe SOD and Cu/Zn SOD). P5CS and PDH expression were increased under cold acclimation and the level of P5CS presented similar trends as proline content, indicating proline accumulation was via P5CS and PDH cooperation. Cold acclimation also promoted DREB, COR413 and CSD gene expression. The activities of three enzymes and gene expression were higher in C. dichrum than in C. makinoi after cold acclimation. Our data suggested that cold-inducible freezing-tolerance could be attributed to higher activity of antioxidant enzymes, and increased proline content and frost-related gene expression during different periods. PMID:24413987

  19. Enzyme

    MedlinePLUS

    Enzymes are complex proteins that cause a specific chemical change in all parts of the body. For ... use them. Blood clotting is another example of enzymes at work. Enzymes are needed for all body ...

  20. Prenatal dexamethasone exposure in the common marmoset monkey enhances gene expression of antioxidant enzymes in the aorta of adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Atanasova, S; Wieland, E; Schlumbohm, C; Korecka, M; Shaw, L; von Ahsen, N; Fuchs, E; Oellerich, M; Armstrong, V

    2009-05-01

    Human epidemiological studies have indicated that low birth weight associated with an adverse intrauterine environment is related to a greater incidence of cardiovascular disorders in later life. In the foetus, endogenous glucocorticoids generally increase if there is intrauterine nutrient deficiency. The consequent glucocorticoid hyperexposure has been hypothesised to cause in utero programming of atherogenic genes. We investigated the effect of oral treatment with the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone during early or late pregnancy in marmoset monkeys on oxidative and antioxidant status in the offspring. Urinary concentrations of F(2)-isoprostanes were quantified as markers for in vivo oxidative stress. Expression of the mRNAs for the antioxidant enzymes cytosolic glutathione peroxidase (GPx-1), phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (GPx-4), cytosolic Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1), mitochondrial Mn-superoxide dismutase (SOD2), glutathione reductase (GSR), modifier subunit of glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCLM) and catalase were determined in the aorta. Three groups of pregnant marmosets (10 animals per group) were treated orally for one week with vehicle, or with dexamethasone (5 mg/kg daily) during two gestation windows: early dexamethasone group, pregnancy day 42-48, and late dexamethasone group, pregnancy day 90-96. In one male sibling of each litter (10 males per group), aortas were taken at 2 years of age. In the late dexamethasone group a higher aortic mRNA expression for GPx-1 (p < 0.023), MnSOD (p < 0.016), GCLM (p < 0.019) and GSR (p < 0.014) in comparison to the controls was observed. Aortic expression in the early dexamethasone group was statistically significantly higher only for GSR mRNA (p < 0.038). No significant changes in urinary F(2)-isoprostane concentrations between controls, early and late dexamethasone groups at 2 years of age were observed. Hence, prenatal exposure to dexamethasone in the third trimester leads to increased mRNA expression of several aortic antioxidant enzymes in the offspring. This expression pattern was not temporally related to oxidative stress, and it may reflect in utero re-programming of aortic antioxidant gene expression during prenatal glucocorticoid exposure. PMID:19005875

  1. The effect of organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos-ethyl on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes (in vitro)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Gultekin; M. Ozturk; M. Akdogan

    2000-01-01

    Organophosphates are known primarily as neurotoxins. However, reactive oxygen species (ROS) caused by organophosphates may be involved in the toxicity of various pesticides. Therefore, in this study we aimed to examine how an organophosphate insecticide, chlorpyrifos-ethyl (CE) [0,0-diethyl 0 (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyl) phosphorothioate], affects lipid peroxidation and the antioxidant defense system in vitro. For this purpose, four experiments were carried out. In

  2. Effect of feeding blended and interesterified vegetable oils on antioxidant enzymes in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Malongil B. Reena; Belur R. Lokesh

    2011-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of feeding blended and interesterified oils prepared using coconut oil (CNO) with rice bran oil (RBO) or sesame oil (SESO), with a polyunsaturated\\/saturated (P\\/S) ratio of 0.8–1.0, on oxidative stress and endogenous antioxidant system. Feeding blended oils resulted in significantly increased hepatic lipid peroxide levels in rats given blended oil CNO+RBO

  3. Plasma lipid peroxidation products and antioxidant enzyme activities in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. M. Turk; A. Sevinc; C. Camci; A. Cigli; S. Buyukberber; H. Savli; N. Bayraktar

    2002-01-01

    .   Diabetes is associated with a significant increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) which are considered\\u000a as an index of endogenous lipid peroxidation. The human body has a complex antioxidant defense system that prevents the initiation\\u000a of free radical chain reactions. We measured plasma TBARS levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities\\u000a and ocmpared their relation to the

  4. Oxidative stress as a risk factor for osteoporosis in elderly Mexicans as characterized by antioxidant enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Rodríguez, Martha A; Ruiz-Ramos, Mirna; Correa-Muńoz, Elsa; Mendoza-Núńez, Víctor Manuel

    2007-01-01

    Background Oxidative stress (OxS) has recently been linked with osteoporosis; however, we do not know the influence of OxS as an independent risk factor for this disease. Methods We conducted a case-control study in 94 subjects ?60 years of age, 50 healthy and 44 with osteoporosis. We measured total antioxidant status, plasma lipid peroxides, antioxidant activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and calculated the SOD/GPx ratio. Bone mineral density was obtained at the peripheral DXA in calcaneus using a portable Norland Apollo Densitometer®. Osteoporosis was considered when subjects had a BMD of 2.5 standard deviations or more below the mean value for young adults. Results GPx antioxidant activity was significantly lower in the group of subjects with osteoporosis in comparison with the group of healthy subjects (p < 0.01); in addition, the SOD/GPx ratio was significantly higher in the group of individuals with osteoporosis (p < 0.05). In logistic regression analysis, we found OxS to be an independent risk factor for osteoporosis (odds ratio [OR] = 2.79; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.08–7.23; p = 0.034). Conclusion Our findings suggest that OxS is an independent risk factor for osteoporosis linked to increase of SOD/GPx ratio. PMID:18088440

  5. Tissue-specific changes in the activities of antioxidant enzymes during the development of the chicken embryo.

    PubMed

    Surai, P F

    1999-07-01

    1. Tissue-specific profiles of the expression of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase (CAT) and the concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH) during the development of the chick embryo were investigated. 2. The liver, brain, yolk sac membrane (YSM), kidney, lung, heart and skeletal muscles were collected at the following days of embryo development: 10, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19, 21 and 22 (day-old chicks). 3. The different tissues of the embryo displayed distinct development strategies with regard to the acquisition of antioxidant capacity. In the liver the specific activity of SOD increased between days 10 and 11 of development, then significantly decreased up to day 15 and remained at the same value during the rest of the developmental period. GSH-Px specific activity increased through the time of development. CAT had 2 peaks of specific activity at day 10 of the development and in day-old chicks. 4. The brain was characterised by comparatively high SOD-specific activity especially during the last days of incubation. The specific activities of GSH-Px and CAT were low throughout development. 5. In the YSM maximal GSH-Px and CAT-specific activities were found on day 15 of incubation. In the kidney and heart GSH-Px-specific activity increased at hatching time. CAT-specific activity in the kidney increased just after hatching. 6. It is concluded that each tissue studied expressed a profile of antioxidant defence mechanisms to deal with oxidative stress at hatching time. PMID:10475639

  6. Chromate tolerance and accumulation in Chlorella vulgaris L.: role of antioxidant enzymes and biochemical changes in detoxification of metals.

    PubMed

    Rai, U N; Singh, N K; Upadhyay, A K; Verma, S

    2013-05-01

    A concentration-dependent increase in activity of antioxidant enzymes (catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione, superoxide dismutase) and carotenoid, MDA level have been observed in the green alga Chlorella vulgaris following chromium exposure at different concentrations (0.01-100 ?g ml(-1)). Simultaneously, decrease in growth rate, chlorophyll and protein contents was observed. In case of ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase a bell shaped dose response was evident, however, lipid peroxidation followed a linear relationship along with catalase activity, which could be used as biomarker of Cr toxicity and played important role in providing tolerance and subsequently, high accumulation potential of chromium in C. vulgaris. In present investigation, the green alga C. vulgaris respond better under chromium stress in terms of tolerance, growth and metal accumulating potential at higher concentration of Cr (VI) which could be employed in decontamination of chromium for environmental cleanup. PMID:23567737

  7. [Changes in the activity of antioxidant enzymes in different types of leukocytes in patients with chronic alcoholism].

    PubMed

    Dolmatova, L S; Romashina, V V

    2003-01-01

    Patients with chronic alcoholism (PCA) of stage II have increased glutathione reductase (GR) activity in neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes compared with that in the cells of healthy donors, but superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was high in neutrophils and low in lymphocytes and monocytes. One-h incubation of the cells with indomethacin (10(-7) M-10(-3) M) in vitro has shown that the drug does not abolish the effect of ethanol: at all concentrations used it stimulated SOD in neutrophils but in a dose-dependent manner inhibited it in lymphocytes with the maximum at a 10(-3) M concentration compared to the control. The same concentration of indomethacin stimulated GR activity in neutrophils but inhibited it in lymphocytes and especially in monocytes. A conclusion is made that prostaglandins and leukotrienes an regulate antioxidant enzyme activities in the cells of the immunophagocytic system of PCA, and the mononuclear cells are more sensitive to ethanol treatment than neutrophils. PMID:12838767

  8. [Effect of exogenous lectin on the endogenous lectin and antioxidant enzymes activity and flavonoid content in wheat].

    PubMed

    Kruhova, O D; Mandrovs'ka, N M; Kyrychenko, O V

    2006-01-01

    The presawing treatment of wheat seeds by lectin specific to the plant and its compositions with gapten and nitrogen fixation bacteria on the change in enzyme activity of antioxidant system of plant protection (peroxydase and katalase), endogenous lectin activity and flavonoid content in wheat leaves was studied in vegetation experiments. It is shown, that different biochemical links of protection plant system are activated, i.e. lectin activity in leaves increases 1.3 to 1.5 times, peroxydase activity and katalase activity rises 1.5 times and 5.0 to 8.0 times respectively and flavonoide content in leaves of vegetating plants increases under normal conditions of plant growth at the influence of factors of lectin nature. PMID:17100292

  9. Sulphurous thermal water increases the release of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and modulates antioxidant enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Prandelli, C; Parola, C; Buizza, L; Delbarba, A; Marziano, M; Salvi, V; Zacchi, V; Memo, M; Sozzani, S; Calza, S; Uberti, D; Bosisio, D

    2013-01-01

    The beneficial effects of hot springs have been known for centuries and treatments with sulphurous thermal waters are recommended in a number of chronic pathologies as well as acute recurrent infections. However, the positive effects of the therapy are often evaluated in terms of subjective sense of wellbeing and symptomatic clinical improvements. Here, the effects of an S-based compound (NaSH) and of a specific sulphurous thermal water characterized by additional ions such as sodium chloride, bromine and iodine (STW) were investigated in terms of cytokine release and anti-oxidant enzyme activity in primary human monocytes and in saliva from 50 airway disease patients subjected to thermal treatments. In vitro, NaSH efficiently blocked the induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and counterbalanced the formation of ROS. Despite STW not recapitulating these results, possibly due to the low concentration of S-based compounds reached at the minimum non-toxic dilution, we found that it enhanced the release of IL-10, a potent anti-inflammatory cytokine. Notably, higher levels of IL-10 were also observed in patients' saliva following STW treatment and this increase correlated positively with salivary catalase activity (r2 = 0.19, *p less than 0.01). To our knowledge, these results represent the first evidence suggesting that S-based compounds and STW may prove useful in facing chronic inflammatory and age-related illness due to combined anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. PMID:24067460

  10. Potential toxic effect of trifloxystrobin on cellular microstructure, mRNA expression and antioxidant enzymes in Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yu-Feng; Liu, Lei; Gong, Yu-Xin; Zhu, Bin; Liu, Guang-Lu; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the effects of trifloxystrobin that one strobilurin used widely in the world as an effective fungicidal agent to control Asian soybean rust on aquatic unicellular algae Chlorella vulgaris. We determined the potential toxic effect of trifloxystrobin on C. vulgaris, and found median inhibition concentration (IC(50)) value 255.58 (95% confidence interval, 207.81-330.29)?gL(-1). In addition, the algal cells were obviously depressed or shrunk at different concentrations by electron microscopy. In the study, a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay showed changes in transcript abundances of three photosynthetic genes, psaB, psbC, and rbcL, and one energy gene, ATPs. The results showed that trifloxystrobin reduced the transcript abundances of the three genes and enhanced expression of ATPs after 48 and 96 h. The lowest abundances of psaB, psbC and rbcL transcripts in response to trifloxystrobin exposure were 58%, 79% and 60% of those of the control, respectively. For the potential toxic influences, trifloxystrobin could decrease the soluble protein and total antioxidant contents (T-AOC), and increase superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activity with a gradual concentration-response relationship. Overall, the present study demonstrated that trifloxystrobin could affect the activities of antioxidant enzymes, disrupts photosynthesis in C. vulgaris, and damage cellular structure. PMID:24762415

  11. Ecotoxicological effects of a veterinary food additive, copper sulphate, on antioxidant enzymes and mRNA expression in earthworms.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Wenguang; Ding, Xueyao; Zhang, Yiming; Sun, Yongxue

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of the veterinary food additive copper sulphate (CuSO?) on the eco-toxicological responses of earthworms Eisenia fetida (E. fetida). The following biomarkers were measured: catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities. Gene expression analyses such as metallothionein (MT) and heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) were also examined. A time-dependent increase of CAT activity was found at 400 mg/kg and SOD activity at 200 and 400 mg/kg. The highest expression of Hsp70 (4.4-fold) was observed at day 15 at 400 mg/kg. Our results indicated that the measured antioxidant enzymes (except GST) had the ability to provide antioxidant defenses against the stressor; and compared to expression of MT, expression of Hsp70 could be more reliable molecular tools with predictive possibilities to monitor the eco-toxicity of stressors such as feed additive CuSO?. PMID:24322621

  12. Effects of Single Exposure of Sodium Fluoride on Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Enzymes in Salivary Glands of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguti, Paula Mochidome; Simőes, Alyne; Ganzerla, Emily; Souza, Douglas Nesadal; Nogueira, Fernando Neves; Nicolau, José

    2013-01-01

    Many studies suggest that fluoride exposure can inhibit the activity of various enzymes and can generate free radicals, which interfere with antioxidant defence mechanisms in living systems. To further the understanding of this issue, this present study examined the effects of low-dose fluoride treatment on the activity of enzymatic antioxidant superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), as well as the levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the parotid (PA) and submandibular (SM) salivary glands of rats. Rats were injected with a single dose of sodium fluoride (NaF) (15?mg?F?/kg b.w.) then euthanized at various time intervals up to 24 hours (h) following exposure. NaF exposure did not cause significant differences in SOD or CAT activity or LPO levels in PA glands compared to control. Conversely, SM glands presented increased SOD activity after 3?h and decreased SOD activity after 1, 12, and 24?h, while LPO was increased after 6, 12, and 24?h of the NaF injection. There were no significant differences in the CAT activity in the groups studied. Our results demonstrated that NaF intoxication caused oxidative stress in salivary glands few hours after administration. These changes were more pronounced in SM than in PA gland. PMID:23738039

  13. Effect of the Antihypertensive Drug Enalapril on Oxidative Stress Markers and Antioxidant Enzymes in Kidney of Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat

    PubMed Central

    Chandran, G.; Sirajudeen, K. N. S.; Swamy, M.; Samarendra, Mutum S.

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been suggested to play a role in hypertension and hypertension induced organ damage. This study examined the effect of enalapril, an antihypertensive drug, on oxidative stress markers and antioxidant enzymes in kidney of spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) and N? -nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) administered SHR. Male rats were divided into four groups (SHR, SHR+enalapril, SHR+L-NAME, and SHR+enalapril+L-NAME). Enalapril (30?mg kg?1 day?1) was administered from week 4 to week 28 and L-NAME (25?mg kg?1 day?1) was administered from week 16 to week 28 in drinking water. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured during the experimental period. At the end of experimental periods, rats were sacrificed; urine, blood, and kidneys were collected for the assessment of creatinine clearance, total protein, total antioxidant status (TAS), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT), as well as histopathological examination. Enalapril treatment significantly enhanced the renal TAS level (P < 0.001) and SOD activity (P < 0.001), reduced the TBARS levels (P < 0.001), and also prevented the renal dysfunction and histopathological changes. The results indicate that, besides its hypotensive and renoprotective effects, enalapril treatment also diminishes oxidative stress in the kidneys of both the SHR and SHR+L-NAME groups. PMID:25254079

  14. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activity and antioxidant properties of Nepeta crassifolia Boiss & Buhse and Nepeta binaludensis Jamzad.

    PubMed

    Tundis, Rosa; Nadjafi, Farsad; Menichini, Francesco

    2013-04-01

    This article reports phytochemical and biological studies on Nepeta binaludensis and Nepeta crassifolia. Both species were investigated for their angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity and antioxidant properties through three in vitro models [2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay]. Aerial parts were extracted with methanol and partitioned between water and subsequently n-hexane, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. N. binaludensis methanol extract exerted significantly higher reducing power (1.9 ?M Fe(II)/g) than did the positive control butylhydroxytoluene (63.2??M Fe(II)/g) in FRAP assay. The highest DPPH radical scavenging activity was found for N. crassifolia, with IC50 values of 9.6 and 12.1 µg/mL for ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions, respectively. n-Butanol fraction of both species showed the highest ACE inhibitory activity, with IC50 values of 59.3 and 81.7 µg/mL for N. binaludensis and N. crassifolia, respectively. Phytochemical investigations resulted in the isolation of ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, apigenin, luteolin and ixoroside. Apigenin-7-O-glucoside, 8-hydroxycirsimaritin and cirsimaritin were furthermore identified in N. crassifolia ethyl acetate-soluble fraction. Nepetanudoside B was isolated from the n-butanol fraction of N. binaludensis. PMID:22693035

  15. Effects of paraquat on photosynthetic pigments, antioxidant enzymes, and gene expression in Chlorella pyrenoidosa under mixotrophic compared with autotrophic conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weiguo; Liu, Min; Zhang, Peiliang; Yu, Fugen; Lu, Shan; Li, Pengfu; Zhou, Junying

    2014-11-01

    Only limited information is available on herbicide toxicity to algae under mixotrophic conditions. In the present study, we studied the effects of the herbicide paraquat on growth, photosynthetic pigments, antioxidant enzymes, and gene expression in Chlorella pyrenoidosa under mixotrophic compared with autotrophic conditions. The mean measured exposure concentrations of paraquat under mixotrophic and autotrophic conditions were in the range of 0.3-3.4 and 0.6-3.6 ?M, respectively. Exposure to paraquat for 72 h under both autotrophic and mixotrophic conditions induced decreased growth and chlorophyll (Chl) content, increased superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities, and decreased transcript abundances of three photosynthesis-related genes (light-independent protochlorophyllide reductase subunit, photosystem II protein D1, and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large subunit [rbcL]). Compared with autotrophic conditions, the inhibition percentage of growth rate under mixotrophic conditions was lower at 0.8 ?M paraquat, whereas it was greater at 1.8 and 3.4 ?M paraquat. With exposure to 0.8-3.4 ?M paraquat, the inhibition rates of Chl a and b content under mixotrophic conditions (43.1-52.4% and 54.6-59.7%, respectively) were greater compared with autotrophic conditions, whereas the inhibition rate of rbcL gene transcription under mixotrophic conditions (35.7-44.0%) was lower. These data showed that similar to autotrophic conditions, paraquat affected the activities of antioxidant enzymes and decreased Chl synthesis and transcription of photosynthesis-related genes in C. pyrenoidosa under mixotrophic conditions, but a differential susceptibility to paraquat toxicity occurred between autotrophically versus mixotrophically grown cells. PMID:25038722

  16. Mycorrhizal-induced calmodulin mediated changes in antioxidant enzymes and growth response of drought-stressed trifoliate orange

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yong-Ming; Srivastava, A. K.; Zou, Ying-Ning; Ni, Qiu-Dan; Han, Yu; Wu, Qiang-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Trifoliate orange [Poncirus trifoliata (L) Raf.] is considered highly arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) dependent for growth responses through a series of signal transductions in form of various physiological responses. The proposed study was carried out to evaluate the effect of an AM fungus (Funneliformis mosseae) on growth, antioxidant enzyme (catalase, CAT; superoxide dismutase, SOD) activities, leaf relative water content (RWC), calmodulin (CaM), superoxide anion (O2•?), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentrations in leaves of the plants exposed to both well-watered (WW) and drought stress (DS) conditions. A 58-day of DS significantly decreased mycorrhizal colonization by 60% than WW. Compared to non-AM seedlings, AM seedlings displayed significantly higher shoot morphological properties (plant height, stem diameter, and leaf number), biomass production (shoot and root fresh weight) and leaf RWC, regardless of soil water status. AM inoculation significantly increased CaM and soluble protein concentrations and CAT activity, whereas significantly decreased O2•? and H2O2 concentration under both WW and DS conditions. The AM seedlings also exhibited significantly higher Cu/Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD activities than the non-AM seedlings under DS but not under WW, which are triggered by higher CaM levels in AM plants on the basis of correlation studies. Further, the negative correlation of Cu/Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD activities with O2•? and H2O2 concentration showed the DS-induced ROS scavenging ability of CaM mediated SODs under mycorrhization. Our results demonstrated that AM-inoculation elevated the synthesis of CaM in leaves and up-regulated activities of the antioxidant enzymes, thereby, repairing the possible oxidative damage to plants by lowering the ROS accumulation under DS condition. PMID:25538696

  17. Mycorrhizal-induced calmodulin mediated changes in antioxidant enzymes and growth response of drought-stressed trifoliate orange.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yong-Ming; Srivastava, A K; Zou, Ying-Ning; Ni, Qiu-Dan; Han, Yu; Wu, Qiang-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Trifoliate orange [Poncirus trifoliata (L) Raf.] is considered highly arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) dependent for growth responses through a series of signal transductions in form of various physiological responses. The proposed study was carried out to evaluate the effect of an AM fungus (Funneliformis mosseae) on growth, antioxidant enzyme (catalase, CAT; superoxide dismutase, SOD) activities, leaf relative water content (RWC), calmodulin (CaM), superoxide anion ([Formula: see text]), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentrations in leaves of the plants exposed to both well-watered (WW) and drought stress (DS) conditions. A 58-day of DS significantly decreased mycorrhizal colonization by 60% than WW. Compared to non-AM seedlings, AM seedlings displayed significantly higher shoot morphological properties (plant height, stem diameter, and leaf number), biomass production (shoot and root fresh weight) and leaf RWC, regardless of soil water status. AM inoculation significantly increased CaM and soluble protein concentrations and CAT activity, whereas significantly decreased [Formula: see text] and H2O2 concentration under both WW and DS conditions. The AM seedlings also exhibited significantly higher Cu/Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD activities than the non-AM seedlings under DS but not under WW, which are triggered by higher CaM levels in AM plants on the basis of correlation studies. Further, the negative correlation of Cu/Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD activities with [Formula: see text] and H2O2 concentration showed the DS-induced ROS scavenging ability of CaM mediated SODs under mycorrhization. Our results demonstrated that AM-inoculation elevated the synthesis of CaM in leaves and up-regulated activities of the antioxidant enzymes, thereby, repairing the possible oxidative damage to plants by lowering the ROS accumulation under DS condition. PMID:25538696

  18. Effects of glufosinate on antioxidant enzymes, subcellular structure, and gene expression in the unicellular green alga Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Qian, Haifeng; Chen, Wei; Sheng, G Daniel; Xu, Xiaoyan; Liu, Weiping; Fu, Zhengwei

    2008-07-30

    Greater exposure to herbicide increases the likelihood of harmful effects in humans and the environment. Glufosinate, a non-selective herbicide, inhibits glutamine synthetase (GS) and thus blocks ammonium assimilation in plants. In the present study, the aquatic unicellular alga Chlorella vulgaris was chosen to assess the effects of acute glufosinate toxicity. We observed physiological changes during 12-96 h of exposure, and gene transcription during 6-48 h of exposure. Exposure to glufosinate increased malondialdehyde content by up to 2.73 times compared with the control, suggesting that there was some oxidative damage. Electron microscopy also showed that there were some chloroplast abnormalities in response to glufosinate. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) also increased markedly in the presence of glufosinate. Maximum activities of SOD, POD, and CAT were 2.90, 2.91, and 2.48 times that of the control, respectively. These elevated activities may help alleviate oxidative damage. A real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay showed changes in transcript abundances of three photosynthetic genes, psaB, psbC, and rbcL. The results showed that glufosinate reduced the transcript abundances of the three genes after 12h exposure. The lowest abundances of psaB, psbC and rbcL transcripts in response to glufosinate exposure were 38%, 16% and 43% of those of the control, respectively. Our results demonstrate that glufosinate affects the activities of antioxidant enzymes, disrupts chloroplast ultrastructure, and reduces transcription of photosynthesis-related genes in C. vulgaris. PMID:18584892

  19. Influence of UV radiation on chlorophyll, and antioxidant enzymes of wetland plants in different types of constructed wetland.

    PubMed

    Xu, Defu; Wu, Yinjuan; Li, Yingxue; Howard, Alan; Jiang, Xiaodong; Guan, Yidong; Gao, Yongxia

    2014-09-01

    A surface- and vertical subsurface-flow-constructed wetland were designed to study the response of chlorophyll and antioxidant enzymes to elevated UV radiation in three types of wetland plants (Canna indica, Phragmites austrail, and Typha augustifolia). Results showed that (1) chlorophyll content of C. indica, P. austrail, and T. augustifolia in the constructed wetland was significantly lower where UV radiation was increased by 10 and 20 % above ambient solar level than in treatment with ambient solar UV radiation (p < 0.05). (2) The malondialdehyde (MDA) content, guaiacol peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities of wetland plants increased with elevated UV radiation intensity. (3) The increased rate of MDA, SOD, POD, and CAT activities of C. indica, P. australis, and T. angustifolia by elevated UV radiation of 10 % was higher in vertical subsurface-flow-constructed wetland than in surface-flow-constructed wetland. The sensitivity of MDA, SOD, POD, and CAT activities of C. indica, P. austrail, and T. augustifolia to the elevated UV radiation was lower in surface-flow-constructed wetland than in the vertical subsurface-flow-constructed wetland, which was related to a reduction in UV radiation intensity through the dissolved organic carbon and suspended matter in the water. C. indica had the highest SOD and POD activities, which implied it is more sensitive to enhanced UV radiation. Therefore, different wetland plants had different antioxidant enzymes by elevated UV radiation, which were more sensitive in vertical subsurface-flow-constructed wetland than in surface-flow-constructed wetland. PMID:24788860

  20. Effect of different methods of hypoxic exercise training on free radical oxidation and antioxidant enzyme activity in the rat brain

    PubMed Central

    LI, JIE; WANG, YUXIA

    2013-01-01

    The effects of different modes of hypoxic exercise training on free radical production and antioxidant enzyme activity in the brain of rats were investigated in this study. A total of 40 healthy 2-month-old male Wister rats were randomly assigned to 5 groups according to different training modes. Endurance training sessions were performed for 5 weeks under different normoxic (atmospheric pressure ~632 mmHg, altitude ~1,500 m) and hypoxic conditions (atmospheric pressure ~493 mmHg, altitude ~3,500 m) at the same relative intensity. The superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase (CAT) activity and the malondialdehyde (MDA) content of the brain were evaluated by spectrophotometric analysis. Compared to the low-training low (LL) group, the SOD activity was significantly increased by 68.73, 54.28 and 304.02% in the high-training high (HH), high-training low (HL) and high-exercise high-training low (HHL) groups, respectively. However, no obvious change was observed for the low-training high (LH) group. In comparison to the LL group, the GSH-Px activity was found to be significantly higher in the HH, HL, LH and HHL groups. Similarly, in comparison to the LL group, the CAT activity exhibited a significant increase in the HH, HL, LH and HHL groups. Compared to the LL group, the MDA content was significantly increased in the HH, HL and HHL groups, although no significant difference was detected for the LH group. Following exhaustive exercise, the antioxidant enzyme activities in the rat brains were immediately improved in all the hypoxia modes. Moreover, the free radical production was increased after all the modes of hypoxic exercise training, with the LH mode being the only exception. PMID:24649054

  1. Impact of processing on the phenolic profiles of small millets: evaluation of their antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory properties associated with hyperglycemia.

    PubMed

    Pradeep, P M; Sreerama, Yadahally N

    2015-02-15

    The effects of germination, steaming and microwave treatments of whole grain millets (barnyard, foxtail and proso) on their phenolic composition, antioxidant activities and inhibitory properties against ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase were investigated. Compositional analysis of phenolics by HPLC revealed that vanillic and ferulic acids were the principal phenolic acids and kaempferol was the predominant flavonoid found in raw millets. Different processing treatments brought about relevant changes in the composition and content of certain phenolic acids and flavonoids in processed millets. Phenolic extracts of raw and processed millets exhibited multiple antioxidant activities and are also potent inhibitors of ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase. In general, germinated millets showed highest phenolic content as well as superior antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities. These results suggest that germinated millet grains are potential source of phenolic antioxidants and also great sources of strong natural inhibitors for ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase. PMID:25236251

  2. Hepatic metabolism, phase I and II biotransformation enzymes in Atlantic salmon ( Salmo Salar, L) during a 12 week feeding period with graded levels of the synthetic antioxidant, ethoxyquin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victoria J. Berdikova Bohne; Kristin Hamre; Augustine Arukwe

    2007-01-01

    The synthetic antioxidant ethoxyquin (EQ) is a widely used additive in animal feeds, including farmed fish feed. The use of EQ as food additive is prohibited and it is also undesirable in farmed meat and fish products. The possible negative aspects of EQ in fish feeds, such as modulation of hepatic detoxifying enzymes and possible effects through “carry-over” to edible

  3. Effect of lower doses of vanadate in combination with Azadirachta indica leaf extract on hepatic and renal antioxidant enzymes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Upreti, Jaya; Ali, Shakir; Basir, Seemi Farhat

    2013-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate short-term (21 days) effects of oral administration of Azadirachta indica leaf extract and vanadate, separately and in combination, on the activities of antioxidant enzymes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Vanadate is a remarkable antidiabetic agent and shows insulin mimetic effect. However, severe toxicity is associated with vanadate when used in high concentration while at lower concentration the hypoglycemic property of vanadate is reduced. So, we used a low dose of vanadate in combination with A. indica leaf extract and evaluated their effect on the antioxidant defense system. Streptozotocin-diabetic rats were treated separately with insulin, vanadate (0.6 mg/ml), A. indica, and with combined dose of vanadate (0.2 mg/ml) and A. indica. At the end of the experiment, rats were sacrificed and serum glucose levels and activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase were determined in cytosolic fraction of liver and kidney. Diabetic rats showed hyperglycemic condition and alteration in antioxidant enzyme activities. Treatment with antidiabetic compounds resulted in the reduction of glucose levels and restoration of enzyme activities to normal. Results showed that combined treatment of vanadate and A. indica leaf extract was the most effective in normalizing altered antioxidant enzyme system. PMID:24081779

  4. Effect of hot water treatments on chilling injury and heat damage in ‘satsuma’ mandarins: Antioxidant enzymes and vacuolar ATPase, and pyrophosphatase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahmood Ghasemnezhad; Ken Marsh; Rebecca Shilton; Mesbah Babalar; Allan Woolf

    2008-01-01

    Susceptibility of ‘satsuma’ mandarin fruit (Citrus unshiu Marc) to chilling injury limits the marketability of stored fruit. In this study, the effect of hot water dip (HWD) treatments on chilling injury tolerance, fruit quality, activity of antioxidant enzymes, and gene expression of proton transporters in the vacuole were investigated in New Zealand. Some treatments suppressed chilling injury development, but none

  5. Polyamines reduce salt-induced oxidative damage by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes and decreasing lipid peroxidation in Virginia pine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Tang; Ronald J. Newton

    2005-01-01

    Polyamines play an important role in the plant response to adverse environmental conditions including salt and osmotic stresses. In this investigation, the responses of polyamines to salt-induced oxidative stress were studied in callus cultures and plantlets in Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana Mill.). Our results demonstrated that polyamines reduce salt-induced oxidative damage by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes and decreasing

  6. Rhizobial strain involvement in plant growth, nodule protein composition and antioxidant enzyme activities of chickpea-rhizobia symbioses: modulation by salt stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haythem Mhadhbi; Moez Jebara; Férid Limam; Mohamed Elarbi Aouani

    2004-01-01

    Mesorhizobium ciceri, Mesorhizobium mediterraneum and Sinorhizobium medicae strains showed different symbiotic performances when inoculated to chickpea (Cicer arietinum L., cv. chetoui) at unstressed conditions and under salt stress. The analysis of nodular proteic composition and antioxidant enzyme activities revealed a polymorphism of patterns on SDS and native PAGE suggesting a potential dependence on the bacterial partner. Salt effect was analysed

  7. Antioxidant relevance to human health.

    PubMed

    Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2013-01-01

    Human ecology requires both oxygen and water with the generation from food of an immediate energy source, ATP, by oxidative phosphorylation. A continuing balance between oxidation and antioxidation is necessary for longer less-disabled lives, taking account of oxidative stresses and the critical roles of oxidants in defence against infection, tissue repair and signalling. Antioxidant capacity is derived both exogenously (from food, beverage and sunlight) and endogenously (from enzymatic and non-enzymatic pathways). A number of oxidant food factors service antioxidant metallo-enzymes. The capacity operates extra- or intracellularly. Uric acid is the major antioxidant in primate blood. Uric acid synthesis is increased by dietary fructose from fruit, sugary foods and drinks. This indirect antioxidant effect of fruit is separate from that attributable to its flavonoids. Alcohol also increases serum uric acid. Urate excess and retention is associated with disease. The high prevalence of hyperuricaemia in NE Asia presents a major public health dilemma in regard to putative benefits and risks. Foods with high antioxidant activity include berries, nuts and legumes, tomatoes and sweet potato leaves. Each of the antioxidants in these foods is pleiotropic being inter-alia anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic or anti-neoplastic. Moreover, food matrices and patterns contribute to the safety of antioxidant consumption. There is no evidence to date that isolated antioxidants as food supplements improve health outcomes or survival; and some that indicate unacceptable risk. Their use as biomarkers of food cannot justify their isolated use. Nevertheless, a spectrum of dietary pluripotential antioxidants for tissues, metabolic and immune systems is advantageous. PMID:23635359

  8. Optimization, Composition, and Antioxidant Activities of Exo- and Intracellular Polysaccharides in Submerged Culture of Cordyceps gracilis (Grev.) Durieu & Mont.

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sapan Kumar; Atri, Narender Singh

    2015-01-01

    Under present experiments, EPS and IPS production, monosaccharide composition, and antioxidant activities of C. gracilis were studied for the first time under submerged culture conditions. Effect of different factors on polysaccharides production was studied by orthogonal experiments using one-factor-at-a-time method. Incubation of culture in the medium with capacity 200?mL (675.12 ± 5.01 and 385.20 ± 5.01?mg/L), rotation speed 150?rpm (324.62 ± 3.32 and 254.62 ± 4.62?mg/L), 6-day culture incubation time (445.24 ± 1.11, 216.60 ± 1.71?mg/L), pH 6.0 (374.81 ± 2.52 and 219.45 ± 2.59?mg/L), and temperature 23°C (405.24 ± 1.11 and 215.60 ± 1.71?mg/L) produced higher EPS and IPS, respectively. Maximum EPS and IPS production was observed in the medium supplemented with glucose as a carbon source (464.82 ± 2.12 and 264.42 ± 2.62?mg/L) and yeast extract as a nitrogen source (465.21 ± 3.11 and 245.17 ± 3.24?mg/L), respectively. Carbon to nitrogen ratio for maximum EPS and IPS production was observed as 10?:?1 (395.29 ± 2.15 and 235.62 ± 1.40?mg/L), respectively. Glucose was found to be the major monosaccharide (62.15 ± 7.33%). Both EPS and IPS of C. gracilis showed significant DPPH radical scavenging activity, ABTS radical scavenging activity, reducing power, and iron chelating activity. PMID:25878715

  9. Modulation of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction by antioxidant enzymes in red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, K; Asano, K; Takasugi, T; Mori, M; Fujita, H; Oyamada, Y; Suzuki, K; Miyata, A; Aoki, T; Suzuki, Y

    1996-01-01

    To determine whether antioxidant mechanisms within red blood cells (RBCs) significantly contribute to preserving hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) in both the absence and the presence of oxidative stress, we investigated HPV changes in isolated rabbit lungs perfused with solutions containing RBCs treated with various inhibitors of superoxide dismutase (SOD), anion channels, catalase (CAT), or glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). Perfusion was maintained at a constant flow rate of 70 ml/min, and lung temperature at 37 to 38 degrees C. Hematocrit was adjusted to 7%. In the absence of overt oxidative stress, HPV was significantly enhanced in the perfusate containing control RBCs (untreated RBCs) as compared with that in Krebs-Henseleit buffer. Inhibition of SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px within RBCs, as well as anion channels located on the RBC membrane, had little influence on HPV. Neither exogenous SOD nor CAT altered HPV. In the presence of high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), generated by addition of xanthine (100 microM) and xanthine oxidase (10 mU/ml) to the reservoir, HPV was considerably suppressed in the perfusate containing only buffer but was restored in the perfusate with control RBCs. Inhibition of CAT or GSH-Px in RBCs preserved the HPV, whereas inhibition of SOD or anion channels failed to preserve HPV obtained during exposure to high ROS levels. Addition of exogenous SOD, but not CAT, to the perfusate containing RBCs in which endogenous SOD had been inhibited restored HPV under high ROS conditions. In conclusion, (1) although RBCs augment HPV in the absence of ROS, this finding is not attributable to the antioxidants in RBCs. (2) RBCs restore HPV upon exposure to high ROS. This finding may well be explained by antioxidant mechanisms operating within RBCs, especially those of endogenous SOD. PMID:8542118

  10. Intracellular Hydrogen Peroxide and Superoxide Poison 3-Deoxy-d-Arabinoheptulosonate 7-Phosphate Synthase, the First Committed Enzyme in the Aromatic Biosynthetic Pathway of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Sobota, Jason M.; Gu, Mianzhi

    2014-01-01

    In Escherichia coli, aromatic compound biosynthesis is the process that has shown the greatest sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide stress. This pathway has long been recognized to be sensitive to superoxide as well, but the molecular target was unknown. Feeding experiments indicated that the bottleneck lies early in the pathway, and the suppressive effects of fur mutations and manganese supplementation suggested the involvement of a metalloprotein. The 3-deoxy-d-arabinoheptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase (DAHP synthase) activity catalyzes the first step in the pathway, and it is provided by three isozymes known to rely upon a divalent metal. This activity progressively declined when cells were stressed with either oxidant. The purified enzyme was activated more strongly by ferrous iron than by other metals, and only this metalloform could be inactivated by hydrogen peroxide or superoxide. We infer that iron is the prosthetic metal in vivo. Both oxidants displace the iron atom from the enzyme. In peroxide-stressed cells, the enzyme accumulated as an apoprotein, potentially with an oxidized cysteine residue. In superoxide-stressed cells, the enzyme acquired a nonactivating zinc ion in its active site, an apparent consequence of the repeated ejection of iron. Manganese supplementation protected the activity in both cases, which matches the ability of manganese to metallate the enzyme and to provide substantial oxidant-resistant activity. DAHP synthase thus belongs to a family of mononuclear iron-containing enzymes that are disabled by oxidative stress. To date, all the intracellular injuries caused by physiological doses of these reactive oxygen species have arisen from the oxidation of reduced iron centers. PMID:24659765

  11. Crucial role of antioxidant proteins and hydrolytic enzymes in pathogenicity of Penicillium expansum: analysis based on proteomics approach.

    PubMed

    Qin, Guozheng; Tian, Shiping; Chan, Zhulong; Li, Boqiang

    2007-03-01

    Penicillium expansum, a widespread filamentous fungus, is a major causative agent of fruit decay and may lead to the production of mycotoxin that causes harmful effects on human health. In this study, we compared the cellular and extracellular proteomes of P. expansum in the absence and presence of borate, which affects the virulence of the fungal pathogen. The differentially expressed proteins were identified using ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS. Several proteins related to stress response (glutathione S-transferase, catalase, and heat shock protein 60) and basic metabolism (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, dihydroxy-acid dehydratase, and arginase) were identified in the cellular proteome. Catalase and glutathione S-transferase, the two antioxidant enzymes, exhibited reduced levels of expression upon exposure to borate. Because catalase and glutathione S-transferase are related to oxidative stress response, we further investigated the reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and oxidative protein carbonylation (damaged proteins) in P. expansum. Higher amounts of ROS and carbonylated proteins were observed after borate treatment, indicating that catalase and glutathione S-transferase are important in scavenging ROS and protecting cellular proteins from oxidative damage. Additionally to find secretory proteins that contribute to the virulence, we studied the extracellular proteome of P. expansum under stress condition with reduced virulence. The expression of three protein spots were repressed in the presence of borate and identified as the same hydrolytic enzyme, polygalacturonase. PMID:17194899

  12. The Role of Intracellular Signaling in Insulin-mediated Regulation of Drug Metabolizing Enzyme Gene and Protein Expression

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang K.; Novak, Raymond F.

    2007-01-01

    Endogenous factors, including hormones, growth factors and cytokines, play an important role in the regulation of hepatic drug metabolizing enzyme expression in both physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Alterations of hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes gene and protein expression, observed in diabetes, fasting, obesity, protein-calorie malnutrition and long-term alcohol consumption alters the metabolism of xenobiotics, including procarcinogens, carcinogens, toxicants, and therapeutic agents and may also impact the efficacy and safety of therapeutic agents, as well as result in drug-drug interactions. Although the mechanisms by which xenobiotics regulate drug metabolizing enzymes have been studied intensively, less is known regarding the cellular signaling pathways and components which regulate drug metabolizing enzyme gene and protein expression in response to hormones and cytokines. Recent findings, however, have revealed that several cellular signaling pathways are involved in hormone- and growth factor-mediated regulation of drug metabolizing enzymes. Our laboratory, and others, have demonstrated that insulin and growth factors regulate drug metabolizing enzyme gene and protein expression, including cytochromes P450, glutathione S-transferases and microsomal epoxide hydrolase, through receptors which are members of the large receptor tyrosine kinase family, and by downstream effectors such as phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, the mitogen activated protein kinase, Akt/protein kinase B, mTOR, and the p70S6 kinase. Here, we review current knowledge of the signaling pathways implicated in regulation of drug metabolizing enzyme gene and protein expression in response to insulin and growth factors, with the goal of increasing our understanding of how chronic disease affects these signaling pathways, components, and ultimately gene expression and translational control. PMID:17097148

  13. Comparative effect of Piper betle, Chlorella vulgaris and tocotrienol-rich fraction on antioxidant enzymes activity in cellular ageing of human diploid fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs) undergo a limited number of cellular divisions in culture and progressively reach a state of irreversible growth arrest, a process termed cellular ageing. Even though beneficial effects of Piper betle, Chlorella vulgaris and tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) have been reported, ongoing studies in relation to ageing is of interest to determine possible protective effects that may reverse the effect of ageing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of P. betle, C. vulgaris and TRF in preventing cellular ageing of HDFs by determining the activity of antioxidant enzymes viz.; catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase. Methods Different passages of HDFs were treated with P. betle, C. vulgaris and TRF for 24 h prior to enzymes activity determination. Senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA ?-gal) expression was assayed to validate cellular ageing. Results In cellular ageing of HDFs, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities were reduced, but SOD activity was heightened during pre-senescence. P. betle exhibited the strongest antioxidant activity by reducing SA ?-gal expression, catalase activities in all age groups, and SOD activity. TRF exhibited a strong antioxidant activity by reducing SA ?-gal expression, and SOD activity in senescent HDFs. C. vulgaris extract managed to reduce SOD activity in senescent HDFs. Conclusion P. betle, C. vulgaris, and TRF have the potential as anti-ageing entities which compensated the role of antioxidant enzymes in cellular ageing of HDFs. PMID:23948056

  14. Curcumin Induces Nrf2 Nuclear Translocation and Prevents Glomerular Hypertension, Hyperfiltration, Oxidant Stress, and the Decrease in Antioxidant Enzymes in 5/6 Nephrectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tapia, Edilia; Soto, Virgilia; Ortiz-Vega, Karla Mariana; Zarco-Márquez, Guillermo; Molina-Jijón, Eduardo; Cristóbal-García, Magdalena; Santamaría, José; García-Nińo, Wylly Ramsés; Correa, Francisco; Zazueta, Cecilia; Pedraza-Chaverri, José

    2012-01-01

    Renal injury resulting from renal ablation induced by 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6NX) is associated with oxidant stress, glomerular hypertension, hyperfiltration, and impaired Nrf2-Keap1 pathway. The purpose of this work was to know if the bifunctional antioxidant curcumin may induce nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and prevents 5/6NX-induced oxidant stress, renal injury, decrease in antioxidant enzymes, and glomerular hypertension and hyperfiltration. Four groups of rats were studied: (1) control, (2) 5/6NX, (3) 5/6NX +CUR, and (4) CUR (n = 8–10). Curcumin was given by gavage to NX5/6 +CUR and CUR groups (60?mg/kg/day) starting seven days before surgery. Rats were studied 30 days after NX5/6 or sham surgery. Curcumin attenuated 5/6NX-induced proteinuria, systemic and glomerular hypertension, hyperfiltration, glomerular sclerosis, interstitial fibrosis, interstitial inflammation, and increase in plasma creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. This protective effect was associated with enhanced nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and with prevention of 5/6NX-induced oxidant stress and decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes. It is concluded that the protective effect of curcumin against 5/6NX-induced glomerular and systemic hypertension, hyperfiltration, renal dysfunction, and renal injury was associated with the nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and the prevention of both oxidant stress and the decrease of antioxidant enzymes. PMID:22919438

  15. Pseudo-basal levels of and distribution of anti-oxidant enzyme biomarkers in Eisenia fetida and effect of exposure to phenanthrene.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhiming; Xu, Li; Wang, Nan; Zhang, Wei; Li, Huixin; Hu, Feng

    2013-09-01

    In the paper, the pseudo-basal levels of anti-oxidant system in different earthworm life stages (juvenile and adult) and the pseudo-basal distribution in different regions of adult earthworms (pre-clitellum, clitellum and post-clitellum) were studied using filter contact tests. The effects of phenanthrene (PHE) at different exposure levels on anti-oxidant enzymes along the earthworm body were also investigated after 24 and 48h of exposure. The pseudo-basal levels of the anti-oxidant enzymes varied during the different growth phase, and results indicated that earthworm has a low oxidative risk and SOD plays important roles during the development whereas CAT and POD are more important in maintain the low ROS level in adult earthworm. The pseudo-basal distribution of the anti-oxidant enzymes along the earthworms was heterogeneous and MDA mainly located in clitellum. POD in pre-clitellum, SOD in clitellum and CAT in post-clitellum were important to eliminate excess total ROS. Time of exposure impacted the anti-oxidant enzyme activities and their distribution patterns along earthworms, from the viewpoint of which supported that exposure time was an environment stress factors. In a short exposure time (24 h), CAT and SOD in the three regions, POD in pre-clitellum and clitellum might be good indicator to a low PHE stress level (0.0629 ?g cm(-2) treatments). In a long exposure time (48 h), only SOD in clitellum is a good indicator to both low and high PHE stress (0.629 ?g cm(-2) treatments). Earthworm biomembrane system inflicted no oxidative damage until the stress magnitude reached or exceeds the level of exposure in low PHE concentration condition for 48 h. PMID:23769124

  16. Response of antioxidant enzymes to intermittent and continuous hyperbaric O sub 2

    SciTech Connect

    Harabin, A.L.; Braisted, J.C.; Flynn, E.T. (Naval Medical Research Inst., Bethesda, MD (United States))

    1990-02-26

    Rats and guinea pigs were exposed to 2.8 ATA O{sub 2} (HBO) delivered either continuously or intermittently (repeated cycles of 10 minutes 100% O{sub 2}:2.5 minutes air). The O{sub 2} time required to produce convulsions and death was increased significantly in both species by intermittency. To determine whether changes in brain and lung superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) correlated with the observed tolerance, enzyme activities were measured after short or long HBO exposures. For each exposure duration, one group received continuous and one intermittent HBO; O{sub 2} times were matched. HBO had marked effects on these enzymes: Lung SOD increased (guinea pigs 47%, rats 88%), CAT and GSHPx activities decreased (33%) in brain and lung. No differences were seen in lung GSHPx or brain CAT in rats or brain SOD of either species. In guinea pigs, but less so in rats, the observed changes in activity were usually modulated by intermittency. Increases in hematocrit, organ protein, and lung DNA, which may also reflect ongoing oxidative damage, were also slowed with intermittency in guinea pigs. Intermittency benefitted both species by postponing gross symptoms of toxicity, but its modulation of changes in enzyme activities and other biochemical variables was more pronounced in guinea pigs than in rats suggesting additional mechanisms for tolerance.

  17. Intracellular implantation of enzymes in hollow silica nanospheres for protein therapy: cascade system of superoxide dismutase and catalase.

    PubMed

    Chang, Feng-Peng; Chen, Yi-Ping; Mou, Chung-Yuan

    2014-11-01

    An approach for enzyme therapeutics is elaborated with cell-implanted nanoreactors that are based on multiple enzymes encapsulated in hollow silica nanospheres (HSNs). The synthesis of HSNs is carried out by silica sol-gel templating of water-in-oil microemulsions so that polyethyleneimine (PEI) modified enzymes in aqueous phase are encapsulated inside the HSNs. PEI-grafted superoxide dismutase (PEI-SOD) and catalase (PEI-CAT) encapsulated in HSNs are prepared with quantitative control of the enzyme loadings. Excellent activities of superoxide dismutation by PEI-SOD@HSN are found and transformation of H2 O2 to water by PEI-CAT@HSN. When PEI-SOD and PEI-CAT are co-encapsulated, cascade transformation of superoxide through hydrogen peroxide to water was facile. Substantial fractions of HSNs exhibit endosome escape to cytosol after their delivery to cells. The production of downstream reactive oxygen species (ROS) and COX-2/p-p38 expression show that co-encapsulated SOD/CAT inside the HSNs renders the highest cell protection against the toxicant N,N'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium dichloride (paraquat). The rapid cell uptake and strong detoxification effect on superoxide radicals by the SOD/CAT-encapsulated hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles demonstrate the general concept of implanting catalytic nanoreactors in biological cells with designed functions. PMID:25160910

  18. Antioxidant Effects of Coumarins Include Direct Radical Scavenging, Metal Chelation and Inhibition of ROS-Producing Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Filipsky, Tomas; Riha, Michal; Macakova, Katerina; Anzenbacherova, Eva; Karlickova, Jana; Mladenka, Premysl

    2015-01-01

    Coumarins represent a large group of 1,2-benzopyrone derivatives which have been identified in many natural sources and synthetized as well. Several studies have shown that their antioxidant capacity is not based only on direct scavenging of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) but other mechanisms are also involved. These include: a) the chelation of transient metals iron and copper, which are known to catalyse the Fenton reaction; and b) the inhibition of RONS-producing enzymes (e.g. xanthine oxidase, myeloperoxidase and lipoxygenase), suggesting that mechanism(s) involved on cellular level are complex and synergistic. Moreover, many factors must be taken into account when analysing structure-antioxidant capacity relationships of coumarins due to different in vitro/in vivo methodological approaches. The structural features necessary for the direct RONS scavenging and metal chelation are apparently similar and the ideal structures are 6,7-dihydroxy- or 7,8-dihydroxycoumarins. However, the clinical outcome is unknown, because these coumarins are able to reduce copper and iron, and may thus paradoxically potentiate the Fenton chemistry. The similar structural features appear to be associated with inhibition of lipoxygenase, probably due to interference with iron in its active site. Contrarily, 6,7-dihydroxycoumarin seems to be the most active coumarin in the inhibition of xanthine oxidase while its derivative bearing the 4-methyl group or 7,8-dihydroxycoumarin are less active or inactive. In addition, coumarins may hinder the induction of inducible NO-synthase and cyclooxygenase- 2. Sparse data on inhibition of myeloperoxidase do not enable any clear conclusion, but some coumarins may block it. PMID:25658804

  19. Effect of iron stress on Withania somnifera L.: antioxidant enzyme response and nutrient elemental uptake of in vitro grown plants.

    PubMed

    Rout, Jyoti Ranjan; Behera, Sadhana; Keshari, Nitin; Ram, Shidharth Sankar; Bhar, Subhajit; Chakraborty, Anindita; Sudarshan, Mathummal; Sahoo, Santi Lata

    2015-03-01

    In the present study the response of antioxidant enzyme activities and the level of expression of their corresponding genes on bioaccumulation of iron (Fe) were investigated. In vitro germinated Withania somnifera L. were grown in Murashige and Skoog's liquid medium with increasing concentrations (0, 25, 50, 100 and 200 µM) of FeSO4 for 7 and 14 days. Root and leaf tissues analyzed for catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6), superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) and guaiacol peroxidase (GPX, EC 1.11.1.7), have shown an increase in content with respect to exposure time. Isoforms of CAT, SOD and GPX were separated using non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and observed that the isoenzymes were greatly affected by higher concentrations of Fe. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis performed by taking three pairs of genes of CAT (RsCat, Catalase1, Cat1) and SOD (SodCp, TaSOD1.2, MnSOD) to find out the differential expression of antioxidant genes under Fe excess. RsCat from CAT and MnSOD from SOD have exhibited high levels of gene expression under Fe stress, which was consistent with the changes of the activity assayed in solution after 7 days of treatment. Analysis by proton induced X-ray emission exhibited an increasing uptake of Fe in plants by suppressing and expressing of other nutrient elements. The results of the present study suggest that higher concentration of Fe causes disturbance in nutrient balance and induces oxidative stress in plant. PMID:25480472

  20. Increased 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine in plasma and decreased mRNA expression of human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1, anti-oxidant enzymes, mitochondrial biogenesis-related proteins and glycolytic enzymes in leucocytes in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Lee, H-T; Lin, C-S; Lee, C-S; Tsai, C-Y; Wei, Y-H

    2014-04-01

    We measured plasma levels of the oxidative DNA damage marker 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and leucocyte mRNA expression levels of the genes encoding the 8-OHdG repair enzyme human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 (hOGG1), the anti-oxidant enzymes copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/ZnSOD), manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx-1), GPx-4, glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione synthetase (GS), the mitochondrial biogenesis-related proteins mtDNA-encoded ND 1 polypeptide (ND1), ND6, ATPase 6, mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam), nuclear respiratory factor 1(NRF-1), pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 component alpha subunit (PDHA1), pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isoenzyme 1 (PDK-1) and hypoxia inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) and the glycolytic enzymes hexokinase-II (HK-II), glucose 6-phosphate isomerase (GPI), phosphofructokinase (PFK), glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHa). We analysed their relevance to oxidative damage in 85 systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients, four complicated SLE patients undergoing rituximab treatment and 45 healthy individuals. SLE patients had higher plasma 8-OHdG levels (P?anti-oxidant enzymes (P?enzymes (P?anti-oxidant enzymes (P?enzymes (P?anti-oxidant enzymes, GAPDH, Tfam and PDHA1, experienced better therapeutic outcomes after rituximab therapy. In conclusion, higher oxidative damage with suboptimal increases in DNA repair, anti-oxidant capacity, mitochondrial biogenesis and glucose metabolism may be implicated in SLE deterioration, and this impairment might be improved by targeted biological therapy. PMID:24345202

  1. Activities of antioxidant enzymes in muscle, liver and lung of chickens with inherited muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Murphy, M E; Kehrer, J P

    1986-01-29

    An inherited form of muscular dystrophy in chickens has been used as a model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. The pectoralis major muscle of chickens with this disease showed a significantly elevated activity of catalase (CAT) one day after hatching, and by 7 days showed elevated superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities. Increases were also found in tissues of the dystrophic birds that, unlike the pectoralis muscle, are considered to be unaffected by the pathology of muscular dystrophy. The soleus muscle contained significantly increased levels of SOD and GPX in 1 and 7 day old chickens, and increased GST in 1, 14, and 28 day old birds. CAT was significantly increased in liver from 1 and 7 day old chickens, while GPX was increased in lung from 1, 7 and 14 day old birds. These results support the possibility that excess oxygen free-radicals or altered cellular antioxidant defenses play some role in the pathogenesis of muscular dystrophy. PMID:3947339

  2. Antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities of blueberry anthocyanins prepared using different solvents.

    PubMed

    Flores, Floirendo P; Singh, Rakesh K; Kerr, William L; Pegg, Ronald B; Kong, Fanbin

    2013-05-01

    We compared the biological activities of anthocyanins prepared from whole blueberries or pomace and extracted with acetone, ethanol, and methanol. Crude Amberlite extracts (CAE) and rehydrated powders of freeze-dried anthocyanins were used. Ethanolic CAE yielded the highest total monomeric anthocyanin content [TMAC] (160 ppm), ferric reducing antioxidant power [FRAP] (3.4 mM Fe(2+)), total phenolics content [TPC] (382 ppm gallic acid equivalents [GAE]), and ?-amylase inhibitory activity (36.8%). The rehydrated powder from acetonic extract gave the greatest FRAP (5.19) and TPC (422.7). ?-Amylase (26.1%) and ?-glucosidase (91.5%) inhibitory activities were also sustained. Methanolic CAE yielded values intermediate between ethanolic and acetonic extracts. Comparison of mass spectra between Amberlite extracts and rehydrated preparations revealed putative degradation and dimerization products in the rehydrated powders, which could account for loss in biological activities for rehydrated methanolic and ethanolic powders. Results of this study provide useful information in optimizing anthocyanin preparation methods for improved biological activity. PMID:23590684

  3. Reduction in antioxidant enzyme expression and sustained inflammation enhance tissue damage in the subacute phase of spinal cord contusive injury

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) forms a disadvantageous microenvironment for tissue repair at the lesion site. To consider an appropriate time window for giving a promising therapeutic treatment for subacute and chronic SCI, global changes of proteins in the injured center at the longer survival time points after SCI remains to be elucidated. Methods Through two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE)-based proteome analysis and western blotting, we examined the differential expression of the soluble proteins isolated from the lesion center (LC) at day 1 (acute) and day 14 (subacute) after a severe contusive injury to the thoracic spinal cord at segment 10. In situ apoptotic analysis was used to examine cell apoptosis in injured spinal cord after adenoviral gene transfer of antioxidant enzymes. In addition, administration of chondroitinase ABC (chABC) was performed to analyze hindlimb locomotor recovery in rats with SCI using Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor rating scale. Results Our results showed a decline in catalase (CAT) and Mn-superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) found at day 14 after SCI. Accordingly, gene transfer of SOD was introduced in the injured spinal cord and found to attenuate cell apoptosis. Galectin-3, ?-actin, actin regulatory protein (CAPG), and F-actin-capping protein subunit ? (CAPZB) at day 14 were increased when compared to that detected at day 1 after SCI or in sham-operated control. Indeed, the accumulation of ?-actin+ immune cells was observed in the LC at day 14 post SCI, while most of reactive astrocytes were surrounding the lesion center. In addition, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPG)-related proteins with 40-kDa was detected in the LC at day 3-14 post SCI. Delayed treatment with chondroitinase ABC (chABC) at day 3 post SCI improved the hindlimb locomotion in SCI rats. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that the differential expression in proteins related to signal transduction, oxidoreduction and stress contribute to extensive inflammation, causing time-dependent spread of tissue damage after severe SCI. The interventions by supplement of anti-oxidant enzymes right after SCI or delayed administration with chABC can facilitate spinal neural cell survival and tissue repair. PMID:21299884

  4. Retinoic acid alters the intracellular trafficking of the mannose-6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor II receptor and lysosomal enzymes.

    PubMed

    Kang, J X; Bell, J; Leaf, A; Beard, R L; Chandraratna, R A

    1998-11-10

    Previously, we showed that retinoic acid (RA) binds to the mannose-6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor II receptor (M6P/IGF2R) with high affinity, suggesting that M6P/IGF2R may be a receptor for RA. Here, we show that RA, after 2-3 h of incubation with cultured neonatal-rat cardiac fibroblasts, dramatically alters the intracellular distribution of M6P/IGF2R as well as that of cathepsin B (a lysosomal protease bearing M6P). Immunofluorescence techniques indicate that this change in intracellular distribution is characterized by a shift of the proteins from the perinuclear area to cytoplasmic vesicles. The effect of RA was neither blocked by an RA nuclear receptor antagonist (AGN193109) nor mimicked by a selective RA nuclear-receptor agonist (TTNPB). Furthermore, the RA-induced translocation of cathepsin B was not observed in M6P/IGF2R-deficient P388D1 cells but occurred in stably transfected P388D1 cells expressing the receptor, suggesting that the effect of RA might be the result of direct interaction with M6P/IGF2R, rather than the result of binding to the nuclear receptors. These observations not only support the idea that M6P/IGF2R mediates an RA-response pathway but also indicate a role for RA in control of intracellular trafficking of lysosomal enzymes. Therefore, our observations may have important implications for the understanding of the diverse biological effects of retinoids. PMID:9811861

  5. Tuning intracellular homeostasis of human uroporphyrinogen III synthase by enzyme engineering at a single hotspot of congenital erythropoietic porphyria.

    PubMed

    ben Bdira, Fredj; González, Esperanza; Pluta, Paula; Laín, Ana; Sanz-Parra, Arantza; Falcon-Perez, Juan Manuel; Millet, Oscar

    2014-11-01

    Congenital erythropoietic porphyria (CEP) results from a deficiency in uroporphyrinogen III synthase enzyme (UROIIIS) activity that ultimately stems from deleterious mutations in the uroS gene. C73 is a hotspot for these mutations and a C73R substitution, which drastically reduces the enzyme activity and stability, is found in almost one-third of all reported CEP cases. Here, we have studied the structural basis, by which mutations in this hotspot lead to UROIIIS destabilization. First, a strong interdependency is observed between the volume of the side chain at position 73 and the folded protein. Moreover, there is a correlation between the in vitro half-life of the mutated proteins and their expression levels in eukaryotic cell lines. Molecular modelling was used to rationalize the results, showing that the mutation site is coupled to the hinge region separating the two domains. Namely, mutations at position 73 modulate the inter-domain closure and ultimately affect protein stability. By incorporating residues capable of interacting with R73 to stabilize the hinge region, catalytic activity was fully restored and a moderate increase in the kinetic stability of the enzyme was observed. These results provide an unprecedented rationale for a destabilizing missense mutation and pave the way for the effective design of molecular chaperones as a therapy against CEP. PMID:24925316

  6. Antioxidant Enzyme Inhibitor Role of Phosphine Metal Complexes in Lung and Leukemia Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Kele?, Tu?ba; Serinda?, Osman

    2014-01-01

    Phosphine metal complexes have been recently evaluated in the field of cancer therapy. In this research, the cytotoxic effects of some metal phosphines {[PdCl2((CH2OH)2PCH2)2NCH3] (C1), [RuCl2(((CH2OH)2PCH2)2NCH3)2] (C2), [PtCl2((Ph2PCH2)2NCH3)(timin)2] (C3)} on K562 (human myelogenous leukemia cell line) and A549 (adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial cells) cells were investigated using the MTT test. C1 and C2 are water-soluble metal complexes, which may have some advantages in in vitro and in vivo studies. The effects of the above-mentioned metal complexes on thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) (EC: 1.8.1.9), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) (EC: 1.11.1.9), and catalase (Cat) (EC: 1.11.1.6) enzymes were also tested. The results of this research showed that all three metal complexes indicated dose-dependent cytotoxicity on A549 and K562 cell lines and that the complexes inhibited different percentages of the TrxR, GPx, and Cat enzymes of these tumor cells. PMID:25610346

  7. Three Antagonistic Cyclic di-GMP-Catabolizing Enzymes Promote Differential Dot/Icm Effector Delivery and Intracellular Survival at the Early Steps of Legionella pneumophila Infection

    PubMed Central

    Allombert, Julie; Lazzaroni, Jean-Claude; Baďlo, Nathalie; Gilbert, Christophe; Charpentier, Xavier; Doublet, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila is an intracellular pathogen which replicates within protozoan cells and can accidently infect alveolar macrophages, causing an acute pneumonia in humans. The second messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) has been shown to play key roles in the regulation of various bacterial processes, including virulence. While investigating the function of the 22 potential c-di-GMP-metabolizing enzymes of the L. pneumophila Lens strain, we found three that directly contribute to its ability to infect both protozoan and mammalian cells. These three enzymes display diguanylate cyclase (Lpl0780), phosphodiesterase (Lpl1118), and bifunctional diguanylate cyclase/phosphodiesterase (Lpl0922) activities, which are all required for the survival and intracellular replication of L. pneumophila. Mutants with deletions of the corresponding genes are efficiently taken up by phagocytic cells but are partially defective for the escape of the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV) from the host degradative endocytic pathway and result in lower survival. In addition, Lpl1118 is required for efficient endoplasmic reticulum recruitment to the LCV. Trafficking and biogenesis of the LCV are dependent upon the orchestrated actions of several type 4 secretion system Dot/Icm effectors proteins, which exhibit differentially altered translocation in the three mutants. While translocation of some effectors remained unchanged, others appeared over- and undertranslocated. A general translocation offset of the large repertoire of Dot/Icm effectors may be responsible for the observed defects in the trafficking and biogenesis of the LCV. Our results suggest that L. pneumophila uses cyclic di-GMP signaling to fine-tune effector delivery and ensure effective evasion of the host degradative pathways and establishment of a replicative vacuole. PMID:24379287

  8. Effect of nonylphenol on male reproduction: Analysis of rat epididymal biochemical markers and antioxidant defense enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Aly, Hamdy A.A., E-mail: hamdyaali@yahoo.com [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Domčnech, Ňscar [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Barcelona University (Spain)] [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Barcelona University (Spain); Banjar, Zainy M. [Department of Medical Biology, School of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)] [Department of Medical Biology, School of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2012-06-01

    The mechanism by which nonylphenol (NP) interferes with male reproduction is not fully elucidated. Therefore, the present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of NP on male reproductive organ's weight, sperm characteristics, and to elucidate the nature and mechanism of action of NP on the epididymis. Adult male Wistar rats were gavaged with NP, dissolved in corn oil, at 0, 100, 200 or 300 mg/kg/day for 30 consecutive days. Control rats were gavaged with vehicle (corn oil) alone. Body weight did not show any significant change while, absolute testes and epididymides weights were significantly decreased. Sperm count in cauda and caput/corpus epididymides, and sperm motility was significantly decreased. Daily sperm production was significantly decreased in a dose-related manner. Sperm transit time in cauda epididymis was significantly decreased by 300 mg/kg, while in the caput/corpus epididymis it was significantly decreased by 200 and 300 mg/kg of NP. Plasma LDH was significantly increased while; plasma testosterone was significantly decreased in a dose-related pattern. In the epididymal sperm, NP decreased acrosome integrity, ??m and 5?-nucleotidase activity. Hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) production and LPO were significantly increased in a dose-related pattern. The activities of SOD, CAT and GPx were significantly decreased in the epididymal sperm. In conclusion, this study revealed that NP treatment impairs spermatogenesis and has a cytotoxic effect on epididymal sperm. It disrupts the prooxidant and antioxidant balance. This leads oxidative stress in epididymal sperms of rat. Moreover, the reduction in sperm transit time may affect sperm quality and fertility potential. -- Highlights: ? The nature and mechanism of action of NP on rat epididymis were elucidated. ? NP decreased sperm count, motility, daily sperm production and sperm transit time. ? NP decreased sperm acrosome integrity, ??m and 5?-nucleotidase activity. ? Plasma LDH was significantly increased and testosterone was significantly decreased. ? NP induced oxidative stress in epididymal sperm.

  9. Gene expression of antioxidant enzymes and coffee seed quality during pre- and post-physiological maturity.

    PubMed

    Santos, F C; Caixeta, F; Clemente, A C S; Pinho, E V; Rosa, S D V F

    2014-01-01

    Seeds collected at different maturation stages vary in physiological quality and patterns of protective antioxidant systems against deterioration. In this study we investigated the expression of genes that codify catalase (CAT), dismutase superoxide (SOD), and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) during the pre- and post-physiological maturation phases in whole seeds and in endosperms and embryos extracted from the seeds. Coffea arabica L. berries were collected at the green, yellowish-green, cherry, over-ripe, and dry stages, and the seeds were examined physiologically. The transcription levels of the genes were quantified by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction using coffee-specific primers. The highest level of SOD expression was observed in the endosperm at the cherry and over-ripe stages; in addition, these seeds presented the greatest physiological quality (assessed via germination test). The highest CAT3 transcript expression was observed at the green stage in whole seeds, and at the green and over-ripe stages in the embryos and endosperms. High expression of the PPO transcript was observed at the green and yellowish-green stages in whole seeds. In embryos and endosperms, peak expression of the PPO transcript was observed at the green stage; subsequently, peaks at the cherry and over-ripe stages were observed. We concluded that the expression patterns of the SOD and CAT3 transcripts were similar at the more advanced maturation stages, which corresponded to enhanced physiological seed quality. High expression of the PPO transcript at the over-ripe stage, also observed in the embryos and endosperms at the cherry stage, coincided with the highest physiological seed quality. PMID:25526219

  10. Antioxidative enzyme profiling and biosorption ability of Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 and Pseudomonas putida mt2 under cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Shamim, Saba; Rehman, Abdul

    2015-03-01

    Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 and Pseudomonas putida mt2 were used as cadmium (Cd)-resistant and -sensitive bacteria, respectively, to study their biosorption ability and their antioxidative enzymes. The minimal inhibitory concentration of C. metallidurans CH34 for Cd was found to be 30?mM, and for P. putida mt2 it was 1.25?mM. The tube dilution method revealed the heavy-metal resistance pattern of C. metallidurans CH34 as Ni(2+) (10?mM)>Zn(2+) (4?mM)>Cu(2+) (2?mM)>Hg(2+) (1?mM)>Cr(2+) (1?mM)>Pb(2+) (0?mM), whereas P. putida mt2 was only resistant to Zn(2+) (1?mM). Under Cd stress, the induction of GSH was higher in C. metallidurans CH34 (0.359?±?0.010?mM?g(-1) ?FW) than in P. putida mt2 (0.286?±?0.005?mM?g(-1) ?FW). Glutathione reductase was more highly expressed in the mt2 strain, in contrast to non-protein thiols and peroxidase. Unlike dead bacterial cells, live cells of both bacteria showed significant Cd biosorption, i.e. more than 80% at 48?h. C. metallidurans CH34 used only catalase, whereas P. putida mt2 used superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase to combat Cd stress. This study investigated the Cd biosorption ability and enzymes involved in the Cd detoxification mechanisms of C. metallidurans CH34 and P. putida mt2. PMID:23832807

  11. Oxidative stress determined through the levels of antioxidant enzymes and the effect of N-acetylcysteine in aluminum phosphide poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Avinash; Robo, Roto; Jain, Nirdesh; Gutch, Manish; Consil, Shuchi; Kumar, Sukriti

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The primary objective of this study was to determine the serum level of antioxidant enzymes and to correlate them with outcome in patients of aluminum phosphide (ALP) poisoning and, secondly, to evaluate the effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) given along with supportive treatment of ALP poisoning. Design: We conducted a cohort study in patients of ALP poisoning hospitalized at a tertiary care center of North India. The treatment group and control group were enrolled during the study period of 1 year from May 2011 to April 2012. Interventions: Oxidative stress was evaluated in each subject by estimating the serum levels of the enzymes, viz. catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR). The treatment group comprised of patients who were given NAC in addition to supportive treatment (magnesium sulfate and vasopressors, if required), while in the control group, only supportive treatment was instituted. The primary endpoint of the study was the survival of the patients. Measurements and Results: The baseline catalase (P = 0.008) and SOD (P < 0.01) levels were higher among survivors than non-survivors. Of the total patients in the study, 31 (67.4%) expired and 15 (32.6%) survived. Among those who expired, the mean duration of survival was 2.92 ± 0.40 days in the test group and 1.82 ± 0.33 days in the control group (P = 0.043). Conclusions: This study suggests that the baseline level of catalase and SOD have reduced in ALP poisoning, but baseline GR level has not suppressed but is rather increasing with due time, and more so in the treatment group. NAC along with supportive treatment may have improved survival in ALP poisoning. PMID:25316977

  12. Juniperus communis Linn oil decreases oxidative stress and increases antioxidant enzymes in the heart of rats administered a diet rich in cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Gumral, Nurhan; Kumbul, Duygu Doguc; Aylak, Firdevs; Saygin, Mustafa; Savik, Emin

    2015-01-01

    It has been asserted that consumption of dietary cholesterol (Chol) raises atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases and that Chol causes an increase in free radical production. Hypercholesterolemic diet has also been reported to cause changes in the antioxidant system. In our study, different doses of Juniperus communis Linn (JCL) oil, a tree species growing in Mediterranean and Isparta regions and having aromatic characteristics, were administered to rats; and the levels of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assay (TBARS) were examined in the heart tissue of rats. In this study, 35 Wistar Albino male adult rats weighing approximately 250-300 g were used. The rats were divided into five groups of seven each. The control group was administered normal pellet chow, and the Chol group was administered pellet chow including 2% Chol, while 50 JCL, 100 JCL, and 200 JCL groups were administered 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg JCL oil dissolved in 0.5% sodium carboxy methyl cellulose, respectively, in addition to the pellet chow containing 2% Chol, by gavage. After 30 days, the experiment was terminated and the antioxidant enzyme activities were examined in the heart tissue of rats. While consumption of dietary Chol decreases the activities of SOD, GSH-Px, and CAT in heart tissue of rats (not significant), administeration of 200 mg/kg JCL oil in addition to Chol led to a significant increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Administering Chol led to a significant increase in TBARS level. Administering 100 and 200 mg/kg JCL oil together with Chol prevented significantly the increase in lipid peroxides. As a result of the study, JCL oil showed oxidant-antioxidant effect in the heart tissue of rats. PMID:23293127

  13. A Greenhouse Study on Lead Uptake and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Vetiver Grass (Vetiveria zizanioides) as a Function of Lead Concentration and Soil Physico-Chemical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andra, S. P.; Datta, R.; Sarkar, D.; Saminathan, S. K.

    2006-05-01

    Lead (Pb) is a toxic non-essential metal that can cause permanent learning disabilities, retardation, mental and behavioral problems in children. Lead accumulation in soils result from weathering, chipping, scraping, sanding and sand blasting of housing structures constructed prior to 1978, bearing lead-based paint. The primary objective of this study is to develop a cost-effective, chelate-assisted phytoremediation for cleaning up lead contaminated soils. Soils are a unique environment of diverse physical and chemical characteristics that influence the extent of phytoavailable (labile) Pb forms. The success of phytoremediation strategy depends on the physiological/ biochemical tolerance of the plants to lipid peroxidation induced by Pb at sub-lethal levels. Oxidative challenge is alleviated by antioxidant compounds, but more importantly by the induction of antioxidant enzymes, which are crucial for scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) and terminating lipid peroxidation chain reaction. A column study was conducted in a temperature and humidity-controlled greenhouse setting to assess the extent of Pb phytoextraction and antioxidant response in a lead accumulator, vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides). Treatments consisted of a randomized block arrangement of 4 soil types (Immokalee, Pahokee Muck, Tobosa, and Millhopper) and 3 soil Pb concentrations [normal - 400 mg/kg lead (following federal soil standards for lead), moderate - 800 mg/kg lead, and excessive - 1200 mg/kg lead] in 4 replicates. At the end of 6 months, selected columns were amended with a biodegradable chelating agent, ethylenediamene disuccinate (10 mmol/ kg EDDS), to mobilize Pb and enhance Pb uptake by vetiver. Total and exchangeable (labile) Pb were correlated with phytoextracted Pb, and levels of antioxidant enzymes viz., superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the root and shoot tissues of vetiver grass. Results indicate that Pb uptake and antioxidant enzymes activity in vetiver grass is dependent on soil physico-chemical properties and phytoavailable Pb concentrations.

  14. Effects of L-carnitine supplementation on oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymes activities in patients with coronary artery disease: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. Higher oxidative stress may contribute to the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease (CAD). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of L-carnitine (LC, 1000 mg/d) on the markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymes activities in CAD patients. Methods We enrolled 47 CAD patients in the study. The CAD patients were identified by cardiac catheterization as having at least 50% stenosis of one major coronary artery. The subjects were randomly assigned to the placebo (n?=?24) and LC (n?=?23) groups. The intervention was administered for 12 weeks. The levels of serum LC, plasma malondialdehyde (MDA), and erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes activities [catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx)] were measured before and after intervention. Results Thirty-nine subjects completed the study (placebo, n?=?19; LC, n?=?20). After 12 weeks of LC supplementation, the level of MDA was significantly reduced (2.0?±?0.3 to 1.8?±?0.3 ?mol/L, P?=?0.02) and the level of LC (33.6?±?13.6 to 40.0?±?12.0 ?mol/L, P?=?0.04) and antioxidant enzymes activities [CAT (12.7?±?5.5 to 13.1?±?5.8 U/mg of protein, P?=?0.02), SOD (14.8?±?2.9 to 20.7?±?5.8 U/mg of protein, P?antioxidant enzymes activities (CAT, ??=?0.87, P?=?0.02; SOD, ??=?0.72, P?antioxidant enzymes activities in CAD patients. CAD patients might benefit from using LC supplements to increase their anti-oxidation capacity. Trial registration Clinical Trials.gov Identifier: NCT01819701. PMID:25092108

  15. Co-ordinated stage-dependent enhancement of Plasmodium falciparum antioxidant enzymes and heat shock protein expression in parasites growing in oxidatively stressed or G6PD-deficient red blood cells

    PubMed Central

    Akide-Ndunge, Oscar Bate; Tambini, Elisa; Giribaldi, Giuliana; McMillan, Paul J; Müller, Sylke; Arese, Paolo; Turrini, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    Background Plasmodium falciparum-parasitized red blood cells (RBCs) are equipped with protective antioxidant enzymes and heat shock proteins (HSPs). The latter are only considered to protect against thermal stress. Important issues are poorly explored: first, it is insufficiently known how both systems are expressed in relation to the parasite developmental stage; secondly, it is unknown whether P. falciparum HSPs are redox-responsive, in view of redox sensitivity of HSP in eukaryotic cells; thirdly, it is poorly known how the antioxidant defense machinery would respond to increased oxidative stress or inhibited antioxidant defense. Those issues are interesting as several antimalarials increase the oxidative stress or block antioxidant defense in the parasitized RBC. In addition, numerous inhibitors of HSPs are currently developed for cancer therapy and might be tested as anti-malarials. Thus, the joint disruption of the parasite antioxidant enzymes/HSP system would interfere with parasite growth and open new perspectives for anti-malaria therapy. Methods Stage-dependent mRNA expression of ten representative P. falciparum antioxidant enzymes and hsp60/70–2/70–3/75/90 was studied by quantitative real-time RT-PCR in parasites growing in normal RBCs, in RBCs oxidatively-stressed by moderate H2O2 generation and in G6PD-deficient RBCs. Protein expression of antioxidant enzymes was assayed by Western blotting. The pentosephosphate-pathway flux was measured in isolated parasites after Sendai-virus lysis of RBC membrane. Results In parasites growing in normal RBCs, mRNA expression of antioxidant enzymes and HSPs displayed co-ordinated stage-dependent modulation, being low at ring, highest at early trophozoite and again very low at schizont stage. Additional exogenous oxidative stress or growth in antioxidant blunted G6PD-deficient RBCs indicated remarkable flexibility of both systems, manifested by enhanced, co-ordinated mRNA expression of antioxidant enzymes and HSPs. Protein expression of antioxidant enzymes was also increased in oxidatively-stressed trophozoites. Conclusion Results indicated that mRNA expression of parasite antioxidant enzymes and HSPs was co-ordinated and stage-dependent. Secondly, both systems were redox-responsive and showed remarkably increased and co-ordinated expression in oxidatively-stressed parasites and in parasites growing in antioxidant blunted G6PD-deficient RBCs. Lastly, as important anti-malarials either increase oxidant stress or impair antioxidant defense, results may encourage the inclusion of anti-HSP molecules in anti-malarial combined drugs. PMID:19480682

  16. Changes of platelet antioxidative enzymes during oxidative stress: the protective effect of polyphenol-rich extract from berries of Aronia melanocarpa and grape seeds.

    PubMed

    Kedzierska, Magdalena; Olas, Beata; Wachowicz, Barbara; Stochmal, Anna; Oleszek, Wies?aw; Erler, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Aronia melanocarpa fruits (Rosaceae) and grape seeds (seeds of Vitis vinifera, Vitaceae) are two of the richest plant sources of phenolic substances, and they have been shown to have various biological activities. The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the action of phenolic extracts (at concentrations 5-100?µg/mL) of two different plants, berries of A. melanocarpa (chokebbery) and grape seeds, on the activities of various antioxidative enzymes, the amount of glutathione (as an important component of redox status) in control the platelets and platelets treated with H(2)O(2) (the strong physiological oxidant) in vitro. The properties of these two tested extracts were also compared with the action of a well characterized antioxidative and antiplatelet commercial monomeric polyphenol - resveratrol. The extract from berries of A. melanocarpa, like the extract from grape seeds, reduced the changes in activities of different antioxidative enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase) in platelets treated with H(2)O(2). The action of the two tested plant extracts and H(2)O(2) evoked a significant increase of reduced glutathione in platelets compared with platelets treated with H(2)O(2) only. Comparative studies indicate that the two tested plant extracts had similar antioxidative properties, and were found to be more reactive in blood platelets than the solution of resveratrol. PMID:21299394

  17. Alterations in antioxidant enzyme activities and proline content in pea leaves under long-term drought stress.

    PubMed

    Karata?, Ilhami; Öztürk, Lokman; Demir, Yavuz; Unlükara, Ali; Kurunç, Ahmet; Düzdemir, Oral

    2014-09-01

    The effects of long-term drought stress on chlorophyll, proline, protein and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) contents, malondialdehyde (MDA) in terms of lipid peroxidation and on the changes in the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11), catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) and peroxidase (POX; EC 1.11.1.7) in the leaves of pea (Pisum sativum L.) were studied in field conditions. Chlorophyll and protein contents in leaves decreased significantly with increased drought stress. The proline content increased markedly under water deficit. MDA amounts were elevated as a result of water shortage, whereas H(2)O(2) content changed slightly in pea leaves exposed to drought stress. Drought stress markedly enhanced the activities of SOD, CAT and POX but slightly changed the activity of APX. We conclude that in field conditions, long-term water shortage increased the susceptibility to drought in peas. PMID:23047611

  18. Effects of temperature - heavy metal interactions, antioxidant enzyme activity and gene expression in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Ergün, N; Özçubukçu, S; Kolukirik, M; Temizkan, Ö

    2014-12-01

    In this study, the effect of heat and chromium (Cr) heavy metal interactions on wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Ç-1252 and Gun91) was investigated by measuring total chlorophyll and carotenoid levels, catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) antioxidant enzyme activities, and MYB73, ERF1 and TaSRG gene expression. Examination of pigment levels demonstrated a decrease in total chlorophyll in both species of wheat under combined heat and heavy metal stress, while the carotenoid levels showed a slight increase. APX activity increased in both species in response to heavy metal stress, but the increase in APX activity in the Gun91 seedlings was higher than that in the Ç-1252 seedlings. CAT activity increased in Gun91 seedlings but decreased in Ç-1252 seedlings. These results showed that Gun91 seedling had higher resistance to Cr and Cr + heat stresses than the Ç-1252 seedling. The quantitative molecular analyses implied that the higher resistance was related to the overexpression of TaMYB73, TaERF1 and TaSRG transcription factors. The increase in the expression levels of these transcription factors was profound under combined Cr and heat stress. This study suggests that TaMYB73, TaERF1 and TaSRG transcription factors regulate Cr and heat stress responsive genes in wheat. PMID:25475983

  19. Response of growth and antioxidant enzymes in Azolla plants (Azolla pinnata and Azolla filiculoides) exposed to UV-B.

    PubMed

    Masood, Amjad; Zeeshan, M; Abraham, G

    2008-06-01

    Effect of ultravilolet-B (0.4 Wm(-2)) irradiation on growth, flavonoid content, lipid peroxidation, proline accumulation and activities of superoxide dismutase and peroxidase was comparatively analysed in Azolla pinnata and Azolla filiculoides. Growth measured as increment in dry weight reduced considerably due to all UV-B treatments. However, the reduction was found to be severe in A. filiculoides as compared to A. pinnata. The level of UV-absorbing compound flavonoids increased significantly in A. pinnata plants whereas only a slight increase in the flavonoid content was observed in A. filiculoides. UV-B exposure led to enhanced production of malondialdehyde (MDA) and electrolyte leakage in A. filiculoides than A. pinnata. Proline accumulation also showed a similar trend. Marked differences in the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) was noticed in both the plants exposed to UV-B. Our comparative studies indicate A. pinnata to be better tolerant to UV-B as compared with A. filiculoides which appears to be sensitive. PMID:18637563

  20. Evaluation of bamboo shoot peptide preparation with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant abilities from byproducts of canned bamboo shoots.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lianliang; Liu, Lingyi; Lu, Baiyi; Chen, Meiqin; Zhang, Ying

    2013-06-12

    In this paper, aqueous extract fractions from byproducts of the processing of canned bamboo shoots, including boiled water, filled liquid, and squeezed juice, were obtained by 5 kDa molecular cutoff membranes and marcoporous resin DA201-C treatment. The enriched bamboo shoot angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptide preparation fraction (called BSP for short) was extracted with ethyl acetate and n-butanol. The ethyl acetate fraction and n-butanol fraction exhibited higher antioxidant capacities than the leaving water fraction (BSML), which was attributed to the higher phenolic acid and flavonoid content of both fractions, while BSML exhibited the strongest ACE inhibitory activity. Sephadex G-15 gel filtration and semipreparative high-performance liquid chromatography were used for further purification of bamboo shoot ACE inhibitory peptide from BSML. Asp-Tyr was identified as the key active component by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. A short-term antihypertensive assay stated that both Asp-Tyr [10 mg day(-1) (kg of body weight)(-1)] and BSP [50 mg day(-1) (kg of body weight)(-1)] could significantly reduce the systolic blood pressure of spontaneously hypertensive rats (3-6 h). This study provides further examples of utilization of byproducts from the processing of canned bamboo shoots for the prevention of hypertension and attenuation of oxidative stress. PMID:23647018

  1. Gene expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes in the blood cells of workers who were occupationally exposed to lead.

    PubMed

    Kasperczyk, Aleksandra; Machnik, Grzegorz; Dobrakowski, Micha?; Sypniewski, Daniel; Birkner, Ewa; Kasperczyk, S?awomir

    2012-11-15

    In this study, we sought to understand the influence of occupational lead-exposure on the gene expression (Sod1) and activity (SOD) of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx, Gpx1) in leukocytes and erythrocytes. The study group consisted of 45 healthy male employees of a lead-zinc works and was divided into two subgroups: those with low exposure to lead (LE) and those with high exposure to lead (HE). In addition, 17 healthy male administrative workers participated in the study as the control group. The gene expression levels of both Sod1 and Gpx1 were significantly increased in the LE group as compared to the control group. By contrast, we noted only an insignificant tendency for increased gene expression of both Sod1 and Gpx1 in the HE group. The expression and activity of catalase were unchanged. Nevertheless, SOD and GPx activities in erythrocytes was significantly elevated in both examined subgroups, whereas SOD activity in leukocytes was raised only in the LE group. The results of this study led us to conclude that lead has a significant influence not only on the activities of antioxidant enzymes but also on the dose-dependent expression in their genes. PMID:22796238

  2. Modulation of antioxidant enzyme expression by PTU-induced hypothyroidism in cerebral cortex of postnatal rat brain.

    PubMed

    Bhanja, Shravani; Jena, Srikanta

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to elucidate the effect of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PTU)-induced hypothyroidism on oxidative stress parameters and expression of antioxidant enzymes in cerebral cortex of rat brain during postnatal development. A significant decrease in levels of lipid peroxidation and H(2)O(2) were seen in 7 and 30 days old PTU-treated rats with respect to their controls. Significantly decreased activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) along with the translated products of SOD1 and SOD2 were observed in 7, 15 and 30 days old PTU-treated rats as compared to their respective controls. However, increase in translated product of CAT was seen in all age groups of PTU-treated rats. Glutathione peroxidase activity was decreased in 7 days and increased in 15 days old PTU-treated rats with respect to their control groups. Histological sections clearly show a decline in neuronal migration with neurons packed together in the hypothyroid group as compared to the control. PMID:22987056

  3. Hepatic antioxidant enzymes SOD and CAT of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in response to pesticide methomyl and recovery pattern.

    PubMed

    Meng, Shun Long; Chen, Jia Zhang; Xu, Pao; Qu, Jian Hong; Fan, Li Min; Song, Chao; Qiu, Li Ping

    2014-04-01

    Hepatic antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) of Nile tilapia in response to pesticide methomyl and recovery pattern were researched by exposing tilapia to sub-lethal methomyl concentrations of 0, 0.2, 2, 20 and 200 ?g/L for 30 days, and then transferred to methomyl-free water for 18 days. Hepatic SOD and CAT were measured at 10 min (day 0), 6, 12, 18, 24 and 30 days after starting the experiment and at 18 days after transferring to methomyl-free water. The results showed hepatic SOD and CAT activities in 2, 20 and 200 ?g/L groups were affected significantly, however, that in 0.2 ?g/L group didn't change significantly compared to control during 30-day exposure period. Thus it would appear the 0.2 ?g/L methomyl might be considered the no observed adverse effect level. Recovery data showed that, for SOD, the effects produced by lower concentration of methomyl 2 ?g/L were reversible but not at concentrations higher than 20 ?g/L, however, for CAT, the effects produced by all the concentrations were reversible. PMID:24531323

  4. Suppression of Endogenous Antioxidant Enzymes by 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo- p -dioxin–Induced Oxidative Stress in Chicken Liver During Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Lim; J. C. DeWitt; R. A. Sanders; J. B. Watkins; D. S. Henshel

    2007-01-01

    Domestic chickens (Gallus gallus) are an excellent model in which to evaluate developmental toxicity and oxidative stress because of their high sensitivity\\u000a to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). The goal of this study was to measure the effects of environmentally relevant doses of TCDD on endogenous\\u000a hepatic antioxidant enzyme activity in hatchling chickens. The vehicle (sunflower oil) or 2, 20, or 200 pg\\/g

  5. The effects of organophosphate insecticide methidathion on lipid peroxidation and anti-oxidant enzymes in rat erythrocytes: role of vitamins E and C

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I Altuntas; N Delibas; R Sutcu

    2002-01-01

    The effects of organophosphate insecticide methidathion (MD) on lipid peroxidation and anti-oxidant enzymes and the ameliorating effects of a combination of vitamins E and C against MD toxicity were evaluated in rat erythrocytes. Experimental groups were: control group, MD-treated group (MD), and MD+vitamin E+vitamin Ctreated group (MD+Vit). MD and MD+Vit groups were treated orally with a single dose of 8

  6. Role of Cytochrome P-450 in Quinalphos Toxicity: Effect on Hepatic and Brain Antioxidant Enzymes in RatsITRC Communication No. 1965

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. D. Dwivedi; Mukul Das; S. K. Khanna

    1998-01-01

    Quinalphos (QP), an organophosphate pesticide, is used in controlling the pests of a variety of crops. To understand the mechanism of the metabolic basis of the toxicity of QP it was thought pertinent to study the role of cytochrome P-450 (P450) and antioxidant enzyme systems. Albino rats treated orally with QP (0.52 and 1.04mg\\/kg body weight) for 60 days showed

  7. An insect model for assessing mercury toxicity: Effect of mercury on antioxidant enzyme activities of the housefly ( Musca domestica ) and the cabbage looper moth ( Trichoplusia ni )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Zaman; R. S. MacGill; J. E. Johnson; S. Ahmad; R. S. Pardini

    1994-01-01

    The effect of mercury as Hg2Cl2 and HgCl2 on the antioxidant enzyme levels and its toxicity was investigated in an insect model comprised of adult females of the common housefly, Musca domestica, and fourth-instar larvae of the cabbage looper moth, Trichoplusia ni. HgCl2 was found to be more toxic than Hg2Cl2 to both M. domestica and T. ni. The LC50s

  8. Effects of NaCl on growth, ion accumulation, protein, proline contents and antioxidant enzymes activity in callus cultures of Jatropha curcas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nitish Kumar; Sudheer D. V. N. Pamidimarri; Meenakshi Kaur; Girish Boricha; Muppala P. Reddy

    2008-01-01

    Jatropha curcas is an oil bearing species with multiple uses and considerable economic potential as a biofuel crop. The effect of NaCl stress\\u000a on growth, ion accumulation, contents of protein, proline, and antioxidant enzymes activity in callus cultures of J. curcas was investigated. Exposure of callus to NaCl decreased growth in a concentration dependent manner. NaCl treated callus accumulated\\u000a Na

  9. Alternation of hepatic antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid profile in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by supplementation of dandelion water extract

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Soo-Yeul Cho; Ji-Yeun Park; Eun-Mi Park; Myung-Sook Choi; Mi-Kyung Lee; Seon-Min Jeon; Moon Kyoo Jang; Myung-Joo Kim; Yong Bok Park

    2002-01-01

    Background: Dandelion water extract (DWE), an herbal medication, may have an effect on the activity and mRNA expression of hepatic antioxidant enzymes and lipid profile in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Male Sprague–Dawley rats were divided into nondiabetic (control), diabetic, and diabetic-DWE-supplemented groups. Diabetes was induced by injecting streptozotocin (55 mg\\/kg BW, i.p.) in a citrate buffer. The extract was

  10. The effect of iron glycine chelate on tissue mineral levels, fecal mineral concentration, and liver antioxidant enzyme activity in weanling pigs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Feng; W. Q. Ma; Z. R. Xu; J. X. He; Y. Z. Wang; J. X. Liu

    2009-01-01

    Twenty-four weaning pigs were used to evaluate the effects of iron glycine chelate (Fe-Gly) on tissue mineral levels, fecal mineral concentration and liver antioxidant enzyme activities of weanling pigs. Pigs were allotted to six treatments based on live weight and litter origin. Treatments consisted of: (1) control (no Fe supplementationl); (2) 30mg Fe\\/kg diet from Fe-Gly; (3) 60mg Fe\\/kg diet

  11. Seedlings growth and antioxidative enzymes activities in leaves under heavy metal stress differ between two desert plants: a perennial ( Peganum harmala ) and an annual ( Halogeton glomeratus ) grass

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yan Lu; Xinrong Li; Mingzhu He; Xin Zhao; Yubing Liu; Yan Cui; Yanxia Pan; Huijuan Tan

    2010-01-01

    The present study showed the toxicity caused by heavy metal and its detoxification responses in two desert plants: perennial\\u000a Peganum harmala and annual Halogeton glomeratus. In pot experiments, 1-month-old seedlings were grown under control and three levels of combined heavy metal stress. Seedling\\u000a growth as well as heavy metal accumulation, antioxidative enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate\\u000a peroxidase

  12. Enzyme-based online monitoring and measurement of antioxidant activity using an optical oxygen sensor coupled to an HPLC system.

    PubMed

    Quaranta, Michela; Nugroho Prasetyo, Endry; Koren, Klaus; Nyanhongo, Gibson S; Murkovic, Michael; Klimant, Ingo; Guebitz, Georg M

    2013-03-01

    It is estimated that up to 50% of the adult population take antioxidant products on a daily basis to promote their health status. Strangely, despite the well-recognized importance of antioxidants, currently there is no international standard index for labeling owing to the lack of standardized methods for antioxidant measurement in complex products. Here, an online high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-based method to detect and measure the total antioxidant capacity of antioxidant samples is presented. In this approach, complex samples containing antioxidants are separated by the HPLC system, which is further coupled to an antioxidant measuring system consisting of an optical oxygen sensor, laccase, and tetramethoxy azobismethylene quinone (TMAMQ). The antioxidants, separated via HPLC, reduce TMAMQ to syringaldazine, which is then reoxidized by laccase while simultaneously consuming O(2). The amount of consumed oxygen is directly proportional to the concentration of antioxidants and is measured by the optical oxygen sensor. The sensor is fabricated by coating a glass capillary with an oxygen-sensitive thin layer made of platinum(II) meso-tetra(4-fluorophenyl)tetrabenzoporphyrin and polystyrene, which makes real-time analysis possible (t(90) = 1.1 s in solution). Four selected antioxidants (3 mM), namely, catechin, ferulic acid, naringenin (used as a control), and Trolox, representing flavonol, hydrocinnamic acid, flavanone, and vitamin E, respectively, were injected into the online antioxidant monitoring system, separated, and then mixed with the TMAMQ/laccase solution, which resulted in oxygen consumption. This study shows that, with the use of such a system, the antioxidant activity of individual antioxidant molecules in a sample and their contribution to the total antioxidant activity of the sample can be correctly assigned. PMID:23307126

  13. Protective Effect of Free and Bound Polyphenol Extracts from Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) on the Hepatic Antioxidant and Some Carbohydrate Metabolizing Enzymes of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kazeem, Mutiu Idowu; Akanji, Musbau Adewunmi; Yakubu, Musa Toyin; Ashafa, Anofi Omotayo Tom

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the hepatoprotective effects of polyphenols from Zingiber officinale on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by assessing liver antioxidant enzymes, carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes and liver function indices. Initial oral glucose tolerance test was conducted using 125?mg/kg, 250?mg/kg, and 500?mg/kg body weight of both free and bound polyphenols from Z. officinale. 28 day daily oral administration of 500?mg/kg body weight of free and bound polyphenols from Z. officinale to streptozotocin-induced (50?mg/kg) diabetic rats significantly reduced (P < 0.05) the fasting blood glucose compared to control groups. There was significant increase (P < 0.05) in the antioxidant enzymes activities in the animals treated with both polyphenols. Similarly, the polyphenols normalised the activities of some carbohydrate metabolic enzymes (hexokinase and phosphofructokinase) in the liver of the rats treated with it and significantly reduced (P < 0.05) the activities of liver function enzymes. The results from the present study have shown that both free and bound polyphenols from Z. officinale especially the free polyphenol could ameliorate liver disorders caused by diabetes mellitus in rats. This further validates the use of this species as medicinal herb and spice by the larger population of Nigerians. PMID:24367390

  14. Maximizing Antioxidants in Fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruits contain high levels of antioxidant compounds, such as carotenoids, flavonoids, vitamins, and phenols. These antioxidants are capable of performing a number of functions including free radical scavengers, peroxide decomposers, singlet and triplet oxygen quenchers, enzyme inhibitors, and synerg...

  15. Maximizing Antioxidants in Fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruits contain high levels of antioxidant compounds, such as carotenoids, flavonoids, vitamins, and phenols. These antioxidants are capable of performing a number of functions including free radical scavengers, peroxide decomposers, singlet and triplet oxygen quenchers, enzyme inhibitors, and syner...

  16. Differential responses of stress proteins, antioxidant enzymes, and photosynthetic efficiency to physiological stresses in the Florida red tide dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis.

    PubMed

    Miller-Morey, Jeanine S; Van Dolah, Frances M

    2004-08-01

    This study identifies stress proteins and antioxidant enzymes that may play a role in the survival strategies of the Florida red tide dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. Heat shock protein 60 (Hsp 60), mitochondrial small heat shock protein (mitosHsp), chloroplastic small heat shock protein (chlsHsp), Mn superoxide dismutase (SOD), and Fe SOD were first identified by Western blotting. The induction of these proteins in laboratory cultures in response to elevated temperatures, hydrogen peroxide, lead, or elevated light intensities was next assessed. In parallel, F(V)/F(M), a measurement of photosynthetic efficiency and common proxy of cellular stress, was determined. Hsp 60, Fe SOD, and Mn SOD were induced following exposure to elevated temperatures, hydrogen peroxide, or lead. MitosHsp responded only to heat, whereas chlsHsp responded only to H(2)O(2)-induced stress. The expression of stress proteins and antioxidant enzymes appears to be a more sensitive indicator of heat or chemically induced stresses than F(V)/F(M). However, F(V)/F(M) decreased significantly in response to elevated light intensities that did not induce the expression of stress proteins. These results identify for the first time stress proteins and antioxidant enzymes in K. brevis, provide evidence for differential sensitivity of cellular organelles to various sources of stress, and confirm the presence of conserved stress responses observed across phyla in a dinoflagellate. PMID:15536057

  17. Nanoparticles for targeted delivery of antioxidant enzymes to the brain after cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Xiang; Maximov, Victor D; Yu, Jin; Zhu, Hong; Vertegel, Alexey A; Kindy, Mark S

    2013-01-01

    Stroke is one of the major causes of death and disability in the United States. After cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury, the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species may contribute to the disease process through alterations in the structure of DNA, RNA, proteins, and lipids. We generated various nanoparticles (liposomes, polybutylcyanoacrylate (PBCA), or poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)) that contained active superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme (4,000 to 20,000?U/kg) in the mouse model of cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury to determine the impact of these molecules. In addition, the nanoparticles were untagged or tagged with nonselective antibodies or antibodies directed against the N-methyl-𝒟-aspartate (NMDA) receptor 1. The nanoparticles containing SOD protected primary neurons in vitro from oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) and limited the extent of apoptosis. The nanoparticles showed protection against ischemia and reperfusion injury when applied after injury with a 50% to 60% reduction in infarct volume, reduced inflammatory markers, and improved behavior in vivo. The targeted nanoparticles not only showed enhanced protection but also showed localization to the CA regions of the hippocampus. Nanoparticles alone were not effective in reducing infarct volume. These studies show that targeted nanoparticles containing protective factors may be viable candidates for the treatment of stroke. PMID:23385198

  18. Attenuating effects of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides on myocardial collagen cross-linking relates to advanced glycation end product and antioxidant enzymes in high-fat-diet and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guoliang Meng; Hongyan Zhu; Shengju Yang; Feng Wu; Huihua Zheng; E Chen; Jiliang Xu

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, polysaccharides were isolated from Ganoderma lucidum and their effects on myocardial collagen cross-linking were discussed in high-fat-diet\\/streptozotocin diabetic rats to investigate whether collagen-linked advanced glycation end products (AGE) and antioxidant enzymes were involved in the progress. Rats were grouped into the normal control, diabetic control and polysaccharides-treated groups. Blood glucose, insulin, blood fat, antioxidant enzymes activities,

  19. Exogenous proline and trehalose promote recovery of rice seedlings from salt-stress and differentially modulate antioxidant enzymes and expression of related genes.

    PubMed

    Nounjan, Noppawan; Nghia, Phan Tuan; Theerakulpisut, Piyada

    2012-04-15

    Proline (Pro) and Trehalose (Tre) function as compatible solutes and are upregulated in plants under abiotic stress. They play an osmoprotective role in physiological responses, enabling the plants to better tolerate the adverse effects of abiotic stress. We investigated the effect of exogenous Pro and Tre (10 mM) in seedlings of Thai aromatic rice (cv. KDML105; salt-sensitive) during salt stress and subsequent recovery. Salt stress (S, NaCl) resulted in growth reduction, increase in the Na(+)/K(+) ratio, increase in Pro level and up-regulation of Pro synthesis genes (pyrroline-5-carboxylatesynthetase, P5CS; pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase, P5CR) as well as accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), increased activity of antioxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase, SOD; peroxidase, POX; ascorbate peroxidase, APX; catalase, CAT) and transcript up-regulation of genes encoding antioxidant enzymes (Cu/ZnSOD, MnSOD, CytAPX, CatC). Under salt stress, exogenous Pro (PS; Pro+NaCl) reduced the Na(+)/K(+) ratio, further increased endogenous Pro and transcript levels of P5CS and P5CR, but decreased the activity of the four antioxidant enzymes. The transcription of genes encoding several antioxidant enzymes was upregulated. Exogenous Tre (TS; Tre+NaCl) also reduced the Na(+)/K(+) ratio and strongly decreased endogenous Pro. Transcription of P5CS and P5CR was upregulated, the activities of SOD and POX decreased, the activity of APX increased and the transcription of all antioxidant enzyme genes upregulated. Although exogenous osmoprotectants did not alleviate growth inhibition during salt stress, they exhibited a pronounced beneficial effect during recovery period showing higher percentage of growth recovery in PS (162.38%) and TS (98.43%) compared with S (3.68%). During recovery, plants treated with PS showed a much greater reduction in endogenous Pro than NaCl-treated (S) or Tre-treated plants (TS). Increase in CAT activity was most related to significant reduction in H(2)O(2), particularly in the case of PS-treated plants. Advantageous effects of Pro were also associated with increase in APX activity during recovery. PMID:22317787

  20. Refractory blood pressure in female SHR to increased oxidative stress is not mediated by NO or by upregulation of renal antioxidant enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Ruiz, Arnaldo F.; Iliescu, Radu

    2010-01-01

    There is a sex difference in the blood pressure (BP) responses to prooxidants and antioxidants in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). In contrast to males, BP in female SHR does not decrease in response to antioxidants, such as tempol or apocynin, or increase in response to the prooxidant, molsidomine. Molsidomine decreases BP and increases expression of antioxidants in male Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY), but not male SHR. The present study tested the hypothesis that the mechanism responsible for the lack of a pressor response to molsidomine in females is due to higher endogenous nitric oxide (NO) or to compensatory upregulation of renal antioxidant enzymes. Female SHR were treated with molsidomine in the presence or absence of nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) for 2 wk. Molsidomine increased nitrate/nitrite (NOx) and F2-isoprostane (F2-IsoP) excretion, whereas l-NAME reduced NOx but increased F-Isop. Molsidomine and l-NAME together further reduced NOx and increased F2-IsoP. Molsidomine alone had no effect on BP; l-NAME alone increased BP. The combination of molsidomine and l-NAME did not increase BP above l-NAME alone levels. Whole body and renal oxidative stress increased, while renal cortical Cu,Zn-SOD expression was downregulated and catalase was upregulated by molsidomine; glutathione peroxidase expression was unaffected. These data support our previous studies suggesting that BP in female SHR is independent of either increases or decreases in oxidative stress. The mechanisms responsible for the sex difference in BP response to increase or decrease of oxidative stress are not due to increased NO in females or to compensatory upregulation of antioxidant enzymes in response to increases in oxidants. PMID:20018822

  1. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate modulates anti-oxidant defense enzyme expression in murine submandibular and pancreatic exocrine gland cells and human HSG cells.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Douglas; DeRossi, Scott; Yu, Hongfang; Thomas, Cristina; Kragor, Chris; Paquin, Becky; Hahn, Emily; Ohno, Seiji; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Hsu, Stephen

    2014-05-01

    Sjogren's syndrome (SS) and type-1 diabetes are prevalent autoimmune diseases in the USA. We reported previously that epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) prevented and delayed the onset of autoimmune disease in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, a model for both SS and type-1 diabetes. EGCG also normalized the levels of proteins related to DNA repair and anti-oxidant activity in NOD.B10.Sn-H2 mice, a model for primary SS, prior to disease onset. The current study examined the effect of EGCG on the expression of anti-oxidant enzymes in the submandibular salivary gland and the pancreas of NOD mice and cultured human salivary gland acinar cells. NOD mice consuming 0.2% EGCG daily dissolved in water showed higher protein levels of peroxiredoxin 6 (PRDX6), a major anti-oxidant defense protein, and catalase, while the untreated NOD mice exhibited significantly lowered levels of PRDX6. Similarly, pancreas samples from water-fed NOD mice were depleted in PRDX6 and superoxide dismutase, while EGCG-fed mice showed high levels of these anti-oxidant enzymes. In cultured HSG cells EGCG increased PRDX6 levels significantly, and this was inhibited by p38 and JNK inhibitors, suggesting that the EGCG-mediated increase in protective anti-oxidant capacity is regulated in part through mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway signaling. This mechanism may explain the higher levels of PRDX6 found in EGCG-fed NOD mice. These preclinical observations warrant future preclinical and clinical studies to determine whether EGCG or green tea polyphenols could be used in novel preventive and therapeutic approaches against autoimmune diseases and salivary dysfunction involving oxidative stress. PMID:24444391

  2. Fructose-induced increase in intracellular free Mg2+ ion concentration in rat hepatocytes: relation with the enzymes of glycogen metabolism.

    PubMed

    Gaussin, V; Gailly, P; Gillis, J M; Hue, L

    1997-09-15

    In rat hepatocytes subjected to a fructose load, ATP content decreased from 3.8 to 2.6 micromol/g of cells. Under these conditions, the intracellular free Mg2+ ion concentration,as measured with mag-fura 2, increased from 0.25 to 0.43 micromol/g of cells and 0.35 micromol of Mg2+ ions were released per g of cells in the extracellular medium. Therefore the increase in the intracellular free Mg2+ ion concentration was less than expected from the decrease in ATP, indicating that approx. 80% of the Mg2+ ions released from MgATP2- were buffered inside the cells. When this buffer capacity was challenged with an extra Mg2+ ion load by blocking the fructose-induced Mg2+ efflux, again approx. 80% of the extra Mg2+ ion load was buffered. The remaining 20% appearing as free Mg2+ions in fructose-treated hepatocytes could act as second messenger for enzymes having a Km for Mg2+ in the millimolar range. Fructose activated glycogen synthase and glycogen phosphorylase, although both the time course and the dose-dependence of activation were different. This was reflected in a stimulation of glycogen synthesis with concentrations of fructose below 5 mM. Indeed, activation of glycogen synthase reached a maximum at 30 min of incubation and was observed with small (5 mM or less) concentrations of fructose, whereas the activation of glycogen phosphorylase was almost immediate (within 5 min) and maximal with large doses of fructose. The fructose-induced activation of glycogen phosphorylase, but not that of glycogen synthase, could be related to an increase in free Mg2+ ion concentration. PMID:9307033

  3. Redox regulation of antioxidant enzymes: post-translational modulation of catalase and glutathione peroxidase activity by resveratrol in diabetic rat liver.

    PubMed

    Sadi, Gökhan; Bozan, Davut; Yildiz, Huseyin Bekir

    2014-08-01

    Resveratrol is a strong antioxidant that exhibits blood glucose-lowering effects, which might contribute to its usefulness in preventing complications associated with diabetes. The present study aimed to investigate resveratrol effects on catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) gene and protein expression, their phosphorylation states and activities in rat liver of STZ-induced diabetes. Diabetes increased the levels of total protein phosphorylation and p-CAT, while mRNA expression, protein levels, and activity were reduced. Although diabetes induced transcriptional repression over GPx, it did not affect the protein levels and activity. When resveratrol was administered to diabetic rats, an increase in activity was associated with an increase in p-GPx levels. Decrease in Sirtuin1 (SIRT1) and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) and increase in nuclear factor kappa B (NF?B) gene expression in diabetes were associated with a decrease in CAT and GPx mRNA expression. A possible compensatory mechanism for reduced gene expression of antioxidant enzymes is proved to be nuclear translocation of redox-sensitive Nrf2 and NF?B in diabetes which is confirmed by the increase in nuclear and decrease in cytoplasmic protein levels of Nrf2 and NF?B. Taken together, these findings revealed that an increase in the oxidized state in diabetes intricately modified the cellular phosphorylation status and regulation of antioxidant enzymes. Gene regulation of antioxidant enzymes was accompanied by nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and NF?B. Resveratrol administration also activated a coordinated cytoprotective response against diabetes-induced changes in liver tissues. PMID:24740756

  4. Antioxidant enzyme activities in biofilms as biomarker of Zn pollution in a natural system: an active bio-monitoring study.

    PubMed

    Bonet, Berta; Corcoll, Natŕlia; Tlili, Ahmed; Morin, Soizic; Guasch, Helena

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed to explore the use of antioxidant enzyme activities (AEA) and biofilm metal accumulation capacity in natural communities as effect-based indicator of metal exposure in fluvial systems. To achieve these objectives, an active biomonitoring using fluvial biofilm communities was performed during 5 weeks. Biofilm was colonized over artificial substrata in a non-polluted site. After 5 weeks, biofilms were translocated to four different sites with different metal pollution in the same stream. The evolution of environmental parameters as well as biofilm responses was analysed over time. Physicochemical parameters were different between sampling times as well as between the most polluted site and the less polluted ones, mainly due to Zn pollution. In contrast, AEA and metal accumulation in biofilms allowed us to discriminate the high and moderate metal pollution sites from the rest. Zn, the metal with the highest contribution to potential toxicity, presented a fast and high accumulation capacity in biofilms. According to the multivariate analysis, AEA showed different responses. While catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) variability was mainly attributed to environmental stress (pH, temperature and phosphate concentration), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) changes were related to metal pollution. Glutathione reductase (GR) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) responses were related to both stress factors. AEA and metal accumulation are proposed as sensitive effect-based field methods, to evaluate biofilm responses after acute metal exposure (e.g. an accidental spill) due to their capacity to respond after few hours, but also in routinely monitoring due to their persistent changes after few weeks of exposure. These tools could improve the Common Implementation Strategy (CIS) of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) as expert group request. PMID:24378183

  5. Amelioration of Ozone-Induced Oxidative Damage in Wheat Plants Grown under High Carbon Dioxide (Role of Antioxidant Enzymes).

    PubMed Central

    Rao, M. V.; Hale, B. A.; Ormrod, D. P.

    1995-01-01

    O3-induced changes in growth, oxidative damage to protein, and specific activities of certain antioxidant enzymes were investigated in wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L. cv Roblin) grown under ambient or high CO2. High CO2 enhanced shoot biomass of wheat plants, whereas O3 exposure decreased shoot biomass. The shoot biomass was relatively unaffected in plants grown under a combination of high CO2 and O3. O3 exposure under ambient CO2 decreased photosynthetic pigments, soluble proteins, and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase protein and enhanced oxidative damage to proteins, but these effects were not observed in plants exposed to O3 under high CO2. O3 exposure initially enhanced the specific activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and ascorbate peroxidase irrespective of growth in ambient or high CO2. However, the specific activities decreased in plants with prolonged exposure to O3 under ambient CO2 but not in plants exposed to O3 under high CO2. Native gels revealed preferential changes in the isoform composition of superoxide dismutase, peroxidases, and ascorbate peroxidase of plants grown under a combination of high CO2 and O3. Furthermore, growth under high CO2 and O3 led to the synthesis of one new isoform of glutathione reductase. This could explain why plants grown under a combination of high CO2 and O3 are capable of resisting O3-induced damage to growth and proteins compared to plants exposed to O3 under ambient CO2. PMID:12228603

  6. Amelioration of ozone-induced oxidative damage in wheat plants grown under high carbon dioxide: Role of antioxidant enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, M.V.; Hale, B.A.; Ormrod, D.P. [Univ. of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario (Canada)

    1995-10-01

    O{sub 3}-induced in growth, oxidative damage to protein, and specific activities of certain antioxidant enzymes were investigated in wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L. cv Roblin) grown under ambient or high CO{sub 2}. High CO{sub 2} enhanced shoot biomass. The shoot biomass was relatively unaffected in plants grown under a combination of high CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3}. O{sub 3} exposure under ambient CO{sub 2} decreased photosynthetic pigments, soluble proteins, and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase protein and enhanced oxidative damage to proteins, but these effects were not observed in plants exposed to O{sub 3} under high CO{sub 2}. O{sub 3} exposure initially enhanced the specific activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and ascorbate peroxidase irrespective of growth in ambient or high CO{sub 2}. O{sub 3} exposure initially enhanced the specific activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and ascorbate peroxidase irrespective of growth in ambient or high CO{sub 2}. However, the specific activities decreased in plants with prolonged exposure to O{sub 3} under ambient CO{sub 2} but not in plants exposed to O{sub 3} under high CO{sub 2}. Native gels revealed preferential changes in the isoform composition of superoxide dismutase, peroxidases, and ascorbate peroxidase of plants grown under a combination of high CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3}. Furthermore, growth under high CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} led to the synthesis of one new isoform of glutathione reductase. This could explain why plants grown under a combination of high CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} are capable of resisting O{sub 3}-induced damage to growth and proteins compared to plants exposed to O{sub 3} under ambient CO{sub 2}. 66 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Activity of the glutathione antioxidant system and NADPH-generating enzymes in blood serum of rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus after administration of melatonin-correcting drugs.

    PubMed

    Agarkov, A A; Popova, T N; Verevkin, A N; Matasova, L V

    2014-06-01

    We studied the effects of epifamin and melaxen on serum content of reduced glutathione and activities of glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and NADPH-generating enzymes (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase) in rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The concentration of reduced glutathione was decreased in rats with this disease (by 1.8 times), but increased after treatment with epifamin and melaxen (by 1.6 and 1.7 times, respectively). Activities of glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and NADPH-generating enzymes returned to the control level. Correction of melatonin concentration after treatment with the test drugs was probably followed by inhibition of free radical processes. The observed changes were accompanied by normalization of activity of the glutathione antioxidant system and NADPH-generating enzymes required for normal function of this system. PMID:24952485

  8. Variation in antioxidant enzyme activities and nonenzyme components among cultivars of rabbiteye blueberries (Vaccinium ashei Reade) and V. ashei derivatives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit from forty-two blueberry (Vaccinium species) cultivars, including thirty-six rabbiteye rabbiteye cultivars (Vaccinium ashei Reade), three V. ashei hybrid derivatives and three northern highbush (V. corymbosum L.) standards were evaluated for antioxidant activities (AA), levels of antioxidant e...

  9. Effects of different acute high ambient temperatures on function of hepatic mitochondrial respiration, antioxidative enzymes, and oxidative injury in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Tan, G-Y; Yang, L; Fu, Y-Q; Feng, J-H; Zhang, M-H

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of different acute high ambient temperatures on dysfunction of hepatic mitochondrial respiration, the antioxidative enzyme system, and oxidative injury in broiler chickens. One hundred twenty-eight 6-wk-old broiler chickens were assigned randomly to 4 groups and subsequently exposed to 25 (control), 32, 35, and 38 degrees C (RH, 70 +/- 5%) for 3 h, respectively. The rectal temperatures, activity of antioxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase), content of malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl, and the activity of mitochondrial respiratory enzymes were determined. The results showed that exposure to high ambient temperature induced a significant elevation of rectal temperature, antioxidative enzyme activity, and formation of malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl, as well as dysfunction of the mitochondrial respiratory chain in comparison with control (P < 0.05). Almost all of the indicators changed in a temperature-dependent manner with the gradual increase of ambient temperature from 32 to 38 degrees C; differences in each parameter (except catalase) among the groups exposed to different high ambient temperatures were also statistically significant (P < 0.05). The results of the present study suggest that, in the broiler chicken model used here, acute exposure to high temperatures may depress the activity of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. This inactivation results subsequently in overproduction of reactive oxygen species, which ultimately results in oxidative injury. However, this hypothesis needs to be evaluated more rigorously in future studies. It has also been shown that, with the gradual increase in temperature, the oxidative injury induced by heat stress in broiler chickens becomes increasingly severe, and this stress response presents in a temperature-dependent manner in the temperature range of 32 to 38 degrees C. PMID:20008809

  10. Oxidative damage and alterations in antioxidant enzyme activities in the kidneys of rat exposed to trichloroacetic acid: protective role of date palm fruit.

    PubMed

    El Arem, Amira; Zekri, Mouna; Thouri, Amira; Saafi, Emna Behija; Ghrairi, Fatma; Ayed, Amel; Zakhama, Abdelfattah; Achour, Lotfi

    2014-06-01

    In this study, we investigated the antioxidant and protective properties of date fruit aqueous extract (DFAE) on trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-induced nephrotoxicity in rat. Oral administration of TCA as drinking water (0.5 and 2 g/L) daily for 2 months caused nephrotoxicity as evident by elevated levels of plasma creatinine, urea, and uric acid. Activity of antioxidant enzymes, catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), was decreased, whereas superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) level were increased along with histopathological injuries. The oral administration of DFAE (4 mL/kg/day) to TCA-treated groups proved some significant correction by increasing the antioxidant activity of the CAT and GPx enzymes and normalizing the SOD activity and the MDA level (p?

  11. The effects of Angelica keiskei Koidz on the expression of antioxidant enzymes related to lipid profiles in rats fed a high fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jinho; Yeo, Ikhyun

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to examine the feeding effects of Angelica keiskei Koidz (AK) and its processed products on serum, liver, and body fat content and the expression of antioxidant genes in rats fed a high fat diet. AK and its processed products were added at 3-5% to a high fat diet and fed to adult rats for 6 weeks. In experiment 1 (EXP 1), the rats were fed with one of six diets including a control diet (normal fat), high fat diet (HF), and HF + AK additives groups (four groups). In experiment 2 (EXP 2), the rats were separated into three groups of HF, HF + AK whole leaves, and HF + fermented juice (FS) + squeeze (SA). Body weight was not different among the groups in either experiment. The liver weight was lower in the FS and SA groups compared to that in the other groups (P < 0.05). Serum luteolin was higher in the AK and processed products groups compared to that in the HF group (P < 0.05). Gene expression of the antioxidative enzymes catalase and glutathione-s-reductase in the liver was higher in the AK processed products group than that in the other groups (P < 0.05). The results suggest that the intake of AK and its processed products increased the expression of antioxidant enzymes in animals fed a high fat diet, reduced hepatic cholesterol content, and increased the effective absorption of luteolin. PMID:22413035

  12. The effects of Angelica keiskei Koidz on the expression of antioxidant enzymes related to lipid profiles in rats fed a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunmi; Choi, Jinho; Yeo, Ikhyun

    2012-02-01

    This study was performed to examine the feeding effects of Angelica keiskei Koidz (AK) and its processed products on serum, liver, and body fat content and the expression of antioxidant genes in rats fed a high fat diet. AK and its processed products were added at 3-5% to a high fat diet and fed to adult rats for 6 weeks. In experiment 1 (EXP 1), the rats were fed with one of six diets including a control diet (normal fat), high fat diet (HF), and HF + AK additives groups (four groups). In experiment 2 (EXP 2), the rats were separated into three groups of HF, HF + AK whole leaves, and HF + fermented juice (FS) + squeeze (SA). Body weight was not different among the groups in either experiment. The liver weight was lower in the FS and SA groups compared to that in the other groups (P < 0.05). Serum luteolin was higher in the AK and processed products groups compared to that in the HF group (P < 0.05). Gene expression of the antioxidative enzymes catalase and glutathione-s-reductase in the liver was higher in the AK processed products group than that in the other groups (P < 0.05). The results suggest that the intake of AK and its processed products increased the expression of antioxidant enzymes in animals fed a high fat diet, reduced hepatic cholesterol content, and increased the effective absorption of luteolin. PMID:22413035

  13. Influence of feeding malt, bread crust, and a pronylated protein on the activity of chemopreventive enzymes and antioxidative defense parameters in vivo.

    PubMed

    Somoza, Veronika; Wenzel, Elisabeth; Lindenmeier, Michael; Grothe, Dörthe; Erbersdobler, Helmut F; Hofmann, Thomas

    2005-10-19

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether feeding of malt, bread crust, and a pronylated albumin modulates chemoprevention enzymes, such as glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and UDP-glucuronyl-transferase (UDP-GT), and antioxidative defense parameters in vivo and whether the intake of these foods rich in Maillard reaction compounds results in an accumulation of compounds formed in in vivo glycation reactions. After quantitation of pronylated lysine in malt and bread crust, male Wistar rats were fed a standard chow supplemented with 28% of protein containing different amounts of casein, bread crust, caraffa malt, or pronyl bovine serum albumin (BSA) for 15 days. GST activity in the kidneys was increased by 18% (p > 0.05) in animals of the bread crust group, while UDP-GT activity was elevated by 27% in the liver of animals administered pronyl-BSA. Contents of tocopherol in plasma were increased by 33, 14, and 14% in the bread crust, malt, and pronyl-BSA group compared to the control group, while the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were decreased and the total antioxidant capacity was increased. Parameters of endogenous glycation indicated a 32 and 46% higher load of advanced glycation end products in the kidneys after administration of the malt and the pronyl-BSA containing diet. However, the main systemic effects of dietary malt, bread crust, and pronyl-BSA were, for the first time, demonstrated to be the enhanced antioxidant capacity and the particulate increase in chemopreventive enzymes. PMID:16218661

  14. Salivary Antigen-5/CAP Family Members Are Cu2+-dependent Antioxidant Enzymes That Scavenge O2? and Inhibit Collagen-induced Platelet Aggregation and Neutrophil Oxidative Burst*

    PubMed Central

    Assumpçăo, Teresa C. F.; Ma, Dongying; Schwarz, Alexandra; Reiter, Karine; Santana, Jaime M.; Andersen, John F.; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Nardone, Glenn; Yu, Lee L.; Francischetti, Ivo M. B.

    2013-01-01

    The function of the antigen-5/CAP family of proteins found in the salivary gland of bloodsucking animals has remained elusive for decades. Antigen-5 members from the hematophagous insects Dipetalogaster maxima (DMAV) and Triatoma infestans (TIAV) were expressed and discovered to attenuate platelet aggregation, ATP secretion, and thromboxane A2 generation by low doses of collagen (<1 ?g/ml) but no other agonists. DMAV did not interact with collagen, glycoprotein VI, or integrin ?2?1. This inhibitory profile resembles the effects of antioxidants Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD) in platelet function. Accordingly, DMAV was found to inhibit cytochrome c reduction by O2? generated by the xanthine/xanthine oxidase, implying that it exhibits antioxidant activity. Moreover, our results demonstrate that DMAV blunts the luminescence signal of O2? generated by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-stimulated neutrophils. Mechanistically, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and fluorescence spectroscopy revealed that DMAV, like Cu,Zn-SOD, interacts with Cu2+, which provides redox potential for catalytic removal of O2?. Notably, surface plasmon resonance experiments (BIAcore) determined that DMAV binds sulfated glycosaminoglycans (e.g. heparin, KD ?100 nmol/liter), as reported for extracellular SOD. Finally, fractions of the salivary gland of D. maxima with native DMAV contain Cu2+ and display metal-dependent antioxidant properties. Antigen-5/CAP emerges as novel family of Cu2+-dependent antioxidant enzymes that inhibit neutrophil oxidative burst and negatively modulate platelet aggregation by a unique salivary mechanism. PMID:23564450

  15. In vitro digestion of purified ?-casein variants A(1), A(2), B, and I: effects on antioxidant and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory capacity.

    PubMed

    Petrat-Melin, B; Andersen, P; Rasmussen, J T; Poulsen, N A; Larsen, L B; Young, J F

    2015-01-01

    Genetic polymorphisms of bovine milk proteins affect the protein profile of the milk and, hence, certain technological properties, such as casein (CN) number and cheese yield. However, reports show that such polymorphisms may also affect the health-related properties of milk. Therefore, to gain insight into their digestion pattern and bioactive potential, ?-CN was purified from bovine milk originating from cows homozygous for the variants A(1), A(2), B, and I by a combination of cold storage, ultracentrifugation, and acid precipitation. The purity of the isolated ?-CN was determined by HPLC, variants were verified by mass spectrometry, and molar extinction coefficients at ?=280nm were determined. ?-Casein from each of the variants was subjected to in vitro digestion using pepsin and pancreatic enzymes. Antioxidant and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory capacities of the hydrolysates were assessed at 3 stages of digestion and related to that of the undigested samples. Neither molar extinction coefficients nor overall digestibility varied significantly between these 4 variants; however, clear differences in digestion pattern were indicated by gel electrophoresis. In particular, after 60min of pepsin followed by 5min of pancreatic enzyme digestion, one ?4kDa peptide with the N-terminal sequence (106)H-K-E-M-P-F-P-K- was absent from ?-CN variant B. This is likely a result of the (122)Ser to (122)Arg substitution in variant B introducing a novel trypsin cleavage site, leading to the changed digestion pattern. All investigated ?-CN variants exhibited a significant increase in antioxidant capacity upon digestion, as measured by the Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity assay. After 60min of pepsin + 120min of pancreatic enzyme digestion, the accumulated increase in antioxidant capacity was ?1.7-fold for the 4 ?-CN variants. The ACE inhibitory capacity was also significantly increased by digestion, with the B variant reaching the highest inhibitory capacity at the end of digestion (60min of pepsin + 120min of pancreatic enzymes), possibly because of the observed alternative digestion pattern. These results demonstrate that genetic polymorphisms affect the digestion pattern and bioactivity of milk proteins. Moreover, their capacity for radical scavenging and ACE inhibition is affected by digestion. PMID:25465543

  16. Green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate triggered hepatotoxicity in mice: responses of major antioxidant enzymes and the Nrf2 rescue pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongxu; Wang, Yijun; Wan, Xiaochun; Yang, Chung S; Zhang, Jinsong

    2015-02-15

    (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a constituent of green tea, has been suggested to have numerous health-promoting effects. On the other hand, high-dose EGCG is able to evoke hepatotoxicity. In the present study, we elucidated the responses of hepatic major antioxidant enzymes and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) rescue pathway to high-dose levels of EGCG in Kunming mice. At a non-lethal toxic dose (75mg/kg, i.p.), repeated EGCG treatments markedly decreased the levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. As a rescue response, the nuclear distribution of Nrf2 was significantly increased; a battery of Nrf2-target genes, including heme oxygenase 1 (HO1), NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and those involved in glutathione and thioredoxin systems, were all up-regulated. At the maximum tolerated dose (45mg/kg, i.p.), repeated EGCG treatments did not disturb the major antioxidant defense. Among the above-mentioned genes, only HO1, NQO1, and GST genes were significantly but modestly up-regulated, suggesting a comprehensive and extensive activation of Nrf2-target genes principally occurs at toxic levels of EGCG. At a lethal dose (200mg/kg, i.p.), a single EGCG treatment dramatically decreased not only the major antioxidant defense but also the Nrf2-target genes, demonstrating that toxic levels of EGCG are able to cause a biphasic response of Nrf2. Overall, the mechanism of EGCG-triggered hepatotoxicity involves suppression of major antioxidant enzymes, and the Nrf2 rescue pathway plays a vital role for counteracting EGCG toxicity. PMID:25585349

  17. Suppression of endogenous antioxidant enzymes by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-induced oxidative stress in chicken liver during development.

    PubMed

    Lim, J; DeWitt, J C; Sanders, R A; Watkins, J B; Henshel, D S

    2007-05-01

    Domestic chickens (Gallus gallus) are an excellent model in which to evaluate developmental toxicity and oxidative stress because of their high sensitivity to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). The goal of this study was to measure the effects of environmentally relevant doses of TCDD on endogenous hepatic antioxidant enzyme activity in hatchling chickens. The vehicle (sunflower oil) or 2, 20, or 200 pg/g TCDD was injected into chicken eggs before incubation. On hatching, livers were harvested and quickly frozen. The changes in activity of antioxidant enzymes, including glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GRx), copper zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) were determined as indicators of oxidative stress. TCDD exposure was associated with a significant suppression of the activities of the protective endogenous enzymes GPx, GRx, and SOD in the liver, even at the lowest dose. CAT activity was also suppressed, but not significantly. The measured decreases were 37% to 63% for GPx, 50% to 58% for GRx, 30% to 40% for SOD, and 16% to 24% for CAT. Noncomplex dose-response relationships were evident in GPx and GRx, whereas SOD and CAT curves were U-shaped. These results demonstrate that a decreased ability to scavenge reactive oxygen species may result from developmental TCDD exposure at very low doses, contributing to oxidative stress and thus to the embryotoxicity of TCDD. PMID:17285237

  18. The effects of NaCl on antioxidant enzyme activities in callus tissue of salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive cotton cultivars (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    PubMed

    Gossett, D R; Millhollon, E P; Lucas, M C; Banks, S W; Marney, M M

    1994-06-01

    To determine NaCl effects on callus growth and antioxidant activity, callus of a salt-tolerant and a salt-sensitive cultivar of cotton was grown on media amended with 0, 75, and 150 mM NaCl. Callus of the salt-tolerant cultivar, Acala 1517-8 8, grown at 150 mM NaCl, showed significant increases in superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities compared to callus tissue grown at 0 mM NaCl. In contrast, callus tissue of the salt-sensitive cultivar, Deltapine 50, grown at 0, 75, and 150 mM NaCl, showed no difference in the activities of these enzymes. At the 150 mM NaCl treatment, peroxidase was the only antioxidant enzyme from Deltapine 50 with an activity as high as that observed in Acala 1517-88. The NaCl-induced increase in the activity of these enzymes in Acala 1517-88 indicates that callus tissue from the more salt-tolerant cultivar has a higher capacity for scavenging and dismutating superoxide, an increased ability to decompose H2O2, and a more active ascorbate-glutathione cycle when grown on media amended with NaCl. PMID:24194128

  19. Alteration of Antioxidant Enzymes and Associated Genes Induced by Grape Seed Extracts in the Primary Muscle Cells of Goats In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tan; Li, Xiaomin; Zhu, Wang; Chen, Cheng; Sun, Zhihong; Tan, Zhiliang; Kang, Jinghe

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate how the activity and expression of certain paramount antioxidant enzymes respond to grape seed extract (GSE) addition in primary muscle cells of goats. Gluteal primary muscle cells (PMCs) isolated from a 3-week old goat were cultivated as an unstressed cell model, or they were exposed to 100 µM H2O2 to establish a H2O2-stimulated cell model. The activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutases (SOD) and glutathione peroxidases (GPx) in combination with other relevant antioxidant indexes [i.e., reduced glutathione (GSH) and total antioxidant capacity (TAOC)] in response to GSE addition were tested in the unstressed and H2O2-stimulated cell models, and the relative mRNA levels of the CAT, GuZu-SOD, and GPx-1 genes were measured by qPCR. In unstressed PMCs, GSE addition at the dose of 10 µg/ml strikingly attenuated the expression levels of CAT and CuZn-SOD as well as the corresponding enzyme activities. By contrast, in cells pretreated with 100 µM H2O2, the expression and activity levels of these two antioxidant enzymes were enhanced by GSE addition at 10 µg/ml. GSE addition promoted GPx activity in both unstressed and stressed PMCs, while the expression of the GPx 1 gene displayed partial divergence with GPx activity, which was mitigated by GSE addition at 10 µg/ml in unstressed PMCs. GSH remained comparatively stable except for GSE addition to H2O2-stimulated PMCs at 60 µg/ml, in which a dramatic depletion of GSH occurred. Moreover, GSE addition enhanced TAOC in unstressed (but not H2O2-stimulated) PMCs. GSE addition exerted a bidirectional modulating effect on the mRNA levels and activities of CAT and SOD in unstressed and stressed PMCs at a moderate dose, and it only exhibited a unidirectional effect on the promotion of GPx activity, reflecting its potential to improve antioxidant protection in ruminants. PMID:25238394

  20. Effect of Turmeric and Carrot Seed Extracts on Serum Liver Biomarkers and Hepatic Lipid Peroxidation, Antioxidant Enzymes and Total Antioxidant Status in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Rezaei-Moghadam, Adel; Mohajeri, Daryoush; Rafiei, Behnam; Dizaji, Rana; Azhdari, Asghar; Yeganehzad, Mahdi; Shahidi, Maryamossadat; Mazani, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Pathogenic role of free radicals are well known in various metabolic diseases. They originate from internal and external sources of body. Essential roles of antioxidant defense system for cellular redox regulation and free radical scavenging activity were described in this study. Many in vitro investigations have shown that turmeric (TE) and carrot seed extract (CSE) exhibits to possess antioxidant activities. In this study, we evaluated the antioxidant potentials of ethanolic TE and CSE based on in vivo experiment in the rats. Methods Animals were assigned to six groups: the 1st and 2nd groups were control groups and 2nd group received 0.2 ml dimethyl sulphoxide as vehicle treated group; other four experimental groups received different doses of TE (100, 200 mg/kg b.w.) and CSE (200, 400 mg/kg b.w.) by gavages, respectively for a period of one month. The indicators of oxidative stress, lipids peroxidation, markers of hepatocyte injury and biliary function markers were measured. Results The levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase were significantly stimulated in the hepatic tissue of treatment groups. The malondialdehyde contents of liver tissue were significantly reduced in the groups fed with TE and CSE. Serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase, in treated groups were found to be significantly decreased, whereas albumin and total protein increased as compared to the control groups (P<0.05). Conclusion this study showed that the regular intake of TE and CSE through the diet can improve antioxidant status and inhibit peroxidation activity in the liver tissue so that using these extracts may protect tissue oxidative stress. PMID:23678453

  1. Effects of esculetin on activities of some antioxidant enzymes of Galleria mellonella and its parasitoid Bracon hebetor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eicosanoids mediate several physiological responses, including immune defense reactions. Two major groups of eicosanoids are prostaglandins (products of cyclooxygenase pathways) and various products of lipoxygenase pathways. Antioxidant response is one of the defense mechanisms to oxidative damage...

  2. Enzymatic and acidic degradation effect on intracellular polysaccharide of Flammulina velutipes SF-08.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhao; Zhang, Chen; Gao, Xia; Cui, Fangyuan; Zhang, Jianjun; Jia, Mengshi; Jia, Shouhua; Jia, Le

    2015-02-01

    The intracellular polysaccharide (IPS) from Flammulina velutipes SF-08 mycelia was isolated and degraded by enzyme and acid. IPS and its derivative were purified by DEAE-52 cellulose chromatography, and five fractions were obtained. The structural features and antioxidant activities in vitro of the isolated fractions were evaluated. On the basis of chemical composition and antioxidant ability analyses, rhamnose as the main monosaccharide might contribute to the strongest antioxidant capacity. The in vivo results showed that IPS significantly enhanced the activities of anti-aging enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity, and reduced the content of lipid peroxidantion (LPO). These results suggested that IPS should be a potent natural polymer and can be developed to be novel functional food. PMID:25481282

  3. Protection against the co-operative toxicity of nitric oxide and oxygen free radicals by overexpression of antioxidant enzymes in bioengineered insulin-producing RINm5F cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Tiedge; S. Lortz; R. Munday; S. Lenzen

    1999-01-01

    Aims\\/hypothesis. The importance of different antioxidative enzymes for the defence of insulin-producing cells against the toxicity of nitric\\u000a oxide (NO) was characterised in bioengineered RINm5F cells. Methods. RINm5F insulin-producing cells stably overexpressing glutathione peroxidase (GPX), catalase (CAT) or Cu\\/Zn superoxide dismutase\\u000a (SOD) were exposed to S-nitroso-N-acetyl-d,l-penicillamine (SNAP), sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and 3 morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1), which generate both NO and reactive

  4. Chemical analysis of Hericium erinaceum polysaccharides and effect of the polysaccharides on derma antioxidant enzymes, MMP-1 and TIMP-1 activities.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hui; Wu, Pin-ru; Shen, Zheng-yu; Chen, Xiang-dong

    2010-07-01

    Hericium erinaceum was a traditional edible mushroom in Asia. In this study, we extracted polysaccharides from H. erinaceum. HPLC analysis indicated that H. erinaceum polysaccharides were mainly composed of glucose and galactose. The FT-IR spectra of H. erinaceum polysaccharides showed characteristic absorption bands of polysaccharides. The pharmacological properties of H. erinaceum polysaccharides were investigated in aged rats. Results showed that H. erinaceum polysaccharides significantly enhanced skin antioxidant enzymes, MMP-1, TIMP-1 activities and collagen protein levels in a dose-dependent manner. It can be concluded that H. erinaceum polysaccharides possess anti-skin-aging activities. PMID:20380848

  5. Effects of Ca(NO 3 ) 2 stress on oxidative damage, antioxidant enzymes activities and polyamine contents in roots of grafted and non-grafted tomato plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gu-Wen Zhang; Zheng-Lu Liu; Jun-Guo Zhou; Yue-Lin Zhu

    2008-01-01

    The effects of Ca(NO3)2 stress on biomass production, oxidative damage, antioxidant enzymes activities and polyamine contents in roots of grafted\\u000a and non-grafted tomato plants were investigated. Results showed that when exposed to 80 mM Ca(NO3)2 stress, the biomass production reduction in non-grafted plants was more significant than that of grafted plants. Under Ca(NO3)2 stress, superoxide anion radical (O2•?) producing rate, hydrogen

  6. Effects of 28-homobrassinolide on growth, lipid peroxidation and antioxidative enzyme activities in seedlings of Zea mays L. under salinity stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nitika Arora; Renu Bhardwaj; Priyanka Sharma; Hardesh Kumar Arora

    2008-01-01

    The effects of 28-homobrassinolide (28-homoBL) on seedling growth, lipid peroxidation and antioxidative enzyme activities\\u000a in the seedlings of Zea mays L. (var. Partap-1) under salt (NaCl) stress were studied. The surface-sterilized seeds were germinated in petriplates containing\\u000a different concentrations of NaCl (25, 50, 75 and 100 mM) only, 28-homoBL (10?7, 10?9 and 10?11 M) only and NaCl supplemented with 28-homoBL for 7 days.

  7. The effect of arsenic on some antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation in various tissues of mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio).

    PubMed

    Altikat, Sayit; Uysal, Kazim; Kuru, Halil Isa; Kavasoglu, Mustafa; Ozturk, Gul Nihan; Kucuk, Aysegul

    2015-03-01

    The effect of arsenic bioaccumulation in liver, kidney, skin, muscle, and intestinal tissues of mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio) was investigated on lipid peroxidation and certain antioxidant enzyme activities. In this study, three aquarium groups were formed from mirror carp: control group, 0.5-, and 1-mg/L arsenic concentrations. The fish were dissected after 1 month. Arsenic bioaccumulation, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme activities were determined in the tissues. Results showed that arsenic was accumulated in liver, kidney, muscle, skin, and intestinal tissues. As the final product of lipid peroxidation, MDA levels were determined to have increased in all tissues with the exception of muscle. On the other hand, CAT and SOD enzyme activities in the fish tissues were decreased as compared to the control group. In the muscle tissue, differences were observed in the enzyme activities depending on arsenic concentration. Considering the increases in enzyme inhibition and MDA levels, liver was observed to be the main tissue affected in response to the arsenic toxicity. PMID:24770925

  8. Update on the Angiotensin converting enzyme 2-Angiotensin (1-7)-MAS receptor axis: fetal programing, sex differences, and intracellular pathways.

    PubMed

    Chappell, Mark C; Marshall, Allyson C; Alzayadneh, Ebaa M; Shaltout, Hossam A; Diz, Debra I

    2014-01-01

    The renin-angiotensin-system (RAS) constitutes an important hormonal system in the physiological regulation of blood pressure. Indeed, dysregulation of the RAS may lead to the development of cardiovascular pathologies including kidney injury. Moreover, the blockade of this system by the inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) or antagonism of the angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) constitutes an effective therapeutic regimen. It is now apparent with the identification of multiple components of the RAS that the system is comprised of different angiotensin peptides with diverse biological actions mediated by distinct receptor subtypes. The classic RAS can be defined as the ACE-Ang II-AT1R axis that promotes vasoconstriction, sodium retention, and other mechanisms to maintain blood pressure, as well as increased oxidative stress, fibrosis, cellular growth, and inflammation in pathological conditions. In contrast, the non-classical RAS composed of the ACE2-Ang-(1-7)-Mas receptor axis generally opposes the actions of a stimulated Ang II-AT1R axis through an increase in nitric oxide and prostaglandins and mediates vasodilation, natriuresis, diuresis, and oxidative stress. Thus, a reduced tone of the Ang-(1-7) system may contribute to these pathologies as well. Moreover, the non-classical RAS components may contribute to the effects of therapeutic blockade of the classical system to reduce blood pressure and attenuate various indices of renal injury. The review considers recent studies on the ACE2-Ang-(1-7)-Mas receptor axis regarding the precursor for Ang-(1-7), the intracellular expression and sex differences of this system, as well as an emerging role of the Ang1-(1-7) pathway in fetal programing events and cardiovascular dysfunction. PMID:24409169

  9. Update on the Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2-Angiotensin (1–7)-Mas Receptor Axis: Fetal Programing, Sex Differences, and Intracellular Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Chappell, Mark C.; Marshall, Allyson C.; Alzayadneh, Ebaa M.; Shaltout, Hossam A.; Diz, Debra I.

    2013-01-01

    The renin-angiotensin-system (RAS) constitutes an important hormonal system in the physiological regulation of blood pressure. Indeed, dysregulation of the RAS may lead to the development of cardiovascular pathologies including kidney injury. Moreover, the blockade of this system by the inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) or antagonism of the angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) constitutes an effective therapeutic regimen. It is now apparent with the identification of multiple components of the RAS that the system is comprised of different angiotensin peptides with diverse biological actions mediated by distinct receptor subtypes. The classic RAS can be defined as the ACE-Ang II-AT1R axis that promotes vasoconstriction, sodium retention, and other mechanisms to maintain blood pressure, as well as increased oxidative stress, fibrosis, cellular growth, and inflammation in pathological conditions. In contrast, the non-classical RAS composed of the ACE2-Ang-(1–7)-Mas receptor axis generally opposes the actions of a stimulated Ang II-AT1R axis through an increase in nitric oxide and prostaglandins and mediates vasodilation, natriuresis, diuresis, and oxidative stress. Thus, a reduced tone of the Ang-(1–7) system may contribute to these pathologies as well. Moreover, the non-classical RAS components may contribute to the effects of therapeutic blockade of the classical system to reduce blood pressure and attenuate various indices of renal injury. The review considers recent studies on the ACE2-Ang-(1–7)-Mas receptor axis regarding the precursor for Ang-(1–7), the intracellular expression and sex differences of this system, as well as an emerging role of the Ang1-(1–7) pathway in fetal programing events and cardiovascular dysfunction. PMID:24409169

  10. Toxicity of the Herbicide Atrazine: Effects on Lipid Peroxidation and Activities of Antioxidant Enzymes in the Freshwater Fish Channa Punctatus (Bloch)

    PubMed Central

    Nwani, Christopher Ddidigwu; Lakra, Wazir Singh; Nagpure, Naresh Sahebrao; Kumar, Ravindra; Kushwaha, Basdeo; Srivastava, Satish Kumar

    2010-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the toxicity and effects of a commercial formulation of the herbicide atrazine (Rasayanzine) on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme system in the freshwater air breathing fish Channa punctatus. The 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h LC50 of atrazine, calculated by probit analysis, were determined to be 77.091, 64.053, 49.100, 44.412 and 42.381 mg·L?1, respectively, in a semi static system with significant difference (p < 0.05) in LC10–90 values obtained for different times of exposure. In addition to concentration and time dependent decrease in mortality rate, stress signs in the form of behavioral changes were also observed in response to the test chemical. In fish exposed for 15 days to different sublethal concentrations of the herbicide (1/4 LC50 = ?10.600 mg·L?1, 1/8 LC50 = ?5.300 mg·L?1 and 1/10 LC50 = ?4.238 mg·L?1) induction of oxidative stress in the liver was evidence by increased lipid peroxidation levels. The antioxidants superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR) responded positively in a concentration dependent pattern, thus, suggesting the use of these antioxidants as potential biomarkers of toxicity associated with contaminations exposure in freshwater fishes. PMID:20948961

  11. The effect of exercise training and water extract from propolis intake on the antioxidant enzymes activity of skeletal muscle and liver in rat

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Tae Dong; Lee, Mong Woo; Kim, Ki Hoon

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] In this study, the authors have intended to investigate the effects that the exercise training and the intake of the water extract from propolis have on the activity of antioxidant enzymes. [Methods] For this purpose, the exercise training (70% VO2max treadmill running exercise for 60min)of 5 times per week for six weeks and the intake (50mg/kg/day) of the water extract from propolis were performed by separating the experimental animals (SD rats, n=32) into CON(n=8) group, CON+Ex(n=8), PA(n=8), and PA+Ex(n=8). [Results] As a result, the following conclusions were obtained: The concentration of the blood glucose and insulin of the CON+Ex group and PA+Ex group which are the exercise parallel group were significantly decreased in comparison with the control group, whereas if comparing the glycogen concentration in skeletal muscle and liver tissue between the exercise parallel group and the CON group, the former showed significantly high value in comparison with the latter (p < .05). In the case of the activity of the antioxidant enzyme in the skeletal muscle and the liver tissue, the activities of SOD, GPX and CAT in the gastrocnemius muscle tissue of the experimental animals showed significantly high value in PA+Ex group in comparison with other experimental groups (p < .05). In addition, the SOD activity in the liver tissue showed that only PA+Ex group was significantly increased, whereas GDX activity showed significantly higher value in CON+Ex group and PA group than CON group (p < .05). However, the activity of CAT in the liver tissue showed that there is no difference between the experimental groups. As a result that measured the concentration of MDA in order to evaluate the damage level of the tissue by oxygen free radicals, the difference between the groups in the liver tissue was not shown, while it was shown that only PA+Ex group in the skeletal muscle tissue was significantly decreased in comparison with other experimental groups (p < .05). [Conclusion] Taken together the above findings, it is considered that the parallel treatment of the exercise training and the water extract from propolis can not only increase the use of glycogen of the skeletal muscle and liver tissue, but also it can give the effect to suppress the creation of active oxygen by inducing the activity of the antioxidant enzyme in the body, and in the future, the possibility as the exercise supplements and the antioxidant of the water-soluble propolis are expected. PMID:25566434

  12. ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTICANCER PROPERTIES OF BERRY FRUITS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Berry fruits are considered excellent functional foods because they contain high levels of natural antioxidants. Antioxidants can act as free radical scavengers, peroxide decomposers, singlet and triplet oxygen quenchers, enzyme inhibitors, and synergists. Therefore, antioxidants can delay or prev...

  13. Responses of photosynthetic properties and antioxidant enzymes in high-yield rice flag leaves to supplemental UV-B radiation during senescence stage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuwen; Yu, Guanghui; Li, Kang; Wu, Min; Ma, Jing; Xu, Jingang; Chen, Guoxiang

    2015-03-01

    Despite the increasing occurrence of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation, its molecular mechanism is poorly documented in higher plants compared to other environmental stress. In present study, the influence of supplemental UV-B radiation on photosynthetic performance and antioxidant enzymes in rice (Oryza sativa L.) was investigated. Supplemental UV-B radiation reduced net photosynthetic rate in rice flag leaves during senescence stage. By means of the JIP-test, it was found that the potential of processing light energy through the photosynthetic machinery was slightly inhibited by the increased thermal dissipation. Furthermore, 18 thylakoid membrane protein spots were differentially expressed (5-fold or greater variation compared to the control) in supplemental UV-B-treated rice. These identified proteins were involved in various cellular responses and metabolic processes including photosynthesis, stress defense, Calvin cycle, and others of unknown functions. Taken together, these results suggested that physiological changes that resulted from supplemental UV-B radiation were linked to the light reaction, carbon metabolism, and antioxidant enzymes in rice leaves during senescence stage. PMID:25328096

  14. Phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and in vitro inhibitory potential against key enzymes relevant for hyperglycemia and hypertension of commonly used medicinal plants, herbs and spices in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Ranilla, Lena Galvez; Kwon, Young-In; Apostolidis, Emmanouil; Shetty, Kalidas

    2010-06-01

    Traditionally used medicinal plants, herbs and spices in Latin America were investigated to determine their phenolic profiles, antioxidant activity and in vitro inhibitory potential against key enzymes relevant for hyperglycemia and hypertension. High phenolic and antioxidant activity-containing medicinal plants and spices such as Chancapiedra (Phyllantus niruri L.), Zarzaparrilla (Smilax officinalis), Yerba Mate (Ilex paraguayensis St-Hil), and Huacatay (Tagetes minuta) had the highest anti-hyperglycemia relevant in vitro alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activities with no effect on alpha-amylase. Molle (Schinus molle), Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp), Caigua (Cyclanthera pedata) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) inhibited significantly the hypertension relevant angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE). All evaluated pepper (Capsicum) genus exhibited both anti-hyperglycemia and anti-hypertension potential. Major phenolic compounds in Matico (Piper angustifolium R.), Guascas (Galinsoga parviflora) and Huacatay were chlorogenic acid and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives. Therefore, specific medicinal plants, herbs and spices from Latin America have potential for hyperglycemia and hypertension prevention associated with Type 2 diabetes. PMID:20185303

  15. Bisphenol A Alters n-6 Fatty Acid Composition and Decreases Antioxidant Enzyme Levels in Rat Testes: A LC-QTOF-Based Metabolomics Study

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Shanlei; Hu, Nan; Hu, Yanhui; Wu, Wei; Qiu, Lianglin; Zhang, Ruyang; Wang, Yubang; Wang, Shoulin; Zhou, Zuomin; Xia, Yankai; Wang, Xinru

    2012-01-01

    Background Male reproductive toxicity induced by exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) has been widely reported. The testes have proven to be a major target organ of BPA toxicity, so studying testicular metabolite variation holds promise for the discovery of mechanisms linked to the toxic effects of BPA on reproduction. Methodology/Principal Findings Male Sprague-Dawley rats were orally administered doses of BPA at the levels of 0, 50 mg/kg/d for 8 weeks. We used an unbiased liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight (LC-QTOF)-based metabolomics approach to discover, identify, and analyze the variation of testicular metabolites. Two n-6 fatty acids, linoleic acid (LA) and arachidonic acid (AA) were identified as potential testicular biomarkers. Decreased levels of LA and increased levels of AA as well as AA/LA ratio were observed in the testes of the exposed group. According to these suggestions, testicular antioxidant enzyme levels were detected. Testicular superoxide dismutase (SOD) declined significantly in the exposed group compared with that in the non-exposed group, and the glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) as well as catalase (CAT) also showed a decreasing trend in BPA treated group. Conclusions/Significance BPA caused testicular n-6 fatty acid composition variation and decreased antioxidant enzyme levels. This study emphasizes that metabolomics brings the promise of biomarkers identification for the discovery of mechanisms underlying reproductive toxicity. PMID:23024759

  16. Expression profiles of two small heat shock proteins and antioxidant enzyme activity in Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed to cadmium at environmentally relevant concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Liping; Ning, Xuanxuan; Chen, Leilei; Zhang, Linbao; Zhao, Jianmin; Liu, Xiaoli; Wu, Huifeng

    2014-03-01

    Small heat shock proteins encompass a widespread but diverse class of proteins, which play key roles in protecting organisms from various stressors. In the present study, the full-length cDNAs of two small heat shock proteins (MgsHSP22 and MgsHSP24.1) were cloned from Mytilus galloprovincialis, which encoded peptides of 181 and 247 amino acids, respectively. Both MgsHSP22 and MgsHSP24.1 were detected in all tissues examined by real-time PCR, with the highest expression being observed in muscle and gonad tissues. The real-time PCR results revealed that Cd significantly inhibited MgsHSP22 expression at 24 h and MgsHSP24.1 at 24 and 48 h under 5 ?g/L Cd 2+ exposure. MgsHSP24.1 expression was also significantly inhibited after 50 ?g/L Cd2+ exposure for 48 h. With regard to antioxidant enzymes, increased GPx and CAT activity were detected under Cd2+ stress (5 and 50 ?g/L), while no significant difference in SOD activity was observed throughout the experiment. Overall, both MgsHsps and antioxidant enzymes revealed their potential as Cd stress biomarkers in M. galloprovincialis.

  17. Rhizobial strain involvement in plant growth, nodule protein composition and antioxidant enzyme activities of chickpea-rhizobia symbioses: modulation by salt stress.

    PubMed

    Mhadhbi, Haythem; Jebara, Moez; Limam, Férid; Aouani, Mohamed Elarbi

    2004-09-01

    Mesorhizobium ciceri, Mesorhizobium mediterraneum and Sinorhizobium medicae strains showed different symbiotic performances when inoculated to chickpea (Cicer arietinum L., cv. chetoui) at unstressed conditions and under salt stress. The analysis of nodular proteic composition and antioxidant enzyme activities revealed a polymorphism of patterns on SDS and native PAGE suggesting a potential dependence on the bacterial partner. Salt effect was analysed on plant growth, nitrogen fixation and antioxidant enzymes. M. ciceri, the most efficient strain, seemed to allow a best tolerance to chickpea plants under salt stress. This constraint did not affect the nodular superoxide dismutase (SOD, E.C. 1.15.1.1) activity of the symbiosis implicating the latter strain. This symbiosis showed the least decrease for the nodule protein level and the catalase (CAT, E.C. 1.11.1.6) activity, and the highest increase of peroxidase (POX, E.C. 1.11.1.7) activity that seemed to be related with the tolerance to salt. PMID:15474377

  18. Preconditioning of brain slices against hypoxia induced injury by a Gynostemma pentaphyllum extract--stimulation of anti-oxidative enzyme expression.

    PubMed

    Schild, L; Cotte, T; Keilhoff, G; Brödemann, R

    2012-06-15

    A short period of hypoxia/hypoglycaemia (oxygen and glucose deprivation, OGD) induced by perfusion with O(2)/glucose-free medium caused immediate loss and incomplete restoration of evoked field potentials in the CA1 region of transverse hippocampus slices. OGD-dependent decrease in evoked field potentials can be prevented by a proceeding short OGD event (preconditioning). We report about a study investigating the effect of an ethanolic Gynostemma pentaphyllum extract on evoked field potentials when administered before the OGD episode. Using this procedure, the extract completely protected the cells of the slices from functional injury. In an astroglia rich cell culture the ethanolic Gynostemma pentaphyllum extract caused within 48 h of cultivation increased protein and activity levels of the anti-oxidative enzymes manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Consequently, the cellular H(2)O(2) concentration remained at a low level. These data suggest that the Gynostemma pentaphyllum-mediated increase in antioxidative enzyme activities may contribute to the protection of transverse hippocampus slices from OGD induced functional injury. Our results demonstrate that the prophylactic administration of the ethanolic extract from Gynostemma pentaphyllum has a high potential to protect from ischemia/reperfusion injury. PMID:22516894

  19. Dietary alpha-tocopherol affects tissue vitamin e and malondialdehyde levels but does not change antioxidant enzymes and fatty acid composition in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    PubMed

    Faizan, Mohammad; Stubhaug, Ingunn; Menoyo, David; Esatbeyoglu, Tuba; Wagner, Anika E; Struksnćs, Gunvor; Koppe, Wolfgang; Rimbach, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    In this study the effect of increasing dietary alpha tocopherol on vitamin E tissue concentrations, lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde), antioxidant enzymes, and fatty acid composition has been investigated in farmed Atlantic salmon. To this end fish (initial body weight ~ 193 g, n = 70 per group) were fed diets based on fish oil (27.5 %), fish meal (15.0 %), wheat gluten (20.6 %), and soy protein concentrate (24.0 %) for 14 weeks. Diets were supplemented with 0 (negative control), 150, and 400 mg/kg vitamin E as all-rac alpha-tocopheryl acetate. Dietary vitamin E did not affect feed conversion efficiency ratio but significantly (p < 0.05) increased alpha-tocopherol concentrations in salmon plasma, liver, and fillet (n = 8 per group each). The increase in fillet alpha-tocopherol was accompanied by a considerable decrease (p < 0.01) in malondialdehyde concentrations at the higher supplementation level. Furthermore, we observed an antagonistic interaction between alpha- and gamma-tocopherol in plasma at the highest supplementation level, since high dietary alpha-tocopherol reduced plasma gamma-tocopherol concentrations. Liver antioxidant enzymes, including glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase, remained largely unchanged in response to dietary alpha-tocopherol. Dietary alpha-tocopherol did not affect eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid concentrations in salmon fillet. Present data suggest that alpha-tocopherol supplementations beyond dietary recommendations may further improve flesh quality and nutritional value of Atlantic salmon fillet as far as malondialdehyde and vitamin E concentrations are concerned. PMID:25008014

  20. Acute Exercise Induced Mitochondrial H2O2 Production in Mouse Skeletal Muscle: Association with p66Shc and FOXO3a Signaling and Antioxidant Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ping; Qi, Zhengtang; Cui, Di; Ding, Shuzhe

    2015-01-01

    Exercise induced skeletal muscle phenotype change involves a complex interplay between signaling pathways and downstream regulators. This study aims to investigate the effect of acute exercise on mitochondrial H2O2 production and its association with p66Shc, FOXO3a, and antioxidant enzymes. Male ICR/CD-1 mice were subjected to an acute exercise. Muscle tissues (gastrocnemius and quadriceps femoris) were taken after exercise to measure mitochondrial H2O2 content, expression of p66Shc and FOXO3a, and the activity of antioxidant enzymes. The results showed that acute exercise significantly increased mitochondrial H2O2 content and expressions of p66Shc and FOXO3a in a time-dependent manner, with a linear correlation between the increase in H2O2 content and p66Shc or FOXO3a expression. The activity of mitochondrial catalase was slightly reduced in the 90?min exercise group, but it was significantly higher in groups with 120 and 150 min exercise compared to that of 90 min exercise group. The activity of SOD was not significantly affected. The results indicate that acute exercise increases mitochondrial H2O2 production in the skeletal muscle, which is associated with the upregulation of p66Shc and FOXO3a. The association of p66Shc and FOXO3a signaling with exercise induced H2O2 generation may play a role in regulating cellular oxidative stress during acute exercise.

  1. Effects of seaweed supplementation on blood glucose concentration, lipid profile, and antioxidant enzyme activities in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Sun; Kim, Jung Yun; Choi, Woong Hwan

    2008-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the physiological effects of seaweed supplementation on blood glucose levels, lipid profile, and antioxidant enzyme activities in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Subjects were randomized into either a control group or a seaweed supplementation group. Pills with equal parts of dry powdered sea tangle and sea mustard were provided to the seaweed supplementation group three times a day for 4 weeks. Total daily consumption of seaweed was 48 g. We found that total dietary fiber intake was 2.5 times higher in subjects receiving seaweed supplementation than in the control group. Accordingly, fasting blood glucose levels (p<0.01) and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose measurements (p<0.05) were decreased significantly in those ingesting seaweed. Furthermore, the serum concentrations of triglycerides were decreased and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was increased significantly in seaweed supplement group (p<0.05). However, the concentrations of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were not affected by seaweed supplementation. The level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in erythrocytes was significantly lower with seaweed supplementation compared to controls (p<0.05). Catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities with seaweed supplementation were higher than the controls (p<0.05), but superoxide dismutase activity was not affected. We, therefore, conclude that ingestion of seaweed influences glycemic control, lowers blood lipids, and increases antioxidant enzyme activities. PMID:20126367

  2. High-pressure improves enzymatic proteolysis and the release of peptides with angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant activities from lentil proteins.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Mora, P; Peńas, E; Frias, J; Gomez, R; Martinez-Villaluenga, C

    2015-03-15

    Angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory and antioxidant peptides are receiving attention due to their beneficial effects in the prevention/treatment of hypertension. The objective was to explore the effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HP) on proteolysis by different proteases and the release of bioactive peptides from lentil proteins. Pressurisation (100-300 MPa) enhanced the hydrolytic efficiency of Protamex, Savinase and Corolase 7089 compared to Alcalase. Proteolysis at 300 MPa led to a complete degradation of lentil proteins and increased peptide (<3 kDa) concentration by all enzymes. Proteolysis at 300 MPa by Savinase gave rise to lentil hydrolysates (S300) with the highest ACE-inhibitory and antioxidant activities that were retained upon in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. The peptides responsible for the multifunctional properties of S300 hydrolysate were identified as different fragments from storage proteins and the allergen Len c 1. These results support the potential of HP as a technology for the cost-effective production of bioactive peptides from lentil proteins during enzymatic proteolysis. PMID:25308663

  3. High sensitivity of Nrf2 knockout mice to acetaminophen hepatotoxicity associated with decreased expression of ARE-regulated drug metabolizing enzymes and antioxidant genes.

    PubMed

    Enomoto, A; Itoh, K; Nagayoshi, E; Haruta, J; Kimura, T; O'Connor, T; Harada, T; Yamamoto, M

    2001-01-01

    Nrf2, which belongs to the basic leucine zipper (bZip) transcription factor family, has been implicated as a key molecule involved in antioxidant-responsive element (ARE)-mediated gene expression. In order to examine the role of Nrf2 in protection against xenobiotic toxicity, the sensitivity of nrf2 knockout mice to acetaminophen (N-acetyl-4-aminophenol (APAP)) was analyzed. The saturation of detoxification pathways after high levels of exposure to APAP is known to induce hepatotoxicity. Two factors important in its detoxification are UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UDP-GT), an ARE-regulated phase-II drug-metabolizing enzyme, and glutathione (GSH), an antioxidant molecule whose synthesis depends on ARE-regulated gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (gammaGCS). Two- to 4-month-old male mice were orally administered a single dose of APAP at 0, 150, 300, or 600 mg/kg. Doses of 300 mg/kg APAP or greater caused death in the homozygous knockout mice only, and those that survived showed a greater severity in hepatic damage than the wild-type mice, as demonstrated by increased plasma alanine aminotransferase activity, decreased hepatic non-protein sulfhydryl (NPSH) content, and centrilobular hepatocellular necrosis. The high sensitivity of Nrf2-deficient mice was confirmed from observations made at 0, 2, 8, and 24 h after dosing with 300 mg/kg APAP; increased anti-APAP immunoreactivity was also noted in their livers at 2 h. Untreated homozygous knockout mice showed both a lower UDP-GT activity and NPSH content, which corresponded to decreased mRNA levels of UDP-GT (Ugt1a6) and the heavy chain of gammaGCS, respectively. These results show that Nrf2 plays a protective role against APAP hepatotoxicity by regulating both drug metabolizing enzymes and antioxidant genes through the ARE. PMID:11134556

  4. Effect of dietary supplementation of vitamin C on growth, reactive oxygen species, and antioxidant enzyme activity of Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) juveniles exposed to nitrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Zuoyong; Wang, Baojie; Liu, Mei; Jiang, Keyong; Liu, Mingxing; Wang, Lei

    2014-07-01

    Different amounts of vitamin C were added to diets fed to juveniles (2.5 ± 0.15 g) of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonic u s (Selenka) in an attempt to reduce the stress response of specimens exposed to nitrite stress. A commercial feed was used as the control diet and three experimental diets were made by supplementing 1 000, 1 500, or 2 000 mg vitamin C/kg diet to control diet separately in a 45-day experiment. Sea cucumbers were exposed to three different levels (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mg/L) of nitrite stress for 4, 8, and 12 h at four time intervals (0, 15, 30, and 45 d). Growth of the animals was recorded during the experiment. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) (i.e. hydroxyl free radical (-OH), malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC)) and antioxidant enzyme activities (i.e., superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT)) were measured. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to analyze the effect of multiple factors on ROS indices and enzyme activities. Weight gain (WG) and special growth rate (SGR) of vitamin C supplementation groups were significantly higher than those of control group ( P < 0.05). The levels of -OH and MDA increased under exposure time extending and nitrite concentration increasing, whereas T-AOC level decreased. SOD and CAT activities increased at 4 h and 8 h and decreased at 12 h. During the days in which the animal consumed experimental diets, the levels of -OH and MDA decreased and that of T-AOC increased. This result suggests that diets containing vitamin C could reduce the nitrite stress response in the animals and increase their antioxidant capacity. The multifactor regression equation of growth performance, ROS indices, and duration of feeding results suggest that vitamin C supplementation of 1 400-2 000 mg/kg diet for 29-35 days could reduce effectively the effects of nitrite exposure.

  5. Long Term Effect of Curcumin in Restoration of Tumour Suppressor p53 and Phase-II Antioxidant Enzymes via Activation of Nrf2 Signalling and Modulation of Inflammation in Prevention of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Das, Laxmidhar; Vinayak, Manjula

    2015-01-01

    Inhibition of carcinogenesis may be a consequence of attenuation of oxidative stress via activation of antioxidant defence system, restoration and stabilization of tumour suppressor proteins along with modulation of inflammatory mediators. Previously we have delineated significant role of curcumin during its long term effect in regulation of glycolytic pathway and angiogenesis, which in turn results in prevention of cancer via modulation of stress activated genes. Present study was designed to investigate long term effect of curcumin in regulation of Nrf2 mediated phase-II antioxidant enzymes, tumour suppressor p53 and inflammation under oxidative tumour microenvironment in liver of T-cell lymphoma bearing mice. Inhibition of Nrf2 signalling observed during lymphoma progression, resulted in down regulation of phase II antioxidant enzymes, p53 as well as activation of inflammatory signals. Curcumin potentiated significant increase in Nrf2 activation. It restored activity of phase-II antioxidant enzymes like GST, GR, NQO1, and tumour suppressor p53 level. In addition, curcumin modulated inflammation via upregulation of TGF-? and reciprocal regulation of iNOS and COX2. The study suggests that during long term effect, curcumin leads to prevention of cancer by inducing phase-II antioxidant enzymes via activation of Nrf2 signalling, restoration of tumour suppressor p53 and modulation of inflammatory mediators like iNOS and COX2 in liver of lymphoma bearing mice. PMID:25860911

  6. Synthesis and in vitro antioxidant functions of protein hydrolysate from backbones of Rastrelliger kanagurta by proteolytic enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Sheriff, Sheik Abdulazeez; Sundaram, Balasubramanian; Ramamoorthy, Baranitharan; Ponnusamy, Ponmurugan

    2013-01-01

    Every year, a huge quantity of fishery wastes and by-products are generated by fish processing industries. These wastes are either underutilized to produce low market value products or dumped leading to environmental issues. Complete utilization of fishery wastes for recovering value added products would be beneficial to the society and individual. The fish protein hydrolysates and derived peptides of fishery resources are widely used as nutritional supplements, functional ingredients, and flavor enhancers in food, beverage and pharmaceutical industries. Antioxidants from fishery resources have attracted the attention of researchers as they are cheaper in cost, easy to derive, and do not have side effects. Thus the present investigation was designed to produce protein hydrolysate by pepsin and papain digestion from the backbones of Rastrelliger kanagurta (Indian mackerel) and evaluate its antioxidant properties through various in vitro assays. The results reveal that both hydrolysates are potent antioxidants, capable of scavenging 46% and 36% of DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl) and 58.5% and 37.54% of superoxide radicals respectively. The hydrolysates exhibit significant (p < 0.05) reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibition. Among the two hydrolysates produced, pepsin derived fraction is superior than papain derived fraction in terms of yield, DH (Degree of hydrolysis), and antioxidant activity. PMID:24596496

  7. First report on isolation of methyl gallate with antioxidant, anti-HIV-1 and HIV-1 enzyme inhibitory activities from a mushroom (Pholiota adiposa).

    PubMed

    Wang, Chang Rong; Zhou, Rong; Ng, Tzi Bun; Wong, Jack Ho; Qiao, Wen Tao; Liu, Fang

    2014-03-01

    In this study, a compound with antioxidant and anti-HIV activities designated as HEB was first isolated from the edible mushroom Pholiota adiposa by extraction with ethanol and ethyl acetate. HEB was then purified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and identified to be methyl gallate (C8H8O5, 184.1 Da) based on data from its mass spectrum (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrum. HEB displayed strong antioxidant potency in inhibiting, at 1.36 mM concentration, erythrocyte hemolysis and scavenging DPPH radicals and superoxide anion (O2(-)) by 82.4%, 85.6% and 71.4%, respectively. Besides exhibiting a low cytotoxicity, compound HEB demonstrated significant anti-HIV activity in that it inhibited HIV-1 replication in TZM-BL cells infected by pseudovirus with an IC50 value of 11.9 ?M. Further study disclosed that HEB inhibited the viral entry process and activities of key enzymes essential for the HIV-1 life cycle. HEB inhibited HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and integrase activities with an IC50 value of 80.1 ?M and 228.5 ?M, respectively, and at 10 mM concentration inhibited HIV-1 protease activity by 17.1% which was higher than that achieved by the positive control pepstatin A. Interestingly, this study first revealed that H2O2 stimulation not only activated cell oxidative stress responses, but also accelerated HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) promotion in TZM-BL cells, which was significantly reduced by HEB from 18.2% to about 2%. It implied a direct relationship between the antioxidant and anti-HIV activities of the natural active constituent HEB. Nuclear transcription factor kappa B (NF-?B) signal pathways plays an important role in oxidative stress responses. Meanwhile, there is ?B target sequence in HIV promoter LTR which is significant for virus replication and gene expression. In this study, Western Blot assay showed that HEB could inhibit the activation of NF-?B signal pathway stimulated by H2O2 in mouse spleen cells through suppressing NF-?B (p65) translocation into nucleus and NF-kappa-B inhibitor (I?B) degradation in cytoplasm. In summary, the antioxidant HEB from P. adiposa could inhibit HIV-1 replication through multiple target sites. The data suggest that natural antioxidant compounds might have a potential for treatment of AIDS. PMID:24572641

  8. Modulatory effect of henna leaf (Lawsonia inermis) on drug metabolising phase I and phase II enzymes, antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation and chemically induced skin and forestomach papillomagenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Trisha; Rao, A R; Yadava, P K

    2003-03-01

    Henna leaf (Lawsonia inermis), commonly known as Mehndi is cultivated throughout India and is a very popular natural dye to color hand and hair. It is an integral part of indigenous culture, and is also known for its medicinal value. The effect of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight of 80% ethanolic extract of the fresh leaves of Lawsonia inermis were examined on drug metabolizing phase-I and phase-II enzymes, antioxidant enzymes, glutathione content, lactate dehydrogenase and lipid peroxidation in the liver of 7 weeks old Swiss albino mice. Also anticarcinogenic potential of Henna leaf extract was studied adopting the protocol of benzo(a)pyrene induced forestomach and 7,12 dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-initiated and croton oil-promoted skin papillomagenesis. Our primary findings reveal the 'duel-acting' nature of henna leaf as deduced from its potential to induce only the phase-II enzyme activity, associated mainly with carcinogen detoxification in liver of mice and inhibit the phase I enzyme activities. The hepatic glutathione S-transferase and DT-diaphorase specific activities were elevated above basal (p < 0.005) level by Lawsonia inermis extract treatment. With reference to antioxidant enzymes the investigated doses were effective in increasing the hepatic glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities significantly (from p < 0.05 to p < 0.005) at both the dose levels. Reduced glutathione (GSH) measured as non-protein sulphydryl was found to be significantly elevated in liver (p < 0.005) and in all the extrahepatic organs studied (from p < 0.05 to p < 0.005). Among the extrahepatic organs examined (forestomach, kidney and lung) glutathione S-transferase and DT-diaphorase level were increased in a dose independent manner (from p < 0.05 to p < 0.005). Chemopreventive response was measured by the average number of papillomas per mouse (tumor burden) as well as percentage of tumor bearing animals and tumor multiplicity. There was a significant inhibition of tumor burden in both the tumor model systems studied (from p < 0.01 to p < 0.001). Tumor incidence was also reduced by both the doses used in our experiment in both the model systems. PMID:12708740

  9. Antidiabetic effect of Punica granatum flowers: Effect on hyperlipidemia, pancreatic cells lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in experimental diabetes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Priyanka Bagri; Mohd. Ali; Vidhu Aeri; Malay Bhowmik; Shahnaz Sultana

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of Punica granatum aqueous extract (PgAq) on streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats by measuring fasting blood glucose, lipid profiles (atherogenic index), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and activities of both non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidants. Diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (60mg\\/kg) to albino Wistar rats. The increase in blood glucose level, total cholesterol

  10. Glutathione, glutathione-dependent enzymes and antioxidant status in erythrocytes from children treated with high-dose paracetamol

    PubMed Central

    Kozer, Eran; Evans, Sandra; Barr, Joseph; Greenberg, Revital; Soriano, Ingrid; Bulkowstein, Mordechai; Petrov, Irena; Chen-Levi, Zehava; Barzilay, Bernard; Berkovitch, Matitiahu

    2003-01-01

    Aim To investigate glutathione and antioxidant status changes in erythrocytes from febrile children receiving repeated supratherapeutic paracetamol doses. Methods Fifty-one children aged 2 months to 10 years participated in the study. Three groups were studied: group 1 (n = 24) included afebrile children who did not receive paracetamol; and groups 2 (n = 13) and 3 (n = 14) included children who had fever above 38.5°C for more than 72 h. Patients in group 2 received paracetamol at a dose of 50 ± 15 (30–75) mg kg?1 day?1 and those in group 3 received paracetamol above the recommended therapeutic dose, ie 107 ± 28 (80–180) mg kg?1 day?1. A blood sample was taken for the measurement of liver transaminases, gammaglutamil transferase (GGT), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and antioxidant status. Results Aspartate aminotransferase activity in group 3 was higher than in the other groups (P = 0.027). GSH, SOD and antioxidant status were significantly lower in group 3 compared with groups 1 and 2 (mean differences: for GSH 3.41 µmol gHb?1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.10–4.72, and 2.15 µmol gHb?1, 95% CI 0.65–3.65, respectively; for SOD 856 U min?1 gHb?1, 95% CI 397–1316, and 556 U min?1 gHb?1, 95% CI 30–1082, respectively; and for antioxidant status 0.83 mmol l?1 plasma, 95% CI 0.30–1.36, and 0.63 mmol l?1 plasma, 95% CI 0.02–1.24, respectively). GR activity was significantly lower in groups 3 and 2 in comparison with group 1 (mean differences 3.44 U min?1 gHb?1, 95% CI 0.63–6.25, and 5.64 U min?1 gHb?1, 95% CI 2.90–8.38, respectively). Using multiple regression analysis, paracetamol dose was found to be the only independent variable affecting GR, GST and SOD activities (P = 0.007, 0.003 and 0.008, respectively). Conclusions In febrile children, treatment with repeated supratherapeutic doses of paracetamol is associated with reduced antioxidant status and erythrocyte glutathione concentrations. These significant changes may indicate an increased risk for hepatotoxicity and liver damage. PMID:12630972

  11. Effects of Three Medicinal Plants Extracts in Experimental Diabetes: Antioxidant Enzymes Activities and Plasma Lipids Profiles inComparison with Metformin.

    PubMed

    Fehresti Sani, Mohammad; Montasser Kouhsari, Shideh; Moradabadi, Leila

    2012-01-01

    In the present study we aimed to evaluate the effects of methanolic extracts of the bulbs of Garlic (Allium sativum L., Alliaceae) and Persian shallot (Allium ascalonicum L., Alliaceae ) and leaves of Sage (Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae ), ASE, AAE and SOE respectively, on the antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and catalase (CAT) activities and on the levels of plasma lipids profiles such as triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoproteins (HDL), low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) in Alloxan diabetic Wistar rats. In comparison with diabetic control rats in diabetic treated rats, AAE increases the activities of SOD (65%), GPX (43%) and CAT (55%). ASE and SOE increase SOD activity by 60% and 33% respectively. ASE reduces TC (34%), SOE decreases TG (40%) and LDL (30%) and AAE reduces VLDL (24%). Metformin exhibits mild antioxidant and hypolipidemic properties. Results of quantitative phytochemical analysis show that the methanolic garlic and Persian shallot bulbs extracts contain secondary metabolites including alkaloids (3.490% and 3.430%), glycosides (18.023% and 13.301%) and saponins (0.812% and 0.752%). Methanolic sage leaves extract contains flavonoids (1.014%), glycosides (23.142%) and saponins (2.096%). The total phenolic contents of ASE, AAE and SOE were in order 4.273, 3.621 and 6.548 mg GAE/g dry weight (DW). These results suggest that Allium sativum, Allium ascalonicum and Salvia officinalis are beneficial in the control of diabetes by noticeable antioxidant and hypolipidemic properties. PMID:24250517

  12. Erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation in the erythrocyte membrane of stainless-steel welders exposed to welding fumes and gases.

    PubMed

    Imamoglu, Nalan; Yerer, Mükerrem-Betül; Donmez-Altuntas, Hamiyet; Saraymen, Recep

    2008-03-01

    The erythrocyte antioxidant system (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT) and lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde, MDA) in the erythrocyte membrane were studied in workers continously exposed to welding fumes and gases, which are thought to be oxidant pollutants. Thirty-five welders using the manual metal arc method on stainless steel and 30 controls were studied. Plasma chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), and cupper (Cu) levels were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The erythrocyte antioxidant system activity and lipid peroxidation in the erythrocyte membrane were evaluated. Not only the possible effects of welding fumes but also the effects of smoking were considered. The plasma concentrations of Cr, Mn, and Cu for the exposed welders were significantly higher compared to the control subjects (p<0.001, p<0.01, p<0.001, respectively,). The erythrocyte CAT (p<0.05) and SOD (p<0.05) enzyme activities were significantly higher in the welders but there were not any significant changes in the MDA levels which reflect the lipid peroxidation in the erythrocyte membrane (p>0.05). Smoking has increased the SOD activity in both controls (p<0.05) and welders (p<0.01) and increased the CAT activity in control subjects (p<0.05). Moreover, regardless of smoking, there were some significant correlations between the duration of the exposure to welding fumes and antioxidant defence system (SOD: p<0.05; CAT: p<0.05). The synergistic effects of smoking and other risk factors (welding fumes and gases), which had been shown previously by some clinical data should also be taken into account. As a consequence, the welders should be warned and informed of the synergistic effects of smoking on the adverse effect of welding fumes and gases. PMID:17400508

  13. Temporal changes in hepatic antioxidant enzyme activities after ischemia and reperfusion in a rat liver ischemia model: effect of dietary fish oil.

    PubMed

    Saďdi, S A; Abdelkafi, S; Jbahi, S; van Pelt, J; El-Feki, A

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the hypothesis that administration of tilapia fish oil diet would attenuate warm liver ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) and whether fish oil modulates prooxidant/antioxidant status. Male Wistar rats were subjected to 30 min of approximately 70% hepatic ischemia followed by 1, 12, and 24 h reperfusion. Rats were randomly divided into three groups: sham-operated group (SO), control-warm hepatic ischemia (WI) group, and Oil-WI group given tilapia oil for 3 weeks followed by liver IRI. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels were measured in the plasma. Levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and antioxidant enzymes as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were measured in liver fractions. In the sham group, there was no enzymatic or histological change. I/R caused significant increase in serum AST, ALT, and tissue TBARS levels. As compared to the control group, animals treated with tilapia oil experienced a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in AST and ALT levels in reperfusion periods. Tissue TBARS levels in Oil-WI group were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced as compared to control group at 60 min after reperfusion. After ischemia, 1, 12, and 24 h of reperfusion, CAT, SOD, and GPx values were the lowest in the Oil-WI group and highest in the control group and were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Histological analysis also revealed that fish oil provided some protection compared with the control group. Tilapia oil exerts a protective effect during the early phase of reperfusion, and it modulates prooxidant/antioxidant status of rat liver subjected to warm IRI. PMID:24939873

  14. Effects of soybean supplementation on blood glucose, plasma lipid levels, and erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ji Ho; Kim, Min Sun; Kim, Tae Wha; Lee, Sang Sun

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of soybean on blood glucose and lipid concentrations, and antioxidant enzyme activity in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. We divided patients into two groups and fed them, respectively, a basal diet (control group) and a basal diet with 69 g/d of soybean (soybean group) for 4 weeks. Pills with roasted soybean powder were provided to the soybean supplementation group three times a day. Macronutrients intake except dietary fiber was similar between the two groups. No significant differences were observed in dietary intakes or body weight before and after the supplementation. Energy composition ratio of C:F:P was 65:19:16 in the control group, 64:20:16 in the soybean group. The blood parameters of subjects before supplementation, such as fasting blood glucose, postprandial glucose level, total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol and HbA(1)C were not different between the two groups. After supplementation, fasting blood glucose (p<0.001), postprandial glucose level (p<0.001) and serum triglyceride level (p<0.05) were significantly reduced in the soybean group in comparison with the control group. The total cholesterol level was not significantly different between the control and the supplemented group after 4 weeks of treatment. TBARS levels of the soybean group were not significantly different from those of the control group. The activities of catalase (p<0.01) and glutathione peroxidase (p<0.05) were significantly higher in the soybean group compared to the control group. The results of this study suggest that soybean supplementation would be helpful to control blood glucose and serum lipid in diabetic patients. Also, soybean showed an antioxidant activity that may contribute to enhance the effect of antioxidant defense. This activity contributes to protection against oxidative damage in type 2 DM patients. Soybean may have potential use in the disease management of patients with DM. PMID:20126600

  15. Vitamin E and C supplementation reduces oxidative stress, improves antioxidant enzymes and positive muscle work in chronically loaded muscles of aged rats

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Michael J.; Dudash, Holly J.; Docherty, Megan; Geronilla, Kenneth B.; Baker, Brent A.; Haff, G. Gregory; Cutlip, Robert G.; Alway, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    Aging is associated with increased oxidative stress. Muscle levels of oxidative stress are further elevated with exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine if dietary antioxidant supplementation would improve muscle function and cellular markers of oxidative stress in response to chronic repetitive loading in aging. The dorsiflexors of the left limb of aged and young adult Fischer 344 Brown x Norway rats were loaded 3 times weekly for 4.5 weeks using 80 maximal stretch-shortening contractions per session. The contralateral limb served as the intra-animal control. The rats were randomly assigned to a diet supplemented with Vitamin E and Vitamin C or normal non-supplemented rat chow. Biomarkers of oxidative stress were measured in the tibialis anterior muscle. Repetitive loading exercise increased maximal isometric force, negative and positive work in the dorsiflexors of young adult rats. Only positive work increased in the aged animals that were supplemented with Vitamin E and C. Markers of oxidative stress (H2O2, total GSH, GSH/GSSG ratio, malondialdehyde and 8-OHdG) increased in the tibialis anterior muscles from aged and young adult animals with repetitive loading, but Vitamin E and C supplements attenuated this increase. MnSOD activity increased with supplementation in the young adult animals. CuZnSOD and catalase activity increased with supplementation in young adult and aged animals and GPx activity increased with exercise in the non-supplemented young adult and aged animals. The increased levels of endogenous antioxidant enzymes after Vitamin E and C supplementation appear to be regulated by post-transcriptional modifications that are affected differently by age, exercise, and supplementation. These data suggest that antioxidant supplementation improves indices of oxidative stress associated with repetitive loading exercise and aging and improve the positive work output of muscles in aged rodents. PMID:20705127

  16. Integrated use of antioxidant enzymes and oxidative damage in two fish species to assess pollution in man-made hydroelectric reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Sakuragui, M M; Paulino, M G; Pereira, C D S; Carvalho, C S; Sadauskas-Henrique, H; Fernandes, M N

    2013-07-01

    This study investigated the relationship between contaminant body burden and the oxidative stress status of the gills and livers of two wild fish species in the Furnas Hydroelectric Power Station (HPS) reservoir (Minas Gerais, Brazil). Gills and livers presented similar pathways of metals and organochlorine bioaccumulation. During June, organochlorines were associated with lipid peroxidation (LPO), indicating oxidative stress due to the inhibition of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. In the most polluted areas, metal concentrations in the liver were associated with metallothionein. During December, contaminants in the gills and liver were associated with catalase activity and LPO. Aldrin/dieldrin was the contaminant most associated with oxidative damage in the livers of both species. This integrated approach shed light on the relationship between adverse biological effects and bioaccumulation of contaminants inputted by intensive agricultural practices and proved to be a suitable tool for assessing the environmental quality of man-made reservoirs. PMID:23542355

  17. Protective effect of ganodermanondiol isolated from the Lingzhi mushroom against tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced hepatotoxicity through Nrf2-mediated antioxidant enzymes.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Lee, Dong-Sung; Kang, Yue; Yao, Nai-Qi; An, Ren-Bo; Kim, Youn-Chul

    2013-03-01

    Ganodermanondiol, a biologically active compound, was isolated from the Lingzhi mushroom (Ganoderma lucidum). The present study examined the protective effects of ganodermanondiol against tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced hepatotoxicity. Ganodermanondiol protected human liver-derived HepG2 cells through nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway-dependent heme oxygenase-1 expressions. Moreover, ganodermanondiol increased cellular glutathione levels and the expression of the glutamine-cysteine ligase gene in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, ganodermanondiol exposure enhanced the phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and its upstream kinase activators, LKB1 and Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase-II (CaMKII). This study indicates that ganodermanondiol exhibits potent cytoprotective effects on t-BHP-induced hepatotoxicity in human liver-derived HepG2 cells, presumably through Nrf2-mediated antioxidant enzymes and AMPK. PMID:23266269

  18. Effect of N-acetylcysteine administration on the expression and activities of antioxidant enzymes and the malondialdehyde level in the blood of lead-exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Kasperczyk, S?awomir; Dobrakowski, Micha?; Kasperczyk, Aleksandra; Machnik, Grzegorz; Birkner, Ewa

    2014-03-01

    We investigated whether treatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) reduces oxidative stress intensity and restores the expression and activities of superoxide dismutase (Sod1, SOD), catalase (Cat, CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (Gpx1, GPx) in lead-exposed workers. The exposed population was divided randomly into two groups. Workers in the first group (reference group, n=49) were not administered any drugs, while workers in the second group (n=122) were treated with NAC at three doses for 12 weeks (200 mg, 400 mg, 800 mg/day). NAC administered orally to lead-exposed workers normalized antioxidant enzyme activities in blood cells. Oxidative stress intensity measured as malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in serum, leukocytes and erythrocytes significantly decreased after NAC administration. NAC may be an alternative therapy for chronic lead intoxication. PMID:24577230

  19. The use of antioxidative stress enzymes, lipid peroxidation, and red blood cell abnormalities as biomarkers of stress in Periphthalmus papilio of the polluted coastal Lagos lagoon.

    PubMed

    Nnamdi, Amaeze H; Olumide, Adebesin A; Adeladun, Adepegba E; Oyenike, Kolapo; Rosemary, Egonmwan I

    2015-03-01

    We assessed the mudskipper, Periphthalmus papilio inhabiting the coast line of the Lagos lagoon, Gulf of Guinea, to determine suitable biomarkers of stress due to its current status as a polluted water body. The gill and liver samples showed evidence of some activities of antioxidative stress enzymes including catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione-s-transferase, reduced glutahthione, as well as some detectable levels of lipid peroxidation product. The stress status of the fishes was also elucidated by nuclear abnormalities especially micronucleus formation and the presence of numerous vacuolated red blood cells. Given the current need for more sensitive bioindicators in monitoring pollution in this lagoon, we hereby present these inherent responses in P. papilio as a suitable candidate for incorporation into the current repertoire for ecotoxicological investigations in polluted water bodies of the Gulf of Guinea coastline. PMID:25666650

  20. Toxic effects of 1-decyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ionic liquid on the antioxidant enzyme system and DNA in zebrafish (Danio rerio) livers.

    PubMed

    Dong, Miao; Zhu, Lusheng; Zhu, Shaoyuan; Wang, Jinhua; Wang, Jun; Xie, Hui; Du, Zhongkun

    2013-05-01

    Ionic liquids were recently found to be toxic to aquatic organisms. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of 1-decyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([C10mim]Br) on oxidative stress and DNA damage in zebrafish. Male and female zebrafish were separated and exposed to five concentrations of [C10mim]Br (0, 5, 10, 20, and 40 mg L(-1)) and were sampled on days 7, 14, 21 and 28. Compared to control groups, the activities of antioxidant enzymes were significantly decreased at most exposure intervals. This decreased activity resulted in the production of excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increased malondialdehyde (MDA) content in zebrafish liver. Additionally, it was noteworthy that a clear dose-response was found for DNA damage. As for sex differences, significant differences in catalase (CAT) and ROS were found on the 7th day. In conclusion, the exposure of [C10mim]Br caused DNA damage, leading to antioxidant responses in zebrafish livers. PMID:23399308

  1. Antioxidant Defense Enzyme Genes and Asthma Susceptibility: Gender-Specific Effects and Heterogeneity in Gene-Gene Interactions between Pathogenetic Variants of the Disease

    PubMed Central

    Polonikov, Alexey V.; Ivanov, Vladimir P.; Bogomazov, Alexey D.; Freidin, Maxim B.; Illig, Thomas; Solodilova, Maria A.

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress resulting from an increased amount of reactive oxygen species and an imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants plays an important role in the pathogenesis of asthma. The present study tested the hypothesis that genetic susceptibility to allergic and nonallergic variants of asthma is determined by complex interactions between genes encoding antioxidant defense enzymes (ADE). We carried out a comprehensive analysis of the associations between adult asthma and 46 single nucleotide polymorphisms of 34 ADE genes and 12 other candidate genes of asthma in Russian population using set association analysis and multifactor dimensionality reduction approaches. We found for the first time epistatic interactions between ADE genes underlying asthma susceptibility and the genetic heterogeneity between allergic and nonallergic variants of the disease. We identified GSR (glutathione reductase) and PON2 (paraoxonase 2) as novel candidate genes for asthma susceptibility. We observed gender-specific effects of ADE genes on the risk of asthma. The results of the study demonstrate complexity and diversity of interactions between genes involved in oxidative stress underlying susceptibility to allergic and nonallergic asthma. PMID:24895604

  2. Evaluation of Various Packaging Systems on the Activity of Antioxidant Enzyme, and Oxidation and Color Stabilities in Sliced Hanwoo (Korean Cattle) Beef Loin during Chill Storage

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Sun Moon; Kang, Geunho; Seong, Pil-Nam; Park, Beomyoung; Cho, Soohyun

    2014-01-01

    The effects of various packaging systems, vacuum packaging (VACP), medium oxygen-modified atmosphere packaging (50% O2/20% CO2/30% N2, MOMAP), MOMAP combined with vacuum skin packaging (VSP-MOMAP), high oxygen-MAP (80% O2/20% CO2/0% N2, HOMAP), and HOMAP combined with VSP (VSP-HOMAP), on the activity of antioxidant enzyme, and oxidation and color stabilities in sliced Hanwoo (Korean cattle) beef loin were investigated at 4°C for 14 d. Higher (p<0.05) superoxide dismutase activity and total reducing ability were maintained in VSP-MOMAP beef than in HOMAP beef. Lipid oxidation (2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS) was significantly (p<0.05) retarded in MOMAP, VSP-MOMAP, and VSP-HOMAP beef compared with HOMAP beef. Production of nonheme iron content was lower (p<0.05) in VSP-MOMAP beef than in HOMAP beef. Red color (a*) was kept higher (p<0.05) in VSP-MOMAP beef compared with MOMAP, HOMAP, and VSP-HOMAP beef. However, VACP beef was found to have the most positive effects on the antioxidant activity, oxidation and red color stabilities among the various packaged beef. These findings suggested that VSP-MOMAP was second to VACP in improving oxidation and color stabilities in sliced beef loin during chill storage. PMID:25178378

  3. Growth performance and antioxidant enzyme activities in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) juveniles fed diets supplemented with sage, mint and thyme oils.

    PubMed

    Sönmez, Adem Yavuz; Bilen, Soner; Alak, Gonca; Hisar, Olcay; Yan?k, Talat; Biswas, Gouranga

    2015-02-01

    This study evaluated effects of dietary supplementation of sage (Salvia officinalis), mint (Mentha spicata) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) oils on growth performance, lipid peroxidation level (melondialdehyde, MDA) and liver antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, G6PD; glutathione reductase, GR; glutathione-S-transferase, GST and glutathione peroxidase, GPx) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) juveniles. For this purpose, triplicate groups of rainbow trout were fed daily ad libitum with diets containing sage, mint and thyme oils at 500, 1,000 and 1,500 mg kg(-1) for 60 days. While weight gain percentage of fish fed the diets containing sage and thyme oils was significantly higher than the control group, that of fish fed mint oil was the lowest. Similarly, specific growth rate was found to be the highest in all groups of the sage and thyme oil feeding and the lowest in the mint groups. Moreover, feed conversion ratio was significantly higher in the mint oil administered groups. Survival rate was also significantly reduced in the fish fed the diet containing mint oil. It was observed that SOD, G6PD and GPx activities were significantly increased in liver tissues of all the treated fish groups compared to that of control diet-fed group. However, CAT, GST and GR activities were significantly decreased in experimental diet-fed fish groups at the end of the experiment. On the other hand, a significant reduction was found in MDA levels in the fish fed the diets with sage and thyme oils compared to control and mint diets on the 30th and 60th days of experiment. Overall, dietary inclusion of sage and thyme oils is effective in enhancing rainbow trout growth, reduction in MDA and least changing antioxidant enzyme activities at a low level of 500 mg kg(-1) diet, and they can be used as important feed supplements for rainbow trout production. PMID:25431274

  4. Physiological fluxes and antioxidative enzymes activities of immobilized Phanerochaete chrysosporium loaded with TiO2 nanoparticles after exposure to toxic pollutants in solution.

    PubMed

    Tan, Qiong; Chen, Guiqiu; Zeng, Guangming; Chen, Anwei; Guan, Song; Li, Zhongwu; Zuo, Yanan; Huang, Zhenzhen; Guo, Zhi

    2015-06-01

    Immobilized Phanerochaete chrysosporium loaded with TiO2 nanoparticles (PTNs) are novel high-value bioremediation materials for adsorbing cadmium and for degrading 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP). The real-time changes in H(+) and O2 fluxes were measured using the noninvasive microtest technique (NMT). The H(+) influx increased after the addition of 2,4-DCP, and shifted to efflux following the addition of Cd(2+). The O2 flux decreased after the addition of both 2,4-DCP and Cd(2+). A larger Cd(2+) flux was immediately observed after exposure to 0.5mM Cd(2+) (-351.25pmolcm(-2)s(-1)) than to 0.1mM Cd(2+) (-107.47pmolcm(-2)s(-1)). The removal of Cd(2+) by the PTNs increased more after treatment with the 0.5mM exposure solution (27.6mgg(-1)) than with the 0.1mM exposure solution (3.49mgg(-1)). The enzyme activities were analyzed to review the antioxidative defense system of PTNs in a solution containing various concentrations of Cd(2+). The activities of the coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) oxidase as well as the enzyme catalase (CAT) plateaued at 6.5Ug(-1) FW and 9.7Ug(-1) FW, respectively, after exposure to 0.25mM Cd(2+). The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased gradually in solutions containing 0.1-0.6mM Cd(2+), and eventually reached a maximum (68.86Ug(-1) FW). These results illustrate how the antioxidative defense system and the physiological fluxes of PTNs respond to the stress caused by toxic pollutants. PMID:25638529

  5. Why (?)deprenyl prolongs survivals of experimental animals: Increase of anti-oxidant enzymes in brain and other body tissues as well as mobilization of various humoral factors may lead to systemic anti-aging effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenichi Kitani; Chiyoko Minami; Ken-ichi Isobe; Kayoko Maehara; Setsuko Kanai; Gwen O. Ivy; Maria-Christina Carrillo

    2002-01-01

    (?)Deprenyl, a monoamine oxidase B (MAO B) inhibitor is known to upregulate activities of anti-oxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in brain dopaminergic regions. The drug is also the sole chemical which has been repeatedly shown to increase life spans of several animal species including rats, mice, hamsters and dogs. Further, the drug was recently found

  6. In Vitro Studies on the Antioxidant Property and Inhibition of ?-Amylase, ?-Glucosidase, and Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme by Polyphenol-Rich Extracts from Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) Bean

    PubMed Central

    Ademosun, Ayokunle O.; Ademiluyi, Adedayo O.; Omojokun, Olasunkanmi S.; Nwanna, Esther E.; Longe, Kuburat O.

    2014-01-01

    Background. This study sought to investigate the antidiabetic and antihypertensive mechanisms of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) bean through inhibition of ?-amylase, ?-glucosidase, angiotensin-1 converting enzyme, and oxidative stress. Methodology. The total phenol and flavonoid contents of the water extractable phytochemicals from the powdered cocoa bean were determined and the effects of the extract on ?-amylase, ?-glucosidase, and angiotensin-1 converting enzyme activities were investigated in vitro. Furthermore, the radicals [1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2..-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), hydroxyl (OH), and nitric oxide (NO)] scavenging ability and ferric reducing antioxidant property of the extract were assessed. Results. The results revealed that the extract inhibited ?-amylase (1.81 ± 0.22?mg/mL), ?-glucosidase (1.84 ± 0.17?mg/mL), and angiotensin-1 converting enzyme (0.674 ± 0.06?mg/mL [lungs], 1.006 ± 0.08?mg/mL [heart]) activities in a dose-dependent manner and also showed dose-dependent radicals [DPPH (16.94 ± 1.34?mg/mL), NO (6.98 ± 0.886?mg/mL), OH (3.72 ± 0.26?mg/mL), and ABTS (15.7 ± 1.06?mmol/TEAC·g] scavenging ability. Conclusion. The inhibition of ?-amylase, ?-glucosidase, and angiotensin-1 converting enzyme activities by the cocoa bean extract could be part of the possible mechanism by which the extract could manage and/or prevent type-2 diabetes and hypertension. PMID:25295218

  7. Influence of enzymatic hydrolysis and enzyme type on the nutritional and antioxidant properties of pumpkin meal hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Venuste, Muhamyankaka; Zhang, Xiaoming; Shoemaker, Charles F; Karangwa, Eric; Abbas, Shabbar; Kamdem, Patrick Eugene

    2013-04-30

    Nutritional and antioxidant properties of pumpkin meal and their hydrolysates prepared by hydrolysis with alcalase, flavourzyme, protamex or neutrase were evaluated. The hydrolysis process significantly increased protein content from 67.07% to 92.22%. All the essential amino acids met the Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations/World Health Organization (WHO/FAO) suggested requirements for children and adults. The amino acid score (AAS) of meal was increased from 65.59 to 73.00 except for flavourzyme (62.97) and protamex (62.50). The Biological Value (BV) was increased from 53.18 to 83.44 except for protamex (40.97). However hydrolysis decreased the Essential Amino Acid/Total Amino Acid ratio (EAA/TAA) from 32.98% to 29.43%. Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) was comparable to that of good quality protein (1.5) except for flavourzyme hydrolysate which had PER1 = 0.92, PER2 = 1.03, PER3 = 0.38. The in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) increased from 71.32% to 77.96%. Antioxidant activity increased in a dose-dependent manner. At 10 mg mL(-1), the hydrolysates had increased 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazy (DPPH) radical scavenging activities from 21.89% to 85.27%, the reducing power increased from Abs(700nm) 0.21 to 0.48. Metal (Iron) chelating ability was improved from 30.50% to 80.03% at 1 mg mL(-1). Hydrolysates also showed better capabilities to suppress or delay lipid peroxidation in a linoleic acid model system. Different proteases lead to different Degrees of Hydrolysis (DH), molecular weight (MW) distribution, amino acid composition and sequence, which influenced the nutritional properties and antioxidant activities of the hydrolysates. Alcalase was the most promising protease in production of pumpkin protein hydrolysates with improved nutritional quality, while flavourzyme was best in production of hydrolysates with improved antioxidative activity among various assays. These results showed that hydrolysates from by-products of pumpkin oil-processing might serve as alternative sources of dietary proteins with good nutritional quality, and protection against oxidative damage. PMID:23591974

  8. Evaluation of the role of enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant systems in the radiation resistance of Deinococcus.

    PubMed

    Shashidhar, Ravindranath; Kumar, Sanjukta A; Misra, Hari S; Bandekar, Jayant R

    2010-03-01

    Antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant metabolites appear to have different roles in the oxidative stress resistance responses of radiation-resistant bacteria belonging to the Deinococcus-Thermus group. Twelve distinct strains belonging to 7 Deinococcus species were characterized for their responses to hydrogen peroxide, ciprofloxacin, and ionizing radiation. The levels of catalase and peroxidase activities in these strains showed a positive correlation with resistance to hydrogen peroxide and ciprofloxacin. However, the levels of these enzymes and carotenoids did not appear to contribute significantly to radiation resistance. Our findings support the idea that enzymatic defense systems are not sufficient to account for the extreme radiation resistance of Deinococcus species. Consistent with previously published reports, the Deinococcus strains had high intracellular manganese/iron ratios. No significant correlation was found between intracellular manganese/iron ratios and radiation resistance within different Deinococcus species, suggesting that other components are involved in conferring radiation resistance. PMID:20453905

  9. Influence of dietary zinc on semen traits and seminal plasma antioxidant enzymes and trace minerals of beetal bucks.

    PubMed

    Rahman, H U; Qureshi, M S; Khan, R U

    2014-12-01

    Zinc (Zn) is a potent antioxidant and plays a key role in scavenging free radicals. We hypothesized that supplementation of Zn would reduce the oxidative damage, which is linked with poor sperm quality. Sixteen bucks of similar average age (2 years) and body weight (41 kg) were randomly divided into four groups viz., 1, 2, 3 and 4 supplemented with zinc sulphate into the diet at the rate of 0, 50, 100 and 200 mg/buck/day, respectively, for 3 months. At the end of the experiment, semen samples were collected and assessed. Seminal plasma was separated to find the concentration of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and trace minerals (Zn, Cu, Mn and Fe). The results revealed that semen volume (1.85 ± 0.01 ml) and sperm motility (88.23 ± 5.77%) increased significantly (p < 0.05) in supplemented groups compared with the control specifically in group 3. SOD (10.66 ± 0.23 inhibition rate %) and GPx (23.55 ± 0.49 mU/ml) increased significantly (p < 0.05) in group 3 with no effect on AST and ALT. Among seminal plasma trace elements, no significant change (p > 0.05) was observed. From the present results, we concluded that zinc sulphate at the rate of 100 mg/buck/day improved semen traits and seminal plasma antioxidant capacity in Beetal bucks. PMID:25263460

  10. Diminution of Hepatic Response to 7, 12-dimethylbenz(?)anthracene by Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Acacia catechu Willd. through Modulation of Xenobiotic and Anti-Oxidative Enzymes in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rakesh; Kaur, Rajbir; Singh, Amrit Pal; Arora, Saroj

    2014-01-01

    Background Liver is the primary metabolizing site of body and is prone to damage by exogenous as well as endogenous intoxicants. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons such as 7, 12- dimethylbenz(?)anthracene (DMBA) is an exogenous hepatotoxin, which is well known for modulating phase I, II and anti-oxidative enzymes of liver. Plants contain plethora of polyphenolic compounds which can reverse the damaging effect of various xenobiotics. The present study investigated protective role of the ethyl acetate fraction of Acacia catechu Willd. (EAF) against DMBA induced alteration in hepatic metabolizing and anti-oxidative enzymes in rats. Methodology and Principal Findings The rats were subjected to hepatic damage by treating with DMBA for 7 weeks on alternative days and treatment schedule was terminated at the end of 14 weeks. The rats were euthanized at the end of protocol and livers were homogenized. The liver homogenates were used to analyse phase I (NADPH-cytochrome P450 reducatse, NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase, cytochrome P420, cytochrome b5), phase II (glutathione-S-transferase, DT diaphorase and ?-Glutamyl transpeptidase) and antioxidative enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, guiacol peroxidase and lactate dehydrogenase). Furthermore, other oxidative stress parameters (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, lipid hydroperoxides and conjugated dienes and reduced glutathione) and liver marker enzymes (serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase and alkaline phosphatase) were also studied. The DMBA induced significant changes in activity of hepatic enzymes that was reversed by treatment with three dose levels of EAF. Conclusion It is concluded that EAF affords hepato-protection against DMBA in rats through modulation of phase I, II and anti-oxidative enzymes. PMID:24587216

  11. Effect of sulfite on antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation in normal and sulfite oxidase-deficient rat erythrocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oktay Hasan Ozturk; Suleyman Oktar; Mehmet Aydin; Vural Kucukatay

    2010-01-01

    Sulfite and related chemical such as sulfite salts and sulfur dioxide has been used as a preservative in food and drugs. This\\u000a molecule has also been generated from the catabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids. Sulfite is a very reactive and potentially\\u000a toxic molecule and has to be detoxified by the enzyme sulfite oxidase (SOX). The aim of this study was

  12. Expression of key antioxidant enzymes under combined effect of heat and cadmium toxicity in growing rice seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sareeta Nahakpam; Kavita Shah

    2011-01-01

    Effect of Cd2+ toxicity and heat stress in sensitive rice cv. DR-92 and tolerant rice cv. Bh-1 grown in North East region of India were studied in sand cultures. Increasing levels of 0–500 ?M Cd2+ alone and\\/or heat stress showed increased activities of superoxide dismutase, guaiacol peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase and\\u000a glutathione reductase enzymes which were associated with induced oxidative stress and

  13. The effect of carrot juice, ?-carotene supplementation on lymphocyte DNA damage, erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes and plasma lipid profiles in Korean smoker

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye-Jin; Park, Yoo Kyoung

    2011-01-01

    High consumption of fruits and vegetables has been suggested to provide some protection to smokers who are exposed to an increased risk of numerous cancers and other degenerative diseases. Carrot is the most important source of dietary ?-carotene. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate whether carrot juice supplementation to smokers can protect against lymphocyte DNA damage and to compare the effect of supplementation of capsules containing purified ?-carotene or a placebo (simple lactose). The study was conducted in a randomized and placebo-controlled design. After a depletion period of 14 days, 48 smokers were supplemented with either carrot juice (n = 18), purified ?-carotene (n = 16) or placebo (n = 14). Each group was supplemented for 8 weeks with approximately 20.49 mg of ?-carotene/day and 1.2 mg of vitamin C/day, as carrot juice (300 ml/day) or purified ?-carotene (20.49 mg of ?-carotene, 1 capsule/day). Lymphocyte DNA damage was determined using the COMET assay under alkaline conditions and damage was quantified by measuring tail moment (TM), tail length (TL), and% DNA in the tail. Lymphocyte DNA damage was significantly decreased in the carrot juice group in all three measurements. The group that received purified ?-carotene also showed a significant decrease in lymphocyte DNA damage in all three measurements. However, no significant changes in DNA damage was observed for the placebo group except TM (P = 0.016). Erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme was not significantly changed after supplementation. Similarly plasma lipid profiles were not different after carrot juice, ?-carotene and placebo supplementation. These results suggest that while the placebo group failed to show any protective effect, carrot juice containing beta-carotene or purified ?-carotene itself had great antioxidative potential in preventing damage to lymphocyte DNA in smokers. PMID:22259679

  14. Alterations in brain antioxidant enzymes and redox proteomic identification of oxidized brain proteins induced by the anti-cancer drug Adriamycin: Implications for oxidative stress-mediated chemobrain

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Gururaj; Aluise, Christopher D.; Cole, Marsha Paulette; Sultana, Rukhsana; Vore, Mary; St Clair, Daret K.; Butterfield, D. Allan

    2010-01-01

    Adriamycin (ADR) is a chemotherapeutic for the treatment of solid tumors. This quinone-containing anthracycline is well known to produce large amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vivo. A common complaint of patients undergoing long-term treatment with ADR is somnolence, often referred to as “chemobrain.” While ADR itself does not cross the blood brain barrier (BBB), we recently showed that ADR administration causes a peripheral increase in tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF- ?), which migrates across the BBB and leads to inflammation and oxidative stress in brain, most likely contributing to the observed decline in cognition. In the current study, we measured levels of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH) in brains of mice injected intraparitoneally (i.p.) with ADR, as well as the levels and activities of several enzymes involved in brain GSH metabolism. We observed significantly decreased GSH levels, as well as altered GSH/GSSG ratio in brains of ADR treated mice relative to saline- treated controls. Also observed in brains of ADR treated mice were increased levels of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and glutathione reductase (GR). We also observed increased activity of GPx, but a significant reduction in GST and GR activity in mice brain, 72 hrs post i.p injection of ADR (20 mg/kg body weight). Furthermore, we used redox proteomics to identify specific proteins that are oxidized and/or have differential levels in mice brains as a result of a single i.p. injection of ADR. Visinin like protein 1 (VLP1), peptidyl prolyl isomerase 1 (Pin1), and syntaxin 1 (SYNT1) showed differential levels in ADR treated mice relative to saline-treated controls. Triose phosphate isomerase (TPI), enolase, and peroxiredoxin 1 (PRX-1) showed significantly increased specific carbonylation in ADR treated mice brain. These results further support the notion ADR induces oxidative stress in brain despite not crossing the BBB, and that antioxidant intervention may prevent ADR-induced cognitive dysfunction. PMID:20096337

  15. Respiratory Viral Infections and Subversion of Cellular Antioxidant Defenses

    PubMed Central

    Komaravelli, Narayana; Casola, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation is part of normal cellular aerobic metabolism, due to respiration and oxidation of nutrients in order to generate energy. Low levels of ROS are involved in cellular signaling and are well controlled by the cellular antioxidant defense system. Elevated levels of ROS generation due to pollutants, toxins and radiation exposure, as well as infections, are associated with oxidative stress causing cellular damage. Several respiratory viruses, including respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human metapneumovirus (hMPV) and influenza, induce increased ROS formation, both intracellularly and as a result of increased inflammatory cell recruitment at the site of infection. They also reduce antioxidant enzyme (AOE) levels and/or activity, leading to unbalanced oxidative-antioxidant status and subsequent oxidative cell damage. Expression of several AOE is controlled by the activation of the nuclear transcription factor NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), through binding to the antioxidant responsive element (ARE) present in the AOE gene promoters. While exposure to several pro-oxidant stimuli usually leads to Nrf2 activation and upregulation of AOE expression, respiratory viral infections are associated with inhibition of AOE expression/activity, which in the case of RSV and hMPV is associated with reduced Nrf2 nuclear localization, decreased cellular levels and reduced ARE-dependent gene transcription. Therefore, administration of antioxidant mimetics or Nrf2 inducers represents potential viable therapeutic approaches to viral-induced diseases, such as respiratory infections and other infections associated with decreased cellular antioxidant capacity. PMID:25584194

  16. The effect of the combination of acids and tannin in diet on the performance and selected biochemical, haematological and antioxidant enzyme parameters in grower pigs

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The abolition of in-feed antibiotics or chemotherapeutics as growth promoters have stimulated the swine industry to look for alternatives such as organic acids, botanicals, probiotics and tannin. The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of a combination of acids and tannin with diet with organic acids and diet without growth promoters on the growth performance and selected biochemical, haematological and antioxidant enzyme parameters in grower pigs. Tannin is more natural and cheaper but possibly with the same effectiveness as organic acids with regard to growth performance. Methods Thirty-six 7 week old grower pigs, divided into three equal groups, were used in a three week feeding trial. Group I was fed basal diet, group II basal diet with added organic acids and group III basal diet with added organic and inorganic acids and tannin. Pigs were weighed before and after feeding and observed daily. Blood was collected before and after the feeding trial for the determination of selected biochemical, haematological and antioxidant enzyme parameters. One-way ANOVA was used to assess any diet related changes of all the parameters. Paired t-test was used to evaluate changes of blood parameters individually in each group of growers before and after feeding. Results No clinical health problems related to diet were noted during the three week feeding trial. The average daily gain (ADG) and selected blood parameters were not affected by the addition to basal diet of either acids and tannin or of organic acids alone. Selected blood parameters remained within the reference range before and after the feeding trial, with the exception of total serum proteins that were below the lower value of reference range at both times. The significant changes (paired t-test) observed in individual groups before and after the feeding trial are related to the growth of pigs. Conclusion Diet with acids and tannin did not improve the growth performance of grower pigs but had no deleterious effects on selected blood parameters. The possibility of beneficial effects of adding acids and tannin in diets on growth performance over a longer period, however, could not be excluded. PMID:20205921

  17. Influence of bacterial N-acyl-homoserine lactones on growth parameters, pigments, antioxidative capacities and the xenobiotic phase II detoxification enzymes in barley and yam bean

    PubMed Central

    Götz-Rösch, Christine; Sieper, Tina; Fekete, Agnes; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Hartmann, Anton; Schröder, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria are able to communicate with each other and sense their environment in a population density dependent mechanism known as quorum sensing (QS). N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) are the QS signaling compounds of Gram-negative bacteria which are frequent colonizers of rhizospheres. While cross-kingdom signaling and AHL-dependent gene expression in plants has been confirmed, the responses of enzyme activities in the eukaryotic host upon AHLs are unknown. Since AHL are thought to be used as so-called plant boosters or strengthening agents, which might change their resistance toward radiation and/or xenobiotic stress, we have examined the plants’ pigment status and their antioxidative and detoxifying capacities upon AHL treatment. Because the yield of a crop plant should not be negatively influenced, we have also checked for growth and root parameters. We investigated the influence of three different AHLs, namely N-hexanoyl- (C6-HSL), N-octanoyl- (C8-HSL), and N-decanoyl- homoserine lactone (C10-HSL) on two agricultural crop plants. The AHL-effects on Hordeum vulgare (L.) as an example of a monocotyledonous crop and on the tropical leguminous crop plant Pachyrhizus erosus (L.) were compared. While plant growth and pigment contents in both plants showed only small responses to the applied AHLs, AHL treatment triggered tissue- and compound-specific changes in the activity of important detoxification enzymes. The activity of dehydroascorbate reductase in barley shoots after C10-HSL treatment for instance increased up to 384% of control plant levels, whereas superoxide dismutase activity in barley roots was decreased down to 23% of control levels upon C6-HSL treatment. Other detoxification enzymes reacted similarly within this range, with interesting clusters of positive or negative answers toward AHL treatment. In general the changes on the enzyme level were more severe in barley than in yam bean which might be due to the different abilities of the plants to degrade AHLs to metabolites such as the hydroxy- or keto-form of the original compound.

  18. Time-dependent changes in antioxidative enzyme expression and photosynthetic activity of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells under acute exposure to cadmium and anthracene.

    PubMed

    Aksmann, Anna; Pokora, Wojciech; Ba?cik-Remisiewicz, Agnieszka; Dettlaff-Pokora, Agnieszka; Wielgomas, Bartosz; Dziadziuszko, Ma?gorzata; Tukaj, Zbigniew

    2014-12-01

    Heavy metals (HM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are present in the freshwater environment at concentrations that can be hazardous to the biota. Among HMs and PAHs, cadmium (Cd) and anthracene (ANT) are the most prevalent and toxic ones. The response of Chlamydomonas cells to Cd and ANT at concentrations that markedly reduced the growth of algal population was investigated in this study. At such concentrations, both cadmium and anthracene were recognized as oxidative stress inducers, since high concentration of H2O2 in treated cultures was observed. Therefore, as a part of the "molecular phase" of the cell response to this stress, we examined the time-dependent expression of genes encoding the main antioxidative enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), as well as the activity of these enzymes in cells, with special attention paid to chloroplastic and mitochondrial isoforms of SOD. To characterize the cell response at the "physiological level", we examined the photosynthetic activity of stressed cells via analysis of chlorophyll a fluorescence in vivo. In contrast to standard ecotoxicity studies in which the growth end-points are usually determined, herein we present time-dependent changes in algal cell response to Cd- and ANT-induced stress. The most significant effect(s) of the toxicants on photosynthetic activity was observed in the 6th hour, when strong depression of PI parameter value, an over 50 percent reduction of the active reaction center fraction (RC0) and a 3-fold increase in non-photochemical energy dissipation (DI0/RC) were noted. At the same time, the increase (up to 2.5-fold) in mRNA transcript of SOD and CAT genes, followed by the enhancement in the enzyme activity was observed. The high expression of the Msd 3 gene in treated Chlamydomonas cells probably complements the partial loss of chloroplast Fe-SOD and APX activity, while catalase and Mn-SOD 5 seem to be the major enzymes responsible for mitochondrion protection. The progressive increase in SOD and CAT activities seems to be involved in the recovery of photosynthesis within 12-24h after the application of the toxicants. PMID:25193882

  19. Intracellular Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD) from hard clam Meretrix meretrix: its cDNA cloning, mRNA expression and enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xianggang; He, Chongbo; Liu, Hong; Li, Hongjun; Zhu, Dan; Cai, Shengli; Xia, Ying; Wang, Ying; Yu, Zhe

    2012-12-01

    Hard clam (Meretrix meretrix) is an economically important bivalve in China. In the present study, a gene coding for an intracellular Cu/Zn-SOD was cloned and characterized from hard clam. The full-length cDNA of this Cu/Zn-SOD (designated as Mm-icCuZn-SOD) consisted of 1,383 bp, with a 462-bp of open reading frame (ORF) encoding 153 amino acids. Several highly conserved motifs, including the Cu/Zn binding sites [H(46), H(48), H(63), and H(119) for Cu binding; H(63), H(71), H(80), and D(83) for Zn binding], an intracellular disulfide bond and two Cu/Zn-SOD signatures were identified in Mm-icCu/Zn-SOD. The deduced amino acid sequence of Mm-icCu/Zn-SOD has a high degree of homology with the Cu/Zn-dependent SODs from other species, indicating that Mm-icCu/Zn-SOD should be a member of the intracellular Cu/Zn-dependent SOD family. Real-time PCR analysis showed that the highest level of Mm-icCu/Zn-SOD expression was in the hepatopancreas, while the lowest level occurred in the hemocytes. Hard clam challenged with Vibrio anguillarum showed a time-dependent increase in Mm-icCu/Zn-SOD expression that reached a maximum level after 6 h. Mm-icCu/Zn-SOD purified as a recombinant protein expressed in E. coli retained a high level of biological activity, 83 % after 10 min incubation at 10-50 °C, and more than 87 % after incubation in buffers with pH values between 2.2 and 10.2. These results indicated that Mm-icCu/Zn-SOD may play an important role in the innate immune system of hard clam. PMID:23053968

  20. Salt tolerance and activity of antioxidative enzymes of transgenic finger millet overexpressing a vacuolar H(+)-pyrophosphatase gene (SbVPPase) from Sorghum bicolor.

    PubMed

    Anjaneyulu, Ediga; Reddy, Palle Surender; Sunita, Merla Srilakshmi; Kishor, Polavarapu B Kavi; Meriga, Balaji

    2014-06-15

    A vacuolar proton pyrophosphatase cDNA clone was isolated from Sorghum bicolor (SbVPPase) using end-to-end gene-specific primer amplification. It showed 80-90% homology at the nucleotide and 85-95% homology at the amino acid level with other VPPases. The gene was introduced into expression vector pCAMBIA1301 under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (CaMV35S) promoter and transformed into Agrobacterium tumifaciens strain LBA4404 to infect embryogenic calli of finger millet (Eleusine coracana). Successful transfer of SbVPPase was confirmed by a GUS histochemical assay and PCR analysis. Both, controls and transgenic plants were subjected to 100 and 200mM NaCl and certain biochemical and physiological parameters were studied. Relative water content (RWC), plant height, leaf expansion, finger length and width and grain weight were severely reduced (50-70%), and the flowering period was delayed by 20% in control plants compared to transgenic plants under salinity stress. With increasing salt stress, the proline and chlorophyll contents as well as the enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione reductase (GR) increased by 25-100% in transgenics, while malondialdehyde (MDA) showed a 2-4-fold decrease. The increased activities of antioxidant enzymes and the reduction in the MDA content suggest efficient scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in transgenics and, as a consequence, probably alleviation of salt stress. Also, the leaf tissues of the transgenics accumulated 1.5-2.5-fold higher Na(+) and 0.4-0.8-fold higher K(+) levels. Together, these results clearly demonstrate that overexpression of SbVPPase in transgenic finger millet enhances the plant's performance under salt stress. PMID:24877670

  1. Influence of Two Depuration Periods on the Activity and Transcription of Antioxidant Enzymes in Tilapia Exposed to Repeated Doses of Cylindrospermopsin under Laboratory Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ríos, Victoria; Guzmán-Guillén, Remedios; Moreno, Isabel M.; Prieto, Ana I.; Puerto, María; Jos, Angeles; Cameán, Ana M.

    2014-01-01

    The cyanobacterial toxin Cylindrospermopsin (CYN), a potent protein synthesis inhibitor, is increasingly being found in freshwater bodies infested by cyanobacterial blooms worldwide. Moreover, it has been reported to be implicated in human intoxications and animal mortality. Recently, the alteration of the activity and gene expression of some glutathione related enzymes in tilapias (Oreochromis niloticus) exposed to a single dose of CYN has been reported. However, little is known about the effects induced by repeated doses of this toxin in tilapias exposed by immersion and the potential reversion of these biochemical alterations after two different depuration periods (3 or 7 days). In the present study, tilapias were exposed by immersion to repeated doses of a CYN-containing culture of Aphanizomenon ovalisporum during 14 days, and then were subjected to depuration periods (3 or 7 days) in clean water in order to examine the potential reversion of the effects observed. The activity and relative mRNA expression by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and soluble glutathione-S-transferases (sGST), and also the sGST protein abundance by Western blot analysis were evaluated in liver and kidney of fish. Results showed significant alterations in most of the parameters evaluated and their recovery after 3 days (GPx activity, sGST relative abundance) or 7 days (GPx gene expression, sGST activity). These findings not only confirm the oxidative stress effects produced in fish by cyanobacterial cells containing CYN, but also show the effectiveness of depuration processes in mitigating the CYN-containing culture toxic effects. PMID:24632554

  2. Copper toxicity influence on antioxidant enzymes activity in tomato plants and role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus etunicatum in the tolerance of toxicity.

    PubMed

    Malekzadeh, Parviz; Khara, Jalil; Farshian, Shadi

    2007-06-15

    Soil microorganisms have been shown to possess several mechanisms capable of altering metal bioavailability for uptake into roots. In addition, root mycorrhizal associations have been shown to affect the rate of metal uptake. There is evidence that exposure of plants to excess concentrations of heavy metals such as Cu results in oxidative injury. In this study, effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus etunicatum on tolerance of Cu toxicity in tomato plants was studied. In order to prepare seedling medium, we used washed and sterilized sand and agricultural soil. Tomato seeds were surface sterilized and planted in two pots. One filled just with sterilized sand (for non-mycorrhizal treatments) and the other filled with sterilized sand mixed with G. intraradices mycorrhizal inoculum. We were certain about complete colonization after 4 weeks, so we transferred three seedlings to each main pot. Plants grew in growth chamber for nine weeks. During growth period plants received modified Hoagland's solution (with half P content) with Cu concentration of 0, 1.5, 3.5, 5.5, 7.5 mM CuSO4 in triplicates. Antioxidant enzymes activity, Ascorbate Peroxidase (APX) and Guaiacol Peroxidase (GPX) and Root Length Colonization (RLC) percentage in mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants were measured. APX activity in mycorrhizal shoots increased but there was no significant correspondent increase in roots of these plants. GPX activity in mycorrhizal roots increased but there was no significant correspondent increase in shoots of these plants. Activity of this enzyme in roots and shoots of mycorrhizal plantshigher than non-mycorrhizal plants. Estimation of root length colonizatinon by gridline intersect method, increase in Cu concentration, colonization percentage decreased significantly. The data show the possible role of mycorrhiza in plant protection against Cu toxicity. PMID:19093440

  3. Antioxidant Activity of Proteins and Peptides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryan J. Elias; Sarah S. Kellerby; Eric A. Decker

    2008-01-01

    Proteins can inhibit lipid oxidation by biologically designed mechanisms (e.g. antioxidant enzymes and iron-binding proteins) or by nonspecific mechanisms. Both of these types of antioxidative proteins contribute to the endogenous antioxidant capacity of foods. Proteins also have excellent potential as antioxidant additives in foods because they can inhibit lipid oxidation through multiple pathways including inactivation of reactive oxygen species, scavenging

  4. Effects of Droplet-Vitrification Cryopreservation Based on Physiological and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities of Brassidium Shooting Star Orchid

    PubMed Central

    Rahmah, Safrina; Ahmad Mubbarakh, Safiah; Soo Ping, Khor

    2015-01-01

    Protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) of Brassidium Shooting Star orchid were successfully cryopreserved using droplet-vitrification method. Vitrification based cryopreservation protocol is comprised of preculture, osmoprotection, cryoprotection, cooling, rewarming, and growth recovery and each and every step contributes to the achievement of successful cryopreservation. In order to reveal the lethal and nonlethal damage produced by cryopreservation, histological observation, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and biochemical analysis were carried out in both cryopreserved and noncryopreserved PLBs of Brassidium Shooting Star orchid comparing with the control PLBs stock culture. Histological and scanning electron microscopy analyses displayed structural changes in cryopreserved PLBs due to the impact of cryoinjury during exposure to liquid nitrogen. Total soluble protein significantly increased throughout the dehydration process and the highest value was achieved when PLBs were stored in liquid nitrogen. Ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and catalase (CAT) showed the highest enzyme activities in both dehydration and cryostorage treatments indicating that stress level of PLBs was high during these stages. PMID:25861687

  5. Effect of enhanced UV-B radiation and low-energy N? ion beam radiation on the response of photosynthesis, antioxidant enzymes, and lipid peroxidation in rice (Oryza sativa) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Li, Linyu; Huang, Qunce; Zhang, Shuyin; Zhao, Shuaipeng

    2013-10-01

    To understand the effect of enhanced UV-B radiation and low-energy N(+) ion beam radiation on the response of photosynthesis, antioxidant enzymes, and lipid peroxidation in rice seedlings, Oryza sativa was exposed to three different doses of low-energy N(+) ion beam and enhanced UV-B alone and in combination. Enhanced UV-B caused a marked decline in some photosynthetic parameters (net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, and stomatal conductance) and photosynthetic pigments, whereas it induced an increase in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulation, the rate of superoxide radical production, and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA). Enhanced UV-B also induced an increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase [SOD], peroxidase (POD), and catalase [CAT]) and some nonenzymatic antioxidants such as proline. Under the combined treatment of enhanced UV-B and low-energy N(+) ion beam at the dose of 3.0?×?10(17) N(+) cm(-2), the activity of antioxidant compounds (SOD, POD, CAT, proline, and glutathione), photosynthetic pigments, and some photosynthetic parameters (net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, and stomatal conductance) increased significantly; however, the MDA content, H2O2 accumulation, and rate of superoxide radical production showed a remarkable decrease compared with the enhanced UV-B treatment alone. These results implied that the appropriate dose of low-energy N(+) ion beam treatment may alleviate the damage caused by the enhanced UV-B radiation on rice. PMID:23943011

  6. Escherichia coli ?-galactosidase as an in vitro and in vivo reporter enzyme and stable transfection marker in the intracellular protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Seeber; John C. Boothroyd

    1996-01-01

    We have developed several protocols for the use of ?-galactosidase (?Gal) from Escherichia coli as a reporter enzyme in transfection studies of Toxoplasma gondii (Tg) and as a readily screenable marker for stable transformation. Three Tg expression vectors with different promoters driving lacZ were constructed and shown in transient transfections to differ in their relative expression levels. Using a fluorescent

  7. Beer consumption reduces cerebral oxidation caused by aluminum toxicity by normalizing gene expression of tumor necrotic factor alpha and several antioxidant enzymes.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Muńoz, M J; Meseguer, I; Sanchez-Reus, M I; Schultz, A; Olivero, R; Benedí, J; Sánchez-Muniz, F J

    2008-03-01

    Aluminum (Al)-induced neurotoxicity is well known and different salts of aluminum have been reported to accelerate oxidative damage to biomolecules. The present study has examined whether silicon consumed in the form of silicic acid or beer could potentially inhibit aluminum toxicity in the brain. Male mice were administered with Al(NO(3))(3) orally at a dose of 450 mg/kg/day in drinking water for 3 month. Experimental mice were given Al(NO(3))(3) along with 50 mg/L of silicic acid or with 0.5 ml/day of beer. Al brain levels in the Al group were four times higher than those of control mice while silicic acid and beer group values were 40% lower than those of the Al group. We have observed that beer prevented accumulation of lipid damage significantly, which resulted from aluminum intake. Decline in the expression of mRNA of endogenous antioxidant enzymes associated with aluminum administration was also inhibited by beer and silicic acid. The tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) RNA expression was normalized in silicic acid and beer groups. Very high and significant correlations were found for the different parameters tested suggesting that moderate consumption of beer, due to its silicon content, effectively protects against the neurotoxic effects of aluminum. PMID:18096288

  8. Effects of glucomannan-enriched, aronia juice-based supplement on cellular antioxidant enzymes and membrane lipid status in subjects with abdominal obesity.

    PubMed

    Kardum, Nevena; Petrovi?-Oggiano, Gordana; Takic, Marija; Glibeti?, Natalija; Zec, Manja; Debeljak-Martacic, Jasmina; Koni?-Risti?, Aleksandra

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of a 4-week-long consumption of glucomannan-enriched, aronia juice-based supplement on anthropometric parameters, membrane fatty acid profile, and status of antioxidant enzymes in erythrocytes obtained from postmenopausal women with abdominal obesity. Twenty women aged 45-65 with a mean body mass index (BMI) of 36.1 ± 4.4?kg/m(2) and waist circumference of 104.8 ± 10.1?cm were enrolled. Participants were instructed to consume 100?mL of supplement per day as part of their regular diet. A significant increase in the content of n-3 (P < 0.05) polyunsaturated fatty acids in membrane phospholipids was observed, with a marked increase in the level of docosahexaenoic fatty acid (P < 0.05). Accordingly, a decrease in the n-6 and n-3 fatty acids ratio was observed (P < 0.05). The observed effects were accompanied with an increase in glutathione peroxidase activity (P < 0.05). Values for BMI (P < 0.001), waist circumference (P < 0.001), and systolic blood pressure (P < 0.05) were significantly lower after the intervention. The obtained results indicate a positive impact of tested supplement on cellular oxidative damage, blood pressure, and anthropometric indices of obesity. PMID:25574495

  9. Cadmium telluride quantum dots (CdTe-QDs) and enhanced ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation trigger antioxidant enzyme metabolism and programmed cell death in wheat seedlings.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huize; Gong, Yan; Han, Rong

    2014-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are becoming increasingly widespread in the environment. Free cadmium ions released from commonly used NPs under ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation are potentially toxic to living organisms. With increasing levels of UV-B radiation at the Earth's surface due to the depletion of the ozone layer, the potential additive effect of NPs and UV-B radiation on plants is of concern. In this study, we investigated the synergistic effect of CdTe quantum dots (CdTe-QDs), a common form of NP, and UV-B radiation on wheat seedlings. Graded doses of CdTe-QDs and UV-B radiation were tested, either alone or in combination, based on physical characteristics of 5-day-old seedlings. Treatments of wheat seedlings with either CdTe-QDs (200 mg/L) or UV-B radiation (10 KJ/m(2)/d) induced the activation of wheat antioxidant enzymes. CdTe-QDs accumulation in plant root cells resulted in programmed cell death as detected by DNA laddering. CdTe-QDs and UV-B radiation inhibited root and shoot growth, respectively. Additive inhibitory effects were observed in the combined treatment group. This research described the effects of UV-B and CdTe-QDs on plant growth. Furthermore, the finding that CdTe-QDs accumulate during the life cycle of plants highlights the need for sustained assessments of these interactions. PMID:25329900

  10. Effects of ?-tocopheryl acetate supplementation in preslaughter diet on antioxidant enzyme activities and fillet quality of commercial-size Sparus macrocephalus *

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-dong; Wu, Tian-xing; Cai, Li-sheng; Zhu, Yong-fei

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the effects of dietary ?-tocopheryl acetate supplementation on antioxidant enzyme activities and fillet quality in commercial-size Sparus macrocephalus. Three hundred fish [main initial weight (350±12) g] were divided into three groups (E250, E500 and E1000) and reared in 9 cages. The fish were fed for 8 weeks with three diets containing different levels of dietary ?-tocopheryl acetate (289, 553, 1 069 mg/kg). Over the experimental period, fish were fed to satiation and reached a final mean weight of (465±28) g without significant body weight difference and proximate composition difference. Fillet ?-tocopherol was significantly (P<0.05) different between groups, reaching levels of 14.2, 22.1, 30.9 ?g/mg fillet for groups E250, E500 and E1000, respectively. Total serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity increased significantly (P<0.05) in fish fed the diets high in ?-tocopheryl acetate, but serum glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity was unaffected. In storage on ice, fillets of fish fed the diets high in ?-tocopheryl acetate exhibited significantly lower (P<0.05) levels of oxidation. These results suggested that increased dietary ?-tocopheryl acetate could increase its flesh deposition, increase the activity of SOD and prevent lipid peroxidation of Sparus macrocephalus fillets in retail storage on ice. PMID:17726750

  11. Changes in antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation in extensor digitorum longus muscles of streptozotocin-diabetic rats may contribute to muscle atrophy.

    PubMed

    Nonaka, Koji; Une, S; Tatsuta, N; Ito, K; Akiyama, J

    2014-12-01

    We investigated muscle atrophy, major antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation in the extensor digitorum longus (EDL, predominantly fast fibers) and soleus (predominantly slow fibers) muscle of streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Female Wistar rats were divided into a control (n = 5) and streptozotocin-induced diabetic group (n = 5). Eight weeks after diabetes induction the EDL and soleus muscles were removed and catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels measured. The CAT activity increased in both the EDL and soleus muscles of the diabetic rats (p < 0.01), whereas the GPX and SOD activities were increased only in the EDL muscle (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05). The TBARS levels were only increased in the EDL muscle of the diabetic rats (p < 0.01). Both muscles showed significant atrophy but the EDL muscle elicited the greatest atrophy. In conclusion, it appears that adaptive responses to oxidative stress were adequate in the soleus muscle, but not in the EDL muscle, of diabetic rats. Thus fast twitch muscle fibers may be more susceptible to oxidative stress than slow twitch muscle fibers and this may contribute to muscle atrophy under diabetic conditions. PMID:25201710

  12. Responses of antioxidant enzyme and photosynthesis in rape seedling to the combined stresses of acid rain and ultraviolet-B radiation.

    PubMed

    Liang, Chan-juan; Huang, Xiao-hua; Tao, Wen-yi; Zhou, Qing

    2005-01-01

    Effects of the simulated acid rain (AR) and ultraviolet-B (UV-B, 280-320 nm) radiation with a single or two ways simultaneously (AR + UV-B) on the antioxidant enzyme and photosynthesis of the rape seedlings were investigated by the hydroponic culture. The results of static experiment indicated that the tolerance of rape seedling to single stress (AR or UV-B) is stronger than that to dual stresses (AR + UV-B). Furthermore, the dual stresses had additive effect on catalase activity, and a synergistic effect on MDA content, net photosynthesis rate, water use efficiency as well as intercellular CO2 concentration. Meanwhile, it has an independent effect on chlorophyll content, stomatal conductance, and transpiration rate as well as membrane permeability. During 64 h restoration course, the dynamic change in the curves of physiological and biochemical indices were not identical, and none of them show a simple linear variation. According to the static and dynamic experiments, it was found that a responsive sequence of catalase activity, membrane permeability, MDA content and photosynthetic characteristics to the above-mentioned stresses was as follows: AR + UV-B > UV-B > AR. PMID:16465904

  13. Cadmium Telluride Quantum Dots (CdTe-QDs) and Enhanced Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) Radiation Trigger Antioxidant Enzyme Metabolism and Programmed Cell Death in Wheat Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Han, Rong

    2014-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are becoming increasingly widespread in the environment. Free cadmium ions released from commonly used NPs under ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation are potentially toxic to living organisms. With increasing levels of UV-B radiation at the Earth’s surface due to the depletion of the ozone layer, the potential additive effect of NPs and UV-B radiation on plants is of concern. In this study, we investigated the synergistic effect of CdTe quantum dots (CdTe-QDs), a common form of NP, and UV-B radiation on wheat seedlings. Graded doses of CdTe-QDs and UV-B radiation were tested, either alone or in combination, based on physical characteristics of 5-day-old seedlings. Treatments of wheat seedlings with either CdTe-QDs (200 mg/L) or UV-B radiation (10 KJ/m2/d) induced the activation of wheat antioxidant enzymes. CdTe-QDs accumulation in plant root cells resulted in programmed cell death as detected by DNA laddering. CdTe-QDs and UV-B radiation inhibited root and shoot growth, respectively. Additive inhibitory effects were observed in the combined treatment group. This research described the effects of UV-B and CdTe-QDs on plant growth. Furthermore, the finding that CdTe-QDs accumulate during the life cycle of plants highlights the need for sustained assessments of these interactions. PMID:25329900

  14. Effects of Glucomannan-Enriched, Aronia Juice-Based Supplement on Cellular Antioxidant Enzymes and Membrane Lipid Status in Subjects with Abdominal Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Petrovi?-Oggiano, Gordana; Glibeti?, Natalija; Zec, Manja; Debeljak-Martacic, Jasmina; Koni?-Risti?, Aleksandra

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of a 4-week-long consumption of glucomannan-enriched, aronia juice-based supplement on anthropometric parameters, membrane fatty acid profile, and status of antioxidant enzymes in erythrocytes obtained from postmenopausal women with abdominal obesity. Twenty women aged 45–65 with a mean body mass index (BMI) of 36.1 ± 4.4?kg/m2 and waist circumference of 104.8 ± 10.1?cm were enrolled. Participants were instructed to consume 100?mL of supplement per day as part of their regular diet. A significant increase in the content of n-3 (P < 0.05) polyunsaturated fatty acids in membrane phospholipids was observed, with a marked increase in the level of docosahexaenoic fatty acid (P < 0.05). Accordingly, a decrease in the n-6 and n-3 fatty acids ratio was observed (P < 0.05). The observed effects were accompanied with an increase in glutathione peroxidase activity (P < 0.05). Values for BMI (P < 0.001), waist circumference (P < 0.001), and systolic blood pressure (P < 0.05) were significantly lower after the intervention. The obtained results indicate a positive impact of tested supplement on cellular oxidative damage, blood pressure, and anthropometric indices of obesity. PMID:25574495

  15. Alterations in brain antioxidant enzymes and redox proteomic identification of oxidized brain proteins induced by the anti-cancer drug adriamycin: implications for oxidative stress-mediated chemobrain.

    PubMed

    Joshi, G; Aluise, C D; Cole, M P; Sultana, R; Pierce, W M; Vore, M; St Clair, D K; Butterfield, D A

    2010-03-31

    Adriamycin (ADR) is a chemotherapeutic for the treatment of solid tumors. This quinone-containing anthracycline is well known to produce large amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vivo. A common complaint of patients undergoing long-term treatment with ADR is somnolence, often referred to as "chemobrain." While ADR itself does not cross the blood brain barrier (BBB), we recently showed that ADR administration causes a peripheral increase in tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), which migrates across the BBB and leads to inflammation and oxidative stress in brain, most likely contributing to the observed decline in cognition. In the current study, we measured levels of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH) in brains of mice injected intraparitoneally (i.p.) with ADR, as well as the levels and activities of several enzymes involved in brain GSH metabolism. We observed significantly decreased GSH levels, as well as altered GSH/GSSG ratio in brains of ADR treated mice relative to saline-treated controls. Also observed in brains of ADR treated mice were increased levels of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and glutathione reductase (GR). We also observed increased activity of GPx, but a significant reduction in GST and GR activity in mice brain, 72 h post i.p. injection of ADR (20 mg/kg body weight). Furthermore, we used redox proteomics to identify specific proteins that are oxidized and/or have differential levels in mice brains as a result of a single i.p. injection of ADR. Visinin like protein 1 (VLP1), peptidyl prolyl isomerase 1 (Pin1), and syntaxin 1 (SYNT1) showed differential levels in ADR treated mice relative to saline-treated controls. Triose phosphate isomerase (TPI), enolase, and peroxiredoxin 1 (PRX-1) showed significantly increased specific carbonylation in ADR treated mice brain. These results further support the notion ADR induces oxidative stress in brain despite not crossing the BBB, and that antioxidant intervention may prevent ADR-induced cognitive dysfunction. PMID:20096337

  16. Effect of excess dietary L-valine on laying hen performance, egg quality, serum free amino acids, immune function and antioxidant enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Azzam, M M M; Dong, X Y; Dai, L; Zou, X T

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the tolerance of laying hens for an excessive L-valine (L-val) supply on laying performance, egg quality, serum free amino acids, immune function and antioxidant enzyme activities of laying hens. A total of 720 HyLine Brown hens were allocated to 5 dietary treatment groups, each of which included 6 replicates of 24 hens, from 40 to 47 weeks of age. Graded amounts of L-val were added to the basal diet to achieve concentrations of 0 (control), 1, 2, 3 and 4 g/kg, respectively, in the experimental diets. Supplementing the diet with L-val did not affect egg production, egg mass, egg weight, feed conversion ratio (FCR) or egg quality. The average daily feed intake response to supplemental L-val was quadratic and was maximised at 2.0 g L-val/kg diet. No differences were observed for total protein, total amino acids, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), uric acid, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), Ca and P concentrations among the treatments. Serum albumin concentration increased significantly in response to supplemental L-val and was also maximised at 2.0 g/kg. In addition, serum glucose increased quadratically to peak at 2.0 g L-val/kg diet. Serum free valine increased as L-val concentration increased to 2.0 g/kg diet and then decreased linearly. Supplementation of L-val did not affect the serum concentrations of total antioxidative capability (T-AOC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA). L-val supplementation did not affect the concentrations of immunoglobulins IgG, IgA, IgM and complements (C3 and C4). Serum concentration of triiodothyronine (T3) increased significantly at 2.0 g L-val/kg diet. It is concluded that high concentrations of L-val are tolerated and can be successfully supplemented into diets without detrimental effects on laying performance or immune function of laying hens. PMID:25409658

  17. An antioxidant response is involved in resistance of Giardia duodenalis to albendazole

    PubMed Central

    Argüello-García, Raúl; Cruz-Soto, Maricela; González-Trejo, Rolando; Paz-Maldonado, Luz María T.; Bazán-Tejeda, M. Luisa; Mendoza-Hernández, Guillermo; Ortega-Pierres, Guadalupe

    2015-01-01

    Albendazole (ABZ) is a therapeutic benzimidazole used to treat giardiasis that targets ?-tubulin. However, the molecular bases of ABZ resistance in Giardia duodenalis are not understood because ?-tubulin in ABZ-resistant clones lacks mutations explaining drug resistance. In previous work we compared ABZ-resistant (1.35, 8, and 250 ?M) and ABZ-susceptible clones by proteomic analysis and eight proteins involved in energy metabolism, cytoskeleton dynamics, and antioxidant response were found as differentially expressed among the clones. Since ABZ is converted into sulphoxide (ABZ-SO) and sulphone (ABZ-SOO) metabolites we measured the levels of these metabolites, the antioxidant enzymes and free thiols in the susceptible and resistant clones. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and levels of ABZ-SO/ABZ-SOO induced by ABZ were determined by fluorescein diacetate-based fluorescence and liquid chromatography respectively. The mRNA and protein levels of antioxidant enzymes (NADH oxidase, peroxiredoxin 1a, superoxide dismutase and flavodiiron protein) in these clones were determined by RT-PCR and proteomic analysis. The intracellular sulfhydryl (R-SH) pool was quantified using dinitrobenzoic acid. The results showed that ABZ induced ROS accumulation in the ABZ-susceptible Giardia cultures but not in the resistant ones whilst the accumulation of ABZ-SO and ABZ-SOO was lower in all ABZ-resistant cultures. Consistent with these findings, all the antioxidant enzymes detected and analyzed were upregulated in ABZ-resistant clones. Likewise the R-SH pool increased concomitantly to the degree of ABZ-resistance. These results indicate an association between accumulation of ABZ metabolites and a pro-oxidant effect of ABZ in Giardia-susceptible clones. Furthermore the antioxidant response involving ROS-metabolizing enzymes and intracellular free thiols in ABZ-resistant parasites suggest that this response may contribute to overcome the pro-oxidant cytotoxicity of ABZ.

  18. Low pH-Induced Changes of Antioxidant Enzyme and ATPase Activities in the Roots of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi-Kai; Zhu, De-Feng; Zhang, Yu-Ping; Chen, Hui-Zhe; Xiang, Jing; Lin, Xian-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Soil acidification is the main problem in the current rice production. Here, the effects of low pH on the root growth, reactive oxygen species metabolism, plasma membrane functions, and the transcript levels of the related genes were investigated in rice seedlings (Oryza sativa L.) in a hydroponic system at pH 3.5, 4.5, and 5.5. There were two hybrid rice cultivars in this trial, including Yongyou 12 (YY12, a japonica hybrid) and Zhongzheyou 1 (ZZY1, an indica hybrid). Higher H+ activity markedly decreased root length, the proportion of fine roots, and dry matter production, but induced a significant accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and led to serious lipid peroxidation in the roots of the two varieties. The transcript levels of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase 1 (Cu/Zn SOD1), copper/zinc superoxide dismutase 2 (Cu/Zn SOD2), catalase A (CATA) and catalase B (CATB) genes in YY12 and ZZY1 roots were significantly down-regulated after low pH exposure for two weeks. Meanwhile, a significant decrease was observed in the expression of the P-type Ca2+-ATPases in roots at pH 3.5. The activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT) and plasma membrane (PM) Ca2+-ATPase in the two varieties were dramatically inhibited by strong rhizosphere acidification. However, the expression levels of ascorbate peroxidase 1 (APX1) and PM H+-ATPase isoform 7 were up-regulated under H+ stress compared with the control. Significantly higher activities of APX and PM H+-ATPase could contribute to the adaptation of rice roots to low pH. PMID:25719552

  19. Low pH-Induced Changes of Antioxidant Enzyme and ATPase Activities in the Roots of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Seedlings.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi-Kai; Zhu, De-Feng; Zhang, Yu-Ping; Chen, Hui-Zhe; Xiang, Jing; Lin, Xian-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Soil acidification is the main problem in the current rice production. Here, the effects of low pH on the root growth, reactive oxygen species metabolism, plasma membrane functions, and the transcript levels of the related genes were investigated in rice seedlings (Oryza sativa L.) in a hydroponic system at pH 3.5, 4.5, and 5.5. There were two hybrid rice cultivars in this trial, including Yongyou 12 (YY12, a japonica hybrid) and Zhongzheyou 1 (ZZY1, an indica hybrid). Higher H+ activity markedly decreased root length, the proportion of fine roots, and dry matter production, but induced a significant accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and led to serious lipid peroxidation in the roots of the two varieties. The transcript levels of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase 1 (Cu/Zn SOD1), copper/zinc superoxide dismutase 2 (Cu/Zn SOD2), catalase A (CATA) and catalase B (CATB) genes in YY12 and ZZY1 roots were significantly down-regulated after low pH exposure for two weeks. Meanwhile, a significant decrease was observed in the expression of the P-type Ca2+-ATPases in roots at pH 3.5. The activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT) and plasma membrane (PM) Ca2+-ATPase in the two varieties were dramatically inhibited by strong rhizosphere acidification. However, the expression levels of ascorbate peroxidase 1 (APX1) and PM H+-ATPase isoform 7 were up-regulated under H+ stress compared with the control. Significantly higher activities of APX and PM H+-ATPase could contribute to the adaptation of rice roots to low pH. PMID:25719552

  20. Geniposide protects against acute alcohol-induced liver injury in mice via up-regulating the expression of the main antioxidant enzymes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junming; Zhang, Yueyue; Liu, Ruixin; Li, Xiaobing; Cui, Ying; Qu, Lingbo

    2015-04-01

    Geniposide (GP) is one of main compounds in Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, with both medicinal and nutritional value. This study was designed to determine, for the first time, how GP from G. jasminoides protects against acute alcohol-induced liver injury, and the underlying mechanisms. Mice were orally administered alcohol (6.0 g/kg body mass) 2 h after intragastric administration of GP and bifendate, every day for 7 continuous days. Six hours after the alcohol was administered, levels of serum alanine/aspartate transaminase (ALT/AST), hepatic lipid peroxidation (LPO), glutathione (GSH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), copper- and zinc-containing superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD), and catalase (CAT), and mRNA expression of CuZn-SOD and CAT were assayed. The results demonstrated that GP (20.0, 40.0, or 80 mg/kg) significantly reversed the excessive, alcohol-induced elevation in both serum ALT/AST and hepatic LPO levels. Moreover, hepatic GSH, GST, GPx, CuZn-SOD, and CAT levels were all decreased in the alcohol-treated mice, whereas treatment with GP reversed these decreases. Further analysis indicated that hepatic mRNA expression of CuZn-SOD and CAT in the alcohol-treated mice was significantly down-regulated, whereas GP up-regulated such decreases. Taken together, this study shows that GP protects against acute alcohol-induced liver injury via up-regulating the expression of the main antioxidant enzymes, and thus ameliorates alcohol-induced oxidative stress injury in the liver. PMID:25730420

  1. Liver Lipid Composition and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities of Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats After Ingestion of Dietary Fats (Fish, Olive and High-Oleic Sunflower Oils)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valentina Ruiz-Gutiérrez; Carmen M. Vázquez; Consuelo Santa-Maria

    2001-01-01

    Hypertension is associated with greater than normal lipoperoxidation and an imbalance in antioxidant status, suggesting that oxidative stress is important in the pathogenesis of this disease. Although many studies have examined the effect of antioxidants in the diet on hypertensión and other disorders, less attention has been given to the evaluation of the role of specific dietary lipids in modulating

  2. Processed Panax ginseng, Sun Ginseng, Decreases Oxidative Damage Induced by tert-butyl Hydroperoxide via Regulation of Antioxidant Enzyme and Anti-apoptotic Molecules in HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyejin; Kim, Jinhee; Lee, Seo Young; Park, Jeong Hill; Hwang, Gwi Seo

    2012-01-01

    Potential antioxidant effect of processed ginseng (sun ginseng, SG) on oxidative stress generated by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP) was investigated in HepG2 cells. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage test demonstrated that SG dose-dependently prevents a loss of cell viability against t-BHP-induced oxidative stress. Also, SG treatment dose-dependently relieved the increment of activities of hepatic enzymes, such as aspartate aminotrasferase and alanine aminotransferase, and lipid peroxidation mediated by t-BHP treatment in HepG2 cells. SG increased the gene expression of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. However, high dose of SG treatment caused decrease in mRNA level of glutathione peroxidase as compared to low dosage of SG-treated cells. The gene expression of glutathione reductase was found to be slightly increased by SG treatment. In addition, SG extract attributed its hepaprotective effect by inducing the mRNA level of bcl-2 and bcl-xL but reducing that of bax. But, the gene expression of bad showed no significant change in SG-treated HepG2 cells. These findings suggest that SG has hepatoprotective effect by showing reduction of LDH release, activities of hepatic enzymes and lipid peroxidation and regulating the gene expression of antioxidant enzymes and apoptosis-related molecules against oxdative stress caused by t-BHP in HepG2 cells. PMID:23717125

  3. Oxidative Stress, Prooxidants, and Antioxidants: The Interplay

    PubMed Central

    Rahal, Anu; Kumar, Amit; Singh, Vivek; Yadav, Brijesh

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a normal phenomenon in the body. Under normal conditions, the physiologically important intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are maintained at low levels by various enzyme systems participating in the in vivo redox homeostasis. Therefore, oxidative stress can also be viewed as an imbalance between the prooxidants and antioxidants in the body. For the last two decades, oxidative stress has been one of the most burning topics among the biological researchers all over the world. Several reasons can be assigned to justify its importance: knowledge about reactive oxygen and nitrogen species production and metabolism; identification of biomarkers for oxidative damage; evidence relating manifestation of chronic and some acute health problems to oxidative stress; identification of various dietary antioxidants present in plant foods as bioactive molecules; and so on. This review discusses the importance of oxidative stress in the body growth and development as well as proteomic and genomic evidences of its relationship with disease development, incidence of malignancies and autoimmune disorders, increased susceptibility to bacterial, viral, and parasitic diseases, and an interplay with prooxidants and antioxidants for maintaining a sound health, which would be helpful in enhancing the knowledge of any biochemist, pathophysiologist, or medical personnel regarding this important issue. PMID:24587990

  4. Oxidative stress, prooxidants, and antioxidants: the interplay.

    PubMed

    Rahal, Anu; Kumar, Amit; Singh, Vivek; Yadav, Brijesh; Tiwari, Ruchi; Chakraborty, Sandip; Dhama, Kuldeep

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a normal phenomenon in the body. Under normal conditions, the physiologically important intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are maintained at low levels by various enzyme systems participating in the in vivo redox homeostasis. Therefore, oxidative stress can also be viewed as an imbalance between the prooxidants and antioxidants in the body. For the last two decades, oxidative stress has been one of the most burning topics among the biological researchers all over the world. Several reasons can be assigned to justify its importance: knowledge about reactive oxygen and nitrogen species production and metabolism; identification of biomarkers for oxidative damage; evidence relating manifestation of chronic and some acute health problems to oxidative stress; identification of various dietary antioxidants present in plant foods as bioactive molecules; and so on. This review discusses the importance of oxidative stress in the body growth and development as well as proteomic and genomic evidences of its relationship with disease development, incidence of malignancies and autoimmune disorders, increased susceptibility to bacterial, viral, and parasitic diseases, and an interplay with prooxidants and antioxidants for maintaining a sound health, which would be helpful in enhancing the knowledge of any biochemist, pathophysiologist, or medical personnel regarding this important issue. PMID:24587990

  5. Nanocarriers for vascular delivery of antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    Hood, Elizabeth; Simone, Eric; Wattamwar, Paritosh; Dziubla, Thomas; Muzykantov, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Antioxidant enzymes (AOEs) catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) detoxify harmful reactive oxygen species, but the therapeutic utility of AOEs is hindered by inadequate delivery. AOE modification by polyethylene glycol (PEG) and encapsulation in PEG-coated liposomes increases the AOE bioavailability and enhances protective effects in animal models. Pluronic-based micelles formed with AOEs show even more potent protective effects. Furthermore, polymeric nanocarriers (PNCs) based on PEG-copolymers protect encapsulated AOEs from proteolysis and improve delivery to the target cells, such as the endothelium lining the vascular lumen. Antibodies to endothelial determinants conjugated to AOEs or AOE carriers provide targeting and intracellular delivery. Targeted liposomes, protein conjugates and magnetic nanoparticles deliver AOEs to sites of vascular oxidative stress in the cardiovascular, pulmonary and nervous systems. Further advances in nanodevices for AOE delivery will provide a basis for the translation of this approach in the clinical domain. PMID:21929460

  6. Betanin, a beetroot component, induces nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2-mediated expression of detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes in human liver cell lines.

    PubMed

    Krajka-Ku?niak, Violetta; Paluszczak, Jaros?aw; Szaefer, Hanna; Baer-Dubowska, Wanda

    2013-12-01

    Our recent study has shown that beetroot juice protects against N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDEA)-induced liver injury and increases the activity of phase II enzymes, suggesting the activation of the nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway. The aim of the present study was to further explore the mechanism of the activity of beetroot by evaluating the cytoprotective effects of its major component. The influence of betanin (BET) on the activation of Nrf2 and the expression of GSTA, GSTP, GSTM, GSTT, NQO1 and HO-1 was assessed in two hepatic cell lines: non-tumour THLE-2 and hepatoma-derived HepG2 cell lines. The level of the tumour suppressor p53 in both cell lines and the methylation of GSTP in HepG2 cells were also evaluated. Treatment of both cell lines with 2, 10 and 20 ?m of BET resulted in the translocation of Nrf2 from the cytosol to the nucleus. The mRNA and nuclear protein levels of Nrf2 and the binding of Nrf2 to ARE sequences were increased only in the THLE-2 cells and were accompanied by the phosphorylation of serine/threonine kinase (AKT), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). BET also significantly increased the mRNA and protein levels of GSTP, GSTT, GSTM and NQO1 in these cells. Conversely, besides the translocation of Nrf2 from the cytosol to the nucleus, BET did not modulate any of the other parameters measured in the HepG2 cells. BET did not change the methylation of GSTP1 in these cells either. These results indicate that BET through the activation of Nrf2 and subsequent induction of the expression of genes controlled by this factor may exert its hepatoprotective and anticarcinogenic effects. Moreover, the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases may be responsible for the activation of Nrf2 in the THLE-2 cells. PMID:23769299

  7. [Effects of water-salt stresses on seedling growth and activities of antioxidative enzyme of Suaeda salsa in coastal wetlands of the Yellow River Delta].

    PubMed

    Guan, Bo; Yu, Jun-Bao; Lu, Zhao-Hua; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Xue-Hong

    2011-08-01

    The halophyte Suaeda salsa is the pioneer plant and is used for the degraded coastal wetland in Yellow River Delta. The water-salt stress is the most important factor for ecological restoration to degraded coastal wetland. To understand the adaptive mechanism of Suaeda salsa to water-salt stresses, the induced effects of different groundwater table depths (0, -10, -20, -30 cm) and salt stress (0%, 1%, 2%, 3%) on seedlings of Suaeda salsa plant were characterized by the growth parameters of plant height, branch number and biomass of different organs and biological indices of leaf chlorophyll content, the activities of SOD, CAT, the leaf content of MDA and protein. The results showed the significantly (p < 0.001) decreased height of the seedlings from -30 cm to 0 cm of groundwater table depth, together with the decreased the number of branches, the biomass of leaf, shoot and root. The highest total biomass of single plant was (1.09 +/- 0.15) g under the condition of -30 cm water table depth and 0% salt stress. However, the combination of 0 cm water table depth and 3% NaCl resulted in the biomass of (0.23 +/- 0.01) g, which was ca. 21% compared with the highest biomass. Similarly, the contents of leaf chlorophyll a, b and carotenoid were the highest under the condition of -30 cm water table depth and 0% salt stress and lowest under the condition of 0 cm water table depth combined with 3% NaCl. The activities of SOD, CAT were increased significantly (p < 0.05) depending on the increase of salt stress. At 0 cm water table depth, the activities of SOD were 55.00 U/mg with 0% NaCl and 151.58 U/mg with 3% NaCl, respectively. The activities of SOD were decreased when the water table depth increased. However, the activities of CAT achieved the highest level at -30 cm water table depth. At 0 and -10 cm water table depth, the MDA content increased with the increase of salt stress. The MDA content was 0.26 mmol/g at -30 cm water table depth with 3% NaCl, which was approx. 28%-40% of the MDA contents compared with that caused by other salt stresses. These results demonstrated that Suaeda salsa plant could change its morphological characteristics, biomass allocation, and the activities of antioxidative enzymes to adapt severe environment. PMID:22619973

  8. Phosphorylation of Nrf2 at Multiple Sites by MAP Kinases Has a Limited Contribution in Modulating the Nrf2Dependent Antioxidant Response

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zheng Sun; Zheping Huang; Donna D. Zhang

    2009-01-01

    The bZIP transcription factor Nrf2 has emerged as a pivotal regulator of intracellular redox homeostasis by controlling the expression of many endogenous antioxidants and phase II detoxification enzymes. Upon oxidative stress, Nrf2 is induced at protein levels through redox-sensitive modifications on cysteine residues of Keap1, a component of the E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets Nrf2 for ubiquitin-dependent degradation. The mitogen

  9. Antioxidative properties and inhibitory effect of Bifidobacterium adolescentis on melanogenesis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Huey-Chun; Chang, Tsong-Min

    2012-09-01

    Melanin is a dark pigment produced by melanocytes. Tyrosinase is a key enzyme which catalyzes the rate-limiting step of melanogenesis. However, accumulation of melanin leads to various skin hyperpigmentation disorders. To find a novel skin-whitening agent, the antioxidant capacity of Bifidobacterium adolescentis culture filtrate and inhibitory effect on melanogenesis were investigated. The antioxidant effects of B. adolescentis culture filtrate include 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity, 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)(ABTS) radical cation scavenging activity and reducing power were measured spectrophotometrically. The reducing power is a useful index for the evaluation of potential antioxidants which carry out reduction of ferricyanide to ferrocyanide. Furthermore, the inhibitory effects of the bacterial culture filtrate on mushroom tyrosinase, B16F10 intracellular tyrosinase activity and melanin content were also determined. The results revealed that B. adolescentis culture filtrate (2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 %; v/v) effectively scavenged DPPH and ABTS radicals, and lower concentrations of the bacterial culture filtrates (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 %; v/v) showed potent reducing power in a dose-dependent pattern. Additionally, the bacterial culture filtrate suppressed murine tyrosinase activity and decreased the amount of melanin in a dose-dependent manner. Our results demonstrated that B. adolescentis culture filtrate decreases the melanogenesis process of melanoma cells by inhibiting tyrosinase activity, which we suggest may be mediated through its antioxidant activity. PMID:22806726

  10. Effect of extremely low frequency of electromagnetic fields on cell proliferation, antioxidative enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes--an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Zwirska-Korczala, K; Jochem, J; Adamczyk-Sowa, M; Sowa, P; Polaniak, R; Birkner, E; Latocha, M; Pilc, K; Suchanek, R

    2005-12-01

    The exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-MF, frequencies less than 200-300 Hz) can alter the transcription and translation of genes, influence the cell proliferation rate and affect enzyme activities. Moreover, the hypothesis that ELF-MF increases free oxygen metabolites generation has been proposed. Since recent in vivo studies suggest that electric and magnetic fields are able to affect adipose cells metabolism. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of ELF-MF (frequency of basic impulse 180-195 Hz, induction 120 microT) on cell proliferation, antioxidative enzyme activities and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration in 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cell culture. We found that ELF-MF application lasting 36 minutes daily failed to influence cell count after 24h and 48 h of incubation. After 24 h, in the ELF-MF treated group, manganese- and copper-zinc-containing superoxide dismutase (MnSOD and Cu/ZnSOD) isoenzymes media activities were decreased, catalase activity was increased, whereas there were no significant differences in glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and glutathione reductase (GSSG-Rd) activities in comparison to the control. After 48 h of incubation, all enzyme activities were reduced, except for GSSG-Rd, in which no changes were noticed. MDA concentration at 24 h after incubation with the exposure to ELF-MF was significantly higher in comparison to the control, without ELF-MF. After 48 h of incubation, MDA levels were significantly lower in both groups with no differences between the groups without and with ELF-MF. We conclude that ELF-MF influences antioxidative enzyme activities and increases lipid peroxidation in 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cultures. PMID:16340043

  11. Antioxidant properties of argpyrimidine.

    PubMed

    Sreejayan, Nair; Yang, Xiaoping; Palanichamy, Kamalakannan; Dolence, Kurt; Ren, Jun

    2008-09-28

    Argpyrimidine, the product of non-enzymatic protein glycation by methylglyoxal, has been implicated in the pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus and neurodegenerative diseases. Chemically, argpyrimidine is a substituted pyrimidinol with structural features common to known antioxidants. The objective of this study was to investigate the antioxidant properties of argpyrimidine. Argpyrimidine was synthesized by mixing L-arginine with 3-acetoxypentane-2,4-dione under acidic conditions and purified by chromatography. Argpyrimidine inhibited lipid peroxidation of rat brain homogenates catalyzed by hydroxyl radicals, metal ions, and autooxidation in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. In addition, argpyrimidine scavenged superoxide anion, 1,1-diphenyl 2-picryl-hydrazyl-stable free radical, intracellular-hydrogen peroxide, and inhibited free-radical-mediated nicking of plasmid-DNA. Taken together, our data suggest that argpyrimidine has antioxidant properties and may therefore have biological relevance in pathophysiologies associated with diabetes mellitus and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:18692042

  12. Protection against ionizing radiation by antioxidant nutrients and phytochemicals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph F. Weiss; Michael R. Landauer

    2003-01-01

    The potential of antioxidants to reduce the cellular damage induced by ionizing radiation has been studied in animal models for more than 50 years. The application of antioxidant radioprotectors to various human exposure situations has not been extensive although it is generally accepted that endogenous antioxidants, such as cellular non-protein thiols and antioxidant enzymes, provide some degree of protection. This

  13. Differences in Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Capacity among Different Genotypes of Autumn Olive (Elaeagnus umbellate Thumb)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit from six genotypes of autumn olive (‘Brilliant Rose’, ‘Delightful’, ‘Jewel’, ‘Natural 1’, ‘Natural 2’, and ‘Sweet Tart’) were evaluated for fruit quality, phenolic contents, carotenoids, antioxidants, antioxidant capacity, and antioxidant enzyme activity. The fruit soluble solids, titratable ...