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1

Estrogen modulates ?2-adrenoceptor-induced cell-mediated and inflammatory immune responses through ER-? involving distinct intracellular signaling pathways, antioxidant enzymes, and nitric oxide.  

PubMed

Sympathetic noradrenergic neuronal activity in the lymphoid organs regulates immunity through the release and binding of norepinephrine to ?2-adrenergic receptors (AR) on lymphocytes. In women, estrogen modulates immune responses during menstrual cycles, and in aging and age-associated diseases. The intent of the present study is to characterize the extent of immunomodulation by ?2-AR in the presence of estrogen and the involvement of intracellular signaling mechanisms including the role of antioxidant enzymes (AOE) in lymphocytes. In vitro effects of terbutaline, ?2-AR agonist, either alone or in combination with 17?-estradiol (E2) were examined on splenocyte proliferation, cytokine (IFN-?, IL-2, and IL-6) production, intracellular signaling molecules (p-ERK, p-CREB, p-Akt, and p-NF-?B) expression, NO production, and AOE activities [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)]. The specificity of their actions was investigated using ?-AR antagonist, and inhibitors of signaling targets and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Terbutaline suppressed T cell proliferation and IL-6 production and increased AOE activities involving ERK, PKA, PKC, and NF-?B pathways and NO production. E2 alone enhanced T cell proliferation and decreased IL-6 production and NF-?B expression through ER-?. E2 in the presence of terbutaline reversed terbutaline-induced effects on T cell proliferation, IL-6 production, p-ERK and p-CREB expression, AOE activities, NO production, and NF-?B expression. Estrogen through ER-? differentially modulates ?2-AR-induced immune responses involving ERK, PKA, PKC, and NF-?B pathways, and NO that may be responsible for estrogen-induced immunosenescence and development of female-specific diseases. PMID:25240148

Priyanka, Hannah P; Singh, Ran Vijay; Pratap, Uday P; ThyagaRajan, Srinivasan

2014-01-01

2

Possible role of Toll-like receptor-2 in the intracellular survival of Staphylococcus aureus in murine peritoneal macrophages: involvement of cytokines and anti-oxidant enzymes.  

PubMed

Effects of blocking toll-like receptor-2 (TLR-2) on the survival of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and cytokine production in peritoneal macrophages of Swiss albino mice were analysed. Macrophages were infected with S. aureus in the presence and absence of anti-TLR-2 antibody. Tumour necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) interleukin-6 (IL-6), interferon-gamma (IFN-?), interleukin-1? (IL-1?), interleukin-12 (IL-12) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) concentrations were measured. Expressions of TLR-2, NF-?B, MyD 88 were analysed by Western Blot. Expression of TLR-2 was increased in S. aureus-infected macrophages with respect to control and was MyD 88 independent. TLR2 blocking significantly reduced TNF-?, IL-6, IL-1? and IL-10 and increased IFN-? and IL-12 production. Decreased catalase activity and increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) by S. aureus with concomitant increase in H2 O2 and nitric oxide (NO) were observed in the case of prior TLR-2 blocking. To understand whether catalase contributing in the intracellular survival, was of bacterial origin or not, 3-amino, 1, 2, 4-triazole (ATZ) was used to inhibit specifically macrophage-derived catalase. Catalase enzyme activity from the whole staphylococcal cells in the presence of ATZ suggested that the released catalase were of extracellular origin. From the intracellular survival assay, it was evident that pretreatment of macrophages with ATZ reduces the bacterial burden in macrophages when infected with the recovered bacteria only from the anti-TLR-2 antibody-treated macrophages after phagocytosis. Catalase protein expression from the whole staphylococcal cells recovered after phagocytosis also indicated the catalase release from S. aureus. Capturing of S. aureus via TLR-2 induces inflammatory reactions through activation of NF-?B-signalling pathways which was MyD88-independent. PMID:24846691

Bishayi, B; Bandyopadhyay, D; Majhi, A; Adhikary, R

2014-08-01

3

Enzyme Mimic to Develop Antioxidant Nanoreactors: From Synthesis to Application  

E-print Network

Enzyme Mimic to Develop Antioxidant Nanoreactors: From Synthesis to Application.................................................................................................................20 1.10.1. Administration of antioxidant enzymes................................................................................20 1.10. 2. Administration of enzyme mimics

Amrhein, Valentin

4

Original Contribution Willow bark extract increases antioxidant enzymes and reduces  

E-print Network

Original Contribution Willow bark extract increases antioxidant enzymes and reduces oxidative Available online 28 December 2012 Keywords: Willow bark extract Nrf2 Antioxidant enzyme HUVEC Caenorhabditis demonstrated its clinical usefulness. This study investigated the antioxidative effects of WBE in human

Blackwell, Keith

5

Antioxidative enzyme activities in human erythrocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reliable and standardized methods are necessary to determine the expression of antioxidative enzymes and their role in maintaining health. In addition, the vari- ability of the enzyme activities within the general pop- ulation caused by age, gender, and life-style factors must be described. This study describes methodological conditions that are suitable for analyzing copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD), glutathione peroxi- dase

Helle Raun Andersen; Jesper B. Nielsen; Flemming Nielsen; Philippe Grandjean

6

Antioxidant enzyme influences germination, stress tolerance, and virulence of Isaria fumosorosea.  

PubMed

Antioxidizing enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidae) are important enzymatic systems used to degrade hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen, thereby lowering intracellular hydrogen peroxide levels. Entomopathogenic fungi display increased activities of antioxidizing enzymes during growth and germination, which is necessary to counteract the hyperoxidant state produced by oxidative metabolism. We studied the influence of different carbon sources on antioxidizing enzyme production by Isaria fumosorosea to determine the importance of antioxiding enzymes induction in fungal germination, stress tolerance and virulence. Conidia produced by colonies grown on hydrocarbons showed higher rates of enzyme activities compared to the control and the enzyme activities of the conidia produced on n-octacosane were higher than all the other treatments. The lipid peroxidation activities were observed as an indicative marker of oxidative damage to cells and the lowest levels of lipid peroxidation activities were observed for n-octacosane treatment. The increased enzyme activities of n-octacosane- grown conidia were accompanied by higher levels of resistance to exogenous hydrogen peroxide, reduction in germination time and higher virulence against Spodoptera exigua. Our study has helped to identify that increased activities of antioxidizing enzymes can improve the germination and tolerance to antioxidant stress response of I. fumosorosea. PMID:23756951

Ali, Shaukat; Huang, Zhen; Li, Huaxing; Bashir, Muhammad Hamid; Ren, Shunxiang

2013-06-01

7

Rapid upregulation of heart antioxidant enzymes during arousal from estivation in the Giant African snail (Achatina fulica)  

E-print Network

Rapid upregulation of heart antioxidant enzymes during arousal from estivation in the Giant African by upregulating intracellular antioxidant defenses in the heart, kidney, hepatopancreas and foot tissues increased in heart, hepatopancreas and foot. In heart, a rapid increase in MnSOD protein levels was observed

Tattersall, Glenn

8

Intracellular antioxidant detoxifying effects of diosmetin on 2,2-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH)-induced oxidative stress through inhibition of reactive oxygen species generation.  

PubMed

The intracellular antioxidant activities of diosmetin were evaluated by cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assay, 2,2-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH)-induced erythrocyte hemolysis assay and cupric chloride (CuCl2)-induced plasma oxidation assay. The results showed that diosmetin exhibits strong cellular antioxidant activity (EC50 = 7.98 ?mol, CAA value = 58 ?mol QE/100 ?mol). It was also found that diosmetin treatment could effectively attenuate AAPH-induced erythrocyte hemolysis (91.0% inhibition at 100 ?g/mL) and CuCl2-induced plasma oxidation through inhibition of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Diosmetin could significantly restore AAPH-induced increase of intracelluar antioxidant enzyme (SOD, GPx, and CAT) activities to normal levels, as well as inhibit intracellular malondialdehyde (MDA) formation. Thus, the intracellular antioxidant detoxifying mechanism of diosmetin is associated with both nonenzymatic and enzymatic defense systems. PMID:25075433

Liao, Wenzhen; Ning, Zhengxiang; Chen, Luying; Wei, Qingyi; Yuan, Erdong; Yang, Jiguo; Ren, Jiaoyan

2014-08-27

9

Effects of antidepressants on mRNA levels of antioxidant enzymes in human monocytic U-937 cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alterations of antioxidant enzyme activities have been described in a number of psychiatric disorders including major depression. Subsequently, the present study examined the effects of different types of antidepressants (desipramine, imipramine, maprotiline and mirtazapine) in different concentrations (10?5, 10?6 and 10?7 M) on the mRNA levels of various enzymes of the antioxidant system, including both intracellular superoxide dismutase isoforms, glutathione

Andreas Johannes Schmidt; Philip Heiser; Ulrich Michael Hemmeter; Jürgen-Christian Krieg; Helmut Vedder

2008-01-01

10

ORIGINAL PAPER Antioxidant and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Antioxidant and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activity of yoghurt calcium caseinate (SCC) and whey protein concentrate (WPC) on the antioxidant and angiotensin, SCC, and WPC at 2% and 4% ratios. The antioxidant activity was determined using 2,2,-diphenyl-1

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

11

Queuine promotes antioxidant defence system by activating cellular antioxidant enzyme activities in cancer.  

PubMed

Constant generation of Reactive oxygen species (ROS) during normal cellular metabolism of an organism is generally balanced by similar rate of consumption by antioxidants. Imbalance between ROS production and antioxidant defense results in increased level of ROS causing oxidative stress which leads to promotion of malignancy. Queuine is a hyper modified base analogue of guanine, found at first anti-codon position of Q- family of tRNAs. These tRNAs are completely modified with respect to queuosine in terminally differentiated somatic cells, however hypomodification of Q-tRNAs is close association with cell proliferation. Q-tRNA modification is essential for normal development, differentiation and cellular functions. Queuine is a nutrient factor to eukaryotes. It is found to promote cellular antioxidant defense system and inhibit tumorigenesis. The activities of antioxidant enzymes like catalase, SOD, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase are found to be low in Dalton's lymphoma ascites transplanted (DLAT) mouse liver compared to normal. However, exogenous administration of queuine to DLAT mouse improves the activities of antioxidant enzymes. The results suggest that queuine promotes antioxidant defense system by increasing antioxidant enzyme activities and in turn inhibits oxidative stress and tumorigenesis. PMID:18290765

Pathak, Chandramani; Jaiswal, Yogesh K; Vinayak, Manjula

2008-04-01

12

Effect of stress on the antioxidant enzymes and gastric ulceration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of cold-restraint stress on the antioxidant enzymes of the rat gastric mucosa was studied with a view to finding out their role in stress induced gastric ulceration. Histological examination revealed stress induced extensive damage of the surface epithelial cell with lesions extending upto submucosa in some cases. Stress causes time-dependent increase in histamine and pepsin content but decrease

Dipak Das; Ranajit K. Banerjee

1993-01-01

13

Trypanosoma cruzi Antioxidant Enzymes As Virulence Factors in Chagas Disease  

PubMed Central

Abstract Significance: Chagas disease (CD) affects several million people in Latin America and is spreading beyond its classical boundaries due to the migration of infected host and insect vectors, HIV co-infection, and blood transfusion. The current therapy is not adequate for treatment of the chronic phase of CD, and new drugs are warranted. Recent Advances: Trypanosoma cruzi is equipped with a specialized and complex network of antioxidant enzymes that are located at different subcellular compartments which defend the parasite against host oxidative assaults. Recently, strong evidence has emerged which indicates that enzyme components of the T. cruzi antioxidant network (cytosolic and mitochondrial peroxiredoxins and trypanothione synthetase) in naturally occurring strains act as a virulence factor for CD. This precept is recapitulated with the observed increased resistance of T. cruzi peroxirredoxins overexpressers to in vivo or in vitro nitroxidative stress conditions. In addition, the modulation of mitochondrial superoxide radical levels by iron superoxide dismutase (FeSODA) influences parasite programmed cell death, underscoring the role of this enzyme in parasite survival. Critical Issues: The unraveling of the biological significance of FeSODs in T. cruzi programmed cell death in the context of chronic infection in CD is still under examination. Future Directions: The role of the antioxidant enzymes in the pathogenesis of CD, including parasite virulence and persistence, and their feasibility as pharmacological targets justifies further investigation. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 723–734. PMID:22458250

Piacenza, Lucía; Peluffo, Gonzalo; Alvarez, María Noel; Martínez, Alejandra

2013-01-01

14

Antioxidant enzymes in hypertensive and hypertriglyceridemic rats: effect of gender.  

PubMed

In a model of hypertensive and hypertriglyceridemic rats (HTG), in which oxidative stress is increased, the influence of gender upon activities of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) was investigated. Statistically significant differences between antioxidant enzyme activities and treatment with relation to gender were analyzed. Weanling Wistar rats were given normal rat chow and either tap water for control group or 30% sucrose solution for HTG group, for 5-6 months. At the end of the experimental period, blood pressure was significantly higher in both male and female HTG groups, but males showed higher values than females. Serum, heart, kidney, and liver were obtained to determine antioxidant enzyme activities. Activities of CAT and GPX tended to be higher in male animals. A larger number of significant changes in enzyme activities associated with gender appears in HTG than in controls, which indicates the harmful effect of the treatment. PMID:15773229

Bańos, Guadalupe; Medina-Campos, Omar N; Maldonado, Perla D; Zamora, José; Pérez, Israel; Pavón, Natalia; Pedraza-Chaverrí, José

2005-01-01

15

Antioxidant enzymes in the human iris: an immunogold study  

PubMed Central

AIMS—To determine the nature and extent of the antioxidant enzyme system in the human iris.?METHODS—The fine structural distribution of five antioxidant enzymes (acidic, neutral, and basic glutathione S-transferase (GST), Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn SOD), and glutathione peroxidase) was determined by immunogold labelling of ultrathin sections of tissue from six eyes appropriately fixed for immunocytochemistry and embedded in LR white resin.?RESULTS—Both Cu/Zn SOD and acidic GST were localised to all constituent cells of the iris. Glutathione peroxidase and basic GST were localised to erythrocytes alone, and labelling for neutral GST was absent.?CONCLUSIONS—Dense labelling for acidic GST could be linked with the previously documented presence of large quantities of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the iris and/or the presence of xenobiotic substances in the aqueous humour.?? PMID:9215062

Marshall, G. E.

1997-01-01

16

Effect of endotoxemia on skin antioxidant enzymes under experimental conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intraperitoneal injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide in a dose of 1 mg\\/kg was followed by prestimulation of whole blood\\u000a leukocytes in rats. Activities of peroxide-and lipoperoxide-utilizing antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase, glutathione\\u000a S-transferase, and catalase increased 1 day after lipopolysaccharide administration, while the content of malonic dialdehyde\\u000a in the skin remained unchanged.

A. V. Ivanova; E. V. Mikhal’chik; E. A. Miroshnikova; E. V. Lukasheva; L. G. Korkina

2006-01-01

17

Two Tales of Antioxidant Enzymes on ? Cells and Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Abstract Pancreatic islets contain low activities of catalase, selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1), and Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1). Thus, enhancing expression of these enzymes in islets has been unquestionably favored. However, such an attempt has produced variable metabolic outcomes. While ? cell-specific overexpression of Sod1 enhanced mouse resistance to streptozotocin-induced diabetes, the same manipulation of catalase aggravated onset of type 1 diabetes in nonobese diabetic mice. Global overexpression of Gpx1 in mice induced type 2 diabetes-like phenotypes. Although knockouts of Gpx1 and Sod1 each alone or together decreased pancreatic ? cell mass and plasma insulin concentrations, these knockouts improved body insulin sensitivity to different extents. Pancreatic duodenal homeobox 1, forkhead box A2, and uncoupling protein 2 are three key regulators of ? cell mass, insulin synthesis, and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Phenotypes resulted from altering GPX1 and/or SOD1 were partly mediated through these factors, along with protein kinase B and c-jun terminal kinase. A shifted reactive oxygen species inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatases in insulin signaling might be attributed to altered insulin sensitivity. Overall, metabolic roles of antioxidant enzymes in ? cells and diabetes depend on body oxidative status and target functions. Revealing regulatory mechanisms for this type of dual role will help prevent potential pro-diabetic risk of antioxidant over-supplementation to humans. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 14, 489–503. PMID:20618069

Vatamaniuk, Marko Z.

2011-01-01

18

Antioxidant enzyme activities are not broadly correlated with longevity in 14 vertebrate endotherm species  

PubMed Central

The free radical theory of ageing posits that accrual of oxidative damage underlies the increased cellular, tissue and organ dysfunction and failure associated with advanced age. In support of this theory, cellular resistance to oxidative stress is highly correlated with life span, suggesting that prevention or repair of oxidative damage might indeed be essential for longevity. To test the hypothesis that the prevention of oxidative damage underlies longevity, we measured the activities of the five major intracellular antioxidant enzymes in brain, heart and liver tissue of 14 mammalian and avian species with maximum life spans (MLSPs) ranging from 3 years to over 100 years. Our data set included Snell dwarf mice in which life span is increased by ?50% compared to their normal littermates. We found that CuZn superoxide dismutase, the major cytosolic superoxide dismutase, showed no correlation with MLSP in any of the three organs. Similarly, neither glutathione peroxidase nor glutathione reductase activities correlated with MLSP. MnSOD, the sole mitochondrial superoxide dismutase in mammals and birds, was positively correlated with MLSP only for brain tissue. This same trend was observed for catalase. For all correlational data, effects of body mass and phylogenetic relatedness were removed using residual analysis and Felsenstein’s phylogenetically independent contrasts. Our results are not consistent with a causal role for intracellular antioxidant enzymes in longevity, similar to recent reports from studies utilising genetic modifications of mice (Pérez et al., Biochim Biophys Acta 1790:1005–1014, 2009). However, our results indicate a specific augmentation of reactive oxygen species neutralising activities in brain associated with longevity. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11357-010-9131-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20431992

Page, Melissa M.; Richardson, Jean; Wiens, Brent E.; Tiedtke, Esther; Peters, Craig W.; Faure, Paul A.; Burness, Gary

2010-01-01

19

Standardized Assay Medium To Measure Lactococcus lactis Enzyme Activities while Mimicking Intracellular Conditions  

PubMed Central

Knowledge of how the activity of enzymes is affected under in vivo conditions is essential for analyzing their regulation and constructing models that yield an integrated understanding of cell behavior. Current kinetic parameters for Lactococcus lactis are scattered through different studies and performed under different assay conditions. Furthermore, assay conditions often diverge from conditions prevailing in the intracellular environment. To establish uniform assay conditions that resemble intracellular conditions, we analyzed the intracellular composition of anaerobic glucose-limited chemostat cultures of L. lactis subsp. cremoris MG 1363. Based on this, we designed a new assay medium for enzyme activity measurements of growing cells of L. lactis, mimicking as closely as practically possible its intracellular environment. Procedures were optimized to be carried out in 96-well plates, and the reproducibility and dynamic range were checked for all enzyme activity measurements. The effects of freezing and the carryover of ammonium sulfate from the addition of coupling enzymes were also established. Activities of all 10 glycolytic and 4 fermentative enzymes were measured. Remarkably, most in vivo-like activities were lower than previously published data. Yet, the ratios of Vmax over measured in vivo fluxes were above 1. With this work, we have developed and extensively validated standard protocols for enzyme activity measurements for L. lactis. PMID:22020503

Goel, Anisha; Santos, Filipe; de Vos, Willem M.; Teusink, Bas

2012-01-01

20

Dieckol enhances the expression of antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes by the activation of Nrf2-MAPK signalling pathway in HepG2 cells.  

PubMed

Dieckol was previously reported to exhibit antioxidant and anticancer activities in vitro studies. In this study, we characterised the mechanism underlying the dieckol-mediated expression of antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes. Dieckol suppressed the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species in the presence or absence of H2O2 and increased glutathione level in HepG2 cells. Dieckol enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes, and the expression of detoxifying enzymes including heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), NAD(P)H:quinine oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) in HepG2 cells. Enhanced expression of antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes by dieckol was presumed to be the activation of the nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2) demonstrated by its nuclear translocation and transcriptional activity via activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated dieckol induced the expression of HO-1 in mouse liver. These results demonstrate that the dieckol-mediated cytoprotection in HepG2 cells is mediated through a ROS-independent up-regulation of antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes via Nrf2 activation as well as its intrinsic antioxidant activity, suggesting that dieckol may be used as a natural cytoprotective agent. PMID:25529716

Lee, Min-Sup; Lee, Bonggi; Park, Kyoung-Eun; Utsuki, Tadanobu; Shin, Taisun; Oh, Chul Woong; Kim, Hyeung-Rak

2015-05-01

21

Protection of Cells against Oxidative Stress by Nanomolar Levels of Hydroxyflavones Indicates a New Type of Intracellular Antioxidant Mechanism  

PubMed Central

Natural polyphenol compounds are often good antioxidants, but they also cause damage to cells through more or less specific interactions with proteins. To distinguish antioxidant activity from cytotoxic effects we have tested four structurally related hydroxyflavones (baicalein, mosloflavone, negletein, and 5,6-dihydroxyflavone) at very low and physiologically relevant levels, using two different cell lines, L-6 myoblasts and THP-1 monocytes. Measurements using intracellular fluorescent probes and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy in combination with cytotoxicity assays showed strong antioxidant activities for baicalein and 5,6-dihydroxyflavone at picomolar concentrations, while 10 nM partially protected monocytes against the strong oxidative stress induced by 200 µM cumene hydroperoxide. Wide range dose-dependence curves were introduced to characterize and distinguish the mechanism and targets of different flavone antioxidants, and identify cytotoxic effects which only became detectable at micromolar concentrations. Analysis of these dose-dependence curves made it possible to exclude a protein-mediated antioxidant response, as well as a mechanism based on the simple stoichiometric scavenging of radicals. The results demonstrate that these flavones do not act on the same radicals as the flavonol quercetin. Considering the normal concentrations of all the endogenous antioxidants in cells, the addition of picomolar or nanomolar levels of these flavones should not be expected to produce any detectable increase in the total cellular antioxidant capacity. The significant intracellular antioxidant activity observed with 1 pM baicalein means that it must be scavenging radicals that for some reason are not eliminated by the endogenous antioxidants. The strong antioxidant effects found suggest these flavones, as well as quercetin and similar polyphenolic antioxidants, at physiologically relevant concentrations act as redox mediators to enable endogenous antioxidants to reach and scavenge different pools of otherwise inaccessible radicals. PMID:23637768

Hájek, Jan; Sta?ková, Veronika; Filipský, Tomáš; Balducci, Valentina; De Vito, Paolo; Leone, Stefano; Bavavea, Eugenia I.; Silvestri, Ilaria Proietti; Righi, Giuliana; Luly, Paolo; Saso, Luciano; Bovicelli, Paolo; Pedersen, Jens Z.; Incerpi, Sandra

2013-01-01

22

An Intracellular Antioxidant Determines the Expression of a Melanin-Based Signal in a Bird  

PubMed Central

To understand how traits used in animal communication evolved and are maintained as honest signals, we need to understand the mechanisms that prevent cheating. It has been proposed that honest signaling is guaranteed by the costs associated with the signal expression. However, the nature of these costs is still under debate. Melanin-based signals are intriguing because their expression seems to be tightly controlled by genes and the resource involved (i.e. melanin) seems to be not limited. However, in vertebrates, low levels of a key intracellular antioxidant (i.e. glutathione) are needed to promote melanogenesis. We propose that melanin-based ornaments can signal the ability to cope with oxidative stress because those individuals with low enough levels of glutathione, such as those required for melanin production, should manage well the whole of the antioxidant machinery in order to maintain a certain oxidative status. We analysed the expression of a melanin-based signal: the well-known black stripe of the great tit (Parus major). Great tit nestlings were injected with a specific inhibitor of glutathione production (DL-buthionine-S,R-sulfoximine; BSO) throughout their development. BSO effectively decreased intracellular glutathione levels without apparent side effects on growth or body condition. Instead, treated nestlings developed black breast stripes 70–100% larger than controls. Moreover, treated nestlings also compensated the decrease in glutathione levels by increasing the levels of circulating antioxidants. Results indicate that melanin-based signals can be at least partially permeable to environmental influences such as those associated to oxidative stress. They also reveal a potential handicap associated to the expression of this kind of signals. Finally, although other contributing factors could have been present, our findings emphasize the role of oxidative stress in shaping the evolution of animal signals in general and, in particular, those produced by pigments. PMID:18833330

Galván, Ismael; Alonso-Alvarez, Carlos

2008-01-01

23

Microtubule Formation and Activities of Antioxidative Enzymes in PC12 Cells Exposed to Phosphatidylcholine Hydroperoxides  

PubMed Central

Aging increases free radical generation and lipid oxidation and, thereby, mediates neurodegenerative diseases. As the brain is rich in lipids (polyunsaturated fatty acids), the antioxidative system plays an important role in protecting brain tissues from oxidative injury. The changes in microtubule formation and antioxidative enzyme activities have been investigated in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells exposed to various concentrations of phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxides (PCOOH). We measured three typical antioxidative enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT). The microtubule assembly system was dependent on the antioxidative enzyme system in cells exposed to oxidative stress. The activities of the three enzymes increased in a PCOOH exposure-dependent manner. In particular, the changes in the activity as a result of PCOOH exposure were similar in the three antioxidative enzymes. This is the first report indicating the compatibility between the tubulin-microtubule and antioxidative enzyme systems in cells that deteriorate as a result of phospholipid hydroperoxide administration from an exterior source. The descending order of sensitivity of the three enzymes to PCOOH is also discussed. PMID:23443078

Yamanaka, Yukako; Yoshida-Yamamoto, Shumi; Doi, Hiroshi

2012-01-01

24

Taenia solium: antioxidant metabolism enzymes as targets for cestocidal drugs and vaccines.  

PubMed

This review focuses in the role that antioxidant enzymes play in protection and other important physiological functions such as signal transduction, cell differentiation, growth and apoptosis. Parasites use these enzymes to evade ROS produced by the host immune response and for development inside the host. In the cestoda Taenia solium, three antioxidant enzymes have been studied: a cystosolic Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase that is a target of cestocidal drugs (bencimidazoles); a 2-Cys peroxiredoxin that is a regulatory enzyme of H(2)O(2), molecule essential for several physiological functions; and two isoforms of glutathione transferases that are immunological targets, since they protect immunized mice against cysticercosis. Moreover, all these enzymes are present in all stages of the parasite. These findings suggest that antioxidant enzymes have an important role in T. solium physiology and infection, therefore they might represent the Achilles' heel of the parasite. PMID:18393902

Vaca-Paniagua, F; Torres-Rivera, A; Parra-Unda, R; Landa, A

2008-01-01

25

Intracellular location of NADP(+)-linked malic enzyme in C 3 plants.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to determine the maximum catalytic activity and intracellular location of NADP(+)-linked malic enzyme (EC 1.1.1.40) in C3 plants. Appreciable activities, ranging from 80 to 712 nmol · (gFW)(-1) · min(-1), were found in a wide range of tissues (roots and leaves of Pisum sativum L., cotyledons of Cucurbit a pepo Alef., developing seeds of Brassica napus L., mesocarp of Persea americana Gaertn., and suspension cultures of Glycine max L.). Overall, activity showed a rough positive correlation with biosynthesis. Differential and density-gradient fractionation of extracts of the cotyledons of germinating marrow (C. pepo) and lysates of protoplasts of suspension cultures of G. showed that the enzyme had the same distribution as the plastid marker enzymes. It is suggested that in C3 plants NADP(+)-linked malic enzyme is confined to the plastids and involved in biosynthesis. PMID:24186419

El-Shora, H M; Ap Rees, T

1991-10-01

26

Dual Targeting of Antioxidant and Metabolic Enzymes to the Mitochondrion and the Apicoplast of Toxoplasma gondii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxoplasma gondii is an aerobic protozoan parasite that possesses mitochondrial antioxidant enzymes to safely dispose of oxygen radicals generated by cellular respiration and metabolism. As with most Apicomplexans, it also harbors a chloroplast-like organelle, the apicoplast, which hosts various biosynthetic pathways and requires antioxidant protection. Most apicoplast-resident proteins are encoded in the nuclear genome and are targeted to the organelle

Paco Pino; Bernardo Javier Foth; Lai-Yu Kwok; Lilach Sheiner; Rebecca Schepers; Thierry Soldati; Dominique Soldati-Favre

2007-01-01

27

Antioxidant and eicosanoid enzyme inhibition properties of pomegranate seed oil and fermented juice flavonoids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidant and eicosanoid enzyme inhibition properties of pomegranate (Punica granatum) fermented juice and seed oil flavonoids were studied. The pomegranate fermented juice (pfj) and cold pressed seed oil (pcpso) showed strong antioxidant activity close to that of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and green tea (Thea sinensis), and significantly greater than that of red wine (Vitis vitifera). Flavonoids extracted from pcpso

Shay Yehoshua Schubert; Ephraim Philip Lansky; Ishak Neeman

1999-01-01

28

Interrelationship between oxidative damage and antioxidant enzyme activities: an easy and rapid experimental approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a method for determining some antioxidant enzyme activities (catalase and\\/or glutathione peroxidase) and the oxidative status (protein oxidative damage and\\/or lipid peroxidation) of human blood. However, the main objective of the work is to illustrate the relationship between antioxidant defences and oxidative damage, showing to students their correlation and the general importance of the biochemical regulation in

Jose M. Maté; J. Carlos Aledo; Cristina Pérez-Gómez; Alicia Esteban del Valle; Jose M. Segura

2000-01-01

29

Schistosoma mansoni:The Developmental Regulation and Immunolocalization of Antioxidant Enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antioxidant enzymes fromS. mansoni,cytosolic Cu–Zn superoxide dismutase (CT-SOD), signal-peptide-containing SOD (SP-SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and glutathione transferase (GST) were compared for their relative levels of transcript expression throughout development in a semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay. All of the antioxidant enzymes exhibited a similar pattern of developmental regulation. Adult worms have the highest level of specific mRNA compared with

Haiping Mei; Philip T. LoVerde

1997-01-01

30

Effect of Resveratrol on Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in the Brain of Healthy Rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied the effect of resveratrol on lipoperoxidation and antioxidant enzyme activity level in the brain of healthy\\u000a rats. When intraperitoneally administered, resveratrol significantly and dose dependently decreased brain malondialdehyde\\u000a level. Resveratrol also increased in a dose-dependent way brain superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase activities.\\u000a Optimal effect on antioxidant enzyme and lipoperoxidation products were obtained with resveratrol concentration of

Meherzia Mokni; Salem Elkahoui; Ferid Limam; Mohamed Amri; Ezzedine Aouani

2007-01-01

31

Antioxidant enzyme status in Azolla microphylla in relation to salinity and possibilities of environmental monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rice field biofertilizer Azolla microphylla was subjected to salinity treatment (EC 4.70 and 8.72ds\\/m) and growth, nitrogen fixation and the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase and catalase were studied. Salinity exposure resulted in decreased growth rate and nitrogen fixation by the organism. Further a positive correlation between the peroxide content, and antioxidant enzyme activity

G. Abraham

2010-01-01

32

Potential Degradation of Swainsonine by Intracellular Enzymes of Arthrobacter sp. HW08  

PubMed Central

Swainsonine (SW) is a toxin produced by locoweeds and harmful to the livestock industry. Degrading SW by Arthrobacter sp. HW08 was demonstrated as a promising way to deal with SW poisoning. However, it is unknown which part of the subcellular enzymes in Arthrobacter sp. HW08 is responsible for biodegrading SW and whether the metabolites are atoxic. In this study, intracellular and extracellular enzymes of Arthrobacter sp. HW08 were isolated and their enzyme activity was evaluated. The metabolites were fed to mice, and physiological and histological properties of the treated mice were investigated. The results showed that only intracellular enzyme of Arthrobacter sp. HW08 (IEHW08) could degrade SW efficiently. Compared with mice in SW treatment group, mice in SW + IEHW08 treatment group (1) increased their body weights; (2) showed higher number of platelets and lower number of white blood cells; (3) decreased the levels of creatinine, urea nitrogen, alanine transaminase and aspartate aminotransferase in serum; (4) reduced the number of vacuolated cells in cerebellum, liver and kidney. All these data demonstrate that IEHW08 was potentially safe for mice, while keeping the capacity of degrading SW. This study indicates a possible application of IEHW08 as an additive in the livestock industry to protect animals from SW poisoning. PMID:24240642

Wang, Yan; Li, Yanhong; Hu, Yanchun; Li, Jincheng; Yang, Guodong; Kang, Danju; Li, Haili; Wang, Jianhua

2013-01-01

33

Effect of antioxidant potential of tropical fruit juices on antioxidant enzyme profiles and lipid peroxidation in rats.  

PubMed

Fruits are a rich source of a variety of biologically active compounds that can have complementary and overlapping mechanisms of action, including detoxification, enzyme modulation and antioxidant effects. Although the effects of tropical fruits have been examined individually, the interactive antioxidant capacity of the bioactive compounds in these formulations has not been sufficiently explored. For this reason, this study investigated the effect of two tropical fruit juices (FA and FB) on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in rats. Seven groups, with eight rats each, were fed a normal diet for 4 weeks, and were force-fed daily either water (control), 100, 200, or 400 mg of FA or FB per kg. The results showed that the liver superoxide dismutase and catalase activities (FA200), erythrocytes glutathione peroxidase (FB400) and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (FB100, FA400, FB200, FB400) were efficiently reduced by fruit juices when compared with control; whereas HDL-c increased (FB400). PMID:24679768

Pereira, Ana Carolina da Silva; Dionísio, Ana Paula; Wurlitzer, Nedio Jair; Alves, Ricardo Elesbăo; de Brito, Edy Souza; e Silva, Ana Mara de Oliveira; Brasil, Isabella Montenegro; Mancini Filho, Jorge

2014-08-15

34

Antioxidative capacity and enzyme activity in Haematococcus pluvialis cells exposed to superoxide free radicals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The antioxidative capacity of astaxanthin and enzyme activity of reactive oxygen eliminating enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) were studied in three cell types of Haematococcus pluvialis exposed to high concentrations of a superoxide anion radical (O{2/-}). The results show that defensive enzymes and astaxanthin-related mechanisms were both active in H. pluvialis during exposure to reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as O{2/-}. Astaxanthin reacted with ROS much faster than did the protective enzymes, and had the strongest antioxidative capacity to protect against lipid peroxidation. The defensive mechanisms varied significantly between the three cell types and were related to the level of astaxanthin that had accumulated in those cells. Astaxanthin-enriched red cells had the strongest antioxidative capacity, followed by brown cells, and astaxanthin-deficient green cells. Although there was no significant increase in expression of protective enzymes, the malondialdehyde (MDA) content in red cells was sustained at a low level because of the antioxidative effect of astaxanthin, which quenched O{2/-} before the protective enzymes could act. In green cells, astaxanthin is very low or absent; therefore, scavenging of ROS is inevitably reliant on antioxidative enzymes. Accordingly, in green cells, these enzymes play the leading role in scavenging ROS, and the expression of these enzymes is rapidly increased to reduce excessive ROS. However, because ROS were constantly increased in this study, the enhance enzyme activity in the green cells was not able to repair the ROS damage, leading to elevated MDA content. Of the four defensive enzymes measured in astaxanthin-deficient green cells, SOD eliminates O{2/-}, POD eliminates H2O2, which is a by-product of SOD activity, and APX and CAT are then initiated to scavenge excessive ROS.

Liu, Jianguo; Zhang, Xiaoli; Sun, Yanhong; Lin, Wei

2010-01-01

35

Vaccination with antioxidant enzymes confers protective immunity against challenge infection with Schistosoma mansoni  

Microsoft Academic Search

Schistosoma mansoni, an intravascular parasite, lives in a hostile environment in close contact with host hu- moral and cellular cytotoxic factors. To establish itself in the host, the parasite has evolved a number of immune evasion mechanisms, such as antioxidant enzymes. Our laboratory has demonstrated that the expression of antioxi- dant enzymes is developmentally regulated, with the highest levels present

Philip T LoVerde; Claudia Carvalho-Queiroz; Rosemary Cook

2004-01-01

36

Induction of antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation level in ion-beam-bombarded rice seeds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low-energy ion beam bombardment has been used to mutate a wide variety of plant species. To explore the indirect effects of low-energy ion beam on biological damage due to the free radical production in plant cells, the increase in antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation level was investigated in ion-bombarded rice seeds. Local rice seeds were bombarded with nitrogen or argon ion beams at energies of 29-60 keV and ion fluences of 1 × 1016 ions cm-2. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and lipid peroxidation level were assayed in the germinated rice seeds after ion bombardment. The results showed most of the enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation levels in both the argon and nitrogen bombarded samples were higher than those in the natural control. N-ion bombardment could induce higher levels of antioxidant enzyme activities in the rice samples than the Ar-ion bombardment. Additional effects due to the vacuum condition were found to affect activities of some antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation level. This study demonstrates that ion beam bombardment and vacuum condition could induce the antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation level which might be due to free radical production in the bombarded rice seeds.

Semsang, Nuananong; Yu, LiangDeng

2013-07-01

37

Purification and antioxidant activities of intracellular zinc polysaccharides from Pleurotus cornucopiae SS-03.  

PubMed

Intracellular zinc polysaccharides (IZPS) from Pleurotus cornucopiae SS-03 were extracted and purified, and three subfractions (IZPS-1, IZPS-2, and IZPS-3) were separated by DEAE-52 cellulose anion-exchange column chromatography. They showed certain scavenging effects on superoxide anion (O2(*-)) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals, and positive rising of reducing power in vitro. All the subfractions were found upregulated the enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), GSH peroxide (GSH-Px) and catalase (CAT) significantly, decreased the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) remarkably in vivo. In addition, five monosaccharides components, including rhamnose, xylose, mannose, glucose, and galactose with the molar ratio of 1.65:0.05:1:1.50:1.07 and contents of 29.25%, 0.78%, 19.45%, 29.84%, and 20.67%, were investigated by gas chromatography. PMID:25037435

Zhang, Jianjun; Ma, Zhao; Zheng, Lan; Zhai, Guoyin; Wang, Liqin; Jia, Mengshi; Jia, Le

2014-10-13

38

Oxidative stress and level of antioxidant enzymes in drug-naive schizophrenics  

PubMed Central

Background: Schizophrenia is a chronic illness having varied etiology which affects cognition, emotion, perception, and other aspects of behavior. There are data which show possible role of oxidative stress and disturbance in antioxidant mechanisms in various neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. Materials and Methods: Fifty drug-naive schizophrenic patients, who attended psychiatry outpatient department/inpatient department for the 1st time, were selected and compared with 50 age-sex matched healthy controls. The erythrocyte level of malondialdehyde (MDA) - a lipid peroxidation product and marker of oxidative stress, antioxidant enzymes - superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) was estimated. We also correlated the sociodemographic parameters and severity of illness (positive and negative syndrome scale score) with oxidative stress (MDA) and level of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GPX). Results: The level of oxidative stress (MDA) was increased, and the levels of antioxidative enzymes (GPX and SOD) were decreased in schizophrenic patients as compared to normal healthy controls and the difference was statistically significant. No significant relationships of age, sex, educational status, marital status, and PANNS score with oxidative stress (MDA) and antioxidative enzymes (GPX and SOD) level in schizophrenic patients was found; but there was significant relationship of locality with oxidative stress (MDA) and antioxidative enzymes (GPX and SOD) level in schizophrenic patients was found. Urban population have a higher level of MDA, GPX, and SOD than the rural population. Conclusion: Our findings put great emphasis on the weak pro/antioxidant defense mechanisms and its role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. We can make recommendations of dietary nutritional supplementation and adjunct antioxidants therapy with antipsychotics to treat schizophrenics.

Reyazuddin, Mohammed; Azmi, Suhail A.; Islam, Najmul; Rizvi, Abid

2014-01-01

39

Cystatin C Properties Crucial for Uptake and Inhibition of Intracellular Target Enzymes*  

PubMed Central

To elucidate the molecular requirements for cancer cell internalization of the extracellular cysteine protease inhibitor cystatin C, 12 variants of the protein were produced and used for uptake experiments in MCF-7 cells. Variants with alterations in the cysteine cathepsin binding region ((?1–10)-, K5A-, R8G-, (R8G,L9G,V10G)-, (R8G,L9G,V10G,W106G)-, and W106G-cystatin C) were internalized to a very low extent compared with the wild-type inhibitor. Substitutions of N39 in the legumain binding region (N39K- and N39A-cystatin C) decreased the internalization and (R24A,R25A)-cystatin C, with substitutions of charged residues not involved in enzyme inhibition, was not taken up at all. Two variants, W106F- and K75A-cystatin C, showed that the internalization can be positively affected by engineering of the cystatin molecule. Microscopy revealed vesicular co-localization of internalized cystatin C with the lysosomal marker proteins cathepsin D and legumain. Activities of both cysteine cathepsins and legumain, possible target enzymes associated with cancer cell invasion and metastasis, were down-regulated in cell homogenates following cystatin C uptake. A positive effect on regulation of intracellular enzyme activity by a cystatin variant selected from uptake properties was illustrated by incubating cells with W106F-cystatin C. This resulted in more efficient down-regulation of intracellular legumain activity than when cells were incubated with wild-type cystatin C. Uptake experiments in prostate cancer cells corroborated that the cystatin C internalization is generally relevant and confirmed an increased uptake of W106F-cystatin C, in PC3 cells. Thus, intracellular cysteine proteases involved in cancer-promoting processes might be controled by cystatin uptake. PMID:23629651

Wallin, Hanna; Abrahamson, Magnus; Ekström, Ulf

2013-01-01

40

Cystatin C properties crucial for uptake and inhibition of intracellular target enzymes.  

PubMed

To elucidate the molecular requirements for cancer cell internalization of the extracellular cysteine protease inhibitor cystatin C, 12 variants of the protein were produced and used for uptake experiments in MCF-7 cells. Variants with alterations in the cysteine cathepsin binding region ((?1-10)-, K5A-, R8G-, (R8G,L9G,V10G)-, (R8G,L9G,V10G,W106G)-, and W106G-cystatin C) were internalized to a very low extent compared with the wild-type inhibitor. Substitutions of N39 in the legumain binding region (N39K- and N39A-cystatin C) decreased the internalization and (R24A,R25A)-cystatin C, with substitutions of charged residues not involved in enzyme inhibition, was not taken up at all. Two variants, W106F- and K75A-cystatin C, showed that the internalization can be positively affected by engineering of the cystatin molecule. Microscopy revealed vesicular co-localization of internalized cystatin C with the lysosomal marker proteins cathepsin D and legumain. Activities of both cysteine cathepsins and legumain, possible target enzymes associated with cancer cell invasion and metastasis, were down-regulated in cell homogenates following cystatin C uptake. A positive effect on regulation of intracellular enzyme activity by a cystatin variant selected from uptake properties was illustrated by incubating cells with W106F-cystatin C. This resulted in more efficient down-regulation of intracellular legumain activity than when cells were incubated with wild-type cystatin C. Uptake experiments in prostate cancer cells corroborated that the cystatin C internalization is generally relevant and confirmed an increased uptake of W106F-cystatin C, in PC3 cells. Thus, intracellular cysteine proteases involved in cancer-promoting processes might be controled by cystatin uptake. PMID:23629651

Wallin, Hanna; Abrahamson, Magnus; Ekström, Ulf

2013-06-01

41

Antioxidant Enzymes and Oxidative Stress in the Erythrocytes of Iron Deficiency Anemic Patients Supplemented with Vitamins  

PubMed Central

Background: Iron deficiency anemia is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Evidences from epidemiological and clinical studies suggest a possible correlation between antioxidant levels and the anemic disease risk. The present work is to investigate antioxidant levels and lipid peroxidation in anemic patients. Methods: A number of 30 patients (15 males and 15 females) were selected for the study. Likewise, 30 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers (15 males and 15 females) were selected with their informed consent. Patients and healthy subjects were supplemented with vitamins C and E for 15 days. The lipid peroxidation both in plasma and erythrocyte lysates was determined by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and lipid peroxides. The antioxidant vitamins A, C, and E and total antioxidant activity were also analyzed. The antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase were also determined. Results: Based on analysis, we found that the increase in lipid peroxidation was higher in the anemic subjects before vitamin supplementation, which was statistically significant at P<0.05. The antioxidant enzymes were higher in the patients before antioxidant supplementation when compared with patients after vitamin supplementation. Conclusion: Our data revealed higher oxidative stress before vitamin supplementation in iron deficiency anemic patients and after supplementation, lower lipid peroxidation and increased antioxidant vitamins were achieved. PMID:24518548

Laxmi Madhikarmi, Nirjala; Rudraiah Siddalinga Murthy, Kora

2014-01-01

42

Endothelin-converting Enzymes Degrade Intracellular ?-Amyloid Produced within the Endosomal/Lysosomal Pathway and Autophagosomes*  

PubMed Central

Impairments in A? removal are increasingly being considered as a possible cause for the abnormal A? build-up typical of Alzheimer disease. Of particular interest is a pool of A? that accumulates intraneuronally and may contribute to neuronal toxicity. The mechanism for intraneuronal accumulation, however, is not well understood and is commonly attributed to impaired removal of extracellular A? by neurons. Based on the intracellular distribution of the well established A? degrading enzymes, ECE-1 and ECE-2, we tested whether impairments in their catalytic activity could lead to intracellular A? accumulation. Using SH-SY5Y cells overexpressing wild-type amyloid precursor protein and pharmacological inhibition of endogenous ECE activity, we found that ECEs participate in the degradation of at least two distinct pools of A?; one destined for secretion and the other being produced and degraded within the endosomal-autophagic-lysosomal pathways. Although ECE-1 regulates both pools of A?, ECE-2 regulates mainly the intracellular pool of the peptide. Consistent with this result, ECE-2 was found to co-localize with markers of the endosomal/lysosomal pathway but not with a trans-Golgi network marker. Furthermore, ECE-2 was detected in autophagic vesicles in cells treated with chloroquine. Under these conditions, ECE inhibition produced significantly higher elevations in intracellular A? than chloroquine treatment alone. This study highlights the existence of A? clearance mechanisms by ECEs at intracellular sites of production. Alterations in ECE activity may be considered as a cause for increased intraneuronal A? in Alzheimer disease. PMID:23283972

Pacheco-Quinto, Javier; Eckman, Elizabeth A.

2013-01-01

43

Intracellular alginolytic enzymes of the marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas citrea KMM 3297.  

PubMed

The marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas citrea KMM 3297 is an associate of the holothurian Apostichopus japonicus. When grown in a medium containing glucose, the strain produces two intracellular alginolytic enzymes, AlI and AlII. Fucoidan from the brown alga Fucus evanescens induces synthesis of one more alginolytic enzyme, AlIII. These enzymes were separated using anion-exchange chromatography. The alginate lyase AlI completely retains its activity at 35 degrees C, AlII and AlIII being stable at 45 degrees C. The alginate lyases exhibit maximal activities in the range of pH 7-8. The molecular weights of AlI, AlII, and AlIII determined by gel filtration are 25, 79, and 61 kD, respectively. All the investigated enzymes are endo-type alginate lyases. They catalyze degradation of polyguluronate (poly-G) and polymannuronate (poly-M) yielding oligosaccharides of the polymerization degree of 5 > or = n > or = 3 with the unsaturated bond between the C4 and C5 atoms of the non-reducing terminus. A mixture of these three enzymes exhibits synergism while acting on the polymeric substrate. The Km values of the alginate lyase AlI for poly-G and poly-M are 24 and 34 micro g/ml, respectively. Alginate lyase AlIII exhibits less affinity to poly-M (Km = 130.0 microg/ml) than to poly-G (Km = 40.0 microg/ml). NaCl (0.2 M), MgCl2 and MgSO4 (0.01 M) activate all three enzymes more than twofold. The presence of several alginolytic enzymes of different specificity provides efficient destruction of alginic acids of brown algae by the strain P. citrea KMM 3297. PMID:15061691

Alekseeva, S A; Bakunina, I Yu; Nedashkovskaya, O I; Isakov, V V; Mikhailov, V V; Zvyagintseva, T N

2004-03-01

44

Effect of linoleic acid sustained-release microspheres on Microcystis aeruginosa antioxidant enzymes activity and microcystins production and release.  

PubMed

The objective of this work was to identify the optimal dose range for good anti-algal effect of linoleic acid (LA) sustained-release microspheres and investigate their impact on the antioxidant enzymes (super oxide dismutase, Catalase and Peroxidase) activity changes of Microcystis aeruginosa, as well as the production and release of microcystins (MCs). Based on measured changes in algal cell density and inhibitory ratio (IR), the optimal dose of LA microspheres was 0.3 g L(-1) with over 90% of IR in this study. The Chlorophyll a content and antioxidant enzymes activity in the LA microspheres group decreased markedly until beyond the minimal detection limit after 16 d and 9 d, respectively. In addition, LA microspheres demonstrated no significant impact on the extracellular release of MCs during the culturing period. The amount of intracellular microcystin-LR (MC-LR) per 10(6) algal cells in LA microspheres group was highest among all groups during the whole experimental process. Under the sustained stress of LA released from LA microspheres, the LA microspheres could decrease the production and release of algal toxins. There was no increase in the total amount of MC-LR in the algal cell culture medium. These indicated that LA sustained-release microspheres represent a high degree of ecological safety and their practical applications for the treatment of water undergoing algal blooms need further study. PMID:25496741

Ni, Lixiao; Jie, Xiaoting; Wang, Peifang; Li, Shiyin; Wang, Guoxiang; Li, Yiping; Li, Yong; Acharya, Kumud

2015-02-01

45

Effect of cell substrate on antioxidant enzyme activities in cultured renal glomerular epithelium.  

PubMed Central

The activities of three antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase, were monitored in isolated guinea pig glomeruli and primary or subcultured glomerular epithelial cells. Cell injury was assessed by morphologic studies and by measurement of cellular lipid peroxidation (levels of malondialdehyde). Antioxidant enzyme activities were very different in cultured cells than in parent glomeruli. The possible effect of culture substrates (tissue culture plastic, bovine corneal endothelial [BCE] cell basement membrane, and PF-HR-9 endodermal cell basement membrane) on antioxidant enzyme status, cell morphology, and lipid peroxidation was also assessed. Glomerular epithelial cells cultured on the BCE cell basement membrane substrate survived longer and showed less lipid peroxidation than cells cultured on plastic or the HR-9 substrate. Cells cultured on a plastic substrate had substantially less glutathione peroxidase activity than cells cultured on either BCE or HR-9 basement membranes. Images Figure 3 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 5 PMID:3348362

Yang, A. H.; Oberley, T. D.; Oberley, L. W.; Ramanathan, R.

1988-01-01

46

Antioxidative enzymes and the Russian wheat aphid (Diuraphis noxia) resistance response in wheat (Triticum aestivum).  

PubMed

A crucial function of antioxidative enzymes is to remove excess reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can be toxic to plant cells. The effect of Russian wheat aphid (RWA), Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko), infestation on the activities of antioxidative enzymes was investigated in the resistant (cv. Tugela DN) and the near-isogenic susceptible (cv. Tugela) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). RWA infestation significantly induced the activity of superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and ascorbate peroxidase to higher levels in the resistant than in susceptible plants. These findings suggest the involvement of antioxidative enzymes in the RWA-wheat resistance response, which was accompanied by an early oxidative burst. The results are consistent with the role of ROS in the resistance response and the control of their levels to minimise toxic effects. PMID:18426488

Moloi, M J; van der Westhuizen, A J

2008-05-01

47

Antioxidant signaling involving the microtubule motor KIF12 is an intracellular target of nutrition excess in beta cells.  

PubMed

Beta cell injury due to oxidative stress is a typical etiology of diabetes caused by nutritional excess, but its precise mechanism remains largely elusive. Here, we demonstrate that the microtubule motor KIF12 mediates an antioxidant cascade in beta cells as an intracellular target of excess fat intake or "lipotoxicity." KIF12 knockout mice suffer from hypoinsulinemic glucose intolerance due to increased beta cell oxidative stress. Using this model, we identified an antioxidant signaling cascade involving KIF12 as a scaffold for the transcription factor Sp1. The stabilization of nascent Sp1 appeared to be essential for proper peroxisomal function by enhancing Hsc70 expression, and the pharmacological induction of Hsc70 expression with teprenone counteracted the oxidative stress. Because KIF12 is transcriptionally downregulated by chronic exposure to fatty acids, this antioxidant cascade involving KIF12 and Hsc70 is proposed to be a critical target of nutritional excess in beta cells in diabetes. PMID:25373778

Yang, Wenxing; Tanaka, Yosuke; Bundo, Miki; Hirokawa, Nobutaka

2014-10-27

48

Inflammatory cell-mediated tumour progression and minisatellite mutation correlate with the decrease of antioxidative enzymes in murine fibrosarcoma cells  

PubMed Central

We isolated six clones of weakly tumorigenic fibrosarcoma (QR) from the tumorigenic clone BMT-11 cl-9. The QR clones were unable to grow in normal C57BL/6 mice when injected s.c. (1 × 105 cells). However, they formed aggressive tumours upon co-implantation with a ‘foreign body’, i.e. a gelatin sponge, and the rate of tumour take ranged from 8% to 58% among QR clones. The enhanced tumorigenicity was due to host cell-mediated reaction to the gelatin sponge (inflammation). Immunoblot analysis and enzyme activity assay revealed a significant inverse correlation between the frequencies of tumour formation by QR clones and the levels of manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD, P<0.005) and glutathione peroxidase (GP?, P<0.01) in the respective tumour clones. Electron spin resonance (ESR) revealed that superoxide-scavenging ability of cell lysates of the QR clone with high level of Mn-SOD was significantly higher than that with low level of the antioxidative enzyme in the presence of potassium cyanide, an inhibitor for copper–zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD) (P<0.001). Minisatellite mutation (MSM) induced by the inflammatory cells in tumour cells were investigated by DNA fingerprint analysis after QR clones had been co-cultured with gelatin-sponge-reactive cells. The MSM rate was significantly higher in the subclones with low levels of Mn-SOD and GP? (P<0.05) than in the subclones with high levels of both enzymes. The MSM of the subclones with low levels of both enzymes was inhibited in the presence of mannitol, a hydroxyl radical scavenger. The content of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) by which the cellular DNA damage caused by active oxygen species can be assessed was significantly low in the tumours arising from the QR clone with high levels of Mn-SOD and GP? even if the clone had been co-implanted with gelatin sponge, compared with the arising tumour from the QR clone with low levels of those antioxidative enzymes (P<0.001). In contrast, CuZn-SOD and catalase levels in the six QR clones did not have any correlation with tumour progression parameters. These results suggest that tumour progression is accelerated by inflammation-induced active oxygen species particularly accompanied with declined levels of intracellular antioxidative enzymes in tumour cells. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10027302

Okada, F; Nakai, K; Kobayashi, T; Shibata, T; Tagami, S; Kawakami, Y; Kitazawa, T; Kominami, R; Yoshimura, S; Suzuki, K; Taniguchi, N; Inanami, O; Kuwabara, M; Kishida, H; Nakae, D; Konishi, Y; Moriuchi, T; Hosokawa, M

1999-01-01

49

Antioxidant enzymes and pulmonary function in steel mill welders.  

PubMed

It is known that high levels of nitric oxide and ozone lead to disturbances of the balance between oxidants and antioxidants. The purpose of this study was to investigate ventilatory parameters in relation to the antioxidant status measured as total antioxidant status (TAS), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CT). The study group consisted of 94 welders, aged 41.2 +/- 10.0 years, employed in the Steel Mill in Kraków, Poland, and exposed to nitric oxides and ozone in concentrations exceeding the threshold limit values. The control group consisted of 115 unexposed healthy workers aged 40.8 +/- 10.2 years. All the subjects under study were smokers. Determination of ventilatory efficiency was based on a "flow-volume" curve and spirometry. TAS was measured using reagents from the Randox Laboratories Ltd, SOD according to Fridovich and CT with Aebi's method. It was found that in the group of welders, the concentrations of TAS, CT and SOD were lower compared to controls (TAS-1.15/1.33 mmol/ml; CT-18.1/28.4 m/gHb, SOD-767.6/855.6 U/gHb). The incidence of extreme obstructive pulmonary disease and small airway disease in the welder group was more frequent than in controls. Changes in the concentration (or activity) of antioxidant parameters cannot be used as early markers of ventilatory dysfunction, although the values in the lowest class of TAS, SOD and CT showed a significantly larger number of welders than controls. PMID:12705716

Stepnewski, Marek; Kolarzyk, Emilia; Pietrzycka, Agata; Kitlinski, Mariusz; Helbin, Jadwiga; Brzyszczan, Klaudyna

2003-01-01

50

Effects of antioxidant treatment on normal and diabetic rat retinal enzyme activities.  

PubMed

Diabetes mellitus is characterized by hyperglycemia and, in chronic disease, by microvascular pathologies, especially in the kidney, peripheral nerve, and eye. Although hyperglycemia can be controlled with insulin and/or antihyperglycemic medications, diabetic retinopathy continues to be the leading cause of blindness in the United States. Because increased oxidative stress may be a cause of retinopathy, this study examined the hypothesis that administration of exogenous antioxidants can restore a more balanced oxidative condition. Normal and 30-day streptozotocin-induced diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats received daily intraperitoneal doses (10 mg/kg) of beta-carotene, alpha-lipoic, and Pycnogenol individually or in combinations for 14 days, after which retinae were dissected and fractionated for the assay of activities of glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, and superoxide dismutase. In normal rats, treatment with antioxidant combinations led to a decrease in gamma-glutamyl transferase activity; beta-carotene plus pycnogenol treatment decreased the activity of both glutathione-related enzymes. Decreased retinal gamma-glutamyl transferase activity of diabetic rats was normalized by the administration of pycnogenol alone or in combination with beta-carotene. In diabetic rats, retinal glutathione reductase activity increased after treatment with beta-carotene alone or with pycnogenol. Treatment with pycnogenol and alpha-lipoic acid alone or in combination decreased the activity of glutathione peroxidase, while this activity was increased after treatment with a combination of all antioxidants. Elevated activity of superoxide dismutase in diabetic retina was normalized by treatment with alpha-lipoic acid and with pycnogenol and beta-carotene in combination, but not with all three together. Antioxidants can access the retina and, once there, can alter antioxidant enzyme activities. In both normal and diabetic rats, combinations of antioxidants have different effects on retinal antioxidant enzyme activities than do individual antioxidants. PMID:15718825

Dene, Barbara A; Maritim, Alice C; Sanders, Ruth A; Watkins, John B

2005-02-01

51

Antioxidant enzymes in the differentiated Caco-2 cell line  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Injury to the gastrointestinal tract by oxygen dependent processes is important in ischemia, inflammatory bowel disease, and\\u000a necrotizing enterocolitis. The Caco-2 cell line is an important tool in assessing various gastrointestinal functions and offers\\u000a a unique opportunity to assess gastrointestinal oxidant metabolism on a cellular level. However, some Caco-2 cell functions\\u000a change with time after confluence. To determine if antioxidant

Susan S. Baker; Robert D. Baker

1992-01-01

52

Antioxidant enzymes responses to cadmium in radish tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the antioxidant responses of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) to cadmium (Cd) treatment, seedlings of a tolerant variety were grown in increasing concentrations of CdCl2, ranging from 0.25–1 mM, for up to 72 h in a hydroponic system. Analysis of Cd uptake indicated that most of the Cd accumulated in the roots, but some was also translocated and accumulated

Angela P Vitória; Peter J Lea; Ricardo A Azevedo

2001-01-01

53

Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme status in Type 2 diabetics with coronary heart disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lipid peroxides are thought to be formed by free radicals and may play an important role in the development of atheromatous vascular diseases. The relationship between serum lipids, lipoproteins, lipid peroxides [thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)] and erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes [catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)] was investigated in non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients with and without coronary heart

M. M Kesavulu; B. Kameswara Rao; R Giri; J Vijaya; G Subramanyam; Ch Apparao

2001-01-01

54

Antioxidant enzymes in the developing lungs of egg-laying and metamorphosing vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activities of the pulmonary antioxidant enzymes (AOE), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase, increase in the final 10-20 % of gestation in the mammalian lung, to protect the lung from attack by increasing levels of reactive oxygen species at birth. Whether the increase occurs as a normal 'preparation for birth', i.e. by a genetically determined mechanism, or

Adam P. Starrs; Sandra Orgeig; Christopher B. Daniels; Margaret Davies; Olga V. Lopatko

2001-01-01

55

Antioxidant enzyme changes in neem, pigeonpea and mulberry leaves in two stages of maturity  

PubMed Central

Differential expression of antioxidant enzymes in various growth and differentiation stages has been documented in several plant species. We studied here, the difference in the levels of protein content and antioxidant enzymes activity at two stages of maturity, named young and mature in neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss), pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) mill sp) and mulberry (Morus Alba L.) leaves. The results showed that detached neem and pigeonpea mature leaves possessed higher activities of catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) and lower activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) as compared with young leaves. However, glutathione reductase (GR) showed higher activity in mature leaves of neem, whereas no change in its activity was observed in pigeonpea. On the other hand, antioxidant enzymes in mulberry showed either positive (PPO) or negative (POD, GR, APX) correlation with the progression of leaf maturity. Apparently the trend of changes in antioxidant enzymes activity during leaf development is species-specific: their activity higher at mature stage in some plants and lower in others. PMID:22895104

Goud, Prashanth B.; Kachole, Manvendra S.

2012-01-01

56

Pine bark extract prevents low-density lipoprotein oxidation and regulates monocytic expression of antioxidant enzymes.  

PubMed

Polyphenols are widely distributed in leaves, seeds, bark, and flowers and considered to have beneficial effects on cardiovascular health. We hypothesized that the potent antioxidant properties of pine bark extract (PBE) are exerted by its ability to scavenge free radicals and induce antioxidant enzymes. Therefore, we investigated the effects of PBE on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and the antioxidant defense system in monocytes. Oxidative susceptibility of LDL was determined by lag time assay in vitro and by using a human umbilical vein endothelial cell-mediated oxidation model. THP-1 monocytic cells were treated with PBE, and the expression of antioxidant enzymes was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Pine bark extract showed radical scavenging ability and significantly inhibited free radical-induced and endothelial cell-mediated LDL oxidation in vitro. Pine bark extract treatment resulted in increases in the expressions of antioxidant enzymes, glutathione peroxidase-1, catalase, and heme oxygenase-1 in THP-1 cells. In addition, PBE induced nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor 2 activation, which was accompanied by the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and Akt despite a down-regulation of reactive oxygen species. After the monocyte investigations, we further examined the antioxidant effect after the intake of PBE by 10 healthy male volunteers. Pine bark extract significantly prolonged the lag time of LDL oxidation. Based on our findings, it appears that PBE enhances the antioxidant defense capacity of LDL and monocytes and may play a preventive role in atherosclerosis progression. PMID:25458248

Nakayama, Shiori; Kishimoto, Yoshimi; Saita, Emi; Sugihara, Norie; Toyozaki, Miku; Taguchi, Chie; Tani, Mariko; Kamiya, Tomoyasu; Kondo, Kazuo

2015-01-01

57

Cloning and sequencing of thiol-specific antioxidant from mammalian brain: Alkyl hydroperoxide reductase and thiol-specific antioxidant define a large family of antioxidant enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cDNA corresponding to a thiol-specific antioxidant enzyme (TSA) was isolated from a rat brain cDNA library with the use of antibodies to bovine TSA. The cDNA clone encoded an open reading frame capable of encoding a 198-residue polypeptide. The rat and yeast TSA proteins show significant sequence homology to the 21-kDa component (AhpC) of Salmonella typhimurium alkyl hydroperoxide reductase,

H. Z. Chae; G. Storz; S. G. Rhee; K. Robison; G. Church; L. B. Poole

1994-01-01

58

Interspecific diversity in root antioxidative enzyme activities reflect root turnover strategies and preferred habitats in wetland graminoids  

PubMed Central

Antioxidant enzymes protect cells against oxidative stress and are associated with stress tolerance and longevity. In animals, variation in their activities has been shown to relate to species ecology, but in plants, comparative studies with wild species are rare. We investigated activities of five antioxidant enzymes – ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), peroxidase (POX), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) – in roots of four perennial graminoid wetland species over a growing season to find out whether differences in root turnover or habitat preferences would be associated with variation in seasonal patterns of antioxidant enzyme activities. The investigated species differ in their root turnover strategies (fine roots senesce in the fall or fine roots survive the winter) and habitat preferences (nutrient-poor vs. productive wetlands). Roots were collected both in the field and from garden-grown plants. Antioxidant enzyme activities were higher and lipid peroxidation rates lower in species with annual root systems, and for species of the nutrient-poor wetland, compared with perennial roots and species of productive wetlands, respectively. There was variation in the activities of individual antioxidant enzymes, but discriminant analyses with all enzymes revealed a clear picture, indicating consistent associations of antioxidant enzyme activities with the type of root turnover strategy and with the preferred habitat. We conclude that antioxidant enzyme activities in plant roots are associated with the species' ecological strategies and can be used as traits for the characterization of the species' position along plant economics spectrum. PMID:24683465

Yücel, Ça?da? Kera; Bor, Melike; Ryser, Peter

2014-01-01

59

Alternation of antioxidative enzyme gene expression in rice seedlings exposed to methylene blue.  

PubMed

Hydroponic experiments were conducted with rice seedlings (Oryza sativa L. cv. ND1) exposed to methylene blue (MB) to investigate the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and activities and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes. Results showed that a linear decrease in relative growth rate and water use efficiency was observed with rice seedlings with increasing MB concentrations. MB-induced accumulation of H2O2 was evident in both roots and shoots. The activities of antioxidative enzymes were analyzed and found to be different at different MB treatment concentrations. The activities of enzymes related to the ascorbate-glutathione cycle were more sensitive to MB treatments than other antioxidative enzymes. Transcript level, by real-time quantitative PCR, of antioxidative enzymes showed that the analyzed genes were differently expressed during different MB concentrations in both roots and shoots. The isoform analysis of superoxide dismutase (SOD) gene showed that the expressions of Cu/ZnSOD and MnSOD were relatively constant, where significant upregulation of FeSOD was observed with rice seedlings exposed to high MB concentrations. Furthermore, the expression of CAT, POD, and MDHAR genes responded biphasically to MB treatments by showing negligible changes at 1.56-15.63 ?M MB and significant induction at 31.36-62.52 ?M MB. The expression of GR, APX, and DHAR genes showed a remarkable induction to MB. Our results suggest that on transcription level, and in accordance with enzymatic responses, enzymes of GR, APX, and DHAR play central role in the H2O2 detoxification in rice seedlings under MB exposure. PMID:25037098

Yu, Xiao-Zhang; Zhang, Xue-Hong; Yue, Dong-Ming

2014-12-01

60

Drug-metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes in monosodium L-glutamate obese mice.  

PubMed

The prevalence of obesity is rapidly increasing across the world. Physiologic alterations associated with obesity are known to alter enzyme expression and/or activities. As drug-metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes serve as defense system against potentially toxic compounds, their modulation might have serious consequences. In this work, we studied selected antioxidant and drug-metabolizing enzymes (DME) in monosodium glutamate-mouse model of obesity. Specific activities, protein, and mRNA expressions of these enzymes in liver as well as in small intestine were compared in obese male mice and in their lean counterparts. Furthermore, expression of the NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and its relation to obesity were tested. Obtained results showed that obesity affects expression and/or activities of some DME and antioxidant enzymes. In obese mice, upregulation of UDP-glucuronosyltransferases 1A (UGT1A), NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), nuclear transcription factor Nrf2, and downregulation of some isoforms of glutathione S-transferases (GST) were observed. Most of these changes were tissue and/or isoform specific. NQO1 seems to be regulated transcriptionally via Nrf2, but other enzymes might be regulated post-transcriptionally and/or post-translationally. Enhanced expression of Nrf2 in livers of obese mice is expected to play a role in protective adaptation. In contrast, elevated activities of NQO1 and UGT1A may cause alterations in drug pharmacokinetics in obese individuals. Moreover, decreased capacity of GST in obese animals indicates potentially reduced antioxidant defense and weaker chemoprotection. PMID:25473020

Matoušková, Petra; Bártíková, Hana; Boušová, Iva; Levorová, Lucie; Szotáková, Barbora; Skálová, Lenka

2015-02-01

61

Extract from Eugenia punicifolia is an antioxidant and inhibits enzymes related to metabolic syndrome.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to investigate in vitro biological activities of extract of Eugenia punicifolia leaves (EEP), emphasizing the inhibitory activity of enzymes related to metabolic syndrome and its antioxidant effects. The antioxidant activity was analyzed by free radicals scavengers in vitro assays: DPPH·, ABTS(·+), O2(·?), and NO· and a cell-based assay. EEP were tested in inhibitory colorimetric assays using ?-amylase, ?-glucosidase, xanthine oxidase, and pancreatic lipase enzymes. The EEP exhibited activity in ABTS(·+), DPPH·, and O2(·?) scavenger (IC50 = 10.5 ± 1.2, 28.84 ± 0.54, and 38.12 ± 2.6 ?g/mL), respectively. EEP did not show cytotoxic effects, and it showed antioxidant activity in cells in a concentration-dependent manner. EEP exhibited inhibition of ?-amylase, ?-glucosidase, and xanthine oxidase activities in vitro assays (IC50 = 122.8 ± 6.3; 2.9 ± 0.1; 23.5 ± 2.6), respectively; however, EEP did not inhibit the lipase activity. The findings supported that extract of E. punicifolia leaves is a natural antioxidant and inhibitor of enzymes, such as ?-amylase, ?-glucosidase, and xanthine oxidase, which can result in a reduction in the carbohydrate absorption rate and decrease of risks factors of cardiovascular disease, thereby providing a novel dietary opportunity for the prevention of metabolic syndrome. PMID:24078187

Lopes Galeno, Denise Morais; Carvalho, Rosany Piccolotto; Boleti, Ana Paula de Araújo; Lima, Arleilson Sousa; Oliveira de Almeida, Patricia Danielle; Pacheco, Carolina Carvalho; Pereira de Souza, Tatiane; Lima, Emerson Silva

2014-01-01

62

The influence of cadmium on the antioxidant enzyme activities in polychaete Perinereis aibuhitensis Grube (Annelida: Polychaeta)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The infaunal polychaete Perinereis aibuhitensis Grube, distributed widely along Asian coasts and estuaries, is considered a useful animal model in ecotoxicological tests and a promising candidate in biomonitoring programs. This paper deals with the activities of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidases (GSH-Px) in infaunal polychaete P. aibuhitensis exposed to a series of sublethal water-bound cadmium (Cd) concentrations (0, 0.34, 1.72, 3.44, 6.89, and 17.22 mg L-1) under a short-term exposure (1-8 d). The results indicate that the SOD and GSH-Px activities in P. aibuhitensis are stimulated first and then renewed to the original level. The CAT activity of worms decreases at an earlier exposure time but increases to the control values at a later exposure time. Our study suggests that Cd can interfere with the antioxidant defense system of P. aibuhitensis. However, the changes in antioxidant enzyme activities for this species do not show the best promise as biomarkers in Cd biomonitoring of estuarine and coastal zones because weak or non-dose-effect relationships between the antioxidant enzymes activities and Cd levels are found.

Yuan, Xiutang; Chen, Aihua; Zhou, Yibing; Liu, Haiying; Yang, Dazuo

2010-07-01

63

The Antioxidant Profiles, Lysosomal and Membrane Enzymes Activity in Patients with Acute Pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

Oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators, such as IL-6, play an important role in the pathophysiology of acute pancreatitis. The study was aimed to assess the degree of the pro/antioxidative imbalance and estimate which antioxidant plays a role in the maintenance of pro/antioxidative balance during acute pancreatitis. The study was investigated in the blood of 32 patients with acute pancreatitis and 37 healthy subjects. IL-6 concentration as early marker of inflammation was determinated. The intensity of oxidative stress was assessed by TBARS concentration. To investigate antioxidative status, the GPx and Cu/Zn SOD activities and the levels of GSH, MT, SH groups, and TRAP were measured. The concentrations of Cu and Zn as ions participating in the maintenance of antioxidant enzymes stability and playing a role in the course of disease were determinated. The activities of GGT, AAP, NAG, and ?-GD as markers of tissue damage were also measured. An increase in IL-6 concentration, which correlated with Ranson criteria, and an increase in GPx activity, levels of MT, TBARS, or GGT, and NAG activities in patients group compared to healthy subjects were demonstrated. A decrease in GSH level in patients group compared to control group was noted. The studies suggest that GPx/GSH and MT play the role of the first line of defence against oxidative stress and pro/antioxidant imbalance in the course of acute pancreatitis. PMID:25298618

Milnerowicz, Halina; Bukowski, Rados?aw; Jab?onowska, Monika; ?ciskalska, Milena; Milnerowicz, Stanis?aw

2014-01-01

64

Natural zeolites chabazite/phillipsite/analcime increase blood levels of antioxidant enzymes  

PubMed Central

Imbalance between reactive oxygen species generation and antioxidant capacity induces a condition known as oxidative stress which is implicated in numerous pathological processes. In this study we evaluated whether natural zeolites chabazite/phillipsite/analcime may affect the levels of different antioxidant enzymes (gluthatione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, gluthatione reductase), total antioxidant status and oxidative stress in 25 clinically healthy men, both non-smokers and smokers. Measurements were performed on whole blood or on plasma samples before (T0) and after 4-weeks zeolites intake (T1). At T1, gluthatione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and gluthatione reductase increased compared to T0 levels, both considering all subjects as joint and after subdivision in non-smokers and smokers. Differently, a reduction in total antioxidant status was observed at T1. Anyway, total antioxidant status resulted higher than the reference values in both groups at each time point. A decrease in lipid peroxidation, a major indicator of oxidative stress assessed by monitoring thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, was also observed in all subjects at T1. Our results suggested that chabazite/phillipsite/analcime may help to counteract oxidative stress in apparently healthy subjects exposed to different oxidative stress risk factors, such as smoking, thus representing a particular kind of food with potential antioxidant properties. PMID:22573920

Dogliotti, Giada; Malavazos, Alexis E.; Giacometti, Sonia; Solimene, Umberto; Fanelli, Mauro; Corsi, Massimiliano M.; Dozio, Elena

2012-01-01

65

Effect of cold adaptation on activities of relevant enzymes and antioxidant system in rats  

PubMed Central

Exercise in cold environments can cause significant metabolic regulation and antioxidant behavior. For discussing enzymatic responses towards cold adaptation, we investigated enzyme activities of adenylate cyclase (AC) and phosphodiesterase (PDE) in liver, skeletal muscle, and brown adipose tissue (BAT), as well as Na+·K+ ATPase and Na+/K+ ratio in blood. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in blood were also studied to address the effect of cold adaptation on oxidative damage and antioxidant system. Experimental results indicated that enzyme activities in liver, skeletal muscle and BAT maintained relatively constant for the control group. For the cold adaptation group, enzyme activities in liver and skeletal muscle were in high levels at the beginning, and then gradually decreased to similar values with the control group. However, enzyme activities in BAT performed an increasing trend and significantly higher than the control at the end. In addition, decreased oxidative damage and activated antioxidant system was observed along with the cold adaptation process. PMID:25550936

Xing, Ji-Qing; Zhou, Yang; Chen, Jian-Feng; Li, Shang-Bin; Fang, Wei; Yang, Jun

2014-01-01

66

Biotransformation and antioxidant enzymes of Limnoperna fortunei detect site impact in watercourses of Córdoba, Argentina.  

PubMed

The golden mussel Limnoperna fortunei was used as a biomonitor of environmental pollution in the Suquía River basin around Córdoba City (Argentina). The sampling sites along the river were chosen according to their increasing levels of pollutants (e.g. heavy metals) as well as biological oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD). A water quality index (WQI) was constructed from the interaction of several normalized factors that affect the aquatic environment, such as the mentioned pollutants and physico-chemical characteristics of the sampling sites. Activity changes of biotransformation enzyme glutathione S-transferase (GST) and the antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) and catalase (CAT), after exposure to pollutants, served as biomarkers. Membrane bound GST and antioxidant enzymes responded at the most polluted sampling site within 1 day showing increased activities lasting for 4 days. Further sampling was restricted due to no survival of the animals. Antioxidant enzymes GPx, GR and CAT were sensitive responding to the different pollution scenarios, showing good correlation to the chemical characterization. PMID:19631986

Contardo-Jara, Valeska; Galanti, Lucas N; Amé, María V; Monferrán, Magdalena V; Wunderlin, Daniel A; Wiegand, Claudia

2009-10-01

67

In vitro inhibitory effect on digestive enzymes and antioxidant potential of commonly consumed fruits.  

PubMed

Dietary inhibitors of fats and carbohydrates degrading enzymes can reduce obesity and type 2 diabetes. In this study, we screened crude extracts from 30 commonly consumed fruits to test their in vitro inhibitory effect against key enzymes relevant for obesity (pancreatic lipase) and type 2 diabetes (?-glucosidase and ?-amylase), total phenolic content (Folin-Ciocalteu method), and antioxidant capacity (ABTS and FRAP). The IC50 values of the fruits tested varied from 39.91 to >400 mg/mL, from 1.04 to >80 mg/mL, and from 0.72 to 135.07 mg/mL against ?-glucosidase, ?-amylase, and pancreatic lipase, respectively. Antioxidant capacity ranged from 0.66 to 124.66 ?mol of TE/g of fruit and strongly correlated with phenolic content, while the enzyme inhibition was poorly correlated with total phenolic and antioxidant capacity. Among fruits tested, blue honeysuckle and red gooseberry exhibited the highest inhibitory activity with respect to the carbohydrate degrading enzymes, while lingonberry had the strongest anti-lipase activity. PMID:24785184

Pods?dek, Anna; Majewska, Iwona; Redzynia, Ma?gorzata; Sosnowska, Dorota; Kozio?kiewicz, Maria

2014-05-21

68

Free radicals and antioxidant enzymes in fish and their responses to metal pollutants  

SciTech Connect

Reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) are continuously produced as metabolic by-products by virtually all tissues. Without adequate protection from these free radicals, cells/tissues can suffer significant oxidative damage. While superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and NADPH-quinone reductase (QR) are well recognized antioxidant enzymes in mammalian cells, little is known concerning these enzymes in cells from aquatic species. In addition, the effects of environmental contaminants on ROI production and on these protective enzymes in fish have not been well studied. For this investigation, whole kidney cell homogenates from medaka (Oryzias latipes) were used to evaluate the activity of SOD, catalase, and QR, as well as production of the ROI`s, superoxide (O{sub 2{sup {minus}}}) and hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}). Fish were also exposed to cadmium (Cd{sup 2+})-contaminated water at 60 ppb for five days and the effects on ROI production and these same enzyme systems were evaluated. Findings demonstrate that kidney cells from medaka stimulated in vitro with phorbol myristate acetate produced large quantities of free radicals, as well as expressed all three protective enzymes at levels comparable to those measured in mammalian immune cells. Exposure of fish to Cd{sup 2+} levels below the LC{sub 50} concentration altered these parameters. The results demonstrate the presence of antioxidant enzymes in fish immune cells and suggest the applicability of these endpoints to serve as biomarkers of aquatic metal pollution.

Zelikoff, J.T.; Flescher, E. [New York Univ. Medical Center, Tuxedo, NY (United States). Inst. of Environmental Medicine

1994-12-31

69

An Nrf2\\/Small Maf Heterodimer Mediates the Induction of Phase II Detoxifying Enzyme Genes through Antioxidant Response Elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The induction of phase II detoxifying enzymes is an important defense mechanism against intake of xenobiotics. While this group of enzymes is believed to be under the transcriptional control of antioxidant response elements (AREs), this contention is experimentally unconfirmed. Since the ARE resembles the binding sequence of erythroid transcription factor NF-E2, we investigated the possibility that the phase II enzyme

Ken Itoh; Tomoki Chiba; Satoru Takahashi; Tetsuro Ishii; Kazuhiko Igarashi; Yasutake Katoh; Tatsuya Oyake; Norio Hayashi; Kimihiko Satoh; Ichiro Hatayama; Masayuki Yamamoto; Yo-ichi Nabeshima

1997-01-01

70

Sucrase-isomaltase deficiency in humans. Different mutations disrupt intracellular transport, processing, and function of an intestinal brush border enzyme.  

PubMed Central

Eight cases of congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency were studied at the subcellular and protein level with monoclonal antibodies against sucrase-isomaltase. At least three phenotypes were revealed: one in which sucrase-isomaltase protein accumulated intracellularly probably in the endoplasmic reticulum, as a membrane-associated high-mannose precursor, one in which the intracellular transport of the enzyme was apparently blocked in the Golgi apparatus, and one in which catalytically altered enzyme was transported to the cell surface. All patients expressed electrophoretically normal or near normal high-mannose sucrase-isomaltase. The results suggest that different, probably small, mutations in the sucrase-isomaltase gene lead to the synthesis of transport-incompetent or functionally altered enzyme which results in congenital sucrose intolerance. Images PMID:3403721

Naim, H Y; Roth, J; Sterchi, E E; Lentze, M; Milla, P; Schmitz, J; Hauri, H P

1988-01-01

71

Effects of dimethylsulfoxide on behavior and antioxidant enzymes response of planarian Dugesia japonica.  

PubMed

In this study, the toxicity, behavioral and antioxidant activity effects of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) on planarian Dugesia japonica were investigated. The results showed that the mortality was directly proportional to the DMSO concentration, and planarian locomotor velocity decreased as the concentration of DMSO increased. The recovery of the motility for planarians pre-exposed to DMSO was found to be time- and dose-dependent, and only those pre-exposed to 0.1-3% DMSO resulted in full recovery. The antioxidant enzymes of planarians in response to long-term DMSO stress was also altered in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Planarians revealed more tolerance to DMSO toxicity at low DMSO (0.1%) level in short- and long-term DMSO stress, in which an efficient antioxidant system was involved and the motility was not affected. PMID:21976142

Yuan, Zuoqing; Zhao, Bosheng; Zhang, Yu

2012-06-01

72

Resveratrol Provides Cardioprotection after Ischemia/reperfusion Injury via Modulation of Antioxidant Enzyme Activities  

PubMed Central

In this study, we investigated the cardioprotective effects of resveratrol. Rats were intraperitoneally administered with resveratrol (25 mg/kg bw) or vehicle (ethanol 10%) for 7 days and their heart subjected to ischemia/reperfusion injury. Isolated hearts were langendorff perfused, left ventricular functions as heart rate and developed pressure, as well as, heart antioxidant status were determined. Data showed that resveratrol improved recovery of post-ischemic ventricular functions when compared to control. Resveratrol also improved myocardial lipoperoxidation, free iron and antioxidant enzyme activities. Resveratrol decreased significantly catalase while it increased peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities. In this later case, native PAGE analysis of superoxide dismutase isoforms revealed that resveratrol up regulated iron and manganese isoforms. Resveratrol exerted potential cardioprotection partly by its antioxidant properties. PMID:24523766

Mokni, Meherzia; Hamlaoui, Sonia; Karkouch, Ines; Amri, Mohamed; Marzouki, Lamjed; Limam, Ferid; Aouani, Ezzedine

2013-01-01

73

Copper-induced response of physiological parameters and antioxidant enzymes in the aquatic macrophyte Potamogeton pusillus.  

PubMed

Bioaccumulation and toxicity of copper was evaluated on Potamogeton pusillus L. The effect of copper (5-100 microg L(-1)) applied for several days was assessed by measuring changes in the chlorophyll's, phaeophytin's, malondialdehyde, electrical conductivity, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR) and guaiacol peroxidase (POD) activities. Plants accumulated copper with a maximum of 162 microg g(-1) dw after 7-days exposure at 100 microg L(-1), however most of the metal was accumulated after 1-day exposure. The toxic effect caused by Cu was evident by the reduction of photosynthetic pigments, increase of malondialdehyde and electrical conductivity. P. pusillus shows Cu-induced oxidative stress by modulating antioxidant enzymes like GPX, GR and POD. Antioxidant enzymes activity increased significantly after exposure to 40 microg L(-1) during 24 h, followed by a drop at longer times. Thus, P. pusillus is proposed as a good biomonitor for the assessment of metal pollution in aquatic ecosystems. PMID:19324479

Monferrán, Magdalena V; Agudo, José A Sánchez; Pignata, María L; Wunderlin, Daniel A

2009-01-01

74

Effects of Launaea procumbens on brain antioxidant enzymes and cognitive performance of rat  

PubMed Central

Background Launaea procumbens is used in the treatment of oxidative stress and mental disorders. The effects of Launaea procumbens methanolic extracts (LPMEs), i.e., 100 and 200 LPME mg/kg body weight (b.w.), on cognitive performance as well as on the activity of acetylcholinesterase, and antioxidant enzymes in rat brain tissue homogenates were evaluated. Methods Thirty male Sprague–Dawley rats were divided equally into three groups. Rats in group I (control) were given saline (vehicle), group II received LPME (100 mg/kg b.w., p.o.), and group III were treated with LPME (200 mg/kg b.w., p.o.) in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for 7 days. Antioxidant potential was assessed by measuring the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSHpx), glutathione reductase (GSR) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) as well as lipid peroxidation and glutathione (GSH) contents in brain tissue homogenates. Activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and cognitive performance were also assessed. Results LPME administration reduced the levels of lipid peroxidation products (TBARS contents), increased GSH levels and enhanced the activities of SOD, CAT, GSHpx, GSR and GST. AChE activity was reduced by LPME treatment compared with untreated controls. Conclusion These findings suggested the significant impact of LPMEs on brain function. These effects could be through the antioxidant effects of the bioactive constituents present in LPME. PMID:23151029

2012-01-01

75

Changes in antioxidant enzymes and organic solutes associated with adaptation of citrus cells to salt stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Embryogenic callus cultures of lemon (Citrus limon L. Burm f. cv Verna), were selected for resistance to salt stress (170 mM NaCl). Inorganic analysis showed that selected callus accumulated more Na+ and Cl- ions than the non-selected one. Moreover, the salt-tolerant C. limon callus exhibited an increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes involved in oxygen metabolism, with the induction

Abel Piqueras; José A. Hernández; Enrique Olmos; Eladio Hellín; Francisca Sevilla

1996-01-01

76

Transcriptional analysis of disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus) antioxidant enzymes against marine bacteria and virus challenge.  

PubMed

Diverse antioxidant enzymes are essential for marine organisms to overcome oxidative stress as well as for the fine-tuning of immune reactions through activating different signal transduction pathways. This study describes the transcriptional analysis of antioxidant enzymes of disk abalone by challenging with bacteria (Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahemolyticus, and Listeria monocytogenes) and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV). Upon bacteria and VHSV challenge, Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), Copper, Zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), catalase, thioredoxin peroxidase (TPx), Selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (SeGPx), and thioredoxin-2 (TRx-2) expression levels were altered in gills, and hemocytes at different magnitudes. In gills, only MnSOD, catalase, and SeGPx genes were completely upregulated by post-challenge of bacterial and VHSV. Among them, SeGPx demonstrated strong upregulation by 16-fold (bacteria) and 2-fold (VHSV) in gills, and 5-fold (bacteria) and 3.0-fold (VHSV) in hemocytes. None of the genes examined were downregulated (in gills and hemocytes) by bacteria challenge even though CuZnSOD and TPx showed downregulation (completely) in hemocytes by VHSV. In general, abalone hemocytes had lower potential to induce antioxidant enzyme transcripts upon bacteria and VHSV challenge than gills. Based upon these results, we suggest that abalones induce oxidative stress in tissues during the bacteria and VHSV challenge, and the identified response of antioxidant enzymes could be supported for maintaining a low-level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that may serve as a signal for activating immune reactions against pathogenic conditions. PMID:21549200

De Zoysa, Mahanama; Whang, Ilson; Nikapitiya, Chamilani; Oh, Chulhong; Choi, Cheol Young; Lee, Jehee

2011-07-01

77

Ultraviolet-B- and ozone-induced biochemical changes in antioxidant enzymes of Arabidopsis thaliana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earlier studies with Arabidopsis thaliana exposed to ultraviolet B (UV-B) and ozone (Oâ) have indicated the differential responses of superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase. In this study, we have investigated whether A. thaliana genotype Landsberg erecta and its flavonoid-deficient mutant transparent testa (tt5) is capable of metabolizing UV-B- and Oâ-induced activated oxygen species by invoking similar antioxidant enzymes. UV-B exposure

M. V. Rao; G. Paliyath; D. P. Ormrod

1996-01-01

78

Effect of sound wave stress on antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation of Dendrobium candidum.  

PubMed

The effect of sound wave stress on important medicinal plant, Dendrobium candidum Wall. ex Lindl, was investigated, including the responses on malondialdehyde (MDA) content, the activities change of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX). Results were found that the activities of SOD, CAT, POD and APX enhanced totally in different organs of D. candidum, as leaves, stems and roots, in response to the stress. Furthermore there happened similar shift of antioxidant enzymes activities, which increased in the initial stimulation and decreased afterwards. Data showed SOD, CAT, POD and APX activities ascended to max at day 9, 6, 9 and 12 in leaves, at day 9, 6, 12 and 9 in stems, and at day 12, 6, 9 and 9 in roots, respectively. As a lipid peroxidation parameter, MDA content in different organs increased in the beginning, dropped afterward, and increased again in the late. Anyway the total trend was the rise of MDA level compared to the control. It was interesting that the MDA content appeared the lowest levels almost when the antioxidant enzymes activities were up to the highest. Our results demonstrated the different organs of D. candidum might produce accumulation of active oxygen species (AOS) under initial treatment of sound wave stress. Later AOS might start to reduce due to the enhancement of antioxidant enzymes activities treated by the stress. The data revealed that the antioxidant metabolism was to be important in determining the ability of plants to survive in sound stress, and the up regulation of these enzymes activities would help to reduce the build up of AOS, which could protect plant cells from oxidative damage. Moreover, different cell compartments might activate different defensive system to reduce excessive amount of AOS. Finally the mechanism of this action was also discussed simply. PMID:18243669

Li, Biao; Wei, Jinmin; Wei, Xiaolan; Tang, Kun; Liang, Yilong; Shu, Kunxian; Wang, Bochu

2008-06-01

79

Effect of hypobaric storage on quality, antioxidant enzyme and antioxidant capability of the Chinese bayberry fruits  

PubMed Central

Background The Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra Sieb. and Zucc.) is a subtropical fruit native to China, with unique flavor, sweet and sour taste, and high nutrition and health values. The fruit is highly perishable and susceptible to mechanical injury, physiological deterioration and fungal decay once harvested. This study was to investigate the effect of hypobaric storage on the quality of Chinese bayberry fruit and then develop storage technology to prolong the supply of the fruit. Results The fruit stored under hypobaric conditions exhibited lower decay, higher titratable acidity and total phenolics compared with those stored under normal atmospheric conditions. Hypobaric storage significantly reduced malonaldehyde accumulation, respiratory rate and maintained high catalase and peroxidase activities of Chinese bayberry fruit. Ferric reducing antioxidant power was also higher in the fruit stored under hypobaric condition than those under normal atmospheric conditions. Conclusion Hypobaric storage improved the metabolism, antioxidant system and postharvest quality of Chinese bayberry fruit and provided an effective alternative method to prolong the storage life of this fruit. PMID:23311675

2013-01-01

80

Dietary açai modulates ROS production by neutrophils and gene expression of liver antioxidant enzymes in rats  

PubMed Central

Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) has recently emerged as a promising source of natural antioxidants. Because increased oxidative stress and impaired antioxidant defense mechanisms are important factors in the development of diabetic complications and many health claims have been reported for açai, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the possible protective effects of açai on the production of reactive oxygen species by neutrophils and on the liver antioxidant defense system in control and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diet supplementation with 2% açai was found to increase mRNA levels for gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase and glutathione peroxidase in liver tissue and to decrease reactive oxygen species production by neutrophils. Compared to control animals, diabetic rats exhibited lower levels of mRNA coding for Zn-superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase and higher levels of reactive oxygen species production by neutrophils, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and carbonyl proteins in hepatic tissues. Although açai supplementation was not effective in restore gene expression of antioxidant enzymes in diabetic rats, it showed a protective effect, decreasing thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances levels and increasing reduced glutathione content in the liver. These findings suggest that açai can modulate reactive oxygen species production by neutrophils and that it has a significant favorable effect on the liver antioxidant defense system under fisiological conditions of oxidative stress and partially revert deleterious effects of diabetes in the liver. PMID:22128218

Guerra, Joyce Ferreira da Costa; Magalhăes, Cíntia Lopes de Brito; Costa, Daniela Caldeira; Silva, Marcelo Eustáquio; Pedrosa, Maria Lúcia

2011-01-01

81

GENOTYPIC THERMOTOLERANCE IS ASSOCIATED WITH ELEVATED PRE-STRESS ANTIOXIDANT ENZYME ACTIVITY IN COTTON LEAVES AND PISTILS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Numerous studies have illustrated the need for antioxidant enzymes in acquired photosynthetic thermotolerance, but information on their possible role in promoting innate thermotolerance in either leaves or reproductive tissues is limited for cotton. We investigated the hypothesis that genotypic diff...

82

Antioxidative enzymes and isozymes analysis of taro genotypes and their implications in Phytophthora blight disease resistance.  

PubMed

Assessment of the differential expression of antioxidative enzymes and their isozymes, was done in 30 day-old ex vitro raised plants of three highly resistant (DP-25, Jhankri and Duradim) and one highly susceptible (N-118) genotypes of taro [Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott]. Antioxidative enzymes were assayed in the ex vitro plants, 7 days after inoculation with the spores (15,000 spores ml(-1) water) of Phytophthora colocasiae Raciborski to induce taro leaf blight disease. Uninoculated ex vitro plants in each genotype were used as control. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) increased under induced blight condition when compared with control. Increase in antioxidative enzymes was more (67-92%) in the resistant genotypes than that (21-29%) of the susceptible genotype. The zymograms of SOD and GPX in the resistant genotypes, with pathogenic infection, showed increased activity for anodal isoform of SOD and increased expression and/or induction of either POX 1 or POX 2 isoforms of GPX. In susceptible genotype, expression of the above isoforms was faint for SOD and nearly absent for GPX under both blight free and induced blight conditions. Induction and/or increased activity of particular isoform of SOD and GPX against infection of Phytophthora colocasiae in the resistant genotypes studied led to the apparent conclusion of linkage of isozyme expression with blight resistance in taro. This might be an important criterion in breeding of taro for Phytophthora leaf blight resistance. PMID:17404895

Sahoo, Manas Ranjan; DasGupta, Madhumita; Kole, Paresh C; Bhat, Jayant S; Mukherjee, Archana

2007-04-01

83

A potential link among antioxidant enzymes, histopathology and trace elements in canine visceral leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is a severe and fatal systemic chronic inflammatory disease. We investigated the alterations in, and potential associations among, antioxidant enzymes, trace elements and histopathology in CVL. Blood and tissue levels of Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase were measured in mixed-breed dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum chagasi, symptomatic (n = 19) and asymptomatic (n = 11). Serum levels of copper, iron, zinc, selenium and nitric oxide, and plasma lipid peroxidation were measured. Histological and morphometric analyses were conducted of lesions in liver, spleen and lymph nodes. We found lower blood catalase and glutathione peroxidase activity to be correlated with lower iron and selenium respectively. However, higher activity of Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase was not correlated with the increase in copper and decreased in zinc observed in infected animals compared to controls. Organ tissue was characterized by lower enzyme activity in infected dogs than in controls, but this was not correlated with trace elements. Lipid peroxidation was higher in symptomatic than in asymptomatic and control dogs and was associated with lesions such as chronic inflammatory reaction, congestion, haemosiderin and fibrosis. Systemic iron deposition was observed primarily in the symptomatic dogs showing a higher tissue parasite load. Dogs with symptomatic CVL displayed enhanced LPO and Fe tissue deposition associated with decreased levels of antioxidant enzymes. These results showed new points in the pathology of CVL and might open new treatment perspectives associated with antioxidants and the role of iron in the pathogenesis of CVL. PMID:24766461

Souza, Carolina C; Barreto, Tatiane de O; da Silva, Sydnei M; Pinto, Aldair W J; Figueiredo, Maria M; Ferreira Rocha, Olguita G; Cangussú, Silvia D; Tafuri, Wagner L

2014-01-01

84

Vaccination with antioxidant enzymes confers protective immunity against challenge infection with Schistosoma mansoni.  

PubMed

Schistosoma mansoni, an intravascular parasite, lives in a hostile environment in close contact with host humoral and cellular cytotoxic factors. To establish itself in the host, the parasite has evolved a number of immune evasion mechanisms, such as antioxidant enzymes. Our laboratory has demonstrated that the expression of antioxidant enzymes is developmentally regulated, with the highest levels present in the adult worm, the stage least susceptible to immune elimination, and the lowest levels in the larval stages, the most susceptible to immune elimination. Vaccination of mice with naked DNA constructs containing Cu/Zn cytosolic superoxide dismutase (CT-SOD), signal-peptide containing SOD or glutathione peroxidase (GPX) showed significant levels of protection compared to a control group. We have further shown that vaccination with SmCT-SOD but not SmGPX results in elimination of adult worms. Anti-oxidant enzyme vaccine candidates offer an advance over existing vaccine strategies that all seem to target the larval developmental stages in that they target adult worms and thus may have therapeutic as well as prophylactic value. To eliminate the potential for cross-reactivity of SmCT-SOD with human superoxide dismutase, we identified parasite-specific epitope-containing peptides. Our results serve as a basis for developing a subunit vaccine against schistosomiasis. PMID:15486633

LoVerde, Philip T; Carvalho-Queiroz, Claudia; Cook, Rosemary

2004-01-01

85

Effect of grazing pastures of different botanical composition on antioxidant enzyme activities and oxidative stability of lamb meat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to study the influence of different pastures (Intensive ryegrass, Botanically diverse and Leguminosa rich pastures) on the antioxidant status and oxidative stability of meat from lambs that had been exclusively grazing for three months. Lipid, colour and protein oxidation, ?-tocopherol content and activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (Cat) and glutathione peroxidase

M. J. Petron; K. Raes; E. Claeys; M. Lourenço; D. Fremaut; S. De Smet

2007-01-01

86

Comparison of ROS formation and antioxidant enzymes in Cleome gynandra (C 4) and Cleome spinosa (C 3) under drought stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences between antioxidant responses to drought in C3 and C4 plants are rather scanty. Even, we are not aware of any research on comparative ROS formation and antioxidant enzymes in C3 and C4 species differing in carboxylation pathway of same genus which would be useful to prevent other differences in plant metabolism. With this aim, relative shoot growth rate, relative

B. Uzilday; I. Turkan; A. H. Sekmen; R. Ozgur; H. C. Karakaya

87

The effect of vitamin E supplementation on antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation levels in hemodialysis patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: This study has been undertaken to investigate the possible alterations of oxidant\\/antioxidant status in uremic patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD) and the effects of vitamin E supplementation. Methods: Erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activities [glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT)] and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) concentrations as a measure of lipid peroxidation in HD patients have been determined

Belma Giray; Erdal Kan; Musa Bali; Filiz Hincal; Nursen Basaran

2003-01-01

88

State of the antioxidative enzymes of rat bone marrow cells after irradiation, fractures, and a combination of both  

SciTech Connect

The authors study bone marrow levels of antioxidative (antiradical) defensive systems (ADS) enzymes, namely superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GP), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione: dehydroascorbate oxidoreductase (GDAR), rats and changes in their activity in the bone marrow at various times after irradiation, mechanical trauma, and a combination of both. Development of acute radiation sickness as a result of a single irradiation was accompanied by marked changes in the enzymic antioxidative system of rat bone marrow cells.

Bogdanova, I.A.; Ovchinnikov, K.G.; Torbenko, V.P.; Gerasimov, A.M.

1987-11-01

89

Leishmania panamensis infection and antimonial drugs modulate expression of macrophage drug transporters and metabolizing enzymes: impact on intracellular parasite survival  

PubMed Central

Objectives Treatment failure is multifactorial. Despite the importance of host cell drug transporters and metabolizing enzymes in the accumulation, distribution and metabolism of drugs targeting intracellular pathogens, their impact on the efficacy of antileishmanials is unknown. We examined the contribution of pharmacologically relevant determinants in human macrophages in the antimony-mediated killing of intracellular Leishmania panamensis and its relationship with the outcome of treatment with meglumine antimoniate. Methods Patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis who failed (n?=?8) or responded (n?=?8) to treatment were recruited. Gene expression profiling of pharmacological determinants in primary macrophages was evaluated by quantitative RT–PCR and correlated to the drug-mediated intracellular parasite killing. Functional validation was conducted through short hairpin RNA gene knockdown. Results Survival of L. panamensis after exposure to antimonials was significantly higher in macrophages from patients who failed treatment. Sixteen macrophage drug-response genes were modulated by infection and exposure to meglumine antimoniate. Correlation analyses of gene expression and intracellular parasite survival revealed the involvement of host cell metallothionein-2A and ABCB6 in the survival of Leishmania during exposure to antimonials. ABCB6 was functionally validated as a transporter of antimonial compounds localized in both the cell and phagolysosomal membranes of macrophages, revealing a novel mechanism of host cell-mediated regulation of intracellular drug exposure and parasite survival within phagocytes. Conclusions These results provide insight into host cell mechanisms regulating the intracellular exposure of Leishmania to antimonials and variations among individuals that impact parasite survival. Understanding of host cell determinants of intracellular pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics opens new avenues to improved drug efficacy for intracellular pathogens. PMID:23975742

Gómez, Maria Adelaida; Navas, Adriana; Márquez, Ricardo; Rojas, Laura Jimena; Vargas, Deninson Alejandro; Blanco, Victor Manuel; Koren, Roni; Zilberstein, Dan; Saravia, Nancy Gore

2014-01-01

90

Antioxidative efficacy of alkali-treated tilapia protein hydrolysates: a comparative study of five enzymes.  

PubMed

The antioxidant activities of alkali-treated tilapia protein hydrolysates were determined by their ability to inhibit the formation of lipid hydroperoxides (PV) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in a washed muscle model system and by their ability to inhibit DPPH free radicals and chelate ferrous ion in an aqueous solution. Protein isolates were prepared from tilapia white muscle using alkali solubilization at pH 11.0 and reprecipitation at pH 5.5. Protein hydrolysates were prepared by hydrolyzing the isolates using five different enzymes, Cryotin F, Protease A Amano, Protease N Amano, Flavourzyme, and Neutrase, to 7.5, 15, and 25% degrees of hydrolysis (DH). All of the protein hydrolysates significantly (p<0.05) inhibited the development of TBARS and PV. The antioxidant activity of the hydrolysates increased with the DH. Also, the antioxidant activity of the hydrolysates varied significantly (p<0.05) among the different enzymes. The ability of different enzyme-catalyzed protein hydrolysates to scavenge DPPH radicals was not reflected in their ability to inhibit oxidation in a washed tilapia model system. In a washed muscle model system, the hydrolysates prepared using Cryotin F were most effective and the hydrolysates prepared using Flavourzyme and Neutrase were least effective in inhibiting the development of TBARS and PV, whereas in an aqueous solution, hydrolysates prepared using Flavourzyme were most effective in scavenging DPPH radicals and chelating ferrous ions. Enzymatic hydrolysis decreased the size of tilapia protein hydrolysates and, in general, tilapia protein hydrolysates with low molecular weights were better antioxidants than those with high molecular weights. PMID:18247531

Raghavan, Sivakumar; Kristinsson, Hordur G

2008-02-27

91

Ectromelia Virus Inhibitor of Complement Enzymes Protects Intracellular Mature Virus and Infected Cells from Mouse Complement?  

PubMed Central

Poxviruses produce complement regulatory proteins to subvert the host's immune response. Similar to the human pathogen variola virus, ectromelia virus has a limited host range and provides a mouse model where the virus and the host's immune response have coevolved. We previously demonstrated that multiple components (C3, C4, and factor B) of the classical and alternative pathways are required to survive ectromelia virus infection. Complement's role in the innate and adaptive immune responses likely drove the evolution of a virus-encoded virulence factor that regulates complement activation. In this study, we characterized the ectromelia virus inhibitor of complement enzymes (EMICE). Recombinant EMICE regulated complement activation on the surface of CHO cells, and it protected complement-sensitive intracellular mature virions (IMV) from neutralization in vitro. It accomplished this by serving as a cofactor for the inactivation of C3b and C4b and by dissociating the catalytic domain of the classical pathway C3 convertase. Infected murine cells initiated synthesis of EMICE within 4 to 6 h postinoculation. The levels were sufficient in the supernatant to protect the IMV, upon release, from complement-mediated neutralization. EMICE on the surface of infected murine cells also reduced complement activation by the alternative pathway. In contrast, classical pathway activation by high-titer antibody overwhelmed EMICE's regulatory capacity. These results suggest that EMICE's role is early during infection when it counteracts the innate immune response. In summary, ectromelia virus produced EMICE within a few hours of an infection, and EMICE in turn decreased complement activation on IMV and infected cells. PMID:20610727

Moulton, Elizabeth A.; Bertram, Paula; Chen, Nanhai; Buller, R. Mark L.; Atkinson, John P.

2010-01-01

92

Glutathione status and antioxidant enzymes in a crocodilian species from the swamps of the Brazilian Pantanal.  

PubMed

In a previous study oxidative damage markers - lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation - were determined in organs of wild Caiman yacare captured in winter-2001 and summer-2002 at various developmental stages. An increase in oxidative damage occurred in the hatchling-juvenile transition (but not in the juvenile-adult transition) and winter-summer transition (in juveniles), suggesting that oxidative stress is associated with development and season. Herein the effect of development and season on glutathione (GSH) metabolism and the effect of development on the activity of antioxidant enzymes (catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase) and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase were analyzed. The ratio GSSG:GSH-eq increased in lung, liver, kidney and brain by 1.8- to 4-fold in the embryo/hatchling to juvenile transition. No changes occurred in juvenile-adult transition. GSSG:GSH-eq across seasons was significantly elevated in summer. Total-glutathione content was mostly stable in various organs; in liver it increased in the embryo-juvenile transition. Enzyme activities were only determined in summer-animals (embryos, hatchlings and juveniles). For most antioxidant enzymes, activities increased from embryo/hatchling to juvenile in liver and Kidney. In lung, there was an inverse trend for enzyme activities and total glutathione content. Thus, increased metabolic rates during early caiman growth - in embryo-juvenile transition - appears to be related to redox imbalance as suggested by increased GSSG:GSH-eq and activation of antioxidant defenses. Differences in oxidative stress across seasons were related with summer-winter nocturnal temperatures. These results, as a whole, were interpreted in the context of ecological biochemistry. PMID:22750313

Hermes-Lima, Marcelo; Carreiro, Cecília; Moreira, Daniel C; Polcheira, Cássia; Machado, Daniel P; Campos, Elida G

2012-10-01

93

Effects of Oxygen Limitation on Xylose Fermentation, Intracellular Metabolites, and Key Enzymes of Neurospora crassa AS3.1602  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of oxygen limitation on xylose fermentation of Neurospora crassa AS3.1602 were studied using batch cultures. The maximum yield of ethanol was 0.34 g/g at oxygen transfer rate (OTR) of 8.4 mmol/L·h. The maximum yield of xylitol was 0.33 g/g at OTR of 5.1 mmol/L·h. Oxygen limitation greatly affected mycelia growth and xylitol and ethanol productions. The specific growth rate (?) decreased 82% from 0.045 to 0.008 h-1 when OTR changed from 12.6 to 8.4 mmol/L·h. Intracellular metabolites of the pentose phosphate pathway, glycolysis, and tricarboxylic acid cycle were determined at various OTRs. Concentrations of most intracellular metabolites decreased with the increase in oxygen limitation. Intracellular enzyme activities of xylose reductase, xylitol dehydrogenase, and xylulokinase, the first three enzymes in xylose metabolic pathway, decreased with the increase in oxygen limitation, resulting in the decreased xylose uptake rate. Under all tested conditions, transaldolase and transketolase activities always maintained at low levels, indicating a great control on xylose metabolism. The enzyme of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase played a major role in NADPH regeneration, and its activity decreased remarkably with the increase in oxygen limitation.

Zhang, Zhihua; Qu, Yinbo; Zhang, Xiao; Lin, Jianqiang

94

Assessment of the effect of silicon on antioxidant enzymes in cotton plants by multivariate analysis.  

PubMed

Silicon has been extensively researched in relation to the response of plants to biotic and abiotic stress, as an element triggering defense mechanisms which activate the antioxidant system. Furthermore, in some species, adding silicon to unstressed plants modifies the activity of certain antioxidant enzymes participating in detoxifying processes. Thus, in this study, we analyzed the activity of antioxidant enzymes in leaves and roots of unstressed cotton plants fertilized with silicon (Si). Cotton plants were grown in hydroponic culture and added with increasing doses of potassium silicate; then, the enzymatic activity of catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (GPOX), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and lipid peroxidation were determined. Using multivariate analysis, we found that silicon altered the activity of GPOX, APX, and CAT in roots and leaves of unstressed cotton plants, whereas lipid peroxidation was not affected. The analysis of these four variables in concert showed a clear differentiation among Si treatments. We observed that enzymatic activities in leaves and roots changed as silicon concentration increased, to stabilize at 100 and 200 mg Si L(-1) treatments in leaves and roots, respectively. Those alterations would allow a new biochemical status that could be partially responsible for the beneficial effects of silicon. This study might contribute to adjust the silicon application doses for optimal fertilization, preventing potential toxic effects and unnecessary cost. PMID:24188169

Alberto Moldes, Carlos; Fontăo de Lima Filho, Oscar; Manuel Camińa, José; Gabriela Kiriachek, Soraya; Lia Molas, María; Mui Tsai, Siu

2013-11-27

95

Effect of spaceflight on oxidative and antioxidant enzyme activity in rat diaphragm and intercostal muscles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are limited data regarding changes in oxidative and antioxidant enzymes induced by simulated or actual weightlessness, and any additional information would provide insight into potential mechanisms involving other changes observed in muscles from animals previously flown in space. Thus, the NASA Biospecimen Sharing Program was an opportunity to collect valuable information. Oxidative and antioxidant enzyme levels, as well as lipid peroxidation, were measured in respiratory muscles from rates flown on board Space Shuttle mission STS-54. The results indicated that there was an increasing trend in citrate synthase activity in the flight diaphragm when compared to ground based controls, and there were no significant changes observed in the intercostal muscles for any of the parameters. However, the lipid peroxidation was significantly (p less than 0.05) decreased in the flight diaphragm. These results indicate that 6 day exposure to microgravity may have a different effect on oxidative and antioxidant activity in rat respiratory muscles when compared to data from previous 14 day hindlimb suspension studies.

Lee, Mona D.; Tuttle, Ronald; Girten, Beverly

1995-01-01

96

Optimization of enzyme-assisted extraction of polysaccharides from alfalfa and its antioxidant activity.  

PubMed

In this present study, an efficient complex enzyme-assisted extraction technology was developed and optimized to extract polysaccharides from alfalfa using four factors at five levels central composite rotatable response surface design (CCRD). The experimental data was fitted to a second order polynomial equation with high coefficient of determination values (R(2)>0.95). The results of statistical analysis showed that the linear and quadratic terms of these four variables had significant effects (P<0.05) on the yield of polysaccharides from alfalfa. The optimum conditions were as follows: enzyme concentration of 2.5%, 2.0%, 3.0% (weight of alfalfa) of cellulase, papain and pectase, extraction temperature 52.7 °C, extraction pH 3.87, ratio of water to raw material 78.92 mL/g and extraction time 2.73 h. Under the optimal conditions, the experimental extraction yield of alfalfa polysaccharides was 5.05 ± 0.02%, which was well matched with the value (5.09%) predicted by the CCRD model. Moreover, evaluation of the antioxidant activity of polysaccharides from alfalfa in vitro suggested that the polysaccharides had good antioxidant effect, especially scavenging activity for hydroxyl radical and DPPH radical, which indicated that the polysaccharides from alfalfa may be explored as a novel natural antioxidant. PMID:24095663

Wang, Shaopu; Dong, Xiaofang; Tong, Jianming

2013-11-01

97

Effect of norfloxacin and moxifloxacin on melanin synthesis and antioxidant enzymes activity in normal human melanocytes.  

PubMed

Fluoroquinolone antibiotics provide broad-spectrum coverage for a number of infectious diseases, including respiratory as well as urinary tract infections. One of the important adverse effects of these drugs is phototoxicity which introduces a serious limitation to their use. To gain insight the molecular mechanisms underlying the fluoroquinolones-induced phototoxic side effects, the impact of two fluoroquinolone derivatives with different phototoxic potential, norfloxacin and moxifloxacin, on melanogenesis and antioxidant enzymes activity in normal human melanocytes HEMa-LP was determined. Both drugs induced concentration-dependent loss in melanocytes viability. The value of EC50 for these drugs was found to be 0.5 mM. Norfloxacin and moxifloxacin suppressed melanin biosynthesis; antibiotics were shown to inhibit cellular tyrosinase activity and to reduce melanin content in melanocytes. When comparing the both analyzed fluoroquinolones, it was observed that norfloxacin possesses greater inhibitory effect on tyrosinase activity in melanocytes than moxifloxacin. The extent of oxidative stress in cells was assessed by measuring the activity of antioxidant enzymes: SOD, CAT, and GPx. It was observed that norfloxacin caused higher depletion of antioxidant status in melanocytes when compared with moxifloxacin. The obtained results give a new insight into the mechanisms of fluoroquinolones toxicity directed to pigmented tissues. Moreover, the presented differences in modulation of biochemical processes in melanocytes may be an explanation for various phototoxic activities of the analyzed fluoroquinolone derivatives in vivo. PMID:25433710

Beberok, Artur; Wrze?niok, Dorota; Otr?ba, Micha?; Mili?ski, Maciej; Rok, Jakub; Buszman, Ewa

2015-03-01

98

Hymenolepis diminuta: Activity of anti-oxidant enzymes in different parts of rat gastrointestinal tract.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the intensity of oxidative stress by measuring levels of lipid peroxidation products in the duodenum, jejunum and colon of rats infected with Hymenolepis diminuta and evaluate the effectiveness of protection against oxidative stress by measuring the glutathione levels and activity of anti-oxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase. In exposed rats we observed a significant increase of lipid peroxidation products in the duodenum and jejunum. A significant decrease in superoxide dismutase activity in all the examined parts of the digestive tract was observed. Additionally, rats from 16 to 40 days post H. diminuta infection (dpi) had a decreased catalase activity in the colon, while at 60dpi it increased. The glutathione peroxidase activity increased significantly in the colon at 60dpi. The increase in glutathione reductase activity was observed in the colon in rats 60dpi. There was a lack of changes in the levels of glutathione in the duodenum and a significant increase in its concentration in the jejunum and colon from 40 to 60dpi and from 16 to 40dpi, respectively. In this study we observed altered activity of anti-oxidant enzymes and glutathione level in experimental hymenolepidosis, as a consequence of oxidative stress. It may indicate a decrease in the efficiency of intestinal protection against oxidative stress induced by the presence of the parasite. The imbalance between oxidant and anti-oxidant processes may play a major role in pathology associated with hymenolepidosis. PMID:21376042

Kosik-Bogacka, Danuta I; Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena; Noce?, Iwona; Jakubowska, Katarzyna; Chlubek, Dariusz

2011-07-01

99

Lipid Peroxides and Antioxidant Enzymes in Cisplatin-Induced Chronic Nephrotoxicity in Rats  

PubMed Central

Cisplatin (CDDP), an anticancer drug, induces remarkable toxicity in the kidneys of animals and humans and it has been well documented that reactive oxygen species and the renal antioxidant system are strongly involved in acute renal damage induced by CDDP. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether or not the renal antioxidant system plays also an important role in chronic renal damage induced by repeated doses of CDDP (1?mg/kg intraperitoneally twice weekly during 10 weeks in rats). In order to elucidate it, serum creatinine and urea levels, renal glutathione and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) content, as well as renal superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities were measured in the kidney homogenates of chronically CDDP-treated rats and additionally histological studies were performed in the rat kidneys. The chronic treatment with CDDP induced a significant increase in creatinine and urea levels in serum, but the other parameters mentioned above were not significantly modified as compared to the values in nontreated rats. Taking into account these results, we conclude that chronic CDDP administration induces also severe nephrotoxicity, in contrast to CDDP acute application, without any significant modification in the activity of relevant antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, renal glutathione and lipid peroxides, by which the role of the antioxidant system in chronic nephrotoxicity induced by CDDP in rats is uncertain. PMID:16106099

González, Ricardo; Romay, Cheyla; Borrego, Aluet; Hernández, Frank; Merino, Nelson; Zamora, Zullyt; Rojas, Enis

2005-01-01

100

The effects of sodium diethyldithiocarbamate in fibroblasts V79 cells in relation to cytotoxicity, antioxidative enzymes, glutathione, and apoptosis.  

PubMed

Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (DETC) is the main metabolite of disulfiram. Recently, we reported that mechanism of disulfiram cytotoxicity in V79 cells might be partially connected with thiol redox-state imbalance. Here, we examined the effect of DETC on the level of intracellular glutathione (GSH), protein oxidation (measured as PC-protein carbonyl content), lipid peroxidation (measured as TBARS-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances), antioxidant enzymatic defense, as well as on apoptosis. We used V79 Chinese hamster fibroblasts cells with and without modulated glutathione (GSH) level by N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC). We showed that treatment with DETC at concentrations that cause a moderate increase in thiol-state imbalance but not cell death stimulates oxidative stress measured as increased level of PC and TBARS, adaptive response of GSH-related enzymes and apoptosis. Our results show that cellular effects of DETC are partially attributable to the initial redox cellular state, since the increase of GSH level by NAC pre-treatment prevented the observed changes. PMID:22872140

Rahden-Staro?, I; Grosicka-Maci?g, E; Kurpios-Piec, D; Czeczot, H; Grzela, T; Szumi?o, M

2012-12-01

101

Modulation of endothelial targeting by size of antibody-antioxidant enzyme conjugates  

PubMed Central

Endothelial targeting of antioxidant enzymes attenuates acute vascular oxidative stress in animal studies. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase conjugated with antibodies to Platelet-Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (anti-PECAM/SOD and anti-PECAM/catalase) bind to endothelium, accumulate in the pulmonary vasculature, and detoxify reactive oxygen species. In order to define the role of conjugate size in the efficacy and specificity of endothelial targeting, we synthesized anti-PECAM/enzyme conjugates of controlled size (40 nm–10,000 nm). Binding of anti-PECAM/enzymes to endothelial cells increased with conjugate size from 300 nm to 2 ?m (from 2.5 to 8.5% of bound fraction), and was specific, as conjugates did not bind to PECAM-negative cells. Pulmonary uptake of anti-PECAM/enzyme conjugates injected intravenously in mice also increased from 4.5 to 16% of Injected Dose for particles from 200 to 800 nm. However, control conjugates larger than 300 nm showed elevated non-specific pulmonary uptake, indicating that the targeting specificity of anti-PECAM/enzyme conjugates in vivo has a bell-shaped curve with a maximum close to 300-nm diameter. These results show that: i) the size of an antibody/enzyme conjugate modulates efficacy and specificity of targeting, and ii) a size optimum should be defined in vivo to account for parameters that are difficult to model in cell culture. PMID:21044652

Shuvaev, Vladimir V.; Tliba, Samira; Pick, Jeremy; Arguiri, Evguenia; Christofidou-Solomidou, Melpo; Albelda, Steven M.; Muzykantov, Vladimir R.

2010-01-01

102

Emerging Roles of Nrf2 and Phase II Antioxidant Enzymes in Neuroprotection  

PubMed Central

Phase II metabolic enzymes are a battery of critical proteins that detoxify xenobiotics by increasing their hydrophilicity and enhancing their disposal. These enzymes have long been studied for their preventative and protective effects against mutagens and carcinogens and for their regulation via the Keap1 (Kelch-like ECH associated protein 1) / Nrf2 (Nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2) / ARE (antioxidant response elements) pathway. Recently, a series of studies have reported the altered expression of phase II genes in postmortem tissue of patients with various neurological diseases. These observations hint at a role for phase II enzymes in the evolution of such conditions. Furthermore, promising findings reveal that overexpression of phase II genes, either by genetic or chemical approaches, confers neuroprotection in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, there is a need to summarize the current literature on phase II genes in the central nervous system (CNS). This should help guide future studies on phase II genes as therapeutic targets in neurological diseases. In this review, we first briefly introduce the concept of phase I, II and III enzymes, with a special focus on phase II enzymes. We then discuss their expression regulation, their inducers and executors. Following this background, we expand our discussion to the neuroprotective effects of phase II enzymes and the potential application of Nrf2 inducers to the treatment of neurological diseases. PMID:23025925

Zhang, Meijuan; An, Chengrui; Gao, Yanqin; Leak, Rehana K.; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Feng

2013-01-01

103

Flavonoids in Juglans regia L. Leaves and Evaluation of In Vitro Antioxidant Activity via Intracellular and Chemical Methods  

PubMed Central

Flavonoids are rich in Juglans regia L. leaves. They have potent antioxidant properties, which have been related to regulating immune function and enhancing anticancer activity. Herein, qualitative and quantitative determination of flavonoids from J. regia leaves was carried out using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization and negative ion detection (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) by comparison of the retention times and mass spectral fragments with standard substances or related literatures. Seventeen compounds were identified and major components are quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside (453.11??g/g, dry weight), quercetin-3-O-arabinoside (73.91??g/g), quercetin-3-O-xyloside (70.04??g/g), kaempferol-O-pentoside derivative (49.04??g/g), quercetin-3-O-galactoside (48.61??g/g), and kaempferol-O-pentoside (48.46??g/g). The in vitro intracellular antioxidation indicated that flavonoids from J. regia leaves could reduce the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in RAW264.7 cells and showed good radical scavenging activities. These results proved to be more related to the flavonoids that could be considered in the design of new formulations of dietary supplements or functional foods. PMID:25133218

Zhao, Ming-Hui; Liu, Tao; Li, Rong

2014-01-01

104

Sulphydryl groups and their relation to the antioxidant enzymes of chelonian red blood cells.  

PubMed

Thiol groups of hemoglobin and blood glutathione are higher in Geochelone carbonaria than in Geochelone denticulata. Exposure of stripped hemolysate of both tortoises to terc-butyl hydroperoxide, resulted in a higher ferroheme oxidation of G. denticulata hemoglobin. In this example glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase, were not active due to the absence of GSH and NADPH, suggesting that the thiol groups of G. carbonaria hemoglobin act as antioxidant, similar to GSH. In the total hemolysate, however, where the antioxidant enzymes are active, both species showed similar levels of hemoglobin oxidation, suggesting that the protective effect of thiol groups of hemoglobin are less effective for heme protection. The activity of glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase was higher in erythrocytes of G. denticulata and the activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase was higher in erythrocytes of G. carbonaria. PMID:9784849

Torsoni, M A; Viana, R I; Ogo, S H

1998-09-01

105

Effects of dietary menadione on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 240-day growth experiment in a re-circulating water system was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary menadione on the growth and antioxidant responses of abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino. Triplicate groups of juvenile abalone (initial weight: 1.19 ± 0.01 g; shell length: 19.23 ± 0.01 mm) were fed to satiation with 3 semi-purified diets containing 0, 10, and 1 000 mg menadione sodium bisulfite (MSB)/kg, respectively. Results show that there were no significant differences in the rate of weight gain or in the daily increment in shell length of abalone among different treatments. Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) in viscera were significantly decreased with dietary menadione. However, activities of these enzymes except for GPX in muscle were increased. Therefore, antioxidant responses of abalone were increased in muscle and decreased in viscera by dietary menadione.

Fu, Jinghua; Xu, Wei; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Wenbing; Feng, Xiuni; Liufu, Zhiguo

2012-01-01

106

Association of mitochondrial antioxidant enzymes with mitochondrial DNA as integral nucleoid constituents  

PubMed Central

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is organized in protein-DNA macrocomplexes called nucleoids. Average nucleoids contain 2–8 mtDNA molecules, which are organized by the histone-like mitochondrial transcription factor A. Besides well-characterized constituents, such as single-stranded binding protein or polymerase ? (Pol?), various other proteins with ill-defined functions have been identified. We report for the first time that mammalian nucleoids contain essential enzymes of an integral antioxidant system. Intact nucleoids were isolated with sucrose density gradients from rat and bovine heart as well as human Jurkat cells. Manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) was detected by Western blot in the nucleoid fractions. DNA, mitochondrial glutathione peroxidase (GPx1), and Pol? were coimmunoprecipitated with SOD2 from nucleoid fractions, which suggests that an antioxidant system composed of SOD2 and GPx1 are integral constituents of nucleoids. Interestingly, in cultured bovine endothelial cells the association of SOD2 with mtDNA was absent. Using a sandwich filter-binding assay, direct association of SOD2 by salt-sensitive ionic forces with a chemically synthesized mtDNA fragment was demonstrated. Increasing salt concentrations during nucleoid isolation on sucrose density gradients disrupted the association of SOD2 with mitochondrial nucleoids. Our biochemical data reveal that nucleoids contain an integral antioxidant system that may protect mtDNA from superoxide-induced oxidative damage.—Kienhöfer, J., Häussler, D. J. F., Ruckelshausen, F., Muessig, E., Weber, K., Pimentel, D., Ullrich, V., Bürkle, A., Bachschmid, M. M. Association of mitochondrial antioxidant enzymes with mitochondrial DNA as integral nucleoid constituents. PMID:19228881

Kienhöfer, Joachim; Häussler, Dagmar Johanna Franziska; Ruckelshausen, Florian; Muessig, Elisabeth; Weber, Klaus; Pimentel, David; Ullrich, Volker; Bürkle, Alexander; Bachschmid, Markus Michael

2009-01-01

107

Radiation induced effects on viability and antioxidant enzymes of crustaceans from different habitats.  

PubMed

The paper describes differential tolerance of two fresh water crustaceans Mesocyclops hyalinus and Allodiaptomus satanus to 60Co gamma radiation. Mesocyclops hyalinus is dominant species at site 1, near a Thermal Power Plant at Kolaghat East Midnapore where fly ash deposition is a regular phenomenon. Allodiaptomus satanus is dominant species at site 2 at Kolkata, Ballygung where anthroponotic activities are more pronounced. M. hyalinus is naturally exposed to more stressful situation than A. satanus as revealed by comparing the hydrological parameters of the two habitats. Experimental exposure to ionizing radiation resulted in differential changes in viability morphology and antioxidant enzyme activities in the two selected species. Survival experiments showed greater tolerance of M. hyalinus compared to A. satanus up to 8Gy (absorbed dose) after which if showed drastic fail in survival. More pronounced morphological changes were observed in A. satanus as compared to that in M. hyalinus. The pattern of changes in antioxidant enzyme activity is distinctly opposite in the two radiation exposed species. While in M. hyalinus stimulation in activity of both CAT (excepting at 10Gy absorbed dose) and SOD was observed A. satanus showed decrease in activity of both the enzymes when compared to their unirradiated counterparts. PMID:21046991

Mukherjee, D; Manna, M; Selvaraj, S; Bhattacharya, S; Homechoudhury, S; Chakraborty, A

2010-05-01

108

Enzyme-mimetic effects of gold@platinum nanorods on the antioxidant activity of ascorbic acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Au@Pt nanorods were prepared by growing platinum nanodots on gold nanorods. Using electron spin resonance (ESR), we determined that the mechanisms for oxidation of ascorbic acid (AA) by Au@Pt nanorods and ascorbic acid oxidase (AAO) were kinetically similar and yielded similar products. In addition we observed that Au@Pt nanorods were stable with respect to temperature and pH. Using UV-VIS spectroscopy, the apparent kinetics of enzyme-mimetic activity of Au@Pt nanorods were studied and compared with the activity of AAO. With the help of ESR, we found that Au@Pt nanorods did not scavenge hydroxyl radicals but inhibited the antioxidant ability of AA for scavenging hydroxyl radicals produced by photoirradiating solutions containing titanium dioxide and zinc oxide. Moreover, the Au@Pt nanorods reduced the ability of AA to scavenge DPPH radicals and superoxide radicals. These results demonstrate that Au@Pt nanorods can reduce the antioxidant activity of AA. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the effects of using Pt nanoparticles together with other reducing agents or antioxidants such as AA due to the oxidase-like property of Au@Pt nanorods.Au@Pt nanorods were prepared by growing platinum nanodots on gold nanorods. Using electron spin resonance (ESR), we determined that the mechanisms for oxidation of ascorbic acid (AA) by Au@Pt nanorods and ascorbic acid oxidase (AAO) were kinetically similar and yielded similar products. In addition we observed that Au@Pt nanorods were stable with respect to temperature and pH. Using UV-VIS spectroscopy, the apparent kinetics of enzyme-mimetic activity of Au@Pt nanorods were studied and compared with the activity of AAO. With the help of ESR, we found that Au@Pt nanorods did not scavenge hydroxyl radicals but inhibited the antioxidant ability of AA for scavenging hydroxyl radicals produced by photoirradiating solutions containing titanium dioxide and zinc oxide. Moreover, the Au@Pt nanorods reduced the ability of AA to scavenge DPPH radicals and superoxide radicals. These results demonstrate that Au@Pt nanorods can reduce the antioxidant activity of AA. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the effects of using Pt nanoparticles together with other reducing agents or antioxidants such as AA due to the oxidase-like property of Au@Pt nanorods. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Ascorbic acid oxidase activity of Pt NPs and the effects of Au@Pt nanorods on hydroxyl radicals generated from the Fenton reactions and TiO2 exposed to UV radiation. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr33072e

Zhou, Yu-Ting; He, Weiwei; Wamer, Wayne G.; Hu, Xiaona; Wu, Xiaochun; Lo, Y. Martin; Yin, Jun-Jie

2013-01-01

109

Oleuropein prevents ethanol-induced gastric ulcers via elevation of antioxidant enzyme activities in rats.  

PubMed

Purified oleuropein from olive leaf extract has been shown to have antioxidant effects in our recent studies. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the antioxidant abilities of oleuropein in comparison with ranitidine in ethanol-induced gastric damages via evaluation of ulcer index inhibition, antioxidant enzyme activities, and lipid peroxidation level. Fifty-six adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into seven equal groups as follows: control group, ethanol group (absolute ethanol 1 ml/rat), oleuropein group (12 mg/kg), and oleuropein (6, 12, and 18 mg/kg) plus ethanol groups, as well as ranitidine (50 mg/kg) plus ethanol group. Pretreatment with oleuropein (12 and 18 mg/kg) significantly increased the ulcer index inhibition (percent), in comparison with oleuropein (6 mg/kg). Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity was significantly lower in the ethanol group when compared with the other groups whereas, treatment of rats with oleuropein (12 mg/kg) significantly increased glutathione content in gastric tissue when compared with the other groups, and lipid peroxidation was significantly reduced in the oleuropein- (12 and 18 mg/kg) and ranitidine-treated animals. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were both much higher in oleuropein-treated rats than the ethanol group, and although there was a moderate increase in SOD and CAT activities in ranitidine-treated rats, the differences were not significant. These findings suggest that oleuropein has beneficial antioxidant properties against ethanol-induced gastric damages in the rat. Therefore, it seems that a combination regimen including both antioxidant and antisecretory drugs may be beneficial in prevention of ethanol-mediated gastric mucosal damages. PMID:22581435

Alirezaei, Masoud; Dezfoulian, Omid; Neamati, Shima; Rashidipour, Marzyeh; Tanideh, Nader; Kheradmand, Arash

2012-12-01

110

[Effects of different NO3- concentrations on the growth and antioxidant enzyme systems of strawberry seedlings].  

PubMed

The effects of different NO3- concentrations (CK, 16 mmol x L(-1) NO3-; T1, 48 mmol x L(-1) NO3-; T2, 96 mmol x L(-1) NO3-; T3, 144 mmol x L(-1) NO3-) on the growth properties and antioxidant enzymes activities of strawberry seedlings were studied by sand culture. The results indicated that the plant height, leaf area, dry matter accumulation and root/shoot ratio of strawberry seedlings in T1, T2 and T3 were significantly decreased compared to the control (CK) after 15 days of treatment. The plant heights in T1, T2 and T3 decreased by 16.1%, 36.8% and 43.9%, and the areas of functional leaf decreased by 19.7%, 34.3% and 47.5% respectively, compared to the control. With the increasing NO3- concentration, the malondialdehyde (MDA), proline, soluble protein content and relative electronic leakage of the strawberry seedlings first increased and then decreased, but all those parameters in T1, T2 and T3 were higher than in the control. The activities of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) in both root and leaf, and catalase (CAT) in the root first increased and then decreased, but the CAT activity in the leaf gradually decreased with the increasing NO3 concentration. In T3, the activity of SOD in both root and leaf, APX in the root were lower than in the control. In sum, the osmolytes of strawberry seedlings increased and the plants become weaker under nitrate stress, and some antioxidant enzymes in strawberry seedlings increased at the low level of nitrate stress and decreased at the high level. The strawberry plants were stunted when growing under 48 mmol x L(-1) NO(3-) condition. PMID:25011298

Peng, Yue-Li; Wang, Xiu-Feng; Li, Piao-Piao; Han, Yu-Rui; Yang, Feng-Juan

2014-04-01

111

Antioxidant Enzymes Regulate Reactive Oxygen Species during Pod Elongation in Pisum sativum and Brassica chinensis  

PubMed Central

Previous research has focused on the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cell wall loosening and cell extension in plant vegetative growth, but few studies have investigated ROS functions specifically in plant reproductive organs. In this study, ROS levels and antioxidant enzyme activities were assessed in Pisum sativum and Brassica chinensis pods at five developmental stages. In juvenile pods, the high levels of O2.? and.OH indicates that they had functions in cell wall loosening and cell elongation. In later developmental stages, high levels of.OH were also related to increases in cell wall thickness in lignified tissues. Throughout pod development, most of the O2.? was detected on plasma membranes of parenchyma cells and outer epidermis cells of the mesocarp, while most of the H2O2 was detected on plasma membranes of most cells throughout the mesocarp. This suggests that these sites are presumably the locations of ROS generation. The antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) apparently contributed to ROS accumulation in pod wall tissues. Furthermore, specifically SOD and POD were found to be associated with pod growth through the regulation of ROS generation and transformation. Throughout pod development, O2.? decreases were associated with increased SOD activity, while changes in H2O2 accumulation were associated with changes in CAT and POD activities. Additionally, high POD activity may contribute to the generation of.OH in the early development of pods. It is concluded that the ROS are produced in different sites of plasma membranes with the regulation of antioxidant enzymes, and that substantial ROS generation and accumulation are evident in cell elongation and cell wall loosening in pod wall cells. PMID:24503564

Liu, Nan; Lin, Zhifang; Guan, Lanlan; Gaughan, Gerald; Lin, Guizhu

2014-01-01

112

Edaravone mitigates hexavalent chromium-induced oxidative stress and depletion of antioxidant enzymes while estrogen restores antioxidant enzymes in the rat ovary in F1 offspring.  

PubMed

Environmental contamination of drinking water with chromium (Cr) has been increasing in more than 30 cities in the United States. Previous studies from our group have shown that Cr affects reproductive functions in female Sprague Dawley rats. Although it is impossible to completely remove Cr from the drinking water, it is imperative to develop effective intervention strategies to inhibit Cr-induced deleterious health effects. Edaravone (EDA), a potential inhibitor of free radicals, has been clinically used to treat cancer and cardiac ischemia. This study evaluated the efficacy of EDA against Cr-induced ovarian toxicity. Results showed that maternal exposure to CrVI in rats increased follicular atresia, decreased steroidogenesis, and delayed puberty in F1 offspring. CrVI increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant (AOX) enzyme levels in the ovary. CrVI increased follicle atresia by increased expression of cleaved caspase 3, and decreased expression of Bcl2 and Bcl2l1 in the ovary. EDA mitigated or inhibited the effects of CrVI on follicle atresia, pubertal onset, steroid hormone levels, and AOX enzyme activity, as well as the expression of Bcl2 and Bcl2l1 in the ovary. In a second study, CrVI treatment was withdrawn, and F1 rats were injected with estradiol (E2) (10 ?g in PBS/ethanol per 100 g body weight) for a period of 2 wk to evaluate whether E2 treatment will restore Cr-induced depletion of AOX enzymes. E2 restored CrVI-induced depletion of glutathione peroxidase 1, catalase, thioredoxin 2, and peroxiredoxin 3 in the ovary. This is the first study to demonstrate the protective effects of EDA against any toxicant in the ovary. PMID:24804965

Stanley, Jone A; Sivakumar, Kirthiram K; Arosh, Joe A; Burghardt, Robert C; Banu, Sakhila K

2014-07-01

113

Effects of phthalate ester treatment on seed germination and antioxidant enzyme activities of Phaseolus radiatus L.  

PubMed

Effects of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and di-n-butyl phthalate on seed germination rate and antioxidant enzymes activities of mung bean (Phaseolus radiatus L.) were investigated. Results showed that under the treatment with 10 mg/kg of phthalate esters (PAEs), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase and catalase (CAT) activities were higher than those of the control (p > 0.05). But SOD and CAT activities decreased with the PAEs concentrations and the treatment duration, and were significantly lower than those of the control (p < 0.05). Effect of PAEs stress on SOD activity in germinating seeds of mung bean displayed a significant dose-effect relationship. PMID:24535285

Liu, Wenli; Zhang, Chongbang; Liu, Shuyuan

2014-05-01

114

Assessment of impact of solar UV components on growth and antioxidant enzyme activity in cotton plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field experiment was conducted to study the impact of solar UV-B (280–315 nm) and UV-A (315–400 nm) components on the growth\\u000a and antioxidant enzyme activity in cotton plant (Gossypium hirsutum var. Vikram). Solar UV components were excluded by filtering the sunlight through selective UV-B (<315 nm) and UV-B\\/A (<400 nm)\\u000a absorbing polyester films. Plants grown under filters that transmitted solar UV served as

Priti Dehariya; Sunita Kataria; G. P. Pandey; K. N. Guruprasad

2011-01-01

115

Intracellular compartmentation of two enzymes of berberine biosynthesis in plant cell cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Out of the eight enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of the isoquinoline alkaloid berberine, at least, two enzymes, berberine bridge enzyme and (S)-tetrahydroprotoberberine oxidase, are exclusively located in a vesicle with a specific gravity of ?=1.14 g·cm-3 as shown by direct enzymatic assay as well as immunoelectrophoresis. Electronmicroscopic examination of the enzyme-containing particulate preparation from Berberis wilsoniae var. subcaulialata cultured

M. Amann; G. Wanner; M. H. Zenk

1986-01-01

116

[Effects of chemical ripeners on chlorophyll content and antioxidant enzyme activities of rapeseed pod].  

PubMed

A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of ripeners Diguat and Roundup on the chlorophyll content, activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and peroxidase (POD), cell membrane permeability, and malondialdehyde (MDA) content of rapeseed pods. Under effects of Diquat, the chlorophyll content decreased, while the activities of SOD, POD, and CAT, cell membrane permeability, and MDA content increased significantly, leading to the peroxidation of membrane lipid. These effects increased with increasing Diquat concentration. After treated with Roundup, the chlorophyll content had less change, activities of SOD, POD, and CAT increased slowly, and cell membrane permeability and MDA content had no obvious increase. With the increasing time of ripeners treatment, the activities of protective enzymes were inhibited to different degree, possibly due to the changes of molecular structure of antioxidant enzyme system under effects of the ripeners. PMID:20353071

Zhou, Ke-jin; Guan, Chun-yun; Xiao, Wen-na

2009-12-01

117

Neuroprotection of antioxidant enzymes against transient global cerebral ischemia in gerbils  

PubMed Central

Experimentally transient global cerebral ischemia using animal models have been thoroughly studied and numerous reports suggest the involvement of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of neuronal death in ischemic lesions. In animal models, during the reperfusion period after ischemia, increased oxygen supply results in the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are involved in the process of cell death. ROS, such as superoxide anions, hydroxyl free radicals, hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide are produced as a consequence of metabolic reactions and central nervous system activity. These reactive species are directly involved in the oxidative damage of cellular macromolecules such as nucleic acids, lipids and proteins in ischemic tissues, which can lead to cell death. Antioxidant enzymes are believed to be among the major mechanisms by which cells counteract the deleterious effect of ROS after cerebral ischemia. Consequently, antioxidant strategies have been long suggested as a therapy for experimental ischemic stroke; however, clinical trials have not yet been able to promote the translation of this concept into patient treatment regimens. This article focuses on the contribution of oxidative stress or antioxidants to the post-ischemic neuronal death following transient global cerebral ischemia by using a gerbil model. PMID:25276473

Lee, Jae-Chul

2014-01-01

118

Peptides derived from Rhopilema esculentum hydrolysate exhibit angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory and antioxidant abilities.  

PubMed

Jellyfish (Rhopilema esculentum) was hydrolyzed using alcalase, and two peptides with angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory and antioxidant activities were purified by ultrafiltration and consecutive chromatographic methods. The amino acid sequences of the two peptides were identified as VKP (342 Da) and VKCFR (651 Da) by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. The IC50 values of ACE inhibitory activities of the two peptides were 1.3 ?M and 34.5 ?M, respectively. Molecular docking results suggested that VKP and VKCFR bind to ACE through coordinating with the active site Zn(II) atom. Free radical scavenging activity and protection against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced rat cerebral microvascular endothelial cell (RCMEC) injury were used to evaluate the antioxidant activities of the two peptides. As the results clearly showed that the peptides increased the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px) activities in RCMEC cells), it is proposed that the R. esculentum peptides exert significant antioxidant effects. PMID:25185066

Li, Jun; Li, Qian; Li, Jingyun; Zhou, Bei

2014-01-01

119

Serum and BAL cytokine and antioxidant enzyme levels at different stages of pneumoconiosis in coal workers.  

PubMed

Coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) is an occupational pulmonary disease that occurs by chronic inhalation of coal dust. CWP is divided into two stages depending on the extent of the disease, as simple pneumoconiosis (SP) and progressive massive fibrosis (PMF). In the present study, serum and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cytokine (interleukin-1beta [IL-1beta], IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha [TNF-alpha], transforming growth factor-beta [TGF-beta]) and antioxidant enzymes levels, their relation with the disease severity, and whether they can be considered as biological markers were investigated. Serum and BAL levels of IL-1beta, IL-6, and TNF-alpha were higher in SP and PMF patient groups compared with that in active and retired miner groups. Serum and BAL IL-1beta, IL-6, and TNF-alpha levels were also found to be higher in patients with PMF compared with the SP group. BAL superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase, and catalase levels and serum SOD level were increased in both patient groups compared with the control group. In addition, mean serum and BAL TGF-beta levels were found to be increased in patients with SP compared with PMF group. Based on these results, BAL and serum cytokine and antioxidant enzymes levels were evaluated and discussed as potential biomarkers for different stages of CWP. PMID:19273541

Ulker, Oc; Yucesoy, B; Demir, O; Tekin, Io; Karakaya, A

2008-12-01

120

Antioxidant enzymes in oligodendroglial brain tumors: association with proliferation, apoptotic activity and survival.  

PubMed

Purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between antioxidant enzyme expression and clinicopathological features in oligodendroglial tumors. The expression of antioxidant enzymes and related proteins (AOEs), manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), thioredoxin (Trx), thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) and gammaglutamylcysteine synthetase catalytic and regulatory subunits (GLCL-C and GLCL-R), was studied in 85 oligodendroglial tumors. The material included 71 primary (43 grade II and 28 grade III) and 14 recurrent (6 grade II and 8 grade III) tumors. Fifty-seven cases were pure oligodendrogliomas and 28 were mixed oligoastrocytomas. Immunoreactivity for MnSOD was found in 89%, Trx in 29%, TrxR in 76%, GLCL-C in 70% and GLCL-R in 68% of cases. Increased Trx expression was associated with higher tumor grade, cell proliferation and apoptosis (P=0.006, P=0.001 and P=0.003, Mann-Whitney test). Pure oligodendrogliomas showed more intense staining than oligoastrocytomas, especially for MnSOD (P=0.002, Mann-Whitney test). In the total series Trx was associated with poor prognosis in univariate survival analysis (P=0.0343, log-rank test) and furthermore in Cox multivariate analysis (P=0.009) along with age (P=0.002). The results suggest that the expression of Trx has a correlation to patient outcome and that there may be some association between AOEs, like MnSOD and Trx, and clinicopathological features of oligodendrogliomas. PMID:16292483

Järvelä, Sally; Sally, Järvelä; Bragge, Helena; Helena, Bragge; Paunu, Niina; Niina, Paunu; Järvelä, Timo; Timo, Järvelä; Paljärvi, Leo; Leo, Paljärvi; Kalimo, Hannu; Hannu, Kalimo; Helén, Pauli; Pauli, Helén; Kinnula, Vuokko; Vuokko, Kinnula; Soini, Ylermi; Ylermi, Soini; Haapasalo, Hannu; Hannu, Haapasalo

2006-04-01

121

Zinc Affects Differently Growth, Photosynthesis, Antioxidant Enzyme Activities and Phytochelatin Synthase Expression of Four Marine Diatoms  

PubMed Central

Zinc-supplementation (20??M) effects on growth, photosynthesis, antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, catalase), and the expression of phytochelatin synthase gene were investigated in four marine diatoms (Amphora acutiuscula, Nitzschia palea, Amphora coffeaeformis and Entomoneis paludosa). Zn-supplementation reduced the maximum cell density. A linear relationship was found between the evolution of gross photosynthesis and total chlorophyll content. The Zn treatment decreased the electron transport rate except in A. coffeaeformis and in E. paludosa at high irradiance. A linear relationship was found between the efficiency of light to evolve oxygen and the size of the light-harvesting antenna. The external carbonic anhydrase activity was stimulated in Zn-supplemented E. paludosa but was not correlated with an increase of photosynthesis. The total activity of the antioxidant enzymes did not display any clear increase except in ascorbate peroxidase activity in N. palea. The phytochelatin synthase gene was identified in the four diatoms, but its expression was only revealed in N. palea, without a clear difference between control and Zn-supplemented cells. Among the four species, A. paludosa was the most sensitive and A. coffeaeformis, the most tolerant. A. acutiuscula seemed to be under metal starvation, whereas, to survive, only N. palea developed several stress responses. PMID:22645501

Nguyen-Deroche, Thi Le Nhung; Caruso, Aurore; Le, Thi Trung; Bui, Trang Viet; Schoefs, Benoît; Tremblin, Gérard; Morant-Manceau, Annick

2012-01-01

122

Green tea diet decreases PCB 126-induced oxidative stress in mice by upregulating antioxidant enzymes  

PubMed Central

Superfund chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls pose a serious human health risk due to their environmental persistence and link to multiple diseases. Selective bioactive food components such as flavonoids have been shown to ameliorate PCB toxicity, but primarily in an in vitro setting. Here, we show that mice fed a green tea-enriched diet and subsequently exposed to environmentally relevant doses of coplanar PCB exhibit decreased overall oxidative stress primarily due to the upregulation of a battery of antioxidant enzymes. C57BL/6 mice were fed a low fat diet supplemented with green tea extract (GTE) for 12 weeks and exposed to 5 ?mol PCB 126/kg mouse weight (1.63 mg/kg-day) on weeks 10, 11 and 12 (total body burden: 4.9 mg/kg). F2-Isoprostane and its metabolites, established markers of in vivo oxidative stress, measured in plasma via HPLC-MS/MS exhibited five-fold decreased levels in mice supplemented with GTE and subsequently exposed to PCB compared to animals on a control diet exposed to PCB. Livers were collected and harvested for both mRNA and protein analyses, and it was determined that many genes transcriptionally controlled by AhR and Nrf2 proteins were upregulated in PCB-exposed mice fed the green tea supplemented diet. An increased induction of genes such as SOD1, GSR, NQO1 and GST, key antioxidant enzymes, in these mice (green tea plus PCB) may explain the observed decrease in overall oxidative stress. A diet supplemented with green tea allows for an efficient antioxidant response in the presence of PCB 126 which supports the emerging paradigm that healthful nutrition may be able to bolster and buffer a physiological system against the toxicities of environmental pollutants. PMID:24378064

Newsome, Bradley J; Petriello, Michael C; Han, Sung Gu; Murphy, Margaret O; Eske, Katryn E; Sunkara, Manjula; Morris, Andrew J; Hennig, Bernhard

2013-01-01

123

Dose dependent effect of ricin on DNA damage and antioxidant enzymes in mice.  

PubMed

Ricin a glycoprotein from the Ricinus communis seeds, is known to have diverse toxic effects on cells of different visceral organs. We have studied the effect of ricin (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 LD50) on various oxidative stress markers at 1, 3 and 7 day post exposure following i.p. administration in Swiss albino male mice. Results of this study revealed that ricin induces generation of reactive species, lipidperoxidation, DNA fragmentation and depletion of GSH. Activity of antioxidant cascade related enzyme like superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) decreased, while glutathione reductase (GR) and catalase activity increased. Superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity was decreased significantly in liver, spleen and kidney. The decrease was more prominent on 7 day of post exposure in all the exposed doses. A significant increase in the activities of catalase was observed in plasma, liver, spleen and kidney on 7 day following ricin exposure. Glutathione reductase increased significantly as early as 24 h following 1.0 LD50 dose. Lipid peroxidation increased and non protein sulfhydryl content decreased in all the tissues at different time intervals. Total antioxidant status was reduced as early as 1 day post exposure. Nearly two fold increase was observed in DNA fragmentation following 0.5 LD50 dose of ricin on 1 day post exposure. DNA diffusion assay also indicated an early damage to DNA due to ROS. An early change in DNA fragmentation, DNA diffusion, and total antioxidant status and in the activity of various enzymes indicates that ricin produce oxidative stress by generation of reactive oxygen species as early as 24 h at a minimum dose of 0.5 LD50. Probably this is the first study which indicate that ricin induced oxidative stress at a minimum dose of 0.5 LD50. PMID:17543238

Kumar, O; Lakshmana Rao, P V; Pradhan, S; Jayaraj, R; Bhaskar, A S B; Nashikkar, A B; Vijayaraghavan, R

2007-01-01

124

Goose fat, a promising nutrient for fish feeding, activates antioxidant enzymes in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.  

PubMed

The objective of this experiment was to test effects of different dietary lipids in rainbow trout feeding on the activity and expression of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione S-transferase (GST). Four iso-nitrogenous and iso-lipidic casein-gelatin based experimental diets were formulated. The sources of dietary lipids were cod liver oil (CO, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids), goose fat (GF, rich in saturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids), soybean oil (SO, rich in linoleic acid), and a blend of CO, GF and SO. Dietary treatments had no significant effect on growth performance and survival was not affected. SOD, GPx and GST enzymes had the maximum activity in GF diet. However qPCR data showed that SOD and GPx mRNA levels were minimum in GF group. Overall data showed that rainbow trout liver enzymes were activated upon GF diet probably activating the enzyme structure itself without stimulating gene expression. PMID:24055672

Mercan, Levent; Sirkecio?lu, Necdet; Aksakal, Ercüment; Bay?r, Mehtap; Bay?r, Abdulkadir; Aras, Mevlüt; Ekinci, Deniz

2013-11-01

125

Chrysanthemum leaf epidermal surface morphology and antioxidant and defense enzyme activity in response to aphid infestation.  

PubMed

Artificial aphid infestation experiments on the three chrysanthemum cultivars 'Keiun', 'Han6' and 'Jinba' showed that the three cultivars vary markedly in their resistance. Of the three cultivars, the most resistant ('Keiun') produced the longest, highest and densest trichomes, the largest and fullest gland cells, and the most wax on the lower leaf epidermis. Superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1), peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7), ascorbate peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.11), polyphenol oxidase activity (EC 1.14.18.1) and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (EC 4.3.1.5) were enhanced by aphid herbivory. In the two more resistant cultivars ('Keiun' and 'Han6'), the activity of superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase enzymes rapidly increased following infestation, and their levels remained high from seventy-two to one hundred and sixty-eight hours after inoculation. We suggest that these two antioxidant enzymes contribute to aphid resistance of these chrysanthemum cultivars. All three cultivars showed quick responses to aphid infestation by increasing polyphenol oxidase and phenylalanine ammonia lyase activities during the early period after inoculation. Activities of these two defense enzymes were higher in the two resistant cultivars after 72h after inoculation, suggesting involvement of these two enzymes in aphid resistance. PMID:21145126

He, Junping; Chen, Fadi; Chen, Sumei; Lv, Guosheng; Deng, Yanming; Fang, Weimin; Liu, Zhaolei; Guan, Zhiyong; He, Chunyan

2011-05-01

126

Oxidative Stress and Anti-Oxidant Enzyme Activities in the Trophocytes and Fat Cells of Queen Honeybees (Apis mellifera)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Trophocytes and fat cells of queen honeybees have been used for delayed cellular senescence studies, but their oxidative stress and anti-oxidant enzyme activities with advancing age are unknown. In this study, we assayed reactive oxygen species (ROS) and anti-oxidant enzymes in the trophocytes and fat cells of young and old queens. Young queens had lower ROS levels, lower superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, and higher thioredoxin reductase (TR) activity compared to old queens. These results show that oxidative stress and anti-oxidant enzyme activities in trophocytes and fat cells increase with advancing age in queens and suggest that an increase in oxidative stress and a consequent increase in stress defense mechanisms are associated with the longevity of queen honeybees. PMID:23738955

Hsieh, Yu-Shan

2013-01-01

127

Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant activities of enzymatically synthesized phenolic and vitamin glycosides.  

PubMed

Amyloglucosidase from Rhizopus mould and beta-glucosidase from sweet almond were employed for the preparation of phenolic and vitamin glycosides of vanillin, N-vanillylnonanamide, DL-dopa, dopamine, curcumin, alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E), pyridoxine (vitamin B(6)), ergocalciferol (vitamin D(2)), thiamin (vitamin B(1)) and riboflavin (vitamin B(2)). Approx. 20 enzymatically prepared phenolic and vitamin glycosides were subjected to ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) inhibition activity measurements, and 14 glycosides were tested for antioxidant activities. Both phenolic and vitamin glycosides exhibited IC(50) values for ACE inhibition in the 0.52+/-0.03-3.33+/-0.17 mM range and antioxidant activities ranging from 0.8+/-0.04 to 1.18+/-0.06 mM. Comparable ACE inhibition values were observed between free phenols and vitamin glycosides. However, antioxidant activities of glycosides were, in general, lesser than those of free phenols. Best IC(50) value for ACE inhibition were observed for 11-O-(D-fructofuranosyl)thiamin (0.52+/-0.03 mM), 3-hydroxy-4-O-(6-D-sorbitol)phenylalanine (0.56+/-0.03 mM), 4-O-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl)vanillin (0.61+/-0.03 mM), 4-O-(D-galactopyranosyl)vanillin (0.61+/-0.03 mM) and pyridoxine-D-glucoside (0.84+/-0.04 mM). Similarly, best IC(50) values for antioxidant activity were observed for 1,7-O-(bis-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)curcumin (0.8+/-0.04 mM), 4-O-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl)vanillin (0.9+/-0.05 mM), 3-hydroxy-4-O-(beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1'-->4)beta-D-glucopyranosyl)phenylalanine (0.9+/-0.05 mM), 20-O-(D-glucopyranosyl)ergocalciferol (0.9+/-0.05 mM) and dopamine-D-galactoside (0.93+/-0.05 mM). PMID:18547170

Charles, Rajachristu Einstein; Ponrasu, Thangavel; Sivakumar, Ramaiah; Divakar, Soundar

2009-03-01

128

Characterisation of Fasciola hepatica cytochrome c peroxidase as an enzyme with potential antioxidant activity in vitro.  

PubMed

Cytochrome c peroxidase oxidises hydrogen peroxide using cytochrome c as the electron donor. This enzyme is found in yeast and bacteria and has been also described in the trematodes Fasciola hepatica and Schistosoma mansoni. Using partially purified cytochrome c peroxidase samples from Fasciola hepatica we evaluated its role as an antioxidant enzyme via the investigation of its ability to protect against oxidative damage to deoxyribose in vitro. A system containing FeIII-EDTA plus ascorbate was used to generate reactive oxygen species superoxide radical, H2O2 as well as the hydroxyl radical. Fasciola hepatica cytochrome c peroxidase effectively protected deoxyribose against oxidative damage in the presence of its substrate cytochrome c. This protection was proportional to the amount of enzyme added and occurred only in the presence of cytochrome c. Due to the low specific activity of the final partially purified sample the effects of ascorbate and calcium chloride on cytochrome c peroxidase were investigated. The activity of the partially purified enzyme was found to increase between 10 and 37% upon reduction with ascorbate. However, incubation of the partially purified enzyme with 1 mM calcium chloride did not have any effect on enzyme activity. Our results showed that Fasciola hepatica CcP can protect deoxyribose from oxidative damage in vitro by blocking the formation of the highly toxic hydroxyl radical (.OH). We suggest that the capacity of CcP to inhibit .OH-formation, by efficiently removing H2O2 from the in vitro oxidative system, may extend the biological role of CcP in response to oxidative stress in Fasciola hepatica. PMID:10404259

Campos, E G; Hermes-Lima, M; Smith, J M; Prichard, R K

1999-05-01

129

Measuring Intracellular Enzyme Concentrations: Assessing the Effect of Oxidative Stress on the Amount of Glyoxalase I  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Enzymology is one of the fundamental areas of biochemistry and involves the study of the structure, kinetics, and regulation of enzyme activity. Research in this area is often conducted with purified enzymes and extrapolated to "in vivo" conditions. The specificity constant, k[subscript S], is the ratio between k[subscript cat] (the catalytic…

Miranda, Hugo Vicente; Ferreira, Antonio E. N.; Quintas, Alexandre; Cordeiro, Carlos; Freire, Ana Ponces

2008-01-01

130

Molecular Basis for Antioxidant Enzymes in Mediating Copper Detoxification in the Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans  

PubMed Central

Antioxidant enzymes play a major role in defending against oxidative damage by copper. However, few studies have been performed to determine which antioxidant enzymes respond to and are necessary for copper detoxification. In this study, we examined both the activities and mRNA levels of SOD, CAT, and GPX under excessive copper stress in Caenorhabditis elegans, which is a powerful model for toxicity studies. Then, taking advantage of the genetics of this model, we assessed the lethal concentration (LC50) values of copper for related mutant strains. The results showed that the SOD, CAT, and GPX activities were significantly greater in treated groups than in controls. The mRNA levels of sod-3, sod-5, ctl-1, ctl-2, and almost all gpx genes were also significantly greater in treated groups than in controls. Among tested mutants, the sod-5, ctl-1, gpx-3, gpx-4, and gpx-6 variants exhibited hypersensitivity to copper. The strains with SOD or CAT over expression were reduced sensitive to copper. Mutations in daf-2 and age-1, which are involved in the insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1 signaling pathway, result in reduced sensitivity to stress. Here, we showed that LC50 values for copper in daf-2 and age-1 mutants were significantly greater than in N2 worms. However, the LC50 values in daf-16;daf-2 and daf-16;age-1 mutants were significantly reduced than in daf-2 and age-1 mutants, implying that reduced copper sensitivity is influenced by DAF-16-related functioning. SOD, CAT, and GPX activities and the mRNA levels of the associated copper responsive genes were significantly increased in daf-2 and age-1 mutants compared to N2. Additionally, the activities of SOD, CAT, and GPX were greater in these mutants than in N2 when treated with copper. Our results not only support the theory that antioxidant enzymes play an important role in copper detoxification but also identify the response and the genes involved in these processes. PMID:25243607

Song, Shaojuan; Zhang, Xueyao; Wu, Haihua; Han, Yan; Zhang, Jianzhen; Ma, Enbo; Guo, Yaping

2014-01-01

131

Effects of in vivo antioxidant enzyme activities of myrtle oil in normoglycaemic and alloxan diabetic rabbits.  

PubMed

In this study we aimed to evaluate the in vivo effects of myrtle oil (myrtii oleum) on the antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and catalase, the levels of malondialdehyde in liver tissues as an index of lipid peroxidation and nitrite-nitrate levels in normoglycaemic and alloxan-induced diabetic and MO-treated rabbits. In our previous study, we assumed that MO with a dose of 50 mg/kg, possesses a hypoglycemic activity and this activity was independent from the effects of insulin. Myrtle oil exerts its hypoglycemic activity by enhanced glycolysis, glycogenesis and decreased glycogenolysis. What is more glucose load data strongly suggest that MO treatment produces hypoglycemia mainly by reducing intestinal absorption of glucose, so MO could be an alpha-glycosidase enzyme inhibitor which had a hypoglycaemic effect only on alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits on the fourth hour and on orally glucose loaded group. The major finding of this new study is that, MO may not offer any protection against oxidative stress during acute studies in normoglycemic and diabetic groups. Although the levels of superoxide dismutase and catalase enzyme activities did not change during acute studies in diabetes + MO group, there was a significant change at the end of 21 days. There is a very limited knowledge about MO and its effects on diabetes. Therefore, we tried to explain the mechanism that might underlie the protective effects of MO with this paper. PMID:17101252

Sepici-Dincel, Aylin; Açikgöz, Sereften; Cevik, Cemal; Sengelen, Meltem; Ye?ilada, Erdem

2007-04-01

132

Interactions of paralytic shellfish toxins with xenobiotic-metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes in rodents.  

PubMed

Paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are neurotoxins known to block voltage-gated sodium channels in intoxicated animals and humans. Their metabolism in mammalian systems and their effects on other receptors are not as well understood. In this study, we investigated the in vitro metabolism of two classes of PSTs, gonyautoxin 2/3 (GTX2/3) and C1/2 toxins (C1/2), using rat and mouse liver enzyme preparations. We also analyzed the effects of these toxins on several antioxidant and xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in mice. These toxins were selected for their prevalence in the coastal waters of Southern China. When the toxins were incubated with liver preparations containing Phase I and Phase II xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and appropriate co-factors, no transformation of the toxins was detectable. When mice were given sub-lethal doses of GTX2/3, a loss of activity was observed in hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase, penthoxyresorufin-O-deethylase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase, but not in glutathione S-transferase, catalase and glutathione reductase. Exposure to the same mouse units of C1/2 caused only a slight reduction in the activity of penthoxyresorufin-O-deethylase and glutathione peroxidase. Our results indicated that these toxins may not be metabolized readily in mammals and that they may cause adverse effects other than sodium channel blocking. PMID:14505944

Hong, Hai-zheng; Lam, Paul K S; Hsieh, Dennis P H

2003-09-15

133

Activity of peroxisomal enzymes and intracellular distribution of catalase in Zellweger syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activity of peroxisomal enzymes was studied in human liver and cultured human skin fibroblasts in relation to the finding (Goldfischer, S. et al. (1973) Science 182, 62–64) that morphologically distinct peroxisomes are not detectable in patients with the cerebro-hepato-renal (Zellweger) syndrome. In homogenates of liver from the patients, dihydroxyacetone phosphate acyltransferase, a membrane-bound peroxisomal enzyme, is deficient (Schutgens, R.B.H.,

G. Schrakamp; H. van den Bosch; B. Roest; M. Kos; A. J. Meijer; H. S. A. Heymans; W. H. H. Tegelaers; R. B. H. Schutgens; J. M. Tager; R. J. A. Wanders

1984-01-01

134

Chemomodulatory Effect of Moringa Oleifera, Lam, on Hepatic Carcinogen Metabolising Enzymes, Antioxidant Parameters and Skin Papillomagenesis in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modulatory effects of a hydro-alchoholic extract of drumsticks of Moringa oliefera Lam at doses of 125 mg\\/ kg bodyweight and 250 mg\\/ kg body weight for 7 and 14 days, respectively, were investigated with reference to drug metabolising Phase I (Cytochrome b 5 and Cytochrome P 450 ) and Phase II (Glutathione-S- transferase) enzymes, anti-oxidant enzymes, glutathione content and

Rupjyoti Bharali; Jawahira Tabassum; Mohammed Rekibul; Haque Azad

2003-01-01

135

Mechanism of tachyplesin I injury to bacterial membranes and intracellular enzymes, determined by laser confocal scanning microscopy and flow cytometry.  

PubMed

Tachyplesin I is a 17 amino acid, cationic, antimicrobial peptide with a typical cyclic antiparallel ?-sheet structure. Interactions of tachyplesin I with living bacteria are not well understood, although models have been used to elucidate how tachyplesin I permeabilizes membranes. There are several questions to be answered, such as (i) how does tachyplesin I kill bacteria after it penetrates the membrane and (ii) does bacterial death result from the inactivation of intracellular esterases as well as cell injury? In this study, the dynamic antibacterial processes of tachyplesin I and its interactions with Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were investigated using laser confocal scanning microscopy in combination with electron microscopy. The effects of tachyplesin I on E. coli cell membrane integrity, intracellular enzyme activity, and cell injury and death were investigated by flow cytometric analysis of cells following single- or double-staining with carboxyfluorescein diacetate or propidium iodide. The results of microscopy indicated that tachyplesin I kills bacteria by acting on the cell membrane and intracellular contents, with the cell membrane representing the primary target. Microscopy results also revealed that tachyplesin I uses different modes of action against E. coli and S. aureus. The results of flow cytometry showed that tachyplesin I caused E. coli cell death mainly by compromising cell membrane integrity and causing the inactivation of intracellular esterases. Flow cytometry also revealed dynamic changes in the different subpopulations of cells with increase in tachyplesin I concentrations. Bacteria exposed to 5?g/mL of tachyplesin I did not die instantaneously; instead, they died gradually via a sublethal injury. However, upon exposure to 10-40?g/mL of tachyplesin I, the bacteria died almost immediately. These results contribute to our understanding of the antibacterial mechanism employed by tachyplesin I. PMID:25267486

Hong, Jun; Guan, Wutai; Jin, Gang; Zhao, Hongya; Jiang, Xiaohua; Dai, Jianguo

2015-01-01

136

Antioxidant enzyme activities are affected by salt content and temperature and influence muscle lipid oxidation during dry-salted bacon processing.  

PubMed

Fresh pork bacon belly was used as material and manufactured into dry-salted bacon through salting and drying-ripening. During processing both oxidative stability and antioxidant enzyme stability were evaluated by assessing peroxide value (PV), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and their correlations were also analysed. The results showed that all antioxidant enzyme activities decreased (p<0.05) until the end of process; GSH-Px was the most unstable one followed by catalase. Antioxidant enzyme activities were negatively correlated with TBARS (p<0.05), but the correlations were decreased with increasing process temperature. Salt showed inhibitory effect on all antioxidant enzyme activities and was concentration dependent. These results indicated that when process temperature and salt content were low at the same time during dry-salted bacon processing, antioxidant enzymes could effectively control lipid oxidation. PMID:23871020

Jin, Guofeng; He, Lichao; Yu, Xiang; Zhang, Jianhao; Ma, Meihu

2013-12-01

137

Antioxidative properties and inhibition of key enzymes relevant to type-2 diabetes and hypertension by essential oils from black pepper.  

PubMed

The antioxidant properties and effect of essential oil of black pepper (Piper guineense) seeds on ? -amylase, ? -glucosidase (key enzymes linked to type-2 diabetes), and angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) (key enzyme linked to hypertension) were assessed. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and dried with anhydrous Na2SO4, and the phenolic content, radical [1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and nitric oxide (NO)] scavenging abilities as well as the ferric reducing antioxidant property (FRAP) and Fe(2+)-chelating ability of the essential oil were investigated. Furthermore, the effect on ? -amylase, ? -glucosidase, and ACE enzyme activities was also investigated. The characterization of the constituents was done using GC. The essential oil scavenged DPPH?, NO?, and ABTS? and chelated Fe(2+). ? -Pinene, ? -pinene, cis-ocimene, myrcene, allo-ocimene, and 1,8-cineole were among the constituents identified by GC. The essential oil inhibited ? -amylase, ? -glucosidase, and ACE enzyme activities in concentration-dependent manners, though exhibiting a stronger inhibition of ? -glucosidase than ? -amylase activities. Conclusively, the phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and inhibition of ? -amylase, ? -glucosidase, and angiotensin-1 converting enzyme activities by the essential oil extract of black pepper could be part of the mechanism by which the essential oil could manage and/or prevent type-2 diabetes and hypertension. PMID:24348547

Oboh, Ganiyu; Ademosun, Ayokunle O; Odubanjo, Oluwatoyin V; Akinbola, Ifeoluwa A

2013-01-01

138

Antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities of Plebeian herba (Salvia plebeia R. Br.) under different cultivation conditions.  

PubMed

An adaptation of cultural management to the specific cultural system, as well as crop demand, can further result in the improvement of the quality of horticultural products. Therefore, this study focused on the antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities of Plebeian herba (Salvia plebeia R. Br.) grown in hydroponics in comparison with those of the plant grown in soil. The antioxidant activities of Plebeian herba extract were measured as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging abilities as well as the reducing power by decreasing nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) in vitro. Interestingly, by comparison with hydroponics and traditional cultivation, Plebeian herba cultivated in nutrition-based soil improved inhibitory effect on free radicals of DPPH, ABTS, and NO and increased the contents of phenolics such as caffeic acid (1), luteolin-7-glucoside (2), homoplantaginin (3), hispidulin (4), and eupatorin. Free radical scavenging and SOD activity, as well as ?-glucosidase inhibitory effect, were higher in Plebeian herba grown in nutrition-based soil than in plants grown in hydroponics and traditional condition. PMID:24422962

Chen, Lei; Kang, Young-Hwa

2014-03-12

139

[The influence of melatonin on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes activity during multiply repetitive stress actions].  

PubMed

It was established that the modeling of the repeated immobilization stress is accompanied by the increase of the content of lipid peroxidation metabolites and the decrease of antioxidant enzymes activity (superoxiddismutase and catalase) in both blood plasma and liver tissue. Intraperitoneal melatonin injections in the doses 0.2 or 1 mg/kg during 7 days cause the decrease of the content of lipid peroxidation metabolites in both blood plasma and liver tissue in animals after prolonged stress, as well as leads to the increase superoxiddismutase activity in both blood plasma and liver tissue in comparison with the control group. In liver tissue catalase activity increased after the melatonin application at both doses in comparison with control animals, but in plasma the same change was observed only after 1 mg/kg melatonin inject. The results of investigation confir- med the literature data about the antioxidant effects of melatonin and opened the perspectives of its using for the prevention of stress-induced organ injury. PMID:25427383

Serikov, V S; Liashev, Iu D

2013-11-01

140

[The influence of melatonin on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes activity during multiply repetitive stress actions].  

PubMed

It was established that the modeling of the repeated immobilization stress is accompanied by the increase of the content of lipid peroxidation metabolites and the decrease of antioxidant enzymes activity (superoxiddismutase and catalase) in both blood plasma and liver tissue. Intraperitoneal melatonin injections in the doses 0.2 or 1 mg/kg during 7 days cause the decrease of the content of lipid peroxidation metabolites in both blood plasma and liver tissue in animals after prolonged stress, as well as leads to the increase superoxiddismutase activity in both blood plasma and liver tissue in comparison with the control group. In liver tissue catalase activity increased after the melatonin application at both doses in comparison with control animals, but in plasma the same change was observed only after 1 mg/kg melatonin inject. The results of investigation confir- med the literature data about the antioxidant effects of melatonin and opened the perspectives of its using for the prevention of stress-induced organ injury. PMID:25507633

2013-11-01

141

[Antioxidative enzymes play key roles in cadmium tolerance of Phytolacca americana].  

PubMed

Phytolacca americana L. has the capacity to take up and accumulate to very high levels heavy metals such as Mn and Cd, and is used for phytoextraction of heavy metal contaminated soils. The role of antioxidative enzyme of Phytolacca americana in response to Cd stress is unknown. The 6-week-old seedlings of Phytolacca americana were exposed to half strength Hoagland solution with 200 micromol/L CdCl2 or 400 micromol/L CdCl2 for 4 days. The content of H2O2 and MDA, and electrolyte leakage increased, while the photosynthetic rate decreased, indicated that the oxidative damage induced by Cd stress in Phytolacca americana was one of the metal toxicity mechanism. The activities of SOD and POD increased rapidly with elevated Cd concentration and exposure time, CAT activity was stable in response to 200 micromol/L CdCl2 stress, and increased only at 3 d later upon 400 micromol/L CdCl2, treatment. Suggested that the enzymatic antioxidation capacity played important role in Cd tolerance of hyperaccumulator plant. PMID:21634194

Zhang, Yu-Xiu; Zhang, Hong-Mei; Huang, Zhi-Bo; Li, Lin-Feng; Liu, Jin-Guang; Li, Xia

2011-03-01

142

Antioxidant enzymes and proteins of wetland plants: Their relation to Pb tolerance and accumulation.  

PubMed

Constructed wetlands used to clean up toxic metals such as lead (Pb) from contaminated wastewater are considered as an effective and low-cost technology. The effect of Pb on the biomass, tolerance, soluble protein, and antioxidant enzymes in 18 candidate wetland plant species grown in soils without (control) and spiked with 900 and 1800 mg Pb kg(-1) was studied in a pot trial. Our pot experiment showed that the biomass, tolerance, and leaf protein contents decreased with increasing concentrations of Pb in soil. There were significant differences between the plants in their Pb tolerance indices (29-82 % in the 900 mg Pb kg(-1) amended soil) and also Pb uptake (13-749 mg kg(-1) in shoots and 1112-4891 mg kg(-1) in roots, in the same treatments). Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) in leaves of most of the plants increased with increasing level of soil Pb concentration. Conversely, catalase (CAT) activity in leaves declined when plants were subjected to Pb stress. Lead accumulation by the 18 wetland plant species screened was strongly dependent on the species and Pb concentrations in the soil. However, Pb translocation from root to shoot was generally low in all species. Increases in SOD and POD activities suggest that the antioxidant system may play an important role in alleviating Pb toxicity in wetland plants. The data obtained should help in future species selection for the use in designing wetlands in Pb-contaminated environments. PMID:25269838

Yang, Junxing; Ye, Zhihong

2015-02-01

143

Enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant activities of traditional medicinal plants: Potential application in the management of hyperglycemia  

PubMed Central

Background Traditional Indian and Australian medicinal plant extracts were investigated to determine their therapeutic potential to inhibit key enzymes in carbohydrate metabolism, which has relevance to the management of hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes. The antioxidant activities were also assessed. Methods The evaluation of enzyme inhibitory activity of seven Australian aboriginal medicinal plants and five Indian Ayurvedic plants was carried out against ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase. Antioxidant activity was determined by measuring (i) the scavenging effect of plant extracts against 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) and 2, 2?-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate (ABTS) and (ii) ferric reducing power. Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents were also determined. Results Of the twelve plant extracts evaluated, the highest inhibitory activity against both ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase enzymes was exerted by Santalum spicatum and Pterocarpus marsupium with IC50 values of 5.43??g/ml and 0.9??g/ml, respectively, and 5.16??g/ml and 1.06??g/ml, respectively. However, the extracts of Acacia ligulata (IC50?=?1.01??g/ml), Beyeria leshnaultii (0.39??g/ml), Mucuna pruriens (0.8??g/ml) and Boerhaavia diffusa (1.72??g/ml) exhibited considerable activity against ?-glucosidase enzyme only. The free radical scavenging activity was found to be prominent in extracts of Acacia kempeana, Acacia ligulata followed by Euphorbia drummondii against both DPPH and ABTS. The reducing power was more pronounced in Euphorbia drummondii and Pterocarpus marsupium extracts. The phenolic and flavonoid contents ranged from 0.42 to 30.27??g/mg equivalent of gallic acid and 0.51 to 32.94??g/mg equivalent of quercetin, respectively, in all plant extracts. Pearson’s correlation coefficient between total flavonoids and total phenolics was 0.796. Conclusion The results obtained in this study showed that most of the plant extracts have good potential for the management of hyperglycemia, diabetes and the related condition of oxidative stress. PMID:22713130

2012-01-01

144

Phytoestrogens enhance antioxidant enzymes after swimming exercise and modulate sex hormone plasma levels in female swimmers.  

PubMed

Our aim was to investigate the effects of diet supplementation with phytoestrogens on sex hormone levels, antioxidant adaptive responses and oxidative damage induced by exercise. Ten female swimmers participated for 26 days in a diet intervention with either a functional beverage rich in vitamins C and E or the same beverage but also supplemented with Lippia citriodora extract (PLX) containing 20 mg/100 ml verbascoside. After the intervention all subjects participated in a swimming session for 30 min maintaining the intensity at about 75-80% of their individual best performance time for a 50-m swim. In lymphocytes, the superoxide dismutase activity increased after exercise, with a higher increase in the PLX group. Swimming increased the erythrocyte activity of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in the PLX group. Purified glutathione reductase activity increased after an in vitro incubation with PLX. No effects were observed on the lymphocyte levels of malondialdehyde and carbonyls, but exercise increased the percentage of high-damaged lymphocytes 2.8 times in the placebo group and 1.5 times in the PLX group. PLX decreased the levels of 17-?-estradiol and testosterone and increased the levels of the sex hormone binding globulin. In conclusion, supplementation with phytoestrogens enhances the glutathione-dependent enzyme activities in erythrocytes and the superoxide dismutase activity in lymphocytes in response to exercise. PLX also shows direct antioxidant properties, by increasing glutathione reductase enzyme activity in vitro. Supplementation with phytoestrogens also decreases the plasma steroid hormone levels, pointing towards a possible agonistic effect of verbascoside in the hypothalamic regulation of estradiol synthesis. PMID:21331628

Mestre-Alfaro, Antonia; Ferrer, Miguel D; Sureda, Antoni; Tauler, Pedro; Martínez, Elisa; Bibiloni, Maria M; Micol, Vicente; Tur, Josep A; Pons, Antoni

2011-09-01

145

Differential responses of antioxidant enzymes in pioneer and late-successional tropical tree species grown under sun and shade conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the ability of pioneer and late-successional species to adapt to a strong light environment in a reforestation area, we examined the activities of antioxidant enzymes in relation to photosystem II, chlorophyll a fluorescence and photosynthetic pigment concentration for eight tropical tree species grown under 100% (sun) and 10% (shade) sunlight irradiation. The pioneer (early-succession) species (PS) were Cecropia

Viviane F. Favaretto; Carlos A. Martinez; Hilda H. Soriani; Rosa P. M. Furriel

2011-01-01

146

Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in the Cyanobacteria Planktothrix Agardhii, Planktothrix Perornata, Raphidiopsis Brookii, and the Green Alga Selenastrum Capricornutum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Previous studies have demonstrated that compounds generating reactive oxygen species (ROS) are selectively toxic towards certain species of cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) when compared to green algae (e.g., Selenastrum capricornutum). The antioxidant enzyme activities of S. capricornutum and seve...

147

Interplay Between Oncoproteins and Antioxidant Enzymes in Esophageal Carcinoma Treated Without and With Chemoradiotherapy: A Prospective Study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To analyze p53, bcl-2, c-myc, and cyclooxygenase-2 protein expression changes and examine their relationship with various antioxidant enzymes in esophageal carcinoma patients. Methods and Materials: Patients in Group 1 underwent transhiatal esophagectomy and those in Group 2 were administered chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery after 4 weeks of neoadjuvant therapy. Results: The relationship analysis among the various protein markers and antioxidant enzymes showed an inverse correlation between bcl-2 and superoxide dismutase/catalase in tumor tissues, irrespective of the treatment arm followed. An important positive association was observed between bcl-2 and reduced glutathione levels in the tumor tissue of patients receiving neoadjuvant therapy. Another apoptosis-modulating marker, c-myc, in the tumor tissue of Group 2 patients showed similar pattern levels (high and low) as that of superoxide dismutase/catalase. The association of cyclooxygenase-2 and p53 with various antioxidant enzymes showed a significant positive correlation between cyclooxygenase-2 expression and catalase activity and an inverse trend between p53 expression and superoxide dismutase and catalase activity in the tumor tissue of patients given neoadjuvant therapy. In addition, patients with overexpressed p53 protein levels had lower glutathione peroxidase enzyme levels and vice versa in the tumor tissue of patients who had undergone surgery as their main mode of treatment. Conclusion: The results of this study broaden the insight into the relationships shared among oncoproteins and the antioxidant defense system, and this could be helpful in the clinical management of esophageal carcinoma.

Kaur, Tranum [Department of Biophysics, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh (India); Gupta, Rajesh [Department of General Surgery, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh (India); Vaiphei, Kim [Department of Histopathology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh (India); Kapoor, Rakesh [Department of Radiotherapy, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh (India); Gupta, N.M. [Department of General Surgery, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh (India); Khanduja, K.L. [Department of Biophysics, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh (India); Department of Biophysics, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh (India)], E-mail: klkhanduja@gmail.com

2008-02-01

148

Response of Antioxidative Enzymes and Apoplastic Bypass Transport in Thlaspi Caerulescens and Raphanus Sativus to Cadmium Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hydroponics experiment using hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens (alpine pennycress) and non-specific accumulator Raphanus sativus (common radish) was conducted to investigate the short-term effect of increasing Cd concentrations (0, 25, 50, 75, 100 ?M) on metal uptake, chlorophyll content, antioxidative enzymes, and apoplastic bypass flow. As expected, T. caerulescens generally showed better resistance to metal stress, which was reflected by higher

Saoussen Benzarti; Helmi Hamdi; Shino Mohri; Yoshiro Ono

2010-01-01

149

Serum selenium and plasma malondialdehyde levels and antioxidant enzyme activities in patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is mounting evidence indicating that reactive free radical species are involved in initiation and development of many different forms of human pathologies including psychiatric disorders. In the present study, we aimed to determine whether serum selenium (Se), antioxidant enzyme (glutathione peroxidase, GSH-Px, superoxide dismutase, SOD, and catalase, CAT) activities, and plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, a product of lipid peroxidation,

Ercan Ozdemir; Sevil Cetinkaya; Serpil Ersan; Seda Kucukosman; E. Erdal Ersan

2009-01-01

150

Strawberry Polyphenols Attenuate Ethanol-Induced Gastric Lesions in Rats by Activation of Antioxidant Enzymes and Attenuation of MDA Increase  

PubMed Central

Background and Aim Free radicals are implicated in the aetiology of gastrointestinal disorders such as gastric ulcer, colorectal cancer and inflammatory bowel disease. Strawberries are common and important fruit due to their high content of essential nutrient and beneficial phytochemicals which seem to have relevant biological activity on human health. In the present study we investigated the antioxidant and protective effects of three strawberry extracts against ethanol-induced gastric mucosa damage in an experimental in vivo model and to test whether strawberry extracts affect antioxidant enzyme activities in gastric mucosa. Methods/Principal Findings Strawberry extracts were obtained from Adria, Sveva and Alba cultivars. Total antioxidant capacity and radical scavenging capacity were performed by TEAC, ORAC and electron paramagnetic resonance assays. Identification and quantification of anthocyanins was carried out by HPLC-DAD-MS analyses. Different groups of animals received 40 mg/day/kg body weight of strawberry crude extracts for 10 days. Gastric damage was induced by ethanol. The ulcer index was calculated together with the determination of catalase and SOD activities and MDA contents. Strawberry extracts are rich in anthocyanins and present important antioxidant capacity. Ethanol caused severe gastric damage and strawberry consumption protected against its deleterious role. Antioxidant enzyme activities increased significantly after strawberry extract intake and a concomitantly decrease in gastric lipid peroxidation was found. A significant correlation between total anthocyanin content and percent of inhibition of ulcer index was also found. Conclusions Strawberry extracts prevented exogenous ethanol-induced damage to rats' gastric mucosa. These effects seem to be associated with the antioxidant activity and phenolic content in the extract as well as with the capacity of promoting the action of antioxidant enzymes. A diet rich in strawberries might exert a beneficial effect in the prevention of gastric diseases related to generation of reactive oxygen species. PMID:22016781

Alvarez-Suarez, José M.; Dekanski, Dragana; Risti?, Slavica; Radonji?, Nevena V.; Petronijevi?, Nataša D.; Giampieri, Francesca; Astolfi, Paola; González-Paramás, Ana M.; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Tulipani, Sara; Quiles, José L.; Mezzetti, Bruno; Battino, Maurizio

2011-01-01

151

Effects of Microgravity On Oxidative and Antioxidant Enzymes In Mouse Hindlimb Muscle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gastrocnemius muscle of mice were analyzed in order to examine the effects of 12 days of microgravity on the oxidative enzyme climate synthase (CS) and the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD). The female C57BL/6J mice utilized for this study were part of the Commercial Biomedical Testing Module (CBTM) payload that flew aboard STS-108. Mice were housed in Animal Enclosure Modules (AEMs) provided by NASA Ames. The flight (FLT) group and the ground control (CON) group each had 12 mice per group. The AEMs that held the CON group operated on a 48-hour delay from the FLT group and were located inside the Orbital Environmental Simulator (OES) at Kennedy Space Center. The temperature, CO2 and relative humidity inside the OES was regulated based on downlinked information from the shuttle middeck. Student T tests were used to compare groups and a p < 0.05 was used to determine statistical significance. Results indicated that CS levels for the FLT group were significantly lower than the CON group while the SOD levels were significantly higher. The CS FLT mean was 19% lower and the SOD FLT mean was 17% higher than the respective CON group means. Although these findings are among the first muscle enzyme values reported for mice from a shuttle mission, these results are similar to some results previously reported for rats exposed to microgravity or hindlimb suspension. The changes seen during the CBTM payload are reflective of the deconditioning that takes place with disuse of the hindlimbs and indicate that muscle enzyme changes induced by disuse deconditioning are similar in both rodent species.

Girten, B.; Hoopes, R.; Steele, M.; Morony, S.; Bateman, T. A.; Sun, S. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

152

Dietary antioxidant supplementation enhances lipid and protein oxidative stability of chicken broiler meat through promotion of antioxidant enzyme activity.  

PubMed

Recent nutrigenomic studies have shown that animal nutrition can have a major influence on tissue gene expression. Dietary antioxidant supplements can enhance the quality of meat through modification of tissue metabolic processes. This study investigated the influence of dietary antioxidants and quality of oil on the oxidative and enzymatic properties of chicken broiler breast meat stored in an oxygen-enriched package (HiOx: 80% O2/20% CO2) in comparison with air-permeable polyvinylchloride (PVC) or skin packaging systems during retail display at 2 to 4°C for up to 21 d. Broilers were fed either a diet with a low-oxidized (peroxide value 23 mEq of O2/kg) or high-oxidized (peroxide value 121 mEq of O2/kg) oil, supplemented with or without an algae-based Se yeast and organic mineral antioxidant pack for 42 d. Lipid and protein oxidation and tissue enzymatic activity were analyzed. In all packaging systems, lipid oxidation (TBA reactive substances) was inhibited by up to 32.5% (P < 0.05) with an antioxidant-supplemented diet when compared with diets without antioxidants, particularly in the HiOx and PVC systems. Protein sulfhydryls were significantly protected by antioxidant diets (e.g., by 14.6 and 17.8% for low-and high-oxidized dietary groups, respectively, in PVC d 7 samples). Glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activities were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in antioxidant-supplemented diets compared with the basal diet, regardless of oil quality. Also, serum carbonyls were lower in broilers fed a low-oxidized antioxidant-supplemented treatment. The results demonstrate that dietary antioxidants can minimize the oxidative instability of proteins and lipids, and the protection may be linked to improved cellular antioxidant enzymatic activity. PMID:24879706

Delles, Rebecca M; Xiong, Youling L; True, Alma D; Ao, Touying; Dawson, Karl A

2014-06-01

153

Intracellular Rescue of the Uroporphyrinogen III Synthase Activity in Enzymes Carrying the Hotspot Mutation C73R*  

PubMed Central

A single mutation (C73R) in the enzyme uroporphyrinogen III synthase (UROIIIS) is responsible for more than one-third of all of the reported cases of the rare autosomal disease congenital erythropoietic porphyria (CEP). CEP patients carrying this hotspot mutation develop a severe phenotype of the disease, including reduced life expectancy. Here, we have investigated the molecular basis for the functional deficit in the mutant enzyme both in vitro and in cellular systems. We show that a Cys in position 73 is not essential for the catalytic activity of the enzyme but its mutation to Arg speeds up the process of irreversible unfolding and aggregation. In the mammalian cell milieu, the mutant protein levels decrease to below the detection limit, whereas wild type UROIIIS can be detected easily. The disparate response is not produced by differences at the level of transcription, and the results with cultured cells and in vitro are consistent with a model where the protein becomes very unstable upon mutation and triggers a degradation mechanism via the proteasome. Mutant protein levels can be restored upon cell treatment with the proteasome inhibitor MG132. The intracellularly recovered C73R-UROIIIS protein shows enzymatic activity, paving the way for a new line of therapeutic intervention in CEP patients. PMID:21343304

Fortian, Arola; González, Esperanza; Castańo, David; Falcon-Perez, Juan M.; Millet, Oscar

2011-01-01

154

Metabolic flux analysis of pykF gene knockout Escherichia coli based on 13 C-labeling experiments together with measurements of enzyme activities and intracellular metabolite concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metabolic flux analysis based on 13C-labeling experiments followed by the measurement of intracellular isotope distribution using both 2D NMR and GC-MS was carried out to investigate the effect of pyruvate kinase (pyk) gene knockout on the metabolism of Escherichia coli in continuous culture. In addition, the activities of 16 enzymes, and the concentrations of 5 intracellular metabolites, were measured as

K. Al Zaid Siddiquee; M. J. Arauzo-Bravo; K. Shimizu

2004-01-01

155

Red cell antioxidant enzymes and prognostic indexes in patients with burns.  

PubMed

Red cell superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and catalase (CAT) were measured in 66 burned patients (57 men, 9 women, age 16-78 years). BSAB varied from 15 to 93% and ABSI from 3 to 14 points. In the first week after injury the activity of SOD was significantly decreased as compared with the activity of the enzymes in the control group and was also below the reference values. Later the activity of SOD increased up to the normal range. The activity of CAT followed a similar pattern but the differences were not significant. No significant changes in red cell GPX were found during the monitored period. We did not find any significant association between the antioxidant enzyme activities and the markers of burns severity. On the other side there was a significant indirect association between the change of SOD activity (calculated as a difference between the first week values after the injury and the activities measured later) and BSAB. PMID:22999212

Frišman, Eugen; Rácz, Oliver; Chmelárová, Anna

2013-05-01

156

Cancer cell death induced by the intracellular self-assembly of an enzyme-responsive supramolecular gelator.  

PubMed

We report cancer cell death initiated by the intracellular molecular self-assembly of a peptide lipid, which was derived from a gelator precursor. The gelator precursor was designed to form nanofibers via molecular self-assembly, after cleavage by a cancer-related enzyme (matrix metalloproteinase-7, MMP-7), leading to hydrogelation. The gelator precursor exhibited remarkable cytotoxicity to five different cancer cell lines, while the precursor exhibited low cytotoxicity to normal cells. Cancer cells secrete excessive amounts of MMP-7, which converted the precursor into a supramolecular gelator prior to its uptake by the cells. Once inside the cells, the supramolecular gelator formed a gel via molecular self-assembly, exerting vital stress on the cancer cells. The present study thus describes a new drug where molecular self-assembly acts as the mechanism of cytotoxicity. PMID:25521540

Tanaka, Akiko; Fukuoka, Yuki; Morimoto, Yuka; Honjo, Takafumi; Koda, Daisuke; Goto, Masahiro; Maruyama, Tatsuo

2015-01-21

157

Antioxidant activity of leaves of Salvia species in enzyme-dependent and enzyme-independent systems of lipid peroxidation and their phenolic constituents.  

PubMed

The protective effects of eleven Salvia species native to Europe against enzyme-dependent and enzyme-independent lipid peroxidation were evaluated. The 50% aqueous methanolic extracts of the leaves of all tested plants were found to be more effective than the positive control alpha-tocopherol acid succinate. The extracts of S. candelabrum, S. ringens, S. tomentosa, S. nemorosa, and S. glutinosa displayed considerable concentration-dependent antioxidative effects that were comparable to those of the medicinal and aromatic plant S. officinalis. The concentrations of flavonoids, hydroxycinnamic acids and total phenolic compounds in each extract were quantified with the aim of clarifying the connection between activity and chemical composition. PMID:11458459

Zupkó, I; Hohmann, J; Rédei, D; Falkay, G; Janicsák, G; Máthé, I

2001-06-01

158

The influence of cell growth and enzyme activity changes on intracellular metabolite dynamics in AGE1.HN.AAT cells.  

PubMed

Optimization of bioprocesses with mammalian cells mainly concentrates on cell engineering, cell screening and medium optimization to achieve enhanced cell growth and productivity. For improving cell lines by cell engineering techniques, in-depth understandings of the regulation of metabolism and product formation as well as the resulting demand for the different medium components are needed. In this work, the relationship of cell specific growth and uptake rates and of changes in maximum in vitro enzyme activities with intracellular metabolite pools of glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, citric acid cycle and energy metabolism were determined for batch cultivations with AGE1.HN.AAT cells. Results obtained by modeling cell growth and consumption of main substrates showed that the dynamics of intracellular metabolite pools is primarily linked to the dynamics of specific glucose and glutamine uptake rates. By analyzing maximum in vitro enzyme activities we found low activities of pyruvate dehydrogenase and pyruvate carboxylase which suggest a reduced metabolite transfer into the citric acid cycle resulting in lactate release (Warburg effect). Moreover, an increase in the volumetric lactate production rate during the transition from exponential to stationary growth together with a transient accumulation of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, fructose 1-phosphate and ribose 5-phosphate point toward an upregulation of PK via FBP. Glutaminase activity was about 44-fold lower than activity of glutamine synthetase. This seemed to be sufficient for the supply of intermediates for biosynthesis but might lead to unnecessary dissipation of ATP. Taken together, our results elucidate regulation of metabolic networks of immortalized mammalian cells by changes of metabolite pools over the time course of batch cultivations. Eventually, it enables the use of cell engineering strategies to improve the availability of building blocks for biomass synthesis by increasing glucose as well as glutamine fluxes. An additional knockdown of the glutamine synthetase might help to prevent unnecessary dissipation of ATP, to yield a cell line with optimized growth characteristics and increased overall productivity. PMID:24657347

Rath, Alexander G; Rehberg, Markus; Janke, Robert; Genzel, Yvonne; Scholz, Sebastian; Noll, Thomas; Rose, Thomas; Sandig, Volker; Reichl, Udo

2014-05-20

159

Safranal ameliorates antioxidant enzymes and suppresses lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide formation in aged male rat liver.  

PubMed

Free radical production and oxidative stress are known to increase in liver during aging, and may contribute to oxidative damage. The objective of this study was to observe the changes in activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione-S-transferase, catalase), lipid peroxidation levels and serum nitric oxide occurring in livers of rats of 2, 10 and 20 months old, and to see whether these changes are restored to those of the two month old control levels rats after administration of safranal. The aged rats (10 and 20 months) were given intraperitoneal injections of safranal (0.5 mg/kg day) daily for one month. The results obtained in the present work revealed that normal aging was associated with a significant decrease in the activities of antioxidant enzymes, and an increase in lipid peroxidation in livers and nitric oxide content in serum of aging rats. The results of the present study demonstrate that safranal could be a candidate to suppress the development of age-induced damage by protecting against oxidative stress and increasing antioxidant defenses. A likely mode of action of safranal can be its activity as a hormetin by inducing mild oxidative damage which leads to the activation of antioxidative enzymes. PMID:23179288

Farahmand, Seyed Kazem; Samini, Fariborz; Samini, Mohammad; Samarghandian, Saeed

2013-02-01

160

Comparison of ROS formation and antioxidant enzymes in Cleome gynandra (C?) and Cleome spinosa (C?) under drought stress.  

PubMed

Differences between antioxidant responses to drought in C(3) and C(4) plants are rather scanty. Even, we are not aware of any research on comparative ROS formation and antioxidant enzymes in C(3) and C(4) species differing in carboxylation pathway of same genus which would be useful to prevent other differences in plant metabolism. With this aim, relative shoot growth rate, relative water content and osmotic potential, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) content and NADPH oxidase (NOX) activity, antioxidant defence system (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POX), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR) enzymes and their isoenzymes), CAT1 mRNA level, and lipid peroxidation in seedlings of Cleome spinosa (C(3)) and Cleome gynandra (C(4)) species of Cleome genus exposed to drought stress for 5 and 10 day (d) were comparatively investigated. Constitutive levels of antioxidant enzymes (except SOD) were consistently higher in C. spinosa than in C. gynandra under control conditions. CAT1 gene expression in C. spinosa was correlated with CAT activity but CAT1 gene expression in C. gynandra at 10 d did not show this correlation. Drought stress caused an increase in POX, CAT, APX and GR in both species. However, SOD activity was slightly decreased in C. gynandra while it was remained unchanged or increased on 5 and 10 d of stress in C. spinosa, respectively. Parallel to results of malon dialdehyde (MDA), H(2)O(2) content was also remarkably increased in C. spinosa as compared to C. gynandra under drought stress. These results suggest that in C. spinosa, antioxidant defence system was insufficient to suppress the increasing ROS production under stress condition. On the other hand, in C. gynandra, although its induction was lower as compared to C. spinosa, antioxidant system was able to cope with ROS formation under drought stress. PMID:22118616

Uzilday, B; Turkan, I; Sekmen, A H; Ozgur, R; Karakaya, H C

2012-01-01

161

Willow bark extract increases antioxidant enzymes and reduces oxidative stress through activation of Nrf2 in vascular endothelial cells and Caenorhabditis elegans.  

PubMed

Willow bark extract (WBE) is listed in the European Pharmacopoeia and has been traditionally used for treating fever, pain, and inflammation. Recent studies have demonstrated its clinical usefulness. This study investigated the antioxidative effects of WBE in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and Caenorhabditis elegans. WBE prevented oxidative-stress-induced cytotoxicity of HUVECs and death of C. elegans. WBE dose-dependently increased mRNA and protein expression levels of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) target genes heme oxygenase-1, ?-glutamylcysteine ligase modifier and catalytic subunits, and p62 and intracellular glutathione (GSH) in HUVECs. In the nematode C. elegans, WBE increased the expression of the gcs-1::green fluorescent protein reporter, a well-characterized target of the Nrf2 ortholog SKN-1, in a manner that was SKN-1-dependent. WBE increased intranuclear expression and DNA binding of Nrf2 and the activity of an antioxidant response element (ARE) reporter plasmid in HUVECs. WBE-induced expression of Nrf2-regulated genes and increased GSH levels in HUVECs were reduced by Nrf2 and p38 small interfering (si) RNAs and by the p38-specific inhibitor SB203580. Nrf2 siRNA reduced the cytoprotective effect of WBE against oxidative stress in HUVECs. Salicin, a major anti-inflammatory ingredient of WBE, failed to activate ARE-luciferase activity, whereas a salicin-free WBE fraction showed intensive activity. WBE induced antioxidant enzymes and prevented oxidative stress through activation of Nrf2 independent of salicin, providing a new potential explanation for the clinical usefulness of WBE. PMID:23277146

Ishikado, Atsushi; Sono, Yoko; Matsumoto, Motonobu; Robida-Stubbs, Stacey; Okuno, Aya; Goto, Masashi; King, George L; Blackwell, T Keith; Makino, Taketoshi

2013-12-01

162

Willow bark extract increases antioxidant enzymes and reduces oxidative stress through activation of Nrf2 in vascular endothelial cells and Caenorhabditis elegans  

PubMed Central

Willow bark extract (WBE) is listed in the European Pharmacopoeia and has been traditionally used for treating fever, pain, and inflammation. Recent studies have demonstrated its clinical usefulness. This study investigated the antioxidative effects of WBE in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and Caenorhabditis elegans. WBE prevented oxidative-stress-induced cytotoxicity of HUVECs and death of C. elegans. WBE dose-dependently increased mRNA and protein expression levels of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) target genes heme oxygenase-1, ?-glutamylcysteine ligase modifier and catalytic subunits, and p62 and intracellular glutathione (GSH) in HUVECs. In the nematode C. elegans, WBE increased the expression of the gcs-1::green fluorescent protein reporter, a well-characterized target of the Nrf2 ortholog SKN-1, in a manner that was SKN-1-dependent. WBE increased intranuclear expression and DNA binding of Nrf2 and the activity of an antioxidant response element (ARE) reporter plasmid in HUVECs. WBE-induced expression of Nrf2-regulated genes and increased GSH levels in HUVECs were reduced by Nrf2 and p38 small interfering (si) RNAs and by the p38-specific inhibitor SB203580. Nrf2 siRNA reduced the cytoprotective effect of WBE against oxidative stress in HUVECs. Salicin, a major anti-inflammatory ingredient of WBE, failed to activate ARE–luciferase activity, whereas a salicin-free WBE fraction showed intensive activity. WBE induced antioxidant enzymes and prevented oxidative stress through activation of Nrf2 independent of salicin, providing a new potential explanation for the clinical usefulness of WBE. PMID:23277146

Ishikado, Atsushi; Sono, Yoko; Matsumoto, Motonobu; Robida-Stubbs, Stacey; Okuno, Aya; Goto, Masashi; King, George L.; Blackwell, T. Keith; Makino, Taketoshi

2013-01-01

163

Seasonal Variations of the Activity of Antioxidant Defense Enzymes in the Red Mullet (Mullus barbatus l.) from the Adriatic Sea  

PubMed Central

This study investigated seasonal variations of antioxidant defense enzyme activities: total, manganese, copper zinc containing superoxide dismutase (Tot SOD, Mn SOD, CuZn SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase (GR) and biotransformation phase II enzyme glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity in the liver and white muscle of red mullet (Mullus barbatus). The investigations were performed in winter and spring at two localities: Near Bar (NB) and Estuary of the River Bojana (EB) in the Southern Adriatic Sea. At both sites, Mn SOD, GSH-Px, GR and GST activities decreased in the liver in spring. In the white muscle, activities of Mn SOD, GSH-Px, GR and GST in NB decreased in spring. GR decreased in spring in EB, while CAT activity was higher in spring at both sites. The results of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) based on correlations indicated a clear separation of various sampling periods for both investigated tissues and a marked difference between two seasons. Our study is the first report on antioxidant defense enzyme activities in the red mullet in the Southern Adriatic Sea. It indicates that seasonal variations of antioxidant defense enzyme activities should be used in further biomonitoring studies in fish species. PMID:20411106

Pavlovi?, Sladjan Z.; Borkovi? Miti?, Slavica S.; Radovanovi?, Tijana B.; Perendija, Branka R.; Despotovi?, Svetlana G.; Gavri?, Jelena P.; Sai?i?, Zorica S.

2010-01-01

164

An enzyme-responsive system programmed for the double release of bioactive molecules through an intracellular chemical amplification process.  

PubMed

The rise of chemical biology has led to the development of sophisticated molecular devices designed to explore and manipulate biological processes. Within this framework, we developed the first chemical system programmed for the selective internalization and subsequent enzyme-catalyzed double release of bioactive compounds inside a targeted population of cells. This system is composed of five distinct units including a targeting ligand, an enzymatic trigger, a self-immolative linker and two active compounds articulated around a chemical amplifier. Designed as such, this molecular assembly is capable in an autonomous manner to recognize a selected population of cells, penetrate into the intracellular medium through endocytosis and transform a single enzymatic activation step into the release of two active units. Demonstrating that an enzyme-catalyzed amplification process can occur spontaneously under the conditions prevailing within the cells could be an important step toward the development of innovative molecular systems for a diverse range of applications spanning drug delivery, biological sensors and diagnostics. PMID:24057011

Grinda, Marion; Legigan, Thibaut; Clarhaut, Jonathan; Peraudeau, Elodie; Tranoy-Opalinski, Isabelle; Renoux, Brigitte; Thomas, Mikaël; Guilhot, François; Papot, Sébastien

2013-11-01

165

Temperature stress, anti-oxidative enzyme activity and virus acquisition in Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In most eukaryotic systems, antioxidants provide protection when cells are exposed to stressful environmental conditions. Antioxidants, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and catalase, function in a stepwise series with SOD initially preventing oxidative damage by conve...

166

Chemical characterization, antioxidant and inhibitory effects of some marine sponges against carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes  

PubMed Central

Background More than 15,000 marine products have been described up to now; Sponges are champion producers, concerning the diversity of products that have been found. Most bioactive compounds from sponges were classified into anti-inflammatory, antitumor, immuno- or neurosurpressive, antiviral, antimalarial, antibiotic, or antifouling. Evaluation of in vitro inhibitory effects of different extracts from four marine sponges versus some antioxidants indices and carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes concerned with diabetes mellitus was studied. The chemical characterizations for the extracts of the predominating sponges; SP1 and SP3 were discussed. Methods All chemicals served in the biological study were of analytical grade and purchased from Sigma, Merck and Aldrich. All kits were the products of Biosystems (Spain), Sigma Chemical Company (USA), Biodiagnostic (Egypt). Carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes; α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and β-galactosidase (EC3.2.1.1, EC3.2.1.20, and EC3.2.1.23, respectively) were obtained from Sigma Chemical Company (USA). Results Four marine sponges; Smenospongia (SP1), Callyspongia (SP2), Niphates (SP3), and Stylissa (SP4), were collected from the Red Sea at Egyptian coasts, and taxonomically characterized. The sponges' extracts exhibited diverse inhibitory effects on oxidative stress indices and carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes in linear relationships to some extent with concentration of inhibitors (dose dependant). The extracts of sponges (3, 1, and 2) showed, respectively, potent-reducing power. Purification and Chemical characterization of sponge 1 using NMR and mass spectroscopy, recognized the existence of di-isobutyl phthalate (1), di-n-butyl phthalate (2), linoleic acid (3), ?-sitosterol (4), and cholesterol (5). Sponge 3 produced bis-[2-ethyl]-hexyl-phthylester (6) and triglyceride fatty acid ester (7). Conclusion Marine sponges are promising sources for delivering of bioactive compounds. Four marine sponges, collected from Red Sea at Egyptian coasts, were identified as Smenospongia (SP1), Callyspongia (SP2), Niphates (SP3), and Stylissa (SP4). The results demonstrated that different sponges extracts exhibited inhibitory effects on oxidative stress indices and carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes in linear relationships to some extent with concentration of inhibitors (dose dependant). The extracts of sponges (3, 1, and 2) showed, respectively, potent-reducing power. Chemical characterizations of sponges SP1 and SP3 were discussed. Based on this study, marine sponges are considered as talented sources for production of diverse and multiple biologically active compounds. PMID:22898269

2012-01-01

167

Gelatin hydrolysate from blacktip shark skin prepared using papaya latex enzyme: Antioxidant activity and its potential in model systems.  

PubMed

Antioxidant activities of gelatin hydrolysates from blacktip shark skin prepared using papaya latex enzyme with different degrees of hydrolysis (DHs: 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%) were evaluated. All antioxidant activity indices of hydrolysates increased with increasing DH (P<0.05). When gelatin hydrolysate with 40%DH was determined for its pH and thermal stability, ORAC and chelating activity remained constant or slightly increased in a wide pH range (1-9) and during heating (100°C) for 240min. It was also stable in simulated gastrointestinal tract model system. Moreover, gelatin hydrolysate at a level of 500 and 1000ppm could inhibit lipid oxidation in both ?-carotene linoleate and cooked comminuted pork model systems. Therefore, gelatin hydrolysate from blacktip shark skin (40%DH) can potentially be used as an alternative source of natural antioxidants. PMID:22953833

Kittiphattanabawon, Phanat; Benjakul, Soottawat; Visessanguan, Wonnop; Shahidi, Fereidoon

2012-12-01

168

The potential medicinal value of plants from Asteraceae family with antioxidant defense enzymes as biological targets.  

PubMed

Abstract Context: Plants and most of the plant-derived compounds have long been known for their potential pharmaceutical effects. They are well known to play an important role in the treatment of several diseases from diabetes to various types of cancers. Today most of the clinically effective pharmaceuticals are developed from plant-derived ancestors in the history of medicine. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the free radical scavenging activity and total phenolic and flavonoid contents of methanol, ethanol, and acetone extracts from flowers and leaves of Onopordum acanthium L., Carduus acanthoides L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., and Centaurea solstitialis L., all from the Asteraceae family, for investigating their potential medicinal values of biological targets that are participating in the antioxidant defense system such as catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Materials and methods: In this study, free radical scavenging activity and total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the plant samples were assayed by DPPH, Folin-Ciocalteu, and aluminum chloride colorimetric methods. Also, the effects of extracts on CAT, GST, and GPx enzyme activities were investigated. Results and discussion: The highest phenolic and flavonoid contents were detected in the acetone extract of C. acanthoides flowers, with 90.305?mg GAE/L and 185.43?mg Q/L values, respectively. The highest DPPH radical scavenging was observed with the methanol leaf extracts of C. arvense with an IC50 value of 366?ng/mL. The maximum GPx and GST enzyme inhibition activities were observed with acetone extracts from the flower of C. solstitialis with IC50 values of 79 and 232?ng/mL, respectively. PMID:25339240

Koc, Suheda; Isgor, Belgin S; Isgor, Yasemin G; Shomali Moghaddam, Naznoosh; Yildirim, Ozlem

2014-10-23

169

Apoplastic antioxidant enzyme responses to chronic free-air ozone exposure in two different ozone-sensitive wheat cultivars.  

PubMed

The effects of elevated ozone concentrations [O3] on two different ozone-sensitive wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars [Yangmai16 (Y16) and Yannong19 (Y19)] were investigated to determine the different apoplastic antioxidant mechanisms under O3-FACE (free-air controlled enrichment) condition. The results indicated that elevated [O3] (1.5 × ambient [O3]) induced increases in the production of superoxide anion (O2(-)), hydroxyl radical (HO), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and lipid peroxidation, and these results were more pronounced in the apoplasts of Y19 than in those of Y16. Apoplastic antioxidant enzymes were developmentally regulated and the effect of elevated [O3] depended on the developmental stage of wheat for both cultivars. In cultivar Y19, continuous O3 stress induced a decrease in the activity of apoplastic superoxide dismutase (SOD; EC 1.15.1.1), peroxidase (POD; EC 1.11.1.7) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX; EC 1.11.1.11) in the later growing stages, indicating Y19 appears to be the more sensitive cultivar and is prone to oxidative stress. The strategic response of antioxidant enzymes activities by Y16 in four different plant development stages (booting, flowering, filling and ripening) resulted in O3 stress-induced antioxidant defense responses, which indicated its higher tolerance to O3 stress. The same patterns of activity of apoplastic SOD and APX isozymes were observed in both Y16 and Y19 cultivars, while POD isozymes differed by cultivar in terms of the pattern of bands. The results of the present study show that O3 tolerance can be improved by regulating apoplastic ROS metabolism through the responses of apoplastic antioxidant enzymes to O3 stress in different plant development stages. PMID:24973575

Wang, Junli; Zeng, Qing; Zhu, Jianguo; Chen, Chen; Liu, Gang; Tang, Haoye

2014-09-01

170

Effects of thermal stress on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities of the predatory mite, Neoseiulus cucumeris (Acari: Phytoseiidae).  

PubMed

Changes in temperature are known to cause a variety of physiological stress responses in insects and mites. Thermal stress responses are usually associated with the increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), resulting in oxidative damage. In this study, we examined the time-related effect (durations for 1, 2, 3, and 5 h) of thermal stress conditions-i.e., relatively low (0, 5, 10, and 15 °C) or high (35, 38, 41, and 44 °C) temperatures-on the activities of antioxidant enzymes including catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POX), glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) of the predatory mite Neoseiulus cucumeris. Also the lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels of the predatory mite were measured under thermal stress conditions. The results confirmed that thermal stress results in a condition of so-called oxidative stress and the four antioxidant enzymes play an important role in combating the accumulation of ROS in N. cucumeris. CAT and POX activity changed significantly when the mites were exposed to cold and heat shock, respectively. The elevated levels of SOD and GSTs activity, expressed in a time-dependent manner, may have an important role in the process of antioxidant response to thermal stress. However, the levels of LPO in N. cucumeris were high, serving as an important signal that these antioxidant enzyme-based defense mechanisms were not always adequate to counteract the surplus ROS. Thus, we hypothesize that thermal stress, especially extreme temperatures, may contribute much to the generation of ROS in N. cucumeris, and eventually to its death. PMID:24687176

Zhang, Guo-Hao; Liu, Huai; Wang, Jin-Jun; Wang, Zi-Ying

2014-09-01

171

DNA damage and effects on antioxidative enzymes in earthworm (Eisenia fetida) induced by flumorph.  

PubMed

Flumorph is an Oomycete fungicide, which is used extensively as an effective fungicide in vegetables and fruits, but little is known about its effect on nontarget soil organisms. In the present study, biochemical responses including changes in the activity of antioxidative enzymes catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), malondialdehyde (MDA), and DNA damage induced by flumorph were investigated in earthworms (Eisenis fetida). The CAT concentrations were stimulated at 5.0 mg kg(-1) over 28 days and inhibited at 10 and 20 mg kg(-1), except 10 mg kg(-1) on days 21 and 28 compared with the controls. The overall SOD activities were inhibited except 5 mg kg(-1) on day 28 and 10 mg kg(-1) on days 7 and 14. Meanwhile, the GST activities were stimulated on day 7 and decreased on the other days in summary. The MDA activities were increased notably at 5, 10, and 20 mg kg(-1) after 14 days. Clear dose-dependent DNA damage to Eisenia fetida was observed by olive tail moments in comet assay compared with controls. The results demonstrate that flumorph induces oxidative stress and DNA damage to earthworms, and the effects may be the important mechanisms of its toxicity. PMID:24352618

Cao, Xiangyu; Yang, Chao; Liu, Jianli; Hui, Xiujuan; Yang, Wei; Li, Shuangshuang; Tian, Yanan; Cai, Leiming

2014-02-01

172

Cerium oxide nanoparticles modify the antioxidative stress enzyme activities and macromolecule composition in rice seedlings.  

PubMed

Cerium oxide nanoparticles (nCeO2) have been shown to have significant interactions in plants; however, there are limited reports on their impacts in rice (Oryza sativa). Given the widespread environmental dispersal of nCeO2, it is paramount to understand its biochemical and molecular impacts on a globally important agricultural crop, such as rice. This study was carried out to determine the impact of nCeO2 on the oxidative stress, membrane damage, antioxidant enzymes' activities, and macromolecular changes in the roots of rice seedlings. Rice seeds (medium amylose) were grown for 10 days in nCeO2 suspensions (0-500 mg L(-1)). Results showed that Ce in root seedlings increased as the external nCeO2 increased without visible signs of toxicity. Relative to the control, the 62.5 mg nCeO2 L(-1) reduced the H2O2 generation in the roots by 75%. At 125 mg nCeO2 L(-1), the roots showed enhanced lipid peroxidation and electrolyte leakage, while at 500 mg L(-1), the nCeO2 increased the H2O2 generation in roots and reduced the fatty acid content. The lignin content decreased by 20% at 500 mg nCeO2 L(-1), despite the parallel increase in H2O2 content and peroxidase activities. Synchrotron ?-XRF confirmed the presence of Ce in the vascular tissues of the roots. PMID:24266714

Rico, Cyren M; Morales, Maria I; McCreary, Ricardo; Castillo-Michel, Hiram; Barrios, Ana C; Hong, Jie; Tafoya, Alejandro; Lee, Wen-Yee; Varela-Ramirez, Armando; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

2013-12-17

173

Antioxidative enzymes and biochemical changes in paclobutrazol induced flowering in mango (M. indica) cultivars.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to examine the level of nonstructural carbohydrate, protein concentration and the activity of antioxidative enzymes viz. catalase and peroxidase in buds of different stages (Stages: I-before flower bud differentiation, II-flower bud differentiation, III-bud burst, IV-panicle elongation) and their adjacent leaves of biennial (Chausa, Dashehari, Langra) and the regular (Amrapali) cultivars. In the present study, Amrapali being the regular cultivar, contained higher levels of total and reducing sugar (4.49 to 12.67 mg g(-1) f.wt.) and protein content (1.90 to 6.78 mg g(-1)) in all the developmental stages of flowering as compared to biennial cultivars. However, in leaves gradual reduction in sugar and protein content was noticed in the advance stages of flowering. Paclobutrazol (2-8 g.a.i.), a flower inducing chemical, enhanced the catalase and peroxidase activities over the untreated control and maximum enhancement was recorded at 8 g.a.i. On the other hand, decreasing trend of protein with paclobutrazol treatment was recorded in adjacent leaves of flower buds. The results implicated the possible role of catalase and peroxidase and other associated biochemical changes in paclobutrazol induced flowering in mango. PMID:25522506

Saxena, Pooja; Singh, V K; Pathak, Neelam

2014-11-01

174

Parmotrema tinctorum exhibits antioxidant, antiglycation and inhibitory activities against aldose reductase and carbohydrate digestive enzymes: an in vitro study.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the inhibitory potential of ethyl acetate extract of Parmotrema tinctorum (PTEE), an edible lichen, against aldose reductase (AR) and carbohydrate digestive enzymes such as ?-glucosidase and ?-amylase. It was also screened for antioxidant activities by using DPPH, ABTS, superoxide and hydroxyl radical-scavenging assays. PTEE exhibited ?-glucosidase, ?-amylase and AR inhibition along with significant antiglycation potential with an estimated IC50 value of 58.45 ± 1.24, 587.74 ± 3.27, 139.28 ± 2.6 and 285.78 ± 1.287 ?g/mL, respectively. Antioxidant activity of PTEE against DPPH (IC50 396.83 ± 2.98 ?g/mL), ABTS (151.34 ± 1.79 ?g/mL), superoxide (30.29 ± 1.17 ?g/mL) and hydroxyl (35.42 ± 1.22 ?g/mL) radicals suggests the antioxidant potential of P. tinctorum. Significant antioxidant activity and inhibitory potential against carbohydrate digestive enzymes and AR suggest that P. tinctorum can be developed as functional food/nutraceuticals for diabetes after detailed study. PMID:24735436

Raj, P Salin; Prathapan, A; Sebastian, Jomon; Antony, Antu K; Riya, Mariam Philip; Rani, M R Preetha; Biju, H; Priya, S; Raghu, K G

2014-01-01

175

Longevity and antioxidant enzymes, non-enzymatic antioxidants and oxidative stress in the vertebrate lung: a comparative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been proposed that antioxidants can be longevity determinants in animals. However, no comprehensive study has been conducted to try to relate free radicals with maximum life span. This study compares the lung tissue of various vertebrate species — amphibia, mammals and birds — showing very different and well known maximum life spans and life energy potentials. The lung

R. Pérez-Campo; M. López-Torres; C. Rojas; S. Cadenas; G. Barja

1994-01-01

176

Iron uptake and increased intracellular enzyme activity follow host lactoferrin binding by Trichomonas vaginalis receptors  

SciTech Connect

Lactoferrin acquisition and iron uptake by pathogenic Trichomonas vaginalis was examined. Saturation binding kinetics were obtained for trichomonads using increasing amounts of radioiodinated lactoferrin, while no significant binding by transferrin under similar conditions was achieved. Only unlabeled lactoferrin successfully and stoichiometrically competed with 125I-labeled lactoferrin binding. Time course studies showed maximal lactoferrin binding by 30 min at 37 degrees C. Data suggest no internalization of bound lactoferrin. The accumulation of radioactivity in supernatants after incubation of T. vaginalis with 125I-labeled lactoferrin and washing in PBS suggested the presence of low affinity sites for this host macromolecule. Scatchard analysis indicated the presence of 90,000 receptors per trichomonad with an apparent Kd of 1.0 microM. Two trichomonad lactoferrin binding proteins were identified by affinity chromatography and immunoprecipitation of receptor-ligand complexes. A 30-fold accumulation of iron was achieved using 59Fe-lactoferrin when compared to the steady state concentration of bound lactoferrin. The activity of pyruvate/ferrodoxin oxidoreductase, an enzyme involved in trichomonal energy metabolism, increased more than sixfold following exposure of the parasites to lactoferrin, demonstrating a biologic response to the receptor-mediated binding of lactoferrin. These data suggest that T. vaginalis possesses specific receptors for biologically relevant host proteins and that these receptors contribute to the metabolic processes of the parasites.

Peterson, K.M.; Alderete, J.F.

1984-08-01

177

Effects of ghrelin on protein expression of antioxidative enzymes and iNOS in the rat liver  

PubMed Central

Introduction We investigated the effects of ghrelin on protein expression of the liver antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutases (SODs), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR), nuclear factor ?B (NF?B) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Furthermore, we aimed to investigate whether extracellular regulated protein kinase (ERK1/2) and protein kinase B (Akt) are involved in ghrelin-regulated liver antioxidant enzymes and iNOS protein expression. Material and methods Male Wistar rats were treated with ghrelin (0.3 nmol/5 µl) injected into the lateral cerebral ventricle every 24 h for 5 days, and 2 h after the last treatment the animals were sacrificed and the liver excised. The Western blot method was used to determine expression of antioxidant enzymes, iNOS, phosphorylation of Akt, ERK1/2 and nuclear factor ?B (NF?B) subunits 50 and 65. Results There was significantly higher protein expression of CuZnSOD (p < 0.001), MnSOD (p < 0.001), CAT (p < 0.001), GPx, (p < 0.001), and GR (p < 0.01) in the liver isolated from ghrelin-treated animals compared with control animals. In contrast, ghrelin significantly (p < 0.01) reduced protein expression of iNOS. In addition, phosphorylation of NF?B subunits p65 and p50 was significantly (p < 0.001 for p65; p < 0.05 for p50) reduced by ghrelin when compared with controls. Phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and of Akt was significantly higher in ghrelin-treated than in control animals (p < 0.05 for ERK1/2; p < 0.01 for Akt). Conclusions The results show that activation of Akt and ERK1/2 is involved in ghrelin-mediated regulation of protein expression of antioxidant enzymes and iNOS in the rat liver. PMID:25276168

Dobutovic, Branislava; Sudar, Emina; Tepavcevic, Snezana; Djordjevic, Jelena; Djordjevic, Ana; Radojcic, Marija

2014-01-01

178

Phospholipid, Oleic Acid Micelles and Dietary Olive Oil Influence the Lutein Absorption and Activity of Antioxidant Enzymes in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports on the results of repeated gavages and dietary feeding of lutein dispersed either in phospholipids or fatty\\u000a acid micelles or vegetable oils and the effects on lutein bioavailability and antioxidant enzymes in rats. For the gavage\\u000a study, rats (n = 5\\/group) were intubated with lutein solubilized either in oleic acid (OLA, 18:1n-9) or linoleic acid (LNA, 18:2n-6) or\\u000a phosphatidylcholine

R. Lakshminarayana; M. Raju; M. N. Keshava Prakash; V. Baskaran

2009-01-01

179

Selenium modulates the activities of antioxidant enzymes, osmotic homeostasis and promotes the growth of sorrel seedlings under salt stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using physiological assays coupled with ultrathin tissue sections, we investigated the impacts of exogenous selenium (Se) on the growth, antioxidant enzymes, osmotic regulation and ultrastructural modifications of leaf mesophyll and root tip cells of 100 mM NaCl-stressed sorrel (Rumex patientia × R. tianshanicus) seedlings. At low concentrations (1–5 µM), Se tended to stimulate the growth, the activities of superoxide dismutase and peroxidase

Lingan Kong; Mao Wang; Dongling Bi

2005-01-01

180

Influence of arbuscular mycorrhiza on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activity of maize plants under temperature stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus, Glomus etunicatum, on characteristics of growth, membrane lipid peroxidation, osmotic adjustment, and activity of antioxidant enzymes in leaves\\u000a and roots of maize (Zea mays L.) plants was studied in pot culture under temperature stress. The maize plants were placed in a sand and soil mixture under\\u000a normal temperature for 6 weeks and then

Xiancan Zhu; Fengbin Song; Hongwen Xu

2010-01-01

181

Pro-oxidant activity of aluminum in the rat hippocampus: gene expression of antioxidant enzymes after melatonin administration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aluminum (Al)-induced pro-oxidant activity and the protective role of exogenous melatonin, as well as the mRNA levels of some antioxidant enzymes, were determined in the hippocampi of rats following administration of Al and\\/or melatonin. Two groups of male rats were intraperitoneally injected with Al (as Al lactate) or melatonin only, at doses of 7 and 10 mg\\/kg\\/day, respectively, for 11

Mercedes Gómez; José L. Esparza; M. Rosa Nogués; Montserrat Giralt; Maria Cabré; José L. Domingo

2005-01-01

182

Effects of feed supplemented with selenite or Se-yeast on antioxidant enzyme activities in lamb tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activities of antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) were examined in liver, kidney cortex and heart tissues of lambs fed diets supplemented with inorganic (sodium selenite) and an organic (Se-yeast) form of selenium. Additional selenium resulted in a significant increase of the Se content in the examined tissues in

A. Sobeková; K. Holovská; V. Lenártová; P. Javorský; K. Boldižárová

2006-01-01

183

Chemical stress induced by heliotrope (Heliotropium europaeum L.) allelochemicals and increased activity of antioxidant enzymes.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to evaluate the allelopathic potential of heliotrope on some biochemical processes of dodder. The preliminary experiments revealed that the effect of aqueous extract of leaves of heliotrope is higher than its seeds and roots. So, the aqueous extract of leaves was used in remaining experiments. Leaf extracts of 5 g powder per 100 mL H2O inhibited the germination of dodder seeds up to 95% and that of radish up to 100%. While, the aqueous extract of vine leaves which is a non-allelopathic plant did not have any inhibitory effect on these seeds. Vine leaf was used as a control to show that the inhibitory effect of heliotrope is due to an inhibitory compound but not due to the concentration. The leaf extract of heliotrope at 0.0, 0.1, 1.0, 2, 3, 4 and 5 g powder per 100 mL H2O reduced the radish seedling growth from 14 cm to about 0.5 cm and that of dodder from 7.5 cm to about 0.25 cm. The effects of heliotrope allelochemicals on some physiological and biochemical processes of radish was also Investigated. The activity of auxin oxidase increased in leaves and roots of radish. Suggesting that the reduced radish growth is due to the decreased active auxin levels in its leaves and roots. The activity of alpha-amylase was reduced, so reduction of starch degradation and lack of respiratory energy is the prime reason of germination inhibition in dodder and radish seeds. The level of soluble sugars increased. This is an indication of reduction of the activity of some respiratory enzymes and reduced consumption of these sugars. Proline levels were also increased, indicating that, the chemical stress is induced by leaf extract. Finally, the activities of GPX and CAT which are antioxidant enzymes were increased, along with increased extract concentration. These finding shows that the chemical stress induced by leaf extract produces super oxide (O2*) and H2O2, which is neutralized to H2O and O2 by these enzymes. PMID:18814656

Abdulghader, Kalantar; Nojavan, Majid; Naghshbandi, Nabat

2008-03-15

184

Effects of chronic swimming training and oestrogen therapy on coronary vascular reactivity and expression of antioxidant enzymes in ovariectomized rats.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of swimming training (SW) and oestrogen replacement therapy (ERT) on coronary vascular reactivity and the expression of antioxidant enzymes in ovariectomized rats. Animals were randomly assigned to one of five groups: sham (SH), ovariectomized (OVX), ovariectomized with E2 (OE2), ovariectomized with exercise (OSW), and ovariectomized with E2 plus exercise (OE2+SW). The SW protocol (5×/week, 60 min/day) and/or ERT were conducted for 8 weeks; the vasodilator response to bradykinin was analysed (Langendorff Method), and the expression of antioxidant enzymes (SOD-1 and 2, catalase) and eNOS and iNOS were evaluated by Western blotting. SW and ERT improved the vasodilator response to the highest dose of bradykinin (1000 ng). However, in the OSW group, this response was improved at 100, 300 and 1000 ng when compared to OVX (p<0,05). The SOD-1 expression was increased in all treated/trained groups compared to the OVX group (p<0,05), and catalase expression increased in the OSW group only. In the trained group, eNOS increased vs. OE2, and iNOS decreased vs. SHAM (p<0,05). SW may represent an alternative to ERT by improving coronary vasodilation, most likely by increasing antioxidant enzyme and eNOS expression and augmenting NO bioavailability. PMID:23755145

Claudio, Erick R G; Endlich, Patrick W; Santos, Roger L; Moysés, Margareth R; Bissoli, Nazaré S; Gouvęa, Sônia A; Silva, Josiane F; Lemos, Virginia S; Abreu, Glaucia R

2014-01-01

185

What is the main driver of ageing in long-lived winter honeybees: antioxidant enzymes, innate immunity, or vitellogenin?  

PubMed

To date five different theories compete in explaining the biological mechanisms of senescence or ageing in invertebrates. Physiological, genetical, and environmental mechanisms form the image of ageing in individuals and groups. Social insects, especially the honeybee Apis mellifera, present exceptional model systems to study developmentally related ageing. The extremely high phenotypic plasticity for life expectancy resulting from the female caste system provides a most useful system to study open questions with respect to ageing. Here, we used long-lived winter worker honeybees and measured transcriptional changes of 14 antioxidative enzyme, immunity, and ageing-related (insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling pathway) genes at two time points during hibernation. Additionally, worker bees were challenged with a bacterial infection to test ageing- and infection-associated immunity changes. Gene expression levels for each group of target genes revealed that ageing had a much higher impact than the bacterial challenge, notably for immunity-related genes. Antimicrobial peptide and antioxidative enzyme genes were significantly upregulated in aged worker honeybees independent of bacterial infections. The known ageing markers vitellogenin and IlP-1 were opposed regulated with decreasing vitellogenin levels during ageing. The increased antioxidative enzyme and antimicrobial peptide gene expression may contribute to a retardation of senescence in long-lived hibernating worker honeybees. PMID:24077437

Aurori, Cristian M; Buttstedt, Anja; Dezmirean, Daniel S; M?rghita?, Liviu A; Moritz, Robin F A; Erler, Silvio

2014-06-01

186

Evaluation of the Inhibition of Carbohydrate Hydrolyzing Enzymes, the Antioxidant Activity, and the Polyphenolic Content of Citrus limetta Peel Extract  

PubMed Central

Type 2 diabetes mellitus is one of the most frequent causes of death in Mexico, characterized by chronic hyperglycemia. One alternative strategy for this metabolic abnormality is inhibiting the enzymes responsible for the metabolism of carbohydrates. We evaluated whether the aqueous Citrus limetta peel extract could inhibit the metabolism of carbohydrates. We found that this extract inhibited primarily the enzyme ?-amylase by 49.6% at a concentration of 20?mg/mL and to a lesser extent the enzyme ?-glucosidase with an inhibition of 28.2% at the same concentration. This inhibition is likely due to the high polyphenol content in the Citrus limetta peel (19.1?mg?GAE/g). Antioxidant activity of the Citrus limetta peel demonstrated dose-dependent antioxidant activity, varying from 6.5% at 1.125?mg/mL to 42.5% at 20?mg/mL. The study of these polyphenolic compounds having both antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activities may provide a new approach to the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:25587557

Flores-Fernandez, José Miguel; Owolabi, Moses S.; Villanueva-Rodríguez, Socorro

2014-01-01

187

Toxic responses and antioxidative enzymes activity of Scenedesmus obliquus exposed to fenhexamid and atrazine, alone and in mixture.  

PubMed

Laboratory studies were conducted to determine the effects of different concentrations of fenhexamid and atrazine (25, 50 and 100 µg L(-1)) on growth and oxidative stress on Scenedesmus obliquus (microalgae) after exposure for 24, 48, and 96 h. In addition, residues of fenhexamid and atrazine were determined in the culture medium after 96 h; 52%, 44% and 43% of fenhexamid remained in the medium for the lowest, middle and highest concentrations, respectively. Atrazine concentration decreased significantly in the medium with time. The reduction was faster with the lowest concentration (-53%), than in the highest concentration (-46%), while it was intermediate with 50 µg L(-1) (-47%). The antioxidative enzyme activities were used as biomarkers to evaluate the toxic effects of fenhexamid and atrazine on the microalgae. Enzymatic activities were measured in the presence of each compound alone after 24, 48 and 96 h and also in mixture after 24h exposure. The results showed that fenhexamid and atrazine induced antioxidative enzyme activities (GST, CAT and GR) at different concentrations. Catalase activities (CAT) in both pesticides treated-algae were significantly increased. Additionally, an increase in gulathione-S-transferase (GST) was observed in algae after 24, 48 and 96 h of exposure to both fenhexamid and atrazine. Antioxidative enzymes in fenhexamid and atrazine mixture treatment showed an antagonistic interaction after 24h of exposure in algae. PMID:23796667

Mofeed, Jelan; Mosleh, Yahia Y

2013-09-01

188

Antioxidant enzymes in the developing lungs of egg-laying and metamorphosing vertebrates.  

PubMed

The activities of the pulmonary antioxidant enzymes (AOE), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase, increase in the final 10-20 % of gestation in the mammalian lung, to protect the lung from attack by increasing levels of reactive oxygen species at birth. Whether the increase occurs as a normal 'preparation for birth', i.e. by a genetically determined mechanism, or in response to increased levels of oxygen, i.e. in response to the environment, is not completely understood. We examined the activities of catalase, SOD and GPx in the developing lungs of two oviparous vertebrate species, the chicken (Gallus gallus) and an agamid lizard (Pogona vitticeps), and in a metamorphosing vertebrate, the anuran Limnodynastes terraereginae. During in ovo development embryos come into contact with higher levels of environmental oxygen, and at a much earlier stage of development, compared with the intrauterine development of mammals. Furthermore, in metamorphosing frogs, the lungs are inflated at an early stage to aid in buoyancy, although the gas-exchange function only develops much later upon final metamorphosis. Here, we hypothesise that the activity of the AOE will be elevated relatively much earlier during development in both oviparous and metamorphosing vertebrates. We also examined the effect of mild hypoxia (17 % oxygen) on the development of the pulmonary AOE in the chicken, to test the hypothesis that these enzymes are responsive to environmental oxygen. In the normoxic lung of both Gallus gallus and Pogona vitticeps, catalase and GPx activities were significantly increased in late incubation, whereas SOD activity decreased in late incubation. Catalase and SOD activities were virtually identical in hypoxic and normoxic embryos of the chicken, but GPx activity was significantly affected by hypoxia. In the developing frog, the activities of all enzymes were high at stage 30, demonstrating that the system is active before the lung displays any significant gas-exchange function. SOD and GPx activity did not increase further with development. Catalase activity increased after stage 40, presumably correlating with an increase in air-breathing. In summary, catalase expression in the two oviparous vertebrates appears to be completely under genetic control as the activity of this enzyme does not change in response to changes in oxygen tension. However, in tadpoles, catalase may be responsive to environmental oxygen. SOD also appears to follow a largely genetically determined program in all species. Under normoxic conditions, GPx appears to follow a genetically determined developmental pattern, but this enzyme demonstrated the largest capacity to respond to environmental oxygen fluctuations. In conclusion, it appears that the AOE are differentially regulated. Furthermore, the AOE in the different species appear to have evolved different levels of dependency on environmental variables. Finally, the late developmental increase in AOE activity seen in mammals is not as pronounced in oviparous and metamorphosing vertebrates. PMID:11807115

Starrs, A P; Orgeig, S; Daniels, C B; Davies, M; Lopatko, O V

2001-11-01

189

Epigallocatechin-3-gallate modulates antioxidant defense enzyme expression in murine submandibular and pancreatic exocrine gland cells and human HSG cells  

PubMed Central

Sjogren’s syndrome (SS) and type 1 diabetes are prevalent autoimmune diseases in the United States. We reported previously that Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) prevented and delayed the onset of autoimmune disease in NOD mice, a model for both Sjogren’s syndrome (SS) and type 1 diabetes. EGCG also normalized the levels of proteins related to DNA repair and antioxidant activity in NOD.B10.Sn-H2 mice, a model for primary SS, prior to disease onset. The current study examined the effect of EGCG on the expression of antioxidant enzymes in the submandibular salivary gland and the pancreas of NOD mice and cultured human salivary gland acinar cells. NOD mice consuming 0.2% EGCG daily dissolved in water showed higher protein levels of peroxiredoxin 6 (PRDX6), a major antioxidant defense protein, and catalase, while the untreated NOD mice exhibited significantly lowered levels of PRDX6. Similarly, pancreas samples from water-fed NOD mice were depleted in PRDX6 and superoxide dismutase, while EGCG-fed mice showed high levels of these antioxidant enzymes. In cultured HSG cells EGCG increased PRDX6 levels significantly, and this was inhibited by p38 and JNK inhibitors, suggesting the EGCG-mediated increase in protective antioxidant capacity is regulated in part through MAPK pathway signaling. This mechanism may explain the higher levels of PRDX6 found in EGCG-fed NOD mice. These preclinical observations warrant future preclinical and clinical studies to determine whether EGCG or green tea polyphenols could be used in novel preventive and therapeutic approaches against autoimmune diseases and salivary dysfunction involving oxidative stress. PMID:24444391

Dickinson, Douglas; DeRossi, Scott; Yu, Hongfang; Thomas, Cristina; Kragor, Chris; Paquin, Becky; Hahn, Emily; Ohno, Seiji; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Hsu, Stephen

2015-01-01

190

AmiA is a penicillin target enzyme with dual activity in the intracellular pathogen Chlamydia pneumoniae  

PubMed Central

Intracellular Chlamydiaceae do not need to resist osmotic challenges and a functional cell wall was not detected in these pathogens. Nevertheless, a recent study revealed evidence for circular peptidoglycan-like structures in Chlamydiaceae and penicillin inhibits cytokinesis, a phenomenon known as the chlamydial anomaly. Here, by characterizing a cell wall precursor-processing enzyme, we provide insights into the mechanisms underlying this mystery. We show that AmiA from Chlamydia pneumoniae separates daughter cells in an Escherichia coli amidase mutant. Contrary to homologues from free-living bacteria, chlamydial AmiA uses lipid II as a substrate and has dual activity, acting as an amidase and a carboxypeptidase. The latter function is penicillin sensitive and assigned to a penicillin-binding protein motif. Consistent with the lack of a regulatory domain in AmiA, chlamydial CPn0902, annotated as NlpD, is a carboxypeptidase, rather than an amidase activator, which is the case for E. coli NlpD. Functional conservation of AmiA implicates a role in cytokinesis and host response modulation. PMID:24953137

Klöckner, Anna; Otten, Christian; Derouaux, Adeline; Vollmer, Waldemar; Bühl, Henrike; De Benedetti, Stefania; Münch, Daniela; Josten, Michaele; Mölleken, Katja; Sahl, Hans-Georg; Henrichfreise, Beate

2014-01-01

191

AmiA is a penicillin target enzyme with dual activity in the intracellular pathogen Chlamydia pneumoniae.  

PubMed

Intracellular Chlamydiaceae do not need to resist osmotic challenges and a functional cell wall was not detected in these pathogens. Nevertheless, a recent study revealed evidence for circular peptidoglycan-like structures in Chlamydiaceae and penicillin inhibits cytokinesis, a phenomenon known as the chlamydial anomaly. Here, by characterizing a cell wall precursor-processing enzyme, we provide insights into the mechanisms underlying this mystery. We show that AmiA from Chlamydia pneumoniae separates daughter cells in an Escherichia coli amidase mutant. Contrary to homologues from free-living bacteria, chlamydial AmiA uses lipid II as a substrate and has dual activity, acting as an amidase and a carboxypeptidase. The latter function is penicillin sensitive and assigned to a penicillin-binding protein motif. Consistent with the lack of a regulatory domain in AmiA, chlamydial CPn0902, annotated as NlpD, is a carboxypeptidase, rather than an amidase activator, which is the case for E. coli NlpD. Functional conservation of AmiA implicates a role in cytokinesis and host response modulation. PMID:24953137

Klöckner, Anna; Otten, Christian; Derouaux, Adeline; Vollmer, Waldemar; Bühl, Henrike; De Benedetti, Stefania; Münch, Daniela; Josten, Michaele; Mölleken, Katja; Sahl, Hans-Georg; Henrichfreise, Beate

2014-01-01

192

Tempol, an Intracellular Antioxidant, Inhibits Tissue Factor Expression, Attenuates Dendritic Cell Function, and Is Partially Protective in a Murine Model of Cerebral Malaria  

PubMed Central

Background The role of intracellular radical oxygen species (ROS) in pathogenesis of cerebral malaria (CM) remains incompletely understood. Methods and Findings We undertook testing Tempol—a superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetic and pleiotropic intracellular antioxidant—in cells relevant to malaria pathogenesis in the context of coagulation and inflammation. Tempol was also tested in a murine model of CM induced by Plasmodium berghei Anka infection. Tempol was found to prevent transcription and functional expression of procoagulant tissue factor in endothelial cells (ECs) stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This effect was accompanied by inhibition of IL-6, IL-8, and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1) production. Tempol also attenuated platelet aggregation and human promyelocytic leukemia HL60 cells oxidative burst. In dendritic cells, Tempol inhibited LPS-induced production of TNF-?, IL-6, and IL-12p70, downregulated expression of co-stimulatory molecules, and prevented antigen-dependent lymphocyte proliferation. Notably, Tempol (20 mg/kg) partially increased the survival of mice with CM. Mechanistically, treated mice had lowered plasma levels of MCP-1, suggesting that Tempol downmodulates EC function and vascular inflammation. Tempol also diminished blood brain barrier permeability associated with CM when started at day 4 post infection but not at day 1, suggesting that ROS production is tightly regulated. Other antioxidants—such as ?-phenyl N-tertiary-butyl nitrone (PBN; a spin trap), MnTe-2-PyP and MnTBAP (Mn-phorphyrin), Mitoquinone (MitoQ) and Mitotempo (mitochondrial antioxidants), M30 (an iron chelator), and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG; polyphenol from green tea) did not improve survival. By contrast, these compounds (except PBN) inhibited Plasmodium falciparum growth in culture with different IC50s. Knockout mice for SOD1 or phagocyte nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (gp91phox–/–) or mice treated with inhibitors of SOD (diethyldithiocarbamate) or NADPH oxidase (diphenyleneiodonium) did not show protection or exacerbation for CM. Conclusion Results with Tempol suggest that intracellular ROS contribute, in part, to CM pathogenesis. Therapeutic targeting of intracellular ROS in CM is discussed. PMID:24586264

Francischetti, Ivo M. B.; Gordon, Emile; Bizzarro, Bruna; Gera, Nidhi; Andrade, Bruno B.; Oliveira, Fabiano; Ma, Dongying; Assumpçăo, Teresa C. F.; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Pena, Mirna; Qi, Chen-Feng; Diouf, Ababacar; Moretz, Samuel E.; Long, Carole A.; Ackerman, Hans C.; Pierce, Susan K.; Sá-Nunes, Anderson; Waisberg, Michael

2014-01-01

193

Schisandra Chinensis Baillon regulates the gene expression of phase II antioxidant/detoxifying enzymes in hepatic damage induced rats  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES This study investigated the antioxidant activities and hepatoprotective effects of Schisandra chinensis Baillon extract (SCE) against tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced oxidative hepatic damage in rats. MATERIALS/METHODS Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were pretreated with SCE (300, 600, and 1,200 mg/kg BW) or saline once daily for 14 consecutive days. On day 14, each animal, except those belonging to the normal control group, were injected with t-BHP (0.8 mmol/kg BW/i.p.), and all of the rats were sacrificed 16 h after t-BHP injection. RESULTS Although no significant differences in AST and ALT levels were observed among the TC and SCE groups, the high-dose SCE group showed a decreasing tendency compared to the TC group. However, erythrocyte SOD activity showed a significant increase in the low-dose SCE group compared with the TC group. On the other hand, no significant differences in hepatic total glutathione (GSH) level, glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were observed among the TC and SCE groups. Hepatic histopathological evaluation revealed that pretreatment with SCE resulted in reduced t-BHP-induced incidence of lesions, such as neutrophil infiltration, swelling of liver cells, and necrosis. In particular, treatment with a high dose of SCE resulted in induction of phase II antioxidant/detoxifying enzyme expression, such as glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC). CONCLUSIONS Based on these results, we conclude that SCE exerts protective effects against t-BHP induced oxidative hepatic damage through the reduction of neutrophil infiltration, swelling of liver cells, and necrosis. In addition, SCE regulates the gene expression of phase II antioxidant/detoxifying enzymes independent of hepatic antioxidant enzyme activity. PMID:24944771

Jang, Han I; Do, Gyeong-Min; Lee, Hye Min; Ok, Hyang Mok; Shin, Jae-Ho

2014-01-01

194

Decreased glutathione levels and impaired antioxidant enzyme activities in drug-naive first-episode schizophrenic patients  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to determine glutathione levels and antioxidant enzyme activities in the drug-naive first-episode patients with schizophrenia in comparison with healthy control subjects. Methods It was a case-controlled study carried on twenty-three patients (20 men and 3 women, mean age = 29.3 ± 7.5 years) recruited in their first-episode of schizophrenia and 40 healthy control subjects (36 men and 9 women, mean age = 29.6 ± 6.2 years). In patients, the blood samples were obtained prior to the initiation of neuroleptic treatments. Glutathione levels: total glutathione (GSHt), reduced glutathione (GSHr) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and antioxidant enzyme activities: superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) were determined by spectrophotometry. Results GSHt and reduced GSHr were significantly lower in patients than in controls, whereas GSSG was significantly higher in patients. GPx activity was significantly higher in patients compared to control subjects. CAT activity was significantly lower in patients, whereas the SOD activity was comparable to that of controls. Conclusion This is a report of decreased plasma levels of GSHt and GSHr, and impaired antioxidant enzyme activities in drug-naive first-episode patients with schizophrenia. The GSH deficit seems to be implicated in psychosis, and may be an important indirect biomarker of oxidative stress in schizophrenia early in the course of illness. Finally, our results provide support for further studies of the possible role of antioxidants as neuroprotective therapeutic strategies for schizophrenia from early stages. PMID:21810251

2011-01-01

195

Calli cultures from Abies equi-trojani (Aschers et Sinten) and changes in antioxidant defense system enzymes.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to explain difficulties of indirect regeneration of forest trees in tissue culture conditions. For this purpose, changes of antioxidant defense system enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) activities were determined during calli formation on young apical shoots of Abies equi-trojani (Aschers et Sinten). Young apical shoots were collected from naturally growing trees and cultured on two different media; Murashige and Skoog (MS) and McCown Woody plant medium (WPM) supplemented with growth regulators benzyl amino purine (BAP), 2,4-dichloro phenoxy acetic acid (2.4-D), kinetin (Kn) in various concentrations for callus induction. WPM media containing 1 mg ml(-1) BAP and 1 mg ml(-1) 2,4-D gave the best calli induction ratio (74%) between tested combinations. POD and SOD enzyme activities were measured both on young shoot explants and 10 day-old calli derived from these explants. POD and SOD enzyme activities were higher being 81.02% and 74.82%, respectively on calli when compared to shoots. The results showed that culture stress tolerated with increased antioxidant enzyme activities could be considered as protective physiological responses in calli cells. PMID:19297976

Arican, Ercan; Albayrak, Gulruh; Gozukirmizi, Nermin

2008-11-01

196

The effect of nitrobenzene on antioxidative enzyme activity and DNA damage in tobacco seedling leaf cells.  

PubMed

Nitrobenzene, although widely used in industry, is a highly toxic environmental pollutant. To evaluate the toxicity of nitrobenzene to tobacco seedlings, seedlings were exposed to varying concentrations of nitrobenzene (0-100 mg/L) for 24 h. The contents of reactive oxygen species (hydrogen peroxide [H(2)O(2)] and superoxide anion [O2(-)]) and the activities of antioxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase [SOD], guaiacol peroxidase [POD], and catalase [CAT]) were measured in leaf cells. Damage to DNA was assessed by single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay). Compared with the control, the contents of H(2) O(2) increased significantly with nitrobenzene concentrations ranging from 5 to 100 mg/L. Activity of SOD was induced by 50 to 100 mg/L of nitrobenzene but not by 10 to 25 mg/L. Activity of POD was stimulated by nitrobenzene at 10 to 50 mg/L but inhibited at 100 mg/L. Activity of CAT was increased significantly only by 100 mg/L. Lipid peroxidation increased with 50 to 100 mg/L, which indicated that nitrobenzene induced oxidative stress in tobacco leaf cells. Comet assay of the leaf cells showed a significant enhancement of the head DNA (H-DNA), tail DNA (T-DNA), and olive tail moment (OTM) with increasing doses of nitrobenzene. The values of H-DNA, T-DNA, and OTM exhibited significant differences from the control when stress concentrations were higher than 10 mg/L. The results indicated that nitrobenzene caused oxidative stress, which may be one of the mechanisms through which nitrobenzene induces DNA damage. PMID:22714570

Si, Liang; Guo, Changhong; Cao, Yuwei; Cong, Wenwen; Yuan, Zening

2012-09-01

197

The effect of dietary-induced obesity on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymes and total plasma antioxidant capacity.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to examine the effect of dietary-induced obesity on some parameters of oxidative stress and antioxidant defence. The studies were performed in adult male Wistar rats. Control group received normal laboratory chow (62% calories as carbohydrates, 26% protein and 12% fat). High-calorie high-fat group (HCHF) was fed standard chow supplemented with lard (48% calories as carbohydrates, 20% as protein and 32% as fat) and high-calorie normal-fat group (HCNF) received standard chow and liquid diet containing sucrose, glucose, whole milk powder and soybean powder (60% carbohydrates, 26% protein, 14% fat). After 8 weeks body weight of HCHF and HCNF-fed rats was higher than body weight of controls by 9.3% and 15.2%, respectively. Plasma concentration of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) increased in these groups by 43% and 52%, respectively. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) decreased in HCHF group by 47.5% and in HCNF group by 21.1%. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in the blood tended to increase in both experimental groups but this was not significant. Plasma total antioxidant status (TAS) measuring the combined free radicals scavenging ability of nonenzymatic antioxidants was lower in HCHF and in HCNF group compared to control (-8.8% and -9%, respectively). The major observed lipid abnormalities were hypertriglyceridemia in HCHF group and decreased HDL-cholesterol in HCNF group. TBARS correlated negatively with SOD (r = -0.84, p < 0.001) and with TAS (r = -0.47, p < 0.05). These results indicate that obesity leads to oxidative stress which can contribute to obesity-associated diseases such as atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus and arterial hypertension. PMID:11220496

Be?towski, J; Wójcicka, G; Górny, D; Marciniak, A

2000-12-01

198

Function of antioxidant enzymes and metabolites during maturation of pea fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

In plant cells, antioxidants keep reactive oxygen species at low concentrations, avoiding oxidative damage while allowing them to play crucial functions in signal transduction. However, little is known about the role of antioxidants during fruit maturation, especially in legumes. Snap pea (Pisum sativum) plants, which have edible fruits, were grown under nodulating and non-nodulating conditions. Fruits were classified in three

Manuel A. Matamoros; Jorge Loscos; Karl-Josef Dietz; Pedro M. Aparicio-Tejo; Manuel Becana

2010-01-01

199

Modulation of the endogenous antioxidants paraoxonase-1 and urate by pesticide exposure and genetic variants of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the association between pesticide exposure in farmworkers and plasma levels of the endogenous antioxidants urate and paraoxonase-1 (PON1) enzyme activities (paraoxonase, arylesterase and diazoxonase, three substrate-specific assays for measuring PON1 function) by using generalized estimating equations (GEEs). Decreases in plasma and erythrocyte cholinesterases (BChE and AChE, respectively) were used as biomarkers of pesticide exposure. We also assessed the contribution of genetic polymorphisms of the pesticide-metabolising enzymes PON1, glutathione S-transferases (GST) and cholinesterase variants (BCHE) on plasma levels of endogenous antioxidants and potential gene-environment interactions. A dual effect was observed on paraoxonase depending on the pattern of pesticide exposure. Thus, exposure to anticholinesterase pesticides was associated with decreased paraoxonase activity and urate levels whereas long-term pesticide exposure showed an association with increased paraoxonase activity. Significant interactions were observed between BChE activity and PON1 regulatory region polymorphisms on arylesterase and diazoxonase activities, and between AChE activity (a biomarker for long-term pesticide exposure) and PON1192RR genotype on arylesterase activity. These findings suggest that pesticide exposure may affect plasma antioxidant potential and that relevant gene-pesticide interactions may play a mechanistic role in oxidative stress-induced diseases following pesticide exposure. Nonetheless, more studies are needed to better characterise these interactions. PMID:23747713

Hernández, Antonio F; Gil, Fernando; Lacasańa, Marina; Rodríguez-Barranco, Miguel; Gómez-Martin, Antonio; Lozano, David; Pla, Antonio

2013-11-01

200

Effect of Nigella sativa fixed and essential oils on antioxidant status, hepatic enzymes, and immunity in streptozotocin induced diabetes mellitus  

PubMed Central

Background Nigella sativa fixed (NSFO) and essential (NSEO) oils have been used to treat diabetes mellitus and its complications. Present study was undertaken to explore and validate these folkloric uses. Methods Sprague dawley rats having streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes mellitus were used to assess the role of NSFO and NSEO in the management of diabetes complications. Parameters investigated were antioxidant potential, oxidative stress, and the immunity by in vivo experiments. Results The results indicated that STZ decreased the glutathione contents (25.72%), while NSFO and NSEO increased the trait significantly (P?enzymes (P?antioxidant potential is positively associated (P?enzymes and the decrease of the nitric oxide production thus controlling the diabetes complications. Conclusions Overall, results of present study supported the traditional use of N. sativa and its derived products as a treatment for hyperglycemia and allied abnormalities. Moreover, N. sativa fixed and essential oils significantly ameliorate free radicals and improve antioxidant capacity thus reducing the risk of diabetic complications. PMID:24939518

2014-01-01

201

Role of acylamino acid-releasing enzyme/oxidized protein hydrolase in sustaining homeostasis of the cytoplasmic antioxidative system.  

PubMed

Acylamino acid-releasing enzyme/oxidized protein hydrolase (AARE/OPH) has been biochemically demonstrated to be a bifunctional protease that has exopeptidase activity against N?-acylated peptides and endopeptidase activity against oxidized and glycated proteins; however, its physiological role remains unknown. In this study, to determine its physiological significance, we produced AARE/OPH-overexpressing and -suppressed plants and assessed the biological impacts of AARE/OPH. The subcellular localization of Arabidopsis AARE/OPH was found to be cytoplasmic and nuclear by transient expression analysis of tdTomato-fused Arabidopsis AARE/OPH. Overexpression of AARE/OPH exhibited no apparent effect on the level of oxidized proteins because wild types probably have inherently high AARE/OPH activity. Through RNAi gene suppressing, we successfully produced AARE/OPH-suppressed Arabidopsis plants (aare) that exhibited almost no AARE activity. In the aare plant, electrolyte leakage by methyl viologen treatment was enhanced compared to that of non-transformant plants, suggesting that the plasma membranes of aare easily suffered oxidative damage, probably as a result of deterioration of the cytoplasmic antioxidative system. Correspondingly, proteomic analysis revealed that the aare plant accumulated a number of oxidized proteins including cytoplasmic antioxidant enzymes. On the basis of these results, we concluded that AARE/OPH plays a homeostatic role in sustaining the cytoplasmic antioxidative system. PMID:22398639

Nakai, Atsushi; Yamauchi, Yasuo; Sumi, Sawako; Tanaka, Kiyoshi

2012-08-01

202

Serum and liver tissue bio-element levels, and antioxidant enzyme activities in carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity: protective effects of royal jelly.  

PubMed

The liver is a vital organ, and its function is generally impaired by chemicals. Some natural compounds have a protective role against liver diseases such as royal jelly (RJ). To our knowledge, there are no data available on the effect of RJ therapy on the levels of bio-element metabolisms and antioxidant enzyme activities in the carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced liver damage. Therefore, in the present study, we have investigated the role of RJ therapy in the trace and major elements and antioxidant enzymes in CCl(4)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Antioxidant enzyme activities decreased in the CCl(4)-treated group more than they did in the sham and RJ-administered groups. Many bio-element levels were also reduced in only the CCl(4)-treated group. This showed that the depletion of trace elements was related to erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activities. RJ administration clearly increased the trace and major element levels and antioxidant enzyme activities in RJ groups. RJ may be used as functional foods because of their naturally high antioxidant potential and rich element content. PMID:22510102

Cemek, Mustafa; Y?lmaz, Fatma; Büyükokuro?lu, Mehmet Emin; Büyükben, Ahmet; Aymelek, Fatih; Ayaz, Ahmet

2012-08-01

203

Existing and potential therapeutic uses for N-acetylcysteine: the need for conversion to intracellular glutathione for antioxidant benefits.  

PubMed

N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) has long been used therapeutically for the treatment of acetaminophen (paracetamol) overdose, acting as a precursor for the substrate (l-cysteine) in synthesis of hepatic glutathione (GSH) depleted through drug conjugation. Other therapeutic uses of NAC have also emerged, including the alleviation of clinical symptoms of cystic fibrosis through cysteine-mediated disruption of disulfide cross-bridges in the glycoprotein matrix in mucus. More recently, however, a wide range of clinical studies have reported on the use of NAC as an antioxidant, most notably in the protection against contrast-induced nephropathy and thrombosis. The results from these studies are conflicting and a consensus is yet to be reached regarding the merits or otherwise of NAC in the antioxidant setting. This review seeks to re-evaluate the mechanism of action of NAC as a precursor for GSH synthesis in the context of its activity as an "antioxidant". Results from recent studies are examined to establish whether the pre-requisites for effective NAC-induced antioxidant activity (i.e. GSH depletion and the presence of functional metabolic pathways for conversion of NAC to GSH) have received adequate consideration in the interpretation of the data. A key conclusion is a reinforcement of the concept that NAC should not be considered to be a powerful antioxidant in its own right: its strength is the targeted replenishment of GSH in deficient cells and it is likely to be ineffective in cells replete in GSH. PMID:24080471

Rushworth, Gordon F; Megson, Ian L

2014-02-01

204

Effect of thymol and carvacrol feed supplementation on performance, antioxidant enzyme activities, fatty acid composition, digestive enzyme activities, and immune response in broiler chickens.  

PubMed

This trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of phytogenic product containing an equal mixture of thymol and carvacrol at 4 levels (0, 60, 100, and 200 mg/kg of diet) on performance, antioxidant enzyme activities, fatty acid composition, digestive enzyme activities, and immune response in broiler chickens. Each of the 4 diets was fed to 5 replicates of 12 chicks each from d 0 to 42. The inclusion of thymol + carvacrol linearly decreased (P < 0.05) feed intake, but the highest (P < 0.05) BW gain (ADG) and feed efficiency was observed in broilers offered 200 mg/kg of phytogenic product. The phytogenic product linearly increased (P < 0.05) superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities and decreased (P < 0.05) malondialdehyde level in thigh muscle at d 42 and serum and liver at d 24 and 42. Total saturated fatty acids were depressed (P < 0.05) and total polyunsaturated fatty acid and n-6 were linearly increased (P < 0.05) in serum and thigh by the inclusion of phytogenic product compared with the control diet. Supplementation with thymol + carvacrol also increased intestinal and pancreatic trypsin, lipase, and protease activities in 24-d-old (linear, P < 0.05) but not in 42-d-old birds. Thymol + carvacrol modified (linear, P < 0.05) immune response by increasing hypersensitivity response, total and IgG anti-sheep red blood cell titers, and decreasing heterophil to lymphocyte ratio compared with the control group. However, hematological parameters and lymphoid organ weight were not affected by thymol + carvacrol. Thus, feed supplementation with thymol + carvacrol enhanced performance, increased antioxidant enzyme activities, retarded lipid oxidation, enhanced digestive enzyme activities, and improved immune response of broilers. PMID:23873553

Hashemipour, H; Kermanshahi, H; Golian, A; Veldkamp, T

2013-08-01

205

Changes in plant communities along soil pollution gradients: responses of leaf antioxidant enzyme activities and phytochelatin contents.  

PubMed

This work describes an ecological and ecotoxicological study of polluted wasteland plant communities in a former coke-factory located in Homécourt (France). Ecological analyses were performed along two transects to investigate changes in plant community structure through species richness (S), biological diversity (H') and evenness (J). Five species (Arrhenatherum elatius, Bromus tectorum, Euphorbia cyparissias, Hypericum perforatum and Tanacetum vulgare) were then selected to assess cellular responses through antioxidant enzyme activities and phytochelatins (PCs) contents. The results showed that species richness and biological diversity correlated negatively to Cd and Hg concentrations in soil suggesting that soil concentration of non-essential heavy metals was the primary factor governing vegetation structure in the industrial wasteland. Moreover, for all studied species, abundances were partly related to metal levels in the soils, but also to plant antioxidant systems, suggesting their role in plant establishment success in polluted areas. Data for PC contents led to less conclusive results. PMID:19692108

Dazy, Marc; Béraud, Eric; Cotelle, Sylvie; Grévilliot, Frédérique; Férard, Jean-François; Masfaraud, Jean-François

2009-10-01

206

Function of antioxidant enzymes and metabolites during maturation of pea fruits.  

PubMed

In plant cells, antioxidants keep reactive oxygen species at low concentrations, avoiding oxidative damage while allowing them to play crucial functions in signal transduction. However, little is known about the role of antioxidants during fruit maturation, especially in legumes. Snap pea (Pisum sativum) plants, which have edible fruits, were grown under nodulating and non-nodulating conditions. Fruits were classified in three maturity stages and antioxidants were determined in the seeds and seedless pods. Maturation or prolonged storage of fruits at 25 degrees C led to a decline in antioxidant activities and metabolites and in gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase protein. Notable exceptions were superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione peroxidase protein, which increased in one or both of these processes. During maturation, cytosolic peroxiredoxin decreased in seeds but increased in pods, and ascorbate oxidase activity was largely reduced in seeds. In stored fruits, ascorbate oxidase activity was nearly abolished in seeds but doubled in pods. It is concluded that symbiotic nitrogen fixation is as effective as nitrogen fertilization in maintaining the antioxidant capacity of pea fruits and that, contrary to climacteric fruits, a general decrease in antioxidants during maturation does not involve oxidative stress. Results underscore the importance of the antioxidant system in reproductive organs and point to ascorbate-glutathione metabolism and cytosolic peroxiredoxin as key players in pea fruit development. PMID:19822534

Matamoros, Manuel A; Loscos, Jorge; Dietz, Karl-Josef; Aparicio-Tejo, Pedro M; Becana, Manuel

2010-01-01

207

Enrichment of antioxidant compounds from lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) by pressurized liquid extraction and enzyme-assisted extraction.  

PubMed

In this work enzyme-assisted extraction (EAE) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) are applied for extraction of natural compounds from lemon balm (Melissa officinalis). Cellulase, endo-?-1,4 xylanase and pectinase were studied in order to degrade cell wall of lemon balm leaves and to release phenolic compounds. On the other hand, in order to compare the performance obtained with EAE, PLE using water and ethanol was employed maintaining 150°C as extraction temperature. The obtained extracts were characterized in terms of antioxidant capacity by using DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) in vitro assays, whereas the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure was employed to estimate the total phenols content. On the other hand, extracts were chemically characterized by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The results showed that EAE enhanced the total phenolic content and the antioxidant capacity compared to a non-enzymatic control. PLE extracts presented higher amount of phenols and antioxidant capacity than enzyme-assisted extracts, reaching the highest values on water extracts (193.18mggallicacid/gextract and EC50=6.81?g/mL). Among the bioactive phenolic compounds identified in lemon balm, rosmarinic acid was the main component, although other important compounds were also identified, such as caffeic acid derivatives (salvianolic acids, lithospermic acid) and rosmarinic acid derivatives (rosmarinic acid hexoside, sagerinic acid, sulfated rosmarinic acid). The present study confirms that EAE and PLE can be considered alternative methods for the extraction of natural compounds with biological activity from natural sources. PMID:23528869

Miron, T L; Herrero, M; Ibáńez, E

2013-05-01

208

Copper and zinc induction of lipid peroxidation and effects on antioxidant enzyme activities in the microalga Pavlova viridis (Prymnesiophyceae).  

PubMed

The metal-induced lipid peroxidation and response of antioxidative enzymes have been investigated in the marine microalga Pavlova viridis to understand the mechanisms of metal resistance in algal cells. We have analyzed superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activities and glutathione (GSH) contents in microalgal cells grown at different concentrations of copper and zinc. In response to each metal, lipid peroxidation was enhanced with the increase of concentrations, as an indication of the oxidative damage caused by metal concentration assayed in the microalgae cells. Exposure of P. viridis to the two metals caused changes in enzyme activities in a different manner, depending on the metal assayed: after copper treatments, total SOD activity was enhanced, while it was reduced after zinc exposure. Copper and zinc stimulated the activities of CAT and GSH whereas GPX showed a remarkable increase in activity in response to copper treatments and decrease after zinc treatments. These results suggest that an activation of some antioxidant enzymes was enhanced to counteract the oxidative stress induced by the two metals. PMID:16085277

Li, Mei; Hu, Changwei; Zhu, Qin; Chen, Li; Kong, Zhiming; Liu, Zhili

2006-01-01

209

Piper nigrum: micropropagation, antioxidative enzyme activities, and chromatographic fingerprint analysis for quality control.  

PubMed

A reliable in vitro regeneration system for the economical and medicinally important Piper nigrum L. has been established. Callus and shoot regeneration was encouraged from leaf portions on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium augmented with varied concentrations of plant growth regulators. A higher callus production (90 %) was observed in explants incubated on MS medium incorporated with 1.0 mg L(-1) 6-benzyladenine (BA) along with 0.5 mg L(-1) gibberellic acid after 4 weeks of culture. Moreover, a callogenic response of 85 % was also recorded for 1.0 mg L(-1) BA in combination with 0.25 mg L(-1) ?-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and 0.25 mg L(-1) 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid or 0.5 mg L(-1) indole butyric acid (IBA) along with 0.25 mg L(-1) NAA and indole acetic acid. Subsequent sub-culturing of callus after 4 weeks of culture onto MS medium supplemented with 1.5 mg L(-1) thiodiazoran or 1.5 mg L(-1) IBA induced 100 % shoot response. Rooted plantlets were achieved on medium containing varied concentrations of auxins. The antioxidative enzyme activities [superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX)] revealed that significantly higher SOD was observed in regenerated plantlets than in other tissues. However, POD, CAT, and APX were higher in callus than in other tissues. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint analysis protocol was established for quality control in different in vitro-regenerated tissues of P. nigrum L. During analysis, most of the common peaks represent the active principle "piperine." The chemical contents, especially piperine, showed variation from callus culture to whole plantlet regeneration. Based on the deviation in chromatographic peaks, the in vitro-regenerated plantlets exhibit a nearly similar piperine profile to acclimated plantlets. The in vitro regeneration system and HPLC fingerprint analysis established here brought a novel approach to the quality control of in vitro plantlets, producing metabolites of interest with substantial applications for the conservation of germplasm. PMID:23354497

Ahmad, Nisar; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Rahman, Inayat ur; Fazal, Hina

2013-04-01

210

Cobalt and manganese stress in the microalga Pavlova viridis (Prymnesiophyceae): effects on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes.  

PubMed

Pollution of marine environment has become an issue of major concern in recent years. Serious environmental pollution by heavy metals results from their increasing utilization in industrial processes and because most heavy metals are transported into the marine environment and accumulated without decomposition. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects on growth, pigments, lipid peroxidation, and some antioxidant enzyme activities of marine microalga Pavlova viridis, in response to elevated concentrations of cobalt (Co) and manganese (Mn), especially with regard to the involvement of antioxidative defences against heavy metal-induced oxidative stress. In response to Co2+, lipid peroxidation was enhanced compared to the control, as an indication of the oxidative damage caused by metal concentration assayed in the microalgal cells but not Mn2+. Exposure of Pavlova viridis to the two metals caused changes in enzyme activities in a different manner, depending on the metal assayed: after Co2+ treatments, total superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was irregular, although it was not significantly affected by Mn2+ exposure. Co2+ and Mn2+ stimulated the activities of catalase (CAT) and glutathione (GSH), whereas, glutathione peroxidase (GPX) showed a remarkable increase in activity in response to Co2+ treatments and decreased gradually with Mn2+ concentration, up to 50 micromol/L, and then rose very rapidly, reaching to about 38.98% at 200 micromol/L Mn2+. These results suggest that an activation of some antioxidant enzymes was enhanced, to counteract the oxidative stress induced by the two metals at higher concentration. PMID:18232227

Li, Mei; Zhu, Qin; Hu, Chang-wei; Chen, Li; Liu, Zhi-li; Kong, Zhi-ming

2007-01-01

211

Major Shifts in the Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Lung Antioxidant Enzymes during Influenza Pneumonia  

E-print Network

With the incessant challenge of exposure to the air we breathe, lung tissue suffers the highest levels of oxygen tension and thus requires robust antioxidant defenses. Furthermore, following injury or infection, lung tissue ...

Yamada, Yoshiyuki

212

Effect of short- and long-term salinity on the activities of antioxidative enzymes and lipid peroxidation in tomato roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in the antioxidative enzyme activities (SOD, CuZnSOD, GSH-Px, GST), as well as TBARS content in 5-week-old tomato\\u000a (Lycopersicon\\u000a esculentum Mill. cv “Perkoz”) roots were examined 1, 3 h (short-term stress) and 1–14 days (long-term stress) after a single application\\u000a of 50 mM (mild stress) and 150 mM NaCl (severe stress). The severe stress caused an increase in GST, GSH-Px and SODs activities\\u000a from

Magdalena Gapi?ska; Maria Sk?odowska; Barbara Gabara

2008-01-01

213

Comparison of the effects of various attenuation methods on cell permeability and accessibility of intracellular enzymes in Lactococcus lactis strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three Lactococcus lactis cheese starter cultures were exposed to various cell attenuation methods including sonication, chemical treatments, heat-shock and freeze-shock. Treated cells were subsequently assessed for changes in cell permeability and accessibility to the intracellular peptidases Pep X and Pep N. Generally, for all three strains, as the duration of sonication increased, the levels of intracellular peptidases in the cell

Imelda A. Doolan; Martin G. Wilkinson

2009-01-01

214

Effect of the French oak wood extract Robuvit on markers of oxidative stress and activity of antioxidant enzymes in healthy volunteers: a pilot study.  

PubMed

We examined in vitro antioxidant capacity of polyphenolic extract obtained from the wood of oak Quercus robur (QR), Robuvit, using TEAC (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) method and the effect of its intake on markers of oxidative stress, activity of antioxidant enzymes, and total antioxidant capacity in plasma of 20 healthy volunteers. Markers of oxidative damage to proteins, DNA, and lipids and activities of Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were determined in the erythrocytes. We have found an in vitro antioxidant capacity of Robuvit of 6.37 micromole Trolox equivalent/mg of Robuvit. One month intake of Robuvit in daily dose of 300?mg has significantly decreased the serum level of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) and lipid peroxides (LP). Significantly increased activities of SOD and CAT as well as total antioxidant capacity of plasma after one month intake of Robuvit have been shown. In conclusion, we have demonstrated for the first time that the intake of Robuvit is associated with decrease of markers of oxidative stress and increase of activity of antioxidant enzymes and total antioxidant capacity of plasma in vivo. PMID:25254080

Horvathova, Martina; Orszaghova, Zuzana; Laubertova, Lucia; Vavakova, Magdalena; Sabaka, Peter; Rohdewald, Peter; Durackova, Zdenka; Muchova, Jana

2014-01-01

215

Effect of the French Oak Wood Extract Robuvit on Markers of Oxidative Stress and Activity of Antioxidant Enzymes in Healthy Volunteers: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

We examined in vitro antioxidant capacity of polyphenolic extract obtained from the wood of oak Quercus robur (QR), Robuvit, using TEAC (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) method and the effect of its intake on markers of oxidative stress, activity of antioxidant enzymes, and total antioxidant capacity in plasma of 20 healthy volunteers. Markers of oxidative damage to proteins, DNA, and lipids and activities of Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were determined in the erythrocytes. We have found an in vitro antioxidant capacity of Robuvit of 6.37 micromole Trolox equivalent/mg of Robuvit. One month intake of Robuvit in daily dose of 300?mg has significantly decreased the serum level of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) and lipid peroxides (LP). Significantly increased activities of SOD and CAT as well as total antioxidant capacity of plasma after one month intake of Robuvit have been shown. In conclusion, we have demonstrated for the first time that the intake of Robuvit is associated with decrease of markers of oxidative stress and increase of activity of antioxidant enzymes and total antioxidant capacity of plasma in vivo. PMID:25254080

Orszaghova, Zuzana; Laubertova, Lucia; Sabaka, Peter; Rohdewald, Peter; Durackova, Zdenka; Muchova, Jana

2014-01-01

216

2-Benzoxazolinone (BOA) induced oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation and changes in some antioxidant enzyme activities in mung bean (Phaseolus aureus).  

PubMed

2-Benzoxazolinone (BOA), a well-known allelochemical with strong phytotoxicity, is a potential herbicidal candidate. The aim of the present study was to determine whether phytotoxicity of BOA is due to induction of oxidative stress caused by generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the changes in levels of antioxidant enzymes induced in response to BOA. Effect of BOA was studied on electrolyte leakage, lipid peroxidation (LP), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) generation, proline (PRO) accumulation, and activities of antioxidant enzymes-superoxide dismutase (SOD, 1.15.1.1), ascorbate peroxidase (APX, 1.11.1.11), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX, 1.11.1.7), catalase (CAT, 1.11.1.6) and glutathione reductase (GR, 1.6.4.2) in Phaseolus aureus (mung bean). BOA significantly enhanced malondialdehyde (MDA) content, a product of LP, in both leaves and roots of mung bean. The amount of H(2)O(2), a product of oxidative stress, and endogenous PRO increased many-fold in response to BOA. Accumulation of PRO, MDA and H(2)O(2) indicates the cellular damage in the target tissue caused by ROS generated by BOA. In response to BOA, there was a significant increase in the activities of scavenging enzymes SOD, APX, GPX, CAT, and GR in root and leaf tissue of mung bean. At 5 mM BOA, GR activity in roots showed a nearly 22-fold increase over that in control. The present study concludes that BOA induces oxidative stress in mung bean through generation of ROS and upregulation of activities of various scavenging enzymes. PMID:17107811

Batish, D R; Singh, H P; Setia, N; Kaur, S; Kohli, R K

2006-01-01

217

The Level of an Intracellular Antioxidant during Development Determines the Adult Phenotype in a Bird Species: A Potential Organizer Role for Glutathione.  

PubMed

Abstract Life-history traits are often involved in trade-offs whose outcome would depend on the availability of resources but also on the state of specific molecular signals. Early conditions can influence trade-offs and program the phenotype throughout the lifetime, with oxidative stress likely involved in many taxa. Here we address the potential regulatory role of a single intracellular antioxidant in life-history trade-offs. Blood glutathione levels were reduced in a large sample of birds (zebra finch Taeniopygia guttata) during development using the synthesis inhibitor buthionine sulfoximine (BSO). Results revealed several modifications in the adult phenotype. BSO-treated nestlings showed lower glutathione and plasma antioxidant levels. In adulthood, BSO birds endured greater oxidative damage in erythrocytes but stronger expression of a sexual signal. Moreover, adult BSO females also showed weaker resistance to oxidative stress but were heavier and showed better body condition. Results suggest that low glutathione values during growth favor the investment in traits that should improve fitness returns, probably in the form of early reproduction. Higher oxidative stress in adulthood may be endured if this cost is paid later in life. Either the presence of specific signaling mechanisms or the indirect effect of increased oxidative stress can explain our findings. PMID:25674693

Romero-Haro, Ana Angela; Alonso-Alvarez, Carlos

2015-03-01

218

Effects of Cr(VI) long-term and low-dose action on mammalian antioxidant enzymes (an in vitro study)  

SciTech Connect

In order to investigate the low-dose long-term Cr(VI) action on antioxidant enzymes in cultured mammalian cells we estimated the activity of glutathione dependent antioxidant enzymes, catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) under various chromium concentrations in human epithelial-like L-41 cells. The long-term action of 20 mu-M causes the toxicity that results in losing of the cell viability by activating the apoptotic process, as identified by morphological analysis, the activation of caspase-3, and DNA fragmentation. The toxic chromium concentration totally destroys glutathione antioxidant system, and diminishes the activity of catalase and cytosolic Cu, ZnSOD. The non-toxic concentration (2 mu-M) causes the activation of the antioxidant defense systems, and they neutralize the oxidative impact.

Asatiani, N.; Sapojnikova, N.; Abuladze, M.; Kartvelishvili, T.L.; Kulikova, N.; Kiziria, E.; Namchevadze, E.; Holman, H.-Y.N.

2003-08-01

219

Association between maternal micronutrient status, oxidative stress, and common genetic variants in antioxidant enzymes at 15 weeks? gestation in nulliparous women who subsequently develop preeclampsia.  

PubMed

Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific condition affecting 2-7% of women and a leading cause of perinatal and maternal morbidity and mortality. Deficiencies of specific micronutrient antioxidant activities associated with copper, selenium, zinc, and manganese have previously been linked to preeclampsia at the time of disease. Our aims were to investigate whether maternal plasma micronutrient concentrations and related antioxidant enzyme activities are altered before preeclampsia onset and to examine the dependence on genetic variations in these antioxidant enzymes. Predisease plasma samples (15±1 weeks? gestation) were obtained from women enrolled in the international Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints (SCOPE) study who subsequently developed preeclampsia (n=244) and from age- and BMI-matched normotensive controls (n=472). Micronutrient concentrations were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry; associated antioxidant enzyme activities, selenoprotein-P, ceruloplasmin concentration and activity, antioxidant capacity, and markers of oxidative stress were measured by colorimetric assays. Sixty-four tag-single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within genes encoding the antioxidant enzymes and selenoprotein-P were genotyped using allele-specific competitive PCR. Plasma copper and ceruloplasmin concentrations were modestly but significantly elevated in women who subsequently developed preeclampsia (both P<0.001) compared to controls (median (IQR), copper, 1957.4 (1787, 2177.5) vs 1850.0 (1663.5, 2051.5) µg/L; ceruloplasmin, 2.5 (1.4, 3.2) vs 2.2 (1.2, 3.0) µg/ml). There were no differences in other micronutrients or enzymes between groups. No relationship was observed between genotype for SNPs and antioxidant enzyme activity. This analysis of a prospective cohort study reports maternal micronutrient concentrations in combination with associated antioxidant enzymes and SNPs in their encoding genes in women at 15 weeks? gestation that subsequently developed preeclampsia. The modest elevation in copper may contribute to oxidative stress, later in pregnancy, in those women that go on to develop preeclampsia. The lack of evidence to support the hypothesis that functional SNPs influence antioxidant enzyme activity in pregnant women argues against a role for these genes in the etiology of preeclampsia. PMID:25463281

Mistry, Hiten D; Gill, Carolyn A; Kurlak, Lesia O; Seed, Paul T; Hesketh, John E; Méplan, Catherine; Schomburg, Lutz; Chappell, Lucy C; Morgan, Linda; Poston, Lucilla

2015-01-01

220

Association between maternal micronutrient status, oxidative stress, and common genetic variants in antioxidant enzymes at 15 weeks? gestation in nulliparous women who subsequently develop preeclampsia  

PubMed Central

Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific condition affecting 2–7% of women and a leading cause of perinatal and maternal morbidity and mortality. Deficiencies of specific micronutrient antioxidant activities associated with copper, selenium, zinc, and manganese have previously been linked to preeclampsia at the time of disease. Our aims were to investigate whether maternal plasma micronutrient concentrations and related antioxidant enzyme activities are altered before preeclampsia onset and to examine the dependence on genetic variations in these antioxidant enzymes. Predisease plasma samples (15±1 weeks? gestation) were obtained from women enrolled in the international Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints (SCOPE) study who subsequently developed preeclampsia (n=244) and from age- and BMI-matched normotensive controls (n=472). Micronutrient concentrations were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry; associated antioxidant enzyme activities, selenoprotein-P, ceruloplasmin concentration and activity, antioxidant capacity, and markers of oxidative stress were measured by colorimetric assays. Sixty-four tag–single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within genes encoding the antioxidant enzymes and selenoprotein-P were genotyped using allele-specific competitive PCR. Plasma copper and ceruloplasmin concentrations were modestly but significantly elevated in women who subsequently developed preeclampsia (both P<0.001) compared to controls (median (IQR), copper, 1957.4 (1787, 2177.5) vs 1850.0 (1663.5, 2051.5) µg/L; ceruloplasmin, 2.5 (1.4, 3.2) vs 2.2 (1.2, 3.0) µg/ml). There were no differences in other micronutrients or enzymes between groups. No relationship was observed between genotype for SNPs and antioxidant enzyme activity. This analysis of a prospective cohort study reports maternal micronutrient concentrations in combination with associated antioxidant enzymes and SNPs in their encoding genes in women at 15 weeks? gestation that subsequently developed preeclampsia. The modest elevation in copper may contribute to oxidative stress, later in pregnancy, in those women that go on to develop preeclampsia. The lack of evidence to support the hypothesis that functional SNPs influence antioxidant enzyme activity in pregnant women argues against a role for these genes in the etiology of preeclampsia. PMID:25463281

Mistry, Hiten D.; Gill, Carolyn A.; Kurlak, Lesia O.; Seed, Paul T.; Hesketh, John E.; Méplan, Catherine; Schomburg, Lutz; Chappell, Lucy C.; Morgan, Linda; Poston, Lucilla

2015-01-01

221

Ethanol extract of Ocimum sanctum exerts anti-metastatic activity through inactivation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and enhancement of anti-oxidant enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ocimum sanctum has been known to possess various beneficial properties including anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities. In the present study, we investigated that ethanol extracts of O. sanctum (EEOS) had anti-metastatic activity through activation of anti-oxidative enzymes. EEOS exerted cytotoxicity against Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells. Also, EEOS significantly inhibited cell adhesion and invasion as well as activities of matrix

Sun-Chae Kim; Venkataraman Magesh; Soo-Jin Jeong; Hyo-Jung Lee; Kyoo-Seok Ahn; Hyo-Jeong Lee; Eun-Ok Lee; Sun-Hyung Kim; Min-Ho Lee; Jung Hyo Kim; Sung-Hoon Kim

2010-01-01

222

[Effects of silicon on photosynthetic characteristics and activity of antioxidant enzymes in continuous-cropped cucumber seedlings].  

PubMed

The effects of spraying exogenous silicon (Si) (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 mmol L(-1)) on the growth, photosynthetic characteristics and activity of antioxidant enzymes in continuous-cropped 'Jinyan No. 4' cucumber seedlings were studied. The results showed that with the application of 1-3 mmol x L(-1) Si, electrolyte leakage (EL) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in leaves were significantly decreased, while the contents of chlorophyll a (Chl a), chlorophyll b (Chl b), carotenoids (Car), chlorophyll (a+b) and photosynthetic rate (Pn) in leaves were significantly improved, the activities of superoxidase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbic acid peroxidase (APX) were significantly increased, and the plant height, stem diameter and dry mass accumulation of cucumber seedlings were promoted. Compared with the low Si concentrations, excessive Si (4-5 mmol x L(-1)) resulted in higher EL and MDA, which were still lower than that in control, decreased the antioxidant enzymes activity and photosynthesis, and inhibited the growth of cucumber seedlings. These findings indicated that exogenous Si could enhance the capacity of scavenging active oxygen species and improve photosynthesis, protect cucumber seedlings from the lipid peroxidation, and increase the resistance to continuous-cropped cucumber obstacle. The optimal silicon concentration was 2 mmol x L(-1). PMID:25223031

Zhang, Ping-Yan; Gao, Rong-Guang; Yang, Feng-Juan; Wang, Xiu-Feng; Wei, Min; Shi, Qing-Hua; Li, Yan

2014-06-01

223

Flixweed Is More Competitive than Winter Wheat under Ozone Pollution: Evidences from Membrane Lipid Peroxidation, Antioxidant Enzymes and Biomass  

PubMed Central

To investigate the effects of ozone on winter wheat and flixweed under competition, two species were exposed to ambient, elevated and high [O3] for 30 days, planted singly or in mixculture. Eco-physiological responses were examined at different [O3] and fumigating time. Ozone reduced the contents of chlorophyll, increased the accumulation of H2O2 and malondialdehyde in both wheat and flixweed. The effects of competition on chlorophyll content of wheat emerged at elevated and high [O3], while that of flixweed emerged only at high [O3]. The increase of H2O2 and malondialdehyde of flixweed was less than that of wheat under the same condition. Antioxidant enzyme activities of wheat and flixweed were seriously depressed by perennial and serious treatment using O3. However, short-term and moderate fumigation increased the activities of SOD and POD of wheat, and CAT of flixweed. The expression levels of antioxidant enzymes related genes provided explanation for these results. Furthermore, the increase of CAT expression of flixweed was much higher than that of SOD and POD expression of wheat. Ozone and competition resulted in significant reductions in biomass and grain yield in both winter wheat and flixweed. However, the negative effects on flixweed were less than wheat. Our results demonstrated that winter wheat is more sensitive to O3 and competition than flixweed, providing valuable data for further investigation on responses of winter wheat to ozone pollution, in particular combined with species competition. PMID:23533669

Li, Yong; Zheng, Yan-Hai; Jiang, Gao-Ming

2013-01-01

224

Correlation between Sperm Parameters and Protein Expression of Antioxidative Defense Enzymes in Seminal Plasma: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Background. Semen analysis is the cornerstone in the evaluation of male (in)fertility. However, there are men with normal semen tests but with impaired fertilizing ability, as well as fertile men with poor sperm characteristics. Thus, there is rising interest to find novel parameters that will help to predict and define the functional capacity of spermatozoa. Methods. We examined whether there is a correlation between semen parameters (count, progressive motility, and morphology) and protein expression/activity of antioxidative defense enzymes in seminal plasma from 10 normospermic subjects. Results. Sperm progressive motility was in positive correlation with seminal plasma protein expression of both superoxide dismutase (SOD) isoforms (MnSOD and CuZnSOD) and catalase. Also, positive correlation was observed between sperm count and MnSOD protein expression, as well as between sperm morphology and protein expression of catalase in seminal plasma. In contrast, protein expression of glutathione peroxidase was not in correlation with any sperm parameter, while its activity negatively correlated with sperm morphology and motility. Conclusions. These data suggest that evaluation of protein expression of antioxidative defense enzymes in seminal plasma might be of importance in the evaluation of male fertility status and that could be used as an additional biomarker along with classic semen analysis in assessment of semen quality.

Macanovic, Biljana; Vucetic, Milica; Jankovic, Aleksandra; Buzadzic, Biljana; Garalejic, Eliana; Otasevic, Vesna

2015-01-01

225

Isolation and characterization of antioxidation enzymes from cells of zedoary (Curcuma zedoaria Roscoe) cultured in a 5-l bioreactor.  

PubMed

In this study, a cell suspension culture system for zedoary (Curcuma zedoaria Roscoe) was developed, using 50 g/l of fresh weight inoculum in a batch culture. The highest cell biomass obtained from a 5-l bioreactor equipped with three impellers after 14 days of culture was utilized to extract secondary metabolites (essential oil and curcumin) and determine the activities of antioxidant enzymes (peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase). For essential oil and curcumin, zedoary extracts were recovered via a variety of methods: steam distillation, volatile solvents, and Soxhlet. After 14 days of culture using volatile solvents, the optimal yield of essential oil (1.78%) was obtained when using petroleum ether at 40 degrees C in 6 h of extraction, and the best curcumin yield (9.69%) was obtained at 60 degrees C in 6 h via extraction with 90% ethanol. The activities of antioxidant enzymes from zedoary cells were also assessed. The specific activities of peroxidase, superoxide-dismutase, and catalase reached maximum values of 0.63 U/mg of protein, 16.60 U/mg of protein, and 19.59 U/mg of protein after 14 days of culture, respectively. PMID:18046518

Loc, Nguyen-Hoang; Diem, Doan-Thi-Hong; Binh, Doan-Huu-Nhat; Huong, Dao-Thi; Kim, Tae-Geum; Yang, Moon-Sik

2008-01-01

226

Flixweed is more competitive than winter wheat under ozone pollution: evidences from membrane lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymes and biomass.  

PubMed

To investigate the effects of ozone on winter wheat and flixweed under competition, two species were exposed to ambient, elevated and high [O3] for 30 days, planted singly or in mixculture. Eco-physiological responses were examined at different [O3] and fumigating time. Ozone reduced the contents of chlorophyll, increased the accumulation of H2O2 and malondialdehyde in both wheat and flixweed. The effects of competition on chlorophyll content of wheat emerged at elevated and high [O3], while that of flixweed emerged only at high [O3]. The increase of H2O2 and malondialdehyde of flixweed was less than that of wheat under the same condition. Antioxidant enzyme activities of wheat and flixweed were seriously depressed by perennial and serious treatment using O3. However, short-term and moderate fumigation increased the activities of SOD and POD of wheat, and CAT of flixweed. The expression levels of antioxidant enzymes related genes provided explanation for these results. Furthermore, the increase of CAT expression of flixweed was much higher than that of SOD and POD expression of wheat. Ozone and competition resulted in significant reductions in biomass and grain yield in both winter wheat and flixweed. However, the negative effects on flixweed were less than wheat. Our results demonstrated that winter wheat is more sensitive to O3 and competition than flixweed, providing valuable data for further investigation on responses of winter wheat to ozone pollution, in particular combined with species competition. PMID:23533669

Li, Cai-Hong; Wang, Tian-Zuo; Li, Yong; Zheng, Yan-Hai; Jiang, Gao-Ming

2013-01-01

227

Response of antioxidative enzymes to arsenic-induced phytotoxicity in leaves of a medicinal daisy, Wedelia chinensis Merrill  

PubMed Central

Background: Wedelia chinensis Merrill (Asteraceae) is a medicinally important herb, grown abundantly in soils contaminated with heavy metals, including toxic metalloid arsenic (As). The leaves have immense significance in treatment of various ailments. Objective: The present study was undertaken to ascertain whether the edible/usable parts experience oxidative stress in the form of membrane damage during As exposure or not. Materials and Methods: Responses of seven antioxidant enzymes were studied in leaves under 20 mg/L of As treatment in pot experiment. Results: When compared to control, activities of superoxide dismutase, monodehydroascorbatereductase, dehydroascorbatereductase, glutathione reductase, and gluathione peroxidase had increased, while the catalase level reduced and ascorbate peroxidase activity changed non-significantly in As-treated seedlings. This suggested overall positive response of antioxidant enzymes to As-induced oxidative stress. Although hydrogen peroxide content increased, level of lipid peroxidation and magnitude of membrane damage was quite normal, leading to normal growth (dry weight of shoot) of plant under Astreatment. Conclusion: W.chinensis is tolerant of As-toxicity, and thus, can be grown in As-contaminated zones. PMID:24082737

Talukdar, Tulika; Talukdar, Dibyendu

2013-01-01

228

Platycodi Radix attenuates dimethylnitrosamine-induced liver fibrosis in rats by inducing Nrf2-mediated antioxidant enzymes.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-fibrotic effects of the aqueous extract of the Platycodi Radix root (Changkil: CK) on dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)-induced liver fibrosis in rats. DMN treatment for 4 weeks led to marked liver fibrosis as assessed by serum biochemistry, histopathological examination, and hepatic lipid peroxidation and collagen content. CK significantly inhibited DMN-induced increases in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities, fibrosis score, and hepatic malondialdehyde and collagen content. CK also inhibited DMN-induced reductions in rat body and liver weights. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot analyses revealed that CK inhibited DMN-induced increases in matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) mRNA, and collagen type I and ?-smooth muscle actin protein. DMN-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) activation was reduced by CK treatment. Furthermore, CK induced activation of nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-mediated antioxidant enzymes such as ?-glutamylcysteine synthetase (?-GCS), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in HepG2 cells. These results demonstrated that CK attenuates DMN-induced liver fibrosis through the activation of Nrf2-mediated antioxidant enzymes. PMID:23485615

Choi, Jae Ho; Jin, Sun Woo; Kim, Hyung Gyun; Khanal, Tilak; Hwang, Yong Pil; Lee, Kyung Jin; Choi, Chul Yung; Chung, Young Chul; Lee, Young Chun; Jeong, Hye Gwang

2013-06-01

229

Green tea diet decreases PCB 126-induced oxidative stress in mice by up-regulating antioxidant enzymes.  

PubMed

Superfund chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls pose a serious human health risk due to their environmental persistence and link to multiple diseases. Selective bioactive food components such as flavonoids have been shown to ameliorate PCB toxicity, but primarily in an in vitro setting. Here, we show that mice fed a green tea-enriched diet and subsequently exposed to environmentally relevant doses of coplanar PCB exhibit decreased overall oxidative stress primarily due to the up-regulation of a battery of antioxidant enzymes. C57BL/6 mice were fed a low-fat diet supplemented with green tea extract (GTE) for 12 weeks and exposed to 5 ?mol PCB 126/kg mouse weight (1.63 mg/kg-day) on weeks 10, 11 and 12 (total body burden: 4.9 mg/kg). F2-isoprostane and its metabolites, established markers of in vivo oxidative stress, measured in plasma via HPLC-MS/MS exhibited fivefold decreased levels in mice supplemented with GTE and subsequently exposed to PCB compared to animals on a control diet exposed to PCB. Livers were collected and harvested for both messenger RNA and protein analyses, and it was determined that many genes transcriptionally controlled by aryl hydrocarbon receptor and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 proteins were up-regulated in PCB-exposed mice fed the green tea-supplemented diet. An increased induction of genes such as SOD1, GSR, NQO1 and GST, key antioxidant enzymes, in these mice (green tea plus PCB) may explain the observed decrease in overall oxidative stress. A diet supplemented with green tea allows for an efficient antioxidant response in the presence of PCB 126, which supports the emerging paradigm that healthful nutrition may be able to bolster and buffer a physiological system against the toxicities of environmental pollutants. PMID:24378064

Newsome, Bradley J; Petriello, Michael C; Han, Sung Gu; Murphy, Margaret O; Eske, Katryn E; Sunkara, Manjula; Morris, Andrew J; Hennig, Bernhard

2014-02-01

230

Antioxidant effects of Etlingera elatior flower extract against lead acetate - induced perturbations in free radical scavenging enzymes and lipid peroxidation in rats  

PubMed Central

Background Etlingera elatior or 'pink torch ginger' (Zingiberaceae) are widely cultivated in tropical countries and used as spices and food flavoring. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant effects of Etlingera elatior against lead - induced changes in serum free radical scavenging enzymes and lipid hydroperoxides in rats. Findings Rats were exposed to lead acetate in drinking water (500 ppm) for 14 days alone or plus the ethanol extract of E. elatior (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg). Blood lead levels, lipid hydroperoxides, protein carbonyl contents and oxidative marker enzymes were estimated. Lead acetate in drinking water elicited a significant increase in lipid hydroperoxides (LPO) and protein-carbonyl-contents (PCC). There was a significant decrease in total antioxidants, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase levels with lead acetate treatment. Supplementation of E. elatior was associated with reduced serum LPO and PCC and a significant increase in total antioxidants and antioxidant enzyme levels. Conclusions The results suggest that flower extract of Etlingera elatior has powerful antioxidant effect against lead - induced oxidative stress and the extract may be useful therapeutic agent against lead toxicity. However, detailed evaluations are required to identify the active antioxidant compounds from this plant extract. PMID:21414212

2011-01-01

231

Correlation of Oxidative Stress with Serum Trace Element Levels and Antioxidant Enzyme Status in Beta Thalassemia Major Patients: A Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Beta thalassemia major is an inherited disease resulting from reduction or total lack of beta globin chains. Patients with this disease need repeated blood transfusion for survival. This may cause oxidative stress and tissue injury due to iron overload, altered antioxidant enzymes, and other essential trace element levels. The aim of this review is to scrutinize the relationship between oxidative stress and serum trace elements, degree of damage caused by oxidative stress, and the role of antioxidant enzymes in beta thalassemia major patients. The findings indicate that oxidative stress in patients with beta thalassemia major is mainly caused by tissue injury due to over production of free radical by secondary iron overload, alteration in serum trace elements and antioxidant enzymes level. The role of trace elements like selenium, copper, iron, and zinc in beta thalassemia major patients reveals a significant change of these trace elements. Studies published on the status of antioxidant enzymes like catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione, and glutathione S-transferase in beta thalassemia patients also showed variable results. The administration of selective antioxidants along with essential trace elements and minerals to reduce the extent of oxidative damage and related complications in beta thalassemia major still need further evaluation. PMID:22645668

Shazia, Q.; Mohammad, Z. H.; Rahman, Taibur; Shekhar, Hossain Uddin

2012-01-01

232

Enzyme  

MedlinePLUS

Enzymes are complex proteins that cause a specific chemical change in all parts of the body. For ... use them. Blood clotting is another example of enzymes at work. Enzymes are needed for all body ...

233

Effects of antioxidant enzymes in the molecular control of reactive oxygen species toxicology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) are produced during normal cellular function. ROS include hydroxyl radicals, superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide. They are very transient species due to their high chemical reactivity that leads to lipid peroxidation and oxidation of DNA and proteins. Under normal conditions, antioxidant systems of the cell minimize the perturbations caused by ROS. When ROS generation

2000-01-01

234

Antioxidant enzyme activities in lens, liver and kidney of calorie restricted Emory mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dietary calorie restriction extends both mean and maximum life span and retards age-related diseases, including eye lens cataract in Emory mice. The beneficial effects of calorie restriction have been hypothesized to reflect enhanced tissue antioxidant capacity. As a test of this hypothesis, we reared male and female Emory mice on control (C) or 40% calorie-restricted (R) diets. We then determined

Xin Gong; Fu Shang; Martin Obin; Helen Palmer; Mona M Scrofano; Jessica Jahngen-Hodge; Donald E Smith; Allen Taylor

1997-01-01

235

Effects of heat acclimation on photosynthesis, antioxidant enzyme activities, and gene expression in orchardgrass under heat stress.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to examine the effects of heat acclimation on enzymatic activity, transcription levels, the photosynthesis processes associated with thermostability in orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.).The stomatal conductance (Gs), net photosynthetic rate (Pn), and transpiration rates (Tr) of both heat-acclimated (HA) and non-acclimated (NA) plants were drastically reduced during heat treatment [using a 5-day heat stress treatment (38/30 °C ? day/night) followed by a 3-day recovery under control conditions (25/20 °C ? day/night), in order to consolidate the second cycle was permitted]. Water use efficiency increased more steeply in the HA (4.9 times) versus the NA (1.8 times) plants, and the intercellular CO2 concentration decreased gently in NA (10.9%) and HA (25.3%) plants after 20 d of treatments compared to 0 days'. Furthermore, heat-acclimated plants were able to maintain significant activity levels of superoxide disumutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (POD), and transcription levels of genes encoding these enzymes; in addition, HA plants displayed lower malondialdehyde content and lower electrolyte leakage than NA plants. These results suggest that maintenance of activity and transcription levels of antioxidant enzymes as well as photosynthesis are associated with variable thermostability in HA and NA plants. This likely occurs through cellular membrane stabilization and improvements in water use efficiency in the photosynthetic process during heat stress. The association between antioxidant enzyme activity and gene expression, both of which may vary with genetic variation in heat tolerance, is important to further understand the molecular mechanisms that contribute to heat tolerance. PMID:25255756

Zhao, Xin Xin; Huang, Lin Kai; Zhang, Xin Quan; Li, Zhou; Peng, Yan

2014-01-01

236

Antioxidant Enzyme Activity and Meat Quality of Meat Type Ducks Fed with Dried Oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) Powder  

PubMed Central

One-day-old Cherry valley meat-strain ducks were used to investigate the effect of supplemental dried oregano powder (DOP) in feed on the productivity, antioxidant enzyme activity, and breast meat quality. One hundred sixty five ducks were assigned to 5 dietary treatments for 42 days. The dietary treatment groups were control group (CON; no antibiotic, no DOP), antibiotic group (ANT; CON+0.1% Patrol), 0.1% DOP (CON+0.1% DOP), 0.5% DOP (CON+0.5% DOP), and 1.0% DOP (CON+1.0% DOP). Upon feeding, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity of oregano extracts was higher than that of tocopherol, although it was less than that of ascorbic acid. As a result of in vivo study, DOP in the diet showed no effects on final body weight, feed intake, or feed conversion ratio. However, dietary 0.5% and 1% DOP supplementation caused a significant increase in the serum enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) compared with CON and ANT, while glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in tissue was increased as compared to ANT (p<0.05). Cooking loss from ducks fed with DOP decreased compared with the control ducks. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values of duck breast meat at 5 d post slaughter was found to be significantly reduced in ducks whose diets were supplemented with 0.5% and 1% DOP (p<0.05). These results suggest that diets containing 0.5% and 1% DOP may beneficially affect antioxidant enzyme activity of GPx and SOD, improve meat cooking loss, and reduce TBARS values in breast meat at 5 d of storage in ducks. PMID:25557678

Park, J. H.; Kang, S. N.; Shin, D.; Shim, K. S.

2015-01-01

237

Antioxidant Enzyme Activity and Meat Quality of Meat Type Ducks Fed with Dried Oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) Powder.  

PubMed

One-day-old Cherry valley meat-strain ducks were used to investigate the effect of supplemental dried oregano powder (DOP) in feed on the productivity, antioxidant enzyme activity, and breast meat quality. One hundred sixty five ducks were assigned to 5 dietary treatments for 42 days. The dietary treatment groups were control group (CON; no antibiotic, no DOP), antibiotic group (ANT; CON+0.1% Patrol), 0.1% DOP (CON+0.1% DOP), 0.5% DOP (CON+0.5% DOP), and 1.0% DOP (CON+1.0% DOP). Upon feeding, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity of oregano extracts was higher than that of tocopherol, although it was less than that of ascorbic acid. As a result of in vivo study, DOP in the diet showed no effects on final body weight, feed intake, or feed conversion ratio. However, dietary 0.5% and 1% DOP supplementation caused a significant increase in the serum enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) compared with CON and ANT, while glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in tissue was increased as compared to ANT (p<0.05). Cooking loss from ducks fed with DOP decreased compared with the control ducks. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values of duck breast meat at 5 d post slaughter was found to be significantly reduced in ducks whose diets were supplemented with 0.5% and 1% DOP (p<0.05). These results suggest that diets containing 0.5% and 1% DOP may beneficially affect antioxidant enzyme activity of GPx and SOD, improve meat cooking loss, and reduce TBARS values in breast meat at 5 d of storage in ducks. PMID:25557678

Park, J H; Kang, S N; Shin, D; Shim, K S

2015-01-01

238

Antitumor properties and modulation of antioxidant enzymes' activity by Aloe vera leaf active principles isolated via supercritical carbon dioxide extraction.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential anticancer properties and modulatory effect of selected Aloe vera (A. vera) active principles on antioxidant enzyme activities. Thus, three anthraquinones (Namely: aloesin, aloe-emodin and barbaloin) were extracted from A. vera leaves by supercritical fluid extraction and subsequently purified by high performance liquid chromatography. Additionally, the N-terminal octapeptide derived from verectin, a biologically active 14 kDa glycoprotein present in A. vera, was also tested. In vivo, active principles exhibited significant prolongation of the life span of tumor-transplanted animals in the following order: barbaloin> octapeptide> aloesin > aloe-emodin. A. vera active principles exhibited significant inhibition on Ehrlich ascite carcinoma cell (EACC) number, when compared to positive control group, in the following order: barbaloin> aloe-emodin > octapeptide > aloesin. Moreover, in trypan blue cell viability assay, active principles showed a significant concentration-dependent cytotoxicity against acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute lymphocytes leukemia (ALL) cancerous cells. Furthermore, in MTT cell viability test, aloe-emodin was found to be active against two human colon cancer cell lines (i.e. DLD-1 and HT2), with IC(50) values of 8.94 and 10.78 microM, respectively. Treatments of human AML leukemic cells with active principles (100 microg ml(-1)) resulted in varying intensities of internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, hallmark of cells undergoing apoptosis, in the following order: aloe-emodin> aloesin> barbaloin> octapeptide. Intererstingly, treatment of EACC tumors with active principles resulted in a significant elevation activity of key antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GST, tGPx, and LDH). Our data suggest that the tested A. vera compounds may exert their chemo-preventive effect through modulating antioxidant and detoxification enzyme activity levels, as they are one of the indicators of tumorigenesis. These findings are discussed in the light of the potential of A. vera plant extracts for developing efficient, specific and non-toxic anticancer drugs that are affordable for developing countries. PMID:19941474

El-Shemy, H A; Aboul-Soud, M A M; Nassr-Allah, A A; Aboul-Enein, K M; Kabash, A; Yagi, A

2010-01-01

239

The effect of organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos-ethyl on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes (in vitro)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organophosphates are known primarily as neurotoxins. However, reactive oxygen species (ROS) caused by organophosphates may be involved in the toxicity of various pesticides. Therefore, in this study we aimed to examine how an organophosphate insecticide, chlorpyrifos-ethyl (CE) [0,0-diethyl 0 (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyl) phosphorothioate], affects lipid peroxidation and the antioxidant defense system in vitro. For this purpose, four experiments were carried out. In

F. Gultekin; M. Ozturk; M. Akdogan

2000-01-01

240

Protective action of CLA against oxidative inactivation of paraoxonase 1, an antioxidant enzyme  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of CLA on paraoxonase 1 (PON1), one of the antioxidant proteins associated with HDL, was investigated for its protective\\u000a action against oxidative inactivation as well as its stabilization activity. When cis-9 (c9),trans-11 (t11)-CLA and t10,c12-CLA were examined for their protective activity against ascorbate\\/Cu2?-induced inactivation of PON1 in the presence of Ca2+, two CLA isomers exhibited a remarkable protection

Nguyen-Duy Su; Xi-Wen Liu; Mee Ree Kim; Tae-Sook Jeong; Dai-Eun Sok

2003-01-01

241

Antioxidant enzyme activities are decreased in preterm infants and in neonates born via caesarean section  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To investigate the antioxidant defense potential of human neonates according to gestational age and mode of delivery. Study design: Four study groups were established, full-term normal spontaneous vaginal delivery (FT-NSVD, n=24), full-term caesarean section (FT-CS, n=19), preterm normal spontaneous vaginal delivery (PT-NSVD, n=15) preterm caesarean section (PT-CS, n=21). The activity of catalase (CAT), glutathion peroxidase (GPX), Cu\\/Zn superoxide dismutase

George D Georgeson; Barnabás J Sz?ny; Károly Streitman; Ilona Sz Varga; Attila Kovács; László Kovács; Aranka László

2002-01-01

242

Enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant activities of Viburnum tinus L. relevant to its neuroprotective potential.  

PubMed

In vitro neuroprotective activity of the extracts of Viburnum tinus L. was investigated via inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), and tyrosinase (TYRO) by microtitre plate assays. Their antioxidant activity was tested using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylendiamine (DMPD), super oxide (SO), and nitric oxide (NO) radical-scavenging activities, ferric ion-chelation capacity, ferric- (FRAP), and phosphomolybdenum-reducing antioxidant power (PRAP) assays. Total phenol and flavonoid content of the extracts was determined spectrophotometrically. The branch-ethyl acetate and fruit-methanol extracts exerted potent anticholinesterase effects (66.4 ± 0.65% to 97.7 ± 0.47%), while the fruit-methanol extract had the highest TYRO inhibition (47.0 ± 0.68%). The methanol extracts showed higher activities in most of the antioxidant tests. All the extracts displayed notable NO-scavenging effects (47.5 ± 5.03% to 74.5 ± 1.80%). Only the fruit-ethyl acetate extract quenched SO radical (38.4 ± 1.01%) at 500 ?g ml(-1). Our data indicate that the fruit and branch extracts of V. tinus may provide potential neuroprotection. PMID:23768397

Y?lmaz, Betül Sever; Altun, Mehmet Levent; Orhan, Ilkay Erdogan; Ergene, Burcin; Citoglu, Gülcin Saltan

2013-11-01

243

Amelioration of cholesterol induced atherosclerosis by normalizing gene expression, cholesterol profile and antioxidant enzymes by Vigna unguiculata.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular diseases, especially atherosclerosis, have found to be the dreadful diseases worldwide and therapeutic interventions using plant sources have wide therapeutic value. Vigna unguiculata (VU) leaves have been used as food and therapeutics. Hence, our study was designed to evaluate the hypolipidemic as well as anti-atherogenic potential of VU leaves in normalizing atherogenic gene expression, cholesterol profile, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant enzyme system on cholesterol fed rabbit model. For the study New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into four groups of six animals each and experimental period was three months; group -i - ND [normal diet (40 g feed)], group-ii- ND (normal diet) +EAVU [ethyl acetate fraction of Vigna unguiculata (150 mg/kg body weight)], group -iii- ND [normal diet ]+ CFD [cholesterol fed diet (cholesterol 1 % of 40 g feed and cholic acid 0.5 % of 40 g feed)] and group-iv - ND [normal diet] +CFD [cholesterol fed diet ]+EAVU [ethyl acetate fraction of Vigna unguiculata (150 mg/kg body weight)]. Atherosclerosis was induced by feeding the rabbit with cholesterol (1 % of 40 g feed) and cholic acid (0.5 % of 40 g feed). Supplementation of EAVU normalized cholesterol profile, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation products like thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), antioxidant system and important genes of cardiovascular diseases like interleukin-10 (IL 10), paraoxanase-1 (PON I), interleukin-6 (IL 6), and cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox 2) to near normal level as compared with normal diet. The result obtained showed the antioxidant as well as anti-atherogenic potential of Vigna unguiculata leaves in ameliorating cholesterol induced atherosclerosis, and thus it is good task to include VU leaves in daily diet for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases especially atherosclerosis. PMID:23475595

Janeesh, P A; Abraham, Annie

2013-06-01

244

Effect of cisplatin and cobalt chloride on antioxidant enzymes in the livers of Lewis lung carcinoma-bearing mice: protective role of heme oxygenase.  

PubMed

Changes in the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase and heme oxygenase (HO) and changes in lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels were measured in the livers of control and Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC)-bearing mice 24 h after a single injection of cisplatin or CoCl(2). Treatment with cisplatin induced the same degree of lipid peroxidation and GSH depletion as did CoCl(2) but the antioxidant enzymes were differently involved in cisplatin- and cobalt-induced oxidative stress responses. In cobalt-treated mice the activities of these enzymes were either inhibited or not changed significantly and only the HO activity was increased (5-fold) as a main protective enzyme. In cisplatin-treated animals the antioxidant enzymes were activated but the enhancement of HO and CAT was greater in LLC-inoculated mice. It is suggested that these two enzymes represent the protective response against cisplatin toxicity in the livers of tumor-bearing animals. PMID:12565200

Christova, Tania Y; Gorneva, Galina A; Taxirov, Svetoslav I; Duridanova, Dessislava B; Setchenska, Milka S

2003-03-01

245

Anti-inflammatory effect of Pueraria tuberosa extracts through improvement in activity of red blood cell anti-oxidant enzymes.  

PubMed

Changing life style and over-nutrition causes low-grade inflammation (LGI), with obesity and hyper-lipidemia as basic factors. The physiological state polarizes macrophages to classical type (M1), which is pro-inflammatory and promotes ectopic fat deposition in the body. Both factors induce inflammatory cascade, where free radicals (FRs) play an important role. Thus, pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions would be effective in the management of LGI and plant products would be used as food supplement or as a drug. Previously, a study has reported the anti-oxidant potential of methanolic extract of tubers of Pueraria tuberosa (PTME) and inhibitory role of tuberosin on lipopolysaccharides-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in macrophages in an in vitro study model. Here, the effect of PTME has been explored on carrageenan-induced inflammatory changes in rats. The activity of antioxidant enzymes in red blood cell hemolysate has been assessed. PTME was orally given to rats for 9 days and periodical changes (every 3(rd) day) in the activity/concentration of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, reduced glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxides (LPO), and C-reactive proteins (CRP) were monitored. The PTME significantly prevented carrageenan-induced decline in GSH content, lowering of catalase and SOD activity, and rise in LPO and CRP in rats in a time-dependent, sequential manner. Thus, it could be suggested that the anti-inflammatory role of PTME is primarily mediated through its FR scavenging potential. PMID:24501527

Pandey, Nidhi; Yadav, Durgavati; Pandey, Vivek; Tripathi, Yamini B

2013-07-01

246

Sulphurous thermal water increases the release of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and modulates antioxidant enzyme activity.  

PubMed

The beneficial effects of hot springs have been known for centuries and treatments with sulphurous thermal waters are recommended in a number of chronic pathologies as well as acute recurrent infections. However, the positive effects of the therapy are often evaluated in terms of subjective sense of wellbeing and symptomatic clinical improvements. Here, the effects of an S-based compound (NaSH) and of a specific sulphurous thermal water characterized by additional ions such as sodium chloride, bromine and iodine (STW) were investigated in terms of cytokine release and anti-oxidant enzyme activity in primary human monocytes and in saliva from 50 airway disease patients subjected to thermal treatments. In vitro, NaSH efficiently blocked the induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and counterbalanced the formation of ROS. Despite STW not recapitulating these results, possibly due to the low concentration of S-based compounds reached at the minimum non-toxic dilution, we found that it enhanced the release of IL-10, a potent anti-inflammatory cytokine. Notably, higher levels of IL-10 were also observed in patients' saliva following STW treatment and this increase correlated positively with salivary catalase activity (r2 = 0.19, *p less than 0.01). To our knowledge, these results represent the first evidence suggesting that S-based compounds and STW may prove useful in facing chronic inflammatory and age-related illness due to combined anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. PMID:24067460

Prandelli, C; Parola, C; Buizza, L; Delbarba, A; Marziano, M; Salvi, V; Zacchi, V; Memo, M; Sozzani, S; Calza, S; Uberti, D; Bosisio, D

2013-01-01

247

Anti-inflammatory effect of Pueraria tuberosa extracts through improvement in activity of red blood cell anti-oxidant enzymes  

PubMed Central

Changing life style and over-nutrition causes low-grade inflammation (LGI), with obesity and hyper-lipidemia as basic factors. The physiological state polarizes macrophages to classical type (M1), which is pro-inflammatory and promotes ectopic fat deposition in the body. Both factors induce inflammatory cascade, where free radicals (FRs) play an important role. Thus, pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions would be effective in the management of LGI and plant products would be used as food supplement or as a drug. Previously, a study has reported the anti-oxidant potential of methanolic extract of tubers of Pueraria tuberosa (PTME) and inhibitory role of tuberosin on lipopolysaccharides-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in macrophages in an in vitro study model. Here, the effect of PTME has been explored on carrageenan-induced inflammatory changes in rats. The activity of antioxidant enzymes in red blood cell hemolysate has been assessed. PTME was orally given to rats for 9 days and periodical changes (every 3rd day) in the activity/concentration of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, reduced glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxides (LPO), and C-reactive proteins (CRP) were monitored. The PTME significantly prevented carrageenan-induced decline in GSH content, lowering of catalase and SOD activity, and rise in LPO and CRP in rats in a time-dependent, sequential manner. Thus, it could be suggested that the anti-inflammatory role of PTME is primarily mediated through its FR scavenging potential. PMID:24501527

Pandey, Nidhi; Yadav, Durgavati; Pandey, Vivek; Tripathi, Yamini B.

2013-01-01

248

Quercetin Protects Primary Human Osteoblasts Exposed to Cigarette Smoke through Activation of the Antioxidative Enzymes HO-1 and SOD-1  

PubMed Central

Smokers frequently suffer from impaired fracture healing often due to poor bone quality and stability. Cigarette smoking harms bone cells and their homeostasis by increased formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The aim of this study was to investigate whether Quercetin, a naturally occurring antioxidant, can protect osteoblasts from the toxic effects of smoking. Human osteoblasts exposed to cigarette smoke medium (CSM) rapidly produced ROS and their viability decreased concentration- and time-dependently. Co-, pre- and postincubation with Quercetin dose-dependently improved their viability. Quercetin increased the expression of the anti-oxidative enzymes heme-oxygenase- (HO-) 1 and superoxide-dismutase- (SOD-) 1. Inhibiting HO-1 activity abolished the protective effect of Quercetin. Our results demonstrate that CSM damages human osteoblasts by accumulation of ROS. Quercetin can diminish this damage by scavenging the radicals and by upregulating the expression of HO-1 and SOD-1. Thus, a dietary supplementation with Quercetin could improve bone matter, stability and even fracture healing in smokers. PMID:22203790

Braun, Karl F.; Ehnert, Sabrina; Freude, Thomas; Egańa, José T.; Schenck, Thilo L.; Buchholz, Arne; Schmitt, Andreas; Siebenlist, Sebastian; Schyschka, Lilianna; Neumaier, Markus; Stöckle, Ulrich; Nussler, Andreas K.

2011-01-01

249

Ecotoxicological effects of a veterinary food additive, copper sulphate, on antioxidant enzymes and mRNA expression in earthworms.  

PubMed

The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of the veterinary food additive copper sulphate (CuSO?) on the eco-toxicological responses of earthworms Eisenia fetida (E. fetida). The following biomarkers were measured: catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities. Gene expression analyses such as metallothionein (MT) and heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) were also examined. A time-dependent increase of CAT activity was found at 400 mg/kg and SOD activity at 200 and 400 mg/kg. The highest expression of Hsp70 (4.4-fold) was observed at day 15 at 400 mg/kg. Our results indicated that the measured antioxidant enzymes (except GST) had the ability to provide antioxidant defenses against the stressor; and compared to expression of MT, expression of Hsp70 could be more reliable molecular tools with predictive possibilities to monitor the eco-toxicity of stressors such as feed additive CuSO?. PMID:24322621

Xiong, Wenguang; Ding, Xueyao; Zhang, Yiming; Sun, Yongxue

2014-01-01

250

Effects of Single Exposure of Sodium Fluoride on Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Enzymes in Salivary Glands of Rats  

PubMed Central

Many studies suggest that fluoride exposure can inhibit the activity of various enzymes and can generate free radicals, which interfere with antioxidant defence mechanisms in living systems. To further the understanding of this issue, this present study examined the effects of low-dose fluoride treatment on the activity of enzymatic antioxidant superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), as well as the levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the parotid (PA) and submandibular (SM) salivary glands of rats. Rats were injected with a single dose of sodium fluoride (NaF) (15?mg?F?/kg b.w.) then euthanized at various time intervals up to 24 hours (h) following exposure. NaF exposure did not cause significant differences in SOD or CAT activity or LPO levels in PA glands compared to control. Conversely, SM glands presented increased SOD activity after 3?h and decreased SOD activity after 1, 12, and 24?h, while LPO was increased after 6, 12, and 24?h of the NaF injection. There were no significant differences in the CAT activity in the groups studied. Our results demonstrated that NaF intoxication caused oxidative stress in salivary glands few hours after administration. These changes were more pronounced in SM than in PA gland. PMID:23738039

Yamaguti, Paula Mochidome; Simőes, Alyne; Ganzerla, Emily; Souza, Douglas Nesadal; Nogueira, Fernando Neves; Nicolau, José

2013-01-01

251

Influence of extremely low-frequency magnetic field on the activity of antioxidant enzymes during skin wound healing in rats.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of the antioxidant enzymes mitochondrial and cytosolic superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1), glutathione peroxidase (POX, EC 1.11.1.9) and glutathione S-transferase (EC 3.1.2.7), as well as the concentration of malone dialdehyde (MDA), as an indicator of lipid peroxidation rate in the liver tissue homogenates and blood serum of male rats exposed to extremely low-frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF) in order to improve the healing process of an experimental cut wound on the back of each animal. The exposure to ELF-MF with frequency 40 Hz and magnetic flux density 10 mT induced an increase in POX serum activity and a decrease in MDA contents in the liver tissue, which suggests the inhibition of phospholipid peroxidation and subsequent stabilization of cellular membranes, as a result of ELF-MF action. Based on the results obtained, it seems that ELF-MF could be a useful supplement in the complex treatment of prolonged wound healing, due to the activation of endogenous enzymatic antioxidant system. PMID:23323798

Glinka, Marek; Siero?, Aleksander; Birkner, Ewa; Cie?lar, Grzegorz

2013-12-01

252

Effect of the Antihypertensive Drug Enalapril on Oxidative Stress Markers and Antioxidant Enzymes in Kidney of Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat  

PubMed Central

Oxidative stress has been suggested to play a role in hypertension and hypertension induced organ damage. This study examined the effect of enalapril, an antihypertensive drug, on oxidative stress markers and antioxidant enzymes in kidney of spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) and N? -nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) administered SHR. Male rats were divided into four groups (SHR, SHR+enalapril, SHR+L-NAME, and SHR+enalapril+L-NAME). Enalapril (30?mg kg?1 day?1) was administered from week 4 to week 28 and L-NAME (25?mg kg?1 day?1) was administered from week 16 to week 28 in drinking water. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured during the experimental period. At the end of experimental periods, rats were sacrificed; urine, blood, and kidneys were collected for the assessment of creatinine clearance, total protein, total antioxidant status (TAS), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT), as well as histopathological examination. Enalapril treatment significantly enhanced the renal TAS level (P < 0.001) and SOD activity (P < 0.001), reduced the TBARS levels (P < 0.001), and also prevented the renal dysfunction and histopathological changes. The results indicate that, besides its hypotensive and renoprotective effects, enalapril treatment also diminishes oxidative stress in the kidneys of both the SHR and SHR+L-NAME groups. PMID:25254079

Chandran, G.; Sirajudeen, K. N. S.; Swamy, M.; Samarendra, Mutum S.

2014-01-01

253

Effect of the antihypertensive drug enalapril on oxidative stress markers and antioxidant enzymes in kidney of spontaneously hypertensive rat.  

PubMed

Oxidative stress has been suggested to play a role in hypertension and hypertension induced organ damage. This study examined the effect of enalapril, an antihypertensive drug, on oxidative stress markers and antioxidant enzymes in kidney of spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) and N? -nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) administered SHR. Male rats were divided into four groups (SHR, SHR+enalapril, SHR+L-NAME, and SHR+enalapril+L-NAME). Enalapril (30?mg kg(-1) day(-1)) was administered from week 4 to week 28 and L-NAME (25?mg kg(-1) day(-1)) was administered from week 16 to week 28 in drinking water. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured during the experimental period. At the end of experimental periods, rats were sacrificed; urine, blood, and kidneys were collected for the assessment of creatinine clearance, total protein, total antioxidant status (TAS), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT), as well as histopathological examination. Enalapril treatment significantly enhanced the renal TAS level (P < 0.001) and SOD activity (P < 0.001), reduced the TBARS levels (P < 0.001), and also prevented the renal dysfunction and histopathological changes. The results indicate that, besides its hypotensive and renoprotective effects, enalapril treatment also diminishes oxidative stress in the kidneys of both the SHR and SHR+L-NAME groups. PMID:25254079

Chandran, G; Sirajudeen, K N S; Yusoff, Nik Syamimi Nik; Swamy, M; Samarendra, Mutum S

2014-01-01

254

Antioxidants and human diseases.  

PubMed

Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the development of human diseases. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) that includes hydrogen peroxide, hyphochlorus acid, superoxide anion, singlet oxygen, lipid peroxides, hypochlorite and hydroxyl radical are involved in growth, differentiation, progression and death of the cell. They can react with membrane lipids, nucleic acids, proteins, enzymes and other small molecules. Low concentrations of ROS has an indispensable role in intracellular signalling and defence against pathogens, while, higher amounts of ROS play a role in number of human diseases, including arthritis, cancer, diabetes, atherosclerosis, ischemia, failures in immunity and endocrine functions. Antioxidants presumably act as safeguard against the accumulation of ROS and their elimination from the system. The aim of this review is to highlight advances in understanding of the ROS and also to summarize the detailed impact and involvement of antioxidants in selected human diseases. PMID:24933428

Rajendran, Peramaiyan; Nandakumar, Natarajan; Rengarajan, Thamaraiselvan; Palaniswami, Rajendran; Gnanadhas, Edwinoliver Nesamony; Lakshminarasaiah, Uppalapati; Gopas, Jacob; Nishigaki, Ikuo

2014-09-25

255

Influence of UV radiation on chlorophyll, and antioxidant enzymes of wetland plants in different types of constructed wetland.  

PubMed

A surface- and vertical subsurface-flow-constructed wetland were designed to study the response of chlorophyll and antioxidant enzymes to elevated UV radiation in three types of wetland plants (Canna indica, Phragmites austrail, and Typha augustifolia). Results showed that (1) chlorophyll content of C. indica, P. austrail, and T. augustifolia in the constructed wetland was significantly lower where UV radiation was increased by 10 and 20 % above ambient solar level than in treatment with ambient solar UV radiation (p < 0.05). (2) The malondialdehyde (MDA) content, guaiacol peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities of wetland plants increased with elevated UV radiation intensity. (3) The increased rate of MDA, SOD, POD, and CAT activities of C. indica, P. australis, and T. angustifolia by elevated UV radiation of 10 % was higher in vertical subsurface-flow-constructed wetland than in surface-flow-constructed wetland. The sensitivity of MDA, SOD, POD, and CAT activities of C. indica, P. austrail, and T. augustifolia to the elevated UV radiation was lower in surface-flow-constructed wetland than in the vertical subsurface-flow-constructed wetland, which was related to a reduction in UV radiation intensity through the dissolved organic carbon and suspended matter in the water. C. indica had the highest SOD and POD activities, which implied it is more sensitive to enhanced UV radiation. Therefore, different wetland plants had different antioxidant enzymes by elevated UV radiation, which were more sensitive in vertical subsurface-flow-constructed wetland than in surface-flow-constructed wetland. PMID:24788860

Xu, Defu; Wu, Yinjuan; Li, Yingxue; Howard, Alan; Jiang, Xiaodong; Guan, Yidong; Gao, Yongxia

2014-09-01

256

Amendment in phosphorus levels moderate the chromium toxicity in Raphanus sativus L. as assayed by antioxidant enzymes activities.  

PubMed

Chromium (Z=24), a d-block element, is a potent carcinogen, whereas phosphorus is an essential and limiting nutrient for the plant growth and development. This study undertakes the role of phosphorus in moderating the chromium toxicity in Raphanus sativus L., as both of them compete with each other during the uptake process. Two-factor complete randomized experiment (5 chromium × 5 phosphorus concentrations) was conducted for twenty eight days in green house. The individuals of R. sativus were grown in pots supplied with all essential nutrients. The toxic effects of chromium and the moderation of toxicity due to phosphorus amendment were determined as accumulation of chromium, nitrogen, phosphorus in root tissues and their effects were also examined in the changes in biomass, chlorophyll and antioxidant enzyme levels. Cr and N accumulation were almost doubled at the highest concentration of Cr supply, without any P amendment, whereas at the highest P concentration (125 mM), the accumulation was reduced to almost half. A significant reduction in toxic effects of Cr was determined as there was three-fold increase in total chlorophyll and biomass at the highest P amendment. Antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase and lipid peroxidation were analyzed at various levels of Cr each amended with five levels of P. It was observed that at highest level of P amendment, the reduction percentage in toxicity was 33, 44, 39 and 44, correspondingly. Conclusively, the phosphorus amendment moderates the toxicity caused by the supplied chromium in R. sativus. This finding can be utilized to develop a novel technology for the amelioration of chromium stressed fields. PMID:23810367

Sayantan, D; Shardendu

2013-09-01

257

Mycorrhizal-induced calmodulin mediated changes in antioxidant enzymes and growth response of drought-stressed trifoliate orange  

PubMed Central

Trifoliate orange [Poncirus trifoliata (L) Raf.] is considered highly arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) dependent for growth responses through a series of signal transductions in form of various physiological responses. The proposed study was carried out to evaluate the effect of an AM fungus (Funneliformis mosseae) on growth, antioxidant enzyme (catalase, CAT; superoxide dismutase, SOD) activities, leaf relative water content (RWC), calmodulin (CaM), superoxide anion (O2•?), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentrations in leaves of the plants exposed to both well-watered (WW) and drought stress (DS) conditions. A 58-day of DS significantly decreased mycorrhizal colonization by 60% than WW. Compared to non-AM seedlings, AM seedlings displayed significantly higher shoot morphological properties (plant height, stem diameter, and leaf number), biomass production (shoot and root fresh weight) and leaf RWC, regardless of soil water status. AM inoculation significantly increased CaM and soluble protein concentrations and CAT activity, whereas significantly decreased O2•? and H2O2 concentration under both WW and DS conditions. The AM seedlings also exhibited significantly higher Cu/Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD activities than the non-AM seedlings under DS but not under WW, which are triggered by higher CaM levels in AM plants on the basis of correlation studies. Further, the negative correlation of Cu/Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD activities with O2•? and H2O2 concentration showed the DS-induced ROS scavenging ability of CaM mediated SODs under mycorrhization. Our results demonstrated that AM-inoculation elevated the synthesis of CaM in leaves and up-regulated activities of the antioxidant enzymes, thereby, repairing the possible oxidative damage to plants by lowering the ROS accumulation under DS condition.

Huang, Yong-Ming; Srivastava, A. K.; Zou, Ying-Ning; Ni, Qiu-Dan; Han, Yu; Wu, Qiang-Sheng

2014-01-01

258

Effect of sodium chloride and cadmium on the growth, oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activities of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zygosaccharomyces rouxii is a salt-tolerant yeast species capable of removing cadmium (Cd) pollutant from aqueous solution. Presently, the physiological characteristics of Z. rouxii under the stress of sodium chloride (NaCl) and Cd are poorly understood. This study investigated the effects of NaCl and Cd on the growth, oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activities of Z. rouxii after stress treatment for 24 h. Results showed that NaCl or Cd alone negatively affected the growth of Z. rouxii, but the growth-inhibiting effect of Cd on Z. rouxii was reduced in the presence of NaCl. Flow cytometry assay showed that under Cd stress, NaCl significantly reduced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell death of Z. rouxii compared with those in the absence of NaCl. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) of Z. rouxii were significantly enhanced by 2%-6% NaCl, which likely contributed to the high salt tolerance of Z. rouxii. The POD activity was inhibited by 20 mg L-1 Cd while the SOD and CAT activities were enhanced by 8 mg L-1 Cd and inhibited by 20 mg L-1 or 50 mg L-1 Cd. The inhibitory effect of high-level Cd on the antioxidant enzyme activities of Z. rouxii was counteracted by the combined use of NaCl, especially at 6%. This probably accounted for the decrease in Cd-induced ROS production and cell death of Z. rouxii after incubation with NaCl and Cd. Our work provided physiological clues as to the use of Z. rouxii as a biosorbent for Cd removal from seawater and liquid highly salty food.

Li, Chunsheng; Xu, Ying; Jiang, Wei; Lv, Xin; Dong, Xiaoyan

2014-06-01

259

Induction of endogenous antioxidants and phase 2 enzymes by ?-lipoic acid in rat cardiac H9C2 cells: protection against oxidative injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

?-Lipoic acid (LA) has recently been reported to exert protective effects on various forms of oxidative cardiac disorders. However, the mechanisms underlying LA-mediated cardioprotection remain to be investigated. This study was undertaken to determine whether LA treatment could increase endogenous antioxidants and phase 2 enzymes in cultured cardiomyocytes, and whether such increased cellular defenses could afford protection against oxidative cardiac

Zhuoxiao Cao; Maggie Tsang; Hai Zhao; Yunbo Li

2003-01-01

260

2-Benzoxazolinone (BOA) induced oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation and changes in some antioxidant enzyme activities in mung bean ( Phaseolus aureus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

2-Benzoxazolinone (BOA), a well-known allelochemical with strong phytotoxicity, is a potential herbicidal candidate. The aim of the present study was to determine whether phytotoxicity of BOA is due to induction of oxidative stress caused by generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the changes in levels of antioxidant enzymes induced in response to BOA. Effect of BOA was studied on

D. R. Batish; H. P. Singh; N. Setia; S. Kaur; R. K. Kohli

2006-01-01

261

Effect of lower doses of vanadate in combination with Azadirachta indica leaf extract on hepatic and renal antioxidant enzymes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.  

PubMed

The present study was undertaken to investigate short-term (21 days) effects of oral administration of Azadirachta indica leaf extract and vanadate, separately and in combination, on the activities of antioxidant enzymes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Vanadate is a remarkable antidiabetic agent and shows insulin mimetic effect. However, severe toxicity is associated with vanadate when used in high concentration while at lower concentration the hypoglycemic property of vanadate is reduced. So, we used a low dose of vanadate in combination with A. indica leaf extract and evaluated their effect on the antioxidant defense system. Streptozotocin-diabetic rats were treated separately with insulin, vanadate (0.6 mg/ml), A. indica, and with combined dose of vanadate (0.2 mg/ml) and A. indica. At the end of the experiment, rats were sacrificed and serum glucose levels and activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase were determined in cytosolic fraction of liver and kidney. Diabetic rats showed hyperglycemic condition and alteration in antioxidant enzyme activities. Treatment with antidiabetic compounds resulted in the reduction of glucose levels and restoration of enzyme activities to normal. Results showed that combined treatment of vanadate and A. indica leaf extract was the most effective in normalizing altered antioxidant enzyme system. PMID:24081779

Upreti, Jaya; Ali, Shakir; Basir, Seemi Farhat

2013-12-01

262

Effects of In Vitro UVA Irradiation and PUVA Treatment on Membrane Fatty Acids and Activities of Antioxidant Enzymes in Human Keratinocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human Keratinocytes (NCTC 2544) in culture were exposed to either plain ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation or to 8-methoxypsoralen plus UVA (PUVA) treatment. Lipid peroxidation, activities of antioxidant enzymes, and percentage amounts of 14C-arachidonic acid in various cellular lipid subclasses and in the culture medium were measured. Both UVA irradiation and PUVA treatment induced significant changes in the distribution of arachidonic

Kari Punnonen; Christer T. Jansen; Antti Puntala; Markku Ahotupa

1991-01-01

263

Starvation and re-feeding affect Hsp expression, MAPK activation and antioxidant enzymes activity of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).  

PubMed

In the context of food deprivation in fish (wild and farmed), understanding of cellular responses is necessary in order to develop strategies to minimize stress caused by starvation in the aquaculture section. The present study evaluates the effects of long term starvation (1F-3S: one-month feeding-three-month starvation) and starvation/re-feeding (2S-2F: two-month starvation-two-month re-feeding) compared to the control group (4F-0S: four-month feeding-zero month starvation) on cellular stress response and antioxidant defense in organs, like the intestine, the liver, the red and white muscle of European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax. Molecular responses were addressed through the expression of Hsp70 and Hsp90, the phosphorylation of stress-activated protein kinases and particularly p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) and the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK-1/2). For the determination of the effect of the oxidative stress caused by food deprivation and/or re-feeding, the (maximum) activities of antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidise (GPx), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) as well as the determination of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were studied. The experimental feeding trials caused a tissue distinct and differential response on the cellular and antioxidant capacity of sea bass not only during the stressful process of starvation but also in re-feeding. Specifically, the intestine phosphorylation of ERKs and antioxidant enzymatic activities increased in the 2S-2F fish group, while in the 1F-3S group an increase was detected in the levels of the same proteins except for GPx. In the liver and the red muscle of 2S-2F fish, decreased Hsp70 and phosphorylated p38 MAPK levels and increased Hsp90 levels were observed. Additionally, SOD activity decreased in the red muscle of 2S-2F and 1F-3S groups. In the liver and red muscle of 1F-3S group Hsp70 levels increased, while the activation of p38 MAPK in the liver decreased. In the white muscle, Hsp90 levels decreased and the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK increased in both feeding regimes compared to control. In the same tissue, GPx and catalase levels were decreased in 2S-2F regime, while SOD levels were decreased in 1F-3S regime. PMID:23462223

Antonopoulou, Efthimia; Kentepozidou, Elissavet; Feidantsis, Konstantinos; Roufidou, Chrysoula; Despoti, Smaragda; Chatzifotis, Stavros

2013-05-01

264

Intracellular Hydrogen Peroxide and Superoxide Poison 3-Deoxy-d-Arabinoheptulosonate 7-Phosphate Synthase, the First Committed Enzyme in the Aromatic Biosynthetic Pathway of Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

In Escherichia coli, aromatic compound biosynthesis is the process that has shown the greatest sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide stress. This pathway has long been recognized to be sensitive to superoxide as well, but the molecular target was unknown. Feeding experiments indicated that the bottleneck lies early in the pathway, and the suppressive effects of fur mutations and manganese supplementation suggested the involvement of a metalloprotein. The 3-deoxy-d-arabinoheptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase (DAHP synthase) activity catalyzes the first step in the pathway, and it is provided by three isozymes known to rely upon a divalent metal. This activity progressively declined when cells were stressed with either oxidant. The purified enzyme was activated more strongly by ferrous iron than by other metals, and only this metalloform could be inactivated by hydrogen peroxide or superoxide. We infer that iron is the prosthetic metal in vivo. Both oxidants displace the iron atom from the enzyme. In peroxide-stressed cells, the enzyme accumulated as an apoprotein, potentially with an oxidized cysteine residue. In superoxide-stressed cells, the enzyme acquired a nonactivating zinc ion in its active site, an apparent consequence of the repeated ejection of iron. Manganese supplementation protected the activity in both cases, which matches the ability of manganese to metallate the enzyme and to provide substantial oxidant-resistant activity. DAHP synthase thus belongs to a family of mononuclear iron-containing enzymes that are disabled by oxidative stress. To date, all the intracellular injuries caused by physiological doses of these reactive oxygen species have arisen from the oxidation of reduced iron centers. PMID:24659765

Sobota, Jason M.; Gu, Mianzhi

2014-01-01

265

Activation of the antioxidant enzyme 1-CYS peroxiredoxin requires glutathionylation mediated by heterodimerization with ?GST  

PubMed Central

1-cys peroxiredoxin (1-cysPrx), a member of the peroxiredoxin superfamily, can protect cells against membrane oxidation through glutathione (GSH)-dependent reduction of phospholipid hydroperoxides to corresponding alcohols. However, purified native or recombinant enzyme in vitro generally lacks GSH peroxidase (GPx) activity because of oxidation of its single conserved cysteine. Reduction of the resultant oxidized cysteine is difficult because of its protected location within the homodimer formed by the oxidized protein monomers. Partial purification of 1-cysPrx from bovine lung revealed the presence of ?GST in an active preparation, while purification to homogeneity yielded enzyme that inactivated with time. We show that heterodimerization of 1-cysPrx with GSH-saturated ?GST results in glutathionylation of the oxidized cysteine in 1-cysPrx followed by subsequent spontaneous reduction of the mixed disulfide and restoration of enzymatic activity. Maximum activation of 1-cysPrx occurred with a 1:1 molar ratio of GSH-saturated ?GST and a 2:1 molar ratio of GSH to 1-cysPrx. Liposome-mediated delivery of oxidized recombinant enzyme into NCI-H441 cells that lack 1-cysPrx but express ?GST resulted in 1-cysPrx activation, whereas activation in MCF7 cells required co-delivery of ?GST. Our data indicate a physiological mechanism for glutathionylation of the oxidized catalytic cysteine of 1-cysPrx by its heterodimerization with ?GST followed by its GSH-mediated reduction and enzyme activation. PMID:15004285

Manevich, Y.; Feinstein, S. I.; Fisher, A. B.

2004-01-01

266

Antioxidant enzymes and fatty acid status in erythrocytes of Down syndrome patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The excess of genetic information in patients with Down syndrome (DS) produces an increase in the cata- lytic activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD1), an anti- oxidant enzyme coded on chromosome 21. It has been suggested that an increase in oxidative stress in DS patients may cause adverse effects in the cell mem- branes through the oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids

M-Cruz Pastor; Cristina Sierra; Maria Dolade ´; Elisabet Navarro; Nuria Brandi; Eduard Cabre; Aurea Mira

267

Chemoprotective influence of Zanthoxylum sps. on hepatic carcinogen metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes and skin papillomagenesis in murine model.  

PubMed

In the present study, the putative potential of pericarp of dried fruit of Zanthoxylum (Rutaceae Family), a common spice additive in India's west coast cuisines, in protecting against carcinogenesis has been reported. Extract from dried fruit of Zanthoxylum was orally administered to mice at two dose levels: 100 and 200 mg/kg body wt. for 14 days. Results reveal bifunctional nature of Zanthoxylum species as deduced from its potential to induce phase-I and phase-II enzyme activities associated with carcinogen activation and detoxification in the liver of mice. Hepatic glutathione S-transferase and DT-diaphorase were found significantly elevated by the treatment. Zanthoxylum was also effective in augmenting the antioxidant enzyme activities of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase albeit significantly by high dose of the extract (P < 0.05; P < 0.01). Reduced glutathione was also significantly elevated in the liver of treated animals (P < 0.05). The present study also investigated peri-initiation application of acetone extract of Zanthoxylum on initiated mouse skin. Results showed a significant reduction in tumor incidence from 68% to 36% (P < 0.05); as well as, a reduction in tumor burden per effective mouse from 3.87 to 0.72 (P < 0.01). Cumulatively, the findings strongly suggest cancer chemopreventive potential of Zanthoxylum sps. PMID:22126017

Rajamani, Paulraj; Banerjeet, Sanjeev; Rao, A Ramesha

2011-11-01

268

Susceptibility against grey blight disease-causing fungus Pestalotiopsis sp. in tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) cultivars is influenced by anti-oxidative enzymes.  

PubMed

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is the first level of response by a host during stress. Even though the ROS are toxic to cell, when present in a limited amount, they act as a signalling molecule for the expression of defence-related genes and later are scavenged by either enzymatic or non-enzymatic mechanisms of the host. The different anti-oxidative enzymes like glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APO), peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) were estimated, and their activities were compared between infected and healthy leaves of the tolerant and susceptible cultivars of tea. The infected leaves of the susceptible cultivars registered higher amount of enzyme activity when compared with the tolerant cultivars. The study reveals that the more anti-oxidative enzymes, the more susceptible the cultivar will be. PMID:24068475

Palanisamy, Senthilkumar; Mandal, Abul Kalam Azad

2014-01-01

269

The Role of Intracellular Signaling in Insulin-mediated Regulation of Drug Metabolizing Enzyme Gene and Protein Expression  

PubMed Central

Endogenous factors, including hormones, growth factors and cytokines, play an important role in the regulation of hepatic drug metabolizing enzyme expression in both physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Alterations of hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes gene and protein expression, observed in diabetes, fasting, obesity, protein-calorie malnutrition and long-term alcohol consumption alters the metabolism of xenobiotics, including procarcinogens, carcinogens, toxicants, and therapeutic agents and may also impact the efficacy and safety of therapeutic agents, as well as result in drug-drug interactions. Although the mechanisms by which xenobiotics regulate drug metabolizing enzymes have been studied intensively, less is known regarding the cellular signaling pathways and components which regulate drug metabolizing enzyme gene and protein expression in response to hormones and cytokines. Recent findings, however, have revealed that several cellular signaling pathways are involved in hormone- and growth factor-mediated regulation of drug metabolizing enzymes. Our laboratory, and others, have demonstrated that insulin and growth factors regulate drug metabolizing enzyme gene and protein expression, including cytochromes P450, glutathione S-transferases and microsomal epoxide hydrolase, through receptors which are members of the large receptor tyrosine kinase family, and by downstream effectors such as phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, the mitogen activated protein kinase, Akt/protein kinase B, mTOR, and the p70S6 kinase. Here, we review current knowledge of the signaling pathways implicated in regulation of drug metabolizing enzyme gene and protein expression in response to insulin and growth factors, with the goal of increasing our understanding of how chronic disease affects these signaling pathways, components, and ultimately gene expression and translational control. PMID:17097148

Kim, Sang K.; Novak, Raymond F.

2007-01-01

270

Effect of Commiphora mukul gum resin on hepatic marker enzymes, lipid peroxidation and antioxidants status in pancreas and heart of streptozotocin induced diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

Objective To study the antioxidant efficacy of Commiphora mukul (C. mukul) gum resin ethanolic extract in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Methods The male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into four groups of eight animals each: Control group (C), CM-treated control group (C+CMEE), Diabetic control group (D), CM- treated diabetic group (D+CMEE). Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of STZ (55 mg/kg/ bwt). After being confirmed the diabetic rats were treated with C. mukul gum resin ethanolic extract (CMEE) for 60 days. The biochemical estimations like antioxidant, oxidative stress marker enzymes and hepatic marker enzymes of tissues were performed. Results The diabetic rats showed increased level of enzymatic activities aspartate aminotransaminase (AST), alanine aminotransaminase (ALT) in liver and kidney and oxidative markers like lipid peroxidation (LPO) and protein oxidation (PO) in pancreas and heart. Antioxidant enzyme activities were significantly decreased in the pancreas and heart compared to control group. Administration of CMEE (200 mg/kg bw) to diabetic rats for 60 days significantly reversed the above parameters towards normalcy. Conclusions In conclusion, our data indicate the preventive role of C. mukul against STZ-induced diabetic oxidative stress; hence this plant could be used as an adjuvant therapy for the prevention and/or management of diabetes and aggravated antioxidant status. PMID:23569867

Ramesh, B; Karuna, R; Sreenivasa, Reddy S; Haritha, K; Sai, Mangala D; Sasi, Bhusana Rao B; Saralakumari, D

2012-01-01

271

Comparative effect of Piper betle, Chlorella vulgaris and tocotrienol-rich fraction on antioxidant enzymes activity in cellular ageing of human diploid fibroblasts  

PubMed Central

Background Human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs) undergo a limited number of cellular divisions in culture and progressively reach a state of irreversible growth arrest, a process termed cellular ageing. Even though beneficial effects of Piper betle, Chlorella vulgaris and tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) have been reported, ongoing studies in relation to ageing is of interest to determine possible protective effects that may reverse the effect of ageing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of P. betle, C. vulgaris and TRF in preventing cellular ageing of HDFs by determining the activity of antioxidant enzymes viz.; catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase. Methods Different passages of HDFs were treated with P. betle, C. vulgaris and TRF for 24 h prior to enzymes activity determination. Senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA ?-gal) expression was assayed to validate cellular ageing. Results In cellular ageing of HDFs, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities were reduced, but SOD activity was heightened during pre-senescence. P. betle exhibited the strongest antioxidant activity by reducing SA ?-gal expression, catalase activities in all age groups, and SOD activity. TRF exhibited a strong antioxidant activity by reducing SA ?-gal expression, and SOD activity in senescent HDFs. C. vulgaris extract managed to reduce SOD activity in senescent HDFs. Conclusion P. betle, C. vulgaris, and TRF have the potential as anti-ageing entities which compensated the role of antioxidant enzymes in cellular ageing of HDFs. PMID:23948056

2013-01-01

272

Effects of dietary zinc on gene expression of antioxidant enzymes and heat shock proteins in hepatopancreas of abalone Haliotis discus hannai.  

PubMed

The expression patterns of different genes encoding antioxidant enzymes and heat shock proteins were investigated, in present study, by real-time quantitative PCR in the hepatopancreas of abalone Haliotis discus hannai fed with different levels of dietary zinc (6.69, 33.8, 710.6 and 3462.5 mg/kg) for 20 weeks. The antioxidant enzymes include Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD), Mn-superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), catalase (CAT), mu-glutathione-s-transferase (mu-GST) and thioredoxin peroxidase (TPx). The results showed that the mRNA expression of these antioxidant enzymes increased and reached the maximum at the dietary zinc level of 33.8 mg/kg, and then dropped progressively. Expression levels of the heat shock proteins (HSP26, HSP70 and HSP90) firstly increased at 33.8 mg/kg dietary Zn level, and reached to the maximum at 710.6 mg/kg, then dropped at 3462.5 mg/kg (p<0.05). Excessive dietary Zn (710.6 and 3462.5 mg/kg) significantly increases the Zn content and significantly decreases the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) in hepatopancreas (p<0.05). These findings showed that dietary Zn (33.8 mg/kg) could highly trigger the expression levels of antioxidant enzymes and heat shock proteins, but excessive dietary Zn (710.6 and 3462.5 mg/kg) induces a high oxidative stress in abalone. PMID:21406247

Wu, Chenglong; Zhang, Wenbing; Mai, Kangsen; Xu, Wei; Zhong, Xiaoli

2011-06-01

273

Pseudo-basal levels of and distribution of anti-oxidant enzyme biomarkers in Eisenia fetida and effect of exposure to phenanthrene.  

PubMed

In the paper, the pseudo-basal levels of anti-oxidant system in different earthworm life stages (juvenile and adult) and the pseudo-basal distribution in different regions of adult earthworms (pre-clitellum, clitellum and post-clitellum) were studied using filter contact tests. The effects of phenanthrene (PHE) at different exposure levels on anti-oxidant enzymes along the earthworm body were also investigated after 24 and 48h of exposure. The pseudo-basal levels of the anti-oxidant enzymes varied during the different growth phase, and results indicated that earthworm has a low oxidative risk and SOD plays important roles during the development whereas CAT and POD are more important in maintain the low ROS level in adult earthworm. The pseudo-basal distribution of the anti-oxidant enzymes along the earthworms was heterogeneous and MDA mainly located in clitellum. POD in pre-clitellum, SOD in clitellum and CAT in post-clitellum were important to eliminate excess total ROS. Time of exposure impacted the anti-oxidant enzyme activities and their distribution patterns along earthworms, from the viewpoint of which supported that exposure time was an environment stress factors. In a short exposure time (24 h), CAT and SOD in the three regions, POD in pre-clitellum and clitellum might be good indicator to a low PHE stress level (0.0629 ?g cm(-2) treatments). In a long exposure time (48 h), only SOD in clitellum is a good indicator to both low and high PHE stress (0.629 ?g cm(-2) treatments). Earthworm biomembrane system inflicted no oxidative damage until the stress magnitude reached or exceeds the level of exposure in low PHE concentration condition for 48 h. PMID:23769124

Shi, Zhiming; Xu, Li; Wang, Nan; Zhang, Wei; Li, Huixin; Hu, Feng

2013-09-01

274

Effect of iron stress on Withania somnifera L.: antioxidant enzyme response and nutrient elemental uptake of in vitro grown plants.  

PubMed

In the present study the response of antioxidant enzyme activities and the level of expression of their corresponding genes on bioaccumulation of iron (Fe) were investigated. In vitro germinated Withania somnifera L. were grown in Murashige and Skoog's liquid medium with increasing concentrations (0, 25, 50, 100 and 200 µM) of FeSO4 for 7 and 14 days. Root and leaf tissues analyzed for catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6), superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) and guaiacol peroxidase (GPX, EC 1.11.1.7), have shown an increase in content with respect to exposure time. Isoforms of CAT, SOD and GPX were separated using non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and observed that the isoenzymes were greatly affected by higher concentrations of Fe. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis performed by taking three pairs of genes of CAT (RsCat, Catalase1, Cat1) and SOD (SodCp, TaSOD1.2, MnSOD) to find out the differential expression of antioxidant genes under Fe excess. RsCat from CAT and MnSOD from SOD have exhibited high levels of gene expression under Fe stress, which was consistent with the changes of the activity assayed in solution after 7 days of treatment. Analysis by proton induced X-ray emission exhibited an increasing uptake of Fe in plants by suppressing and expressing of other nutrient elements. The results of the present study suggest that higher concentration of Fe causes disturbance in nutrient balance and induces oxidative stress in plant. PMID:25480472

Rout, Jyoti Ranjan; Behera, Sadhana; Keshari, Nitin; Ram, Shidharth Sankar; Bhar, Subhajit; Chakraborty, Anindita; Sudarshan, Mathummal; Sahoo, Santi Lata

2014-12-01

275

Serum selenium and plasma malondialdehyde levels and antioxidant enzyme activities in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

There is mounting evidence indicating that reactive free radical species are involved in initiation and development of many different forms of human pathologies including psychiatric disorders. In the present study, we aimed to determine whether serum selenium (Se), antioxidant enzyme (glutathione peroxidase, GSH-Px, superoxide dismutase, SOD, and catalase, CAT) activities, and plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, a product of lipid peroxidation, were associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The participants were 28 patients with OCD that were drug-free at least for a month and a control group (n=28) of healthy subjects, matched with respect to age and sex. In both groups, the levels of the erythrocyte MDA, GSH-Px, SOD, Se, and the CAT were measured. The levels of MDA and SOD were statistically significantly higher (p<0.01, p<0.05 respectively) in patients than controls. The activities of CAT, GSH-Px, and serum Se levels were statistically significantly lower (p<0.0001, p<0.001, and p<0.001 respectively) in patients than controls. There was a positive correlation in patients between plasma GSH-Px activity and Se concentration (r=52, p=0.001). However, in patients with OCD, CAT and SOD activities were significantly and negatively correlated with MDA levels (r=-0.45, p=0.017 for CAT and r=-0.54, p=0.020 for SOD). The study shows the presence of a significant relationship of OCD and oxidative stress, and consequently, an involvement of free radicals and of the antioxidant defence. PMID:18957313

Ozdemir, Ercan; Cetinkaya, Sevil; Ersan, Serpil; Kucukosman, Seda; Ersan, E Erdal

2009-02-01

276

Acute Liver Failure in Rats Activates Glutamine-Glutamate Cycle but Declines Antioxidant Enzymes to Induce Oxidative Stress in Cerebral Cortex and Cerebellum  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Liver dysfunction led hyperammonemia (HA) causes a nervous system disorder; hepatic encephalopathy (HE). In the brain, ammonia induced glutamate-excitotoxicity and oxidative stress are considered to play important roles in the pathogenesis of HE. The brain ammonia metabolism and antioxidant enzymes constitute the main components of this mechanism; however, need to be defined in a suitable animal model. This study was aimed to examine this aspect in the rats with acute liver failure (ALF). Methods ALF in the rats was induced by intraperitoneal administration of 300 mg thioacetamide/Kg. b.w up to 2 days. Glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutaminase (GA), the two brain ammonia metabolizing enzymes vis a vis ammonia and glutamate levels and profiles of all the antioxidant enzymes vis a vis oxidative stress markers were measured in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum of the control and the ALF rats. Results The ALF rats showed significantly increased levels of ammonia in the blood (HA) but little changes in the cortex and cerebellum. This was consistent with the activation of the GS-GA cycle and static levels of glutamate in these brain regions. However, significantly increased levels of lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl contents were consistent with the reduced levels of all the antioxidant enzymes in both the brain regions of these ALF rats. Conclusion ALF activates the GS-GA cycle to metabolize excess ammonia and thereby, maintains static levels of ammonia and glutamate in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum. Moreover, ALF induces oxidative stress by reducing the levels of all the antioxidant enzymes which is likely to play important role, independent of glutamate levels, in the pathogenesis of acute HE. PMID:24755687

Singh, Santosh; Mondal, Papia; Trigun, Surendra K.

2014-01-01

277

Antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities of blueberry anthocyanins prepared using different solvents.  

PubMed

We compared the biological activities of anthocyanins prepared from whole blueberries or pomace and extracted with acetone, ethanol, and methanol. Crude Amberlite extracts (CAE) and rehydrated powders of freeze-dried anthocyanins were used. Ethanolic CAE yielded the highest total monomeric anthocyanin content [TMAC] (160 ppm), ferric reducing antioxidant power [FRAP] (3.4 mM Fe(2+)), total phenolics content [TPC] (382 ppm gallic acid equivalents [GAE]), and ?-amylase inhibitory activity (36.8%). The rehydrated powder from acetonic extract gave the greatest FRAP (5.19) and TPC (422.7). ?-Amylase (26.1%) and ?-glucosidase (91.5%) inhibitory activities were also sustained. Methanolic CAE yielded values intermediate between ethanolic and acetonic extracts. Comparison of mass spectra between Amberlite extracts and rehydrated preparations revealed putative degradation and dimerization products in the rehydrated powders, which could account for loss in biological activities for rehydrated methanolic and ethanolic powders. Results of this study provide useful information in optimizing anthocyanin preparation methods for improved biological activity. PMID:23590684

Flores, Floirendo P; Singh, Rakesh K; Kerr, William L; Pegg, Ronald B; Kong, Fanbin

2013-05-01

278

Reduction in antioxidant enzyme expression and sustained inflammation enhance tissue damage in the subacute phase of spinal cord contusive injury  

PubMed Central

Background Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) forms a disadvantageous microenvironment for tissue repair at the lesion site. To consider an appropriate time window for giving a promising therapeutic treatment for subacute and chronic SCI, global changes of proteins in the injured center at the longer survival time points after SCI remains to be elucidated. Methods Through two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE)-based proteome analysis and western blotting, we examined the differential expression of the soluble proteins isolated from the lesion center (LC) at day 1 (acute) and day 14 (subacute) after a severe contusive injury to the thoracic spinal cord at segment 10. In situ apoptotic analysis was used to examine cell apoptosis in injured spinal cord after adenoviral gene transfer of antioxidant enzymes. In addition, administration of chondroitinase ABC (chABC) was performed to analyze hindlimb locomotor recovery in rats with SCI using Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor rating scale. Results Our results showed a decline in catalase (CAT) and Mn-superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) found at day 14 after SCI. Accordingly, gene transfer of SOD was introduced in the injured spinal cord and found to attenuate cell apoptosis. Galectin-3, ?-actin, actin regulatory protein (CAPG), and F-actin-capping protein subunit ? (CAPZB) at day 14 were increased when compared to that detected at day 1 after SCI or in sham-operated control. Indeed, the accumulation of ?-actin+ immune cells was observed in the LC at day 14 post SCI, while most of reactive astrocytes were surrounding the lesion center. In addition, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPG)-related proteins with 40-kDa was detected in the LC at day 3-14 post SCI. Delayed treatment with chondroitinase ABC (chABC) at day 3 post SCI improved the hindlimb locomotion in SCI rats. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that the differential expression in proteins related to signal transduction, oxidoreduction and stress contribute to extensive inflammation, causing time-dependent spread of tissue damage after severe SCI. The interventions by supplement of anti-oxidant enzymes right after SCI or delayed administration with chABC can facilitate spinal neural cell survival and tissue repair. PMID:21299884

2011-01-01

279

Antioxidant Enzyme Inhibitor Role of Phosphine Metal Complexes in Lung and Leukemia Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

Phosphine metal complexes have been recently evaluated in the field of cancer therapy. In this research, the cytotoxic effects of some metal phosphines {[PdCl2((CH2OH)2PCH2)2NCH3] (C1), [RuCl2(((CH2OH)2PCH2)2NCH3)2] (C2), [PtCl2((Ph2PCH2)2NCH3)(timin)2] (C3)} on K562 (human myelogenous leukemia cell line) and A549 (adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial cells) cells were investigated using the MTT test. C1 and C2 are water-soluble metal complexes, which may have some advantages in in vitro and in vivo studies. The effects of the above-mentioned metal complexes on thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) (EC: 1.8.1.9), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) (EC: 1.11.1.9), and catalase (Cat) (EC: 1.11.1.6) enzymes were also tested. The results of this research showed that all three metal complexes indicated dose-dependent cytotoxicity on A549 and K562 cell lines and that the complexes inhibited different percentages of the TrxR, GPx, and Cat enzymes of these tumor cells. PMID:25610346

Kele?, Tu?ba; Serinda?, Osman

2014-01-01

280

Three Antagonistic Cyclic di-GMP-Catabolizing Enzymes Promote Differential Dot/Icm Effector Delivery and Intracellular Survival at the Early Steps of Legionella pneumophila Infection  

PubMed Central

Legionella pneumophila is an intracellular pathogen which replicates within protozoan cells and can accidently infect alveolar macrophages, causing an acute pneumonia in humans. The second messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) has been shown to play key roles in the regulation of various bacterial processes, including virulence. While investigating the function of the 22 potential c-di-GMP-metabolizing enzymes of the L. pneumophila Lens strain, we found three that directly contribute to its ability to infect both protozoan and mammalian cells. These three enzymes display diguanylate cyclase (Lpl0780), phosphodiesterase (Lpl1118), and bifunctional diguanylate cyclase/phosphodiesterase (Lpl0922) activities, which are all required for the survival and intracellular replication of L. pneumophila. Mutants with deletions of the corresponding genes are efficiently taken up by phagocytic cells but are partially defective for the escape of the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV) from the host degradative endocytic pathway and result in lower survival. In addition, Lpl1118 is required for efficient endoplasmic reticulum recruitment to the LCV. Trafficking and biogenesis of the LCV are dependent upon the orchestrated actions of several type 4 secretion system Dot/Icm effectors proteins, which exhibit differentially altered translocation in the three mutants. While translocation of some effectors remained unchanged, others appeared over- and undertranslocated. A general translocation offset of the large repertoire of Dot/Icm effectors may be responsible for the observed defects in the trafficking and biogenesis of the LCV. Our results suggest that L. pneumophila uses cyclic di-GMP signaling to fine-tune effector delivery and ensure effective evasion of the host degradative pathways and establishment of a replicative vacuole. PMID:24379287

Allombert, Julie; Lazzaroni, Jean-Claude; Baďlo, Nathalie; Gilbert, Christophe; Charpentier, Xavier; Doublet, Patricia

2014-01-01

281

Effect of nonylphenol on male reproduction: Analysis of rat epididymal biochemical markers and antioxidant defense enzymes  

SciTech Connect

The mechanism by which nonylphenol (NP) interferes with male reproduction is not fully elucidated. Therefore, the present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of NP on male reproductive organ's weight, sperm characteristics, and to elucidate the nature and mechanism of action of NP on the epididymis. Adult male Wistar rats were gavaged with NP, dissolved in corn oil, at 0, 100, 200 or 300 mg/kg/day for 30 consecutive days. Control rats were gavaged with vehicle (corn oil) alone. Body weight did not show any significant change while, absolute testes and epididymides weights were significantly decreased. Sperm count in cauda and caput/corpus epididymides, and sperm motility was significantly decreased. Daily sperm production was significantly decreased in a dose-related manner. Sperm transit time in cauda epididymis was significantly decreased by 300 mg/kg, while in the caput/corpus epididymis it was significantly decreased by 200 and 300 mg/kg of NP. Plasma LDH was significantly increased while; plasma testosterone was significantly decreased in a dose-related pattern. In the epididymal sperm, NP decreased acrosome integrity, ??m and 5?-nucleotidase activity. Hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) production and LPO were significantly increased in a dose-related pattern. The activities of SOD, CAT and GPx were significantly decreased in the epididymal sperm. In conclusion, this study revealed that NP treatment impairs spermatogenesis and has a cytotoxic effect on epididymal sperm. It disrupts the prooxidant and antioxidant balance. This leads oxidative stress in epididymal sperms of rat. Moreover, the reduction in sperm transit time may affect sperm quality and fertility potential. -- Highlights: ? The nature and mechanism of action of NP on rat epididymis were elucidated. ? NP decreased sperm count, motility, daily sperm production and sperm transit time. ? NP decreased sperm acrosome integrity, ??m and 5?-nucleotidase activity. ? Plasma LDH was significantly increased and testosterone was significantly decreased. ? NP induced oxidative stress in epididymal sperm.

Aly, Hamdy A.A., E-mail: hamdyaali@yahoo.com [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Domčnech, Ňscar [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Barcelona University (Spain)] [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Barcelona University (Spain); Banjar, Zainy M. [Department of Medical Biology, School of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)] [Department of Medical Biology, School of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

2012-06-01

282

Characterization of the antioxidant enzyme, thioredoxin peroxidase, from the carcinogenic human liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini.  

PubMed

The human liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini, induces inflammation of the hepatobiliary system. Despite being constantly exposed to inimical oxygen radicals released from inflammatory cells, the parasite survives for many years. The mechanisms by which it avoids oxidative damage are unknown. In this study, thioredoxin peroxidase (TPx), a member of the peroxiredoxin superfamily, was cloned from an O. viverrini cDNA library. O. viverrini TPx cDNA encoded a polypeptide of 212 amino acid residues, of molecular mass 23.57kDa. The putative amino acid sequence shared 60-70% identity with TPXs from other helminths and from mammals, and phylogenetic analysis revealed a close relationship between TPxs from O. viverrini and other trematodes. Recombinant O. viverrini TPx was expressed as soluble protein in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein dimerized, and its antioxidant activity was deduced by observing protection of nicking of supercoiled plasmid DNA by hydroxyl radicals. Antiserum raised against O. viverrini TPx recognized native proteins from egg, metacercaria and adult developmental stages of the liver fluke and excretory-secretory products released by adult O. viverrini. Immunolocalization studies revealed ubiquitous expression of TPx in O. viverrini organs and tissues. TPx was also detected in bile fluid and bile duct epithelial cells surrounding the flukes 2 weeks after infection of hamsters with O. viverrini. In addition, TPx was observed in the secondary (small) bile ducts where flukes cannot reach due to their large size. These results suggested that O. viverrini TPx plays a significant role in protecting the parasite against damage induced by reactive oxygen species from inflammation. PMID:18538872

Suttiprapa, Sutas; Loukas, Alex; Laha, Thewarach; Wongkham, Sopit; Kaewkes, Sasithorn; Gaze, Soraya; Brindley, Paul J; Sripa, Banchob

2008-08-01

283

Characterization of the antioxidant enzyme, thioredoxin peroxidase, from the carcinogenic human liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini  

PubMed Central

The human liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini, induces inflammation of the hepatobiliary system. Despite being constantly exposed to inimical oxygen radicals released from inflammatory cells, the parasite survives for many years. The mechanisms by which it avoids oxidative damage are unknown. In this study, thioredoxin peroxidase (TPx), a member of the peroxiredoxin superfamily, was cloned from an O. viverrini cDNA library. O. viverrini TPx cDNA encoded a polypeptide of 212 amino acid residues, of molecular mass 23.57 kDa. The putative amino acid sequence shared 60-70% identity with TPXs from other helminths and from mammals, and phylogenetic analysis revealed a close relationship between TPxs from O. viverrini and other trematodes. Recombinant O. viverrini TPx was expressed as soluble protein in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein dimerized, and its antioxidant activity was deduced by observing protection of nicking of supercoiled plasmid DNA by hydroxyl radicals. Antiserum raised against O. viverrini TPx recognized native proteins from egg, metacercaria and adult developmental stages of the liver fluke and excretory-secretory products released by adult O. viverrini. Immunolocalization studies revealed ubiquitous expression of TPx in O. viverrini organs and tissues. TPx was also detected in bile fluid and bile duct epithelial cells surrounding the flukes two weeks after infection of hamsters with O. viverrini. In addition, TPx was observed in the secondary (small) bile ducts where flukes cannot reach due to their large size. These results suggested that O. viverrini TPx plays a significant role in protecting the parasite against damage induced by reactive oxygen species from inflammation. PMID:18538872

Suttiprapa, Sutas; Loukas, Alex; Laha, Thewarach; Wongkham, Sopit; Kaewkes, Sasithorn; Gaze, Soraya; Brindley, Paul J.; Sripa, Banchob

2013-01-01

284

Gene expression of antioxidant enzymes and coffee seed quality during pre- and post-physiological maturity.  

PubMed

Seeds collected at different maturation stages vary in physiological quality and patterns of protective antioxidant systems against deterioration. In this study we investigated the expression of genes that codify catalase (CAT), dismutase superoxide (SOD), and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) during the pre- and post-physiological maturation phases in whole seeds and in endosperms and embryos extracted from the seeds. Coffea arabica L. berries were collected at the green, yellowish-green, cherry, over-ripe, and dry stages, and the seeds were examined physiologically. The transcription levels of the genes were quantified by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction using coffee-specific primers. The highest level of SOD expression was observed in the endosperm at the cherry and over-ripe stages; in addition, these seeds presented the greatest physiological quality (assessed via germination test). The highest CAT3 transcript expression was observed at the green stage in whole seeds, and at the green and over-ripe stages in the embryos and endosperms. High expression of the PPO transcript was observed at the green and yellowish-green stages in whole seeds. In embryos and endosperms, peak expression of the PPO transcript was observed at the green stage; subsequently, peaks at the cherry and over-ripe stages were observed. We concluded that the expression patterns of the SOD and CAT3 transcripts were similar at the more advanced maturation stages, which corresponded to enhanced physiological seed quality. High expression of the PPO transcript at the over-ripe stage, also observed in the embryos and endosperms at the cherry stage, coincided with the highest physiological seed quality. PMID:25526219

Santos, F C; Caixeta, F; Clemente, A C S; Pinho, E V; Rosa, S D V F

2014-01-01

285

Oxidative stress determined through the levels of antioxidant enzymes and the effect of N-acetylcysteine in aluminum phosphide poisoning  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The primary objective of this study was to determine the serum level of antioxidant enzymes and to correlate them with outcome in patients of aluminum phosphide (ALP) poisoning and, secondly, to evaluate the effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) given along with supportive treatment of ALP poisoning. Design: We conducted a cohort study in patients of ALP poisoning hospitalized at a tertiary care center of North India. The treatment group and control group were enrolled during the study period of 1 year from May 2011 to April 2012. Interventions: Oxidative stress was evaluated in each subject by estimating the serum levels of the enzymes, viz. catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR). The treatment group comprised of patients who were given NAC in addition to supportive treatment (magnesium sulfate and vasopressors, if required), while in the control group, only supportive treatment was instituted. The primary endpoint of the study was the survival of the patients. Measurements and Results: The baseline catalase (P = 0.008) and SOD (P < 0.01) levels were higher among survivors than non-survivors. Of the total patients in the study, 31 (67.4%) expired and 15 (32.6%) survived. Among those who expired, the mean duration of survival was 2.92 ± 0.40 days in the test group and 1.82 ± 0.33 days in the control group (P = 0.043). Conclusions: This study suggests that the baseline level of catalase and SOD have reduced in ALP poisoning, but baseline GR level has not suppressed but is rather increasing with due time, and more so in the treatment group. NAC along with supportive treatment may have improved survival in ALP poisoning. PMID:25316977

Agarwal, Avinash; Robo, Roto; Jain, Nirdesh; Gutch, Manish; Consil, Shuchi; Kumar, Sukriti

2014-01-01

286

Sublethal gamma irradiation affects reproductive impairment and elevates antioxidant enzyme and DNA repair activities in the monogonont rotifer Brachionus koreanus.  

PubMed

To examine the effects of gamma radiation on marine organisms, we irradiated several doses of gamma ray to the microzooplankton Brachionus koreanus, and measured in vivo and in vitro endpoints including the survival rate, lifespan, fecundity, population growth, gamma ray-induced oxidative stress, and modulated patterns of enzyme activities and gene expressions after DNA damage. After gamma radiation, no individuals showed any mortality within 96 h even at a high intensity (1200 Gy). However, a reduced fecundity (e.g. cumulated number of offspring) of B. koreanus at over 150 Gy was observed along with a slight decrease in lifespan. At 150 Gy and 200 Gy, the reduced fecundity of the rotifers led to a significant decrease in population growth, although in the second generation the population growth pattern was not affected even at 200 Gy when compared to the control group. At sub-lethal doses, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels dose-dependently increased with GST enzyme activity. In addition, up-regulations of the antioxidant and chaperoning genes in response to gamma radiation were able to recover cellular damages, and life table parameters were significantly influenced, particularly with regard to fecundity. DNA repair-associated genes showed significantly up-regulated expression patterns in response to sublethal doses (150 and 200 Gy), as shown in the expression of the gamma-irradiated B. koreanus p53 gene, suggesting that these sublethal doses were not significantly fatal to B. koreanus but induced DNA damages leading to a decrease of the population size. PMID:25000471

Han, Jeonghoon; Won, Eun-Ji; Kim, Il-Chan; Yim, Joung Han; Lee, Su-Jae; Lee, Jae-Seong

2014-10-01

287

Juniperus communis Linn oil decreases oxidative stress and increases antioxidant enzymes in the heart of rats administered a diet rich in cholesterol.  

PubMed

It has been asserted that consumption of dietary cholesterol (Chol) raises atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases and that Chol causes an increase in free radical production. Hypercholesterolemic diet has also been reported to cause changes in the antioxidant system. In our study, different doses of Juniperus communis Linn (JCL) oil, a tree species growing in Mediterranean and Isparta regions and having aromatic characteristics, were administered to rats; and the levels of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assay (TBARS) were examined in the heart tissue of rats. In this study, 35 Wistar Albino male adult rats weighing approximately 250-300 g were used. The rats were divided into five groups of seven each. The control group was administered normal pellet chow, and the Chol group was administered pellet chow including 2% Chol, while 50 JCL, 100 JCL, and 200 JCL groups were administered 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg JCL oil dissolved in 0.5% sodium carboxy methyl cellulose, respectively, in addition to the pellet chow containing 2% Chol, by gavage. After 30 days, the experiment was terminated and the antioxidant enzyme activities were examined in the heart tissue of rats. While consumption of dietary Chol decreases the activities of SOD, GSH-Px, and CAT in heart tissue of rats (not significant), administeration of 200 mg/kg JCL oil in addition to Chol led to a significant increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Administering Chol led to a significant increase in TBARS level. Administering 100 and 200 mg/kg JCL oil together with Chol prevented significantly the increase in lipid peroxides. As a result of the study, JCL oil showed oxidant-antioxidant effect in the heart tissue of rats. PMID:23293127

Gumral, Nurhan; Kumbul, Duygu Doguc; Aylak, Firdevs; Saygin, Mustafa; Savik, Emin

2015-01-01

288

A Greenhouse Study on Lead Uptake and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Vetiver Grass (Vetiveria zizanioides) as a Function of Lead Concentration and Soil Physico-Chemical Properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lead (Pb) is a toxic non-essential metal that can cause permanent learning disabilities, retardation, mental and behavioral problems in children. Lead accumulation in soils result from weathering, chipping, scraping, sanding and sand blasting of housing structures constructed prior to 1978, bearing lead-based paint. The primary objective of this study is to develop a cost-effective, chelate-assisted phytoremediation for cleaning up lead contaminated soils. Soils are a unique environment of diverse physical and chemical characteristics that influence the extent of phytoavailable (labile) Pb forms. The success of phytoremediation strategy depends on the physiological/ biochemical tolerance of the plants to lipid peroxidation induced by Pb at sub-lethal levels. Oxidative challenge is alleviated by antioxidant compounds, but more importantly by the induction of antioxidant enzymes, which are crucial for scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) and terminating lipid peroxidation chain reaction. A column study was conducted in a temperature and humidity-controlled greenhouse setting to assess the extent of Pb phytoextraction and antioxidant response in a lead accumulator, vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides). Treatments consisted of a randomized block arrangement of 4 soil types (Immokalee, Pahokee Muck, Tobosa, and Millhopper) and 3 soil Pb concentrations [normal - 400 mg/kg lead (following federal soil standards for lead), moderate - 800 mg/kg lead, and excessive - 1200 mg/kg lead] in 4 replicates. At the end of 6 months, selected columns were amended with a biodegradable chelating agent, ethylenediamene disuccinate (10 mmol/ kg EDDS), to mobilize Pb and enhance Pb uptake by vetiver. Total and exchangeable (labile) Pb were correlated with phytoextracted Pb, and levels of antioxidant enzymes viz., superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the root and shoot tissues of vetiver grass. Results indicate that Pb uptake and antioxidant enzymes activity in vetiver grass is dependent on soil physico-chemical properties and phytoavailable Pb concentrations.

Andra, S. P.; Datta, R.; Sarkar, D.; Saminathan, S. K.

2006-05-01

289

Effects of L-carnitine supplementation on oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymes activities in patients with coronary artery disease: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. Higher oxidative stress may contribute to the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease (CAD). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of L-carnitine (LC, 1000 mg/d) on the markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymes activities in CAD patients. Methods We enrolled 47 CAD patients in the study. The CAD patients were identified by cardiac catheterization as having at least 50% stenosis of one major coronary artery. The subjects were randomly assigned to the placebo (n?=?24) and LC (n?=?23) groups. The intervention was administered for 12 weeks. The levels of serum LC, plasma malondialdehyde (MDA), and erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes activities [catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx)] were measured before and after intervention. Results Thirty-nine subjects completed the study (placebo, n?=?19; LC, n?=?20). After 12 weeks of LC supplementation, the level of MDA was significantly reduced (2.0?±?0.3 to 1.8?±?0.3 ?mol/L, P?=?0.02) and the level of LC (33.6?±?13.6 to 40.0?±?12.0 ?mol/L, P?=?0.04) and antioxidant enzymes activities [CAT (12.7?±?5.5 to 13.1?±?5.8 U/mg of protein, P?=?0.02), SOD (14.8?±?2.9 to 20.7?±?5.8 U/mg of protein, P?antioxidant enzymes activities (CAT, ??=?0.87, P?=?0.02; SOD, ??=?0.72, P?antioxidant enzymes activities in CAD patients. CAD patients might benefit from using LC supplements to increase their anti-oxidation capacity. Trial registration Clinical Trials.gov Identifier: NCT01819701. PMID:25092108

2014-01-01

290

Effects of Echis pyramidum snake venom on hepatic and renal antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation in rats.  

PubMed

The effects of Echis pyramidum venom (EPV) (0.25, 0.50, and 1.00 mg/kg) on activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) and levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and total thiols (T-SH) in liver and kidneys of rats were investigated. EPV significantly and dose dependently decreased the activities of SOD and CAT in livers. Although the kidney SOD and CAT activities were not affected by low and medium doses of EPV, the high dose significantly reduced the activities of these enzymes. Liver and kidney TBARS levels were not affected by the low and medium doses of EPV, whereas the high dose significantly increased the TBARS after 6 h postdosing. There was a significant depletion of T-SH in liver and kidneys of rats exposed to a high dose of EPV. The acute phase oxidative stress due to an EPV injection points toward the importance of an early antioxidant therapy for the management of snake bites. PMID:24888330

Al Asmari, Abdulrahman K; Khan, Haseeb A; Manthiri, Rajamohammed A; Al Yahya, Khalid M; Al Otaibi, Kitab E

2014-09-01

291

Dietary flaxseed oil supplementation ameliorates the effect of cisplatin on brush border membrane enzymes and antioxidant system in rat intestine.  

PubMed

Cisplatin (CP; cis-diamminedichloroplatinum II) is a drug widely used against different types of solid tumors. Patients receiving CP, however, experience very profound and long lasting gastrointestinal symptoms. Recently, ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid-enriched flaxseed/flaxseed oil (FXO) has shown numerous health benefits. The present study was undertaken to investigate whether FXO can prevent CP-induced adverse biochemical changes in the small intestine of rats. A single intraperitoneal dose of CP (6 mg/kg body weight) was administered to male Wistar rats fed with control diet (CP group) and FXO diet (CPFXO group). Administration of CP led to a significant decline in the specific activities of brush border membrane enzymes both in the mucosal homogenates and in the isolated membrane vesicles. Lipid peroxidation and total sulfhydryl groups were altered upon CP treatment, indicating the generation of oxidative stress. The activities of SOD, catalase and glutathione peroxidase also decreased in CP-treated rats. In contrast, dietary supplementation of FXO prior to and following CP treatment significantly attenuated the CP-induced changes in all these parameters. FXO feeding markedly enhanced resistance to CP-elicited adverse gastrointestinal effects. The results suggest that FXO owing to its intrinsic biochemical/antioxidant properties is an effective agent in reducing the adverse effects of CP on intestine. PMID:22751286

Naqshbandi, A; Rizwan, S; Khan, M W; Khan, F

2013-04-01

292

[Combined effects of copper and simulated acid rain on copper accumulation, growth, and antioxidant enzyme activities of Rumex acetosa].  

PubMed

A pot experiment was conducted to study the combined effects of Cu (0-1500 mg x kg(-1)) and simulated acid rain (pH 2.5-5.6) on the copper accumulation, growth, and antioxidant enzyme activities of Rumex acetosa. With the increasing concentration of soil Cu, the Cu accumulation in R. acetosa increased, being higher in root than in stem and leaf. The exposure to low pH acid rain promoted the Cu uptake by R. acetosa. With the increase of soil Cu concentration and/or of acid rain acidity, the biomass of R. acetosa decreased, leaf and root MDA contents increased and had good correlation with soil Cu concentration, and the SOD and POD activities in leaf and root displayed a decreasing trend after an initial increase. This study showed that R. acetosa had a strong adaptive ability to Cu and acid rain stress, exhibiting a high application potential in the remediation of Cu-contaminated soil in acid rain areas. PMID:21608265

He, Shan-Ying; Gao, Yong-Jie; Shentu, Jia-Li; Chen, Kun-Bai

2011-02-01

293

Oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymes activities in the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, experimentally challenged with Escherichia coli and Vibrio fischeri.  

PubMed

The impacts of bacterial infection on cultivated fish species, African catfish, were investigated using oxidative stress biomarkers [lipid peroxidation (LPO) and protein carbonylation] and the activities of important antioxidant/detoxifying enzymes [catalase and glutathione S-transferase (GST)]. Fish were inoculated via oral gavage with one of the following treatments: 1 × 10(5) CFU/ml of Escherichia coli (EC1), 2 × 10(5) CFU/ml of E. coli (EC2), 1 × 10(5) CFU/ml of Vibrio fischeri (V1), 2 × 10(5) CFU/ml of V. fischeri (V2), gavaged with distilled water and not gavaged. Fish were maintained in the laboratory for 7 days after the bacterial inoculation, and the levels of LPO, protein carbonylation, GST, and catalase activities were determined in the muscle, gills, and liver of fish. Fish inoculated with bacteria (either E. coli or V. fischeri) had a significant higher levels of tissue LPO, protein carbonylation, and GST activities in a tissue-specific pattern (liver > muscle > gills). This appears to be related with the levels of bacterial inoculation, with effects more pronounced in fish inoculated with either EC2 or V2. The catalase activity did not differ significantly between the inoculated and fish that were not inoculated. The results of this study indicate that bacterial inoculation could result in oxidative stress in fish, and liver has a higher rate of oxidative stress per mg tissue compared to the gills and the muscle. PMID:23974670

Adeyemi, Joseph A

2014-04-01

294

Alterations in antioxidant enzyme activities and proline content in pea leaves under long-term drought stress.  

PubMed

The effects of long-term drought stress on chlorophyll, proline, protein and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) contents, malondialdehyde (MDA) in terms of lipid peroxidation and on the changes in the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11), catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) and peroxidase (POX; EC 1.11.1.7) in the leaves of pea (Pisum sativum L.) were studied in field conditions. Chlorophyll and protein contents in leaves decreased significantly with increased drought stress. The proline content increased markedly under water deficit. MDA amounts were elevated as a result of water shortage, whereas H(2)O(2) content changed slightly in pea leaves exposed to drought stress. Drought stress markedly enhanced the activities of SOD, CAT and POX but slightly changed the activity of APX. We conclude that in field conditions, long-term water shortage increased the susceptibility to drought in peas. PMID:23047611

Karata?, Ilhami; Öztürk, Lokman; Demir, Yavuz; Unlükara, Ali; Kurunç, Ahmet; Düzdemir, Oral

2014-09-01

295

Co-ordinated stage-dependent enhancement of Plasmodium falciparum antioxidant enzymes and heat shock protein expression in parasites growing in oxidatively stressed or G6PD-deficient red blood cells  

PubMed Central

Background Plasmodium falciparum-parasitized red blood cells (RBCs) are equipped with protective antioxidant enzymes and heat shock proteins (HSPs). The latter are only considered to protect against thermal stress. Important issues are poorly explored: first, it is insufficiently known how both systems are expressed in relation to the parasite developmental stage; secondly, it is unknown whether P. falciparum HSPs are redox-responsive, in view of redox sensitivity of HSP in eukaryotic cells; thirdly, it is poorly known how the antioxidant defense machinery would respond to increased oxidative stress or inhibited antioxidant defense. Those issues are interesting as several antimalarials increase the oxidative stress or block antioxidant defense in the parasitized RBC. In addition, numerous inhibitors of HSPs are currently developed for cancer therapy and might be tested as anti-malarials. Thus, the joint disruption of the parasite antioxidant enzymes/HSP system would interfere with parasite growth and open new perspectives for anti-malaria therapy. Methods Stage-dependent mRNA expression of ten representative P. falciparum antioxidant enzymes and hsp60/70–2/70–3/75/90 was studied by quantitative real-time RT-PCR in parasites growing in normal RBCs, in RBCs oxidatively-stressed by moderate H2O2 generation and in G6PD-deficient RBCs. Protein expression of antioxidant enzymes was assayed by Western blotting. The pentosephosphate-pathway flux was measured in isolated parasites after Sendai-virus lysis of RBC membrane. Results In parasites growing in normal RBCs, mRNA expression of antioxidant enzymes and HSPs displayed co-ordinated stage-dependent modulation, being low at ring, highest at early trophozoite and again very low at schizont stage. Additional exogenous oxidative stress or growth in antioxidant blunted G6PD-deficient RBCs indicated remarkable flexibility of both systems, manifested by enhanced, co-ordinated mRNA expression of antioxidant enzymes and HSPs. Protein expression of antioxidant enzymes was also increased in oxidatively-stressed trophozoites. Conclusion Results indicated that mRNA expression of parasite antioxidant enzymes and HSPs was co-ordinated and stage-dependent. Secondly, both systems were redox-responsive and showed remarkably increased and co-ordinated expression in oxidatively-stressed parasites and in parasites growing in antioxidant blunted G6PD-deficient RBCs. Lastly, as important anti-malarials either increase oxidant stress or impair antioxidant defense, results may encourage the inclusion of anti-HSP molecules in anti-malarial combined drugs. PMID:19480682

Akide-Ndunge, Oscar Bate; Tambini, Elisa; Giribaldi, Giuliana; McMillan, Paul J; Müller, Sylke; Arese, Paolo; Turrini, Francesco

2009-01-01

296

Stimulation of gene expression and activity of antioxidant related enzyme in Sprague Dawley rat kidney induced by long-term iron toxicity.  

PubMed

The trace elements such as iron are vital for various enzyme activities and for other cellular proteins, but iron toxicity causes the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that causes alterations in morphology and function of the nephron. The present study was designed to determine the effect of long-term iron overload on the renal antioxidant system and to determine any possible correlation between enzymatic and molecular levels. Our data showed that reduced glutathione (GSH) levels, which is a marker for oxidative stress, strikingly decreased with a long-term iron overload in rat kidney. While renal mRNA levels of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6pd), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6pgd) and glutathione peroxidase (Gpx) were significantly affected in the presence of ferric iron, no changes were seen for glutathione reductase (Gsr) and glutathione S-transferases (Gst). While the iron affected the enzymatic activity of G6PD, GSR, GST, and GPX, it had no significant effect on 6PGD activity in the rat kidney. In conclusion, we reported here that the gene expression of G6pd, 6pgd, Gsr, Gpx, and Gst did not correlate to enzyme activity, and the actual effect of long-term iron overload on renal antioxidant system is observed at protein level. Furthermore, the influence of iron on the renal antioxidant system is different from its effect on the hepatic antioxidant system. PMID:25038477

Budak, Harun; Kocpinar, Enver Fehim; Gonul, Nurdan; Ceylan, Hamid; Erol, Huseyin Serkan; Erdogan, Orhan

2014-11-01

297

Changes in the antioxidant enzyme efficacy in two high yielding genotypes of mulberry ( Morus alba L.) under NaCl salinity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD: EC 1.15.1.1), peroxidase (POD: EC 1.11.1.7), catalase (CAT: EC 1.11.1.6), glutathione reductase (GR: EC 1.6.4.2), glutathione S-transferase (GST: EC 2.5.1.18), cell membrane stability (CMS) and the rate of lipid peroxidation in terms of malondialdehyde (MDA) content in two high yielding genotypes (S1 and ATP, salt tolerant and salt

Chinta Sudhakar; A Lakshmi; S Giridarakumar

2001-01-01

298

Curcumin regulates gene expression of insulin like growth factor, B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 and antioxidant enzymes in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

Background The effects of curcumin on the activities and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione-S-transferase (G-ST), B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in diabetic rats were studied. Methods Twenty four rats were assigned to three groups (8 rats for each). Rats of first group were non diabetic and rats of the second group were rendered diabetic by streptozotocin (STZ). Both groups received vehicle, corn oil only (5 ml/kg body weight) and served as negative and positive controls, respectively. Rats of the third group were rendered diabetic and received oral curcumin dissolved in corn oil at a dose of 15 mg/5 ml/kg body weight for 6 weeks. Results Diabetic rats showed significant increase of blood glucose, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and activities of all antioxidant enzymes with significant reduction of reduced glutathione (GSH) compare to the control non diabetic group. Gene expression of Bcl2, SOD, CAT, GPX and GST was increased significantly in diabetic untreated rats compare to the control non diabetic group. The administration of curcumin to diabetic rats normalized significantly their blood sugar level and TBARS values and increased the activities of all antioxidant enzymes and GSH concentration. In addition, curcumin treated rats showed significant increase in gene expression of IGF-1, Bcl2, SOD and GST compare to non diabetic and diabetic untreated rats. Conclusion Curcumin was antidiabetic therapy, induced hypoglycemia by up-regulation of IGF-1 gene and ameliorate the diabetes induced oxidative stress via increasing the availability of GSH, increasing the activities and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes and Bcl2. Further studies are required to investigate the actual mechanism of action of curcumin regarding the up regulation of gene expression of examined parameters. PMID:24364912

2013-01-01

299

Effect of cisplatin and cobalt chloride on antioxidant enzymes in the livers of Lewis lung carcinoma-bearing mice: protective role of heme oxygenase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase and heme oxygenase (HO) and changes in lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels were measured in the livers of control and Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC)-bearing mice 24 h after a single injection of cisplatin or CoCl2. Treatment with cisplatin induced the same degree of lipid peroxidation

Tania Y. Christova; Galina A. Gorneva; Svetoslav I. Taxirov; Dessislava B. Duridanova; Milka S. Setchenska

2003-01-01

300

IBA-induced changes in antioxidant enzymes during adventitious rooting in mung bean seedlings: The role of H 2O 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The changes in antioxidant enzyme activity during the induction of adventitious roots in mung bean seedlings treated with Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), ascorbic acid (ASA) and diphenylene iodonium (DPI) were investigated. As compared with the controls, treatments of seedlings with 10?M IBA significantly decreased POD activity by 55% and 49.6% at 3h and 12h of incubation, respectively, and

Shi-Weng Li; Lingui Xue; Shijian Xu; Huyuan Feng; Lizhe An

2009-01-01

301

Metal Accumulation and Antioxidant Enzyme Activity in C. gariepinus , Catfish, and O. mossambicus , Tilapia, Collected from Lower Mguza and Wright Dams, Zimbabwe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to measure antioxidant enzyme activities as biological indicators of pollution in tissues of two\\u000a species of fish. Five Clarius gariepinus and three Oreochromis mossambicus were collected from Umguza Dam (polluted dam) whilst seven C. gariepinus and eight O. mossambicus were collected from Wright Dam (relatively pristine dam). Diphosphotriphoshodiaphorase and catalase activities were consistently\\u000a lower

A. H. Siwela; C. B. Nyathi; Y. S. Naik

2009-01-01

302

Amendments of Antioxidant Enzyme Status in Different Skeletal Muscle Fibers under Age induced Oxidative Stress Conditions with Reference to Exercise Training  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present investigation was to ascertain the influence of exercise training and aging on antioxidant enzyme status in functionally different skeletal muscle fiber types. Wistar strain albino rats of two age groups (3months young and 18months moderately aged\\/old) were divided into two experimental groups from each age and treated as sedentary control (SC) and exercise trained (ExT;

K. Mallikarjuna; K. Nishanth; T. Bhaskar Reddy; K. Sathyavelu Reddy

2008-01-01

303

Effect of a short-term hypoxic treatment followed by re-aeration on free radicals level and antioxidative enzymes in lupine roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate whether re-aeration after a short-term hypoxic pre-treatment (for 2, 12 or 24 h) induces oxidative stress, the temporal sequence of physiological reactions, including the level of free radicals, hydrogen peroxide production, and changes in antioxidative enzymes, was characterized in roots of hydroponically grown lupine (Lupinus luteus L., cv. Juno) seedlings. By using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), we found that the

Ma?gorzata Garnczarska; Waldemar Bednarski

2004-01-01

304

Alternation of hepatic antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid profile in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by supplementation of dandelion water extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Dandelion water extract (DWE), an herbal medication, may have an effect on the activity and mRNA expression of hepatic antioxidant enzymes and lipid profile in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Male Sprague–Dawley rats were divided into nondiabetic (control), diabetic, and diabetic-DWE-supplemented groups. Diabetes was induced by injecting streptozotocin (55 mg\\/kg BW, i.p.) in a citrate buffer. The extract was

Soo-Yeul Cho; Ji-Yeun Park; Eun-Mi Park; Myung-Sook Choi; Mi-Kyung Lee; Seon-Min Jeon; Moon Kyoo Jang; Myung-Joo Kim; Yong Bok Park

2002-01-01

305

Cytotoxicity of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles on Antioxidant Enzyme Activities and mRNA Expression in the Cocultured C2C12 and 3T3-L1 Cells.  

PubMed

The present study was aimed to investigate the dose-dependent effect of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles on antioxidant enzyme activities and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in the cocultured C2C12 and 3T3-L1 cells. Coculturing experiments are 3D and more reliable compared to mono-culture (2D) experiment. Even though, there are several studies on ZnO nanoparticle-mediated cytotoxicity, but there are no studies on the effect of ZnO nanoparticle on antioxidant enzyme activities and mRNA expression in the cocultured C2C12 and 3T3-L1 cells. A cytotoxicity assay was carried out to determine the effect of ZnO nanoparticles on the C2C12 and 3T3-L1 cell viability. At higher concentration of ZnO nanoparticles, C2C12 and 3T3-L1 cells almost die. ZnO nanoparticles increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels in a dose-dependent manner in the C2C12 and 3T3-L1 cells. In addition, ZnO nanoparticles increased antioxidant enzyme activities and their mRNA expression in the C2C12 and 3T3-L1 cells. In conclusion, the present study showed that ZnO nanoparticles increased oxidative stress, antioxidant enzyme activities, and their mRNA expression in the cocultured C2C12 and 3T3-L1 cells. PMID:25380643

Pandurangan, Muthuraman; Veerappan, Muthuviveganandavel; Kim, Doo Hwan

2015-02-01

306

Seedlings growth and antioxidative enzymes activities in leaves under heavy metal stress differ between two desert plants: a perennial ( Peganum harmala ) and an annual ( Halogeton glomeratus ) grass  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study showed the toxicity caused by heavy metal and its detoxification responses in two desert plants: perennial\\u000a Peganum harmala and annual Halogeton glomeratus. In pot experiments, 1-month-old seedlings were grown under control and three levels of combined heavy metal stress. Seedling\\u000a growth as well as heavy metal accumulation, antioxidative enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate\\u000a peroxidase

Yan Lu; Xinrong Li; Mingzhu He; Xin Zhao; Yubing Liu; Yan Cui; Yanxia Pan; Huijuan Tan

2010-01-01

307

Effects of low chronic doses of ionizing radiation on antioxidant enzymes and G6PDH activities in Stipa capillata (Poaceae).  

PubMed

Stipa capillata (Poaceae) seeds were harvested from a control area (displaying a gamma dose rate of 0.23 micro Sv h(-1)) (C plants) and from two contaminated areas (5.4 and 25 micro Sv h(-1)) on the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site (SNTS) in Kazakhstan. The plants were grown for 124 d in a greenhouse under controlled conditions and exposed to three different treatments: (0) control; (E) external gamma irradiation delivered by a sealed 137Cs source with a dose rate of 66 micro Sv h(-1); (E+I) E treatment combined with internal beta irradiation due to contamination by 134Cs and 85Sr via root uptake from the soil. The root uptake led to a contamination of 100 Bq g(-1) for 85Sr and 5 Bq g(-1) for 134Cs (of plant dry weight) as measured at harvest. The activity of SOD, APX, GR, POD, CAT, G6PDH, and MDHAR enzymes was measured in leaves. Under (0) treatment, all enzymes showed similar activities, except POD, which had higher activity in plants originating from contaminated areas. Treatment (E) induced an enhancement of POD, CAT, GR, SOD, and G6PDH activities in plants originating from contaminated areas. Only control plants showed any stimulation of APX activity. Treatment (E+I) had no significant effect on APX, GR, CAT, and POD activities, but MDHAR activity was significantly reduced while SOD and G6PDH activities were significantly increased. The increase occurred in plants from all origins for SOD, with a greater magnitude as a function of their origin, and it occurred only in plants from the more contaminated populations for G6PDH. This suggests that exposure to a low dose rate of ionizing radiation for almost a half century in the original environment of Stipa has led to natural selection of the most adapted genotypes characterized by an efficient induction of anti-oxidant enzyme activities, especially SOD and G6PDH, involved in plant protection against reactive oxygen species. PMID:12177138

Zaka, R; Vandecasteele, C M; Misset, M T

2002-09-01

308

Activity of antioxidant enzymes and physiological responses in ark shell, Scapharca broughtonii, exposed to thermal and osmotic stress: effects on hemolymph and biochemical parameters.  

PubMed

Changes in water temperature and salinity are responsible for a variety of physiological stress responses in aquatic organisms. Stress induced by these factors was recently associated with enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, which caused oxidative damage. In the present study, we investigated the time-related effects of changes in water temperature and salinity on mRNA expression and the activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD and CAT) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the gills and digestive glands of the ark shell, Scapharca broughtonii. To investigate physiological responses, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), lysozyme activity, aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT), and alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT) were measured in the hemolymph. Water temperature and salinity changes significantly increased antioxidant enzyme mRNA expression and activity in the digestive glands and gills in a time-dependent manner. H(2)O(2) concentrations increased significantly in the high-temperature and hyposalinity treatments. LPO, AspAT and AlaAT levels also increased significantly in a time-dependent manner, while lysozyme activity decreased. These results suggest that antioxidant enzymes play important roles in reducing oxidative stress in ark shells exposed to changes in water temperature and salinity. PMID:19788926

An, Myung In; Choi, Cheol Young

2010-01-01

309

Pycnogenol® inhibits lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes with the modulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production associated with antioxidant enzyme responses.  

PubMed

Pycnogenol® is a group of flavonoids with antioxidant effects. Adipogenesis is the process of adipocyte differentiation. It causes the increase of lipids as well as ROS (reactive oxygen species). Lipid accumulation and ROS production were determined in 3?T3-L1 adipocyte, and the effect of Pycnogenol® was evaluated. Lipid accumulation was elevated in adipocyte treated with hydrogen peroxide, one of the ROS. Pycnogenol® showed an inhibitory effect on the lipid accumulation and ROS production during the adipogenesis. We also investigated the molecular events associated with ROS production and lipid accumulation. Our results showed that Pycnogenol® inhibited the mRNA expression of pro-oxidant enzymes, such as NOX4 (NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate hydrogen) oxidase 4), and the NADPH-producing G6PDH (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) enzyme. In addition, Pycnogenol® suppressed the mRNA abundance of adipogenic transcription factors, PPAR-? (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?) and C/EBP-? (CCAAT/enhancer binding protein ?), and their target gene, aP2 (adipocyte protein 2) responsible for fatty acid transportation. On the other hand, Pycnogenol® increased the abundance of antioxidant proteins such as Cu/Zn-SOD (copper-zinc superoxide dismutase), Mn-SOD (manganese superoxide dismutase), GPx (glutathione peroxidase) and GR (glutathione reductase). Our results suggest that Pycnogenol® inhibits lipid accumulation and ROS production by regulating adipogenic gene expression and pro-/antioxidant enzyme responses in adipocytes. PMID:21796705

Lee, Ok-Hwan; Seo, Min-Jung; Choi, Hyeon-Son; Lee, Boo-Yong

2012-03-01

310

Maximizing Antioxidants in Fruits  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fruits contain high levels of antioxidant compounds, such as carotenoids, flavonoids, vitamins, and phenols. These antioxidants are capable of performing a number of functions including free radical scavengers, peroxide decomposers, singlet and triplet oxygen quenchers, enzyme inhibitors, and synerg...

311

Hydroxyl containing seleno-imine compound exhibits improved anti-oxidant potential and does not inhibit thiol-containing enzymes.  

PubMed

Design and synthesis of organoselenium compounds with high thiol peroxidase (TPx) and low thiol oxidase (TOx) activities have been a difficult task and remains a synthetic-activity relationship dilemma. In this regard we are reporting for the first time a detail experimental data (both in vitro and in vivo) about the anti-oxidant and toxicological profile of an Imine (-N) containing organoselenium compound (Compound A). The TPx activity of Compound A was significantly higher than diphenyl diselenide (DPDS). Both Compound A and DPDS protected sodium nitropruside (SNP) induced thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) production in rats tissue homogenate with significantly higher activity observed for Compound A than DPDS (p<0.05). The Compound A also exhibited strong antioxidant activity in the DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging assays. This study reveals that an imine group close to selenium atom drastically enhances the catalytic activities in the aromatic thiol (PhSH) assay systems. The oxidation of biologically significant thiols reflects the toxicity of the compounds. However, the present data showed that treatment with Compound A at 0, 10, 25 or 50mg/kg was not associated with mortality or body weight loss. Similarly it did not inhibit ?-ALA-D and Na(+1)/K(+1) ATPase (sulfhydryl group containing enzymes) activities after acute oral treatment; rather it enhanced non-protein thiols (NPSH) concentration. The Compound A did not cause any oxidative stress as measured by TBARS production in rat's tissue preparation. Our data also indicate that exposure to Compound A did not affect plasma transaminase activities or levels of urea and creatinine in rats. Ascorbic acid is always considered a marker of oxidative stress and the reduction of its content may indicate an increase in oxidative stress. Treatment with Compound A did not alter Ascorbic acid levels in rats. The conducted in vitro and in vivo tests show the versatile therapeutic potential of this compound in the area of free radical induced damages, will undoubtedly enhance our understanding of the mechanism of model compounds and may ultimately yield insights that result in improved GPx mimics. PMID:21256831

Hassan, Waseem; Pinton, Simone; Rocha, Juliana Trevisan da; Deobald, Anna Maria; Braga, Antonio Luis; Nogueira, Cristina Wayne; Latini, Alexandra Susana; Rocha, Joao B T

2011-03-15

312

A Comparative Study for the Evaluation of Two Doses of Ellagic Acid on Hepatic Drug Metabolizing and Antioxidant Enzymes in the Rat  

PubMed Central

The present study was designed to evaluate different doses of ellagic acid (EA) in vivo in rats for its potential to modulate hepatic phases I, II, and antioxidant enzymes. EA (10 or 30?mg/kg/day, intragastrically) was administered for 14 consecutive days, and activity, protein, and mRNA levels were determined. Although the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2B and CYP2E enzyme activities were decreased significantly, the activities of all other enzymes were unchanged with the 10?mg/kg/day EA. In addition, western-blot and qRT-PCR results clearly corroborated the above enzyme expressions. On the other hand, while the NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities were increased significantly, CYP1A, 2B, 2C, 2E, and 19 enzyme activities were reduced significantly with 30?mg/kg/day EA. In addition, CYP2B, 2C6, 2E1, and 19 protein and mRNA levels were substantially decreased by the 30?mg/kg/day dose of EA, but the CYP1A protein, and mRNA levels were not changed. CYP3A enzyme activity, protein and mRNA levels were not altered by neither 10 nor 30?mg/kg/day ellagic acid. These results indicate that EA exerts a dose-dependent impact on the metabolism of chemical carcinogens and drugs by affecting the enzymes involved in xenobiotics activation/detoxification and antioxidant pathways. PMID:23971029

Celik, Gurbet; Semiz, Asl?; Karakurt, Serdar; Arslan, Sevki; Adali, Orhan; Sen, Alaattin

2013-01-01

313

A comparative study for the evaluation of two doses of ellagic acid on hepatic drug metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes in the rat.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to evaluate different doses of ellagic acid (EA) in vivo in rats for its potential to modulate hepatic phases I, II, and antioxidant enzymes. EA (10 or 30 mg/kg/day, intragastrically) was administered for 14 consecutive days, and activity, protein, and mRNA levels were determined. Although the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2B and CYP2E enzyme activities were decreased significantly, the activities of all other enzymes were unchanged with the 10 mg/kg/day EA. In addition, western-blot and qRT-PCR results clearly corroborated the above enzyme expressions. On the other hand, while the NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities were increased significantly, CYP1A, 2B, 2C, 2E, and 19 enzyme activities were reduced significantly with 30 mg/kg/day EA. In addition, CYP2B, 2C6, 2E1, and 19 protein and mRNA levels were substantially decreased by the 30 mg/kg/day dose of EA, but the CYP1A protein, and mRNA levels were not changed. CYP3A enzyme activity, protein and mRNA levels were not altered by neither 10 nor 30 mg/kg/day ellagic acid. These results indicate that EA exerts a dose-dependent impact on the metabolism of chemical carcinogens and drugs by affecting the enzymes involved in xenobiotics activation/detoxification and antioxidant pathways. PMID:23971029

Celik, Gurbet; Semiz, Asl?; Karakurt, Serdar; Arslan, Sevki; Adali, Orhan; Sen, Alaattin

2013-01-01

314

Epigallocatechin-3-gallate modulates anti-oxidant defense enzyme expression in murine submandibular and pancreatic exocrine gland cells and human HSG cells.  

PubMed

Sjogren's syndrome (SS) and type-1 diabetes are prevalent autoimmune diseases in the USA. We reported previously that epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) prevented and delayed the onset of autoimmune disease in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, a model for both SS and type-1 diabetes. EGCG also normalized the levels of proteins related to DNA repair and anti-oxidant activity in NOD.B10.Sn-H2 mice, a model for primary SS, prior to disease onset. The current study examined the effect of EGCG on the expression of anti-oxidant enzymes in the submandibular salivary gland and the pancreas of NOD mice and cultured human salivary gland acinar cells. NOD mice consuming 0.2% EGCG daily dissolved in water showed higher protein levels of peroxiredoxin 6 (PRDX6), a major anti-oxidant defense protein, and catalase, while the untreated NOD mice exhibited significantly lowered levels of PRDX6. Similarly, pancreas samples from water-fed NOD mice were depleted in PRDX6 and superoxide dismutase, while EGCG-fed mice showed high levels of these anti-oxidant enzymes. In cultured HSG cells EGCG increased PRDX6 levels significantly, and this was inhibited by p38 and JNK inhibitors, suggesting that the EGCG-mediated increase in protective anti-oxidant capacity is regulated in part through mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway signaling. This mechanism may explain the higher levels of PRDX6 found in EGCG-fed NOD mice. These preclinical observations warrant future preclinical and clinical studies to determine whether EGCG or green tea polyphenols could be used in novel preventive and therapeutic approaches against autoimmune diseases and salivary dysfunction involving oxidative stress. PMID:24444391

Dickinson, Douglas; DeRossi, Scott; Yu, Hongfang; Thomas, Cristina; Kragor, Chris; Paquin, Becky; Hahn, Emily; Ohno, Seiji; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Hsu, Stephen

2014-05-01

315

Thermal tolerance of contractile function in oxidative skeletal muscle: no protection by antioxidants and reduced tolerance with eicosanoid enzyme inhibition  

PubMed Central

Mechanisms for the loss of muscle contractile function in hyperthermia are poorly understood. This study identified the critical temperature, resulting in a loss of contractile function in isolated diaphragm (thermal tolerance), and then tested the hypotheses 1) that increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production contributes to the loss of contractile function at this temperature, and 2) eicosanoid metabolism plays an important role in preservation of contractile function in hyperthermia. Contractile function and passive force were measured in rat diaphragm bundles during and after 30 min of exposure to 40, 41, 42 or 43°C. Between 40 and 42°C, there were no effects of hyperthermia, but at 43°C, a significant loss of active force and an increase in passive force were observed. Inhibition of ROS with the antioxidants, Tiron or Trolox, did not inhibit the loss of contractile force at 43°C. Furthermore, treatment with dithiothreitol, a thiol (-SH) reducing agent, did not reverse the effects of hyperthermia. A variety of global lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibitors further depressed force during 43°C and caused a significant loss of thermal tolerance at 42°C. Cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors also caused a loss of thermal tolerance at 42°C. Blockage of phospholipase with phospholipase A2 inhibitors, bromoenol lactone or arachidonyltrifluoromethyl ketone failed to significantly prevent the loss of force at 43°C. Overall, these data suggest that ROS do not play an apparent role in the loss of contractile function during severe hyperthermia in diaphragm. However, functional LOX and COX enzyme activities appear to be necessary for maintaining normal force production in hyperthermia. PMID:18768765

Oliver, S. Ryan; Wright, Valerie P.; Parinandi, Narasimham; Clanton, Thomas L.

2008-01-01

316

Substrate Specificities and Intracellular Distributions of Three N-glycan Processing Enzymes Functioning at a Key Branch Point in the Insect N-Glycosylation Pathway*  

PubMed Central

Man(?1–6)[GlcNAc(?1–2)Man(?1–3)]ManGlcNAc2 is a key branch point intermediate in the insect N-glycosylation pathway because it can be either trimmed by a processing ?-N-acetylglucosaminidase (FDL) to produce paucimannosidic N-glycans or elongated by N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase II (GNT-II) to produce complex N-glycans. N-Acetylglucosaminyltransferase I (GNT-I) contributes to branch point intermediate production and can potentially reverse the FDL trimming reaction. However, there has been no concerted effort to evaluate the relationships among these three enzymes in any single insect system. Hence, we extended our previous studies on Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf) FDL to include GNT-I and -II. Sf-GNT-I and -II cDNAs were isolated, the predicted protein sequences were analyzed, and both gene products were expressed and their acceptor substrate specificities and intracellular localizations were determined. Sf-GNT-I transferred N-acetylglucosamine to Man5GlcNAc2, Man3GlcNAc2, and GlcNAc(?1–2)Man(?1–6)[Man(?1–3)]ManGlcNAc2, demonstrating its role in branch point intermediate production and its ability to reverse FDL trimming. Sf-GNT-II only transferred N-acetylglucosamine to Man(?1–6)[GlcNAc(?1–2)Man(?1–3)]ManGlcNAc2, demonstrating that it initiates complex N-glycan production, but cannot use Man3GlcNAc2 to produce hybrid or complex structures. Fluorescently tagged Sf-GNT-I and -II co-localized with an endogenous Sf Golgi marker and Sf-FDL co-localized with Sf-GNT-I and -II, indicating that all three enzymes are Golgi resident proteins. Unexpectedly, fluorescently tagged Drosophila melanogaster FDL also co-localized with Sf-GNT-I and an endogenous Drosophila Golgi marker, indicating that it is a Golgi resident enzyme in insect cells. Thus, the substrate specificities and physical juxtapositioning of GNT-I, GNT-II, and FDL support the idea that these enzymes function at the N-glycan processing branch point and are major factors determining the net outcome of the insect cell N-glycosylation pathway. PMID:22238347

Geisler, Christoph; Jarvis, Donald L.

2012-01-01

317

Oxidative damage and alterations in antioxidant enzyme activities in the kidneys of rat exposed to trichloroacetic acid: protective role of date palm fruit.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated the antioxidant and protective properties of date fruit aqueous extract (DFAE) on trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-induced nephrotoxicity in rat. Oral administration of TCA as drinking water (0.5 and 2 g/L) daily for 2 months caused nephrotoxicity as evident by elevated levels of plasma creatinine, urea, and uric acid. Activity of antioxidant enzymes, catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), was decreased, whereas superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) level were increased along with histopathological injuries. The oral administration of DFAE (4 mL/kg/day) to TCA-treated groups proved some significant correction by increasing the antioxidant activity of the CAT and GPx enzymes and normalizing the SOD activity and the MDA level (p?

El Arem, Amira; Zekri, Mouna; Thouri, Amira; Saafi, Emna Behija; Ghrairi, Fatma; Ayed, Amel; Zakhama, Abdelfattah; Achour, Lotfi

2014-06-01

318

The effects of Angelica keiskei Koidz on the expression of antioxidant enzymes related to lipid profiles in rats fed a high fat diet.  

PubMed

This study was performed to examine the feeding effects of Angelica keiskei Koidz (AK) and its processed products on serum, liver, and body fat content and the expression of antioxidant genes in rats fed a high fat diet. AK and its processed products were added at 3-5% to a high fat diet and fed to adult rats for 6 weeks. In experiment 1 (EXP 1), the rats were fed with one of six diets including a control diet (normal fat), high fat diet (HF), and HF + AK additives groups (four groups). In experiment 2 (EXP 2), the rats were separated into three groups of HF, HF + AK whole leaves, and HF + fermented juice (FS) + squeeze (SA). Body weight was not different among the groups in either experiment. The liver weight was lower in the FS and SA groups compared to that in the other groups (P < 0.05). Serum luteolin was higher in the AK and processed products groups compared to that in the HF group (P < 0.05). Gene expression of the antioxidative enzymes catalase and glutathione-s-reductase in the liver was higher in the AK processed products group than that in the other groups (P < 0.05). The results suggest that the intake of AK and its processed products increased the expression of antioxidant enzymes in animals fed a high fat diet, reduced hepatic cholesterol content, and increased the effective absorption of luteolin. PMID:22413035

Kim, Eunmi; Choi, Jinho; Yeo, Ikhyun

2012-02-01

319

The effects of Angelica keiskei Koidz on the expression of antioxidant enzymes related to lipid profiles in rats fed a high fat diet  

PubMed Central

This study was performed to examine the feeding effects of Angelica keiskei Koidz (AK) and its processed products on serum, liver, and body fat content and the expression of antioxidant genes in rats fed a high fat diet. AK and its processed products were added at 3-5% to a high fat diet and fed to adult rats for 6 weeks. In experiment 1 (EXP 1), the rats were fed with one of six diets including a control diet (normal fat), high fat diet (HF), and HF + AK additives groups (four groups). In experiment 2 (EXP 2), the rats were separated into three groups of HF, HF + AK whole leaves, and HF + fermented juice (FS) + squeeze (SA). Body weight was not different among the groups in either experiment. The liver weight was lower in the FS and SA groups compared to that in the other groups (P < 0.05). Serum luteolin was higher in the AK and processed products groups compared to that in the HF group (P < 0.05). Gene expression of the antioxidative enzymes catalase and glutathione-s-reductase in the liver was higher in the AK processed products group than that in the other groups (P < 0.05). The results suggest that the intake of AK and its processed products increased the expression of antioxidant enzymes in animals fed a high fat diet, reduced hepatic cholesterol content, and increased the effective absorption of luteolin. PMID:22413035

Choi, Jinho; Yeo, Ikhyun

2012-01-01

320

Salivary Antigen-5/CAP Family Members Are Cu2+-dependent Antioxidant Enzymes That Scavenge O2? and Inhibit Collagen-induced Platelet Aggregation and Neutrophil Oxidative Burst*  

PubMed Central

The function of the antigen-5/CAP family of proteins found in the salivary gland of bloodsucking animals has remained elusive for decades. Antigen-5 members from the hematophagous insects Dipetalogaster maxima (DMAV) and Triatoma infestans (TIAV) were expressed and discovered to attenuate platelet aggregation, ATP secretion, and thromboxane A2 generation by low doses of collagen (<1 ?g/ml) but no other agonists. DMAV did not interact with collagen, glycoprotein VI, or integrin ?2?1. This inhibitory profile resembles the effects of antioxidants Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD) in platelet function. Accordingly, DMAV was found to inhibit cytochrome c reduction by O2? generated by the xanthine/xanthine oxidase, implying that it exhibits antioxidant activity. Moreover, our results demonstrate that DMAV blunts the luminescence signal of O2? generated by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-stimulated neutrophils. Mechanistically, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and fluorescence spectroscopy revealed that DMAV, like Cu,Zn-SOD, interacts with Cu2+, which provides redox potential for catalytic removal of O2?. Notably, surface plasmon resonance experiments (BIAcore) determined that DMAV binds sulfated glycosaminoglycans (e.g. heparin, KD ?100 nmol/liter), as reported for extracellular SOD. Finally, fractions of the salivary gland of D. maxima with native DMAV contain Cu2+ and display metal-dependent antioxidant properties. Antigen-5/CAP emerges as novel family of Cu2+-dependent antioxidant enzymes that inhibit neutrophil oxidative burst and negatively modulate platelet aggregation by a unique salivary mechanism. PMID:23564450

Assumpçăo, Teresa C. F.; Ma, Dongying; Schwarz, Alexandra; Reiter, Karine; Santana, Jaime M.; Andersen, John F.; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Nardone, Glenn; Yu, Lee L.; Francischetti, Ivo M. B.

2013-01-01

321

In vitro digestion of purified ?-casein variants A(1), A(2), B, and I: Effects on antioxidant and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory capacity.  

PubMed

Genetic polymorphisms of bovine milk proteins affect the protein profile of the milk and, hence, certain technological properties, such as casein (CN) number and cheese yield. However, reports show that such polymorphisms may also affect the health-related properties of milk. Therefore, to gain insight into their digestion pattern and bioactive potential, ?-CN was purified from bovine milk originating from cows homozygous for the variants A(1), A(2), B, and I by a combination of cold storage, ultracentrifugation, and acid precipitation. The purity of the isolated ?-CN was determined by HPLC, variants were verified by mass spectrometry, and molar extinction coefficients at ?=280nm were determined. ?-Casein from each of the variants was subjected to in vitro digestion using pepsin and pancreatic enzymes. Antioxidant and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory capacities of the hydrolysates were assessed at 3 stages of digestion and related to that of the undigested samples. Neither molar extinction coefficients nor overall digestibility varied significantly between these 4 variants; however, clear differences in digestion pattern were indicated by gel electrophoresis. In particular, after 60min of pepsin followed by 5min of pancreatic enzyme digestion, one ?4kDa peptide with the N-terminal sequence (106)H-K-E-M-P-F-P-K- was absent from ?-CN variant B. This is likely a result of the (122)Ser to (122)Arg substitution in variant B introducing a novel trypsin cleavage site, leading to the changed digestion pattern. All investigated ?-CN variants exhibited a significant increase in antioxidant capacity upon digestion, as measured by the Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity assay. After 60min of pepsin + 120min of pancreatic enzyme digestion, the accumulated increase in antioxidant capacity was ?1.7-fold for the 4 ?-CN variants. The ACE inhibitory capacity was also significantly increased by digestion, with the B variant reaching the highest inhibitory capacity at the end of digestion (60min of pepsin + 120min of pancreatic enzymes), possibly because of the observed alternative digestion pattern. These results demonstrate that genetic polymorphisms affect the digestion pattern and bioactivity of milk proteins. Moreover, their capacity for radical scavenging and ACE inhibition is affected by digestion. PMID:25465543

Petrat-Melin, B; Andersen, P; Rasmussen, J T; Poulsen, N A; Larsen, L B; Young, J F

2015-01-01

322

Evaluation of antioxidant enzymes activities and identification of intermediate products during phytoremediation of an anionic dye (C.I. Acid Blue 92) by pennywort (Hydrocotyle vulgaris).  

PubMed

The potential of pennywort (Hydrocotyle vulgaris) for phytoremediation of C.I. Acid Blue 92 (AB92) was evaluated. The effects of various experimental parameters including pH, temperature, dye concentration and plant weight on dye removal efficiency were investigated. The results showed that the optimal condition for dye removal were pH 3.5 and temperature 25 degree C. Moreover, the absolute dye removal enhanced with increase in the initial dye concentration and plant weight. Pennywort showed the same removal efficiency in repeated experiments (four runs) as that obtained from the first run (a 6-day period). Therefore, the ability of the plant in consecutive removal of AB92 confirmed the biodegradation process. Accordingly, a number of produced intermediate compounds were identified. The effect of treatment on photosynthesis and antioxidant defense system including superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase in plant roots and leaves were evaluated. The results revealed a reduction in photosynthetic pigments content under dye treatments. Antioxidant enzyme responses showed marked variations with respect to the plant organ and dye concentration in the liquid medium. Overall, the increase in antioxidant enzyme activity under AB92 stress in the roots was much higher than that in the leaves. Nevertheless, no significant increase in malondialdehyde content was detected in roots or leaves, implying that the high efficiency of antioxidant system in the elimination of reactive oxygen species. Based on these results, pennywort was founded to be a capable species for phytoremediation of AB92-contaminated water, may be effective for phytoremediation dye-contaminated polluted aquatic ecosystems. PMID:24552049

Vafaei, Fatemeh; Movafeghi, Ali; Khataee, Alireza

2013-11-01

323

Antioxidant activity and emulsion-stabilizing effect of pectic enzyme treated pectin in soy protein isolate-stabilized oil/water emulsion.  

PubMed

The antioxidant activity of pectic enzyme treated pectin (PET-pectin) prepared from citrus pectin by enzymatic hydrolysis and its potential use as a stabilizer and an antioxidant for soy protein isolate (SPI)-stabilized oil in water (O/W) emulsion were investigated. Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) was found to be positively associated with molecular weight (M(w)) of PET-pectin and negatively associated with degree of esterification (DE) of PET-pectin. PET-pectin (1 kDa and 11.6% DE) prepared from citrus pectin after 24 h of hydrolysis by commercial pectic enzyme produced by Aspergillus niger expressed higher ?,?-diphenyl-?-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, TEAC, and reducing power than untreated citrus pectin (353 kDa and 60% DE). The addition of PET-pectin could increase both emulsifying activity (EA) and emulsion stability (ES) of SPI-stabilized O/W emulsion. When the SPI-stabilized lipid droplet was coated with the mixture of PET-pectin and pectin, the EA and ES of the emulsion were improved more than they were when the lipid droplet was coated with either pectin or PET-pectin alone. The amount of secondary oxidation products (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) produced in the emulsion prepared with the mixture of SPI and PET-pectin was less than the amount produced in the emulsion prepared with either SPI or SPI/pectin. These results suggest that PET-pectin has an emulsion-stabilizing effect and lipid oxidation inhibition ability on SPI-stabilized emulsion. Therefore, PET-pectin can be used as a stabilizer as well as an antioxidant in plant origin in SPI-stabilized O/W emulsion and thus prolong the shelf life of food emulsion. PMID:21806056

Huang, Ping-Hsiu; Lu, Hao-Te; Wang, Yuh-Tai; Wu, Ming-Chang

2011-09-14

324

Green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate triggered hepatotoxicity in mice: Responses of major antioxidant enzymes and the Nrf2 rescue pathway.  

PubMed

(-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a constituent of green tea, has been suggested to have numerous health-promoting effects. On the other hand, high-dose EGCG is able to evoke hepatotoxicity. In the present study, we elucidated the responses of hepatic major antioxidant enzymes and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) rescue pathway to high-dose levels of EGCG in Kunming mice. At a non-lethal toxic dose (75mg/kg, i.p.), repeated EGCG treatments markedly decreased the levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. As a rescue response, the nuclear distribution of Nrf2 was significantly increased; a battery of Nrf2-target genes, including heme oxygenase 1 (HO1), NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and those involved in glutathione and thioredoxin systems, were all up-regulated. At the maximum tolerated dose (45mg/kg, i.p.), repeated EGCG treatments did not disturb the major antioxidant defense. Among the above-mentioned genes, only HO1, NQO1, and GST genes were significantly but modestly up-regulated, suggesting a comprehensive and extensive activation of Nrf2-target genes principally occurs at toxic levels of EGCG. At a lethal dose (200mg/kg, i.p.), a single EGCG treatment dramatically decreased not only the major antioxidant defense but also the Nrf2-target genes, demonstrating that toxic levels of EGCG are able to cause a biphasic response of Nrf2. Overall, the mechanism of EGCG-triggered hepatotoxicity involves suppression of major antioxidant enzymes, and the Nrf2 rescue pathway plays a vital role for counteracting EGCG toxicity. PMID:25585349

Wang, Dongxu; Wang, Yijun; Wan, Xiaochun; Yang, Chung S; Zhang, Jinsong

2015-02-15

325

Alteration of Antioxidant Enzymes and Associated Genes Induced by Grape Seed Extracts in the Primary Muscle Cells of Goats In Vitro  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to investigate how the activity and expression of certain paramount antioxidant enzymes respond to grape seed extract (GSE) addition in primary muscle cells of goats. Gluteal primary muscle cells (PMCs) isolated from a 3-week old goat were cultivated as an unstressed cell model, or they were exposed to 100 µM H2O2 to establish a H2O2-stimulated cell model. The activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutases (SOD) and glutathione peroxidases (GPx) in combination with other relevant antioxidant indexes [i.e., reduced glutathione (GSH) and total antioxidant capacity (TAOC)] in response to GSE addition were tested in the unstressed and H2O2-stimulated cell models, and the relative mRNA levels of the CAT, GuZu-SOD, and GPx-1 genes were measured by qPCR. In unstressed PMCs, GSE addition at the dose of 10 µg/ml strikingly attenuated the expression levels of CAT and CuZn-SOD as well as the corresponding enzyme activities. By contrast, in cells pretreated with 100 µM H2O2, the expression and activity levels of these two antioxidant enzymes were enhanced by GSE addition at 10 µg/ml. GSE addition promoted GPx activity in both unstressed and stressed PMCs, while the expression of the GPx 1 gene displayed partial divergence with GPx activity, which was mitigated by GSE addition at 10 µg/ml in unstressed PMCs. GSH remained comparatively stable except for GSE addition to H2O2-stimulated PMCs at 60 µg/ml, in which a dramatic depletion of GSH occurred. Moreover, GSE addition enhanced TAOC in unstressed (but not H2O2-stimulated) PMCs. GSE addition exerted a bidirectional modulating effect on the mRNA levels and activities of CAT and SOD in unstressed and stressed PMCs at a moderate dose, and it only exhibited a unidirectional effect on the promotion of GPx activity, reflecting its potential to improve antioxidant protection in ruminants. PMID:25238394

Yang, Tan; Li, Xiaomin; Zhu, Wang; Chen, Cheng; Sun, Zhihong; Tan, Zhiliang; Kang, Jinghe

2014-01-01

326

Alteration of antioxidant enzymes and associated genes induced by grape seed extracts in the primary muscle cells of goats in vitro.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to investigate how the activity and expression of certain paramount antioxidant enzymes respond to grape seed extract (GSE) addition in primary muscle cells of goats. Gluteal primary muscle cells (PMCs) isolated from a 3-week old goat were cultivated as an unstressed cell model, or they were exposed to 100 µM H2O2 to establish a H2O2-stimulated cell model. The activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutases (SOD) and glutathione peroxidases (GPx) in combination with other relevant antioxidant indexes [i.e., reduced glutathione (GSH) and total antioxidant capacity (TAOC)] in response to GSE addition were tested in the unstressed and H2O2-stimulated cell models, and the relative mRNA levels of the CAT, GuZu-SOD, and GPx-1 genes were measured by qPCR. In unstressed PMCs, GSE addition at the dose of 10 µg/ml strikingly attenuated the expression levels of CAT and CuZn-SOD as well as the corresponding enzyme activities. By contrast, in cells pretreated with 100 µM H2O2, the expression and activity levels of these two antioxidant enzymes were enhanced by GSE addition at 10 µg/ml. GSE addition promoted GPx activity in both unstressed and stressed PMCs, while the expression of the GPx 1 gene displayed partial divergence with GPx activity, which was mitigated by GSE addition at 10 µg/ml in unstressed PMCs. GSH remained comparatively stable except for GSE addition to H2O2-stimulated PMCs at 60 µg/ml, in which a dramatic depletion of GSH occurred. Moreover, GSE addition enhanced TAOC in unstressed (but not H2O2-stimulated) PMCs. GSE addition exerted a bidirectional modulating effect on the mRNA levels and activities of CAT and SOD in unstressed and stressed PMCs at a moderate dose, and it only exhibited a unidirectional effect on the promotion of GPx activity, reflecting its potential to improve antioxidant protection in ruminants. PMID:25238394

Yang, Tan; Li, Xiaomin; Zhu, Wang; Chen, Cheng; Sun, Zhihong; Tan, Zhiliang; Kang, Jinghe

2014-01-01

327

Effect of Turmeric and Carrot Seed Extracts on Serum Liver Biomarkers and Hepatic Lipid Peroxidation, Antioxidant Enzymes and Total Antioxidant Status in Rats  

PubMed Central

Introduction Pathogenic role of free radicals are well known in various metabolic diseases. They originate from internal and external sources of body. Essential roles of antioxidant defense system for cellular redox regulation and free radical scavenging activity were described in this study. Many in vitro investigations have shown that turmeric (TE) and carrot seed extract (CSE) exhibits to possess antioxidant activities. In this study, we evaluated the antioxidant potentials of ethanolic TE and CSE based on in vivo experiment in the rats. Methods Animals were assigned to six groups: the 1st and 2nd groups were control groups and 2nd group received 0.2 ml dimethyl sulphoxide as vehicle treated group; other four experimental groups received different doses of TE (100, 200 mg/kg b.w.) and CSE (200, 400 mg/kg b.w.) by gavages, respectively for a period of one month. The indicators of oxidative stress, lipids peroxidation, markers of hepatocyte injury and biliary function markers were measured. Results The levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase were significantly stimulated in the hepatic tissue of treatment groups. The malondialdehyde contents of liver tissue were significantly reduced in the groups fed with TE and CSE. Serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase, in treated groups were found to be significantly decreased, whereas albumin and total protein increased as compared to the control groups (P<0.05). Conclusion this study showed that the regular intake of TE and CSE through the diet can improve antioxidant status and inhibit peroxidation activity in the liver tissue so that using these extracts may protect tissue oxidative stress. PMID:23678453

Rezaei-Moghadam, Adel; Mohajeri, Daryoush; Rafiei, Behnam; Dizaji, Rana; Azhdari, Asghar; Yeganehzad, Mahdi; Shahidi, Maryamossadat; Mazani, Mohammad

2012-01-01

328

[Effects of partial root excision on the growth, photosynthesis, and antioxidant enzyme activities of maize under salt stress].  

PubMed

A pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of partial root excision on the growth of two maize cultivars (Zhengdan 958 and Denghai 9) throughout their growth period and the photosynthesis and leaf antioxidant enzyme activities at grain-filling stage under salt stress. Four treatments were installed, i. e., control (no salt), low salt (0.2% NaCl), moderate salt (0.4% NaCl), and high salt (0.6% NaCl). Under low salt stress, the grain yield of Zhengdan 958 and Denghai 9 with partial root excision was increased by 13.1% and 31.4%, respectively, as compared with that of the cultivars with no root excision. At jointing stage, the growth of the cultivars with partial root excision was restrained, the root- and shoot dry masses under the same salt stresses being lesser than those of the cultivars with no root excision, but the growth under the conditions of no salt and low salt recovered quickly. At milk-ripe stage and under no salt and low salt conditions, the root- and shoot dry masses, leaf area, total root length, total root surface area, root activity, leaf chlorophyll content, and ear leaf net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, and CAT and POD activities of the cultivars with partial root excision were significantly larger than those of the cultivars with no root excision, while the shoot diameter and ear leaf MDA content were in adverse. Moderate and high salt stresses had greater effects on the cultivars with partial root excision. The root- and shoot dry masses, root morphology, and photosynthesis indices of the cultivars with partial root excision were smaller than those of the cultivars with no root excision, so did the grain yields. Throughout the growth period of the cultivars, the growth of the cultivars with partial root excision depended on the salt concentration, i. e., was promoted under no and low salt, and inhibited under moderate and high salt conditions. PMID:23479880

Zhang, Hong; Cui, Li-Na; Meng, Jia-Jia; Zhang, Hai-Yan; Shi, De-Yang; Dong, Shu-Ting; Zhang, Ji-Wang; Liu, Peng

2012-12-01

329

Effects of esculetin on activities of some antioxidant enzymes of Galleria mellonella and its parasitoid Bracon hebetor  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Eicosanoids mediate several physiological responses, including immune defense reactions. Two major groups of eicosanoids are prostaglandins (products of cyclooxygenase pathways) and various products of lipoxygenase pathways. Antioxidant response is one of the defense mechanisms to oxidative damage...

330

Enzymatic and acidic degradation effect on intracellular polysaccharide of Flammulina velutipes SF-08.  

PubMed

The intracellular polysaccharide (IPS) from Flammulina velutipes SF-08 mycelia was isolated and degraded by enzyme and acid. IPS and its derivative were purified by DEAE-52 cellulose chromatography, and five fractions were obtained. The structural features and antioxidant activities in vitro of the isolated fractions were evaluated. On the basis of chemical composition and antioxidant ability analyses, rhamnose as the main monosaccharide might contribute to the strongest antioxidant capacity. The in vivo results showed that IPS significantly enhanced the activities of anti-aging enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity, and reduced the content of lipid peroxidantion (LPO). These results suggested that IPS should be a potent natural polymer and can be developed to be novel functional food. PMID:25481282

Ma, Zhao; Zhang, Chen; Gao, Xia; Cui, Fangyuan; Zhang, Jianjun; Jia, Mengshi; Jia, Shouhua; Jia, Le

2015-02-01

331

Update on the Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2-Angiotensin (1–7)-Mas Receptor Axis: Fetal Programing, Sex Differences, and Intracellular Pathways  

PubMed Central

The renin-angiotensin-system (RAS) constitutes an important hormonal system in the physiological regulation of blood pressure. Indeed, dysregulation of the RAS may lead to the development of cardiovascular pathologies including kidney injury. Moreover, the blockade of this system by the inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) or antagonism of the angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) constitutes an effective therapeutic regimen. It is now apparent with the identification of multiple components of the RAS that the system is comprised of different angiotensin peptides with diverse biological actions mediated by distinct receptor subtypes. The classic RAS can be defined as the ACE-Ang II-AT1R axis that promotes vasoconstriction, sodium retention, and other mechanisms to maintain blood pressure, as well as increased oxidative stress, fibrosis, cellular growth, and inflammation in pathological conditions. In contrast, the non-classical RAS composed of the ACE2-Ang-(1–7)-Mas receptor axis generally opposes the actions of a stimulated Ang II-AT1R axis through an increase in nitric oxide and prostaglandins and mediates vasodilation, natriuresis, diuresis, and oxidative stress. Thus, a reduced tone of the Ang-(1–7) system may contribute to these pathologies as well. Moreover, the non-classical RAS components may contribute to the effects of therapeutic blockade of the classical system to reduce blood pressure and attenuate various indices of renal injury. The review considers recent studies on the ACE2-Ang-(1–7)-Mas receptor axis regarding the precursor for Ang-(1–7), the intracellular expression and sex differences of this system, as well as an emerging role of the Ang1-(1–7) pathway in fetal programing events and cardiovascular dysfunction. PMID:24409169

Chappell, Mark C.; Marshall, Allyson C.; Alzayadneh, Ebaa M.; Shaltout, Hossam A.; Diz, Debra I.

2013-01-01

332

Toxicity of the Herbicide Atrazine: Effects on Lipid Peroxidation and Activities of Antioxidant Enzymes in the Freshwater Fish Channa Punctatus (Bloch)  

PubMed Central

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the toxicity and effects of a commercial formulation of the herbicide atrazine (Rasayanzine) on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme system in the freshwater air breathing fish Channa punctatus. The 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h LC50 of atrazine, calculated by probit analysis, were determined to be 77.091, 64.053, 49.100, 44.412 and 42.381 mg·L?1, respectively, in a semi static system with significant difference (p < 0.05) in LC10–90 values obtained for different times of exposure. In addition to concentration and time dependent decrease in mortality rate, stress signs in the form of behavioral changes were also observed in response to the test chemical. In fish exposed for 15 days to different sublethal concentrations of the herbicide (1/4 LC50 = ?10.600 mg·L?1, 1/8 LC50 = ?5.300 mg·L?1 and 1/10 LC50 = ?4.238 mg·L?1) induction of oxidative stress in the liver was evidence by increased lipid peroxidation levels. The antioxidants superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR) responded positively in a concentration dependent pattern, thus, suggesting the use of these antioxidants as potential biomarkers of toxicity associated with contaminations exposure in freshwater fishes. PMID:20948961

Nwani, Christopher Ddidigwu; Lakra, Wazir Singh; Nagpure, Naresh Sahebrao; Kumar, Ravindra; Kushwaha, Basdeo; Srivastava, Satish Kumar

2010-01-01

333

Inhibitory potential of the leaves and berries of Myrtus communis L. (myrtle) against enzymes linked to neurodegenerative diseases and their antioxidant actions.  

PubMed

The dichloromethane (DCM), acetone, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of the leaves and berries of Myrtus communis L. were screened against acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and tyrosinase (TYRO), the enzymes linked to neurodegenerative diseases, at 200 ?g ml?ą. Antioxidant activity was tested using radical scavenging activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and N,N- dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine (DMPD) radicals, metal chelation capacity, ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and phosphomolybdenum-reducing antioxidant power (PRAP) assays. Total phenol and flavonoid quantification of the extracts was calculated spectrophotometrically. The extracts showed a moderate AChE (17.49 ± 3.99% to 43.15 ± 1.55%) and TYRO inhibition (4.48 ± 1.50% to 40.53 ± 0.47%). The leaf extracts were ineffective against BChE, while the berry extracts displayed inhibition between 21.83 ± 3.82% and 36.80 ± 2.00%. The polar extracts exerted remarkable scavenging effect against DPPH and DMPD and also in the FRAP assay, where the DCM extract of the berries had the best metal chelation capacity (79.29 ± 1.14%). This is the first study that demonstrates in vitro neuroprotective effects of myrtle. PMID:22022834

Tumen, Ibrahim; Senol, Fatma Sezer; Orhan, Ilkay Erdogan

2012-06-01

334

The effect of exercise training and water extract from propolis intake on the antioxidant enzymes activity of skeletal muscle and liver in rat  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] In this study, the authors have intended to investigate the effects that the exercise training and the intake of the water extract from propolis have on the activity of antioxidant enzymes. [Methods] For this purpose, the exercise training (70% VO2max treadmill running exercise for 60min)of 5 times per week for six weeks and the intake (50mg/kg/day) of the water extract from propolis were performed by separating the experimental animals (SD rats, n=32) into CON(n=8) group, CON+Ex(n=8), PA(n=8), and PA+Ex(n=8). [Results] As a result, the following conclusions were obtained: The concentration of the blood glucose and insulin of the CON+Ex group and PA+Ex group which are the exercise parallel group were significantly decreased in comparison with the control group, whereas if comparing the glycogen concentration in skeletal muscle and liver tissue between the exercise parallel group and the CON group, the former showed significantly high value in comparison with the latter (p < .05). In the case of the activity of the antioxidant enzyme in the skeletal muscle and the liver tissue, the activities of SOD, GPX and CAT in the gastrocnemius muscle tissue of the experimental animals showed significantly high value in PA+Ex group in comparison with other experimental groups (p < .05). In addition, the SOD activity in the liver tissue showed that only PA+Ex group was significantly increased, whereas GDX activity showed significantly higher value in CON+Ex group and PA group than CON group (p < .05). However, the activity of CAT in the liver tissue showed that there is no difference between the experimental groups. As a result that measured the concentration of MDA in order to evaluate the damage level of the tissue by oxygen free radicals, the difference between the groups in the liver tissue was not shown, while it was shown that only PA+Ex group in the skeletal muscle tissue was significantly decreased in comparison with other experimental groups (p < .05). [Conclusion] Taken together the above findings, it is considered that the parallel treatment of the exercise training and the water extract from propolis can not only increase the use of glycogen of the skeletal muscle and liver tissue, but also it can give the effect to suppress the creation of active oxygen by inducing the activity of the antioxidant enzyme in the body, and in the future, the possibility as the exercise supplements and the antioxidant of the water-soluble propolis are expected.

Kwon, Tae Dong; Lee, Mong Woo; Kim, Ki Hoon

2014-01-01

335

Assessment of growth rate, chlorophyll a fluorescence, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activity in Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, Pediastrum simplex and Synedra acus exposed to cadmium.  

PubMed

In this study, the effects of cadmium on the cyanobacterium Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, the green alga Pediastrum simplex and the diatom Synedra acus was evaluated on the basis of growth rate, chlorophyll a fluorescence, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activity. The EC50 values (effective concentration inducing 50 % of growth inhibition) of cadmium in A. flos-aquae, P. simplex and S. acus were 1.18 ± 0.044, 4.32 ± 0.068 and 3.7 ± 0.055 mg/L, respectively. The results suggested that cadmium stress decreases growth rate and chlorophyll a concentration. The normalized chlorophyll a fluorescence transients significantly increased at cadmium concentrations of 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 mg/L, but slightly decreased at concentrations of 0.2, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/L. The chlorophyll fluorescence parameters showed considerable variation among the three species, while lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities showed a significant increase. Our results demonstrated that blockage of electron transport on the acceptor side of photosystem II is the mechanism responsible for cadmium toxicity in freshwater microalgae, and that the tolerance of the three species to cadmium was in the order green alga P. simplex > diatom S. acus > cyanobacterium A. flos-aquae. PMID:25471354

Ran, Xiaofei; Liu, Rui; Xu, Sha; Bai, Fang; Xu, Jinzhu; Yang, Yanjun; Shi, Junqiong; Wu, Zhongxing

2015-03-01

336

Protective Effect of Tulbaghia violacea Harv. on Aortic Pathology, Tissue Antioxidant Enzymes and Liver Damage in Diet-Induced Atherosclerotic Rats  

PubMed Central

The protective effect Tulbaghia violacea rhizomes (TVR) against derangements in serum lipid profile, tissue antioxidant enzyme depletion, endothelium dysfunction and histopathological changes in the aorta and liver of rats fed with an atherosclerogenic (Ath) diet (4% cholesterol, 1% cholic acid and 0.5% thiouracil) was investigated in this study. Co-treatment with the TVR extracts (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight for two weeks significantly (p < 0.05) protected against elevated serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol and decreased HDL-cholesterol in a dosedependent manner when compared with the atherogenic control. The extracts also reduced (p < 0.05) elevated thiobabutric reacting substance (TBARS) and reversed endothelial dysfunction parameters (fibrinogen and total NO levels) and tissue antioxidant enzyme activities to near normal. The protective ability of the extract was confirmed by the significant (p < 0.05) reduction in the activities of serum markers of liver (LDH, AST, ALT, ALP, bilirubin) and kidney damage (creatinine and bilirubin) in extract-treated groups compared with the atherogenic control group. Also, histopathology evaluations of aorta sections revealed that the extracts protected against the development of fatty streak plaques (aorta) and fatty changes in hepatocytes. The observed activities of the extracts compared favorably with standard drug atorvastatin. Our study thus showed that the methanolic extract of TVR could protect against the early onset of atherosclerosis. PMID:23202923

Olorunnisola, Olubukola S.; Bradley, Graeme; Afolayan, Anthony J.

2012-01-01

337

Expression profiles of two small heat shock proteins and antioxidant enzyme activity in Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed to cadmium at environmentally relevant concentrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small heat shock proteins encompass a widespread but diverse class of proteins, which play key roles in protecting organisms from various stressors. In the present study, the full-length cDNAs of two small heat shock proteins (MgsHSP22 and MgsHSP24.1) were cloned from Mytilus galloprovincialis, which encoded peptides of 181 and 247 amino acids, respectively. Both MgsHSP22 and MgsHSP24.1 were detected in all tissues examined by real-time PCR, with the highest expression being observed in muscle and gonad tissues. The real-time PCR results revealed that Cd significantly inhibited MgsHSP22 expression at 24 h and MgsHSP24.1 at 24 and 48 h under 5 ?g/L Cd 2+ exposure. MgsHSP24.1 expression was also significantly inhibited after 50 ?g/L Cd2+ exposure for 48 h. With regard to antioxidant enzymes, increased GPx and CAT activity were detected under Cd2+ stress (5 and 50 ?g/L), while no significant difference in SOD activity was observed throughout the experiment. Overall, both MgsHsps and antioxidant enzymes revealed their potential as Cd stress biomarkers in M. galloprovincialis.

You, Liping; Ning, Xuanxuan; Chen, Leilei; Zhang, Linbao; Zhao, Jianmin; Liu, Xiaoli; Wu, Huifeng

2014-03-01

338

Effects of heavy metals on the expression of a zinc-inducible metallothionein-III gene and antioxidant enzyme activities in Crassostrea gigas.  

PubMed

Sequestration by metallothioneins and antioxidant defense are two kinds of important defense mechanisms employed by mollusks to minimize adverse effects caused by heavy metal contaminants in marine environment. In the present study, a novel metallothionein gene, CgMT-III, was cloned from Crassostrea gigas, consisting of eighteen conserved cysteine residues and encoding a MT III-like protein with two tandem ? domains. The expression level of CgMT-III transcript induced by zinc was much higher than that induced by cadmium exposure. It suggested that CgMT-III was perhaps mainly involved in homeostatic control of zinc metabolism, which was distinct from previously identified MTs in C. gigas. Among the tested antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), SOD and GPx showed varying up-regulations in a tissue-specific manner, while CAT activities were inhibited in both gill and hepatopancreas from C. gigas exposed to heavy metals. It can be inferred that CgMT-III was mainly involved in zinc homeostasis, and CgMT-III gene together with CAT enzyme could be potential biomarkers to indicate heavy metal, especially zinc pollution in marine organisms. PMID:22614035

Cong, Ming; Wu, Huifeng; Liu, Xiaoli; Zhao, Jianmin; Wang, Xuan; Lv, Jiasen; Hou, Lin

2012-10-01

339

Age-related changes in renal expression of oxidant and antioxidant enzymes and oxidative stress markers in male SHR and WKY rats.  

PubMed

Oxidative stress has been hypothesized to play a role in aging and age-related disorders, such as hypertension. This study compared levels of oxidative stress and renal expression of oxidant and antioxidant enzymes in male normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) at different ages (3 and 12 months). In the renal cortex of 3-month old SHR increases in hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) were accompanied by augmented expression of NADPH oxidase subunit Nox4 and decreased expression of antioxidant enzymes SOD1 and SOD3. A further increase in renal H(2)O(2) production and urinary TBARS was observed in 12-month old WKY and SHR as compared with 3-month old rats. Similarly, expressions of NADPH oxidase subunit p22(phox), SOD2 and SOD3 were markedly elevated with age in both strains. When compared with age-matched WKY, catalase expression was increased in 3-month old SHR, but unchanged in 12-month old SHR. Body weight increased with aging in both rat strains, but this increase was more pronounced in WKY. In conclusion, renal oxidative stress in 12-month old SHR is an exaggeration of the process already observed in the 3-month old SHR, whereas the occurrence of obesity in 12-month old normotensive rats may partially be responsible for the age-related increase in oxidative stress. PMID:21316443

Simăo, Sónia; Gomes, Pedro; Pinto, Vanda; Silva, Elisabete; Amaral, Joăo S; Igreja, Bruno; Afonso, Joana; Serrăo, Maria Paula; Pinho, Maria Joăo; Soares-da-Silva, Patrício

2011-06-01

340

High-pressure improves enzymatic proteolysis and the release of peptides with angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant activities from lentil proteins.  

PubMed

Angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory and antioxidant peptides are receiving attention due to their beneficial effects in the prevention/treatment of hypertension. The objective was to explore the effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HP) on proteolysis by different proteases and the release of bioactive peptides from lentil proteins. Pressurisation (100-300 MPa) enhanced the hydrolytic efficiency of Protamex, Savinase and Corolase 7089 compared to Alcalase. Proteolysis at 300 MPa led to a complete degradation of lentil proteins and increased peptide (<3 kDa) concentration by all enzymes. Proteolysis at 300 MPa by Savinase gave rise to lentil hydrolysates (S300) with the highest ACE-inhibitory and antioxidant activities that were retained upon in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. The peptides responsible for the multifunctional properties of S300 hydrolysate were identified as different fragments from storage proteins and the allergen Len c 1. These results support the potential of HP as a technology for the cost-effective production of bioactive peptides from lentil proteins during enzymatic proteolysis. PMID:25308663

Garcia-Mora, P; Peńas, E; Frias, J; Gomez, R; Martinez-Villaluenga, C

2015-03-15

341

Effects of dietary ?-1,3/1,6-glucan on the antioxidant and digestive enzyme activities of Pacific red snapper (Lutjanus peru) after exposure to lipopolysaccharides.  

PubMed

The effect of ?-1,3/1,6-glucan, derived from yeast, on growth, antioxidant, and digestive enzyme performance of Pacific red snapper Lutjanus peru before and after exposure to lipopolysaccharides (LPS) was investigated. The ?-1,3/1,6-glucan was added to the basal diet at two concentrations (0.1 and 0.2 %). The treatment lasted 6 weeks, with sampling at regular intervals (0, 2, 4, and 6 weeks). At the end of this period, the remaining fish from either control or ?-glucan-fed fish were injected intraperitoneally with LPS (3 mg kg(-1)) or with sterile physiological saline solution (SS) and then sampled at 0, 24, and 72 h. The results showed a significant increase (P < 0.05) in growth performance after 6 weeks of feeding with ?-glucan. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in liver was significantly higher in diets containing 0.1 % ?-glucan in weeks 4 and 6, compared to the control group. ?-Glucan supplementation at 0.1 and 0.2 % significantly increased aminopeptidase, trypsin, and chymotrypsin activity. At 72 h after injection of LPS, we observed a significant increase in catalase activity in liver from fish fed diets supplemented with 0.1 and 0.2 % ?-glucan; SOD activity increased in fish fed with 0.1 % ?-glucan in relation to those injected with SS. Feed supplemented with ?-1,3/1,6-glucan increased growth, antioxidant activity, and digestive enzyme activity in Pacific red snapper. PMID:24276574

Guzmán-Villanueva, Laura T; Ascencio-Valle, Felipe; Macías-Rodríguez, María E; Tovar-Ramírez, Dariel

2014-06-01

342

Phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and in vitro inhibitory potential against key enzymes relevant for hyperglycemia and hypertension of commonly used medicinal plants, herbs and spices in Latin America.  

PubMed

Traditionally used medicinal plants, herbs and spices in Latin America were investigated to determine their phenolic profiles, antioxidant activity and in vitro inhibitory potential against key enzymes relevant for hyperglycemia and hypertension. High phenolic and antioxidant activity-containing medicinal plants and spices such as Chancapiedra (Phyllantus niruri L.), Zarzaparrilla (Smilax officinalis), Yerba Mate (Ilex paraguayensis St-Hil), and Huacatay (Tagetes minuta) had the highest anti-hyperglycemia relevant in vitro alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activities with no effect on alpha-amylase. Molle (Schinus molle), Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp), Caigua (Cyclanthera pedata) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) inhibited significantly the hypertension relevant angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE). All evaluated pepper (Capsicum) genus exhibited both anti-hyperglycemia and anti-hypertension potential. Major phenolic compounds in Matico (Piper angustifolium R.), Guascas (Galinsoga parviflora) and Huacatay were chlorogenic acid and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives. Therefore, specific medicinal plants, herbs and spices from Latin America have potential for hyperglycemia and hypertension prevention associated with Type 2 diabetes. PMID:20185303

Ranilla, Lena Galvez; Kwon, Young-In; Apostolidis, Emmanouil; Shetty, Kalidas

2010-06-01

343

Responses of antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation, and Na+/K+-ATPase in liver of the fish Goodea atripinnis exposed to Lake Yuriria water.  

PubMed

Lake Yuriria, located in the heavily populated and polluted Mexican Central Plateau, receives domestic sewage, industrial effluents, and municipal wastewaters that are still directly discharged without treatment into the tributaries and the lake. Pollutants in water and sediments include heavy metals, aromatic hydrocarbons, and organochlorine pesticides. Activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), as well as Na?/K?-adenosine triphosphatase (Na?/K?-ATPase) activity, and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were evaluated in the livers of the fish Goodea atripinnis after 96 h of exposure to water collected in March and June 2005 from three sites: Y (limnetic zone), L (Lerma tributary), and C (la Cinta tributary). Physical and chemical parameters of the lake water were also analyzed. Increases in CAT activity and LPO levels at all three sites were detected compared with control fish (P < 0.05), while GPx and SOD activities decreased significantly (P < 0.05). Na?/K?-ATPase activities were similar to the control in fish exposed to limnetic water from both March and June but were higher than control at the two tributary sites in March (P < 0.05); fish exposed to water from the Lerma tributary in June exhibited lower Na?/K?-ATPase than the control (P < 0.05). During March, CAT and Na?/K?-ATPase activities were increasing more than in June in Y and L, respectively, while in June, SOD and GPx were depleted more than March in L and Y and L, respectively. Despite the antioxidant defenses of the fish liver, exposure to all water samples from Lake Yuriria exerted alterations in hepatic LPO levels, antioxidant enzymes, and Na?/K?-ATPase activities that could substantially impair the mechanisms of fish defenses against oxidative stress. PMID:21140211

López-López, Eugenia; Sedeńo-Díaz, Jacinto Elías; Soto, Claudia; Favari, Liliana

2011-09-01

344

A novel dietary supplement containing multiple phytochemicals and vitamins elevates hepatorenal and cardiac antioxidant enzymes in the absence of significant serum chemistry and genomic changes  

PubMed Central

A novel dietary supplement composed of three well-known phytochemicals, namely, Salvia officinalis (sage) extract, Camellia sinensis (oolong tea) extract, and Paullinia cupana (guarana) extract, and two prominent vitamins (thiamine and niacin) was designed to provide nutritional support by enhancing metabolism and maintaining healthy weight and energy. The present study evaluated the safety of this dietary supplement (STG; S, sage; T, tea; G, guarana) and assessed changes in target organ antioxidant enzymes (liver, kidneys and heart), serum chemistry profiles and organ histopathology in Fisher 344 rats. Adult male and female Fisher 344 rats were fed control (no STG) or STG containing (1X and 7X, 1X = daily human dose) diets and sacrificed after 2 and 4 months. Serum chemistry analysis and histopathological examination of three vital target organs disclosed no adverse influence on protein, lipid and carbohydrate profiles, genomic integrity of the liver and/or the tissue architecture. However, analysis of the most important antioxidant components in the liver, kidney and heart homogenates revealed a dramatic increase in total glutathione concentrations, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase enzyme activities. Concomitantly, oxidative stress levels (malondialdehyde accumulation) in these three organs were less than control. Organ specific serum markers (ALT/AST for the liver; CPK/AST/LDH for the heart; BUN/creatinine for kidneys) and the genomic integrity disclosed no STG-induced alteration. Some of the serum components (lipid and protein) showed insignificant changes. Overall, STG-exposed rats were more active, and the results suggest that STG exposure produces normal serum chemistry coupled with elevated antioxidant capacity in rats fed up to seven times the normal human dose and does not adversely influence any of the vital target organs. Additionally, this study reiterates the potential benefits of exposure to a pharmacologically relevant combination of phytochemicals compared to a single phytochemical entity. PMID:20716937

Bulku, Elida; Zinkovsky, Daniel; Patel, Payal; Javia, Vishal; Lahoti, Tejas; Khodos, Inna; Stohs, Sidney J

2010-01-01

345

Effect of dietary supplementation of vitamin C on growth, reactive oxygen species, and antioxidant enzyme activity of Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) juveniles exposed to nitrite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different amounts of vitamin C were added to diets fed to juveniles (2.5 ± 0.15 g) of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonic u s (Selenka) in an attempt to reduce the stress response of specimens exposed to nitrite stress. A commercial feed was used as the control diet and three experimental diets were made by supplementing 1 000, 1 500, or 2 000 mg vitamin C/kg diet to control diet separately in a 45-day experiment. Sea cucumbers were exposed to three different levels (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mg/L) of nitrite stress for 4, 8, and 12 h at four time intervals (0, 15, 30, and 45 d). Growth of the animals was recorded during the experiment. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) (i.e. hydroxyl free radical (-OH), malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC)) and antioxidant enzyme activities (i.e., superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT)) were measured. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to analyze the effect of multiple factors on ROS indices and enzyme activities. Weight gain (WG) and special growth rate (SGR) of vitamin C supplementation groups were significantly higher than those of control group ( P < 0.05). The levels of -OH and MDA increased under exposure time extending and nitrite concentration increasing, whereas T-AOC level decreased. SOD and CAT activities increased at 4 h and 8 h and decreased at 12 h. During the days in which the animal consumed experimental diets, the levels of -OH and MDA decreased and that of T-AOC increased. This result suggests that diets containing vitamin C could reduce the nitrite stress response in the animals and increase their antioxidant capacity. The multifactor regression equation of growth performance, ROS indices, and duration of feeding results suggest that vitamin C supplementation of 1 400-2 000 mg/kg diet for 29-35 days could reduce effectively the effects of nitrite exposure.

Luo, Zuoyong; Wang, Baojie; Liu, Mei; Jiang, Keyong; Liu, Mingxing; Wang, Lei

2014-07-01

346

ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTICANCER PROPERTIES OF BERRY FRUITS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Berry fruits are considered excellent functional foods because they contain high levels of natural antioxidants. Antioxidants can act as free radical scavengers, peroxide decomposers, singlet and triplet oxygen quenchers, enzyme inhibitors, and synergists. Therefore, antioxidants can delay or prev...

347

Synthesis and in vitro antioxidant functions of protein hydrolysate from backbones of Rastrelliger kanagurta by proteolytic enzymes  

PubMed Central

Every year, a huge quantity of fishery wastes and by-products are generated by fish processing industries. These wastes are either underutilized to produce low market value products or dumped leading to environmental issues. Complete utilization of fishery wastes for recovering value added products would be beneficial to the society and individual. The fish protein hydrolysates and derived peptides of fishery resources are widely used as nutritional supplements, functional ingredients, and flavor enhancers in food, beverage and pharmaceutical industries. Antioxidants from fishery resources have attracted the attention of researchers as they are cheaper in cost, easy to derive, and do not have side effects. Thus the present investigation was designed to produce protein hydrolysate by pepsin and papain digestion from the backbones of Rastrelliger kanagurta (Indian mackerel) and evaluate its antioxidant properties through various in vitro assays. The results reveal that both hydrolysates are potent antioxidants, capable of scavenging 46% and 36% of DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl) and 58.5% and 37.54% of superoxide radicals respectively. The hydrolysates exhibit significant (p < 0.05) reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibition. Among the two hydrolysates produced, pepsin derived fraction is superior than papain derived fraction in terms of yield, DH (Degree of hydrolysis), and antioxidant activity. PMID:24596496

Sheriff, Sheik Abdulazeez; Sundaram, Balasubramanian; Ramamoorthy, Baranitharan; Ponnusamy, Ponmurugan

2013-01-01

348

Transcript levels of antioxidative genes and oxygen radical scavenging enzyme activities in chilled zucchini squash in response to superatmospheric oxygen  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The transcript levels of antioxidative genes including Mn-superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), Cu/Zn SOD, ascorbate peroxidise (APX), and catalase (CAT) do not vary significantly during storage at 5 °C with high oxygen treatment in freshly harvested zucchini squash (Cucurbita pepo L. cv. Elite). However, ...

349

Strawberry Polyphenols Attenuate Ethanol-Induced Gastric Lesions in Rats by Activation of Antioxidant Enzymes and Attenuation of MDA Increase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and AimFree radicals are implicated in the aetiology of gastrointestinal disorders such as gastric ulcer, colorectal cancer and inflammatory bowel disease. Strawberries are common and important fruit due to their high content of essential nutrient and beneficial phytochemicals which seem to have relevant biological activity on human health. In the present study we investigated the antioxidant and protective effects

José M. Alvarez-Suarez; Dragana Dekanski; Slavica Ristic; Nevena V. Radonjic; Natasa D. Petronijevic; Francesca Giampieri; Paola Astolfi; Ana M. González-Paramás; Celestino Santos-Buelga; Sara Tulipani; José L. Quiles; Bruno Mezzetti; Maurizio Battino; Irina V. Lebedeva

2011-01-01

350

First report on isolation of methyl gallate with antioxidant, anti-HIV-1 and HIV-1 enzyme inhibitory activities from a mushroom (Pholiota adiposa).  

PubMed

In this study, a compound with antioxidant and anti-HIV activities designated as HEB was first isolated from the edible mushroom Pholiota adiposa by extraction with ethanol and ethyl acetate. HEB was then purified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and identified to be methyl gallate (C8H8O5, 184.1 Da) based on data from its mass spectrum (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrum. HEB displayed strong antioxidant potency in inhibiting, at 1.36 mM concentration, erythrocyte hemolysis and scavenging DPPH radicals and superoxide anion (O2(-)) by 82.4%, 85.6% and 71.4%, respectively. Besides exhibiting a low cytotoxicity, compound HEB demonstrated significant anti-HIV activity in that it inhibited HIV-1 replication in TZM-BL cells infected by pseudovirus with an IC50 value of 11.9 ?M. Further study disclosed that HEB inhibited the viral entry process and activities of key enzymes essential for the HIV-1 life cycle. HEB inhibited HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and integrase activities with an IC50 value of 80.1 ?M and 228.5 ?M, respectively, and at 10 mM concentration inhibited HIV-1 protease activity by 17.1% which was higher than that achieved by the positive control pepstatin A. Interestingly, this study first revealed that H2O2 stimulation not only activated cell oxidative stress responses, but also accelerated HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) promotion in TZM-BL cells, which was significantly reduced by HEB from 18.2% to about 2%. It implied a direct relationship between the antioxidant and anti-HIV activities of the natural active constituent HEB. Nuclear transcription factor kappa B (NF-?B) signal pathways plays an important role in oxidative stress responses. Meanwhile, there is ?B target sequence in HIV promoter LTR which is significant for virus replication and gene expression. In this study, Western Blot assay showed that HEB could inhibit the activation of NF-?B signal pathway stimulated by H2O2 in mouse spleen cells through suppressing NF-?B (p65) translocation into nucleus and NF-kappa-B inhibitor (I?B) degradation in cytoplasm. In summary, the antioxidant HEB from P. adiposa could inhibit HIV-1 replication through multiple target sites. The data suggest that natural antioxidant compounds might have a potential for treatment of AIDS. PMID:24572641

Wang, Chang Rong; Zhou, Rong; Ng, Tzi Bun; Wong, Jack Ho; Qiao, Wen Tao; Liu, Fang

2014-03-01

351

Immunoregulatory and anti-HIV-1 enzyme activities of antioxidant components from lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) rhizome.  

PubMed

In the present study, two antioxidant micromolecular components (L2f-2 and L2f-3) and an antioxidant macromolecular component LB2 were extracted from lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) rhizomes. MS, FTIR (Fourier-transform IR) spectroscopy and NMR were used to identify these compounds. L2f-2 was (+/-)-gallocatechin, L2f-3 was (-)-catechin and LB2 was a polysaccharide-protein complex with a molecular mass of 18.8 kDa. LB2 was identified as a polysaccharide sulfate containing ?/?-pyranose and ?-furanose according to its FTIR spectrogram. It was composed of mannose, rhamnose, glucose, galactose and xylose with a molar ratio 2:8:7:8:1. The antioxidant components L2f-2, L2f-3 and LB2 strongly inhibited HIV-1 RT (reverse transcriptase) and IN (integrase). LB2 inhibited RT with an IC50 value of 33.7 ?M. It also exhibited the highest HIV-1 3'-processing inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 5.28 ?M. Both L2f-2 and L2f-3 up-regulated the expression of IL-2 (interleukin-2) and down-regulated IL-10, while LB2 exhibited positive regulation on IL-2, IL-4 and IL-10. Moreover, L2f-3 and LB2 might inhibit HIV-1 directly by down-regulating TNF? (tumour necrosis factor ?). These natural antioxidant components with antiviral and immunoregulatory activities could be potentially important for anti HIV-1 drug development and application to HIV-1 therapy. PMID:21114474

Jiang, Yun; Ng, Tzi Bun; Liu, Zhaokun; Wang, Changrong; Li, Ning; Qiao, Wentao; Liua, Fang

2011-10-01

352

Growth-dependent release of carbohydrate metabolism-related and antioxidant enzymes from Staphylococcus aureus strain 6 as determined by proteomic analysis  

PubMed Central

Proteins released into the culture medium by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) strain 6 were determined at the end of the exponential growth phase (4.5 h). Eleven proteins were identified by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Three proteins were predicted to have signal peptides indicating their extracellular localization. The other proteins were presumably located in the cytoplasm of the bacteria. Five out of the 11 proteins were involved in carbohydrate metabolism. Other intracellular proteins of S. aureus were not detected in the culture medium. This indicates that the release of these 11 proteins was specific and that unspecific protein release due to damaged or dying bacteria did not play a role. It is suggested that enzymes associated with carbohydrate metabolism may provide the energy necessary for the transition of bacteria from a resting to a proliferative state. Another enzyme released by S. aureus, superoxide dismutase, may catalyze redox reactions in this context. The production of other proteolytic enzymes and toxins may take place at later stages of bacterial growth. A cocktail of these 11 proteins was used for the immunization of mice. Indeed, vaccination with these proteins prolonged the survival times of mice upon infection with S. aureus strain 6. Therefore, these proteins may have implications for the development of novel strategies for the prevention and therapy of S. aureus infections. PMID:22977644

DONENKO, F.V.; GRUBER, I.M.; SEMENOVA, I.B.; PRIYATKIN, R.G.; ZIGANSHIN, R.H.; ZARYADYEVA, E.A.; IGNATOVA, O.M.; KURBATOVA, E.A.; KISELEVSKY, M.V.; EFFERTH, T.

2011-01-01

353

The Effects of N-acetyl-L-cysteine and Epigallocatechin-3-gallate on Liver Tissue Protein Oxidation and Antioxidant Enzyme Levels After the Exposure to Radio Frequency Radiation.  

PubMed

Abstract PURPOSE: The widespread and sustained use of mobile and cordless phones causes unprecedented increase of radiofrequency radiation (RFR). The aim of this experimental study was to investigate the effect of 900 MHz Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) modulated RFR (average whole body Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) of 0,4 W/kg, 10 or 20 min daily for consecutive 7 days) to the liver tissue of guinea pigs and the protective effects of antioxidant treatments. MATERIALS and METHODS: Adult male guinea pigs were randomly divided into nine groups as; Group I (Sham/saline), Group II (Sham/EGCG), Group III (Sham/NAC), Group IV (10-min RF-exposure/saline), Group V (20-min RF-exposure/saline), Group VI (10-min RF-exposure/EGCG), Group VII (20-min RF-exposure/EGCG), Group VIII (10-min RF-exposure/NAC), Group IX (20-min RF-exposure/NAC). Protein oxidation (PCO), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) and antioxidant enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) were evaluated after the exposure and the treatments with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). RESULTS and CONCLUSIONS: Significant decreases in the activities of SOD were observed in the liver of guinea pigs after RFR exposure. Protein damage did not change due to RFR exposure. On the other hand, only NAC treatment induces increase PCO levels, whereas EGCG treatment alone elevated the level of AOPP. Due to antioxidants have pro-oxidant behavior, the well decided doses and treatment time tables of NAC and ECGC is needed. PMID:25249432

Ozgur, Elcin; Sahin, Duygu; Tomruk, Arin; Guler, Goknur; Sepici-Dinçel, Aylin; Altan, Nilgun; Seyhan, Nesrin

2014-09-24

354

Effects of Three Medicinal Plants Extracts in Experimental Diabetes: Antioxidant Enzymes Activities and Plasma Lipids Profiles inComparison with Metformin.  

PubMed

In the present study we aimed to evaluate the effects of methanolic extracts of the bulbs of Garlic (Allium sativum L., Alliaceae) and Persian shallot (Allium ascalonicum L., Alliaceae ) and leaves of Sage (Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae ), ASE, AAE and SOE respectively, on the antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and catalase (CAT) activities and on the levels of plasma lipids profiles such as triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoproteins (HDL), low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) in Alloxan diabetic Wistar rats. In comparison with diabetic control rats in diabetic treated rats, AAE increases the activities of SOD (65%), GPX (43%) and CAT (55%). ASE and SOE increase SOD activity by 60% and 33% respectively. ASE reduces TC (34%), SOE decreases TG (40%) and LDL (30%) and AAE reduces VLDL (24%). Metformin exhibits mild antioxidant and hypolipidemic properties. Results of quantitative phytochemical analysis show that the methanolic garlic and Persian shallot bulbs extracts contain secondary metabolites including alkaloids (3.490% and 3.430%), glycosides (18.023% and 13.301%) and saponins (0.812% and 0.752%). Methanolic sage leaves extract contains flavonoids (1.014%), glycosides (23.142%) and saponins (2.096%). The total phenolic contents of ASE, AAE and SOE were in order 4.273, 3.621 and 6.548 mg GAE/g dry weight (DW). These results suggest that Allium sativum, Allium ascalonicum and Salvia officinalis are beneficial in the control of diabetes by noticeable antioxidant and hypolipidemic properties. PMID:24250517

Fehresti Sani, Mohammad; Montasser Kouhsari, Shideh; Moradabadi, Leila

2012-01-01

355

Vitamin E and C supplementation reduces oxidative stress, improves antioxidant enzymes and positive muscle work in chronically loaded muscles of aged rats.  

PubMed

Aging is associated with increased oxidative stress. Muscle levels of oxidative stress are further elevated with exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine if dietary antioxidant supplementation would improve muscle function and cellular markers of oxidative stress in response to chronic repetitive loading in aging. The dorsiflexors of the left limb of aged and young adult Fischer 344 Brown×Norway rats were loaded 3 times weekly for 4.5 weeks using 80 maximal stretch-shortening contractions per session. The contra-lateral limb served as the intra-animal control. The rats were randomly assigned to a diet supplemented with Vitamin E and Vitamin C or normal non-supplemented rat chow. Biomarkers of oxidative stress were measured in the tibialis anterior muscle. Repetitive loading exercise increased maximal isometric force, negative work and positive work in the dorsiflexors of young adult rats. Only positive work increased in the aged animals that were supplemented with Vitamin E and C. Markers of oxidative stress (H(2)O(2), total GSH, GSH/GSSG ratio, malondialdehyde and 8-OHdG) increased in the tibialis anterior muscles from aged and young adult animals with repetitive loading, but Vitamin E and C supplements attenuated this increase. MnSOD activity increased with supplementation in the young adult animals. CuZnSOD and catalase activity increased with supplementation in young adult and aged animals and GPx activity increased with exercise in the non-supplemented young adult and aged animals. The increased levels of endogenous antioxidant enzymes after Vitamin E and C supplementation appear to be regulated by post-transcriptional modifications that are affected differently by age, exercise, and supplementation. These data suggest that antioxidant supplementation improves indices of oxidative stress associated with repetitive loading exercise and aging and improves the positive work output of muscles in aged rodents. PMID:20705127

Ryan, Michael J; Dudash, Holly J; Docherty, Megan; Geronilla, Kenneth B; Baker, Brent A; Haff, G Gregory; Cutlip, Robert G; Alway, Stephen E

2010-11-01

356

Iron limitation effects a massive shift in iron and flavin based antioxidant enzyme systems and their substrates in the Chlorophyte alga Dunaliella tertiolecta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ubiquitous in the neritic ocean, it is now believed that iron-limitation is the most important factor controlling primary production in oceanic phytoplankton. To investigate the effects of iron deficiency, Dunaliella tertiolecta was cultured under limiting (100 nM Fe) and replete (1?M Fe) iron concentrations. The physiological status and the Water-Water antioxidant defense system were evaluated. Iron limitation effected a 21% drop in PSII efficiency (replete= 0.634± 0.012; limiting= 0.507± 0.012) concurrent with a 17.5% reduction in photosynthetic rates (replete= 265.8 umol 02/mg chl/hr ± 5.7; limiting= 219.3 umol 02/mg chl/hr ± 5.7). Both heme and non-heme based antioxidant enzyme activities were assessed. Heme-based Ascorbate peroxidase (APX), exhibits an 84% iron limited rate reduction (replete and limited = 36.23 and 5.72 umol ascorbate mg prot-1 hr-1 ±2.96, respectively). Conversely, the flavin-based Monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), exhibits a significant rate increase, 2.16±0.19 (replete) to 3.86±0.19 umol NADH mg prot-1 hr-1 under iron-limitation. Iron deficient cultures exhibit a 34% increase in total available ascorbate. These investigations suggest that D. tertiolecta is able to maintain a stable growth rate under iron limitation by re-allocating its subcellular usage of available iron and increasing the availability of total ascorbate. Further investigations will determine the presence of additional iron/flavin based molecules involved in the photosynthetic apparatus and anti-oxidant scavenging mechanisms.

Traggis, H. M.

2012-12-01

357

The use of antioxidative stress enzymes, lipid peroxidation, and red blood cell abnormalities as biomarkers of stress in Periphthalmus papilio of the polluted coastal Lagos lagoon.  

PubMed

We assessed the mudskipper, Periphthalmus papilio inhabiting the coast line of the Lagos lagoon, Gulf of Guinea, to determine suitable biomarkers of stress due to its current status as a polluted water body. The gill and liver samples showed evidence of some activities of antioxidative stress enzymes including catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione-s-transferase, reduced glutahthione, as well as some detectable levels of lipid peroxidation product. The stress status of the fishes was also elucidated by nuclear abnormalities especially micronucleus formation and the presence of numerous vacuolated red blood cells. Given the current need for more sensitive bioindicators in monitoring pollution in this lagoon, we hereby present these inherent responses in P. papilio as a suitable candidate for incorporation into the current repertoire for ecotoxicological investigations in polluted water bodies of the Gulf of Guinea coastline. PMID:25666650

Nnamdi, Amaeze H; Olumide, Adebesin A; Adeladun, Adepegba E; Oyenike, Kolapo; Rosemary, Egonmwan I

2015-03-01

358

Antioxidant Defense Enzyme Genes and Asthma Susceptibility: Gender-Specific Effects and Heterogeneity in Gene-Gene Interactions between Pathogenetic Variants of the Disease  

PubMed Central

Oxidative stress resulting from an increased amount of reactive oxygen species and an imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants plays an important role in the pathogenesis of asthma. The present study tested the hypothesis that genetic susceptibility to allergic and nonallergic variants of asthma is determined by complex interactions between genes encoding antioxidant defense enzymes (ADE). We carried out a comprehensive analysis of the associations between adult asthma and 46 single nucleotide polymorphisms of 34 ADE genes and 12 other candidate genes of asthma in Russian population using set association analysis and multifactor dimensionality reduction approaches. We found for the first time epistatic interactions between ADE genes underlying asthma susceptibility and the genetic heterogeneity between allergic and nonallergic variants of the disease. We identified GSR (glutathione reductase) and PON2 (paraoxonase 2) as novel candidate genes for asthma susceptibility. We observed gender-specific effects of ADE genes on the risk of asthma. The results of the study demonstrate complexity and diversity of interactions between genes involved in oxidative stress underlying susceptibility to allergic and nonallergic asthma. PMID:24895604

Polonikov, Alexey V.; Ivanov, Vladimir P.; Bogomazov, Alexey D.; Freidin, Maxim B.; Illig, Thomas; Solodilova, Maria A.

2014-01-01

359

Antioxidant defense enzyme genes and asthma susceptibility: gender-specific effects and heterogeneity in gene-gene interactions between pathogenetic variants of the disease.  

PubMed

Oxidative stress resulting from an increased amount of reactive oxygen species and an imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants plays an important role in the pathogenesis of asthma. The present study tested the hypothesis that genetic susceptibility to allergic and nonallergic variants of asthma is determined by complex interactions between genes encoding antioxidant defense enzymes (ADE). We carried out a comprehensive analysis of the associations between adult asthma and 46 single nucleotide polymorphisms of 34 ADE genes and 12 other candidate genes of asthma in Russian population using set association analysis and multifactor dimensionality reduction approaches. We found for the first time epistatic interactions between ADE genes underlying asthma susceptibility and the genetic heterogeneity between allergic and nonallergic variants of the disease. We identified GSR (glutathione reductase) and PON2 (paraoxonase 2) as novel candidate genes for asthma susceptibility. We observed gender-specific effects of ADE genes on the risk of asthma. The results of the study demonstrate complexity and diversity of interactions between genes involved in oxidative stress underlying susceptibility to allergic and nonallergic asthma. PMID:24895604

Polonikov, Alexey V; Ivanov, Vladimir P; Bogomazov, Alexey D; Freidin, Maxim B; Illig, Thomas; Solodilova, Maria A

2014-01-01

360

Evaluation of Various Packaging Systems on the Activity of Antioxidant Enzyme, and Oxidation and Color Stabilities in Sliced Hanwoo (Korean Cattle) Beef Loin during Chill Storage  

PubMed Central

The effects of various packaging systems, vacuum packaging (VACP), medium oxygen-modified atmosphere packaging (50% O2/20% CO2/30% N2, MOMAP), MOMAP combined with vacuum skin packaging (VSP-MOMAP), high oxygen-MAP (80% O2/20% CO2/0% N2, HOMAP), and HOMAP combined with VSP (VSP-HOMAP), on the activity of antioxidant enzyme, and oxidation and color stabilities in sliced Hanwoo (Korean cattle) beef loin were investigated at 4°C for 14 d. Higher (p<0.05) superoxide dismutase activity and total reducing ability were maintained in VSP-MOMAP beef than in HOMAP beef. Lipid oxidation (2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS) was significantly (p<0.05) retarded in MOMAP, VSP-MOMAP, and VSP-HOMAP beef compared with HOMAP beef. Production of nonheme iron content was lower (p<0.05) in VSP-MOMAP beef than in HOMAP beef. Red color (a*) was kept higher (p<0.05) in VSP-MOMAP beef compared with MOMAP, HOMAP, and VSP-HOMAP beef. However, VACP beef was found to have the most positive effects on the antioxidant activity, oxidation and red color stabilities among the various packaged beef. These findings suggested that VSP-MOMAP was second to VACP in improving oxidation and color stabilities in sliced beef loin during chill storage. PMID:25178378

Kang, Sun Moon; Kang, Geunho; Seong, Pil-Nam; Park, Beomyoung; Cho, Soohyun

2014-01-01

361

The combined effects of UV-B radiation and herbicides on photosynthesis, antioxidant enzymes and DNA damage in two bloom-forming cyanobacteria.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated the combined effects of UV-B irradiation and herbicides (glyphosate, GPS; 2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid, MCPA-Na; 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea, DCMU) and the antioxidant (ascorbic acid, ASC) on photosynthesis, antioxidant enzymes and DNA damage in two bloom-forming cyanobacteria, Anabaena sp. and Microcystis viridis. UV-B irradiance increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, which decreased chlorophyll a fluorescence yield, pigment content and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and increased malondialdehyde (MDA) content and caused serious DNA damage. The degree of these damages was aggravated by the addition of DCMU, GPS and MCPA, and was partially mitigated by the addition of ASC. During the recovery process, the degree and mechanism in restoring DNA damage and photosynthesis inhibition were different by the removal of UV-B and herbicides (DCMU, GPS and MCPA) in both cyanobacteria. These results suggest that the combination of UV-B and exogenous herbicides have detrimental effects on cyanobacterial metabolism through either a ROS-mediated process or by affecting the electron transport chain, and may cause the shifts in the phytoplankton community. PMID:22464588

Chen, Lanzhou; Xie, Mu; Bi, Yonghong; Wang, Gaohong; Deng, Songqiang; Liu, Yongding

2012-06-01

362

Growth performance and antioxidant enzyme activities in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) juveniles fed diets supplemented with sage, mint and thyme oils.  

PubMed

This study evaluated effects of dietary supplementation of sage (Salvia officinalis), mint (Mentha spicata) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) oils on growth performance, lipid peroxidation level (melondialdehyde, MDA) and liver antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, G6PD; glutathione reductase, GR; glutathione-S-transferase, GST and glutathione peroxidase, GPx) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) juveniles. For this purpose, triplicate groups of rainbow trout were fed daily ad libitum with diets containing sage, mint and thyme oils at 500, 1,000 and 1,500 mg kg(-1) for 60 days. While weight gain percentage of fish fed the diets containing sage and thyme oils was significantly higher than the control group, that of fish fed mint oil was the lowest. Similarly, specific growth rate was found to be the highest in all groups of the sage and thyme oil feeding and the lowest in the mint groups. Moreover, feed conversion ratio was significantly higher in the mint oil administered groups. Survival rate was also significantly reduced in the fish fed the diet containing mint oil. It was observed that SOD, G6PD and GPx activities were significantly increased in liver tissues of all the treated fish groups compared to that of control diet-fed group. However, CAT, GST and GR activities were significantly decreased in experimental diet-fed fish groups at the end of the experiment. On the other hand, a significant reduction was found in MDA levels in the fish fed the diets with sage and thyme oils compared to control and mint diets on the 30th and 60th days of experiment. Overall, dietary inclusion of sage and thyme oils is effective in enhancing rainbow trout growth, reduction in MDA and least changing antioxidant enzyme activities at a low level of 500 mg kg(-1) diet, and they can be used as important feed supplements for rainbow trout production. PMID:25431274

Sönmez, Adem Yavuz; Bilen, Soner; Alak, Gonca; Hisar, Olcay; Yan?k, Talat; Biswas, Gouranga

2015-02-01

363

In Vitro Studies on the Antioxidant Property and Inhibition of ?-Amylase, ?-Glucosidase, and Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme by Polyphenol-Rich Extracts from Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) Bean  

PubMed Central

Background. This study sought to investigate the antidiabetic and antihypertensive mechanisms of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) bean through inhibition of ?-amylase, ?-glucosidase, angiotensin-1 converting enzyme, and oxidative stress. Methodology. The total phenol and flavonoid contents of the water extractable phytochemicals from the powdered cocoa bean were determined and the effects of the extract on ?-amylase, ?-glucosidase, and angiotensin-1 converting enzyme activities were investigated in vitro. Furthermore, the radicals [1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2..-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), hydroxyl (OH), and nitric oxide (NO)] scavenging ability and ferric reducing antioxidant property of the extract were assessed. Results. The results revealed that the extract inhibited ?-amylase (1.81 ± 0.22?mg/mL), ?-glucosidase (1.84 ± 0.17?mg/mL), and angiotensin-1 converting enzyme (0.674 ± 0.06?mg/mL [lungs], 1.006 ± 0.08?mg/mL [heart]) activities in a dose-dependent manner and also showed dose-dependent radicals [DPPH (16.94 ± 1.34?mg/mL), NO (6.98 ± 0.886?mg/mL), OH (3.72 ± 0.26?mg/mL), and ABTS (15.7 ± 1.06?mmol/TEAC·g] scavenging ability. Conclusion. The inhibition of ?-amylase, ?-glucosidase, and angiotensin-1 converting enzyme activities by the cocoa bean extract could be part of the possible mechanism by which the extract could manage and/or prevent type-2 diabetes and hypertension. PMID:25295218

Ademosun, Ayokunle O.; Ademiluyi, Adedayo O.; Omojokun, Olasunkanmi S.; Nwanna, Esther E.; Longe, Kuburat O.

2014-01-01

364

In Vitro Studies on the Antioxidant Property and Inhibition of ?-Amylase, ?-Glucosidase, and Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme by Polyphenol-Rich Extracts from Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) Bean.  

PubMed

Background. This study sought to investigate the antidiabetic and antihypertensive mechanisms of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) bean through inhibition of ?-amylase, ?-glucosidase, angiotensin-1 converting enzyme, and oxidative stress. Methodology. The total phenol and flavonoid contents of the water extractable phytochemicals from the powdered cocoa bean were determined and the effects of the extract on ?-amylase, ?-glucosidase, and angiotensin-1 converting enzyme activities were investigated in vitro. Furthermore, the radicals [1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2..-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), hydroxyl (OH), and nitric oxide (NO)] scavenging ability and ferric reducing antioxidant property of the extract were assessed. Results. The results revealed that the extract inhibited ?-amylase (1.81 ± 0.22?mg/mL), ?-glucosidase (1.84 ± 0.17?mg/mL), and angiotensin-1 converting enzyme (0.674 ± 0.06?mg/mL [lungs], 1.006 ± 0.08?mg/mL [heart]) activities in a dose-dependent manner and also showed dose-dependent radicals [DPPH (16.94 ± 1.34?mg/mL), NO (6.98 ± 0.886?mg/mL), OH (3.72 ± 0.26?mg/mL), and ABTS (15.7 ± 1.06?mmol/TEAC·g] scavenging ability. Conclusion. The inhibition of ?-amylase, ?-glucosidase, and angiotensin-1 converting enzyme activities by the cocoa bean extract could be part of the possible mechanism by which the extract could manage and/or prevent type-2 diabetes and hypertension. PMID:25295218

Oboh, Ganiyu; Ademosun, Ayokunle O; Ademiluyi, Adedayo O; Omojokun, Olasunkanmi S; Nwanna, Esther E; Longe, Kuburat O

2014-01-01

365

Antioxidant enzymes and the mechanism of the bystander effect induced by ultraviolet C irradiation of A375 human melanoma cells.  

PubMed

Irradiated cells generate dynamic responses in non-irradiated cells; this signaling phenomenon is known as the bystander effect (BE). Factors secreted by the irradiated cells communicate some of these signals. Conditioned medium from UVC-irradiated A375 human melanoma cells was used to study the BE. Exposure of cells to conditioned medium induce cell-cycle arrest at the G2/M transition. Although conditioned medium treatment, by itself, did not alter cell viability, treated cells were more resistant to the lethal action of UVC or H2O2. This protective effect of conditioned medium was lost within 8h. Apoptotic or autophagic cell death was not involved in this resistance. Exposure to conditioned medium did not influence the rate of DNA repair, as measured by NAD(+) depletion. The activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase were elevated in cells exposed to conditioned medium, but returned to normal levels by 8h post-treatment. These results indicate a close correlation between BE-stimulated antioxidant activity and cellular sensitivity. Cell-cycle arrest and stimulation of antioxidant activity may account for the resistance to killing that was observed in bystander cells exposed to UVC or H2O2 treatment and are consistent with the role of the BE as a natural defense function triggered by UVC irradiation. PMID:23845763

Ghosh, Rita; Guha, Dipanjan; Bhowmik, Sudipta; Karmakar, Sayantani

2013-09-18

366

Influence of dietary zinc on semen traits and seminal plasma antioxidant enzymes and trace minerals of beetal bucks.  

PubMed

Zinc (Zn) is a potent antioxidant and plays a key role in scavenging free radicals. We hypothesized that supplementation of Zn would reduce the oxidative damage, which is linked with poor sperm quality. Sixteen bucks of similar average age (2 years) and body weight (41 kg) were randomly divided into four groups viz., 1, 2, 3 and 4 supplemented with zinc sulphate into the diet at the rate of 0, 50, 100 and 200 mg/buck/day, respectively, for 3 months. At the end of the experiment, semen samples were collected and assessed. Seminal plasma was separated to find the concentration of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and trace minerals (Zn, Cu, Mn and Fe). The results revealed that semen volume (1.85 ± 0.01 ml) and sperm motility (88.23 ± 5.77%) increased significantly (p < 0.05) in supplemented groups compared with the control specifically in group 3. SOD (10.66 ± 0.23 inhibition rate %) and GPx (23.55 ± 0.49 mU/ml) increased significantly (p < 0.05) in group 3 with no effect on AST and ALT. Among seminal plasma trace elements, no significant change (p > 0.05) was observed. From the present results, we concluded that zinc sulphate at the rate of 100 mg/buck/day improved semen traits and seminal plasma antioxidant capacity in Beetal bucks. PMID:25263460

Rahman, H U; Qureshi, M S; Khan, R U

2014-12-01

367

Novel concepts of broccoli sulforaphanes and disease: induction of phase II antioxidant and detoxification enzymes by enhanced-glucoraphanin broccoli.  

PubMed

Consumption of broccoli has long been considered to play a role in a healthy diet. Broccoli accumulates significant amounts of the phytonutrient glucoraphanin (4-methylsulfinylbutyl glucosinolate), which is metabolized in vivo to the biologically active sulforaphane. The preponderance of evidence available from in vitro, animal, and human studies supports the association of sulforaphane with phase II enzyme induction. This has provided impetus for developing varieties of broccoli, both sprouts and whole heads, that are rich in glucoraphanin. The cancer-preventive properties of cruciferous vegetables, especially broccoli, have been studied for decades. However, evidence of broccoli directly affecting cancer incidence or progression is ambiguous, in part because of the presence of substantial polymorphisms in enzymes that metabolize sulforaphane. Since broccoli sulforaphane is one of the most potent inducers of phase II enzymes, exploration into broccoli's impact on other areas of human health, such as cardiovascular health and upper airway immunity, has been suggested. This review provides an update on evidence supporting phase II enzyme induction by sulforaphanes, with implications for breeding broccoli varieties with enhanced amounts of glucoraphanin. Early-stage human studies of consumption of broccoli with enhanced glucoraphanin are also discussed. PMID:23110644

James, Don; Devaraj, Sridevi; Bellur, Prasad; Lakkanna, Shantala; Vicini, John; Boddupalli, Sekhar

2012-11-01

368

Antitumor effects of a natural anthracycline analog (Aloin) involve altered activity of antioxidant enzymes in HeLaS3 cells.  

PubMed

The antiproliferative and cytotoxic potential of the natural anthracycline aloin from Aloe vera was tested on human uterine carcinoma HeLaS3 cells. Aloin showed a pronounced antiproliferative effect at physiological concentration (IC50 = 97 microM), caused cell cycle arrest in the S phase and markedly increased HeLaS3 cell apoptosis (to 24%). In the concentration range of 20-100 microM, its action was accompanied by remarkable changes in the activity of almost all antioxidant enzymes: MnSOD activity was increased many fold, while CuZnSOD and iNOS activities were inhibited. Moreover, inhibition of CuZnSOD was shown to occur by direct aloin interaction with the enzyme. As catalase activity was not changed, it is suggested that such conditions were responsible for antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects owing to accumulation of H2O2. Aloin alone was a more potent proapoptotic agent than a 2 Gy fractional dose of ionizing radiation or a combination of the two. Compared to other currently used therapeutics, aloin, due to its less undesirable side effects and antimetastatic potential, may prove to be the agent of choice on which clinical protocols for the treatment of human cervical carcinoma should rely in future. PMID:17726368

Ni?iforovi?, Ana; Adzi?, Miroslav; Spasi?, Snezana D; Radojci?, Marija B

2007-08-01

369

Diminution of Hepatic Response to 7, 12-dimethylbenz(?)anthracene by Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Acacia catechu Willd. through Modulation of Xenobiotic and Anti-Oxidative Enzymes in Rats  

PubMed Central

Background Liver is the primary metabolizing site of body and is prone to damage by exogenous as well as endogenous intoxicants. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons such as 7, 12- dimethylbenz(?)anthracene (DMBA) is an exogenous hepatotoxin, which is well known for modulating phase I, II and anti-oxidative enzymes of liver. Plants contain plethora of polyphenolic compounds which can reverse the damaging effect of various xenobiotics. The present study investigated protective role of the ethyl acetate fraction of Acacia catechu Willd. (EAF) against DMBA induced alteration in hepatic metabolizing and anti-oxidative enzymes in rats. Methodology and Principal Findings The rats were subjected to hepatic damage by treating with DMBA for 7 weeks on alternative days and treatment schedule was terminated at the end of 14 weeks. The rats were euthanized at the end of protocol and livers were homogenized. The liver homogenates were used to analyse phase I (NADPH-cytochrome P450 reducatse, NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase, cytochrome P420, cytochrome b5), phase II (glutathione-S-transferase, DT diaphorase and ?-Glutamyl transpeptidase) and antioxidative enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, guiacol peroxidase and lactate dehydrogenase). Furthermore, other oxidative stress parameters (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, lipid hydroperoxides and conjugated dienes and reduced glutathione) and liver marker enzymes (serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase and alkaline phosphatase) were also studied. The DMBA induced significant changes in activity of hepatic enzymes that was reversed by treatment with three dose levels of EAF. Conclusion It is concluded that EAF affords hepato-protection against DMBA in rats through modulation of phase I, II and anti-oxidative enzymes. PMID:24587216

Kumar, Rakesh; Kaur, Rajbir; Singh, Amrit Pal; Arora, Saroj

2014-01-01

370

A dietary colorant crocin mitigates arthritis and associated secondary complications by modulating cartilage deteriorating enzymes, inflammatory mediators and antioxidant status.  

PubMed

Articular cartilage degeneration and inflammation are the hallmark of progressive arthritis and is the leading cause of disability in 10-15% of middle aged individuals across the world. Cartilage and synovium are mainly degraded by either enzymatic or non-enzymatic ways. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), hyaluronidases (HAases) and aggrecanases are the enzymatic mediators and inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species being non-enzymatic mediators. In addition, MMPs and HAases generated end-products act as inflammation inducers via CD44 and TLR-4 receptors involved NF-?B pathway. Although several drugs have been used to treat arthritis, numerous reports describe the side effects of these drugs that may turn fatal. On this account several medicinal plants and their isolated molecules have been involved in modern medicine strategies to fight against arthritis. In view of this, the present study investigated the antiarthritic potentiality of Crocin, a dietary colorant carotenoid isolated from stigma of Crocus sativus. Crocin effectively neutralized the augmented serum levels of enzymatic (MMP-13, MMP-3 and MMP-9 and HAases) and non-enzymatic (TNF-?, IL-1?, NF-?B, IL-6, COX-2, PGE(2) and ROS) inflammatory mediators. Further, Crocin re-established the arthritis altered antioxidant status of the system (GSH, SOD, CAT and GST). It also protected the bone resorption by inhibiting the elevated levels of bone joint exoglycosidases, cathepsin-D and tartrate resistant acid phosphatases. Taken together, Crocin revitalized the arthritis induced cartilage and bone deterioration along with inflammation and oxidative damage that could be accredited to its antioxidant nature. Thus, Crocin could be an effective antiarthritic agent which can equally nullify the arthritis associated secondary complication. PMID:22939988

Hemshekhar, M; Sebastin Santhosh, M; Sunitha, K; Thushara, R M; Kemparaju, K; Rangappa, K S; Girish, K S

2012-12-01

371

Antioxidative enzyme and glutathione S-transferase activities in diabetic rats exposed to long-term ASA treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) treatment is a standard therapeutic approach in diabetes mellitus for prevention of long-term vascular complications. The aim of the present work was to investigate the effect of long-term ASA administration in experimental diabetes on activities of some liver enzymes: glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx), catalase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and glutathione S-transferase (GST). Blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, as well

E. A. Lapshina; E. Ju. Sudnikovich; Ju. Z. Maksimchik; S. V. Zabrodskaya; L. B. Zavodnik; V. L. Kubyshin; M. Nocun; P. Kazmierczak; M. Dobaczewski; C. Watala; I. B. Zavodnik

2006-01-01

372

Oxidative stress in deep scattering layers: Heat shock response and antioxidant enzymes activities of myctophid fishes thriving in oxygen minimum zones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diel vertical migrators, such as myctophid fishes, are known to encounter oxygen minimum zones (OMZ) during daytime in the Eastern Pacific Ocean and, therefore, have to cope with temperature and oxidative stress that arise while ascending to warmer, normoxic surface waters at night-time. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant defense strategies and heat shock response (HSR) in two myctophid species, namely Triphoturus mexicanus and Benthosema panamense, at shallow and warm surface waters (21 kPa, 20-25 °C) and at hypoxic, cold (?1 kPa, 10 °C) mesopelagic depths. More specifically, we quantified (i) heat shock protein concentrations (HSP70/HSC70) (ii) antioxidant enzyme activities [including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST)], and (iii) lipid peroxidation [malondialdehyde (MDA) levels]. HSP70/HSC70 levels increased in both myctophid species at warmer, well-oxygenated surface waters probably to prevent cellular damage (oxidative stress) due to increased oxygen demand under elevated temperatures and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. On the other hand, CAT and GST activities were augmented under hypoxic conditions, probably as preparatory response to a burst of oxyradicals during the reoxygenation phase (while ascending). SOD activity decreased under hypoxia in B. panamense, but was kept unchanged in T. mexicanus. MDA levels in B. panamense did not change between the surface and deep-sea conditions, whereas T. mexicanus showed elevated MDA and HSP70/HSC70 concentrations at warmer surface waters. This indicated that T. mexicanus seems to be not so well tuned to temperature and oxidative stress associated to diel vertical migrations. The understanding of such physiological strategies that are linked to oxygen deprivation and reoxygenation phases may provide valuable information about how different species might respond to the impacts of environmental stressors (e.g. expanding mesopelagic hypoxia) coupled with global climate change.

Lopes, Ana Rita; Trübenbach, Katja; Teixeira, Tatiana; Lopes, Vanessa M.; Pires, Vanessa; Baptista, Miguel; Repolho, Tiago; Calado, Ricardo; Diniz, Mário; Rosa, Rui

2013-12-01

373

Nucleic Acid Vaccination with Schistosoma mansoni Antioxidant Enzyme Cytosolic Superoxide Dismutase and the Structural Protein Filamin Confers Protection against the Adult Worm Stage  

PubMed Central

Schistosomiasis remains a worldwide endemic cause of chronic and debilitating illness. There are two paradigms that exist in schistosome immunology. The first is that the schistosomule stages are the most susceptible to immune killing, and the second is that the adult stage, through evolution of defense mechanisms, can survive in the hostile host environment. One mechanism that seems to aid the adult worm in evading immune killing is the expression of antioxidant enzymes to neutralize the effects of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Here, we challenge one paradigm by targeting adult Schistosoma mansoni worms for immune elimination in an experimental mouse model using two S. mansoni antioxidants, cytosolic superoxide dismutase (SmCT-SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (SmGPX), and a partial coding sequence for a structural protein, filamin, as DNA vaccine candidates. DNA vaccination with SmCT-SOD induced a mean of 39% protection, filamin induced a mean of 50% protection, and SmGPX induced no protection compared to controls following challenge with adult worms by surgical transfer. B- and T-cell responses were analyzed in an attempt to define the protective immune mechanism(s) involved in adult worm killing. SmCT-SOD-immunized mice presented with a T1 response, and filamin-immunized mice showed a mixed T1-T2 response. We provide evidence for natural boosting after vaccination. Our results demonstrate that adult worms can be targeted for immune elimination through vaccination. This represents an advance in schistosome vaccinology and allows for the development of a therapeutic as well as a prophylactic vaccine. PMID:15385516

Cook, Rosemary M.; Carvalho-Queiroz, Claudia; Wilding, Gregory; LoVerde, Philip T.

2004-01-01