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1

Rehmannia glutinosa activates intracellular antioxidant enzyme systems in mouse auditory cells.  

PubMed

Steamed roots of Rehmannia glutinosa (R. glutinosa) have been traditionally used in Oriental medicine for the treatment of auditory diseases such as tinnitus and hearing loss. To investigate whether the ethanol extract of steamed roots of R. glutinosa (SRG) increases activity of antioxidant enzymes and the level of glutathione (GSH), we measured activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and glutathione reductase (GR) and GSH level in HEI-OC1 cells after treatment with 5-50 microg/ml of SRG. The SOD and CAT activities were significantly increased in the presence of SRG compared to the control group. Maximal activities of SOD and CAT were observed in these cells exposed to 10 microg/ml of SRG. The GPX activity also increased dramatically in response to the treatment with SRG in a dose-dependent manner. The GR activity was only increased in the presence of 50 microg/ml of SRG compared to the control group. The level of GSH gradually increased in the presence of 5-50 microg/ml of SRG. In the cytotoxicity test, 5-50 microg/ml of SRG did not show any significant cytotoxicity. These results suggest that the traditional use of R. glutinosa for the treatment of auditory diseases may be explained, in part, by activation of intracellular antioxidant enzyme systems. Further studies are necessary to clarify the active constituents of SRG responsible for such biomolecular activities. PMID:17163596

Yu, Hyeon-Hee; Kim, Yeon-Hwa; Jung, Su-Young; Shin, Mee-Kyung; Park, Rae-Kil; So, Hong-Seob; Kim, Ki-Young; Lee, Da-Hong; You, Yong-Ouk

2006-01-01

2

OVARIAN CANCER SUICIDE GENE THERAPY WITH GENETICALLY ENGINEERED, TRANSGENICALLY EXPRESSED, INTRACELLULAR scFv ANTIBODIES AGAINST ANTI-OXIDATIVE ENZYMES  

PubMed Central

Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death among all gynecological cancers. Some women choose bilateral oophorectomy as means of cancer prevention. In most patients, by the time this cancer is diagnosed, it has already metastasized. Treatment involves oophorectomy followed by radiation, chemo-, and immuno-therapies. However, oopherectomy results in infertility and fails to eliminate all cancer cells. Radiation and chemotherapy cause severe side effects and may lead to genetic mutations in DNA of the ova. The ultimate goal of this project is development of a therapy which would target a therapeutic gene specific to ovarian cancer cells causing their apoptosis, but which would leave ova and other cells unharmed. Herein, we report the proof of concept for such a therapy, in which genetically engineered single chain variable fragment (scFv) antibodies against HER2/ neu, RON, and NK1R, guide the delivery of the therapeutic transgenes into the cancer cells of the ovaries. Under ovary specific promoters (OSP), the transgene expression generates the intracellular scFv antibodies, which quench cell antioxidative enzymes, thus raising levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), inflicting oxidative stress, activating apoptotic signaling pathways, and causing cancer cell deaths.

Malecki, Marek; Malecki, Raf

2012-01-01

3

Diverse age-related effects of Bacopa monnieri and donepezil in vitro on cytokine production, antioxidant enzyme activities, and intracellular targets in splenocytes of F344 male rats.  

PubMed

Aged people are more prone to developing neurodegenerative and infectious diseases, autoimmune disorders, and cancer due to impairment of neuroendocrine-immune functions. Neuronal degeneration and immunosuppression aided by increased generation of reactive oxygen species combined with loss of antioxidant enzyme activities promote the aging process. Bacopa monnieri (brahmi), an Ayurvedic herb, and donepezil, a reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, have been used to reverse cognitive dysfunctions in several neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of in vitro incubation of lymphocytes from spleens of young (3-month-old), early middle-aged (8- to 9-month-old), and old (18-month-old) F344 rats with brahmi (0.001%, 0.01%, 0.05%, 0.1%, and 1%) and donepezil (5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 ?g/ml) on Concanavalin (Con A)-induced proliferation of T lymphocytes and cytokine production, and the activities of antioxidant enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST)]. In addition, the effects of these compounds on the expression of intracellular signaling pathway markers (ERK, p-ERK, CREB, p-CREB, Akt and p-Akt), nitric oxide (NO) production, and the extent of lipid peroxidation were measured in the splenocytes. Age-related decline in Con A-induced proliferation of T lymphocytes was not reversed by treatment with brahmi and donepezil but donepezil alone further reduced the lymphocyte proliferation in young rats. Lower doses of brahmi treatment reversed the age-related decrease in Con A-induced IL-2 and IFN-? production by the splenocytes while their production by splenocytes was suppressed by treatment with donepezil in the young and early middle-aged rats. An age-associated decline in the activities of SOD, CAT, GPx, and GST was evident in the lymphocytes of spleen. Brahmi enhanced CAT activity of lymphocytes in all the age groups while donepezil increased SOD activity in old rats. Both brahmi and donepezil increased GPx and GST activities in a dose-dependent manner in the lymphocytes of all age groups. There was an age-related decline in NO production and increase in the extent of lipid peroxidation in the splenocytes. Brahmi and donepezil increased NO production in the lymphocytes of early middle-aged and old rats. Brahmi reversed the age-related increase in lipid peroxidation in the splenocytes of both early-middle-aged and old rats while donepezil suppressed lipid peroxidation only in the splenocytes of old rats. The expressions of p-ERK1/2 and p-CREB in the splenocytes were elevated following treatment with brahmi and donepezil in the early middle-aged and old rats while age-related decline in p-Akt expression was reversed by treatment of lymphocytes with brahmi alone in early-middle-aged and old rats. Taken together, these results suggest that both brahmi and donepezil exert distinct age-related effects on the cell-mediated immune responses through selective modulation of antioxidant enzyme activities and intracellular targets that may influence the therapeutic efficacy of these drugs in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23257614

Priyanka, Hannah P; Singh, Ran Vijay; Mishra, Miti; ThyagaRajan, Srinivasan

2012-12-17

4

Estrogen modulates in vitro T cell responses in a concentration- and receptor-dependent manner: Effects on intracellular molecular targets and antioxidant enzymes.  

PubMed

Estrogen is a key hormone in facilitating ovulation and maintenance of pregnancy in young females and subsequent decline in its production contributes to the development of age-associated disorders such as hormone-dependent cancer, osteoporosis, and cardiovascular diseases. The mechanisms through which estrogen promotes female-specific diseases with advancing age are unclear especially, its effects on immune system which is vital for the maintenance of homeostasis and health. Although the diverse effects of estrogen on Th immunity (Th1 vs. Th2) have been characterized in several cell-types and animal models, there is no direct mechanistic study to understand its immunomodulatory actions. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the in vitro effects of 17?-estradiol on lymphocytes from the spleen influence cell-mediated immune responses based on its concentration and type of estrogen receptors (ERs) and to assess its mechanism of action at the cellular level. Lymphocytes from the spleens of young Sprague-Dawley rats were isolated and incubated with various concentrations of 17?-estradiol (10(-6)-10(-14)M) and specific ER?- and ?-agonists (10(-6)M, 10(-8)M and 10(-10)M) without or with concanavalin A (Con A) to measure T lymphocyte proliferation, IFN-? and IL-2 production, p-ERK 1/2, p-CREB, and p-Akt, activities of antioxidant enzymes[superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)], and nitric oxide (NO) production. The specificity of ER-mediated actions in lymphocytes was examined by coincubation with nonspecific ER antagonists ICI(182,780) or tamoxifen. Lower concentrations of 17?-estradiol enhanced proliferation of T lymphocytes and IFN-? production without or with Con A stimulation but had no effect on IL-2 production. ER? and ER? agonists induced an increase in T cell proliferation and IFN-? production and these effects were inhibited by tamoxifen. ER? agonist alone enhanced IL-2 production by the lymphocytes. Coincubation with 17?-estradiol and ER?- and ?-agonists augmented p-ERK 1/2, p-CREB, and p-Akt expression in the lymphocytes and tamoxifen reversed the ER agonist-induced effects on these molecular targets. Estrogen increased the activities of SOD, CAT, and GPx in both non-stimulated and Con A-stimulated splenocytes in a concentration-dependent manner. Both ER?- and ?-agonists enhanced CAT and GPx activity while ER?-agonist decreased SOD activity and ER?-agonist increased SOD activity. The effects of ER agonists on the antioxidant enzymes were reversed by ICI(182,780). Coincubation of lower doses of 17?-estradiol with Con A and both ER agonists enhanced NO production while higher dose of estrogen with Con A and ER? agonist suppressed its production and these effects were reversed by tamoxifen. Taken together, these results suggest that the effects of estrogen on the cell-mediated immune responses are dependent upon its concentrations and mediated through specific estrogen receptors involving intracellular signaling pathways and antioxidant enzymes. PMID:23911387

Priyanka, Hannah P; Krishnan, Harini C; Singh, Ran Vijay; Hima, Lalgi; Thyagarajan, Srinivasan

2013-08-01

5

Role of Antioxidant Enzymes on Ionizing Radiation Resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure of cells to ionizing radiation leads to formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are associated with radiation-induced cytotoxicity. The antioxidant enzymes manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), are key intracellular antioxidants in the metabolism of ROS. We investigated the potential role of the three antioxidant enzymes in radioresistance by analyzing cell morphology,

Juan Sun; Yuan Chen; Mingtao Li; Zhongliang Ge

1998-01-01

6

Antioxidant enzymes in phytoparasitic nematodes.  

PubMed

Presence of different antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and ascorbate, p-phenilendiamine-pyrocathecol (PPD-PC), o-dianisidine, and guaiacol isoperoxidases, was shown in the phytoparasific nematode species Meloidogyne incognita, M. hapla, Globodera rostochiensis, G. pallida, Heterodera schachtii, H. carotae, and Xiphinema index. The activity of the enzymes tested differed among the life stages examined. SOD was present in cysts but was not detected in Meloidogyne egg masses. Catalase activity of Meloidogyne females was higher than that of preparasitic stages and cyst-nematode females. For the first time, ascorbate peroxidase was found to occur commonly in phytoparasitic nematodes, with the highest activity in the invading life-stages. In all the life stages examined, the antioxidant enzyme activities of M. hapla were markedly higher than those of M. incognita. Glutathione peroxidase was not found in the species examined. PMID:19274144

Molinari, S; Miacola, C

1997-06-01

7

Antioxidant enzyme deficiencies and vascular disease  

PubMed Central

Cellular respiration in an oxygen-rich environment leads to the generation of reactive oxygen species. These partially reduced forms of molecular oxygen can readily react with biological molecules, often modifying their normal biological function. Antioxidant enzyme mechanisms have evolved to eliminate reactive oxygen species and minimize the oxidant stress caused by their reactivity. Inherited and acquired deficiencies of key antioxidant enzymes lead to a dysregulated redox environment, which can promote pathobiology; when this redox dysfunction occurs in the blood vessel, vascular disease ensues. In this article, we consider three distinct antioxidant enzyme deficiencies – glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glutathione peroxidase-1 and glutathione peroxidase-3 – and their consequences for vascular disease.

Loscalzo, Joseph

2010-01-01

8

The role of antioxidant enzymes in photoprotection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enzymatic component of the antioxidant system is discussed as one of the defensive mechanisms providing protection against excessive light absorption in plants. We present an analysis of attempts to improve stress tolerance by means of the creation of transgenic plants with elevated antioxidant enzyme activities and conclude that the effect of such transgenic manipulation strongly depends on the manner

Barry A. Logan; Dmytro Kornyeyev; Justin Hardison; A. Scott Holaday

2006-01-01

9

Novel Delivery of Antioxidant Enzyme Catalase to Alveolar Macrophages by Fc Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excessive production of reactive oxygen species by alveolar macrophages (AMs) in response to inhaled toxic substances is a major cause of oxidative lung injury. Therapeutic approaches designed to protect the lungs from oxidative injury by administering native antioxidant enzymes such as catalase and superoxide dismutase have been suggested. However, problems associated with poor penetration of these enzymes to the intracellular

Jeannine Harrison; Xianglin Shi; LiYing Wang; Joseph K. H. Ma; Yongyut Rojanasakul

1994-01-01

10

Antioxidative enzyme activities in human erythrocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reliable and standardized methods are necessary to determine the expression of antioxidative enzymes and their role in maintaining health. In addition, the vari- ability of the enzyme activities within the general pop- ulation caused by age, gender, and life-style factors must be described. This study describes methodological conditions that are suitable for analyzing copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD), glutathione peroxi- dase

Helle Raun Andersen; Jesper B. Nielsen; Flemming Nielsen; Philippe Grandjean

11

Immunotargeting of antioxidant enzyme to the pulmonary endothelium.  

PubMed Central

Oxidative injury to the pulmonary endothelium has pathological significance for a spectrum of diseases. Administration of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (Cat), has been proposed as a method to protect endothelium. However, neither these enzymes nor their derivatives possess specific affinity to endothelium and do not accumulate in the lung. Previously we have described a monoclonal antibody to angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) that accumulates selectively in the lung after systemic injection in rats, hamsters, cats, monkeys, and humans. In the present work we describe a system for selective intrapulmonary delivery of CuZn-SOD and Cat conjugated with biotinylated anti-ACE antibody mAb 9B9 (b-mAb 9B9) by a streptavidin (SA)-biotin bridge. Both enzymes biotinylated with biotin ester at biotin/enzyme ratio 20 retain enzymatic activity and bind SA without loss of activity. We have constructed tri-molecular heteropolymer complexes consisting of b-mAb 9B9, SA, and biotinylated SOD or biotinylated Cat and have studied biodistribution and pulmonary uptake of these complexes in the rat after i.v. injection. Biodistribution of biotinylated enzymes was similar to that of nonmodified enzymes. Binding of SA markedly prolonged lifetime of biotinylated enzymes in the circulation. In contrast to enzymes conjugated with nonspecific IgG, other enzyme derivatives, and nonmodified enzymes, biotinylated enzymes conjugated with b-mAb 9B9 accumulated specifically in the rat lung (9% of injected SOD/g of lung tissue and 7.5% of injected Cat/g of lung tissue). Pulmonary uptake of nonmodified enzymes or derivatives with nonspecific IgG did not exceed 0.5% of injected dose/g. Both SOD and Cat conjugated with b-mAb 9B9 were retained in the rat lung for at least several hours. Trichloracetic acid-precipitable radiolabeled Cat was associated with microsomal and plasma membrane fractions of the lung tissue homogenate. Thus, modification of antioxidant enzymes with biotin and SA-mediated conjugation with b-mAb 9B9 prolongs the circulation of enzymes resulting in selective accumulation in the lung and intracellular delivery of enzymes to the pulmonary endothelium. These results provide the background for an approach to provide protection of pulmonary endothelium against oxidative insults.

Muzykantov, V R; Atochina, E N; Ischiropoulos, H; Danilov, S M; Fisher, A B

1996-01-01

12

The Assessments of the Intracellular Antioxidant Protection of the Organism after LLLT Irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The antioxidants are chemical compounds that can bind to free oxygen radicals preventing these radicals from damaging healthy cells. Low levels of antioxidants, or inhibition of the antioxidant enzymes causes oxidative stress and may damage or kill cells. The purpose of this project was to establish the changes at intracellular antioxidant protection of the organism after LLLT irradiation. We used female mice of the strain CD1. The mice were exposed in the abdomen region to laser light. From the blood was assessment the Glutathione peroxidase, Reduced Glutathione and Plasma Antioxidant Capacity. The results obtained in the present study demonstrated that in vivo irradiation of the mice with low level lasers did not cause any statistically significant changes in superoxide dismutase and Glutathione peroxidase but we found changes in Reduced Glutathione and Plasma Antioxidant Capacity after exposing the mice to the LLLT during the 30 minutes after irradiation, as well on the 4th day. Do not replace the word ``abstract,'' but do replace the rest of this text. If you must insert a hard line break, please use Shift+Enter rather than just tapping your ``Enter'' key. You may want to print this page and refer to it as a style sample before you begin working on your paper.

Freitinger-Skalicka, Zuzana; Navratil, Leos; Zolzer, Friedo; Hon, Zdenek

2009-06-01

13

The Assessments of the Intracellular Antioxidant Protection of the Organism after LLLT Irradiation  

SciTech Connect

The antioxidants are chemical compounds that can bind to free oxygen radicals preventing these radicals from damaging healthy cells. Low levels of antioxidants, or inhibition of the antioxidant enzymes causes oxidative stress and may damage or kill cells. The purpose of this project was to establish the changes at intracellular antioxidant protection of the organism after LLLT irradiation. We used female mice of the strain CD1. The mice were exposed in the abdomen region to laser light. From the blood was assessment the Glutathione peroxidase, Reduced Glutathione and Plasma Antioxidant Capacity. The results obtained in the present study demonstrated that in vivo irradiation of the mice with low level lasers did not cause any statistically significant changes in superoxide dismutase and Glutathione peroxidase but we found changes in Reduced Glutathione and Plasma Antioxidant Capacity after exposing the mice to the LLLT during the 30 minutes after irradiation, as well on the 4th day. Do not replace the word ''abstract,'' but do replace the rest of this text. If you must insert a hard line break, please use Shift+Enter rather than just tapping your ''Enter'' key. You may want to print this page and refer to it as a style sample before you begin working on your paper.

Freitinger-Skalicka, Zuzana; Navratil, Leos; Zolzer, Friedo; Hon, Zdenek [University of South Bohemia, Faculty of Health and Social Studies, Department of Radiology and Toxicology, Ceske Budejovice-Czech Republic (Czech Republic)

2009-06-19

14

Antioxidant enzymes activities in obese Tunisian children  

PubMed Central

Background The oxidant stress, expected to increase in obese adults, has an important role in the pathogenesis of many diseases. It results when free radical formation is greatly increased or protective antioxidant mechanisms are compromised. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the antioxidant response to obesity-related stress in healthy children. Methods A hundred and six healthy children (54 obese and 52 controls), aged 6–12 years old, participated in this study. The collected data included anthropometric measures, blood pressure, fasting glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides and enzymatic antioxidants (Superoxide dismutase: SOD, Catalase: CAT and Glutathione peroxidase: GPx). Results The first step antioxidant response, estimated by the SOD activity, was significantly higher in obese children compared with normal-weight controls (p?enzymes were not affected by the BMI increase. Although, total cholesterol levels were statistically higher in the obese group, there was no significant association with the SOD activity. Conclusions The obesity-related increase of the oxidant stress can be observed even in the childhood period. In addition to the complications of an increased BMI, obesity itself can be considered as an independent risk factor of free radical production resulting in an increased antioxidant response.

2013-01-01

15

Analysis of intracellular enzyme activity by surface enhanced Raman scattering.  

PubMed

Dysfunctional intracellular enzymatic activity is believed to be an underlying cause of a myriad of diseases. We present the first use of surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) as a detection technique capable of reporting intracellular activity of a specific enzyme. Careful choice of reagents allowed the preparation of high resolution cellular activity maps highlighting the specific conversion of the commonly used ELISA reagent 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl ?-d-galactopyranoside (X-Gal), by wild type ?-galactosidase enzymes. Further, through co-addition of X-Gal substrate and inhibitors we were able to demonstrate that intracellular substrate conversion occurred predominantly through an enzymatically specific pathway. The data presented therefore supports the application of SERS probes as sensitive, specific sensors of biochemical activity and demonstrates the use of SERS probes for the first time as beacons capable of high resolution subcellular localisation of native enzymes. PMID:24003438

Stevenson, Ross; McAughtrie, Sarah; Senior, Laura; Stokes, Robert J; McGachy, Helen; Tetley, Laurence; Nativo, Paola; Brewer, James M; Alexander, James; Faulds, Karen; Graham, Duncan

2013-09-30

16

Altered Levels of Primary Antioxidant Enzymes in Progeria Skin Fibroblasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Free radicals are involved in the aging process. In this study, the profile of primary antioxidant enzymes that scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) was examined for the first time in human skin fibroblasts from progeria, a premature aging disease. Altered levels of antioxidant enzymes were found in progeria cells. Basal levels of MnSOD were decreased in progeria cells as well

Tao Yan; Shijun Li; Xiaohong Jiang; Larry W. Oberley

1999-01-01

17

Alterations in Antioxidant Enzymes During Aging in Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oxidative stress theory of aging offers the best mechanistic elucidation of the aging phenomenon and other age-related\\u000a diseases. The susceptibility of an individual depends on the antioxidant status of the body. In humans, the antioxidant system\\u000a includes a number of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), nonenzymatic antioxidants\\u000a such as glutathione (GSH), protein –SH, ascorbic

Syed Ibrahim Rizvi; Pawan Kumar Maurya

2007-01-01

18

Changes in antioxidant enzyme levels and DNA damage during aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple mechanisms underlie the human aging process, but interest continues in the role that free radicals and antioxidants\\u000a may play. The concentrations of lymphocyte free radical generation (O2\\u000a ?& H2O2), DNA damage and antioxidant enzyme levels (glutathione Stransferase, superoxide dismutase and catalase) were evaluated in\\u000a 110 healthy individuals with an age range of 20–80 years. The antioxidant enzyme levels were

K. K. Reddy; T. P. K. Reddy; B. V. Somasekharaiah; K. Soorya Kumarl

1998-01-01

19

Antioxidant Effects of the Ethanol Extract from Flower of Camellia japonica via Scavenging of Reactive Oxygen Species and Induction of Antioxidant Enzymes  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant properties of the ethanol extract of the flower of Camellia japonica (Camellia extract). Camellia extract exhibited 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activity in human HaCaT keratinocytes. In addition, Camellia extract scavenged superoxide anion generated by xanthine/xanthine oxidase and hydroxyl radical generated by the Fenton reaction (FeSO4 + H2O2) in a cell-free system, which was detected by electron spin resonance spectrometry. Furthermore, Camellia extract increased the protein expressions and activity of cellular antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. These results suggest that Camellia extract exhibits antioxidant properties by scavenging ROS and enhancing antioxidant enzymes. Camellia extract contained quercetin, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, quercitrin and kaempferol, which are antioxidant compounds.

Piao, Mei Jing; Yoo, Eun Sook; Koh, Young Sang; Kang, Hee Kyoung; Kim, Junoh; Kim, Yong Jin; Kang, Hak Hee; Hyun, Jin Won

2011-01-01

20

Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme status in oral carcinoma patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To measure the lipid peroxidation and endogenous antioxidant enzyme status in oral carcinoma and the protective role of exogenous antioxidants. Meterial and methods: 20 new cases of histologically proven oral squamous cell carcinoma, 20 of leukoplakia and 20 age and sex matched healthy conrols were included. Intra oral pH of patients and controlled were measured by quantitative litmus paper

Khanna R; Thapa PB; Khanna HD; Khanna S; Khanna AK; Shukla HS

21

Effect of Sodium Selenite on Antioxidative Enzymes of Banana Fruitfly  

Microsoft Academic Search

The median and maximum life spans of Zaprionus paravittiger are 43 and 79 days, respectively, for males and 52 and 91 days for females at 24 ± 2°C. Sodium selenite (SS), an antioxidant, feeding prolongs the median as well as maximum life span of both the sexes. Antioxidative enzymes, catalase and peroxidase showed greater activity during the developmental stages. Females,

Mandeep Kaur; Renu Wadhwa; Suraj P. Sharma

1989-01-01

22

Are respiratory enzymes the primary sources of intracellular hydrogen peroxide?  

PubMed

Endogenous H2O2 is believed to be a source of chronic damage in aerobic organisms. To quantify H2O2 formation, we have generated strains of Escherichia coli that lack intracellular scavenging enzymes. The H2O2 that is formed within these mutants diffuses out into the medium, where it can be measured. We sought to test the prevailing hypothesis that this H2O2 is primarily generated by the autoxidation of redox enzymes within the respiratory chain. The rate of H2O2 production increased when oxygen levels were raised, confirming that H2O2 is formed by an adventitious chemical process. However, mutants that lacked NADH dehydrogenase II and fumarate reductase, the most oxidizable components of the respiratory chain in vitro, continued to form H2O2 at normal rates. NADH dehydrogenase II did generate substantial H2O2 when it was when overproduced or quinones were absent, forcing electrons to accumulate on the enzyme. Mutants that lacked both NADH dehydrogenases respired very slowly, as expected; however, these mutants showed no diminution of H2O2 excretion, suggesting that H2O2 is primarily formed by a source outside the respiratory chain. That source has not yet been identified. In respiring cells the rate of H2O2 production was approximately 0.5% the rate of total oxygen consumption, with only modest changes when cells used different carbon sources. PMID:15361522

Seaver, Lauren Costa; Imlay, James A

2004-09-10

23

Modulation of Antioxidant Enzyme Expression and Function by Estrogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and can be effectively influenced by radical scavenging enzyme activity and expression. The vasoprotective effects of estrogens may be related to antioxidative properties. Therefore, effects of 17-estradiol on production of reactive oxygen species and radical scavenging enzymes were investigated. 17-estradiol diminished angiotensin II-induced free radical production in vascular smooth

Kerstin Strehlow; Simone Rotter; Sven Wassmann; Oliver Adam; Christian Grohé; Kerstin Laufs; Michael Böhm; Georg Nickenig

2010-01-01

24

Immunogold analysis of antioxidant enzymes in human renal cell carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of activities of the antioxidant enzyme manganese superoxide dismutase in human renal cell carcinomas often showed greatly altered enzyme levels (either elevated or depressed) compared to the cell of origin, the kidney proximal tubule. In order to better understand the variability observed, immunogold studies were performed on human renal cell carcinomas using a polyclonal antibody to human kidney manganese

T. D. Oberley; J. M. Sempf; M. J. Oberley; K. E. Muse; M. L. McCormick; L. W. Oberley

1994-01-01

25

Opposing Biological Functions of Tryptophan Catabolizing Enzymes During Intracellular Infection  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have underscored physiological and pathophysiological roles for the tryptophan-degrading enzyme indolamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) in immune counterregulation. However, IDO was first recognized as an antimicrobial effector, restricting tryptophan availability to Toxoplasma gondii and other pathogens in vitro. The biological relevance of these findings came under question when infectious phenotypes were not forthcoming in IDO-deficient mice. The recent discovery of an IDO homolog, IDO-2, suggested that the issue deserved reexamination. IDO inhibition during murine toxoplasmosis led to 100% mortality, with increased parasite burdens and no evident effects on the immune response. Similar studies revealed a counterregulatory role for IDO during leishmaniasis (restraining effector immune responses and parasite clearance), and no evident role for IDO in herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection. Thus, IDO plays biologically important roles in the host response to diverse intracellular infections, but the dominant nature of this role—antimicrobial or immunoregulatory—is pathogen-specific.

Divanovic, Senad; Sawtell, Nancy M.; Trompette, Aurelien; Warning, Jamie I.; Dias, Alexandra; Cooper, Andrea M.; Yap, George S.; Arditi, Moshe; Shimada, Kenichi; DuHadaway, James B.; Prendergast, George C.; Basaraba, Randall J.; Mellor, Andrew L.; Munn, David H.; Aliberti, Julio

2012-01-01

26

EFFECT OF NATURAL VOLATILE COMPOUNDS ON ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY AND ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES IN RASPBERRIES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Changes in antioxidant capacity and antioxidant enzyme activities in raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) treated with methyl jasmonate (MJ), allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree oil or TTO), and ethanol (EtOH) were studied. All of the natural volatile compounds test...

27

Coordinated changes of mitochondrial biogenesis and antioxidant enzymes during osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells.  

PubMed

The multidifferentiation ability of mesenchymal stem cells holds great promise for cell therapy. Numerous studies have focused on the establishment of differentiation protocols, whereas little attention has been paid to the metabolic changes during the differentiation process. Mitochondria, the powerhouse of mammalian cells, vary in their number and function in different cell types with different energy demands, but how these variations are associated with cell differentiation remains elusive. In this study, we investigated the changes of mitochondrial biogenesis and bioenergetic function using human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) because of their well-defined differentiation potentials. Upon osteogenic induction, the copy number of mitochondrial DNA, protein subunits of the respiratory enzymes, oxygen consumption rate, and intracellular ATP content were increased, indicating the upregulation of aerobic mitochondrial metabolism. On the other hand, undifferentiated hMSCs showed higher levels of glycolytic enzymes and lactate production rate, suggesting that hMSCs rely more on glycolysis for energy supply in comparison with hMSC-differentiated osteoblasts. In addition, we observed a dramatic decrease of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a consequence of upregulation of two antioxidant enzymes, manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase and catalase. Finally, we found that exogenous H(2)O(2) and mitochondrial inhibitors could retard the osteogenic differentiation. These findings suggested an energy production transition from glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation in hMSCs upon osteogenic induction. Meanwhile, antioxidant enzymes were concurrently upregulated to prevent the accumulation of intracellular ROS. Together, our findings suggest that coordinated regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and antioxidant enzymes occurs synergistically during osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs. PMID:18218821

Chen, Chien-Tsun; Shih, Yu-Ru V; Kuo, Tom K; Lee, Oscar K; Wei, Yau-Huei

2008-01-24

28

Antioxidant Enzymes in Barley Green Biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green biomass of young barley plants exhibited statistically significant higher activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and\\u000a catalase (CAT) at sampling I (in the phase of plant development DC 29) compared to the later sampling II (DC 31). Significant\\u000a effects of varieties, years and interactions of the studied factors on the activity of the studied antioxidants were determined.\\u000a During the experiment

J. Ehrenbergerová; N. B?ezinová Belcredi; J. Kopá?ek; L. Melišová; P. Hrstková; S. Macuchová; K. Vaculová; I. Paulí?ková

2009-01-01

29

Acute Exercise Increases Plasma Total Antioxidant Status and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Untrained Men  

PubMed Central

Antioxidant defences are essential for cellular redox regulation. Since free-radical production may be enhanced by physical activity, herein, we evaluated the effect of acute exercise on total antioxidant status (TAS) and the plasma activities of catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase and its possible relation to oxidative stress resulting from exercise. Healthy untrained male subjects (n = 34) performed three cycloergometric tests, including maximal and submaximal episodes. Venous blood samples were collected before and immediately after each different exercise. TAS and enzyme activities were assessed by spectrophotometry. An increase of the antioxidant enzyme activities in plasma was detected after both maximal and submaximal exercise periods. Moreover, under our experimental conditions, exercise also led to an augmentation of TAS levels. These findings are consistent with the idea that acute exercise may play a beneficial role because of its ability to increase antioxidant defense mechanisms through a redox sensitive pathway.

Berzosa, C.; Cebrian, I.; Fuentes-Broto, L.; Gomez-Trullen, E.; Piedrafita, E.; Martinez-Ballarin, E.; Lopez-Pingarron, L.; Reiter, R. J.; Garcia, J. J.

2011-01-01

30

Catalase (antioxidant enzyme) activity in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: High concentration and\\/or inadequate removal of reactive oxygen species may result in oxidative stress that may cause severe metabolic malfunction. An imbalance in antioxidant enzymes has been related to specific pathologies such as diabetic complications. Catalase catalyzes the reduction of hydroperoxides, thereby protecting mammalian cells against oxidative damage. In addition, catalase is active in neutralizing reactive oxygen species and

Durdi Qujeq; Timur Rezvani

31

Protective role of antioxidant enzymes under high temperature stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was conducted to study the effect of high temperature stress on the antioxidant enzyme activity in five wheat genotypes viz., PBW 343, PBW 175, HDR-77, HD 2815 and HD 2865. There was significant increase in the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and catalase (CAT) in the late and very late planting and at all stages

Moaed Almeselmani; P. S. Deshmukh; R. K. Sairam; S. R. Kushwaha; T. P. Singh

2006-01-01

32

Relationships between single nucleotide polymorphisms of antioxidant enzymes and disease.  

PubMed

The presence and progression of numerous diseases have been linked to deficiencies in antioxidant systems. The relationships between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) arising from specific antioxidant enzymes and diseases associated with elevated oxidative stress have been studied with the rationale that they may be useful in screening for diseases. The purpose of this narrative review is to analyse evidence from these studies. The antioxidant enzyme SNPs selected for analysis are based on those most frequently investigated in relation to diseases in humans: superoxide dismutase (SOD2) Ala16Val (80 studies), glutathione peroxidise (GPx1) Pro197Leu (24 studies) and catalase C-262T (22 studies). Although the majority of evidence supports associations between the SOD2 Ala16Val SNP and diseases such as breast, prostate and lung cancers, diabetes and cardiovascular disease, the presence of the SOD2 Ala16Val SNP confers only a small, clinically insignificant reduction (if any) in the risk of these diseases. Other diseases such as bladder cancer, liver disease, nervous system pathologies and asthma have not been consistently related to this SOD SNP genotype. The GPx1 Pro197Leu and catalase C-262T SNP genotypes have been associated with breast cancer, but only in a small number of studies. Thus, currently available evidence suggests antioxidant enzyme SNP genotypes are not useful for screening for diseases in humans. PMID:22525041

Crawford, Amanda; Fassett, Robert G; Geraghty, Dominic P; Kunde, Dale A; Ball, Madeleine J; Robertson, Iain K; Coombes, Jeff S

2012-04-14

33

Isolation and characterization of a thermostable intracellular enzyme with peroxidase activity from Bacillus sphaericus  

Microsoft Academic Search

During a screening for bacteria producing enzymes with peroxidase activity, a Bacillus sphaericus strain was isolated. This strain was found to contain an intracellular enzyme with peroxidase activity. The native enzyme had a molecular mass of above 300 kDa and precipitated at a salt concentration higher than 0.1 M. Proteolytic digestion with trypsin reduced the molecular mass of the active

Anke Apitz; Karl-Heinz van Pée

2001-01-01

34

Activities of antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation in endometrial cancer.  

PubMed

Antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation were analysed in normal endometrium and endometrial cancer tissues from Finnish and Japanese patients. The catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities of normal endometrium were significantly lower in Finns than in Japanese. Lipid peroxidation was slightly higher in endometrial cancer as compared with normal endometrium both in the Finns and in the Japanese. When cancer tissues were compared with normal endometrium both in Finns and Japanese the activity of superoxide dismutase was significantly lower in cancer tissue than in normal endometrium. In Finns glutathione S-transferase activity was also lower in endometrial cancer tissue than in normal endometrium, and a similar tendency was also found in Japanese. This study suggests that endometrial cancer tissue is associated with an impaired enzymic antioxidant defence system. PMID:8422294

Punnonen, R; Kudo, R; Punnonen, K; Hietanen, E; Kuoppala, T; Kainulainen, H; Sato, K; Ahotupa, M

1993-01-01

35

Antioxidant efficiency and detoxification enzymes in spotted dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula.  

PubMed

Although elasmobranchs are widely distributed species, commonly found on sandy, gravely or muddy bottoms, several biological aspects of their metabolism still remain poorly investigated. In this work the efficiency of antioxidant system and detoxification enzymes were investigated in the coastal spotted dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula and in the red mullet Mullus barbatus for comparison with a teleost species. Organisms were sampled during a bottom trawl survey and analyzed for the biotransformation activity (EROD), levels of metallothioneins, catalase, glutathione S-transferases and total oxyradical scavenging capacity (TOSC) toward peroxyl radicals and hydroxyl radicals. EROD activity in the elasmobranchs was more than one order of magnitude lower than in the red mullets, while similar levels of metallothioneins were measured in these species. S. canicula showed significantly lower antioxidant enzymes and a more reduced efficiency in neutralizing *OH; on the other hand the scavenging capability toward ROO* was comparable in S. canicula and M. barbatus. PMID:15178047

Gorbi, Stefania; Pellegrini, David; Tedesco, Sara; Regoli, Francesco

36

Monitoring antioxidant enzymes in red cells during allergen immunotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this report was to answer the question how specific immunotherapy influences the antioxidant enzyme system in patients\\u000a with respiratory allergy and in longer perspective to find markers suitable to assess the efficacy of treatment. In open prospective\\u000a randomised study 28 patients (18 females and 10 males, age 14–48 years) with seasonal respiratory allergy were treated with\\u000a allergen

N. Lukan; O. Racz; I. Mocnejova; I. Tkac

2008-01-01

37

Increased Peroxidation and Reduced Antioxidant Enzyme Activity in Alzheimer's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overall peroxidation activity in brain tissue by region from patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and age-matched controls was determined employing the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) assay, a measure of lipid peroxidation, followed by a determination the activities of the antioxidant enzymes Cu\\/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and catalase (CAT), in the frontal, temporal, and cerebellar cortex of

David L. Marcus; Christopher Thomas; Charles Rodriguez; Katherine Simberkoff; Jir S. Tsai; James A. Strafaci; Michael L. Freedman

1998-01-01

38

Regulation of antioxidant enzymes in lung after oxidant injury.  

PubMed

Studies have implicated active oxygen species (AOS) in the pathogenesis of various lung diseases. Many chemical and physical agents in the environment are potent generators of AOS, including ozone, hyperoxia, mineral dusts, paraquat, etc. These agents produce AOS by different mechanisms, but frequently the lung is the primary target of toxicity, and exposure results in damage to lung tissue to varying degrees. The lung has developed defenses to AOS-mediated damage, which include antioxidant enzymes, the superoxide dismutases [copper-zinc (CuZnSOD) and manganese-containing (MnSOD)], catalase, and glutathione peroxidase (GPX). In this review, antioxidant defenses to environmental stresses in the lung as well as in isolated pulmonary cells following exposure to a number of different oxidants, are summarized. Each oxidant appears to induce a different pattern of antioxidant enzyme response in the lung, although some common trends, i.e., induction of MnSOD following oxidants inducing inflammation or pulmonary fibrosis, in responses to oxidants occur. Responses may vary between the different cell types in the lung as a function of cell-cycle or other factors. Increases in MnSOD mRNA or immunoreactive protein in response to certain oxidants may serve as a biomarker of AOS-mediated damage in the lung. PMID:7523104

Quinlan, T; Spivack, S; Mossman, B T

1994-06-01

39

Permeabilization of Animal Cells for Kinetic Studies of Intracellular Enzymes: In situ Behavior of the Glycolytic Enzymes of Erythrocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intracellular enzymes in erythrocytes can be made accessible for in situ kinetic studies by treating the cells with bifunctional reagents to crosslink proteins, thus creating a network that allows subsequent permeabilization by delipidation without escape of intracellular proteins. Dimethyl suberimidate, dimethyl 3,3'-dithiobispropionimidate, and toluene-2,4-diisocyanate have been used successfully as crosslinking reagents, and digitonin has been used for delipidation. In a

Juan J. Aragon; Juan E. Feliu; Rene A. Frenkel; Alberto Sols

1980-01-01

40

Endothelial delivery of antioxidant enzymes loaded into non-polymeric magnetic nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antioxidant enzymes have shown promise as a therapy for pathological conditions involving increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However the efficiency of their use for combating oxidative stress is dependent on the ability to achieve therapeutically adequate levels of active enzymes at the site of ROS-mediated injury. Thus, the implementation of antioxidant enzyme therapy requires a strategy enabling both

Michael Chorny; Elizabeth Hood; Robert J. Levy; Vladimir R. Muzykantov

2010-01-01

41

[Activity of antioxidative enzymes of the myocardium during ischemia].  

PubMed

Activation of lipid peroxidation during myocardial ischemia may be determined by the reduction of the enzymatic antioxidant cell protection. Such a conclusion has been drawn on the basis of an analysis of variation in the activity of superoxide dismutase, glutathion peroxidase and catalase in experimental myocardial ischemia in rats, induced by ligation of the left descending artery of the heart. In the early period of ischemia (1-3 h) the activity of superoxide dismutase and glutation peroxidase markedly decreases. In the periischemic zone, the fall in the enzymatic activity is not so pronounced. The activity of the enzymes does not reach the basic level 5 days after the operation. PMID:7066502

Gutkin, D V; Petrovich, Iu A

1982-01-01

42

Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in vanadate-treated rats.  

PubMed

Male Wistar rats received an aqueous solution of ammonium metavanadate (AMV) of 0.15 mg/V/ml concentration instead of water for 14 days. The erythrocyte count and haemoglobin level in blood were not changed; the haematocrit index was slightly increased. The spontaneous lipid peroxidation in kidney and liver homogenates was increased. The Fe(II)- or ascorbate-induced lipid peroxidation was more pronounced in the kidney than in the liver. No changes in lipid peroxidation were observed in erythrocytes after AMV treatment. The AMV treatment resulted in a decrease in the activity of the antioxidant enzymes, catalase and glutathione peroxidase in the kidney and liver; the cytosolic Cu,Zn-SOD and mitochondrial Mn-SOD were unchanged. The activity of the enzymes in blood was not changed. The results are discussed with a view to the participation of lipid peroxidation in vanadium toxicity. PMID:8061948

Russanov, E; Zaporowska, H; Ivancheva, E; Kirkova, M; Konstantinova, S

1994-03-01

43

Effect of pure oxygen atmosphere on antioxidant enzyme and antioxidant activity of harvested litchi fruit during storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of pure oxygen on pericarp browning, reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism, antioxidant enzyme and antioxidant activity of harvested litchi fruit were investigated. Application of pure oxygen significantly prevented pericarp browning and delayed the increase in membrane permeability of litchi fruit during storage. Litchi fruit exposed to pure oxygen showed a lower level of lipid peroxides, compared to control

Xuewu Duan; Ting Liu; Dandan Zhang; Xinguo Su; Hetong Lin; Yueming Jiang

2011-01-01

44

Antioxidant enzyme activities are not broadly correlated with longevity in 14 vertebrate endotherm species.  

PubMed

The free radical theory of ageing posits that accrual of oxidative damage underlies the increased cellular, tissue and organ dysfunction and failure associated with advanced age. In support of this theory, cellular resistance to oxidative stress is highly correlated with life span, suggesting that prevention or repair of oxidative damage might indeed be essential for longevity. To test the hypothesis that the prevention of oxidative damage underlies longevity, we measured the activities of the five major intracellular antioxidant enzymes in brain, heart and liver tissue of 14 mammalian and avian species with maximum life spans (MLSPs) ranging from 3 years to over 100 years. Our data set included Snell dwarf mice in which life span is increased by approximately 50% compared to their normal littermates. We found that CuZn superoxide dismutase, the major cytosolic superoxide dismutase, showed no correlation with MLSP in any of the three organs. Similarly, neither glutathione peroxidase nor glutathione reductase activities correlated with MLSP. MnSOD, the sole mitochondrial superoxide dismutase in mammals and birds, was positively correlated with MLSP only for brain tissue. This same trend was observed for catalase. For all correlational data, effects of body mass and phylogenetic relatedness were removed using residual analysis and Felsenstein's phylogenetically independent contrasts. Our results are not consistent with a causal role for intracellular antioxidant enzymes in longevity, similar to recent reports from studies utilising genetic modifications of mice (Pérez et al., Biochim Biophys Acta 1790:1005-1014, 2009). However, our results indicate a specific augmentation of reactive oxygen species neutralising activities in brain associated with longevity. PMID:20431992

Page, Melissa M; Richardson, Jean; Wiens, Brent E; Tiedtke, Esther; Peters, Craig W; Faure, Paul A; Burness, Gary; Stuart, Jeffrey A

2010-01-27

45

Electrophile and antioxidant regulation of enzymes that detoxify carcinogens.  

PubMed

Detoxication (phase 2) enzymes, such as glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), NAD(P)H:(quinone-acceptor) oxidoreductase (QR), and UDP-glucuronsyltransferase, are induced in animal cells exposed to a variety of electrophilic compounds and phenolic antioxidants. Induction protects against the toxic and neoplastic effects of carcinogens and is mediated by activation of upstream electrophile-responsive/antioxidant-responsive elements (EpRE/ARE). The mechanism of activation of these enhancers was analyzed by transient gene expression of growth hormone reporter constructs containing a 41-bp region derived from the mouse GST Ya gene 5'-upstream region that contains the EpRE/ARE element and of constructs in which this element was replaced with either one or two consensus phorbol 12-tetradecanoate 13-acetate (TPA)-responsive elements (TREs). When these three constructs were compared in Hep G2 (human) and Hepa 1c1c7 (murine) hepatoma cells, the wild-type sequence was highly activated by diverse inducers, including tert-butylhydroquinone, Michael reaction acceptors, 1,2-dithiole-3-thione, sulforaphane,2,3-dimercapto-1-propanol, HgCl2, sodium arsenite, and phenylarsine oxide. In contrast, constructs with consensus TRE sites were not induced significantly. TPA in combination with these compounds led to additive or synergistic inductions of the EpRE/ARE construct, but induction of the TRE construct was similar to that induced by TPA alone. Transfection of the EpRE/ARE reporter construct into F9 cells, which lack endogenous TRE-binding proteins, produced large inductions by the same compounds, which also induced QR activity in these cells. We conclude that activation of the EpRE/ARE by electrophile and antioxidant inducers is mediated by EpRE/ARE-specific proteins. PMID:7568053

Prestera, T; Talalay, P

1995-09-12

46

Different effects of exercise tests on the antioxidant enzyme activities in lymphocytes and neutrophils  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have determined the effects of maximal and submaximal cycloergometer tests on the antioxidant enzyme defences of neutrophils and lymphocytes. We also compared the neutrophil and lymphocyte basal enzyme antioxidant activities. A total of 17 well-trained amateur athletes, runners, and cyclists participated in this study. Two tests were performed on an electromagnetic reduction cycloergometer: the maximal exercise test, and the

Pedro Tauler; Antoni Aguiló; Isabel Gimeno; Pilar Guix; Josep A Tur; Antoni Pons

2004-01-01

47

Disparate Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Cultured Human Cutaneous Fibroblasts, Keratinocytes, and Melanocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antioxidant enzyme activities of cultured human foreskin fibroblasts, keratinocytes and melanocytes from healthy black and Caucasian donors were measured and compared. Fibroblasts had more (p < 0.05) peroxidase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity than keratinocytes. Keratinocytes had more (p < 0.05) peroxidase, catalase, glutathione peroxidas, and superoxide dismutase activity than melanocytes. No differences in antioxidant enzyme activities were

Joseph J. Yohn; David A. Norris; David G. Yrastorza; Irene J. Buno; Jonathan A. Leff; Steven S. Hake; John E. Repine

1991-01-01

48

Antioxidant enzyme expression in health and disease: effects of exercise and hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutases, catalase and glutathione peroxidase) are components of an organism's mechanisms for combating oxidative stress which is generated in normal metabolism and which may also be a reaction in response to external stimuli. This review identifies the general significance of antioxidant enzymes in health and disease, and some of the diseases that are now believed to have

Peter Johnson

2002-01-01

49

Effect of cryopreservation on sperm parameters, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes activity in fowl semen.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of chicken semen cryopreservation on sperm parameters, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes activities. Pooled semen from 10 Black Minorca roosters was used in the study. Semen samples were subjected to cryopreservation using the "pellet" method and dimethylacetamide (DMA) as a cryoprotectant. In the fresh and the frozen-thawed semen sperm membrane integrity (SYBR-14/propidium iodide (PI)), acrosomal damage (PNA-Alexa Fluor(®)488) and mitochondrial activity (Rhodamine 123) were assessed using flow cytometry. Malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were determined in sperm cells and seminal plasma by spectrophotometry. All sperm characteristics evaluated using flow cytometry were affected by cryopreservation. After freezing-thawing, there was significant (P < 0.01) reduction in sperm membrane integrity, sperm acrosome integrity and mitochondrial activity. Following cryopreservation, MDA concentration significantly increased in chicken seminal plasma and spermatozoa (P < 0.01, P < 0.05). The CAT activity in seminal plasma significantly decreased (P < 0.05), while intracellular activity of this enzyme did not significantly change in frozen-thawed semen. In seminal plasma of frozen-thawed semen the significant increase (P < 0.01) in GPx activity was detected. Whereas GPx activity in spermatozoa remained statistically unchanged after thawing. The SOD activity significantly increased (P < 0.01) in cryopreserved seminal plasma with simultaneous decrease (P < 0.01) of its activity in cells. In conclusion, this is probably the first report describing the level of antioxidant enzymes in frozen-thawed avian semen. The present study showed that the activity of CAT, GPx and SOD in chicken semen was affected by cryopreservation, what increased the intensity of lipid peroxidation (LPO). Catalase appeared to play an important role in the sperm antioxidant defense strategy at cryopreservation since, opposite to SOD and GPx, its content was clearly reduced by the cryopreservation process. Change in the antioxidant defense status of the chicken spermatozoa and surrounding seminal plasma might affect the semen quality and sperm fertilizing ability. PMID:22225691

Partyka, Agnieszka; ?ukaszewicz, Ewa; Ni?a?ski, Wojciech

2012-01-05

50

The influence of age and gender on antioxidant enzyme activities in humans and laboratory animals.  

PubMed

Antioxidative/oxidative balance is one of the important factors for homeostasis. Antioxidative systems which protect from peroxidative damage are supposed to be under the influence of steroid hormones. The implications of this influence are age and gender as well as tissue dependent alterations in antioxidative enzyme activities. Apart from hormonal influence, antioxidative enzymes require the presence of microelements in their active centers as well as concerted action of non enzymatic antioxidants which support enzymes in their scavenging action. The aim of this review is to analyze and compare existing knowledge about the changes in activity of antioxidant enzymes in human and animal females and males of different age. Evidence as regards participation of oxidative stress in senescence are specific diseases which, to some extent, are gender dependent and appear more frequently in males or females. Several experiments in laboratory animals revealed that changes in enzyme activities are reflected in histopathological pictures of cells. The alterations observed during perimenopausal period provide with additional evidence of the participation of steroid hormones in the regulation of antioxidative system activity. Moreover, estrogens themselves exhibit antioxidative activity which is receptor independent. In conclusion, apart from genetic-related influences, also diet and style of life may have an impact on the antioxidative system which requires appropriate supplementation in microelements and vitamins for its effective function of scavenging excess of free radicals. PMID:22960290

Giergiel, Marta; Lopucki, Maciej; Stachowicz, Norbert; Kankofer, Marta

2012-09-05

51

Effect of dietary vitamin E on antioxidant status and antioxidant enzyme activities in Sprague?Dawley rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of dietary vitamin E on plasma, red blood cells (RBC), hepatic antioxidant status, and antioxidant enzyme activities was investigated. Three groups of six Sprague?Dawley rats were fed 0, 100, or 1,500 ppm vitamin E for eight weeks. Plasma ??tocopherol level was increased significantly by increasing dietary vitamin E (p < 0.05). Plasma lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid?reactive substances) stimulation

1998-01-01

52

Role of antioxidant enzymes and small molecular weight antioxidants in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD).  

PubMed

Cells in aerobic condition are constantly exposed to reactive oxygen species (ROS), which may induce damage to biomolecules, including proteins, nucleic acids and lipids. In normal circumstances, the amount of ROS is counterbalanced by cellular antioxidant defence, with its main components-antioxidant enzymes, DNA repair and small molecular weight antioxidants. An imbalance between the production and neutralization of ROS by antioxidant defence is associated with oxidative stress, which plays an important role in the pathogenesis of many age-related and degenerative diseases, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD), affecting the macula-the central part of the retina. The retina is especially prone to oxidative stress due to high oxygen pressure and exposure to UV and blue light promoting ROS generation. Because oxidative stress has an established role in AMD pathogenesis, proper functioning of antioxidant defence may be crucial for the occurrence and progression of this disease. Antioxidant enzymes play a major role in ROS scavenging and changes of their expression or/and activity are reported to be associated with AMD. Therefore, the enzymes in the retina along with their genes may constitute a perspective target in AMD prevention and therapy. PMID:24057278

Tokarz, Paulina; Kaarniranta, Kai; Blasiak, Janusz

2013-09-22

53

Intracellular Localization of Enzymes of Fatty Acid-beta-Oxidation in the Alga Cyanidium caldarium.  

PubMed

The intracellular distribution of enzymes, participating in the beta-oxidation of fatty acids in the eucaryotic alga Cyanidium has been studied. After separating the organelles from a crude homogenate on a linear flotation gradient, the enzymes enoyl-CoA hydratase, hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, and thiolase were present in the mitochondrial fraction (density: 1.19 gram per cubic centimeter). Activity of an acyl-CoA synthetase was found in the mitochondrial fraction as well as in a band where mitochondrial membrane apparently had accumulated (density: 1.17 gram per cubic centimeter). None of these enzymes were present in the peroxisomes (density: 1.23 gram per cubic centimeter). Results from cell fractionation as well as properties of beta-oxidation enzymes indicate a mitochondrial location of fatty acid degradation also in the algae Galdieria sulphuraria and Cyanidioschyzon merolae. PMID:16667204

Gross, W

1989-12-01

54

Acid sphingomyelinase: relation of 93lysine residue on the ratio of intracellular to secreted enzyme activity.  

PubMed

Acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) is the lysosomal enzyme responsible for the hydrolysis of sphingomyelin to ceramide and phosphocholine. An inherited deficiency of this enzymatic activity results in the Type A and B forms of Niemann-Pick disease (NPD). ASM is also readily secreted from cultured cells and can rapidly move from lysosomes to the cell surface upon stimulation by cytokines and other factors. Recent interest has focused on the role of this secreted/cell surface enzyme in ceramide-mediated signal transduction. We therefore sought to understand the mechanism(s) that might regulate intracellular targeting and secretion of this important hydrolase. Most lysosomal proteins are targeted to lysosomes in mammalian cells via the mannose 6-phosphate recognition system. Using cultured skin fibroblasts from I-cell disease patients, in which one of the enzymes responsible for mannose phosphorylation, GlcNAc-phosphotransferase, is deficient, we determined ASM activities in cell homogenates and media. The ratio of secreted to intracellular activity was approximately 8-fold greater in I-cell than in normal cells, indicating that mannose phosphorylation is important in the trafficking of this hydrolase. Most of the secreted activity required Zn+2 for full activity, supporting the concept that intracellular exposure of ASM to zinc within lysosomes is required for enzymatic activation. The recognition of lysosomal proteins by GlcNAc-phosphotransferase is mediated by protein structure, and a specific three-dimensional arrangement of lysine residues exposed on the surface of several enzymes has been shown to be critical for mannose phosphorylation. Alanine scanning mutagenesis of thirteen lysine residues in ASM demonstrated that 93lysine residue plays a critical role in ASM targeting since the K93A mutant had reduced intracellular activity, but enhanced secreted activity that was zinc responsive. PMID:15997205

Takahashi, Ikuko; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Mikami, Tamaki; Komatsu, Masaki; Ohura, Toshihiro; Schuchman, Edward H; Takada, Goro

2005-08-01

55

Identification of Intracellular Degradation Intermediates of Aldolase B by Antiserum to the Denatured Enzyme  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method has been developed that enables us to identify intracellular degradation intermediates of fructose-bisphosphate aldolase B (D-fructose-1,6-bisphosphate D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-lyase, EC 4.1.2.13). This method is based on the use of antibody against thoroughly denatured purified aldolase. This antibody has been shown to recognize only denatured molecules, and it did not interact with ``native'' enzyme. Supernatants (24,000 × g for 30 min)

Abraham Z. Reznick; Leah Rosenfelder; Sharona Shpund; David Gershon

1985-01-01

56

Bacopa monniera Linn. extract modulates antioxidant and marker enzyme status in fibrosarcoma bearing rats.  

PubMed

Antioxidative property and tumor inhibitive property of B. monniera (20mg/kg body wt, sc) was examined in 3-methylcholanthrene induced fibrosarcoma rats. Antioxidant enzymes such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and the levels of glutathione (GSH) and the rate of lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the liver and kidney tissues were assessed. A significant increase was noted for the rate of LPO with a corresponding decrease in the antioxidant enzyme status in fibrosarcoma bearing rats. In fibrosarcoma bearing rats, the tumor markers like lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and sialic acid (SA) were increased in the serum. Treatment with B. monniera extract significantly increased the antioxidant enzyme status, inhibited lipid peroxidation and reduced the tumor markers. It can be concluded that B.monniera extract promotes the antioxidant status, reduces the rate of lipid peroxidation and the markers of tumor progression in the fibrosarcoma bearing rats. PMID:15573526

Rohini, G; Sabitha, K E; Devi, C S Shyamala

2004-08-01

57

Changes in antioxidant enzymes in humans with long-term exposure to pesticides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different pesticides, including organophosphates (OPs), have been reported to induce oxidative stress due to generation of free radicals and alteration in antioxidant defence mechanisms. In this study, a cohort of 81 intensive agriculture workers (pesticide sprayers) was assessed twice during the course of a spraying season for changes in erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was used as a reference biomarker.

Olga López; Antonio F. Hernández; Lourdes Rodrigo; Fernando Gil; Gloria Pena; José Luis Serrano; Tesifón Parrón; Enrique Villanueva; Antonio Pla

2007-01-01

58

Hyperoxia results in transient oxidative stress and an adaptive response by antioxidant enzymes in goldfish tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of hyperoxia on the status of antioxidant defenses and markers of oxidative damage were evaluated in goldfish tissues. The levels of lipid peroxides, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, carbonyl proteins and the activities of some antioxidant enzymes were measured in brain, liver, kidney and skeletal muscle of goldfish, Carassius auratus L., over a time course of 3–12h of hyperoxia

Volodymyr I. Lushchak; Tetyana V. Bagnyukova; Victor V. Husak; Lidiya I. Luzhna; Oleh V. Lushchak; Kenneth B. Storey

2005-01-01

59

Antioxidant and eicosanoid enzyme inhibition properties of pomegranate seed oil and fermented juice flavonoids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidant and eicosanoid enzyme inhibition properties of pomegranate (Punica granatum) fermented juice and seed oil flavonoids were studied. The pomegranate fermented juice (pfj) and cold pressed seed oil (pcpso) showed strong antioxidant activity close to that of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and green tea (Thea sinensis), and significantly greater than that of red wine (Vitis vitifera). Flavonoids extracted from pcpso

Shay Yehoshua Schubert; Ephraim Philip Lansky; Ishak Neeman

1999-01-01

60

Dual Targeting of Antioxidant and Metabolic Enzymes to the Mitochondrion and the Apicoplast of Toxoplasma gondii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxoplasma gondii is an aerobic protozoan parasite that possesses mitochondrial antioxidant enzymes to safely dispose of oxygen radicals generated by cellular respiration and metabolism. As with most Apicomplexans, it also harbors a chloroplast-like organelle, the apicoplast, which hosts various biosynthetic pathways and requires antioxidant protection. Most apicoplast-resident proteins are encoded in the nuclear genome and are targeted to the organelle

Paco Pino; Bernardo Javier Foth; Lai-Yu Kwok; Lilach Sheiner; Rebecca Schepers; Thierry Soldati; Dominique Soldati-Favre

2007-01-01

61

Antioxidant Constituents and Enzyme Activities in Chilli Peppers  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is important that the antioxidant quality of green chilli (Capsicum annuum var. longum L.) be improved through selection or breeding. To better understand antioxidant levels in existing germplasm, biochemical screening of 10 cultivars was performed. The level of the antioxidant constituents vitamin C, carotene, phenol, and capsaicin ranged between 0.160 and 2.987 mg·g wet weight, 0.167 and 0.913 mg·g

A. Bhattacharya; A. Chattopadhyay; D. Mazumdar; A. Chakravarty; S. Pal

2010-01-01

62

Antioxidant enzyme activities of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells exposed to trace elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The trace elements copper, zinc, and selenium are important immune modulators and essential cofactors of the antioxidant enzymes.\\u000a In the present study, the proliferative effect of human peripheral mononuclear cells (PBMCs) that have been exposed to copper,\\u000a zinc, and selenium and the corresponding activities of antioxidant enzymes, namely superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione\\u000a peroxidase (GPx), and catalase, were determined. Zinc and

U. R. Kuppusamy; M. Dharmani; M. S. Kanthimathi; M. Indran

2005-01-01

63

In vivo effects of pentoxifylline on enzyme and non-enzyme antioxidant levels in rat liver after carrageenan-induced paw inflammation.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to investigate the effects of pentoxifylline (PTX) on the carrageenan (CG)-induced paw oedema and on the endogenous levels of cell enzyme and non-enzyme antioxidants in rat liver, 4 and 24 h after CG injection. PTX (50 mg kg(-1) , i.p.), administered 30 min before CG, decreased the paw oedema, 2-4 h after CG administration. The drug protected CG-induced decrease of glutathione (non-enzyme antioxidant) and had no effect on CG-unchanged activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase (enzyme antioxidants) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (enzyme, important for the activity of GSH-conjugated antioxidant enzymes). The drug showed a good antioxidant capacity in chemical systems, generating reactive oxygen species. The present results suggest that the antioxidant activity of PTX might contribute to its beneficial effects in liver injuries. PMID:21104934

Vircheva, Stefani; Alexandrova, Albena; Georgieva, Almira; Mateeva, Polina; Zamfirova, Rositza; Kubera, Marta; Kirkova, Margarita

2010-12-01

64

Cystatin C properties crucial for uptake and inhibition of intracellular target enzymes.  

PubMed

To elucidate the molecular requirements for cancer cell internalization of the extracellular cysteine protease inhibitor cystatin C, 12 variants of the protein were produced and used for uptake experiments in MCF-7 cells. Variants with alterations in the cysteine cathepsin binding region ((?1-10)-, K5A-, R8G-, (R8G,L9G,V10G)-, (R8G,L9G,V10G,W106G)-, and W106G-cystatin C) were internalized to a very low extent compared with the wild-type inhibitor. Substitutions of N39 in the legumain binding region (N39K- and N39A-cystatin C) decreased the internalization and (R24A,R25A)-cystatin C, with substitutions of charged residues not involved in enzyme inhibition, was not taken up at all. Two variants, W106F- and K75A-cystatin C, showed that the internalization can be positively affected by engineering of the cystatin molecule. Microscopy revealed vesicular co-localization of internalized cystatin C with the lysosomal marker proteins cathepsin D and legumain. Activities of both cysteine cathepsins and legumain, possible target enzymes associated with cancer cell invasion and metastasis, were down-regulated in cell homogenates following cystatin C uptake. A positive effect on regulation of intracellular enzyme activity by a cystatin variant selected from uptake properties was illustrated by incubating cells with W106F-cystatin C. This resulted in more efficient down-regulation of intracellular legumain activity than when cells were incubated with wild-type cystatin C. Uptake experiments in prostate cancer cells corroborated that the cystatin C internalization is generally relevant and confirmed an increased uptake of W106F-cystatin C, in PC3 cells. Thus, intracellular cysteine proteases involved in cancer-promoting processes might be controled by cystatin uptake. PMID:23629651

Wallin, Hanna; Abrahamson, Magnus; Ekström, Ulf

2013-04-29

65

Jasmonic acid elicitation of anthraquinones with some associated enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidant responses in Morinda elliptica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Morinda elliptica cell cultures in an intermediary (G) medium treated with jasmonic acid (JA) elicitor, was used as a model system to understand the effects of elicitation on cell growth, anthraquinone (AQ) production, stress levels (lipid peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)), enzymic (catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APO) and glutathione reductase (GR)) and non-enzymic antioxidant responses (total carotenoids, vitamin C and

T. M. Chong; M. A. Abdullah; N. M. Fadzillah; O. M. Lai; N. H. Lajis

2005-01-01

66

Induction of antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation level in ion-beam-bombarded rice seeds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low-energy ion beam bombardment has been used to mutate a wide variety of plant species. To explore the indirect effects of low-energy ion beam on biological damage due to the free radical production in plant cells, the increase in antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation level was investigated in ion-bombarded rice seeds. Local rice seeds were bombarded with nitrogen or argon ion beams at energies of 29-60 keV and ion fluences of 1 × 1016 ions cm-2. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and lipid peroxidation level were assayed in the germinated rice seeds after ion bombardment. The results showed most of the enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation levels in both the argon and nitrogen bombarded samples were higher than those in the natural control. N-ion bombardment could induce higher levels of antioxidant enzyme activities in the rice samples than the Ar-ion bombardment. Additional effects due to the vacuum condition were found to affect activities of some antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation level. This study demonstrates that ion beam bombardment and vacuum condition could induce the antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation level which might be due to free radical production in the bombarded rice seeds.

Semsang, Nuananong; Yu, LiangDeng

2013-07-01

67

In vivo effects of indomethacin--I. Activity of antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation.  

PubMed

1. The in vivo effects of indomethacin on the activity of antioxidant enzymes and on lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes, liver and small intestines of rats were examined. 2. The activity of the enzymes studied increased or remained unchanged depending on the preparation and model used: treatment with "therapeutic" or "ulcerogenic" dose of indomethacin. 3. Indomethacin inhibited lipid peroxidation in the liver but not in the erythrocytes. 4. The results suggest that the stimulation of antioxidant enzymes, probably through in vivo formed metal complexes, is an alternative mechanism of the antiinflammatory action of indomethacin. PMID:1511859

Kirkova, M; Kassabova, T; Russanov, E

1992-05-01

68

Transcription and Activity of Antioxidant Enzymes after Ionizing Irradiation in Radiation-Resistant and Radiation-Sensitive Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The involvement of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase in radiobiological processes has been described at the enzyme activity level. We irradiated radiation-resistant (RR) and radiation-sensitive (RS) mice and studied antioxidant enzymes at the transcriptional and activity level. In addition, aromatic hydroxylation and lipid peroxidation parameters were determined to study radiation resistance at the oxidation

Rosmarie Hardmeier; Harald Hoeger; Susanne Fang-Kircher; Ali Khoschsorur; Gert Lubec

1997-01-01

69

Oxidative stress and the antioxidant enzyme system in the developing brain  

PubMed Central

Preterm infants are vulnerable to the oxidative stress due to the production of large amounts of free radicals, antioxidant system insufficiency, and immature oligodendroglial cells. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a pivotal role in the development of periventricular leukomalacia. The three most common ROS are superoxide (O2•-), hydroxyl radical (OH•), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Under normal physiological conditions, a balance is maintained between the production of ROS and the capacity of the antioxidant enzyme system. However, if this balance breaks down, ROS can exert toxic effects. Superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase are considered the classical antioxidant enzymes. A recently discovered antioxidant enzyme family, peroxiredoxin (Prdx), is also an important scavenger of free radicals. Prdx1 expression is induced at birth, whereas Prdx2 is constitutively expressed, and Prdx6 expression is consistent with the classical antioxidant enzymes. Several antioxidant substances have been studied as potential therapeutic agents; however, further preclinical and clinical studies are required before allowing clinical application.

Shim, So-Yeon

2013-01-01

70

Oxidative stress and the antioxidant enzyme system in the developing brain.  

PubMed

Preterm infants are vulnerable to the oxidative stress due to the production of large amounts of free radicals, antioxidant system insufficiency, and immature oligodendroglial cells. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a pivotal role in the development of periventricular leukomalacia. The three most common ROS are superoxide (O2(•-)), hydroxyl radical (OH(•)), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Under normal physiological conditions, a balance is maintained between the production of ROS and the capacity of the antioxidant enzyme system. However, if this balance breaks down, ROS can exert toxic effects. Superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase are considered the classical antioxidant enzymes. A recently discovered antioxidant enzyme family, peroxiredoxin (Prdx), is also an important scavenger of free radicals. Prdx1 expression is induced at birth, whereas Prdx2 is constitutively expressed, and Prdx6 expression is consistent with the classical antioxidant enzymes. Several antioxidant substances have been studied as potential therapeutic agents; however, further preclinical and clinical studies are required before allowing clinical application. PMID:23559971

Shim, So-Yeon; Kim, Han-Suk

2013-03-18

71

Antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation in the freshwater cladoceran Daphnia magna exposed to redox cycling compounds.  

PubMed

Contaminant-related changes in antioxidative processes in the freshwater crustacea Daphnia magna exposed to model redox cycling contaminant were assessed. Activities of key antioxidant enzymes including catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione S-transferases and levels of lipid peroxidation measured as thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and lipofucsin pigment content were determined in D. magna juveniles after being exposed to sublethal levels of menadione, paraquat, endosulfan, cadmium and copper for 48 h. Results denoted different patterns of antioxidant enzyme responses, suggesting that different toxicants may induce different antioxidant/prooxidant responses depending on their ability to produce reactive oxygen species and antioxidant enzymes to detoxify them. Low responses of antioxidant enzyme activities for menadione and endosulfan, associated with increasing levels of lipid peroxidation and enhanced levels of antioxidant enzyme activities for paraquat, seemed to prevent lipid peroxidation, whereas high levels of both antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation were found for copper. For cadmium, low antioxidant enzyme responses coupled with negligible increases in lipid peroxidation indicated low potential for cadmium to alter the antioxidant/prooxidant status in Daphnia. Among the studied enzymes, total glutathione peroxidase, catalase and glutathione S-transferase appeared to be the most responsive biomarkers of oxidative stress. PMID:15907763

Barata, Carlos; Varo, Inma; Navarro, Juan Carlos; Arun, Solayan; Porte, Cinta

2005-02-24

72

Effect of monensin on intracellular transport and receptor-mediated endocytosis of lysosomal enzymes.  

PubMed Central

In cultured human fibroblasts we observed that monensin, a Na+/H+-exchanging ionophore, (i) inhibits mannose 6-phosphate-sensitive endocytosis of a lysosomal enzyme, (ii) enhances secretion of the precursor of cathepsin D, while inhibiting secretion of the precursors of beta-hexosaminidase, (iii) induces secretion of mature beta-hexosaminidase and mature cathepsin D, and (iv) inhibits carbohydrate processing in and proteolytic maturation of the precursors remaining within the cells; this last effect appears to be secondary to an inhibition of the transport of the precursors. If the treated cells are transferred to a monensin-free medium, about half of the accumulated precursors are secreted, and the intracellular enzyme is converted into the mature form. Monensin blocks formation of complex oligosaccharides in lysosomal enzymes. In the presence of monensin, total phosphorylation of glycoproteins is partially inhibited, whereas the secreted glycoproteins are enriched in the phosphorylated species. The suggested inhibition by monensin of the transport within the Golgi apparatus [Tartakoff (1980) Int. Rev. Exp. Pathol. 22, 227-250] may be the cause of some of the effects observed in the present study (iv). Other effects (i, ii) are rather explained by interference by monensin with the acidification in the lysosomal and prelysosomal compartments, which appears to be necessary for the transport of endocytosed and of newly synthesized lysosomal enzymes. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5.

Pohlmann, R; Kruger, S; Hasilik, A; von Figura, K

1984-01-01

73

Correlation of antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes to oxygen radical scavenging activities in berries  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Berry fruits contain high levels of antioxidant compounds. In addition to the usual nutrients such as vitamins and minerals, berry fruits are also rich in flavonols, anthocyanidins, proanthocyanidins, catechins, flavones, and their glycosides. These antioxidants are capable of performing a number of...

74

[Effects of macrophytes pyrolysis bio-oil on Skeletonema costatum antioxidant enzyme activities].  

PubMed

In order to reveal the preliminary inhibition mechanisms of aquatic plants bio-oils on Skeletonema costatum, effects of Arundo donax L. 300 degees C, Ph. australis Trin. 400 degrees C and Typha orientalis Pres1 400 degrees C bio-oils on the concentration change of malondialdehyde (MDA) and the activity of antioxidant enzymes system (SOD, POD and CAT) were evaluated. The results showed that the higher Ihe Bio-oil concentrations, the higher the MDA contents in Skeletonema costatum was, and when the Bio-oil concentration was 10 mg.L-1 the MDA concentration increased with the reaction time. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity also increased with the increase of bio-oil concentration. For Arundo donax L 300 degrees C and Typha orientalis Presl 400 degrees C bio-oil, when the reaction time was longer, the S0D activity of Skeletonema costatum first increased and then decreased, and in both cases the maximum SOD activity was measured at 24 h. reaching 93.6 U (10(7) cells)-1 and 8.23 U (10(7) cells)-1, respectively. For Ph. australis Trin 400 degrees C bio-oil, the SOD activity kept increasing within 72 h. The peroxidase ( POD) activity of Skeletonema costatum also increased with the increase of bio-il concentrations. In the presence of Arundo donax L. 300 degrees C and Ph. australis Trin 400 degrees C bio-oil, the POD activity of Skeletonma, costatum first increased and then decreased, while with Typha orientalis Presl 400 degrees C bio-oil the POD activity increased with fluctuations. For all the three bio-oils, the catalase (CAT) activities increased first and then decreased when the reaction time was prolonged, and the higher the bio-oils concentration, the greater the CAT activity was. Pyrolysis bio-oils enhance the activity of antioxidant enzymes, leading to intracellular oxidative stress in the algae, which seems to be the main inhibitory mechanism for algae PMID:23668127

Yao, Yuan; Li, Feng-Min; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Shan, Shi; Li, Jie; Wang, Zhen-Yu

2013-02-01

75

Improvement by N-acetylcysteine of acute respiratory distress syndrome through increasing intracellular glutathione, and extracellular thiol molecules and anti-oxidant power: evidence for underlying toxicological mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), there is extensive overproduction of free radicals to the extent that endogenous anti-oxidants are overwhelmed, permitting oxidative cell damage. The present study examined the benefit of the anti-oxidant compound N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in the management of ARDS by measuring patient's intracellular glutathione (inside red blood cells) and extracellular (plasma) anti-oxidant defense biomarkers and outcome. Twenty-seven

Mohammad Sadegh Soltan-Sharifi; Mojtaba Mojtahedzadeh; Atabak Najafi; Mohammad Reza Khajavi; Mohammad Reza Rouini; Mandana Moradi; Azadeh Mohammadirad; Mohammad Abdollahi

2007-01-01

76

Alteration of myocardial antioxidant enzyme activity and glutathione content with aging and exercise training  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antioxidant enzyme activities and glutathione (GSH) content were investigated in the ventricular myocardia of adult (4.5 mo.),\\u000a mid-age (14.5 mo.), and old (26.5 mo.) male Fischer 344 rats. In addition, the effect of 10 wks of exercise training (T) on\\u000a these antioxidant systems was evaluated at each age. T was performed on a rodent treadmill for 1 hr\\/day, 5 days\\/wk

R. Fiebig; M. T. Gore; R. Chandwaney; C. Leeuwenburgh; L. L. Ji

1996-01-01

77

Alterations of antioxidant enzymes and oxidative stress markers in aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

In accordance with the present state of scientific knowledge, the excessive production of free radicals in the organism, and the imbalance between the concentrations of these and the antioxidant defenses may be related to processes such as aging and several diseases. The aging process has been described by various theories. In particular, the free radical theory of aging has received

M. Kasapoglu; T. Özben

2001-01-01

78

Antioxidant enzymes and pulmonary function in steel mill welders.  

PubMed

It is known that high levels of nitric oxide and ozone lead to disturbances of the balance between oxidants and antioxidants. The purpose of this study was to investigate ventilatory parameters in relation to the antioxidant status measured as total antioxidant status (TAS), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CT). The study group consisted of 94 welders, aged 41.2 +/- 10.0 years, employed in the Steel Mill in Kraków, Poland, and exposed to nitric oxides and ozone in concentrations exceeding the threshold limit values. The control group consisted of 115 unexposed healthy workers aged 40.8 +/- 10.2 years. All the subjects under study were smokers. Determination of ventilatory efficiency was based on a "flow-volume" curve and spirometry. TAS was measured using reagents from the Randox Laboratories Ltd, SOD according to Fridovich and CT with Aebi's method. It was found that in the group of welders, the concentrations of TAS, CT and SOD were lower compared to controls (TAS-1.15/1.33 mmol/ml; CT-18.1/28.4 m/gHb, SOD-767.6/855.6 U/gHb). The incidence of extreme obstructive pulmonary disease and small airway disease in the welder group was more frequent than in controls. Changes in the concentration (or activity) of antioxidant parameters cannot be used as early markers of ventilatory dysfunction, although the values in the lowest class of TAS, SOD and CT showed a significantly larger number of welders than controls. PMID:12705716

Stepnewski, Marek; Kolarzyk, Emilia; Pietrzycka, Agata; Kitlinski, Mariusz; Helbin, Jadwiga; Brzyszczan, Klaudyna

2003-01-01

79

Antioxidant enzyme activity in rat hippocampus after chronic and acute stress exposure.  

PubMed

Chronic exposure to stress alters the prooxidant-antioxidant balance, which might lead to the development of various human pathological states. In order to explain the role of antioxidant response in stress-induced injury, we examined the effects of two types of acute stress, as well as combined effects of chronic and acute stress on manganese-superoxide dismutase, copper,zinc-superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities in rat brain hippocampus. Our results show that chronic stress induces an increase in oxidative enzyme activities and that adaptation to chronic stress might alter hippocampal antioxidant mechanisms' response to acute stress. PMID:16154956

Stojiljkovi?, Vesna; Todorovi?, Ana; Kasapovi?, Jelena; Peji?, Snezana; Pajovi?, Snezana B

2005-06-01

80

Effects of mate tea (Ilex paraguariensis) ingestion on mRNA expression of antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation, and total antioxidant status in healthy young women.  

PubMed

The antioxidant activity of mate tea, the roasted product derived from yerba mate (Ilex paraguarienis), was observed in vitro and in animal models, but studies in humans are lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of mate tea supplementation on plasma susceptibility to oxidation and on antioxidant enzyme gene expression in healthy nonsmoking women, after acute or prolonged ingestion. We evaluated plasma total antioxidant status (TAS), the kinetics of diene conjugate generation, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) contents in plasma, as well as mRNA levels of antioxidant gluthatione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT). After the supplementation period with mate tea, lipid peroxidation was acutely lowered, an effect that was maintained after prolonged administration. Total antioxidant status and the level of antioxidant enzyme gene expression were also demonstrated after prolonged consumption. These results suggest that regular consumption of mate tea may increase antioxidant defense of the body by multiple mechanisms. PMID:19219987

Matsumoto, Ruth L T; Bastos, Deborah H M; Mendonça, Simone; Nunes, Valéria S; Bartchewsky, Waldemar; Ribeiro, Marcelo L; de Oliveira Carvalho, Patrícia

2009-03-11

81

[Erythremia: the activity of erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes and the association with iron deficiency].  

PubMed

Concentration of malonic dialdehyde (MDA) and activity of antioxidant enzymes G-6-PD, glutation peroxidase (GP), glutation reductase, catalase, superoxide dismutase were measured in red cells of patients with polycythemia vera. Plasmic ions Fe3+ were estimated by means of electron-paramagnetic resonance. MDA concentration and antioxidant enzymes (except GP) in polycythemia red cells were found increased, while the activity of selenium-dependent GP was reduced, the inhibition being greatest in severe iron deficiency. It is suggested that GP activity in red cells depends on both selenium levels in the body and concentrations of non-hematic iron. PMID:9213964

Petukhov, V I; Kumerova, A O; Letse, A G; Silova, A A; Shkesters, A P; Krishchuna, M A; Mironova, N A

1997-01-01

82

Antioxidant enzymes responses to cadmium in radish tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the antioxidant responses of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) to cadmium (Cd) treatment, seedlings of a tolerant variety were grown in increasing concentrations of CdCl2, ranging from 0.25–1 mM, for up to 72 h in a hydroponic system. Analysis of Cd uptake indicated that most of the Cd accumulated in the roots, but some was also translocated and accumulated

Angela P Vitória; Peter J Lea; Ricardo A Azevedo

2001-01-01

83

Expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes during potato tuber dormancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The expression of antioxidant genes has been analyzed in a potato plant and during tuber dormancy. Manganese superoxide dismutase\\u000a (MnSOD), cytosolic copper and zinc superoide dismutase (Cu\\/ZnSOD), catalase class II, cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase (APX)\\u000a and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) are expressed at the RNA level in all the contexts analyzed. By contrast, the expression\\u000a of the iron superoxide dismutase (FeSOD) and

J. A. Rojas-Beltran; F. Dejaeghere; M. Abd Alla Kotb; P. Du Jardin

2000-01-01

84

Modulation of hOGG1 DNA repair enzyme in human cultured cells in response to pro-oxidant and antioxidant challenge.  

PubMed

The putative modulation of the base excision repair enzyme, human 8-oxoguanine glycosylase (hOGG1), important in the removal of the potentially mutagenic lesion 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), was investigated in human cell culture models. The expression of specific mRNA and protein was measured following pro-oxidant and antioxidant treatments in one human lymphoblastoid and one keratinocyte line. The measurement of intracellular reactive oxygen species generation was monitored by a fluorogenic assay and potential genotoxic effects confirmed by the dose-dependent increase in formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase (Fpg) sensitive sites by alkaline unwinding following sub-lethal doses of hydrogen peroxide. The generation of a potentially antioxidant environment was assessed by the intracellular increase and extracellular depletion in ascorbic acid, confirmed by capillary electrophoresis. Despite these pro-oxidant and antioxidant treatments no significant change in mRNA of hOGG1 was observed in either cell line. Western analysis revealed that relatively high, yet noncytotoxic, doses of hydrogen peroxide caused a consistent approximate 50% decrease in hOGG1 protein in lymphoblastoid cells. The lack of upregulation of hOGG1 suggests the gene is constitutively expressed, which is further supported by studies examining the sequence of its promoter region. However, hOGG1 protein turnover may be sensitive to intracellular redox changes. PMID:12899941

Mistry, Pratibha; Herbert, Karl E

2003-08-15

85

Optimization of ABTS radical cation assay specifically for determination of antioxidant capacity of intracellular extracts of microalgae and cyanobacteria.  

PubMed

A renewed interest in antioxidants has arisen in recent years; microalgae and cyanobacteria are potential sources thereof for use as food/feed ingredients. However, improved methods for comprehensive screening of antioxidant capacity specifically in intracellular extracts of marine microorganisms are required - encompassing lipophilic and hydrophilic compounds simultaneously. The original ABTS method was thus improved, and in particular the procedures of cell disruption and storage were optimized. The best solvent found was ethanol/water (1:1, v/v). The reaction to form ABTS(+) in said solvent was essentially complete by eight hours, and this radical cation was stable for at least 6 days; at room temperature, the ABTS(+) solution remained within an allowable analytical range for up to 13 h. Ultra Turrax was the best cell disruption method, and refrigeration was the best preservation method. This improved methodology was validated with four representative strains that respond poorly to cell disruption. PMID:23265534

Guedes, A Catarina; Amaro, Helena M; Gião, Maria S; Malcata, F Xavier

2012-11-08

86

Diet supplementation with vitamin E, vitamin C and ß-carotene cocktail enhances basal neutrophil antioxidant enzymes in athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exercise increases oxygen consumption and causes a disturbance of intracellular pro-oxidant-antioxidant homeostasis. Few data are available as to the cumulative effects of exercise on the antioxidant defenses of the neutrophil. We studied the effects of 90 days' supplementation with placebo or an antioxidant cocktail of vitamin E (500 mg\\/day) and #-carotene (30 mg\\/day) and the last 15 days also with

P. Tauler; A. Aguiló; E. Fuentespina; J. A. Tur; A. Pons

2002-01-01

87

Age-related changes in antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione in different regions of mouse brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been proposed that neurodegenerative processes of aging are associated with the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during cellular metabolism. These reactive oxygen species are scavenged by antioxidant enzymes in biological systems. The present study was designed to determine the selective distribution of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activity and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels

S. Hussain; W. Slikker; S. F. Ali

1995-01-01

88

Antioxidant and Antithrombus Activities of Enzyme-Treated Salicornia herbacea Extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was attempted to investigate antioxidant and antithrombus activities of water and methanol extracts of enzyme-treated Salicornia herbacea (SH)by in vitro assays observing the inhibitory activity of a rat liver microsomal lipid peroxidation, DPPH radical scavenging activity, activated partial thromboplastin times (APTT) and thromboplastin times (TT). The water and methanol extracts from enzyme-treated SH inhibited the lipid peroxidation in

Hyun-Seo Jang; Kyung-Ran Kim; Sang-Won Choi; Mi-Hee Woo; Jeong-Hwa Choi

2007-01-01

89

Neuroprotective effect of ginger on anti-oxidant enzymes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of ginger on oxidative stress markers in the mitochondrial fractions of cerebral cortex (CC), cerebellum (CB), hippocampus (HC) and hypothalamus (HT) of diabetic rats. Diabetes exacerbates neuronal injury induced by hyperglycemia mediated oxidative damage. A marked decrease in anti-oxidant marker enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), reduced glutathione (GSH) and increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) was observed in the diabetic rats. Decreased activities of anti-oxidant enzymes in diabetic rats were augmented on oral administration of ginger. Moreover, ginger administration depleted the MDA level, which was earlier increased in the diabetic rats. These results suggest that ginger exhibit a neuroprotective effect by accelerating brain anti-oxidant defense mechanisms and down regulating the MDA levels to the normal levels in the diabetic rats. Thus, ginger may be used as therapeutic agent in preventing complications in diabetic patients. PMID:21184796

Shanmugam, Kondeti Ramudu; Mallikarjuna, Korivi; Kesireddy, Nishanth; Sathyavelu Reddy, Kesireddy

2010-12-22

90

Engineered silica nanocarriers as a high-payload delivery vehicle for antioxidant enzymes.  

PubMed

Antioxidant enzymes for the treatment of oxidative stress-related diseases remain a highly promising therapeutic approach. As poor localization and stability have been the greatest challenges to their clinical translation, a variety of nanocarrier systems have been developed to directly address these limitations. In most cases, there has been a trade-off between the delivered mass of enzyme loaded and the carrier's ability to protect the enzyme from proteolytic degradation. One potential method of overcoming this limitation is the use of ordered mesoporous silica materials as potential antioxidant enzyme nanocarriers. The present study compared the loading, activity and retention activity of an anti-oxidant enzyme, catalase, on four engineered mesoporous silica types: non-porous silica particles, spherical silica particles with radially oriented pores and hollow spherical silica particles with pores oriented either parallel to the hollow core or expanded, interconnected bimodal pores. All these silica types, except non-porous silica, displayed potential for effective catalase loading and protection against the proteolytic enzyme, pronase. Hollow particles with interconnected pores exhibit protein loading of up to 50 wt.% carrier mass, while still maintaining significant protection against proteolysis. PMID:22366223

Ambati, J; Lopez, A M; Cochran, D; Wattamwar, P; Bean, K; Dziubla, T D; Rankin, S E

2012-02-22

91

Antioxidant enzyme changes in neem, pigeonpea and mulberry leaves in two stages of maturity  

PubMed Central

Differential expression of antioxidant enzymes in various growth and differentiation stages has been documented in several plant species. We studied here, the difference in the levels of protein content and antioxidant enzymes activity at two stages of maturity, named young and mature in neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss), pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) mill sp) and mulberry (Morus Alba L.) leaves. The results showed that detached neem and pigeonpea mature leaves possessed higher activities of catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) and lower activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) as compared with young leaves. However, glutathione reductase (GR) showed higher activity in mature leaves of neem, whereas no change in its activity was observed in pigeonpea. On the other hand, antioxidant enzymes in mulberry showed either positive (PPO) or negative (POD, GR, APX) correlation with the progression of leaf maturity. Apparently the trend of changes in antioxidant enzymes activity during leaf development is species-specific: their activity higher at mature stage in some plants and lower in others.

Goud, Prashanth B.; Kachole, Manvendra S.

2012-01-01

92

Antioxidant enzymes activities and protein damage in rat brain of both sexes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theory of free radicals and accumulation of damages suggests that the reactive species of oxygen play a key role in the context of aging. Thus, for the best understanding of the aging process, the study of antioxidant defenses has to be considered as part of gerontology. The present work evaluated the enzymatic activity of the enzymes catalase (CAT), glutathione

Guilherme Ehrenbrink; Fernanda Schäfer Hakenhaar; Tiago Boeira Salomon; Antonella Pilla Petrucci; Marcia Rodrigues Sandri; Mara Silveira Benfato

2006-01-01

93

Changes in Antioxidant Defense Enzymes after d- amphetamine Exposure: Implications as an Animal Model of Mania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies have demonstrated that oxidative stress is associated with amphetamine-induced neurotoxicity, but little is known about the adaptations of antioxidant enzymes in the brain after amphetamine exposure. We studied the effects of acute and chronic amphetamine administration on superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity, in a rodent model of mania. Male Wistar rats received either a single IP injection

Benício N. Frey; Samira S. Valvassori; Gislaine Z. Réus; Márcio R. Martins; Fabrícia C. Petronilho; Katrine Bardini; Felipe Dal-Pizzol; Flávio Kapczinski; João Quevedo

2006-01-01

94

Temporal variations of lipid peroxidation products, antioxidants and liver marker enzymes in experimental hyperammonemic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Circadian variations of lipid peroxidation products: thiobarbituric acid and reactive substances (TBARS), antioxidants: reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and liver marker enzymes such as transaminases (aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and ?-Glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) in circulation were analysed in control and ammonium chloride (AC) induced (100 mg\\/kg bodyweight) hyperammonemic rats.

M. Mohamed Essa; P. Subramanian

2007-01-01

95

Nandrolone decanoate impairs exercise-induced cardioprotection: Role of antioxidant enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The beneficial effects of exercise in reducing the incidence of cardiovascular diseases are well known and the abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has been associated to cardiovascular disorders. Previous studies showed that heart protection to ischemic events would be mediated by increasing the antioxidant enzyme activities. Here, we investigated the impact of exercise and high doses of the AAS

Elen Aguiar Chaves; Pedro Paulo Pereira-Junior; Rodrigo Soares Fortunato; Masako Oya Masuda; Antônio Carlos Campos de Carvalho; Denise Pires de Carvalho; Marcus F. Oliveira; José Hamilton Matheus Nascimento

2006-01-01

96

Stage-specific distribution of oxidative radicals and antioxidant enzymes in the midgut of Leptinotarsa decemlineata  

Microsoft Academic Search

The titers of reactive oxygen species (ROS) represented by superoxide anion and general peroxides, and the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), are regulated in the midgut of the Colorado potato beetle (CPB) relative to the gut compartment, developmental stage, and food intake. ROS concentration is low in the potato leaves but it is very high

Natraj Krishnan; Dalibor Kodrík; Ferit Turanli; František Sehnal

2007-01-01

97

Expression profile of oxidative and antioxidative stress enzymes based on ESTs approach of citrus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants not only evolve but also reduce oxygen in photosynthesis. An inevitable consequence of this normal process is the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Plants are adequately protected by the presence of multiple antioxidative enzymes in the cytosol and also in the different cell organelles such as chloroplasts, mitochondria, and peroxisomes. Traditionally, ROS were considered to be only a

Luis Antonio Peroni; Renato Rodrigues Ferreira; Antonio Figueira; Marcos Antonio Machado; Dagmar Ruth Stach-Machado

2007-01-01

98

Alterations in the activities of cerebral antioxidant enzymes of rat are related to aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developmental profiles of antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation were investigated in rat cerebral hemisphere from birth to 600 days of age. Lipid peroxidation level decreased in the crude homogenate from birth until 15 days and, thereafter increased gradually up to 600 days. However, susceptibility of sub-cellular fractions to lipid peroxidation displayed an increasing trend with increasing age. Superoxide dismutase activity

Arjun Sahoo; G. B. N. Chainy

1997-01-01

99

Effects of Cooking Techniques on Antioxidant Enzyme Activities of Some Fruits and Vegetables  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate possible effects of cooking techniques on antioxidant enzyme activities in broccoli, tomato, red cabbage, parsley, carrot, green pepper, lemon, onion, and garlic, which are consumed frequently in our daily diet. Materials and Methods: Superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase (CAT) activities were measured in fresh and thermally treated (boiling,

100

Napiergrass ( Pennisetum purpureum S.) protects oxidative damage of biomolecules and modulates antioxidant enzyme activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of water extract of napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum S.) (WEN) on oxidative damage of biomolecules and modulation of antioxidant enzyme activity were investigated. The results showed that WEN displayed marked free radical scavenging, reducing power, as well as ferrous ions chelating effects. WEN has a dose-dependent response for protective action on oxidation of phospholipid, deoxyribose and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)

Hui Mei Yu; Bor-Sen Wang; Heuy Ling Chu; Lee-Wen Chang; Wen-Jye Yen; Chia-Jung Lin; Pin-Der Duh

2007-01-01

101

Alterations of Antioxidant Enzymes and Oxidative Damage to Macromolecules in Different Organs of Rats During Aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxygen free radicals have been hypothesized to play an important role in the aging process. To investigate the correlation between the oxidative stress and aging, we have determined the levels of oxidative protein damage and lipid peroxidation in the brain and liver, and activities of antioxidant enzymes in the brain, liver, heart, kidney, and serum from the Fisher 344 rats

Liqun Tiana; Qiuyin Caib; Huachen Wei

1998-01-01

102

Inducing gene expression of cardiac antioxidant enzymes by dietary phenolic acids in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increase in oxidative stress is suggested to be intimately involved in the pathogenesis of heart failure. Phenolic acids are widespread in plant foods; they contain important biological and pharmacological properties. This study evaluated the role of phenolic acids on the expression of antioxidant enzymes in the heart of male Sprague-Dawley rats. Gallic acid, ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid at

Chi-Tai Yeh; Li-Chien Ching; Gow-Chin Yen

2009-01-01

103

Antioxidative enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation in major depression: alterations by antidepressant treatments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) may play a role in some neuropsychiatric disorders. There is some evidence that the activation of immune-inflammatory process, increase of monoamines catabolism, and abnormalities in lipid compounds may cause overproduction of ROS and, in turn, antioxidative enzyme activities (AEAs) and lipid peroxidation (LP), and that these phenomena may be related to pathophysiology of major depression.

Mustafa Bilici; Hasan Efe; M. Arif Köro?lu; Hüseyin Avni Uydu; M. Bekaro?lu; O. De?er

2001-01-01

104

Inhibitory effect of raspberries on starch digestive enzyme and their antioxidant properties and phenolic composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven primocane fall-bearing raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) cultivars, Nova (red), Dinkum (red), Heritage (red), Autumn Britten (red), Josephine, Anne (yellow), Fall Gold (yellow) were analysed for potential health promoting properties including their inhibitory effect on starch and fat digestive enzymes, antioxidant activities, and phenolic composition. The tested raspberry extracts showed no detectable inhibition of pancreatic ?-amylase and lipase. However, all

Lei Zhang; Jianrong Li; Shelly Hogan; Hyun Chung; Gregory E. Welbaum; Kequan Zhou

2010-01-01

105

EFFECTS OF PHYTOHORMONES ON PROLINE CONTENT AND ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES OF VARIOUS WHEAT CULTIVARS UNDER SALINITY STRESS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salinity stress is one of the important agricultural problems in the world. A factorial experiment based on completely randomized design with four replications was conducted to evaluate the effects of phytohormones (gibberellic acid and abscisic acid) on the activity of antioxidant enzymes (peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase), rubisco activity and content, and proline in three wheat cultivars (Gascogen, Zagros, and

Fatemeh Aflaki Manjili; Mohammad Sedghi; Mohammad Pessarakli

2012-01-01

106

Lipid peroxidation and activities of antioxidant enzymes in iron deficiency and effect of carcinogen feeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron deficiency has been implicated in increasing the risk of GI tract cancers in humans. Among various mechanisms of carcinogenesis, oxidative damage to DNA is well known and, hence, the present experimental study was undertaken to investigate lipid peroxidation and activities of different antioxidant enzymes in iron deficiency to explain the higher risk of tumorigenesis. Two groups of male weanling

Jayanthi Rao; V. Jagadeesan

1996-01-01

107

Inactivation of Primary Antioxidant Enzymes in Mouse Keratinocytes by Photodynamically Generated Singlet Oxygen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cellular antioxidant enzymes protect against damage caused by exposure to endogenous or exogenous proox- idants. Singlet oxygen ( 1 O 2 ) is a reactive form of oxygen that can be produced in vivo either in normal and pathophysiologic conditions or by photosensitizing chemicals, as during photodynamic treatment. We hypoth- esized that photodynamically generated 1 O 2 would decrease the

Jun Luo; Ling Li; Yuping Zhang; Douglas R. Spitz; Garry R. Buettner; Larry W. Oberley; Frederick E. Domann

2006-01-01

108

Antioxidant enzymes in erythrocytes from goats seropositive to the sheep nose bot fly (Oestrus ovis L., Diptera: Oestridae) infection.  

PubMed

Oestrus ovis (Diptera: Oestridae) causes an important cosmopolitan parasitosis of the nasal and sinusal cavities of sheep and goats called oestrosis. Our objective was to analyze the participation of erythrocytes in the antioxidant system in goats seropositive to O. ovis infection under field conditions. Fifty female goats naturally exposed to O. ovis infection from Baja California Sur, México, were blood-sampled. Erythrocytic intracellular content was obtained from blood plasma. Oestrosis serodiagnosis was determined by ELISA. Protein, hemoglobin (Hb), superoxide dismutase (SOD), mieloperoxidase (MPO), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes were determined in both seropositive and seronegative goats. Overall seroprevalence of O. ovis infection in goats was 56%. Positive significant (P<0.05) associations were observed among systemic IgG level and protein (0.34), hemoglobin (0.43), SOD (0.32), and MPO (0.41) in erythrocytes. Protein and hemoglobin concentrations, as well as SOD and MPO activities in erythrocytes were found significantly higher (P<0.05) in seropositive than in seronegative goats. By contrast, enzymatic activities of CAT and GST and lipid peroxidation values were similar in seropositive and seronegative groups. In conclusion, there was a systemic stimulation of Reactive Oxygen Species which was efficiently scavenged by erythrocytic antioxidant enzymes in goats seropositive to O. ovis infection. PMID:21802210

Angulo-Valadez, C E; Reyes-Becerril, M C; Romero, G M J; Cepeda-Palacios, R; López-Aguilar, D R; Zenteno, T; Ascencio, F

2011-07-07

109

Stability of the anti-oxidative enzymes in aqueous and detergent solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activities of the anti-oxidative enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase were studied\\u000a in rat tissues to determine the ability of detergents both to solubilize the enzymes and also to stabilize enzyme activity.\\u000a Rat brain, heart and liver were homogenized in 0.1M KCl, 0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate, 0.1% lubrol, or 0.1% cetyl-trimethylammonium\\u000a bromide. In general lubrol was more

Kathleen Mailer I; Rolando F. Del Maestro

1991-01-01

110

Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activity in aspirin-treated rats.  

PubMed

1. Malondialdehyde formation and antioxidant enzyme activity after oral or intraperitoneal treatment of rats with various doses of aspirin was studied. 2. Aspirin, orally, had no effect on spontaneous, Fe(II)- or Fe(II)/ascorbate-induced malondialdehyde formation in liver homogenates; orally, ascorbate-induced malondialdehyde production was inhibited but only after 5-day treatment with 500 mg/kg aspirin; after intraperitoneal injection, the drug inhibited ascorbate- and Fe(II)/ascorbate-induced production of malondialdehyde. 3. Aspirin had no effect on malondialdehyde formation in erythrocytes, irrespective of the dose and route of drug administration. 4. Aspirin increased glutathione peroxidase activity in liver after 5-day treatment with an oral dose of 500 mg/kg and decreased enzyme activity in both liver and erythrocytes, 24 hr after a single injection of the same dose. 5. Aspirin, in vivo slightly affected lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activity. PMID:7789736

Kirkova, M; Ivancheva, E; Russanov, E

1995-05-01

111

Higher Plasma Pyridoxal Phosphate Is Associated with Increased Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Critically Ill Surgical Patients  

PubMed Central

Critically ill patients experience severe stress, inflammation and clinical conditions which may increase the utilization and metabolic turnover of vitamin B-6 and may further increase their oxidative stress and compromise their antioxidant capacity. This study was conducted to examine the relationship between vitamin B-6 status (plasma and erythrocyte PLP) oxidative stress, and antioxidant capacities in critically ill surgical patients. Thirty-seven patients in surgical intensive care unit of Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan, were enrolled. The levels of plasma and erythrocyte PLP, serum malondialdehyde, total antioxidant capacity, and antioxidant enzyme activities (i.e., superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S-transferase, and glutathione peroxidase) were determined on the 1st and 7th days of admission. Plasma PLP was positively associated with the mean SOD activity level on day 1 (r = 0.42, P < 0.05), day 7 (r = 0.37, P < 0.05), and on changes (? (day 7 ? day 1)) (r = 0.56, P < 0.01) after adjusting for age, gender, and plasma C-reactive protein concentration. Higher plasma PLP could be an important contributing factor in the elevation of antioxidant enzyme activity in critically ill surgical patients.

Cheng, Chien-Hsiang; Huang, Shih-Chien; Chiang, Ting-Yu; Wong, Yueching

2013-01-01

112

The influence of cadmium on the antioxidant enzyme activities in polychaete Perinereis aibuhitensis Grube (Annelida: Polychaeta)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The infaunal polychaete Perinereis aibuhitensis Grube, distributed widely along Asian coasts and estuaries, is considered a useful animal model in ecotoxicological tests and a promising candidate in biomonitoring programs. This paper deals with the activities of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidases (GSH-Px) in infaunal polychaete P. aibuhitensis exposed to a series of sublethal water-bound cadmium (Cd) concentrations (0, 0.34, 1.72, 3.44, 6.89, and 17.22 mg L-1) under a short-term exposure (1-8 d). The results indicate that the SOD and GSH-Px activities in P. aibuhitensis are stimulated first and then renewed to the original level. The CAT activity of worms decreases at an earlier exposure time but increases to the control values at a later exposure time. Our study suggests that Cd can interfere with the antioxidant defense system of P. aibuhitensis. However, the changes in antioxidant enzyme activities for this species do not show the best promise as biomarkers in Cd biomonitoring of estuarine and coastal zones because weak or non-dose-effect relationships between the antioxidant enzymes activities and Cd levels are found.

Yuan, Xiutang; Chen, Aihua; Zhou, Yibing; Liu, Haiying; Yang, Dazuo

2010-07-01

113

Oral Sulforaphane increases Phase II antioxidant enzymes in the human upper airway  

PubMed Central

Background Cellular oxidative stress is an important factor in asthma and is thought to be the principle mechanism by which oxidant pollutants such as ozone and particulates mediate their pro-inflammatory effects. Endogenous Phase II enzymes abrogate oxidative stress through the scavenging of reactive oxygen species and metabolism of reactive chemicals. Objective We conducted a placebo-controlled dose escalation trial to investigate the in vivo effects of sulforaphane, a naturally occurring potent inducer of Phase II enzymes, on the expression of glutathione-s-transferase M1 (GSTM1), glutathione-s-transferase P1 (GSTP1), NADPH quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1), and hemoxygenase-1 (HO-1) in the upper airway of human subjects. Methods Study subjects consumed oral sulforaphane doses contained in a standardized broccoli sprout homogenate (BSH). RNA expression for selected Phase II enzymes was measured in nasal lavage cells by RT-PCR before and after sulforaphane dosing. Results All subjects tolerated oral sulforaphane dosing without significant adverse events. Increased Phase II enzyme expression in nasal lavage cells occurred in a dose-dependent manner with maximal enzyme induction observed at the highest dose of 200 grams broccoli sprouts prepared as BSH. Significant increases were seen in all sentinel Phase II enzymes RNA expression compared to baseline. Phase II enzyme induction was not seen with ingestion of non-sulforaphane containing alfalfa sprouts. Conclusion Oral sulforaphane safely and effectively induces mucosal Phase II enzyme expression in the upper airway of human subjects. This study demonstrates the potential of antioxidant Phase II enzymes induction in the human airway as a strategy to reduce the inflammatory effects of oxidative stress. Clinical Implications This study demonstrates the potential of enhancement of Phase II enzyme expression as a novel therapeutic strategy for oxidant induced airway disease. Capsule Summary A placebo-controlled dose escalation trial demonstrated that naturally occurring sulforaphane from broccoli sprouts can induce a potent increase in antioxidant Phase II enzymes in airway cells.

Riedl, Marc A.; Saxon, Andrew; Diaz-Sanchez, David

2009-01-01

114

Antioxidant enzymes attenuate myocardial stunning in the conscious dog  

SciTech Connect

Several studies have shown that postischemic myocardial dysfunction (myocardial stunning) is attenuated by antioxidants, implying a pathogenetic role of oxy-radicals in this phenomenon. However, since all these studies have been performed in open-chest preparations, artifacts due to anesthesia, trauma, and other nonphysiologic conditions cannot be excluded. Accordingly, chronically instrumented dogs underwent a 15-minute occlusion (o) of the left anterior descending artery followed by reperfusion. Dogs received i.v. either saline or superoxide dismutase (SOD) plus catalase (CAT) (16,000 U/kg and 55,000 U/kg, respectively, over 1 hour starting 15 minutes before O). Regional myocardial function was assessed as systolic wall thickening (WTh) using a pulsed Doppler probe. WTh after reperfusion was significantly greater in treated dogs, and this difference could not be ascribed to differences in collateral flow or hemodynamics. The authors conclude that SOD plus catalase attenuate myocardial stunning in the conscious dog, indicating that oxy-radicals play a pathogenetic role in this phenomenon under physiologic conditions.

Triana, J.F.; Unisa, A.; Bolli, R. (Baylor Coll. of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States))

1990-02-26

115

trans-Resveratrol protects ischemic PC12 Cells by inhibiting the hypoxia associated transcription factors and increasing the levels of antioxidant defense enzymes.  

PubMed

An in vitro model of ischemic cerebral stroke [oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) for 6 h followed by 24 h reoxygenation (R)] with PC12 cells increases Ca(2+) influx by upregulating native L-type Ca(2+) channels and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. This reactive oxygen species generation and increase in intracellular Ca(2+) triggers the expression of hypoxic homeostasis transcription factors such as hypoxia induced factor-1 alpha (HIF-1?), Cav-beta 3 (Cav ?3), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), heat shock protein 27 (hsp-27), and cationic channel transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7). OGD insulted PC12 cells were subjected to biologically safe doses (5, 10, and 25 ?M) of trans-resveratrol in three different treatment groups: 24 h prior to OGD (pre-treatment); 24 h post OGD (post-treatment); and from 24 h before OGD to end of reoxygenation period (whole-treatment). Here, we demonstrated that OGD-R-induced neuronal injury/death is by reactive oxygen species generation, increase in intracellular calcium levels, and decrease in antioxidant defense enzymes. trans-Resveratrol increases the viability of OGD-R insulted PC12 cells, which was assessed by using MTT, NRU, and LDH release assay. In addition, trans-resveratrol significantly decreases reactive oxygen species generation, intracellular Ca(2+) levels, and hypoxia associated transcription factors and also increases the level of antioxidant defense enzymes. Our data shows that the whole-treatment group of trans-resveratrol is most efficient in decreasing hypoxia induced cell death through its antioxidant properties. PMID:23421680

Agrawal, Megha; Kumar, Vivek; Singh, Abhishek K; Kashyap, Mahendra P; Khanna, Vinay K; Siddiqui, Maqsood A; Pant, Aditya B

2012-11-09

116

Age composition and antioxidant enzyme activities in blood of Black Sea teleosts.  

PubMed

Age composition and age-related trends of antioxidant enzyme activities superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (PER), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in the blood of seven Black Sea teleosts (Carangidae, Centracanthidae, Gadidae, Mullidae, Gobiidae and Scorpaenidae) collected in marine coastal area of Sevastopol (Ukraine) were studied. In the catches the animals of 1-2 years of age dominated while in the Scorpaena porcus population the number of relatively elder individuals belonging to classes of 3-4 years was the highest. The trends of antioxidant enzyme activities in blood were not uniform. Three types of age-dependent responses were indicated in fish blood: 1. enzymatic activity did not change with age; 2. enzymatic activity decreased with age and 3. enzyme activity increased with age or varied unclearly. The interspecies differences of age-related enzymatic activities associated with the specificity of fish biology and ecology were indicated. Despite no clear evidence of age-related differences between fish species belonging to different ecological groups both benthic forms exhibited similar age-dependent trends of SOD and PER. The correlations between blood antioxidant enzyme activities in fish belonging to suprabenthic and benthic/pelagic groups demonstrated the intermediate values as compared to the benthic and pelagic forms. The results suggest the importance of age trends for biomarkers in fish monitoring studies. PMID:19897051

Rudneva, Irina I; Skuratovskaya, Ekaterina N; Kuzminova, Natalya S; Kovyrshina, Tatyana B

2010-03-01

117

Biotransformation and antioxidant enzymes of Limnoperna fortunei detect site impact in watercourses of Córdoba, Argentina.  

PubMed

The golden mussel Limnoperna fortunei was used as a biomonitor of environmental pollution in the Suquía River basin around Córdoba City (Argentina). The sampling sites along the river were chosen according to their increasing levels of pollutants (e.g. heavy metals) as well as biological oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD). A water quality index (WQI) was constructed from the interaction of several normalized factors that affect the aquatic environment, such as the mentioned pollutants and physico-chemical characteristics of the sampling sites. Activity changes of biotransformation enzyme glutathione S-transferase (GST) and the antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) and catalase (CAT), after exposure to pollutants, served as biomarkers. Membrane bound GST and antioxidant enzymes responded at the most polluted sampling site within 1 day showing increased activities lasting for 4 days. Further sampling was restricted due to no survival of the animals. Antioxidant enzymes GPx, GR and CAT were sensitive responding to the different pollution scenarios, showing good correlation to the chemical characterization. PMID:19631986

Contardo-Jara, Valeska; Galanti, Lucas N; Amé, María V; Monferrán, Magdalena V; Wunderlin, Daniel A; Wiegand, Claudia

2009-07-25

118

Antioxidant and antithrombus activities of enzyme-treated Salicornia herbacea extracts.  

PubMed

This study was attempted to investigate antioxidant and antithrombus activities of water and methanol extracts of enzyme-treated Salicornia herbacea (SH)by in vitro assays observing the inhibitory activity of a rat liver microsomal lipid peroxidation, DPPH radical scavenging activity, activated partial thromboplastin times (APTT) and thromboplastin times (TT). The water and methanol extracts from enzyme-treated SH inhibited the lipid peroxidation in a dose-dependent manner over a concentration range of 0.1-1.0 mg/ml. The activity of enzyme-treated water and methanol extracts was stronger than that of non-enzyme-treated water and methanol extracts. The inhibitory activity of the water extract was higher at a concentration of 1.0 mg/ml than that of the methanol extract. The activity was the highest in the enzyme-treated water extract, and was approximately 1.08 times higher than alpha-tocopherol, a natural antioxidant. The DPPH radical scavenging activities of the SH extracts were similar to their lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity. The APTT of the water and methanol extracts was delayed at a concentration range of 0.25-2.0 mg/ml in a dose-dependent manner. The APTT of the methanol extract was longer at a concentration of 1.0 mg/ml than that of the water extracts. The enzyme-treated methanol extract exhibited the longest APTT even at a concentration of 0.50 mg/ml. The TT activities of the SH extracts were also similar to their APTT activities. These results suggest that water and methanol extracts of the enzyme-treated SH may be useful as potential antioxidant and antithrombus sources, respectively. PMID:17536188

Jang, Hyun-Seo; Kim, Kyung-Ran; Choi, Sang-Won; Woo, Mi-Hee; Choi, Jeong-Hwa

2007-05-29

119

Effects of dimethylsulfoxide on behavior and antioxidant enzymes response of planarian Dugesia japonica.  

PubMed

In this study, the toxicity, behavioral and antioxidant activity effects of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) on planarian Dugesia japonica were investigated. The results showed that the mortality was directly proportional to the DMSO concentration, and planarian locomotor velocity decreased as the concentration of DMSO increased. The recovery of the motility for planarians pre-exposed to DMSO was found to be time- and dose-dependent, and only those pre-exposed to 0.1-3% DMSO resulted in full recovery. The antioxidant enzymes of planarians in response to long-term DMSO stress was also altered in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Planarians revealed more tolerance to DMSO toxicity at low DMSO (0.1%) level in short- and long-term DMSO stress, in which an efficient antioxidant system was involved and the motility was not affected. PMID:21976142

Yuan, Zuoqing; Zhao, Bosheng; Zhang, Yu

2011-10-05

120

Dual Targeting of Antioxidant and Metabolic Enzymes to the Mitochondrion and the Apicoplast of Toxoplasma gondii  

PubMed Central

Toxoplasma gondii is an aerobic protozoan parasite that possesses mitochondrial antioxidant enzymes to safely dispose of oxygen radicals generated by cellular respiration and metabolism. As with most Apicomplexans, it also harbors a chloroplast-like organelle, the apicoplast, which hosts various biosynthetic pathways and requires antioxidant protection. Most apicoplast-resident proteins are encoded in the nuclear genome and are targeted to the organelle via a bipartite N-terminal targeting sequence. We show here that two antioxidant enzymes—a superoxide dismutase (TgSOD2) and a thioredoxin-dependent peroxidase (TgTPX1/2)—and an aconitase are dually targeted to both the apicoplast and the mitochondrion of T. gondii. In the case of TgSOD2, our results indicate that a single gene product is bimodally targeted due to an inconspicuous variation within the putative signal peptide of the organellar protein, which significantly alters its subcellular localization. Dual organellar targeting of proteins might occur frequently in Apicomplexans to serve important biological functions such as antioxidant protection and carbon metabolism.

Kwok, Lai-Yu; Sheiner, Lilach; Schepers, Rebecca; Soldati, Thierry; Soldati-Favre, Dominique

2007-01-01

121

Brassinosteroid alleviates polychlorinated biphenyls-induced oxidative stress by enhancing antioxidant enzymes activity in tomato.  

PubMed

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants often found in the atmosphere. Phytoremediation of airborne PCBs is an emerging new concept to minimize potential human exposure. However, effects of atmospheric PCBs on plant growth, photosynthesis and antioxidant defence system are poorly understood area. Brassinosteroids have been reported to alleviate different abiotic stresses including organic pollutants-induced stress. Hence, we studied the effects of PCBs and 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) on biomass accumulation, photosynthetic machinery and antioxidant system in tomato plants. PCBs (0.4, 2.0 and 10 ?g/l) mist spray significantly decreased dry weight, photosynthesis, chlorophyll contents in a dose dependent manner. Both stomatal and non-stomatal factors were involved in PCBs-induced photosynthetic inhibition. Likewise, the maximal photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm), the quantum efficiency of PSII photochemistry (?(PSII)) and photochemical quenching coefficient were increasingly decreased by various levels of PCBs, suggesting an induction of photoinhibition. Increased accumulation of H(2)O(2) and O(2)(-) accompanied with high lipid peroxidation confirmed occurrence of oxidative stress upon PCBs exposure. Meanwhile, antioxidant enzymes activity was decreased following exposure to PCBs. Foliar application of EBR (100 nM) increased biomass, photosynthetic capacity, chlorophyll contents and alleviated photoinhibition by enhancing Fv/Fm, ?(PSII) and qP. EBR significantly decreased harmful ROS accumulation and lipid peroxidation through the induction of antioxidant enzymes activity. Our results suggest a protective role of EBR against PCBs stress which may strengthen phytoremediation approaches by enhancing plant tolerance. PMID:23290946

Ahammed, Golam Jalal; Ruan, Yi-Ping; Zhou, Jie; Xia, Xiao-Jian; Shi, Kai; Zhou, Yan-Hong; Yu, Jing-Quan

2013-01-03

122

Impact of kanamycin on melanogenesis and antioxidant enzymes activity in melanocytes-an in vitro study.  

PubMed

Aminoglycosides, broad spectrum aminoglycoside antibiotics, are used in various infections therapy due to their good antimicrobial characteristics. However, their adverse effects such as nephrotoxicity and auditory ototoxicity, as well as some toxic effects directed to pigmented tissues, complicate the use of these agents. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of aminoglycoside antibiotic-kanamycin on viability, melanogenesis and antioxidant enzymes activity in cultured human normal melanocytes (HEMa-LP). It has been demonstrated that kanamycin induces concentration-dependent loss in melanocytes viability. The value of EC50 was found to be ?6.0?mM. Kanamycin suppressed melanin biosynthesis: antibiotic was shown to inhibit cellular tyrosinase activity and to reduce melanin content in normal human melanocytes. Significant changes in the cellular antioxidant enzymes: SOD, CAT and GPx were stated in melanocytes exposed to kanamycin. Moreover, it was observed that kanamycin caused depletion of antioxidant defense sytem. It is concluded that the inhibitory effect of kanamycin on melanogenesis and not sufficient antioxidant defense mechanism in melanocytes in vitro may explain the potential mechanisms of undesirable side effects of this drug directed to pigmented tissues in vivo. J. Cell. Biochem. 114: 2746-2752, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23804282

Wrze?niok, Dorota; Otr?ba, Micha?; Beberok, Artur; Buszman, Ewa

2013-12-01

123

[Antioxidant enzymes, hydrogen peroxide metabolism, and respiration in rat heart during experimental hyperammonemia].  

PubMed

The effects of toxic ammonia doses on H2O2 metabolism, energy metabolism, and antioxidant enzyme activities in rat heart were studied. Ammonium acetate administration to animals proved to increase total superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities in the heart cytoplasmic fraction as well as Mn-SOD, catalase, and glutathione reductase in heart mitochondria. Conversely, ammonia inhibited the same activities in the brain, liver, and erythrocytes. Hyperammonemia had no effect on the levels of ATP, ADP and total adenine nucleotides in the heart but decreased them in the brain. Ammonia impaired oxidative phosphorylation and increased the rate of H202 production in heart and brain mitochondria. The ammonia concentration inhibiting antioxidant enzymes in the liver and brain can be insufficient for such effect in the heart. PMID:16771149

Venediktova, N I; Kosenko, E A; Kaminski?, Iu G

124

Dietary açai modulates ROS production by neutrophils and gene expression of liver antioxidant enzymes in rats.  

PubMed

Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) has recently emerged as a promising source of natural antioxidants. Because increased oxidative stress and impaired antioxidant defense mechanisms are important factors in the development of diabetic complications and many health claims have been reported for açai, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the possible protective effects of açai on the production of reactive oxygen species by neutrophils and on the liver antioxidant defense system in control and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diet supplementation with 2% açai was found to increase mRNA levels for gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase and glutathione peroxidase in liver tissue and to decrease reactive oxygen species production by neutrophils. Compared to control animals, diabetic rats exhibited lower levels of mRNA coding for Zn-superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase and higher levels of reactive oxygen species production by neutrophils, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and carbonyl proteins in hepatic tissues. Although açai supplementation was not effective in restore gene expression of antioxidant enzymes in diabetic rats, it showed a protective effect, decreasing thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances levels and increasing reduced glutathione content in the liver. These findings suggest that açai can modulate reactive oxygen species production by neutrophils and that it has a significant favorable effect on the liver antioxidant defense system under fisiological conditions of oxidative stress and partially revert deleterious effects of diabetes in the liver. PMID:22128218

Guerra, Joyce Ferreira da Costa; Magalhães, Cíntia Lopes de Brito; Costa, Daniela Caldeira; Silva, Marcelo Eustáquio; Pedrosa, Maria Lúcia

2011-06-17

125

Antioxidant enzyme activities in beef in relation to oxidation of lipid and myoglobin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lipid- and oxy-free radical generation has been implicated in oxidative processes which occur during meat maturation but the importance of the antioxidant enzyme (AOE) activity in these processes is not known. It was shown that metmyoglobin (MetMb) % and lipofuscin content were higher in colour-unstable muscles such as psoas major (PM) and diaphragma (D) compared to longissimus lumborum (LL) and

M. Renerre; Françoise Dumont; Ph. Gatellier

1996-01-01

126

Organic Acids Accumulation and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Thlaspi caerulescens under Zn and Cd Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth, organic acid and phytochelatin accumulation, as well as the activity of several antioxidative enzymes, i.e. superoxide\\u000a dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) guaiacol peroxidase (POX) and catalase (CAT) were investigated under Zn and Cd\\u000a stress in hydroponically growing plants of Thlaspi caerulescens population from Plombires, Belgium. Tissue Zn and Cd concentration increased (the highest concentration of both was in roots)

M. Wójcik; E. Skórzy?ska-Polit; A. Tukiendorf

2006-01-01

127

Levels of selenium, zinc, copper, and antioxidant enzyme activity in patients with leukemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential elements, mainly selenium and zinc, were involved in protection against oxidative stress in cells. Oxidation could\\u000a lead to the formation of free radicals that have been implicated in the pathogenesis of many diseases, including leukemia.\\u000a Leukemia is a neoplastic disease that is susceptible to antioxidant enzyme and essential elements alterations. This study\\u000a was undertaken to examine the levels of

X. L. Zuo; J. M. Chen; X. Zhou; X. Z. Li; G. Y. Mei

2006-01-01

128

Changes in antioxidant enzymes and organic solutes associated with adaptation of citrus cells to salt stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Embryogenic callus cultures of lemon (Citrus limon L. Burm f. cv Verna), were selected for resistance to salt stress (170 mM NaCl). Inorganic analysis showed that selected callus accumulated more Na+ and Cl- ions than the non-selected one. Moreover, the salt-tolerant C. limon callus exhibited an increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes involved in oxygen metabolism, with the induction

Abel Piqueras; José A. Hernández; Enrique Olmos; Eladio Hellín; Francisca Sevilla

1996-01-01

129

Age-Related Correlation Between Antioxidant Enzymes and DNA Damage With Smoking and Body Mass Index  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand whether oxidants contribute to the initiation and\\/or promulgation toward aging, the present study has been undertaken on 220 healthy male volunteers aged 20-80 years selected from the defined electoral area (suburbs of Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India) to evaluate the concentrations of free radicals (superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide), lymphocyte antioxidant enzymes (glutathione S-transferase, superoxide dismutase, catalase), and DNA damage

Parvathi Kumara Reddy Thavanati; Kodanda Reddy Kanala; Aurora Escoto de Dios

2008-01-01

130

The effects of detraining on blood adipokines and antioxidant enzyme in Korean overweight children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the change to clarify the effects of detraining on the concentration of lipid profiles, serum adipokines\\u000a and antioxidant enzyme gene expression in Korean overweight children. The subjects were normal children (n?=?19) and obese children (n?=?20) who were further subdivided into the overweight training (OT) group (n?=?10) and the overweight detraining (OD) group (n?=?10). Maximal oxygen uptake

Jinhee Woo; Ki Ok Shin; Jae-Ho Yoo; Soyoung Park; Sunghwun Kang

131

Antioxidant enzymes in the digestive gland of the common mussel Mytilus edulis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antioxidant enzymes function to remove deleterious reactive oxygen species, including the superoxide anion radical and H2O2. Subcellular distributions and optimal and other properties of catalase (EC. 1.11.1.6), superoxide dismutase (SOD; EC. 1.15.1.1), selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (Se-GPX; EC. 1.11.1.9) and total glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activities were determined in the digestive gland of the common musselMytilus edulis L. by spectrophotometric and cytochemical\\/electron

D. R. Livingstone; F. Lips; P. Garcia Martinez; R. K. Pipe

1992-01-01

132

Cadmium-induced changes in antioxidant enzymes from the marine alga Nannochloropsis oculata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cadmium-induced oxidative stress symptoms such as lipid peroxidation and H2O2 production were examined in the marine alga Nannochloropsis oculata. Changes in antioxidant enzyme levels and isozyme patterns were also examined. Increasing concentrations of Cd produced growth inhibition. Among the responses to added Cd, the H2O2 content and malonyldialdehyde accumulation increased significantly, indicating a state of oxidative stress. In the case

Mi Young Lee; Hyun Woung Shin

2003-01-01

133

Antioxidant Enzyme Activities and Malondialdehyde Levels in Patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine the importance of free radicals in the pathogenesis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), we aimed to evaluate whether malondialdehyde (MDA), a product of lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant enzyme [superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase (CAT)] activity levels were associated with OCD. The patients were divided into two subgroups according to whether DSM-IV major depressive disorder (MDD) was

Murat Kuloglu; Murad Atmaca; Ertan Tezcan; Ömer Gecici; Hikmet Tunckol; Bilal Ustundag

2002-01-01

134

Activity of pancreatic antioxidative enzymes and malondialdehyde concentrations in rats with hyperglycemia caused by fluoride intoxication  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to examine the effect of fluoride ions on antioxidative enzyme activity in the pancreas of rats exposed during 4 months to NaF in drinking water. The study was carried out in 30 four-week-old male Wistar FL rats, that were randomly assigned to three equal groups and given distilled water ad libitum for three weeks.

Dariusz Chlubek; Ewa Grucka-Mamczar; Ewa Birkner; Renata Polaniak; Barbara Stawiarska-Pi?ta; Hanna Duliban

2003-01-01

135

Effect of temperature on secondary metabolites production and antioxidant enzyme activities in Eleutherococcus senticosus somatic embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Somatic embryos of Eleutherococcus senticosus were exposed at 12, 16, 24 and 30 °C for duration of 45 days in bioreactor. The effects of such treatments on the growth, eleutheroside B, E, E1, total phenolics, flavonoids, chlorogenic acid concentrations and antioxidant enzymes activities were investigated. The results revealed that low (12 and 18 °C) and high (30 °C) temperature caused significant decrease in fresh

Abdullah Mohammad Shohael; Mohammad Babar Ali; Kee-Won Yu; Eun-Joo Hahn; Kee-Yoeup Paek

2006-01-01

136

Hormonal modulation of antioxidant enzyme activities in young and old rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The correlation between serum levels of pituitary and thyroid hormones and the activity of two antioxidant enzymes (AOE), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), in different immune and nonimmune organs of young and old rats was investigated. Serum levels of growth hormone (GH), prolactin (Prl), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), thyroxine (T4), and triiodothyronine (T3) as

Alejandro D. Bolzán; Oscar A. Brown; Rodolfo G. Goya; Martha S. Bianchi

1995-01-01

137

Identification of Valid Housekeeping Genes and Antioxidant Enzyme Gene Expression Change in the Aging Rat Liver  

Microsoft Academic Search

Valid housekeeping genes (HKG) are a prerequisite for accurate gene quantification. We performed real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to investigate the gene expression of five commonly used HKGs (b-actin, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), ubiquitin C (UBC), hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl-transferase (HPRT), and cyclo- philin A (CYPa)) and antioxidant enzymes in the liver of young and old male Fischer rats. A wide variation in

Jie Chen; David A. Rider; Runsheng Ruan

2006-01-01

138

Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activity in aspirin-treated rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.1. Malondialdehyde formation and antioxidant enzyme activity after oral or intraperitoneal treatment of rats with various doses of aspirin was studied.2.2. Aspirin, orally, had no effect on spontaneous, Fe(II)- or Fe(II)\\/ascorbate-induced malondialdehyde formation in liver homogenates; orally, ascorbate-induced malondialdehyde production was inhibited but only after 5-day treatment with 500 mg\\/kg aspirin; after intraperitoneal injection, the drug inhibited ascorbate- and Fe(II)\\/ascorbate-induced

M. Kirkova; E. Ivancheva; E. Russanov

1995-01-01

139

In Vitro Effects of Alloxan–Vanadium Combination on Lipid Peroxidation and on Antioxidant Enzyme Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The in vitro effects of alloxan, dialuric acid and vanadium ions, alone or in combination, on lipid peroxidation and on antioxidant enzyme activity in rat liver and kidney were studied.2.Unlike alloxan, alloxan–glutathione (GSH) and dialuric acid increased lipid peroxidation, which could be explained by the decreased activity of catalase and GSH peroxidase during incubation.3.Vanadium(IV) ions increased the amount of thiobarbituric

A. Alexandrova; M. Kirkova; E. Russanov

1998-01-01

140

Effect of sound wave stress on antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation of Dendrobium candidum.  

PubMed

The effect of sound wave stress on important medicinal plant, Dendrobium candidum Wall. ex Lindl, was investigated, including the responses on malondialdehyde (MDA) content, the activities change of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX). Results were found that the activities of SOD, CAT, POD and APX enhanced totally in different organs of D. candidum, as leaves, stems and roots, in response to the stress. Furthermore there happened similar shift of antioxidant enzymes activities, which increased in the initial stimulation and decreased afterwards. Data showed SOD, CAT, POD and APX activities ascended to max at day 9, 6, 9 and 12 in leaves, at day 9, 6, 12 and 9 in stems, and at day 12, 6, 9 and 9 in roots, respectively. As a lipid peroxidation parameter, MDA content in different organs increased in the beginning, dropped afterward, and increased again in the late. Anyway the total trend was the rise of MDA level compared to the control. It was interesting that the MDA content appeared the lowest levels almost when the antioxidant enzymes activities were up to the highest. Our results demonstrated the different organs of D. candidum might produce accumulation of active oxygen species (AOS) under initial treatment of sound wave stress. Later AOS might start to reduce due to the enhancement of antioxidant enzymes activities treated by the stress. The data revealed that the antioxidant metabolism was to be important in determining the ability of plants to survive in sound stress, and the up regulation of these enzymes activities would help to reduce the build up of AOS, which could protect plant cells from oxidative damage. Moreover, different cell compartments might activate different defensive system to reduce excessive amount of AOS. Finally the mechanism of this action was also discussed simply. PMID:18243669

Li, Biao; Wei, Jinmin; Wei, Xiaolan; Tang, Kun; Liang, Yilong; Shu, Kunxian; Wang, Bochu

2007-12-25

141

Antioxidant enzyme activities in strawberry fruit exposed to high carbon dioxide atmospheres during cold storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of storage, in air or a 20% CO2 in air (16.8% O2) atmosphere for 12d at 2°C, on antioxidant enzymes of strawberry fruit (Fragaria x ananassa Duch. cv. ‘Jewel’) were investigated. The concentrations of acetaldehyde, ethanol and ethyl acetate associated with fermentation were measured, and the activities of peroxidase (POX), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) assayed. Ethanol,

J. Pablo Fernández-Trujillo; Jacqueline F. Nock; Christopher B. Watkins

2007-01-01

142

?-Farnesene and antioxidative enzyme systems in Asian pear ( Pyrus serotina Rehd.) fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) on ripening, superficial scald and concentrations of ?-farnesene, conjugated trienols (CTols) and antioxidant enzyme activity of ‘KS6’ Asian pear (Pyrus serotina Rehd.) were studied. 1-MCP treated (2?LL?1) or untreated control fruit were stored at 1°C and 90–95% RH for up to 120 days. 1-MCP treated fruit were firmer than untreated fruit. Application of 1-MCP delayed

Navid Yazdani; Kazem Arzani; Younes Mostofi; Maryam Shekarchi

2011-01-01

143

Antioxidant and Xenobiotic-metabolizing Enzyme Gene Expression in Doxorubicin resistant MCF7 Breast Cancer Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the expression of the genes for several antioxidant and xenobiotic-detoxifying enzymes in the multidrug-resistant variant of the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7, MCF-7\\/Dox. MCF-7\\/Dox is greater than 500-fold resistant to doxorubicin by donogenic assay. En zyme activity determinations in the cytoplasmic compartment of MCF- 7\\/Dox revealed a 25-fold increase in glutathione peroxidase level com pared to the

Steven A. Akinan; Gerald Forrest; Fong-Fong Chu; R. Steven; James H. Doroshow

1990-01-01

144

Evaluation of Oxidative Stress in Autism: Defective Antioxidant Enzymes and Increased Lipid Peroxidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder of childhood with poorly understood etiology and pathology. This pilot study aims\\u000a to evaluate the levels of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and levels\\u000a of malondialdehyde (MDA), a marker of lipid peroxidation, in Egyptian autistic children. Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder\\u000a of childhood with poorly understood etiology and pathology. The present

Nagwa A. Meguid; Ahmed A. Dardir; Ehab R. Abdel-Raouf; Adel Hashish

145

ROS generation, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities in the aging brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.   The objective of this study was to determine the specific relationship between brain aging and changes in the level of oxidative\\u000a stress, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and in the activities of antioxidant enzymes. We used four different age groups (2–3 months,\\u000a 10–11 months, 16–17 months and 20–21 months) which represented young adults, adults, beginning senescence and senescence,\\u000a respectively. Basal levels

S. Leutner; A. Eckert; W. E. Müller

2001-01-01

146

In vivo effects of indomethacin--II. Antioxidant enzymes in metal-deficient rats.  

PubMed

1. The in vivo effects of indomethacin on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in erythrocytes, liver and small intestinal mucosa of rats fed a metal-deficient diet were studied. 2. Metal deficiency led to a significant decrease in the activity of the enzymes studied. 3. Neither with the "ulcerogenic" nor with the "therapeutic" dose of indomethacin significant alterations in the enzyme activity were observed. 4. The oral treatment of metal-deficient rats with a copper complex of indomethacin caused a significant increase in the activity of the enzymes studied. 5. The results suggest the participation of indomethacin in the regulation and redistribution of metals in the organism, which is probably effected through in vivo chelation of endogenous metals. PMID:1639227

Kirkova, M; Kassabova, T; Russanov, E

1992-03-01

147

Ectromelia Virus Inhibitor of Complement Enzymes Protects Intracellular Mature Virus and Infected Cells from Mouse Complement?  

PubMed Central

Poxviruses produce complement regulatory proteins to subvert the host's immune response. Similar to the human pathogen variola virus, ectromelia virus has a limited host range and provides a mouse model where the virus and the host's immune response have coevolved. We previously demonstrated that multiple components (C3, C4, and factor B) of the classical and alternative pathways are required to survive ectromelia virus infection. Complement's role in the innate and adaptive immune responses likely drove the evolution of a virus-encoded virulence factor that regulates complement activation. In this study, we characterized the ectromelia virus inhibitor of complement enzymes (EMICE). Recombinant EMICE regulated complement activation on the surface of CHO cells, and it protected complement-sensitive intracellular mature virions (IMV) from neutralization in vitro. It accomplished this by serving as a cofactor for the inactivation of C3b and C4b and by dissociating the catalytic domain of the classical pathway C3 convertase. Infected murine cells initiated synthesis of EMICE within 4 to 6 h postinoculation. The levels were sufficient in the supernatant to protect the IMV, upon release, from complement-mediated neutralization. EMICE on the surface of infected murine cells also reduced complement activation by the alternative pathway. In contrast, classical pathway activation by high-titer antibody overwhelmed EMICE's regulatory capacity. These results suggest that EMICE's role is early during infection when it counteracts the innate immune response. In summary, ectromelia virus produced EMICE within a few hours of an infection, and EMICE in turn decreased complement activation on IMV and infected cells.

Moulton, Elizabeth A.; Bertram, Paula; Chen, Nanhai; Buller, R. Mark L.; Atkinson, John P.

2010-01-01

148

Mitochondria-targeted antioxidant enzyme activity regulates radioresistance in human pancreatic cancer cells  

PubMed Central

In recent years, cellular redox environment gained significant attention as a critical regulator of cellular responses to oxidative stress. Cellular redox environment is a balance between production of reactive oxygen species and their removal by antioxidant enzymes. We investigated the hypothesis that mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme activity regulates radioresistance in human pancreatic cancer cells. Vector-control and manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) overexpressing human pancreatic cancer cells were irradiated and assayed for cell survival and activation of the G2-checkpoint pathway. Increased MnSOD activity significantly increased cell survival following irradiation with 6 Gy of gamma-radiation (p < 0.05). The MnSOD overexpressing irradiated cells also revealed 3–4 folds increase in the percentage of G2 cells compared to irradiated vector-control. Furthermore, MnSOD overexpressing irradiated cells exhibited increased loss of phosphorylated histone H2AX protein levels. The radiation-induced increase in cyclin B1 protein levels in irradiated vector-control cells was suppressed in irradiated MnSOD overexpressing cells. Mitochondria-targeted catalase overexpression increased the survival of irradiated cells. These results support the hypothesis that mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme activity and mitochondria-generated reactive oxygen species-signaling (superoxide and hydrogen peroxide) could regulate radiation-induced G2 checkpoint activation and radioresistance in human pancreatic cancer cells.

Fisher, Carolyn J.; Goswami, Prabhat C.

2008-01-01

149

Therapeutic Approach to Neurodegenerative Diseases by Medical Gases: Focusing on Redox Signaling and Related Antioxidant Enzymes  

PubMed Central

Oxidative stress in the central nervous system is strongly associated with neuronal cell death in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. In order to overcome the oxidative damage, there are some protective signaling pathways related to transcriptional upregulation of antioxidant enzymes, such as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)-1/-2. Their expression is regulated by several transcription factors and/or cofactors like nuclear factor-erythroid 2 (NF-E2) related factor 2 (Nrf2) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? coactivator 1? (PGC-1?). These antioxidant enzymes are associated with, and in some cases, prevent neuronal death in animal models of neurodegenerative diseases. They are activated by endogenous mediators and phytochemicals, and also by several gases such as carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen sulphide (H2S), and hydrogen (H2). These might thereby protect the brain from severe oxidative damage and resultant neurodegenerative diseases. In this paper, we discuss how the expression levels of these antioxidant enzymes are regulated. We also introduce recent advances in the therapeutic uses of medical gases against neurodegenerative diseases.

Fujita, Kyota; Yamafuji, Megumi; Nakabeppu, Yusaku; Noda, Mami

2012-01-01

150

Changes in the erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme system during transdermal estradiol therapy for secondary amenorrhea.  

PubMed

Twenty-two hypothalamic amenorrheic patients, who were non-smokers and of normal weight, received replacement therapy for 1 month with transdermal patches containing 8 mg estradiol. No other drugs were prescribed or taken during the study. Before treatment (time 0) and 1 month after its start, blood samples were taken for assay of plasma estradiol levels, the erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and an age-dependent erythrocyte enzyme activity, pyruvate kinase. Plasma malondialdehyde levels, as an index of lipoperoxidation products, were also detected. The results showed no significant variations in superoxide dismutase, catalase, pyruvate kinase erythrocyte enzyme activities or plasma malondialdehyde levels. A significant increase in plasma estradiol levels (time 0, 17.33 +/- 4.12 pg/ml; 1 month, 81.25 +/- 10.45 pg/ml; means +/- SD; p < 0.0001) and in GSH-Px erythrocyte activity (time 0, 11.97 +/- 2.31 IU/g hemoglobin; 1 month, 16.88 +/- 4.38 IU/g hemoglobin; p < 0.004) was found. Plasma estradiol levels correlated significantly with GSH-Px erythrocyte activity 1 month after therapy was begun (r = 0.776, p < 0.003). We suggest that estrogens restored to physiological plasma levels, stimulate erythrocyte antioxidant GSH-Px activity, improving the antioxidant power of amenorrheic patients. PMID:8862489

Massafra, C; Buonocore, G; Gioia, D; Sargentini, I

1996-06-01

151

Desiccation tolerance in bovine sperm: A study of the effect of intracellular sugars and the supplemental roles of an antioxidant and a chelator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Desiccation preservation holds promise as a simplified alternative to cryopreservation for the long term storage of cells. We report a study on the protective effects of intracellular and extracellular sugars during bovine sperm desiccation and the supplemental effects of the addition of an antioxidant (catalase) or a chelator (desferal). The goal of the study was to preserve mammalian sperm in

Ranjan Sitaula; Heidi Elmoazzen; Mehmet Toner; Sankha Bhowmick

2009-01-01

152

Protective Roles of the Antioxidant Enzymes Superoxide Dismutase and Catalase in the Green Photosynthetic Bacterium Chloroflexus Aurantiacus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study was to examine the biochemical response of the green thermophilic photosynthetic bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus to oxidative stress. Lab experiments focused primarily on characterizing the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismut...

R. E. Blankenship L. Rothschild

2004-01-01

153

Antioxidative and angiotensin-I-converting enzyme inhibitory potential of a Pacific Hake ( Merluccius productus ) fish protein hydrolysate subjected to simulated gastrointestinal digestion and Caco-2 cell permeation.  

PubMed

Pacific hake fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) with promising chemical assay based antioxidative capacity was studied for in vitro angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory potential, intestinal cell permeability characteristics, and intracellular antioxidative potential using the Caco-2 cell model system. FPH showed substrate-type inhibition of ACE with IC(50) of 161 microg of peptides/mL. HPLC analysis revealed that different peptides were responsible for antioxidative and ACE-inhibitory activity. FPH inhibited 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride-induced oxidation in Caco-2 cells at noncytotoxic concentrations. In vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion increased (P < 0.05) antioxidative capacity; ACE-inhibitory activity of FPH remained unchanged, although individual peptide fractions showed decreased or no activity after digestion. Some FPH peptides passed through Caco-2 cells: the permeates showed 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical scavenging activity but no ACE-inhibitory activity. These results suggest the potential for application of Pacific hake FPH to reduce oxidative processes in vivo. Further studies are needed to assess prospective antihypertensive effects. PMID:20085275

Samaranayaka, Anusha G P; Kitts, David D; Li-Chan, Eunice C Y

2010-02-10

154

State of the antioxidative enzymes of rat bone marrow cells after irradiation, fractures, and a combination of both  

SciTech Connect

The authors study bone marrow levels of antioxidative (antiradical) defensive systems (ADS) enzymes, namely superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GP), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione: dehydroascorbate oxidoreductase (GDAR), rats and changes in their activity in the bone marrow at various times after irradiation, mechanical trauma, and a combination of both. Development of acute radiation sickness as a result of a single irradiation was accompanied by marked changes in the enzymic antioxidative system of rat bone marrow cells.

Bogdanova, I.A.; Ovchinnikov, K.G.; Torbenko, V.P.; Gerasimov, A.M.

1987-11-01

155

The relationship between serum level of thyroid hormones, trace elements and antioxidant enzymes in dromedary camel ( Camelus dromedarius )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thyroid hormones might be able to regulate the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase\\u000a (GPX). The role of thyroid hormones in metabolic pathways and antioxidant enzyme activities are well known in many species.\\u000a Nevertheless, there is no report describing probable relationship between thyroid hormones status, erythrocyte antioxidant\\u000a enzymes and serum profiles of trace elements. This study was

S. Nazifi; M. Mansourian; B. Nikahval; S. M. Razavi

2009-01-01

156

Activities of enzymes of carbohydrate and energy metabolism of the intracellular stages of the microsporidian, Nosema grylli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The activities of nine enzymes were investigated in intracellular stages of the microsporidian Nosema grylli from the fat body of the crickets Gryllus bimaculatus purified by centrifugation in Percoll density gradient. Phosphoglucomutase (EC 5.4.2.2), hexokinase (EC 2.7.1.1) and fructose 6-phosphate kinase (EC 2.7.1.11) were not detectable in stages. Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.49), phosphoglucose isomerase (EC 5.3.1.9), 3-phosophoglycerate kinase

Viacheslav V. Dolgikh

157

Indirect evaluation of corneal apoptosis in contact lens wearers by estimation of nitric oxide and antioxidant enzymes in tears  

PubMed Central

Background: Contact lens induced trauma to the corneal epithelium results in increased release of inflammatory mediators. The keratocyte apoptosis is directly related to epithelial injury and has been correlated with increased production of nitric oxide. Potent antioxidant enzymes protect cells from oxidative damage by inactivating reactive oxygen species and thus inhibiting apoptosis. This study aims at determination of total nitric oxide and antioxidant enzymes in tears which will be an indirect criteria for assessing apoptosis. Materials and Methods: Nitric oxide and antioxidant enzymes were estimated in tears of 25 soft contact lens wearers and compared with 25 age and sex matched controls. Results: Statistically significant increase of nitric oxide (P<0.001), superoxide dismutase (P<0.001) and glutathione peroxidase (P<0.001) levels was seen in tears of contact lens wearers as compared to controls. There was also statistically significant increase in the levels of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (P<0.05) and glutathione peroxidase (P<0.01), with increase in the total duration of contact lens wear in years. Conclusions: Increase in the level of nitric oxide and antioxidant enzymes in tears of contact lens wearers suggested that contact lens wear suppresses the process of apoptosis. However, it was also postulated that the increased levels of nitric oxide balances the anti-apoptotic activities of increased levels of antioxidant enzymes by its pro-apoptotic activity leading to protective outcomes in contact lens wearers.

Bhatia, R. P.; Dhawan, Shikha; Khanna, H. D.; Dash, Amitabh

2010-01-01

158

Cloning and sequencing of thiol-specific antioxidant from mammalian brain: alkyl hydroperoxide reductase and thiol-specific antioxidant define a large family of antioxidant enzymes.  

PubMed Central

A cDNA corresponding to a thiol-specific antioxidant enzyme (TSA) was isolated from a rat brain cDNA library with the use of antibodies to bovine TSA. The cDNA clone encoded an open reading frame capable of encoding a 198-residue polypeptide. The rat and yeast TSA proteins show significant sequence homology to the 21-kDa component (AhpC) of Salmonella typhimurium alkyl hydroperoxide reductase, and we have found that AhpC exhibits TSA activity. AhpC and TSA define a family of > 25 different proteins present in organisms from all kingdoms. The similarity among the family members extends over the entire sequence and ranges between 23% and 98% identity. A majority of the members of the AhpC/TSA family contain two conserved cysteines. At least eight of the genes encoding AhpC/TSA-like polypeptides are found in proximity to genes encoding other oxidoreductase activities, and the expression of several of the homologs has been correlated with pathogenicity. We suggest that the AhpC/TSA family represents a widely distributed class of antioxidant enzymes. We also report that a second family of proteins, defined by the 57-kDa component (AhpF) of alkyl hydroperoxide reductase and by thioredoxin reductase, has expanded to include six additional members.

Chae, H Z; Robison, K; Poole, L B; Church, G; Storz, G; Rhee, S G

1994-01-01

159

Cerebral antioxidant enzyme increase associated with learning deficit in type 2 diabetes rats.  

PubMed

In this study, we examined alterations in the enzymatic antioxidant defenses associated with learning deficits induced by type 2 diabetes, and studied the effects of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? agonist pioglitazone on these learning deficits. Learning ability was assessed by visual discrimination tasks in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats, as a model of spontaneous type 2 diabetes. Levels of the antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GPx), Cu(2+)-Zn(2+) superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD) and manganese SOD were measured in the cortex, hippocampus and striatum. Half the rats received oral pioglitazone (20mg/kg/day) from the early stage of diabetes (22 weeks old) to 27 weeks old. OLETF rats showed learning deficits compared with control, Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats. GPx levels in the cortex and hippocampus were increased in OLETF rats compared with LETO rats, with an inverse correlation between GPx in the hippocampus and learning score. CuZn-SOD levels were also increased in the hippocampus in OLETF rats. Pioglitazone reduced blood glucose and increased serum adiponectin levels, but had no effect on learning tasks or antioxidant enzymes, except for CuZn-SOD. These results suggest that an oxidative imbalance reflected by increased brain antioxidant enzymes plays an important role in the development of learning deficits in type 2 diabetes. Early pioglitazone administration partly ameliorated diabetic symptoms, but was unable to completely recover cerebral oxidative imbalance and functions. These results suggest that diabetes-induced brain impairment, which results in learning deficits, may have occurred before the appearance of the symptoms of overt diabetes. PMID:22981416

Suge, Rie; Shimazu, Tomokazu; Hasegawa, Hajime; Inoue, Ikuo; Hayashibe, Hidemasa; Nagasaka, Hironori; Araki, Nobuo; Katayama, Shigehiro; Nomura, Masahiko; Watanabe, Shu-Ichi

2012-09-07

160

S-nitroso proteome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Enzymes of intermediary metabolism and antioxidant defense  

PubMed Central

The immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) includes expression of nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS)2, whose products can kill Mtb in vitro with a molar potency greater than that of many conventional antitubercular agents. However, the targets of reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNIs) in Mtb are unknown. One major action of RNIs is protein S-nitrosylation. Here, we describe, to our knowledge, the first proteomic analysis of S-nitrosylation in a whole organism after treating Mtb with bactericidal concentrations of RNIs. The 29 S-nitroso proteins identified are all enzymes, mostly serving intermediary metabolism, lipid metabolism, and/or antioxidant defense. Many are essential or implicated in virulence, including defense against RNIs. For each of two target enzymes tested, lipoamide dehydrogenase and mycobacterial proteasome ATPase, S-nitrosylation caused enzyme inhibition. Moreover, endogenously biotinylated proteins were driven into mixed disulfide complexes. Targeting of metabolic enzymes and antioxidant defenses by means of protein S-nitrosylation and mixed disulfide bonding may contribute to the antimycobacterial actions of RNIs.

Rhee, Kyu Y.; Erdjument-Bromage, Hediye; Tempst, Paul; Nathan, Carl F.

2005-01-01

161

Sleep deprivation alters gene expression and antioxidant enzyme activity in mice splenocytes.  

PubMed

Cellular defence against the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) involves a number of mechanisms in which antioxidant enzymes such as catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) play an important role. The relation between sleep deprivation and oxidative stress has not yet been completely elucidated. Although some authors did not find evidence of this relationship, others found alterations in some oxidative stress markers in response to sleep deprivation. Thus, the objective of this study was to identify changes induced by sleep deprivation in the activity and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes in mice splenocytes, ideally corroborating a better understanding of the observed effects related to sleep deprivation, which could be triggered by oxidative imbalance. Splenocytes from mice sleep deprived for 72 h showed no significant difference in CAT and CuZnSOD gene expression compared with normal sleep mice. However, sleep-deprived mice did show higher MnSOD gene expression than the control group. Concerning enzymatic activity, CuZnSOD and MnSOD significantly increased after sleep deprivation, despite the expression in CuZnSOD remained unchanged. Moreover, CAT activity was significantly lower after sleep deprivation. The data suggest that the antioxidant system is triggered by sleep deprivation, which in turn could influence the splenocytes homoeostasis, thus interfering in physiological responses. PMID:23360182

Lungato, L; Marques, M S; Pereira, V G; Hix, S; Gazarini, M L; Tufik, S; D'Almeida, V

2013-03-01

162

Effects of Acifluorfen on Endogenous Antioxidants and Protective Enzymes in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Cotyledons  

PubMed Central

The herbicide acifluorfen (2-chloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy-2-nitrobenzoate) causes strong photooxidative destruction of pigments and lipids in sensitive plant species. Antioxidants and oxygen radical scavengers slow the bleaching action of the herbicide. The effect of acifluorfen on glutathione and ascorbate levels in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) cotyledon discs was investigated to assess the relationship between herbicide activity and endogenous antioxidants. Acifluorfen decreased the levels of glutathione and ascorbate over 50% in discs exposed to less than 1.5 hours of white light (450 microeinsteins per square meter per second). Coincident increases in dehydroascorbate and glutathione disulfide were not observed. Acifluorfen also caused the rapid depletion of ascorbate in far-red light grown plants which were photosynthetically incompetent. Glutathione reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate oxidase, ascorbate free radical reductase, peroxidase, and catalase activities rapidly decreased in acifluorfen-treated tissue exposed to white light. None of the enzymes were inhibited in vitro by the herbicide. Acifluorfen causes irreversible photooxidative destruction of plant tissue, in part, by depleting endogenous antioxidants and inhibiting the activities of protective enzymes.

Kenyon, William H.; Duke, Stephen O.

1985-01-01

163

Enhanced tolerance to oxidative stress in transgenic tobacco plants expressing three antioxidant enzymes in chloroplasts.  

PubMed

The effect of simultaneous expression of genes encoding three antioxidant enzymes, copper zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD, EC 1.15.1.1), ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11), and dehydroascorbate (DHA) reductase (DHAR, EC 1.8.5.1), in the chloroplasts of tobacco plants was investigated under oxidative stress conditions. In previous studies, transgenic tobacco plants expressing both CuZnSOD and APX in chloroplast (CA plants), or DHAR in chloroplast showed enhanced tolerance to oxidative stresses, such as paraquat and salt. In this study, in order to develop transgenic plants that were more resistant to oxidative stress, we introduced the gene encoding DHAR into CA transgenic plants. Mature leaves of transgenic plants expressing all three antioxidant genes (CAD plants) had approximately 1.6-2.1 times higher DHAR activity, and higher ratios of reduced ascorbate (AsA) to DHA, and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) to reduced glutathione (GSH) compared to CA plants. CAD plants were more resistant to paraquat-induced stress, exhibiting only 18.1% reduction in membrane damage relative to CA plants. In addition, seedlings of CAD plants had enhanced tolerance to NaCI (100 mM) compared to CA plants. These results indicate that the simultaneous expression of multiple antioxidant enzymes, such as CuZnSOD, APX, and DHAR, in chloroplasts is more effective than single or double expression for developing transgenic plants with enhanced tolerance to multiple environmental stresses. PMID:17268803

Lee, Young-Pyo; Kim, Sun-Hyung; Bang, Jae-Wook; Lee, Haeng-Soon; Kwak, Sang-Soo; Kwon, Suk-Yoon

2007-02-01

164

Expression and regulation of antioxidant enzymes in the developing limb support a function of ROS in interdigital cell death  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertebrate limb development is a well-studied model of apoptosis; however, little is known about the intracellular molecules involved in activating the cell death machinery. We have shown that high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are present in the interdigital ‘necrotic’ tissue of mouse autopod, and that antioxidants can reduce cell death. Here, we determined the expression pattern of several

Denhí Schnabel; Enrique Salas-Vidal; Verónica Narváez; María del Rayo Sánchez-Carbente; David Hernández-García; Rodrigo Cuervo; Luis Covarrubias

2006-01-01

165

Antioxidant and cardioprotective properties of the sulphydryl angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor zofenopril.  

PubMed

Zofenopril, a new potent sulphydryl angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, is characterized by high lipophilicity, selective cardiac ACE inhibition, and antioxidant and tissue protective activities. In vitro and in vivo experiments suggest that zofenopril exerts antioxidant properties at clinically achievable tissue concentrations. In endothelial cells, zofenopril enhances nitric oxide production, attenuates atherosclerotic lesion development and inhibits adhesion molecule expression by reducing reactive oxygen species. These peculiar characteristics are reflected in the drug's cardioprotective activity, which has been shown to be greater than that of non-sulphydryl ACE inhibitors. Cardiac hypertrophy was also reduced by chronic zofenopril administration, independently of its blood pressure-reducing effect. ACE inhibitors with a sulphydryl group could have an advantage in improving vascular function and reducing cardiac impairment compared with non-sulphydryl-containing ACE inhibitors. This could explain zofenopril's remarkable clinical efficacy post-infarction, and potentially beneficial use in prevention and therapy of cardiovascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis, thrombosis and heart failure. PMID:15651714

Evangelista, S; Manzini, S

166

Effects of dietary menadione on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 240-day growth experiment in a re-circulating water system was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary menadione on the growth and antioxidant responses of abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino. Triplicate groups of juvenile abalone (initial weight: 1.19 ± 0.01 g; shell length: 19.23 ± 0.01 mm) were fed to satiation with 3 semi-purified diets containing 0, 10, and 1 000 mg menadione sodium bisulfite (MSB)/kg, respectively. Results show that there were no significant differences in the rate of weight gain or in the daily increment in shell length of abalone among different treatments. Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) in viscera were significantly decreased with dietary menadione. However, activities of these enzymes except for GPX in muscle were increased. Therefore, antioxidant responses of abalone were increased in muscle and decreased in viscera by dietary menadione.

Fu, Jinghua; Xu, Wei; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Wenbing; Feng, Xiuni; Liufu, Zhiguo

2012-01-01

167

Association of mitochondrial antioxidant enzymes with mitochondrial DNA as integral nucleoid constituents  

PubMed Central

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is organized in protein-DNA macrocomplexes called nucleoids. Average nucleoids contain 2–8 mtDNA molecules, which are organized by the histone-like mitochondrial transcription factor A. Besides well-characterized constituents, such as single-stranded binding protein or polymerase ? (Pol?), various other proteins with ill-defined functions have been identified. We report for the first time that mammalian nucleoids contain essential enzymes of an integral antioxidant system. Intact nucleoids were isolated with sucrose density gradients from rat and bovine heart as well as human Jurkat cells. Manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) was detected by Western blot in the nucleoid fractions. DNA, mitochondrial glutathione peroxidase (GPx1), and Pol? were coimmunoprecipitated with SOD2 from nucleoid fractions, which suggests that an antioxidant system composed of SOD2 and GPx1 are integral constituents of nucleoids. Interestingly, in cultured bovine endothelial cells the association of SOD2 with mtDNA was absent. Using a sandwich filter-binding assay, direct association of SOD2 by salt-sensitive ionic forces with a chemically synthesized mtDNA fragment was demonstrated. Increasing salt concentrations during nucleoid isolation on sucrose density gradients disrupted the association of SOD2 with mitochondrial nucleoids. Our biochemical data reveal that nucleoids contain an integral antioxidant system that may protect mtDNA from superoxide-induced oxidative damage.—Kienhöfer, J., Häussler, D. J. F., Ruckelshausen, F., Muessig, E., Weber, K., Pimentel, D., Ullrich, V., Bürkle, A., Bachschmid, M. M. Association of mitochondrial antioxidant enzymes with mitochondrial DNA as integral nucleoid constituents.

Kienhofer, Joachim; Haussler, Dagmar Johanna Franziska; Ruckelshausen, Florian; Muessig, Elisabeth; Weber, Klaus; Pimentel, David; Ullrich, Volker; Burkle, Alexander; Bachschmid, Markus Michael

2009-01-01

168

The Antioxidant Mimetic, MnTE-2-PyP, Reduces Intracellular Growth of Mycobacterium abscessus  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium abscessus is a rapidly growing environmental mycobacterium that can cause severe skin, soft tissue, and lung infections. M. abscessus grows inside macrophages, and these cells release a vast number of proinflammatory cytokines in response to infections. The metalloporphyrin, MnTE-2-PyP, is a broad antioxidant that reduces inflammatory cell signaling. Macrophage-like THP-1 cells were infected with M. abscessus in the presence or absence of MnTE-2-PyP. MnTE-2-PyP significantly decreased, in a dose-dependent manner, the number of M. abscessus organisms recovered from infected THP-1 cells 4 and 8 days after infection. Furthermore, when combined with clarithromycin, MnTE-2-PyP additively reduced the number of cells associated with M. abscessus. A mechanism of bacterial growth inhibition by MnTE-2-PyP was then elucidated. It was found that MnTE-2-PyP promoted the survival of infected THP-1 cells and increased fusion of M. abscessus–containing phagosomes with lysosomes.

Oberley-Deegan, Rebecca E.; Lee, Young Min; Morey, G. Eli; Cook, Danielle M.; Chan, Edward D.; Crapo, James D.

2009-01-01

169

Angiotensin II regulates cardiac hypertrophy via oxidative stress but not antioxidant enzyme activities in experimental renovascular hypertension.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to provide new insights into the role of angiotensin II and arterial pressure in the regulation of antioxidant enzyme activities in a renovascular model of cardiac hypertrophy. For this purpose, aortic coarcted rats were treated with losartan or minoxidil for 7 days. Angiotensin II induced cardiac hypertrophy and oxidative stress via Nox4, p22(phox) and p47(phox), which are components of the NAD(P)H oxidase. Antioxidant enzymes were regulated by arterial pressure and were not implicated in cardiac hypertrophy. Heme oxygenase-1, the rate-limiting enzyme in heme catabolism, behaved as a catalase and glutathione peroxidase, and is regulated by arterial pressure. In summary, the present report indicates that cardiac hypertrophy, induced by renovascular hypertension, depends on angiotensin II through reactive oxygen species and is not prevented by the action of antioxidant enzymes. PMID:18360053

Polizio, Ariel H; Balestrasse, Karina B; Yannarelli, Gustavo G; Noriega, Guillermo O; Gorzalczany, Susana; Taira, Carlos; Tomaro, Maria L

2008-02-01

170

Protective effects of D-limonene on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of D-limonene on the levels of lipid peroxidation by-products and antioxidant defence systems in the plasma and tissues of normal and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes rats. The experimental diabetes was induced in rats by a single dose of STZ (40 mg/kg i.p.) injection, and treatment with D-limonene was continued for 45 days. After the treatment period, oxidative stress parameters such as lipid peroxidation by-products; enzymatic antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase; non-enzymic antioxidants including reduced glutathione, Vitamins C and E were measured in the plasma and tissues of experimental rats. An increase in the levels of lipid peroxidation by-products and significant decrease in antioxidant enzymes were observed in untreated diabetic rats. Administration of D-limonene to diabetic rats for 45 days caused a significant reduction in the levels of lipid peroxidation by-products and an increase in the activities of antioxidant enzymes, when compared with the untreated diabetic group. There was no significant difference in normal treated groups, when compared with normal rats. Biochemical observations were substantiated with the help of histopathological examinations through its antioxidant properties and thereby conferred protection against STZ-induced diabetic rats. The result of this study indicates that D-limonene has antioxidant potential in addition to its antidiabetic effect in experimental diabetes. PMID:22998493

Murali, Ramakrishnan; Karthikeyan, Arumugam; Saravanan, Ramalingam

2012-10-25

171

Effects of the anticancer dehydrotarplatin on cytochrome P450 and antioxidant enzymes in male rat tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of dehydrotarplatin (DTP), a new antineoplastic drug analogous to cisplatin, and its metabolite (Triacid) on the\\u000a hepatic, renal and testicular CYP and antioxidant enzymes of male rats was investigated. The rats were treated i.p. with a\\u000a single dose of DTP (25 mg kg?1 day?1) or Triacid (17.5 mg kg?1 day?1) and analysed 3 or 7 days post treatment. Three days after treatment, both drugs

Annalisa Nannelli; Andrea Messina; Sandra Marini; Silvia Trasciatti; Vincenzo Longo; Pier Giovanni Gervasi

2007-01-01

172

Induction of phase 2 antioxidant enzymes by broccoli sulforaphane: perspectives in maintaining the antioxidant activity of vitamins a, C, and e.  

PubMed

Consumption of fruits and vegetables is recognized as an important part of a healthy diet. Increased consumption of cruciferous vegetables in particular has been associated with a decreased risk of several degenerative and chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease and certain cancers. Members of the cruciferous vegetable family, which includes broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, and cabbage, accumulate significant concentrations of glucosinolates, which are metabolized in vivo to biologically active isothiocyanates (ITCs). The ITC sulforaphane, which is derived from glucoraphanin, has garnered particular interest as an indirect antioxidant due to its extraordinary ability to induce expression of several enzymes via the KEAP1/Nrf2/ARE pathway. Nrf2/ARE gene products are typically characterized as Phase II detoxification enzymes and/or antioxidant (AO) enzymes. Over the last decade, human clinical studies have begun to provide in vivo evidence of both Phase II and AO enzyme induction by SF. Many AO enzymes are redox cycling enzymes that maintain redox homeostasis and activity of free radical scavengers such as vitamins A, C, and E. In this review, we present the existing evidence for induction of PII and AO enzymes by SF, the interactions of SF-induced AO enzymes and proposed maintenance of the essential vitamins A, C, and E, and, finally, the current view of genotypic effects on ITC metabolism and AO enzyme induction and function. PMID:22303412

Boddupalli, Sekhar; Mein, Jonathan R; Lakkanna, Shantala; James, Don R

2012-01-24

173

Induction of Phase 2 Antioxidant Enzymes by Broccoli Sulforaphane: Perspectives in Maintaining the Antioxidant Activity of Vitamins A, C, and E  

PubMed Central

Consumption of fruits and vegetables is recognized as an important part of a healthy diet. Increased consumption of cruciferous vegetables in particular has been associated with a decreased risk of several degenerative and chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease and certain cancers. Members of the cruciferous vegetable family, which includes broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, and cabbage, accumulate significant concentrations of glucosinolates, which are metabolized in vivo to biologically active isothiocyanates (ITCs). The ITC sulforaphane, which is derived from glucoraphanin, has garnered particular interest as an indirect antioxidant due to its extraordinary ability to induce expression of several enzymes via the KEAP1/Nrf2/ARE pathway. Nrf2/ARE gene products are typically characterized as Phase II detoxification enzymes and/or antioxidant (AO) enzymes. Over the last decade, human clinical studies have begun to provide in vivo evidence of both Phase II and AO enzyme induction by SF. Many AO enzymes are redox cycling enzymes that maintain redox homeostasis and activity of free radical scavengers such as vitamins A, C, and E. In this review, we present the existing evidence for induction of PII and AO enzymes by SF, the interactions of SF-induced AO enzymes and proposed maintenance of the essential vitamins A, C, and E, and, finally, the current view of genotypic effects on ITC metabolism and AO enzyme induction and function.

Boddupalli, Sekhar; Mein, Jonathan R.; Lakkanna, Shantala; James, Don R.

2012-01-01

174

Mutant ?-galactosidase A enzymes identified in Fabry disease patients with residual enzyme activity: biochemical characterization and restoration of normal intracellular processing by 1-deoxygalactonojirimycin  

PubMed Central

Fabry disease is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by the deficiency of ?-Gal A (?-galactosidase A) activity. In order to understand the molecular mechanism underlying ?-Gal A deficiency in Fabry disease patients with residual enzyme activity, enzymes with different missense mutations were purified from transfected COS-7 cells and the biochemical properties were characterized. The mutant enzymes detected in variant patients (A20P, E66Q, M72V, I91T, R112H, F113L, N215S, Q279E, M296I, M296V and R301Q), and those found mostly in mild classic patients (A97V, A156V, L166V and R356W) appeared to have normal Km and Vmax values. The degradation of all mutants (except E59K) was partially inhibited by treatment with kifunensine, a selective inhibitor of ER (endoplasmic reticulum) ?-mannosidase I. Metabolic labelling and subcellular fractionation studies in COS-7 cells expressing the L166V and R301Q ?-Gal A mutants indicated that the mutant protein was retained in the ER and degraded without processing. Addition of DGJ (1-deoxygalactonojirimycin) to the culture medium of COS-7 cells transfected with a large set of missense mutant ?-Gal A cDNAs effectively increased both enzyme activity and protein yield. DGJ was capable of normalizing intracellular processing of mutant ?-Gal A found in both classic (L166V) and variant (R301Q) Fabry disease patients. In addition, the residual enzyme activity in fibroblasts or lymphoblasts from both classic and variant hemizygous Fabry disease patients carrying a variety of missense mutations could be substantially increased by cultivation of the cells with DGJ. These results indicate that a large proportion of mutant enzymes in patients with residual enzyme activity are kinetically active. Excessive degradation in the ER could be responsible for the deficiency of enzyme activity in vivo, and the DGJ approach may be broadly applicable to Fabry disease patients with missense mutations.

Ishii, Satoshi; Chang, Hui-Hwa; Kawasaki, Kunito; Yasuda, Kayo; Wu, Hui-Li; Garman, Scott C.; Fan, Jian-Qiang

2007-01-01

175

A new bifunctional chitosanase enzyme from Streptomyces sp. and its application in production of antioxidant chitooligosaccharides.  

PubMed

Chitosanases produced by microbes and plants are getting attention to explore vastly available marine waste. Chitooligosaccharides and glucosamine can be produced using chitosanase enzyme and have applications in food, pharma and other industries. A potential microbial chitosanase source was found after isolation and screening of chitosan degrading microbes from garden soil. An isolate, designated as C6 produced chitosanase enzyme upon induction by chitosan substrates. Production of 6 U/ml of chitosanase enzyme was achieved from this isolate on chitosan minimal salt broth medium at 32 °C after 3 days of growth. The enzyme was able to hydrolyse both chitosan and cellulosic substrates. Enzymatic production of D -glucosamine and chitooligosaccharides were studied with various chitosan substrates using crude enzyme. The yield of glucosamine was found to be 40% after 2 h of reaction at 40 °C, and chitosan oligomers were produced having two to six polymerizations at 60 °C reaction temperature. The hydrolysates showed 50% antioxidant activity as compared to ascorbic acid. PMID:22322828

Sinha, Sujata; Tripathi, Pushplata; Chand, Subhash

2012-02-10

176

Isoflavone daidzein possesses no antioxidant activities in cell-free assays but induces the antioxidant enzyme catalase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiologic studies have shown that dietary intake of isoflavonones is associated with several properties beneficial to human health. It has been suggested that at least some of these effects are related to the antioxidant activity of isoflavonoids. We analyzed the antioxidant activity of the major isoflavones found in soybeans, but none of these compounds showed prominent antioxidant effects in cell-free

Andreas Kampkötter; Yvonni Chovolou; Andreas Kulawik; Elke Röhrdanz; Nadine Weber; Peter Proksch; Wim Wätjen

2008-01-01

177

Purification of Vibrio cholerae fur and estimation of its intracellular abundance by antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.  

PubMed

The Vibrio cholerae fur gene was previously cloned and sequenced. A putative Fur box was identified in the divergent promoters of irgA, a virulence factor of V. cholerae, and irgB, a transcriptional activator of irgA. In this work, V. cholerae Fur was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified to approximately 95% homogeneity. The purified protein bound a DNA fragment containing the irgA-irgB promoter in a gel shift assay. The purified protein was used to raise monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies to V. cholerae Fur, and a Fur sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was developed to estimate the intracellular abundance of Fur under a variety of growth conditions. The number of Fur molecules per cell during exponential growth was approximately 2,500, which is higher than most measurements for other bacterial repressors but comparable to the intracellular concentration of the leucine-responsive regulatory protein. The number of Fur molecules per cell increased in the late logarithmic and stationary phases. Growth of V. cholerae in low-iron medium did not alter the intracellular abundance of Fur significantly. Growth under microaerophilic conditions resulted in a significant, approximately twofold decrease in the intracellular levels of Fur. The measurements of intracellular Fur abundance indicate that a large amount of this repressor is produced constitutively and that the concentration of Fur in the cell varies by less than a factor of 2 under the conditions studied. We hypothesize that the high constitutive expression of Fur is necessary for its role as an iron-responsive regulator. PMID:8982004

Watnick, P I; Eto, T; Takahashi, H; Calderwood, S B

1997-01-01

178

In vitro effects of alloxan-vanadium combination on lipid peroxidation and on antioxidant enzyme activity.  

PubMed

1. The in vitro effects of alloxan, dialuric acid and vanadium ions, alone or in combination, on lipid peroxidation and on antioxidant enzyme activity in rat liver and kidney were studied. 2. Unlike alloxan, alloxan-glutathione (GSH) and dialuric acid increased lipid peroxidation, which could be explained by the decreased activity of catalase and GSH peroxidase during incubation. 3. Vanadium(IV) ions increased the amount of thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances, but neither vanadium(IV) nor vanadium(V) changed the enzyme activity. 4. The combination of vanadium ions and alloxan-GSH or dialuric acid had no additive effect on lipid peroxidation. Vanadium ions decreased the dialuric acid-induced inhibition of catalase activity. 5. The present results suggest the therapeutic value of vanadium as an antidiabetic agent. PMID:9703225

Alexandrova, A; Kirkova, M; Russanov, E

1998-09-01

179

The effects of acute melatonin and ethanol treatment on antioxidant enzyme activities in rat testes.  

PubMed

The pineal hormone melatonin (N -acetyl, 5-methoxytryptamine) was recently accepted to act as an antioxidant under both in vivo and in vitro conditions. In this study, we examined the possible preventive effect of melatonin on ethanol-induced lipid peroxidation in rat testes. Thirty-seven male Wistar albino rats, 5.5--6 months old, were randomly divided into four groups (9--10 animals in each). The first group (control animals) received 4% ethanol at similar intervals to the experimental groups to equalize the stress effect. The second group received only melatonin i.p. 7 mg kg(-1)bw three times over 1.5 h intervals. The third group received only 30% alcohol 3 g kg(-1)bw twice daily. The fourth group were treated with melatonin and ethanol according to the above protocol, melatonin injections preceding ethanol treatments. The product of lipid peroxidation, malondialdehyde (MDA) and antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (Cu--Zn SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT) were measured in the post-mitochondrial fraction of the testes. MDA levels were significantly increased due to acute ethanol intoxication. GPx activity was higher in the three experimental groups than the control levels. The activity of CAT was increased significantly in the melatonin plus ethanol-treated group but the other groups appeared not to be influenced by acute ethanol treatment. Cu--Zn SOD activity remained unaltered. These results suggest that antioxidants may be a protective agent for the testicular injury caused by ethanol consumption. PMID:11516256

Oner-Iyido?an, Y; Gürdöl, F; Oner, P

2001-08-01

180

How volatile organic compounds affect free radical and antioxidant enzyme activity in textile workers.  

PubMed

Various effects of exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOC) have recently become an important issue because of their widespread use in industry. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of volatile organic solvents commonly used in textile paint industry on free radical levels and the antioxidant enzyme system in textile workers. The study included twenty exposed workers and twenty controls. Blood samples were taken after an overnight fast of 10 to 12 hours. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were studied in serum while super oxide dismutase (SOD) activity was studied in erythrocytes. Statistical analysis was performed using the ANOVA and Kruskall-Wallis analysis tests. MDA and SOD were significantly higher in textile workers than in controls (p<0.01). In contrast, no significant difference was observed between them for TAC (p>0.05).Elevated MDA levels in textile workers may indicate increased lipid peroxidation as a result of long-term exposure to organic solvents, whereas elevated SOD activity suggests that the antioxidant system was activated to counter lipid peroxidation. The results suggest that textile workers occupationally exposed to volatile organic solvents make a risk group and require more frequent periodic examinations. PMID:19064366

Bayil, Sibel; Cicek, Hulya; Cimenci, Iclal Geyikli; Hazar, Muhsin

2008-12-01

181

Measuring Intracellular Enzyme Concentrations: Assessing the Effect of Oxidative Stress on the Amount of Glyoxalase I  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Enzymology is one of the fundamental areas of biochemistry and involves the study of the structure, kinetics, and regulation of enzyme activity. Research in this area is often conducted with purified enzymes and extrapolated to "in vivo" conditions. The specificity constant, k[subscript S], is the ratio between k[subscript cat] (the catalytic…

Miranda, Hugo Vicente; Ferreira, Antonio E. N.; Quintas, Alexandre; Cordeiro, Carlos; Freire, Ana Ponces

2008-01-01

182

Measuring Intracellular Enzyme Concentrations: Assessing the Effect of Oxidative Stress on the Amount of Glyoxalase I  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Enzymology is one of the fundamental areas of biochemistry and involves the study of the structure, kinetics, and regulation of enzyme activity. Research in this area is often conducted with purified enzymes and extrapolated to "in vivo" conditions. The specificity constant, k[subscript S], is the ratio between k[subscript cat] (the catalytic…

Miranda, Hugo Vicente; Ferreira, Antonio E. N.; Quintas, Alexandre; Cordeiro, Carlos; Freire, Ana Ponces

2008-01-01

183

The inhibitory effects of polychlorinated biphenyl Aroclor 1254 on Leydig cell LH receptors, steroidogenic enzymes and antioxidant enzymes in adult rats.  

PubMed

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are global pollutants of major concern to human and animal reproductive health. The present study has examined the impact of Aroclor 1254 exposure on oxidative stress and testicular Leydig cell function. Adult albino male rats of the Wistar strain were dosed for 30 days with daily intraperitoneal injections of 2 mg/kg Aroclor 1254 or vehicle (corn oil). One day after the last treatment, animals were euthanized and blood collected for the assay of serum testosterone and estradiol. Testes were removed and Leydig cells were isolated for the assay of luteinizing hormone (LH) receptors, steroidogenic enzymes cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage enzyme (P450 scc), 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3beta-HSD) and 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17beta-HSD). Cellular antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) were also assayed. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were quantified. Results showed that Aroclor 1254 exposure lowered serum testosterone and estradiol levels. Leydig cell LH receptor density, activities of the steroidogenic enzymes P450 scc, 3beta-HSD, 17beta-HSD, antioxidant enzymes SOD, CAT, GPX, GR, and GST were significantly diminished whereas, LPO and ROS significantly elevated. Taken together, these results suggest that inefficient LH receptors, steroidogenic enzymes and antioxidant enzymes are possible mechanisms by which Aroclor 1254 treatment disrupts Leydig cell steroidogenesis. PMID:15808795

Murugesan, Palaniappan; Kanagaraj, Palaniyandi; Yuvaraj, Sambandam; Balasubramanian, Karundevi; Aruldhas, Maria Michael; Arunakaran, Jagadeesan

184

The Relationship between Coenzyme Q10, Oxidative Stress, and Antioxidant Enzymes Activities and Coronary Artery Disease  

PubMed Central

A higher oxidative stress may contribute to the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease (CAD). The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between coenzyme Q10 concentration and lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymes activities and the risk of CAD. Patients who were identified by cardiac catheterization as having at least 50% stenosis of one major coronary artery were assigned to the case group (n = 51). The control group (n = 102) comprised healthy individuals with normal blood biochemical values. The plasma coenzyme Q10, malondialdehyde (MDA) and antioxidant enzymes activities (catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx)) were measured. Subjects with CAD had significant lower plasma coenzyme Q10, CAT and GPx activities and higher MDA and SOD levels compared to those of the control group. The plasma coenzyme Q10 was positively correlated with CAT and GPx activities and negatively correlated with MDA and SOD. However, the correlations were not significant after adjusting for the potential confounders of CAD with the exception of SOD. A higher level of plasma coenzyme Q10 (?0.52??mol/L) was significantly associated with reducing the risk of CAD. Our results support the potential cardioprotective impact of coenzyme Q10.

Lee, Bor-Jen; Lin, Yi-Chin; Huang, Yi-Chia; Ko, Ya-Wen; Hsia, Simon; Lin, Ping-Ting

2012-01-01

185

Dietary restriction attenuates age-related increases in rat skeletal muscle antioxidant enzyme activities.  

PubMed

Dietary restriction (DR) retards aging in rodents, but its mechanism of action remains unclear. Free radicals have been hypothesized to be involved in aging and in DR's actions. We investigated the influences of age and DR on the antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in skeletal muscle from 11-, 26- and 34-mo-old (BN x Fischer 344) F1 rats fed either ad libitum (AL) or subjected to a 30% DR from 14 weeks of age. The mass of the upper hindlimb muscles recoverable in 34-mo-old AL rats was only 52% that of 11-mo-old AL rats, whereas rats on DR showed a stable, intermediate value at both ages. CAT and GPX activities increased progressively and markedly in muscle of AL animals with aging. The increase in CAT activity was partially attenuated by DR, while that of GPX was entirely prevented. These effects of aging and DR were more profound in 12,000 x g pellets than in cytosolic fractions. SOD activities were more variable and not clearly influenced by age or DR. These data agree with prior reports of an age-related increase in skeletal muscle antioxidant enzyme activities. Further, DR attenuates this alteration and does so most profoundly in the 12,000 x g pellet, the fraction which is enriched in mitochondria. PMID:8056935

Luhtala, T A; Roecker, E B; Pugh, T; Feuers, R J; Weindruch, R

1994-09-01

186

Enzyme antioxidant defences and oxidative damage in red blood cells of variegate porphyria patients.  

PubMed

Variegate porphyria is the result of decreased protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPOX) activity, the penultimate enzyme of haem biosynthesis. Haem precursors can produce free radicals and activate oxygen-inducing oxidative stress. Our aim was to analyse the effects of variegate porphyria on haemoglobin levels, antioxidant enzyme activities and oxidative damage in circulating erythrocytes. Twelve women affected by variegate porphyria and 12 control healthy women participated in the study. Women affected by variegate porphyria presented reduced PPOX content and delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity in erythrocytes. Haemoglobin content and mean corpuscular volume were higher in the porphyric group. Erythrocyte glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase activities and catalase content were higher in porphyric women, although MDA levels were also higher in the erythrocytes of the porphyric group. In conclusion, the determination of PPOX could be a useful method to detect variegate porphyria. Despite having higher antioxidant defences, erythrocytes of porphyric women have greater oxidative damage and higher corpuscular volume, which are both indices of a situation of higher oxidative stress. PMID:19389274

Ferrer, Miguel D; Tauler, Pedro; Sureda, Antoni; Romaguera, Dora; Llompart, Isabel; Palacin, Clara; Orfila, Jaume; Tur, Josep A; Pons, Antoni

2009-01-01

187

Changes in antioxidant enzymes in humans with long-term exposure to pesticides.  

PubMed

Different pesticides, including organophosphates (OPs), have been reported to induce oxidative stress due to generation of free radicals and alteration in antioxidant defence mechanisms. In this study, a cohort of 81 intensive agriculture workers (pesticide sprayers) was assessed twice during the course of a spraying season for changes in erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was used as a reference biomarker. Sprayers presented lower levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR) as compared to controls independently of age, BMI, smoking habit or alcohol consumption. A positive correlation between SOD and AChE was observed at the high exposure period. Those individuals with a decrease in AChE greater than 15% exhibited lower SOD and catalase (CAT) activities at the same period. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) remained unaffected in the exposed population. Paraoxonase (PON1) polymorphism influenced erythrocyte CAT and GR, as subjects with the R allele presented lower CAT and higher GR levels. Whether or not the decreased enzyme activities found in this study are linked to the adverse health effects related to chronic pesticide toxicity (in which oxidative damage plays a pathophysiological role, such as cancer or neurodegenerative disorders) is an attractive hypothesis that warrants further investigation. PMID:17590542

López, Olga; Hernández, Antonio F; Rodrigo, Lourdes; Gil, Fernando; Pena, Gloria; Serrano, José Luis; Parrón, Tesifón; Villanueva, Enrique; Pla, Antonio

2007-05-21

188

Activity of selected antioxidative enzymes in rats exposed to dimethoate and pyrantel tartrate.  

PubMed

This study presents the results of research concerning the effect of single and combined application of pyrantel tartrate and dimethoate on selected antioxidative enzymes: catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), in rat erythrocytes. Pyrantel tartrate was applied twice, at a dose of 85 mg/kg bw at a two week interval, i.e. on day 14 and 28 of the experiment, orally, in a water solution with a stomach tube. Dimethoate was administered with drinking water for 28 days at a dose of 25 mg/kg bw/day. It was found that pyrantel tartrate caused only small changes in the activity of the antioxidative enzymes under analysis. Subchronic exposure of rats to dimethoate caused a significant increase in the activity of CAT, SOD and GPx in erythrocytes, indicating the existence of strong oxidative stress. In combined intoxication, no significant effects of administering pyrantel tartrate on the activity of CAT, SOD and GPx was found in animals poisoned with dimethoate. The profile of changes was similar to that observed in rats exposed only to the organophosphorus insecticide. This may indicate a lack of interaction between the compounds used in the experiment. PMID:22844700

Barski, D; Spodniewska, A

2012-01-01

189

Zinc Affects Differently Growth, Photosynthesis, Antioxidant Enzyme Activities and Phytochelatin Synthase Expression of Four Marine Diatoms  

PubMed Central

Zinc-supplementation (20??M) effects on growth, photosynthesis, antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, catalase), and the expression of phytochelatin synthase gene were investigated in four marine diatoms (Amphora acutiuscula, Nitzschia palea, Amphora coffeaeformis and Entomoneis paludosa). Zn-supplementation reduced the maximum cell density. A linear relationship was found between the evolution of gross photosynthesis and total chlorophyll content. The Zn treatment decreased the electron transport rate except in A. coffeaeformis and in E. paludosa at high irradiance. A linear relationship was found between the efficiency of light to evolve oxygen and the size of the light-harvesting antenna. The external carbonic anhydrase activity was stimulated in Zn-supplemented E. paludosa but was not correlated with an increase of photosynthesis. The total activity of the antioxidant enzymes did not display any clear increase except in ascorbate peroxidase activity in N. palea. The phytochelatin synthase gene was identified in the four diatoms, but its expression was only revealed in N. palea, without a clear difference between control and Zn-supplemented cells. Among the four species, A. paludosa was the most sensitive and A. coffeaeformis, the most tolerant. A. acutiuscula seemed to be under metal starvation, whereas, to survive, only N. palea developed several stress responses.

Nguyen-Deroche, Thi Le Nhung; Caruso, Aurore; Le, Thi Trung; Bui, Trang Viet; Schoefs, Benoit; Tremblin, Gerard; Morant-Manceau, Annick

2012-01-01

190

Tocopherol Succinate: Modulation of Antioxidant Enzymes and Oncogene Expression, and Hematopoietic Recovery  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: A class of naturally occurring isoforms of tocopherol (tocols) was shown to have varying degrees of protection when administered before radiation exposure. We recently demonstrated that {alpha}-tocopherol succinate (TS) is a potential radiation prophylactic agent. Our objective in this study was to further investigate the mechanism of action of TS in mice exposed to {sup 60}Co {gamma}-radiation. Methods and Materials: We evaluated the effects of TS on expression of antioxidant enzymes and oncogenes by quantitative RT-PCR in bone marrow cells of {sup 60}Co {gamma}-irradiated mice. Further, we tested the ability of TS to rescue and repopulate hematopoietic stem cells by analyzing bone marrow cellularity and spleen colony forming unit in spleen of TS-injected and irradiated mice. Results: Our results demonstrate that TS modulated the expression of antioxidant enzymes and inhibited expression of oncogenes in irradiated mice at different time points. TS also increased colony forming unit-spleen numbers and bone marrow cellularity in irradiated mice. Conclusions: Results provide additional support for the observed radioprotective efficacy of TS and insight into mechanisms.

Singh, Vijay K., E-mail: singh@afrri.usuhs.mi [Radiation Countermeasures Program, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD (United States); Parekh, Vaishali I.; Brown, Darren S.; Kao, Tzu-Cheg [Radiation Countermeasures Program, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD (United States); Mog, Steven R. [Veterinary Sciences Department, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD (United States)

2011-02-01

191

Antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation in the freshwater cladoceran Daphnia magna exposed to redox cycling compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contaminant-related changes in antioxidative processes in the freshwater crustacea Daphnia magna exposed to model redox cycling contaminant were assessed. Activities of key antioxidant enzymes including catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione S-transferases and levels of lipid peroxidation measured as thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and lipofucsin pigment content were determined in D. magna juveniles after being exposed to sublethal levels

Carlos Barata; Inma Varo; Juan Carlos Navarro; Solayan Arun; Cinta Porte

2005-01-01

192

Oxidative stress and anti-oxidant enzyme activities in the trophocytes and fat cells of queen honeybees (Apis mellifera).  

PubMed

Trophocytes and fat cells of queen honeybees have been used for delayed cellular senescence studies, but their oxidative stress and anti-oxidant enzyme activities with advancing age are unknown. In this study, we assayed reactive oxygen species (ROS) and anti-oxidant enzymes in the trophocytes and fat cells of young and old queens. Young queens had lower ROS levels, lower superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, and higher thioredoxin reductase (TR) activity compared to old queens. These results show that oxidative stress and anti-oxidant enzyme activities in trophocytes and fat cells increase with advancing age in queens and suggest that an increase in oxidative stress and a consequent increase in stress defense mechanisms are associated with the longevity of queen honeybees. PMID:23738955

Hsieh, Yu-Shan; Hsu, Chin-Yuan

2013-08-01

193

Activity of peroxisomal enzymes and intracellular distribution of catalase in Zellweger syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activity of peroxisomal enzymes was studied in human liver and cultured human skin fibroblasts in relation to the finding (Goldfischer, S. et al. (1973) Science 182, 62–64) that morphologically distinct peroxisomes are not detectable in patients with the cerebro-hepato-renal (Zellweger) syndrome. In homogenates of liver from the patients, dihydroxyacetone phosphate acyltransferase, a membrane-bound peroxisomal enzyme, is deficient (Schutgens, R.B.H.,

G. Schrakamp; H. van den Bosch; B. Roest; M. Kos; A. J. Meijer; H. S. A. Heymans; W. H. H. Tegelaers; R. B. H. Schutgens; J. M. Tager; R. J. A. Wanders

1984-01-01

194

Roles of antioxidant enzymes in corpus luteum rescue from reactive oxygen species-induced oxidative stress.  

PubMed

Progesterone produced by the corpus luteum (CL) regulates the synthesis of various endometrial proteins required for embryonic implantation and development. Compromised CL progesterone production is a potential risk factor for prenatal development. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play diverse roles in mammalian reproductive biology. ROS-induced oxidative damage and subsequent adverse developmental outcomes constitute important issues in reproductive medicine. The CL is considered to be highly exposed to locally produced ROS due to its high blood vasculature and steroidogenic activity. ROS-induced apoptotic cell death is involved in the mechanisms of CL regression that occurs at the end of the non-fertile cycle. Luteal ROS production and propagation depend upon several regulating factors, including luteal antioxidants, steroid hormones and cytokines, and their crosstalk. However, it is unknown which of these factors have the greatest contribution to the maintenance of CL integrity and function during the oestrous/menstrual cycle. There is evidence to suggest that antioxidants play important roles in CL rescue from luteolysis when pregnancy ensues. As luteal phase defect impacts fertility by preventing implantation and early conceptus development in livestock and humans, this review attempts to address the importance of ROS-scavenging antioxidant enzymes in the control of mammalian CL function and integrity. The corpus luteum (CL) is a transient endocrine organ that develops after ovulation from the ovulated follicle during each reproductive cycle. The main function of the CL is the production and secretion of progesterone which is necessary for embryonic implantation and development. Compromised CL progesterone production is a potential risk factor for prenatal development and pregnancy outcomes. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are natural by-products of cellular respiration and metabolism, play diverse roles in mammalian reproductive biology. ROS-induced oxidative damage and subsequent development of adverse pregnancy outcomes constitute important issues in reproductive medicine. Before the end of the first trimester, a high rate of human and animal conceptions end in spontaneous abortion and most of these losses occur at the time of implantation in association with ROS-induced oxidative damage. Every cell in the body is normally able to defend itself against the oxidative damage caused by the ROS. The cellular antioxidant enzymes constitute the first line of defence against the toxic effects of ROS. The CL is considered to be highly exposed to locally produced ROS due to its high blood vasculature and metabolic activity. There is now evidence to suggest that cellular antioxidants play important roles in CL rescue from regression when pregnancy ensues. As defective CL function impacts fertility by preventing implantation and early conceptus development in livestock and humans, this review attempts to address the importance of antioxidant enzymes in the control of mammalian CL function and integrity. PMID:23063822

Al-Gubory, Kaïs H; Garrel, Catherine; Faure, Patrice; Sugino, Norihiro

2012-09-12

195

Intracellular Localization of Two Enzymes Involved in Coumarin Biosynthesis in Melilotus alba.  

PubMed

The localization of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase [EC 4.3.1.5] within sweet clover (Melilotus alba) leaves was investigated. Apical buds and axillary leaves contained 15 to 30 times more enzyme activity than did mature leaves. Mesophyll protoplasts were prepared by digesting young leaves with Cellulysin and Macerase and were gently ruptured yielding intact chloroplasts. These chloroplast preparations exhibited neither phenylalanine ammonia-lyase nor o-coumaric acid O-glucosyltransferase activities. The general enzymic properties of sweet clover leaf phenylalanine ammonia-lyase were similar to those described for this enzyme isolated from other plant species. The conversion of l-phenylalanine to trans-cinnamic acid, which occurred at an optimum pH of about 8.7, was strongly inhibited by the metabolites trans-cinnamic and o-coumaric acids. In contrast, o-coumaric acid glucoside, coumarin, p-coumaric acid, and melilotic acid had no significant effect on the reaction rate. PMID:16661155

Poulton, J E; McRee, D E; Conn, E E

1980-02-01

196

Protective effect of butin against hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis by scavenging reactive oxygen species and activating antioxidant enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidant property of butin was investigated for cytoprotective effect against H2O2-induced cell damage. This compound showed intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl\\u000a (DPPH) radical scavenging, inhibition of lipid peroxidation, and DNA damage. This radical scavenging activity of butin protected\\u000a cell damage exposed to H2O2. Also, butin reduced the apoptotic cells induced by H2O2, as demonstrated by the decreased

Rui Zhang; Sungwook Chae; Kyoung Ah Kang; Mei Jing Piao; Dong Ok Ko; Zhi Hong Wang; Doek Bae Park; Jae Woo Park; Ho Jin You; Jin Won Hyun

2008-01-01

197

Ultraviolet-B- and ozone-induced biochemical changes in antioxidant enzymes of Arabidopsis thaliana  

SciTech Connect

Earlier studies with Arabidopsis thaliana exposed to ultraviolet B (UV-B) and ozone (O{sub 3}) have indicated the differential responses of superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase. In this study, we have investigated whether A. thaliana genotype Landsberg erecta and its flavonoid-deficient mutant transparent testa (tt5) is capable of metabolizing UV-B- and O{sub 3}-induced activated oxygen species by invoking similar antioxidant enzymes. UV-B exposure preferentially enhanced guaiacol-peroxidases, ascorbate peroxidase, and peroxidases specific to coniferyl alcohol and modified the substrate affinity of ascorbate peroxidase. O{sub 3} exposure enhanced superoxide dismutase, peroxidases, glutathione reductase, and ascorbate peroxidase to a similar degree and modified the substrate affinity of both glutathione reductase and ascorbate peroxidase. Both UV-B and O{sub 3} exposure enhanced similar Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase isoforms. New isoforms of peroxidases and ascorbate peroxidase were synthesized in tt5 plants irradiated with UV-B. UV-B radiation, in contrast to O{sub 3}, enhanced the activation oxygen species by increasing membrane-localized NADPH-oxidase activity and decreasing catalase activities. These results collectively suggest that (a) UV-B exposure preferentially induces peroxidase-related enzymes, whereas O{sub 3} exposure invokes the enzymes of superoxide dismutase/ascorbate-glutathione cycle, and (b) in contrast to O{sub 3}, UV-B exposure generated activated oxygen species by increasing NADPH-oxidase activity. 10 figs., 4 tabs.

Rao, M.V.; Paliyath, G.; Ormrod, D.P. [Univ. of Guelph, Ontario (Canada)

1996-01-01

198

Gelam honey protects against gamma-irradiation damage to antioxidant enzymes in human diploid fibroblasts.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to determine the radioprotective effects of Malaysian Gelam honey on gene expression and enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) of human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs) subjected to gamma-irradiation. Six groups of HDFs were studied: untreated control, irradiated HDFs, Gelam honey-treated HDFs and HDF treated with Gelam honey pre-, during- and post-irradiation. HDFs were treated with 6 mg/mL of sterilized Gelam honey (w/v) for 24 h and exposed to 1 Gray (Gy) of gamma rays at the dose rate of 0.25 Gy/min. Gamma-irradiation was shown to down-regulate SOD1, SOD2, CAT and GPx1 gene expressions (p < 0.05). Conversely, HDFs treated with Gelam honey alone showed up-regulation of all genes studied. Similarly, SOD, CAT and GPx enzyme activities in HDFs decreased with gamma-irradiation and increased when cells were treated with Gelam honey (p < 0.05). Furthermore, of the three different stages of study treatment, pre-treatment with Gelam honey caused up-regulation of SOD1, SOD2 and CAT genes expression and increased the activity of SOD and CAT. As a conclusion, Gelam honey modulates the expression of antioxidant enzymes at gene and protein levels in irradiated HDFs indicating its potential as a radioprotectant agent. PMID:23434870

Ahmad, Tengku Ahbrizal Farizal Tengku; Jubri, Zakiah; Rajab, Nor Fadilah; Rahim, Khairuddin Abdul; Yusof, Yasmin Anum Mohd; Makpol, Suzana

2013-02-11

199

The neuroprotective antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid induces detoxication enzymes in cultured astroglial cells.  

PubMed

alpha-Lipoic acid (LA), an antioxidant with broad neuroprotective capacity, is thought to act by scavenging reactive oxygen species and stimulation of glutathione synthesis. LA shows structural resemblance to dithiolethiones, like anethole dithiolethione (ADT). ADT protects against oxidative damage, primarily by induction of phase II detoxication enzymes, in particular NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST). Therefore, we investigated whether LA, like ADT, is capable also of inducing these protective enzymes. Our data show that LA, like ADT, induces a highly significant, time- and concentration dependent, increase in the activity of NQO1 and GST in C6 astroglial cells. The LA or ADT mediated induction of NQO1 was further confirmed by quantitative PCR and western blot analysis. This work for the first time unequivocally demonstrates LA mediated upregulation of phase II detoxication enzymes, which may highly contribute to the compounds' neuroprotective potential. Moreover, the data support the notion of a common mechanism of action of LA and ADT. PMID:12180195

Flier, Jacoba; Van Muiswinkel, Freek L; Jongenelen, Cornelis A M; Drukarch, Benjamin

2002-06-01

200

Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases: A Diverse Family of Intracellular and Transmembrane Enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) represent a diverse family of enzymes that exist as integral membrane and nonreceptor forms. The PTPs, with specific activities in vitro 10 to 1000 times greater than those of the protein tyrosine kinases would be expected to effectively control the amount of phosphotyrosine in the cell. They dephosphorylate tyrosyl residues in vivo and take part in

E. H. Fischer; H. Charbonneau; N. K. Tonks

1991-01-01

201

The use of antioxidant enzymes in freshwater biofilms: temporal variability vs. toxicological responses.  

PubMed

This study aims to investigate the potential of antioxidant enzyme activities (AEA) as biomarkers of oxidative stress in freshwater biofilms. Therefore, biofilms were grown in channels for 38 days and then exposed to different concentrations (0-150 ?g L(-1)) of the herbicide oxyfluorfen for 5 more weeks. Under control conditions, the AEA of biofilms were found to change throughout time with a significant increase in ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity during the exponential growth and a more important role of catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities during the slow growth phase. Chronic exposure to oxyfluorfen led to slight variations in AEA, however, the ranges of variability of AEA in controls and exposed communities were similar, highlighting the difficulty of a direct interpretation of AEA values. After 5 weeks of exposure to oxyfluorfen, no clear effects were observed on chl-a concentration or on the composition of other pigments suggesting that algal group composition was not affected. Eukaryotic communities were structured clearly by toxicant concentration and both eukaryotic and bacterial richness were reduced in communities exposed to the highest concentration. In addition, during acute exposure tests performed at the end of the chronic exposure, biofilms chronically exposed to 75 and 150 ?g L(-1) oxyfluorfen showed a higher CAT activity than controls. Chronic exposure to oxyfluorfen provoked then structural changes but also functional changes in the capacity of biofilm CAT activity to respond to a sudden increase in concentration, suggesting a selection of species with higher antioxidant capacity. This study highlighted the difficulty of interpretation of AEA values due to their temporal variation and to the absence of absolute threshold value indicative of oxidative stress induced by contaminants. Nevertheless, the determination of AEA pattern throughout acute exposure test is of high interest to compare oxidative stress levels undergone by different biofilm communities and thus determine their antioxidant capacity. PMID:23643725

Bonnineau, Chloé; Tlili, Ahmed; Faggiano, Leslie; Montuelle, Bernard; Guasch, Helena

2013-03-21

202

Ligninolytic and antioxidative enzymes of a marine cyanobacterium Oscillatoria willei BDU 130511 during Poly R-478 decolourization.  

PubMed

Removal of combined nitrogen and addition of Poly R-478 to the growth medium enhanced oxidative stress, and altered the activities of ligninolytic enzymes of Oscillatoria willei BDU 130511. The activities of ligninolytic and antioxidative enzymes (LiP-like, LAC, PPO, SOD, POD, CAT, and APX) were increased upon nitrogen limitation and dye supplementation. The metabolic enzymes tested (GR, GPX, EST, and MDH) showed differential expressions under varied growth conditions. Up on nitrogen limitation, O. willei BDU 130511 showed enhanced ligninolytic activity as shown by alpha-keto-gamma-methylthiolbutyric acid (KTBA) oxidation and increased H(2)O(2) production. The organism decolourized 52% of Poly R-478 due to partial degradation and adsorption of dye particles from dye-added medium after 7 days of growth. This manuscript discusses the responses of ligninolytic and antioxidative enzymes of O. willei BDU 130511 during Poly R-478 decolourization/degradation, and the organism's potential in bioremediation. PMID:20061142

Saha, Sushanta Kumar; Swaminathan, Palanisami; Raghavan, C; Uma, Lakshmanan; Subramanian, Gopalakrishnan

2010-01-12

203

The antioxidant enzyme peroxiredoxin-2 is depleted in lymphocytes seven days after ultra-endurance exercise.  

PubMed

Abstract Purpose. Peroxiredoxin-2 (PRDX-2) is an antioxidant and chaperone-like protein critical for cell function. This study examined whether the levels of lymphocyte PRDX-2 are altered over 1 month following ultra-endurance exercise. Methods. Nine middle-aged men undertook a single-stage, multi-day 233 km (145 mile) ultra-endurance running race. Blood was collected immediately before (Pre), upon completion/retirement (Post), and following the race at Day 1, Day 7 and Day 28. Lymphocyte lysates were examined for PRDX-2 by reducing and non-reducing SDS-PAGE with western blotting. In a sub-group of men who completed the race (n = 4), PRDX-2 oligomeric state (indicative of redox status) was investigated. Results. Ultra-endurance exercise caused significant changes in lymphocyte PRDX-2 (F(4,32) 3.409, p = 0.020, ?(2) = 0.299): 7 days after the race, PRDX-2 levels in lymphocytes had fallen to 30% of pre-race values (p = 0.013) and returned to near-normal levels at Day 28. Non-reducing gels demonstrated that dimeric PRDX-2 (intracellular reduced PRDX-2 monomers) was increased in three of four race completers immediately post-race, indicative of an 'antioxidant response'. Moreover, monomeric PRDX-2 was also increased immediately post-race in two of four race-completing subjects, indicative of oxidative damage, which was not detectable by Day 7. Conclusions. Lymphocyte PRDX-2 was decreased below normal levels 7 days after ultra-endurance exercise. Excessive accumulation of reactive oxygen species induced by ultra-endurance exercise may underlie depletion of lymphocyte PRDX-2 by triggering its turnover after oxidation. Low levels of lymphocyte PRDX-2 could influence cell function and might, in part, explain reports of dysregulated immunity following ultra-endurance exercise. PMID:23889121

Turner, J E; Bennett, S J; Campbell, J P; Bosch, J A; Aldred, S; Griffiths, H R

2013-08-19

204

Anti-oxidant enzyme activities and expression and oxidative damage in patients with non-immediate reactions to drugs  

PubMed Central

Adverse drug reactions with an immunological basis (ADRIB) may involve activation of other concomitant, non-specific mechanisms, amplifying the specific response and contributing to the severity and duration. One concomitant mechanism could be the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and/or their detoxification by anti-oxidants, including anti-oxidant enzymes. We analysed the activity of the anti-oxidant enzymes Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and cellular glutathione peroxidase (GPX), as well as certain markers of oxidative damage (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and carbonyl content) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with non-immediate ADRIB using spectrophotometric methods and the anti-oxidant enzymes expression by quantitative real-time reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction. SOD activity and expression were increased in all types of non-immediate reactions (urticaria, maculopapular exanthema and toxic epidermal necrolysis). Regarding oxidative damage, TBARS were increased in urticaria and maculopapular exanthema, and carbonyl groups in all types of reactions. Our observations indicate that oxidative damage occurs in non-immediate reactions. Carbonyl stress and the inadequacy of the anti-oxidant defences are probable causes.

Cornejo-Garcia, J A; Mayorga, C; Torres, M J; Fernandez, T D; R-Pena, R; Bravo, I; Mates, J M; Blanca, M

2006-01-01

205

Differential antioxidative enzyme responses of Jatropha curcas L. to chromium stress.  

PubMed

Chromium (Cr) tolerant and accumulation capability of Jatropha curcas L. was tested in Cr spiked soil amended with biosludge and biofertilizer. Plants were cultivated in soils containing 0, 25, 50, 100 and 250 mg kg(-1) of Cr for one year with and without amendment. Plant tissue analysis showed that combined application of biosludge and biofertilizer could significantly reduce Cr uptake and boost the plant biomass, whereas biofertilizer alone did not affect the uptake and plant growth. Antioxidative responses of catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were increased with increasing Cr concentration in plant. Hyperactivity of the CAT and GST indicated that antioxidant enzymes played an important role in protecting the plant from Cr toxicity. However, APX took a little part in detoxification of H(2)O(2) due to its sensitivity to Cr. Therefore, reduced APX activity was recorded. Reduced glutathione (GSH) activity was recorded in plant grown on/above 100 mg kg(-1) of Cr in soil. The study concludes that J. curcas could grow under chromium stress. Furthermore, the results encouraged that J. curcas is a suitable candidate for the restoration of Cr contaminated soils with the concomitant application of biosludge and biofertilizer. PMID:20478653

Yadav, Santosh Kumar; Dhote, Monika; Kumar, Phani; Sharma, Jitendra; Chakrabarti, Tapan; Juwarkar, Asha A

2010-04-24

206

Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) enzyme activity and antioxidant properties of some cyanobacteria isolates.  

PubMed

In the present study, six cyanobacteria isolates were evaluated for the PAL enzyme activity, and their methanol extracts were assessed for the total phenolic amount and other antioxidant parameters. Synechocystis sp. BASO444 and Synechocystis sp. BASO673 isolates with high levels of total phenols (66.0±1.2?g/mg, 78.1±1.8?g/mg, respectively) also showed high levels of PAL activities (20.5±3.1U/mg protein, 17.2±2.3U/mg protein, respectively) and strong antioxidant activities. To understand the effect of l-phenylalanine (l-phe) on the PAL activity, total phenolic amount, and phenolic constituents, isolates were evaluated with 100mg/l l-phe. While PAL activities exhibited no significant change with l-phe addition, total phenolic amount of the isolates significantly increased. HPLC analysis revealed gallic acid, trans-cinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, and ferulic acid as the main compounds. Results suggested that the two isolate mights be an important source for the l-phe inducible phenolic compounds. PMID:23017408

Babao?lu Ayda?, Selcen; Ozturk, Sahlan; Asl?m, Belma

2012-08-07

207

Antioxidant enzymes activities and protein damage in rat brain of both sexes.  

PubMed

The theory of free radicals and accumulation of damages suggests that the reactive species of oxygen play a key role in the context of aging. Thus, for the best understanding of the aging process, the study of antioxidant defenses has to be considered as part of gerontology. The present work evaluated the enzymatic activity of the enzymes catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and measured the amount of oxidative damage in proteins (carbonyl groups) in brains of rats of both sexes in the ages of 3-, 6-, 12- and 20-months. The results suggest that the patterns of activity and accumulation of damages can be sex-specific and related to the cycle of reproductive life of the organism. PMID:16581216

Ehrenbrink, Guilherme; Hakenhaar, Fernanda Schäfer; Salomon, Tiago Boeira; Petrucci, Antonella Pilla; Sandri, Marcia Rodrigues; Benfato, Mara Silveira

2006-04-03

208

Do genetic variations in antioxidant enzymes influence the course of hereditary hemochromatosis?  

PubMed

Iron-induced oxidative stress promotes hepatic injury in hereditary hemochromatosis, which can be influenced by genetic traits affecting antioxidant enzymes. We assessed the influence of Ala16Val-superoxide dismutase 2, Pro198Leu-glutathione peroxidase 1, and -463G/A-myeloperoxidase genotypes (high activity for the Ala, Pro, and G alleles, respectively) on the risks of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients homozygous for the C282Y-hemochromatosis (HFE) gene mutation. Both the 2G-myeloperoxidase genotype and carriage of one or two copies of the Ala-superoxide dismutase 2 allele were more frequent in patients with cirrhosis or HCC. Patients cumulating these two genetic traits had higher rates of cirrhosis and HCC than other patients. PMID:20673159

Nahon, Pierre; Sutton, Angela; Pessayre, Dominique; Rufat, Pierre; Charnaux, Nathalie; Trinchet, Jean-Claude; Beaugrand, Michel; Deugnier, Yves

2010-11-30

209

Studies on hepatic injury and antioxidant enzyme activities in rat subcellular organelles following in vivo ischemia and reperfusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activities of rat hepatic subcellular antioxidant enzymes were studied during hepatic ischemia\\/reperfusion. Ischemia was induced for 30 min (reversible ischemia) or 60 min (irreversible ischemia). Ischemia was followed by 2 or 24 h of reperfusion. Hepatocyte peroxisomal catalase enzyme activity decreased during 60 min of ischemia and declined further during reperfusion. Peroxisomes of normal density (d = 1.225 gram\\/ml)

Mahesh Gupta; Kazushige Dobashi; Eddie L. Greene; John K. Orak; Inderjit Singh

1997-01-01

210

Seasonal variation of antioxidant and biotransformation enzymes in barnacle, Balanus balanoides, and their relation with polyaromatic hydrocarbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal variations in the antioxidant enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase [SOD], NADH-DT diaphorase), biotransformation enzyme, glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and microsomal lipid peroxidation in digestive tissue of barnacle, Balanus balanoides, from polluted and non-polluted populations have been evaluated. Relationships with accumulated polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentration in barnacle tissues and environmental parameters (water temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen concentration, water pH) were determined. As a

S Niyogi; S Biswas; S Sarker; A. G Datta

2001-01-01

211

Chemomodulatory Effect of Moringa Oleifera, Lam, on Hepatic Carcinogen Metabolising Enzymes, Antioxidant Parameters and Skin Papillomagenesis in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modulatory effects of a hydro-alchoholic extract of drumsticks of Moringa oliefera Lam at doses of 125 mg\\/ kg bodyweight and 250 mg\\/ kg body weight for 7 and 14 days, respectively, were investigated with reference to drug metabolising Phase I (Cytochrome b 5 and Cytochrome P 450 ) and Phase II (Glutathione-S- transferase) enzymes, anti-oxidant enzymes, glutathione content and

Rupjyoti Bharali; Jawahira Tabassum; Mohammed Rekibul; Haque Azad

2003-01-01

212

Effects of chronic carbosulfan exposure on liver antioxidant enzyme activities in rainbow trout.  

PubMed

Catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (Se-GPx) activities in liver of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss; 116.88±21.69g) were evaluated after exposing fish to sublethal concentrations (25?g/L) of carbosulfan in flow-through tanks for 60 days. During the experiment activities of CAT, SOD, GST, and Se-GPx and histopathological effects were determined once a week and once at the end of the 21 days of recovery period. All enzymes were affected by carbosulfan when compared to control fish. Fish had intracellular oedema, cell necrosis, pycnotic nucleus, and increase of sinusoidal space in the liver. After 21 days of the recovery period, all enzyme activities had returned to control levels and fish had no histological lesions in liver. Therefore all the changes observed during exposure were reversible. Results indicate that the liver CAT, SOD and GST enzymes are highly sensitive to carbosulfan as their activities altered significantly, suggesting they could be useful in predicting sublethal pesticide toxicity and useful as an indicator for assessment of pesticides in contaminated water. PMID:23619518

Capkin, Erol; Altinok, Ilhan

2013-04-06

213

Intracellular Rescue of the Uroporphyrinogen III Synthase Activity in Enzymes Carrying the Hotspot Mutation C73R*  

PubMed Central

A single mutation (C73R) in the enzyme uroporphyrinogen III synthase (UROIIIS) is responsible for more than one-third of all of the reported cases of the rare autosomal disease congenital erythropoietic porphyria (CEP). CEP patients carrying this hotspot mutation develop a severe phenotype of the disease, including reduced life expectancy. Here, we have investigated the molecular basis for the functional deficit in the mutant enzyme both in vitro and in cellular systems. We show that a Cys in position 73 is not essential for the catalytic activity of the enzyme but its mutation to Arg speeds up the process of irreversible unfolding and aggregation. In the mammalian cell milieu, the mutant protein levels decrease to below the detection limit, whereas wild type UROIIIS can be detected easily. The disparate response is not produced by differences at the level of transcription, and the results with cultured cells and in vitro are consistent with a model where the protein becomes very unstable upon mutation and triggers a degradation mechanism via the proteasome. Mutant protein levels can be restored upon cell treatment with the proteasome inhibitor MG132. The intracellularly recovered C73R-UROIIIS protein shows enzymatic activity, paving the way for a new line of therapeutic intervention in CEP patients.

Fortian, Arola; Gonzalez, Esperanza; Castano, David; Falcon-Perez, Juan M.; Millet, Oscar

2011-01-01

214

Intracellular Concentrations of Coenzyme A and Its Derivatives from Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 and Their Roles in Enzyme Regulation  

PubMed Central

Intracellular levels of coenzyme A (CoA) and its derivatives involved in the metabolic pathways for Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 were analyzed by using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). During the shift from the acidogenic to the solventogenic or stationary growth phase, the concentration of butyryl-CoA increased rapidly and the concentrations of free CoA and acetyl-CoA decreased. These changes were accompanied by a rapid increase of the solvent pathway enzyme activity and a decrease of the acid pathway enzyme activity. Assays with several non-solvent-producing mutant strains were also carried out. Upon entry of the mutant strains to the stationary phase, the butyryl-CoA concentrations for these mutant strains were comparable to those for the wild type even though the mutants were deficient in solvent-producing enzymes. Levels of acetoacetyl-CoA, ?-hydroxy-butyryl-CoA, and crotonyl-CoA compounds in both wild-type and mutant extracts were below HPLC detection thresholds (<21 ?M).

Boynton, Zhuang L.; Bennett, George N.; Rudolph, Frederick B.

1994-01-01

215

Lipid peroxidation and antioxidative enzyme activity in erythrocytes of workers occupationally exposed to aluminium.  

PubMed

Current research indicates that lipid peroxidation could have a role in aluminium toxicity. The aim of this study was to asses lipid peroxidation and antioxidative enzyme activity in erythrocytes of workers occupationally exposed to aluminium. We investigated a group of 59 workers (Al group) exposed to aluminium fumes (contamination factor F=8.07 to 13.47, national maximal allowed concentration value is 2 mg m-3). The control group (C group) consisted of 75 subjects employed in lime production who had not been occupationally exposed to aluminium or any known toxic substance. Erythrocyte aluminium concentrations were significantly higher in the exposed group than controls [Al group (8.41+/-3.66) microg L-1, C group (5.60+/-0.86) microg L-1, p<0.001]. In the Al group, erythrocyte malondialdehyde concentration was also significantly higher [Al group (189.59+/-81.27) micromol L-1, C group (105.21+/-49.62) micromol L-1, p<0.001] and antioxidative enzyme activity reduced for glucoso-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase [Al group (5.05+/-1.70) IU g-1 Hb, C group (12.53+/-4.12) IU g-1 Hb, p<0.001], glutathione reductase [Al group (1.41+/-0.56) IU g-1 Hb, C group (1.89+/-0.57) IU g-1 Hb, p<0.001], glutathione peroxidase [Al group (12.37+/-5.76) IU g-1 Hb, C group (15.54+/-4.85) IU g-1 Hb, p<0.001], catalase [Al group (116.76+/-26.60) IU g-1 Hb, C group (158.81+/-71.85) IU g-1 Hb, p<0.001] and superoxide dismutase [Al group (1175.8+/-149.9) IU mg-1 Hb, C group (1377.9+/-207.5) IU mg-1 Hb, p<0.001]. PMID:18573744

Bulat, Petar; Potkonjak, Biljana; Duji?, Ivana

2008-06-01

216

Genotoxicity and antioxidant enzyme activity induced by hexavalent chromium in Cyprinus carpio after in vivo exposure.  

PubMed

Abstract Fish, being an important native of the aquatic ecosystem, are exposed to multipollution states and are therefore considered as model organisms for ecotoxicological studies of aquatic pollutants, including metal toxicity. We investigated oxidative stress (OS) in liver, kidney and gill tissues through antioxidant enzyme activities and genotoxicity induced in whole blood and gill tissues through comet assay and micronucleus (MN) test in Cyprinus carpio after 96-hour in vivo static exposure to potassium dichromate at three sublethal (SL) test concentrations, including SL-I [93.95?mg/L, i.e. one quarter of half-maximal lethal concentration (LC50)], SL-II (187.9?mg/L, i.e. one half of LC50), and SL-III (281.85?mg/L, i.e. three quarters of LC50), along with a control. The 96-hour LC50 value for potassium dichromate was estimated to be 375.8?mg/L in a static system in the test species. Tissues samples were collected at 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours postexposure. Results indicated that the exposed fish experienced OS as characterized by significant (p?antioxidant enzyme activities, as compared to the control. Activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase increased, whereas activity of catalase decreased with the progression of the experiment. The mean percent DNA damage in comet tail and MN induction in gills and whole blood showed a concentration-dependent increase up to 96-hour exposure. The findings of this study would be helpful in organ-specific risk assessment of Cr(VI)-induced OS and genotoxicity in fishes. PMID:23534497

Kumar, Pavan; Kumar, Ravindra; Nagpure, Naresh S; Nautiyal, Prakash; Kushwaha, Basdeo; Dabas, Anurag

2013-03-27

217

Phytoestrogens enhance antioxidant enzymes after swimming exercise and modulate sex hormone plasma levels in female swimmers.  

PubMed

Our aim was to investigate the effects of diet supplementation with phytoestrogens on sex hormone levels, antioxidant adaptive responses and oxidative damage induced by exercise. Ten female swimmers participated for 26 days in a diet intervention with either a functional beverage rich in vitamins C and E or the same beverage but also supplemented with Lippia citriodora extract (PLX) containing 20 mg/100 ml verbascoside. After the intervention all subjects participated in a swimming session for 30 min maintaining the intensity at about 75-80% of their individual best performance time for a 50-m swim. In lymphocytes, the superoxide dismutase activity increased after exercise, with a higher increase in the PLX group. Swimming increased the erythrocyte activity of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in the PLX group. Purified glutathione reductase activity increased after an in vitro incubation with PLX. No effects were observed on the lymphocyte levels of malondialdehyde and carbonyls, but exercise increased the percentage of high-damaged lymphocytes 2.8 times in the placebo group and 1.5 times in the PLX group. PLX decreased the levels of 17-?-estradiol and testosterone and increased the levels of the sex hormone binding globulin. In conclusion, supplementation with phytoestrogens enhances the glutathione-dependent enzyme activities in erythrocytes and the superoxide dismutase activity in lymphocytes in response to exercise. PLX also shows direct antioxidant properties, by increasing glutathione reductase enzyme activity in vitro. Supplementation with phytoestrogens also decreases the plasma steroid hormone levels, pointing towards a possible agonistic effect of verbascoside in the hypothalamic regulation of estradiol synthesis. PMID:21331628

Mestre-Alfaro, Antonia; Ferrer, Miguel D; Sureda, Antoni; Tauler, Pedro; Martínez, Elisa; Bibiloni, Maria M; Micol, Vicente; Tur, Josep A; Pons, Antoni

2011-02-18

218

Antioxidant capacity and angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitory activity of a melon concentrate rich in superoxide dismutase.  

PubMed

Antioxidant capacity and angiotensin 1-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity of a melon concentrate rich in superoxide dismutase (SOD-MC) were investigated in vitro. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was measured by the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay (TEAC), the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical assay, and the ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP). The ability of the extract to scavenge three specific reactive oxygen species (superoxide radical anion (O(2)(-)), hydroxyl radical (HO()) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))) was also investigated in order to better evaluate its antioxidant properties. Even if the measures of TAC were relatively low, results clearly established an antioxidant potential of SOD-MC that exhibited the highest radical-scavenging activity towards O(2)(-), with a IC(50) 12-fold lower than that of H(2)O(2) or HO(). This lets hypothesis that the antioxidant potential of SOD-MC could be mainly due to its high level of SOD. Moreover, for the first time, an ACE inhibitory activity of SOD-MC (IC(50)=2.4±0.1mg/mL) was demonstrated, showing that its use as a functional food ingredient with potential preventive benefits in the context of hypertension may have important public health implications and should be carefully considered. PMID:22953857

Carillon, Julie; Del Rio, Daniele; Teissèdre, Pierre-Louis; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Lacan, Dominique; Rouanet, Jean-Max

2012-05-30

219

Strawberry Polyphenols Attenuate Ethanol-Induced Gastric Lesions in Rats by Activation of Antioxidant Enzymes and Attenuation of MDA Increase  

PubMed Central

Background and Aim Free radicals are implicated in the aetiology of gastrointestinal disorders such as gastric ulcer, colorectal cancer and inflammatory bowel disease. Strawberries are common and important fruit due to their high content of essential nutrient and beneficial phytochemicals which seem to have relevant biological activity on human health. In the present study we investigated the antioxidant and protective effects of three strawberry extracts against ethanol-induced gastric mucosa damage in an experimental in vivo model and to test whether strawberry extracts affect antioxidant enzyme activities in gastric mucosa. Methods/Principal Findings Strawberry extracts were obtained from Adria, Sveva and Alba cultivars. Total antioxidant capacity and radical scavenging capacity were performed by TEAC, ORAC and electron paramagnetic resonance assays. Identification and quantification of anthocyanins was carried out by HPLC-DAD-MS analyses. Different groups of animals received 40 mg/day/kg body weight of strawberry crude extracts for 10 days. Gastric damage was induced by ethanol. The ulcer index was calculated together with the determination of catalase and SOD activities and MDA contents. Strawberry extracts are rich in anthocyanins and present important antioxidant capacity. Ethanol caused severe gastric damage and strawberry consumption protected against its deleterious role. Antioxidant enzyme activities increased significantly after strawberry extract intake and a concomitantly decrease in gastric lipid peroxidation was found. A significant correlation between total anthocyanin content and percent of inhibition of ulcer index was also found. Conclusions Strawberry extracts prevented exogenous ethanol-induced damage to rats' gastric mucosa. These effects seem to be associated with the antioxidant activity and phenolic content in the extract as well as with the capacity of promoting the action of antioxidant enzymes. A diet rich in strawberries might exert a beneficial effect in the prevention of gastric diseases related to generation of reactive oxygen species.

Alvarez-Suarez, Jose M.; Dekanski, Dragana; Ristic, Slavica; Radonjic, Nevena V.; Petronijevic, Natasa D.; Giampieri, Francesca; Astolfi, Paola; Gonzalez-Paramas, Ana M.; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Tulipani, Sara; Quiles, Jose L.; Mezzetti, Bruno; Battino, Maurizio

2011-01-01

220

Angiotensin II Regulates Cardiac Hypertrophy via Oxidative Stress but Not Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Experimental Renovascular Hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to provide new insights into the role of angiotensin II and arterial pressure in the regulation of antioxidant enzyme activities in a renovascular model of cardiac hypertrophy. For this purpose, aortic coarcted rats were treated with losartan or minoxidil for 7 days. Angiotensin II induced cardiac hypertrophy and oxidative stress via Nox4, p22phox and

Ariel H. POLIZIO; Karina B. BALESTRASSE; Gustavo G. YANNARELLI; Guillermo O. NORIEGA; Susana Gorzalczany; Carlos Taira; Maria L. TOMARO

2008-01-01

221

Potent induction of cellular antioxidants and phase 2 enzymes by resveratrol in cardiomyocytes: protection against oxidative and electrophilic injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resveratrol is known to be protective against oxidative cardiovascular disorders. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This study was undertaken to determine if resveratrol could increase endogenous antioxidants and phase 2 enzymes in cardiomyocytes, and if such increased cellular defenses could provide protection against oxidative and electrophilic cell injury. Incubation of cardiac H9C2 cells with low micromolar resveratrol resulted in

Zhuoxiao Cao; Yunbo Li

2004-01-01

222

Influence of age on activities of antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation products in erythrocytes and neutrophils of down syndrome patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-seven individuals with Down syndrome (DS) were divided into four age categories: (i) 1 to < 6 years, (ii) 6 to < 13 years, (iii) 13 to < 20 years, and (iv) over 20 years. Activities of antioxidant enzymes found in individual age categories were different, but the differences between age groups were not statistically significant. We confirmed significantly higher

Jana Muchová; Iveta Garaiová; Anna Liptáková; Siegfried Pueschel

2001-01-01

223

Effects of light intensities on antioxidant enzymes and malondialdehyde content during short-term acclimatization on micropropagated Phalaenopsis plantlet  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effects of light stress on the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), dehydro ascorbate reductase (DHAR), monodehydro ascorbate reductase (MDHAR), ascorbate oxidase (AO), glutathione reductase (GR), guaiacol peroxidase (G-POD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S transferase (GST), lipoxygenase (LOX), lipid peroxidation (LP), leaf protein content and photosynthetic efficiency (Fv\\/Fm) in order to evaluate their role during

Mohammad Babar Ali; Eun-Joo Hahn; Kee-Yoeup Paek

2005-01-01

224

UV-? ? ? ? ?, Stress and Triademefon Induced Effect on Nitrogen Metabolism and Anti-oxidative Enzymes of Lablab purpureus Seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of antioxidative enzymes in protection against UV-? (280-320 nm) stress was studied in L. purpureus seedlings at 5 days after germination. Treatment of triademefon alone and in combination with UV-? was given in L. purpureus seedlings grown in vitro for soluble protein, proline contents and alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST), nitrate reductase (NR), superoxide dismutase

Jitendra Kumar Chouhan; Pancha Ram; Pooja Rathi; S. P. Bohra

225

Interplay Between Oncoproteins and Antioxidant Enzymes in Esophageal Carcinoma Treated Without and With Chemoradiotherapy: A Prospective Study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To analyze p53, bcl-2, c-myc, and cyclooxygenase-2 protein expression changes and examine their relationship with various antioxidant enzymes in esophageal carcinoma patients. Methods and Materials: Patients in Group 1 underwent transhiatal esophagectomy and those in Group 2 were administered chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery after 4 weeks of neoadjuvant therapy. Results: The relationship analysis among the various protein markers and antioxidant enzymes showed an inverse correlation between bcl-2 and superoxide dismutase/catalase in tumor tissues, irrespective of the treatment arm followed. An important positive association was observed between bcl-2 and reduced glutathione levels in the tumor tissue of patients receiving neoadjuvant therapy. Another apoptosis-modulating marker, c-myc, in the tumor tissue of Group 2 patients showed similar pattern levels (high and low) as that of superoxide dismutase/catalase. The association of cyclooxygenase-2 and p53 with various antioxidant enzymes showed a significant positive correlation between cyclooxygenase-2 expression and catalase activity and an inverse trend between p53 expression and superoxide dismutase and catalase activity in the tumor tissue of patients given neoadjuvant therapy. In addition, patients with overexpressed p53 protein levels had lower glutathione peroxidase enzyme levels and vice versa in the tumor tissue of patients who had undergone surgery as their main mode of treatment. Conclusion: The results of this study broaden the insight into the relationships shared among oncoproteins and the antioxidant defense system, and this could be helpful in the clinical management of esophageal carcinoma.

Kaur, Tranum [Department of Biophysics, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh (India); Gupta, Rajesh [Department of General Surgery, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh (India); Vaiphei, Kim [Department of Histopathology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh (India); Kapoor, Rakesh [Department of Radiotherapy, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh (India); Gupta, N.M. [Department of General Surgery, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh (India); Khanduja, K.L. [Department of Biophysics, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh (India); Department of Biophysics, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh (India)], E-mail: klkhanduja@gmail.com

2008-02-01

226

Effects of green tea catechin on enzyme activities and gene expression of antioxidative system in rat liver exposed to microwaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of green tea catechin on enzyme activities and gene expression of antioxidative system in rat liver exposed to microwaves. Sprague-Dawley male rats 100±10 g body weight were randomly divided into control group and microwave exposed group: Microwave exposed group was further divided into three groups: catechin free diet (MW) group,

Mi-Ji Kim; Jeong-Hwa Choi; Jeong-Ah Yang; Seong-Yong Kim; Jung-Hye Kim; Jun-Ha Lee; Jong-Ki Kim; Soon-Jae Rhee

2002-01-01

227

Byproducts of oxidative protein damage and antioxidant enzyme activities in plasma of patients with different degrees of essential hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite evidence that essential hypertension (EH) is a state of increased oxidative stress, the data on oxidative protein modifications is lacking. Besides, the role of extracellular antioxidant enzymes in EH has not been systematically studied. Study was performed in 45 subjects with EH and 25 normotensive controls. Patients were divided into three groups according to the 2003 ESH\\/ESC guidelines (grade

D V Simic; J Mimic-Oka; M Pljesa-Ercegovac; A Savic-Radojevic; M Opacic; D Matic; B Ivanovic; T Simic

2006-01-01

228

AIR POLLUTION EFFECTS ON THE ACTIVITY OF ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES IN NERIUM OLEANDER AND ROBINIA PSEUDO ACACIA PLANTS IN TEHRAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The air pollution effects on the activity of antioxidant enzymes were investigated on Nerium oleander and Robinia pseudo acacia in Tehran. Considering the information obtained from the Department of the Environment of Iran, Sorkh Hesar Park as well as South Azadi were selected as two sampling sites representing the unpolluted and polluted area respectively. A number of plant leave samples

M. Ghorbanli; Z. Bakand; G. Bakhshi; S. Bakand

2007-01-01

229

Elevated lipid peroxidation and disturbed antioxidant enzyme activities in plasma and erythrocytes of patients with uterine cervicitis and myoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: We investigated whether oxidative stress is associated with human uterine cervicitis and uterine myoma.Design and Methods: We measured lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in plasma and erythrocytes of cervicitis patients and myoma patients in comparison with matched controls. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), a measure of lipid peroxidation, were determined in plasma; glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) and catalase in erythrocytes; and

Jeng-Fong Chiou; Miao-Lin Hu

1999-01-01

230

Differential responses of antioxidant enzymes in pioneer and late-successional tropical tree species grown under sun and shade conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the ability of pioneer and late-successional species to adapt to a strong light environment in a reforestation area, we examined the activities of antioxidant enzymes in relation to photosystem II, chlorophyll a fluorescence and photosynthetic pigment concentration for eight tropical tree species grown under 100% (sun) and 10% (shade) sunlight irradiation. The pioneer (early-succession) species (PS) were Cecropia

Viviane F. Favaretto; Carlos A. Martinez; Hilda H. Soriani; Rosa P. M. Furriel

2011-01-01

231

Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in isoproterenol induced oxidative stress in rat tissues.  

PubMed

The oxidative metabolism of catecholamines produce quinones which react with oxygen to produce superoxide anions (O2-.) and H2O2. The catecholamines, however, are important under stress conditions but may have damaging effects due to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and formation of oxidation products. ROS are involved as causative factors in many diseases, therefore, the generation of ROS by catecholamines may also contribute to this process. Isoproterenol (ISO) was administered to rats in two doses so as to evaluate their beta-adrenergic and toxicological actions in terms of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and the changes in the antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione (GSH) content in heart, liver and kidney. ISO treatment caused LPO in tissues, however, the heart initially showed decreased LPO. This is attributed to the condition of hypertrophy by which the heart can protect itself to a limited extent against oxidative stress. The second dose of ISO, administered 24 h after the first treatment, showed toxic effects resulting in a higher increase in LPO. The increased SOD activity in tissues 3 days after a dose of ISO suggests that the ROS may induce SOD activity to dismutate O2-. However, increased amounts of O2-., inhibited SOD activity at 3 and 6 h with recovery towards control values at 12 h of a second dose of ISO treatment. CAT activity in tissues increased at 6 h of a second dose of ISO treatment. The elevated SOD and CAT enzymes in tissues indicate a response due to increased ROS. The increase in GSH content in the heart, liver and kidney at day 2 of ISO treatment and 12 h after the second dose of ISO may also neutralise oxidative stress. The inhibition in GST activity in tissues was observed probably due to increased ROS generation, however, GST activity partially recovered by 12 h after the second dose of ISO, in an attempt to counteract oxidative stress. The result shows that ISO induced oxidative stress and the increase of the antioxidant system in tissues may attenuate oxidative stress. It is suggested that ROS generation in the oxidation of catecholamines may be partially counteracted by the antioxidant system in tissues. PMID:9774493

Rathore, N; John, S; Kale, M; Bhatnagar, D

1998-10-01

232

Hydrogen peroxide affects contractile activity and anti-oxidant enzymes in rat uterus  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose: The effects of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on uterine smooth muscle are not well studied. We have investigated the effect and the mechanism of action of exogenous hydrogen peroxide on rat uteri contractile activity [spontaneous and calcium ion (Ca2+)-induced] and the effect of such treatment on anti-oxidative enzyme activities. Experimental approach: Uteri were isolated from virgin Wistar rats and suspended in an organ bath. Uteri were allowed to contract spontaneously or in the presence of Ca2+ (6 mM) and treated with H2O2 (2 µM–3 mM) over 2 h. Anti-oxidative enzyme activities (manganese superoxide dismutase-MnSOD, copper-zinc superoxide dismutase-CuZnSOD, catalase-CAT, glutathione peroxidase-GSHPx and glutathione reductase-GR) in H2O2-treated uteri were compared with those in uteri immediately frozen after isolation or undergoing spontaneous or Ca2+-induced contractions, without treatment with H2O2. The effect of inhibitors (propranolol, methylene blue, L-NAME, tetraethylamonium, glibenclamide and 4-aminopyridine) on H2O2-mediated relaxation was explored. Key results: H2O2 caused concentration-dependent relaxation of both spontaneous and Ca2+-induced uterine contractions. After H2O2 treatment, GSHPx and MnSOD activities were increased, while CuZnSOD and GR (In Ca2+-induced rat uteri) were decreased. N?-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester antagonized the effect of H2O2 on Ca2+-induced contractions. H2O2-induced relaxation was not affected by propranolol, potentiated by methylene blue and antagonized by tetraethylamonium, 4-aminopyridine and glibenclamide, with the last compound being the least effective. Conclusions and implications: H2O2 induced dose-dependent relaxation of isolated rat uteri mainly via changes in voltage-dependent potassium channels. Decreasing generation of reactive oxygen species by stimulation of anti-oxidative pathways may lead to new approaches to the management of dysfunctional uteri.

Appiah, I; Milovanovic, S; Radojicic, R; Nikolic-Kokic, A; Orescanin-Dusic, Z; Slavic, M; Trbojevic, S; Skrbic, R; Spasic, MB; Blagojevic, D

2009-01-01

233

Metabolic flux analysis of pykF gene knockout Escherichia coli based on 13 C-labeling experiments together with measurements of enzyme activities and intracellular metabolite concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metabolic flux analysis based on 13C-labeling experiments followed by the measurement of intracellular isotope distribution using both 2D NMR and GC-MS was carried out to investigate the effect of pyruvate kinase (pyk) gene knockout on the metabolism of Escherichia coli in continuous culture. In addition, the activities of 16 enzymes, and the concentrations of 5 intracellular metabolites, were measured as

K. Al Zaid Siddiquee; M. J. Arauzo-Bravo; K. Shimizu

2004-01-01

234

Differential responses of the activities of antioxidant enzymes to thermal stresses between two invasive Eupatorium species in China.  

PubMed

The effect of thermal stress on the antioxidant system was investigated in two invasive plants, Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng. and E. odoratum L. The former is sensitive to high temperature, whereas the latter is sensitive to low temperature. Our aim was to explore the relationship between the response of antioxidant enzymes and temperature in the two invasive weeds with different distribution patterns in China. Plants were transferred from glasshouse to growth chambers at a constant 25 degrees C for 1 week to acclimatize to the environment. For the heat treatments, temperature was increased stepwise to 30, 35, 38 and finally to 42 degrees C. For the cold treatments, temperature was decreased stepwise to 20, 15, 10 and finally to 5 degrees C. Plants were kept in the growth chambers for 24 h at each temperature step. In E. adenophorum, the coordinated increase of the activities of antioxidant enzymes was effective in protecting the plant from the accumulation of active oxygen species (AOS) at low temperature, but the activities of catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (POD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR), and monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDAR) were not accompanied by the increase of superoxide dismutase (SOD) during the heat treatments. As a result, the level of lipid peroxidation in E. adenophorum was higher under heat stress than under cold stress. In E. odoratum, however, the lesser degree of membrane damage, as indicated by low monodehydroascorbate content, and the coordinated increase of the oxygen. Detoxifying enzymes were observed in heat-treated plants, but the antioxidant enzymes were unable to operate in cold stress. This indicates that the plants have a higher capacity for scavenging oxygen radicals in heat stress than in cold stress. The different responses of antioxidant enzymes may be one of the possible mechanisms of the differences in temperature sensitivities of the two plant species. PMID:18713373

Lu, Ping; Sang, Wei-Guo; Ma, Ke-Ping

2008-04-01

235

Comparison of liver mixed-function oxygenase and antioxidant enzymes in vertebrates.  

PubMed

We performed a comparative analysis of cytochrome P450, cytochrome b5, MFO associated enzymes and cytosolic antioxidant enzymes in hepatic microsomes and cytosolic fractions prepared from five animal species representing three vertebrate classes living in tropical conditions (Brazil). The data obtained show that rats have higher hepato-somatic index, specific cytochrome b5 concentration, and NADPH-dependent cytochrome c (P450) activity compared to ectothermic species, SOD activity similar to those in amphibians, and specific concentration of cytochrome P450 and catalase activity lower than in a toad, but higher than in fishes and a frog. Our data indicate that tropical fishes may have reduced xenobiotic-metabolizing ability compared to the rat and amphibians. In contrast to fish and rat, amphibians have a low ratio (< 0.5) of cytochrome b5 concentration to that of P450. Most species showed cytochrome b5 sensitivity to oxygen. Thus, the use of sodium dithionate as a reducer, rather than NADPH, may be preferential in b5 determinations. PMID:15050927

Rocha-e-Silva, Thomaz A A; Rossa, Marcelo M; Rantin, Francisco T; Matsumura-Tundisi, Takako; Tundisi, Jose G; Degterev, Igor A

2004-02-01

236

Sodium nitroprusside may modulate Escherichia coli antioxidant enzyme expression by interacting with the ferric uptake regulator.  

PubMed

Efforts to explore possible relationships between nitric oxide (NO) and antioxidant enzymes in an Escherichia coli model have uncovered a possible interaction between sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a potent, NO-donating drug, and the ferric uptake regulator (Fur), an iron(II)--dependent regulator of antioxidant and iron acquisition proteins present in Gram-negative bacteria. The enzymatic profiles of superoxide dismutase and hydroperoxidase during logarithmic phase of growth were studied via non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and activity staining specific to each enzyme. Though NO is known to induce transcription of the manganese-bearing isozyme of SOD (MnSOD), treatment with SNP paradoxically suppressed MnSOD expression and greatly enhanced the activity of the iron-containing equivalent (FeSOD). Fur, one of six global regulators of MnSOD transcription, is uniquely capable of suppressing MnSOD while enhancing FeSOD expression through distinct mechanisms. We thus hypothesize that Fur is complacent in causing this behaviour and that the iron(II) component of SNP is activating Fur. E. coli was also treated with the SNP structural analogues, potassium ferricyanide (PFi) and potassium ferrocyanide (PFo). Remarkably, the ferrous PFo was capable of mimicking the SNP-related pattern, whereas the ferric PFi was not. As Fur depends upon ferrous iron for activation, we submit this observation of redox-specificity as preliminary supporting evidence for the hypothesized Fur-SNP interaction. Iron is an essential metal that the human innate immune system sequesters to prevent its use by invading pathogens. As NO is known to inhibit iron-bound Fur, and as activated Fur regulates iron uptake through feedback inhibition, we speculate that the administration of this drug may disrupt this strategic management of iron in favour of residing Gram-negative species by providing a source of iron in an otherwise iron-scarce environment capable of encouraging its own uptake. However, these gains may be counteracted by the oxidative consequences of iron and NO, as the former can catalyse the formation of toxic free radical species while the latter can inhibit enzymes and contribute to the formation of other toxic compounds. The potential consequences of SNP on microbial growth warrant future investigation. PMID:22061896

Bertrand, R; Danielson, D; Gong, V; Olynik, B; Eze, M O

2011-11-05

237

Semiquinone derivative isolated from Bacillus sp. INM-1 protects cellular antioxidant enzymes from ?-radiation-induced renal toxicity.  

PubMed

This study was focused to evaluate protection of indigenous antioxidant system of mice against gamma radiation-induced oxidative stress using a semiquinone (SQGD)-rich fraction isolated from Bacillus sp. INM-1. Male C57bl/6 mice were administered SQGD (50 mg/kgb.w.i.p.) 2 h before irradiation (10 Gy) and modulation in antioxidant enzymes activities was estimated at different time intervals and compared with irradiated mice which were not pretreated by SQGD. Compared to untreated controls, SQGD pretreatment significantly (p < 0.05) accelerates superoxide dismutase, catalase, GSH, and glutathione-S-transferase activities. Similarly, significant (p < 0.05) increase in the expression of superoxide dismutase, catalase, GSH, and glutathione-S-transferase was observed in irradiated mice pretreated by SQGD, compared to only irradiated groups. Total antioxidant status equivalent to trolox was estimated in renal tissue of the mice after SQGD administration. Significant ABTS(+) radical formation was observed in H2O2-treated kidney homogenate, due to oxidative stress in the tissue. However, significant decrease in the levels of ABTS(+) radical was observed in kidney homogenate of the mice pretreated with SQGD. Therefore, it can be concluded that SQGD neutralizes oxidative stress by induction of antioxidant enzymes activities and thus improved total antioxidant status in cellular system and hence contributes to radioprotection. PMID:23543190

Mishra, S; Reddy, D S K; Jamwal, V S; Bansal, D D; Patel, D D; Malhotra, P; Gupta, A K; Singh, P K; Jawed, S; Kumar, Raj

2013-04-01

238

The intracellular location of lysosomal enzymes in developing Dictyostelium discoideum cells  

SciTech Connect

The author has found that developing Dictyostelium cells contain two distinct acid hydrolase-containing organelles. Vesicles from cells at different stages of development were separated using Percoll density gradients. The lower density vesicles (LDVs or lysosomes) were present in nourished and starved cells. The higher density vesicles (HDVs) arose during starvation-induced differentiation. HDVs lacked two prestalk cell-specific lysosomal enzymes which were contained in LDVs. Prespore cell-specific spore coat proteins were detected in HDVs by ELISA. ({sup 35}S)sulfate labeling revealed that HDVs contained newly made glycoproteins as well as glycoproteins found in preexisting LDVs. Pulse-chase experiments using ({sup 35}S)methionine revealed that {alpha}-mannosidase from pre-existing LDVs an newly made {alpha}-mannosidase had entered HDVs. These data suggest that prespore LDVs mature to become HDVs. He has obtained evidence that HDVs are identical to prespore vesicles. Prespore vesicles are specialized secretory organelles which arise during prespore cell differentiation and which secrete their contents during terminal differentiation. As prespore vesicles secreted their contents, there was a co-incidental increase in extracellular acid hydrolase activity and a decrease in HDV-associated enzyme activity. Electron micrographs revealed that prespore cells contained two acid phosphatase-staining organelles, one of which appeared to be identical to lysosomes from nourished cells and a second which had features similar to prespore vesicles. Ricin-gold affinity electron microscopy was used to label the mucopolysaccharide component of prespore vesicles and the spore coat. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed co-localization of {alpha}-mannosidase with ricin-gold in prespore vesicles and the spore coat.

Lenhard, J.M.

1989-01-01

239

Neither type of mannose 6-phosphate receptor is sufficient for targeting of lysosomal enzymes along intracellular routes  

PubMed Central

Mouse embryonic fibroblasts that are deficient in the two mannose 6- phosphate receptors (MPRs) MPR 46 and MPR 300 missort the majority (> or = 85%) of soluble lysosomal proteins into the medium. Human MPR 46 and MPR 300 were expressed in these cells to test whether overexpression of a single type of MPR can restore transport of lysosomal proteins to lysosomes. Only a partial correction of the missorting was observed after overexpression of MPR 46. Even at MPR 46 levels that are five times higher than the wild-type level, more than one third of the newly synthesized lysosomal proteins accumulates in the secretions. Two-fold overexpression of MPR 300 completely corrects the missorting of lysosomal enzymes. However, at least one fourth of the lysosomal enzymes are transported along a secretion-recapture pathway that is sensitive to mannose 6-phosphate in medium. In control fibroblasts that express both types of MPR, the secretion-recapture pathway is of minor importance. These results imply that neither overexpression of MPR 46 nor MPR 300 is sufficient for targeting of lysosomal proteins along intracellular routes.

1996-01-01

240

Comparison of ROS formation and antioxidant enzymes in Cleome gynandra (C?) and Cleome spinosa (C?) under drought stress.  

PubMed

Differences between antioxidant responses to drought in C(3) and C(4) plants are rather scanty. Even, we are not aware of any research on comparative ROS formation and antioxidant enzymes in C(3) and C(4) species differing in carboxylation pathway of same genus which would be useful to prevent other differences in plant metabolism. With this aim, relative shoot growth rate, relative water content and osmotic potential, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) content and NADPH oxidase (NOX) activity, antioxidant defence system (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POX), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR) enzymes and their isoenzymes), CAT1 mRNA level, and lipid peroxidation in seedlings of Cleome spinosa (C(3)) and Cleome gynandra (C(4)) species of Cleome genus exposed to drought stress for 5 and 10 day (d) were comparatively investigated. Constitutive levels of antioxidant enzymes (except SOD) were consistently higher in C. spinosa than in C. gynandra under control conditions. CAT1 gene expression in C. spinosa was correlated with CAT activity but CAT1 gene expression in C. gynandra at 10 d did not show this correlation. Drought stress caused an increase in POX, CAT, APX and GR in both species. However, SOD activity was slightly decreased in C. gynandra while it was remained unchanged or increased on 5 and 10 d of stress in C. spinosa, respectively. Parallel to results of malon dialdehyde (MDA), H(2)O(2) content was also remarkably increased in C. spinosa as compared to C. gynandra under drought stress. These results suggest that in C. spinosa, antioxidant defence system was insufficient to suppress the increasing ROS production under stress condition. On the other hand, in C. gynandra, although its induction was lower as compared to C. spinosa, antioxidant system was able to cope with ROS formation under drought stress. PMID:22118616

Uzilday, B; Turkan, I; Sekmen, A H; Ozgur, R; Karakaya, H C

2011-04-06

241

Gene delivery of antioxidant enzymes inhibits human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120-induced expression of caspases.  

PubMed

Caspases are implicated in neuronal death in neurodegenerative and other central nervous system (CNS) diseases. In a rat model of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), we previously characterized HIV-1 envelope gp120-induced neuronal apoptosis by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. In this model, neuronal apoptosis occurred probably via gp120-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS). Antioxidant gene delivery blunted gp120-related apoptosis. Here, we studied the effect of gp120 on different caspases (3, 6, 8, 9) expression. Caspases production increased in the rat caudate-putamen (CP) 6h after gp120 injection into the same structure. The expression of caspases peaked by 24h. Caspases colocalized mainly with neurons. Prior gene delivery of the antioxidant enzymes Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) or glutathione peroxidase (GPx1) into the CP before injecting gp120 there reduced levels of gp120-induced caspases, recapitulating the effect of antioxidant enzymes on gp120-induced apoptosis observed by TUNEL. Thus, HIV-1 gp120 increased caspases expression in the CP. Prior antioxidant enzyme treatment mitigated production of these caspases, probably by reducing ROS levels. PMID:22531373

Louboutin, J-P; Agrawal, L; Reyes, B A S; van Bockstaele, E J; Strayer, D S

2012-04-21

242

Coenzyme Q10 supplementation reduces oxidative stress and increases antioxidant enzyme activity in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.  

PubMed

Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of central nervous system in which a higher oxidative stress may contribute to its pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) supplementation on oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activity in patients with MS. Materials and methods: We performed a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trail to determine the effect of CoQ10 supplement (500 mg/day, n = 24) versus placebo (controls, n = 24) for 12 weeks. Fasting blood samples were taken before and after a 12-week intervention to analyze malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and antioxidant enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx)] activity. Results: Forty-five subjects with MS completed intervention study. After 12 weeks, CoQ10-treated patients had significant increase in SOD activity (p = 0.013); and decrease in MDA levels (P=0.003) compared with controls. Despite the significant effect of CoQ10 supplementation on plasma TAC (p = 0.010), no significant differences were found between the two groups. CoQ10 supplementation did not affect GPx activity. Conclusion: Present study suggests that CoQ10 supplements at a dose of 500 mg/day can decrease oxidative stress and increase antioxidant enzyme activity in patients with relapsing-remitting MS. PMID:23659338

Sanoobar, Meisam; Eghtesadi, Shahryar; Azimi, Amirreza; Khalili, Mohammad; Jazayeri, Shima; Reza Gohari, Mahmood

2013-06-17

243

Active peptides from skate (Okamejei kenojei) skin gelatin diminish angiotensin-I converting enzyme activity and intracellular free radical-mediated oxidation.  

PubMed

Skin gelatin of skate (Okamejei kenojei) was hydrolyzed using Alcalase, flavourzyme, Neutrase and protamex. It was found that the Alcalase hydrolysate exhibited the highest angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity. Then, Alcalase hydrolysate was further hydrolyzed with protease and separated by an ultrafiltration membrane system. Finally, two peptides responsible for ACE inhibitory activity were identified to be MVGSAPGVL (829Da) and LGPLGHQ (720Da), with IC50 values of 3.09 and 4.22?M, respectively. Moreover, the free radical-scavenging activity of the purified peptides was determined in human endothelial cells. In addition, the antioxidative mechanism of the purified peptides was evaluated by protein and gene expression levels of antioxidant enzymes. The current study demonstrated that the peptides derived from skate skin gelatin could be used in the food industry as functional ingredients with potent antihypertensive and antioxidant benefits. PMID:24054237

Ngo, Dai-Hung; Ryu, Bomi; Kim, Se-Kwon

2013-07-25

244

INTRACELLULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF BEAN YELLOW MOSAIC VIRUS-INDUCED INCLUSIONS BY DIFFERENTIAL ENZYME DIGESTION  

PubMed Central

The composition of crystalline inclusions and dense bands in cells of broad bean leaves infected with bean yellow mosaic virus was studied by differential enzymatic digestion. Frozen thick sections were prefixed in glutaraldehyde and exposed to proteinases and nucleases, after which ultrathin sections were prepared for electron microscopy. Examination revealed that the crystals were completely digested by pepsin in 30 min, whereas the dense bands remained intact for the first 20 min, and could not be found after longer periods of digestion. When ultrathin sections of tissues embedded in glycol methacrylate were incubated with the enzymes, pepsin digested the crystals; this left only a filamentous residue which did not disappear after further exposure to pepsin or to RNase. Trypsin had the same effect, but was slower and less consistent. The dense bands were entirely digested in thin sections by pepsin and trypsin. Neither inclusion was affected by RNase or DNase in thick or thin sections. These results demonstrate that the crystals and dense bands are composed entirely or primarily of protein, but there is no evidence that they contain nucleic acid.

Weintraub, M.; Ragetli, H. W. J.

1968-01-01

245

Iron uptake and increased intracellular enzyme activity follow host lactoferrin binding by Trichomonas vaginalis receptors  

SciTech Connect

Lactoferrin acquisition and iron uptake by pathogenic Trichomonas vaginalis was examined. Saturation binding kinetics were obtained for trichomonads using increasing amounts of radioiodinated lactoferrin, while no significant binding by transferrin under similar conditions was achieved. Only unlabeled lactoferrin successfully and stoichiometrically competed with 125I-labeled lactoferrin binding. Time course studies showed maximal lactoferrin binding by 30 min at 37 degrees C. Data suggest no internalization of bound lactoferrin. The accumulation of radioactivity in supernatants after incubation of T. vaginalis with 125I-labeled lactoferrin and washing in PBS suggested the presence of low affinity sites for this host macromolecule. Scatchard analysis indicated the presence of 90,000 receptors per trichomonad with an apparent Kd of 1.0 microM. Two trichomonad lactoferrin binding proteins were identified by affinity chromatography and immunoprecipitation of receptor-ligand complexes. A 30-fold accumulation of iron was achieved using 59Fe-lactoferrin when compared to the steady state concentration of bound lactoferrin. The activity of pyruvate/ferrodoxin oxidoreductase, an enzyme involved in trichomonal energy metabolism, increased more than sixfold following exposure of the parasites to lactoferrin, demonstrating a biologic response to the receptor-mediated binding of lactoferrin. These data suggest that T. vaginalis possesses specific receptors for biologically relevant host proteins and that these receptors contribute to the metabolic processes of the parasites.

Peterson, K.M.; Alderete, J.F.

1984-08-01

246

Temperature stress, anti-oxidative enzyme activity and virus acquisition in Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In most eukaryotic systems, antioxidants provide protection when cells are exposed to stressful environmental conditions. Antioxidants, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and catalase, function in a stepwise series with SOD initially preventing oxidative damage by conve...

247

Age-Dependent Changes in Glutathione-S-Transferase: Correlation with Total Plasma Antioxidant Potential and Red Cell Intracellular Glutathione  

Microsoft Academic Search

The correlation between antioxidant capacity and oxidative damage during aging has been reported in several tissues in different\\u000a species. Glutathione-S-transferases (GST) can metabolise endogenous and exogenous toxins and carcinogens by catalysing the\\u000a conjugation of diverse electrophiles with reduced glutathione (GSH). We observe a significant (P P < 0.001) positive correlation (r = 0.8979) is observed between GST activity and total plasma antioxidant

Pawan Kumar Maurya; Syed Ibrahim Rizvi

2010-01-01

248

Seasonal Variations of the Activity of Antioxidant Defense Enzymes in the Red Mullet (Mullus barbatus l.) from the Adriatic Sea  

PubMed Central

This study investigated seasonal variations of antioxidant defense enzyme activities: total, manganese, copper zinc containing superoxide dismutase (Tot SOD, Mn SOD, CuZn SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase (GR) and biotransformation phase II enzyme glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity in the liver and white muscle of red mullet (Mullus barbatus). The investigations were performed in winter and spring at two localities: Near Bar (NB) and Estuary of the River Bojana (EB) in the Southern Adriatic Sea. At both sites, Mn SOD, GSH-Px, GR and GST activities decreased in the liver in spring. In the white muscle, activities of Mn SOD, GSH-Px, GR and GST in NB decreased in spring. GR decreased in spring in EB, while CAT activity was higher in spring at both sites. The results of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) based on correlations indicated a clear separation of various sampling periods for both investigated tissues and a marked difference between two seasons. Our study is the first report on antioxidant defense enzyme activities in the red mullet in the Southern Adriatic Sea. It indicates that seasonal variations of antioxidant defense enzyme activities should be used in further biomonitoring studies in fish species.

Pavlovic, Sladjan Z.; Borkovic Mitic, Slavica S.; Radovanovic, Tijana B.; Perendija, Branka R.; Despotovic, Svetlana G.; Gavric, Jelena P.; Saicic, Zorica S.

2010-01-01

249

Seasonal variations of the activity of antioxidant defense enzymes in the red mullet (Mullus barbatus l.) from the Adriatic Sea.  

PubMed

This study investigated seasonal variations of antioxidant defense enzyme activities: total, manganese, copper zinc containing superoxide dismutase (Tot SOD, Mn SOD, CuZn SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase (GR) and biotransformation phase II enzyme glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity in the liver and white muscle of red mullet (Mullus barbatus). The investigations were performed in winter and spring at two localities: Near Bar (NB) and Estuary of the River Bojana (EB) in the Southern Adriatic Sea. At both sites, Mn SOD, GSH-Px, GR and GST activities decreased in the liver in spring. In the white muscle, activities of Mn SOD, GSH-Px, GR and GST in NB decreased in spring. GR decreased in spring in EB, while CAT activity was higher in spring at both sites. The results of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) based on correlations indicated a clear separation of various sampling periods for both investigated tissues and a marked difference between two seasons. Our study is the first report on antioxidant defense enzyme activities in the red mullet in the Southern Adriatic Sea. It indicates that seasonal variations of antioxidant defense enzyme activities should be used in further biomonitoring studies in fish species. PMID:20411106

Pavlovi?, Sladjan Z; Borkovi? Miti?, Slavica S; Radovanovi?, Tijana B; Perendija, Branka R; Despotovi?, Svetlana G; Gavri?, Jelena P; Saici?, Zorica S

2010-02-26

250

The role of antioxidants and antioxidant-related enzymes in protective responses to environmentally induced oxidative stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

In aerobic organisms, oxygen is essential for efficient energy production but paradoxically, produces chronic toxic stress in cells. Diverse protective systems must exist to enable adaptation to oxidative environments. Oxidative stress (OS) results when production of reactive oxidative species (ROS) exceeds the capacity of cellular antioxidant defenses to remove these toxic species. Epidemiological and clinical studies have linked environmental factors

Jorge Limón-Pacheco; María E. Gonsebatt

2009-01-01

251

Gelatin hydrolysate from blacktip shark skin prepared using papaya latex enzyme: Antioxidant activity and its potential in model systems.  

PubMed

Antioxidant activities of gelatin hydrolysates from blacktip shark skin prepared using papaya latex enzyme with different degrees of hydrolysis (DHs: 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%) were evaluated. All antioxidant activity indices of hydrolysates increased with increasing DH (P<0.05). When gelatin hydrolysate with 40%DH was determined for its pH and thermal stability, ORAC and chelating activity remained constant or slightly increased in a wide pH range (1-9) and during heating (100°C) for 240min. It was also stable in simulated gastrointestinal tract model system. Moreover, gelatin hydrolysate at a level of 500 and 1000ppm could inhibit lipid oxidation in both ?-carotene linoleate and cooked comminuted pork model systems. Therefore, gelatin hydrolysate from blacktip shark skin (40%DH) can potentially be used as an alternative source of natural antioxidants. PMID:22953833

Kittiphattanabawon, Phanat; Benjakul, Soottawat; Visessanguan, Wonnop; Shahidi, Fereidoon

2012-05-28

252

The inhibitors of antioxidant cell enzymes induce permeability transition in yeast mitochondria.  

PubMed

In this study we investigated the effects of exogenous and endogenous oxidative stress on mitochondrial membrane permeability transition in yeast cells. E. magnusii yeast was used in the study as it is the only yeast strain possessing a natural high-capacity ??(2+) transport system. The key reactive oxygen species (ROS) detoxifying enzymes in the yeast cells - catalases (CATs) and superoxide dismutases (SODs) - were fully characterized. At least five isoforms of SODs and only one isoform of CATs were found in the E. magnusii mitochondria. The assessment of the main properties of mitochondrial non-specific permeability under physiological conditions such as dynamics of the membrane potential (??) and swelling in mitochondria showed that under physiological conditions classical inhibitors of CATs (ATZ - 3-amino-1, 2, 4-triazole) and of SODs (DDC - diethyldithiocarbamate) caused irreversible decline in ?? in the yeast mitochondria. This decline was accelerated in the presence of 500 ?M ??(2+). The combined action of the inhibitors (ATZ + DDC) promoted moderate swelling in the isotonic medium, which was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. Mitochondrial swelling in the cells exposed to antioxidant system inhibitors was accompanied by typical signs of early apoptosis, namely by chromatin margination and condensation, vacuolization of the cytosol, and damage of the plasma membrane. Here we showed, at both cellular and mitochondrial levels, that the deregulation of oxidant-scavenging enzymes directly leads to the opening of the mPTP, followed by induction of apoptotic markers in the whole yeast cells. Our studies are the first to clarify the highly contradictory data in the literature on mPTP in yeast mitochondria. PMID:23625488

Deryabina, Yulia; Isakova, Elena; Antipov, Alexey; Saris, Nils-Erik L

2013-04-27

253

Evaluation of erythrocyte antioxidant mechanisms: antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation, and serum trace elements associated with progressive anemia in ovine malignant theileriosis.  

PubMed

Ovine malignant theileriosis is a fatal disease that is characterized by severe progressive anemia. In order to elucidate the underlying mechanisms involved in anemia, this study was designed to assess the antioxidant status and erythrocyte oxidative injuries in Iranian fat-tailed sheep that suffered from malignant theileriosis. The infected animals (infected group), composed of 50 Iranian sheep about 1-2 years old, naturally infected with Theileria sp., were divided into three subgroups according to parasitemia rates (<1%, 1-3%, 3-5%), and ten non-infected animals were also selected as the control group. Blood samples were taken and hematological parameters, the activities of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and catalase, erythrocyte osmotic fragility, and serum concentrations of some trace elements (copper, iron, zinc, manganese, and selenium), were measured. As an index of lipid peroxidation, the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) was also determined. According to the results, a significant decrease in red blood cell (RBC) count, packed cell volume, the activities of SOD, GPX, and catalase (P <0.001), and also serum concentrations of Cu, Zn, Mn, and Se (P < 0.05) were evident in the infected sheep. In contrast, significantly increased levels of MDA and erythrocyte osmotic fragility (P < 0.001) as well as serum concentration of iron (P < 0.05) were recorded in the infected animals. The significant decrease in antioxidant enzyme activities and substantial elevated levels of lipid peroxidation and erythrocyte osmotic fragility associated with the increase in parasitemia indicate increased exposure of RBCs to oxidative damage. Also, it appears that disturbed antioxidant defense mechanisms can promote the development of anemia in ovine theileriosis. PMID:21301875

Nazifi, S; Razavi, S M; Kianiamin, P; Rakhshandehroo, E

2011-02-08

254

Biochemical effect of carbaryl on oxidative stress, antioxidant enzymes and osmolytes of cyanobacterium Calothrix brevissima.  

PubMed

Carbaryl is used in Indian agriculture for control of rice field pests and it is next to Benzene hexachloride in pesticide consumption. In present study, carbaryl (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 mg/L) induced toxic effects were observed after 21 days exposure on a non target rice field biofertilizer Calothrix brevissima with special reference to oxidative stress, antioxidant enzymes and osmolytes. At 40 mg/L carbaryl the decrease in carotenoid, chlorophyll, phycobilin and protein were 63%, 43%, 40% and 40% respectively in comparison to control. Total carbohydrate, malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, catalase and osmolytes showed enhancement at all the treated concentration. Increased amount of MDA (46% at 40 mg/L) indicated free radical mediated deleterious effect of carbaryl. Enhancement of SOD, APX, CAT and osmolytes in presence of carbaryl indicated their involvement in free radical scavenging. SOD, CAT and APX showed maximum activities (79%, 64% and 39% respectively) at 40 mg/L carbaryl. The order of enhancement in osmolytes was glycine-betaine (66%) > proline (54%) > sucrose (50%) at 40 mg/L which might be another adaptive defense strategy of the cyanobacterium against the pesticide. PMID:21979138

Habib, Khalid; Kumar, Satyendra; Manikar, Ningthoujam; Zutshi, Sunaina; Fatma, Tasneem

2011-10-07

255

Correlation among lung damage after radiation, amount of lipid peroxides, and antioxidant enzyme activities  

SciTech Connect

The correlation between lipid peroxidation and morphologic changes was examined in Sprague-Dawley rat lungs after 30 Gy single thoracic radiation. The rats were sacrificed every week until the end of the fifth week after radiation. The left lungs were used for the measurement of lipid peroxides and antioxidant enzymes activities. The right lungs were examined by light and electron microscopy. Amounts of lung lipid peroxides were within normal limits, and no cellular degenerative changes were observed in the lungs except for subendothelial and interstitial edema 2 weeks after radiation. Lipid peroxides drastically increased and marked degenerative cellular changes such as edematous swelling, vacuolation, and destruction of cell membranes occurred in the alveolar septa following the third week after radiation. The activities of catalase were significantly higher during the period from the second to the fifth week and those of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase increased at the end of the fifth week. Our results demonstrated that the acceleration of lipid peroxidation was well correlated with the morphologic expression of cell injury in the irradiated lungs.

Nozue, M.; Ogata, T.

1989-04-01

256

In vitro effects of alloxan/copper combinations on lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and antioxidant enzymes.  

PubMed

The in vitro effects of alloxan and the product of its reduction dialuric acid (alone or in combination with copper ions) on lipid peroxidation, carbonyl content, GSH level and antioxidant enzyme activities in rat liver and kidney have been studied. The effects of Cu2+/alloxan and Cu2+/dialuric acid were compared with those of Fe3+/alloxan and Fe3+/dialuric acid. Unlike alloxan, dialuric acid increased liver and kidney lipid peroxidation; similar effects were registered in the presence of Fe3+. In the presence of Cu2+/dialuric acid, the lipid peroxidation was strongly inhibited and vice versa--the liver protein oxidation was increased. Alloxan and dialuric acid, as well as their combinations with Fe3+ had no effect on the total GSH level. Both substances did not affect the Cu2+-induced changes in GSH level, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and gluthatione reductase activities. In contrast, Cu2+ had no effect on dialuric-acid induced changes in gluthatione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities. The present in vitro results, concerning the metal dependence of the effects of alloxan and dialuric acid, are a premise for in vivo study of alloxan effects in metal-loaded animals. PMID:18277462

Alexandrova, Albena; Petrov, L; Kessiova, Mila; Kirkova, Margarita

2007-12-01

257

[Antioxidant enzyme gene expression as molecular biomarkers of exposure to polycyclic musks].  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate the molecular toxicological effects of low level synthetic musks exposure on the earthworm Eisenia fetida. The method of Sybr Green I real time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) for detecting gene expression level was established. SOD (superoxide dismutase) and CAT (catalase) mRNA expression levels were measured after 28 days. of AHTN and HHCB exposure. The analysis results of both sequence alignment and melting curve demonstrated that the selected primers were suitable for mRNA quantification. The liner correlation coefficients of SOD and CAT standard curves were 0.997 and 0.994, respectively, and the PCR amplification efficiencies were both close to 100%. Therefore, relative quantification method could be applied to analyze the gene expression levels. The significant elevation of malondialdehyde (MDA) levels indicated that the reactive oxygen species-induced cellular oxidative injury might be one of the main toxic effects of AHTN and HHCB. Besides, a significant positive correlation was observed between the up-regulation of SOD, CAT mRNA and the MDA levels, suggesting that possible changes in the transcript expression of antioxidant enzyme genes were associated with the oxidative stress. Furthermore, the dose-response correlation between SOD, CAT mRNA levels and the exposure concentrations was also found. The overall results indicated that SOD and CAT genes might be potential molecular biomarkers for the evaluation of the pollution stress and toxicological effects of synthetic musks in the environment. PMID:23213915

Chen, Chun; Zhou, Qi-xing; Liu, Xiao-wei

2012-08-01

258

Dietary rice protein isolate attenuates atherosclerosis in apoE-deficient mice by upregulating antioxidant enzymes.  

PubMed

Rice-based diets may have been reported to protect against the development of atherosclerosis; however, the underlying mechanism(s) for this protection remains unknown. In this report, the mechanism(s) contributing to the atheroprotective effects of rice-based diet was addressed using the apolipoprotein E knockout (apoE-/-) mice fed rice protein isolate (RPI) or casein (CAS). Reduced atherosclerotic lesions were observed in aortic sinus and enface analyses of the descending aorta in RPI-fed apoE-/- mice compared with CAS-fed mice. Plasma total- and HDL-cholesterol levels were not different amongst the two groups, suggesting alternative mechanism(s) could have contributed to the atheroprotective effect of rice-based diets. Plasma oxLDL and anti-oxLDL IgG levels were significantly decreased in RPI-fed compared to CAS-fed animals. Plasma and aortic tissue GSH levels and GSH:GSSG ratio were higher in RPI-fed mice compared to CAS-fed group. Interestingly, RPI feeding increased mRNA and protein expression of superoxide dismutase, and mRNA expression of catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase, key antioxidant enzymes implicated inhibiting oxidative stress leading to atherosclerosis. In conclusion, these findings suggest that the reduction in atherosclerotic lesions observed in mice fed the rice-based diet is mediated in part by inhibiting oxidative stress and subsequent oxLDL generation that could result in reduced foam cell formation, an early event during atherogenesis. PMID:20965078

Burris, Ramona L; Xie, Cheng-Hui; Thampi, Prajitha; Wu, Xianli; Melnyk, Stepan B; Nagarajan, Shanmugam

2010-05-21

259

Dietary rice protein isolate attenuates atherosclerosis in apoE-deficient mice by upregulating antioxidant enzymes.  

PubMed

Rice-based diets may have been reported to protect against the development of atherosclerosis; however, the underlying mechanism(s) for this protection remains unknown. In this report, the mechanism(s) contributing to the atheroprotective effects of rice-based diet was addressed using the apolipoprotein E knockout (apoE-/-) mice fed rice protein isolate (RPI) or casein (CAS). Reduced atherosclerotic lesions were observed in aortic sinus and enface analyses of the descending aorta in RPI-fed apoE-/- mice compared with CAS-fed mice. Plasma total- and HDL-cholesterol levels were not different amongst the two groups, suggesting alternative mechanism(s) could have contributed to the atheroprotective effect of rice-based diets. Plasma oxLDL and anti-oxLDL IgG levels were significantly decreased in RPI-fed compared to CAS-fed animals. Plasma and aortic tissue GSH levels and GSH:GSSG ratio were higher in RPI-fed mice compared to CAS-fed group. Interestingly, RPI feeding increased mRNA and protein expression of superoxide dismutase, and mRNA expression of catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase, key antioxidant enzymes implicated inhibiting oxidative stress leading to atherosclerosis. In conclusion, these findings suggest that the reduction in atherosclerotic lesions observed in mice fed the rice-based diet is mediated in part by inhibiting oxidative stress and subsequent oxLDL generation that could result in reduced foam cell formation, an early event during atherogenesis. PMID:20839391

Burris, Ramona L; Xie, Cheng-Hui; Thampi, Prajitha; Wu, Xianli; Melnyk, Stepan B; Nagarajan, Shanmugam

2010-09-01

260

Sodium chloride enhances cadmium tolerance through reducing cadmium accumulation and increasing anti-oxidative enzyme activity in tobacco.  

PubMed

The effect of sodium chloride (NaCl) on cadmium (Cd) uptake, translocation, and oxidative stress was investigated using 2 tobacco cultivars differing in Cd tolerance. The growth inhibition of the tobacco plants exposed to Cd toxicity was in part alleviated by moderate addition of NaCl in the culture solution. Cadmium concentration of shoots and roots in the 2 cultivars increased with increasing Cd levels in the solution and decreased with the addition of NaCl. The addition of NaCl could alleviate the oxidative stress caused by Cd toxicity, as reflected by reduced production of malondialdehyde and recovered or enhanced activities of antioxidative enzymes catalase and glutathione peroxidase. The results also showed that the enhancement of antioxidative enzyme activity by NaCl for the tobacco plants exposed to Cd stress is related to induced Ca signaling. PMID:23417770

Zhang, Bing-Lin; Shang, Sheng-Hua; Zhang, Hai-Tao; Jabeen, Zahra; Zhang, Guo-Ping

2013-04-15

261

In vitro effects of aspirin on malondialdehyde formation and on activity of antioxidant and some metal-containing enzymes.  

PubMed

The in vitro effects of aspirin in different concentrations on malondialdehyde formation and on the activity of antioxidant and some metal-containing enzymes in rat liver homogenate and erythrocytes were studied. Aspirin showed a biphasic dependence on concentration: low concentrations (to 1.0 mM) stimulated the spontaneously formed malondialdehyde in the liver homogenate and the high concentration (5.0 mM) inhibited it; all aspirin concentrations tested had no effect on the liposomes; 5.0 mM aspirin inhibited the Fe(2+)-induced lipid peroxidation in the liver homogenate but had an opposite effect on the liposomes. Aspirin dose-dependently inhibited nitro-blue tetrazolium reduction and decreased deoxyribose degradation. The higher aspirin concentrations inhibited the activity of antioxidant and some metal-containing enzymes. It is suggested that these aspirin effects are determined by the aspirin-metal complexes formed rather than by aspirin itself. PMID:7981976

Kirkova, M; Ivancheva, E; Russanov, E

1994-07-01

262

Alterations in seedling vigour and antioxidant enzyme activities in Catharanthus roseus under seed priming with native diazotrophs  

PubMed Central

An experiment was conducted on Catharanthus roseus to study the effect of seed treatments with native diazotrophs on its seedling growth and antioxidant enzyme activities. The treatments had significant influence on various seedling parameters. There is no significant influence on dry matter production with the diazotrophs, Azospirillum and Azotobacter. However, the vital seedling parameters such as germination percentage and vigour index were improved. Azotobacter treatment influenced maximum of 50% germination, whereas Azospirillum and Azotobacter were on par with C. roseus with respect to their vigour index. There was significant difference in the population of total diazotrophs. Azospirillum and Azotobacter between rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils of C. roseus had the same trend and were observed at various locations of the study. The activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POX) and catalase (CAT) were increased to a significant extent due to the treatment with diazotrophs.

Karthikeyan, B.; Jaleel, C.A.; Gopi, R.; Deiveekasundaram, M.

2007-01-01

263

Implementing enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays on a microfluidic chip to quantify intracellular molecules in single cells.  

PubMed

Cell-to-cell differences play a key role in the ability of cell populations to adapt and evolve, and they are considered to impact the development of several diseases. Recent advances in microsystem technology provide promising solutions for single-cell studies. However, the quantitative chemical analysis of single-cell lysates remains difficult. Here, we combine a microfluidic device with the analytical strength of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for single-cell studies to reliably identify intracellular proteins, secondary messengers, or metabolites. The microfluidic device allows parallel single-cell trapping and isolation in 625-pL microchambers, repeated treatment and washing steps, subsequent lysis and analysis by ELISA. Using a sandwich ELISA, we quantitatively determined the concentration of the enzyme GAPDH in single U937 cells and HEK 293 cells, and found amounts within a range of a few (1-4) attomol per cell. Furthermore, a competitive ELISA is performed to determine the concentration of the secondary messenger cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) in MLT cells, in response to the hormone lutropin. We found the half maximal effective concentration (EC50) of lutropin to have an average value of 2.51 ± 0.44 ng/mL. Surprisingly, there were large cell-to-cell variations for all supplied lutropin concentrations, ranging from 36 to 536 attomol cAMP for nonstimulated cells and from 80 to 1040 attomol cAMP for a concentration around the EC50 (3 ng/mL). Because of the high sensitivity and specificity of ELISA and the large number of antibodies available, we believe that our device provides a new, powerful means for single-cell proteomics and metabolomics. PMID:23388050

Eyer, K; Stratz, S; Kuhn, P; Küster, S K; Dittrich, P S

2013-02-26

264

Dietary a?ai modulates ROS production by neutrophils and gene expression of liver antioxidant enzymes in rats  

PubMed Central

Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) has recently emerged as a promising source of natural antioxidants. Because increased oxidative stress and impaired antioxidant defense mechanisms are important factors in the development of diabetic complications and many health claims have been reported for açai, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the possible protective effects of açai on the production of reactive oxygen species by neutrophils and on the liver antioxidant defense system in control and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diet supplementation with 2% açai was found to increase mRNA levels for gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase and glutathione peroxidase in liver tissue and to decrease reactive oxygen species production by neutrophils. Compared to control animals, diabetic rats exhibited lower levels of mRNA coding for Zn-superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase and higher levels of reactive oxygen species production by neutrophils, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and carbonyl proteins in hepatic tissues. Although açai supplementation was not effective in restore gene expression of antioxidant enzymes in diabetic rats, it showed a protective effect, decreasing thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances levels and increasing reduced glutathione content in the liver. These findings suggest that açai can modulate reactive oxygen species production by neutrophils and that it has a significant favorable effect on the liver antioxidant defense system under fisiological conditions of oxidative stress and partially revert deleterious effects of diabetes in the liver.

Guerra, Joyce Ferreira da Costa; Magalhaes, Cintia Lopes de Brito; Costa, Daniela Caldeira; Silva, Marcelo Eustaquio; Pedrosa, Maria Lucia

2011-01-01

265

Role of Nrf2 signaling in regulation of antioxidants and phase 2 enzymes in cardiac fibroblasts: Protection against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species-induced cell injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the molecular pathway(s) of antioxidant gene regulation is of crucial importance for developing antioxidant-inducing agents for the intervention of oxidative cardiac disorders. Accordingly, this study was undertaken to determine the role of Nrf2 signaling in the basal expression as well as the chemical inducibility of endogenous antioxidants and phase 2 enzymes in cardiac fibroblasts. The basal expression of a

Hong Zhu; Ken Itoh; Masayuki Yamamoto; Jay L. Zweier; Yunbo Li

2005-01-01

266

Influence of arbuscular mycorrhiza on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activity of maize plants under temperature stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus, Glomus etunicatum, on characteristics of growth, membrane lipid peroxidation, osmotic adjustment, and activity of antioxidant enzymes in leaves\\u000a and roots of maize (Zea mays L.) plants was studied in pot culture under temperature stress. The maize plants were placed in a sand and soil mixture under\\u000a normal temperature for 6 weeks and then

Xiancan Zhu; Fengbin Song; Hongwen Xu

2010-01-01

267

Bioaccumulation of glyphosate and its formulation Roundup Ultra in Lumbriculus variegatus and its effects on biotransformation and antioxidant enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bioaccumulation potential of glyphosate and the formulation Roundup Ultra, as well as possible effects on biotransformation and antioxidant enzymes in Lumbriculus variegatus were compared by four days exposure to concentrations between 0.05 and 5mgL?1 pure glyphosate and its formulation. Bioaccumulation was determined using 14C labeled glyphosate. The bioaccumulation factor (BCF) varied between 1.4 and 5.9 for the different concentrations,

Valeska Contardo-Jara; Eva Klingelmann; Claudia Wiegand

2009-01-01

268

Effect of Pb on leaf antioxidant enzyme activities and ultrastructure of the two ecotypes of Sedum alfredii Hance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydroponic experiments were conducted to study the effect of Pb on growth, leaf antioxidant enzyme activities, and ultrastructure\\u000a of the accumulating ecotype (AE) and non-accumulating ecotype (NAE) of Sedum alfredii Hance. AE was found to be more tolerant to excessive Pb levels in growth medium. Concentrations of Pb in the shoots of the\\u000a AE were 1.98 times higher than those

D. Liu; T. Q. Li; X. E. Yang; E. Islam; X. F. Jin; Q. Mahmood

2008-01-01

269

Combined effects of 2,4-D and azinphosmethyl on antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation in liver of Oreochromis niloticus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to investigate the effects of the herbicide 2,4-D and the insecticide azinphosmethyl on hepatic antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation in tilapia. Fish were exposed to 27 ppm 2,4-D, 0.03 ppm azinphosmethyl and to a mixture of both for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. Activities of catalase (EC 1.11.1.6), glutathione-S-transferase (GST, EC 2.5.1.18) and the level

Elif Özcan Oruç; Nevin Üner

2000-01-01

270

Isolation and Characterization of Antioxidation Enzymes from Cells of Zedoary ( Curcuma zedoaria Roscoe) Cultured in a 5-l Bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a cell suspension culture system for zedoary (Curcuma zedoaria Roscoe) was developed, using 50 g\\/l of fresh weight inoculum in a batch culture. The highest cell biomass obtained from a\\u000a 5-l bioreactor equipped with three impellers after 14 days of culture was utilized to extract secondary metabolites (essential\\u000a oil and curcumin) and determine the activities of antioxidant enzymes (peroxidase,

Nguyen-Hoang Loc; Doan-Thi-Hong Diem; Doan-Huu-Nhat Binh; Dao-Thi Huong; Tae-Geum Kim; Moon-Sik Yang

2008-01-01

271

Joint effects of Penta-BDE and heavy metals on Daphnia magna survival, its antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The joint toxicity of Penta-BDE (Pe-BDE) and heavy metals including cadmium and copper on Daphnia magna (D. magna) was evaluated on the basis of determining the 48 h survival, antioxidative enzyme responses, and lipid peroxidation. The\\u000a response was classified as additive, greater than additive, or less than additive by comparing the measured “toxic units,\\u000a TU” with one. Based on the

Baohua Tang; Lingyan Zhu; Qixing Zhou

2011-01-01

272

Impact of UV-B radiation on antioxidant enzymes and protein electrophoretic pattern of the green alga Chlorococcum sp  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of two intensities (2.5 and 5 W m?2) of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation on lipid peroxidation, protein pattern and some antioxidant enzymes including superoxide\\u000a dismutase, catalase and peroxidase has been studied inChlorococcum sp. isolated from El-Kased freshwater canal, Tanta, Egypt. Exposure ofChlorococcum sp. for 2 h to 2.5 and 5 W m?2 increased malondialdehyde (MDA) content by 238 and

Atef Mohmed Abo-Shady; Amal Hamed El-Naggar; Mostafa Mohamed El-Sheekh; Abd El-Fatah Abomohra

2008-01-01

273

Trace elements and activity of antioxidative enzymes in Cistus ladanifer L. growing on an abandoned mine area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mediterranean shrub Cistus ladanifer grows naturally in São Domingos (Portugal), an abandoned copper mine. High levels of trace elements in plants can generate\\u000a oxidative stress increasing the activity of antioxidant enzymes. The aim of this work was to evaluate and compare As, Cu,\\u000a Pb and Zn concentrations and the activity of the soluble and cell wall ionically bounded forms

Erika S. Santos; Maria Manuela Abreu; Cristina Nabais; Jorge A. Saraiva

2009-01-01

274

EFFECTS OF VITAMIN E ON ANTIOXIDANT ENZYME ACTIVITIES AND FATTY ACID COMPOSITIONS IN JUVENILE ABALONE HALIOTIS DISCUS HANNAI INO  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 240-day feeding trial was conducted in a recirculated water system to investigate the effects of dietary vitamin E on the activities of antioxidant enzymes (catalase, CAT; superoxide dismutase, SOD; glutathione peroxidase, GPX) and the composition of fatty acids in abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino. Triplicate groups of juvenile abalone (initial weight: 0.71± 0.00 g; initial shell length: 15.49± 0.04

JINGHUA FU; WENBING ZHANG; KANGSEN MAI; XIUNI FENG; WEI XU; ZHIGUO LIUFU; HONGMING MA; QINGHUI AI

2007-01-01

275

Glutathione peroxidase and other antioxidant enzyme function in marine invertebrates ( Mytilus edulis, Pecten maximus, Carcinus maenas and Asterias rubens)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (Se-GPX) and other antioxidant enzyme function was studied in four marine invertebrates, viz. mussel M. edulis (euryoxic herbivore), scallop P. maximus (stenoxic herbivore), crab C. maenas (euryoxic omnivore) and starfish A. rubens (euryoxic carnivore). Se-GPX, Superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were generally highest in the major digestive detoxication tissue of each species (digestive gland, hepatopancreas or pyloric

Simon C. Gamble; Peter S. Goldfarb; Cinta Porte; David R. Livingstone

1995-01-01

276

Effect of age and hypoxia\\/reoxygenation on mRNA expression of antioxidative enzymes in rat liver and kidneys  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of a short-time isobaric hypoxia as well as reoxygenation on markers of oxidative stress (MDA, total SOD, GSH) and on the mRNA expression of the antioxidative enzymes (Cu\\/Zn-and Mn-SOD, catalase, GSH reductase and GSH peroxidase) has been studied in liver and kidneys of young (6 months) and old (22–25 months) Wistar rats.In livers of old animals, the concentration

R. Martin; G. Fitzl; C. Mozet; H. Martin; K. Welt; E. Wieland

2002-01-01

277

Schizandrin C exerts anti-neuroinflammatory effects by upregulating phase II detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes in microglia.  

PubMed

We investigated the anti-neuroinflammatory properties of schizandrin C by focusing on its roles in the induction of phase II detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes and in the modulation of upstream signaling pathways. Schizandrin C induced expression of phase II detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes including heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and NADPH dehydrogenase quinone-1 (NQO-1). Activation of upstream signaling pathways, such as the cAMP/protein kinase A/cAMP response element-binding protein (cAMP/PKA/CREB) and erythroid-specific nuclear factor-regulated factor 2 (Nrf-2) pathways, significantly increased following treatment with schizandrin C. In addition, expressions of schizandrin C-mediated phase II detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes were completely attenuated by adenylyl cyclase inhibitor (ddAdo) and protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor (H-89). In microglia, schizandrin C significantly inhibited lipoteichoic acid (LTA)-stimulated pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), nitric oxide (NO), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and matrix metallopeptidase-9 (MMP-9) protein expressions. Moreover, schizandrin C suppressed LTA-induced nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B), activator protein-1 (AP-1), janus-kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STATs), and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation. Schizandrin C also effectively suppressed ROS generation and NO production, as well as iNOS promoter activity in LTA-stimulated microglia. This suppressive effect was reversed by transfection with Nrf-2 and HO-1 siRNA and co-treatment with inhibitors ddAdo and H-89. Our results indicate that schizandrin C isolated from Schisandra chinensis could be used as a natural anti-neuroinflammatory agent, inducing phase II detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes via cAMP/PKA/CREB and Nrf-2 signaling. PMID:23859871

Park, Sun Young; Park, Se Jin; Park, Tae Gyeong; Rajasekar, Seetharaman; Lee, Sang-Joon; Choi, Young-Whan

2013-07-13

278

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups and serum levels of anti-oxidant enzymes in patients with osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Background Oxidative stress play a main role in the initiation and progression of the OA disease and leads to the degeneration of mitochondria. To prevent this, the chondrocytes possess a well-coordinated enzymatic antioxidant system. Besides, the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups are associated with the OA disease. Thus, the main goal of this work is to assess the incidence of the mtDNA haplogroups on serum levels of two of the main antioxidant enzymes, Manganese Superoxide Dismutase (Mn-SOD or SOD2) and catalase, and to test the suitability of these two proteins for potential OA-related biomarkers. Methods We analyzed the serum levels of SOD2 and catalase in 73 OA patients and 77 healthy controls carrying the haplogroups J, U and H, by ELISA assay. Knee and hip radiographs were classified according to Kellgren and Lawrence (K/L) scoring from Grade 0 to Grade IV. Appropriate statistical analyses were performed to test the effects of clinical variables, including gender, body mass index (BMI), age, smoking status, diagnosis, haplogroups and radiologic K/L grade on serum levels of these enzymes. Results Serum levels of SOD2 appeared statistically increased in OA patients when compared with healthy controls (p < 0.001). Even in those OA patients with higher OA severity (K/L grade IV), the serum levels of this antioxidant enzyme appeared more significantly increased than in OA patients with lower K/L grade (p < 0.001). The mtDNA haplogroups showed an influence on serum levels of catalase (p = 0.054), being carriers of the mtDNA haplogroup J those who showed higher serum levels than non-J carriers (p = 0.057). Conclusions The increased levels of SOD2 in OA patients indicate an increased oxidative stress OA-related, therefore this antioxidant enzyme could be a suitable candidate biomarker for diagnosis of OA. Mitochondrial haplogroups significantly correlates with serum levels of catalase

2011-01-01

279

Effects of Estradiol and MedroxyprogesteroneAcetate Treatment on Erythrocyte Antioxidant Enzyme Activities and Malondialdehyde Plasma Levels in Amenorrhoic Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma levels of 17b-estradiol (E2) and malondialdehyde and erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione-peroxidase (GSH-Px)) activities were evaluated in 20 healthy eumenorrhoic women (EW) on day 7 of the menstrual cycle and in 48 secondary hypothalamic amenorrhea patients (AP) (time 0). The AP were randomly divided into four subgroups of 12 subjects and treated with transdermal E2 for

COSIMO MASSAFRA; GIUSEPPE BUONOCORE; DINO GIOIA; ISA SARGENTINI; GIOVANNI FARINA

280

An Enhancing Effect of Exogenous Mannitol on the Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Roots of Wheat Under Salt Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of mannitol as an osmoprotectant, a radical scavenger, a stabilizer of protein and membrane structure, and protector\\u000a of photosynthesis under abiotic stress has already been well described. In this article we show that mannitol applied exogenously\\u000a to salt-stressed wheat, which normally cannot synthesize mannitol, improved their salt tolerance by enhancing activities of\\u000a antioxidant enzymes. Wheat seedlings (3 days old)

Burcu Seckin; Ask?m Hediye Sekmen; ?smail Türkan

2009-01-01

281

Differential tolerance to Mn toxicity in perennial ryegrass genotypes: involvement of antioxidative enzymes and root exudation of carboxylates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanisms underlying differential tolerance to Manganese (Mn) toxicity in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) cultivars are poorly understood. We evaluated activity of antioxidative enzymes and root exudation of carboxylates in\\u000a four ryegrass cultivars subjected to increasing Mn supply under nutrient solution conditions. A growth reduction caused by\\u000a Mn toxicity was smaller in Jumbo and Kingston than Nui and Aries cultivars.

María de la Luz Mora; Analí Rosas; Alejandra Ribera; Zed Rengel

2009-01-01

282

Combined role of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles and 2.45 GHz microwave radiation on antioxidant enzymes of mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation examines the combined effect of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (6.5 nm) and 2.45 GHz microwave radiation. Male Swiss albino mice (7 week old) were intra-peritoneally administered different doses of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles and were exposed to 2.45 GHz microwave radiation for 30 days. Antioxidative enzyme activity was measured in the liver and brain cells. As measured using

N. K. Samal; R. Paulraj

2010-01-01

283

Expression of antioxidant enzymes in response to abscisic acid and high osmoticum in tobacco BY2 cell cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have monitored the changes in antioxidative enzyme activities and their mRNA levels in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv.) Bright Yellow 2 (BY-2) cell cultures subjected to salt stress, polyethylene glycol (PEG)-induced drought stress, and exogenous abscisic acid (ABA). Both NaCl and PEG treatments led to an increase in the total superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX)

Pablo Bueno; Abel Piqueras; Jasmina Kurepa; Arnould Savouré; Nathalie Verbruggen; Marc Van Montagu; Dirk Inzé

1998-01-01

284

Gleevec Increases Levels of the Amyloid Precursor Protein Intracellular Domain and of the Amyloid-?-degrading Enzyme Neprilysin  

PubMed Central

Amyloid-? (A?) deposition is a major pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. Gleevec, a known tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has been shown to lower A? secretion, and it is considered a potential basis for novel therapies for Alzheimer's disease. Here, we show that Gleevec decreases A? levels without the inhibition of Notch cleavage by a mechanism distinct from ?-secretase inhibition. Gleevec does not influence ?-secretase activity in vitro; however, treatment of cell lines leads to a dose-dependent increase in the amyloid precursor protein intracellular domain (AICD), whereas secreted A? is decreased. This effect is observed even in presence of a potent ?-secretase inhibitor, suggesting that Gleevec does not activate AICD generation but instead may slow down AICD turnover. Concomitant with the increase in AICD, Gleevec leads to elevated mRNA and protein levels of the A?-degrading enzyme neprilysin, a potential target gene of AICD-regulated transcription. Thus, the Gleevec mediated-increase in neprilysin expression may involve enhanced AICD signaling. The finding that Gleevec elevates neprilysin levels suggests that its A?-lowering effect may be caused by increased A?-degradation.

Eisele, Yvonne S.; Baumann, Matthias; Klebl, Bert; Nordhammer, Christina; Jucker, Mathias

2007-01-01

285

Effects of chronic swimming training and oestrogen therapy on coronary vascular reactivity and expression of antioxidant enzymes in ovariectomized rats.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of swimming training (SW) and oestrogen replacement therapy (ERT) on coronary vascular reactivity and the expression of antioxidant enzymes in ovariectomized rats. Animals were randomly assigned to one of five groups: sham (SH), ovariectomized (OVX), ovariectomized with E2 (OE2), ovariectomized with exercise (OSW), and ovariectomized with E2 plus exercise (OE2+SW). The SW protocol (5×/week, 60 min/day) and/or ERT were conducted for 8 weeks; the vasodilator response to bradykinin was analysed (Langendorff Method), and the expression of antioxidant enzymes (SOD-1 and 2, catalase) and eNOS and iNOS were evaluated by Western blotting. SW and ERT improved the vasodilator response to the highest dose of bradykinin (1000 ng). However, in the OSW group, this response was improved at 100, 300 and 1000 ng when compared to OVX (p<0,05). The SOD-1 expression was increased in all treated/trained groups compared to the OVX group (p<0,05), and catalase expression increased in the OSW group only. In the trained group, eNOS increased vs. OE2, and iNOS decreased vs. SHAM (p<0,05). SW may represent an alternative to ERT by improving coronary vasodilation, most likely by increasing antioxidant enzyme and eNOS expression and augmenting NO bioavailability. PMID:23755145

Claudio, Erick R G; Endlich, Patrick W; Santos, Roger L; Moysés, Margareth R; Bissoli, Nazaré S; Gouvêa, Sônia A; Silva, Josiane F; Lemos, Virginia S; Abreu, Glaucia R

2013-06-03

286

[Effects of NaCl stress on the growth, antioxidant enzyme activities and reactive oxygen metabolism of grafted eggplant].  

PubMed

By the method of hydroponics and with the salt-tolerant eggplant cultivar 'Torvum Vigor' (Solanum torvum) from Japan as rootstock and the cultivar 'Suqiqie' (Solanum melongena L. ) as scion, this paper studied the differences between grafted and own-root seedlings in their photosynthetic characteristics, antioxidant enzyme activities, and reactive oxygen metabolism under 80 mmol x L(-1) NaCl stress. The results showed that under NaCl stress, the dry mass, chlorophyll content and photosynthetic rate of grafted seedlings were 67.8%, 8. 8% and 31.1% higher than those of own-root seedlings, respectively, and the antioxidant enzyme activities were significantly higher while the O2* producing rate and the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondiadehyde (MDA) contents were significantly lower in grafted seedlings leaves than in own-root seedlings. For both grafted and own-root seedlings, NaCl stress reduced the chlorophyll content and photosynthetic rate, but increased the O2* producing rate and the H2O2 and MDA contents significantly. However, the growth of grafted seedlings was less affected by NaCl stress. The stronger salt tolerance of grafted eggplant seedlings was related to their higher antioxidant enzyme activities and less oxidative damage. PMID:17552189

Liu, Zheng-Lu; Zhu, Yue-Lin; Hu, Chun-Mei; Wei, Guo-Ping; Yang, Li-Fei; Zhang, Gu-Wen

2007-03-01

287

Coal-burning endemic fluorosis is associated with reduced activity in antioxidative enzymes and Cu/Zn-SOD gene expression.  

PubMed

To study the effect of fluorine on the oxidative stress in coal-burning fluorosis, we investigated the environmental characteristics of coal-burning endemic fluorosis combined with fluorine content surveillance in air, water, food, briquette, and clay binder samples from Bijie region, Guizhou Province, southwest of China. The activities of antioxidant enzymes including copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and level of lipid peroxidation such as malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured in serum samples obtained from subjects residing in the Bijie region. Expression of the Cu/Zn-SOD gene was assessed by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR). Our results showed that people suffering from endemic fluorosis (the high and low exposure groups) had much higher MDA level. Their antioxidant enzyme activities and Cu/Zn-SOD gene expression levels were lower when compared to healthy people (the control group). Fluorosis can decrease the activities of antioxidant enzymes, which was associated with exposure level of fluorine. Down-regulation of Cu/Zn-SOD expression may play an important role in the aggravation of oxidative stress in endemic fluorosis. PMID:23567976

Wang, Qi; Cui, Kang-Ping; Xu, Yuan-Yuan; Gao, Yan-Ling; Zhao, Jing; Li, Da-Sheng; Li, Xiao-Lei; Huang, Hou-Jin

2013-04-01

288

Markers of oxidative stress and erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity in older men and women with differing physical activity.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between markers of oxidative stress and erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity and physical activity in older men and women. The present study included 481 participants (233 men and 248 women) in the age group 65-69years (127 men and 125 women) and in the age group 90years and over (106 men and 123 women). The classification of respondents by physical activity was based on answers to the question if, in the past 12months, they engaged in any pastimes which require physical activity. The systemic oxidative stress status was assessed by measuring plasma iso-PGF2? and protein carbonyl concentration as well as erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes activity, i.e., superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR). The concentration of plasma iso-PGF2? and protein carbonyls (CP) was lower in groups of younger men and women compared to the respective older groups. In all examined groups, physical activity resulted in decrease of these oxidative stress markers and simultaneously caused adaptive increase in the erythrocyte SOD activity. Additionally, in active younger men CAT, GPx, and GR activities were higher than in sedentary ones. In conclusion, oxidative stress increase is age-related, but physical activity can reduce oxidative stress markers and induce adaptive increase in the erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity, especially SOD, even in old and very old men and women. PMID:23911531

Rowi?ski, Rafa?; Kozakiewicz, Mariusz; K?dziora-Kornatowska, Kornelia; Hübner-Wo?niak, El?bieta; K?dziora, Józef

2013-07-30

289

Variations of antioxidant enzyme activity and malondialdehyde content in nemertean Cephalothrix hongkongiensis after exposure to heavy metals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The antioxidant enzyme activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content of Cephalothrix hongkongiensis were studied to assess variations in the biochemical/physiological parameters of nemerteans under heavy metal stress. Worms were exposed to copper, zinc and cadmium solutions at different concentrations, and the activity of three antioxidant enzymes, catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and MDA content were measured. The results show that the activity of each enzyme changed immediately after exposure to heavy metals. CAT was invariably inhibited throughout the experimental period, while the SOD activity was significantly elevated by exposure to Cu2+ for 48 h, but then decreased. SOD was inhibited by Zn2+during the first 12 h of exposure, but activated when exposed for longer periods. Under Cd2+ stress, SOD activity decreased within 72 h. GPX activity varied greatly, being significantly increased by both Cu2+ and Zn2+, but significantly inhibited by Cd2+ in the first 12-24 h after exposure. MDA content increased on Cu2+ exposure, but normally decreased on Zn2+ exposure. MDA content followed an increase-decrease-increase pattern under Cd2+ stress. In conclusion, the antioxidant system of this nemertean is sensitive to heavy metals, and its CAT activity may be a potential biomarker for monitoring heavy metal levels in the environment.

Wu, Haiyi; Zhao, Xidan; Sun, Shichun

2010-07-01

290

[Impacts of root-zone hypoxia stress on muskmelon growth, its root respiratory metabolism, and antioxidative enzyme activities].  

PubMed

By using aeroponics culture system, this paper studied the impacts of root-zone hypoxia (10% O2 and 5% O2) stress on the plant growth, root respiratory metabolism, and antioxidative enzyme activities of muskmelon at its fruit development stage. Root-zone hypoxia stress inhibited the plant growth of muskmelon, resulting in the decrease of plant height, root length, and fresh and dry biomass. Comparing with the control (21% O2), hypoxia stress reduced the root respiration rate and malate dehydrogenase (MDH) activity significantly, and the impact of 5% O2 stress was more serious than that of 10% O2 stress. Under hypoxic conditions, the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) activities and the malondialdehyde (MDA) content were significantly higher than the control. The increment of antioxidative enzyme activities under 10% O2 stress was significantly higher than that under 5% O2 stress, while the MDA content was higher under 5% O2 stress than under 10% O2 stress, suggesting that when the root-zone oxygen concentration was below 10%, the aerobic respiration of muskmelon at its fruit development stage was obviously inhibited while the anaerobic respiration was accelerated, and the root antioxidative enzymes induced defense reaction. With the increasing duration of hypoxic stress, the lipid peroxidation would be aggravated, resulting in the damages on muskmelon roots, inhibition of plant growth, and decrease of fruit yield and quality. PMID:20873618

Liu, Yi-Ling; Li, Tian-Lai; Sun, Zhou-Ping; Chen, Ya-Dong

2010-06-01

291

Effect of chronic restraint stress and alpha-lipoic acid on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities in rat peripheral organs  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesThe aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of chronic restraint stress and alpha-lipoic acid (LA) administration on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities in rat peripheral organs.

Mehmet ?ahin; Gamze Sa?d?ç; O?uz Elmas; Deniz Akp?nar; Narin Derin; Mutay Aslan; Aysel Agar; Yakup Al?c?güzel; Piraye Yarg?ço?lu

2006-01-01

292

Antioxidant enzymes in brackishwater oyster, Saccostrea cucullata as potential biomarkers of polyaromatic hydrocarbon pollution in Hooghly Estuary (India): seasonality and its consequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of antioxidant enzymes as biomarkers often becomes a complicated process at application level because they show considerable seasonal fluctuation due to both natural and biological factors. In this study, we studied the consequences of seasonal variation of antioxidant enzymes [catalase (EC 1.11.1.6), superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), glutathione peroxidase (GPX, EC 1.11.1.9) and microsomal NADPH-DT diaphorase (EC 1.6.99.2)] in

S. Niyogi; S. Biswas; S. Sarker; A. G. Datta

2001-01-01

293

Nrf2 and Nrf1 in association with Jun proteins regulate antioxidant response element-mediated expression and coordinated induction of genes encoding detoxifying enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antioxidant response element (ARE)-mediated expression and coordinated induction of genes encoding detoxifying enzymes is one mechanism of critical importance to cellular protection against oxidative stress. In the present report, we demonstrate that nuclear transcription factors Nrf2 and Nrf1 associate with Jun (c-Jun, Jun-B and Jun-D) proteins to upregulate ARE-mediated expression and coordinated induction of detoxifying enzymes in response to antioxidants

Radjendirane Venugopal; Anil K Jaiswal

1998-01-01

294

Rhizobial strain involvement in symbiosis efficiency of chickpea–rhizobia under drought stress: plant growth, nitrogen fixation and antioxidant enzyme activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chickpea plants were inoculated with two strains of Mesorhizobium ciceri: local strain (C-15) and non-local strain (CP-36) in order to evaluate plant growth parameters, activities of nitrogenase\\u000a and antioxidant enzymes under drought stress as well as control condition within 15 days of imposition of drought stress.\\u000a Biomass production, nodulation, nitrogen fixation and antioxidant enzyme activities under drought condition were compared.\\u000a Under

Maryam Nasr Esfahani; Akbar Mostajeran

2011-01-01

295

Effects of zinc on interleukins and antioxidant enzyme values in psoriasis-induced mice.  

PubMed

The effects of zinc chloride (ZnCl2), disodium zinc ethylenediamine tetraacetate (Zn-EDTA), and zinc gluconate (Zn-GLU) on the antioxidant enzyme activities and levels of interleukins (ILs) in psoriasis-induced mice were studied. One hundred twenty female mice were randomly divided into six groups with 20 mice in each group: the control, positive control (PC), methotrexate (MTX), ZnCl2, Zn-EDTA, and Zn-GLU groups. All animals except the control group were given diethylstilbestrol for three consecutive days. After successfully inducing psoriasis, the control and PC groups were given normal saline (i.g.) daily while the remaining groups were given MTX, ZnCl2, Zn-EDTA, and Zn-GLU, respectively. The results revealed that the zinc supplementation could significantly (p??0.05). The zinc treatments also caused a significant (p?

Yin, L L; Zhang, Y; Guo, D M; An, K; Yin, M S; Cui, X

2013-09-10

296

Determination of oxidative stress and activities of antioxidant enzymes in guinea pigs treated with haloperidol.  

PubMed

Guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) were treated with haloperidol (HP), and free radical (FR) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays were used to determine oxidative stress levels. Furthermore, the superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity levels were detected and glucose levels and the reduced and oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio were measured in HP-treated and untreated guinea pigs. The present study demonstrated that the administration of HP causes significant oxidative stress in guinea pigs (P=0.022). In animals treated with HP, the activity of GST was significantly increased compared with a placebo (P= 0.007). The elevation of SOD and GR activity levels and increase in the levels of glutathione (GSH) in HP-treated animals were not statistically significant. In the HP-untreated animals, a significant positive correlation was observed between oxidative stress detected by the FR method and GST (r=0.88, P=0.008) and SOD (r=0.86, P= 0.01) activity levels, respectively. A significant negative correlation between the levels of plasma glucose and oxidative stress detected by the FRAP method was observed (r=-0.78, P=0.04). Notably, no significant correlations were observed in the treated animals. In the HP-treated group, two subgroups of animals were identified according to their responses to oxidative stress. The group with higher levels of plasma HP had higher enzyme activity and reactive oxygen species production compared with the group with lower plasma levels of HP. The greatest difference in activity (U/?l) between the two groups of animals was for GR. PMID:23403848

Gumulec, Jaromir; Raudenska, Martina; Hlavna, Marian; Stracina, Tibor; Sztalmachova, Marketa; Tanhauserova, Veronika; Pacal, Lukas; Ruttkay-Nedecky, Branislav; Sochor, Jiri; Zitka, Ondrej; Babula, Petr; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene; Novakova, Marie; Masarik, Michal

2012-11-20

297

The effect of intracellular antioxidant delivery (catalase) on hydrogen peroxide and proinflammatory cytokine synthesis: a new therapeutic horizon.  

PubMed

Reactive oxygen species synthesized by endothelial cells may be responsible for cell damage and altered physiologic function. After endotoxin stimulation, free radicals including H(2)O(2) are produced. We have developed a method of intracellular drug delivery using albumin microcapsules. Catalase would be an excellent compound to alter H(2)O(2) production. However, the large molecular size of catalase limits cellular penetration. Endothelial cells have been previously shown to readily phagocytoze albumin microcapsules. Methods: Catalase was added to an albumin solution to form a 10% solution of catalase. Microspheres from 2 to 7 microm in size were formed using a Bucchi spray dryer. Human endothelial cells were incubated with varying concentrations of microencapsulated catalase. The cells were then exposed to Escherichia coli endotoxin to determine if increased intracellular penetration of catalase would inhibit H(2)O(2), nitrate, and cytokine synthesis. Results: There was a 7.2-fold increase in endothelial intracellular catalase after 48 h incubation. H(2)O(2) was inhibited by 72%, nitrate 96%, TNF 90%, IL1 21%, IL6 42%. Conclusions: These results demonstrate that inhibition of H(2)O(2) as a result of increased intracellular delivery of catalase inhibits proinflammatory cytokine synthesis after endotoxin exposure. PMID:19845487

Siwale, Rodney C; Yeboah, George K; Addo, Richard; Oettinger, Carl W; D'Souza, Martin J

2009-11-01

298

Role of acylamino acid-releasing enzyme/oxidized protein hydrolase in sustaining homeostasis of the cytoplasmic antioxidative system.  

PubMed

Acylamino acid-releasing enzyme/oxidized protein hydrolase (AARE/OPH) has been biochemically demonstrated to be a bifunctional protease that has exopeptidase activity against N?-acylated peptides and endopeptidase activity against oxidized and glycated proteins; however, its physiological role remains unknown. In this study, to determine its physiological significance, we produced AARE/OPH-overexpressing and -suppressed plants and assessed the biological impacts of AARE/OPH. The subcellular localization of Arabidopsis AARE/OPH was found to be cytoplasmic and nuclear by transient expression analysis of tdTomato-fused Arabidopsis AARE/OPH. Overexpression of AARE/OPH exhibited no apparent effect on the level of oxidized proteins because wild types probably have inherently high AARE/OPH activity. Through RNAi gene suppressing, we successfully produced AARE/OPH-suppressed Arabidopsis plants (aare) that exhibited almost no AARE activity. In the aare plant, electrolyte leakage by methyl viologen treatment was enhanced compared to that of non-transformant plants, suggesting that the plasma membranes of aare easily suffered oxidative damage, probably as a result of deterioration of the cytoplasmic antioxidative system. Correspondingly, proteomic analysis revealed that the aare plant accumulated a number of oxidized proteins including cytoplasmic antioxidant enzymes. On the basis of these results, we concluded that AARE/OPH plays a homeostatic role in sustaining the cytoplasmic antioxidative system. PMID:22398639

Nakai, Atsushi; Yamauchi, Yasuo; Sumi, Sawako; Tanaka, Kiyoshi

2012-03-08

299

Ubiad1 is an antioxidant enzyme that regulates eNOS activity by CoQ10 synthesis.  

PubMed

Protection against oxidative damage caused by excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) by an antioxidant network is essential for the health of tissues, especially in the cardiovascular system. Here, we identified a gene with important antioxidant features by analyzing a null allele of zebrafish ubiad1, called barolo (bar). bar mutants show specific cardiovascular failure due to oxidative stress and ROS-mediated cellular damage. Human UBIAD1 is a nonmitochondrial prenyltransferase that synthesizes CoQ10 in the Golgi membrane compartment. Loss of UBIAD1 reduces the cytosolic pool of the antioxidant CoQ10 and leads to ROS-mediated lipid peroxidation in vascular cells. Surprisingly, inhibition of eNOS prevents Ubiad1-dependent cardiovascular oxidative damage, suggesting a crucial role for this enzyme and nonmitochondrial CoQ10 in NO signaling. These findings identify UBIAD1 as a nonmitochondrial CoQ10-forming enzyme with specific cardiovascular protective function via the modulation of eNOS activity. PMID:23374346

Mugoni, Vera; Postel, Ruben; Catanzaro, Valeria; De Luca, Elisa; Turco, Emilia; Digilio, Giuseppe; Silengo, Lorenzo; Murphy, Michael P; Medana, Claudio; Stainier, Didier Y R; Bakkers, Jeroen; Santoro, Massimo M

2013-01-31

300

Impact of fungicides on active oxygen species and antioxidant enzymes in spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) exposed to ozone.  

PubMed

Two modern fungicides, a strobilurin, azoxystrobin (AZO), and a triazole, epoxiconazole (EPO), applied as foliar spray on spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Scarlett) 3 days prior to fumigation with injurious doses of ozone (150-250 ppb; 5 days; 7 h/day) induced a 50-60% protection against ozone injury on leaves. Fungicide treatments of barley plants at growth stage (GS) 32 significantly increased the total leaf soluble protein content. Additionally, activities of the antioxidative enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate-peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) were increased by both fungicides at maximal rates of 16, 75, 51 and 144%, respectively. Guiacol-peroxidase (POX) activity was elevated by 50-110% only in AZO treated plants, while this effect was lacking after treatments with EPO. This coincided with elevated levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) only in EPO and not in AZO treated plants. The enhancement of the plant antioxidative system by the two fungicides significantly and considerably reduced the level of superoxide (O2*-) in leaves. Fumigation of barley plants for 4 days with non-injurious ozone doses (120-150 ppb, 7 h/day) markedly and immediately stimulated O2*- accumulation in leaves, while H2O2 was increased only after the third day of fumigation. Therefore, O2*- itself or as precursor of even more toxic oxyradicals appears to be more indicative for ozone-induced leaf damage than H2O2. Ozone also induced significant increases in the activity of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, POX and CAT) after 2 days of fumigation in fungicide untreated plants, while after 4 days of fumigation these enzymes declined to a level lower than in unfumigated plants, due to the oxidative degradation of leaf proteins. This is the first report demonstrating the marked enhancement of plant antioxidative enzymes and the enhanced scavenging of potentially harmful O2*- by fungicides as a mechanism of protecting plants against noxious oxidative stress from the environment. The antioxidant effect of modern fungicides widely used in intense cereal production in many countries represents an important factor when evaluating potential air pollution effects in agriculture. PMID:11808554

Wu, Yue-xuan; von, Tiedemann Andreas

2002-01-01

301

[Effects of green tea extract and its components on antioxidant status and activities of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes of rats].  

PubMed

Dietary administration of green tea extract (GTE) or epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), quercetin (Qu) or caffeine (Cf) in doses equal to their concentration in GTE led to an increase of serum and liver antioxidant capacity and strengthening stability of microsomal and lysosomal membranes in rats. The antioxidant efficiency of EGCG and Qu was considerably higher than that of GTE. There were significant differences in the effects of EGCG, Qu and GTE on the activities and expression of mRNA for CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP3A1. But feeding both GTE and Cf to rats results in similar elevated activities of CYP1A1, CYP1A2, UDP-glucuronosyl transferase and glutathion transferase. Our results suggest that Cf is the main contributor to GTE effects on activities of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes. PMID:21692342

Kravchenko, L V; Trusov, N V; Aksenov, I V; Avren'eva, L I; Guseva, G V; Lashneva, N V; Tutel'ian, V A

2011-01-01

302

Metabolic flux analysis for a ppc mutant Escherichia coli based on 13C-labelling experiments together with enzyme activity assays and intracellular metabolite measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physiology and central metabolism of a ppc mutant Escherichia coli were investigated based on the metabolic flux distribution obtained by 13C-labelling experiments using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and 2-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D NMR) strategies together with enzyme activity assays and intracellular metabolite concentration measurements. Compared to the wild type, its ppc mutant excreted little acetate and produced less

Lifeng Peng; Marcos J. Arauzo-Bravo; Kazuyuki Shimizu

2004-01-01

303

Oxidative stress as a risk factor for osteoporosis in elderly Mexicans as characterized by antioxidant enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress (OxS) has recently been linked with osteoporosis; however, we do not know the influence of OxS as an independent risk factor for this disease. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study in 94 subjects ?60 years of age, 50 healthy and 44 with osteoporosis. We measured total antioxidant status, plasma lipid peroxides, antioxidant activity of superoxide dismutase and

Martha A Sánchez-Rodríguez; Mirna Ruiz-Ramos; Elsa Correa-Muñoz; Víctor Manuel Mendoza-Núñez

2007-01-01

304

Bioaccumulation of glyphosate and its formulation Roundup Ultra in Lumbriculus variegatus and its effects on biotransformation and antioxidant enzymes.  

PubMed

The bioaccumulation potential of glyphosate and the formulation Roundup Ultra, as well as possible effects on biotransformation and antioxidant enzymes in Lumbriculus variegatus were compared by four days exposure to concentrations between 0.05 and 5 mg L(-1) pure glyphosate and its formulation. Bioaccumulation was determined using (14)C labeled glyphosate. The bioaccumulation factor (BCF) varied between 1.4 and 5.9 for the different concentrations, and was higher than estimated from logP(ow). Glyphosate and its surfactant POEA caused elevation of biotransformation enzyme soluble glutathione S-transferase at non-toxic concentrations. Membrane bound glutathione S-transferase activity was significantly elevated in Roundup Ultra exposed worms, compared to treatment with equal glyphosate concentrations, but did not significantly differ from the control. Antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase was significantly increased by glyphosate but in particular by Roundup Ultra exposure indicating oxidative stress. The results show that the formulation Roundup Ultra is of more ecotoxicological relevance than the glyphosate itself. PMID:18790555

Contardo-Jara, Valeska; Klingelmann, Eva; Wiegand, Claudia

2008-09-14

305

Piper nigrum: micropropagation, antioxidative enzyme activities, and chromatographic fingerprint analysis for quality control.  

PubMed

A reliable in vitro regeneration system for the economical and medicinally important Piper nigrum L. has been established. Callus and shoot regeneration was encouraged from leaf portions on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium augmented with varied concentrations of plant growth regulators. A higher callus production (90 %) was observed in explants incubated on MS medium incorporated with 1.0 mg L(-1) 6-benzyladenine (BA) along with 0.5 mg L(-1) gibberellic acid after 4 weeks of culture. Moreover, a callogenic response of 85 % was also recorded for 1.0 mg L(-1) BA in combination with 0.25 mg L(-1) ?-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and 0.25 mg L(-1) 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid or 0.5 mg L(-1) indole butyric acid (IBA) along with 0.25 mg L(-1) NAA and indole acetic acid. Subsequent sub-culturing of callus after 4 weeks of culture onto MS medium supplemented with 1.5 mg L(-1) thiodiazoran or 1.5 mg L(-1) IBA induced 100 % shoot response. Rooted plantlets were achieved on medium containing varied concentrations of auxins. The antioxidative enzyme activities [superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX)] revealed that significantly higher SOD was observed in regenerated plantlets than in other tissues. However, POD, CAT, and APX were higher in callus than in other tissues. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint analysis protocol was established for quality control in different in vitro-regenerated tissues of P. nigrum L. During analysis, most of the common peaks represent the active principle "piperine." The chemical contents, especially piperine, showed variation from callus culture to whole plantlet regeneration. Based on the deviation in chromatographic peaks, the in vitro-regenerated plantlets exhibit a nearly similar piperine profile to acclimated plantlets. The in vitro regeneration system and HPLC fingerprint analysis established here brought a novel approach to the quality control of in vitro plantlets, producing metabolites of interest with substantial applications for the conservation of germplasm. PMID:23354497

Ahmad, Nisar; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Rahman, Inayat ur; Fazal, Hina

2013-01-26

306

Fermented wheat aleurone induces enzymes involved in detoxification of carcinogens and in antioxidative defence in human colon cells.  

PubMed

Dietary fibre is fermented by the human gut flora resulting mainly in the formation of SCFA, for example, acetate, propionate and butyrate. SCFA, in particular butyrate, may be important for secondary cancer prevention by inducing apoptosis and inhibiting cell growth of cancer cells, thereby inhibiting the promotion and/or progression of cancer. Furthermore, SCFA could also act on primary cancer prevention by activation of detoxifying and antioxidative enzymes. We investigated the effects of fermented wheat aleurone on the expression of genes involved in stress response and toxicity, activity of drug-metabolising enzymes and anti-genotoxic potential. Aleurone was digested and fermented in vitro to obtain samples that reflect the content of the colon. HT29 cells and colon epithelial stripes were incubated with the resulting fermentation supernatant fractions (fs) and effects on mRNA expression of CAT, GSTP1 and SULT2B1 and enzyme activity of glutathione S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT) were measured. Fermented aleurone was also used to study the protection against H2O2-induced DNA damage in HT29 cells. The fs of aleurone significantly induced the mRNA expression of CAT, GSTP1 and SULT2B1 (HT29) and GSTP1 (epithelial stripes), respectively. The enzyme activities of GST (HT29) and CAT (HT29, epithelial stripes) were also unambiguously increased (1.4- to 3.7-fold) by the fs of aleurone. DNA damage induced by H2O2 was significantly reduced by the fs of aleurone after 48 h, whereupon no difference was observed compared with the faeces control. In conclusion, fermented aleurone is able to act on primary prevention by inducing mRNA expression and the activity of enzymes involved in detoxification of carcinogens and antioxidative defence. PMID:20579402

Stein, Katrin; Borowicki, Anke; Scharlau, Daniel; Glei, Michael

2010-06-28

307

Alteration of antioxidant enzymes and impairment of DNA in the SiO2 nanoparticles exposed zebra fish (Danio rerio).  

PubMed

The incorporation of nanoparticles in industrial and biomedical applications has increased significantly in recent years, yet their hazardous and toxic effects have not been studied extensively. While standard toxicological test methods are generally capable of detecting the toxic effects, the choice of relevant methods for nanomaterials is still discussed. Among the various oxide nanomaterials, silica nanoparticles are widely used in biological applications that include nano-medicine. But studies on adverse effects of silica nanoparticle exposure to fish remain unclear. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the oxidative toxic effects of silicon dioxide nanoparticles using fish model. The size of the SiO2 nanoparticles was between 68 and 100 nm which was confirmed by X-ray diffractometer, dynamic light scattering, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. The zebra fish were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations (5 and 2.5 mg/L) of characterized SiO2 nanoparticles for a period of 7 days. After 7 days, SiO2 nanoparticle-treated fishes were sacrificed, and tissues such as liver, muscle and gill were dissected out for the analysis of antioxidant enzymes and DNA fragmentation. The DNA profiles were analysed in the tissues of zebra fish that treated with SiO2 nanoparticles. Tissues of fish from clean water were used as control, and DNA profiles were analysed. It is found that DNA from control tissues was intact, whereas the tissues treated with SiO2 were all fragmented. SiO2 nanoparticle-mediated antioxidant enzymes activities, such as catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione (GSH)-S-transferase, glutathione reductase and GSH, in the tissues of zebra fish were measured. The results revealed that alteration of antioxidant enzymes due to SiO2 nanoparticle can be considered as a biomarker to SiO2-mediated oxidative stress in biological samples. PMID:23196406

Ramesh, R; Kavitha, P; Kanipandian, N; Arun, S; Thirumurugan, R; Subramanian, P

2012-12-01

308

Antioxidant supplementations in vitro improve rat sperm parameters and enhance antioxidant enzyme activities against dimethoate-induced sperm damages.  

PubMed

Organophosphorus compounds are currently among the most frequently used pesticides worldwide, and therefore, the potential for human exposure to man is considerable. Their toxicity results in negative effects on many organs and systems such as the male reproductive system. So, vitamins that can offer spermatozoa protection are of great importance. This study was designed to investigate (i) the possibility of dimethoate, an organophosphate insecticide, to induce oxidative stress response in rat spermatozoa in vitro and its effect on antioxidant defence system and (ii) the role of vitamin C and vitamin E in alleviating the cytotoxic effects of dimethoate Epididymal spermatozoa were incubated for 3 h at 37 °C with different concentrations of dimethoate (50, 100 and 200 ?m) without vitamins or pre-incubated with 20 mm of vitamin C or 2 mm of vitamin E. Sperm parameters, malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels were performed. Dimethoate caused a significant induction of oxidative damage in spermatozoa at different concentrations as evidenced by increased MDA levels. However, a significant decrease in sperm mobility, viability and activities SOD, CAT and GPx was observed. Vitamins pre-treated spermatozoa showed a significant protection against the cytotoxic effects induced by dimethoate on studied parameters. PMID:21806655

Ben Abdallah, F; Fetoui, H; Zribi, N; Fakfakh, F; Ammar-Keskes, L

2011-08-02

309

Effect of vitamin E (Tri E ® ) on antioxidant enzymes and DNA damage in rats following eight weeks exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Exercise is beneficial to health, but during exercise the body generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) which are known to\\u000a result in oxidative stress. The present study analysed the effects of vitamin E (Tri E®) on antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (Cat) activity and DNA damage\\u000a in rats undergoing eight weeks exercise.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Twenty four Sprague-Dawley rats (weighing

Noor Aini Abd Hamid; Mohd A Hasrul; Rusdiah J Ruzanna; Ibrahim A Ibrahim; Prasamit S Baruah; Musalmah Mazlan; Yasmin Anum Mohd Yusof; Wan Zurinah Wan Ngah

2011-01-01

310

Antioxidant enzyme activities of iron-saturated bovine lactoferrin (Fe-bLf) in human gut epithelial cells under oxidative stress.  

PubMed

Chemoprevention by dietary constituents in the form of functional food has emerged as a novel approach to control inflammatory diseases and cancers. Recently we reported for the first time that iron content is a critical determinant in the anti-tumour activity of bovine milk lactoferrin (bLf). We therefore wanted to evaluate the chemo-preventative efficacy of Apo-bLF and 100% iron-saturated bLF (Fe-bLF) on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced colon carcinogenesis, and their influence on antioxidant enzyme activities within colon carcinogenesis. This was undertaken through observing how oxidative stress induced by H2O2 alters antioxidant enzyme activity within HT29 colon cancer cells, and then observing changes in this activity by treatments with the different antioxidants ascorbic acid (AA), Apo-bLF and Fe-bLF. All antioxidant enzymes (catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-s-transferase (GsT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) appeared to be increased within HT29 cells, even prior to H2O2 exposure, and all enzymes showed significant decreased activity when cells were treated with the antioxidants AA, Apo-bLF or Fe-bLF, with or without H2O2 exposure. The results indicate that all three antioxidants have the ability to scavenge ROS, lower antioxidant enzyme activities within already excited states, and possibly allow colon cancer cells to be overcome by oxidative stress that would normally be prevented, perhaps leading to damage and potential apoptosis of the cancer cells. In conclusion, the anti-oxidative effects of Apo-bLF and Fe-bLf studied for the first time, show dynamic changes that may allow for necessary protection from imbalanced oxidative conditions, and potential at reducing the ability of cancer cells to protect themselves from oxidative stress states. PMID:21486205

Burrow, Hannah; Kanwar, Rupinder K; Kanwar, Jagat R

2011-05-01

311

Plasma homocysteine is associated with increased oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activity in welders.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the association of vitamin B6 status and plasma homocysteine with oxidative stress and antioxidant capacities in welders. Workers were divided into either the welding exposure group (n = 57) or the nonexposure controls (n = 42) based on whether they were employed as welders. There were no significant differences in vitamin B6 status and plasma homocysteine concentration between the welding exposure group and the nonexposure controls. The welding exposure group had significantly higher levels of oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and lower erythrocyte glutathione concentration and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities when compared to nonexposure controls. Plasma pyridoxal 5'-phosphate concentration did not correlate with oxidative stress indicators or antioxidant capacities in either group. However, plasma homocysteine significantly correlated with total antioxidant capacity (TAC) (partial r s = -0.34, P < 0.05) and erythrocyte SOD activities (partial r s = 0.29, P < 0.05) after adjusting for potential confounders in the welding exposure group. In the welding exposure group, adequate vitamin B6 status was not associated with oxidative stress or antioxidant capacities. However, elevated plasma homocysteine seemed to be a major contributing factor to antioxidant capacities (TAC and erythrocyte SOD activities) in welders. PMID:24106453

Liu, Hung-Hsin; Shih, Tung-Sheng; Huang, Hsin-Ru; Huang, Shih-Chien; Lee, Lien-Hsiung; Huang, Yi-Chia

2013-09-09

312

Plasma Homocysteine Is Associated with Increased Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Enzyme Activity in Welders  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to examine the association of vitamin B6 status and plasma homocysteine with oxidative stress and antioxidant capacities in welders. Workers were divided into either the welding exposure group (n = 57) or the nonexposure controls (n = 42) based on whether they were employed as welders. There were no significant differences in vitamin B6 status and plasma homocysteine concentration between the welding exposure group and the nonexposure controls. The welding exposure group had significantly higher levels of oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and lower erythrocyte glutathione concentration and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities when compared to nonexposure controls. Plasma pyridoxal 5?-phosphate concentration did not correlate with oxidative stress indicators or antioxidant capacities in either group. However, plasma homocysteine significantly correlated with total antioxidant capacity (TAC) (partial rs = ?0.34, P < 0.05) and erythrocyte SOD activities (partial rs = 0.29, P < 0.05) after adjusting for potential confounders in the welding exposure group. In the welding exposure group, adequate vitamin B6 status was not associated with oxidative stress or antioxidant capacities. However, elevated plasma homocysteine seemed to be a major contributing factor to antioxidant capacities (TAC and erythrocyte SOD activities) in welders.

Liu, Hung-Hsin; Shih, Tung-Sheng; Huang, Hsin-Ru; Huang, Shih-Chien; Lee, Lien-Hsiung; Huang, Yi-Chia

2013-01-01

313

The relationship between the activates of antioxidant enzymes in red blood cells and body mass index in Iranian type 2 diabetes and healthy subjects  

PubMed Central

Background Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by increased production of free radicals and oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione peroxide (GSH-PX) in type 2 diabetic patients compared with healthy subjects. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 100 type 2 diabetic patients and 100 healthy controls. Total antioxidant capacity and fasting serum levels of SOD, GR, and GSH-Px were measured. All data were analyzed using SPSS software compatible with Microsoft Windows. Results The activity levels of SOD were lower in diabetic patients (111.93?±?354.99 U/g Hb) than in healthy controls (1158.53?±?381.21 U/g Hb), but this was not significant. Activity levels of GSH-PX and GR in diabetics (62.33?±?36.29 and 7.17?±?5.51 U/g Hb, respectively) were higher than in controls (24.62?±?11.2 and 3.16?±?2.95 U/g Hb, respectively). The statistical difference in enzyme activity of both GSH-Px and GR was significant (P <0.05). Conclusion The increasing production of free radicals and changes in activity levels of antioxidant enzymes in order to scavenge free radicals and/or the effect of diabetes on the activity levels of antioxidant enzymes has an important effect on diabetic complications and insulin resistance. Evaluation of the levels of antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant factors in patients at different stages of the disease, and pharmaceutical and nutritional interventions, can be helpful in reducing oxidative stress in type 2 diabetic patients. There were positive relationship between BMI and the activity of antioxidant enzymes including SOD, GR and GPX in both groups.

2012-01-01

314

Biotransformation and antioxidant enzymes of Lumbriculus variegates as biomarkers of contaminated sediment exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study the black worm Lumbriculus variegatus was tested for suitability as biomonitor for moderately contaminated sediments. The response capacity of the biotransformation system phase II enzyme glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and the oxidative defense enzyme catalase (CAT) to contaminated sediment and atrazine was investigated to establish them as sensitive biomarkers. To get an integrated view on the enzyme activity kinetics,

Valeska Contardo-Jara; Claudia Wiegand

2008-01-01

315

Postnatal exposure to chromium through mother's milk accelerates follicular atresia in F1 offspring through increased oxidative stress and depletion of antioxidant enzymes.  

PubMed

Hexavalent chromium, CrVI, is a heavy metal endocrine disruptor, known as a mutagen, teratogen, and a group A carcinogen. Environmental contamination with CrVI, including drinking water, has been increasing in more than 30 cities in the United States. CrVI is rapidly converted to CrIII intracellularly, and CrIII can cause DNA strand breaks and cancer or apoptosis through different mechanisms. Our previous study demonstrated that lactational exposure to chromium results in a delay or arrest in follicle development and a decrease in steroid hormone levels in F1 female rats, both of which are mitigated (partial inhibition) by vitamin C. The current study tested the hypothesis that lactational exposure to CrIII accelerates follicle atresia in F1 offspring by increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decreasing cellular antioxidants. Results showed that lactational exposure to CrIII dose-dependently increased follicular atresia and decreased steroidogenesis in postnatal day 25, 45, and 65 rats. Vitamin C mitigated or inhibited the effects of CrIII at all doses. CrIII increased hydrogen peroxide and lipid hydroperoxide in plasma and ovary; decreased the antioxidant enzymes (AOXs) GPx1, GR, SOD, and catalase; and increased glutathione S-transferase in plasma and ovary. To understand the effects of CrVI on ROS and AOXs in granulosa (GC) and theca (TC) cell compartments in the ovary, ROS levels and mRNA expression of cytosolic and mitochondrial AOXs, such as SOD1, SOD2, catalase, GLRX1, GSTM1, GSTM2, GSTA4, GR, TXN1, TXN2, TXNRD2, and PRDX3, were studied in GCs and TCs and in a spontaneously immortalized granulosa cell line (SIGC). Overall, CrVI downregulated each of the AOXs; and vitamin C mitigated the effects of CrVI on these enzymes in GCs and SIGCs, but failed to mitigate CrVI effects on GSTM1, GSTM2, TXN1, and TXN2 in TCs. Thus, these data for the first time reveal that lactational exposure to CrIII accelerated follicular atresia and decreased steroidogenesis in F1 female offspring by altering the ratio of ROS and AOXs in the ovary. Vitamin C is able to protect the ovary from CrIII-induced oxidative stress and follicle atresia through protective effects on GCs rather than TCs. PMID:23470461

Stanley, Jone A; Sivakumar, Kirthiram K; Nithy, Thamizh K; Arosh, Joe A; Hoyer, Patricia B; Burghardt, Robert C; Banu, Sakhila K

2013-03-01

316

Influence of Alternanthera brasiliana (L.) Kuntze on Altered Antioxidant Enzyme Profile during Cutaneous Wound Healing in Immunocompromised Rats  

PubMed Central

Alternanthera brasiliana (L.) Kuntze (Amaranthaceae) is a herbaceous plant used against inflammation, cough, and diarrhea in Brazilian popular medicine. In our preliminary study, promising wound healing activity of methanol extract of leaves of A. brasiliana (MEAB) was observed in normal excision and incision wound models. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the wound healing activity along with the antioxidant enzyme profile during cutaneous excision immunocompromised wound after topical application of 5% w/w ointment of MEAB in rats. Immunocompromised state was induced by pretreatment with hydrocortisone (HC) at 40?mg/kg body weight (i.m.) in male rats. Following one-week pretreatment with HC, wounds were created. The vehicle, 5% (w/w) ointment of MEAB, or standard drug (Himax) was applied topically twice daily. Healing potential was evaluated by the rate of wound contraction, estimation of enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants like catalase, SOD, GSH, protein, vitamin C, and hydroxyproline content, which was supported by histopathological study on the 8th day following wounding. There was significant increase in the enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant parameters in the extract-reated group as compared to control group. Histopathological study revealed collagen deposition, fibroblast proliferation, angiogenesis, and development of basement membrane in A. brasiliana group. The results of the present investigation revealed significant wound healing activity of MEAB.

Barua, Chandana Choudhury; Ara Begum, Shameem; Talukdar, Archana; Datta Roy, Jayanti; Buragohain, Bhaben; Chandra Pathak, Debesh; Kumar Sarma, Dilip; Saikia Bora, Rumi; Gupta, Asheesh

2012-01-01

317

Fermentation temperature affects the antioxidant activity of the enzyme-ripened sufu, an oriental traditional fermented product of soybean.  

PubMed

In this study, sufu, a Chinese traditional fermented product of soybean, was prepared by ripening salted tofu cubes in the mash of Aspergillus oryzae-fermented rice-soybean koji possessing various hydrolytic enzymes at 25°C, 37°C and 45°C. Antioxidant activity including 2,2-diphenyl-2-picylhydoxyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity, Fe(2+)-chelating ability and reducing power exerted by the methanol extract of sufu was determined and compared with that of the non-fermented tofu extract. It was found that antioxidant activity of the sufu extracts was, generally, higher than the non-fermented tofu extract. Ripening temperature and the duration of ripening period affected the antioxidant activity of the sufu extracts. Taking into account of extraction yields, the sufu product ripened at 45°C for 16 days showed the most profound enhancement in the DPPH radical-scavenging effect and Fe(2+)-iron-chelating ability, which is 3.4 and 11.5 folds, respectively, that noted with the non-fermented tofu. PMID:21497549

Huang, Yung-Hsin; Lai, Ying-Jang; Chou, Cheng-Chun

2011-04-15

318

Evaluation of antioxidant enzymes activities and lipid peroxidation in schizophrenic patients treated with typical and atypical antipsychotics.  

PubMed

Studies performed in schizophrenia patients have generally suggested the presence of a compromised antioxidant system, but this is not always consistent with specific observed parameters, which on the whole, show evidences of dysregulation. There are also controversies regarding the oxidative stress status in patients treated with typical vs. atypical antipsychotics. In this context, the aim of the present work was to evaluate the specific activity of some peripheral antioxidant defences like superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and the level of a lipid peroxidation maker (malondialdehyde-MDA), in schizophrenic patients treated with typical (haloperidol) or atypical (olanzapine, quetiapine and risperidone) antipsychotics, compared with age-matched healthy subjects. We found a significant decrease in GPX specific activity and also a significant increase of MDA levels in schizophrenic patients, compared to age-matched control group, regardless of their type of treatment. Additionally, an increase in SOD specific activity was observed, mainly in the patients treated with haloperidol and quetiapine. Further research is necessary in order to elucidate the effects of different antipsychotic agents on antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation or possible interventions at the oxidative stress level in schizophrenic patients. PMID:20561936

Padurariu, Manuela; Ciobica, Alin; Dobrin, Irina; Stefanescu, Cristinel

2010-06-04

319

Trace elements and activity of antioxidative enzymes in Cistus ladanifer L. growing on an abandoned mine area.  

PubMed

The Mediterranean shrub Cistus ladanifer grows naturally in São Domingos (Portugal), an abandoned copper mine. High levels of trace elements in plants can generate oxidative stress increasing the activity of antioxidant enzymes. The aim of this work was to evaluate and compare As, Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations and the activity of the soluble and cell wall ionically bounded forms of the enzymes catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in leaves of C. ladanifer, collected in spring and summer, growing on São Domingos mine and on a non-contaminated area (Pomarão). São Domingos soils showed high total concentrations of As (2.6 g kg(-1)) and Pb (7.3 g kg(-1)) however the available fraction represented less than 1.5% of the total. C. ladanifer population from mine showed tolerance to Pb and Zn, which attain in leaves concentrations considered toxic for plants. The enzymatic activity of catalase, peroxidise and superoxide dismutase varied with plant populations and seasons, although with no particular trend, being specific to each trace element and enzyme cell localization. Catalase activity was evenly distributed between the soluble and ionically bounded forms, whereas the ionically bounded form of peroxidase predominated relatively to total activity, and the opposite was observed for superoxide dismutase. Spring and summer leaves from the two areas presented enzymatic activities in both fractions except to peroxidase soluble activities in leaves collected in summer. C. ladanifer enzymatic activity seems to be related with the co-existence of different stress factors (trace elements concentration, temperature, UV radiation and drought). The survival and growth of this species on contaminated mining soils is due to the presence of effective antioxidant enzyme-based defence systems. PMID:19499336

Santos, Erika S; Abreu, Maria Manuela; Nabais, Cristina; Saraiva, Jorge A

2009-06-05

320

Effects of Cr(VI) long-term and low-dose action on mammalian antioxidant enzymes (an in vitro study)  

SciTech Connect

In order to investigate the low-dose long-term Cr(VI) action on antioxidant enzymes in cultured mammalian cells we estimated the activity of glutathione dependent antioxidant enzymes, catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) under various chromium concentrations in human epithelial-like L-41 cells. The long-term action of 20 mu-M causes the toxicity that results in losing of the cell viability by activating the apoptotic process, as identified by morphological analysis, the activation of caspase-3, and DNA fragmentation. The toxic chromium concentration totally destroys glutathione antioxidant system, and diminishes the activity of catalase and cytosolic Cu, ZnSOD. The non-toxic concentration (2 mu-M) causes the activation of the antioxidant defense systems, and they neutralize the oxidative impact.

Asatiani, N.; Sapojnikova, N.; Abuladze, M.; Kartvelishvili, T.L.; Kulikova, N.; Kiziria, E.; Namchevadze, E.; Holman, H.-Y.N.

2003-08-01

321

Analysis of knockout mutants suggests that Arabidopsis NADP-MALIC ENZYME2 does not play an essential role in responses to oxidative stress of intracellular or extracellular origin.  

PubMed

NADPH is a pivotal molecule in oxidative stress, during which it is potentially produced by several cytosolic NADP-linked dehydrogenases. This study investigated the response and functional importance of the major leaf cytosolic NADP-malic enzyme in Arabidopsis (NADP-ME2) during oxidative stress. Data from both microarray and targeted quantitative PCR analyses showed that NADP-ME2 transcripts accumulated in response to ozone or in mutants undergoing intracellular oxidative stress. To test the functional importance of this response, loss-of-function nadp-me2 mutants were obtained and the effects of oxidative stress of intracellular and extracellular origin were tested. Despite much decreased leaf NADP-ME activity, nadp-me2 showed a wild-type phenotype when exposed to ozone. Introduction of the nadp-me2 mutations into the catalase-deficient cat2 background did not alter growth inhibition or lesions triggered by intracellular oxidative stress. Similarly, loss of NADP-ME2 function had little effect on cat2-triggered changes in glutathione or NADPH. While single nadp-me2 mutations produced slight effects on basal resistance to one type of bacteria, they did not affect resistance induced by the cat2 mutation. Taken together, the results suggest that, although NADP-ME2 induction is part of the response to oxidative stress, the enzyme is not an essential determinant of the outcome of such stress. PMID:23851193

Li, Shengchun; Mhamdi, Amna; Clement, Cyndie; Jolivet, Yves; Noctor, Graham

2013-07-12

322

Isolation and characterization of antioxidation enzymes from cells of zedoary (Curcuma zedoaria Roscoe) cultured in a 5-l bioreactor.  

PubMed

In this study, a cell suspension culture system for zedoary (Curcuma zedoaria Roscoe) was developed, using 50 g/l of fresh weight inoculum in a batch culture. The highest cell biomass obtained from a 5-l bioreactor equipped with three impellers after 14 days of culture was utilized to extract secondary metabolites (essential oil and curcumin) and determine the activities of antioxidant enzymes (peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase). For essential oil and curcumin, zedoary extracts were recovered via a variety of methods: steam distillation, volatile solvents, and Soxhlet. After 14 days of culture using volatile solvents, the optimal yield of essential oil (1.78%) was obtained when using petroleum ether at 40 degrees C in 6 h of extraction, and the best curcumin yield (9.69%) was obtained at 60 degrees C in 6 h via extraction with 90% ethanol. The activities of antioxidant enzymes from zedoary cells were also assessed. The specific activities of peroxidase, superoxide-dismutase, and catalase reached maximum values of 0.63 U/mg of protein, 16.60 U/mg of protein, and 19.59 U/mg of protein after 14 days of culture, respectively. PMID:18046518

Loc, Nguyen-Hoang; Diem, Doan-Thi-Hong; Binh, Doan-Huu-Nhat; Huong, Dao-Thi; Kim, Tae-Geum; Yang, Moon-Sik

2007-11-29

323

Response of antioxidative enzymes to arsenic-induced phytotoxicity in leaves of a medicinal daisy, Wedelia chinensis Merrill  

PubMed Central

Background: Wedelia chinensis Merrill (Asteraceae) is a medicinally important herb, grown abundantly in soils contaminated with heavy metals, including toxic metalloid arsenic (As). The leaves have immense significance in treatment of various ailments. Objective: The present study was undertaken to ascertain whether the edible/usable parts experience oxidative stress in the form of membrane damage during As exposure or not. Materials and Methods: Responses of seven antioxidant enzymes were studied in leaves under 20 mg/L of As treatment in pot experiment. Results: When compared to control, activities of superoxide dismutase, monodehydroascorbatereductase, dehydroascorbatereductase, glutathione reductase, and gluathione peroxidase had increased, while the catalase level reduced and ascorbate peroxidase activity changed non-significantly in As-treated seedlings. This suggested overall positive response of antioxidant enzymes to As-induced oxidative stress. Although hydrogen peroxide content increased, level of lipid peroxidation and magnitude of membrane damage was quite normal, leading to normal growth (dry weight of shoot) of plant under Astreatment. Conclusion: W.chinensis is tolerant of As-toxicity, and thus, can be grown in As-contaminated zones.

Talukdar, Tulika; Talukdar, Dibyendu

2013-01-01

324

Seasonal variation in the mixed-function oxygenase system and antioxidant enzymes of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis  

SciTech Connect

Seasonal variations in the mixed-function oxygenase (MFO) system components (cytochrome P450, 418 peak, and NADPH-cytochrome c[P450] reductase) and antioxidant enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase [SOD], glutathione peroxidase [GPX], and DT-diaphorase) of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis have been evaluated. Its relation with contaminant body burden (PAHs, PCBs, DDTs, and lindane) as well as environmental parameters (water temperature, salinity, oxygen concentrations, and suspended matter) was determined. As a general trend, low MFO and antioxidant enzyme activities were detected in February--March, a peak in late April, and a gradual decrease with a minimum in June. This pattern was similar to tissue concentrations of PAHs, PCBs, DDTs, and lindate normalized to lipid weight. Cytochrome P450 content, however, exhibited a steady decrease from February to June. The observed seasonal variations are presumably related to the metabolic status of the animal, itself dependent on such factors as gonadal ripening, food availability, and the hydrological cycle, which regulates productivity in the area.

Sole, M.; Porte, C.; Albaiges, J. (CSIC, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry)

1995-01-01

325

Bioactive compounds extracted from Indian wild legume seeds: antioxidant and type II diabetes-related enzyme inhibition properties.  

PubMed

Seven different wild legume seeds (Acacia leucophloea, Bauhinia variegata, Canavalia gladiata, Entada scandens, Mucuna pruriens, Sesbania bispinosa and Tamarindus indica) from various parts of India were analyzed for total free phenolics, l-Dopa (l-3,4 dihydroxyphenylalanine), phytic acid and their antioxidant capacity (ferric-reducing antioxidant power [FRAP] and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl [DPPH] assay) and type II diabetes-related enzyme inhibition activitiy (?-amylase). S. bispinosa had the highest content in both total free phenolics and l-Dopa, and relatively low phytic acid when compared with other seeds. Phytic acid content, being highest in E. scandens, M. pruriens and T. indica, was highly predictive for FRAP (r = 0.47, p < 0.05) and DPPH (r = 0.66, p < 0.001) assays. The phenolic extract from T. indica and l-Dopa extract from E. scandens showed significantly higher FRAP values among others. All seed extracts demonstrated a remarkable reducing power (7-145 mM FeSO4 per mg extract), DPPH radical scavenging activity (16-95%) and ?-amylase enzyme inhibition activity (28-40%). PMID:21970446

Gautam, Basanta; Vadivel, Vellingiri; Stuetz, Wolfgang; Biesalski, Hans K

2011-10-04

326

Effects of osmotic stress on antioxidant enzymes activities in leaf discs of PSAG12-IPT modified gerbera  

PubMed Central

Leaf senescence is often caused by water deficit and the chimeric gene PSAG12-IPT is an auto-regulated gene delaying leaf senescence. Using in vitro leaf discs culture system, the changes of contents of chlorophylls, carotenoids, soluble protein and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and antioxidant enzymes activities were investigated during leaf senescence of PSAGl2-IPT modified gerbera induced by osmotic stress compared with the control plant (wild type). Leaf discs were incubated in 20%, 40% (w/v) polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6 000 nutrient solution for 20 h under continuous light [130 µmol/(m2·s)]. The results showed that the contents of chlorophylls, carotenoids and soluble protein were decreased by osmotic stress with the decrease being more pronounced at 40% PEG, but that, at the same PEG concentration the decrease in the transgenic plants was significantly lower than that in the control plant. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalases (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) were stimulated by PEG treatment. However, the increases were higher in PSAG12-IPT transgenic plants than in the control plants, particularly at 40% PEG treatment. Lipid peroxidation (TBARS content) was increased by PEG treatment with the increase being much lower in transgenic plant than in the control plant. It could be concluded that the increases in the activities of antioxidant enzymes including SOD, CAT, APX, GPX and DHAR were responsible for the delay of leaf senescence induced by osmotic stress.

Lai, Qi-xian; Bao, Zhi-yi; Zhu, Zhu-jun; Qian, Qiong-qiu; Mao, Bi-zeng

2007-01-01

327

Proline alters antioxidant enzyme defenses and lipoperoxidation in the erythrocytes and plasma of rats: in vitro and in vivo studies.  

PubMed

In the present study, we investigated, in vivo (acute and chronic) and in vitro, the effects of proline on the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in erythrocytes and also investigated the effect on thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) in the plasma of rats. For the experiments, the number of animals per group ranged from eight to ten. For acute administration, 29-day-old rats received one subcutaneous injection of proline (18.2 ?mol/g body weight) or an equivalent volume of 0.9% saline solution (control) and were killed 1 h later. For chronic treatment, buffered proline was injected subcutaneously into rats twice a day at 10 h intervals from the 6th to the 28th day of age. Rats were killed 12 h after the last injection. For in vitro studies, proline (30.0 ?M to 1.0 mM) was added to the incubation medium. Results showed that acute administration of proline reduced CAT and increased SOD activities, while chronic treatment increased the activities of CAT and SOD in erythrocytes and TBARS in the plasma of rats. Furthermore, in vitro studies showed that proline increased TBARS in the plasma (0.5 and 1.0 mM) and CAT activity (1.0 mM) in the erythrocytes of rats. The influence of the antioxidants (?-tocopherol plus ascorbic acid) on the effects elicited by proline was also studied. Treatment with antioxidants for 1 week or from the 6th to the 28th day of age prevented the alterations caused by acute and chronic, respectively, proline administration on the oxidative parameters evaluated. Data indicate that proline alters antioxidant defenses and induces lipid peroxidation in the blood of rats. PMID:22134892

Roecker, Roberto; Junges, Gustavo M; de Lima, Daniela Delwing; da Cruz, José Geraldo Pereira; Wyse, Angela T S; Dal Magro, Débora Delwing

2011-12-02

328

Diabetic retinopathy is associated with oxidative stress and mitigation of gene expression of antioxidant enzymes.  

PubMed

Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disease associated with serious complications, including diabetic retinopathy (DR). The authors' main aim was to investigate biochemical parameters and the oxidative stress associated with the type 2 DR patients and to study gene expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) among patients with DR [DR(+)] compared with a control nondiabetic group. In all, 67 patients with DR included in this study were diabetic for more than 10 years. Among them, 22 patients were DR(+), and 45 patients did not have DR [DR(-)]. The subjects' age range was 14 years to 80 years old with diabetes duration range between 2 and 45 years. Body mass index (BMI) was 31.43 ± 5.94 and 32.33 ± 6.54, systolic blood pressure was 117.15 ± 18.16 mmHg and 126.15 ± 20.26 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure was 81.11 ± 10.55 mmHg and 82.77 ± 10.85 mmHg, HbA1c was 7.2 ± 1.1 and 8.19 ± 1.95, serum total cholesterol was 6.61 ± 1.11 and 4.11 ± 0.31, serum triglycerides were 3.52 ± 0.89 and 3.42 ± 0.79, serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) was 2.12 ± 0.10 and 2.42 ± 0.15, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) was 2.66 ± 0.30 and 2.55 ± 0.21, SOD was 3.12 ± 0.87 and 1.53 ± 0.14, GPx was 11.14 ± 2.21 and 8.2 ± 1.84, CAT was 26.43 ± 3.34 and 9.60 ± 2.14, for DR(-) and DR(+) patients, respectively. SOD, GPx and CAT polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products of the DR(+) patients revealed the diminished expression of CAT gene followed by GPx and SOD genes. All were significant compared with the normal controls, P < 0.05. Linear regression analysis revealed a strong significant positive correlation between the retinopathy grade and the diastolic blood pressure, diabetes duration, hemoglobin A1c (HA1c)%, and fasting blood glucose (P < 0.001). A marginally significant positive correlation between the retinopathy grade and LDL-cholesterol was observed (P < 0.05), and a significant negative correlation between the retinopathy grade and total cholesterol was observed (P < 0.05). Poor glycemic control and alteration in mRNA gene expression of antioxidant enzymes are strongly associated with development of DR and the regular screening is mandatory for early detection and treatment. PMID:24092995

El-Bab, Mohamed Fath; Zaki, Nashaat S; Mojaddidi, Moaz A; Al-Barry, Maan; El-Beshbishy, Hesham A

2013-09-19

329

Diabetic retinopathy is associated with oxidative stress and mitigation of gene expression of antioxidant enzymes  

PubMed Central

Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disease associated with serious complications, including diabetic retinopathy (DR). The authors’ main aim was to investigate biochemical parameters and the oxidative stress associated with the type 2 DR patients and to study gene expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) among patients with DR [DR(+)] compared with a control nondiabetic group. In all, 67 patients with DR included in this study were diabetic for more than 10 years. Among them, 22 patients were DR(+), and 45 patients did not have DR [DR(?)]. The subjects’ age range was 14 years to 80 years old with diabetes duration range between 2 and 45 years. Body mass index (BMI) was 31.43 ± 5.94 and 32.33 ± 6.54, systolic blood pressure was 117.15 ± 18.16 mmHg and 126.15 ± 20.26 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure was 81.11 ± 10.55 mmHg and 82.77 ± 10.85 mmHg, HbA1c was 7.2 ± 1.1 and 8.19 ± 1.95, serum total cholesterol was 6.61 ± 1.11 and 4.11 ± 0.31, serum triglycerides were 3.52 ± 0.89 and 3.42 ± 0.79, serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) was 2.12 ± 0.10 and 2.42 ± 0.15, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) was 2.66 ± 0.30 and 2.55 ± 0.21, SOD was 3.12 ± 0.87 and 1.53 ± 0.14, GPx was 11.14 ± 2.21 and 8.2 ± 1.84, CAT was 26.43 ± 3.34 and 9.60 ± 2.14, for DR(?) and DR(+) patients, respectively. SOD, GPx and CAT polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products of the DR(+) patients revealed the diminished expression of CAT gene followed by GPx and SOD genes. All were significant compared with the normal controls, P < 0.05. Linear regression analysis revealed a strong significant positive correlation between the retinopathy grade and the diastolic blood pressure, diabetes duration, hemoglobin A1c (HA1c)%, and fasting blood glucose (P < 0.001). A marginally significant positive correlation between the retinopathy grade and LDL-cholesterol was observed (P < 0.05), and a significant negative correlation between the retinopathy grade and total cholesterol was observed (P < 0.05). Poor glycemic control and alteration in mRNA gene expression of antioxidant enzymes are strongly associated with development of DR and the regular screening is mandatory for early detection and treatment.

El-Bab, Mohamed Fath; Zaki, Nashaat S; Mojaddidi, Moaz A; AL-Barry, Maan; El-Beshbishy, Hesham A

2013-01-01

330

Cardioprotective effect of gallic acid on cardiac troponin-T, cardiac marker enzymes, lipid peroxidation products and antioxidants in experimentally induced myocardial infarction in Wistar rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently there has been an increased interest globally to identify antioxidant compounds that are pharmacologically potent and have low or no side effects for use in preventive medicine. This study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of gallic acid on cardiac marker enzymes, troponin-T, LDH-isoenzyme pattern, lipid peroxidation products and antioxidant status in isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial infarction in male

D. Hansi Priscilla; P. Stanely Mainzen Prince

2009-01-01

331

Contribution of phenolic compounds to the antioxidant potential and type II diabetes related enzyme inhibition properties of Pongamia pinnata L. Pierre seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methanolic extract of Pongamia pinnata L. Pierre (locally called as karanja) seed materials, an underutilized food legume collected from India was analyzed for antioxidant and type II diabetes related enzyme inhibition properties. The methanolic extract of raw seeds contained total free phenolic content of 14.85±0.32g catechin equivalent\\/100g extract DM. Encouraging levels of ferric reducing\\/antioxidant power (FRAP, 1179mmol Fe[II]\\/mg extract),

Vellingiri Vadivel; Hans K. Biesalski

2011-01-01

332

Nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation are increased and associated with decreased antioxidant enzyme activities in patients with age-related macular degeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Nitric oxide (NO), hydroxyl radical (OH.), superoxide anion (O2-) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) are free-radicals released in oxidative stress. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) and catalase (CAT) are antioxidant enzymes, mediating defense against oxidative stress. Excess NO and\\/or defective antioxidants cause lipid peroxidation, cellular dysfunction and death. Age-related maculopathy (ARM) or degeneration (ARMD) is the leading cause of

Cem Evereklioglu; Hamdi Er; Selim Doganay; Mustafa Cekmen; Yusuf Turkoz; Baris Otlu; Elif Ozerol

2003-01-01

333

Oxidative Stress, DNA Damage, and Antioxidant Enzyme Activity Induced by Hexavalent Chromium in Sprague-Dawley Rats  

PubMed Central

Chromium is a widespread industrial compound. The soluble hexavalent chromium Cr (VI) is an environmental contaminant widely recognized as carcinogen, mutagen, and teratogen toward humans and animals. The fate of chromium in the environment is dependent on its oxidation state. The reduction of Cr (VI) to Cr (III) results in the formation of reactive intermediates leading to oxidative tissue damage and cellular injury. In the present investigation, Potassium dichromate was given intraperitoneally to Sprague-Dawley rats for 5 days with the doses of 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10 mg/kg body weight per day. Oxidative stress including the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the extent of lipid peroxidation and the activity of antioxidant enzymes in both liver and kidney was determined. DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes was determined by single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay). The results indicated that administration of Cr (VI) had caused a significant increase of ROS level in both liver and kidney after 5 days of exposure, accompanied with a dose-dependent increase in superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. The malondialdehyde content in liver and kidney was elevated as compared with the control animals. Dose- and time-dependent effects were observed on DNA damage after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h posttreatment. The results obtained from the present study showed that Cr (VI) could induce dose- and time-dependent effects on DNA damage, both liver and kidney show defense against chromium-induced oxidative stress by enhancing their antioxidant enzyme activity. However, liver was found to exhibit more antioxidant defense than the kidney.

Patlolla, Anita K.; Barnes, Constance; Yedjou, Clement; Velma, V. R.; Tchounwou, Paul B.

2009-01-01

334

Regulation of p53 by metal ions and by antioxidants: dithiocarbamate down-regulates p53 DNA-binding activity by increasing the intracellular level of copper.  

PubMed Central

Mutations in the p53 tumor suppressor gene frequently fall within the specific DNA-binding domain and prevent the molecule from transactivating normal targets. DNA-binding activity is regulated in vitro by metal ions and by redox conditions, but whether these factors also regulate p53 in vivo is unclear. To address this question, we have analyzed the effect of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) on p53 DNA-binding activity in cell lines expressing wild-type p53. PDTC is commonly regarded as an antioxidant, but it can also bind and transport external copper ions into cells and thus exert either pro- or antioxidant effects in different situations. We report that PDTC, but not N-acetyl-L-cysteine, down-regulated the specific DNA-binding activity of p53. Loss of DNA binding correlated with disruption of the immunologically "wild-type" p53 conformation. Using different chelators to interfere with copper transport by PDTC, we found that bathocuproinedisulfonic acid (BCS), a non-cell-permeable chelator of Cu1+, prevented both copper import and p53 down-regulation. In contrast, 1,10-orthophenanthroline, a cell-permeable chelator of Cu2+, promoted the redox activity of copper and up-regulated p53 DNA-binding activity through a DNA damage-dependent pathway. We have previously reported that p53 protein binds copper in vitro in the form of Cu1+ (P. Hainaut, N. Rolley, M. Davies, and J. Milner, Oncogene 10:27-32, 1995). The data reported here indicate that intracellular levels and redox activity of copper are critical for p53 protein conformation and DNA-binding activity and suggest that copper ions may participate in the physiological control of p53 function.

Verhaegh, G W; Richard, M J; Hainaut, P

1997-01-01

335

Variations of antioxidant enzymes in Daphnia species and populations as related to ambient UV exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess their role in photoprotection in the crustacean zooplankton Daphnia spp., activities of the antioxidants catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione transferase (GST) and content of carotenoids (CAR) were studied in 4 Daphniaspecies from a total of 50 populations. Included in the survey were alpine and lowland populations of both pigmented and non-pigmented D. longispina, rock-pool and laboratory clones

Jan Borgeraas; Dag O. Hessen

2002-01-01

336

The effects of diazinon on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in erythrocytes in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diazinon is one of the most widely used organophosphate insecticides (OPI) in agriculture and public health programs. The aim of this study was to investigate how an OPI, diazinon, affects lipid peroxidation (LPO) and the antioxidant defense system in vitro. For this purpose, two experiments were carried out. In experiment 1, the effects of various concentrations of diazinon on LPO

Irfan Altuntas; Ibrahim Kilinc; Hikmet Orhan; Reha Demirel; Halis Koylu; Namik Delibas

2004-01-01

337

Antioxidant Enzyme Responses to NaCl Stress in Cassia angustifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seeds of Cassia angustifolia Vahl. were subjected to 0, 20, 50, 100 mM NaCl for 7 d in order to study the effect of salt stress on growth parameters, endogenous Na+ and Cl- concentrations, antioxidant system, lipid peroxidation, hydrogen peroxide, and proline contents. Salinity affected all of the considered parameters and caused a great reduction in plant biomass. The root

S. Agarwal; V. Pandey

2004-01-01

338

Dietary blueberries sttenuate atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice by upregulating antioxidant enzymes expression  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Blueberries (BB) contain high levels of polyphenols and exhibit high antioxidant capacity. In this study, protective effects of BB against atherosclerosis and possible underlying mechanisms in reducing oxidative stress were examined in ApoE deficient (apoE-/-) mice. ApoE-/- mice were fed AIN-93G die...

339

Antioxidant enzyme activities in lens, liver and kidney of calorie restricted Emory mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dietary calorie restriction extends both mean and maximum life span and retards age-related diseases, including eye lens cataract in Emory mice. The beneficial effects of calorie restriction have been hypothesized to reflect enhanced tissue antioxidant capacity. As a test of this hypothesis, we reared male and female Emory mice on control (C) or 40% calorie-restricted (R) diets. We then determined

Xin Gong; Fu Shang; Martin Obin; Helen Palmer; Mona M Scrofano; Jessica Jahngen-Hodge; Donald E Smith; Allen Taylor

1997-01-01

340

Effect of latex material on antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation, DNA damage, and chromosomal aberration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell integrity is affected by oxidative stress when the production of active oxidants overwhelms antioxidant defense mechanisms. Latex, a natural polymer obtained from Hevea brasiliensis, is used in medical industry for manufacturing surgical gloves, urinary catheters, and dental dams. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of latex material on oxidative stress by in vivo and in vitro methods.

S. K. Tinu; V. S. Anjana Vaman; M. Arun; C. S. Geetha; P. V. Mohanan

2012-01-01

341

Antioxidant effects of Etlingera elatior flower extract against lead acetate - induced perturbations in free radical scavenging enzymes and lipid peroxidation in rats  

PubMed Central

Background Etlingera elatior or 'pink torch ginger' (Zingiberaceae) are widely cultivated in tropical countries and used as spices and food flavoring. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant effects of Etlingera elatior against lead - induced changes in serum free radical scavenging enzymes and lipid hydroperoxides in rats. Findings Rats were exposed to lead acetate in drinking water (500 ppm) for 14 days alone or plus the ethanol extract of E. elatior (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg). Blood lead levels, lipid hydroperoxides, protein carbonyl contents and oxidative marker enzymes were estimated. Lead acetate in drinking water elicited a significant increase in lipid hydroperoxides (LPO) and protein-carbonyl-contents (PCC). There was a significant decrease in total antioxidants, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase levels with lead acetate treatment. Supplementation of E. elatior was associated with reduced serum LPO and PCC and a significant increase in total antioxidants and antioxidant enzyme levels. Conclusions The results suggest that flower extract of Etlingera elatior has powerful antioxidant effect against lead - induced oxidative stress and the extract may be useful therapeutic agent against lead toxicity. However, detailed evaluations are required to identify the active antioxidant compounds from this plant extract.

2011-01-01

342

Upregulation of intracellular antioxidant enzymes in brain and heart during estivation in the African lungfish Protopterus dolloi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The African slender lungfish, Protopterus dolloi, is highly adapted to withstand periods of drought by secreting a mucous cocoon and estivating for periods of months to years.\\u000a Estivation is similar to the diapause and hibernation of other animal species in that it is characterized by negligible activity\\u000a and a profoundly depressed metabolic rate. As is typically observed in quiescent states,

Melissa M. Page; Kurtis D. Salway; Yuen Kwong Ip; Shit F. Chew; Sarah A. Warren; James S. Ballantyne; Jeffrey A. Stuart

2010-01-01

343

Bacopa monnieri and L-deprenyl differentially enhance the activities of antioxidant enzymes and the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase and nerve growth factor via ERK 1/2 and NF-?B pathways in the spleen of female wistar rats.  

PubMed

Aging is characterized by development of diseases and cancer due to loss of central and peripheral neuroendocrine-immune responses. Free radicals exert deleterious effects on neural-immune functions in the brain, heart, and lymphoid organs and thus, affecting the health. Bacopa monnieri (brahmi), an Ayurvedic herb, and L-deprenyl, a monoamine oxidase-B inhibitor, have been widely used in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether brahmi (10 and 40 mg/kg BW) and deprenyl (1 and 2.5 mg/kg BW) treatment of 3-month old female Wistar rats for 10 days can modulate the activities of antioxidant enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)] in the brain and spleen. In addition, the effects of these compounds on the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), nerve growth factor (NGF), the intracellular signaling markers, p-ERK1/2, p-CREB, and p-NF-kB, and nitric oxide (NO) production were measured in the spleen by Western blot analysis. Both brahmi and deprenyl enhanced CAT activity, and p-TH, NGF, and p-NF-kB expression in the spleen. However, deprenyl alone was found to enhance the p-ERK1/2 and p-CREB expression in the spleen. The activities of SOD, CAT, and GPx in the thymus, mesenteric lymph nodes, heart, and brain areas (frontal cortex, medial basal hypothalamus, striatum, and hippocampus) were differentially altered by brahmi and deprenyl. Brahmi alone enhanced NO production in the spleen. Taken together, these results suggest that both brahmi and deprenyl can protect the central and peripheral neuronal systems through their unique effects on the antioxidant enzyme activities and intracellular signaling pathways. PMID:23076629

Priyanka, Hannah P; Bala, Preetam; Ankisettipalle, Sindhu; ThyagaRajan, Srinivasan

2012-10-18

344

Effects of cadmium exposure on digestive enzymes, antioxidant enzymes, and lipid peroxidation in the freshwater crab Sinopotamon henanense.  

PubMed

In this study, the effects of cadmium (Cd) stress on the activities of disaccharidases (sucrase, lactase, and maltase), amylase, trypsin, pepsase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in the alimentary system of freshwater crabs Sinopotamon henanense were studied. Results showed that the enzyme activities in the stomach, intestine, and hepatopancreas changed with Cd concentration. In terms of digestive enzymes, Cd exposure had an inhibitory effect on the activities of the disaccharidases, amylase, and pepsase (only in the stomach). Significant induction of trypsin activity by Cd at a lower concentration was observed, but as Cd concentration increased, trypsin activity decreased. Maltase activity showed a slight recovery after inhibition by Cd. The activities of SOD and CAT increased initially and decreased subsequently. Cd significantly inhibited the activity of GPx. MDA content increased with increasing concentration of Cd. These results showed that acute Cd exposure led to harmful effects on the alimentary system of crabs, which are likely linked to Cd induced oxidative stress. PMID:23224505

Wu, Hao; Xuan, Ruijing; Li, Yingjun; Zhang, Xiaomin; Wang, Qian; Wang, Lan

2012-12-08

345

Fragrance chemicals lyral and lilial decrease viability of HaCat cells' by increasing free radical production and lowering intracellular ATP level: protection by antioxidants.  

PubMed

We investigate in this study the biochemical effects on cells in culture of two commonly used fragrance chemicals: lyral and lilial. Whereas both chemicals exerted a significant effect on primary keratinocyte(s), HaCat cells, no effect was obtained with any of HepG2, Hek293, Caco2, NIH3T3, and MCF7 cells. Lyral and lilial: (a) decreased the viability of HaCat cells with a 50% cell death at 100 and 60 nM respectively; (b) decreased significantly in a dose dependant manner the intracellular ATP level following 12-h of treatment; (c) inhibited complexes I and II of electron transport chain in liver sub-mitochondrial particles; and (d) increased reactive oxygen species generation that was reversed by N-acetyl cysteine and trolox and the natural antioxidant lipoic acid, without influencing the level of free and/or oxidized glutathione. Lipoic acid protected HaCat cells against the decrease in viability induced by either compound. Dehydrogenation of lyral and lilial produce ?,?-unsaturated aldehydes, that reacts with lipoic acid requiring proteins resulting in their inhibition. We propose lyral and lilial as toxic to mitochondria that have a direct effect on electron transport chain, increase ROS production, derange mitochondrial membrane potential, and decrease cellular ATP level, leading thus to cell death. PMID:22940465

Usta, Julnar; Hachem, Yassmine; El-Rifai, Omar; Bou-Moughlabey, Yolla; Echtay, Karim; Griffiths, David; Nakkash-Chmaisse, Hania; Makki, Rajaa Fakhoury

2012-08-24

346

Free radical scavenging and antioxidant enzyme fortifying activities of extracts from Smilax china root  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extract from Smilax china root has been used as medicinal remedy and reported to retain antimicro- bial and antimutagenic acitivities. In this study, a possible presence of antioxidant activity of Smilax china root extract was investigated. Methanol ex- tract (Me) revealed the presence of high 1,1-diphe- nyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity (IC50 7.4 ?g\\/ml) and protective property of

Si Eun Lee; Eun Mi Ju; Jeong Hee Kim

2001-01-01

347

Erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes in multiple sclerosis and the effect of hyperbaric oxygen  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase, were not significantly different from normal whereas that of superoxide dismutase was decreased (P2O2 under carefully controlled conditions (peroxide stress test) demonstrated that MS erythrocytes are significantly (P2O2-induced lipid peroxidation in vitro. This finding suggests that the level of an endogenous antioxidant, possibly vitamin E, may be elevated in MS red

M. Ian S. Hunter; Mio Sam Lao; Sally S. Burtles; Duncan L. W. Davidson

1984-01-01

348

Methyl jasmonate reduces chilling injury and enhances antioxidant enzyme activity in postharvest loquat fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Loquat fruit were pre-treated with 10?mol\\/l methyl jasmonate (MeJA) for 24h at 20°C, and then stored at 1°C for 35days to investigate the effect of MeJA treatment on chilling injury and changes in the antioxidant system. Loquat fruit developed chilling injury, manifested as increased fruit firmness, decreased extractable juice rate and internal browning during storage. These chilling injury symptoms were

Shifeng Cao; Yonghua Zheng; Kaituo Wang; Peng Jin; Huaijing Rui

2009-01-01

349

Only the glutathione dependent antioxidant enzymes are inhibited by haematotoxic hydroxylamines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydroxylamine and some of its derivatives are known to cause oxidative effects both in vitro and in vivo.Inthe current study we investigated the effects of hydroxyla-mines on the enzymatic antioxidant defense system in human erythrocytes. The activity of catalase and super-oxide dismutase was not significantly influenced by any of the hydroxylamines tested. However, the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and

Anita AMG Spooren; Chris TA Evelo

1998-01-01

350

Phytoestrogens enhance antioxidant enzymes after swimming exercise and modulate sex hormone plasma levels in female swimmers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our aim was to investigate the effects of diet supplementation with phytoestrogens on sex hormone levels, antioxidant adaptive\\u000a responses and oxidative damage induced by exercise. Ten female swimmers participated for 26 days in a diet intervention with\\u000a either a functional beverage rich in vitamins C and E or the same beverage but also supplemented with Lippia citriodora extract (PLX) containing 20 mg\\/100 ml

Antonia Mestre-Alfaro; Miguel D. Ferrer; Antoni Sureda; Pedro Tauler; Elisa Martínez; Maria M. Bibiloni; Vicente Micol; Josep A. Tur; Antoni Pons

351

Effects of avenanthramides on oxidant generation and antioxidant enzyme activity in exercised rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Avenanthramides (AVEN) are major phenolic acids in oat (Avena sativa L.) that have potent antioxidant functions. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 48, age 6-7 wk) were fed either an AIN-93 based control (C) diet or the same diet containing 0.1 g\\/kg AVEN-Bc [N-(3?,4?-dihydroxycinnamoyl)-5-hydroxyanthranilic acid] for 50 days. Each group was further divided into rested (R) and exercised (E, treadmill running

Li Li Ji; David Lay; Eunhee Chung; Ying Fu; David M. Peterson

2003-01-01

352

The effect of organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos-ethyl on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes (in vitro)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organophosphates are known primarily as neurotoxins. However, reactive oxygen species (ROS) caused by organophosphates may be involved in the toxicity of various pesticides. Therefore, in this study we aimed to examine how an organophosphate insecticide, chlorpyrifos-ethyl (CE) [0,0-diethyl 0 (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyl) phosphorothioate], affects lipid peroxidation and the antioxidant defense system in vitro. For this purpose, four experiments were carried out. In

F. Gultekin; M. Ozturk; M. Akdogan

2000-01-01

353

Assessment of enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant activities of lignans from Taxus baccata L.  

PubMed

Phytochemical investigations of Taxus baccata L. by successive chromatographic methods resulted in the isolation of the lignans lariciresinol (1), taxiresinol (2), 3'-demethylisolariciresinol-9'-hydroxyisopropylether (3), isolariciresinol (4), and 3-demethylisolariciresinol (5) as well as taxoids. Compounds 1-5 were evaluated for their acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), and lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibitory activities, which play a role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), by in vitro spectrophotometric methods, while they were also screened for their antioxidant capacity in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, ferrous ion-chelating effect, and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) at 125, 250, 500, and 1000 microg ml(-1). All compounds exhibited a moderate inhibition against both BChE and LOX, whereas they were inactive towards AChE. The compounds displayed a great scavenging activity against DPPH especially at 500 and 1000 microg ml(-1). Besides, they were found to exert noteworthy reducing antioxidant power on ferric ions. In particular, the FRAP of compounds 2 (3.552 +/- 0.02), 4 (3.021 +/- 0.71), and 5 (3.533 +/- 0.01) were as high as that of the reference chlorogenic acid (3.618 +/- 0.01) at 1000 microg ml(-1). None of the compounds exhibited chelating ability against ferrous ions. PMID:20469636

Kucukboyaci, Nurgun; Orhan, Ilkay; Sener, Bilge; Nawaz, S Ahmad; Choudhary, M Iqbal

354

Oxidative stress as a risk factor for osteoporosis in elderly Mexicans as characterized by antioxidant enzymes  

PubMed Central

Background Oxidative stress (OxS) has recently been linked with osteoporosis; however, we do not know the influence of OxS as an independent risk factor for this disease. Methods We conducted a case-control study in 94 subjects ?60 years of age, 50 healthy and 44 with osteoporosis. We measured total antioxidant status, plasma lipid peroxides, antioxidant activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and calculated the SOD/GPx ratio. Bone mineral density was obtained at the peripheral DXA in calcaneus using a portable Norland Apollo Densitometer®. Osteoporosis was considered when subjects had a BMD of 2.5 standard deviations or more below the mean value for young adults. Results GPx antioxidant activity was significantly lower in the group of subjects with osteoporosis in comparison with the group of healthy subjects (p < 0.01); in addition, the SOD/GPx ratio was significantly higher in the group of individuals with osteoporosis (p < 0.05). In logistic regression analysis, we found OxS to be an independent risk factor for osteoporosis (odds ratio [OR] = 2.79; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.08–7.23; p = 0.034). Conclusion Our findings suggest that OxS is an independent risk factor for osteoporosis linked to increase of SOD/GPx ratio.

Sanchez-Rodriguez, Martha A; Ruiz-Ramos, Mirna; Correa-Munoz, Elsa; Mendoza-Nunez, Victor Manuel

2007-01-01

355

Hesperidin a citrus bioflavonoid modulates hepatic biotransformation enzymes and enhances intrinsic antioxidants in experimental breast cancer rats challenged with 7, 12-dimethylbenz (a) anthracene.  

PubMed

DMBA is a major class of potent genotoxic chemical carcinogen present in the environment and it may increase breast cancer risk. Flavonoids have been shown to have interesting biological activities in many experimental investigations. Hesperidin is one of the citrus flavonoid shown to be active against various oxidative stress mediated diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate the beneficial impact of a natural citrus flavonoglycoside hesperidin against 7, 12-Dimethylbenz [a] anthracene challenged experimental breast carcinogenesis with reference to drug metabolizing enzymes and intrinsic antioxidant status. The female Sprague-Dawley rats were orally administered with single dose of 7, 12-DMBA to induce breast cancer and were treated with hesperidin [30mg/kg/body weight] for a consecutive 45 days. The results revealed that there was a significant reduction in the status of antioxidants levels and also significant alterations in the drug metabolizing enzymes were found in genotoxin DMBA exposed animals. Interestingly these, altered levels were significantly revered back to near normal in hesperidin administered animals via enhancing the intrinsic antioxidant levels and induction in Phase II enzymes and modulation in Phase I enzyme levels. Thus the antigenotoxic activity of hesperidin may be due to the modulatory effect in biotransformation enzymes and excellent antioxidant potentials which paving a way to consider hesperidin against the genotoxin involved oxidative stress mediated diseases. PMID:22545425

Nandakumar, Natarajan; Balasubramanian, Maruthaiveeran Periyasamy

2012-01-01

356

Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of phase II drug metabolizing/antioxidant enzymes gene response by anticancer agent sulforaphane in rat lymphocytes.  

PubMed

This study assesses the pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of Nrf2-mediated increased expression of phase II drug metabolizing enzymes (DME) and antioxidant enzymes which represents an important component of cancer chemoprevention in rat lymphocytes following intravenous (iv) administration of an anticancer phytochemical sulforaphane (SFN). SFN was administered intravenously to four groups of male Sprague-Dawley JVC rats each group comprising four animals. Blood samples were drawn at selected time points. Plasma were obtained from half of each of the blood samples and analyzed using a validated LC-MS/MS method. Lymphocytes were collected from the remaining blood samples using Ficoll-Paque Plus centrifuge medium. Lymphocyte RNAs were extracted and converted to cDNA, quantitative real-time PCR analyses were performed, and fold changes were calculated against those at time zero for the relative expression of Nrf2-target genes of phase II DME/antioxidant enzymes. PK-PD modeling was conducted based on Jusko's indirect response model (IDR) using GastroPlus and bootstrap method. SFN plasma concentration declined biexponentially and the pharmacokinetic parameters were generated. Rat lymphocyte mRNA expression levels showed no change for GSTM1, SOD, NF-?B, UGT1A1, or UGT1A6. Moderate increases (2-5-fold) over the time zero were seen for HO-1, Nrf2, and NQO1, and significant increases (>5-fold) for GSTT1, GPx1, and Maf. PK-PD analyses using GastroPlus and the bootstrap method provided reasonable fitting for the PK and PD profiles and parameter estimates. Our present study shows that SFN could induce Nrf2-mediated phase II DME/antioxidant mRNA expression for NQO1, GSTT1, Nrf2, GPx, Maf, and HO-1 in rat lymphocytes after iv administration, suggesting that Nrf2-mediated mRNA expression in lymphocytes may serve as surrogate biomarkers. The PK-PD IDR model simultaneously linking the plasma concentrations of SFN and the PD response of lymphocyte mRNA expression is valuable for quantitating Nrf2-mediated effects of SFN. This study may provide a conceptual framework for future clinical PK-PD studies of dietary cancer chemopreventive agents in human. PMID:22931102

Wang, Hu; Khor, Tin Oo; Yang, Qian; Huang, Ying; Wu, Tien-Yuan; Saw, Constance Lay-Lay; Lin, Wen; Androulakis, Ioannis P; Kong, Ah-Ng Tony

2012-09-11

357

Antitumor properties and modulation of antioxidant enzymes' activity by Aloe vera leaf active principles isolated via supercritical carbon dioxide extraction.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential anticancer properties and modulatory effect of selected Aloe vera (A. vera) active principles on antioxidant enzyme activities. Thus, three anthraquinones (Namely: aloesin, aloe-emodin and barbaloin) were extracted from A. vera leaves by supercritical fluid extraction and subsequently purified by high performance liquid chromatography. Additionally, the N-terminal octapeptide derived from verectin, a biologically active 14 kDa glycoprotein present in A. vera, was also tested. In vivo, active principles exhibited significant prolongation of the life span of tumor-transplanted animals in the following order: barbaloin> octapeptide> aloesin > aloe-emodin. A. vera active principles exhibited significant inhibition on Ehrlich ascite carcinoma cell (EACC) number, when compared to positive control group, in the following order: barbaloin> aloe-emodin > octapeptide > aloesin. Moreover, in trypan blue cell viability assay, active principles showed a significant concentration-dependent cytotoxicity against acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute lymphocytes leukemia (ALL) cancerous cells. Furthermore, in MTT cell viability test, aloe-emodin was found to be active against two human colon cancer cell lines (i.e. DLD-1 and HT2), with IC(50) values of 8.94 and 10.78 microM, respectively. Treatments of human AML leukemic cells with active principles (100 microg ml(-1)) resulted in varying intensities of internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, hallmark of cells undergoing apoptosis, in the following order: aloe-emodin> aloesin> barbaloin> octapeptide. Intererstingly, treatment of EACC tumors with active principles resulted in a significant elevation activity of key antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GST, tGPx, and LDH). Our data suggest that the tested A. vera compounds may exert their chemo-preventive effect through modulating antioxidant and detoxification enzyme activity levels, as they are one of the indicators of tumorigenesis. These findings are discussed in the light of the potential of A. vera plant extracts for developing efficient, specific and non-toxic anticancer drugs that are affordable for developing countries. PMID:19941474

El-Shemy, H A; Aboul-Soud, M A M; Nassr-Allah, A A; Aboul-Enein, K M; Kabash, A; Yagi, A

2010-01-01

358

The copper tolerance strategies and the role of antioxidative enzymes in three plant species grown on copper mine.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to identify the strategies and the status of antioxidant enzyme activities involved in three plant species tolerance against Cu-toxicity in copper mine. The following methods were used for evaluations in three wild type species; Datura stramonium, Malva sylvestris and Chenopodium ambrosioides. The level of chlorophyll and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and catalase (CAT) by spectrometry, malondialdehyde (MDA) and dityrosine by HPLC and the levels of Cu in tissues and soils by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). Analysis showed that total and available copper were at toxic levels for plants growing on contaminated soil (zone 1). However, there were not any visual and conspicuous symptoms of Cu toxicity in plant species. Among three species, excess copper was transferred only into the D. stramonium and C. ambrosioides tissues. The C. ambrosioides accumulated Cu in roots and then in leaves, in which the leaves chloroplasts stored Cu around two times of vacuoles. In D. stramonium most of Cu was accumulated in leaves in which the storage rate in vacuoles and chloroplasts were 42% and 8%, respectively. In zone 1, the chlorophyll levels increased significantly in leaves of C. ambrosioides with respect to the same plant growing on uncontaminated soil (zone 2). There was insignificant decrease in chlorophyll content of D. stramonium leaves, collected from zone 1 with respect to zone 2. The D. stramonium and C. ambrosioides in zone 1, both revealed significant increase in their tissues antioxidant enzyme activities in comparison with the same samples of zone 2. There was significant elevation in oxidative damage biomarkers; MDA and dityrosine, when the aerial parts of D. stramonium in zone 1 were compared with the same parts of zone 2. We concluded that there were different tolerance strategies in studied plant species that protected them against copper toxicity. In M. sylvestris, exclusion of Cu from the roots or its stabilization in the soil restricted Cu toxicity effects. On the other hand D. stramonium and C. ambrosioides, elevated their antioxidative enzyme activities in response to cu-toxicity. In addition, the species D. stramonium accumulated excess of Cu in leaves vacuoles. PMID:17316756

Boojar, Massod Mashhadi Akbar; Goodarzi, Faranak

2007-02-20

359

Detoxifying and anti-oxidant enzymes of Fasciola gigantica worms under triclabendazole sulphoxide (TCBZ-SX): an in vitro study.  

PubMed

Triclabendazole (TCBZ) is an efficient fasciolicide that affects both juvenile and adult worms. After oral administration it is rapidly metabolized to TCBZ sulphoxide and sulphone that were found responsible for its fasciolicidal activity. Parasite defense mechanisms include detoxifying and anti-oxidant enzymes that would suppress its oxidative killing. The present work aimed at evaluating these enzymes under TCBZ-SX. Thirty juvenile and 30 adult F. gigantica worms collected from the liver parenchyma and bile ducts formed the subject of the study. Levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and glutathione (GSH) were measured in juvenile and adult worms incubated, without and with 15 and 50 microg/ml TCBZ-SX for 18 hours at 37 degrees C. Results demonstrated a significant decrease in SOD activity and an increase in GST level in both juvenile and adult worms after incubation in the two concentrations. The remaining enzymes and GSH revealed variable levels. PMID:19530611

Shehab, Amel Y; Ebeid, Samia M; El-Samak, Mohamed Y; Hussein, Neveen M

2009-04-01

360

Changes of antioxidant enzyme activities and isoenzyme profiles during in vitro shoot formation in saffron (Crocus sativus L.).  

PubMed

Among the different concentrations of Thidiazuron (TDZ) and between the two media Gamborg (B5) and Murashige and Skoog (MS), the highest frequency of shoot formation could be seen in the MS medium with TDZ concentration of 4.54 microM. Among the different concentrations of Naphtalene acetic acid (NAA) and Benzyl adenine (BA) in the two aforementioned media, the maximum proliferation and rooting of saffron shoots were obtained in a B5 medium containing 2.22 microM NAA and 2.68 microM BA. Peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), esterase (EST) and polyphenoloxidase (PPO) measurements proved that all the enzymes had a similar pattern of changes, according to which their concentrations increased in the first stages of development and then decreased. The same pattern was observed for polyphenoloxidase in a B5 medium while in the MS medium a reverse pattern was observed. The enzyme concentration decreased and then increased during shoot formation. The results show the principal role of antioxidant enzymes in the complicated process of organogenesis. PMID:20194101

Sharifi, Golandam; Ebrahimzadeh, H

2010-03-01

361

Phosphoenolpyruvate-sugar phosphotransferase transport system of Streptococcus mutans: purification of HPr and enzyme I and determination of their intracellular concentrations by rocket immunoelectrophoresis.  

PubMed Central

Enzyme I and HPr, the general proteins of the phosphoenolpyruvate-sugar phosphotransferase system, play a pivotal role in the control of sugar utilization in gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. To determine whether growth conditions could modify the rate of biosynthesis of these proteins in Streptococcus mutans, we first purified to homogeneity enzyme I and HPr from S. mutans ATCC 27352. Using specific antibodies obtained against these proteins, we determined by rocket electrophoresis the intracellular levels of enzyme I and HPr in cells of S. mutans 27352 grown under various batch culture conditions and in a number of glucose-grown cells of other strains of S. mutans. HPr was purified by the procedure reported by Gauthier et al. (L. Gauthier, D. Mayrand, and C. Vadeboncoeur, J. Bacteriol. 160:755-763, 1984) and displayed a single band with a molecular weight of 6,650 when analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-urea gel electrophoresis. Enzyme I was purified by DEAE-cellulose chromatography, affinity chromatography on an anti-Streptococcus salivarius column, and preparative electrophoresis. The protein migrated as a single band in native and denaturating gel electrophoresis. The subunit molecular weight of enzyme I determined by electrophoresis under denaturating conditions was 68,000. In gel filtration chromatography at 4 degrees C, the enzyme migrated as a 135,000- to 160,000-molecular-weight species, suggesting that enzyme I is a dimer. In double immunodiffusion experiments, antibodies against HPr reacted with several oral streptococci, Streptococcus lactis, Streptococcus faecium, and Lactobacillus casei, but not with Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. Antibodies against enzyme I of S. mutans 27352 cross-reacted with enzyme I from all the other oral streptococci tested. No cross-reaction was observed with other gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The levels of enzyme I and HPr determined by rocket electrophoresis in S. mutans 27352 varied at the most by twofold, depending on the growth conditions. Glucose-grown cells of other S. mutans strains contained levels of enzyme I and HPr which were similar to those found in S. mutans 27352. Images

Thibault, L; Vadeboncoeur, C

1985-01-01

362

Application of Yeast Cell Wall-Degrading Enzymes for Recovery of Intracellular Products and Control of Yeast Infections.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A motile actinomycete, Oerskovia xanthineolytica, produces inducible extracellular enzymes which rapidly degrade the walls of various yeasts. Action on viable cells lyses them or forms spheroplasts depending on osmotic conditions. In the absence of osmoti...

J. D. MacMillan G. L. Cuffari T. W. Jeffries J. Wilber-Murphy

1974-01-01

363

Activities of antioxidant enzymes in mitochondria of growing and dormant sugar beet roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

In mitochondria isolated from growing (70–85 days) and dormant (stored for 8–12 weeks) sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) roots, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and enzymes of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle were determined. The activity\\u000a of SOD, the enzyme involved in superoxide detoxification, was much higher in mitochondria of the growing root, whereas activities\\u000a of ascorbate peroxidase (APO) and glutathione reductase

A. G. Shugaev; D. A. Lashtabega; N. A. Shugaeva; E. I. Vyskrebentseva

2011-01-01

364

The effect of progressive resistance training on oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activity in erythrocytes in untrained men.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of progressive resistance-training (PRT) on plasma oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activity in erythrocytes. Twenty male volunteers were randomly assigned to 2 groups: PRT and control. Blood samples were collected before and after 8 wk of PRT and analyzed for enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in erythrocytes, plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and malondialdehyde concentration (MDA, an index of lipid per oxida- tion in plasma). Resistance training commenced with 8 exercises on nonconsecutive days for 8 wk at 50% of estimated 1-repetition maximum (E1RM) and reached 80% E1RM by Week 8. The results showed that PRT significantly increased erythrocyte SOD activity (1,323 ± 212.52 vs. 1,449.9 ± 173.8 U/g Hb, p = .014). Plasma concentration of MDA also decreased (5.39 ± 1.7 vs. 3.67.4 ± 0.7 nmol/ml, p = .030), although TAC (1.42 ± 0.21 vs. 1.61 ± 0.19 mmol/L, p = .1530) and GPx (39.87 ± 11.5 vs. 48.18 ± 14.48 U/g Hb, p = .883) activity did not undergo any considerable changes. Based on these data, the authors conclude that an 8-wk program of PRT strengthens the defensive system of erythrocytes against free-radical damage and therefore can be applied as a useful approach to alleviate oxidative stress. PMID:23239675

Azizbeigi, Kamal; Azarbayjani, Mohammad Ali; Peeri, Maghsoud; Agha-alinejad, Hamid; Stannard, Stephen

2012-12-07

365

Influence of extremely low-frequency magnetic field on the activity of antioxidant enzymes during skin wound healing in rats.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of the antioxidant enzymes mitochondrial and cytosolic superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1), glutathione peroxidase (POX, EC 1.11.1.9) and glutathione S-transferase (EC 3.1.2.7), as well as the concentration of malone dialdehyde (MDA), as an indicator of lipid peroxidation rate in the liver tissue homogenates and blood serum of male rats exposed to extremely low-frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF) in order to improve the healing process of an experimental cut wound on the back of each animal. The exposure to ELF-MF with frequency 40 Hz and magnetic flux density 10 mT induced an increase in POX serum activity and a decrease in MDA contents in the liver tissue, which suggests the inhibition of phospholipid peroxidation and subsequent stabilization of cellular membranes, as a result of ELF-MF action. Based on the results obtained, it seems that ELF-MF could be a useful supplement in the complex treatment of prolonged wound healing, due to the activation of endogenous enzymatic antioxidant system. PMID:23323798

Glinka, Marek; Siero?, Aleksander; Birkner, Ewa; Cie?lar, Grzegorz

2013-01-16

366

Effects of progesterone application on antioxidant enzyme activities and K+/Na+ ratio in bean seeds exposed to salt stress.  

PubMed

This study aimed to investigate the influence of progesterone, a mammalian sex hormone, on germination of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds exposed to salt stress. The exogenous addition of 10(-6), 10(-8) and 10(-10) M progesterone to the stressing media in which bean seeds were germinated in combination with the salt (100 mM NaCl) stressor induced significant protective changes in the germination and early growth parameters. The mitigating effect of progesterone was evaluated by the measurement of radicle and plumule lengths, activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POX) and catalase (CAT). In addition, it is the first study that exhibited changes in K/Na ratio. The obtained results showed that progesterone application stimulated germination and growth of salt-stressed seeds. Similarly, it stimulated significantly SOD, POX and CAT activities compared to both control and salt control. Salt stress significantly increased the lipid peroxidation compared to the control seeds. However, parallel to the increase in antioxidant activity, lipid peroxidation was significantly reduced by progesterone application. The best stimulatory effects on investigated parameters were recorded at 10(-8) M progesterone-applied seeds. On the other hand, salt stress reduced remarkably K/Na ratio by 50% in radicle and by 80% in plumule. However, progesterone application significantly mitigated the reduction in K/Na ratio. These findings clearly demonstrate that progesterone has a positive role in moderate detrimental effects induced by salt. PMID:22258627

Erdal, Serkan; Genisel, Mucip; Turk, Hulya; Gorcek, Zeynep

2012-01-18

367

Studies on the potential antioxidant properties of Senecio stabianus Lacaita (Asteraceae) and its inhibitory activity against carbohydrate-hydrolysing enzymes.  

PubMed

This study showed for the first time the antioxidant and hypoglycaemic properties of the methanol, n-hexane and ethyl acetate extracts from Senecio stabianus Lacaita, a plant that belongs to the Asteraceae family. The antioxidant activities were carried out using two different in vitro assays, namely 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonate) (ABTS) test. The ethyl acetate extract showed the highest activity with inhibitory concentration 50% (IC(50)) values of 35.5 and 32.7?µg?mL(-1) on DPPH test and ABTS test, respectively. This activity may be related to a good total phenol and flavonoid content. All extracts were also tested for their potential inhibitory activity of ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase digestive enzymes. The n-hexane extract exhibited the highest ?-amylase inhibition with an IC(50) value of 0.21?mg?mL(-1). Through bioassay-guided fractionation processes seven fractions (A-G) were obtained and tested. Based on the phytochemical analysis, the activity of n-hexane extract may be related to the presence of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. PMID:21644170

Tundis, Rosa; Menichini, Federica; Loizzo, Monica R; Bonesi, Marco; Solimene, Umberto; Menichini, Francesco

2011-06-03

368

Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activity and antioxidant properties of Nepeta crassifolia Boiss & Buhse and Nepeta binaludensis Jamzad.  

PubMed

This article reports phytochemical and biological studies on Nepeta binaludensis and Nepeta crassifolia. Both species were investigated for their angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity and antioxidant properties through three in vitro models [2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay]. Aerial parts were extracted with methanol and partitioned between water and subsequently n-hexane, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. N. binaludensis methanol extract exerted significantly higher reducing power (1.9 ?M Fe(II)/g) than did the positive control butylhydroxytoluene (63.2??M Fe(II)/g) in FRAP assay. The highest DPPH radical scavenging activity was found for N. crassifolia, with IC50 values of 9.6 and 12.1 µg/mL for ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions, respectively. n-Butanol fraction of both species showed the highest ACE inhibitory activity, with IC50 values of 59.3 and 81.7 µg/mL for N. binaludensis and N. crassifolia, respectively. Phytochemical investigations resulted in the isolation of ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, apigenin, luteolin and ixoroside. Apigenin-7-O-glucoside, 8-hydroxycirsimaritin and cirsimaritin were furthermore identified in N. crassifolia ethyl acetate-soluble fraction. Nepetanudoside B was isolated from the n-butanol fraction of N. binaludensis. PMID:22693035

Tundis, Rosa; Nadjafi, Farsad; Menichini, Francesco

2012-06-13

369

Sulphurous thermal water increases the release of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and modulates antioxidant enzyme activity.  

PubMed

The beneficial effects of hot springs have been known for centuries and treatments with sulphurous thermal waters are recommended in a number of chronic pathologies as well as acute recurrent infections. However, the positive effects of the therapy are often evaluated in terms of subjective sense of wellbeing and symptomatic clinical improvements. Here, the effects of an S-based compound (NaSH) and of a specific sulphurous thermal water characterized by additional ions such as sodium chloride, bromine and iodine (STW) were investigated in terms of cytokine release and anti-oxidant enzyme activity in primary human monocytes and in saliva from 50 airway disease patients subjected to thermal treatments. In vitro, NaSH efficiently blocked the induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and counterbalanced the formation of ROS. Despite STW not recapitulating these results, possibly due to the low concentration of S-based compounds reached at the minimum non-toxic dilution, we found that it enhanced the release of IL-10, a potent anti-inflammatory cytokine. Notably, higher levels of IL-10 were also observed in patients? saliva following STW treatment and this increase correlated positively with salivary catalase activity (r2 = 0.19, *p less than 0.01). To our knowledge, these results represent the first evidence suggesting that S-based compounds and STW may prove useful in facing chronic inflammatory and age-related illness due to combined anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. PMID:24067460

Prandelli, C; Parola, C; Buizza, L; Delbarba, A; Marziano, M; Salvi, V; Zacchi, V; Memo, M; Sozzani, S; Calza, S; Uberti, D; Bosisio, D

370

Effects of Single Exposure of Sodium Fluoride on Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Enzymes in Salivary Glands of Rats  

PubMed Central

Many studies suggest that fluoride exposure can inhibit the activity of various enzymes and can generate free radicals, which interfere with antioxidant defence mechanisms in living systems. To further the understanding of this issue, this present study examined the effects of low-dose fluoride treatment on the activity of enzymatic antioxidant superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), as well as the levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the parotid (PA) and submandibular (SM) salivary glands of rats. Rats were injected with a single dose of sodium fluoride (NaF) (15?mg?F?/kg b.w.) then euthanized at various time intervals up to 24 hours (h) following exposure. NaF exposure did not cause significant differences in SOD or CAT activity or LPO levels in PA glands compared to control. Conversely, SM glands presented increased SOD activity after 3?h and decreased SOD activity after 1, 12, and 24?h, while LPO was increased after 6, 12, and 24?h of the NaF injection. There were no significant differences in the CAT activity in the groups studied. Our results demonstrated that NaF intoxication caused oxidative stress in salivary glands few hours after administration. These changes were more pronounced in SM than in PA gland.

Yamaguti, Paula Mochidome; Simoes, Alyne; Ganzerla, Emily; Souza, Douglas Nesadal; Nogueira, Fernando Neves; Nicolau, Jose

2013-01-01

371

TEMPORAL PATTERNS OF LIPOPEROXIDATION AND ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES ARE MODIFIED IN THE HIPPOCAMPUS OF VITAMIN A-DEFICIENT RATS  

PubMed Central

Animals can adapt their behavior to predictable temporal fluctuations in the environment through both, memory-and-learning processes and an endogenous time-keeping mechanism. Hippocampus plays a key role in memory and learning and is especially susceptible to oxidative stress. In compensation, antioxidant enzymes activity, such as Catalase (CAT) and Glutathione peroxidase (GPx), has been detected in this brain region. Daily rhythms of antioxidant enzymes activitiy, as well as of glutathione and lipid peroxides levels, have been described in brain. Here, we investigate day/night variations in lipoperoxidation, CAT and GPx expression and activity, as well as the temporal fluctuations of two key components of the endogenous clock, BMAL1 and PER1, in the rat hippocampus and evaluate to which extent vitamin A deficiency may affect their amplitude or phase. Holtzman male rats from control, vitamin A-deficient and vitamin A-refed groups were sacrificed throughout a 24-h period. Daily levels of clock proteins, lipoperoxidation, CAT and GPx mRNA, protein, and activity, were determined in the rat hippocampus obtained every 4 or 5 h. Gene expression of RAR? and RXR? was also quantified in the hippocampus of the three groups of rats. Our results show significant daily variations of BMAL1 and PER1 protein expression. Rhythmic lipoperoxidation, CAT, and GPx, expression and activity, were also observed in the rat hippocampus. Vitamin A deficiency reduced RXR? mRNA level, as well as the amplitude of BMAL1 and PER1 daily oscillation, phase-shifted the daily peak of lipoperoxidation, and had a differential effect on the oscillating CAT and GPx mRNA, protein, and activity. Learning how vitamin A deficiency affects the circadian gene expression in the hippocampus may have an impact on the neurobiology, nutritional and chronobiology fields, emphasizing for the first time the importance of nutritional factors, such as dietary micronutrients, in the regulation of circadian parameters in this brain memory-and-learning-related region.

Navigatore Fonzo, Lorena S.; Golini, Rebeca S.; Delgado, Silvia M.; Ponce, Ivana T.; Bonomi, Myrta R.; Rezza, Irma G.; Gimenez, Maria S.; Anzulovich, Ana C.

2011-01-01

372

Antioxidant enzyme polymorphisms and neuropsychological outcomes in medulloblastoma survivors: a report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study.  

PubMed

Psychological or neurocognitive impairment is often seen in medulloblastoma survivors after craniospinal radiation; however, significant variability in outcomes exists. This study investigated the role of antioxidant enzyme polymorphisms in moderating this outcome and hypothesized that patients who had polymorphisms associated with lower antioxidant enzyme function would have a higher occurrence of impairment. From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS) cohort, 109 medulloblastoma survivors and 143 siblings were identified who completed the CCSS Neurocognitive Questionnaire (NCQ) and the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18) and who provided buccal DNA samples. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) allelic discrimination was used for SOD2 (rs4880), GPX1 (rs1050450), and GSTP1 (rs1695 and rs1138272) genotyping and PCR for GSTM1 and GSTT1 gene deletions. Outcomes on NCQ and BSI-18 subscale scores were examined in association with genotypes and clinical factors, including age at diagnosis, sex, and radiation dose, using univariate and multivariate analysis of variance. Patients <7 years of age at diagnosis displayed more problems with task efficiency (P < .001) and fewer problems with somatic complaints (P = .004) than did patients ?7 years of age. Female patients reported more organization problems than did male patients (P = .02). Patients with homozygous GSTM1 gene deletion reported higher anxiety (mean null genotype = 47.3 ± 9.2, non-null = 43.9 ± 7.8; P = .04), more depression (null = 51.0 ± 9.8, non-null = 47.0 ± 9.4; P = .03), and more global distress (null = 50.2 ± 9.7, non-null = 45.2 ± 9.9; P = .01). All associations for the GSTM1 polymorphism remained statistically significant in a multivariate model controlling for age, sex, and radiation dose. Homozygous GSTM1 gene deletion was consistently associated with greater psychological distress in medulloblastoma survivors across multiple domains, suggesting that this genotype may predispose patients for increased emotional late effects. PMID:22661588

Brackett, Julienne; Krull, Kevin R; Scheurer, Michael E; Liu, Wei; Srivastava, Deo Kumar; Stovall, Marilyn; Merchant, Thomas E; Packer, Roger J; Robison, Leslie L; Okcu, M Fatih

2012-06-01

373

Antioxidant enzyme polymorphisms and neuropsychological outcomes in medulloblastoma survivors: a report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study  

PubMed Central

Psychological or neurocognitive impairment is often seen in medulloblastoma survivors after craniospinal radiation; however, significant variability in outcomes exists. This study investigated the role of antioxidant enzyme polymorphisms in moderating this outcome and hypothesized that patients who had polymorphisms associated with lower antioxidant enzyme function would have a higher occurrence of impairment. From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS) cohort, 109 medulloblastoma survivors and 143 siblings were identified who completed the CCSS Neurocognitive Questionnaire (NCQ) and the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18) and who provided buccal DNA samples. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) allelic discrimination was used for SOD2 (rs4880), GPX1 (rs1050450), and GSTP1 (rs1695 and rs1138272) genotyping and PCR for GSTM1 and GSTT1 gene deletions. Outcomes on NCQ and BSI-18 subscale scores were examined in association with genotypes and clinical factors, including age at diagnosis, sex, and radiation dose, using univariate and multivariate analysis of variance. Patients <7 years of age at diagnosis displayed more problems with task efficiency (P < .001) and fewer problems with somatic complaints (P = .004) than did patients ?7 years of age. Female patients reported more organization problems than did male patients (P = .02). Patients with homozygous GSTM1 gene deletion reported higher anxiety (mean null genotype = 47.3 ± 9.2, non-null = 43.9 ± 7.8; P = .04), more depression (null = 51.0 ± 9.8, non-null = 47.0 ± 9.4; P = .03), and more global distress (null = 50.2 ± 9.7, non-null = 45.2 ± 9.9; P = .01). All associations for the GSTM1 polymorphism remained statistically significant in a multivariate model controlling for age, sex, and radiation dose. Homozygous GSTM1 gene deletion was consistently associated with greater psychological distress in medulloblastoma survivors across multiple domains, suggesting that this genotype may predispose patients for increased emotional late effects.

Brackett, Julienne; Krull, Kevin R.; Scheurer, Michael E.; Liu, Wei; Srivastava, Deo Kumar; Stovall, Marilyn; Merchant, Thomas E.; Packer, Roger J.; Robison, Leslie L.; Okcu, M. Fatih

2012-01-01

374

Molecular cloning, characterization of CAT, and eco-toxicological effects of dietary zinc oxide on antioxidant enzymes in Eisenia fetida.  

PubMed

The full-length cDNA of catalase (EfCAT) from Eisenia fetida was cloned (GenBank accession no. JN617999). Sequence characterization revealed that EfCAT protein sequence contained proximal heme-ligand signature sequence ((351)RLFSYSDTH(359)), two glycosylation sites (N(145) and N(436)), the proximal active site signature ((61)FDRERIPERVVHAKGAGA(78)), and 12 amino acids (N(145), H(191), F(195), S(198), R(200), N(210), Y(212), K(234), I(299), W(300), Q(302), and Y(355)), which were identified as putative residues involved in NADPH binding. These conserved motifs and catalase signature sequences were essential for the structure and function of EfCAT. The present study also investigated the effect of the veterinary food additive zinc oxide on antioxidant processes in E. fetida, at different concentrations and exposure durations. A significant increase (by 106.0 % compared to controls) in CAT activity at 500 mg/kg was registered at day 15. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity at 500 mg/kg increased to the maximum value (by 44.0 %) measured at day 15. There was a significant increase in glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity for all concentrations after 5 days. The results showed that dietary Zn (500 mg/kg) causes oxidative damage to earthworms. At early stages of earthworms exposed to ZnO, GPx is the main enzyme to impair the oxidative status; while at later stages the enzymes CAT and SOD were the main indicators of oxidative stress. The antioxidant enzymatic variations may be an adaptive response of earthworms to survive in contaminated soils. PMID:23263762

Xiong, Wenguang; Sun, Yongxue; Zou, Mengjia; Muhammad, Rizwan-Ul-Haq

2012-12-21

375

Intracellular beta-carbonic anhydrase of the unicellular green alga Coccomyxa. Cloning of the cdna and characterization of the functional enzyme overexpressed in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Carbonic anhydrase (CA) (EC 4.2.1.1) enzymes catalyze the reversible hydration of CO2, a reaction that is important in many physiological processes. We have cloned and sequenced a full-length cDNA encoding an intracellular beta-CA from the unicellular green alga Coccomyxa. Nucleotide sequence data show that the isolated cDNA contains an open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 227 amino acids. The predicted polypeptide is similar to beta-type CAs from Escherichia coli and higher plants, with an identity of 26% to 30%. The Coccomyxa cDNA was overexpressed in E. coli, and the enzyme was purified and biochemically characterized. The mature protein is a homotetramer with an estimated molecular mass of 100 kD. The CO2-hydration activity of the Coccomyxa enzyme is comparable with that of the pea homolog. However, the activity of Coccomyxa CA is largely insensitive to oxidative conditions, in contrast to similar enzymes from most higher plants. Fractionation studies further showed that Coccomyxa CA is extrachloroplastic. PMID:9701590

Hiltonen, T; Björkbacka, H; Forsman, C; Clarke, A K; Samuelsson, G

1998-08-01

376

Hemoglobin Conjugates with Antioxidant Enzymes (Hemoglobin-Superoxide Dismutase-Catalase) via Poly(Ethylene Glycol) Crosslinker for Protection of Pancreatic Beta RINm5F Cells in Hypoxia  

PubMed Central

A low p50 hemoglobin (Hb) (p50 indicates O2 tension at which Hb is half-saturated)-based oxygen carrier conjugated to antioxidant enzymes via dicarboxymethylated poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) linker may have the beneficial effect in protecting pancreatic beta cells from severe hypoxia at transplantation sites. In this study, the oxygen dissociation curves, Hill plots, Bohr Effect, and oxygen content of Hb conjugates were measured. The protective effect due to incubation of Hb-conjugates (Hb/PEG molar ratio 1:10) with pancreatic beta cells (RINm5F) against hypoxia (6%, 3%, and 1% oxygen) was evaluated by an MTT assay and confocal microscopy. Quantitatively, Hb conjugates with antioxidant enzymes offered statistically significant protection (p<0.01, increased viability ?80%) from hypoxia compared to control cells in 1% oxygen environment. Confocal images also showed that the low p50?Hb conjugates with antioxidants protected RINm5F cells from hypoxia.

Nadithe, Venkatareddy

2011-01-01

377

Responses of antioxidant enzymes to cold and high light are not correlated to freezing tolerance in natural accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana.  

PubMed

Low temperatures and high light cause imbalances in primary and secondary reactions of photosynthesis, and thus can result in oxidative stress. Plants employ a range of low-molecular weight antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes to prevent oxidative damage, and antioxidant defence is considered an important component of stress tolerance. To figure out whether oxidative stress and antioxidant defence are key factors defining the different cold acclimation capacities of natural accessions of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, we investigated hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) production, antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation during a time course of cold treatment and exposure to high light in four differentially cold-tolerant natural accessions of Arabidopsis (C24, Nd, Rsch, Te) that span the European distribution range of the species. All accessions except Rsch (from Russia) had elevated H2 O2 in the cold, indicating that production of reactive oxygen species is part of the cold response in Arabidopsis. Glutathione reductase activity increased in all but Rsch, while ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase were unchanged and catalase decreased in all but Rsch. Under high light, the Scandinavian accession Te had elevated levels of H2 O2 . Te appeared most sensitive to oxidative stress, having higher malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the cold and under high light, while only high light caused elevated MDA in the other accessions. Although the most freezing-tolerant, Te had the highest sensitivity to oxidative stress. No correlation was found between freezing tolerance and activity of antioxidant enzymes in the four accessions investigated, arguing against a key role for antioxidant defence in the differential cold acclimation capacities of Arabidopsis accessions. PMID:23578291

Distelbarth, H; Nägele, T; Heyer, A G

2013-04-11

378

Cadmium accumulation and tolerance of two safflower cultivars in relation to photosynthesis and antioxidative enzymes.  

PubMed

To investigate the effects of cadmium (Cd) on photosynthetic and antioxidant activities of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) plants, two cultivars (Yuming and New safflower No. 4) were used for long-term pot experiment, under 0, 25, 50 or 100 mg Cd kg(-1) (DW) soil conditions. The results showed that there is a large amount of Cd (148.6-277.2 mg kg(-1)) accumulated in the shoot of safflower, indicating this species might be a potential Cd accumulator. Exposure to 25-100 mg Cd kg(-1) soil decreased the net photosynthetic rate by 25.6%-48.9% for New safflower No. 4, and 16.7%-57.3% for Yuming, respectively. The inhibition of photosynthesis might result from the limitation of stomatal conductance, reduction in photosynthetic pigment, and destruction of photosynthetic apparatus caused by Cd stress. Cd caused an enhancement of malondialdehyde (MDA), an increase in activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and a decrease in catalase (CAT) activity for both cultivars. It seems that SOD and APX accounted for the scavenging of oxidant stress in safflower cultivars. The physiological response of safflower plants to Cd stress was cultivar- and dose-dependent. New safflower No. 4 exhibited high photosynthetic performance at high Cd stress, which may be contributed by high intercellular CO(2) concentration, APX activity and Car/Chl ratio. In contrast, Yuming is more tolerant to Cd toxicity at low Cd level, in which an efficient antioxidant system is involved. PMID:20640847

Shi, Gangrong; Liu, Caifeng; Cai, Qingsheng; Liu, Qingqing; Hou, Cuiping

2010-07-18

379

Age-related changes in renal expression of oxidant and antioxidant enzymes and oxidative stress markers in male SHR and WKY rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxidative stress has been hypothesized to play a role in aging and age-related disorders, such as hypertension. This study compared levels of oxidative stress and renal expression of oxidant and antioxidant enzymes in male normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) at different ages (3 and 12months). In the renal cortex of 3-month old SHR increases in hydrogen

Sónia Simão; Pedro Gomes; Vanda Pinto; Elisabete Silva; João S. Amaral; Bruno Igreja; Joana Afonso; Maria Paula Serrão; Maria João Pinho; Patrício Soares-da-Silva

2011-01-01

380

Induction of antioxidant enzymes is involved in the greater effectiveness of a PGPR versus AM fungi with respect to increasing the tolerance of lettuce to severe salt stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the influence of inoculation with a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium, Pseudomonas mendocina Palleroni, alone or in combination with an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus, Glomus intraradices (Schenk & Smith) or Glomus mosseae (Nicol & Gerd.) Gerd. & Trappe, on antioxidant enzyme activities (catalase and total peroxidase), phosphatase activity, solute accumulation, growth and mineral nutrient uptake in leaves of Lactuca

Josef Kohler; José Antonio Hernández; Fuensanta Caravaca; Antonio Roldán

2009-01-01

381

Polyamines reduce salt-induced oxidative damage by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes and decreasing lipid peroxidation in Virginia pine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyamines play an important role in the plant response to adverse environmental conditions including salt and osmotic stresses. In this investigation, the responses of polyamines to salt-induced oxidative stress were studied in callus cultures and plantlets in Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana Mill.). Our results demonstrated that polyamines reduce salt-induced oxidative damage by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes and decreasing

Wei Tang; Ronald J. Newton

2005-01-01

382

Hypothyroidism attenuates protein tyrosine nitration, oxidative stress and renal damage induced by ischemia and reperfusion: effect unrelated to antioxidant enzymes activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: It has been established that hypothyroidism protects rats against renal ischemia and reperfusion (IR) oxidative damage. However, it is not clear if hypothyroidism is able to prevent protein tyrosine nitration, an index of nitrosative stress, induced by IR or if antioxidant enzymes have involved in this protective effect. In this work it was explored if hypothyroidism is able to

Verónica M Tenorio-Velázquez; Diana Barrera; Martha Franco; Edilia Tapia; Rogelio Hernández-Pando; Omar Noel Medina-Campos; José Pedraza-Chaverri

2005-01-01

383

Alcohol-induced deterioration in primary antioxidant and glutathione family enzymes reversed by exercise training in the liver of old rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic alcohol consumption causes severe hepatic oxidative damage, particularly to old subjects by decreasing various antioxidant enzymes. In this study, we test the hypothesis that exercise training can protect the aging liver against alcohol-induced oxidative damage. Two different age groups of Wistar albino rats (3 months young, n=24; 18 months old, n=24) were evenly divided into four groups: control (Con),

K. Mallikarjuna; K. R. Shanmugam; K. Nishanth; Ming-Chieh Wu; Chien-Wen Hou; Chia-Hua Kuo; K. Sathyavelu Reddy

2010-01-01

384

Correlative Interrelations between the Oxygen Consumption Rate, Body Temperature and Activities of the Key Antioxidant Enzymes of Liver of Mus musculus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using one-, two-, and three-dimensional statistical methods, there were analyzed peculiarities of distribution and the degree of the correlative-regressional dependence between the parameters characterizing the oxygen consumption rate (VO2), body temperature (BT), activities of three key enzymes of the antioxidant system - superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CL), and glutathion peroxidase (GP) in 15 females of the laboratory population of Mus

Kh. K. Muradian; N. A. Utko; T. G. Mozzhukhina; I. N. Pishel; A. Ya. Litoshenko; V. V. Bezrukov; V. E. Fraifeld

2004-01-01

385

Integrated use of biomarkers (acetylcholinesterase and antioxidant enzymes activities) in Mytilus galloprovincialis and Mullus barbatus in an Italian coastal marine area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of biomarkers to evaluate the biological effects of chemical pollutants in marine organisms represents a recent tool in the monitoring field responding to the need to detect and assess the effects of chemical contaminants on the biota. The aim of the present work was the field application of the integrated use of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and antioxidant enzymes (catalase––CAT,

M. G. Lionetto; R. Caricato; M. E. Giordano; M. F. Pascariello; L. Marinosci; T. Schettino

2003-01-01

386

High Light-Induced Changes in the Activities of Antioxidant Enzymes and the Accumulation of Astaxanthin in the Green Alga Haematococcus pluvialis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated high light-induced alterations in antioxidant enzymes by exposing green vegetative cells of the alga Haematococcus pluvialis to excess irradiance to induce the production of astaxanthin, a carotenoid pigment. Total activity of catalase decre- ased approximately 70% after high light exposure, whereas glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity was slightly enhanced. Total activity of superoxide dis- mutase and ascorbate peroxidase (APX)

Seul-Ki Park; EonSeon Jin; Choul-Gyun Lee; Mi-Young Lee

387

Induction of endogenous antioxidants and phase 2 enzymes by ?-lipoic acid in rat cardiac H9C2 cells: protection against oxidative injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

?-Lipoic acid (LA) has recently been reported to exert protective effects on various forms of oxidative cardiac disorders. However, the mechanisms underlying LA-mediated cardioprotection remain to be investigated. This study was undertaken to determine whether LA treatment could increase endogenous antioxidants and phase 2 enzymes in cultured cardiomyocytes, and whether such increased cellular defenses could afford protection against oxidative cardiac

Zhuoxiao Cao; Maggie Tsang; Hai Zhao; Yunbo Li

2003-01-01

388

Antioxidant relevance to human health.  

PubMed

Human ecology requires both oxygen and water with the generation from food of an immediate energy source, ATP, by oxidative phosphorylation. A continuing balance between oxidation and antioxidation is necessary for longer less-disabled lives, taking account of oxidative stresses and the critical roles of oxidants in defence against infection, tissue repair and signalling. Antioxidant capacity is derived both exogenously (from food, beverage and sunlight) and endogenously (from enzymatic and non-enzymatic pathways). A number of oxidant food factors service antioxidant metallo-enzymes. The capacity operates extra- or intracellularly. Uric acid is the major antioxidant in primate blood. Uric acid synthesis is increased by dietary fructose from fruit, sugary foods and drinks. This indirect antioxidant effect of fruit is separate from that attributable to its flavonoids. Alcohol also increases serum uric acid. Urate excess and retention is associated with disease. The high prevalence of hyperuricaemia in NE Asia presents a major public health dilemma in regard to putative benefits and risks. Foods with high antioxidant activity include berries, nuts and legumes, tomatoes and sweet potato leaves. Each of the antioxidants in these foods is pleiotropic being inter-alia anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic or anti-neoplastic. Moreover, food matrices and patterns contribute to the safety of antioxidant consumption. There is no evidence to date that isolated antioxidants as food supplements improve health outcomes or survival; and some that indicate unacceptable risk. Their use as biomarkers of food cannot justify their isolated use. Nevertheless, a spectrum of dietary pluripotential antioxidants for tissues, metabolic and immune systems is advantageous. PMID:23635359

Wahlqvist, Mark L

2013-01-01

389

Antioxidant activity and enzyme inhibition of phenolic acids from fermented rice bran with fungus Rizhopus oryzae.  

PubMed

The solid-state fermentation (SSF) has been employed as a form making available a higher content of functional compounds from agroindustrial wastes. In this work, the effect of SSF with the Rhizopus oryzae fungus on the phenolic acid content of rice bran was studied. Phenolic extracts derived from rice bran and fermented rice bran were evaluated for their ability to reduce free radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrihidrazil (DPPH) and for the ability to inhibit the enzymes peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase. The phenolic compound content increased by more than two times with fermentation. A change in the content of phenolic acids was observed, with ferulic acid presenting the greatest increase with the fermentation, starting from 33mg/g in rice bran and reaching 765mg/g in the fermented bran. The phenolic extracts showed an inhibition potential for DPPH and for the peroxidase enzyme, however did not inhibit the polyphenol oxidase enzyme. PMID:24176356

Schmidt, Cristiano G; Gonçalves, Letícia M; Prietto, Luciana; Hackbart, Helen S; Furlong, Eliana B

2013-09-23

390

The antioxidant enzyme Prdx1 controls neuronal differentiation by thiol-redox dependent activation of GDE2  

PubMed Central

Summary The six-transmembrane protein GDE2 comprises a new signaling system that controls the onset and progression of spinal motor neuron differentiation through extracellular glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase metabolism. However, the mechanisms that regulate its activity are unknown. Here we show that the antioxidant scavenger Peroxiredoxin1 (Prdx1) interacts with GDE2, and that loss of Prdx1 causes motor neuron deficits analogous to GDE2 ablation. Prdx1 cooperates with GDE2 to drive motor neuron differentiation, and this synergy requires Prdx1 thiol-dependent catalysis. Prdx1 activates GDE2 through reduction of an intramolecular disulfide bond bridging its intracellular N- and C-terminal domains that normally gates GDE2 activity. GDE2 variants incapable of disulfide bond formation acquire independence from Prdx1, and are potent inducers of motor neuron differentiation. These findings define Prdx1 as a pivotal regulator of GDE2 activity, and reveal critical roles for coupled thiol redox-dependent cascades in controlling neuronal differentiation in the spinal cord.

Yan, Ye; Sabharwal, Priyanka; Rao, Meenakshi; Sockanathan, Shanthini

2009-01-01

391

Antioxidant enzymes and fatty acid status in erythrocytes of Down syndrome patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The excess of genetic information in patients with Down syndrome (DS) produces an increase in the cata- lytic activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD1), an anti- oxidant enzyme coded on chromosome 21. It has been suggested that an increase in oxidative stress in DS patients may cause adverse effects in the cell mem- branes through the oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids

M-Cruz Pastor; Cristina Sierra; Maria Dolade ´; Elisabet Navarro; Nuria Brandi; Eduard Cabre; Aurea Mira

392

Modulation of Oxidant and Antioxidant Enzyme Expression and Function in Vascular Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathological conditions that predispose to cardiovascular events, such as hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes, are associated with oxidative stress. These observations and further data derived from a plethora of investigations provided accumulating evidence that oxidative stress is decisively involved in the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. Several enzymes expressed in vascular tissue contribute to production and efficient degradation of reactive

Sven Wassmann; Kerstin Wassmann; Georg Nickenig

2010-01-01

393

Caveolin-1 inhibits expression of antioxidant enzymes through direct interaction with nuclear erythroid 2 p45-related factor-2 (Nrf2).  

PubMed

The Nrf2 (nuclear erythroid 2 p45-related factor-2) signaling pathway is known to play a pivotal role in a variety of oxidative stress-related human disorders. It has been reported recently that the plasma membrane resident protein caveolin-1 (Cav-1) can regulate expression of certain antioxidant enzymes and involves in the pathogenesis of oxidative lung injury, but the detailed molecular mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Here, we demonstrated that Cav-1 inhibited the expression of antioxidant enzymes through direct interaction with Nrf2 and subsequent suppression of its transcriptional activity in lung epithelial Beas-2B cells. Cav-1 deficiency cells exhibited higher levels of antioxidant enzymes and were more resistant to oxidative stress induced cytotoxicity, whereas overexpression of Cav-1 suppressed the induction of these enzymes and further augmented the oxidative cell death. Cav-1 constitutively interacted with Nrf2 in both cytosol and nucleus. Stimulation of 4-hydroxynonenol increased the Cav-1-Nrf2 interaction in cytosol but disrupted their association in the nucleus. Knockdown of Cav-1 also disassociated the interaction between Nrf2 and its cytoplasmic inhibitor Keap1 (Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1) and increased the Nrf2 transcription activity. Mutation of the resembling Cav-1 binding motif on Nrf2 effectively attenuated their interaction, which exhibited higher transcription activity and induced higher levels of antioxidant enzymes relative to the wild-type control. Altogether, these studies clearly demonstrate that Cav-1 inhibits cellular antioxidant capacity through direct interaction with Nrf2 and subsequent suppression of its activity, thereby implicating in certain oxidative stress-related human pathologies. PMID:22547061

Li, Wen; Liu, Hui; Zhou, Jie-Sen; Cao, Jiao-Fei; Zhou, Xiao-Bo; Choi, Augustine M K; Chen, Zhi-Hua; Shen, Hua-Hao

2012-04-30

394

Role of antioxidant and anaerobic metabolism enzymes in providing tolerance to maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings against waterlogging.  

PubMed

The present investigation was undertaken to identify the possible mode of mechanism that could provide tolerance to maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings under waterlogging. Using cup method, a number of maize genotypes were screened on the basis of survival of the seedlings kept under waterlogging. Two tolerant (LM5 and Parkash) and three susceptible (PMH2, JH3459 and LM14) genotypes were selected for the present study. Activities of antioxidant and ethanolic fermentation enzymes and content of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), glutathione and ascorbic acid were determined in roots of these genotypes after 72 h of waterlogging. Waterlogging treatment caused decline in activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) in all the genotypes. However, only susceptible genotypes showed slight increase in glutathione reductase (GR) activity. Significant reduction in APX/GR ratio in susceptible genotypes might be the cause of their susceptibility to waterlogging. The tolerant seedlings had higher GR activity than susceptible genotypes under unstressed conditions. Stress led to decrease in H202 and increase in glutathione content of both tolerant and susceptible genotypes, but only tolerant genotypes exhibited increase in ascorbic acid under waterlogging conditions. In the tolerant genotypes, all the enzymes of anaerobic metabolism viz. alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) and pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) were upregulated under waterlogging, whereas in susceptible genotypes, only ADH was upregulated, suggesting that efficient upregulation of entire anaerobic metabolic machinery is essential for providing tolerance against waterlogging. The study provides a possible mechanism for waterlogging tolerance in maize. PMID:22165294

Chugh, Vishal; Kaur, Narinder; Gupta, Anil K

2011-10-01

395

Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal (G. etunicatum) fungus on antioxidant enzymes activity under zinc toxicity in lettuce plants.  

PubMed

Zinc is one of the eight trace elements which are essential for the normal healthy growth and reproduction of crop plants. Plants possess cellular mechanisms that may be involved in the detoxification of heavy metals and thus confer plants a better tolerance against them. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonization is one of these mechanisms. Here, the effect of mycorrhizal fungus G. etunicatum on Zn toxicity tolerance through enhanced activity of some of antioxidant enzymes has been studied. Treatments were applied in triplicates of two factorial analyses: (a) mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal; (b) 5 levels of Zinc (0, 1.5, 3.5, 5.5, 7.5 mM). Zinc was added to modified Hoagland's nutrient solution (with half P concentration). Plants were grown in growth chamber for 10 weeks. Toxicity symptoms such as necrosis and chlorosis appeared on the leaves. Activity of detoxifying enzymes Guaiacol peroxidase (GUPX) and Ascorbate peroxidase (APX) were measured. GPX activity in roots and shoots of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants was increased. Also, APX activity increased in roots and shoots ofmycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants. Root length colonization (RLC) was measured by gridline intersect method. Mycorrhizal colonization decreased due to Zinc exposure. The results indicate the probable role of arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization in stress tolerance. PMID:19086552

Farshian, Shadi; Khara, Jalil; Parviz, Malekzadeh

2007-06-01

396

Erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes in toxicological evaluation of commonly used organophosphate pesticides.  

PubMed

Erythrocytes are excellent models for the study of interactions of xenobiotics with biomembranes. Present work is designed to study the in vitro effects of some organophosphates (ethion, chlorpyrifos, dimethoate and monocrotophos) on rat erythrocytes. Treatment of erythrocytes with organophosphates resulted in decreased erythrocyte glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) activity, whereas activities of glutathione-s-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) were increased. Reduced Glutathione (GSH) content of RBCs was decreased after treatment with the pesticides. Increased activities of GST and GR were due to induction of natural defense mechanism of erythrocytes against the toxicity of the pesticides. Membrane bound enzymes like acetylcholinesterase (AChE), Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-ATPase were also inhibited. Altered activities of these enzymes along with decreased GSH content indicate increased oxidative stress in erythrocytes after treatment with organophosphates. PMID:16872049

Singh, Mohan; Sandhir, Rajat; Kiran, Ravi

2006-07-01

397

Lead toxicity induces lipid peroxidation and alters the activities of antioxidant enzymes in growing rice plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

When seedlings of two rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars were raised in sand cultures under 500 and 1000 ?M Pb(NO3)2 in the medium, lengths as well as weights of roots and shoots decreased with increase in Pb concentration. Pb-treated seedlings showed elevated levels of lipid peroxides with a concomitant increase in the activities of the enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol

Shalini Verma; R. S. Dubey

2003-01-01

398

Overexpressing SgNCED1 in Tobacco Increases ABA Level, Antioxidant Enzyme Activities, and Stress Tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abscisic acid (ABA) regulates plant adaptive responses to various environmental stresses. 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED) is the key enzyme of ABA biosynthesis in higher plants. A NCED gene, SgNCED1, was overexpressed in transgenic tobacco plants which resulted in 51–77% more accumulation of ABA in leaves. Transgenic tobacco\\u000a plants decreased stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, and photosynthetic rate but induced activities of superoxide

Yiming Zhang; Jinfen Yang; Shaoyun Lu; Jiongliang Cai; Zhenfei Guo

2008-01-01

399

Transcriptional regulation by the estrogen receptor of antioxidative stress enzymes and its functional implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We previously reported that antiestrogen-liganded estrogen receptor ? (ER?) transcriptionally activates the major detoxifying enzyme quinone reductase (QR) (NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase). Our studies also indicate that upregulation of QR, either by overexpression or induction by tamoxifen, can protect breast cells against oxidative DNA damage caused by estrogen metabolites. We now report on the upregulation of glutathione S-transferases Pi (GST-Pi) and gamma-glutamylcysteine

Monica M Montano; Huayun Deng; Min Liu; Xiaoyan Sun; Rakesh Singal

2004-01-01

400

Effect of dehydrated carrot on the antioxidant enzymes and micronuclei formation in rats challenged with dimethylhydrazine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modulation of detoxifying enzymes; catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase (GSSGR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in liver and ?-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) in kidney elicited by pre feeding of dehydrated carrot at 10 and 20% levels with or without the treatment with dimethylhydrazine (DMH) was studied in rats. The pre-feeding of rats with carrot was found to elevate the hepatic GSH content

K. R. Anilakumar; Farhath Khanum; K. R. Sudarshanakrishna; K. R. Viswanathan; K. Santhanam

2000-01-01

401

Activation of the antioxidant enzyme 1CYS peroxiredoxin requires glutathionylation mediated by heterodimerization with GST  

Microsoft Academic Search

1-cys peroxiredoxin (1-cysPrx), a member of the peroxiredoxin superfamily, can protect cells against membrane oxidation through glutathione (GSH)-dependent reduction of phospholipid hydroperoxides to corresponding alcohols. However, purified native or recombinant enzyme in vitro generally lacks GSH peroxidase (GPx) activity because of oxidation of its single conserved cysteine. Reduction of the resultant oxidized cysteine is difficult because of its protected location

Y. Manevich; S. I. Feinstein; A. B. Fisher

2004-01-01

402

AN INVESTIGATION ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN VANADIUM AND ANTIOXIDATIVE ENZYME SYSTEM IN RATS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study is to investigate the relationship between free oxygen radicals and vanadium in vanadium cytotoxicity. For this purpose erythrocyte copper zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD) erythrocyte and plasma selenium dependent glutathione peroxidase (SeGSH-Px) enzyme activities, erythrocyte thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels, erythrocyte and plasma vanadium levels were measured in Sprague Dawley rats fed with 0.15mgV\\/ml in

Ahmet AYDIN; Ahmet SAYAL; Onur ERDEM

403

Resistance pattern and antioxidant enzyme profiles of protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PROTOX) inhibitor-resistant transgenic rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

We quantified the resistance levels of transgenic rice plants, expressing Myxococcus xanthus protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PROTOX) in chloroplasts and mitochondria, to PROTOX inhibitors, acifluorfen, oxyfluorfen, carfentrazone-ethyl, and oxadiazon. We also determined whether active oxygen species-scavenging enzymes are involved in the resistance mechanism of transgenic rice. The transgenic rice line M4 was about >200-fold more resistant to oxyfluorfen than the wild-type (WT).

Ha Il Jung; Yong In Kuk; Kyoungwhan Back; Nilda R. Burgos

2008-01-01

404

Response of antioxidant enzymes to intermittent and continuous hyperbaric O sub 2  

SciTech Connect

Rats and guinea pigs were exposed to 2.8 ATA O{sub 2} (HBO) delivered either continuously or intermittently (repeated cycles of 10 minutes 100% O{sub 2}:2.5 minutes air). The O{sub 2} time required to produce convulsions and death was increased significantly in both species by intermittency. To determine whether changes in brain and lung superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) correlated with the observed tolerance, enzyme activities were measured after short or long HBO exposures. For each exposure duration, one group received continuous and one intermittent HBO; O{sub 2} times were matched. HBO had marked effects on these enzymes: Lung SOD increased (guinea pigs 47%, rats 88%), CAT and GSHPx activities decreased (33%) in brain and lung. No differences were seen in lung GSHPx or brain CAT in rats or brain SOD of either species. In guinea pigs, but less so in rats, the observed changes in activity were usually modulated by intermittency. Increases in hematocrit, organ protein, and lung DNA, which may also reflect ongoing oxidative damage, were also slowed with intermittency in guinea pigs. Intermittency benefitted both species by postponing gross symptoms of toxicity, but its modulation of changes in enzyme activities and other biochemical variables was more pronounced in guinea pigs than in rats suggesting additional mechanisms for tolerance.

Harabin, A.L.; Braisted, J.C.; Flynn, E.T. (Naval Medical Research Inst., Bethesda, MD (United States))

1990-02-26

405

Assesment of metal inhibition of antioxidant enzyme glutathione reductase from rainbow trout liver.  

PubMed

Effects of Co(+2), Zn(+2), Ca(+2), Fe(+2), Mn(+2), Cr(+3), Sn(+2) and Mg(+2) exposure of rainbow trout liver on the enzymatic activity of glutathione reductase (GR) were investigated. GR was purified from rainbow trout liver 1419-fold with a yield of 38.41% and a specific activity of 22.846?U/mg protein. Following enzyme isolation, inhibitory effects of Co(+2), Zn(+2), Ca(+2), Fe(+2), Mn(+2), Cr(+3) and Sn(+2) were analysed. IC(50) values of the metal ions ranged from 42.2 to 657 µM, and the K(i) constants ranged from 24.2 to 567µ. Co(+2), Zn(+2), Fe(+2) and Cr(+3) exhibited competitive inhibition whereas others inhibited the enzyme in non-competitive manner. Cobalt was the most powerful inhibitor among others having the lowest IC(50) and K(i) values. Magnesium exhibited activatory effect on the enzyme. PMID:21985469

Ekinci, Deniz; ?entürk, Murat

2011-10-10

406

The lipoprotein lipase of white adipose tissue. Studies on the intracellular distribution of the adipocyte-associated enzyme.  

PubMed

The separation of rat epididymal adipocytes into plasma-membrane, mitochondrial, microsomal and cytosol fractions is described. The fractions, which were characterized by marker-enzyme analysis and electron-micrographic observation, from the cells of fed and 24 h-starved animals were used to prepare acetone/diethyl ether-dried powders for the measurement of lipoprotein lipase activities. The highest specific activities and proportion of recovered lipoprotein lipase activity were found in the plasma-membrane and microsomal fractions. The two fractions from the cells of fed rats showed similar activities and enrichments of the enzyme, these activities being higher than the plasma-membrane and lower than the microsomal activities recovered from the cells of starved animals. Chicken and guinea-pig anti-(rat lipoprotein lipase) sera were prepared, and an indirect labelled-second-antibody cellular immunoassay, using 125I-labelled rabbit anti-(chicken IgG) or 125I-labelled sheep anti-(guinea-pig IgG) antibodies respectively, for the detection of cell-surface enzyme was devised and optimized. The amount of immunodetectable cell-surface lipoprotein lipase was higher for cells isolated from fed animals than for cells from 24 h-starved animals, when either anti-(lipoprotein lipase) serum was used in the assay. The amount of immunodetectable cell-surface lipoprotein lipase fell further when starvation was extended to 48 h. The lipoprotein lipase of plasma-membrane vesicles was shown to be a patent activity and to be immunodetectable in a modification of the cellular immunoassay. Although the functional significance of the adipocyte surface lipoprotein lipase is not known, the possibility of it forming a pool of enzyme en route to the capillary endothelium is advanced. PMID:3790091

Al-Jafari, A A; Cryer, A

1986-06-15

407

Effect of Commiphora mukul gum resin on hepatic marker enzymes, lipid peroxidation and antioxidants status in pancreas and heart of streptozotocin induced diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

Objective To study the antioxidant efficacy of Commiphora mukul (C. mukul) gum resin ethanolic extract in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Methods The male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into four groups of eight animals each: Control group (C), CM-treated control group (C+CMEE), Diabetic control group (D), CM- treated diabetic group (D+CMEE). Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of STZ (55 mg/kg/ bwt). After being confirmed the diabetic rats were treated with C. mukul gum resin ethanolic extract (CMEE) for 60 days. The biochemical estimations like antioxidant, oxidative stress marker enzymes and hepatic marker enzymes of tissues were performed. Results The diabetic rats showed increased level of enzymatic activities aspartate aminotransaminase (AST), alanine aminotransaminase (ALT) in liver and kidney and oxidative markers like lipid peroxidation (LPO) and protein oxidation (PO) in pancreas and heart. Antioxidant enzyme activities were significantly decreased in the pancreas and heart compared to control group. Administration of CMEE (200 mg/kg bw) to diabetic rats for 60 days significantly reversed the above parameters towards normalcy. Conclusions In conclusion, our data indicate the preventive role of C. mukul against STZ-induced diabetic oxidative stress; hence this plant could be used as an adjuvant therapy for the prevention and/or management of diabetes and aggravated antioxidant status.

Ramesh, B; Karuna, R; Sreenivasa, Reddy S; Haritha, K; Sai, Mangala D; Sasi, Bhusana Rao B; Saralakumari, D

2012-01-01

408

Decreased antioxidant enzyme activity and increased mitochondrial DNA damage in cellular models of Machado-Joseph disease.  

PubMed

Machado-Joseph disease (MJD)/spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by polyglutamine expansion in the ataxin-3 protein that confers a toxic gain of function. Because of the late onset of the disease, we hypothesize that the accumulated oxidative stress or/and defective antioxidant enzyme ability may be contributory factors in the pathogenesis of MJD. In this study, we utilized SK-N-SH and COS7 cells stably transfected with full-length MJD with 78 polyglutamine repeats to examine any alterations in the antioxidant activity. We demonstrated a significant reduction in the ratio of GSH/GSSG and total glutathione content (GSH + 2x GSSG) in mutant MJD cells compared with the wild-type cells under normal or stressful conditions. We also showed that both SK-N-SH-MJD78 and COS7-MJD78-GFP cell lines have lower activities of catalase, glutathione reductase, and superoxide dismutase compared with the wild-type cell lines. In addition, it is known that, when cells are under oxidative stress, the mitochondrial DNA is prone to damage. Our results demonstrated that mitochondrial DNA copy numbers are decreased in mutant cells and SCA3 patients' samples compared with the normal controls. Furthermore, the amount of common mitochondrial DNA 4,977-bp deletion is higher in SCA3 patients compared with that in normal individuals. Overall, mutant ataxin-3 may influence the activity of enzymatic components to remove O(2)(-) and H(2)O(2) efficiently and promote mitochondrial DNA damage or depletion, which leads to dysfunction of mitochondria. Therefore, we suggest that the cell damage caused by greater oxidative stress in SCA3 mutant cells plays an important role, at least in part, in the disease progression. PMID:19185026

Yu, Ya-Chun; Kuo,