These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Estrogen modulates in vitro T cell responses in a concentration- and receptor-dependent manner: effects on intracellular molecular targets and antioxidant enzymes.  

PubMed

Estrogen is a key hormone in facilitating ovulation and maintenance of pregnancy in young females and subsequent decline in its production contributes to the development of age-associated disorders such as hormone-dependent cancer, osteoporosis, and cardiovascular diseases. The mechanisms through which estrogen promotes female-specific diseases with advancing age are unclear especially, its effects on immune system which is vital for the maintenance of homeostasis and health. Although the diverse effects of estrogen on Th immunity (Th1 vs. Th2) have been characterized in several cell-types and animal models, there is no direct mechanistic study to understand its immunomodulatory actions. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the in vitro effects of 17?-estradiol on lymphocytes from the spleen influence cell-mediated immune responses based on its concentration and type of estrogen receptors (ERs) and to assess its mechanism of action at the cellular level. Lymphocytes from the spleens of young Sprague-Dawley rats were isolated and incubated with various concentrations of 17?-estradiol (10(-6)-10(-14)M) and specific ER?- and ?-agonists (10(-6)M, 10(-8)M and 10(-10)M) without or with concanavalin A (Con A) to measure T lymphocyte proliferation, IFN-? and IL-2 production, p-ERK 1/2, p-CREB, and p-Akt, activities of antioxidant enzymes[superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)], and nitric oxide (NO) production. The specificity of ER-mediated actions in lymphocytes was examined by coincubation with nonspecific ER antagonists ICI(182,780) or tamoxifen. Lower concentrations of 17?-estradiol enhanced proliferation of T lymphocytes and IFN-? production without or with Con A stimulation but had no effect on IL-2 production. ER? and ER? agonists induced an increase in T cell proliferation and IFN-? production and these effects were inhibited by tamoxifen. ER? agonist alone enhanced IL-2 production by the lymphocytes. Coincubation with 17?-estradiol and ER?- and ?-agonists augmented p-ERK 1/2, p-CREB, and p-Akt expression in the lymphocytes and tamoxifen reversed the ER agonist-induced effects on these molecular targets. Estrogen increased the activities of SOD, CAT, and GPx in both non-stimulated and Con A-stimulated splenocytes in a concentration-dependent manner. Both ER?- and ?-agonists enhanced CAT and GPx activity while ER?-agonist decreased SOD activity and ER?-agonist increased SOD activity. The effects of ER agonists on the antioxidant enzymes were reversed by ICI(182,780). Coincubation of lower doses of 17?-estradiol with Con A and both ER agonists enhanced NO production while higher dose of estrogen with Con A and ER? agonist suppressed its production and these effects were reversed by tamoxifen. Taken together, these results suggest that the effects of estrogen on the cell-mediated immune responses are dependent upon its concentrations and mediated through specific estrogen receptors involving intracellular signaling pathways and antioxidant enzymes. PMID:23911387

Priyanka, Hannah P; Krishnan, Harini C; Singh, Ran Vijay; Hima, Lalgi; Thyagarajan, Srinivasan

2013-12-01

2

Possible role of Toll-like receptor-2 in the intracellular survival of Staphylococcus aureus in murine peritoneal macrophages: involvement of cytokines and anti-oxidant enzymes.  

PubMed

Effects of blocking toll-like receptor-2 (TLR-2) on the survival of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and cytokine production in peritoneal macrophages of Swiss albino mice were analysed. Macrophages were infected with S. aureus in the presence and absence of anti-TLR-2 antibody. Tumour necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) interleukin-6 (IL-6), interferon-gamma (IFN-?), interleukin-1? (IL-1?), interleukin-12 (IL-12) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) concentrations were measured. Expressions of TLR-2, NF-?B, MyD 88 were analysed by Western Blot. Expression of TLR-2 was increased in S. aureus-infected macrophages with respect to control and was MyD 88 independent. TLR2 blocking significantly reduced TNF-?, IL-6, IL-1? and IL-10 and increased IFN-? and IL-12 production. Decreased catalase activity and increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) by S. aureus with concomitant increase in H2 O2 and nitric oxide (NO) were observed in the case of prior TLR-2 blocking. To understand whether catalase contributing in the intracellular survival, was of bacterial origin or not, 3-amino, 1, 2, 4-triazole (ATZ) was used to inhibit specifically macrophage-derived catalase. Catalase enzyme activity from the whole staphylococcal cells in the presence of ATZ suggested that the released catalase were of extracellular origin. From the intracellular survival assay, it was evident that pretreatment of macrophages with ATZ reduces the bacterial burden in macrophages when infected with the recovered bacteria only from the anti-TLR-2 antibody-treated macrophages after phagocytosis. Catalase protein expression from the whole staphylococcal cells recovered after phagocytosis also indicated the catalase release from S. aureus. Capturing of S. aureus via TLR-2 induces inflammatory reactions through activation of NF-?B-signalling pathways which was MyD88-independent. PMID:24846691

Bishayi, B; Bandyopadhyay, D; Majhi, A; Adhikary, R

2014-08-01

3

Targeting Cellular Antioxidant Enzymes for Treating Atherosclerotic Vascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Atherosclerotic vascular dysfunction is a chronic inflammatory process that spreads from the fatty streak and foam cells through lesion progression. Therefore, its early diagnosis and prevention is unfeasible. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important roles in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic vascular disease. Intracellular redox status is tightly regulated by oxidant and antioxidant systems. Imbalance in these systems causes oxidative or reductive stress which triggers cellular damage or aberrant signaling, and leads to dysregulation. Paradoxically, large clinical trials have shown that non-specific ROS scavenging by antioxidant vitamins is ineffective or sometimes harmful. ROS production can be locally regulated by cellular antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutases, catalase, glutathione peroxidases and peroxiredoxins. Therapeutic approach targeting these antioxidant enzymes might prove beneficial for prevention of ROS-related atherosclerotic vascular disease. Conversely, the development of specific antioxidant enzyme-mimetics could contribute to the clinical effectiveness. PMID:24009865

Kang, Dong Hoon; Kang, Sang Won

2013-01-01

4

Enzyme Mimic to Develop Antioxidant Nanoreactors: From Synthesis to Application  

E-print Network

Enzyme Mimic to Develop Antioxidant Nanoreactors: From Synthesis to Application.................................................................................................................20 1.10.1. Administration of antioxidant enzymes................................................................................20 1.10. 2. Administration of enzyme mimics

Amrhein, Valentin

5

Reactive oxygen species and antioxidant enzymes activity of Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 (Cyanobacterium) under simulated microgravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It was found that reactive oxygen species in Anabaena cells increased under simulated microgravity provided by clinostat. Activities of intracellular antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase were higher than those in the controlled samples during the 7 days' experiment. However, the contents of gluathione, an intracellular antioxidant, decreased in comparison with the controlled samples. The results suggested that microgravity provided by clinostat might break the oxidative/antioxidative balance. It indicated a protective mechanism in algal cells, that the total antioxidant system activity increased, which might play an important role for algal cells to adapt the environmental stress of microgravity.

Li, Gen-bao; Liu, Yong-ding; Wang, Gao-hong; Song, Li-rong

2004-12-01

6

Antioxidative enzyme activities in human erythrocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reliable and standardized methods are necessary to determine the expression of antioxidative enzymes and their role in maintaining health. In addition, the vari- ability of the enzyme activities within the general pop- ulation caused by age, gender, and life-style factors must be described. This study describes methodological conditions that are suitable for analyzing copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD), glutathione peroxi- dase

Helle Raun Andersen; Jesper B. Nielsen; Flemming Nielsen; Philippe Grandjean

7

Antioxidant enzyme influences germination, stress tolerance, and virulence of Isaria fumosorosea.  

PubMed

Antioxidizing enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidae) are important enzymatic systems used to degrade hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen, thereby lowering intracellular hydrogen peroxide levels. Entomopathogenic fungi display increased activities of antioxidizing enzymes during growth and germination, which is necessary to counteract the hyperoxidant state produced by oxidative metabolism. We studied the influence of different carbon sources on antioxidizing enzyme production by Isaria fumosorosea to determine the importance of antioxiding enzymes induction in fungal germination, stress tolerance and virulence. Conidia produced by colonies grown on hydrocarbons showed higher rates of enzyme activities compared to the control and the enzyme activities of the conidia produced on n-octacosane were higher than all the other treatments. The lipid peroxidation activities were observed as an indicative marker of oxidative damage to cells and the lowest levels of lipid peroxidation activities were observed for n-octacosane treatment. The increased enzyme activities of n-octacosane- grown conidia were accompanied by higher levels of resistance to exogenous hydrogen peroxide, reduction in germination time and higher virulence against Spodoptera exigua. Our study has helped to identify that increased activities of antioxidizing enzymes can improve the germination and tolerance to antioxidant stress response of I. fumosorosea. PMID:23756951

Ali, Shaukat; Huang, Zhen; Li, Huaxing; Bashir, Muhammad Hamid; Ren, Shunxiang

2013-06-01

8

Seasonal variations in antioxidant enzyme activity in ram seminal plasma  

E-print Network

Seasonal variations in antioxidant enzyme activity in ram seminal plasma E. Marti a , L. Mara b , J reproductive technology. A dynamic interplay between pro- and anti-antioxidant substances in the ejaculate is essential. In this study, we determined seasonal changes in the activity of the antioxidant enzyme defense

Zaragoza, Universidad de

9

ORIGINAL PAPER Antioxidant and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Antioxidant and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activity of yoghurt calcium caseinate (SCC) and whey protein concentrate (WPC) on the antioxidant and angiotensin, SCC, and WPC at 2% and 4% ratios. The antioxidant activity was determined using 2,2,-diphenyl-1

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

10

Altered Levels of Primary Antioxidant Enzymes in Progeria Skin Fibroblasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Free radicals are involved in the aging process. In this study, the profile of primary antioxidant enzymes that scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) was examined for the first time in human skin fibroblasts from progeria, a premature aging disease. Altered levels of antioxidant enzymes were found in progeria cells. Basal levels of MnSOD were decreased in progeria cells as well

Tao Yan; Shijun Li; Xiaohong Jiang; Larry W. Oberley

1999-01-01

11

Protective role of antioxidant enzymes under high temperature stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was conducted to study the effect of high temperature stress on the antioxidant enzyme activity in five wheat genotypes viz., PBW 343, PBW 175, HDR-77, HD 2815 and HD 2865. There was significant increase in the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and catalase (CAT) in the late and very late planting and at all stages

Moaed Almeselmani; P. S. Deshmukh; R. K. Sairam; S. R. Kushwaha; T. P. Singh

2006-01-01

12

Trypanosoma cruzi Antioxidant Enzymes As Virulence Factors in Chagas Disease  

PubMed Central

Abstract Significance: Chagas disease (CD) affects several million people in Latin America and is spreading beyond its classical boundaries due to the migration of infected host and insect vectors, HIV co-infection, and blood transfusion. The current therapy is not adequate for treatment of the chronic phase of CD, and new drugs are warranted. Recent Advances: Trypanosoma cruzi is equipped with a specialized and complex network of antioxidant enzymes that are located at different subcellular compartments which defend the parasite against host oxidative assaults. Recently, strong evidence has emerged which indicates that enzyme components of the T. cruzi antioxidant network (cytosolic and mitochondrial peroxiredoxins and trypanothione synthetase) in naturally occurring strains act as a virulence factor for CD. This precept is recapitulated with the observed increased resistance of T. cruzi peroxirredoxins overexpressers to in vivo or in vitro nitroxidative stress conditions. In addition, the modulation of mitochondrial superoxide radical levels by iron superoxide dismutase (FeSODA) influences parasite programmed cell death, underscoring the role of this enzyme in parasite survival. Critical Issues: The unraveling of the biological significance of FeSODs in T. cruzi programmed cell death in the context of chronic infection in CD is still under examination. Future Directions: The role of the antioxidant enzymes in the pathogenesis of CD, including parasite virulence and persistence, and their feasibility as pharmacological targets justifies further investigation. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 723–734. PMID:22458250

Piacenza, Lucia; Peluffo, Gonzalo; Alvarez, Maria Noel; Martinez, Alejandra

2013-01-01

13

Catalase (antioxidant enzyme) activity in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: High concentration and\\/or inadequate removal of reactive oxygen species may result in oxidative stress that may cause severe metabolic malfunction. An imbalance in antioxidant enzymes has been related to specific pathologies such as diabetic complications. Catalase catalyzes the reduction of hydroperoxides, thereby protecting mammalian cells against oxidative damage. In addition, catalase is active in neutralizing reactive oxygen species and

Durdi Qujeq; Timur Rezvani

14

Analytical modeling of the interaction of enzyme catalysis and diffusion processes at the intracellular level  

E-print Network

for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1977 Major Subject: Bioengineering ANALYTICAL MODELING OF THE INTERACTION OF ENZYME CATALYSIS AND DIFFUSION PROCESSES AT THE INTRACELLULAR LEVEL A Thesis by Duane Willbern Faith Approved as to style and content by... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1977 Major Subject: Bioengineering ANALYTICAL MODELING OF THE INTERACTION OF ENZYME CATALYSIS AND DIFFUSION PROCESSES AT THE INTRACELLULAR LEVEL A Thesis by Duane Willbern Faith Approved as to style and content by...

Faith, Duane Willbern

2012-06-07

15

Superoxide production and antioxidant enzymes in ammonia intoxication in rats.  

PubMed

Injection of large doses of ammonium salts lead to the rapid death of animals. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in ammonia toxicity remain to be clarified. We have tested the effect of injecting 7 mmol/kg of ammonium acetate on the production of superoxide and on the activities of some antioxidant enzymes in rat liver, brain, erythrocytes and plasma. Glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were decreased in liver and brain (both in cytosolic and mitochondrial fractions) and also in blood red cells, while glutathione reductase activity remained unchanged. Superoxide production in submitochondrial particles from liver and brain was increased by more than 100% in both tissues. Both diminished activity of antioxidant enzymes and increased superoxide radical production could lead to oxidative stress and cell damage, which could be involved in the mechanism of acute ammonia toxicity. PMID:9455699

Kosenko, E; Kaminsky, Y; Kaminsky, A; Valencia, M; Lee, L; Hermenegildo, C; Felipo, V

1997-12-01

16

Increased Peroxidation and Reduced Antioxidant Enzyme Activity in Alzheimer's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overall peroxidation activity in brain tissue by region from patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and age-matched controls was determined employing the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) assay, a measure of lipid peroxidation, followed by a determination the activities of the antioxidant enzymes Cu\\/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and catalase (CAT), in the frontal, temporal, and cerebellar cortex of

David L. Marcus; Christopher Thomas; Charles Rodriguez; Katherine Simberkoff; Jir S. Tsai; James A. Strafaci; Michael L. Freedman

1998-01-01

17

Role of antioxidative enzymes in red rot resistance in sugarcane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antioxidative enzymes viz. peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase activities have been investigated in the internodes\\u000a of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) following inoculation with conidia of red rot fungus (Colletotrichum falcatum Went). Two cultivars (cvs) with varying sensitivity to red rot, viz., CoJ 64 (susceptible) and CoS 8436 (resistant) were\\u000a used. The spread of infection i.e. the movement of fungal mycelium

Bavita Asthir; Kanwal Preet; Suresh K. Batta; Bipen Sharma

2009-01-01

18

Focus on antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant strategies in smoking related airway diseases  

PubMed Central

Cigarette smoke causes significant oxidant stress which is further enhanced by recruitment and activation of inflammatory cells to the lung. Polymorphisms in some detoxification enzymes are thought to increase the risk of developing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but the ultimate role of genetic variability in antioxidant and/or detoxification enzymes in COPD remains obscure. Some antioxidant enzymes are inducted, but the extent of induction is insufficient to protect the lung/alveolar epithelium against cigarette smoke. Exogenous antioxidants such as vitamins do not seem to protect against cigarette smoke related lung injury. Glutathione related synthetic drugs such as N-acetylcysteine have shown some benefits, but they may have pro-oxidant side effects. Synthetic compounds with superoxide dismutase and catalase activities have shown promising results in animal models against a variety of oxidant exposures including cigarette smoke in the lung. These results are in agreement with studies highlighting the importance of alveolar antioxidant protection mechanisms in oxidant stress and their inducibility. These new drugs need to be tested in cigarette smoking related lung injury/inflammation since inflammation/oxidant stress can continue after discontinuation of smoking. PMID:16061713

Kinnula, V

2005-01-01

19

Antioxidant enzyme activity in endemic Baikalean versus Palaearctic amphipods: Tagma and size-related changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activities of key antioxidant enzymes in two endemic Baikalean amphipod species: Pallasea cancelloides (Gerstf), Eulimnogammarus verrucosus (Gerstf) and the widely distributed Palearctic species Gammarus lacustris (Sars) were studied. This work was done to prove or disprove the hypothesis that Baikalean endemics have specifics in antioxidants system different from Palearctic species. The activities of antioxidant enzymes peroxidase, catalase and glutathione-S-transferase

M. A. Timofeyev

2006-01-01

20

Chilling stress-induced changes of antioxidant enzymes in the leaves of cucumber: in gel enzyme activity assays  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the antioxidant defense system, chilling stress-induced changes of antioxidant enzymes were examined in the leaves of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Chilling stress preferentially enhanced the activities of the superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR) and peroxidase specific to guaiacol, whereas it induced the decrease of catalase activity. In order to analyze the changes of antioxidant

Dong Hee Lee; Chin Bum Lee

2000-01-01

21

Standardized Assay Medium To Measure Lactococcus lactis Enzyme Activities while Mimicking Intracellular Conditions  

PubMed Central

Knowledge of how the activity of enzymes is affected under in vivo conditions is essential for analyzing their regulation and constructing models that yield an integrated understanding of cell behavior. Current kinetic parameters for Lactococcus lactis are scattered through different studies and performed under different assay conditions. Furthermore, assay conditions often diverge from conditions prevailing in the intracellular environment. To establish uniform assay conditions that resemble intracellular conditions, we analyzed the intracellular composition of anaerobic glucose-limited chemostat cultures of L. lactis subsp. cremoris MG 1363. Based on this, we designed a new assay medium for enzyme activity measurements of growing cells of L. lactis, mimicking as closely as practically possible its intracellular environment. Procedures were optimized to be carried out in 96-well plates, and the reproducibility and dynamic range were checked for all enzyme activity measurements. The effects of freezing and the carryover of ammonium sulfate from the addition of coupling enzymes were also established. Activities of all 10 glycolytic and 4 fermentative enzymes were measured. Remarkably, most in vivo-like activities were lower than previously published data. Yet, the ratios of Vmax over measured in vivo fluxes were above 1. With this work, we have developed and extensively validated standard protocols for enzyme activity measurements for L. lactis. PMID:22020503

Goel, Anisha; Santos, Filipe; de Vos, Willem M.; Teusink, Bas

2012-01-01

22

Bilberry and blueberry anthocyanins act as powerful intracellular antioxidants in mammalian cells.  

PubMed

Berry anthocyanins have pronounced health effects, even though they have a low bioavailability. The common mechanism underlying health protection is believed to relate to antioxidant activity. Berry extracts, chemically characterised for their phenolic content, were prepared from bilberries (Vaccinium myrtillusL.) and blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosumL.); the bilberry extract was further purified to obtain the anthocyanin fraction. The antioxidant activity of each extract was examined at the cellular level. For this purpose a specific assay, known as cellular antioxidant activity assay (CAA), was implemented in different cell lines: human colon cancer (Caco-2), human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2), human endothelial (EA.hy926) and rat vascular smooth muscle (A7r5). Here we show for the first time that anthocyanins had intracellular antioxidant activity if applied at very low concentrations (<1 ?g/l; nM range), thereby providing a long-sought rationale for their health protecting effects in spite of their unfavorable pharmacokinetic properties. PMID:23442633

Bornsek, Spela Moze; Ziberna, Lovro; Polak, Tomaz; Vanzo, Andreja; Ulrih, Natasa Poklar; Abram, Veronika; Tramer, Federica; Passamonti, Sabina

2012-10-15

23

Antioxidant enzyme activities are not broadly correlated with longevity in 14 vertebrate endotherm species  

PubMed Central

The free radical theory of ageing posits that accrual of oxidative damage underlies the increased cellular, tissue and organ dysfunction and failure associated with advanced age. In support of this theory, cellular resistance to oxidative stress is highly correlated with life span, suggesting that prevention or repair of oxidative damage might indeed be essential for longevity. To test the hypothesis that the prevention of oxidative damage underlies longevity, we measured the activities of the five major intracellular antioxidant enzymes in brain, heart and liver tissue of 14 mammalian and avian species with maximum life spans (MLSPs) ranging from 3 years to over 100 years. Our data set included Snell dwarf mice in which life span is increased by ?50% compared to their normal littermates. We found that CuZn superoxide dismutase, the major cytosolic superoxide dismutase, showed no correlation with MLSP in any of the three organs. Similarly, neither glutathione peroxidase nor glutathione reductase activities correlated with MLSP. MnSOD, the sole mitochondrial superoxide dismutase in mammals and birds, was positively correlated with MLSP only for brain tissue. This same trend was observed for catalase. For all correlational data, effects of body mass and phylogenetic relatedness were removed using residual analysis and Felsenstein’s phylogenetically independent contrasts. Our results are not consistent with a causal role for intracellular antioxidant enzymes in longevity, similar to recent reports from studies utilising genetic modifications of mice (Pérez et al., Biochim Biophys Acta 1790:1005–1014, 2009). However, our results indicate a specific augmentation of reactive oxygen species neutralising activities in brain associated with longevity. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11357-010-9131-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20431992

Page, Melissa M.; Richardson, Jean; Wiens, Brent E.; Tiedtke, Esther; Peters, Craig W.; Faure, Paul A.; Burness, Gary

2010-01-01

24

Antioxidant enzyme activities are not broadly correlated with longevity in 14 vertebrate endotherm species.  

PubMed

The free radical theory of ageing posits that accrual of oxidative damage underlies the increased cellular, tissue and organ dysfunction and failure associated with advanced age. In support of this theory, cellular resistance to oxidative stress is highly correlated with life span, suggesting that prevention or repair of oxidative damage might indeed be essential for longevity. To test the hypothesis that the prevention of oxidative damage underlies longevity, we measured the activities of the five major intracellular antioxidant enzymes in brain, heart and liver tissue of 14 mammalian and avian species with maximum life spans (MLSPs) ranging from 3 years to over 100 years. Our data set included Snell dwarf mice in which life span is increased by approximately 50% compared to their normal littermates. We found that CuZn superoxide dismutase, the major cytosolic superoxide dismutase, showed no correlation with MLSP in any of the three organs. Similarly, neither glutathione peroxidase nor glutathione reductase activities correlated with MLSP. MnSOD, the sole mitochondrial superoxide dismutase in mammals and birds, was positively correlated with MLSP only for brain tissue. This same trend was observed for catalase. For all correlational data, effects of body mass and phylogenetic relatedness were removed using residual analysis and Felsenstein's phylogenetically independent contrasts. Our results are not consistent with a causal role for intracellular antioxidant enzymes in longevity, similar to recent reports from studies utilising genetic modifications of mice (Pérez et al., Biochim Biophys Acta 1790:1005-1014, 2009). However, our results indicate a specific augmentation of reactive oxygen species neutralising activities in brain associated with longevity. PMID:20431992

Page, Melissa M; Richardson, Jean; Wiens, Brent E; Tiedtke, Esther; Peters, Craig W; Faure, Paul A; Burness, Gary; Stuart, Jeffrey A

2010-06-01

25

Organochlorine pesticides and antioxidant enzymes are inversely correlated with liver enzyme gene expression in Cyprinus carpio.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to investigate the association between levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and liver enzyme responses in Cyprinus carpio. Fish were caught at three stations in the Büyük Menderes River (BMR): the origin, the Sarayköy station, and the estuary. Seventeen OCPs were quantified in liver tissue, as well as in river water by gas chromatography (GC)-electron capture detection, and structures were confirmed by negative chemical ionization-GC-mass spectrometry. The activities of CYP1A, GST, Se-GPx, CAT, and SODs were determined by spectrophotometry or fluorimetry. The mRNA levels of CYP1A, GST, and SOD1 were quantified by real-time RT-PCR. CYP1A and antioxidant enzyme activities were dramatically higher at the Sarayköy station, where OCP pollution is higher than the other two stations. Mn-SOD is responsible for the increase in total SOD activity in the Sarayköy samples. However, gene expression levels of certain enzymes were heavily suppressed. Our findings show that the transcriptional and functional responses of CYP1A and antioxidant enzymes are inversely correlated. PMID:24583044

Karaca, Melis; Var??l?, Lokman; Korkmaz, Kemal; Ozayd?n, Okan; Perçin, Fatih; Orhan, Hilmi

2014-10-15

26

Expression and antioxidant enzymes in Chaetoceros neogracile, an Antarctic alga.  

PubMed

We examined low temperature-induced protein profile alterations in the Antarctic alga Chaetoceros neogracile using a proteomic approach. Chaetoceros neogracile was cultured at 4 degree C and then cooled to 0 degree C, and the resultant cold-induced alterations in protein expression patterns were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Of the approximately 150 protein spots detected by Coomassie staining, we identified 15 with a greater than two-fold change in amount. Of these, ten proteins were up-regulated and five were down-regulated after cold exposure. Three cellular protein quality control proteins, such as chaperone protein DnaK, chaperone ClpB, and 26S protease regulatory subunit 6B homolog were prominently increased, whereas chaperone protein HtpG was decreased in response to cold stress. Moreover, changes in enzyme activity and isozyme profiles for superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione S-transferase were also detected in the gel, using an enzyme activity staining method. These alterations in protein expression and antioxidant enzyme activity may be related to survival mechanisms of C. neogracile at low temperatures. PMID:19137198

Park, Seul-Ki; Jin, Eon Seon; Lee, Mi-Young

2008-01-01

27

Disparate Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Cultured Human Cutaneous Fibroblasts, Keratinocytes, and Melanocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antioxidant enzyme activities of cultured human foreskin fibroblasts, keratinocytes and melanocytes from healthy black and Caucasian donors were measured and compared. Fibroblasts had more (p < 0.05) peroxidase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity than keratinocytes. Keratinocytes had more (p < 0.05) peroxidase, catalase, glutathione peroxidas, and superoxide dismutase activity than melanocytes. No differences in antioxidant enzyme activities were

Joseph J. Yohn; David A. Norris; David G. Yrastorza; Irene J. Buno; Jonathan A. Leff; Steven S. Hake; John E. Repine

1991-01-01

28

Different effects of exercise tests on the antioxidant enzyme activities in lymphocytes and neutrophils  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have determined the effects of maximal and submaximal cycloergometer tests on the antioxidant enzyme defences of neutrophils and lymphocytes. We also compared the neutrophil and lymphocyte basal enzyme antioxidant activities. A total of 17 well-trained amateur athletes, runners, and cyclists participated in this study. Two tests were performed on an electromagnetic reduction cycloergometer: the maximal exercise test, and the

Pedro Tauler; Antoni Aguiló; Isabel Gimeno; Pilar Guix; Josep A Tur; Antoni Pons

2004-01-01

29

Tandem antioxidant enzymes confer synergistic protective responses in experimental filariasis.  

PubMed

Helminth parasites use antioxidant defence strategies for survival during oxidative stress due to free radicals in the host. Accordingly, tissue-dwelling filarial parasites counteract host responses by releasing a number of antioxidants. Targeting these redox regulation proteins together, would facilitate effective parasite clearance. Here, we report the combined effect of protective immune responses trigged by recombinant Wuchereria bancrofti thioredoxin (WbTRX) and thioredoxin peroxidase (WbTPX) in an experimental filarial model. The expression of WbTRX and WbTPX in different stages of the parasite and their cross-reactivity were analysed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The immunogenicity of recombinant proteins and their protective efficacy were studied in animal models when immunized in single or cocktail mode. The antigens showed cross-reactive epitopes and induced high humoral and cellular immune responses in mice. Further, parasite challenge against Brugia malayi L3 larvae in Mastomys coucha conferred significant protection of 57% and 62% against WbTRX and WbTPX respectively. The efficacy of L3 clearance was significantly higher (71%) (P <  0.001) when the antigens were immunized together, showing a synergistic effect in multiple-mode vaccination. Hence, the study suggests WbTRX and WbTPX to be attractive vaccine candidates when immunized together and provides a tandem block for parasite elimination in the control of lymphatic filariasis. PMID:23676147

Prince, P R; Madhumathi, J; Anugraha, G; Jeyaprita, P J; Reddy, M V R; Kaliraj, P

2014-12-01

30

Protection of Cells against Oxidative Stress by Nanomolar Levels of Hydroxyflavones Indicates a New Type of Intracellular Antioxidant Mechanism  

PubMed Central

Natural polyphenol compounds are often good antioxidants, but they also cause damage to cells through more or less specific interactions with proteins. To distinguish antioxidant activity from cytotoxic effects we have tested four structurally related hydroxyflavones (baicalein, mosloflavone, negletein, and 5,6-dihydroxyflavone) at very low and physiologically relevant levels, using two different cell lines, L-6 myoblasts and THP-1 monocytes. Measurements using intracellular fluorescent probes and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy in combination with cytotoxicity assays showed strong antioxidant activities for baicalein and 5,6-dihydroxyflavone at picomolar concentrations, while 10 nM partially protected monocytes against the strong oxidative stress induced by 200 µM cumene hydroperoxide. Wide range dose-dependence curves were introduced to characterize and distinguish the mechanism and targets of different flavone antioxidants, and identify cytotoxic effects which only became detectable at micromolar concentrations. Analysis of these dose-dependence curves made it possible to exclude a protein-mediated antioxidant response, as well as a mechanism based on the simple stoichiometric scavenging of radicals. The results demonstrate that these flavones do not act on the same radicals as the flavonol quercetin. Considering the normal concentrations of all the endogenous antioxidants in cells, the addition of picomolar or nanomolar levels of these flavones should not be expected to produce any detectable increase in the total cellular antioxidant capacity. The significant intracellular antioxidant activity observed with 1 pM baicalein means that it must be scavenging radicals that for some reason are not eliminated by the endogenous antioxidants. The strong antioxidant effects found suggest these flavones, as well as quercetin and similar polyphenolic antioxidants, at physiologically relevant concentrations act as redox mediators to enable endogenous antioxidants to reach and scavenge different pools of otherwise inaccessible radicals. PMID:23637768

Hajek, Jan; Stankova, Veronika; Filipsky, Tomas; Balducci, Valentina; De Vito, Paolo; Leone, Stefano; Bavavea, Eugenia I.; Silvestri, Ilaria Proietti; Righi, Giuliana; Luly, Paolo; Saso, Luciano; Bovicelli, Paolo; Pedersen, Jens Z.; Incerpi, Sandra

2013-01-01

31

Potential Degradation of Swainsonine by Intracellular Enzymes of Arthrobacter sp. HW08  

PubMed Central

Swainsonine (SW) is a toxin produced by locoweeds and harmful to the livestock industry. Degrading SW by Arthrobacter sp. HW08 was demonstrated as a promising way to deal with SW poisoning. However, it is unknown which part of the subcellular enzymes in Arthrobacter sp. HW08 is responsible for biodegrading SW and whether the metabolites are atoxic. In this study, intracellular and extracellular enzymes of Arthrobacter sp. HW08 were isolated and their enzyme activity was evaluated. The metabolites were fed to mice, and physiological and histological properties of the treated mice were investigated. The results showed that only intracellular enzyme of Arthrobacter sp. HW08 (IEHW08) could degrade SW efficiently. Compared with mice in SW treatment group, mice in SW + IEHW08 treatment group (1) increased their body weights; (2) showed higher number of platelets and lower number of white blood cells; (3) decreased the levels of creatinine, urea nitrogen, alanine transaminase and aspartate aminotransferase in serum; (4) reduced the number of vacuolated cells in cerebellum, liver and kidney. All these data demonstrate that IEHW08 was potentially safe for mice, while keeping the capacity of degrading SW. This study indicates a possible application of IEHW08 as an additive in the livestock industry to protect animals from SW poisoning. PMID:24240642

Wang, Yan; Li, Yanhong; Hu, Yanchun; Li, Jincheng; Yang, Guodong; Kang, Danju; Li, Haili; Wang, Jianhua

2013-01-01

32

Microtubule Formation and Activities of Antioxidative Enzymes in PC12 Cells Exposed to Phosphatidylcholine Hydroperoxides  

PubMed Central

Aging increases free radical generation and lipid oxidation and, thereby, mediates neurodegenerative diseases. As the brain is rich in lipids (polyunsaturated fatty acids), the antioxidative system plays an important role in protecting brain tissues from oxidative injury. The changes in microtubule formation and antioxidative enzyme activities have been investigated in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells exposed to various concentrations of phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxides (PCOOH). We measured three typical antioxidative enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT). The microtubule assembly system was dependent on the antioxidative enzyme system in cells exposed to oxidative stress. The activities of the three enzymes increased in a PCOOH exposure-dependent manner. In particular, the changes in the activity as a result of PCOOH exposure were similar in the three antioxidative enzymes. This is the first report indicating the compatibility between the tubulin-microtubule and antioxidative enzyme systems in cells that deteriorate as a result of phospholipid hydroperoxide administration from an exterior source. The descending order of sensitivity of the three enzymes to PCOOH is also discussed. PMID:23443078

Yamanaka, Yukako; Yoshida-Yamamoto, Shumi; Doi, Hiroshi

2012-01-01

33

Cystatin C Properties Crucial for Uptake and Inhibition of Intracellular Target Enzymes*  

PubMed Central

To elucidate the molecular requirements for cancer cell internalization of the extracellular cysteine protease inhibitor cystatin C, 12 variants of the protein were produced and used for uptake experiments in MCF-7 cells. Variants with alterations in the cysteine cathepsin binding region ((?1–10)-, K5A-, R8G-, (R8G,L9G,V10G)-, (R8G,L9G,V10G,W106G)-, and W106G-cystatin C) were internalized to a very low extent compared with the wild-type inhibitor. Substitutions of N39 in the legumain binding region (N39K- and N39A-cystatin C) decreased the internalization and (R24A,R25A)-cystatin C, with substitutions of charged residues not involved in enzyme inhibition, was not taken up at all. Two variants, W106F- and K75A-cystatin C, showed that the internalization can be positively affected by engineering of the cystatin molecule. Microscopy revealed vesicular co-localization of internalized cystatin C with the lysosomal marker proteins cathepsin D and legumain. Activities of both cysteine cathepsins and legumain, possible target enzymes associated with cancer cell invasion and metastasis, were down-regulated in cell homogenates following cystatin C uptake. A positive effect on regulation of intracellular enzyme activity by a cystatin variant selected from uptake properties was illustrated by incubating cells with W106F-cystatin C. This resulted in more efficient down-regulation of intracellular legumain activity than when cells were incubated with wild-type cystatin C. Uptake experiments in prostate cancer cells corroborated that the cystatin C internalization is generally relevant and confirmed an increased uptake of W106F-cystatin C, in PC3 cells. Thus, intracellular cysteine proteases involved in cancer-promoting processes might be controled by cystatin uptake. PMID:23629651

Wallin, Hanna; Abrahamson, Magnus; Ekstrom, Ulf

2013-01-01

34

Cystatin C properties crucial for uptake and inhibition of intracellular target enzymes.  

PubMed

To elucidate the molecular requirements for cancer cell internalization of the extracellular cysteine protease inhibitor cystatin C, 12 variants of the protein were produced and used for uptake experiments in MCF-7 cells. Variants with alterations in the cysteine cathepsin binding region ((?1-10)-, K5A-, R8G-, (R8G,L9G,V10G)-, (R8G,L9G,V10G,W106G)-, and W106G-cystatin C) were internalized to a very low extent compared with the wild-type inhibitor. Substitutions of N39 in the legumain binding region (N39K- and N39A-cystatin C) decreased the internalization and (R24A,R25A)-cystatin C, with substitutions of charged residues not involved in enzyme inhibition, was not taken up at all. Two variants, W106F- and K75A-cystatin C, showed that the internalization can be positively affected by engineering of the cystatin molecule. Microscopy revealed vesicular co-localization of internalized cystatin C with the lysosomal marker proteins cathepsin D and legumain. Activities of both cysteine cathepsins and legumain, possible target enzymes associated with cancer cell invasion and metastasis, were down-regulated in cell homogenates following cystatin C uptake. A positive effect on regulation of intracellular enzyme activity by a cystatin variant selected from uptake properties was illustrated by incubating cells with W106F-cystatin C. This resulted in more efficient down-regulation of intracellular legumain activity than when cells were incubated with wild-type cystatin C. Uptake experiments in prostate cancer cells corroborated that the cystatin C internalization is generally relevant and confirmed an increased uptake of W106F-cystatin C, in PC3 cells. Thus, intracellular cysteine proteases involved in cancer-promoting processes might be controled by cystatin uptake. PMID:23629651

Wallin, Hanna; Abrahamson, Magnus; Ekström, Ulf

2013-06-01

35

Defense of parsnip webworm against phototoxic furanocoumarins: Role of antioxidant enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The parsnip webworm,Depressaria pastinacella (Lepidoptera: Oecophoridae), feeds on plants rich in furanocoumarins, phototoxic allomones. Final-instar larvae possess high levels of activities of antioxidant enzymes (Superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase), which detoxify oxygen radicals generated from the furanocoumarins of their host plants. When added to an artificial diet, three linear furanocoumarins (xanthotoxin, bergapten, imperatorin) do not increase levels of the antioxidant

Keywan Lee; May R. Berenbaum

1990-01-01

36

Major Shifts in the Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Lung Antioxidant Enzymes during Influenza Pneumonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the incessant challenge of exposure to the air we breathe, lung tissue suffers the highest levels of oxygen tension and thus requires robust antioxidant defenses. Furthermore, following injury or infection, lung tissue faces the additional challenge of inflammation-induced reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS\\/RNS). Little is known about the identity or distribution of lung antioxidant enzymes under normal conditions

Yoshiyuki Yamada; Gino V. Limmon; Dahai Zheng; Na Li; Liang Li; Lu Yin; Vincent T. K. Chow; Jianzhu Chen; Bevin P. Engelward

2012-01-01

37

Interrelationship between oxidative damage and antioxidant enzyme activities: an easy and rapid experimental approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a method for determining some antioxidant enzyme activities (catalase and\\/or glutathione peroxidase) and the oxidative status (protein oxidative damage and\\/or lipid peroxidation) of human blood. However, the main objective of the work is to illustrate the relationship between antioxidant defences and oxidative damage, showing to students their correlation and the general importance of the biochemical regulation in

Jose M. Maté; J. Carlos Aledo; Cristina Pérez-Gómez; Alicia Esteban del Valle; Jose M. Segura

2000-01-01

38

Impairment of Enzymic and Nonenzymic Antioxidants in Skin by UVB Irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antioxidants may play a significant role in ameliorating or preventing photobiologic damage in skin that could lead to cutaneous disorders such as cancer and premature aging. The objective of this study was to assess the acute cutaneous enzymic and nonenzymic antioxidant response to a single exposure of large fluence (300 mJ\\/cm2) ultraviolet radiation (> 280 nm) in hairless mice. This

Jürgen Fuchs; Margaret E. Huflejt; Laurie M. Rothfuss; David S. Wilson; Gerardo Carcamo; Lester Packer

1989-01-01

39

Antioxidant Enzyme Levels in Pathogenesis of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC).  

PubMed

Increased oxidative stress and altered anti-oxidant defense systems have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases including cancer. Therefore, the aim of our study is to evaluate the antioxidant enzyme levels such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase in blood samples and tissues collected from oral squamous cell carcinoma patients and compared with healthy controls.The collected blood samples and tumor tissues from the diseased individuals and the normal controls are analyzed for malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO), which is the indicator of oxidative and nitrosative stress respectively. The anti-oxidant enzymes SOD and catalase levels are measured by UV visible spectrophotometer. Subsequently, immuno-histostaining for antioxidant enzymes were performed in oral squamous cell carcinoma biopsies and sections were analyzed.The levels of MDA and NO were significantly elevated in the blood and tissue samples of OSCC patients. The antioxidant enzymes SOD and catalase were significantly reduced in OSCC tissues; while in erythrocytes catalase level is reduced whereas the SOD level is increased. Further, the reduced immuno-histostaining was observed for catalase and SOD in OSCC tissues when compared to normal oral epithelium.The enhanced levels of MDA and NO revealed that increased oxidative stress in conjunction with the reduced antioxidant defense mechanism in OSCC patients, might be involved in cancer progression. Our results suggest that detection of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant enzymes levels might be a valuable marker in cancer prognosis and for improving therapeutic strategies in oral cancer. PMID:24623030

Huo, W; Li, Z-M; Pan, X-Y; Bao, Y-M; An, L-J

2014-11-01

40

Antioxidative enzymes and isozymes analysis of taro genotypes and their implications in Phytophthora blight disease resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessment of the differential expression of antioxidative enzymes and their isozymes, was done in 30 day-old ex vitro raised\\u000a plants of three highly resistant (DP-25, Jhankri and Duradim) and one highly susceptible (N-118) genotypes of taro [Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott]. Antioxidative enzymes were assayed in the ex vitro plants, 7 days after inoculation with the spores (15,000\\u000a spores ml?1 water) of

Manas Ranjan Sahoo; Madhumita DasGupta; Paresh C. Kole; Jayant S. Bhat; Archana Mukherjee

2007-01-01

41

Effect of dietary supplementation of probiotics and palm fruits extracts on the antioxidant enzyme gene expression in the mucosae of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.).  

PubMed

Antioxidant activity is particularly important, since oxidation is an unavoidable reaction in all living bodies. At present, natural antioxidants to be used on food as an alternative to synthetic ones are being sought. Gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) specimens were fed for 4 weeks with diets enriched with bacterial probiotics (Shewanella putrefaciens Pdp11 and Bacillus sp), single or in combination with Tunisian dates palm fruit extracts. The expression of the main antioxidant enzyme genes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione reductase) in the mucosae (gut, skin and gill) was evaluated after 2 and 4 weeks. Previously, free radical scavenging and several antioxidant assays were developed to know the antioxidant properties present on the palm fruits extracts. The results demonstrated that experimental diets alter the expression of the studied antioxidant genes, primarily in the gill and skin. Furthermore, the tested probiotics and mainly, the aqueous date palm fruits extracts had significant antioxidant properties based on their protective effect against the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species, especially when administering during 4 weeks. For this reason, probiotics and date palm fruit extracts may serve as good natural antioxidants and could potentially be considered as a functional food ingredient for fish in farms. PMID:24952087

Esteban, M A; Cordero, H; Martínez-Tomé, M; Jiménez-Monreal, A M; Bakhrouf, A; Mahdhi, A

2014-08-01

42

Copper toxicity in Ceratophyllum demersum L. (Coontail), a free floating macrophyte: Response of antioxidant enzymes and antioxidants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Copper-induced oxidative stress, response of antioxidative enzymes and substances were investigated in Ceratophyllumdemersum L. (Coontail), a free floating macrophyte to understand the mechanisms of Cu resistance. Bioconcentration of Cu in plants treated with 2 and 4 ?M Cu for 24 h was dependent on external Cu concentration. Cu uptake decreased the chlorophyll content and increased both lipid peroxidation and leakage

S Rama Devi; M. N. V Prasad

1998-01-01

43

Antioxidative capacity and enzyme activity in Haematococcus pluvialis cells exposed to superoxide free radicals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The antioxidative capacity of astaxanthin and enzyme activity of reactive oxygen eliminating enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) were studied in three cell types of Haematococcus pluvialis exposed to high concentrations of a superoxide anion radical (O{2/-}). The results show that defensive enzymes and astaxanthin-related mechanisms were both active in H. pluvialis during exposure to reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as O{2/-}. Astaxanthin reacted with ROS much faster than did the protective enzymes, and had the strongest antioxidative capacity to protect against lipid peroxidation. The defensive mechanisms varied significantly between the three cell types and were related to the level of astaxanthin that had accumulated in those cells. Astaxanthin-enriched red cells had the strongest antioxidative capacity, followed by brown cells, and astaxanthin-deficient green cells. Although there was no significant increase in expression of protective enzymes, the malondialdehyde (MDA) content in red cells was sustained at a low level because of the antioxidative effect of astaxanthin, which quenched O{2/-} before the protective enzymes could act. In green cells, astaxanthin is very low or absent; therefore, scavenging of ROS is inevitably reliant on antioxidative enzymes. Accordingly, in green cells, these enzymes play the leading role in scavenging ROS, and the expression of these enzymes is rapidly increased to reduce excessive ROS. However, because ROS were constantly increased in this study, the enhance enzyme activity in the green cells was not able to repair the ROS damage, leading to elevated MDA content. Of the four defensive enzymes measured in astaxanthin-deficient green cells, SOD eliminates O{2/-}, POD eliminates H2O2, which is a by-product of SOD activity, and APX and CAT are then initiated to scavenge excessive ROS.

Liu, Jianguo; Zhang, Xiaoli; Sun, Yanhong; Lin, Wei

2010-01-01

44

Induction of antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation level in ion-beam-bombarded rice seeds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low-energy ion beam bombardment has been used to mutate a wide variety of plant species. To explore the indirect effects of low-energy ion beam on biological damage due to the free radical production in plant cells, the increase in antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation level was investigated in ion-bombarded rice seeds. Local rice seeds were bombarded with nitrogen or argon ion beams at energies of 29-60 keV and ion fluences of 1 × 1016 ions cm-2. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and lipid peroxidation level were assayed in the germinated rice seeds after ion bombardment. The results showed most of the enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation levels in both the argon and nitrogen bombarded samples were higher than those in the natural control. N-ion bombardment could induce higher levels of antioxidant enzyme activities in the rice samples than the Ar-ion bombardment. Additional effects due to the vacuum condition were found to affect activities of some antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation level. This study demonstrates that ion beam bombardment and vacuum condition could induce the antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation level which might be due to free radical production in the bombarded rice seeds.

Semsang, Nuananong; Yu, LiangDeng

2013-07-01

45

Age-specific effects on rat lung glutathione and antioxidant enzymes after inhaling ultrafine soot.  

PubMed

Vehicle exhaust is rich in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and is a dominant contributor to urban particulate pollution (PM). Exposure to PM is linked to respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in susceptible populations, such as children. PM can contribute to the development and exacerbation of asthma, and this is thought to occur because of the presence of electrophiles in PM or through electrophile generation via the metabolism of PAHs. Glutathione (GSH), an abundant intracellular antioxidant, confers cytoprotection through conjugation of electrophiles and reduction of reactive oxygen species. GSH-dependent phase II detoxifying enzymes glutathione peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase facilitate metabolism and conjugation, respectively. Ambient particulates are highly variable in composition, which complicates systematic study. In response, we have developed a replicable ultrafine premixed flame particle (PFP)-generating system for in vivo studies. To determine particle effects in the developing lung, 7-day-old neonatal and adult rats inhaled 22 ?g/m(3) PFP during a single 6-hour exposure. Pulmonary GSH and related phase II detoxifying gene and protein expression were evaluated 2, 24, and 48 hours after exposure. Neonates exhibited significant depletion of GSH despite higher initial baseline levels of GSH. Furthermore, we observed attenuated induction of phase II enzymes (glutamate cysteine ligase, glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase, and glutathione peroxidase) in neonates compared with adult rats. We conclude that developing neonates have a limited ability to deviate from their normal developmental pattern that precludes adequate adaptation to environmental pollutants, which results in enhanced cytotoxicity from inhaled PM. PMID:23065132

Chan, Jackie K W; Kodani, Sean D; Charrier, Jessie G; Morin, Dexter; Edwards, Patricia C; Anderson, Donald S; Anastasio, Cort; Van Winkle, Laura S

2013-01-01

46

Age-Specific Effects on Rat Lung Glutathione and Antioxidant Enzymes after Inhaling Ultrafine Soot  

PubMed Central

Vehicle exhaust is rich in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and is a dominant contributor to urban particulate pollution (PM). Exposure to PM is linked to respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in susceptible populations, such as children. PM can contribute to the development and exacerbation of asthma, and this is thought to occur because of the presence of electrophiles in PM or through electrophile generation via the metabolism of PAHs. Glutathione (GSH), an abundant intracellular antioxidant, confers cytoprotection through conjugation of electrophiles and reduction of reactive oxygen species. GSH-dependent phase II detoxifying enzymes glutathione peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase facilitate metabolism and conjugation, respectively. Ambient particulates are highly variable in composition, which complicates systematic study. In response, we have developed a replicable ultrafine premixed flame particle (PFP)-generating system for in vivo studies. To determine particle effects in the developing lung, 7–day-old neonatal and adult rats inhaled 22 ?g/m3 PFP during a single 6-hour exposure. Pulmonary GSH and related phase II detoxifying gene and protein expression were evaluated 2, 24, and 48 hours after exposure. Neonates exhibited significant depletion of GSH despite higher initial baseline levels of GSH. Furthermore, we observed attenuated induction of phase II enzymes (glutamate cysteine ligase, glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase, and glutathione peroxidase) in neonates compared with adult rats. We conclude that developing neonates have a limited ability to deviate from their normal developmental pattern that precludes adequate adaptation to environmental pollutants, which results in enhanced cytotoxicity from inhaled PM. PMID:23065132

Chan, Jackie K. W.; Kodani, Sean D.; Charrier, Jessie G.; Morin, Dexter; Edwards, Patricia C.; Anderson, Donald S.; Anastasio, Cort

2013-01-01

47

Antioxidant Signaling Involving the Microtubule Motor KIF12 Is an Intracellular Target of Nutrition Excess in Beta Cells.  

PubMed

Beta cell injury due to oxidative stress is a typical etiology of diabetes caused by nutritional excess, but its precise mechanism remains largely elusive. Here, we demonstrate that the microtubule motor KIF12 mediates an antioxidant cascade in beta cells as an intracellular target of excess fat intake or "lipotoxicity." KIF12 knockout mice suffer from hypoinsulinemic glucose intolerance due to increased beta cell oxidative stress. Using this model, we identified an antioxidant signaling cascade involving KIF12 as a scaffold for the transcription factor Sp1. The stabilization of nascent Sp1 appeared to be essential for proper peroxisomal function by enhancing Hsc70 expression, and the pharmacological induction of Hsc70 expression with teprenone counteracted the oxidative stress. Because KIF12 is transcriptionally downregulated by chronic exposure to fatty acids, this antioxidant cascade involving KIF12 and Hsc70 is proposed to be a critical target of nutritional excess in beta cells in diabetes. PMID:25373778

Yang, Wenxing; Tanaka, Yosuke; Bundo, Miki; Hirokawa, Nobutaka

2014-10-27

48

Antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation levels in exercised and hypertensive rat tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have shown that exercise-induced changes in muscle antioxidant status occur shortly after exercise. The present studies were designed to determine if longer-term exercise-related changes in antioxidant enzyme activities in both normotensive (WKY) and hypertensive rats (SHR) occurred, and if these changes were related to the levels of lipid peroxidation. WKY and SHR rats were exercised over a 10-week

Hui Hong; Peter Johnson

1995-01-01

49

Antioxidant enzymes and pulmonary function in steel mill welders.  

PubMed

It is known that high levels of nitric oxide and ozone lead to disturbances of the balance between oxidants and antioxidants. The purpose of this study was to investigate ventilatory parameters in relation to the antioxidant status measured as total antioxidant status (TAS), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CT). The study group consisted of 94 welders, aged 41.2 +/- 10.0 years, employed in the Steel Mill in Kraków, Poland, and exposed to nitric oxides and ozone in concentrations exceeding the threshold limit values. The control group consisted of 115 unexposed healthy workers aged 40.8 +/- 10.2 years. All the subjects under study were smokers. Determination of ventilatory efficiency was based on a "flow-volume" curve and spirometry. TAS was measured using reagents from the Randox Laboratories Ltd, SOD according to Fridovich and CT with Aebi's method. It was found that in the group of welders, the concentrations of TAS, CT and SOD were lower compared to controls (TAS-1.15/1.33 mmol/ml; CT-18.1/28.4 m/gHb, SOD-767.6/855.6 U/gHb). The incidence of extreme obstructive pulmonary disease and small airway disease in the welder group was more frequent than in controls. Changes in the concentration (or activity) of antioxidant parameters cannot be used as early markers of ventilatory dysfunction, although the values in the lowest class of TAS, SOD and CT showed a significantly larger number of welders than controls. PMID:12705716

Stepnewski, Marek; Kolarzyk, Emilia; Pietrzycka, Agata; Kitlinski, Mariusz; Helbin, Jadwiga; Brzyszczan, Klaudyna

2003-01-01

50

Inflammatory cell-mediated tumour progression and minisatellite mutation correlate with the decrease of antioxidative enzymes in murine fibrosarcoma cells  

PubMed Central

We isolated six clones of weakly tumorigenic fibrosarcoma (QR) from the tumorigenic clone BMT-11 cl-9. The QR clones were unable to grow in normal C57BL/6 mice when injected s.c. (1 × 105 cells). However, they formed aggressive tumours upon co-implantation with a ‘foreign body’, i.e. a gelatin sponge, and the rate of tumour take ranged from 8% to 58% among QR clones. The enhanced tumorigenicity was due to host cell-mediated reaction to the gelatin sponge (inflammation). Immunoblot analysis and enzyme activity assay revealed a significant inverse correlation between the frequencies of tumour formation by QR clones and the levels of manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD, P<0.005) and glutathione peroxidase (GP?, P<0.01) in the respective tumour clones. Electron spin resonance (ESR) revealed that superoxide-scavenging ability of cell lysates of the QR clone with high level of Mn-SOD was significantly higher than that with low level of the antioxidative enzyme in the presence of potassium cyanide, an inhibitor for copper–zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD) (P<0.001). Minisatellite mutation (MSM) induced by the inflammatory cells in tumour cells were investigated by DNA fingerprint analysis after QR clones had been co-cultured with gelatin-sponge-reactive cells. The MSM rate was significantly higher in the subclones with low levels of Mn-SOD and GP? (P<0.05) than in the subclones with high levels of both enzymes. The MSM of the subclones with low levels of both enzymes was inhibited in the presence of mannitol, a hydroxyl radical scavenger. The content of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) by which the cellular DNA damage caused by active oxygen species can be assessed was significantly low in the tumours arising from the QR clone with high levels of Mn-SOD and GP? even if the clone had been co-implanted with gelatin sponge, compared with the arising tumour from the QR clone with low levels of those antioxidative enzymes (P<0.001). In contrast, CuZn-SOD and catalase levels in the six QR clones did not have any correlation with tumour progression parameters. These results suggest that tumour progression is accelerated by inflammation-induced active oxygen species particularly accompanied with declined levels of intracellular antioxidative enzymes in tumour cells. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10027302

Okada, F; Nakai, K; Kobayashi, T; Shibata, T; Tagami, S; Kawakami, Y; Kitazawa, T; Kominami, R; Yoshimura, S; Suzuki, K; Taniguchi, N; Inanami, O; Kuwabara, M; Kishida, H; Nakae, D; Konishi, Y; Moriuchi, T; Hosokawa, M

1999-01-01

51

Sensitive Enzyme Immunoassay for Measuring Plasma and Intracellular Nevirapine Levels in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients  

PubMed Central

We have developed an enzyme immunoassay to measure nevirapine (NVP) in plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Anti-NVP polyclonal antibodies were raised in rabbits by using a synthetic NVP derivative coupled to keyhole limpet hemocyanin as the immunogen, and the enzyme tracer was prepared by chemically coupling the NVP derivative with acetylcholinesterase. These reagents were used to develop a sensitive competitive enzyme immunoassay performed in microtitration plates with a 100-pg ml?1 limit of detection and thus ?100 times more sensitive than previously published techniques. The plasma assay was performed directly without extraction (in this case, a 500-pg ml?1 limit of detection was observed) on a minimum of 30 ?l of plasma. This assay shows good precision and efficiency, since recovery from human plasma and cell extracts spiked with NVP ranged between 87 and 104%, with coefficients of variation of <10%. A pharmacokinetic analysis of plasma NVP was performed for seven patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and it gave results similar to published findings. Intracellular concentrations of NVP were measured in cultured human T-lymphoblastoid cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HIV-infected patients. The results indicated a very low intracellular/extracellular concentration ratio (0.134), thus demonstrating the absence of intracellular drug accumulation. This is the first intracellular assay of a nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor, and this method could be useful in monitoring plasma and intracellular NVP levels in HIV-infected patients. PMID:14693526

Azoulay, Stephane; Nevers, Marie-Claire; Creminon, Christophe; Heripret, Laurence; Durant, Jacques; Dellamonica, Pierre; Grassi, Jacques; Guedj, Roger; Duval, Daniele

2004-01-01

52

Reduction of H2O2-evoked, intracellular calcium increases in the rat N18-RE-105 neuronal cell line by pretreatment with an electrophilic antioxidant inducer.  

PubMed

Pretreatment of the neuronal cell line N18-RE-105 with the antioxidant enzyme inducer dimethyl fumarate (DMF) reduced cell death elicited by H2O2 (50 mM for 1 h) as measured 24 h after H2O2 washout. Oxidants like H2O2 may contribute to cell death by increasing intracellular ionized calcium ([Ca2+]i), suggesting that DMF may in part confer protection by altering H2O2-induced [Ca2+]i signals. To examine this possibility, we measured [Ca2+]i of fura-2-loaded cultures of DMF- and vehicle-pretreated cells during H2O2 superfusion. H2O2 exposure induced a delayed [Ca2+]i increase that was significantly lower in DMF-pretreated cells than controls. Elevation of extracellular cystine also reduced the H2O2 induced [Ca2+]i elevation. Thus, antioxidant upregulation may contribute to protection during oxidative stress by stabilizing [Ca2+]i. However, since oxidative stress may induce cytotoxicity by multiple pathways, [Ca2+]i stabilization may not be the only mechanism responsible for the protective effect of DMF. PMID:10505628

Su, J Y; Duffy, S; Murphy, T H

1999-10-01

53

Expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes during potato tuber dormancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The expression of antioxidant genes has been analyzed in a potato plant and during tuber dormancy. Manganese superoxide dismutase\\u000a (MnSOD), cytosolic copper and zinc superoide dismutase (Cu\\/ZnSOD), catalase class II, cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase (APX)\\u000a and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) are expressed at the RNA level in all the contexts analyzed. By contrast, the expression\\u000a of the iron superoxide dismutase (FeSOD) and

J. A. Rojas-Beltran; F. Dejaeghere; M. Abd Alla Kotb; P. Du Jardin

2000-01-01

54

Phenolic composition, antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities of Eryngium bornmuelleri leaf.  

PubMed

Eryngium bornmuelleri Nab. (Tusî) is an endemic botanical from the Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey traditionally used for preparation of herbal tea. Within this study, phenolic composition, antioxidant capacities and inhibitory activities towards selected digestive enzymes of E. bornmuelleri leaf were investigated. Sequential extracts, obtained by extraction of plant tissue by ethanol, acetone and water exhibited pronounced antioxidant capacities and in a dose-dependent manner suppressed the metabolic syndrome related enzymes: ?-amylase, ?-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase. All extracts contained high levels of phenolic compounds. Flavonoid glycosides were the main phytochemicals detected, with rutin as the major compound (70% of total phenolics). Chlorogenic, hydroxybenzoic and caftaric acids as well as traces of caffeic, ferulic and rosmarinic acids were also detected. Correlation analysis indicated that phenolic compounds were the major sources of the enzyme-inhibitory activities. This study suggests that E. bornmuelleri leaf extracts can modulate the metabolism of sugars and fats through inhibition of the relevant digestive enzymes. PMID:24202545

Dalar, Abdullah; Türker, Musa; Zabaras, Dimitrios; Konczak, Izabela

2014-03-01

55

Changes in antioxidant enzymes, hydrogen peroxide, salicylic acid and oxidative stress in compatible and incompatible host-tobamovirus interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of tobamovirus (TMV and ToMV) infection on changes in antioxidant enzymes, endogenous salicylic acid, endogenous hydrogen peroxide, lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation was studied in compatible (tomato and bell pepper) and incompatible hosts (Nicotiana glutinosa and Nicotiana tabacum cv. xanthi). A time course study of antioxidant enzymes such as peroxidase and catalase was studied in both interactions. Along

K. N. Madhusudhan; B. M. Srikanta; M. D. Shylaja; H. S. Prakash; H. S. Shetty

2009-01-01

56

Effects of age increment and 36-week exercise training on antioxidant enzymes and apoptosis in rat heart tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the onset of age-related changes in the myocardial antioxidant enzymes and apoptosis and the vulner- ability of the myocardium to oxidative stress following exercise training. Few studies have investigated the influence of the most prevalent life-prolonging strategy physical exercise, on the age increment alterations in the myocardial antioxidant enzymes and apoptosis at mid age and to determine

Nasser Ahmadiasl; Farhad Ghadiri Soufi; Mohammadreza Alipour; Mohammadreza Bon; Farzam Sheikhzadeh; Amirmansour Vatankhah; Iraj Salehi; Mehran Mesgari

2007-01-01

57

Antioxidative enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation in major depression: alterations by antidepressant treatments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) may play a role in some neuropsychiatric disorders. There is some evidence that the activation of immune-inflammatory process, increase of monoamines catabolism, and abnormalities in lipid compounds may cause overproduction of ROS and, in turn, antioxidative enzyme activities (AEAs) and lipid peroxidation (LP), and that these phenomena may be related to pathophysiology of major depression.

Mustafa Bilici; Hasan Efe; M. Arif Köro?lu; Hüseyin Avni Uydu; M. Bekaro?lu; O. De?er

2001-01-01

58

Cadmium phytotoxicity: Quantitative sensitivity relationships between classical endpoints and antioxidative enzyme biomarkers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, cadmium phytotoxicity and quantitative sensitivity relationships between different hierarchical endpoints in plants cultivated in a contaminated soil were studied. Thus, germination rate, biomass growth and antioxidative enzyme activity (i.e. superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase and glutathione reductase) in three terrestrial plants (Avena sativa L., Brassica campestris L. cv. Chinensis, Lactuca sativa L. cv. hanson) were analyzed. Plant growth

Albertina Xavier da Rosa Corrêa; Leonardo Rubi Rörig; Miguel A. Verdinelli; Sylvie Cotelle; Jean-François Férard; Claudemir Marcos Radetski

2006-01-01

59

Inactivation of Primary Antioxidant Enzymes in Mouse Keratinocytes by Photodynamically Generated Singlet Oxygen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cellular antioxidant enzymes protect against damage caused by exposure to endogenous or exogenous proox- idants. Singlet oxygen ( 1 O 2 ) is a reactive form of oxygen that can be produced in vivo either in normal and pathophysiologic conditions or by photosensitizing chemicals, as during photodynamic treatment. We hypoth- esized that photodynamically generated 1 O 2 would decrease the

Jun Luo; Ling Li; Yuping Zhang; Douglas R. Spitz; Garry R. Buettner; Larry W. Oberley; Frederick E. Domann

2006-01-01

60

Changes in Antioxidant Defense Enzymes after d- amphetamine Exposure: Implications as an Animal Model of Mania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies have demonstrated that oxidative stress is associated with amphetamine-induced neurotoxicity, but little is known about the adaptations of antioxidant enzymes in the brain after amphetamine exposure. We studied the effects of acute and chronic amphetamine administration on superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity, in a rodent model of mania. Male Wistar rats received either a single IP injection

Benício N. Frey; Samira S. Valvassori; Gislaine Z. Réus; Márcio R. Martins; Fabrícia C. Petronilho; Katrine Bardini; Felipe Dal-Pizzol; Flávio Kapczinski; João Quevedo

2006-01-01

61

Effects of Cooking Techniques on Antioxidant Enzyme Activities of Some Fruits and Vegetables  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate possible effects of cooking techniques on antioxidant enzyme activities in broccoli, tomato, red cabbage, parsley, carrot, green pepper, lemon, onion, and garlic, which are consumed frequently in our daily diet. Materials and Methods: Superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase (CAT) activities were measured in fresh and thermally treated (boiling,

62

Alterations in osmoregulation, antioxidant enzymes and indole alkaloid levels in Catharanthus roseus exposed to water deficit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don plants were grown in different water regimes in order to study the drought induced osmotic stress and proline (PRO) metabolism, antioxidative enzyme activities and indole alkaloid accumulation. The plants under pot culture were subjected to 10, 15 and 20 days interval drought (DID) stress from 30 days after sowing (DAS) and regular irrigation was kept

C. Abdul Jaleel; P. Manivannan; A. Kishorekumar; B. Sankar; R. Gopi; R. Somasundaram; R. Panneerselvam

2007-01-01

63

Cyclooxygenase enzyme inhibitory compounds with antioxidant activities from Piper methysticum (kava kava) roots.  

PubMed

Cyclooxygenase enzyme inhibitory assay-guided purification of ethyl acetate extract of Piper methysticum (kava kava) roots yielded six biologically active compounds (1-7), which were purified using MPLC, preparative TLC and HPLC methods. These compounds were also evaluated for antioxidant activities. Dihydrokawain (1) and yangonin (6) showed the highest COX-I and COX-II inhibitory activities at 100 microg/ml, respectively. The lipid oxidation assay did not reveal antioxidant activities for demethoxyangonin (2), dihydrokawain (1), kawain (4), dihydromethysticin (5) or methysticin (7) at 50 microg/ml. The antioxidant activities of flavokawain A (3) and yangonin (6) could not be tested in the lipid oxidation assay due to solubility problems. However, yangonin and methysticin showed moderate antioxidant activities in the free radical scavenging assay at 2.5 mg/ml. PMID:11924763

Wu, D; Yu, L; Nair, M G; DeWitt, D L; Ramsewak, R S

2002-01-01

64

NAD(P)H:quinone acceptor oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), a multifunctional antioxidant enzyme and exceptionally versatile cytoprotector  

PubMed Central

NAD(P)H:quinone acceptor oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) is a widely-distributed FAD-dependent flavoprotein that promotes obligatory 2-electron reductions of quinones, quinoneimines, nitroaromatics, and azo dyes, at rates that are comparable with NADH or NADPH. These reductions depress quinone levels and thereby minimize opportunities for generation of reactive oxygen intermediates by redox cycling, and for depletion of intracellular thiol pools. NQO1 is a highly-inducible enzyme that is regulated by the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE pathway. Evidence for the importance of the antioxidant functions of NQO1 in combating oxidative stress is provided by demonstrations that induction of NQO1 levels or their depletion (knockout, or knockdown) are associated with decreased and increased susceptibilities to oxidative stress, respectively. Furthermore, benzene genotoxicity is markedly enhanced when NQO1 activity is compromised. Not surprisingly, human polymorphisms that suppress NQO1 activities are associated with increased predisposition to disease. Recent studies have uncovered protective roles for NQO1 that apparently are unrelated to its enzymatic activities. NQO1 binds to and thereby stabilizes the important tumor suppressor p53 against proteasomal degradation. Indeed, NQO1 appears to regulate the degradative fate of other proteins. These findings suggest that NQO1 may exercise a selective “gatekeeping” role in regulating the proteasomal degradation of specific proteins, thereby broadening the cytoprotective role of NQO1 far beyond its highly effective antioxidant functions. PMID:20361926

Dinkova-Kostova, Albena T.; Talalay, Paul

2010-01-01

65

Cloning and sequencing of thiol-specific antioxidant from mammalian brain: Alkyl hydroperoxide reductase and thiol-specific antioxidant define a large family of antioxidant enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cDNA corresponding to a thiol-specific antioxidant enzyme (TSA) was isolated from a rat brain cDNA library with the use of antibodies to bovine TSA. The cDNA clone encoded an open reading frame capable of encoding a 198-residue polypeptide. The rat and yeast TSA proteins show significant sequence homology to the 21-kDa component (AhpC) of Salmonella typhimurium alkyl hydroperoxide reductase,

H. Z. Chae; G. Storz; S. G. Rhee; K. Robison; G. Church; L. B. Poole

1994-01-01

66

Effect of low above-zero temperature on the content of low-molecular antioxidants and activities of antioxidant enzymes in green barley leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the effect of low above-zero temperature (2°C) on the content of low-molecular antioxidants (ascorbic acid, glutathione,\\u000a and carotenoids) and also activities of antioxidant enzymes (ascorbate peroxidase, APO; catalase, CAT; glutathione reductase,\\u000a GR; and superoxide dismutase, SOD) in green barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seedlings. Under stress conditions, the content of low-molecular antioxidants, especially that of reduced ascorbate form,\\u000a increased.

M. S. Radyuk; I. N. Domanskaya; R. A. Shcherbakov; N. V. Shalygo

2009-01-01

67

Stability of the anti-oxidative enzymes in aqueous and detergent solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activities of the anti-oxidative enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase were studied\\u000a in rat tissues to determine the ability of detergents both to solubilize the enzymes and also to stabilize enzyme activity.\\u000a Rat brain, heart and liver were homogenized in 0.1M KCl, 0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate, 0.1% lubrol, or 0.1% cetyl-trimethylammonium\\u000a bromide. In general lubrol was more

Kathleen Mailer I; Rolando F. Del Maestro

1991-01-01

68

Interspecific diversity in root antioxidative enzyme activities reflect root turnover strategies and preferred habitats in wetland graminoids.  

PubMed

Antioxidant enzymes protect cells against oxidative stress and are associated with stress tolerance and longevity. In animals, variation in their activities has been shown to relate to species ecology, but in plants, comparative studies with wild species are rare. We investigated activities of five antioxidant enzymes - ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), peroxidase (POX), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) - in roots of four perennial graminoid wetland species over a growing season to find out whether differences in root turnover or habitat preferences would be associated with variation in seasonal patterns of antioxidant enzyme activities. The investigated species differ in their root turnover strategies (fine roots senesce in the fall or fine roots survive the winter) and habitat preferences (nutrient-poor vs. productive wetlands). Roots were collected both in the field and from garden-grown plants. Antioxidant enzyme activities were higher and lipid peroxidation rates lower in species with annual root systems, and for species of the nutrient-poor wetland, compared with perennial roots and species of productive wetlands, respectively. There was variation in the activities of individual antioxidant enzymes, but discriminant analyses with all enzymes revealed a clear picture, indicating consistent associations of antioxidant enzyme activities with the type of root turnover strategy and with the preferred habitat. We conclude that antioxidant enzyme activities in plant roots are associated with the species' ecological strategies and can be used as traits for the characterization of the species' position along plant economics spectrum. PMID:24683465

Yücel, Ca?da? Kera; Bor, Melike; Ryser, Peter

2014-03-01

69

Importance of various antioxidant enzymes for cell stability. Confrontation between theoretical and experimental data.  

PubMed Central

A theoretical model was developed taking into account the production and destruction of oxygen-derived free radicals. The steady state of the system was derived by using the rate equations of these reactions, and the stability of the system was tested. In the simplified model, only one stable steady state was found. However, we know that glutathione peroxidase can be inhibited by hydroperoxides, and, when incorporated into the model, this effect led to a complex situation with the presence of some stable and some unstable domains according to the concentration of either the enzyme or the hydroperoxide. This qualitative description of the system was compared with experimental data on the protection given by three antioxidant enzymes, and concordance of data was found which allows some quantification of the system. A general view of the efficiency of the three antioxidant enzymes and of the stability of the system according to their concentrations could be produced. PMID:1325782

Remacle, J; Lambert, D; Raes, M; Pigeolet, E; Michiels, C; Toussaint, O

1992-01-01

70

Human aging brain disorders: Role of antioxidant enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to investigate the role of two free radical detoxificant enzymes in patients with aging brain disorders, superoxide\\u000a dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities have been measured in blood from male and female human patients of different\\u000a ages with several types of aging brain disorders. When compared with activities in the normal population, we have detected:\\u000a 1) SOD and

Ma Rosario de la Torre; Angela Casado; Ma Encarnación López-Fernández; Diana Carrascosa; Ma Concepción Casado; Domenico Venarucci; Vincenzo Venarucci

1996-01-01

71

Investigations on the antioxidative defence responses to NaCl stress in a mangrove, Bruguiera parviflora : Differential regulations of isoforms of some antioxidative enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two-month-old healthy seedlings of a true mangrove, Bruguiera parviflora, raised from propagules in normal nursery conditions were subjected to varying concentrations of NaCl for 45 d under hydroponic\\u000a culture conditions to investigate the defence potentials of antioxidative enzymes against NaCl stress imposed oxidative stress.\\u000a Changes in the activities of the antioxidative enzymes catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), guaiacol peroxidase (POX),

Asish Kumar Parida; Anath Bandhu Das; Prasanna Mohanty

2004-01-01

72

Alternation of antioxidative enzyme gene expression in rice seedlings exposed to methylene blue.  

PubMed

Hydroponic experiments were conducted with rice seedlings (Oryza sativa L. cv. ND1) exposed to methylene blue (MB) to investigate the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and activities and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes. Results showed that a linear decrease in relative growth rate and water use efficiency was observed with rice seedlings with increasing MB concentrations. MB-induced accumulation of H2O2 was evident in both roots and shoots. The activities of antioxidative enzymes were analyzed and found to be different at different MB treatment concentrations. The activities of enzymes related to the ascorbate-glutathione cycle were more sensitive to MB treatments than other antioxidative enzymes. Transcript level, by real-time quantitative PCR, of antioxidative enzymes showed that the analyzed genes were differently expressed during different MB concentrations in both roots and shoots. The isoform analysis of superoxide dismutase (SOD) gene showed that the expressions of Cu/ZnSOD and MnSOD were relatively constant, where significant upregulation of FeSOD was observed with rice seedlings exposed to high MB concentrations. Furthermore, the expression of CAT, POD, and MDHAR genes responded biphasically to MB treatments by showing negligible changes at 1.56-15.63 ?M MB and significant induction at 31.36-62.52 ?M MB. The expression of GR, APX, and DHAR genes showed a remarkable induction to MB. Our results suggest that on transcription level, and in accordance with enzymatic responses, enzymes of GR, APX, and DHAR play central role in the H2O2 detoxification in rice seedlings under MB exposure. PMID:25037098

Yu, Xiao-Zhang; Zhang, Xue-Hong; Yue, Dong-Ming

2014-12-01

73

The influence of cadmium on the antioxidant enzyme activities in polychaete Perinereis aibuhitensis Grube (Annelida: Polychaeta)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The infaunal polychaete Perinereis aibuhitensis Grube, distributed widely along Asian coasts and estuaries, is considered a useful animal model in ecotoxicological tests and a promising candidate in biomonitoring programs. This paper deals with the activities of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidases (GSH-Px) in infaunal polychaete P. aibuhitensis exposed to a series of sublethal water-bound cadmium (Cd) concentrations (0, 0.34, 1.72, 3.44, 6.89, and 17.22 mg L-1) under a short-term exposure (1-8 d). The results indicate that the SOD and GSH-Px activities in P. aibuhitensis are stimulated first and then renewed to the original level. The CAT activity of worms decreases at an earlier exposure time but increases to the control values at a later exposure time. Our study suggests that Cd can interfere with the antioxidant defense system of P. aibuhitensis. However, the changes in antioxidant enzyme activities for this species do not show the best promise as biomarkers in Cd biomonitoring of estuarine and coastal zones because weak or non-dose-effect relationships between the antioxidant enzymes activities and Cd levels are found.

Yuan, Xiutang; Chen, Aihua; Zhou, Yibing; Liu, Haiying; Yang, Dazuo

2010-07-01

74

Characterization of antioxidant enzymes and peroxisomes of olive (Olea europaea L.) fruits.  

PubMed

The presence of peroxisomes in olive (Olea europaea L.) fruits and different antioxidant enzymes occurring in this plant tissue is reported for the first time. Ultrastructural analysis showed that olive cells were characterized by the presence of large vacuoles and lipid drops. Plastids, mitochondria and peroxisomes were placed near the cell wall, showing some type of association with it. Olive fruit peroxisomes were purified by sucrose density-gradient centrifugation, and catalase, glutathione reductase and ascorbate peroxidase were found in peroxisomes. In olive fruit tissue the presence of a battery of antioxidant enzymes was demonstrated, including catalase, four superoxide dismutase isozymes (mainly an Fe-SOD plus 2 Cu,Zn-SOD and a Mn-SOD), all the enzymes of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle, reduced and oxidized glutathione, ascorbate, and four NADPH-recycling dehydrogenases. The knowledge of the full composition of antioxidants (enzymatic and non-enzymatic) in olive fruits is crucial to be able to understand the processes regulating the antioxidant composition of olive oil. PMID:25105232

Lopez-Huertas, Eduardo; del Río, Luis A

2014-10-15

75

Expression of hepatic antioxidant enzymes in non-obese type-2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats.  

PubMed

Diabetes mellitus and its complications have been attributed in part to oxidative stress, against which antioxidant enzymes constitute a major protective mechanism. The present study was performed to investigate the effects of early stage type 2 diabetes in the absence of obesity and liver damage on hepatic antioxidant enzyme expression and oxidative stress using 9-week-old Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats. Hepatic total antioxidant capacity determined by total oxygen radical scavenging capacity and lipid peroxidation determined by malondialdehyde in plasma and liver were not significantly different between normal Wistar rats and GK rats. These results indicated that oxidative stress is not evident in these type 2 diabetic rats. Hepatic expression levels of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase-1, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and reductase, thioredoxin-1, mu- and pi-class glutathione S-transferase (GST), and the gamma-glutamylcysteine ligase catalytic subunit, were not different between normal rats and GK rats. But, hepatic level and activity of alpha-class GST were decreased and peroxiredoxin-1 level was increased in GK rats, suggesting that upregulation of peroxiredoxin-1 compensates for downregulation of alpha-class GST. These results suggest that alpha-class GST and peroxiredoxin-1 in liver can be altered during the early stages of type 2 diabetes in the absence of obesity and severe oxidative stress. PMID:24254933

Ryu, Chang Seon; Oh, Soo Jin; Oh, Jung Min; Lee, Sang Yoon; Kwak, Hui Chan; Yun, Kang Uk; Lee, Ji-Yoon; Park, Song-Kyu; Kim, Bong-Hee; Ma, Jin Yeul; Kim, Sang Kyum

2014-10-01

76

The Antioxidant Profiles, Lysosomal and Membrane Enzymes Activity in Patients with Acute Pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

Oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators, such as IL-6, play an important role in the pathophysiology of acute pancreatitis. The study was aimed to assess the degree of the pro/antioxidative imbalance and estimate which antioxidant plays a role in the maintenance of pro/antioxidative balance during acute pancreatitis. The study was investigated in the blood of 32 patients with acute pancreatitis and 37 healthy subjects. IL-6 concentration as early marker of inflammation was determinated. The intensity of oxidative stress was assessed by TBARS concentration. To investigate antioxidative status, the GPx and Cu/Zn SOD activities and the levels of GSH, MT, SH groups, and TRAP were measured. The concentrations of Cu and Zn as ions participating in the maintenance of antioxidant enzymes stability and playing a role in the course of disease were determinated. The activities of GGT, AAP, NAG, and ?-GD as markers of tissue damage were also measured. An increase in IL-6 concentration, which correlated with Ranson criteria, and an increase in GPx activity, levels of MT, TBARS, or GGT, and NAG activities in patients group compared to healthy subjects were demonstrated. A decrease in GSH level in patients group compared to control group was noted. The studies suggest that GPx/GSH and MT play the role of the first line of defence against oxidative stress and pro/antioxidant imbalance in the course of acute pancreatitis. PMID:25298618

Milnerowicz, Halina; Bukowski, Radoslaw; Jablonowska, Monika; Sciskalska, Milena; Milnerowicz, Stanislaw

2014-01-01

77

Ultraviolet Radiation: Cellular Antioxidant Response and the Role of Ocular Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Enzymes  

PubMed Central

Solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposes the human eye to near constant oxidative stress. Evidence suggests that UVR is the most important environmental insult leading to the development of a variety of ophthalmoheliosis disorders. UVR-induced reactive oxygen species are highly reactive with DNA, proteins and cellular membranes, resulting in cellular and tissue damage. Antioxidant defense systems present in ocular tissues function to combat reactive oxygen species and protect the eye from oxidative damage. Important enzymatic antioxidants are the superoxide dismutases, catalase, glutathione peroxidases, glutathione reductase and members of the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) superfamily. Glutathione, ascorbic and uric acids, ?-tocopherol, NADPH and ferritin serve as small molecule, nonenzymatic antioxidants. Ocular tissues have high levels of these antioxidants which are essential for the maintenance of redox homeostasis in the eye and protection against oxidative damage. ALDH1A1 and ALDH3A1, present abundantly in the cornea and lens, have been shown to have unique roles in the defense against UVR and the downstream effects of oxidative stress. This review presents the properties and functions of ocular antioxidants that play critical roles in the cellular response to UVR exposure, including a focused discussion of the unique roles that the ALDH1A1 and ALDH3A1 enzymes have as multi-functional ocular antioxidants. PMID:21670692

Marchitti, Satori A.; Chen, Ying; Thompson, David C.; Vasiliou, Vasilis

2011-01-01

78

Natural zeolites chabazite/phillipsite/analcime increase blood levels of antioxidant enzymes  

PubMed Central

Imbalance between reactive oxygen species generation and antioxidant capacity induces a condition known as oxidative stress which is implicated in numerous pathological processes. In this study we evaluated whether natural zeolites chabazite/phillipsite/analcime may affect the levels of different antioxidant enzymes (gluthatione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, gluthatione reductase), total antioxidant status and oxidative stress in 25 clinically healthy men, both non-smokers and smokers. Measurements were performed on whole blood or on plasma samples before (T0) and after 4-weeks zeolites intake (T1). At T1, gluthatione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and gluthatione reductase increased compared to T0 levels, both considering all subjects as joint and after subdivision in non-smokers and smokers. Differently, a reduction in total antioxidant status was observed at T1. Anyway, total antioxidant status resulted higher than the reference values in both groups at each time point. A decrease in lipid peroxidation, a major indicator of oxidative stress assessed by monitoring thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, was also observed in all subjects at T1. Our results suggested that chabazite/phillipsite/analcime may help to counteract oxidative stress in apparently healthy subjects exposed to different oxidative stress risk factors, such as smoking, thus representing a particular kind of food with potential antioxidant properties. PMID:22573920

Dogliotti, Giada; Malavazos, Alexis E.; Giacometti, Sonia; Solimene, Umberto; Fanelli, Mauro; Corsi, Massimiliano M.; Dozio, Elena

2012-01-01

79

Intracellular antioxidants dissolve man-made antioxidant nanoparticles: using redox vulnerability of nanoceria to develop a responsive drug delivery system.  

PubMed

Regeneratable antioxidant property of nanoceria has widely been explored to minimize the deleterious influences of reactive oxygen species. Limited information is, however, available regarding the biological interactions and subsequent fate of nanoceria in body fluids. This study demonstrates a surprising dissolution of stable and ultrasmall (4 nm) cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) in response to biologically prevalent antioxidant molecules (glutathione, vitamin C). Such a redox sensitive behavior of CeO2 NPs is subsequently exploited to design a redox responsive drug delivery system for transporting anticancer drug (camptothecin). Upon exposing the CeO2 capped and drug loaded nanoconstruct to vitamin c or glutathione, dissolution-accompanied aggregation of CeO2 nanolids unleashes the drug molecules from porous silica to achieve a significant anticancer activity. Besides stimuli responsive drug delivery, immobilization of nanoceria onto the surface of mesoporous silica also facilitates us to gain a basic insight into the biotransformation of CeO2 in physiological mediums. PMID:25312332

Muhammad, Faheem; Wang, Aifei; Qi, Wenxiu; Zhang, Shixing; Zhu, Guangshan

2014-11-12

80

Effects of Oxygen Limitation on Xylose Fermentation, Intracellular Metabolites, and Key Enzymes of Neurospora crassa AS3.1602  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of oxygen limitation on xylose fermentation of Neurospora crassa AS3.1602 were studied using batch cultures. The maximum yield of ethanol was 0.34 g/g at oxygen transfer rate (OTR) of 8.4 mmol/L·h. The maximum yield of xylitol was 0.33 g/g at OTR of 5.1 mmol/L·h. Oxygen limitation greatly affected mycelia growth and xylitol and ethanol productions. The specific growth rate (?) decreased 82% from 0.045 to 0.008 h-1 when OTR changed from 12.6 to 8.4 mmol/L·h. Intracellular metabolites of the pentose phosphate pathway, glycolysis, and tricarboxylic acid cycle were determined at various OTRs. Concentrations of most intracellular metabolites decreased with the increase in oxygen limitation. Intracellular enzyme activities of xylose reductase, xylitol dehydrogenase, and xylulokinase, the first three enzymes in xylose metabolic pathway, decreased with the increase in oxygen limitation, resulting in the decreased xylose uptake rate. Under all tested conditions, transaldolase and transketolase activities always maintained at low levels, indicating a great control on xylose metabolism. The enzyme of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase played a major role in NADPH regeneration, and its activity decreased remarkably with the increase in oxygen limitation.

Zhang, Zhihua; Qu, Yinbo; Zhang, Xiao; Lin, Jianqiang

81

Salt tolerance in aquatic macrophytes: possible involvement of the antioxidative enzymes.  

PubMed

Possible involvement of the antioxidative enzymes in salt tolerance was investigated in three submerged aquatic macrophytes, viz. Hydrilla verticillata, Najas indica and Najas gramenia, which differed in their tolerance to salinity. NaCl in light resulted in significant decrease in the chlorophyll a/b ratio in H. verticillata, which was significantly neutralized by the presence of DABCO (diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane), sodium benzoate or mannitol along with the NaCl in the exposure medium indicating induction of oxidative stress upon salt treatment. All the three test species showed enhanced activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD; EC 1.15.1.1) and peroxidases (EC 1.11.1.7) upon exposure to either NaCl or SWS (seawater salinity); the increases in their activity in response to NaCl were positively correlated with the salt tolerance of the plants. Only N. gramenia showed considerable increase in the activity of catalase (EC 1.11.1.6), while only H. verticillata exhibited significant increase in the activity of ascorbate peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.11) in response to the salt treatment. A higher constitutive level of the antioxidative enzymes in the salt-tolerant N. gramenia than in the salt-sensitive H. verticillata coupled with significant increase in the activity of these enzymes, particularly of catalase and SOD, in the former upon salinity treatment suggested their active involvement in salt tolerance. The oxidative stress induced upon the salt treatment also indicated a possible involvement of the antioxidative enzymes in the process. The ion interaction study revealed significant modifying effect of Ca(2+), and also of Mg(2+) and K(+), on the changes induced by Na(+) in the activity of catalase and SOD suggesting that relative build-up of these ions inside cells could be of much importance in regulation of synthesis of antioxidative enzymes. PMID:11166427

Rout, N P.; Shaw, B P.

2001-02-01

82

Free radicals and antioxidant enzymes in fish and their responses to metal pollutants  

SciTech Connect

Reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) are continuously produced as metabolic by-products by virtually all tissues. Without adequate protection from these free radicals, cells/tissues can suffer significant oxidative damage. While superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and NADPH-quinone reductase (QR) are well recognized antioxidant enzymes in mammalian cells, little is known concerning these enzymes in cells from aquatic species. In addition, the effects of environmental contaminants on ROI production and on these protective enzymes in fish have not been well studied. For this investigation, whole kidney cell homogenates from medaka (Oryzias latipes) were used to evaluate the activity of SOD, catalase, and QR, as well as production of the ROI`s, superoxide (O{sub 2{sup {minus}}}) and hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}). Fish were also exposed to cadmium (Cd{sup 2+})-contaminated water at 60 ppb for five days and the effects on ROI production and these same enzyme systems were evaluated. Findings demonstrate that kidney cells from medaka stimulated in vitro with phorbol myristate acetate produced large quantities of free radicals, as well as expressed all three protective enzymes at levels comparable to those measured in mammalian immune cells. Exposure of fish to Cd{sup 2+} levels below the LC{sub 50} concentration altered these parameters. The results demonstrate the presence of antioxidant enzymes in fish immune cells and suggest the applicability of these endpoints to serve as biomarkers of aquatic metal pollution.

Zelikoff, J.T.; Flescher, E. [New York Univ. Medical Center, Tuxedo, NY (United States). Inst. of Environmental Medicine

1994-12-31

83

An Nrf2\\/Small Maf Heterodimer Mediates the Induction of Phase II Detoxifying Enzyme Genes through Antioxidant Response Elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The induction of phase II detoxifying enzymes is an important defense mechanism against intake of xenobiotics. While this group of enzymes is believed to be under the transcriptional control of antioxidant response elements (AREs), this contention is experimentally unconfirmed. Since the ARE resembles the binding sequence of erythroid transcription factor NF-E2, we investigated the possibility that the phase II enzyme

Ken Itoh; Tomoki Chiba; Satoru Takahashi; Tetsuro Ishii; Kazuhiko Igarashi; Yasutake Katoh; Tatsuya Oyake; Norio Hayashi; Kimihiko Satoh; Ichiro Hatayama; Masayuki Yamamoto; Yo-ichi Nabeshima

1997-01-01

84

Moringa oleifera Enhances Liver Antioxidant Status via Elevation of Antioxidant Enzymes Activity and Counteracts Paracetamol-induced Hepatotoxicity.  

PubMed

This study investigated the role of antioxidant enzyme system following crude hydroethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaves (MO) in acute paracetamol (PCM) induced hepatotoxicity. Hydroethanolic extract (80%) of MO (200 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg; p.o) was pre-administered before a single oral dose of 3 g/kg PCM intoxication to male Sprague-Dawley rats. Pre-treatment of the extract was found to have reduced lipid peroxidation level when compared to the group treated with PCM only. The level of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-Stransferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) was restored to near normal in groups that were pre-treated with MO. Histopathological studies have further confirmed the hepatoprotective activity of MO compared to group treated with PCM only. The results obtained were comparable to silymarin (200 mg/kg; p.o). The MO extract was found to have significantly protected the liver against toxicity following PCM intoxication by enhancing the level of antioxidant enzyme activity. PMID:22691934

Uma, N; Fakurazi, S; Hairuszah, I

2010-08-01

85

Copper-induced response of physiological parameters and antioxidant enzymes in the aquatic macrophyte Potamogeton pusillus.  

PubMed

Bioaccumulation and toxicity of copper was evaluated on Potamogeton pusillus L. The effect of copper (5-100 microg L(-1)) applied for several days was assessed by measuring changes in the chlorophyll's, phaeophytin's, malondialdehyde, electrical conductivity, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR) and guaiacol peroxidase (POD) activities. Plants accumulated copper with a maximum of 162 microg g(-1) dw after 7-days exposure at 100 microg L(-1), however most of the metal was accumulated after 1-day exposure. The toxic effect caused by Cu was evident by the reduction of photosynthetic pigments, increase of malondialdehyde and electrical conductivity. P. pusillus shows Cu-induced oxidative stress by modulating antioxidant enzymes like GPX, GR and POD. Antioxidant enzymes activity increased significantly after exposure to 40 microg L(-1) during 24 h, followed by a drop at longer times. Thus, P. pusillus is proposed as a good biomonitor for the assessment of metal pollution in aquatic ecosystems. PMID:19324479

Monferrán, Magdalena V; Agudo, José A Sánchez; Pignata, María L; Wunderlin, Daniel A

2009-01-01

86

Effects of Launaea procumbens on brain antioxidant enzymes and cognitive performance of rat  

PubMed Central

Background Launaea procumbens is used in the treatment of oxidative stress and mental disorders. The effects of Launaea procumbens methanolic extracts (LPMEs), i.e., 100 and 200 LPME mg/kg body weight (b.w.), on cognitive performance as well as on the activity of acetylcholinesterase, and antioxidant enzymes in rat brain tissue homogenates were evaluated. Methods Thirty male Sprague–Dawley rats were divided equally into three groups. Rats in group I (control) were given saline (vehicle), group II received LPME (100 mg/kg b.w., p.o.), and group III were treated with LPME (200 mg/kg b.w., p.o.) in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for 7 days. Antioxidant potential was assessed by measuring the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSHpx), glutathione reductase (GSR) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) as well as lipid peroxidation and glutathione (GSH) contents in brain tissue homogenates. Activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and cognitive performance were also assessed. Results LPME administration reduced the levels of lipid peroxidation products (TBARS contents), increased GSH levels and enhanced the activities of SOD, CAT, GSHpx, GSR and GST. AChE activity was reduced by LPME treatment compared with untreated controls. Conclusion These findings suggested the significant impact of LPMEs on brain function. These effects could be through the antioxidant effects of the bioactive constituents present in LPME. PMID:23151029

2012-01-01

87

Phytotoxicity of cadmium on protein, proline and antioxidant enzyme activities in growing Arachis hypogaea L. seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytotoxicity of cadmium on growing Arachis hypogaea L. seedlings was studied. Seeds were exposed to 25, 50, and 100 ?mol\\/L CdCl2 concentrations, for a period of 10, 15, 20 and 25 d. The extent of damage to chlorophyll, protein, proline, nitrate and nitrite reductase, antioxidant enzyme activity in leaves and roots were evaluated after 10 d of cadmium stress. The

N Dinakar; PC Nagajyothi; S Suresh; Y Udaykiran; T Damodharam

2008-01-01

88

Effects of the Fungicide Folpet on the Activities of Antioxidative Enzymes in Duckweed (Lemna minor)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a previous paper we reported the phytotoxicity of the fungicide folpet [N-(trichloromethylthio)phtalimide] in the aquatic floating macrophyte Lemna minor. The objectives of this study were to investigate the modifications of several antioxidative enzymatic activities in fronds of L. minor during a 96-h exposure to a sublethal folpet concentration (33 ?M). The specific activities of enzymes of the Halliwell-Asada pathway,

H. Teisseire; G. Vernet

2001-01-01

89

Copper-induced changes in antioxidant enzymes activities in fronds of duckweed ( Lemna minor)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in activity of antioxidant enzymes caused by copper sulfate were examined in fronds of duckweed (Lemna minor) during time- and concentration-dependent exposure to the metal salt. Glutathione S-transferase and glutathione reductase activities were inhibited by the high CuSO4 concentrations while a strong stimulation of catalase, guaiacol peroxidase and pyrogallol peroxidase activities were observed from the lowest concentration tested (0.25

Henri Teisseire; Vernet Guy

2000-01-01

90

Antioxidant enzyme activities as affected by trivalent and hexavalent chromium species in Fontinalis antipyretica Hedw  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detoxification mechanisms of the aquatic moss, Fontinalis antipyretica Hedw., exposed to Cr was analyzed. In addition, the influence of Cr salts (as Cr nitrate, chloride and potassium bichromate) on these mechanisms has also been studied. The activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1.), catalase (EC 1.11.1.6.), ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11.), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX, EC 1.11.1.7.) and

Marc Dazy; Eric Béraud; Sylvie Cotelle; Eric Meux; Jean-François Masfaraud; Jean-François Férard

2008-01-01

91

Antioxidant enzyme activity in endemic Baikalean versus Palaearctic amphipods: tagma- and size-related changes.  

PubMed

The activities of key antioxidant enzymes in two endemic Baikalean amphipod species: Pallasea cancelloides (Gerstf), Eulimnogammarus verrucosus (Gerstf) and the widely distributed Palearctic species Gammarus lacustris (Sars) were studied. This work was done to prove or disprove the hypothesis that Baikalean endemics have specifics in antioxidants system different from Palearctic species. The activities of antioxidant enzymes peroxidase, catalase and glutathione-S-transferase were measured in different sections (tagmata) of the amphipods' bodies as well as in different size groups. Well expressed tagma-related differences in peroxidase activity as well as smaller differences in catalase activity were shown in all studied species. There were no measured differences in glutathione-S-transferase activity among body sections. The existence of size-related changes in some antioxidant enzymes and the difference in such changes between Baikalean and Palearctic amphipods were noted. A significant increase in peroxidase activity with the size was found in both Baikalean species while a significant decrease in peroxidase activity was observed in the Palearctic G. lacustris. In Baikalean P. cancelloides, a significant decrease of catalase activity with the increase in age of crustaceans was noted, while in E. verrucosus no such relationship was found. In the Palearctic G. lacustris, a significant increase in catalase activity with the increase in size was noted. All species are shown to have no size-related differences in glutathione-S-transferase activity. The differences between species as well as between both different tagmata and size-classes within a particular species were estimated. It was assumed that the estimated differences in enzymes activity most likely depend on interspecific variation, rather than on conditional specifics in Lake Baikal. PMID:16460977

Timofeyev, M A

2006-03-01

92

The effect of NaCl on antioxidant enzyme activities in potato seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of NaCl on the growth and activity of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) were investigated in the seedlings of four potato cultivars (Agria, Kennebec; relatively salt tolerant, Diamant and Ajax; relatively salt sensitive). The shoot fresh mass of Agria and Kennebec did not changed at 50 mM NaCl,

H. Rahnama; H. Ebrahimzadeh

2005-01-01

93

Cadmium stress in sugar cane callus cultures: Effect on antioxidant enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) are antioxidant enzymes which are important in the metabolism of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and can be induced by environmental stresses including cadmium (Cd), a heavy metal toxic to living organisms. Sugar cane (Saccharum officinarumL.) in vitro callus cultures were exposed to CdCl2 and the activities of CAT and SOD were analysed. Lower concentrations

Ricardo F. Fornazier; Renato R. Ferreira; Guilherme J. G. Pereira; Silvia M. G. Molina; R. John Smith; Peter J. Lea; Ricardo A. Azevedo

2002-01-01

94

The effects of detraining on blood adipokines and antioxidant enzyme in Korean overweight children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the change to clarify the effects of detraining on the concentration of lipid profiles, serum adipokines\\u000a and antioxidant enzyme gene expression in Korean overweight children. The subjects were normal children (n?=?19) and obese children (n?=?20) who were further subdivided into the overweight training (OT) group (n?=?10) and the overweight detraining (OD) group (n?=?10). Maximal oxygen uptake

Jinhee Woo; Ki Ok Shin; Jae-Ho Yoo; Soyoung Park; Sunghwun Kang

95

Adaptive response of antioxidant enzymes to catalase inhibition by aminotriazole in goldfish liver and kidney  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to clarify the physiological role of catalase in the maintenance of pro\\/antioxidant balance in goldfish tissues by inhibiting the enzyme in vivo with 3-amino 1,2,4-triazole. Intraperitoneal injection of aminotriazole (0.5 mg\\/g wet mass) caused a decrease in liver catalase activity by 83% after 24 h that was sustained after 168 h post-injection. In kidney catalase activity

Tetyana V. Bagnyukova; Kenneth B. Storey; Volodymyr I. Lushchak

2005-01-01

96

Isozymes of antioxidative enzymes during ripening and storage of ber ( Ziziphus mauritiana Lamk.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isozyme profile of antioxidative enzymes viz. superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POX), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase\\u000a (APX) was studied during ripening and storage of two cultivars of ber fruit (Ziziphus mauritiana Lamk.) differing in their shelf-lives viz. Umran (shelf-life, 8–9 d) and Kaithali (shelf-life, 4–5 d). The profile revealed that Umran variety exhibited three bands\\u000a each of SOD and POX while in

Sunil Kumar; Praduman Yadav; Veena Jain; Sarla P. Malhotra

97

Garlic inhibits free radical generation and augments antioxidant enzyme activity in vascular endothelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxygen free radicals have been implicated in mediating various pathological processes such as ischemia, inflammatory diseases, diabetes, and atherosclerosis. The antioxidant enzymes—superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX)—play an important role in scavenging oxidants and preventing cell injury. Aged Garlic Extract (AGE) has been shown to prevent oxidant-induced injury of endothelial cells. The present study determined the effects

Zhihua Wei; Benjamin H. S. Lau

1998-01-01

98

Canthaxanthin Supplementation Alters Antioxidant Enzymes and Iron Concentration in Liver of Balb\\/c Mice1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 4,49-diketo-b-carotene, canthaxanthin, alters tocopherol status when fed to Balb\\/c mice, sug- gesting an involvement of carotenoids in the modulation of oxidative stress in vivo. We investigated further the modifications induced by an oral administration of canthaxanthin on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymes and iron status in liver of Balb\\/c mice. Female 6-wk-old Balb\\/c mice were randomly divided into two groups

Paola Palozza; Gabriella Calviello; Maria Emilia De Leo; Simona Serini; Gianna Maria Bartoli

99

Trace Metals and Antioxidant Enzymes in Gills and Digestive Gland of the Mediterranean Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   A seasonal variability of trace metal concentrations and antioxidant enzymes was observed in gills and digestive gland of\\u000a the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis from both a polluted and a nonpolluted population. Trace metals (As, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn) exhibited, in both organs, maximum\\u000a values in later winter–early spring followed by a progressive decrease during the summer. While

F. Regoli

1998-01-01

100

Effect of Selenium Pretreatment on Antioxidative Enzymes and Lipid Peroxidation in Cd-exposed Suckling Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since there are no data about the protective role of selenium (Se) against cadmium (Cd)-induced oxidative damage in early\\u000a life, we studied the effect of Se supplementation on antioxidative enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation (through thiobarbituric\\u000a acid reactive substances; TBARS) in suckling Wistar rats exposed to Cd. Treated animals received either Se alone for 9 days\\u000a (8 ?mol, i.e., 0.6 mg Se as

Maja Lazarus; Tatjana Orct; Jasna Aladrovi?; Blanka Beer Ljubi?; Jasna Jurasovi?; Maja Blanuša

101

Cadmium-induced changes in antioxidant enzymes from the marine alga Nannochloropsis oculata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cadmium-induced oxidative stress symptoms such as lipid peroxidation and H2O2 production were examined in the marine alga Nannochloropsis oculata. Changes in antioxidant enzyme levels and isozyme patterns were also examined. Increasing concentrations of Cd produced growth inhibition. Among the responses to added Cd, the H2O2 content and malonyldialdehyde accumulation increased significantly, indicating a state of oxidative stress. In the case

Mi Young Lee; Hyun Woung Shin

2003-01-01

102

Ultraviolet-B- and ozone-induced biochemical changes in antioxidant enzymes of Arabidopsis thaliana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earlier studies with Arabidopsis thaliana exposed to ultraviolet B (UV-B) and ozone (Oâ) have indicated the differential responses of superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase. In this study, we have investigated whether A. thaliana genotype Landsberg erecta and its flavonoid-deficient mutant transparent testa (tt5) is capable of metabolizing UV-B- and Oâ-induced activated oxygen species by invoking similar antioxidant enzymes. UV-B exposure

M. V. Rao; G. Paliyath; D. P. Ormrod

1996-01-01

103

DNA damage and effects on antioxidative enzymes in earthworm ( Eisenia foetida) induced by atrazine  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-1, 3, 5-triazine) ecotoxicology in soil, the effect of atrazine on the activity of antioxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; and guaiacol peroxidase, POD) and DNA damage induced by atrazine were investigated in earthworms. Atrazine was added to artificial soil at rates of 0, 2.5, 5 and 10mg per kg of soil. Earthworm tissues exposed to

Y. Song; L. S. Zhu; J. Wang; J. H. Wang; W. Liu; H. Xie

2009-01-01

104

Dietary açai modulates ROS production by neutrophils and gene expression of liver antioxidant enzymes in rats  

PubMed Central

Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) has recently emerged as a promising source of natural antioxidants. Because increased oxidative stress and impaired antioxidant defense mechanisms are important factors in the development of diabetic complications and many health claims have been reported for açai, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the possible protective effects of açai on the production of reactive oxygen species by neutrophils and on the liver antioxidant defense system in control and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diet supplementation with 2% açai was found to increase mRNA levels for gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase and glutathione peroxidase in liver tissue and to decrease reactive oxygen species production by neutrophils. Compared to control animals, diabetic rats exhibited lower levels of mRNA coding for Zn-superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase and higher levels of reactive oxygen species production by neutrophils, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and carbonyl proteins in hepatic tissues. Although açai supplementation was not effective in restore gene expression of antioxidant enzymes in diabetic rats, it showed a protective effect, decreasing thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances levels and increasing reduced glutathione content in the liver. These findings suggest that açai can modulate reactive oxygen species production by neutrophils and that it has a significant favorable effect on the liver antioxidant defense system under fisiological conditions of oxidative stress and partially revert deleterious effects of diabetes in the liver. PMID:22128218

Guerra, Joyce Ferreira da Costa; Magalhães, Cíntia Lopes de Brito; Costa, Daniela Caldeira; Silva, Marcelo Eustáquio; Pedrosa, Maria Lúcia

2011-01-01

105

Dietary açai modulates ROS production by neutrophils and gene expression of liver antioxidant enzymes in rats.  

PubMed

Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) has recently emerged as a promising source of natural antioxidants. Because increased oxidative stress and impaired antioxidant defense mechanisms are important factors in the development of diabetic complications and many health claims have been reported for açai, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the possible protective effects of açai on the production of reactive oxygen species by neutrophils and on the liver antioxidant defense system in control and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diet supplementation with 2% açai was found to increase mRNA levels for gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase and glutathione peroxidase in liver tissue and to decrease reactive oxygen species production by neutrophils. Compared to control animals, diabetic rats exhibited lower levels of mRNA coding for Zn-superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase and higher levels of reactive oxygen species production by neutrophils, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and carbonyl proteins in hepatic tissues. Although açai supplementation was not effective in restore gene expression of antioxidant enzymes in diabetic rats, it showed a protective effect, decreasing thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances levels and increasing reduced glutathione content in the liver. These findings suggest that açai can modulate reactive oxygen species production by neutrophils and that it has a significant favorable effect on the liver antioxidant defense system under fisiological conditions of oxidative stress and partially revert deleterious effects of diabetes in the liver. PMID:22128218

Guerra, Joyce Ferreira da Costa; Magalhães, Cíntia Lopes de Brito; Costa, Daniela Caldeira; Silva, Marcelo Eustáquio; Pedrosa, Maria Lúcia

2011-11-01

106

Analysis of antioxidant enzyme activity during germination of alfalfa under salt and drought stresses.  

PubMed

To understand the adaptability of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) to environmental stresses, we analyzed the activity of several antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and catalase (CAT), in alfalfa shoots and roots subjected to salt and drought stresses during germination. The germination rate of six alfalfa cultivars was comparatively studied under 200 mM NaCl or 35% PEG treatment. Alfalfa Xinmu No. 1 and Northstar varieties were selected as stress-tolerant and -sensitive cultivars, respectively, and were used for further characterization. After NaCl or PEG treatment, Xinmu No. 1 showed enhanced seedling growth, compared with Northstar. Xinmu No. 1 also exhibited low levels of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) production and lipid peroxidation, compared with Northstar. In addition, Xinmu No. 1 showed higher enzymatic activity of SOD, APX, CAT, and POD in its shoots and roots than Northstar. These results seem to indicate that Xinmu No. 1 cultivar's tolerance to salt or drought stresses during germination is associated with enhanced activity of antioxidant enzymes. This study highlights the importance of antioxidant enzymes in the establishment of alfalfa seedlings under drought and salinity conditions typical of desertification. PMID:19318268

Wang, Wen-Bin; Kim, Yun-Hee; Lee, Haeng-Soon; Kim, Ki-Yong; Deng, Xi-Ping; Kwak, Sang-Soo

2009-07-01

107

Effect of Substituting Pumpkin Seed Protein Isolate for Casein on Serum Liver Enzymes, Lipid Profile and Antioxidant Enzymes in CCl -intoxicated Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study is to prepare pumpkin seed protein isolate (PSPI) by alkaline extraction and to study the effect of its substitution for casein on body weight, feed efficiency ratio, serum liver function enzymes, serum lipids profile and antioxidant enzymes in carbon tetrachloride (CCl ) intoxicated rats. Forty two 4 male rats were divided into 6 equal

Reham A. Mohamed; Reham S. Ramadan; Lamiaa A. Ahmed

2009-01-01

108

Effects of Exogenous Silicon on the Activities of Antioxidant Enzymes and Lipid Peroxidation in Chilling-Stressed Cucumber Leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to increase vegetable productivity by improving environmental conditions, this article investigates the effects of exogenous silicon on the activities of major antioxidant enzymes and on lipid peroxidation under chilling stress, and it examines whether silicon-induced chilling tolerance is mediated by an increase in antioxidant activity. Cucumis sativus cv. Jinchun 4 was hydroponically cultivated to the two-leaf stage, at

Jiao-jing LIU; Shao-hang LIN; Pei-lei XU; Xiu-juan WANG; Ji-gang BAI

2009-01-01

109

Antidiabetic effect of Phlomis anisodonta: Effects on hepatic cells lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in experimental diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated the effects of aerial parts of Phlomis anisodonta methanolic extract (PAE) on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats by measuring fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, change in body weight, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), lipid peroxidation (LPO), and liver antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into

Parisa Sarkhail; Somayeh Rahmanipour; Sedigheh Fadyevatan; Azaadeh Mohammadirad; Gholamreza Dehghan; Gholamreza Amin; Abbas Shafiee; Mohammad Abdollahi

2007-01-01

110

Association of MT1A haplotype with cardiovascular disease and antioxidant enzyme defense in elderly Greek population: comparison with an Italian cohort.  

PubMed

Metallothioneins (MT), the antioxidant zinc-binding proteins, seem to mediate cardioprotection. It has been postulated that zinc homeostasis and MT function may be altered, as a consequence of oxidative stress, in cardiovascular disease (CVD), with a potential implication of MT genetic polymorphisms. The present study explores the role of +647A/C and +1245A/G MT1A polymorphisms on the susceptibility to CVD, zinc status and enzyme antioxidant activity, in the Greek and Italian populations. The country selection was based on the lower zinc status and the reduced zinc dietary intake in Greece than in Italy despite the similar Mediterranean dietary pattern. A total of 464 old, healthy control subjects and 369 old CVD patients more than 70 years of age were studied. Logistic regression model indicated that +1245 MT1A G+ genotype significantly increased the risk of CVD in Greece (34.4% vs. 23.2%; odds ratio=1.88, 95% confidence interval=1.14-3.08; P=.013) but not in Italy. Haplotype analysis showed an increment of CG haplotype frequency in CVD Greek patients (17.4% vs. 10.6%, P<.05). Differential country-related frequency distribution was also recorded. Applying a multivariate regression model, +647/+1245 MT1A haplotype was associated with a modulation of enzyme antioxidant activities in both countries. Decreased plasma zinc and reduced intracellular Zn release, as well as increased enzyme antioxidant activity, were more apparent in Greek healthy donors than in Italy. In conclusion, +1245 MT1A polymorphism and +647/+1245 MT1A haplotype are implicated in CVD in Greece but not in Italy, suggesting a role of gene-diet interaction in the disease predisposition. PMID:19962295

Giacconi, Robertina; Kanoni, Stavroula; Mecocci, Patrizia; Malavolta, Marco; Richter, Dimitris; Pierpaoli, Sara; Costarelli, Laura; Cipriano, Catia; Muti, Elisa; Mangialasche, Francesca; Piacenza, Francesco; Tesei, Silvia; Galeazzi, Roberta; Theodoraki, Eirini V; Lattanzio, Fabrizia; Dedoussis, George; Mocchegiani, Eugenio

2010-10-01

111

Flavonoids in Juglans regia L. leaves and evaluation of in vitro antioxidant activity via intracellular and chemical methods.  

PubMed

Flavonoids are rich in Juglans regia L. leaves. They have potent antioxidant properties, which have been related to regulating immune function and enhancing anticancer activity. Herein, qualitative and quantitative determination of flavonoids from J. regia leaves was carried out using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization and negative ion detection (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) by comparison of the retention times and mass spectral fragments with standard substances or related literatures. Seventeen compounds were identified and major components are quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside (453.11 ?g/g, dry weight), quercetin-3-O-arabinoside (73.91 ?g/g), quercetin-3-O-xyloside (70.04 ?g/g), kaempferol-O-pentoside derivative (49.04 ?g/g), quercetin-3-O-galactoside (48.61 ?g/g), and kaempferol-O-pentoside (48.46 ?g/g). The in vitro intracellular antioxidation indicated that flavonoids from J. regia leaves could reduce the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in RAW264.7 cells and showed good radical scavenging activities. These results proved to be more related to the flavonoids that could be considered in the design of new formulations of dietary supplements or functional foods. PMID:25133218

Zhao, Ming-Hui; Jiang, Zi-Tao; Liu, Tao; Li, Rong

2014-01-01

112

Thermotolerance and Related Antioxidant Enzyme Activities Induced by Heat Acclimation and Salicylic Acid in Grape ( Vitis vinifera L.) Leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermotolerance and related antioxidant enzyme activities induced by both heat acclimation and exogenous salicylic acid (SA)\\u000a application were studied in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Jingxiu). Heat acclimation and exogenous SA application induced comparable changes in thermotolerance, ascorbic acid\\u000a (AsA), glutathione (GSH), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentrations, and in activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), glutathione

Li-Jun Wang; Shao-Hua Li

2006-01-01

113

State of the antioxidative enzymes of rat bone marrow cells after irradiation, fractures, and a combination of both  

SciTech Connect

The authors study bone marrow levels of antioxidative (antiradical) defensive systems (ADS) enzymes, namely superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GP), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione: dehydroascorbate oxidoreductase (GDAR), rats and changes in their activity in the bone marrow at various times after irradiation, mechanical trauma, and a combination of both. Development of acute radiation sickness as a result of a single irradiation was accompanied by marked changes in the enzymic antioxidative system of rat bone marrow cells.

Bogdanova, I.A.; Ovchinnikov, K.G.; Torbenko, V.P.; Gerasimov, A.M.

1987-11-01

114

Induction of xenobiotic enzymes by the MAP kinase pathway and the antioxidant or electrophile response element (ARE/EpRE).  

PubMed

Cellular responses to xenobiotic-induced stress can signal proliferation, differentiation, homeostasis, apoptosis, or necrosis. To better understand the underlying molecular mechanisms after exposure to xenobiotics or drugs, we studied the signal transduction pathways, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and the basic leucine zipper transcription factor Nrf2, activated by different agents in the induction of Phase II drug metabolizing enzymes (DMEs). The MAPKs, characterized as proline-directed serine/threonine kinases, are essential components of signaling pathways that convert various extracellular signals into intracellular responses through serial phosphorylation cascades. Once activated, MAPKs can phosphorylate many transcription factors, such as c-Jun, ATF-2, and ultimately lead to changes in gene expression. Two classes of Phase II gene inducers, which are also cancer chemopreventive agents, were studied: (1) the phenolic antioxidants, namely butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and its active de-methylated metabolite t-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ), and phenolic flavonoids such as green tea polyphenols (GTP) and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG); and (2) the naturally occurring isothiocyanates, namely phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), and sulforaphane. BHA and tBHQ are both well-known phenolic antioxidants used as food preservatives, and strongly activate c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1), extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 2 (ERK2), or p38, in a time- and dose-dependent fashion. Free radical scavengers N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), or glutathione (GSH), inhibited ERK2 activation and, to a much lesser extent, JNK1 activation by BHA/tBHQ, implicating the role of oxidative stress. Under conditions where MAPKs were activated, BHA or GTP also activated ARE/EpRE (antioxidant/electrophile response element), with the induction of Phase II genes such as NQO. Transfection studies with various cDNAs encoding wild-type or dominant-negative mutants of MAPKs and/or transcription factor Nrf2, substantially modulated ARE-mediated luciferase reporter activity in the presence or absence of phenolic compounds. Other phytochemicals including PEITC, and sulforaphane, also differentially regulated the activities of MAPKs, Nrf2, and ARE-mediated luciferase reporter gene activity and Phase II enzyme induction. A model is proposed where these xenobiotics (BHA, tBHQ, GTP, EGCG, PEITC, sulforaphane) activate the MAPK pathway via an electrophilic-mediated stress response, leading to the transcription activation of Nrf2/Maf heterodimers on ARE/EpRE enhancers, with the subsequent induction of cellular defense/detoxifying genes including Phase II DMEs, which may protect the cells against toxic environmental insults and thereby enhance cell survival. The studies of these signaling pathways may yield insights into the fate of cells upon exposure to xenobiotics. PMID:11768769

Kong, A N; Owuor, E; Yu, R; Hebbar, V; Chen, C; Hu, R; Mandlekar, S

2001-01-01

115

Cadmium phytotoxicity: Quantitative sensitivity relationships between classical endpoints and antioxidative enzyme biomarkers.  

PubMed

In this work, cadmium phytotoxicity and quantitative sensitivity relationships between different hierarchical endpoints in plants cultivated in a contaminated soil were studied. Thus, germination rate, biomass growth and antioxidative enzyme activity (i.e. superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase and glutathione reductase) in three terrestrial plants (Avena sativa L., Brassica campestris L. cv. Chinensis, Lactuca sativa L. cv. hanson) were analyzed. Plant growth tests were carried out according to an International Standard Organization method and the results were analyzed by ANOVA followed by Williams' test. The concentration of Cd2+ that had the smallest observed significant negative effect (LOEC) on plant biomass was 6.25, 12.5 and 50 mg Cd/kg dry soil for lettuce, oat and Chinese cabbage, respectively. Activity of all enzymes studied increased significantly compared to enzyme activity in plant controls. For lettuce, LOEC values (mg Cd/kg dry soil) for enzymic activity ranged from 0.05 (glutathione reductase) to 0.39 (catalase). For oat, LOEC values (mg Cd/kg dry soil) ranged from 0.19 (for superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase) to 0.39 (for catalase and peroxidase). For Chinese cabbage, LOEC values (mg Cd/kg dry soil) ranged from 0.19 (peroxidase, catalase and glutathione reductase) to 0.39 (superoxide dismutase). Classical (i.e. germination and biomass) and biochemical (i.e. enzyme activity) endpoints were compared to establish a sensitivity ranking, which was: enzyme activity>biomass>germination rate. For cadmium-soil contamination, the determination of quantitative sensitivity relationships (QSR) between classical and antioxidative enzyme biomarkers showed that the most sensitive plant species have, generally, the lowest QSR values. PMID:15982719

da Rosa Corrêa, Albertina Xavier; Rörig, Leonardo Rubi; Verdinelli, Miguel A; Cotelle, Sylvie; Férard, Jean-François; Radetski, Claudemir Marcos

2006-03-15

116

Role of intracellular labile iron, ferritin, and antioxidant defence in resistance of chronically adapted Jurkat T cells to hydrogen peroxide.  

PubMed

To examine the role of intracellular labile iron pool (LIP), ferritin (Ft), and antioxidant defence in cellular resistance to oxidative stress on chronic adaptation, a new H2O2-resistant Jurkat T cell line "HJ16" was developed by gradual adaptation of parental "J16" cells to high concentrations of H2O2. Compared to J16 cells, HJ16 cells exhibited much higher resistance to H2O2-induced oxidative damage and necrotic cell death (up to 3mM) and had enhanced antioxidant defence in the form of significantly higher intracellular glutathione and mitochondrial ferritin (FtMt) levels as well as higher glutathione-peroxidase (GPx) activity. In contrast, the level of the Ft H-subunit (FtH) in the H2O2-adapted cell line was found to be 7-fold lower than in the parental J16 cell line. While H2O2 concentrations higher than 0.1mM fully depleted the glutathione content of J16 cells, in HJ16 cells the same treatments decreased the cellular glutathione content to only half of the original value. In HJ16 cells, H2O2 concentrations higher than 0.1mM increased the level of FtMt up to 4-fold of their control values but had no effect on the FtMt levels in J16 cells. Furthermore, while the basal cytosolic level of LIP was similar in both cell lines, H2O2 treatment substantially increased the cytosolic LIP levels in J16 but not in HJ16 cells. H2O2 treatment also substantially decreased the FtH levels in J16 cells (up to 70% of the control value). In contrast in HJ16 cells, FtH levels were not affected by H2O2 treatment. These results indicate that chronic adaptation of J16 cells to high concentrations of H2O2 has provoked a series of novel and specific cellular adaptive responses that contribute to higher resistance of HJ16 cells to oxidative damage and cell death. These include increased cellular antioxidant defence in the form of higher glutathione and FtMt levels, higher GPx activity, and lower FtH levels. Further adaptive responses include the significantly reduced cellular response to oxidant-mediated glutathione depletion, FtH modulation, and labile iron release and a significant increase in FtMt levels following H2O2 treatment. PMID:24333634

Al-Qenaei, Abdullah; Yiakouvaki, Anthie; Reelfs, Olivier; Santambrogio, Paolo; Levi, Sonia; Hall, Nick D; Tyrrell, Rex M; Pourzand, Charareh

2014-03-01

117

Subchronic effects of cyanobacterial cells on the transcription of antioxidant enzyme genes in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).  

PubMed

The increasing occurrence of toxic cyanobacterial blooms in eutrophic water bodies is nowadays of worldwide concern due to their ability to produce toxins such as microcystins (MCs). These cyanobacterial toxins have been shown to affect aquatic organisms such as fish, resulting in oxidative stress. Among the antioxidant enzymes, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and soluble glutathione-S-transferases (sGST) play an important role in the detoxification of MCs. In the present work tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were orally exposed to cyanobacterial cells containing MCs and non-containing MCs for 21 days. The activity and relative mRNA expression by real-time PCR of both enzymes and the GST protein abundance by Western blot analysis were evaluated in liver and kidney. Also the induction of lipid peroxidation (LPO) was assayed. MCs containing cyanobacterial cells induced an increase of LPO products in both organs, and MCs containing and MCs non-containing cyanobacterial cells altered the activity, gene expression and protein abundance of the enzymes, indicating the importance of GPx and sGST in MCs detoxification. Moreover, liver, the main organ involved in biodegradation and biotransformation, experienced an adaptative response to the toxic insult. These results show for the first time that the subchronic exposure to cyanobacterial cells causes changes in antioxidant and detoxification enzymes and that GPx and GST gene expression are good markers of these alterations in tilapia. PMID:21279735

Puerto, María; Gutiérrez-Praena, Daniel; Prieto, Ana Isabel; Pichardo, Silvia; Jos, Angeles; Miguel-Carrasco, José Luis; Vazquez, Carmen M; Cameán, Ana M

2011-03-01

118

Cloning and sequencing of thiol-specific antioxidant from mammalian brain: Alkyl hydroperoxide reductase and thiol-specific antioxidant define a large family of antioxidant enzymes  

SciTech Connect

A cDNA corresponding to a thiol-specific antioxidant enzyme (TSA) was isolated from a rat brain cDNA library with the use of antibodies to bovine TSA. The cDNA clone encoded an open reading frame capable of encoding a 198-residue polypeptide. The rat and yeast TSA proteins show significant sequence homology to the 21-kDa component (AhpC) of Salmonella typhimurium alkyl hydroperoxide reductase, and we have found that AhpC exhibits TSA activity. AhpC and TSA define a family of >25 different proteins present in organisms from all kingdoms. The similarity among the family members extends over the entire sequence and ranges between 23% and 98% identity. A majority of the members of the AhpC/TSA family contain two conserved cysteines. At least eight of the genes encoding AhpC/TSA-like polypeptides are found in proximity to genes encoding other oxidoreductase activities, and the expression of several of the homologs has been correlated with pathogenicity. The authors suggest that the AhpC/TSA family represents a widely distributed class of antioxidant enzymes. They also report that a second family of proteins, defined by the 57-kDa component (AhpF) of alkyl hydroperoxide reductase and by thioredoxin reductase, has expanded to include six additional members.

Chae, H.Z; Storz, G.; Rhee, S.G. [National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Robison, K.; Church, G. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Poole, L.B. [Bowman Gray School of Medicine of Wake Forest Univ., Winstom-Salem, NC (United States)

1994-07-19

119

Influence of methionine upon the activity of antioxidative enzymes in the kidney of rats exposed to sodium fluoride.  

PubMed

The intensified or uncontrolled formation of reactive oxygen species leads to disturbances of numerous biochemical processes. Among the factors inducing intensified free radical processes, fluoride ions are listed, among others. One of the organs most exposed to the toxic activity of fluorides is the kidney. In the study presented here, the influence of fluorine upon the activity of selected antioxidant enzymes in rat kidney has been examined, as well as antioxidant properties of methionine during intoxication with sodium fluoride. The experiment was carried out on Wistar FL rats (adult females) that for 35 days were administered water, NaF, NaF with methionine (doses: 10 mg NaF/kg bw/day, 10 mg Met/kg bw/day) . The influence of administered NaF and Met upon the antioxidative system in kidney was examined by analyzing the activity of the most important antioxidative enzymes (SOD, CAT, GPX, GR, GST). The studies carried out confirmed the disadvantageous effect of NaF upon the antioxidative system in rats (decrease in activity of antioxidative enzymes). Methionine increased the activity of antioxidative enzymes, most efficiently that of GPX, GR, and GST. PMID:19488683

B?aszczyk, Iwona; Grucka-Mamczar, Ewa; Kasperczyk, S?awomir; Birkner, Ewa

2010-01-01

120

Response of antioxidant enzymes in coontail (Ceratophyllum demersum L.) plants under cadmium stress.  

PubMed

Cadmium (Cd) contamination of aquatic systems is of major concern since it is a nonessential element and hampers plant growth upon accumulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the Cd accumulation behavior of coontail plant, Ceratophyllum demersum L., toxicity induced and response of the antioxidant system. Plants were exposed to various concentrations of Cd (0-10 microM) for a period of 1-7 days. Accumulation of Cd was found to be a concentration duration dependent phenomenon. The maximum accumulation of Cd, 1293 microg g(-1) dw, was observed after 7 days at 10 microM. Plants showed significant stimulation of the activities of various antioxidant enzymes viz., superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1), ascorbate peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.11), guaiacol peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7), catalase (EC 1.11.1.6), and glutathione reductase (EC 1.6.4.2) and tolerated toxicity of Cd up to moderate concentration of 5 microM. At 10 microM exposure, enzyme activities declined and plants experienced toxicity, which was evident by the significant decrease in the photosynthetic pigments and by increase in the levels of H(2)O(2), lipid peroxidation and ion leakage. In conclusion, modulation of antioxidant system in a coordinated manner in response to Cd accumulation appears to help plants tolerate toxicity of Cd up to 5 microM. PMID:18214904

Mishra, Seema; Srivastava, Sudhakar; Tripathi, R D; Dwivedi, Sanjay; Shukla, M K

2008-06-01

121

Effect of spaceflight on oxidative and antioxidant enzyme activity in rat diaphragm and intercostal muscles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are limited data regarding changes in oxidative and antioxidant enzymes induced by simulated or actual weightlessness, and any additional information would provide insight into potential mechanisms involving other changes observed in muscles from animals previously flown in space. Thus, the NASA Biospecimen Sharing Program was an opportunity to collect valuable information. Oxidative and antioxidant enzyme levels, as well as lipid peroxidation, were measured in respiratory muscles from rates flown on board Space Shuttle mission STS-54. The results indicated that there was an increasing trend in citrate synthase activity in the flight diaphragm when compared to ground based controls, and there were no significant changes observed in the intercostal muscles for any of the parameters. However, the lipid peroxidation was significantly (p less than 0.05) decreased in the flight diaphragm. These results indicate that 6 day exposure to microgravity may have a different effect on oxidative and antioxidant activity in rat respiratory muscles when compared to data from previous 14 day hindlimb suspension studies.

Lee, Mona D.; Tuttle, Ronald; Girten, Beverly

1995-01-01

122

Measuring Intracellular Enzyme Concentrations: Assessing the Effect of Oxidative Stress on the Amount of Glyoxalase I  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Enzymology is one of the fundamental areas of biochemistry and involves the study of the structure, kinetics, and regulation of enzyme activity. Research in this area is often conducted with purified enzymes and extrapolated to "in vivo" conditions. The specificity constant, k[subscript S], is the ratio between k[subscript cat] (the catalytic…

Miranda, Hugo Vicente; Ferreira, Antonio E. N.; Quintas, Alexandre; Cordeiro, Carlos; Freire, Ana Ponces

2008-01-01

123

Emerging roles of Nrf2 and phase II antioxidant enzymes in neuroprotection.  

PubMed

Phase II metabolic enzymes are a battery of critical proteins that detoxify xenobiotics by increasing their hydrophilicity and enhancing their disposal. These enzymes have long been studied for their preventative and protective effects against mutagens and carcinogens and for their regulation via the Keap1 (Kelch-like ECH associated protein 1)/Nrf2 (Nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2)/ARE (antioxidant response elements) pathway. Recently, a series of studies have reported the altered expression of phase II genes in postmortem tissue of patients with various neurological diseases. These observations hint at a role for phase II enzymes in the evolution of such conditions. Furthermore, promising findings reveal that overexpression of phase II genes, either by genetic or chemical approaches, confers neuroprotection in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, there is a need to summarize the current literature on phase II genes in the central nervous system (CNS). This should help guide future studies on phase II genes as therapeutic targets in neurological diseases. In this review, we first briefly introduce the concept of phase I, II and III enzymes, with a special focus on phase II enzymes. We then discuss their expression regulation, their inducers and executors. Following this background, we expand our discussion to the neuroprotective effects of phase II enzymes and the potential application of Nrf2 inducers to the treatment of neurological diseases. PMID:23025925

Zhang, Meijuan; An, Chengrui; Gao, Yanqin; Leak, Rehana K; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Feng

2013-01-01

124

Emerging Roles of Nrf2 and Phase II Antioxidant Enzymes in Neuroprotection  

PubMed Central

Phase II metabolic enzymes are a battery of critical proteins that detoxify xenobiotics by increasing their hydrophilicity and enhancing their disposal. These enzymes have long been studied for their preventative and protective effects against mutagens and carcinogens and for their regulation via the Keap1 (Kelch-like ECH associated protein 1) / Nrf2 (Nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2) / ARE (antioxidant response elements) pathway. Recently, a series of studies have reported the altered expression of phase II genes in postmortem tissue of patients with various neurological diseases. These observations hint at a role for phase II enzymes in the evolution of such conditions. Furthermore, promising findings reveal that overexpression of phase II genes, either by genetic or chemical approaches, confers neuroprotection in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, there is a need to summarize the current literature on phase II genes in the central nervous system (CNS). This should help guide future studies on phase II genes as therapeutic targets in neurological diseases. In this review, we first briefly introduce the concept of phase I, II and III enzymes, with a special focus on phase II enzymes. We then discuss their expression regulation, their inducers and executors. Following this background, we expand our discussion to the neuroprotective effects of phase II enzymes and the potential application of Nrf2 inducers to the treatment of neurological diseases. PMID:23025925

Zhang, Meijuan; An, Chengrui; Gao, Yanqin; Leak, Rehana K.; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Feng

2013-01-01

125

Regulation by the antioxidants ascorbate, cysteine, and dapsone of the increased extracellular and intracellular generation of reactive oxidants by activated phagocytes from cigarette smokers.  

PubMed

The bimodal pattern of N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP)-activated luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence with distinct early (occurring within 1 min) extracellular and late intracellular oxidative responses was compared in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) from asymptomatic cigarette smokers and nonsmoking control subjects. Relative to control PMNL, the PMNL from smokers were hyperreactive to FMLP stimulation with increased generation of both extracellular (p less than 0.025) and intracellular (p less than 0.025) reactive oxidants. Smokers' PMNL also showed increased PMNL-activated superoxide generation and increased apparent receptors for FMLP. The water-soluble antioxidants ascorbate and cysteine (2.5 X 10(-5) M to 2.5 X 10(-4) M) selectively neutralized the extracellular activity of PMNL-derived reactive oxidants. The lipid-soluble antioxidant dapsone (1.25 to 30 micrograms/ml), on the other hand, inhibited both the extracellular and intracellular FMLP-activated chemiluminescence responses in PMNL from smokers and nonsmoking control subjects. Regulation of the increased extracellular and intracellular membrane-associated oxidative responses in PMNL from cigarette smokers is probably an important function of water-soluble and lipid-soluble antioxidants in vivo. PMID:3034109

Anderson, R; Theron, A J; Ras, G J

1987-05-01

126

Thyroid hormones-mediated effects of insulin on antioxidant enzymes from diabetic rat hearts.  

PubMed

Free radicals, oxidative stress, and antioxidants have become commonly used terms in modern discussion of disease mechanisms. Accumulation of evidence suggests that toxic oxygen-derived reactive free radicals (superoxide, peroxide and hydroxyl radicals) play a crucial role in etiology of diabetes and its complication. Thus, it was aimed to determine the role of thyroid hormones in reversal of antioxidatant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation alterations observed in experimentally induced diabetic rat hearts. The present study investigates the antioxidant enzyme activities such as SOD, CAT, GSH-Px and lipid peroxidation products in cardiac tissues of streptozotosin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats before and after thyroidectomy. Our results showed that CAT, GPx enzyme activities and FOX, MDA levels were increased (p<0.05) during diabetes, hypothyroidism and hypothyroidism with diabetes, which can be regulated in different percentages with treatment of insulin and various doses of thyroid hormone ((p<0.05). In conclusion, in this study, the possible contribution of thyroid hormones to the insulin effect of normalizing the induced diabetic changes in cardiac tissue and serum of rat has been seen (Tab. 5, Ref. 32). PMID:23514549

Kosova, F; Altan, N; Sepici, A; Engin, A; Kocamanoglu, N

2013-01-01

127

Blood activities of antioxidant enzymes in alcoholics before and after withdrawal.  

PubMed

Since free radicals and peroxides seem to be involved in the toxicity of alcohol, several authors have examined the variations of blood activities of antioxidant enzymes in alcoholics, but published results are somewhat conflicting. In this study, erythrocyte (E) activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and catalase (CAT), and plasma (P) activities of SOD and GPX were measured in 58 male alcoholics without evidence of severe liver disease before and after a 21-day weaning period, and in a control group of 78 healthy men. Before abstinence, E-SOD and E-GPX activities were, respectively, 6.8% and 13.0% lower in alcoholics than in controls (p < or = .05 and p < or = .01, respectively), whereas the slight increases of E-CAT, P-SOD and P-GPX were not statistically significant. After 21 days of abstinence, no change in activities of the erythrocyte enzymes was noticed; conversely, P-SOD activity was reduced by 8.3% (p < or = .01) and P-GPX by 23.3% (p < or = .001). Variations of blood antioxidant enzymes observed in patients were of limited amplitude and do not allow the use of either of them as markers of alcohol abuse. PMID:8412153

Guemouri, L; Lecomte, E; Herbeth, B; Pirollet, P; Paille, F; Siest, G; Artur, Y

1993-09-01

128

Activity of peroxisomal enzymes and intracellular distribution of catalase in Zellweger syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activity of peroxisomal enzymes was studied in human liver and cultured human skin fibroblasts in relation to the finding (Goldfischer, S. et al. (1973) Science 182, 62–64) that morphologically distinct peroxisomes are not detectable in patients with the cerebro-hepato-renal (Zellweger) syndrome. In homogenates of liver from the patients, dihydroxyacetone phosphate acyltransferase, a membrane-bound peroxisomal enzyme, is deficient (Schutgens, R.B.H.,

G. Schrakamp; H. van den Bosch; B. Roest; M. Kos; A. J. Meijer; H. S. A. Heymans; W. H. H. Tegelaers; R. B. H. Schutgens; J. M. Tager; R. J. A. Wanders

1984-01-01

129

Changes in nitrogen metabolism and antioxidant enzyme activities of maize tassel in black soils region of northeast China  

PubMed Central

Two varieties of maize (Zea mays L.) grown in fields in black soils of northeast China were tested to study the dynamic changes of nitrogen metabolism and antioxidant enzyme activity in tassels of maize. Results showed that antioxidant enzyme activity in tassels of maize increased first and then decreased with the growing of maize, and reached peak value at shedding period. Pattern of proline was consistent with antioxidant enzyme activity, showing that osmotic adjustment could protect many enzymes, which are important for cell metabolism. Continuous reduction of soluble protein content along with the growing of maize was observed in the study, which indicated that quantitative material and energy were provided for pollen formation. Besides, another major cause was that a large proportion of nitrogen was used for the composition of structural protein. Nitrate nitrogen concentrations of tassels were more variable than ammonium nitrogen, which showed that nitrate nitrogen was the favored nitrogen source for maize.

Xu, Hongwen; Lu, Yan; Xie, Zhiming; Song, Fengbin

2014-01-01

130

Oleuropein prevents ethanol-induced gastric ulcers via elevation of antioxidant enzyme activities in rats.  

PubMed

Purified oleuropein from olive leaf extract has been shown to have antioxidant effects in our recent studies. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the antioxidant abilities of oleuropein in comparison with ranitidine in ethanol-induced gastric damages via evaluation of ulcer index inhibition, antioxidant enzyme activities, and lipid peroxidation level. Fifty-six adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into seven equal groups as follows: control group, ethanol group (absolute ethanol 1 ml/rat), oleuropein group (12 mg/kg), and oleuropein (6, 12, and 18 mg/kg) plus ethanol groups, as well as ranitidine (50 mg/kg) plus ethanol group. Pretreatment with oleuropein (12 and 18 mg/kg) significantly increased the ulcer index inhibition (percent), in comparison with oleuropein (6 mg/kg). Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity was significantly lower in the ethanol group when compared with the other groups whereas, treatment of rats with oleuropein (12 mg/kg) significantly increased glutathione content in gastric tissue when compared with the other groups, and lipid peroxidation was significantly reduced in the oleuropein- (12 and 18 mg/kg) and ranitidine-treated animals. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were both much higher in oleuropein-treated rats than the ethanol group, and although there was a moderate increase in SOD and CAT activities in ranitidine-treated rats, the differences were not significant. These findings suggest that oleuropein has beneficial antioxidant properties against ethanol-induced gastric damages in the rat. Therefore, it seems that a combination regimen including both antioxidant and antisecretory drugs may be beneficial in prevention of ethanol-mediated gastric mucosal damages. PMID:22581435

Alirezaei, Masoud; Dezfoulian, Omid; Neamati, Shima; Rashidipour, Marzyeh; Tanideh, Nader; Kheradmand, Arash

2012-12-01

131

Induction of the Expressions of Antioxidant Enzymes by Luteinizing Hormone in the Bovine Corpus Luteum  

PubMed Central

Abstract Luteoprotective mechanisms of luteinizing hormone (LH) involved in the maintenance of bovine corpus luteum (CL) function have not been completely clarified. Since antioxidant enzymes are well documented as antiapoptotic factors in the CL of many mammals, we hypothesized that the luteoprotective action of LH is mediated by stimulating the local production and action of antioxidant enzymes. To test the above hypothesis, in the present study, we examined the mechanisms involved in the luteoprotective actions of LH. Cultured bovine luteal cells obtained from the CL at the mid-luteal stage (days 8–12 of the estrous cycle) were treated with LH (10 ng/ml), onapristone (OP; a specific progesterone receptor antagonist, 100 ?M) and diethyldithiocarbamate [DETC; an inhibitor of superoxide dismutase (SOD), 100 ?M] for 24 h. LH in combination with or without OP significantly increased the mRNA and protein expressions of manganese SOD (Mn-SOD) and catalase (CATA) and SOD activity. While LH alone significantly increased the mRNA and protein expressions of SOD containing copper and zinc (Cu,Zn-SOD), OP in combination with or without LH significantly decreased the mRNA and protein expressions of Cu,Zn-SOD. In addition, Cu,Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD and CATA mRNA expressions were higher at the mid luteal phase than the other luteal phases. LH in combination with DETC significantly decreased LH-increased cell viability. The overall results suggest that LH increases cell viability by LH-increased antioxidant enzymes, resulting in maintenance of CL function during the luteal phase in cattle. PMID:23386101

KAWAGUCHI, Syota; SAKUMOTO, Ryosuke; OKUDA, Kiyoshi

2013-01-01

132

Edaravone mitigates hexavalent chromium-induced oxidative stress and depletion of antioxidant enzymes while estrogen restores antioxidant enzymes in the rat ovary in F1 offspring.  

PubMed

Environmental contamination of drinking water with chromium (Cr) has been increasing in more than 30 cities in the United States. Previous studies from our group have shown that Cr affects reproductive functions in female Sprague Dawley rats. Although it is impossible to completely remove Cr from the drinking water, it is imperative to develop effective intervention strategies to inhibit Cr-induced deleterious health effects. Edaravone (EDA), a potential inhibitor of free radicals, has been clinically used to treat cancer and cardiac ischemia. This study evaluated the efficacy of EDA against Cr-induced ovarian toxicity. Results showed that maternal exposure to CrVI in rats increased follicular atresia, decreased steroidogenesis, and delayed puberty in F1 offspring. CrVI increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant (AOX) enzyme levels in the ovary. CrVI increased follicle atresia by increased expression of cleaved caspase 3, and decreased expression of Bcl2 and Bcl2l1 in the ovary. EDA mitigated or inhibited the effects of CrVI on follicle atresia, pubertal onset, steroid hormone levels, and AOX enzyme activity, as well as the expression of Bcl2 and Bcl2l1 in the ovary. In a second study, CrVI treatment was withdrawn, and F1 rats were injected with estradiol (E2) (10 ?g in PBS/ethanol per 100 g body weight) for a period of 2 wk to evaluate whether E2 treatment will restore Cr-induced depletion of AOX enzymes. E2 restored CrVI-induced depletion of glutathione peroxidase 1, catalase, thioredoxin 2, and peroxiredoxin 3 in the ovary. This is the first study to demonstrate the protective effects of EDA against any toxicant in the ovary. PMID:24804965

Stanley, Jone A; Sivakumar, Kirthiram K; Arosh, Joe A; Burghardt, Robert C; Banu, Sakhila K

2014-07-01

133

Cadmium accumulation, activities of antioxidant enzymes, and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in Pistia stratiotes L.  

PubMed

The aquatic plant Pistia stratiotes L. (water lettuce) was studied due to its capability of absorption of contaminants in water and its subsequent use in wetlands constructed for wastewater treatment. The effects of Cd on root growth, accumulation of Cd, antioxidant enzymes, and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in P. stratiotes were investigated. The results indicated that P. stratiotes has considerable ability to accumulate Cd. Cadmium induced higher superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities than catalase activity, suggesting that SOD and POD provided a better defense mechanism against Cd-induced oxidative damage. The accumulation of Cd promoted MDA production. PMID:22791349

Li, Yong; Zhang, Shanshan; Jiang, Wusheng; Liu, Donghua

2013-02-01

134

Enhanced tolerance to oxidative stress in transgenic tobacco plants expressing three antioxidant enzymes in chloroplasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of simultaneous expression of genes encoding three antioxidant enzymes, copper zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD,\\u000a EC 1.15.1.1), ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11), and dehydroascorbate (DHA) reductase (DHAR, EC 1.8.5.1), in the chloroplasts\\u000a of tobacco plants was investigated under oxidative stress conditions. In previous studies, transgenic tobacco plants expressing\\u000a both CuZnSOD and APX in chloroplast (CA plants), or DHAR in

Young-Pyo Lee; Sun-Hyung Kim; Jae-Wook Bang; Haeng-Soon Lee; Sang-Soo Kwak; Suk-Yoon Kwon

2007-01-01

135

Effects of phthalate ester treatment on seed germination and antioxidant enzyme activities of Phaseolus radiatus L.  

PubMed

Effects of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and di-n-butyl phthalate on seed germination rate and antioxidant enzymes activities of mung bean (Phaseolus radiatus L.) were investigated. Results showed that under the treatment with 10 mg/kg of phthalate esters (PAEs), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase and catalase (CAT) activities were higher than those of the control (p > 0.05). But SOD and CAT activities decreased with the PAEs concentrations and the treatment duration, and were significantly lower than those of the control (p < 0.05). Effect of PAEs stress on SOD activity in germinating seeds of mung bean displayed a significant dose-effect relationship. PMID:24535285

Liu, Wenli; Zhang, Chongbang; Liu, Shuyuan

2014-05-01

136

Neuroprotection of antioxidant enzymes against transient global cerebral ischemia in gerbils  

PubMed Central

Experimentally transient global cerebral ischemia using animal models have been thoroughly studied and numerous reports suggest the involvement of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of neuronal death in ischemic lesions. In animal models, during the reperfusion period after ischemia, increased oxygen supply results in the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are involved in the process of cell death. ROS, such as superoxide anions, hydroxyl free radicals, hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide are produced as a consequence of metabolic reactions and central nervous system activity. These reactive species are directly involved in the oxidative damage of cellular macromolecules such as nucleic acids, lipids and proteins in ischemic tissues, which can lead to cell death. Antioxidant enzymes are believed to be among the major mechanisms by which cells counteract the deleterious effect of ROS after cerebral ischemia. Consequently, antioxidant strategies have been long suggested as a therapy for experimental ischemic stroke; however, clinical trials have not yet been able to promote the translation of this concept into patient treatment regimens. This article focuses on the contribution of oxidative stress or antioxidants to the post-ischemic neuronal death following transient global cerebral ischemia by using a gerbil model.

Lee, Jae-Chul

2014-01-01

137

Effect of cadmium on the growth and antioxidant enzymes in two varieties of Brassica juncea.  

PubMed

Increasing contamination and higher enrichment ratio of non-essential heavy metal cadmium (Cd) induce various toxic responses in plants when accumulated above the threshold level. These effects and growth responses are genotype and Cd level dependent. An experiment was conducted to analyze the effect of Cd toxicity in Brassica juncea [L] Czern and Coss by selecting its two varieties Varuna and RH-30. Cadmium (0, 25, 50 or 100 mg CdCl2 kg(-1) of soil) fed to soil decreased the values of growth characteristics, activity of nitrate reductase and leaf water potential, whereas activities of antioxidant enzymes and proline content increased with the increasing concentration of Cd, observed at 30 and 60 day stages of growth, in both the varieties. Moreover, Cd uptake by the roots was higher in RH-30 than Varuna. Also the activity of antioxidant enzymes and proline accumulation were higher in Varuna with increasing soil level of Cd. Out of the two varieties, Varuna was more tolerant than RH-30 to Cd stress. PMID:24600304

Irfan, Mohd; Ahmad, Aqil; Hayat, Shamsul

2014-04-01

138

[Effects of different concentration ammonium-n on Hydrilla verticillata antioxidant enzymes under Cd stress].  

PubMed

In this paper, submersed plant Hydrilla verticillata was cultivated in a 1/10 Hoagland culture medium added with different concentration NH4 + -N (0, 0. 5, 2. 0, 4. 0 mg x L(-1)) and 10 mg x L(-1) cadmium to study the effects of NH4 + -N on H. verticillata growth and its antioxidant enzyme system under Cd stress, and approach the degradation mechanism of submersed macrophyte in eutrophic and polluted water bodies. The results showed that under 10 mg x L(-1) Cd stress, the chlorophyll content of H. verticillata decreased obviously, and SOD and POD activities increased first but declined then. NH4 + -N accelerated the stress effect of Cd. Under 0. 5 h joint stress of Cd and NH4 + -N, SOD activity increased significantly, while such an increase needed 3 hours under single Cd stress. Relative to chlorophyll and protein, antioxidant enzyme system was an early sensitive index, and SOD was more sensitive than POD. After two days exposure to Cd plus NH4 -N, H. verticillata was mainly stressed by Cd, and NH4+ -N stress could be neglected. PMID:17450750

Xu, Qiu-jin; Jin, Xiang-can; Wang, Xing-min; Hu, Xue-wen; Chen, Shu-qin; Yan, Chang-zhou

2007-02-01

139

Tocopherol Succinate: Modulation of Antioxidant Enzymes and Oncogene Expression, and Hematopoietic Recovery  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: A class of naturally occurring isoforms of tocopherol (tocols) was shown to have varying degrees of protection when administered before radiation exposure. We recently demonstrated that {alpha}-tocopherol succinate (TS) is a potential radiation prophylactic agent. Our objective in this study was to further investigate the mechanism of action of TS in mice exposed to {sup 60}Co {gamma}-radiation. Methods and Materials: We evaluated the effects of TS on expression of antioxidant enzymes and oncogenes by quantitative RT-PCR in bone marrow cells of {sup 60}Co {gamma}-irradiated mice. Further, we tested the ability of TS to rescue and repopulate hematopoietic stem cells by analyzing bone marrow cellularity and spleen colony forming unit in spleen of TS-injected and irradiated mice. Results: Our results demonstrate that TS modulated the expression of antioxidant enzymes and inhibited expression of oncogenes in irradiated mice at different time points. TS also increased colony forming unit-spleen numbers and bone marrow cellularity in irradiated mice. Conclusions: Results provide additional support for the observed radioprotective efficacy of TS and insight into mechanisms.

Singh, Vijay K., E-mail: singh@afrri.usuhs.mi [Radiation Countermeasures Program, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD (United States); Parekh, Vaishali I.; Brown, Darren S.; Kao, Tzu-Cheg [Radiation Countermeasures Program, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD (United States); Mog, Steven R. [Veterinary Sciences Department, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD (United States)

2011-02-01

140

Antioxidant enzyme activities in different genders and tissues of amphioxus Branchiostoma belcheri tsingtauense  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Information regarding antioxidant enzymes in amphioxus remains lacking, and this study was carried out to examine the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) in different genders and tissues of amphioxus Branchiostoma belcheri tsingtauense. Results show that (1) CuZn-SOD, CAT and GPX activities in the whole amphioxus B. belcheri tsingtauense were basically at the same levels in male and female amphioxus, whereas both T-SOD and Mn-SOD activities in male amphioxus were significantly higher than that in the female ( P<0.05); (2) The testis had significantly higher T-SOD and CuZn-SOD activities than the ovary ( P<0.05); (3) CuZn-SOD activity was undetectable in the guts of male and female amphioxus; (4) For both male and female amphioxus, the activities of CAT and GPX in the gonads including testis and ovary were the lowest ( P<0.05) among the tissues examined; (5) The gut and gill had the same level GPX activities while the gut had a higher CAT activity; (6) There was no clear difference in CAT and GPX activities in the corresponding tissues between male and female amphioxus. The study on SOD, CAT and GPX activities in different genders and tissues of the protochordate provides data for future comparison of amphioxus antioxidant enzymes with those of invertebrates and vertebrates.

Wei, Ran; Zhang, Shicui; Wang, Changfa; Pang, Qiuxiang

2007-01-01

141

Antioxidant enzyme activities as affected by trivalent and hexavalent chromium species in Fontinalis antipyretica Hedw.  

PubMed

The detoxification mechanisms of the aquatic moss, Fontinalis antipyretica Hedw., exposed to Cr was analyzed. In addition, the influence of Cr salts (as Cr nitrate, chloride and potassium bichromate) on these mechanisms has also been studied. The activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1.), catalase (EC 1.11.1.6.), ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11.), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX, EC 1.11.1.7.) and glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.6.4.2.) increased in plants treated with Cr concentrations ranging from 6.25x10(-5) to 6.25mM when given as Cr(NO3)3. Antioxidant enzymes responded to the other two salts CrCl3 and K2Cr2O7 only with Cr concentrations higher than 6.25x10(-2)mM. Glutathione level and GSSG/GSH ratio also responded to Cr exposure but no dose-effect relationship could be observed. Moreover, two unknown thiol compounds were observed in mosses exposed to the highest Cr concentrations. Effects on chlorophyll contents and chlorophyll a/b ratios were also shown even at low Cr concentrations. Our results indicated that environmentally realistic concentrations of Cr could lead to impairment of the cellular activity towards F. antipyretica and that Cr(III), when present as a nitrate salt, was as harmful as Cr(VI). PMID:18692218

Dazy, Marc; Béraud, Eric; Cotelle, Sylvie; Meux, Eric; Masfaraud, Jean-François; Férard, Jean-François

2008-09-01

142

Reduced levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species and apoptotic status are not correlated with increases in cryotolerance of bovine embryos produced in vitro in the presence of antioxidants.  

PubMed

The effects of intracellular (cysteine and ?-mercaptoethanol) and extracellular (catalase) antioxidant supplementation at different times during in vitro production (IVM and/or in vitro culture (IVC)) on bovine embryo development, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, apoptosis and re-expansion rates after a vitrification-thawing process were examined. Blastocyst frequencies were not affected by either antioxidant supplementation (40.5%-56.4%) or the timing of supplementation (41.7%-55.4%) compared with control (48.7%; P>0.05). Similarly, antioxidants and the moment of supplementation did not affect (P>0.05) the total number of blastomeres (86.2-90.5 and 84.4-90.5, respectively) compared with control (85.7). However, the percentage of apoptotic cells was reduced (P<0.05) in groups supplemented during IVM (1.7%), IVC (2.0%) or both (1.8%) compared with control (4.3%). Intracellular ROS levels measured in Day 7 blastocysts were reduced (P<0.05) in all groups (0.60-0.78), with the exception of the group supplemented with ?-mercaptoethanol during IVC (0.88), which did not differ (P>0.05) from that in the control group (1.00). Re-expansion rates were not affected (P>0.05) by the treatments (50.0%-93.0%). In conclusion, antioxidant supplementation during IVM and/or IVC reduces intracellular ROS and the rate of apoptosis; however, supplementation does not increase embryonic development and survival after vitrification. PMID:25319378

Rocha-Frigoni, Nathália A S; Leão, Beatriz C S; Nogueira, Eriklis; Accorsi, Mônica F; Mingoti, Gisele Z

2014-08-01

143

Genetically Engineered Immunomodulatory Streptococcus thermophilus Strains Producing Antioxidant Enzymes Exhibit Enhanced Anti-Inflammatory Activities  

PubMed Central

The aims of this study were to develop strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) having both immunomodulatory and antioxidant properties and to evaluate their anti-inflammatory effects both in vitro, in different cellular models, and in vivo, in a mouse model of colitis. Different Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus strains were cocultured with primary cultures of mononuclear cells. Analysis of the pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines secreted by these cells after coincubation with candidate bacteria revealed that L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 864 and S. thermophilus CRL 807 display the highest anti-inflammatory profiles in vitro. Moreover, these results were confirmed in vivo by the determination of the cytokine profiles in large intestine samples of mice fed with these strains. S. thermophilus CRL 807 was then transformed with two different plasmids harboring the genes encoding catalase (CAT) or superoxide dismutase (SOD) antioxidant enzymes, and the anti-inflammatory effects of recombinant streptococci were evaluated in a mouse model of colitis induced by trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS). Our results showed a decrease in weight loss, lower liver microbial translocation, lower macroscopic and microscopic damage scores, and modulation of the cytokine production in the large intestines of mice treated with either CAT- or SOD-producing streptococci compared to those in mice treated with the wild-type strain or control mice without any treatment. Furthermore, the greatest anti-inflammatory activity was observed in mice receiving a mixture of both CAT- and SOD-producing streptococci. The addition of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 864 to this mixture did not improve their beneficial effects. These findings show that genetically engineering a candidate bacterium (e.g., S. thermophilus CRL 807) with intrinsic immunomodulatory properties by introducing a gene expressing an antioxidant enzyme enhances its anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:24242245

del Carmen, Silvina; de Moreno de LeBlanc, Alejandra; Martin, Rebeca; Chain, Florian; Langella, Philippe; Bermudez-Humaran, Luis G.

2014-01-01

144

Effect of sulfur dioxide on ROS production, gene expression and antioxidant enzyme activity in Arabidopsis plants.  

PubMed

Sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) is one of the most common and harmful air pollutants. To analyze antioxidant response of plants to SO(2) stress, we investigated the reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, transcript alterations and antioxidant enzyme activities in Arabidopsis thaliana (Col-0) exposed to 0, 2.5, 10 and 30 mg m(-3) of SO(2). The results showed that both superoxide radical (O(2)(-?)) generation rate and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) content increased in SO(2)-treated Arabidopsis shoots. GeneChip and RT-PCR analysis revealed that transcript levels of peroxidase (POD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) genes enhanced after exposure to 30 mg m(-3) SO(2) for 72 h. The content of glutathione and activities of SOD, POD and GPX increased significantly during 72 h of SO(2) exposure. However, catalases (CAT) activity changed slightly under SO(2) stress. Furthermore, the results of in-gel enzyme assays indicated that SOD (FeSOD and Cu/ZnSOD) and POD isoforms increased after exposure to SO(2) for 72 h, whereas two CAT isoforms (CAT2 and CAT3) declined. Malondialdehyde content kept at a low level within 72 h of SO(2) exposure, but increased significantly after exposure to 30 mg m(-3) SO(2) for 120 h along with decrease in the level of ROS and activities of SOD and GPX. Our results indicated that increased ROS may act as a signal to induce defense response to SO(2) stress. Antioxidant status plays an important role in plant protection against SO(2)-caused oxidative stress, though the defense capacity cannot sufficiently alleviate oxidative damage occurring under prolonged exposure to higher concentrations of SO(2). PMID:22771435

Li, Lihong; Yi, Huilan

2012-09-01

145

The radical induced cell death protein 1 (RCD1) supports transcriptional activation of genes for chloroplast antioxidant enzymes  

PubMed Central

The rimb1 (redox imbalanced 1) mutation was mapped to the RCD1 locus (radical-induced cell death 1; At1g32230) demonstrating that a major factor involved in redox-regulation genes for chloroplast antioxidant enzymes and protection against photooxidative stress, RIMB1, is identical to the regulator of disease response reactions and cell death, RCD1. Discovering this link let to our investigation of its regulatory mechanism. We show in yeast that RCD1 can physically interact with the transcription factor Rap2.4a which provides redox-sensitivity to nuclear expression of genes for chloroplast antioxidant enzymes. In the rimb1 (rcd1-6) mutant, a single nucleotide exchange results in a truncated RCD1 protein lacking the transcription factor binding site. Protein-protein interaction between full-length RCD1 and Rap2.4a is supported by H2O2, but not sensitive to the antioxidants dithiotreitol and ascorbate. In combination with transcript abundance analysis in Arabidopsis, it is concluded that RCD1 stabilizes the Rap2.4-dependent redox-regulation of the genes encoding chloroplast antioxidant enzymes in a widely redox-independent manner. Over the years, rcd1-mutant alleles have been described to develop symptoms like chlorosis, lesions along the leaf rims and in the mesophyll and (secondary) induction of extra- and intra-plastidic antioxidant defense mechanisms. All these rcd1 mutant characteristics were observed in rcd1-6 to succeed low activation of the chloroplast antioxidant system and glutathione biosynthesis. We conclude that RCD1 protects plant cells from running into reactive oxygen species (ROS)-triggered programs, such as cell death and activation of pathogen-responsive genes (PR genes) and extra-plastidic antioxidant enzymes, by supporting the induction of the chloroplast antioxidant system. PMID:25295044

Hiltscher, Heiko; Rudnik, Radoslaw; Shaikhali, Jehad; Heiber, Isabelle; Mellenthin, Marina; Meirelles Duarte, Iuri; Schuster, Gunter; Kahmann, Uwe; Baier, Margarete

2014-01-01

146

Molecular Basis for Antioxidant Enzymes in Mediating Copper Detoxification in the Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans  

PubMed Central

Antioxidant enzymes play a major role in defending against oxidative damage by copper. However, few studies have been performed to determine which antioxidant enzymes respond to and are necessary for copper detoxification. In this study, we examined both the activities and mRNA levels of SOD, CAT, and GPX under excessive copper stress in Caenorhabditis elegans, which is a powerful model for toxicity studies. Then, taking advantage of the genetics of this model, we assessed the lethal concentration (LC50) values of copper for related mutant strains. The results showed that the SOD, CAT, and GPX activities were significantly greater in treated groups than in controls. The mRNA levels of sod-3, sod-5, ctl-1, ctl-2, and almost all gpx genes were also significantly greater in treated groups than in controls. Among tested mutants, the sod-5, ctl-1, gpx-3, gpx-4, and gpx-6 variants exhibited hypersensitivity to copper. The strains with SOD or CAT over expression were reduced sensitive to copper. Mutations in daf-2 and age-1, which are involved in the insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1 signaling pathway, result in reduced sensitivity to stress. Here, we showed that LC50 values for copper in daf-2 and age-1 mutants were significantly greater than in N2 worms. However, the LC50 values in daf-16;daf-2 and daf-16;age-1 mutants were significantly reduced than in daf-2 and age-1 mutants, implying that reduced copper sensitivity is influenced by DAF-16-related functioning. SOD, CAT, and GPX activities and the mRNA levels of the associated copper responsive genes were significantly increased in daf-2 and age-1 mutants compared to N2. Additionally, the activities of SOD, CAT, and GPX were greater in these mutants than in N2 when treated with copper. Our results not only support the theory that antioxidant enzymes play an important role in copper detoxification but also identify the response and the genes involved in these processes. PMID:25243607

Song, Shaojuan; Zhang, Xueyao; Wu, Haihua; Han, Yan; Zhang, Jianzhen; Ma, Enbo; Guo, Yaping

2014-01-01

147

Ultraviolet-B- and ozone-induced biochemical changes in antioxidant enzymes of Arabidopsis thaliana  

SciTech Connect

Earlier studies with Arabidopsis thaliana exposed to ultraviolet B (UV-B) and ozone (O{sub 3}) have indicated the differential responses of superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase. In this study, we have investigated whether A. thaliana genotype Landsberg erecta and its flavonoid-deficient mutant transparent testa (tt5) is capable of metabolizing UV-B- and O{sub 3}-induced activated oxygen species by invoking similar antioxidant enzymes. UV-B exposure preferentially enhanced guaiacol-peroxidases, ascorbate peroxidase, and peroxidases specific to coniferyl alcohol and modified the substrate affinity of ascorbate peroxidase. O{sub 3} exposure enhanced superoxide dismutase, peroxidases, glutathione reductase, and ascorbate peroxidase to a similar degree and modified the substrate affinity of both glutathione reductase and ascorbate peroxidase. Both UV-B and O{sub 3} exposure enhanced similar Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase isoforms. New isoforms of peroxidases and ascorbate peroxidase were synthesized in tt5 plants irradiated with UV-B. UV-B radiation, in contrast to O{sub 3}, enhanced the activation oxygen species by increasing membrane-localized NADPH-oxidase activity and decreasing catalase activities. These results collectively suggest that (a) UV-B exposure preferentially induces peroxidase-related enzymes, whereas O{sub 3} exposure invokes the enzymes of superoxide dismutase/ascorbate-glutathione cycle, and (b) in contrast to O{sub 3}, UV-B exposure generated activated oxygen species by increasing NADPH-oxidase activity. 10 figs., 4 tabs.

Rao, M.V.; Paliyath, G.; Ormrod, D.P. [Univ. of Guelph, Ontario (Canada)] [Univ. of Guelph, Ontario (Canada)

1996-01-01

148

Protection against UVB inactivation (in vitro) of rat lens enzymes by natural antioxidants.  

PubMed

Oxidative damage, through increased production of free radicals, is believed to be involved in UV-induced cataractogenesis (eye lens opacification). The possibility of UVB radiation causing damage to important lenticular enzymes was assessed by irradiating 3 months old rat lenses (in RPMI-1640 medium) at 300 nm (100 microWcm(-2)) for 24 h, in the absence and presence of ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol acetate and beta-carotene. UVB irradiation resulted in decreased activities of hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, aldose reductase, and Na, K- ATPase by 42, 40, 44 and 57% respectively. While endopeptidase activity (229%) and lipid peroxidation (156%) were increased, isocitrate dehydrogenase activity was not altered on irradiation. In the presence of externally added ascorbic acid, tocopherol and beta-carotene (separately) to the medium, the changes in enzyme activities (except endopeptidase) and increased lipid peroxidation, due to UVB exposure, were prevented. These results suggest that UVB radiation exerts oxidative damage on lens enzymes and antioxidants were protective against this damage. PMID:10391122

Reddy, G B; Bhat, K S

1999-04-01

149

Ultraviolet-B- and ozone-induced biochemical changes in antioxidant enzymes of Arabidopsis thaliana.  

PubMed Central

Earlier studies with Arabidopsis thaliana exposed to ultraviolet B (UV-B) and ozone (O3) have indicated the differential responses of superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase. In this study, we have investigated whether A. thaliana genotype Landsberg erecta and its flavonoid-deficient mutant transparent testa (tt5) is capable of metabolizing UV-B- and O3-induced activated oxygen species by invoking similar antioxidant enzymes. UV-B exposure preferentially enhanced guaiacol-peroxidases, ascorbate peroxidase, and peroxidases specific to coniferyl alcohol and modified the substrate affinity of ascorbate peroxidase. O3 exposure enhanced superoxide dismutase, peroxidases, glutathione reductase, and ascorbate peroxidase to a similar degree and modified the substrate affinity of both glutathione reductase and ascorbate peroxidase. Both UV-B and O3 exposure enhanced similar Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase isoforms. New isoforms of peroxidases and ascorbate peroxidase were synthesized in tt5 plants irradiated with UV-B. UV-B radiation, in contrast to O3, enhanced the activated oxygen species by increasing membrane-localized NADPH-oxidase activity and decreasing catalase activities. These results collectively suggest that (a) UV-B exposure preferentially induces peroxidase-related enzymes, whereas O3 exposure invokes the enzymes of superoxide dismutase/ascorbate-glutathione cycle, and (b) in contrast to O3, UV-B exposure generated activated oxygen species by increasing NADPH-oxidase activity. PMID:8587977

Rao, M V; Paliyath, G; Ormrod, D P

1996-01-01

150

The Protective Roles of the Antioxidant Enzymes Superoxide Dismutase and Catalase in the Green Photosynthetic Bacterium Chloroflexus Aurantiacus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this study was to examine the biochemical response of the green thermophilic photosynthetic bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus to oxidative stress. Lab experiments focused primarily on characterizing the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase and the response of this organism to oxidative stress. Experiments in the field at the hotsprings in Yellowstone National Park focused on the changes in the level of these enzymes during the day in response to oxidants and to the different types of ultraviolet radiation.

Blankenship, Robert E.; Rothschild, Lynn (Technical Monitor)

2004-01-01

151

Studies on hepatic injury and antioxidant enzyme activities in rat subcellular organelles following in vivo ischemia and reperfusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activities of rat hepatic subcellular antioxidant enzymes were studied during hepatic ischemia\\/reperfusion. Ischemia was induced for 30 min (reversible ischemia) or 60 min (irreversible ischemia). Ischemia was followed by 2 or 24 h of reperfusion. Hepatocyte peroxisomal catalase enzyme activity decreased during 60 min of ischemia and declined further during reperfusion. Peroxisomes of normal density (d = 1.225 gram\\/ml)

Mahesh Gupta; Kazushige Dobashi; Eddie L. Greene; John K. Orak; Inderjit Singh

1997-01-01

152

Chemomodulatory Effect of Moringa Oleifera, Lam, on Hepatic Carcinogen Metabolising Enzymes, Antioxidant Parameters and Skin Papillomagenesis in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modulatory effects of a hydro-alchoholic extract of drumsticks of Moringa oliefera Lam at doses of 125 mg\\/ kg bodyweight and 250 mg\\/ kg body weight for 7 and 14 days, respectively, were investigated with reference to drug metabolising Phase I (Cytochrome b 5 and Cytochrome P 450 ) and Phase II (Glutathione-S- transferase) enzymes, anti-oxidant enzymes, glutathione content and

Rupjyoti Bharali; Jawahira Tabassum; Mohammed Rekibul; Haque Azad

2003-01-01

153

Enhancement of Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) aqueous extract and antioxidant yield with fungal enzymes.  

PubMed

The leaves and stems of the Rooibos plant ( Aspalathus linearis) are used for the production of an herbal tea known for its health promoting properties, which have been linked to its flavonoid content but which is substantially reduced by the traditional processing method employed. Selected food-grade fungi were screened for their potential to improve the yield of soluble matter extracted from rooibos plant material. Fungal cocktails of hydrolyzing enzymes enhanced either the yield of soluble solids ( Lentinula edodes and Rhizopus oryzae cultured in yeast peptone-wheat straw medium) or the yield in antioxidants from fermented rooibos ( R. oryzae cultured in potato dextrose or yeast peptone-wheat straw medium). When applied to green rooibos, L. edodes (cultured in yeast peptone-wheat straw medium) enhanced the release of soluble solids as well as color formation, leading to semifermented rooibos with a relatively high aspalathin content, compared to fermented rooibos. PMID:18476700

Pengilly, Mia; Joubert, Elizabeth; van Zyl, Willem H; Botha, Alfred; Bloom, Marinda

2008-06-11

154

Antioxidant enzymes and fatty acid composition as related to disease resistance in postharvest loquat fruit.  

PubMed

Two cultivars of loquat fruit were stored at 20°C for 10days to investigate the relationship between disease resistance, and fatty acid composition and activities of endogenous antioxidant enzymes. The results showed that decay incidence increased with storage time in both cultivars. A significantly lower disease incidence was observed in 'Qingzhong' fruit than in 'Fuyang', suggesting 'Qingzhong' had increased disease resistance. Meanwhile, 'Qingzhong' fruit also had lower levels of superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide, and lower lipoxygenase activity, but higher levels of linolenic and linoleic acids and higher activities of catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) compared with 'Fuyang'. These results suggest that the higher levels of linolenic and linoleic acids and the higher activity of CAT and APX have a role in disease resistance of postharvest loquat fruit. PMID:24912701

Cao, Shifeng; Yang, Zhenfeng; Cai, Yuting; Zheng, Yonghua

2014-11-15

155

[Effect of ethylene glycol on antioxidative enzymes and lipid peroxidation activity in erythrocytes].  

PubMed

Investigations were aimed at demonstrating changes in the activity of enzymes forming an antioxidative barrier and oxidative stress parameters in erythrocytes of rats which were administrated ethylene glycol during 4 weeks. Superoxide dismutase activity (CuZn-SOD) was evaluated by the Misra and Fridovich method, catalase (EC1.11.1.6.) by the Beers and Sizer method and malonyl dialdehyde concentration (MDA) with Placer et all were assessed in the obtained material through the evaluation of TBARS compounds concentration. In the 4th week of the experiment a decrease in catalase (9.3 U/gHb to 5.7 U/gHb) and superoxide dismutase (2378 U/gHb to 1759 U/gHb) activity was observed. Malonyl dialdehyde concentration increased from the initial 0.14 mumol/gHb to 0.24 mumol/gHb. The investigations carried out have demonstrated that long-term intoxication with ethylene glycol leads to a constant generation of free radicals (increase of MDA concentration) and gradual exhaustion of the antioxidative system. PMID:14669685

Jurczyk, Agnieszka P; Ga?ecki, Piotr; Jankowska, Beata; Meissner, Ewa; Szram, Stefan; Fija?kowski, Pawe?; B?aszczyk, Jan; Kedziora, Józef; Smigielski, Janusz

2002-01-01

156

[Antioxidative enzymes play key roles in cadmium tolerance of Phytolacca americana].  

PubMed

Phytolacca americana L. has the capacity to take up and accumulate to very high levels heavy metals such as Mn and Cd, and is used for phytoextraction of heavy metal contaminated soils. The role of antioxidative enzyme of Phytolacca americana in response to Cd stress is unknown. The 6-week-old seedlings of Phytolacca americana were exposed to half strength Hoagland solution with 200 micromol/L CdCl2 or 400 micromol/L CdCl2 for 4 days. The content of H2O2 and MDA, and electrolyte leakage increased, while the photosynthetic rate decreased, indicated that the oxidative damage induced by Cd stress in Phytolacca americana was one of the metal toxicity mechanism. The activities of SOD and POD increased rapidly with elevated Cd concentration and exposure time, CAT activity was stable in response to 200 micromol/L CdCl2 stress, and increased only at 3 d later upon 400 micromol/L CdCl2, treatment. Suggested that the enzymatic antioxidation capacity played important role in Cd tolerance of hyperaccumulator plant. PMID:21634194

Zhang, Yu-Xiu; Zhang, Hong-Mei; Huang, Zhi-Bo; Li, Lin-Feng; Liu, Jin-Guang; Li, Xia

2011-03-01

157

Selenium Accumulation in Unicellular Green Alga Chlorella vulgaris and Its Effects on Antioxidant Enzymes and Content of Photosynthetic Pigments  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to investigate selenite effects in the unicellular green algae Chlorella vulgaris as a primary producer and the relationship with intracellular bioaccumulation. The effects of selenite were evaluated by measuring the effect of different selenite concentrations on algal growth during a 144 h exposure period. It was found that lower Se concentrations (?75 mg L?1) positively promoted C. vulgaris growth and acted as antioxidant by inhibiting lipid peroxidation (LPO) and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). The antioxidative effect was associated with an increase in guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and photosynthetic pigments. Meanwhile, significant increase in the cell growth rate and organic Se content was also detected in the algae. In contrast, these changes were opposite in C. vulgaris exposed to Se higher than 100 mg L?1. The antioxidation and toxicity appeared to be correlated to Se bioaccumulation, which suggests the appropriate concentration of Se in the media accumulation of C. vulgaris should be 75 mg L?1. Taken together, C. vulgaris possesses tolerance to Se, and Se-Chlorella could be developed as antioxidative food for aquaculture and human health. PMID:25375113

Sun, Xian; Zhong, Yu; Huang, Zhi; Yang, Yufeng

2014-01-01

158

Antioxidative Properties and Inhibition of Key Enzymes Relevant to Type-2 Diabetes and Hypertension by Essential Oils from Black Pepper  

PubMed Central

The antioxidant properties and effect of essential oil of black pepper (Piper guineense) seeds on ?-amylase, ?-glucosidase (key enzymes linked to type-2 diabetes), and angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) (key enzyme linked to hypertension) were assessed. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and dried with anhydrous Na2SO4, and the phenolic content, radical [1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2?-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and nitric oxide (NO)] scavenging abilities as well as the ferric reducing antioxidant property (FRAP) and Fe2+-chelating ability of the essential oil were investigated. Furthermore, the effect on ?-amylase, ?-glucosidase, and ACE enzyme activities was also investigated. The characterization of the constituents was done using GC. The essential oil scavenged DPPH?, NO?, and ABTS? and chelated Fe2+. ?-Pinene, ?-pinene, cis-ocimene, myrcene, allo-ocimene, and 1,8-cineole were among the constituents identified by GC. The essential oil inhibited ?-amylase, ?-glucosidase, and ACE enzyme activities in concentration-dependent manners, though exhibiting a stronger inhibition of ?-glucosidase than ?-amylase activities. Conclusively, the phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and inhibition of ?-amylase, ?-glucosidase, and angiotensin-1 converting enzyme activities by the essential oil extract of black pepper could be part of the mechanism by which the essential oil could manage and/or prevent type-2 diabetes and hypertension. PMID:24348547

Oboh, Ganiyu; Ademosun, Ayokunle O.; Odubanjo, Oluwatoyin V.; Akinbola, Ifeoluwa A.

2013-01-01

159

Enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant activities of traditional medicinal plants: Potential application in the management of hyperglycemia  

PubMed Central

Background Traditional Indian and Australian medicinal plant extracts were investigated to determine their therapeutic potential to inhibit key enzymes in carbohydrate metabolism, which has relevance to the management of hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes. The antioxidant activities were also assessed. Methods The evaluation of enzyme inhibitory activity of seven Australian aboriginal medicinal plants and five Indian Ayurvedic plants was carried out against ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase. Antioxidant activity was determined by measuring (i) the scavenging effect of plant extracts against 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) and 2, 2?-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate (ABTS) and (ii) ferric reducing power. Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents were also determined. Results Of the twelve plant extracts evaluated, the highest inhibitory activity against both ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase enzymes was exerted by Santalum spicatum and Pterocarpus marsupium with IC50 values of 5.43??g/ml and 0.9??g/ml, respectively, and 5.16??g/ml and 1.06??g/ml, respectively. However, the extracts of Acacia ligulata (IC50?=?1.01??g/ml), Beyeria leshnaultii (0.39??g/ml), Mucuna pruriens (0.8??g/ml) and Boerhaavia diffusa (1.72??g/ml) exhibited considerable activity against ?-glucosidase enzyme only. The free radical scavenging activity was found to be prominent in extracts of Acacia kempeana, Acacia ligulata followed by Euphorbia drummondii against both DPPH and ABTS. The reducing power was more pronounced in Euphorbia drummondii and Pterocarpus marsupium extracts. The phenolic and flavonoid contents ranged from 0.42 to 30.27??g/mg equivalent of gallic acid and 0.51 to 32.94??g/mg equivalent of quercetin, respectively, in all plant extracts. Pearson’s correlation coefficient between total flavonoids and total phenolics was 0.796. Conclusion The results obtained in this study showed that most of the plant extracts have good potential for the management of hyperglycemia, diabetes and the related condition of oxidative stress. PMID:22713130

2012-01-01

160

Genotoxicity and antioxidant enzyme activity induced by hexavalent chromium in Cyprinus carpio after in vivo exposure.  

PubMed

Fish, being an important native of the aquatic ecosystem, are exposed to multipollution states and are therefore considered as model organisms for ecotoxicological studies of aquatic pollutants, including metal toxicity. We investigated oxidative stress (OS) in liver, kidney and gill tissues through antioxidant enzyme activities and genotoxicity induced in whole blood and gill tissues through comet assay and micronucleus (MN) test in Cyprinus carpio after 96-hour in vivo static exposure to potassium dichromate at three sublethal (SL) test concentrations, including SL-I [93.95 mg/L, i.e. one quarter of half-maximal lethal concentration (LC50)], SL-II (187.9 mg/L, i.e. one half of LC50), and SL-III (281.85 mg/L, i.e. three quarters of LC50), along with a control. The 96-hour LC50 value for potassium dichromate was estimated to be 375.8 mg/L in a static system in the test species. Tissues samples were collected at 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours postexposure. Results indicated that the exposed fish experienced OS as characterized by significant (p < 0.05) variation in antioxidant enzyme activities, as compared to the control. Activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase increased, whereas activity of catalase decreased with the progression of the experiment. The mean percent DNA damage in comet tail and MN induction in gills and whole blood showed a concentration-dependent increase up to 96-hour exposure. The findings of this study would be helpful in organ-specific risk assessment of Cr(VI)-induced OS and genotoxicity in fishes. PMID:23534497

Kumar, Pavan; Kumar, Ravindra; Nagpure, Naresh S; Nautiyal, Prakash; Kushwaha, Basdeo; Dabas, Anurag

2013-10-01

161

Effects of Microgravity On Oxidative and Antioxidant Enzymes In Mouse Hindlimb Muscle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gastrocnemius muscle of mice were analyzed in order to examine the effects of 12 days of microgravity on the oxidative enzyme climate synthase (CS) and the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD). The female C57BL/6J mice utilized for this study were part of the Commercial Biomedical Testing Module (CBTM) payload that flew aboard STS-108. Mice were housed in Animal Enclosure Modules (AEMs) provided by NASA Ames. The flight (FLT) group and the ground control (CON) group each had 12 mice per group. The AEMs that held the CON group operated on a 48-hour delay from the FLT group and were located inside the Orbital Environmental Simulator (OES) at Kennedy Space Center. The temperature, CO2 and relative humidity inside the OES was regulated based on downlinked information from the shuttle middeck. Student T tests were used to compare groups and a p < 0.05 was used to determine statistical significance. Results indicated that CS levels for the FLT group were significantly lower than the CON group while the SOD levels were significantly higher. The CS FLT mean was 19% lower and the SOD FLT mean was 17% higher than the respective CON group means. Although these findings are among the first muscle enzyme values reported for mice from a shuttle mission, these results are similar to some results previously reported for rats exposed to microgravity or hindlimb suspension. The changes seen during the CBTM payload are reflective of the deconditioning that takes place with disuse of the hindlimbs and indicate that muscle enzyme changes induced by disuse deconditioning are similar in both rodent species.

Girten, B.; Hoopes, R.; Steele, M.; Morony, S.; Bateman, T. A.; Sun, S. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

162

Nitroarginine, an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, prevents changes in superoxide radical and antioxidant enzymes induced by ammonia intoxication.  

PubMed

Injection of large doses of ammonium salts leads to the rapid death of animals. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in ammonia toxicity remain to be clarified. We reported that injecting ammonium acetate (7 mmol/kg) to rats increases the production of superoxide and reduces the activities of some antioxidant enzymes in rat liver and brain. We proposed that these effects induced by ammonia intoxication would be mediated by formation of nitric oxide. To test this possibility we tested whether injection of nitroarginine, an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, prevents the effects of ammonia intoxication on antioxidant enzymes and superoxide formation. Following injection of ammonia, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were decreased in liver by 42%, 54% and 44%, respectively. In brain these activities were reduced by 35%, 46% and 65%, respectively. Glutathione reductase remained unchanged. Superoxide production in submitochondrial particles from liver and brain was increased by more than 100% in both tissues. Both reduction of activity of antioxidant enzymes and increased superoxide radical production were prevented by previous injection of 45 mg/kg of nitroarginine, indicating that ammonia induces increased formation of nitric oxide, which in turn reduces the activity of antioxidant enzymes, leading to increased formation of superoxide. PMID:9570638

Kosenko, E; Kaminsky, Y; Lopata, O; Muravyov, N; Kaminsky, A; Hermenegildo, C; Felipo, V

1998-03-01

163

Nucleic Acid Metabolism, Proline Concentration and Antioxidants Enzyme Activity in Canola ( Brassica nupus L.) Under Salinity Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seedling of five canola genotypes, Hyola 308, Hyola 401, Hyola 60, Optlon 50 and RGS003, were grown in Hoagland nutrient solution containing S1 = 0, S2 = 100, S3 = 200 and S4 = 300 mmol L?1 NaCl in controlled environment. Proline, antioxidant activities like catalase (CAT), ascobrate peroxidase (APX) and guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) and some enzyme activities of nucleic

Mostafa Heidari

2010-01-01

164

Influence of salt stress on growth, lipid peroxidation and antioxidative enzyme activity in borage (Borago officinalis L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of increasing salt concentrations on the growth, electrolyte leakage, lipid peroxidation, and major antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase) of borage plants were investigated. Plants were grown in half strength of Hoagland nutrient solution added with 0, 25, 50, and 75 mM of NaCl. Most measured parameters were affected by salinity. Increasing salt

K. Jaffel; S. Sai; N. K. Bouraoui; R. B. Ammar; L. Legendre; M. Lachâal; B. Marzouk

2011-01-01

165

Potent induction of cellular antioxidants and phase 2 enzymes by resveratrol in cardiomyocytes: protection against oxidative and electrophilic injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resveratrol is known to be protective against oxidative cardiovascular disorders. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This study was undertaken to determine if resveratrol could increase endogenous antioxidants and phase 2 enzymes in cardiomyocytes, and if such increased cellular defenses could provide protection against oxidative and electrophilic cell injury. Incubation of cardiac H9C2 cells with low micromolar resveratrol resulted in

Zhuoxiao Cao; Yunbo Li

2004-01-01

166

Response of Antioxidative Enzymes and Apoplastic Bypass Transport in Thlaspi Caerulescens and Raphanus Sativus to Cadmium Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hydroponics experiment using hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens (alpine pennycress) and non-specific accumulator Raphanus sativus (common radish) was conducted to investigate the short-term effect of increasing Cd concentrations (0, 25, 50, 75, 100 ?M) on metal uptake, chlorophyll content, antioxidative enzymes, and apoplastic bypass flow. As expected, T. caerulescens generally showed better resistance to metal stress, which was reflected by higher

Saoussen Benzarti; Helmi Hamdi; Shino Mohri; Yoshiro Ono

2010-01-01

167

Influence of repeated acid rain treatment on antioxidative enzyme activities and on lipid peroxidation in cucumber leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of repeated treatment with simulated acid rain (AR) on antioxidative enzyme activities, lipid peroxidation and chlorophyll concentration in cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L.) was investigated. Measurements were carried out one, five and seven days after triple spraying. Ascorbate peroxidase (APx) and glutathione transferase (GST) activities increased considerably after the exposure to AR stress indicating a direct correlation with

Anna Wyrwicka; Maria Sk?odowska

2006-01-01

168

AIR POLLUTION EFFECTS ON THE ACTIVITY OF ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES IN NERIUM OLEANDER AND ROBINIA PSEUDO ACACIA PLANTS IN TEHRAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The air pollution effects on the activity of antioxidant enzymes were investigated on Nerium oleander and Robinia pseudo acacia in Tehran. Considering the information obtained from the Department of the Environment of Iran, Sorkh Hesar Park as well as South Azadi were selected as two sampling sites representing the unpolluted and polluted area respectively. A number of plant leave samples

M. Ghorbanli; Z. Bakand; G. Bakhshi; S. Bakand

2007-01-01

169

Mercuric chloride?induced reactive oxygen species and its effect on antioxidant enzymes in different regions of rat brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was undertaken to determine if in vitro exposure to mercuric chloride produces reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the synaptosomes prepared from various regions of rat brain. The effects of in vivo exposure to mercury on antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities in different regions of rat brain were also investigated. Adult

S. Hussain; D. A. Rodgers; H. M. Duhart; S. F. Ali

1997-01-01

170

Induction of Heat Shock Proteins and Antioxidant Enzymes in 2,3,7,8-TCDD-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats  

PubMed Central

2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) is an environmental toxicant with a polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbon structure and is one of the most toxic man-made chemicals. Exposure to 2,3,7,8-TCDD induces reproductive toxicity, immunotoxicity, and hepatotoxicity. In this study, we evaluated how 2,3,7,8-TCDD-induced hepatotoxicity affect the expression of heat shock proteins and antioxidant enzymes using the real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in rat. 2,3,7,8-TCDD increased heat shock protein (Hsp27, ?-B-crystallin, Mortalin, Hsp105, and Hsp90s) and antioxidant enzymes (SOD-3, GST and catalase) expression after a 1 day exposure in livers of rats, whereas heat shock protein (?-B-crystallin, Hsp90, and GRP78) and antioxidant enzymes (SOD-1, SOD-3, catalase, GST, and GPXs) expression decreased on day 2 and then slowly recovered back to control levels on day 8. These results suggest that heat shock proteins and antioxidant enzymes were induced as protective mechanisms against 2,3,7,8-TCDD induced hepatotoxicity, and that prolonged exposure depressed their levels, which recovered to control levels due to reduced 2,3,7,8-TCDD induced hepatotoxicity. PMID:23269910

Kim, Hyun-Sook; Park, So-Young; Yoo, Ki-Yeol

2012-01-01

171

Whey from cultured skim milk decreases serum cholesterol and increases antioxidant enzymes in liver and red blood cells in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was carried out to examine the effect of whey from bovine skim milk fermented with bifidobacteria and lactic acid bacteria on plasma cholesterol and antioxidant enzymes in rats. Rats were maintained for 6 wks on a purified diet (reference diet) and on the purified diet supplemented milk whey or whey from cultured skim milk with Bifidobacterium longum (B.

M. Zommara; N. Tachibana; M. Sakono; Y. Suzuki; T. Oda; H. Hashiba; K. Imaizumi

1996-01-01

172

Dietary antioxidant supplementation enhances lipid and protein oxidative stability of chicken broiler meat through promotion of antioxidant enzyme activity.  

PubMed

Recent nutrigenomic studies have shown that animal nutrition can have a major influence on tissue gene expression. Dietary antioxidant supplements can enhance the quality of meat through modification of tissue metabolic processes. This study investigated the influence of dietary antioxidants and quality of oil on the oxidative and enzymatic properties of chicken broiler breast meat stored in an oxygen-enriched package (HiOx: 80% O2/20% CO2) in comparison with air-permeable polyvinylchloride (PVC) or skin packaging systems during retail display at 2 to 4°C for up to 21 d. Broilers were fed either a diet with a low-oxidized (peroxide value 23 mEq of O2/kg) or high-oxidized (peroxide value 121 mEq of O2/kg) oil, supplemented with or without an algae-based Se yeast and organic mineral antioxidant pack for 42 d. Lipid and protein oxidation and tissue enzymatic activity were analyzed. In all packaging systems, lipid oxidation (TBA reactive substances) was inhibited by up to 32.5% (P < 0.05) with an antioxidant-supplemented diet when compared with diets without antioxidants, particularly in the HiOx and PVC systems. Protein sulfhydryls were significantly protected by antioxidant diets (e.g., by 14.6 and 17.8% for low-and high-oxidized dietary groups, respectively, in PVC d 7 samples). Glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activities were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in antioxidant-supplemented diets compared with the basal diet, regardless of oil quality. Also, serum carbonyls were lower in broilers fed a low-oxidized antioxidant-supplemented treatment. The results demonstrate that dietary antioxidants can minimize the oxidative instability of proteins and lipids, and the protection may be linked to improved cellular antioxidant enzymatic activity. PMID:24879706

Delles, Rebecca M; Xiong, Youling L; True, Alma D; Ao, Touying; Dawson, Karl A

2014-06-01

173

Differential Expression and Immunolocalization of Antioxidant Enzymes in Entamoeba histolytica Isolates during Metronidazole Stress  

PubMed Central

Entamoeba histolytica infections are endemic in the Indian subcontinent. Five to eight percent of urban population residing under poor sanitary conditions suffers from Entamoeba infections. Metronidazole is the most widely prescribed drug used for amoebiasis. In order to understand the impact of metronidazole stress on the parasite, we evaluated the expression of two antioxidant enzymes, peroxiredoxin and FeSOD, in Entamoeba histolytica isolates during metronidazole stress. The results reveal that, under metronidazole stress, the mRNA expression levels of these enzymes did not undergo any significant change. Interestingly, immunolocalization studies with antibodies targeting peroxiredoxin indicate differential localization of the protein in the cell during metronidazole stress. In normal conditions, all the Entamoeba isolates exhibit presence of peroxiredoxin in the nucleus as well as in the membrane; however with metronidazole stress the protein localized mostly to the membrane. The change in the localization pattern was more pronounced when the cells were subjected to short term metronidazole stress compared to cells adapted to metronidazole. The protein localization to the cell membrane could be the stress response mechanism in these isolates. Colocalization pattern of peroxiredoxin with CaBp1, a cytosolic protein, revealed that the membrane and nuclear localization was specific to peroxiredoxin during metronidazole stress. PMID:25013795

Iyer, Lakshmi Rani; Singh, Nishant; Verma, Anil Kumar; Paul, Jaishree

2014-01-01

174

Impact of Amyloid ?25-35 on Membrane Stability, Energy Metabolism, and Antioxidant Enzymes in Erythrocytes.  

PubMed

Amyloid ?25-35 (A?25-35) represents a neurotoxic fragment of A?1 - 40 or A?1 - 42, and is implicated in the progressive neurodegeneration in cases of the Alzheimer disease (AD). Amyloid ?25-35 was shown to lyse rat erythrocytes (RBCs) of all ages, and the extent of the RBC toxicity is directly correlated with A?25-35 concentration and cell age. Activities of glycolytic, antioxidant, and Na(+)/K(+)-adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) enzymes, in vivo, are significantly decreased in older RBCs as compared to the young RBCs. In vitro, A?25-35 reduced activities of hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione transferase and increased Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity; these effects are significantly greater in aged RBCs as compared to those of the younger cells. The diminution in activity of certain enzymes may determine the life span of the RBCs in vivo and may be relevant to the human AD; higher sensitivity of older RBCs to A?25-35 toxicity may contribute to the ultimate death of the RBCs in patients with AD. PMID:24838531

Tikhonova, Lyudmila A; Kaminsky, Yury G; Reddy, V Prakash; Li, Yi; Solomadin, Ilya N; Kosenko, Elena A; Aliev, Gjumrakch

2014-12-01

175

Temperature increase results in oxidative stress in goldfish tissues. 2. Antioxidant and associated enzymes.  

PubMed

Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), and glucose-6-phophate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) were measured in four tissues of goldfish, Carassius auratus L., over 1-12 h of high temperature (35 degrees C) exposure followed by 4 or 24 h of lower temperature (21 degrees C) recovery. SOD activity was strongly affected by heat shock, increasing 4-fold in brain, liver, and kidney, but was mainly reversed at recovery. In some tissues, activities of SOD, catalase, GPx, and G6PDH decreased significantly after 1 h heat shock exposure suggesting that thermal inactivation possibly occurred, but were renewed at further exposure. In many cases, 4 h of return to the initial temperature decreased enzyme activities. High correlation coefficients between SOD activities and levels of lipid peroxidation products suggest that these products might be involved in up-regulation of antioxidant defense. Several enzymes (SOD, GST, GR) responded to stress in coordinated manner. PMID:16426898

Lushchak, Volodymyr I; Bagnyukova, Tetyana V

2006-05-01

176

The Effect of Vitamin C on the Erythrocyte Antioxidant Enzymes in Intoxicated-Lead Rat Offsprings  

PubMed Central

Objective: Lead exposure or lead poisoning is known to cause a large spectrum of physiological, biochemical, and behavioural disorders in animals. This study was aimed at assessing the effect of vitamin C on the erythrocyte superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and the glutathione reductase activities in intoxicated- lead rat offsprings. Methods: This study was performed on the pups from female Wistar albino rats. The rats were divided into 4 groups and the treatments were administered through drinking water. Group1 (control group) consumed distilled water. Group 2 (lead group) consumed a solution of lead acetate (300mg/L). Group3 (lead + vitamin C) consumed a solution of lead (300mg/L) which was supplemented with vitamin C (2g/L). Group4 (vitamin group) consumed a solution of vitamin C (2g/L). The enzyme activities were determined in all the 4 groups. Results: The administration of lead showed a decrease in the enzyme activities. The superoxide dismutase activity was increased after the administration of lead in combination with vitamin C. The lead treated rats showed significantly lower body weights at birth and at weaning. The vitamin C treatment showed a significant increase in the body weight. The haemoglobin levels were significantly decreased in the lead-treated rats. The addition of vitamin C to the lead treatment and vitamin C alone could elevate the haemoglobin levels significantly. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that lead alterates the erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activities. There was an increase in the superoxide dismutase activity following the treatment with vitamin C. This study suggests that the treatment with vitamin C during lactation has a therapeutic effect in the treatment of lead intoxication. The administration of vitamin C prevents haemoglobin reduction in the erythrocytes. PMID:23905107

Eshginia, Samira; Marjani, Abdoljalal

2013-01-01

177

Identification and characterization of the intracellular poly-3-hydroxybutyrate depolymerase enzyme PhaZ of Sinorhizobium meliloti  

PubMed Central

Background S. meliloti forms indeterminate nodules on the roots of its host plant alfalfa (Medicago sativa). Bacteroids of indeterminate nodules are terminally differentiated and, unlike their non-terminally differentiated counterparts in determinate nodules, do not accumulate large quantities of Poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) during symbiosis. PhaZ is in intracellular PHB depolymerase; it represents the first enzyme in the degradative arm of the PHB cycle in S. meliloti and is the only enzyme in this half of the PHB cycle that remains uncharacterized. Results The S. meliloti phaZ gene was identified by in silico analysis, the ORF was cloned, and a S. meliloti phaZ mutant was constructed. This mutant exhibited increased PHB accumulation during free-living growth, even when grown under non-PHB-inducing conditions. The phaZ mutant demonstrated no reduction in symbiotic capacity; interestingly, analysis of the bacteroids showed that this mutant also accumulated PHB during symbiosis. This mutant also exhibited a decreased capacity to tolerate long-term carbon starvation, comparable to that of other PHB cycle mutants. In contrast to other PHB cycle mutants, the S. meliloti phaZ mutant did not exhibit any decrease in rhizosphere competitiveness; however, this mutant did exhibit a significant increase in succinoglycan biosynthesis. Conclusions S. meliloti bacteroids retain the capacity to synthesize PHB during symbiosis; interestingly, accumulation does not occur at the expense of symbiotic performance. phaZ mutants are not compromised in their capacity to compete for nodulation in the rhizosphere, perhaps due to increased succinoglycan production resulting from upregulation of the succinoglycan biosynthetic pathway. The reduced survival capacity of free-living cells unable to access their accumulated stores of PHB suggests that PHB is a crucial metabolite under adverse conditions. PMID:20346169

2010-01-01

178

Semiquinone derivative isolated from Bacillus sp. INM-1 protects cellular antioxidant enzymes from ?-radiation-induced renal toxicity.  

PubMed

This study was focused to evaluate protection of indigenous antioxidant system of mice against gamma radiation-induced oxidative stress using a semiquinone (SQGD)-rich fraction isolated from Bacillus sp. INM-1. Male C57bl/6 mice were administered SQGD (50 mg/kgb.w.i.p.) 2 h before irradiation (10 Gy) and modulation in antioxidant enzymes activities was estimated at different time intervals and compared with irradiated mice which were not pretreated by SQGD. Compared to untreated controls, SQGD pretreatment significantly (p < 0.05) accelerates superoxide dismutase, catalase, GSH, and glutathione-S-transferase activities. Similarly, significant (p < 0.05) increase in the expression of superoxide dismutase, catalase, GSH, and glutathione-S-transferase was observed in irradiated mice pretreated by SQGD, compared to only irradiated groups. Total antioxidant status equivalent to trolox was estimated in renal tissue of the mice after SQGD administration. Significant ABTS(+) radical formation was observed in H2O2-treated kidney homogenate, due to oxidative stress in the tissue. However, significant decrease in the levels of ABTS(+) radical was observed in kidney homogenate of the mice pretreated with SQGD. Therefore, it can be concluded that SQGD neutralizes oxidative stress by induction of antioxidant enzymes activities and thus improved total antioxidant status in cellular system and hence contributes to radioprotection. PMID:23543190

Mishra, S; Reddy, D S K; Jamwal, V S; Bansal, D D; Patel, D D; Malhotra, P; Gupta, A K; Singh, P K; Jawed, S; Kumar, Raj

2013-07-01

179

Willow bark extract increases antioxidant enzymes and reduces oxidative stress through activation of Nrf2 in vascular endothelial cells and Caenorhabditis elegans.  

PubMed

Willow bark extract (WBE) is listed in the European Pharmacopoeia and has been traditionally used for treating fever, pain, and inflammation. Recent studies have demonstrated its clinical usefulness. This study investigated the antioxidative effects of WBE in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and Caenorhabditis elegans. WBE prevented oxidative-stress-induced cytotoxicity of HUVECs and death of C. elegans. WBE dose-dependently increased mRNA and protein expression levels of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) target genes heme oxygenase-1, ?-glutamylcysteine ligase modifier and catalytic subunits, and p62 and intracellular glutathione (GSH) in HUVECs. In the nematode C. elegans, WBE increased the expression of the gcs-1::green fluorescent protein reporter, a well-characterized target of the Nrf2 ortholog SKN-1, in a manner that was SKN-1-dependent. WBE increased intranuclear expression and DNA binding of Nrf2 and the activity of an antioxidant response element (ARE) reporter plasmid in HUVECs. WBE-induced expression of Nrf2-regulated genes and increased GSH levels in HUVECs were reduced by Nrf2 and p38 small interfering (si) RNAs and by the p38-specific inhibitor SB203580. Nrf2 siRNA reduced the cytoprotective effect of WBE against oxidative stress in HUVECs. Salicin, a major anti-inflammatory ingredient of WBE, failed to activate ARE-luciferase activity, whereas a salicin-free WBE fraction showed intensive activity. WBE induced antioxidant enzymes and prevented oxidative stress through activation of Nrf2 independent of salicin, providing a new potential explanation for the clinical usefulness of WBE. PMID:23277146

Ishikado, Atsushi; Sono, Yoko; Matsumoto, Motonobu; Robida-Stubbs, Stacey; Okuno, Aya; Goto, Masashi; King, George L; Blackwell, T Keith; Makino, Taketoshi

2013-12-01

180

The organochlorine pesticide residues and antioxidant enzyme activities in human breast tumors: is there any association?  

PubMed

The levels of some organochlorine pesticides (OCP)s (hexachlorobenzene, HCB, alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane, alpha-HCH, beta-HCH, gamma-HCH, heptachlorepoxide, HE, bis (4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethene, p.p'DDE, bis (4-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane, p.p' DDT and total DDT (E-DDT) and antioxidant enzyme activities namely Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (Se-GSH-Px), total glutathione peroxidase (T-GSH-Px), selenium independent glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px II), glutathione reductase (GRd), level of reduced glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation (LP), glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity toward several substrates including 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB), 1,2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene (DCNB), ethacrynic acid (EAA), 1,2-epoxy-3-(p-nitrophenoxy)-propane (ENPP) were measured in tumor and surrounding tumor free tissues of 24 female breast cancer patients and was evaluated whether there exist any association between the levels of OCPs and antioxidants. The mean levels of GSH, alpha-BHC, gamma-BHC and HE, and activities of SOD, Se-GSH-Px, T-GSH-Px, GSH-Px II,GRd, GST CDNB, and GST DCNB were significantly higher in tumors than in controls. In tumors, significant correlations were noted between: SOD and y-BHC; Se-GSH-Px and gamma-BHC; T-GSH-Px and gamma-BHC; GSH-Px II and alpha-BHC, gamma-BHC; GSH and alpha-BHC, gamma-BHC, HE; GRd and alpha-BHC; CDNB GST and alpha-BHC, gamma-BHC. These results show that free-radical mediated oxidative stress is, at least partly, associated with some of these OCP residues in human breast tumors. PMID:12038708

Iscan, Mumtaz; Coban, Tulay; Cok, Ismet; Bulbul, Dilek; Eke, Benay C; Burgaz, Sema

2002-03-01

181

Cloning and mRNA expression of antioxidant enzymes in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas in response to cadmium exposure.  

PubMed

Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most toxic heavy metal pollutants in the aquatic environment and can induce the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that cause oxidative stress. In present study, we cloned catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) cDNA, and investigated its time- and dose-related effects of three Cd concentrations (0.01, 0.05 or 0.1 ppm) on mRNA levels of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD), CAT, GPX) in the gill and changes enzyme levels in the hemolymph of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas. The cDNA indentified encoded proteins of 516 and 244 amino acids corresponding to CAT and GPX, respectively. BLAST analysis from other species indicated that the residues essential to the enzymatic function of CAT and GPX proteins of C. gigas are highly conserved. Cd treatment significantly increased antioxidant enzyme mRNA expression in the gill in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The mRNA expression at 0.1 ppm Cd concentration increased up to 3 days (CAT, GPX) or 7 days (SOD) and then decreased by 7 days (CAT, GPX) or 11 days (SOD). Aspartate aminotransferase, alanine amintransferase and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) concentrations levels increased significantly with exposure to 0.05 or 0.1 ppm Cd for 7 days. These results suggest that antioxidant enzymes play important roles in the physiological changes related to metabolism and cell protection that occur in Pacific oysters exposed to Cd. PMID:18337187

Jo, Pil Gue; Choi, Yong Ki; Choi, Cheol Young

2008-05-01

182

Chemical characterization, antioxidant and inhibitory effects of some marine sponges against carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes  

PubMed Central

Background More than 15,000 marine products have been described up to now; Sponges are champion producers, concerning the diversity of products that have been found. Most bioactive compounds from sponges were classified into anti-inflammatory, antitumor, immuno- or neurosurpressive, antiviral, antimalarial, antibiotic, or antifouling. Evaluation of in vitro inhibitory effects of different extracts from four marine sponges versus some antioxidants indices and carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes concerned with diabetes mellitus was studied. The chemical characterizations for the extracts of the predominating sponges; SP1 and SP3 were discussed. Methods All chemicals served in the biological study were of analytical grade and purchased from Sigma, Merck and Aldrich. All kits were the products of Biosystems (Spain), Sigma Chemical Company (USA), Biodiagnostic (Egypt). Carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes; α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and β-galactosidase (EC3.2.1.1, EC3.2.1.20, and EC3.2.1.23, respectively) were obtained from Sigma Chemical Company (USA). Results Four marine sponges; Smenospongia (SP1), Callyspongia (SP2), Niphates (SP3), and Stylissa (SP4), were collected from the Red Sea at Egyptian coasts, and taxonomically characterized. The sponges' extracts exhibited diverse inhibitory effects on oxidative stress indices and carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes in linear relationships to some extent with concentration of inhibitors (dose dependant). The extracts of sponges (3, 1, and 2) showed, respectively, potent-reducing power. Purification and Chemical characterization of sponge 1 using NMR and mass spectroscopy, recognized the existence of di-isobutyl phthalate (1), di-n-butyl phthalate (2), linoleic acid (3), ?-sitosterol (4), and cholesterol (5). Sponge 3 produced bis-[2-ethyl]-hexyl-phthylester (6) and triglyceride fatty acid ester (7). Conclusion Marine sponges are promising sources for delivering of bioactive compounds. Four marine sponges, collected from Red Sea at Egyptian coasts, were identified as Smenospongia (SP1), Callyspongia (SP2), Niphates (SP3), and Stylissa (SP4). The results demonstrated that different sponges extracts exhibited inhibitory effects on oxidative stress indices and carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes in linear relationships to some extent with concentration of inhibitors (dose dependant). The extracts of sponges (3, 1, and 2) showed, respectively, potent-reducing power. Chemical characterizations of sponges SP1 and SP3 were discussed. Based on this study, marine sponges are considered as talented sources for production of diverse and multiple biologically active compounds. PMID:22898269

2012-01-01

183

Cerium oxide nanoparticles modify the antioxidative stress enzyme activities and macromolecule composition in rice seedlings.  

PubMed

Cerium oxide nanoparticles (nCeO2) have been shown to have significant interactions in plants; however, there are limited reports on their impacts in rice (Oryza sativa). Given the widespread environmental dispersal of nCeO2, it is paramount to understand its biochemical and molecular impacts on a globally important agricultural crop, such as rice. This study was carried out to determine the impact of nCeO2 on the oxidative stress, membrane damage, antioxidant enzymes' activities, and macromolecular changes in the roots of rice seedlings. Rice seeds (medium amylose) were grown for 10 days in nCeO2 suspensions (0-500 mg L(-1)). Results showed that Ce in root seedlings increased as the external nCeO2 increased without visible signs of toxicity. Relative to the control, the 62.5 mg nCeO2 L(-1) reduced the H2O2 generation in the roots by 75%. At 125 mg nCeO2 L(-1), the roots showed enhanced lipid peroxidation and electrolyte leakage, while at 500 mg L(-1), the nCeO2 increased the H2O2 generation in roots and reduced the fatty acid content. The lignin content decreased by 20% at 500 mg nCeO2 L(-1), despite the parallel increase in H2O2 content and peroxidase activities. Synchrotron ?-XRF confirmed the presence of Ce in the vascular tissues of the roots. PMID:24266714

Rico, Cyren M; Morales, Maria I; McCreary, Ricardo; Castillo-Michel, Hiram; Barrios, Ana C; Hong, Jie; Tafoya, Alejandro; Lee, Wen-Yee; Varela-Ramirez, Armando; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

2013-12-17

184

Antioxidant Enzymes Reduce DNA Damage and Early Activation of Valvular Interstitial Cells in Aortic Valve Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Objective Accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and remodeling of the microstructure of the cusp characterize aortic valve sclerosis, the early phase of calcific aortic valve disease. These events are associated with activation of valvular interstitial cells (VICs) toward an osteogenic-like phenotype. Because ROS cause DNA damage and transcriptional activation we investigated the relationship between ROS, DNA damage response, and transdifferentiation of VICs. Methods and Results Human aortic valve cusps and patient-matched VICs were collected from 39 patients both with and without calcific aortic valve disease. VICs were exposed to hydrogen peroxide (0.1–1 mmol/L) after cell transduction with extracellular superoxide dismutase/catalase adenoviruses and characterized for DNA-damage response, osteogenic transdifferentiation, and calcification. ROS induce relocalization of phosphorylated ?H2AX, MRE11, and XRCC1 proteins with expression of osteogenic signaling molecule RUNX2 via AKT. We report a sustained activation of ?H2AX in aortic valve sclerosis-derived VICs suggesting their impaired ability to repair DNA damage. Adenovirus superoxide dismutase/catalase transduction decreases ROS-induced DNA damage and VIC transdifferentiation in aortic valve sclerosis-derived cells. Finally, adenoviral transduction with catalase reverts ROS-mediated calcification and cellular transdifferentiation. Conclusion We conclude that the ROS-induced DNA damage response is dysfunctional in early asymptomatic stages of calcific aortic valve disease. We unveiled an association among ROS, DNA-damage response, and cellular transdifferentiation, reversible by antioxidant enzymes delivery. PMID:23241403

Branchetti, Emanuela; Sainger, Rachana; Poggio, Paolo; Grau, Juan B.; Patterson-Fortin, Jeffrey; Bavaria, Joseph E.; Chorny, Michael; Lai, Eric; Gorman, Robert C.; Levy, Robert J.; Ferrari, Giovanni

2014-01-01

185

[Antioxidant enzyme gene expression as molecular biomarkers of exposure to polycyclic musks].  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate the molecular toxicological effects of low level synthetic musks exposure on the earthworm Eisenia fetida. The method of Sybr Green I real time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) for detecting gene expression level was established. SOD (superoxide dismutase) and CAT (catalase) mRNA expression levels were measured after 28 days. of AHTN and HHCB exposure. The analysis results of both sequence alignment and melting curve demonstrated that the selected primers were suitable for mRNA quantification. The liner correlation coefficients of SOD and CAT standard curves were 0.997 and 0.994, respectively, and the PCR amplification efficiencies were both close to 100%. Therefore, relative quantification method could be applied to analyze the gene expression levels. The significant elevation of malondialdehyde (MDA) levels indicated that the reactive oxygen species-induced cellular oxidative injury might be one of the main toxic effects of AHTN and HHCB. Besides, a significant positive correlation was observed between the up-regulation of SOD, CAT mRNA and the MDA levels, suggesting that possible changes in the transcript expression of antioxidant enzyme genes were associated with the oxidative stress. Furthermore, the dose-response correlation between SOD, CAT mRNA levels and the exposure concentrations was also found. The overall results indicated that SOD and CAT genes might be potential molecular biomarkers for the evaluation of the pollution stress and toxicological effects of synthetic musks in the environment. PMID:23213915

Chen, Chun; Zhou, Qi-xing; Liu, Xiao-wei

2012-08-01

186

DNA damage and effects on antioxidative enzymes in earthworm (Eisenia fetida) induced by flumorph.  

PubMed

Flumorph is an Oomycete fungicide, which is used extensively as an effective fungicide in vegetables and fruits, but little is known about its effect on nontarget soil organisms. In the present study, biochemical responses including changes in the activity of antioxidative enzymes catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), malondialdehyde (MDA), and DNA damage induced by flumorph were investigated in earthworms (Eisenis fetida). The CAT concentrations were stimulated at 5.0 mg kg(-1) over 28 days and inhibited at 10 and 20 mg kg(-1), except 10 mg kg(-1) on days 21 and 28 compared with the controls. The overall SOD activities were inhibited except 5 mg kg(-1) on day 28 and 10 mg kg(-1) on days 7 and 14. Meanwhile, the GST activities were stimulated on day 7 and decreased on the other days in summary. The MDA activities were increased notably at 5, 10, and 20 mg kg(-1) after 14 days. Clear dose-dependent DNA damage to Eisenia fetida was observed by olive tail moments in comet assay compared with controls. The results demonstrate that flumorph induces oxidative stress and DNA damage to earthworms, and the effects may be the important mechanisms of its toxicity. PMID:24352618

Cao, Xiangyu; Yang, Chao; Liu, Jianli; Hui, Xiujuan; Yang, Wei; Li, Shuangshuang; Tian, Yanan; Cai, Leiming

2014-02-01

187

Correlation among lung damage after radiation, amount of lipid peroxides, and antioxidant enzyme activities  

SciTech Connect

The correlation between lipid peroxidation and morphologic changes was examined in Sprague-Dawley rat lungs after 30 Gy single thoracic radiation. The rats were sacrificed every week until the end of the fifth week after radiation. The left lungs were used for the measurement of lipid peroxides and antioxidant enzymes activities. The right lungs were examined by light and electron microscopy. Amounts of lung lipid peroxides were within normal limits, and no cellular degenerative changes were observed in the lungs except for subendothelial and interstitial edema 2 weeks after radiation. Lipid peroxides drastically increased and marked degenerative cellular changes such as edematous swelling, vacuolation, and destruction of cell membranes occurred in the alveolar septa following the third week after radiation. The activities of catalase were significantly higher during the period from the second to the fifth week and those of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase increased at the end of the fifth week. Our results demonstrated that the acceleration of lipid peroxidation was well correlated with the morphologic expression of cell injury in the irradiated lungs.

Nozue, M.; Ogata, T.

1989-04-01

188

Defense potentials to NaCl in a mangrove, Bruguiera parviflora: differential changes of isoforms of some antioxidative enzymes.  

PubMed

In order to assess the role of the antioxidative defense system against salt treatment, the activities of some antioxidative enzymes and levels of antioxidants were monitored in a true mangrove, Bruguiera parviflora, subjected to varying levels of NaCl under hydroponic culture. In the leaves of B. parviflora, salt treatment preferentially enhanced the content of H2O2 as well as the activity of ascorbate peroxidase (APX), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), whereas it induced the decrease of total ascorbate and glutathione (GSH+GSSG) content as well as catalase (CAT) activity. Analysis of isoforms of antioxidative enzymes by native PAGE and activity staining revealed that leaves of B. parviflora had one isoform each of Mn-SOD and Cu/Zn-SOD and three isoforms of Fe-SOD. Expression of Mn-SOD and Fe-SOD-2 was preferentially elevated by NaCl. Similarly, out of the six isoforms of GPX, the GPX-1, 2, 3 and 6 were enhanced by salt treatment but the levels of GPX-4 and -5 changed minimally as compared to those of a control. Activity staining gel revealed only one prominent isoform of APX and two isoforms of GR (GR-1 and GR-2), all of these isoforms increased upon salt exposure. Four CAT-isoforms were identified, among which the prominent CAT-2 isoform level was maximally reduced, suggesting differential down regulation of CAT isoforms by NaCl. The concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA), a product of lipid peroxidation, remained unchanged in leaves of the plant treated with different concentrations of NaCl. This suggests that plants are protected against activated oxygen species by the elevated levels of certain antioxidative enzymes, thus avoiding lipid peroxidation during salt exposure. The differential changes in the levels of the isoforms due to NaCl treatment may be useful as markers for recognizing salt tolerance in mangroves. PMID:15202709

Parida, Asish Kumar; Das, Anath Bandhu; Mohanty, Prasanna

2004-05-01

189

Alterations in seedling vigour and antioxidant enzyme activities in Catharanthus roseus under seed priming with native diazotrophs.  

PubMed

An experiment was conducted on Catharanthus roseus to study the effect of seed treatments with native diazotrophs on its seedling growth and antioxidant enzyme activities. The treatments had significant influence on various seedling parameters. There is no significant influence on dry matter production with the diazotrophs, Azospirillum and Azotobacter. However, the vital seedling parameters such as germination percentage and vigour index were improved. Azotobacter treatment influenced maximum of 50% germination, whereas Azospirillum and Azotobacter were on par with C. roseus with respect to their vigour index. There was significant difference in the population of total diazotrophs. Azospirillum and Azotobacter between rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils of C. roseus had the same trend and were observed at various locations of the study. The activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POX) and catalase (CAT) were increased to a significant extent due to the treatment with diazotrophs. PMID:17610323

Karthikeyan, B; Jaleel, C A; Gopi, R; Deiveekasundaram, M

2007-07-01

190

Evaluation of erythrocyte antioxidant mechanisms: antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation, and serum trace elements associated with progressive anemia in ovine malignant theileriosis.  

PubMed

Ovine malignant theileriosis is a fatal disease that is characterized by severe progressive anemia. In order to elucidate the underlying mechanisms involved in anemia, this study was designed to assess the antioxidant status and erythrocyte oxidative injuries in Iranian fat-tailed sheep that suffered from malignant theileriosis. The infected animals (infected group), composed of 50 Iranian sheep about 1-2 years old, naturally infected with Theileria sp., were divided into three subgroups according to parasitemia rates (<1%, 1-3%, 3-5%), and ten non-infected animals were also selected as the control group. Blood samples were taken and hematological parameters, the activities of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and catalase, erythrocyte osmotic fragility, and serum concentrations of some trace elements (copper, iron, zinc, manganese, and selenium), were measured. As an index of lipid peroxidation, the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) was also determined. According to the results, a significant decrease in red blood cell (RBC) count, packed cell volume, the activities of SOD, GPX, and catalase (P <0.001), and also serum concentrations of Cu, Zn, Mn, and Se (P < 0.05) were evident in the infected sheep. In contrast, significantly increased levels of MDA and erythrocyte osmotic fragility (P < 0.001) as well as serum concentration of iron (P < 0.05) were recorded in the infected animals. The significant decrease in antioxidant enzyme activities and substantial elevated levels of lipid peroxidation and erythrocyte osmotic fragility associated with the increase in parasitemia indicate increased exposure of RBCs to oxidative damage. Also, it appears that disturbed antioxidant defense mechanisms can promote the development of anemia in ovine theileriosis. PMID:21301875

Nazifi, S; Razavi, S M; Kianiamin, P; Rakhshandehroo, E

2011-08-01

191

Longevity and antioxidant enzymes, non-enzymatic antioxidants and oxidative stress in the vertebrate lung: a comparative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been proposed that antioxidants can be longevity determinants in animals. However, no comprehensive study has been conducted to try to relate free radicals with maximum life span. This study compares the lung tissue of various vertebrate species — amphibia, mammals and birds — showing very different and well known maximum life spans and life energy potentials. The lung

R. Pérez-Campo; M. López-Torres; C. Rojas; S. Cadenas; G. Barja

1994-01-01

192

Differential response of antioxidant enzymes to salinity stress in two varieties of Azolla ( Azolla pinnata and Azolla filiculoides)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activity and modulation of antioxidant components were comparatively analyzed in two varieties of Azolla (Azolla pinnata and Azolla filiculoides) under different concentrations of NaCl. The total superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity increased in A. pinnata, whereas both enzyme activities decreased in A. filiculoides. The plants of A. pinnata exposed to 30mM NaCl contained a lower amount

Amjad Masood; Nisar Ahmad Shah; Mohd. Zeeshan; G. Abraham

2006-01-01

193

Effect of salt on malondialdehyde and antioxidant enzymes in seedling roots of Jerusalem artichoke ( Helianthus tuberosus L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two cultivars of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) differing in genotype, Red skin (cv. R., salt-tolerant but low-yield) and White skin (cv. W., salt-sensitive but high-yield),\\u000a were used to investigate malondialdehyde (MDA) content and antioxidant enzyme activity changes in their roots under a hydroponic\\u000a culture system with 250 mM NaCl. The results showed that MDA contents in roots of the two

Qiang Chen; Meide Zhang; Shihua Shen

2011-01-01

194

Antioxidant-Enzyme System as Selection Criteria for Salt Tolerance in Forage Sorghum Genotypes ( Sorghum bicolor L. Moench)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The involvement of antioxidant enzyme activities in mitigating the damage of NaCl stress was studied in 26 genotypes of forage\\u000a sorghum exhibiting different responses to salinity, including a local hybrid with unknown performance under salinity stress.\\u000a The 2-week old sorghum seedlings were subjected to 0, 50 and 100 mM NaCl for 4 weeks, which correspond to 0.7, 8.2 and 15.11

M. Hefny; D. Z. Abdel-Kader

195

Germination, osmotic adjustment, and antioxidant enzyme activities of gibberellin-pretreated Picea asperata seeds under water stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Germination of dragon spruce (Picea asperata Mast.) seeds pretreated with gibberellin (GA) in response to water stress and changes in the levels of osmotic adjustments\\u000a as well as in activities of antioxidant enzymes were investigated. With decreasing water potential caused by increasing concentrations\\u000a of PEG 6000, germination percentage and germination index decreased gradually; the decrease was especially prominent under\\u000a the

Y. Yang; Q. Liu; G. X. Wang; X. D. Wang; J. Y. Guo

2010-01-01

196

Bioaccumulation of glyphosate and its formulation Roundup Ultra in Lumbriculus variegatus and its effects on biotransformation and antioxidant enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bioaccumulation potential of glyphosate and the formulation Roundup Ultra, as well as possible effects on biotransformation and antioxidant enzymes in Lumbriculus variegatus were compared by four days exposure to concentrations between 0.05 and 5mgL?1 pure glyphosate and its formulation. Bioaccumulation was determined using 14C labeled glyphosate. The bioaccumulation factor (BCF) varied between 1.4 and 5.9 for the different concentrations,

Valeska Contardo-Jara; Eva Klingelmann; Claudia Wiegand

2009-01-01

197

Proline induces heat tolerance in chickpea ( Cicer arietinum L.) plants by protecting vital enzymes of carbon and antioxidative metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chickpea is a heat sensitive crop hence its potential yield is considerably reduced under high temperatures exceeding 35 °C.\\u000a In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of proline in countering the damage caused by heat stress to growth and to\\u000a enzymes of carbon and antioxidative metabolism in chickpea. The chickpea seeds were raised without (control) and with proline\\u000a (10 ?M) at

Neeru Kaushal; Kriti Gupta; Kalpna Bhandhari; Sanjeev Kumar; Prince Thakur; Harsh Nayyar

2011-01-01

198

Influence of arbuscular mycorrhiza on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activity of maize plants under temperature stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus, Glomus etunicatum, on characteristics of growth, membrane lipid peroxidation, osmotic adjustment, and activity of antioxidant enzymes in leaves\\u000a and roots of maize (Zea mays L.) plants was studied in pot culture under temperature stress. The maize plants were placed in a sand and soil mixture under\\u000a normal temperature for 6 weeks and then

Xiancan Zhu; Fengbin Song; Hongwen Xu

2010-01-01

199

Effects of ghrelin on protein expression of antioxidative enzymes and iNOS in the rat liver  

PubMed Central

Introduction We investigated the effects of ghrelin on protein expression of the liver antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutases (SODs), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR), nuclear factor ?B (NF?B) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Furthermore, we aimed to investigate whether extracellular regulated protein kinase (ERK1/2) and protein kinase B (Akt) are involved in ghrelin-regulated liver antioxidant enzymes and iNOS protein expression. Material and methods Male Wistar rats were treated with ghrelin (0.3 nmol/5 µl) injected into the lateral cerebral ventricle every 24 h for 5 days, and 2 h after the last treatment the animals were sacrificed and the liver excised. The Western blot method was used to determine expression of antioxidant enzymes, iNOS, phosphorylation of Akt, ERK1/2 and nuclear factor ?B (NF?B) subunits 50 and 65. Results There was significantly higher protein expression of CuZnSOD (p < 0.001), MnSOD (p < 0.001), CAT (p < 0.001), GPx, (p < 0.001), and GR (p < 0.01) in the liver isolated from ghrelin-treated animals compared with control animals. In contrast, ghrelin significantly (p < 0.01) reduced protein expression of iNOS. In addition, phosphorylation of NF?B subunits p65 and p50 was significantly (p < 0.001 for p65; p < 0.05 for p50) reduced by ghrelin when compared with controls. Phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and of Akt was significantly higher in ghrelin-treated than in control animals (p < 0.05 for ERK1/2; p < 0.01 for Akt). Conclusions The results show that activation of Akt and ERK1/2 is involved in ghrelin-mediated regulation of protein expression of antioxidant enzymes and iNOS in the rat liver.

Dobutovic, Branislava; Sudar, Emina; Tepavcevic, Snezana; Djordjevic, Jelena; Djordjevic, Ana; Radojcic, Marija

2014-01-01

200

The effect of weight reduction on antioxidant enzymes and their association with dietary intake of vitamins A, C and E.  

PubMed

Objective Our goal was to assess the effects of weight loss on antioxidant enzymes of red blood cells and it's relation with vitamins A, E and C intake in 30 obese women. Subjects and methods General information, anthropometric measurements, 3-day food recall, and fasting blood samples were collected from 30 obese women at the beginning of the study and after 3 months intervention. Weight loss was set at about 10% of their weight before the intervention. Results Glutathione reductase and catalase activities showed a significant increase (P < 0.01) after weight reduction, but no significant changes were seen in the superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities. There was a positive linear correlation between daily vitamin C intake with superoxide dismutase enzyme after intervention (P = 0.004, r = 0.507). There was a negative linear correlation between vitamin E intake and glutathione peroxidase activity before intervention (P = 0.005, r = -0.5). A negative correlation was found between daily vitamin A intake and glutathione reductase enzyme before and after intervention (r = -0.385, r = -0.397, P < 0.05) respectively. No significant correlation was observed between vitamins A, C, E amounts and catalase activity. Conclusions Ten percent weight reduction can have a significant role in increasing antioxidant enzymes activities, especially glutathione reductase, and catalase enzymes in obese women. However, it is important to take into consideration a balanced amount of certain nutrients while administering a diet with limited energy. PMID:25372584

Ramezanipour, Masoud; Jalali, Mahmood; Sadrzade-Yeganeh, Haleh; Keshavarz, Seyed Ali; Eshraghian, Mohammad Reza; Bagheri, Minoo; Emami, Sara Seyed

2014-10-01

201

Analysis of dose-dependent effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles on the oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activity in adipocytes.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to synthesize Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles and to analyze the dose-dependent effect on the oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activities in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. ZnO is widely used in the several cosmetic lotions and biomedical products. There are several studies that have reported the ZnO nanoparticle-mediated cytotoxicity on various tissues. However, there are no studies carried out on dose-dependent effect of ZnO nanoparticles in the adipose tissue. ZnO nanoparticle was synthesized by chemical pyrolysis method and characterized by the SEM. A cytotoxicity assay was carried out to determine 3T3-L1 cell viability. 3T3-L1 cell morphology was significantly altered, and most of the cells are dead at higher concentration of ZnO nanoparticles. ZnO nanoparticles increased reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation (MDA), and reduced glutathione (GSH) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In addition, antioxidant enzyme activity and its mRNA expression were also upregulated in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In conclusion, the present study showed that ZnO nanoparticles significantly altered oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activity in 3T3-L1 adipocytes on a dose-dependent manner. PMID:25234395

Muthuraman, Pandurangan; Ramkumar, Kothandam; Kim, Doo Hwan

2014-12-01

202

Metabolic flux analysis for a ppc mutant Escherichia coli based on 13C-labelling experiments together with enzyme activity assays and intracellular metabolite measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physiology and central metabolism of a ppc mutant Escherichia coli were investigated based on the metabolic flux distribution obtained by 13C-labelling experiments using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and 2-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D NMR) strategies together with enzyme activity assays and intracellular metabolite concentration measurements. Compared to the wild type, its ppc mutant excreted little acetate and produced less

Lifeng Peng; Marcos J. Arauzo-Bravo; Kazuyuki Shimizu

2004-01-01

203

Existing and potential therapeutic uses for N-acetylcysteine: the need for conversion to intracellular glutathione for antioxidant benefits.  

PubMed

N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) has long been used therapeutically for the treatment of acetaminophen (paracetamol) overdose, acting as a precursor for the substrate (l-cysteine) in synthesis of hepatic glutathione (GSH) depleted through drug conjugation. Other therapeutic uses of NAC have also emerged, including the alleviation of clinical symptoms of cystic fibrosis through cysteine-mediated disruption of disulfide cross-bridges in the glycoprotein matrix in mucus. More recently, however, a wide range of clinical studies have reported on the use of NAC as an antioxidant, most notably in the protection against contrast-induced nephropathy and thrombosis. The results from these studies are conflicting and a consensus is yet to be reached regarding the merits or otherwise of NAC in the antioxidant setting. This review seeks to re-evaluate the mechanism of action of NAC as a precursor for GSH synthesis in the context of its activity as an "antioxidant". Results from recent studies are examined to establish whether the pre-requisites for effective NAC-induced antioxidant activity (i.e. GSH depletion and the presence of functional metabolic pathways for conversion of NAC to GSH) have received adequate consideration in the interpretation of the data. A key conclusion is a reinforcement of the concept that NAC should not be considered to be a powerful antioxidant in its own right: its strength is the targeted replenishment of GSH in deficient cells and it is likely to be ineffective in cells replete in GSH. PMID:24080471

Rushworth, Gordon F; Megson, Ian L

2014-02-01

204

Antioxidants  

MedlinePLUS

... available as dietary supplements. Examples of antioxidants include Beta-carotene Lutein Lycopene Selenium Vitamin A Vitamin C Vitamin ... in some cases. For example, high doses of beta-carotene may increase the risk of lung cancer in ...

205

Rhizobial strain involvement in symbiosis efficiency of chickpea–rhizobia under drought stress: plant growth, nitrogen fixation and antioxidant enzyme activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chickpea plants were inoculated with two strains of Mesorhizobium ciceri: local strain (C-15) and non-local strain (CP-36) in order to evaluate plant growth parameters, activities of nitrogenase\\u000a and antioxidant enzymes under drought stress as well as control condition within 15 days of imposition of drought stress.\\u000a Biomass production, nodulation, nitrogen fixation and antioxidant enzyme activities under drought condition were compared.\\u000a Under

Maryam Nasr Esfahani; Akbar Mostajeran

2011-01-01

206

Schisandra Chinensis Baillon regulates the gene expression of phase II antioxidant/detoxifying enzymes in hepatic damage induced rats  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES This study investigated the antioxidant activities and hepatoprotective effects of Schisandra chinensis Baillon extract (SCE) against tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced oxidative hepatic damage in rats. MATERIALS/METHODS Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were pretreated with SCE (300, 600, and 1,200 mg/kg BW) or saline once daily for 14 consecutive days. On day 14, each animal, except those belonging to the normal control group, were injected with t-BHP (0.8 mmol/kg BW/i.p.), and all of the rats were sacrificed 16 h after t-BHP injection. RESULTS Although no significant differences in AST and ALT levels were observed among the TC and SCE groups, the high-dose SCE group showed a decreasing tendency compared to the TC group. However, erythrocyte SOD activity showed a significant increase in the low-dose SCE group compared with the TC group. On the other hand, no significant differences in hepatic total glutathione (GSH) level, glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were observed among the TC and SCE groups. Hepatic histopathological evaluation revealed that pretreatment with SCE resulted in reduced t-BHP-induced incidence of lesions, such as neutrophil infiltration, swelling of liver cells, and necrosis. In particular, treatment with a high dose of SCE resulted in induction of phase II antioxidant/detoxifying enzyme expression, such as glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC). CONCLUSIONS Based on these results, we conclude that SCE exerts protective effects against t-BHP induced oxidative hepatic damage through the reduction of neutrophil infiltration, swelling of liver cells, and necrosis. In addition, SCE regulates the gene expression of phase II antioxidant/detoxifying enzymes independent of hepatic antioxidant enzyme activity. PMID:24944771

Jang, Han I; Do, Gyeong-Min; Lee, Hye Min; Ok, Hyang Mok; Shin, Jae-Ho

2014-01-01

207

Function of antioxidant enzymes and metabolites during maturation of pea fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

In plant cells, antioxidants keep reactive oxygen species at low concentrations, avoiding oxidative damage while allowing them to play crucial functions in signal transduction. However, little is known about the role of antioxidants during fruit maturation, especially in legumes. Snap pea (Pisum sativum) plants, which have edible fruits, were grown under nodulating and non-nodulating conditions. Fruits were classified in three

Manuel A. Matamoros; Jorge Loscos; Karl-Josef Dietz; Pedro M. Aparicio-Tejo; Manuel Becana

2010-01-01

208

Ghrelin promotes antioxidant enzyme activity and reduces lipid peroxidation in the rat ovary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antioxidant properties of ghrelin have been recently reported on various oxidative stresses in limited tissues. This study was set to examine the possible antioxidative effects of ghrelin in rat ovarian tissue. Twenty eight female adult Wistar rats were randomly allocated into control and treatment groups. Treatment group (n=14) received 2nmol of ghrelin as subcutaneous injection for 14 consecutive days or

Arash Kheradmand; Masoud Alirezaei; Mahdi Birjandi

2010-01-01

209

Effects of antimony and arsenic on antioxidant enzyme activities of two steppic plant species in an old antimony mining area.  

PubMed

The present work was undertaken to determine strategies and antioxidant enzyme activities involved in the adaptation of two wild steppic plants (Hedysarum pallidum Desf. and Lygeum spartum L.) to the toxic environment of the abandoned antimony mining area of Djebel Hamimat (Algeria). For this purpose, soils and plants were collected in different zones coinciding with a Sb and As concentrations gradient in the soil. Antimony (Sb) and arsenic (As) were analyzed by ICP-OES in the soils and the aboveground parts and roots of the plants. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and antioxidant enzyme activities were measured by spectrometry. Results show levels of Sb and As exceptionally high in most soil and plant samples. The two species accumulate differently Sb and As in their above and belowground parts. MDA levels, in the two parts of both species, increase significantly with increasing soil Sb and As concentrations, but they are significantly higher in H. pallidum than in L. spartum. The activities of antioxidant enzymes differ significantly according to the soil metalloid concentrations, the plant species considered and the plant part. Apart from superoxide dismutase (SOD) whose activity is, overall, higher in H. pallidum than in L. spartum, the activities of all the other enzymes studied (glutathione S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX)) are generally higher in L. spartum than in H. pallidum. For both species, APX and GST are overall more active in the upper parts than in the roots, while it is the reverse for SOD and CAT. POD is more active in the upper parts than in the roots of L. spartum and the reverse applies to H. pallidum. It appears that the two studied plant species use different tolerance strategies to protect themselves against elevated As and Sb concentrations. PMID:24563031

Benhamdi, Asma; Bentellis, Alima; Rached, Oualida; Du Laing, Gijs; Mechakra, Aicha

2014-04-01

210

Role of acylamino acid-releasing enzyme/oxidized protein hydrolase in sustaining homeostasis of the cytoplasmic antioxidative system.  

PubMed

Acylamino acid-releasing enzyme/oxidized protein hydrolase (AARE/OPH) has been biochemically demonstrated to be a bifunctional protease that has exopeptidase activity against N?-acylated peptides and endopeptidase activity against oxidized and glycated proteins; however, its physiological role remains unknown. In this study, to determine its physiological significance, we produced AARE/OPH-overexpressing and -suppressed plants and assessed the biological impacts of AARE/OPH. The subcellular localization of Arabidopsis AARE/OPH was found to be cytoplasmic and nuclear by transient expression analysis of tdTomato-fused Arabidopsis AARE/OPH. Overexpression of AARE/OPH exhibited no apparent effect on the level of oxidized proteins because wild types probably have inherently high AARE/OPH activity. Through RNAi gene suppressing, we successfully produced AARE/OPH-suppressed Arabidopsis plants (aare) that exhibited almost no AARE activity. In the aare plant, electrolyte leakage by methyl viologen treatment was enhanced compared to that of non-transformant plants, suggesting that the plasma membranes of aare easily suffered oxidative damage, probably as a result of deterioration of the cytoplasmic antioxidative system. Correspondingly, proteomic analysis revealed that the aare plant accumulated a number of oxidized proteins including cytoplasmic antioxidant enzymes. On the basis of these results, we concluded that AARE/OPH plays a homeostatic role in sustaining the cytoplasmic antioxidative system. PMID:22398639

Nakai, Atsushi; Yamauchi, Yasuo; Sumi, Sawako; Tanaka, Kiyoshi

2012-08-01

211

Ubiad1 Is an Antioxidant Enzyme that Regulates eNOS Activity by CoQ10 Synthesis  

PubMed Central

Summary Protection against oxidative damage caused by excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) by an antioxidant network is essential for the health of tissues, especially in the cardiovascular system. Here, we identified a gene with important antioxidant features by analyzing a null allele of zebrafish ubiad1, called barolo (bar). bar mutants show specific cardiovascular failure due to oxidative stress and ROS-mediated cellular damage. Human UBIAD1 is a nonmitochondrial prenyltransferase that synthesizes CoQ10 in the Golgi membrane compartment. Loss of UBIAD1 reduces the cytosolic pool of the antioxidant CoQ10 and leads to ROS-mediated lipid peroxidation in vascular cells. Surprisingly, inhibition of eNOS prevents Ubiad1-dependent cardiovascular oxidative damage, suggesting a crucial role for this enzyme and nonmitochondrial CoQ10 in NO signaling. These findings identify UBIAD1 as a nonmitochondrial CoQ10-forming enzyme with specific cardiovascular protective function via the modulation of eNOS activity. PMID:23374346

Mugoni, Vera; Postel, Ruben; Catanzaro, Valeria; De Luca, Elisa; Turco, Emilia; Digilio, Giuseppe; Silengo, Lorenzo; Murphy, Michael P.; Medana, Claudio; Stainier, Didier Y.R.; Bakkers, Jeroen; Santoro, Massimo M.

2013-01-01

212

Serum and liver tissue bio-element levels, and antioxidant enzyme activities in carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity: protective effects of royal jelly.  

PubMed

The liver is a vital organ, and its function is generally impaired by chemicals. Some natural compounds have a protective role against liver diseases such as royal jelly (RJ). To our knowledge, there are no data available on the effect of RJ therapy on the levels of bio-element metabolisms and antioxidant enzyme activities in the carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced liver damage. Therefore, in the present study, we have investigated the role of RJ therapy in the trace and major elements and antioxidant enzymes in CCl(4)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Antioxidant enzyme activities decreased in the CCl(4)-treated group more than they did in the sham and RJ-administered groups. Many bio-element levels were also reduced in only the CCl(4)-treated group. This showed that the depletion of trace elements was related to erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activities. RJ administration clearly increased the trace and major element levels and antioxidant enzyme activities in RJ groups. RJ may be used as functional foods because of their naturally high antioxidant potential and rich element content. PMID:22510102

Cemek, Mustafa; Y?lmaz, Fatma; Büyükokuro?lu, Mehmet Emin; Büyükben, Ahmet; Aymelek, Fatih; Ayaz, Ahmet

2012-08-01

213

Analysis of knockout mutants suggests that Arabidopsis NADP-MALIC ENZYME2 does not play an essential role in responses to oxidative stress of intracellular or extracellular origin.  

PubMed

NADPH is a pivotal molecule in oxidative stress, during which it is potentially produced by several cytosolic NADP-linked dehydrogenases. This study investigated the response and functional importance of the major leaf cytosolic NADP-malic enzyme in Arabidopsis (NADP-ME2) during oxidative stress. Data from both microarray and targeted quantitative PCR analyses showed that NADP-ME2 transcripts accumulated in response to ozone or in mutants undergoing intracellular oxidative stress. To test the functional importance of this response, loss-of-function nadp-me2 mutants were obtained and the effects of oxidative stress of intracellular and extracellular origin were tested. Despite much decreased leaf NADP-ME activity, nadp-me2 showed a wild-type phenotype when exposed to ozone. Introduction of the nadp-me2 mutations into the catalase-deficient cat2 background did not alter growth inhibition or lesions triggered by intracellular oxidative stress. Similarly, loss of NADP-ME2 function had little effect on cat2-triggered changes in glutathione or NADPH. While single nadp-me2 mutations produced slight effects on basal resistance to one type of bacteria, they did not affect resistance induced by the cat2 mutation. Taken together, the results suggest that, although NADP-ME2 induction is part of the response to oxidative stress, the enzyme is not an essential determinant of the outcome of such stress. PMID:23851193

Li, Shengchun; Mhamdi, Amna; Clement, Cyndie; Jolivet, Yves; Noctor, Graham

2013-09-01

214

Function of antioxidant enzymes and metabolites during maturation of pea fruits  

PubMed Central

In plant cells, antioxidants keep reactive oxygen species at low concentrations, avoiding oxidative damage while allowing them to play crucial functions in signal transduction. However, little is known about the role of antioxidants during fruit maturation, especially in legumes. Snap pea (Pisum sativum) plants, which have edible fruits, were grown under nodulating and non-nodulating conditions. Fruits were classified in three maturity stages and antioxidants were determined in the seeds and seedless pods. Maturation or prolonged storage of fruits at 25 °C led to a decline in antioxidant activities and metabolites and in ?-glutamylcysteine synthetase protein. Notable exceptions were superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione peroxidase protein, which increased in one or both of these processes. During maturation, cytosolic peroxiredoxin decreased in seeds but increased in pods, and ascorbate oxidase activity was largely reduced in seeds. In stored fruits, ascorbate oxidase activity was nearly abolished in seeds but doubled in pods. It is concluded that symbiotic nitrogen fixation is as effective as nitrogen fertilization in maintaining the antioxidant capacity of pea fruits and that, contrary to climacteric fruits, a general decrease in antioxidants during maturation does not involve oxidative stress. Results underscore the importance of the antioxidant system in reproductive organs and point to ascorbate–glutathione metabolism and cytosolic peroxiredoxin as key players in pea fruit development. PMID:19822534

Matamoros, Manuel A.; Loscos, Jorge; Dietz, Karl-Josef; Aparicio-Tejo, Pedro M.; Becana, Manuel

2010-01-01

215

Changes in plant communities along soil pollution gradients: responses of leaf antioxidant enzyme activities and phytochelatin contents.  

PubMed

This work describes an ecological and ecotoxicological study of polluted wasteland plant communities in a former coke-factory located in Homécourt (France). Ecological analyses were performed along two transects to investigate changes in plant community structure through species richness (S), biological diversity (H') and evenness (J). Five species (Arrhenatherum elatius, Bromus tectorum, Euphorbia cyparissias, Hypericum perforatum and Tanacetum vulgare) were then selected to assess cellular responses through antioxidant enzyme activities and phytochelatins (PCs) contents. The results showed that species richness and biological diversity correlated negatively to Cd and Hg concentrations in soil suggesting that soil concentration of non-essential heavy metals was the primary factor governing vegetation structure in the industrial wasteland. Moreover, for all studied species, abundances were partly related to metal levels in the soils, but also to plant antioxidant systems, suggesting their role in plant establishment success in polluted areas. Data for PC contents led to less conclusive results. PMID:19692108

Dazy, Marc; Béraud, Eric; Cotelle, Sylvie; Grévilliot, Frédérique; Férard, Jean-François; Masfaraud, Jean-François

2009-10-01

216

Dose-response effects of lycopene on selected drug-metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes in the rat.  

PubMed

The administration of lycopene to female rats at doses ranging from 0.001 to 0.1 g/kg b.w. per day for 2 weeks was found to alter the drug-metabolizing capacity and antioxidant status of the exposed animals. An investigation of four cytochrome P450-dependent enzymes revealed that benzyloxyresorufin O-dealkylase activity in the liver was significantly induced in a dose-dependent fashion at all lycopene doses investigated. Likewise, ethoxyresorufin O-dealkylase activity was induced, although only at the two highest lycopene concentrations tested. An investigation of selected phase 2 detoxification enzymes provided evidence that lycopene was capable of inducing hepatic quinone reductase, approximately two-fold, at doses between 0.001 and 0.05 g/kg b.w. per day, whereas no effect was observed at the remaining doses tested. Glutathione transferase, using the two substrates, 2,4-dichloronitrobenzene and 1-chloro-2, 4-dinitrobenzene, was significantly induced at the 0.1 g/kg b.w. per day dose, whereas no effect was observed at the remaining lycopene doses. Analysis of the antioxidant status of the blood compartment revealed that three out of four antioxidant enzymes were affected by lycopene treatment. The activity of superoxide dismutase was thus significantly induced at lycopene doses of 0.005 and 0.05 g/kg b.w, whereas glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase was only induced at the 0.005 g/kg b.w. per day dose. For all antioxidant enzymes investigated, the activities seemed to return to the control level after exerting peak induction at doses between 0.005 and 0.05 g/kg b.w. per day. The explanation for this remains unknown. The plasma concentration of lycopene at dietary levels of 0.001, 0.005, 0.05 and 0.1 g/kg b.w. per day was estimated to be 16, 32, 71 and 67 nM, which is barely within the lower range of the mean human plasma concentration of lycopene, which ranges from 70-1790 nM. Oxidative stress induced by the heterocyclic amine, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), and investigated by analyzing for malondialdehyde in plasma, was not found to be affected by prior lycopene exposure. The level of PhIP-DNA adducts in the liver or colon was likewise not affected by lycopene at any dose. Overall, the present study provides evidence that lycopene administered in the diet of young female rats exerts minor modifying effects toward antioxidant and drug-metabolizing enzymes involved in the protection against oxidative stress and cancer. The fact that these enzymatic activities are induced at all of these very low plasma levels, could be taken to suggest that modulation of antioxidant and drug-metabolizing enzymes may indeed be relevant to humans, which in general exhibit a plasma lycopene level several fold above the effective levels observed in this study. PMID:10806309

Breinholt, V; Lauridsen, S T; Daneshvar, B; Jakobsen, J

2000-06-30

217

Protocatechuic acid induces antioxidant/detoxifying enzyme expression through JNK-mediated Nrf2 activation in murine macrophages.  

PubMed

Protocatechuic acid (PCA) is a main metabolite of anthocyanins, whose daily intake is much higher than that of other polyphenols. PCA has biological effects, e.g., it induces the antioxidant/detoxifying enzyme gene expression. This study was aimed at defining the molecular mechanism responsible for PCA-induced over-expression of glutathione (GSH) peroxidase (GPx) and GSH reductase (GR) in J774 A.1 macrophages. New evidence is provided that PCA increases GPx and GR expression by inducing C-JUN NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK)-mediated phosphorylation of Nuclear factor erythroid 2 (NF-E2)-related factor 2 (Nrf2). RNA and proteins were extracted from cells treated with PCA (25 ?M) for different time points. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting analyses showed a rapid increase in mRNA (>60%) and protein (>50%) for both the enzymes. This was preceded by the up-regulation of Nrf2, in terms of mRNA and protein, and by its significant activation as assessed by increased Nrf2 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation (+60%). By using specific kinase inhibitors and detecting the activated form, we showed that JNK was the main upstream kinase responsible for Nrf2 activation. Convincing evidence is provided of a causal link between PCA-induced Nrf2 activation and increased enzyme expression. By silencing Nrf2 and using a JNK inhibitor, enzyme enhancement was counteracted. Finally, with the ChIP assay, we demonstrated that PCA-activated Nrf2 specifically bound ARE sequences in enzyme gene promoters. Our study demonstrates for the first time that PCA improves the macrophage endogenous antioxidant potential by a mechanism in which JNK-mediated Nrf2 activation plays an essential role. This knowledge could contribute to novel diet-based approaches aimed at counteracting oxidative injury by reinforcing endogenous defences. PMID:20621462

Varì, Rosaria; D'Archivio, Massimo; Filesi, Carmelina; Carotenuto, Simona; Scazzocchio, Beatrice; Santangelo, Carmela; Giovannini, Claudio; Masella, Roberta

2011-05-01

218

Major Shifts in the Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Lung Antioxidant Enzymes during Influenza Pneumonia  

E-print Network

With the incessant challenge of exposure to the air we breathe, lung tissue suffers the highest levels of oxygen tension and thus requires robust antioxidant defenses. Furthermore, following injury or infection, lung tissue ...

Yamada, Yoshiyuki

219

Fructose compared with glucose is more a potent glycoxidation agent in vitro, but not under carbohydrate-induced stress in vivo: potential role of antioxidant and antiglycation enzymes.  

PubMed

The contribution of carbohydrates to non-enzymatic processes such as glycation/autoxidation has been extensively investigated over the last decades. This may be attributed to either beneficial or detrimental effects of reducing carbohydrates, and most studies in the field of glycoxidation are focused on glucose. Non-enzymatic reactions of fructose have not been as thoroughly investigated as those of glucose. To compare glucose and fructose involvement in the generation of glycoxidation products under experimental conditions close to the physiological situation, we used intact Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells as in vivo model and cell-free extracts prepared from whole yeast cells as in vitro model. Both intact cells and cell-free extracts were incubated with glucose or fructose. It was shown that: (i) in vitro fructose was more reactive than glucose and produced higher level of autoxidation and glycation products; (ii) no substantive differences were observed for the effect of glucose and fructose on the intracellular level of glycoxidation products, when intact yeast cells were exposed to the high concentration of hexoses; (iii) the activity of defensive enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glyoxalases, and glutathione reductase) was increased in both glucose- and fructose-stressed yeasts, indicating the development of oxidative/carbonyl stress; (iv) glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity significantly dropped in yeast exposed to both hexoses, demonstrating its high sensitivity to reactive oxygen and carbonyl species; and (v) fructose more markedly activated glyoxalases than glucose. Involvement of glucose and fructose in the glycoxidation reactions as well as potential role of antioxidant and antiglycation enzymes in yeast protection against glycoxidation are discussed. PMID:24361593

Semchyshyn, Halyna M; Miedzobrodzki, Jacek; Bayliak, Maria M; Lozinska, Liudmyla M; Homza, Bohdana V

2014-01-30

220

[Effects of low salinity stress on the antioxidant enzyme activities in juvenile Pampus argenteus liver and the APTase activities in its gill and kidney].  

PubMed

By decreasing water salinity gradually, the Pampus argenteus juveniles were cultured at water salinity 25, 20, 15 and 10, for 24 h, 48 h, 96 h and 120 h, respectively, with the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and glutathione reductase (GR) in liver and the activities of Na+/K+- and Ga2+/Mg2+ -ATPase in gill and kidney determined. With the lowering of water salinity and the elongation of treated time, the liver SOD and GST activities had a trend of decreasing after an initial increase (P < 0.05), while the CAT activity was lower than the control except that it had a slight increase at salinity 20 cultured for 24 h and at salinity 15 cultured for 48 h (P < 0.05). The liver GPX activity had an increasing trend (P < 0.05), while the GR activity at salinity 15 cultured for 24 h increased first and then fell down to a relatively low level (P < 0.05). The Na+/K+ - and Ga2+/Mg2+-ATPase activities in the gill and kidney also decreased after an initial increase (P < 0.05), only the increase of ATPase activity at the thresholds of water salinity and treated time differed between the two organs. The results indicated that the decrease of water salinity could effectively stimulate and enhance the antioxidant enzyme activities in juvenile P. argenteus liver and the ATPase activities in its gill and kidney, and thereby, could effectively eliminate the excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS), sustain the intracellular homeostasis, and minimize the body damage. However, characterized by certain specificity and time sequentiality, the activation of test enzymes could also be inhibited when the salinity varied beyond the tolerance range of the body. PMID:21774333

Yin, Fei; Sun, Peng; Peng, Shi-ming; Shi, Zhao-hong

2011-04-01

221

Malondialdehyde and Antioxidant Enzymes in Maternal and Cord Blood, and their Correlation in Normotensive and Preeclamptic Women  

PubMed Central

Background An increased oxidative level and decreased antioxidant activities in the blood of preeclamptic women have been reported by us and other workers. The present study was aimed to evaluate oxidative stress in infants born to preeclamptic mothers, and to examine whether cord blood with oxygen radical disease had different total enzymatic antioxidant status than those without preeclampsia. Methods The present study consisted of 23 normotensive (served as control) and 23 preeclamptic mothers. We compared their oxidative and anti-oxidative system in maternal and cord blood of pair-matched mother and neonate. Their blood malondialdehyde (MDA), antioxidant enzymes were determined and compared to evaluate if pro-oxidative status of preeclampsia differs from the status in cord blood of pair-matched neonate. Results The MDA content in preeclamptic maternal plasma was significantly high (p < 0.001) compared to that of control. Interestingly, its content in preeclamptic cord blood was significantly low (p < 0.001) compared to their pair-matched maternal blood. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was 8.7% higher in cord as compared to pair-matched normotensive maternal blood which was significant (p = 0.01) whereas in preeclamptic cord the level decreased significantly (p = 0.011) in comparison to pair-matched preeclamptic maternal. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) was 16.4% higher in normotensive cord compared to maternal blood, and 7% low in preeclamptic cord compared to pair-matched maternal blood. The increase was significant (P = 0.011) in normotensive cord whereas in preeclamptic cord the decrease was insignificant (p = 0.06). Contrary to earlier reports on catalase activity, our results showed 20.97% elevation in normotensive and 16.12% increase in the preeclamptic cord blood compared to their pair-matched maternal blood. This change was significant with p = 0.01 and p = 0.017 in control and preeclamptic group respectively. Conclusions Our results showed the significantly low MDA contents in the pair-matched cord blood and the activities of SOD, GPx and Catalase mentioned above, we conclude that the oxidative stress status is low in the blood of neonates born to preeclamptic mothers. Further studies are needed to explore strategies so that the normal levels of antioxidant vitamins are maintained to combat preeclampsia in women at high risk. Keywords Maternal; Cord blood; Malondialdehyde; Antioxidant enzymes; Glutathione peroxidase; Glutathione reductase; Superoxide dismutase; Catalase PMID:22493649

Suhail, Mohd; Suhail, Safia; Gupta, Bharat Kumar; Bharat, Vinay

2009-01-01

222

Antioxidative Activity and Inhibition of Key Enzymes Linked to Type-2 Diabetes (?-Glucosidase and ?-Amylase) by Khaya Senegalensis.  

PubMed

Abstract This study evaluated the in vitro antioxidative activity of Khaya senegalensis extracts and inhibitory effects of some solvent fractions on ?-glucosidase and ?-amylase activities. The stem bark, root and leaf samples of the plant were sequentially extracted with ethyl acetate, ethanol and water and then tested for antioxidative activity. Our findings revealed that the ethanolic extract of the root had the highest antioxidative activity. Solvent-solvent fractionation of the root ethanolic extract yielded a butanol fraction that showed higher antioxidative activity than other fractions. Furthermore, the butanol fraction had significantly higher (p < 0.05) ?-glucosidase and ?-amylase inhibitory activities with IC50 values of 2.89 ± 0.46 and 97.51 ± 5.72 ?g mL-1, respectively. Enzyme kinetic studies indicated that the butanol fraction is a non-competitive inhibitor for ?-glucosidase with an inhibition binding constant Ki of 1.30 ?g mL-1 and a competitive inhibitor of ?-amylase with a Ki of 7.50 ?g mL-1. GC-MS analysis revealed that the butanol fraction contained two chromones, p-anilinophenol and 3-ethyl-5-(3- ethyl-(3H)-benzothiazol-2-ylidene)-2-(p-tolylvinylamino)- 4-thiazolidinone. Data obtained in the study suggest that the butanol fraction derived from the ethanolic extract of K. senegalensis root possessed excellent antioxidative as well as ?-glucosidase and a-amylase inhibitory activities while chromones and/or p-anilinophenol could be the main bioactive compounds responsible for the observed activities. PMID:25296677

Ibrahim, Mohammed Auwal; Koorbanally, Neil Anthony; Islam, Md Shahidul

2014-09-01

223

24-Epibrassinolide regulates photosynthesis, antioxidant enzyme activities and proline content of Cucumis sativus under salt and/or copper stress.  

PubMed

Brassinosteroids have been extensively used to overcome various abiotic stresses. But its role in combined stress of salt and excess copper remains unexplored. Seeds of two cultivars (Rocket and Jumbo) of Cucumis sativus were grown in sand amended with copper (100 mg kg(-1)), and developed seedlings were exposed to salt stress in the form of NaCl (150 mM) at the 30-day stage of growth for 3 days. These seedlings were subsequently sprayed with 0 or 0.01 ?M of 24-epibrassinolide (EBL) at the 35-day stage. The plants exposed to NaCl and Cu in combination exhibited a significant decline in fresh and dry mass of plant, chlorophyll content, activities of carbonic anhydrase, net photosynthetic rate and maximum quantum yield of the PSII primary photochemistry followed by NaCl and Cu stress alone, more severely in Jumbo than in Rocket. However, the follow-up treatment with EBL to the stressed and nonstressed plant improved growth, chlorophyll content, carbonic anhydrase activity and photosynthetic efficiency, and further enhanced the activity of various antioxidant enzymes viz. catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase and content of proline at the 40-day stage of growth, and the response of the hormone was more effective in Rocket than in Jumbo. The elevated level of antioxidant enzymes as well as proline could have conferred tolerance to the NaCl- and/or Cu-stressed plants resulting in improved growth, water relations and photosynthetic attributes. Furthermore, antioxidant enzyme activity and proline content were more enhanced in Rocket than in Jumbo cultivar. PMID:23443638

Fariduddin, Q; Khalil, Radwan R A E; Mir, Bilal A; Yusuf, M; Ahmad, A

2013-09-01

224

Effect of short- and long-term salinity on the activities of antioxidative enzymes and lipid peroxidation in tomato roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in the antioxidative enzyme activities (SOD, CuZnSOD, GSH-Px, GST), as well as TBARS content in 5-week-old tomato\\u000a (Lycopersicon\\u000a esculentum Mill. cv “Perkoz”) roots were examined 1, 3 h (short-term stress) and 1–14 days (long-term stress) after a single application\\u000a of 50 mM (mild stress) and 150 mM NaCl (severe stress). The severe stress caused an increase in GST, GSH-Px and SODs activities\\u000a from

Magdalena Gapi?ska; Maria Sk?odowska; Barbara Gabara

2008-01-01

225

Enzyme  

MedlinePLUS

Enzymes are complex proteins that cause a specific chemical change in all parts of the body. For ... use them. Blood clotting is another example of enzymes at work. Enzymes are needed for all body ...

226

Antioxidant enzyme activities of iron-saturated bovine lactoferrin (Fe-bLf) in human gut epithelial cells under oxidative stress.  

PubMed

Chemoprevention by dietary constituents in the form of functional food has emerged as a novel approach to control inflammatory diseases and cancers. Recently we reported for the first time that iron content is a critical determinant in the anti-tumour activity of bovine milk lactoferrin (bLf). We therefore wanted to evaluate the chemo-preventative efficacy of Apo-bLF and 100% iron-saturated bLF (Fe-bLF) on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced colon carcinogenesis, and their influence on antioxidant enzyme activities within colon carcinogenesis. This was undertaken through observing how oxidative stress induced by H2O2 alters antioxidant enzyme activity within HT29 colon cancer cells, and then observing changes in this activity by treatments with the different antioxidants ascorbic acid (AA), Apo-bLF and Fe-bLF. All antioxidant enzymes (catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-s-transferase (GsT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) appeared to be increased within HT29 cells, even prior to H2O2 exposure, and all enzymes showed significant decreased activity when cells were treated with the antioxidants AA, Apo-bLF or Fe-bLF, with or without H2O2 exposure. The results indicate that all three antioxidants have the ability to scavenge ROS, lower antioxidant enzyme activities within already excited states, and possibly allow colon cancer cells to be overcome by oxidative stress that would normally be prevented, perhaps leading to damage and potential apoptosis of the cancer cells. In conclusion, the anti-oxidative effects of Apo-bLF and Fe-bLf studied for the first time, show dynamic changes that may allow for necessary protection from imbalanced oxidative conditions, and potential at reducing the ability of cancer cells to protect themselves from oxidative stress states. PMID:21486205

Burrow, Hannah; Kanwar, Rupinder K; Kanwar, Jagat R

2011-05-01

227

Implication of intracellular glutathione and its related enzymes on resistance of malaria parasites to the antimalarial drug arteether  

Microsoft Academic Search

The control of malaria has been complicated by the increasing resistance of malarial parasites to multiple drugs. However, artemisinin-based drugs offer hope in the fight against drug-resistant parasites. The mode of action of these drugs remains unclear, but evidence suggests a role for free radicals in their mechanism of action. In this study, we examined the relationship between the intracellular

Ramesh Chandra; L. M. Tripathi; J. K. Saxena; S. K. Puri

2011-01-01

228

Postnatal exposure to chromium through mother's milk accelerates follicular atresia in F1 offspring through increased oxidative stress and depletion of antioxidant enzymes  

PubMed Central

Hexavalent chromium, CrVI, is a heavy metal endocrine disruptor, known as a mutagen, teratogen, and a group A carcinogen. Environmental contamination with CrVI, including drinking water, has been increasing in more than 30 cities in the United States. CrVI is rapidly converted to CrIII intracellularly, and CrIII can cause DNA strand breaks and cancer or apoptosis through different mechanisms. Our previous study demonstrated that lactational exposure to chromium results in a delay or arrest in follicle development and a decrease in steroid hormone levels in F1 female rats, both of which are mitigated (partial inhibition) by vitamin C. The current study tested the hypothesis that lactational exposure to CrIII accelerates follicle atresia in F1 offspring by increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decreasing cellular antioxidants. Results showed that lactational exposure to CrIII dose-dependently increased follicular atresia and decreased steroidogenesis in postnatal day 25, 45, and 65 rats. Vitamin C mitigated or inhibited the effects of CrIII at all doses. CrIII increased hydrogen peroxide and lipid hydroperoxide in plasma and ovary; decreased the antioxidant enzymes (AOXs) GPx1, GR, SOD, and catalase; and increased glutathione S-transferase in plasma and ovary. To understand the effects of CrVI on ROS and AOXs in granulosa (GC) and theca (TC) cell compartments in the ovary, ROS levels and mRNA expression of cytosolic and mitochondrial AOXs, such as SOD1, SOD2, catalase, GLRX1, GSTM1, GSTM2, GSTA4, GR, TXN1, TXN2, TXNRD2, and PRDX3, were studied in GCs and TCs and in a spontaneously immortalized granulosa cell line (SIGC). Overall, CrVI downregulated each of the AOXs; and vitamin C mitigated the effects of CrVI on these enzymes in GCs and SIGCs, but failed to mitigate CrVI effects on GSTM1, GSTM2, TXN1, and TXN2 in TCs. Thus, these data for the first time reveal that lactational exposure to CrIII accelerated follicular atresia and decreased steroidogenesis in F1 female offspring by altering the ratio of ROS and AOXs in the ovary. Vitamin C is able to protect the ovary from CrIII-induced oxidative stress and follicle atresia through protective effects on GCs rather than TCs. PMID:23470461

Stanley, Jone A.; Sivakumar, Kirthiram K.; Nithy, Thamizh K.; Arosh, Joe A.; Hoyer, Patricia B.; Burghardt, Robert C.; Banu, Sakhila K.

2013-01-01

229

Plasma Homocysteine Is Associated with Increased Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Enzyme Activity in Welders  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to examine the association of vitamin B6 status and plasma homocysteine with oxidative stress and antioxidant capacities in welders. Workers were divided into either the welding exposure group (n = 57) or the nonexposure controls (n = 42) based on whether they were employed as welders. There were no significant differences in vitamin B6 status and plasma homocysteine concentration between the welding exposure group and the nonexposure controls. The welding exposure group had significantly higher levels of oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and lower erythrocyte glutathione concentration and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities when compared to nonexposure controls. Plasma pyridoxal 5?-phosphate concentration did not correlate with oxidative stress indicators or antioxidant capacities in either group. However, plasma homocysteine significantly correlated with total antioxidant capacity (TAC) (partial rs = ?0.34, P < 0.05) and erythrocyte SOD activities (partial rs = 0.29, P < 0.05) after adjusting for potential confounders in the welding exposure group. In the welding exposure group, adequate vitamin B6 status was not associated with oxidative stress or antioxidant capacities. However, elevated plasma homocysteine seemed to be a major contributing factor to antioxidant capacities (TAC and erythrocyte SOD activities) in welders. PMID:24106453

Liu, Hung-Hsin; Shih, Tung-Sheng; Huang, Hsin-Ru; Huang, Shih-Chien; Lee, Lien-Hsiung; Huang, Yi-Chia

2013-01-01

230

Influence of Alternanthera brasiliana (L.) Kuntze on Altered Antioxidant Enzyme Profile during Cutaneous Wound Healing in Immunocompromised Rats.  

PubMed

Alternanthera brasiliana (L.) Kuntze (Amaranthaceae) is a herbaceous plant used against inflammation, cough, and diarrhea in Brazilian popular medicine. In our preliminary study, promising wound healing activity of methanol extract of leaves of A. brasiliana (MEAB) was observed in normal excision and incision wound models. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the wound healing activity along with the antioxidant enzyme profile during cutaneous excision immunocompromised wound after topical application of 5% w/w ointment of MEAB in rats. Immunocompromised state was induced by pretreatment with hydrocortisone (HC) at 40?mg/kg body weight (i.m.) in male rats. Following one-week pretreatment with HC, wounds were created. The vehicle, 5% (w/w) ointment of MEAB, or standard drug (Himax) was applied topically twice daily. Healing potential was evaluated by the rate of wound contraction, estimation of enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants like catalase, SOD, GSH, protein, vitamin C, and hydroxyproline content, which was supported by histopathological study on the 8th day following wounding. There was significant increase in the enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant parameters in the extract-reated group as compared to control group. Histopathological study revealed collagen deposition, fibroblast proliferation, angiogenesis, and development of basement membrane in A. brasiliana group. The results of the present investigation revealed significant wound healing activity of MEAB. PMID:22934192

Barua, Chandana Choudhury; Ara Begum, Shameem; Talukdar, Archana; Datta Roy, Jayanti; Buragohain, Bhaben; Chandra Pathak, Debesh; Kumar Sarma, Dilip; Saikia Bora, Rumi; Gupta, Asheesh

2012-01-01

231

Phosphoenolpyruvate-sugar phosphotransferase transport system of Streptococcus mutans: purification of HPr and enzyme I and determination of their intracellular concentrations by rocket immunoelectrophoresis.  

PubMed Central

Enzyme I and HPr, the general proteins of the phosphoenolpyruvate-sugar phosphotransferase system, play a pivotal role in the control of sugar utilization in gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. To determine whether growth conditions could modify the rate of biosynthesis of these proteins in Streptococcus mutans, we first purified to homogeneity enzyme I and HPr from S. mutans ATCC 27352. Using specific antibodies obtained against these proteins, we determined by rocket electrophoresis the intracellular levels of enzyme I and HPr in cells of S. mutans 27352 grown under various batch culture conditions and in a number of glucose-grown cells of other strains of S. mutans. HPr was purified by the procedure reported by Gauthier et al. (L. Gauthier, D. Mayrand, and C. Vadeboncoeur, J. Bacteriol. 160:755-763, 1984) and displayed a single band with a molecular weight of 6,650 when analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-urea gel electrophoresis. Enzyme I was purified by DEAE-cellulose chromatography, affinity chromatography on an anti-Streptococcus salivarius column, and preparative electrophoresis. The protein migrated as a single band in native and denaturating gel electrophoresis. The subunit molecular weight of enzyme I determined by electrophoresis under denaturating conditions was 68,000. In gel filtration chromatography at 4 degrees C, the enzyme migrated as a 135,000- to 160,000-molecular-weight species, suggesting that enzyme I is a dimer. In double immunodiffusion experiments, antibodies against HPr reacted with several oral streptococci, Streptococcus lactis, Streptococcus faecium, and Lactobacillus casei, but not with Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. Antibodies against enzyme I of S. mutans 27352 cross-reacted with enzyme I from all the other oral streptococci tested. No cross-reaction was observed with other gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The levels of enzyme I and HPr determined by rocket electrophoresis in S. mutans 27352 varied at the most by twofold, depending on the growth conditions. Glucose-grown cells of other S. mutans strains contained levels of enzyme I and HPr which were similar to those found in S. mutans 27352. Images PMID:4066033

Thibault, L; Vadeboncoeur, C

1985-01-01

232

Effects of Cr(VI) long-term and low-dose action on mammalian antioxidant enzymes (an in vitro study)  

SciTech Connect

In order to investigate the low-dose long-term Cr(VI) action on antioxidant enzymes in cultured mammalian cells we estimated the activity of glutathione dependent antioxidant enzymes, catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) under various chromium concentrations in human epithelial-like L-41 cells. The long-term action of 20 mu-M causes the toxicity that results in losing of the cell viability by activating the apoptotic process, as identified by morphological analysis, the activation of caspase-3, and DNA fragmentation. The toxic chromium concentration totally destroys glutathione antioxidant system, and diminishes the activity of catalase and cytosolic Cu, ZnSOD. The non-toxic concentration (2 mu-M) causes the activation of the antioxidant defense systems, and they neutralize the oxidative impact.

Asatiani, N.; Sapojnikova, N.; Abuladze, M.; Kartvelishvili, T.L.; Kulikova, N.; Kiziria, E.; Namchevadze, E.; Holman, H.-Y.N.

2003-08-01

233

The Effect of Extra Virgin Olive Oil and Soybean on DNA, Cytogenicity and Some Antioxidant Enzymes in Rats  

PubMed Central

We investigated the effect of extra virgin (EV) olive oil and genetically modified (GM) soybean on DNA, cytogenicity and some antioxidant enzymes in rodents. Forty adult male albino rats were used in this study and divided into four groups. The control group of rodents was fed basal ration only. The second group was given basal ration mixed with EV olive oil (30%). The third group was fed basal ration mixed with GM (15%), and the fourth group survived on a combination of EV olive oil, GM and the basal ration for 65 consecutive days. On day 65, blood samples were collected from each rat for antioxidant enzyme analysis. In the group fed on basal ration mixed with GM soyabean (15%), there was a significant increase in serum level of lipid peroxidation, while glutathione transferase decreased significantly. Interestingly, GM soyabean increased not only the percentage of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MPCE), but also the ratio of polychromatic erythrocytes to normochromatic erythrocytes (PEC/NEC); however, the amount of DNA and NCE were significantly decreased. Importantly, the combination of EV olive oil and GM soyabean significantly altered the tested parameters towards normal levels. This may suggest an important role for EV olive oil on rodents’ organs and warrants further investigation in humans. PMID:24959949

El-Kholy, Thanaa A.; Abu Hilal, Mohammad; Ali Al-Abbadi, Hatim; Salim Serafi, Abdulhalim; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmad K.; Sobhy, Hanan M.; Richardson, John R. C.

2014-01-01

234

Response of antioxidative enzymes to arsenic-induced phytotoxicity in leaves of a medicinal daisy, Wedelia chinensis Merrill  

PubMed Central

Background: Wedelia chinensis Merrill (Asteraceae) is a medicinally important herb, grown abundantly in soils contaminated with heavy metals, including toxic metalloid arsenic (As). The leaves have immense significance in treatment of various ailments. Objective: The present study was undertaken to ascertain whether the edible/usable parts experience oxidative stress in the form of membrane damage during As exposure or not. Materials and Methods: Responses of seven antioxidant enzymes were studied in leaves under 20 mg/L of As treatment in pot experiment. Results: When compared to control, activities of superoxide dismutase, monodehydroascorbatereductase, dehydroascorbatereductase, glutathione reductase, and gluathione peroxidase had increased, while the catalase level reduced and ascorbate peroxidase activity changed non-significantly in As-treated seedlings. This suggested overall positive response of antioxidant enzymes to As-induced oxidative stress. Although hydrogen peroxide content increased, level of lipid peroxidation and magnitude of membrane damage was quite normal, leading to normal growth (dry weight of shoot) of plant under Astreatment. Conclusion: W.chinensis is tolerant of As-toxicity, and thus, can be grown in As-contaminated zones. PMID:24082737

Talukdar, Tulika; Talukdar, Dibyendu

2013-01-01

235

Flixweed Is More Competitive than Winter Wheat under Ozone Pollution: Evidences from Membrane Lipid Peroxidation, Antioxidant Enzymes and Biomass  

PubMed Central

To investigate the effects of ozone on winter wheat and flixweed under competition, two species were exposed to ambient, elevated and high [O3] for 30 days, planted singly or in mixculture. Eco-physiological responses were examined at different [O3] and fumigating time. Ozone reduced the contents of chlorophyll, increased the accumulation of H2O2 and malondialdehyde in both wheat and flixweed. The effects of competition on chlorophyll content of wheat emerged at elevated and high [O3], while that of flixweed emerged only at high [O3]. The increase of H2O2 and malondialdehyde of flixweed was less than that of wheat under the same condition. Antioxidant enzyme activities of wheat and flixweed were seriously depressed by perennial and serious treatment using O3. However, short-term and moderate fumigation increased the activities of SOD and POD of wheat, and CAT of flixweed. The expression levels of antioxidant enzymes related genes provided explanation for these results. Furthermore, the increase of CAT expression of flixweed was much higher than that of SOD and POD expression of wheat. Ozone and competition resulted in significant reductions in biomass and grain yield in both winter wheat and flixweed. However, the negative effects on flixweed were less than wheat. Our results demonstrated that winter wheat is more sensitive to O3 and competition than flixweed, providing valuable data for further investigation on responses of winter wheat to ozone pollution, in particular combined with species competition. PMID:23533669

Li, Yong; Zheng, Yan-Hai; Jiang, Gao-Ming

2013-01-01

236

Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense enzymes in Clarias gariepinus as useful biomarkers for monitoring exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.  

PubMed

The toxicological evaluations of crude oil, xylene, toluene and benzene were carried out against juvenile stages of Clarias gariepinus. On the basis of LC(50) value, benzene (0.017 ml/l) was found to be the most toxic followed by xylene (0.086 ml/l), toluene (0.398 ml/l) and crude oil (2.219 ml/l) was the least toxic. The results of the lipid peroxidation assay showed that the level of malonaldehyde (MDA) in liver and gills of fish exposed to all the test chemicals increased significantly (P < 0.05) when compared to control. Measurement of activities of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in liver and gill of fishes exposed to sublethal concentration of the test chemicals over a 28-day period was found to decrease significantly (P < 0.05) when compared to control. The observed reduction in the activities of antioxidant defense enzymes such as SOD, CAT and GST in conjunction with an increase in MDA levels in the gill and liver tissues of test animals exposed to aromatic hydrocarbon compounds were recommended as a good battery of biomarkers for early detection of pollution during biomonitoring programmes. PMID:21213039

Otitoloju, Adebayo; Olagoke, Oluwatoyin

2011-11-01

237

Diabetic retinopathy is associated with oxidative stress and mitigation of gene expression of antioxidant enzymes  

PubMed Central

Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disease associated with serious complications, including diabetic retinopathy (DR). The authors’ main aim was to investigate biochemical parameters and the oxidative stress associated with the type 2 DR patients and to study gene expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) among patients with DR [DR(+)] compared with a control nondiabetic group. In all, 67 patients with DR included in this study were diabetic for more than 10 years. Among them, 22 patients were DR(+), and 45 patients did not have DR [DR(?)]. The subjects’ age range was 14 years to 80 years old with diabetes duration range between 2 and 45 years. Body mass index (BMI) was 31.43 ± 5.94 and 32.33 ± 6.54, systolic blood pressure was 117.15 ± 18.16 mmHg and 126.15 ± 20.26 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure was 81.11 ± 10.55 mmHg and 82.77 ± 10.85 mmHg, HbA1c was 7.2 ± 1.1 and 8.19 ± 1.95, serum total cholesterol was 6.61 ± 1.11 and 4.11 ± 0.31, serum triglycerides were 3.52 ± 0.89 and 3.42 ± 0.79, serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) was 2.12 ± 0.10 and 2.42 ± 0.15, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) was 2.66 ± 0.30 and 2.55 ± 0.21, SOD was 3.12 ± 0.87 and 1.53 ± 0.14, GPx was 11.14 ± 2.21 and 8.2 ± 1.84, CAT was 26.43 ± 3.34 and 9.60 ± 2.14, for DR(?) and DR(+) patients, respectively. SOD, GPx and CAT polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products of the DR(+) patients revealed the diminished expression of CAT gene followed by GPx and SOD genes. All were significant compared with the normal controls, P < 0.05. Linear regression analysis revealed a strong significant positive correlation between the retinopathy grade and the diastolic blood pressure, diabetes duration, hemoglobin A1c (HA1c)%, and fasting blood glucose (P < 0.001). A marginally significant positive correlation between the retinopathy grade and LDL-cholesterol was observed (P < 0.05), and a significant negative correlation between the retinopathy grade and total cholesterol was observed (P < 0.05). Poor glycemic control and alteration in mRNA gene expression of antioxidant enzymes are strongly associated with development of DR and the regular screening is mandatory for early detection and treatment. PMID:24092995

El-Bab, Mohamed Fath; Zaki, Nashaat S; Mojaddidi, Moaz A; AL-Barry, Maan; El-Beshbishy, Hesham A

2013-01-01

238

Green tea diet decreases PCB 126-induced oxidative stress in mice by up-regulating antioxidant enzymes.  

PubMed

Superfund chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls pose a serious human health risk due to their environmental persistence and link to multiple diseases. Selective bioactive food components such as flavonoids have been shown to ameliorate PCB toxicity, but primarily in an in vitro setting. Here, we show that mice fed a green tea-enriched diet and subsequently exposed to environmentally relevant doses of coplanar PCB exhibit decreased overall oxidative stress primarily due to the up-regulation of a battery of antioxidant enzymes. C57BL/6 mice were fed a low-fat diet supplemented with green tea extract (GTE) for 12 weeks and exposed to 5 ?mol PCB 126/kg mouse weight (1.63 mg/kg-day) on weeks 10, 11 and 12 (total body burden: 4.9 mg/kg). F2-isoprostane and its metabolites, established markers of in vivo oxidative stress, measured in plasma via HPLC-MS/MS exhibited fivefold decreased levels in mice supplemented with GTE and subsequently exposed to PCB compared to animals on a control diet exposed to PCB. Livers were collected and harvested for both messenger RNA and protein analyses, and it was determined that many genes transcriptionally controlled by aryl hydrocarbon receptor and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 proteins were up-regulated in PCB-exposed mice fed the green tea-supplemented diet. An increased induction of genes such as SOD1, GSR, NQO1 and GST, key antioxidant enzymes, in these mice (green tea plus PCB) may explain the observed decrease in overall oxidative stress. A diet supplemented with green tea allows for an efficient antioxidant response in the presence of PCB 126, which supports the emerging paradigm that healthful nutrition may be able to bolster and buffer a physiological system against the toxicities of environmental pollutants. PMID:24378064

Newsome, Bradley J; Petriello, Michael C; Han, Sung Gu; Murphy, Margaret O; Eske, Katryn E; Sunkara, Manjula; Morris, Andrew J; Hennig, Bernhard

2014-02-01

239

Potent Induction of Total Cellular and Mitochondrial Antioxidants and Phase 2 Enzymes by Cruciferous Sulforaphane in Rat Aortic Smooth Muscle Cells: Cytoprotection Against Oxidative and Electrophilic Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulforaphane, a cruciferous isothiocyanate compound, upregulates cytoprotective genes in liver, but its effects on antioxidants\\u000a and phase 2 defenses in vascular cells are unknown. Here we report that incubation of rat aortic smooth muscle A10 cells with\\u000a sulforaphane (0.25–5 ?M) resulted in concentration-dependent induction of a spectrum of important cellular antioxidants and\\u000a phase 2 enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, the

Hong Zhu; Zhenquan Jia; Jeannine S. Strobl; Marion Ehrich; Hara P. Misra; Yunbo Li

2008-01-01

240

Antioxidant enzymes, glutathione and lipid peroxidation as relevant biomarkers of experimental or field exposure in the gills and the digestive gland of the freshwater bivalve Unio tumidus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential utility of antioxidant parameters as indicators of exposure to toxicants and of toxic effects in the freshwater mussel Unio tumidus. Antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.9), glutathione reductase (EC 1.6.4.2), Superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1), catalase (EC 1.11.1.6)), redox status of glutathione and lipid peroxidation were measured at first in the

Aurélie Doyotte; Carole Cossu; Marie-Cécile Jacquin; Marc Babut; Paule Vasseur

1997-01-01

241

In vitro enzyme-mimic activity and in vivo therapeutic potential of HSJ-0017, a novel Mn porphyrin-based antioxidant enzyme mimic.  

PubMed

Manganese (III) 5, 10, 15, 20-tetrakis [3-(2-(2-methoxy)-ethoxy) ethoxy] phenyl porphyrin chloride, designated HSJ-0017, is a novel antioxidant enzyme mimic. The aim of the present study was to investigate the enzyme-mimic activity and the therapeutic potential of HSJ-0017 in free radical-related diseases. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimic activity was measured by the nitroblue tetrazolium chloride monohydrate reduction assay. Catalase (CAT) mimic activity was measured based on the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. The antitumor, radioprotective and chemoprotective effects of HSJ-0017 were evaluated in H22 or S180 tumor-bearing Kunming mice. The anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effects were, respectively, evaluated in histamine-induced edema model and CCl4-induced hepatic damage model in Wistar rats. HSJ-0017 over a concentration range of 0.001-10?µmol/L significantly inhibited the generation of superoxide anion. Significant hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity was observed when the concentration of HSJ-0017 was higher than 0.01?µmol/L. HSJ-0017 at a dose of 3.0?mg/kg exhibited significant antitumor effect on S180 tumor xenografts, whereas no significant antitumor effect was observed in H22 tumor xenografts. HSJ-0017 at a dose of 3.0?mg/kg enhanced the antitumor effects of radiotherapy and chemotherapy, and reduced their toxicity. However, HSJ-0017 counteracted the antitumor effects of radiotherapy when administered simultaneously with radiotherapy. HSJ-0017 showed significant anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effects. Our results demonstrate that HSJ-0017 exhibits antioxidant, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, radioprotective, chemoprotective, and hepatoprotective effects. It is a potent dual SOD/CAT mimic. PMID:24872430

Li, Bao-Qiu; Dong, Xin; Li, Na; Gao, Ji-You; Yuan, Qiang; Fang, Shi-Hong; Gong, Xian-Chang; Wang, Shu-Juan; Wang, Feng-Shan

2014-10-01

242

Variability in antioxidant/detoxification enzymes of Labeo rohita exposed to an azo dye, acid black (AB).  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to evaluate effect of a highly toxic azo dye, acid black (AB) (CI: 20470, 96h LC50=10mg/L) on the biochemical responses of Labeo rohita. Antioxidant/detoxification enzymes such as glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), acid phosphatase (AcP), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) were determined in liver, kidney, gill, muscle and brain of L. rohita after 96h exposure to 6mg/L (LC10), 8mg/L (LC30) and 10mg/L (LC50) of dye with an aim to find out the target tissue and biomarker enzyme for AB. The fish were then kept for a recovery period of 90days, and activity of the selected enzymes was determined at the end of this period. Present dye altered the activities of all these enzymes in the selected tissues of the experimental fish in a dose-dependent manner. SOD was the maximally affected enzyme, and liver was the most affected tissue. The results indicate that AB is very toxic to L. rohita as there was a significant effect of even 6mg/L dose of the dye and the toxicity prolonged for a long time because the fish was not able to recover from the stress even 90days after the exposure. The study suggests that SOD can be used as a biomarker enzyme and liver is the target tissue for AB. PMID:25277676

Kaur, Satinder; Kaur, Arvinder

2015-01-01

243

Seasonal Variation in Bivalve Antioxidant Enzymes: Can they be used as indicators of heavy metal contamination?.  

E-print Network

??Seasonal variations in the activity of several enzymes (glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)) involved in the glutathione cellular defence system… (more)

Gibson, Aimee Clare

2009-01-01

244

The activities and intracellular distributions of enzymes of carbohydrate, lipid and ketone-body metabolism in lactating mammary glands from ruminants and non-ruminants.  

PubMed Central

1. The activities of several enzymes of carbohydrate, lipid, acetate and ketone-body metabolism were measured in lactating mammary glands from rats, mice, rabbits, guinea pigs, sows, sheep, cows and goats. The intracellular distributions of many of the enzymes were measured by fractional extraction. 2. Acetyl-CoA synthetase was predominantly cytoplasmic in rats and guinea pigs, but was more mitochondrial in the other species. The different location of this enzyme in rats and mice is discussed in relation to the disposal of reducing equivalents. 3. 3-Oxo acid CoA-transferase and acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase assayed at 600 microM-CoA were predominantly mitochondrial in all species investigated. Acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase assayed at 8 microM-CoA was predominantly cytoplasmic, except in rabbits and guinea pigs. Ruminants appeared to possess little, if any, of the cytoplasmic enzyme. 4. The activities and distributions of NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase were consistent with a role in supplying cytoplasmic NADPH in ruminant tissue, and indicated that this system may also occur in guinea pigs. PMID:7317013

Crabtree, B; Taylor, D J; Coombs, J E; Smith, R A; Templer, S P; Smith, G H

1981-01-01

245

Antioxidant effects of Etlingera elatior flower extract against lead acetate - induced perturbations in free radical scavenging enzymes and lipid peroxidation in rats  

PubMed Central

Background Etlingera elatior or 'pink torch ginger' (Zingiberaceae) are widely cultivated in tropical countries and used as spices and food flavoring. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant effects of Etlingera elatior against lead - induced changes in serum free radical scavenging enzymes and lipid hydroperoxides in rats. Findings Rats were exposed to lead acetate in drinking water (500 ppm) for 14 days alone or plus the ethanol extract of E. elatior (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg). Blood lead levels, lipid hydroperoxides, protein carbonyl contents and oxidative marker enzymes were estimated. Lead acetate in drinking water elicited a significant increase in lipid hydroperoxides (LPO) and protein-carbonyl-contents (PCC). There was a significant decrease in total antioxidants, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase levels with lead acetate treatment. Supplementation of E. elatior was associated with reduced serum LPO and PCC and a significant increase in total antioxidants and antioxidant enzyme levels. Conclusions The results suggest that flower extract of Etlingera elatior has powerful antioxidant effect against lead - induced oxidative stress and the extract may be useful therapeutic agent against lead toxicity. However, detailed evaluations are required to identify the active antioxidant compounds from this plant extract. PMID:21414212

2011-01-01

246

Differential temperature dependencies of antioxidative enzymes in two contrasting species: Fagus sylvatica and Coleus blumei  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to characterise the sensitivity of antioxidative systems to temperature-induced oxidative stress, two species (Coleus blumei and Fagus sylvatica, L.) representative of environments with contrasting temperature characteristics have been exposed to low or high temperatures of 10 or 35 °C, respectively. Beech leaves were harvested in light and darkness. Coleus leaves were separated into green and white leaf tissue. The

Detlef Peltzer; Erwin Dreyer; Andrea Polle

2002-01-01

247

Antioxidant Enzyme Activities and Mitochondrial Fatty Acids in Pulmonary Hypertension Syndrome (PHS) in Broilers1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major objectives of this study were to as- sess antioxidant protection and fatty acid profile in lung mitochondria and whole liver in broilers with pulmonary hypertension syndrome ((PHS; with and without high dietary vitamin E (VE)) (Experiment 1) and in broilers that did not develop PHS but were genetically selected (S) or not selected (NS) for resistance to PHS (Experiment

M. Iqbal; D. Cawthon; K. Beers; R. F. Wideman; W. G. Bottje

248

Effects of antioxidant enzymes in the molecular control of reactive oxygen species toxicology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) are produced during normal cellular function. ROS include hydroxyl radicals, superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide. They are very transient species due to their high chemical reactivity that leads to lipid peroxidation and oxidation of DNA and proteins. Under normal conditions, antioxidant systems of the cell minimize the perturbations caused by ROS. When ROS generation

2000-01-01

249

Hydrogen peroxide protects tobacco from oxidative stress by inducing a set of antioxidant enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

. Tolerance against oxidative stress generated by high light intensities or the catalase inhibitor aminotriazole (AT) was induced in intact tobacco plants by spraying them with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Stress tolerance was concomitant with an enhanced antioxidant status as reflected by higher activity and\\/or protein levels of catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidases, and glutathione peroxidase, as well as an increased

T. Gechev; I. Gadjev; F. Van Breusegem; D. Inzé; S. Dukiandjiev; V. Toneva; I. Minkov

2002-01-01

250

Regulation of p53 by metal ions and by antioxidants: dithiocarbamate down-regulates p53 DNA-binding activity by increasing the intracellular level of copper.  

PubMed Central

Mutations in the p53 tumor suppressor gene frequently fall within the specific DNA-binding domain and prevent the molecule from transactivating normal targets. DNA-binding activity is regulated in vitro by metal ions and by redox conditions, but whether these factors also regulate p53 in vivo is unclear. To address this question, we have analyzed the effect of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) on p53 DNA-binding activity in cell lines expressing wild-type p53. PDTC is commonly regarded as an antioxidant, but it can also bind and transport external copper ions into cells and thus exert either pro- or antioxidant effects in different situations. We report that PDTC, but not N-acetyl-L-cysteine, down-regulated the specific DNA-binding activity of p53. Loss of DNA binding correlated with disruption of the immunologically "wild-type" p53 conformation. Using different chelators to interfere with copper transport by PDTC, we found that bathocuproinedisulfonic acid (BCS), a non-cell-permeable chelator of Cu1+, prevented both copper import and p53 down-regulation. In contrast, 1,10-orthophenanthroline, a cell-permeable chelator of Cu2+, promoted the redox activity of copper and up-regulated p53 DNA-binding activity through a DNA damage-dependent pathway. We have previously reported that p53 protein binds copper in vitro in the form of Cu1+ (P. Hainaut, N. Rolley, M. Davies, and J. Milner, Oncogene 10:27-32, 1995). The data reported here indicate that intracellular levels and redox activity of copper are critical for p53 protein conformation and DNA-binding activity and suggest that copper ions may participate in the physiological control of p53 function. PMID:9315628

Verhaegh, G W; Richard, M J; Hainaut, P

1997-01-01

251

The Role of Intracellular Signaling in Insulin-mediated Regulation of Drug Metabolizing Enzyme Gene and Protein Expression  

PubMed Central

Endogenous factors, including hormones, growth factors and cytokines, play an important role in the regulation of hepatic drug metabolizing enzyme expression in both physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Alterations of hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes gene and protein expression, observed in diabetes, fasting, obesity, protein-calorie malnutrition and long-term alcohol consumption alters the metabolism of xenobiotics, including procarcinogens, carcinogens, toxicants, and therapeutic agents and may also impact the efficacy and safety of therapeutic agents, as well as result in drug-drug interactions. Although the mechanisms by which xenobiotics regulate drug metabolizing enzymes have been studied intensively, less is known regarding the cellular signaling pathways and components which regulate drug metabolizing enzyme gene and protein expression in response to hormones and cytokines. Recent findings, however, have revealed that several cellular signaling pathways are involved in hormone- and growth factor-mediated regulation of drug metabolizing enzymes. Our laboratory, and others, have demonstrated that insulin and growth factors regulate drug metabolizing enzyme gene and protein expression, including cytochromes P450, glutathione S-transferases and microsomal epoxide hydrolase, through receptors which are members of the large receptor tyrosine kinase family, and by downstream effectors such as phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, the mitogen activated protein kinase, Akt/protein kinase B, mTOR, and the p70S6 kinase. Here, we review current knowledge of the signaling pathways implicated in regulation of drug metabolizing enzyme gene and protein expression in response to insulin and growth factors, with the goal of increasing our understanding of how chronic disease affects these signaling pathways, components, and ultimately gene expression and translational control. PMID:17097148

Kim, Sang K.; Novak, Raymond F.

2007-01-01

252

Effects of heat acclimation on photosynthesis, antioxidant enzyme activities, and gene expression in orchardgrass under heat stress.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to examine the effects of heat acclimation on enzymatic activity, transcription levels, the photosynthesis processes associated with thermostability in orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.).The stomatal conductance (Gs), net photosynthetic rate (Pn), and transpiration rates (Tr) of both heat-acclimated (HA) and non-acclimated (NA) plants were drastically reduced during heat treatment [using a 5-day heat stress treatment (38/30 °C ? day/night) followed by a 3-day recovery under control conditions (25/20 °C ? day/night), in order to consolidate the second cycle was permitted]. Water use efficiency increased more steeply in the HA (4.9 times) versus the NA (1.8 times) plants, and the intercellular CO2 concentration decreased gently in NA (10.9%) and HA (25.3%) plants after 20 d of treatments compared to 0 days'. Furthermore, heat-acclimated plants were able to maintain significant activity levels of superoxide disumutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (POD), and transcription levels of genes encoding these enzymes; in addition, HA plants displayed lower malondialdehyde content and lower electrolyte leakage than NA plants. These results suggest that maintenance of activity and transcription levels of antioxidant enzymes as well as photosynthesis are associated with variable thermostability in HA and NA plants. This likely occurs through cellular membrane stabilization and improvements in water use efficiency in the photosynthetic process during heat stress. The association between antioxidant enzyme activity and gene expression, both of which may vary with genetic variation in heat tolerance, is important to further understand the molecular mechanisms that contribute to heat tolerance. PMID:25255756

Zhao, Xin Xin; Huang, Lin Kai; Zhang, Xin Quan; Li, Zhou; Peng, Yan

2014-01-01

253

INDUCTION OF OXIDATIVE STRESS AND ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES BY EXCESS COBALT IN MUSTARD  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on induction of oxidative stress and antioxidative defense mechanism on exposure to excess cobalt (Co) in mustard (Brassica campestris L.; cv. ‘T-59’) plants grown in refined sand. Plants were grown for 40 days at normal (0.1 ?M) Co. Additional cobalt was supplied from d 41 at 6 levels, i.e., 0.1 (control), 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500

Pratima Sinha; Neena Khurana; Nirmala Nautiyal

2012-01-01

254

Oxidative stress and changes in liver antioxidant enzymes induced by experimental dicroceliosis in hamsters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of our study was to assess the effects of experimental dicroceliosis on the antioxidant defense capability of\\u000a the liver in hamsters. Studies were carried out at 80 and 120 days after infection with an oral dose of 40 metacercariae of\\u000a Dicrocoelium dendriticum. The parasitic pathology was ascertained by the presence of fluke eggs in feces, increased serum ALT

S. Sánchez-Campos; M. J. Tuñón; P. González; J. González-Gallego

1999-01-01

255

Phytoestrogens enhance antioxidant enzymes after swimming exercise and modulate sex hormone plasma levels in female swimmers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our aim was to investigate the effects of diet supplementation with phytoestrogens on sex hormone levels, antioxidant adaptive\\u000a responses and oxidative damage induced by exercise. Ten female swimmers participated for 26 days in a diet intervention with\\u000a either a functional beverage rich in vitamins C and E or the same beverage but also supplemented with Lippia citriodora extract (PLX) containing 20 mg\\/100 ml

Antonia Mestre-Alfaro; Miguel D. Ferrer; Antoni Sureda; Pedro Tauler; Elisa Martínez; Maria M. Bibiloni; Vicente Micol; Josep A. Tur; Antoni Pons

256

Effect of defatting and enzyme type on antioxidative activity of shrimp processing byproducts hydrolysate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shrimp processing byproducts (SPB) was digested by 6 proteases (trypsin, pepsin, neutrase, Protamex, Flavourzyme, and Alcalase)\\u000a to produce antioxidative peptides. Both degree of hydrolysis (DH) and DPPH radical scavenging activity (DSA) of the Alcalase\\u000a hydrolysate were the highest of all. The effect of defatting on DH and DSA of the Alcalase hydrolysate was significant. The\\u000a DH decreased while the DSA

Guang-Rong Huang; Jing Zhao; Jia-Xin Jiang

2011-01-01

257

Enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant activities of Viburnum tinus L. relevant to its neuroprotective potential.  

PubMed

In vitro neuroprotective activity of the extracts of Viburnum tinus L. was investigated via inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), and tyrosinase (TYRO) by microtitre plate assays. Their antioxidant activity was tested using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylendiamine (DMPD), super oxide (SO), and nitric oxide (NO) radical-scavenging activities, ferric ion-chelation capacity, ferric- (FRAP), and phosphomolybdenum-reducing antioxidant power (PRAP) assays. Total phenol and flavonoid content of the extracts was determined spectrophotometrically. The branch-ethyl acetate and fruit-methanol extracts exerted potent anticholinesterase effects (66.4 ± 0.65% to 97.7 ± 0.47%), while the fruit-methanol extract had the highest TYRO inhibition (47.0 ± 0.68%). The methanol extracts showed higher activities in most of the antioxidant tests. All the extracts displayed notable NO-scavenging effects (47.5 ± 5.03% to 74.5 ± 1.80%). Only the fruit-ethyl acetate extract quenched SO radical (38.4 ± 1.01%) at 500 ?g ml(-1). Our data indicate that the fruit and branch extracts of V. tinus may provide potential neuroprotection. PMID:23768397

Y?lmaz, Betül Sever; Altun, Mehmet Levent; Orhan, Ilkay Erdogan; Ergene, Burcin; Citoglu, Gülcin Saltan

2013-11-01

258

Luciferase and luciferin co-immobilized mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials for intracellular biocatalysis.  

PubMed

We report a gold nanoparticle (AuNP)-capped mesoporous silica nanoparticle (Au-MSN) platform for intracellular codelivery of an enzyme and a substrate with retention of bioactivity. As a proof-of-concept demonstration, Au-MSNs are shown to release luciferin from the interior pores of MSN upon AuNP uncapping in response to disulfide-reducing antioxidants and codeliver bioactive luciferase from the PEGylated exterior surface of Au-MSN to Hela cells. The effectiveness of luciferase-catalyzed luciferin oxidation and luminescence emission in the presence of intracellular ATP was measured by a luminometer. Overall, the chemical tailorability of the Au-MSN platform to retain enzyme bioactivity, the ability to codeliver enzyme and substrate, and the potential for imaging tumor growth and metastasis afforded by intracellular ATP- and glutathione-dependent bioluminescence make this platform appealing for intracellular controlled catalysis and tumor imaging. PMID:22007786

Sun, Xiaoxing; Zhao, Yannan; Lin, Victor S-Y; Slowing, Igor I; Trewyn, Brian G

2011-11-23

259

Activities of antioxidant enzymes in mitochondria of growing and dormant sugar beet roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

In mitochondria isolated from growing (70–85 days) and dormant (stored for 8–12 weeks) sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) roots, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and enzymes of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle were determined. The activity\\u000a of SOD, the enzyme involved in superoxide detoxification, was much higher in mitochondria of the growing root, whereas activities\\u000a of ascorbate peroxidase (APO) and glutathione reductase

A. G. Shugaev; D. A. Lashtabega; N. A. Shugaeva; E. I. Vyskrebentseva

2011-01-01

260

Effects of soybean oligosaccharides on antioxidant enzyme activities and insulin resistance in pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed

The effects of soybean oligosaccharides (SBOS) on antioxidant enzyme activities and insulin resistance in pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) were investigated. Ninety-seven pregnant women with GDM were randomly divided into two groups, the control group (51 cases) and the SBOS group (46 cases). Before the group separation, the blood sugar level in patients was maintained stable by regular diet and insulin treatment. The control group was continued with the insulin treatment, while the SBOS group was treated with the combination of insulin and SBOS. Results showed that SBOS were able to reduce oxidative stress and alleviate insulin resistance in pregnant women with GDM, which indicates that SBOS may play an important role in the control of GDM complications. PMID:24731365

Fei, Bei-bei; Ling, Li; Hua, Chen; Ren, Shu-yan

2014-09-01

261

Effects of chronic caloric restriction on kidney and heart redox status and antioxidant enzyme activities in Wistar rats.  

PubMed

Caloric restriction (CR) has been associated with health benefits and these effects have been attributed, in part, to modulation of oxidative status by CR; however, data are still controversial. Here, we investigate the effects of seventeen weeks of chronic CR on parameters of oxidative damage/ modification of proteins and on antioxidant enzyme activities in cardiac and kidney tissues. Our results demonstrate that CR induced an increase in protein carbonylation in the heart without changing the content of sulfhydryl groups or the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase (CAT). Moreover, CR caused an increase in CAT activity in kidney, without changing other parameters. Protein carbonylation has been associated with oxidative damage and functional impairment; however, we cannot exclude the possibility that, under our conditions, this alteration indicates a different functional meaning in the heart tissue. In addition, we reinforce the idea that CR can increase CAT activity in the kidney. PMID:23187008

Dutra, Márcio Ferreira; Bristot, Ivi Juliana; Batassini, Cristiane; Cunha, Núbia Broetto; Vizuete, Adriana Fernanda Kuckartz; de Souza, Daniela Fraga; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca; Gonçalves, Carlos-Alberto

2012-11-01

262

Effects of Single Exposure of Sodium Fluoride on Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Enzymes in Salivary Glands of Rats  

PubMed Central

Many studies suggest that fluoride exposure can inhibit the activity of various enzymes and can generate free radicals, which interfere with antioxidant defence mechanisms in living systems. To further the understanding of this issue, this present study examined the effects of low-dose fluoride treatment on the activity of enzymatic antioxidant superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), as well as the levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the parotid (PA) and submandibular (SM) salivary glands of rats. Rats were injected with a single dose of sodium fluoride (NaF) (15?mg?F?/kg b.w.) then euthanized at various time intervals up to 24 hours (h) following exposure. NaF exposure did not cause significant differences in SOD or CAT activity or LPO levels in PA glands compared to control. Conversely, SM glands presented increased SOD activity after 3?h and decreased SOD activity after 1, 12, and 24?h, while LPO was increased after 6, 12, and 24?h of the NaF injection. There were no significant differences in the CAT activity in the groups studied. Our results demonstrated that NaF intoxication caused oxidative stress in salivary glands few hours after administration. These changes were more pronounced in SM than in PA gland. PMID:23738039

Yamaguti, Paula Mochidome; Simoes, Alyne; Ganzerla, Emily; Souza, Douglas Nesadal; Nogueira, Fernando Neves; Nicolau, Jose

2013-01-01

263

Antioxidative peptides derived from enzyme hydrolysis of bone collagen after microwave assisted acid pre-treatment and nitrogen protection.  

PubMed

This study focused on the preparation method of antioxidant peptides by enzymatic hydrolysis of bone collagen after microwave assisted acid pre-treatment and nitrogen protection. Phosphoric acid showed the highest ability of hydrolysis among the four other acids tested (hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid and/or citric acid). The highest degree of hydrolysis (DH) was 9.5% using 4 mol/L phosphoric acid with a ratio of 1:6 under a microwave intensity of 510 W for 240 s. Neutral proteinase gave higher DH among the four protease tested (Acid protease, neutral protease, Alcalase and papain), with an optimum condition of: (1) ratio of enzyme and substrate, 4760 U/g; (2) concentration of substrate, 4%; (3) reaction temperature, 55 °C and (4) pH 7.0. At 4 h, DH increased significantly (P < 0.01) under nitrogen protection compared with normal microwave assisted acid pre-treatment hydrolysis conditions. The antioxidant ability of the hydrolysate increased and reached its maximum value at 3 h; however DH decreased dramatically after 3 h. Microwave assisted acid pre-treatment and nitrogen protection could be a quick preparatory method for hydrolyzing bone collagen. PMID:21151439

Lin, Yun-Jian; Le, Guo-Wei; Wang, Jie-Yun; Li, Ya-Xin; Shi, Yong-Hui; Sun, Jin

2010-01-01

264

Influence of extremely low-frequency magnetic field on the activity of antioxidant enzymes during skin wound healing in rats.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of the antioxidant enzymes mitochondrial and cytosolic superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1), glutathione peroxidase (POX, EC 1.11.1.9) and glutathione S-transferase (EC 3.1.2.7), as well as the concentration of malone dialdehyde (MDA), as an indicator of lipid peroxidation rate in the liver tissue homogenates and blood serum of male rats exposed to extremely low-frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF) in order to improve the healing process of an experimental cut wound on the back of each animal. The exposure to ELF-MF with frequency 40 Hz and magnetic flux density 10 mT induced an increase in POX serum activity and a decrease in MDA contents in the liver tissue, which suggests the inhibition of phospholipid peroxidation and subsequent stabilization of cellular membranes, as a result of ELF-MF action. Based on the results obtained, it seems that ELF-MF could be a useful supplement in the complex treatment of prolonged wound healing, due to the activation of endogenous enzymatic antioxidant system. PMID:23323798

Glinka, Marek; Siero?, Aleksander; Birkner, Ewa; Cie?lar, Grzegorz

2013-12-01

265

Ecotoxicological effects of a veterinary food additive, copper sulphate, on antioxidant enzymes and mRNA expression in earthworms.  

PubMed

The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of the veterinary food additive copper sulphate (CuSO?) on the eco-toxicological responses of earthworms Eisenia fetida (E. fetida). The following biomarkers were measured: catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities. Gene expression analyses such as metallothionein (MT) and heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) were also examined. A time-dependent increase of CAT activity was found at 400 mg/kg and SOD activity at 200 and 400 mg/kg. The highest expression of Hsp70 (4.4-fold) was observed at day 15 at 400 mg/kg. Our results indicated that the measured antioxidant enzymes (except GST) had the ability to provide antioxidant defenses against the stressor; and compared to expression of MT, expression of Hsp70 could be more reliable molecular tools with predictive possibilities to monitor the eco-toxicity of stressors such as feed additive CuSO?. PMID:24322621

Xiong, Wenguang; Ding, Xueyao; Zhang, Yiming; Sun, Yongxue

2014-01-01

266

Potential toxic effect of trifloxystrobin on cellular microstructure, mRNA expression and antioxidant enzymes in Chlorella vulgaris.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effects of trifloxystrobin that one strobilurin used widely in the world as an effective fungicidal agent to control Asian soybean rust on aquatic unicellular algae Chlorella vulgaris. We determined the potential toxic effect of trifloxystrobin on C. vulgaris, and found median inhibition concentration (IC(50)) value 255.58 (95% confidence interval, 207.81-330.29)?gL(-1). In addition, the algal cells were obviously depressed or shrunk at different concentrations by electron microscopy. In the study, a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay showed changes in transcript abundances of three photosynthetic genes, psaB, psbC, and rbcL, and one energy gene, ATPs. The results showed that trifloxystrobin reduced the transcript abundances of the three genes and enhanced expression of ATPs after 48 and 96 h. The lowest abundances of psaB, psbC and rbcL transcripts in response to trifloxystrobin exposure were 58%, 79% and 60% of those of the control, respectively. For the potential toxic influences, trifloxystrobin could decrease the soluble protein and total antioxidant contents (T-AOC), and increase superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activity with a gradual concentration-response relationship. Overall, the present study demonstrated that trifloxystrobin could affect the activities of antioxidant enzymes, disrupts photosynthesis in C. vulgaris, and damage cellular structure. PMID:24762415

Shen, Yu-Feng; Liu, Lei; Gong, Yu-Xin; Zhu, Bin; Liu, Guang-Lu; Wang, Gao-Xue

2014-05-01

267

Anti-inflammatory effect of Pueraria tuberosa extracts through improvement in activity of red blood cell anti-oxidant enzymes.  

PubMed

Changing life style and over-nutrition causes low-grade inflammation (LGI), with obesity and hyper-lipidemia as basic factors. The physiological state polarizes macrophages to classical type (M1), which is pro-inflammatory and promotes ectopic fat deposition in the body. Both factors induce inflammatory cascade, where free radicals (FRs) play an important role. Thus, pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions would be effective in the management of LGI and plant products would be used as food supplement or as a drug. Previously, a study has reported the anti-oxidant potential of methanolic extract of tubers of Pueraria tuberosa (PTME) and inhibitory role of tuberosin on lipopolysaccharides-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in macrophages in an in vitro study model. Here, the effect of PTME has been explored on carrageenan-induced inflammatory changes in rats. The activity of antioxidant enzymes in red blood cell hemolysate has been assessed. PTME was orally given to rats for 9 days and periodical changes (every 3(rd) day) in the activity/concentration of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, reduced glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxides (LPO), and C-reactive proteins (CRP) were monitored. The PTME significantly prevented carrageenan-induced decline in GSH content, lowering of catalase and SOD activity, and rise in LPO and CRP in rats in a time-dependent, sequential manner. Thus, it could be suggested that the anti-inflammatory role of PTME is primarily mediated through its FR scavenging potential. PMID:24501527

Pandey, Nidhi; Yadav, Durgavati; Pandey, Vivek; Tripathi, Yamini B

2013-07-01

268

Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activity and antioxidant properties of Nepeta crassifolia Boiss & Buhse and Nepeta binaludensis Jamzad.  

PubMed

This article reports phytochemical and biological studies on Nepeta binaludensis and Nepeta crassifolia. Both species were investigated for their angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity and antioxidant properties through three in vitro models [2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay]. Aerial parts were extracted with methanol and partitioned between water and subsequently n-hexane, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. N. binaludensis methanol extract exerted significantly higher reducing power (1.9 ?M Fe(II)/g) than did the positive control butylhydroxytoluene (63.2??M Fe(II)/g) in FRAP assay. The highest DPPH radical scavenging activity was found for N. crassifolia, with IC50 values of 9.6 and 12.1 µg/mL for ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions, respectively. n-Butanol fraction of both species showed the highest ACE inhibitory activity, with IC50 values of 59.3 and 81.7 µg/mL for N. binaludensis and N. crassifolia, respectively. Phytochemical investigations resulted in the isolation of ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, apigenin, luteolin and ixoroside. Apigenin-7-O-glucoside, 8-hydroxycirsimaritin and cirsimaritin were furthermore identified in N. crassifolia ethyl acetate-soluble fraction. Nepetanudoside B was isolated from the n-butanol fraction of N. binaludensis. PMID:22693035

Tundis, Rosa; Nadjafi, Farsad; Menichini, Francesco

2013-04-01

269

Effects of progesterone application on antioxidant enzyme activities and K+/Na+ ratio in bean seeds exposed to salt stress.  

PubMed

This study aimed to investigate the influence of progesterone, a mammalian sex hormone, on germination of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds exposed to salt stress. The exogenous addition of 10(-6), 10(-8) and 10(-10) M progesterone to the stressing media in which bean seeds were germinated in combination with the salt (100 mM NaCl) stressor induced significant protective changes in the germination and early growth parameters. The mitigating effect of progesterone was evaluated by the measurement of radicle and plumule lengths, activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POX) and catalase (CAT). In addition, it is the first study that exhibited changes in K/Na ratio. The obtained results showed that progesterone application stimulated germination and growth of salt-stressed seeds. Similarly, it stimulated significantly SOD, POX and CAT activities compared to both control and salt control. Salt stress significantly increased the lipid peroxidation compared to the control seeds. However, parallel to the increase in antioxidant activity, lipid peroxidation was significantly reduced by progesterone application. The best stimulatory effects on investigated parameters were recorded at 10(-8) M progesterone-applied seeds. On the other hand, salt stress reduced remarkably K/Na ratio by 50% in radicle and by 80% in plumule. However, progesterone application significantly mitigated the reduction in K/Na ratio. These findings clearly demonstrate that progesterone has a positive role in moderate detrimental effects induced by salt. PMID:22258627

Erdal, Serkan; Genisel, Mucip; Turk, Hulya; Gorcek, Zeynep

2012-11-01

270

Effect of the Antihypertensive Drug Enalapril on Oxidative Stress Markers and Antioxidant Enzymes in Kidney of Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat  

PubMed Central

Oxidative stress has been suggested to play a role in hypertension and hypertension induced organ damage. This study examined the effect of enalapril, an antihypertensive drug, on oxidative stress markers and antioxidant enzymes in kidney of spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) and N? -nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) administered SHR. Male rats were divided into four groups (SHR, SHR+enalapril, SHR+L-NAME, and SHR+enalapril+L-NAME). Enalapril (30?mg kg?1 day?1) was administered from week 4 to week 28 and L-NAME (25?mg kg?1 day?1) was administered from week 16 to week 28 in drinking water. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured during the experimental period. At the end of experimental periods, rats were sacrificed; urine, blood, and kidneys were collected for the assessment of creatinine clearance, total protein, total antioxidant status (TAS), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT), as well as histopathological examination. Enalapril treatment significantly enhanced the renal TAS level (P < 0.001) and SOD activity (P < 0.001), reduced the TBARS levels (P < 0.001), and also prevented the renal dysfunction and histopathological changes. The results indicate that, besides its hypotensive and renoprotective effects, enalapril treatment also diminishes oxidative stress in the kidneys of both the SHR and SHR+L-NAME groups. PMID:25254079

Chandran, G.; Sirajudeen, K. N. S.; Swamy, M.; Samarendra, Mutum S.

2014-01-01

271

Tuning intracellular homeostasis of human uroporphyrinogen III synthase by enzyme engineering at a single hotspot of congenital erythropoietic porphyria.  

PubMed

Congenital erythropoietic porphyria (CEP) results from a deficiency in uroporphyrinogen III synthase enzyme (UROIIIS) activity that ultimately stems from deleterious mutations in the uroS gene. C73 is a hotspot for these mutations and a C73R substitution, which drastically reduces the enzyme activity and stability, is found in almost one-third of all reported CEP cases. Here, we have studied the structural basis, by which mutations in this hotspot lead to UROIIIS destabilization. First, a strong interdependency is observed between the volume of the side chain at position 73 and the folded protein. Moreover, there is a correlation between the in vitro half-life of the mutated proteins and their expression levels in eukaryotic cell lines. Molecular modelling was used to rationalize the results, showing that the mutation site is coupled to the hinge region separating the two domains. Namely, mutations at position 73 modulate the inter-domain closure and ultimately affect protein stability. By incorporating residues capable of interacting with R73 to stabilize the hinge region, catalytic activity was fully restored and a moderate increase in the kinetic stability of the enzyme was observed. These results provide an unprecedented rationale for a destabilizing missense mutation and pave the way for the effective design of molecular chaperones as a therapy against CEP. PMID:24925316

Ben Bdira, Fredj; González, Esperanza; Pluta, Paula; Laín, Ana; Sanz-Parra, Arantza; Falcon-Perez, Juan Manuel; Millet, Oscar

2014-11-01

272

Effects of Paraquat on Photosynthetic Pigments, Antioxidant Enzymes, and Gene Expression in Chlorella pyrenoidosa Under Mixotrophic Compared With Autotrophic Conditions.  

PubMed

Only limited information is available on herbicide toxicity to algae under mixotrophic conditions. In the present study, we studied the effects of the herbicide paraquat on growth, photosynthetic pigments, antioxidant enzymes, and gene expression in Chlorella pyrenoidosa under mixotrophic compared with autotrophic conditions. The mean measured exposure concentrations of paraquat under mixotrophic and autotrophic conditions were in the range of 0.3-3.4 and 0.6-3.6 ?M, respectively. Exposure to paraquat for 72 h under both autotrophic and mixotrophic conditions induced decreased growth and chlorophyll (Chl) content, increased superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities, and decreased transcript abundances of three photosynthesis-related genes (light-independent protochlorophyllide reductase subunit, photosystem II protein D1, and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large subunit [rbcL]). Compared with autotrophic conditions, the inhibition percentage of growth rate under mixotrophic conditions was lower at 0.8 ?M paraquat, whereas it was greater at 1.8 and 3.4 ?M paraquat. With exposure to 0.8-3.4 ?M paraquat, the inhibition rates of Chl a and b content under mixotrophic conditions (43.1-52.4 % and 54.6-59.7 %, respectively) were greater compared with autotrophic conditions, whereas the inhibition rate of rbcL gene transcription under mixotrophic conditions (35.7-44.0 %) was lower. These data showed that similar to autotrophic conditions, paraquat affected the activities of antioxidant enzymes and decreased Chl synthesis and transcription of photosynthesis-related genes in C. pyrenoidosa under mixotrophic conditions, but a differential susceptibility to paraquat toxicity occurred between autotrophically versus mixotrophically grown cells. PMID:25038722

Zhang, Weiguo; Liu, Min; Zhang, Peiliang; Yu, Fugen; Lu, Shan; Li, Pengfu; Zhou, Junying

2014-11-01

273

Molecular cloning, characterization of CAT, and eco-toxicological effects of dietary zinc oxide on antioxidant enzymes in Eisenia fetida.  

PubMed

The full-length cDNA of catalase (EfCAT) from Eisenia fetida was cloned (GenBank accession no. JN617999). Sequence characterization revealed that EfCAT protein sequence contained proximal heme-ligand signature sequence ((351)RLFSYSDTH(359)), two glycosylation sites (N(145) and N(436)), the proximal active site signature ((61)FDRERIPERVVHAKGAGA(78)), and 12 amino acids (N(145), H(191), F(195), S(198), R(200), N(210), Y(212), K(234), I(299), W(300), Q(302), and Y(355)), which were identified as putative residues involved in NADPH binding. These conserved motifs and catalase signature sequences were essential for the structure and function of EfCAT. The present study also investigated the effect of the veterinary food additive zinc oxide on antioxidant processes in E. fetida, at different concentrations and exposure durations. A significant increase (by 106.0 % compared to controls) in CAT activity at 500 mg/kg was registered at day 15. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity at 500 mg/kg increased to the maximum value (by 44.0 %) measured at day 15. There was a significant increase in glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity for all concentrations after 5 days. The results showed that dietary Zn (500 mg/kg) causes oxidative damage to earthworms. At early stages of earthworms exposed to ZnO, GPx is the main enzyme to impair the oxidative status; while at later stages the enzymes CAT and SOD were the main indicators of oxidative stress. The antioxidant enzymatic variations may be an adaptive response of earthworms to survive in contaminated soils. PMID:23263762

Xiong, Wenguang; Sun, Yongxue; Zou, Mengjia; Muhammad, Rizwan-Ul-Haq

2013-03-01

274

Influence of UV radiation on chlorophyll, and antioxidant enzymes of wetland plants in different types of constructed wetland.  

PubMed

A surface- and vertical subsurface-flow-constructed wetland were designed to study the response of chlorophyll and antioxidant enzymes to elevated UV radiation in three types of wetland plants (Canna indica, Phragmites austrail, and Typha augustifolia). Results showed that (1) chlorophyll content of C. indica, P. austrail, and T. augustifolia in the constructed wetland was significantly lower where UV radiation was increased by 10 and 20 % above ambient solar level than in treatment with ambient solar UV radiation (p < 0.05). (2) The malondialdehyde (MDA) content, guaiacol peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities of wetland plants increased with elevated UV radiation intensity. (3) The increased rate of MDA, SOD, POD, and CAT activities of C. indica, P. australis, and T. angustifolia by elevated UV radiation of 10 % was higher in vertical subsurface-flow-constructed wetland than in surface-flow-constructed wetland. The sensitivity of MDA, SOD, POD, and CAT activities of C. indica, P. austrail, and T. augustifolia to the elevated UV radiation was lower in surface-flow-constructed wetland than in the vertical subsurface-flow-constructed wetland, which was related to a reduction in UV radiation intensity through the dissolved organic carbon and suspended matter in the water. C. indica had the highest SOD and POD activities, which implied it is more sensitive to enhanced UV radiation. Therefore, different wetland plants had different antioxidant enzymes by elevated UV radiation, which were more sensitive in vertical subsurface-flow-constructed wetland than in surface-flow-constructed wetland. PMID:24788860

Xu, Defu; Wu, Yinjuan; Li, Yingxue; Howard, Alan; Jiang, Xiaodong; Guan, Yidong; Gao, Yongxia

2014-09-01

275

Amendment in phosphorus levels moderate the chromium toxicity in Raphanus sativus L. as assayed by antioxidant enzymes activities.  

PubMed

Chromium (Z=24), a d-block element, is a potent carcinogen, whereas phosphorus is an essential and limiting nutrient for the plant growth and development. This study undertakes the role of phosphorus in moderating the chromium toxicity in Raphanus sativus L., as both of them compete with each other during the uptake process. Two-factor complete randomized experiment (5 chromium × 5 phosphorus concentrations) was conducted for twenty eight days in green house. The individuals of R. sativus were grown in pots supplied with all essential nutrients. The toxic effects of chromium and the moderation of toxicity due to phosphorus amendment were determined as accumulation of chromium, nitrogen, phosphorus in root tissues and their effects were also examined in the changes in biomass, chlorophyll and antioxidant enzyme levels. Cr and N accumulation were almost doubled at the highest concentration of Cr supply, without any P amendment, whereas at the highest P concentration (125 mM), the accumulation was reduced to almost half. A significant reduction in toxic effects of Cr was determined as there was three-fold increase in total chlorophyll and biomass at the highest P amendment. Antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase and lipid peroxidation were analyzed at various levels of Cr each amended with five levels of P. It was observed that at highest level of P amendment, the reduction percentage in toxicity was 33, 44, 39 and 44, correspondingly. Conclusively, the phosphorus amendment moderates the toxicity caused by the supplied chromium in R. sativus. This finding can be utilized to develop a novel technology for the amelioration of chromium stressed fields. PMID:23810367

Sayantan, D; Shardendu

2013-09-01

276

Effects of selenium on the antioxidant enzymes response of Neocaridina heteropoda exposed to ambient nitrite.  

PubMed

The effects of dietary Selenium (Se) supplementation on muscle superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activities and haemolymph superoxide anions (O(2)-) of Neocaridina heteropoda exposed to ambient nitrite were investigated. The results showed supplementation of Se in diet could enhance the resistance of shrimp to low concentration ambient nitrite. The results demonstrated that Se might have a potentially useful role as an effective antioxidant and resistance to aqueous nitrite in shrimp and the effect of the organic Se was better than that of the inorganic Se. PMID:19924364

Wang, Hong-wei; Xu, Hai-ming; Xiao, Guo-hua; Zhao, Chun-long; Wang, Zi-hui; Cai, Duan-bo; Li, Hong-quan; Zhao, Jian-hua

2010-01-01

277

Copper steam laser irradiation modulates the theraupeutic effect of 5-fluorouracil and the activity of antioxidant enzymes in tumor-bearing mice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low-energy laser irradiation (LELI) is known to modulate some parameters of immune system and free radical and antioxidant reactions in organism. LELI have been shown to enhance the efficacy of chemo- and radiotherapy in experimental models of tumor growth. The aim of our work was to study the ability of copper steam laser irradiation to modulate the antitumor effect of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and antioxidant enzyme activities in blood and tumor tissue of mice with transplanted Lewis lung carcinoma. The data obtained show that the copper steam laser irradiation is able to increase the efficacy of treatment with 5-FU. Laser irradiation increase the SOD activity in plasma and in contrary, decreases it in tumor tissue. Laser irradiation effect on the activity of antioxidant enzymes may be considered as one of the mechanisms mediating its ability to increase the efficacy of cytostatic therapy.

Cherdyntseva, N. V.; Kuznetsova, A.; Kondakova, I.; Yevtushenko, V.

1998-06-01

278

Changes in wheat seed germination ability, soluble carbohydrate and antioxidant enzyme activities in the embryo during the desiccation phase of maturation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soluble sugar contents and antioxidant enzyme activities were measured in the embryo of wheat (Triticum aestivum) seeds throughout the desiccation phase of maturation in 2003 and 2004 to investigate whether they were related to seed quality. Whatever the date of harvest after the end of filling, seeds tolerated artificial drying in the ears, and almost all of them germinated at

A. Lehner; C. Bailly; B. Flechel; P. Poels; D. Côme; F. Corbineau

2006-01-01

279

Polyamines reduce salt-induced oxidative damage by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes and decreasing lipid peroxidation in Virginia pine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyamines play an important role in the plant response to adverse environmental conditions including salt and osmotic stresses. In this investigation, the responses of polyamines to salt-induced oxidative stress were studied in callus cultures and plantlets in Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana Mill.). Our results demonstrated that polyamines reduce salt-induced oxidative damage by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes and decreasing

Wei Tang; Ronald J. Newton

2005-01-01

280

Modulation of antioxidant enzyme activities, platelet aggregation and serum prostaglandins in rats fed spray-dried milk containing n-3 fatty acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spray-dried milk enriched with n-3 fatty acids from linseed oil (LSO) or fish oil (FO) were fed to rats to study its influence on liver lipid peroxides, hepatic antioxidant enzyme activities, serum prostaglandins and platelet aggregation. Significant level of ? linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were accumulated at the expense of arachidonic acid in the liver of rats

T. R. Ramaprasad; V. Baskaran; T. P. Krishnakantha; B. R. Lokesh

2005-01-01

281

Integrated use of biomarkers (acetylcholinesterase and antioxidant enzymes activities) in Mytilus galloprovincialis and Mullus barbatus in an Italian coastal marine area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of biomarkers to evaluate the biological effects of chemical pollutants in marine organisms represents a recent tool in the monitoring field responding to the need to detect and assess the effects of chemical contaminants on the biota. The aim of the present work was the field application of the integrated use of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and antioxidant enzymes (catalase––CAT,

M. G. Lionetto; R. Caricato; M. E. Giordano; M. F. Pascariello; L. Marinosci; T. Schettino

2003-01-01

282

2-Benzoxazolinone (BOA) induced oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation and changes in some antioxidant enzyme activities in mung bean ( Phaseolus aureus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

2-Benzoxazolinone (BOA), a well-known allelochemical with strong phytotoxicity, is a potential herbicidal candidate. The aim of the present study was to determine whether phytotoxicity of BOA is due to induction of oxidative stress caused by generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the changes in levels of antioxidant enzymes induced in response to BOA. Effect of BOA was studied on

D. R. Batish; H. P. Singh; N. Setia; S. Kaur; R. K. Kohli

2006-01-01

283

Impact of processing on the phenolic profiles of small millets: evaluation of their antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory properties associated with hyperglycemia.  

PubMed

The effects of germination, steaming and microwave treatments of whole grain millets (barnyard, foxtail and proso) on their phenolic composition, antioxidant activities and inhibitory properties against ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase were investigated. Compositional analysis of phenolics by HPLC revealed that vanillic and ferulic acids were the principal phenolic acids and kaempferol was the predominant flavonoid found in raw millets. Different processing treatments brought about relevant changes in the composition and content of certain phenolic acids and flavonoids in processed millets. Phenolic extracts of raw and processed millets exhibited multiple antioxidant activities and are also potent inhibitors of ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase. In general, germinated millets showed highest phenolic content as well as superior antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities. These results suggest that germinated millet grains are potential source of phenolic antioxidants and also great sources of strong natural inhibitors for ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase. PMID:25236251

Pradeep, P M; Sreerama, Yadahally N

2015-02-15

284

Responses of antioxidant enzymes to cold and high light are not correlated to freezing tolerance in natural accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana.  

PubMed

Low temperatures and high light cause imbalances in primary and secondary reactions of photosynthesis, and thus can result in oxidative stress. Plants employ a range of low-molecular weight antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes to prevent oxidative damage, and antioxidant defence is considered an important component of stress tolerance. To figure out whether oxidative stress and antioxidant defence are key factors defining the different cold acclimation capacities of natural accessions of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, we investigated hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) production, antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation during a time course of cold treatment and exposure to high light in four differentially cold-tolerant natural accessions of Arabidopsis (C24, Nd, Rsch, Te) that span the European distribution range of the species. All accessions except Rsch (from Russia) had elevated H2 O2 in the cold, indicating that production of reactive oxygen species is part of the cold response in Arabidopsis. Glutathione reductase activity increased in all but Rsch, while ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase were unchanged and catalase decreased in all but Rsch. Under high light, the Scandinavian accession Te had elevated levels of H2 O2 . Te appeared most sensitive to oxidative stress, having higher malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the cold and under high light, while only high light caused elevated MDA in the other accessions. Although the most freezing-tolerant, Te had the highest sensitivity to oxidative stress. No correlation was found between freezing tolerance and activity of antioxidant enzymes in the four accessions investigated, arguing against a key role for antioxidant defence in the differential cold acclimation capacities of Arabidopsis accessions. PMID:23578291

Distelbarth, H; Nägele, T; Heyer, A G

2013-11-01

285

Mitochondrial respiratory and antioxidative enzyme activities in broiler meat in relation to age and gender of the animals.  

PubMed

Colour is an important quality parameter of broiler meat influencing the consumer buying behaviour. The alterations of the colour after slaughter are related to the oxidative status of the tissue. This in turn is influenced by an interaction between the mitochondria and the antioxidative enzymes. In this study, breast muscles were collected from hens and cocks of a commercial line slaughtered at the ages of 28 and 41 day. Analysis of the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) was performed with samples obtained 20 min and 48 h after slaughter (post mortem, p.m.), whereas the mitochondrial respiratory activity was analysed in permeabilised breast muscle fibres collected 20 min p.m. The carcass characteristics of breast muscle and leg weight as well as breast yield were significantly higher, and the leg yields lower, in the 41-day-old broiler. The 28-day-old hens and cocks had comparable carcass characteristics (P > 0.05), whereas 41-day-old cocks had significantly higher carcass, breast and leg weight in comparison to the hens. The pH20 min p.m. and the L*48 h p.m. were significantly higher, and the a* and b* values of the 20 min and 48 h p.m. samples as well as the drip loss were significantly lower in the 41-day-old broiler. Mitochondrial respiratory rates were comparable (P > 0.05) between the 28- and 41-day-old cocks and hens. The same result could be found with regard to the activities of the SOD, GPx and GR except for lower activities of the SOD20 min p.m. and higher of the GR48 h min p.m. in the 41-day-old broiler. The concentrations of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances were generally higher in the breast muscles of the 41-day-old broiler. Assorting the data according to their mean pH20 min p.m. indicates a positive influence of higher pH values (>6.34) on the mitochondrial function, whereas a low pH20 min p.m. results in tendentially and significantly higher activities of the antioxidative enzymes and drip loss values. These results indicate a relation between the meat quality and the oxidative metabolism as well as antioxidative capacity of the meat. PMID:22440004

Werner, C; Janisch, S; Wicke, M

2011-04-01

286

Antioxidant enzymes and fatty acid status in erythrocytes of Down syndrome patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The excess of genetic information in patients with Down syndrome (DS) produces an increase in the cata- lytic activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD1), an anti- oxidant enzyme coded on chromosome 21. It has been suggested that an increase in oxidative stress in DS patients may cause adverse effects in the cell mem- branes through the oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids

M-Cruz Pastor; Cristina Sierra; Maria Dolade ´; Elisabet Navarro; Nuria Brandi; Eduard Cabre; Aurea Mira

287

Transient, oxidant-induced antioxidant transcript and enzyme levels correlate with greater oxidant-resistance in paraquat-resistant Conyza bonariensis.  

PubMed

The elucidation of mechanisms plants use to overcome oxidative stress is facilitated where there is intra-specific genetic variability. The differential induction of higher levels of mRNAs, cytosol and chloroplast antioxidant enzyme activities, and proteins occurred after sub-lethal paraquat treatment of the oxidant-resistant biotype of Conyza bonariensis (L.) Cronq. By 6 h after sub-lethal paraquat treatment the activities of superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1), ascorbate peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.11), dehydroascorbate reductase (EC 1.8.5), monodehydroascorbate reductase (EC 1.6.5.4), and glutathione peroxidase (EC 1.11.19) had increased, peaking at 24 h and then slowly reverting back to the basal level. Similarly, the levels of mRNAs encoding these enzymes were enhanced by 12 h and peaked at 18-24 h after sub-lethal paraquat treatment. The time courses of the transient elevation of both transcript and antioxidant enzyme levels correlated with a further transient 2.5- to 3.0-fold increase of paraquat resistance, which occurred only in the constitutively resistant biotype. The individual enzymes seem to be part of a coordinately controlled oxidant tolerance in the resistant biotype, utilizing oxidant-induced, increasingly abundant transcript levels, upon which more antioxidant enzymes were synthesized. PMID:10923703

Ye, B; Gressel, J

2000-06-01

288

[Effects of elevated O3 concentration on anti-oxidative enzyme activities in Pinus tabulaeformis].  

PubMed

An open-top chamber experiment was conducted to study the effects of high concentration O3 (80 nmol x mol(-1)) on the superoxide anion radical (O2*-) generation rate, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR) and glutathione reductase (GR), and ascorbic acid content in Pinus tabulaeformis leaves. Under high concentration O3 exposure, the superoxide anion radical generation rate and H2O2 and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents increased, while the ascorbic acid content and the activities of SOD, APX, DHAR, MDHAR, and GR increased in early growth season but decreased then to a level lower than the control, which illustrated that the antioxidant system of P. tabulaeformis did respond in an acclimation way in the early growth season, but could not bear the damage of long-term elevated O3 exposure. PMID:19803156

Ruan, Ya-Nan; He, Xing-Yuan; Chen, Wei; Chen, Zhen-Ju; Sun, Yu

2009-05-01

289

Amphotericin B as an intracellular antioxidant: protection against 2,2'-azobis(2,4-dimethylvaleronitrile)-induced peroxidation of membrane phospholipids in rat aortic smooth muscle cells.  

PubMed

The antifungal activity of amphotericin B (AmB) and its side-effects (e.g. nephrotoxicity and hemolytic action) are suggested to be associated with its prooxidant effects in target cells. To test this hypothesis, we have undertaken studies to examine the role of AmB in oxidative stress in cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells (SMC) incubated in the absence or in the presence of a lipid-soluble azo-initiator of peroxyl radicals, 2,2'-azobis(2,4-dimethylvaleronitrile) (AMVN). No changes in the pattern of membrane phospholipids could be detected by two-dimensional high performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) after oxidative stress induced by AMVN in which the cells remained viable, as judged by trypan blue exclusion. To improve the sensitivity of detection of oxidative stress in the cells, cis-parinaric acid (PnA) was incorporated biosynthetically into the membrane phospholipids [using PnA-human serum albumin (hSA) complex]. Incubation of the cells under aerobic conditions in the presence of up to 10 microM AmB showed no significant change in the pattern of PnA-labeled phospholipids, suggesting that AmB was not affecting the oxidative state of the cells. In contrast, treatment with AMVN (0.5 mM, incubation in the dark for 2 hr at 37 degrees--conditions in which the viability of the cells was maintained) caused a significant reduction of all fluorescently labeled phospholipid fractions separated by HPLC. When PnA-labeled cells were subjected to oxidative stress by incubation with 0.5 mM AMVN in the presence of AmB, the loss of fluorescent phospholipids was reduced in a concentration-dependent manner over a concentration range of 0.25 to 10 microM. Thus, AmB does not produce any prooxidant effect but rather acts as an intracellular antioxidant. PMID:9354594

Osaka, K; Tyurina, Y Y; Dubey, R K; Tyurin, V A; Ritov, V B; Quinn, P J; Branch, R A; Kagan, V E

1997-10-15

290

Effects of permethrin exposure on antioxidant enzymes and protein status in Mediterranean clams Ruditapes decussatus.  

PubMed

The effects of permethrin (PER) on a panel of antoxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) and indices of protein oxidation status (carbonylation and free thiols) were determined in digestive gland and gills of the clam Ruditapes decussatus. Animals were exposed to 100 ppb PER for 2 days. These enzyme activities increased significantly in digestive gland (p<0.05) after PER treatment and oxidative modification of proteins was detected in both gill and digestive gland extracts using redox proteomics. PER exposure significantly reduced the amount of protein free thiol groups in digestive gland rather than in gill, when compared to controls. Conversely, digestive gland showed significantly higher levels of carbonylated proteins than gill after PER exposure. Some proteins were successfully identified by mass spectrometry of tryptic peptides. Our data suggest that digestive gland of R. decussatus can be used as a model tissue for investigating environmental risk of PER contamination. PMID:24337996

Sellami, Badreddine; Louati, Hela; Dellali, Mohamed; Aissa, Patricia; Mahmoudi, Ezzeddine; Coelho, Ana Varela; Sheehan, David

2014-03-01

291

Lead toxicity induces lipid peroxidation and alters the activities of antioxidant enzymes in growing rice plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

When seedlings of two rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars were raised in sand cultures under 500 and 1000 ?M Pb(NO3)2 in the medium, lengths as well as weights of roots and shoots decreased with increase in Pb concentration. Pb-treated seedlings showed elevated levels of lipid peroxides with a concomitant increase in the activities of the enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol

Shalini Verma; R. S. Dubey

2003-01-01

292

Response of antioxidant enzymes to intermittent and continuous hyperbaric O sub 2  

SciTech Connect

Rats and guinea pigs were exposed to 2.8 ATA O{sub 2} (HBO) delivered either continuously or intermittently (repeated cycles of 10 minutes 100% O{sub 2}:2.5 minutes air). The O{sub 2} time required to produce convulsions and death was increased significantly in both species by intermittency. To determine whether changes in brain and lung superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) correlated with the observed tolerance, enzyme activities were measured after short or long HBO exposures. For each exposure duration, one group received continuous and one intermittent HBO; O{sub 2} times were matched. HBO had marked effects on these enzymes: Lung SOD increased (guinea pigs 47%, rats 88%), CAT and GSHPx activities decreased (33%) in brain and lung. No differences were seen in lung GSHPx or brain CAT in rats or brain SOD of either species. In guinea pigs, but less so in rats, the observed changes in activity were usually modulated by intermittency. Increases in hematocrit, organ protein, and lung DNA, which may also reflect ongoing oxidative damage, were also slowed with intermittency in guinea pigs. Intermittency benefitted both species by postponing gross symptoms of toxicity, but its modulation of changes in enzyme activities and other biochemical variables was more pronounced in guinea pigs than in rats suggesting additional mechanisms for tolerance.

Harabin, A.L.; Braisted, J.C.; Flynn, E.T. (Naval Medical Research Inst., Bethesda, MD (United States))

1990-02-26

293

Curcumin Induces Nrf2 Nuclear Translocation and Prevents Glomerular Hypertension, Hyperfiltration, Oxidant Stress, and the Decrease in Antioxidant Enzymes in 5/6 Nephrectomized Rats  

PubMed Central

Renal injury resulting from renal ablation induced by 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6NX) is associated with oxidant stress, glomerular hypertension, hyperfiltration, and impaired Nrf2-Keap1 pathway. The purpose of this work was to know if the bifunctional antioxidant curcumin may induce nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and prevents 5/6NX-induced oxidant stress, renal injury, decrease in antioxidant enzymes, and glomerular hypertension and hyperfiltration. Four groups of rats were studied: (1) control, (2) 5/6NX, (3) 5/6NX +CUR, and (4) CUR (n = 8–10). Curcumin was given by gavage to NX5/6 +CUR and CUR groups (60?mg/kg/day) starting seven days before surgery. Rats were studied 30 days after NX5/6 or sham surgery. Curcumin attenuated 5/6NX-induced proteinuria, systemic and glomerular hypertension, hyperfiltration, glomerular sclerosis, interstitial fibrosis, interstitial inflammation, and increase in plasma creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. This protective effect was associated with enhanced nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and with prevention of 5/6NX-induced oxidant stress and decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes. It is concluded that the protective effect of curcumin against 5/6NX-induced glomerular and systemic hypertension, hyperfiltration, renal dysfunction, and renal injury was associated with the nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and the prevention of both oxidant stress and the decrease of antioxidant enzymes. PMID:22919438

Tapia, Edilia; Soto, Virgilia; Ortiz-Vega, Karla Mariana; Zarco-Marquez, Guillermo; Molina-Jijon, Eduardo; Cristobal-Garcia, Magdalena; Santamaria, Jose; Garcia-Nino, Wylly Ramses; Correa, Francisco; Zazueta, Cecilia; Pedraza-Chaverri, Jose

2012-01-01

294

Melatonin administration differentially affects age-induced alterations in daily rhythms of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in male rat liver.  

PubMed

A central clock/pacemaker, suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus coordinates and entrains circadian oscillations in the peripheral tissues such as the liver, kidney, heart, lungs etc. called peripheral clocks. These also have endogenous circadian oscillations. The circadian rhythms of antioxidants present in cytosol signify redox state of the cell during day/night cycle. The liver has a major impact on homeostasis through its control on serum protein composition and plays a pivotal role in the metabolism of nutrients, drugs, hormones, and metabolic waste products and undergoes substantial changes in structure and function upon aging. In present study, the temporal patterns of oxidative stress indicators in liver were studied. Daily rhythms of lipid peroxidation end products, reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were studied in liver at variable time points (Zeitgeber Time (ZT) 0, 6, 12 and 18) in three age groups: 3 (adult), 12 and 24 months old male Wistar rats. There was increase in oxidative stress in 12 and 24 months old rats indicated through a significant increase in lipid peroxidation, decrease in GSH/GSSG ratio and antioxidant enzyme activities. In 3 months old rats, lipid peroxidation was maximum at ZT-12 whereas GSH, SOD and CAT activities were minimum at ZT-12. The maximum level in 24 h i.e., acrophases of lipid peroxidation, GPx, SOD and CAT activities in liver cell free extracts altered upon aging. As melatonin, messenger of darkness, an endogenous synchronizer of rhythm, an antioxidant and an antiaging drug, declines with aging we studied the effects of melatonin on activities of these antioxidant enzymes in aging rats. Melatonin administration resulted in differential restoration of acrophases, amplitude, mean as well as daily rhythms of lipid peroxidation and antioxidants in liver of 12 and 24 months old rats. PMID:22960749

Manikonda, Pavan Kumar; Jagota, Anita

2012-10-01

295

Pseudo-basal levels of and distribution of anti-oxidant enzyme biomarkers in Eisenia fetida and effect of exposure to phenanthrene.  

PubMed

In the paper, the pseudo-basal levels of anti-oxidant system in different earthworm life stages (juvenile and adult) and the pseudo-basal distribution in different regions of adult earthworms (pre-clitellum, clitellum and post-clitellum) were studied using filter contact tests. The effects of phenanthrene (PHE) at different exposure levels on anti-oxidant enzymes along the earthworm body were also investigated after 24 and 48h of exposure. The pseudo-basal levels of the anti-oxidant enzymes varied during the different growth phase, and results indicated that earthworm has a low oxidative risk and SOD plays important roles during the development whereas CAT and POD are more important in maintain the low ROS level in adult earthworm. The pseudo-basal distribution of the anti-oxidant enzymes along the earthworms was heterogeneous and MDA mainly located in clitellum. POD in pre-clitellum, SOD in clitellum and CAT in post-clitellum were important to eliminate excess total ROS. Time of exposure impacted the anti-oxidant enzyme activities and their distribution patterns along earthworms, from the viewpoint of which supported that exposure time was an environment stress factors. In a short exposure time (24 h), CAT and SOD in the three regions, POD in pre-clitellum and clitellum might be good indicator to a low PHE stress level (0.0629 ?g cm(-2) treatments). In a long exposure time (48 h), only SOD in clitellum is a good indicator to both low and high PHE stress (0.629 ?g cm(-2) treatments). Earthworm biomembrane system inflicted no oxidative damage until the stress magnitude reached or exceeds the level of exposure in low PHE concentration condition for 48 h. PMID:23769124

Shi, Zhiming; Xu, Li; Wang, Nan; Zhang, Wei; Li, Huixin; Hu, Feng

2013-09-01

296

The plant histaminase: a promising enzyme with antioxidant properties versus histamine release in isoprenaline-induced myocardial infarction in rats.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to evaluate possible protective effects of purified histaminase from Lathyrus sativus L. seedling on the myocardial injuries upon isoprenaline-induced myocardial infarction in rats. In this regard, blood histamine concentration, creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) activity, antioxidant status, and histopathological changes of the hearts were measured. A total of 40 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five equal groups and treated in the following order: control (normal saline), isoprenaline (isoproterenol 110 mg/kg BW), Isopren.-H1 (isoprenaline plus histaminase 80 U/kg BW), Isopren.-H2 (isoprenaline plus histaminase 120 U/kg BW), and Isopren.-H3 (isoprenaline plus histaminase 160 U/kg BW). Myocardial infarction was manifested by a significant elevation in the level of CK-MB and histopathological findings in isoprenaline group when compared to controls. In contrast, histaminase pretreatment at dose of 160 U/kg prevented isoprenaline-induced histamine release and significantly decreased CK-MB activity as well as histopathological changes in Isopren.-H3 group. A significant increase in the catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities was also observed by histaminase treatment in Isopren.-H2 and Isopren.-H3 groups. Although the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) increased significantly to suppress oxidative stress in isoprenaline group, it was not able to prevent lipid peroxidation (as shown by TBARS concentration) in the heart of rats. In conclusion, the plant-originated histaminase presented as a promising enzyme with antioxidant properties against histamine release and myocardial infarction in rats, and it seems be a suitable therapeutic agent for future clinical trials in humans. PMID:25204462

Alirezaei, Masoud; Delfan, Bahram; Dezfoulian, Omid; Kheradmand, Arash; Divekan, Hadis; Rashidipour, Marzyeh; Khonsari, Azadeh

2014-09-01

297

Effects of pH on Antioxidant Enzymes and Ultrastructure of Hydrilla verticillata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under experimental conditions of variable pH, superoxidase dismutase and catalase activity of Hydrilla verticillata remained stable at pH 7.0 to 8.0 but increased significantly at pH 9.0. Above pH 9.0, activities of both enzymes markedly decreased. Malondialdehyde, a measure of lipid peroxidation, increased linearly with a pH change from 7.0 to 9.5. At pH 9.5, the ultrastructure of H. verticillata

Xiangcan Jin; Qiujin Xu; Changzhou Yan; Fengchang Wu

2006-01-01

298

Increased 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine in plasma and decreased mRNA expression of human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1, anti-oxidant enzymes, mitochondrial biogenesis-related proteins and glycolytic enzymes in leucocytes in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.  

PubMed

We measured plasma levels of the oxidative DNA damage marker 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and leucocyte mRNA expression levels of the genes encoding the 8-OHdG repair enzyme human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 (hOGG1), the anti-oxidant enzymes copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/ZnSOD), manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx-1), GPx-4, glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione synthetase (GS), the mitochondrial biogenesis-related proteins mtDNA-encoded ND 1 polypeptide (ND1), ND6, ATPase 6, mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam), nuclear respiratory factor 1(NRF-1), pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 component alpha subunit (PDHA1), pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isoenzyme 1 (PDK-1) and hypoxia inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) and the glycolytic enzymes hexokinase-II (HK-II), glucose 6-phosphate isomerase (GPI), phosphofructokinase (PFK), glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHa). We analysed their relevance to oxidative damage in 85 systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients, four complicated SLE patients undergoing rituximab treatment and 45 healthy individuals. SLE patients had higher plasma 8-OHdG levels (P?anti-oxidant enzymes (P?enzymes (P?anti-oxidant enzymes (P?enzymes (P?anti-oxidant enzymes, GAPDH, Tfam and PDHA1, experienced better therapeutic outcomes after rituximab therapy. In conclusion, higher oxidative damage with suboptimal increases in DNA repair, anti-oxidant capacity, mitochondrial biogenesis and glucose metabolism may be implicated in SLE deterioration, and this impairment might be improved by targeted biological therapy. PMID:24345202

Lee, H-T; Lin, C-S; Lee, C-S; Tsai, C-Y; Wei, Y-H

2014-04-01

299

Studies on antioxidant enzymes in Canna indica plant under copper stress.  

PubMed

Bright red-flowered Canna indica L. plants were subjected to grow in nutrient solution supplemented with five different concentrations (0, 5, 10, 30 and 50 microM) of CuCl2 to study antioxidant defense responses of the plant. Accumulation of Cu was dose-dependent and much higher in the roots (108-191 microg g(-1) d. wt.) than in the leaves (23.36-40.43 microg g d.wt.). Total ascorbate content did not changed in both tissues, but ascorbate redox state decreased (0.570-0.640) in Cu-treated Canna roots. In contrast, both total and reduced glutathione contents increased (387-591.9 nmol g(-1) f. wt.) considerably in roots, accompanied with enhanced activities of dehydroascorbate reductase (153.3-160 nmol mg(-1) protein) and glutathione reductase (67-87.5 nmol mg(-1) protein). No significant change, however, was observed for monodehydroascorbate reductase activity in both tissues of the treated plant. The efficient scavenging of hydrogen peroxide was performed by normal (control level) activities of both ascorbate peroxidase and catalase in leaf and increased activity of only catalase in root, preventing its accumulation at toxic concentrations (despite high superoxide dismutase activity) and subsequent damage of membrane lipids by peroxidation. Together, these ensured normal dry weight of leaves and roots, indicating tolerance of Canna indica plant to Cu-induced oxidative stress. PMID:24006813

Talukdar, Dibyendu

2013-01-01

300

Time course study of oxidative and nitrosative stress and antioxidant enzymes in K2Cr2O7-induced nephrotoxicity  

PubMed Central

Background Potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7)-induced nephrotoxicity is associated with oxidative and nitrosative stress. In this study we investigated the relation between the time course of the oxidative and nitrosative stress with kidney damage and alterations in the following antioxidant enzymes: Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu, Zn-SOD), Mn-SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), and catalase (CAT). Methods Nephrotoxicity was induced in rats by a single injection of K2Cr2O7. Groups of animals were sacrificed on days 1,2,3,4,6,8,10, and 12. Nephrotoxicity was evaluated by histological studies and by measuring creatinine clearance, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and urinary excretion of N-acetyl-?-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) and total protein. Oxidative and nitrosative stress were measured by immunohistochemical localization of protein carbonyls and 3-nitrotyrosine, respectively. Cu, Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD, and CAT were studied by immunohistochemical localization. The activity of total SOD, CAT, GPx, and GR was also measured as well as serum and kidney content of chromium and urinary excretion of NO2 -/NO3-. Data were compared by two-way analysis of variance followed by a post hoc test. Results Serum and kidney chromium content increased reaching the highest value on day 1. Nephrotoxicity was made evident by the decrease in creatinine clearance (days 1–4) and by the increase in serum creatinine (days 1–4), BUN (days 1–6), urinary excretion of NAG (days 1–4), and total protein (day 1–6) and by the structural damage to the proximal tubules (days 1–6). Oxidative and nitrosative stress were clearly evident on days 1–8. Urinary excretion of NO2-/NO3- decreased on days 2–6. Mn-SOD and Cu, Zn-SOD, estimated by immunohistochemistry, and total SOD activity remained unchanged. Activity of GPx decreased on days 3–12 and those of GR and CAT on days 2–10. Similar findings were observed by immunohistochemistry of CAT. Conclusion These data show the association between oxidative and nitrosative stress with functional and structural renal damage induced by K2Cr2O7. Renal antioxidant enzymes were regulated differentially and were not closely associated with oxidative or nitrosative stress or with kidney damage. In addition, the decrease in the urinary excretion of NO2-/NO3- was associated with the renal nitrosative stress suggesting that nitric oxide was derived to the formation of reactive nitrogen species involved in protein nitration. PMID:15854231

Pedraza-Chaverri, Jose; Barrera, Diana; Medina-Campos, Omar N; Carvajal, Raymundo C; Hernandez-Pando, Rogelio; Macias-Ruvalcaba, Norma A; Maldonado, Perla D; Salcedo, Marcos I; Tapia, Edilia; Saldivar, Liliana; Castilla, Maria E; Ibarra-Rubio, Maria E

2005-01-01

301

Endogenous antioxidant enzymes and glutathione S-transferase in protection of mesothelioma cells against hydrogen peroxide and epirubicin toxicity.  

PubMed Central

We have previously shown that cultured malignant mesothelioma cells contain elevated manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) mRNA levels and activities compared with non-malignant mesothelial cells. As many cytotoxic drugs generate both superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, we assessed the relative significance of catalase and the glutathione redox cycle, as well as glutathione S-transferase (GST), in protecting these cells against hydrogen peroxide and epirubicin toxicity. Mesothelioma cell lines containing high (M38K cells) and low (M14K cells) MnSOD, and non-malignant MeT-5A mesothelial cells were selected for the study. M38K cells were the most resistant of these three cell types to hydrogen peroxide (0.1-0.5 mM, 4 h) and epirubicin (0.1-0.5 microg ml(-1), 48 h) as judged by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and by high-energy nucleotide (ATP, ADP, AMP) depletion. Total glutathione was higher in M38K cells (63.8 +/- 20.3 nnmol mg(-1) protein) than in M14K (25.2 +/- 8.2 nmol mg[-1]) or MeT-5A cells (23.5 +/- 4.5 nmol mg[-1]). Furthermore, GST specific activity was higher in M38K cells (111.3 +/- 15.8 U mg[-1]) than in M14K cells (77.4 +/- 6.6 U mg[-1]) or in MeT-5A cells (68.8 +/- 7.6 U mg[-1]). Western blotting indicated the presence of GST-pi in all these cells, the reactivity again being highest in M38K cells. Depletion of glutathione by buthionine sulphoximine and inhibition of catalase by aminotriazole enhanced hydrogen peroxide toxicity in all cell types, while only the depletion of glutathione increased epirubicin toxicity. We conclude that simultaneous induction of multiple antioxidant enzymes can occur in human mesothelioma cells. In addition to the high MnSOD activity, hydrogen peroxide scavenging antioxidant enzymes, glutathione and GST can partly explain the high hydrogen peroxide and epirubicin resistance of these cells in vitro. Images Figure 4 PMID:9569045

Kinnula, K.; Linnainmaa, K.; Raivio, K. O.; Kinnula, V. L.

1998-01-01

302

Reduction in antioxidant enzyme expression and sustained inflammation enhance tissue damage in the subacute phase of spinal cord contusive injury  

PubMed Central

Background Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) forms a disadvantageous microenvironment for tissue repair at the lesion site. To consider an appropriate time window for giving a promising therapeutic treatment for subacute and chronic SCI, global changes of proteins in the injured center at the longer survival time points after SCI remains to be elucidated. Methods Through two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE)-based proteome analysis and western blotting, we examined the differential expression of the soluble proteins isolated from the lesion center (LC) at day 1 (acute) and day 14 (subacute) after a severe contusive injury to the thoracic spinal cord at segment 10. In situ apoptotic analysis was used to examine cell apoptosis in injured spinal cord after adenoviral gene transfer of antioxidant enzymes. In addition, administration of chondroitinase ABC (chABC) was performed to analyze hindlimb locomotor recovery in rats with SCI using Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor rating scale. Results Our results showed a decline in catalase (CAT) and Mn-superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) found at day 14 after SCI. Accordingly, gene transfer of SOD was introduced in the injured spinal cord and found to attenuate cell apoptosis. Galectin-3, ?-actin, actin regulatory protein (CAPG), and F-actin-capping protein subunit ? (CAPZB) at day 14 were increased when compared to that detected at day 1 after SCI or in sham-operated control. Indeed, the accumulation of ?-actin+ immune cells was observed in the LC at day 14 post SCI, while most of reactive astrocytes were surrounding the lesion center. In addition, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPG)-related proteins with 40-kDa was detected in the LC at day 3-14 post SCI. Delayed treatment with chondroitinase ABC (chABC) at day 3 post SCI improved the hindlimb locomotion in SCI rats. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that the differential expression in proteins related to signal transduction, oxidoreduction and stress contribute to extensive inflammation, causing time-dependent spread of tissue damage after severe SCI. The interventions by supplement of anti-oxidant enzymes right after SCI or delayed administration with chABC can facilitate spinal neural cell survival and tissue repair. PMID:21299884

2011-01-01

303

Fisetin inhibits osteoclastogenesis through prevention of RANKL-induced ROS production by Nrf2-mediated up-regulation of phase II antioxidant enzymes.  

PubMed

Osteoclasts (OCLs) are multinucleated bone-resorbing cells that are differentiated by stimulation with receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor. We recently demonstrated that regulation of heme-oxygenase 1 (HO-1), a stress-induced cytoprotective enzyme, also functions in OCL differentiation. In this study, we investigated effects of fisetin, a natural bioactive flavonoid that has been reported to induce HO-1 expression, on the differentiation of macrophages into OCLs. Fisetin inhibited the formation of OCLs in a dose-dependent manner and suppressed the bone-resorbing activity of OCLs. Moreover, fisetin-treated OCLs showed markedly decreased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, Akt, and Jun N-terminal kinase, but fisetin did not inhibit p38 phosphorylation. Fisetin up-regulated mRNA expression of phase II antioxidant enzymes including HO-1 and interfered with RANKL-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Studies with RNA interference showed that suppression of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a key transcription factor for phase II antioxidant enzymes, rescued fisetin-mediated inhibition of OCL differentiation. Furthermore, fisetin significantly decreased RANKL-induced nuclear translocation of cFos and nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic-1 (NFATc1), which is a transcription factor critical for osteoclastogenic gene regulation. Therefore, fisetin inhibits OCL differentiation through blocking RANKL-mediated ROS production by Nrf2-mediated up-regulation of phase II antioxidant enzymes. PMID:23538677

Sakai, Eiko; Shimada-Sugawara, Megumi; Yamaguchi, Yu; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Fumimoto, Reiko; Fukuma, Yutaka; Nishishita, Kazuhisa; Okamoto, Kuniaki; Tsukuba, Takayuki

2013-01-01

304

Chemomodulatory effect of Moringa oleifera, Lam, on hepatic carcinogen metabolising enzymes, antioxidant parameters and skin papillomagenesis in mice.  

PubMed

The modulatory effects of a hydro-alcoholic extract of drumsticks of Moringa oliefera Lam at doses of 125 mg/kg bodyweight and 250 mg/ kg body weight for 7 and 14 days, respectively, were investigated with reference to drug metabolising Phase I (Cytochrome b(5) and Cytochrome p(450) ) and Phase II (Glutathione-S- transferase) enzymes, anti-oxidant enzymes, glutathione content and lipid peroxidation in the liver of 6-8 week old female Swiss albino mice. Further, the chemopreventive efficacy of the extract was evaluated in a two stage model of 7,12 - dimethylbenz(a)anthracene induced skin papillomagenesis. Significant increase (p<0.05 to p<0.01) in the activities of hepatic cytochrome b(5), cytochrome p(450), catalase, glutathione peroxidase ( GPx ), glutathione reductase (GR), acid soluble sulfhydryl content (-SH ) and a significant decrease ( p<0.01 ) in the hepatic MDA level were observed at both dose levels of treatment when compared with the control values. Glutathione-S- transferase ( GST )activity was found to be significantly increased (p<0.01 ) only at the higher dose level. Butylated hydroxyanisol (BHA ) fed at a dose of 0.75% in the diet for 7 and 14 days (positive control ) caused a significant increase (p<0.05 to p<0.01) in the levels of hepatic phase I and phase II enzymes, anti- oxidant enzymes, glutathione content and a decrease in lipid peroxidation. The skin papillomagenesis studies demonstrated a significant decrease (p<0.05 ) in the percentage of mice with papillomas, average number of papillomas per mouse and papillomas per papilloma bearing mouse when the animals received a topical application of the extract at a dose of 5mg/ kg body weight in the peri-initiation phase 7 days before and 7 days after DMBA application, Group II ), promotional phase (from the day of croton oil application and continued till the end of the experiment, Group III ) and both peri and post initiation stages (from 7 days prior to DMBA application and continued till the end of the experiment, Group IV) compared to the control group (Group I ). The percentage inhibition of tumor multiplicity has been recorded to be 27, 72, and 81 in Groups II, III, and IV, respectively. These findings are suggestive of a possible chemopreventive potential of Moringa oliefera drumstick extract against chemical carcinogenesis. PMID:12875626

Bharali, Rupjyoti; Tabassum, Jawahira; Azad, Mohammed Rekibul Haque

2003-01-01

305

Differential expression of genes encoding anti-oxidant enzymes in Sydney rock oysters, Saccostrea glomerata (Gould) selected for disease resistance.  

PubMed

Sydney rock oysters (Saccostrea glomerata) selectively bred for disease resistance (R) and wild-caught control oysters (W) were exposed to a field infection of disseminating neoplasia. Cumulative mortality of W oysters (31.7%) was significantly greater than R oysters (0.0%) over the 118 days of the experiment. In an attempt to understand the biochemical and molecular pathways involved in disease resistance, differentially expressed sequence tags (ESTs) between R and W S. glomerata hemocytes were identified using the PCR technique, suppression subtractive hybridisation (SSH). Sequencing of 300 clones from two SSH libraries revealed 183 distinct sequences of which 113 shared high similarity to sequences in the public databases. Putative function could be assigned to 64 of the sequences. Expression of nine ESTs homologous to genes previously shown to be involved in bivalve immunity was further studied using quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR). The base-line expression of an extracellular superoxide dismutase (ecSOD) and a small heat shock protein (sHsP) were significantly increased, whilst peroxiredoxin 6 (Prx6) and interferon inhibiting cytokine factor (IK) were significantly decreased in R oysters. From these results it was hypothesised that R oysters would be able to generate the anti-parasitic compound, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) faster and to higher concentrations during respiratory burst due to the differential expression of genes for the two anti-oxidant enzymes of ecSOD and Prx6. To investigate this hypothesis, protein extracts from hemolymph were analysed for oxidative burst enzyme activity. Analysis of the cell free hemolymph proteins separated by native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) failed to detect true superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity by assaying dismutation of superoxide anion in zymograms. However, the ecSOD enzyme appears to generate hydrogen peroxide, presumably via another process, which is yet to be elucidated. This corroborates our hypothesis, whilst phylogenetic analysis of the complete coding sequence (CDS) of the S. glomerata ecSOD gene is supportive of the atypical nature of the ecSOD enzyme. Results obtained from this work further the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in resistance to disease in this economically important bivalve, and shed further light on the anomalous oxidative processes involved. PMID:19332130

Green, Timothy J; Dixon, Tom J; Devic, Emilie; Adlard, Robert D; Barnes, Andrew C

2009-05-01

306

Effect of nonylphenol on male reproduction: Analysis of rat epididymal biochemical markers and antioxidant defense enzymes  

SciTech Connect

The mechanism by which nonylphenol (NP) interferes with male reproduction is not fully elucidated. Therefore, the present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of NP on male reproductive organ's weight, sperm characteristics, and to elucidate the nature and mechanism of action of NP on the epididymis. Adult male Wistar rats were gavaged with NP, dissolved in corn oil, at 0, 100, 200 or 300 mg/kg/day for 30 consecutive days. Control rats were gavaged with vehicle (corn oil) alone. Body weight did not show any significant change while, absolute testes and epididymides weights were significantly decreased. Sperm count in cauda and caput/corpus epididymides, and sperm motility was significantly decreased. Daily sperm production was significantly decreased in a dose-related manner. Sperm transit time in cauda epididymis was significantly decreased by 300 mg/kg, while in the caput/corpus epididymis it was significantly decreased by 200 and 300 mg/kg of NP. Plasma LDH was significantly increased while; plasma testosterone was significantly decreased in a dose-related pattern. In the epididymal sperm, NP decreased acrosome integrity, ??m and 5?-nucleotidase activity. Hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) production and LPO were significantly increased in a dose-related pattern. The activities of SOD, CAT and GPx were significantly decreased in the epididymal sperm. In conclusion, this study revealed that NP treatment impairs spermatogenesis and has a cytotoxic effect on epididymal sperm. It disrupts the prooxidant and antioxidant balance. This leads oxidative stress in epididymal sperms of rat. Moreover, the reduction in sperm transit time may affect sperm quality and fertility potential. -- Highlights: ? The nature and mechanism of action of NP on rat epididymis were elucidated. ? NP decreased sperm count, motility, daily sperm production and sperm transit time. ? NP decreased sperm acrosome integrity, ??m and 5?-nucleotidase activity. ? Plasma LDH was significantly increased and testosterone was significantly decreased. ? NP induced oxidative stress in epididymal sperm.

Aly, Hamdy A.A., E-mail: hamdyaali@yahoo.com [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Domènech, Òscar [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Barcelona University (Spain)] [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Barcelona University (Spain); Banjar, Zainy M. [Department of Medical Biology, School of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)] [Department of Medical Biology, School of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

2012-06-01

307

Alterations in antioxidant metabolism and associated enzymes in pea (Pisum sativum) exposed to sulfur dioxide  

SciTech Connect

The response of glutathione and ascorbate and the enzymes glutathione reductase (GR) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) was studied in two cultivars of pea known to be differentially sensitive to SO{sub 2} (0.8 ppm). Total glutathione accumulated more rapidly on exposure to SO{sub 2} in insensitive cultivar Progress compared to the sensitive cultivar Nugget, confirming our previous results. However, corresponding changes in oxidized glutathione were not observed and ascorbate levels did not change over the course of the exposure. Changes in the activity of GR corresponded to the changes in total glutatione levels. Preliminary results indicate that SOD activity increased to a significantly higher extent in Progress than in Nugget. These data suggest a significant role for GR and possibly SOD in resistance to oxidative stress.

Madamanchi, N.R.; Alscher, R.G. (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg (USA))

1990-05-01

308

Oxidative stress determined through the levels of antioxidant enzymes and the effect of N-acetylcysteine in aluminum phosphide poisoning  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The primary objective of this study was to determine the serum level of antioxidant enzymes and to correlate them with outcome in patients of aluminum phosphide (ALP) poisoning and, secondly, to evaluate the effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) given along with supportive treatment of ALP poisoning. Design: We conducted a cohort study in patients of ALP poisoning hospitalized at a tertiary care center of North India. The treatment group and control group were enrolled during the study period of 1 year from May 2011 to April 2012. Interventions: Oxidative stress was evaluated in each subject by estimating the serum levels of the enzymes, viz. catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR). The treatment group comprised of patients who were given NAC in addition to supportive treatment (magnesium sulfate and vasopressors, if required), while in the control group, only supportive treatment was instituted. The primary endpoint of the study was the survival of the patients. Measurements and Results: The baseline catalase (P = 0.008) and SOD (P < 0.01) levels were higher among survivors than non-survivors. Of the total patients in the study, 31 (67.4%) expired and 15 (32.6%) survived. Among those who expired, the mean duration of survival was 2.92 ± 0.40 days in the test group and 1.82 ± 0.33 days in the control group (P = 0.043). Conclusions: This study suggests that the baseline level of catalase and SOD have reduced in ALP poisoning, but baseline GR level has not suppressed but is rather increasing with due time, and more so in the treatment group. NAC along with supportive treatment may have improved survival in ALP poisoning. PMID:25316977

Agarwal, Avinash; Robo, Roto; Jain, Nirdesh; Gutch, Manish; Consil, Shuchi; Kumar, Sukriti

2014-01-01

309

Meta-analysis of selenium accumulation and expression of antioxidant enzymes in chicken tissues.  

PubMed

A meta-analysis integrating results of 40 selenium (Se) supplementation experiments that originated from 35 different controlled randomized trials was carried out in an attempt to identify significant factors that affect tissue Se accumulation in chicken. Examined factors included: Se source (12 different sources examined), type of chicken (laying hens or broilers), age of birds at the beginning of supplementation, duration of supplementation, year during which the study was conducted, sex of birds, number of chickens per treatment, method of analysis, tissue type, concentration of Se determined and Se added to feed. A correlation analysis was also carried out between tissue Se concentration and glutathione peroxidase activity. Data analysis showed that the factors significantly affecting tissue Se concentration include type of chicken (P=0.006), type of tissue (P<0.001) and the analytical method used (P=0.014). Although Se source was not found to affect tissue Se concentration (overall P>0.05), certain inorganic (sodium selenite), calcium selenite, sodium selenate and organic sources (B-Traxim Se), Se-yeast, Se-malt, Se-enriched cabbage and Se-enriched garlic as well as background Se level from feed ingredients were found to significantly affect tissue Se concentration. The Se accumulation rate (estimated as linear regression coefficient of Se concentrations to Se added to feed) discriminated between the various tissues with highest values estimated in the leg muscle and lowest in blood plasma. Correlation analysis has also shown that tissue Se concentration (pooled data) was correlated to Se added to feed (r=0.529, P<0.01, log values) and to glutathione peroxidase activity (r=0.332, P=0.0478), with the latter not being correlated with Se added to feed. Although significant factors affecting Se concentration were reported in the present study, they do not necessarily indicate the in vivo function of the antioxidant system or the level of accumulated Se as other factors, not examined in the present study, may interact at the level of trace element absorption, distribution and retention. PMID:24388007

Zoidis, E; Demiris, N; Kominakis, A; Pappas, A C

2014-04-01

310

[Combined effects of copper and simulated acid rain on copper accumulation, growth, and antioxidant enzyme activities of Rumex acetosa].  

PubMed

A pot experiment was conducted to study the combined effects of Cu (0-1500 mg x kg(-1)) and simulated acid rain (pH 2.5-5.6) on the copper accumulation, growth, and antioxidant enzyme activities of Rumex acetosa. With the increasing concentration of soil Cu, the Cu accumulation in R. acetosa increased, being higher in root than in stem and leaf. The exposure to low pH acid rain promoted the Cu uptake by R. acetosa. With the increase of soil Cu concentration and/or of acid rain acidity, the biomass of R. acetosa decreased, leaf and root MDA contents increased and had good correlation with soil Cu concentration, and the SOD and POD activities in leaf and root displayed a decreasing trend after an initial increase. This study showed that R. acetosa had a strong adaptive ability to Cu and acid rain stress, exhibiting a high application potential in the remediation of Cu-contaminated soil in acid rain areas. PMID:21608265

He, Shan-Ying; Gao, Yong-Jie; Shentu, Jia-Li; Chen, Kun-Bai

2011-02-01

311

Gene expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes in the blood cells of workers who were occupationally exposed to lead.  

PubMed

In this study, we sought to understand the influence of occupational lead-exposure on the gene expression (Sod1) and activity (SOD) of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx, Gpx1) in leukocytes and erythrocytes. The study group consisted of 45 healthy male employees of a lead-zinc works and was divided into two subgroups: those with low exposure to lead (LE) and those with high exposure to lead (HE). In addition, 17 healthy male administrative workers participated in the study as the control group. The gene expression levels of both Sod1 and Gpx1 were significantly increased in the LE group as compared to the control group. By contrast, we noted only an insignificant tendency for increased gene expression of both Sod1 and Gpx1 in the HE group. The expression and activity of catalase were unchanged. Nevertheless, SOD and GPx activities in erythrocytes was significantly elevated in both examined subgroups, whereas SOD activity in leukocytes was raised only in the LE group. The results of this study led us to conclude that lead has a significant influence not only on the activities of antioxidant enzymes but also on the dose-dependent expression in their genes. PMID:22796238

Kasperczyk, Aleksandra; Machnik, Grzegorz; Dobrakowski, Micha?; Sypniewski, Daniel; Birkner, Ewa; Kasperczyk, S?awomir

2012-11-15

312

The effect of water stress on the antioxidant content, protective enzyme activities, proline content and lipid peroxidation in wheat seedling.  

PubMed

An investigation was conducted to study the effect of water stress on the antioxidant content, protective enzyme activities, proline content and lipid peroxidation in wheat seedlings. Drought stress increases the amount of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), leading to metabolic disorders. It is now known that higher levels of activity-protective mechanisms render the cells more enduring against environmental stress including drought. Two widely cultivated cultivars of wheat in Iran, Sab. and N. Sar. were grown up according to the hydroponic method. Having reached the stage of 4-5 leaves growth; the plants were kept under 4, 8 and 12 bars potential resulting from using Polyethylene Glycol 8000 (PEG 8000). Hogland solution was used as the control. Then the amount of ascorbate, glutathione, superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, proline and lipid Peroxidation was measured in cut samples of the leaves. The result indicated an increase in the amount of Ascorbate and Glutathione as the stress was intensified in the case of Sab. Moreover, the reduced form of Ascorbate (ASC) and Glutathione (GSH) were higher in Sab. at 8 and 12 bars. The amount of Proline accumulation was considerably higher in Sab. than N. Sar. SOD activity, on the other hand, diminished at 8 and 12 bar levels. CAT activity is also regarded as a limiting factor. Lipid peroxidation was also geared up as the stress was intensified. These limiting factors rendered N. Sar. cultivar more sensitive to water stress resulting from PEG8000 compared to Sab. PMID:18983033

Esfandiari, E; Shakiba, M R; Mahboob, S A; Alyari, H; Shahabivand, S

2008-08-01

313

Fractalkine Attenuates Excito-neurotoxicity via Microglial Clearance of Damaged Neurons and Antioxidant Enzyme Heme Oxygenase-1 Expression*  

PubMed Central

Glutamate-induced excito-neurotoxicity likely contributes to non-cell autonomous neuronal death in neurodegenerative diseases. Microglial clearance of dying neurons and associated debris is essential to maintain healthy neural networks in the central nervous system. In fact, the functions of microglia are regulated by various signaling molecules that are produced as neurons degenerate. Here, we show that the soluble CX3C chemokine fractalkine (sFKN), which is secreted from neurons that have been damaged by glutamate, promotes microglial phagocytosis of neuronal debris through release of milk fat globule-EGF factor 8, a mediator of apoptotic cell clearance. In addition, sFKN induces the expression of the antioxidant enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in microglia in the absence of neurotoxic molecule production, including NO, TNF, and glutamate. sFKN treatment of primary neuron-microglia co-cultures significantly attenuated glutamate-induced neuronal cell death. Using several specific MAPK inhibitors, we found that sFKN-induced heme oxygenase-1 expression was primarily mediated by activation of JNK and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2. These results suggest that sFKN secreted from glutamate-damaged neurons provides both phagocytotic and neuroprotective signals. PMID:21071446

Noda, Mariko; Doi, Yukiko; Liang, Jianfeng; Kawanokuchi, Jun; Sonobe, Yoshifumi; Takeuchi, Hideyuki; Mizuno, Tetsuya; Suzumura, Akio

2011-01-01

314

Neonatal handling affects learning, reversal learning and antioxidant enzymes activities in a sex-specific manner in rats.  

PubMed

Early life experiences have profound influences on behavior and neurochemical parameters in adult life. The aim of this study is to verify neonatal handling-induced sex specific differences on learning and reversal learning as well as oxidative stress parameters in the prefrontal cortex and striatum of adult rats. Litters of rats were non-handled or handled (10 min/day, days 1-10 after birth). In adulthood, learning and reversal learning were evaluated using a Y maze associated with palatable food in male and female rats. Morris water maze reversal learning was verified in males. Oxidative stress parameters were evaluated in both genders. Male neonatal handled animals had a worse performance in the Y maze reversal learning compared to non-handled ones and no difference was observed in the water maze reversal learning task. Regarding females, neonatal handled rats had a better performance during the Y maze learning phase compared to non-handled ones. In addition, neonatal handled female animals showed a decreased SOD/CAT ratio in the PFC compared to non-handled females. We conclude that neonatal handling effects on learning and memory in adult rats are sex and task specific. The sex specific differences are also observed in the evaluation of antioxidant enzymes activities with neonatal handling affecting only females. PMID:22326443

Noschang, Cristie; Krolow, Rachel; Arcego, Danusa Mar; Toniazzo, Ana Paula; Huffell, Ana Paula; Dalmaz, Carla

2012-06-01

315

Recovery of maize (Zea mays L.) inbreds and hybrids from chilling stress of various duration: photosynthesis and antioxidant enzymes.  

PubMed

The differences between two maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines and their F1 hybrids in their response to chilling periods of various duration (1, 2, 3 or 4 weeks) and subsequent return to optimum temperatures were analysed by the measurement of the photosystem (PS) 1 and 2 activity, the photosynthetic pigments' content and the activity of antioxidant enzymes. The PS2 activity and the chlorophyll content decreased in plants subjected to 3 or 4 weeks of chilling, but not in those subjected to 1 or 2 weeks of chilling. This decrease was more pronounced in inbreds compared to their hybrids. The activity of superoxide dismutase did not much change with the increasing length of chilling period in the inbreds but decreased in the hybrids, the glutathione reductase activity increased in both types of genotypes but more in the inbred lines, while for ascorbate peroxidase and catalase the changes in parents-hybrids relationship did not show any specific trend. The PS1 activity and the carotenoids' content was not much affected. PMID:16884820

Holá, Dana; Kocová, Marie; Rothová, Olga; Wilhelmová, Nad'a; Benesová, Monika

2007-07-01

316

Effect of Butachlor on Antioxidant Enzyme Status and Lipid Peroxidation in Fresh Water African Catfish, (Clarias gariepinus)  

PubMed Central

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the influence of butachlor, a widely used herbicide, on antioxidant enzyme system and lipid peroxidation formation in African cat fish (Clarias gariepinus). Fish were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of butachlor 1, 2, 2.5 ppm and sacrificed 24hrs after treatment. A significant increase in malondialdehyde formation was observed in the liver, kidney, gills and heart of the fish following exposure to different concentrations of butachlor. Superoxide dismutase and catalase activities increased in the liver and kidney but decreased in the gills and heart in a concentration-dependent pattern. Glutathione level and glutathione-S-transferase activities increased (P<0.05) in the liver but decreased in the kidneys, gills and heart when fishes were exposed to the three concentrations of butachlor. The results suggest that butachlor induced oxidative stress in the various tissues of the fish particularly in the kidney and as such the organ may be subjected to severe oxidative toxicity due to depressed glutathione detoxification system. PMID:19151438

Farombi, E. O.; Ajimoko, Y. R.; Adelowo, O. A.

2008-01-01

317

Sulforaphane and phenylethyl isothiocyanate protect human skin against UVR-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis: role of Nrf2-dependent gene expression and antioxidant enzymes.  

PubMed

Chronic UVR-exposure may impair the stress response and antioxidant defense mechanisms of human skin. The transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) orchestrates the expression of genes coding for the stress response and antioxidant proteins. Here, we tested sulforaphane (SFN) and phenylethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) for their ability to counteract UVR-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in ex vivo human full-thickness skin combined with in vitro HaCaT keratinocytes. Investigation of Nrf2 transactivation and induction of genes coding for Nrf2-dependent phase II antioxidative enzymes (?-glutamylcysteine-synthetase (?GCS), heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1)) was performed in HaCaT keratinocytes. Comparative investigations in human ex vivo skin were conducted for analysis of gene expression of above mentioned phase II enzymes and catalase (CAT) as well as hematoxylin/eosin (H&E) and immunofluorescence (catalase, cleaved Casp-3). UVR exposure of human skin (300mJ/cm(2)) resulted in a significant time-dependent increase of the number of sunburn cells and caspase-3 activation as biomarkers of apoptosis for up to 48h (p<0.001) and induced a significant decrease of the antioxidant enzyme catalase (p<0.001). This was significantly counteracted by the pre-treatment of human skin with SFN and PEITC (5?M and 10?M). Mechanistic cell culture studies revealed SFN and PEITC to increase Nrf2 activity and Nrf2-dependent gene expression (?GCS, HO-1, NQO1); this was paralleled in human full skin mRNA. In conclusion, the induction of Nrf2-dependent antioxidant pathways seems to be a potential mechanism by which SFN and PEITC protect against UVR-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in human skin. PMID:24121007

Kleszczy?ski, Konrad; Ernst, Insa M A; Wagner, Anika E; Kruse, Nathalie; Zillikens, Detlef; Rimbach, Gerald; Fischer, Tobias W

2013-12-01

318

A Greenhouse Study on Lead Uptake and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Vetiver Grass (Vetiveria zizanioides) as a Function of Lead Concentration and Soil Physico-Chemical Properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lead (Pb) is a toxic non-essential metal that can cause permanent learning disabilities, retardation, mental and behavioral problems in children. Lead accumulation in soils result from weathering, chipping, scraping, sanding and sand blasting of housing structures constructed prior to 1978, bearing lead-based paint. The primary objective of this study is to develop a cost-effective, chelate-assisted phytoremediation for cleaning up lead contaminated soils. Soils are a unique environment of diverse physical and chemical characteristics that influence the extent of phytoavailable (labile) Pb forms. The success of phytoremediation strategy depends on the physiological/ biochemical tolerance of the plants to lipid peroxidation induced by Pb at sub-lethal levels. Oxidative challenge is alleviated by antioxidant compounds, but more importantly by the induction of antioxidant enzymes, which are crucial for scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) and terminating lipid peroxidation chain reaction. A column study was conducted in a temperature and humidity-controlled greenhouse setting to assess the extent of Pb phytoextraction and antioxidant response in a lead accumulator, vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides). Treatments consisted of a randomized block arrangement of 4 soil types (Immokalee, Pahokee Muck, Tobosa, and Millhopper) and 3 soil Pb concentrations [normal - 400 mg/kg lead (following federal soil standards for lead), moderate - 800 mg/kg lead, and excessive - 1200 mg/kg lead] in 4 replicates. At the end of 6 months, selected columns were amended with a biodegradable chelating agent, ethylenediamene disuccinate (10 mmol/ kg EDDS), to mobilize Pb and enhance Pb uptake by vetiver. Total and exchangeable (labile) Pb were correlated with phytoextracted Pb, and levels of antioxidant enzymes viz., superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the root and shoot tissues of vetiver grass. Results indicate that Pb uptake and antioxidant enzymes activity in vetiver grass is dependent on soil physico-chemical properties and phytoavailable Pb concentrations.

Andra, S. P.; Datta, R.; Sarkar, D.; Saminathan, S. K.

2006-05-01

319

Juniperus communis Linn oil decreases oxidative stress and increases antioxidant enzymes in the heart of rats administered a diet rich in cholesterol.  

PubMed

It has been asserted that consumption of dietary cholesterol (Chol) raises atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases and that Chol causes an increase in free radical production. Hypercholesterolemic diet has also been reported to cause changes in the antioxidant system. In our study, different doses of Juniperus communis Linn (JCL) oil, a tree species growing in Mediterranean and Isparta regions and having aromatic characteristics, were administered to rats; and the levels of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assay (TBARS) were examined in the heart tissue of rats. In this study, 35 Wistar Albino male adult rats weighing approximately 250-300 g were used. The rats were divided into five groups of seven each. The control group was administered normal pellet chow, and the Chol group was administered pellet chow including 2% Chol, while 50 JCL, 100 JCL, and 200 JCL groups were administered 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg JCL oil dissolved in 0.5% sodium carboxy methyl cellulose, respectively, in addition to the pellet chow containing 2% Chol, by gavage. After 30 days, the experiment was terminated and the antioxidant enzyme activities were examined in the heart tissue of rats. While consumption of dietary Chol decreases the activities of SOD, GSH-Px, and CAT in heart tissue of rats (not significant), administeration of 200 mg/kg JCL oil in addition to Chol led to a significant increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Administering Chol led to a significant increase in TBARS level. Administering 100 and 200 mg/kg JCL oil together with Chol prevented significantly the increase in lipid peroxides. As a result of the study, JCL oil showed oxidant-antioxidant effect in the heart tissue of rats. PMID:23293127

Gümral, Nurhan; Doguc Kumbul, Duygu; Aylak, Firdevs; Saygin, Mustafa; Savik, Emin

2013-01-01

320

Changes of platelet antioxidative enzymes during oxidative stress: the protective effect of polyphenol-rich extract from berries of Aronia melanocarpa and grape seeds.  

PubMed

Aronia melanocarpa fruits (Rosaceae) and grape seeds (seeds of Vitis vinifera, Vitaceae) are two of the richest plant sources of phenolic substances, and they have been shown to have various biological activities. The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the action of phenolic extracts (at concentrations 5-100?µg/mL) of two different plants, berries of A. melanocarpa (chokebbery) and grape seeds, on the activities of various antioxidative enzymes, the amount of glutathione (as an important component of redox status) in control the platelets and platelets treated with H(2)O(2) (the strong physiological oxidant) in vitro. The properties of these two tested extracts were also compared with the action of a well characterized antioxidative and antiplatelet commercial monomeric polyphenol - resveratrol. The extract from berries of A. melanocarpa, like the extract from grape seeds, reduced the changes in activities of different antioxidative enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase) in platelets treated with H(2)O(2). The action of the two tested plant extracts and H(2)O(2) evoked a significant increase of reduced glutathione in platelets compared with platelets treated with H(2)O(2) only. Comparative studies indicate that the two tested plant extracts had similar antioxidative properties, and were found to be more reactive in blood platelets than the solution of resveratrol. PMID:21299394

Kedzierska, Magdalena; Olas, Beata; Wachowicz, Barbara; Stochmal, Anna; Oleszek, Wies?aw; Erler, Joachim

2011-01-01

321

Presenilin-dependent transcriptional control of the Abeta-degrading enzyme neprilysin by intracellular domains of betaAPP and APLP.  

PubMed

Amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta), which plays a central role in Alzheimer's disease, is generated by presenilin-dependent gamma-secretase cleavage of beta-amyloid precursor protein (betaAPP). We report that the presenilins (PS1 and PS2) also regulate Abeta degradation. Presenilin-deficient cells fail to degrade Abeta and have drastic reductions in the transcription, expression, and activity of neprilysin, a key Abeta-degrading enzyme. Neprilysin activity and expression are also lowered by gamma-secretase inhibitors and by PS1/PS2 deficiency in mouse brain. Neprilysin activity is restored by transient expression of PS1 or PS2 and by expression of the amyloid intracellular domain (AICD), which is cogenerated with Abeta, during gamma-secretase cleavage of betaAPP. Neprilysin gene promoters are transactivated by AICDs from APP-like proteins (APP, APLP1, and APLP2), but not by Abeta or by the gamma-secretase cleavage products of Notch, N- or E- cadherins. The presenilin-dependent regulation of neprilysin, mediated by AICDs, provides a physiological means to modulate Abeta levels with varying levels of gamma-secretase activity. PMID:15944124

Pardossi-Piquard, Raphaëlle; Petit, Agnès; Kawarai, Toshitaka; Sunyach, Claire; Alves da Costa, Cristine; Vincent, Bruno; Ring, Sabine; D'Adamio, Luciano; Shen, Jie; Müller, Ulrike; St George Hyslop, Peter; Checler, Frédéric

2005-05-19

322

Relative membrane permeability and activities of some antioxidant enzymes as the key determinants of salt tolerance in canola ( Brassica napus L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to determine whether cell membrane permeability, activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POX) and K+ vs. Na+ selectivity could be used as effective selection criteria for salt tolerance in canola (Brassica napus L.) four lines, Dunkled, CON-III, Rainbow and Cyclone were subjected to non-saline (control) or saline (150mM NaCl) conditions for

M. Ashraf; Q. Ali

2008-01-01

323

Curcumin regulates gene expression of insulin like growth factor, B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 and antioxidant enzymes in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

Background The effects of curcumin on the activities and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione-S-transferase (G-ST), B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in diabetic rats were studied. Methods Twenty four rats were assigned to three groups (8 rats for each). Rats of first group were non diabetic and rats of the second group were rendered diabetic by streptozotocin (STZ). Both groups received vehicle, corn oil only (5 ml/kg body weight) and served as negative and positive controls, respectively. Rats of the third group were rendered diabetic and received oral curcumin dissolved in corn oil at a dose of 15 mg/5 ml/kg body weight for 6 weeks. Results Diabetic rats showed significant increase of blood glucose, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and activities of all antioxidant enzymes with significant reduction of reduced glutathione (GSH) compare to the control non diabetic group. Gene expression of Bcl2, SOD, CAT, GPX and GST was increased significantly in diabetic untreated rats compare to the control non diabetic group. The administration of curcumin to diabetic rats normalized significantly their blood sugar level and TBARS values and increased the activities of all antioxidant enzymes and GSH concentration. In addition, curcumin treated rats showed significant increase in gene expression of IGF-1, Bcl2, SOD and GST compare to non diabetic and diabetic untreated rats. Conclusion Curcumin was antidiabetic therapy, induced hypoglycemia by up-regulation of IGF-1 gene and ameliorate the diabetes induced oxidative stress via increasing the availability of GSH, increasing the activities and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes and Bcl2. Further studies are required to investigate the actual mechanism of action of curcumin regarding the up regulation of gene expression of examined parameters. PMID:24364912

2013-01-01

324

Protective effect of curcumin against liver warm ischemia\\/reperfusion injury in rat model is associated with regulation of heat shock protein and antioxidant enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To investigate the hypothesis that the protective effects of curcumin in hepatic warm ischemia\\/reperfusion (I\\/R) injury are associated with increasing heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) expression and antioxidant enzyme activity. METHODS: Sixty Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomly divided into sham, I\\/R, C + I\\/R groups. The model of reduced-size liver warm ischemia and reperfusion was used. Curcumin (50 mg\\/kg)

Shi-Qiang Shen; Yuan Zhang; Jin-Jian Xiang; Cheng-Long Xiong

325

Chemical composition, angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil from Periploca laevigata root barks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study describes the chemical composition, and antimicrobial, antioxidant and angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities of essential oil from Periploca laevigata root barks (PLRB), an aromatic plant widely distributed in Tunisia and used as a traditional medicinal plant. Gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry was used to determine the composition of the PLRB oil. Forty-three components were identified in the essential

Mohamed Hajji; Ons Masmoudi; Nabil Souissi; Yosra Triki; Sadok Kammoun; Moncef Nasri

2010-01-01

326

Stress-related variation in antioxidative enzymes activity and cell metabolism efficiency associated with embryogenesis induction in isolated microspore culture of triticale ( x Triticosecale Wittm.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isolated microspore cultures of two spring triticale (x Triticosecale Wittm.) cultivars were used to examine the effect of various stress treatments (either high—32°C or low—5°C temperature with\\u000a or without nitrogen\\/carbohydrate starvation) applied to excised anthers on the effectiveness of microspore embryogenesis induction.\\u000a To quantify the effects of pretreatment conditions, the activity of antioxidative enzymes (catalase, peroxidase and superoxide\\u000a dismutase) together

Iwona ?ur; Ewa Dubas; El?bieta Golemiec; Magdalena Szechy?ska-Hebda; Gabriela Go??biowska; Maria W?dzony

2009-01-01

327

Status of selenium and antioxidant enzymes of goitrous children is lower than healthy controls and nongoitrous children with high iodine deficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to investigate the relations of iodine deficiency and\\/or goiter with selenium (Se) and antioxidant enzyme (AOE) status,\\u000a we determined the relevant parameters of goitrous high school children living in an endemic goiter area of Turkey. Subjects\\u000a were selected by a simple random sampling technique after screening the whole population of the high schools of two towns\\u000a by neck

Belma Giray; Filiz Hincal; Tahsin Teziç; Ay?enur Ökten; Yusuf Gedik

2001-01-01

328

Modulation of antioxidant enzyme activities, platelet aggregation and serum prostaglandins in rats fed spray-dried milk containing n -3 fatty acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spray-dried milk enriched with n-3 fatty acids from linseed oil or fish oil were fed to rats to study its influence on liver lipid peroxides, hepatic antioxidant\\u000a enzyme activities, serum prostaglandins and platelet aggregation. Significant level of ? linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic\\u000a acid and docosahexaenoic acid were accumulated at the expense of arachidonic acid in the liver of rats fed n-3

T. R. Ramaprasad; V. Baskaran; T. P. Krishnakantha; B. R. Lokesh

2005-01-01

329

Contributions of apoplasmic cadmium accumulation, antioxidative enzymes and induction of phytochelatins in cadmium tolerance of the cadmium-accumulating cultivar of black oat ( Avena strigosa Schreb.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contributions of cadmium (Cd) accumulation in cell walls, antioxidative enzymes and induction of phytochelatins (PCs)\\u000a to Cd tolerance were investigated in two distinctive genotypes of black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb.). One cultivar of black oat ‘New oat’ accumulated Cd in the leaves at the highest concentration compared to another\\u000a black oat cultivar ‘Soil saver’ and other major graminaceous crops.

Shimpei Uraguchi; Masako Kiyono; Takuya Sakamoto; Izumi Watanabe; Katsuji Kuno

2009-01-01

330

Effect of a short-term hypoxic treatment followed by re-aeration on free radicals level and antioxidative enzymes in lupine roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate whether re-aeration after a short-term hypoxic pre-treatment (for 2, 12 or 24 h) induces oxidative stress, the temporal sequence of physiological reactions, including the level of free radicals, hydrogen peroxide production, and changes in antioxidative enzymes, was characterized in roots of hydroponically grown lupine (Lupinus luteus L., cv. Juno) seedlings. By using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), we found that the

Ma?gorzata Garnczarska; Waldemar Bednarski

2004-01-01

331

Transient, oxidant-induced antioxidant transcript and enzyme levels correlate with greater oxidant-resistance in paraquat-resistant Conyza bonariensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  ?The elucidation of mechanisms plants use to overcome oxidative stress is facilitated where there is intra-specific genetic\\u000a variability. The differential induction of higher levels of mRNAs, cytosol and chloroplast antioxidant enzyme activities,\\u000a and proteins occurred after sub-lethal paraquat treatment of the oxidant-resistant biotype of Conyza bonariensis (L.) Cronq. By 6 h after sub-lethal paraquat treatment the activities of superoxide dismutase

Bin Ye; Jonathan Gressel

2000-01-01

332

Synthesis and characterization of hemoglobin conjugates with antioxidant enzymes via poly(ethylene glycol) cross-linker (Hb–SOD–CAT) for protection from free radical stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hemoglobin (Hb) conjugated with the antioxidant enzymes (SOD and CAT), by employing dicarboxymethylated poly(ethylene glycol), was designed for protection of hemoglobin against free radicals. In this study, the conjugation process was confirmed by employing SDS-PAGE and SEC techniques. The average molecular weight of the conjugates was estimated to be around 1000kDa. The enzymatic activities of the SOD and CAT in

Venkatareddy Nadithe; You Han Bae

2010-01-01

333

Effect of Antioxidant-Rich Foods on Plasma Ascorbic Acid, Cardiac Enzyme, and Lipid Peroxide Levels in Patients Hospitalized with Acute Myocardial Infarction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To determine whether a fat- and energy-reduced diet rich in antioxidant vitamins C and E, beta carotene, and soluble dietary fiber reduces free-radical stress and cardiac enzyme level and increases plasma ascorbic acid level 1 week after acute myocardial infarction.Design Randomized, single blind, controlled study.Setting Primary- and secondary-care research center for patients with myocardial infarction.Subjects All subjects with suspected

RAM B SINGH; MOHAMMAD A NIAZ; POONAM AGARWAL; RAHEENA BEGOM; SHANTI S RASTOGI

1995-01-01

334

Effect of hypoosmotic and thermal stress on gene expression and the activity of antioxidant enzymes in the cinnamon clownfish, Amphiprion melanopus  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied oxidative stress in cinnamon clownfish exposed to hypoosmotic (35 psu ? 17.5 psu and 17.5 psu with prolactin (PRL)) and low temperature (28°C ? 24°C and 20°C) conditions by measuring the expression and activity of Cu\\/Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu\\/Zn-SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPX). The expression and activity of the antioxidant enzymes were significantly higher after the fish

Mi Seon Park; Hyun Suk Shin; Cheol Young Choi; Na Na Kim; Dae-Won Park; Gyung-Suk Kil; Jehee Lee

2011-01-01

335

NiCl2-Down-Regulated Antioxidant Enzyme mRNA Expression Causes Oxidative Damage in the Broiler(')s Kidney.  

PubMed

The kidney serves as a major organ of nickel (Ni) excretion and is a target organ for acute Ni toxicity due to Ni accumulation. There are no studies on the Ni or Ni compound-regulated antioxidant enzyme mRNA expression in animals and human beings at present. This study was conducted to investigate the pathway of nickel chloride (NiCl2)-caused renal oxidative damage by the methods of biochemistry, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Two hundred and eighty one-day-old broilers were randomly divided into four groups and fed on a control diet and three experimental diets supplemented with 300, 600, and 900 mg/kg of NiCl2 for 42 days. Dietary NiCl2 elevated the malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) contents, and reduced the ability to inhibit hydroxy radical in the NiCl2-treated groups. Also, the renal inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity and mRNA expression levels were increased. The total antioxidant (T-AOC) and activities of antioxidant enzymes including copper zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD), manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione-s-transferase (GST) were decreased, and the glutathione (GSH) contents as well were decreased in the kidney. Concurrently, the renal CuZn-SOD, Mn-SOD, CAT, GSH-Px, GST, and GR mRNA expression levels were decreased. The above-mentioned results showed that dietary NiCl2 in excess of 300 mg/kg caused renal oxidative damage by reducing mRNA expression levels and activities of antioxidant enzymes, and then enhancing free radicals generation, lipid peroxidation, and DNA oxidation. PMID:25253428

Guo, Hongrui; Wu, Bangyuan; Cui, Hengmin; Peng, Xi; Fang, Jing; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang; Wang, Xun; Deng, Jie; Yin, Shuang; Li, Jian; Tang, Kun

2014-12-01

336

Changes in expression of the antioxidant enzyme SOD3 occur upon differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in vitro.  

PubMed

The discovery that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) secrete SOD3 may help explain studies in which MSCs have direct antioxidant activities both in vivo and in vitro. SOD3 is an antioxidant enzyme that dismutes toxic free radicals produced during inflammatory processes. Therefore, MSC production and secretion of active and therapeutically significant levels of SOD3 would further support the use of MSCs as a cellular based antioxidant therapy. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate in vitro if MSC differentiation down the adipogenic, chondrogenic, and osteogenic lineages influences the expression of the antioxidant molecule SOD3. Human bone marrow MSCs and their differentiated progeny were cultured under standard conditions and both the SOD3 gene and protein expression examined. Following adipogenesis, cultures demonstrated that both SOD3 protein and gene expression are significantly increased, and conversely, following chondrogenesis SOD3 protein and gene expression is significantly decreased. Following osteogenesis there were no significant changes in SOD3 protein or gene expression. This in vitro study describes the initial characterization of SOD3 expression and secretion by differentiated MSCs. This should help guide further in vivo work establishing the therapeutic and antioxidative potential of MSC and their differentiated progeny. PMID:22132904

Nightingale, Helen; Kemp, Kevin; Gray, Elizabeth; Hares, Kelly; Mallam, Elizabeth; Scolding, Neil; Wilkins, Alastair

2012-07-20

337

Analysis of gene expression changes, caused by exposure to nitrite, in metabolic and antioxidant enzymes in the red claw crayfish, Cherax quadricarinatus.  

PubMed

We evaluated the effect of acute exposure to nitrite on expression of antioxidant and metabolic enzyme genes in gill tissue of advanced juvenile Cherax quadricarinatus. A 48h nitrite exposure was conducted, using four test concentrations (NO2-N=0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2mg L(-1)) plus a control group. The relative mRNA expression of mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase (mMnSOD), cytosolic MnSOD (cMnSOD), extracellular copper/zinc SOD (exCu/ZnSOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), arginine kinase (AK), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase (mMDH), Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase ?-subunit and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) in gill tissue was measured. Significantly increased mRNA expression was observed for all the antioxidant enzymes after 12 and 24h. After 48h, they all decreased at high nitrite concentrations. The gene expression levels of AK, GDH, mMDH and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase ?-subunit showed similar trends as the antioxidant enzymes. Significant depression of gene expression levels of PEPCK occurred throughout the experimental time at high nitrite concentrations. The results indicated that nitrite could induce oxidative and metabolic stress in C. quadricarinatus, in a time dependent manner, which suggests they could be helpful in predicting sublethal nitrite toxicity and useful in environmental monitoring studies. PMID:24680578

Jiang, Qichen; Zhang, Wenyi; Tan, Hongyue; Pan, Dongmei; Yang, Yuanhao; Ren, Qian; Yang, Jiaxin

2014-06-01

338

Synthesis and characterization of hemoglobin conjugates with antioxidant enzymes via poly(ethylene glycol) cross-linker (Hb-SOD-CAT) for protection from free radical stress  

PubMed Central

Hemoglobin (Hb) conjugated with the antioxidant enzymes (SOD and CAT), by employing dicarboxymethylated poly(ethylene glycol), was designed for protection of hemoglobin against free radicals. In this study, the conjugation process was confirmed by employing SDS-PAGE and SEC techniques. The average molecular weight of the conjugates was estimated to be around 1000 kDa. The enzymatic activities of the SOD and CAT in the conjugates (Hb-SOD-CAT) after conjugation were found to retain greater than 70% and 90% of the original bioactivity. Results show that antioxidant enzymes helped minimize methemoglobin (non-carrier of oxygen) formation during the conjugation process and also during storage at 4°C over a period of one month. In summary, the optimized (1:10 Hb/PEG) cross-linked conjugates with antioxidant enzymes showed protective properties from severe free radical stresses when incubated with hydrogen peroxide (0.1 and 1mM) and xanthine (1mM)/xanthine oxidase (10 and 20mUnits/mL) system. PMID:20723561

Nadithe, Venkatareddy; Bae, You Han

2010-01-01

339

Age-related protective effect of deprenyl on changes in the levels of diagnostic marker enzymes and antioxidant defense enzymes activities in cerebellar tissue in Wistar rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antioxidants are free radical scavengers and protect living organisms against oxidative damage to tissues. Experimental evidence\\u000a implicates oxygen-derived free radicals as important causative agents of aging and the present study was designed to evaluate\\u000a the age-related effects of deprenyl on the antioxidant defense in the cerebellum of male Wistar rats. Experimental rats of\\u000a three age groups (6, 12, and 18 months

Manju V. Subramanian; T. J. James

2010-01-01

340

Epigallocatechin-3-gallate modulates anti-oxidant defense enzyme expression in murine submandibular and pancreatic exocrine gland cells and human HSG cells.  

PubMed

Sjogren's syndrome (SS) and type-1 diabetes are prevalent autoimmune diseases in the USA. We reported previously that epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) prevented and delayed the onset of autoimmune disease in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, a model for both SS and type-1 diabetes. EGCG also normalized the levels of proteins related to DNA repair and anti-oxidant activity in NOD.B10.Sn-H2 mice, a model for primary SS, prior to disease onset. The current study examined the effect of EGCG on the expression of anti-oxidant enzymes in the submandibular salivary gland and the pancreas of NOD mice and cultured human salivary gland acinar cells. NOD mice consuming 0.2% EGCG daily dissolved in water showed higher protein levels of peroxiredoxin 6 (PRDX6), a major anti-oxidant defense protein, and catalase, while the untreated NOD mice exhibited significantly lowered levels of PRDX6. Similarly, pancreas samples from water-fed NOD mice were depleted in PRDX6 and superoxide dismutase, while EGCG-fed mice showed high levels of these anti-oxidant enzymes. In cultured HSG cells EGCG increased PRDX6 levels significantly, and this was inhibited by p38 and JNK inhibitors, suggesting that the EGCG-mediated increase in protective anti-oxidant capacity is regulated in part through mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway signaling. This mechanism may explain the higher levels of PRDX6 found in EGCG-fed NOD mice. These preclinical observations warrant future preclinical and clinical studies to determine whether EGCG or green tea polyphenols could be used in novel preventive and therapeutic approaches against autoimmune diseases and salivary dysfunction involving oxidative stress. PMID:24444391

Dickinson, Douglas; DeRossi, Scott; Yu, Hongfang; Thomas, Cristina; Kragor, Chris; Paquin, Becky; Hahn, Emily; Ohno, Seiji; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Hsu, Stephen

2014-05-01

341

Amelioration of ozone-induced oxidative damage in wheat plants grown under high carbon dioxide: Role of antioxidant enzymes  

SciTech Connect

O{sub 3}-induced in growth, oxidative damage to protein, and specific activities of certain antioxidant enzymes were investigated in wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L. cv Roblin) grown under ambient or high CO{sub 2}. High CO{sub 2} enhanced shoot biomass. The shoot biomass was relatively unaffected in plants grown under a combination of high CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3}. O{sub 3} exposure under ambient CO{sub 2} decreased photosynthetic pigments, soluble proteins, and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase protein and enhanced oxidative damage to proteins, but these effects were not observed in plants exposed to O{sub 3} under high CO{sub 2}. O{sub 3} exposure initially enhanced the specific activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and ascorbate peroxidase irrespective of growth in ambient or high CO{sub 2}. O{sub 3} exposure initially enhanced the specific activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and ascorbate peroxidase irrespective of growth in ambient or high CO{sub 2}. However, the specific activities decreased in plants with prolonged exposure to O{sub 3} under ambient CO{sub 2} but not in plants exposed to O{sub 3} under high CO{sub 2}. Native gels revealed preferential changes in the isoform composition of superoxide dismutase, peroxidases, and ascorbate peroxidase of plants grown under a combination of high CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3}. Furthermore, growth under high CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} led to the synthesis of one new isoform of glutathione reductase. This could explain why plants grown under a combination of high CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} are capable of resisting O{sub 3}-induced damage to growth and proteins compared to plants exposed to O{sub 3} under ambient CO{sub 2}. 66 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

Rao, M.V.; Hale, B.A.; Ormrod, D.P. [Univ. of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario (Canada)

1995-10-01

342

Thermal tolerance of contractile function in oxidative skeletal muscle: no protection by antioxidants and reduced tolerance with eicosanoid enzyme inhibition.  

PubMed

Mechanisms for the loss of muscle contractile function in hyperthermia are poorly understood. This study identified the critical temperature, resulting in a loss of contractile function in isolated diaphragm (thermal tolerance), and then tested the hypotheses 1) that increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production contributes to the loss of contractile function at this temperature, and 2) eicosanoid metabolism plays an important role in preservation of contractile function in hyperthermia. Contractile function and passive force were measured in rat diaphragm bundles during and after 30 min of exposure to 40, 41, 42 or 43 degrees C. Between 40 and 42 degrees C, there were no effects of hyperthermia, but at 43 degrees C, a significant loss of active force and an increase in passive force were observed. Inhibition of ROS with the antioxidants, Tiron or Trolox, did not inhibit the loss of contractile force at 43 degrees C. Furthermore, treatment with dithiothreitol, a thiol (-SH) reducing agent, did not reverse the effects of hyperthermia. A variety of global lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibitors further depressed force during 43 degrees C and caused a significant loss of thermal tolerance at 42 degrees C. Cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors also caused a loss of thermal tolerance at 42 degrees C. Blockage of phospholipase with phospholipase A(2) inhibitors, bromoenol lactone or arachidonyltrifluoromethyl ketone failed to significantly prevent the loss of force at 43 degrees C. Overall, these data suggest that ROS do not play an apparent role in the loss of contractile function during severe hyperthermia in diaphragm. However, functional LOX and COX enzyme activities appear to be necessary for maintaining normal force production in hyperthermia. PMID:18768765

Oliver, S Ryan; Wright, Valerie P; Parinandi, Narasimham; Clanton, Thomas L

2008-11-01

343

Amelioration of Ozone-Induced Oxidative Damage in Wheat Plants Grown under High Carbon Dioxide (Role of Antioxidant Enzymes).  

PubMed Central

O3-induced changes in growth, oxidative damage to protein, and specific activities of certain antioxidant enzymes were investigated in wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L. cv Roblin) grown under ambient or high CO2. High CO2 enhanced shoot biomass of wheat plants, whereas O3 exposure decreased shoot biomass. The shoot biomass was relatively unaffected in plants grown under a combination of high CO2 and O3. O3 exposure under ambient CO2 decreased photosynthetic pigments, soluble proteins, and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase protein and enhanced oxidative damage to proteins, but these effects were not observed in plants exposed to O3 under high CO2. O3 exposure initially enhanced the specific activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and ascorbate peroxidase irrespective of growth in ambient or high CO2. However, the specific activities decreased in plants with prolonged exposure to O3 under ambient CO2 but not in plants exposed to O3 under high CO2. Native gels revealed preferential changes in the isoform composition of superoxide dismutase, peroxidases, and ascorbate peroxidase of plants grown under a combination of high CO2 and O3. Furthermore, growth under high CO2 and O3 led to the synthesis of one new isoform of glutathione reductase. This could explain why plants grown under a combination of high CO2 and O3 are capable of resisting O3-induced damage to growth and proteins compared to plants exposed to O3 under ambient CO2. PMID:12228603

Rao, M. V.; Hale, B. A.; Ormrod, D. P.

1995-01-01

344

Update on the Angiotensin converting enzyme 2-Angiotensin (1-7)-MAS receptor axis: fetal programing, sex differences, and intracellular pathways.  

PubMed

The renin-angiotensin-system (RAS) constitutes an important hormonal system in the physiological regulation of blood pressure. Indeed, dysregulation of the RAS may lead to the development of cardiovascular pathologies including kidney injury. Moreover, the blockade of this system by the inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) or antagonism of the angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) constitutes an effective therapeutic regimen. It is now apparent with the identification of multiple components of the RAS that the system is comprised of different angiotensin peptides with diverse biological actions mediated by distinct receptor subtypes. The classic RAS can be defined as the ACE-Ang II-AT1R axis that promotes vasoconstriction, sodium retention, and other mechanisms to maintain blood pressure, as well as increased oxidative stress, fibrosis, cellular growth, and inflammation in pathological conditions. In contrast, the non-classical RAS composed of the ACE2-Ang-(1-7)-Mas receptor axis generally opposes the actions of a stimulated Ang II-AT1R axis through an increase in nitric oxide and prostaglandins and mediates vasodilation, natriuresis, diuresis, and oxidative stress. Thus, a reduced tone of the Ang-(1-7) system may contribute to these pathologies as well. Moreover, the non-classical RAS components may contribute to the effects of therapeutic blockade of the classical system to reduce blood pressure and attenuate various indices of renal injury. The review considers recent studies on the ACE2-Ang-(1-7)-Mas receptor axis regarding the precursor for Ang-(1-7), the intracellular expression and sex differences of this system, as well as an emerging role of the Ang1-(1-7) pathway in fetal programing events and cardiovascular dysfunction. PMID:24409169

Chappell, Mark C; Marshall, Allyson C; Alzayadneh, Ebaa M; Shaltout, Hossam A; Diz, Debra I

2014-01-01

345

Salivary Antigen-5/CAP Family Members Are Cu2+-dependent Antioxidant Enzymes That Scavenge O2? and Inhibit Collagen-induced Platelet Aggregation and Neutrophil Oxidative Burst*  

PubMed Central

The function of the antigen-5/CAP family of proteins found in the salivary gland of bloodsucking animals has remained elusive for decades. Antigen-5 members from the hematophagous insects Dipetalogaster maxima (DMAV) and Triatoma infestans (TIAV) were expressed and discovered to attenuate platelet aggregation, ATP secretion, and thromboxane A2 generation by low doses of collagen (<1 ?g/ml) but no other agonists. DMAV did not interact with collagen, glycoprotein VI, or integrin ?2?1. This inhibitory profile resembles the effects of antioxidants Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD) in platelet function. Accordingly, DMAV was found to inhibit cytochrome c reduction by O2? generated by the xanthine/xanthine oxidase, implying that it exhibits antioxidant activity. Moreover, our results demonstrate that DMAV blunts the luminescence signal of O2? generated by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-stimulated neutrophils. Mechanistically, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and fluorescence spectroscopy revealed that DMAV, like Cu,Zn-SOD, interacts with Cu2+, which provides redox potential for catalytic removal of O2?. Notably, surface plasmon resonance experiments (BIAcore) determined that DMAV binds sulfated glycosaminoglycans (e.g. heparin, KD ?100 nmol/liter), as reported for extracellular SOD. Finally, fractions of the salivary gland of D. maxima with native DMAV contain Cu2+ and display metal-dependent antioxidant properties. Antigen-5/CAP emerges as novel family of Cu2+-dependent antioxidant enzymes that inhibit neutrophil oxidative burst and negatively modulate platelet aggregation by a unique salivary mechanism. PMID:23564450

Assumpcao, Teresa C. F.; Ma, Dongying; Schwarz, Alexandra; Reiter, Karine; Santana, Jaime M.; Andersen, John F.; Ribeiro, Jose M. C.; Nardone, Glenn; Yu, Lee L.; Francischetti, Ivo M. B.

2013-01-01

346

Reversal effect of monoisoamyl dimercaptosuccinic acid (MiADMSA) for arsenic and lead induced perturbations in apoptosis and antioxidant enzymes in developing rat brain.  

PubMed

Oxidative stress (OS) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of many neurodegenerative disorders. Several studies have shown that exposure to arsenic (As) and lead (Pb) produces oxidative stress, one of the most noted molecular mechanisms for the neurotoxicity of these metals. In the present study, we examined the effect of combined exposure to these metals (As and Pb) on the activity levels of antioxidant enzymes and apoptotic marker enzymes in brain regions (cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum) of rats at postnatal day (PND) 21, 28 and 3 months age and compared the toxicity levels with individual metals (As or Pb). Further, we also evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of a chelating agent, monoisoamyl dimercaptosuccinic acid (MiADMSA) against arsenic and lead induced developmental neurotoxicity. Pregnant rats were exposed to sodium meta-arsenite (50 ppm) and lead acetate (0.2%) individually, and in combination (As=25 ppm+Pb=0.1%) via drinking water throughout perinatal period (GD 6 to PND 21). MiADMSA (50 mg/kg, orally through gavage) was given for three consecutive days to the PND 18 pups (i.e., PND 18 to PND 20). Exposure to metal mixture resulted in a significant decrease in the activity levels of antioxidant enzymes such as manganese-superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) while the malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and mRNA expression levels of caspase-3 and caspase-9 were significantly increased in all the three brain regions. The observed alterations were greater with exposure to metal mixture than individual metals (As or Pb) and the changes were more prominent at PND 28 and greater in cerebral cortex than hippocampus and cerebellum. Interestingly, chelation therapy with MiADMSA showed significant recovery in antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation and gene expression levels of caspase-3 and caspase-9. From these findings, it can be concluded that combined exposure to As and Pb showed an additive effect on antioxidant enzymes than individual metal exposure and chelation therapy with MiADMSA significantly reversed the As and Pb induced apoptosis and oxidative stress, a major contributing factor to neurotoxicity. PMID:23906897

Sannadi, Saritha; Kadeyala, Praveen Kumar; Gottipolu, Rajarami Reddy

2013-11-01

347

High Sensitivity of Nrf2 Knockout Mice to Acetaminophen Hepatotoxicity Associated with Decreased Expression of ARE- Regulated Drug Metabolizing Enzymes and Antioxidant Genes  

E-print Network

Nrf2, which belongs to the basic leucine zipper (bZip) transcription factor family, has been implicated as a key molecule involved in antioxidant-responsive element (ARE)-mediated gene expression. In order to examine the role of Nrf2 in protection against xenobiotic toxicity, the sensitivity of nrf2 knockout mice to acetaminophen (N-acetyl-4-aminophenol (APAP)) was analyzed. The saturation of detoxification pathways after high levels of exposure to APAP is known to induce hepatotoxicity. Two factors important in its detoxification are UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UDP-GT), an ARE-regulated phase-II drug-metabolizing enzyme, and glutathione (GSH), an antioxidant molecule whose synthesis depends on ARE-regulated ?-glutamylcysteine synthetase (?GCS). Two- to 4-month-old male mice were orally administered a single dose of APAP at 0, 150, 300, or 600 mg/kg. Doses of 300 mg/kg APAP or greater caused death in the homozygous knockout mice

Takanori Harada; Masayuki Yamamoto

348

Chemical and molecular mechanisms of antioxidants: Experimental approaches and model systems  

PubMed Central

Free radicals derived from oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur molecules in the biological system are highly active to react with other molecules due to their unpaired electrons. These radicals are important part of groups of molecules called reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS), which are produced during cellular metabolism and functional activities and have important roles in cell signaling, apoptosis, gene expression and ion transportation. However, excessive ROS attack bases in nucleic acids, amino acid side chains in proteins and double bonds in unsaturated fatty acids, and cause oxidative stress, which can damage DNA, RNA, proteins and lipids resulting in an increased risk for cardiovascular disease, cancer, autism, and other diseases. Intracellular antioxidant enzymes and intake of dietary antioxidants may help to maintain an adequate antioxidant status in the body. In the past decades, new molecular techniques, cell cultures and animal models have been established to study the effects and mechanisms of antioxidants on ROS. The chemical and molecular approaches have been used to study the mechanism and kinetics of antioxidants and to identify new potent antioxidants. Antioxidants can decrease the oxidative damage directly via reacting with free radicals or indirectly by inhibiting the activity or expression of free radical generating enzymes or enhancing the activity or expression of intracellular antioxidant enzymes. The new chemical and cell-free biological system has been applied in dissecting the molecular action of antioxidants. This review focuses on the research approaches that have been used to study oxidative stress and antioxidants in lipid peroxidation, DNA damage, protein modification as well as enzyme activity, with emphasis on the chemical and cell-free biological system. PMID:19754673

Lu, Jian-Ming; Lin, Peter H.; Yao, Qizhi; Chen, Changyi

2010-01-01

349

OsDMI3-mediated activation of OsMPK1 regulates the activities of antioxidant enzymes in abscisic acid signalling in rice.  

PubMed

In rice, the Ca(2+) /calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK) OsDMI3 has been shown to be required for abscisic acid (ABA)-induced antioxidant defence. However, it is not clear how OsDMI3 participates in this process in rice. In this study, the cross-talk between OsDMI3 and the major ABA-activated MAPK OsMPK1 in ABA-induced antioxidant defence was investigated. ABA treatment induced the expression of OsDMI3 and OsMPK1 and the activities of OsDMI3 and OsMPK1 in rice leaves. In the mutant of OsDMI3, the ABA-induced increases in the expression and the activity of OsMPK1 were substantially reduced. But in the mutant of OsMPK1, the ABA-induced increases in the expression and the activity of OsDMI3 were not affected. Pretreatments with MAPKK inhibitors also did not affect the ABA-induced activation of OsDMI3. Further, a transient expression analysis in combination with mutant analysis in rice protoplasts showed that OsMPK1 is required for OsDMI3-induced increases in the activities of antioxidant enzymes and the production of H2 O2 . Our data indicate that there exists a cross-talk between OsDMI3 and OsMPK1 in ABA signalling, in which OsDMI3 functions upstream of OsMPK1 to regulate the activities of antioxidant enzymes and the production of H2 O2 in rice. PMID:23777258

Shi, Ben; Ni, Lan; Liu, Yanpei; Zhang, Aying; Tan, Mingpu; Jiang, Mingyi

2014-02-01

350

Alteration of Antioxidant Enzymes and Associated Genes Induced by Grape Seed Extracts in the Primary Muscle Cells of Goats In Vitro  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to investigate how the activity and expression of certain paramount antioxidant enzymes respond to grape seed extract (GSE) addition in primary muscle cells of goats. Gluteal primary muscle cells (PMCs) isolated from a 3-week old goat were cultivated as an unstressed cell model, or they were exposed to 100 µM H2O2 to establish a H2O2-stimulated cell model. The activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutases (SOD) and glutathione peroxidases (GPx) in combination with other relevant antioxidant indexes [i.e., reduced glutathione (GSH) and total antioxidant capacity (TAOC)] in response to GSE addition were tested in the unstressed and H2O2-stimulated cell models, and the relative mRNA levels of the CAT, GuZu-SOD, and GPx-1 genes were measured by qPCR. In unstressed PMCs, GSE addition at the dose of 10 µg/ml strikingly attenuated the expression levels of CAT and CuZn-SOD as well as the corresponding enzyme activities. By contrast, in cells pretreated with 100 µM H2O2, the expression and activity levels of these two antioxidant enzymes were enhanced by GSE addition at 10 µg/ml. GSE addition promoted GPx activity in both unstressed and stressed PMCs, while the expression of the GPx 1 gene displayed partial divergence with GPx activity, which was mitigated by GSE addition at 10 µg/ml in unstressed PMCs. GSH remained comparatively stable except for GSE addition to H2O2-stimulated PMCs at 60 µg/ml, in which a dramatic depletion of GSH occurred. Moreover, GSE addition enhanced TAOC in unstressed (but not H2O2-stimulated) PMCs. GSE addition exerted a bidirectional modulating effect on the mRNA levels and activities of CAT and SOD in unstressed and stressed PMCs at a moderate dose, and it only exhibited a unidirectional effect on the promotion of GPx activity, reflecting its potential to improve antioxidant protection in ruminants. PMID:25238394

Yang, Tan; Li, Xiaomin; Zhu, Wang; Chen, Cheng; Sun, Zhihong; Tan, Zhiliang; Kang, Jinghe

2014-01-01

351

Evaluation of erythrocyte antioxidant mechanisms: antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation, and serum trace elements associated with progressive anemia in ovine malignant theileriosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ovine malignant theileriosis is a fatal disease that is characterized by severe progressive anemia. In order to elucidate\\u000a the underlying mechanisms involved in anemia, this study was designed to assess the antioxidant status and erythrocyte oxidative\\u000a injuries in Iranian fat-tailed sheep that suffered from malignant theileriosis. The infected animals (infected group), composed\\u000a of 50 Iranian sheep about 1–2 years old, naturally

S. Nazifi; S. M. Razavi; P. Kianiamin; E. Rakhshandehroo

2011-01-01

352

Effects of Ca(NO 3 ) 2 stress on oxidative damage, antioxidant enzymes activities and polyamine contents in roots of grafted and non-grafted tomato plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of Ca(NO3)2 stress on biomass production, oxidative damage, antioxidant enzymes activities and polyamine contents in roots of grafted\\u000a and non-grafted tomato plants were investigated. Results showed that when exposed to 80 mM Ca(NO3)2 stress, the biomass production reduction in non-grafted plants was more significant than that of grafted plants. Under Ca(NO3)2 stress, superoxide anion radical (O2•?) producing rate, hydrogen

Gu-Wen Zhang; Zheng-Lu Liu; Jun-Guo Zhou; Yue-Lin Zhu

2008-01-01

353

Medium salt strength induced changes in growth, physiology and secondary metabolite content in adventitious roots of Morinda citrifolia : the role of antioxidant enzymes and phenylalanine ammonia lyase  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an attempt to improve growth and secondary metabolite production, and to understand the possible mechanism involved in\\u000a relation to the changes in physiology and activities of antioxidant enzymes, we cultured Morinda citrifolia adventitious roots in different strength (0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0) of Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented\\u000a with 5 mg l?1 indole butyric acid and 30 g l?1 sucrose.

Eun-Jung Lee; Kee-Yoeup Paek

2010-01-01

354

Analysis of the impact of intracellular reactive oxygen species generation on the structural and functional integrity of human spermatozoa: lipid peroxidation, DNA fragmentation and effectiveness of antioxidants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure of human spermatozoa to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) resulted in the dose dependent generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which, at a critical level of intensity, induced lipid peroxida- tion, DNA damage and a dramatic decline of sperm motility. This system was then used as a model for screening the ability of different antioxidants to combat oxidative stress

Jeremy Twigg; Norma Fulton; Emilio Gomez; D. Stewart Irvine; R. John Aitken

355

Serum cortisol and haematological, biochemical and antioxidant enzyme variables in horse blood sampled in a slaughterhouse lairage, immediately before stunning and during exsanguination.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to determine changes of serum cortisol and biochemical, haematological and antioxidant enzyme variables in the blood of horses sampled during the pre-slaughter period (in the lairage and in the stunning box) and during exsanguination. A total of 24 Slovenian warm-blooded horses were observed. Blood samples for determination of serum cortisol and biochemical, haematological (red blood cell count, haematocrit, haemaglobin concentration) and antioxidant enzyme (whole blood superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) variables were collected by venipuncture of the left jugular vein in the lairage pen, 60 min before stunning (lairage) and immediately before stunning (stunning box). At exsanguination, blood samples were collected from the wound at the time of jugular vein sticking. During blood collection in the lairage pen and in the stunning box, horses were gently restrained with a halter. They were stunned using a penetrating captive bolt pistol impelled by air and were bled by jugular vein sticking. Horses were physically active in the lairage pen and in the race before entering the stunning box. After stunning, the horses showed paddling movements with their legs. In horses, the plasma lactate and glucose concentrations, the serum potassium concentration, the activities of the serum muscle enzymes aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase, and values of most of the other biochemical (Table 1) and haematological variables (Table 2), were significantly (P < 0.05) higher at exsanguination, than in blood sampled while they were in the lairage and in the stunning box. The serum concentrations of cortisol and chloride and the activities of alanine aminotransferase and antioxidant enzymes were not significantly different between the pre-slaughter period and exsanguination. All selected blood variables were not significantly different between the lairge and the stunning box sampling time, indicating no physiological stress responses of the investigated horses to stressors, such as novelty of the pre-slaughter environment and handling, present in the slaughterhouse between the lairage and the stunning box. However, the significantly higher values, at exsanguination, for the plasma lactate and glucose concentrations, serum muscle enzyme activities and haematological variables, than during the pre-slaughter period, might partially be attributed to stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system, caused by stunning and bleeding. PMID:23217233

Nemec Svete, A; ?ebulj-Kadunc, N; Frangež, R; Kruljc, P

2012-08-01

356

Effect of selenium-saturated bovine lactoferrin (Se-bLF) on antioxidant enzyme activities in human gut epithelial cells under oxidative stress.  

PubMed

Cancer and many chronic inflammatory diseases are associated with increased amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The potential cellular and tissue damage created by ROS has significant impact on many disease and cancer states and natural therapeutics are becoming essential in regulating altered redox states. We have shown recently that iron content is a critical determinant in the antitumour activity of bovine milk lactoferrin (bLF). We found that 100% iron-saturated bLF (Fe-bLF) acts as a potent natural adjuvant and fortifying agent for augmenting cancer chemotherapy and thus has a broad utility in the treatment of cancer. Furthermore, we also studied the effects of iron saturated bLF's ability as an antioxidant in the human epithelial colon cancer cell line HT29, giving insights into the potential of bLF in its different states. Thus, metal saturated bLF could be implemented as anti-cancer neutraceutical. In this regard, we have recently been able to prepare a selenium (Se) saturated form of bLF, being up to 98% saturated. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine how oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) alters antioxidant enzyme activity within HT29 epithelial colon cancer cells, and observe changes in this activity by treatments with different antioxidants ascorbic acid (AA), Apo (iron free)-bLF and selenium (Se)-bLF. The states of all antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione- s-transferase (GsT), catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) demonstrated high levels within untreated HT29 cells compared to the majority of other treatments being used, even prior to H2O2 exposure. All enzymes showed significant alterations in activity when cells were treated with antioxidants AA, Apo-bLF or Se-bLF, with and/or without H2O2 exposure. Obvious indications that the Se content of the bLF potentially interacted with the glutathione (GSH)/GPx/GR/GsT associated redox system could be observed immediately, showing capability of Se-bLF being highly beneficial in helping to maintain a balance between the oxidant/antioxidant systems within cells and tissues, especially in selenium deficient systems. In conclusion, the antioxidative defence activity of Se-bLf, investigated in this study for the first time, shows dynamic adaptations that may allow for essential protection from the imbalanced oxidative conditions. Because of its lack of toxicity and the availability of both selenium and bLF in whole milk, Se-bLF offers a promise for a prospective natural dietary supplement, in addition to being an immune system enhancement, or a potential chemopreventive agent for cancers. PMID:21919840

Burrow, Hannah; Kanwar, Rupinder K; Mahidhara, Ganesh; Kanwar, Jagat R

2011-10-01

357

Effects of heavy metals on the expression of a zinc-inducible metallothionein-III gene and antioxidant enzyme activities in Crassostrea gigas.  

PubMed

Sequestration by metallothioneins and antioxidant defense are two kinds of important defense mechanisms employed by mollusks to minimize adverse effects caused by heavy metal contaminants in marine environment. In the present study, a novel metallothionein gene, CgMT-III, was cloned from Crassostrea gigas, consisting of eighteen conserved cysteine residues and encoding a MT III-like protein with two tandem ? domains. The expression level of CgMT-III transcript induced by zinc was much higher than that induced by cadmium exposure. It suggested that CgMT-III was perhaps mainly involved in homeostatic control of zinc metabolism, which was distinct from previously identified MTs in C. gigas. Among the tested antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), SOD and GPx showed varying up-regulations in a tissue-specific manner, while CAT activities were inhibited in both gill and hepatopancreas from C. gigas exposed to heavy metals. It can be inferred that CgMT-III was mainly involved in zinc homeostasis, and CgMT-III gene together with CAT enzyme could be potential biomarkers to indicate heavy metal, especially zinc pollution in marine organisms. PMID:22614035

Cong, Ming; Wu, Huifeng; Liu, Xiaoli; Zhao, Jianmin; Wang, Xuan; Lv, Jiasen; Hou, Lin

2012-10-01

358

Effects of seaweed supplementation on blood glucose concentration, lipid profile, and antioxidant enzyme activities in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus  

PubMed Central

The present study was carried out to evaluate the physiological effects of seaweed supplementation on blood glucose levels, lipid profile, and antioxidant enzyme activities in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Subjects were randomized into either a control group or a seaweed supplementation group. Pills with equal parts of dry powdered sea tangle and sea mustard were provided to the seaweed supplementation group three times a day for 4 weeks. Total daily consumption of seaweed was 48 g. We found that total dietary fiber intake was 2.5 times higher in subjects receiving seaweed supplementation than in the control group. Accordingly, fasting blood glucose levels (p<0.01) and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose measurements (p<0.05) were decreased significantly in those ingesting seaweed. Furthermore, the serum concentrations of triglycerides were decreased and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was increased significantly in seaweed supplement group (p<0.05). However, the concentrations of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were not affected by seaweed supplementation. The level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in erythrocytes was significantly lower with seaweed supplementation compared to controls (p<0.05). Catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities with seaweed supplementation were higher than the controls (p<0.05), but superoxide dismutase activity was not affected. We, therefore, conclude that ingestion of seaweed influences glycemic control, lowers blood lipids, and increases antioxidant enzyme activities. PMID:20126367

Kim, Min Sun; Kim, Jung Yun; Choi, Woong Hwan

2008-01-01

359

Expression profiles of two small heat shock proteins and antioxidant enzyme activity in Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed to cadmium at environmentally relevant concentrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small heat shock proteins encompass a widespread but diverse class of proteins, which play key roles in protecting organisms from various stressors. In the present study, the full-length cDNAs of two small heat shock proteins (MgsHSP22 and MgsHSP24.1) were cloned from Mytilus galloprovincialis, which encoded peptides of 181 and 247 amino acids, respectively. Both MgsHSP22 and MgsHSP24.1 were detected in all tissues examined by real-time PCR, with the highest expression being observed in muscle and gonad tissues. The real-time PCR results revealed that Cd significantly inhibited MgsHSP22 expression at 24 h and MgsHSP24.1 at 24 and 48 h under 5 ?g/L Cd 2+ exposure. MgsHSP24.1 expression was also significantly inhibited after 50 ?g/L Cd2+ exposure for 48 h. With regard to antioxidant enzymes, increased GPx and CAT activity were detected under Cd2+ stress (5 and 50 ?g/L), while no significant difference in SOD activity was observed throughout the experiment. Overall, both MgsHsps and antioxidant enzymes revealed their potential as Cd stress biomarkers in M. galloprovincialis.

You, Liping; Ning, Xuanxuan; Chen, Leilei; Zhang, Linbao; Zhao, Jianmin; Liu, Xiaoli; Wu, Huifeng

2014-03-01

360

High-pressure improves enzymatic proteolysis and the release of peptides with angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant activities from lentil proteins.  

PubMed

Angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory and antioxidant peptides are receiving attention due to their beneficial effects in the prevention/treatment of hypertension. The objective was to explore the effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HP) on proteolysis by different proteases and the release of bioactive peptides from lentil proteins. Pressurisation (100-300MPa) enhanced the hydrolytic efficiency of Protamex, Savinase and Corolase 7089 compared to Alcalase. Proteolysis at 300MPa led to a complete degradation of lentil proteins and increased peptide (<3kDa) concentration by all enzymes. Proteolysis at 300MPa by Savinase gave rise to lentil hydrolysates (S300) with the highest ACE-inhibitory and antioxidant activities that were retained upon in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. The peptides responsible for the multifunctional properties of S300 hydrolysate were identified as different fragments from storage proteins and the allergen Len c 1. These results support the potential of HP as a technology for the cost-effective production of bioactive peptides from lentil proteins during enzymatic proteolysis. PMID:25308663

Garcia-Mora, P; Peñas, E; Frias, J; Gomez, R; Martinez-Villaluenga, C

2015-03-15

361

Antioxidant Potential and Type II Diabetes-Related Enzyme Inhibition of Cassia obtusifolia L.: Effect of Indigenous Processing Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methanolic extract of Cassia obtusifolia L. (Sicklepod) seed, an underutilized food legume from India, was analyzed for antioxidant and health relevant functionality.\\u000a The total free phenolic content of the raw seeds was 13.33?±?1.73 g catechin equivalent\\/100 g extract. The extract exhibited\\u000a 1,292 mmol Fe[II] per milligram extract of ferric reducing\\/antioxidant power, 49.92% inhibition of ß-carotene degradation,\\u000a 65.79% of scavenging activity against DPPH,

Vellingiri Vadivel; Catherine Nkirote Kunyanga; Hans Konrad Biesalski

362

Effects of Propofol, a Sedative-Hypnotic Drug, on the Lipid Profile, Antioxidant Indices, and Cardiovascular Marker Enzymes in Wistar Rats  

PubMed Central

In recent years, the activity of anaesthetic propofol on biological processes has been attracting attention. The effect of propofol on biochemical indices in animals is unknown. In this study, we examined the effects of propofol on lipid profile, antioxidant indices, and cardiovascular marker (CVM) enzymes in rats. The study consists of three groups of seven rats each. Group one received corn oil (Control) while groups two and three received propofol (doses of 2 and 4?mg/kg body weight, resp.). Results showed that administration of propofol caused a significant (P < 0.05) and dose-dependent increase in the levels of total bilirubin. Propofol at 2 and 4?mg/kg increased the levels of serum total cholesterol by 74% and 55%, triglycerides by 97% and 115%, and LDL-C (low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol) by 45% and 73%, respectively, while HDL-C (high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol) decreased by 41% and 54%, respectively. Propofol significantly (P < 0.05) increased the levels of the hepatic reduced glutathione (GSH) and activities of GSH-dependent enzymes. Propofol at 2 and 4?mg/kg increased the activities of CVM enzymes: lactate dehydrogenase by 1.7 and 1.8 folds and creatinine phosphokinase by 2.0 and 2.1 folds, respectively. Taken together, propofol increased the levels of GSH and GSH-dependent enzymes but adversely affected the lipid profile of the rats. PMID:23840962

Adaramoye, Oluwatosin A.; Akinwonmi, Olugbenga; Akanni, Olubukola

2013-01-01

363

High sensitivity of Nrf2 knockout mice to acetaminophen hepatotoxicity associated with decreased expression of ARE-regulated drug metabolizing enzymes and antioxidant genes.  

PubMed

Nrf2, which belongs to the basic leucine zipper (bZip) transcription factor family, has been implicated as a key molecule involved in antioxidant-responsive element (ARE)-mediated gene expression. In order to examine the role of Nrf2 in protection against xenobiotic toxicity, the sensitivity of nrf2 knockout mice to acetaminophen (N-acetyl-4-aminophenol (APAP)) was analyzed. The saturation of detoxification pathways after high levels of exposure to APAP is known to induce hepatotoxicity. Two factors important in its detoxification are UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UDP-GT), an ARE-regulated phase-II drug-metabolizing enzyme, and glutathione (GSH), an antioxidant molecule whose synthesis depends on ARE-regulated gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (gammaGCS). Two- to 4-month-old male mice were orally administered a single dose of APAP at 0, 150, 300, or 600 mg/kg. Doses of 300 mg/kg APAP or greater caused death in the homozygous knockout mice only, and those that survived showed a greater severity in hepatic damage than the wild-type mice, as demonstrated by increased plasma alanine aminotransferase activity, decreased hepatic non-protein sulfhydryl (NPSH) content, and centrilobular hepatocellular necrosis. The high sensitivity of Nrf2-deficient mice was confirmed from observations made at 0, 2, 8, and 24 h after dosing with 300 mg/kg APAP; increased anti-APAP immunoreactivity was also noted in their livers at 2 h. Untreated homozygous knockout mice showed both a lower UDP-GT activity and NPSH content, which corresponded to decreased mRNA levels of UDP-GT (Ugt1a6) and the heavy chain of gammaGCS, respectively. These results show that Nrf2 plays a protective role against APAP hepatotoxicity by regulating both drug metabolizing enzymes and antioxidant genes through the ARE. PMID:11134556

Enomoto, A; Itoh, K; Nagayoshi, E; Haruta, J; Kimura, T; O'Connor, T; Harada, T; Yamamoto, M

2001-01-01

364

Effect of dietary supplementation of vitamin C on growth, reactive oxygen species, and antioxidant enzyme activity of Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) juveniles exposed to nitrite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different amounts of vitamin C were added to diets fed to juveniles (2.5 ± 0.15 g) of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonic u s (Selenka) in an attempt to reduce the stress response of specimens exposed to nitrite stress. A commercial feed was used as the control diet and three experimental diets were made by supplementing 1 000, 1 500, or 2 000 mg vitamin C/kg diet to control diet separately in a 45-day experiment. Sea cucumbers were exposed to three different levels (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mg/L) of nitrite stress for 4, 8, and 12 h at four time intervals (0, 15, 30, and 45 d). Growth of the animals was recorded during the experiment. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) (i.e. hydroxyl free radical (-OH), malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC)) and antioxidant enzyme activities (i.e., superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT)) were measured. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to analyze the effect of multiple factors on ROS indices and enzyme activities. Weight gain (WG) and special growth rate (SGR) of vitamin C supplementation groups were significantly higher than those of control group ( P < 0.05). The levels of -OH and MDA increased under exposure time extending and nitrite concentration increasing, whereas T-AOC level decreased. SOD and CAT activities increased at 4 h and 8 h and decreased at 12 h. During the days in which the animal consumed experimental diets, the levels of -OH and MDA decreased and that of T-AOC increased. This result suggests that diets containing vitamin C could reduce the nitrite stress response in the animals and increase their antioxidant capacity. The multifactor regression equation of growth performance, ROS indices, and duration of feeding results suggest that vitamin C supplementation of 1 400-2 000 mg/kg diet for 29-35 days could reduce effectively the effects of nitrite exposure.

Luo, Zuoyong; Wang, Baojie; Liu, Mei; Jiang, Keyong; Liu, Mingxing; Wang, Lei

2014-07-01

365

A novel dietary supplement containing multiple phytochemicals and vitamins elevates hepatorenal and cardiac antioxidant enzymes in the absence of significant serum chemistry and genomic changes  

PubMed Central

A novel dietary supplement composed of three well-known phytochemicals, namely, Salvia officinalis (sage) extract, Camellia sinensis (oolong tea) extract, and Paullinia cupana (guarana) extract, and two prominent vitamins (thiamine and niacin) was designed to provide nutritional support by enhancing metabolism and maintaining healthy weight and energy. The present study evaluated the safety of this dietary supplement (STG; S, sage; T, tea; G, guarana) and assessed changes in target organ antioxidant enzymes (liver, kidneys and heart), serum chemistry profiles and organ histopathology in Fisher 344 rats. Adult male and female Fisher 344 rats were fed control (no STG) or STG containing (1X and 7X, 1X = daily human dose) diets and sacrificed after 2 and 4 months. Serum chemistry analysis and histopathological examination of three vital target organs disclosed no adverse influence on protein, lipid and carbohydrate profiles, genomic integrity of the liver and/or the tissue architecture. However, analysis of the most important antioxidant components in the liver, kidney and heart homogenates revealed a dramatic increase in total glutathione concentrations, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase enzyme activities. Concomitantly, oxidative stress levels (malondialdehyde accumulation) in these three organs were less than control. Organ specific serum markers (ALT/AST for the liver; CPK/AST/LDH for the heart; BUN/creatinine for kidneys) and the genomic integrity disclosed no STG-induced alteration. Some of the serum components (lipid and protein) showed insignificant changes. Overall, STG-exposed rats were more active, and the results suggest that STG exposure produces normal serum chemistry coupled with elevated antioxidant capacity in rats fed up to seven times the normal human dose and does not adversely influence any of the vital target organs. Additionally, this study reiterates the potential benefits of exposure to a pharmacologically relevant combination of phytochemicals compared to a single phytochemical entity. PMID:20716937

Bulku, Elida; Zinkovsky, Daniel; Patel, Payal; Javia, Vishal; Lahoti, Tejas; Khodos, Inna; Stohs, Sidney J

2010-01-01

366

The effect of ghrelin pretreatment on epididymal sperm quality and tissue antioxidant enzyme activities after testicular ischemia/reperfusion in rats.  

PubMed

Ghrelin, the endogenous ligand for growth hormone secretagogue receptor, has been reported to prevent ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in various tissues by its antioxidant activity. Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate the effect of ghrelin on sperm quality and antioxidant enzyme activity in a rat testicular ischemia/reperfusion injury model. Forty-two male Wistar rats were divided into groups control, I/R, and I/R plus ghrelin. The right testes were rotated 720° for 1 h and were allowed to reperfuse for 4 h and 30 days thereafter. Ghrelin (40 nmol/kg IP) or vehicle (physiological saline) was administrated 15 min before reperfusion. After 4 h of reperfusion, a right orchiectomy was performed to measure the biochemical parameters. In addition, the sperm was collected from the epididymis after 30 days of reperfusion, and sperm characteristics were examined. The malondialdehyde levels of the testis tissues were significantly increased, but a statistically significant decrease was found in the superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase activities in the I/R group as compared with the control, indicating I/R injury. The sperm evaluation showed a significant reduction in all characteristics resulted from I/R compared with the control. In the ghrelin-treated group, the malondialdehyde values were significantly lowered, and only enzyme activity of glutathione peroxidase showed significant increases compared with the I/R group. Ghrelin significantly enhanced sperm motility, movement, and concentration but did not prevent I/R-induced reduction in membrane integrity in the testes of rats compared to the I/R group. Our results suggest that ghrelin treatment has a protective role on IR-induced testicular injury, and this effect may be due to its antioxidant properties. PMID:21994044

Taati, Majid; Moghadasi, Mehrnoush; Dezfoulian, Omid; Asadian, Payman; Kheradmand, Arash; Abbasi, Mohsen; Zendehdel, Morteza

2012-03-01

367

The effect of regular exercise on antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation levels in both hippocampi after occluding one carotid in rat.  

PubMed

Regular exercise has beneficial effects on cerebrovascular diseases; however, its biochemical mechanisms are not fully known. The purpose of this study was to determine antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation of both hippocampi after applying exercise followed by occluding one common carotid. Wistar rats were divided into four groups of control, exercise, hypoperfusion and exercise-hypoperfusion (exe-hypo). In the exercise and exe-hypo groups, the rats were forced to run on a treadmill for 1 h a day for 2 months. The right common carotid of the animals in the (exe-hypo) group was occluded after the cessation of exercise. Surgery without occlusion of the carotid was applied on the control (without exercise) and exercise groups. All animals were sacrificed 1 and 24 h after surgery. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and antioxidant enzyme activities in the hippocampi were measured. A significant interaction was observed between the exercise and hypoperfusion in both hippocampi (p < 0.05). In comparison with the control group, there was significant elevation of catalase activity in the right and left hippocampus of the hypo group at 24 h (p < 0.0001). Regarding the differences between the hemispheres, there was a significant increase in MDA and decrease in catalase activity in the left hippocampus in hypoperfusion group, but the exercise in the exe-hypo group succeeded in abolishing these alterations which were caused by hypoperfusion, This study shows that exercise pre-conditioning prevents some alterations in brain oxidant-antioxidant status which are induced by cerebral hypoperfusion. Further studies are needed in order to clarify the mechanism of exercise. PMID:24923383

Moghaddasi, Mehrnoush; Javanmard, Shaghayegh Haghjooy; Reisi, Parham; Tajadini, Mohamadhasan; Taati, Majid

2014-09-01

368

Salivary antigen-5/CAP family members are Cu2+-dependent antioxidant enzymes that scavenge O??. and inhibit collagen-induced platelet aggregation and neutrophil oxidative burst.  

PubMed

The function of the antigen-5/CAP family of proteins found in the salivary gland of bloodsucking animals has remained elusive for decades. Antigen-5 members from the hematophagous insects Dipetalogaster maxima (DMAV) and Triatoma infestans (TIAV) were expressed and discovered to attenuate platelet aggregation, ATP secretion, and thromboxane A2 generation by low doses of collagen (<1 ?g/ml) but no other agonists. DMAV did not interact with collagen, glycoprotein VI, or integrin ?2?1. This inhibitory profile resembles the effects of antioxidants Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD) in platelet function. Accordingly, DMAV was found to inhibit cytochrome c reduction by O2[Symbol: see text] generated by the xanthine/xanthine oxidase, implying that it exhibits antioxidant activity. Moreover, our results demonstrate that DMAV blunts the luminescence signal of O2[Symbol: see text] generated by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-stimulated neutrophils. Mechanistically, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and fluorescence spectroscopy revealed that DMAV, like Cu,Zn-SOD, interacts with Cu(2+), which provides redox potential for catalytic removal of O2[Symbol: see text]. Notably, surface plasmon resonance experiments (BIAcore) determined that DMAV binds sulfated glycosaminoglycans (e.g. heparin, KD ~100 nmol/liter), as reported for extracellular SOD. Finally, fractions of the salivary gland of D. maxima with native DMAV contain Cu(2+) and display metal-dependent antioxidant properties. Antigen-5/CAP emerges as novel family of Cu(2+)-dependent antioxidant enzymes that inhibit neutrophil oxidative burst and negatively modulate platelet aggregation by a unique salivary mechanism. PMID:23564450

Assumpção, Teresa C F; Ma, Dongying; Schwarz, Alexandra; Reiter, Karine; Santana, Jaime M; Andersen, John F; Ribeiro, José M C; Nardone, Glenn; Yu, Lee L; Francischetti, Ivo M B

2013-05-17

369

A comparative study on lipid peroxidation, activities of antioxidant enzymes and viability of cattle and buffalo bull spermatozoa during storage at refrigeration temperature.  

PubMed

A comparative study was conducted to monitor the activities of some antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation and viability of cattle and buffalo bull spermatozoa during storage of semen at refrigeration temperature over a period of 72 h. Semen samples, collected from six cross bred cattle bulls (group I) and six Murrah buffalo bulls (group II), were diluted in egg-yolk-citrate and the spermatozoa were separated from seminal plasma by centrifugation at 4 degrees C in a refrigerated centrifuge. The malondialdehyde (MDA) production in group I increased from 1.17+/-0.29 at 0 h to 7.50+/-0.52 nmol/10(8)spermatozoa after 72 h of storage while in group II it increased from 1.99+/-0.26 to 8.70+/-0.10 nmol/10(8)spermatozoa in the same period. However, buffalo bull spermatozoa had a significantly higher (p<0.05) lipid peroxidation at 0 h as well as at 12, 24 and 48 h (p<0.01) periods. The activities of antioxidant enzymes viz. SOD, GPx and G6PD in both the groups showed a similar pattern of change i.e. the activities declined successively in spermatozoa and increased in the seminal plasma. However, the activities of these three enzymes remained significantly higher in the cattle bull spermatozoa than that in buffalo bull spermatozoa. Amount of MDA produced in spermatozoa of both the groups was negatively correlated while SOD, GPx and G6PD activities in spermatozoa were positively correlated to the motility and viability of spermatozoa. Sperm motility as well as viability was significantly less (p<0.05) in group II than that in group I. SOD, GPx and G6PD activities in spermatozoa of both the groups were negatively correlated to lipid peroxidation of spermatozoa cell membrane. The results showed that the less activities of antioxidant enzymes in buffalo bull spermatozoa was due to higher lipid peroxidation that indicated that they were more prone to oxidative stress as compared to cattle bull spermatozoa when stored at refrigeration temperature. PMID:16337101

Nair, Sreejith J; Brar, A S; Ahuja, C S; Sangha, S P S; Chaudhary, K C

2006-11-01

370

Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Ischemic Stroke: Decreased Insulin Sensitivity and Decreases in Antioxidant Enzyme Activity Are Related to Different Stroke Subtypes  

PubMed Central

We analyzed (a) insulin sensitivity (IS) and (b) glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase (GR), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) antioxidant enzyme activity in type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients with atherothrombotic infarction (ATI) (group A), lacunar infarction (LI) (B), or without stroke (C) and in nondiabetics with ATI (D), LI (E), or without stroke (F). ATI and LI were confirmed by brain imaging IS levels were determined by minimal model (Si index), and the enzyme activity by spectrophotometry. In T2D patients, Si was lower in A and B versus C (1.14 ± 0.58, 1.00 ± 0.26 versus 3.14 ± 0.62?min?1/mU/l × 104, P < 0.001) and in nondiabetics in D and E versus F (3.38 ± 0.77, 3.03 ± 0.72 versus 6.03 ± 1.69?min?1/mU/l × 104, P < 0.001). Also, GSH-Px and GR activities were lower in A and B versus C (GSH-Px: 21.96 ± 3.56, 22.51 ± 1.23 versus 25.12 ± 1.67; GR: 44.37 ± 3.58, 43.50 ± 2.39 versus 48.58 ± 3.67?U/gHb; P < 0.001) and in D and E versus F (GSH-Px: 24.75 ± 3.02, 25.57 ± 1.92 versus 28.56 ± 3.91; GR: 48.27 ± 6.81, 49.17 ± 6.24 versus 53.67 ± 3.96?U/gHb; P < 0.001). Decreases in Si and GR were significantly related to both ATI and LI in T2D. Our results showed that decreased IS and impaired antioxidant enzymes activity influence ischemic stroke subtypes in T2D. The influence of insulin resistance might be exerted on the level of glutathione-dependent antioxidant enzymes. PMID:23843789

Covickovic Sternic, Nadezda; Kostic, Vladimir S.; Lalic, Katarina; Lukic, Ljiljana; Civcic, Milorad; Colak, Emina; Macesic, Marija; Seferovic, Jelena P.; Lalic, Nebojsa M.

2013-01-01

371

Effect of salt and drought stress on antioxidant enzymes activities and SOD isoenzymes of liquorice ( Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of salinity and drought on the antioxidative system (SOD, POD, CAT) were studied in liquorice seedlings (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch). The results showed that both salt and drought stresses could induce oxidative stress, as indicated by the increase level of lipid peroxidation. The activities of SOD and POD were up-regulated by salt and drought stress, while CAT activity decreased.

Yan Pan; Li Jun Wu; Zeng Liang Yu

2006-01-01

372

Synthesis and in vitro antioxidant functions of protein hydrolysate from backbones of Rastrelliger kanagurta by proteolytic enzymes  

PubMed Central

Every year, a huge quantity of fishery wastes and by-products are generated by fish processing industries. These wastes are either underutilized to produce low market value products or dumped leading to environmental issues. Complete utilization of fishery wastes for recovering value added products would be beneficial to the society and individual. The fish protein hydrolysates and derived peptides of fishery resources are widely used as nutritional supplements, functional ingredients, and flavor enhancers in food, beverage and pharmaceutical industries. Antioxidants from fishery resources have attracted the attention of researchers as they are cheaper in cost, easy to derive, and do not have side effects. Thus the present investigation was designed to produce protein hydrolysate by pepsin and papain digestion from the backbones of Rastrelliger kanagurta (Indian mackerel) and evaluate its antioxidant properties through various in vitro assays. The results reveal that both hydrolysates are potent antioxidants, capable of scavenging 46% and 36% of DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl) and 58.5% and 37.54% of superoxide radicals respectively. The hydrolysates exhibit significant (p < 0.05) reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibition. Among the two hydrolysates produced, pepsin derived fraction is superior than papain derived fraction in terms of yield, DH (Degree of hydrolysis), and antioxidant activity. PMID:24596496

Sheriff, Sheik Abdulazeez; Sundaram, Balasubramanian; Ramamoorthy, Baranitharan; Ponnusamy, Ponmurugan

2013-01-01

373

Strawberry Polyphenols Attenuate Ethanol-Induced Gastric Lesions in Rats by Activation of Antioxidant Enzymes and Attenuation of MDA Increase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and AimFree radicals are implicated in the aetiology of gastrointestinal disorders such as gastric ulcer, colorectal cancer and inflammatory bowel disease. Strawberries are common and important fruit due to their high content of essential nutrient and beneficial phytochemicals which seem to have relevant biological activity on human health. In the present study we investigated the antioxidant and protective effects

José M. Alvarez-Suarez; Dragana Dekanski; Slavica Ristic; Nevena V. Radonjic; Natasa D. Petronijevic; Francesca Giampieri; Paola Astolfi; Ana M. González-Paramás; Celestino Santos-Buelga; Sara Tulipani; José L. Quiles; Bruno Mezzetti; Maurizio Battino; Irina V. Lebedeva

2011-01-01

374

PULMONARY ANTIOXIDANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

One of the most vital of the cellular defenses against pollution is an 'antioxidant armanentarium' which consists of oxidant scavenging molecules such as vitamin E, glutathione, vitamin C, and uric acid as well as a number of enzymes (superoxide dismutase, semidehydroascorbate re...

375

The effect of raffinose and methionine on frozen/thawed Angora buck (Capra hircus ancryrensis) semen quality, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of different doses of raffinose and methionine on post-thawed semen quality, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities of Angora buck (Capra hircus ancryrensis) sperm following cryopreservation. Ejaculates collected from three Angora bucks were evaluated and pooled at 37 degrees C. Semen samples, which were diluted with a Tris-based extender containing the additives raffinose (2.5, 5, 10mM) and methionine (2.5, 5, 10mM) and an extender containing no antioxidants (control), were cooled to 5 degrees C and frozen in 0.25 ml French straws. Frozen straws were thawed individually at 37 degrees C for 20s in a water bath for evaluation. The freezing extender supplemented with 2.5 and 5mM methionine led to higher percentages of CASA motility (63.6+/-7.0; 63.4+/-3.1%, respectively), in comparison to the controls (P<0.01) following the freeze-thawing process. The addition of antioxidants did not provide any significant effect on the percentages of post-thaw subjective and CASA progressive motilities as well as sperm motion characteristics (VSL and VCL), compared to the control groups (P>0.05). The freezing extender with raffinose (5 and 10mM) and methionine at three different doses (2.5, 5 and 10mM) led to lower percentages of acrosome abnormalities, in comparison to the controls (P<0.001). In the comet test, raffinose (5 and 10mM) and methionine (10mM) gave scores lower than those of the controls, and thereby reduced DNA damage (P<0.05). Malondialdehyde formation was found to be lower (1.8+/-0.1 nmol/L) in the group of 5mM raffinose, compared to the controls following the freeze-thawing process (P<0.01). The additives did not show any effectiveness on the maintenance of SOD, GSH-PX and GSH activities, when compared to the controls (P>0.05). In conclusion, methionine and raffinose play a cryoprotective role against sperm CASA motility, acrosome abnormality and DNA damage. Raffinose 5mM exhibited antioxidative properties, decreasing MDA levels. Further studies are required to obtain more concrete results on the characterization of microscopic parameters and antioxidant activities in cryopreserved goat sperm with different additives. PMID:20515679

Tuncer, Pürhan Barbaros; Bucak, Mustafa Numan; Sariözkan, Serpil; Sakin, Fatih; Yeni, Deniz; Ci?erci, Ibrahim Hakki; Ate??ahin, Ahmet; Avdatek, Fatih; Gündo?an, Mustafa; Büyükleblebici, Olga

2010-08-01

376

Antidiabetic effect of Punica granatum flowers: Effect on hyperlipidemia, pancreatic cells lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in experimental diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated the effects of Punica granatum aqueous extract (PgAq) on streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats by measuring fasting blood glucose, lipid profiles (atherogenic index), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and activities of both non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidants. Diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (60mg\\/kg) to albino Wistar rats. The increase in blood glucose level, total cholesterol

Priyanka Bagri; Mohd. Ali; Vidhu Aeri; Malay Bhowmik; Shahnaz Sultana

2009-01-01

377

Genome-wide identification of antioxidant component biosynthetic enzymes: Comprehensive analysis of ascorbic acid and tocochromanols biosynthetic genes in rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last two decades, several exciting reports have provided many advances in the role and biosynthesis of l-ascorbic acid (AsA) and tocochromanols, including tocopherols and tocotrienols, in higher plants. There are increasing bodies of experimental evidence that demonstrate that AsA and tocochromanols (especially tocopherols) play an important role as antioxidants and nutrients in mammals and photosynthetic organisms and are

Yeonhwa Jo; Tae Kyung Hyun

2011-01-01

378

Antioxidant enzyme activities of Microcystis aeruginosa in response to nonylphenols and degradation of nonylphenols by M. aeruginosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to examine the effects of chemical nonylphenols (NPs) on the antioxidant system of Microcystis aeruginosa strains. The degradation and sorption of NPs by M. aeruginosa were also evaluated. High concentrations of NPs (1 and 2 mg\\/l) were found to cause increases in superoxidase dismutase (SOD)\\u000a and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities and in glutathione (GSH) levels. These

Jingxian Wang; Ping Xie

2007-01-01

379

Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Phase II Drug Metabolizing/Antioxidant Enzymes Gene Response by Anti-cancer Agent Sulforaphane in Rat Lymphocytes  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE This study assesses the pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of Nrf2-mediated increased expression of Phase II drug metabolizing enzyme (DME) and antioxidant enzymes which represents an important component of cancer chemoprevention in rat lymphocytes following intravenous (i.v.) administration of an anti-cancer phytochemical sulforaphane (SFN) METHODS SFN was administered intravenously to four groups of male Sprague-Dawley JVC rats each group comprising four animals. Blood samples were drawn at selected time points. Plasma were obtained from half of the blood samples and analyzed using a validated LC-MS/MS method. Lymphocytes were collected from the remaining blood samples using Ficoll-Paque™ Plus centrifuge medium. Lymphocyte RNAs were extracted, converted to cDNA, and quantitative real-time PCR analyses were performed and fold changes were calculated against those at time zero for the relative expression of Nrf2-target genes of phase II DME/antioxidant enzymes. PK-PD modeling was conducted based on Jusko’s indirect response model (IDR) using GastroPlus™ and Bootstrap Method. RESULTS SFN plasma concentration declined biexponentially and the pharmacokinetic parameters were generated. Rat lymphocyte mRNA expression levels showed no change for GSTM1, SOD, NF-?B, UGT1A1, or UGT1A6. Moderate increases (2-5 folds) over the time zero were seen for HO-1, Nrf2, and NQO1, and significant increase (> 5 folds) for GSTT1, GPx1, and Maf. PK-PD analyses using GastroPlus™ and Bootstrap method provided reasonable fitting for the PK and PD profiles and parameter estimates. CONCLUSION Our present study shows that SFN could induce Nrf2-mediated phase II DME/antioxidant mRNA expression for NQO1, GSTT1, Nrf2, GPx, Maf, and HO-1 in rat lymphocytes after i.v. administration, suggesting that Nrf2-mediated mRNA expression in lymphocytes may serve as surrogate biomarkers. The PK-PD IDR model simultaneously linking the plasma concentrations of SFN and the PD response of lymphocyte mRNA expression is valuable for quantitating Nrf2 mediated effects of SFN. This study may provide a conceptual framework for future clinical PK-PD studies of dietary cancer chemopreventive agents in human. PMID:22931102

Wang, Hu; Khor, Tin Oo; Yang, Qian; Huang, Ying; Wu, Tien-yuan; Saw, Constance Lay-Lay; Lin, Wen; Androulakis, Ioannis P.; Kong, Ah-Ng Tony

2012-01-01

380

The link between antioxidant enzymes catalase and glutathione S-transferase and physiological condition of a control population of terrestrial isopod (Porcellio scaber).  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to investigate if the activities of catalase and glutathione S-transferase in a control population of terrestrial isopods (Porcellio scaber) are correlated with the physiological condition of the isopods. For this purpose, the activities of these enzymes were analysed in isopods from a stock population and in parallel, the physiological condition of the same specimens was assessed using a histological approach based on epithelial thickness and lipid droplets. We found a correlation between antioxidant enzymes and the physiological condition of the isopods. This implies that these enzymes could be used as predictive indicators of the physiological condition in a stock population before comprehensive toxicological studies are conducted and also in control group after the experiment. When a control group is found to be very heterogeneous in terms of physiological condition, the experiment should be repeated with a larger number of experimental animals. The findings of this study will contribute to more accurate experimental design of toxicity tests when using biomarkers. This should encourage other researchers to increase their effort to know the physiological state of their test organisms. PMID:22177480

Jemec, Anita; Lešer, Vladka; Drobne, Damjana

2012-05-01

381

Effects of Three Medicinal Plants Extracts in Experimental Diabetes: Antioxidant Enzymes Activities and Plasma Lipids Profiles inComparison with Metformin  

PubMed Central

In the present study we aimed to evaluate the effects of methanolic extracts of the bulbs of Garlic (Allium sativum L., Alliaceae) and Persian shallot (Allium ascalonicum L., Alliaceae ) and leaves of Sage (Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae ), ASE, AAE and SOE respectively, on the antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and catalase (CAT) activities and on the levels of plasma lipids profiles such as triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoproteins (HDL), low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) in Alloxan diabetic Wistar rats. In comparison with diabetic control rats in diabetic treated rats, AAE increases the activities of SOD (65%), GPX (43%) and CAT (55%). ASE and SOE increase SOD activity by 60% and 33% respectively. ASE reduces TC (34%), SOE decreases TG (40%) and LDL (30%) and AAE reduces VLDL (24%). Metformin exhibits mild antioxidant and hypolipidemic properties. Results of quantitative phytochemical analysis show that the methanolic garlic and Persian shallot bulbs extracts contain secondary metabolites including alkaloids (3.490% and 3.430%), glycosides (18.023% and 13.301%) and saponins (0.812% and 0.752%). Methanolic sage leaves extract contains flavonoids (1.014%), glycosides (23.142%) and saponins (2.096%). The total phenolic contents of ASE, AAE and SOE were in order 4.273, 3.621 and 6.548 mg GAE/g dry weight (DW). These results suggest that Allium sativum, Allium ascalonicum and Salvia officinalis are beneficial in the control of diabetes by noticeable antioxidant and hypolipidemic properties. PMID:24250517

Fehresti Sani, Mohammad; Montasser Kouhsari, Shideh; Moradabadi, Leila

2012-01-01

382

Effects of soybean supplementation on blood glucose, plasma lipid levels, and erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of soybean on blood glucose and lipid concentrations, and antioxidant enzyme activity in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. We divided patients into two groups and fed them, respectively, a basal diet (control group) and a basal diet with 69 g/d of soybean (soybean group) for 4 weeks. Pills with roasted soybean powder were provided to the soybean supplementation group three times a day. Macronutrients intake except dietary fiber was similar between the two groups. No significant differences were observed in dietary intakes or body weight before and after the supplementation. Energy composition ratio of C:F:P was 65:19:16 in the control group, 64:20:16 in the soybean group. The blood parameters of subjects before supplementation, such as fasting blood glucose, postprandial glucose level, total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol and HbA(1)C were not different between the two groups. After supplementation, fasting blood glucose (p<0.001), postprandial glucose level (p<0.001) and serum triglyceride level (p<0.05) were significantly reduced in the soybean group in comparison with the control group. The total cholesterol level was not significantly different between the control and the supplemented group after 4 weeks of treatment. TBARS levels of the soybean group were not significantly different from those of the control group. The activities of catalase (p<0.01) and glutathione peroxidase (p<0.05) were significantly higher in the soybean group compared to the control group. The results of this study suggest that soybean supplementation would be helpful to control blood glucose and serum lipid in diabetic patients. Also, soybean showed an antioxidant activity that may contribute to enhance the effect of antioxidant defense. This activity contributes to