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1

Upregulation of intracellular antioxidant enzymes in brain and heart during estivation in the African lungfish Protopterus dolloi.  

PubMed

The African slender lungfish, Protopterus dolloi, is highly adapted to withstand periods of drought by secreting a mucous cocoon and estivating for periods of months to years. Estivation is similar to the diapause and hibernation of other animal species in that it is characterized by negligible activity and a profoundly depressed metabolic rate. As is typically observed in quiescent states, estivating P. dolloi are resistant to environmental stresses. We tested the hypothesis that P. dolloi enhances stress resistance during estivation by upregulating intracellular antioxidant defences in brain and heart tissues. We found that most of the major intracellular antioxidant enzymes, including the mitochondrial superoxide dismutase, cytosolic superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase, were upregulated in brain tissue of lungfish that had estivated for 60 days. Several of these enzymes were also elevated in heart tissue of estivators. These changes were not due to food deprivation, as they did not occur in a group of fish that were deprived of food but maintained in water for the same period of time. We found little evidence of tissue oxidative damage in estivators. Products of lipid peroxidation (4-hydroxynonenal adducts) and oxidative protein damage (carbonylation) were similar in estivating and control lungfish. However, protein nitrotyrosine levels were elevated in brain tissue of estivators. Taken together, these data indicate that estivating P. dolloi have enhanced oxidative stress resistance in brain and heart due to a significant upregulation of intracellular antioxidant capacity. PMID:19888582

Page, Melissa M; Salway, Kurtis D; Ip, Yuen Kwong; Chew, Shit F; Warren, Sarah A; Ballantyne, James S; Stuart, Jeffrey A

2010-03-01

2

Altered levels of primary antioxidant enzymes in progeria skin fibroblasts.  

PubMed

Free radicals are involved in the aging process. In this study, the profile of primary antioxidant enzymes that scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) was examined for the first time in human skin fibroblasts from progeria, a premature aging disease. Altered levels of antioxidant enzymes were found in progeria cells. Basal levels of MnSOD were decreased in progeria cells as well as a blunted induction in response to chronic stress. This change may contribute to the accelerated aging process in progeria cells. In contrast, the levels of CuZnSOD showed no progeria-related change. Two H2O2 removing enzymes demonstrated a significant reduction in progeria cells: only 50% of normal CAT activity and 30% of normal GPX activity can be detected in progeria cells. This diminished H2O2 removing capacity in progeria cells may lead to an imbalance of intracellular ROS and therefore may play an important role in the development of progeria. PMID:10092527

Yan, T; Li, S; Jiang, X; Oberley, L W

1999-04-01

3

Spontaneous hypomorphic mutations in antioxidant enzymes of mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

An antioxidant enzymatic system is pivotal for aerobic animals to minimize the damage induced by reactive oxygen species. Spontaneous mutant animals with altered antioxidant enzyme activity should be useful for the study of the function of these enzymes in vivo. We examined the nucleotide sequences of the genes for the major antioxidant enzymes, including catalase (Cat), superoxide dismutase (Sod1, Sod2,

Zhanjun Guo; Keiichi Higuchi; Masayuki Mori

2003-01-01

4

Immunotargeting of antioxidant enzyme to the pulmonary endothelium.  

PubMed Central

Oxidative injury to the pulmonary endothelium has pathological significance for a spectrum of diseases. Administration of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (Cat), has been proposed as a method to protect endothelium. However, neither these enzymes nor their derivatives possess specific affinity to endothelium and do not accumulate in the lung. Previously we have described a monoclonal antibody to angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) that accumulates selectively in the lung after systemic injection in rats, hamsters, cats, monkeys, and humans. In the present work we describe a system for selective intrapulmonary delivery of CuZn-SOD and Cat conjugated with biotinylated anti-ACE antibody mAb 9B9 (b-mAb 9B9) by a streptavidin (SA)-biotin bridge. Both enzymes biotinylated with biotin ester at biotin/enzyme ratio 20 retain enzymatic activity and bind SA without loss of activity. We have constructed tri-molecular heteropolymer complexes consisting of b-mAb 9B9, SA, and biotinylated SOD or biotinylated Cat and have studied biodistribution and pulmonary uptake of these complexes in the rat after i.v. injection. Biodistribution of biotinylated enzymes was similar to that of nonmodified enzymes. Binding of SA markedly prolonged lifetime of biotinylated enzymes in the circulation. In contrast to enzymes conjugated with nonspecific IgG, other enzyme derivatives, and nonmodified enzymes, biotinylated enzymes conjugated with b-mAb 9B9 accumulated specifically in the rat lung (9% of injected SOD/g of lung tissue and 7.5% of injected Cat/g of lung tissue). Pulmonary uptake of nonmodified enzymes or derivatives with nonspecific IgG did not exceed 0.5% of injected dose/g. Both SOD and Cat conjugated with b-mAb 9B9 were retained in the rat lung for at least several hours. Trichloracetic acid-precipitable radiolabeled Cat was associated with microsomal and plasma membrane fractions of the lung tissue homogenate. Thus, modification of antioxidant enzymes with biotin and SA-mediated conjugation with b-mAb 9B9 prolongs the circulation of enzymes resulting in selective accumulation in the lung and intracellular delivery of enzymes to the pulmonary endothelium. These results provide the background for an approach to provide protection of pulmonary endothelium against oxidative insults.

Muzykantov, V R; Atochina, E N; Ischiropoulos, H; Danilov, S M; Fisher, A B

1996-01-01

5

The Assessments of the Intracellular Antioxidant Protection of the Organism after LLLT Irradiation  

SciTech Connect

The antioxidants are chemical compounds that can bind to free oxygen radicals preventing these radicals from damaging healthy cells. Low levels of antioxidants, or inhibition of the antioxidant enzymes causes oxidative stress and may damage or kill cells. The purpose of this project was to establish the changes at intracellular antioxidant protection of the organism after LLLT irradiation. We used female mice of the strain CD1. The mice were exposed in the abdomen region to laser light. From the blood was assessment the Glutathione peroxidase, Reduced Glutathione and Plasma Antioxidant Capacity. The results obtained in the present study demonstrated that in vivo irradiation of the mice with low level lasers did not cause any statistically significant changes in superoxide dismutase and Glutathione peroxidase but we found changes in Reduced Glutathione and Plasma Antioxidant Capacity after exposing the mice to the LLLT during the 30 minutes after irradiation, as well on the 4th day. Do not replace the word ''abstract,'' but do replace the rest of this text. If you must insert a hard line break, please use Shift+Enter rather than just tapping your ''Enter'' key. You may want to print this page and refer to it as a style sample before you begin working on your paper.

Freitinger-Skalicka, Zuzana; Navratil, Leos; Zolzer, Friedo; Hon, Zdenek [University of South Bohemia, Faculty of Health and Social Studies, Department of Radiology and Toxicology, Ceske Budejovice-Czech Republic (Czech Republic)

2009-06-19

6

Protein nanoparticles for intracellular delivery of therapeutic enzymes.  

PubMed

The use of enzymes as therapeutics is very promising because of their catalytic activity and specificity. However, intracellular delivery of active enzymes is challenging due to their low stability and large size. The production of protein-enzyme nanoparticles was investigated with the goal of developing a protein carrier for active enzyme delivery. ?-Galactosidase (?-gal), an enzyme whose deficiency is the cause of some lysosomal storage disorders, was incorporated into enhanced green fluorescent protein nanoparticles prepared via desolvation. Particle size was found to be sensitive to the type of cross-linker, cross-linking time, and the presence of imidazole. The results indicate that ?-gal activity is highly retained (>70%) after particle fabrication and >85% of protein is incorporated in the particles. Protein-enzyme nanoparticles exhibited higher internalization in multiple cell lines in vitro, compared with the soluble enzyme. Importantly, ?-gal retained its activity following intracellular delivery. These data demonstrate that protein nanoparticles are a biocompatible, high-efficiency alternative for intracellular delivery of active enzyme therapeutics. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci. PMID:24740820

Estrada, Lina Herrera; Chu, Stanley; Champion, Julie A

2014-06-01

7

[Ontogenic characteristics of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant system enzymes in the brain of geese].  

PubMed

Peculiarities of antioxidant homeostasis of geese brain tissue during embryogenesis and early postnatal period have been studied. It has been shown that the cerebrum and hindbrain tissues are characterized by a higher level of lipid peroxidation compared to liver. Main antioxidative enzymes' activity (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase) in the brain already reaches its maximum in the middle period of embryogenesis. We have found that brain tissues are characterized by a lower activity of intracellular enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase) but increased glutathione peroxidase activity as compared to liver. The rate of Fe2+ initialized lipid peroxidation and coefficient of antioxidative activity were used as a criterion for evaluation of antioxidative system's status. According to the dynamics of these factors the highest tension of antioxidative system in the brain appears in the period of the contour (28 days) and juvenile (49 days) feather formation. PMID:14681980

Danchenko, O O; Zdorovtseva, L M; Kalytka, V V

2003-01-01

8

Dynamic Reorganization of Metabolic Enzymes into Intracellular Bodies  

PubMed Central

Both focused and large-scale cell biological and biochemical studies have revealed that hundreds of metabolic enzymes across diverse organisms form large intracellular bodies. These proteinaceous bodies range in form from fibers and intracellular foci—such as those formed by enzymes of nitrogen and carbon utilization and of nucleotide biosynthesis—to high-density packings inside bacterial microcompartments and eukaryotic microbodies. Although many enzymes clearly form functional mega-assemblies, it is not yet clear for many recently discovered cases whether they represent functional entities, storage bodies, or aggregates. In this article, we survey intracellular protein bodies formed by metabolic enzymes, asking when and why such bodies form and what their formation implies for the functionality—and dysfunctionality—of the enzymes that comprise them. The panoply of intracellular protein bodies also raises interesting questions regarding their evolution and maintenance within cells. We speculate on models for how such structures form in the first place and why they may be inevitable.

O'Connell, Jeremy D.; Zhao, Alice; Ellington, Andrew D.; Marcotte, Edward M.

2013-01-01

9

Distinguishing cells in a sample by inactivating extracellular enzyme before releasing intracellular enzyme  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A method for detecting the absence or presence of cells of interest in a liquid sample is provided. The method comprises providing a sample suspected of containing cells of interest that contain an intracellular enzyme with a measurable activity. The sample further comprises an extracellular medium that also includes an extracellular enzyme with the measurable activity. The method further comprises the steps of treating the liquid sample with a reagent that inactivates the measurable activity in the extracellular medium but does not inactivate the measurable activity in the cells of interest, lysing the cells of interest to release the intracellular enzyme, and measuring the measurable activity. Thus, the measurable activity of the intracellular enzyme can be measured without interference from the extracellular enzyme. The invention is particularly useful for treatment of bacterially-infected blood using a detection assay based on adenylate kinase activity.

2013-01-08

10

Altered Levels of Primary Antioxidant Enzymes in Progeria Skin Fibroblasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Free radicals are involved in the aging process. In this study, the profile of primary antioxidant enzymes that scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) was examined for the first time in human skin fibroblasts from progeria, a premature aging disease. Altered levels of antioxidant enzymes were found in progeria cells. Basal levels of MnSOD were decreased in progeria cells as well

Tao Yan; Shijun Li; Xiaohong Jiang; Larry W. Oberley

1999-01-01

11

Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme status in oral carcinoma patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To measure the lipid peroxidation and endogenous antioxidant enzyme status in oral carcinoma and the protective role of exogenous antioxidants. Meterial and methods: 20 new cases of histologically proven oral squamous cell carcinoma, 20 of leukoplakia and 20 age and sex matched healthy conrols were included. Intra oral pH of patients and controlled were measured by quantitative litmus paper

Khanna R; Thapa PB; Khanna HD; Khanna S; Khanna AK; Shukla HS

12

Antioxidant Enzymes in Barley Green Biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green biomass of young barley plants exhibited statistically significant higher activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and\\u000a catalase (CAT) at sampling I (in the phase of plant development DC 29) compared to the later sampling II (DC 31). Significant\\u000a effects of varieties, years and interactions of the studied factors on the activity of the studied antioxidants were determined.\\u000a During the experiment

J. Ehrenbergerová; N. B?ezinová Belcredi; J. Kopá?ek; L. Melišová; P. Hrstková; S. Macuchová; K. Vaculová; I. Paulí?ková

2009-01-01

13

Effects of haloperidol on antioxidant defense system enzymes in schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dysregulation of free radical metabolism as reflected by abnormal erythrocyte activities of three critical enzymes of the antioxidant defense system (AODS), i.e. superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase (CAT), has been reported in schizophrenic patients. The present study examined the effects of haloperidol, a standard antipsychotic agent, on the AODS enzymes, using a within-subject, repeated-measures, on–off haloperidol treatment

Jeffrey K. Yao; Ravinder Reddy; Luke G. McElhinny; Daniel P. van Kammen

1998-01-01

14

Antioxidant enzymes in Nicotiana cells containing an Ipomoea peroxidase gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The levels of the antioxidant enzymes, peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR), were investigated in seven cell lines (referred to as transgenic tobacco cell lines) derived from transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants carrying a sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) anionic POD cDNA (swpal). Transgenic tobacco cell lines were induced from the leaf tissues of transgenic plants

Byung-Wook Yun; Gyung-Hye Huh; Suk-Yoon Kwon; Haeng-Soon Lee; Jin-Ki Jo; Sang-Soo Kwak

1998-01-01

15

Spontaneous hypomorphic mutations in antioxidant enzymes of mice.  

PubMed

An antioxidant enzymatic system is pivotal for aerobic animals to minimize the damage induced by reactive oxygen species. Spontaneous mutant animals with altered antioxidant enzyme activity should be useful for the study of the function of these enzymes in vivo. We examined the nucleotide sequences of the genes for the major antioxidant enzymes, including catalase (Cat), superoxide dismutase (Sod1, Sod2, Sod3), glutathione peroxidase (Gpx1, Gpx2, Gpx3, Gpx4, Gpx5), and glutathione reductase (Gsr) in 10 inbred mouse strains. Nonsynonymous nucleotide polymorphisms were identified in all genes, except for Gpx1, Gpx3, and Gpx4. Notably, the SJL/J mouse strain possessed unique nucleotide substitutions in the Gsr and Sod2 genes, which led to Asp39Ala and Val138Met amino acid substitutions in GSR and SOD2, respectively. The specific activity of GSR of SJL/J mice was reduced to 65% of that of NZB/N mice. In vivo activity, however, was higher in SJL/J, due to upregulated expression of the enzyme. The SOD2 activity in SJL/J mice was reduced to half that of other mouse strains. Consistent with this reduction, oxidative damage in the mitochondria was increased as demonstrated by a decrease of total glutathione and an increase in the levels of protein oxidation. These spontaneous hypomorphic alleles would be valuable in the study of free radical biology. PMID:14680687

Guo, Zhanjun; Higuchi, Keiichi; Mori, Masayuki

2003-12-15

16

Focus on antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant strategies in smoking related airway diseases  

PubMed Central

Cigarette smoke causes significant oxidant stress which is further enhanced by recruitment and activation of inflammatory cells to the lung. Polymorphisms in some detoxification enzymes are thought to increase the risk of developing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but the ultimate role of genetic variability in antioxidant and/or detoxification enzymes in COPD remains obscure. Some antioxidant enzymes are inducted, but the extent of induction is insufficient to protect the lung/alveolar epithelium against cigarette smoke. Exogenous antioxidants such as vitamins do not seem to protect against cigarette smoke related lung injury. Glutathione related synthetic drugs such as N-acetylcysteine have shown some benefits, but they may have pro-oxidant side effects. Synthetic compounds with superoxide dismutase and catalase activities have shown promising results in animal models against a variety of oxidant exposures including cigarette smoke in the lung. These results are in agreement with studies highlighting the importance of alveolar antioxidant protection mechanisms in oxidant stress and their inducibility. These new drugs need to be tested in cigarette smoking related lung injury/inflammation since inflammation/oxidant stress can continue after discontinuation of smoking.

Kinnula, V

2005-01-01

17

Intracellular Delivery of a Membrane-Impermeable Enzyme in Active Form using Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Gold nanoparticles were coated with a short peptide to promote intracellular delivery of membrane-impermeable proteins. Through microscopy and enzyme assays we demonstrated the particles were able to transport functional enzymes into variety of cell lines. Significantly, the transported proteins were able to escape from endosomes. Moreover, these particles showed no apparent cytotoxicity.

Ghosh, Partha; Yang, Xiaochao; Arvizo, Rochelle; Zhu, Zheng-Jiang; Agasti, Sarit S.; Mo, Zhihong; Rotello, Vincent M.

2010-01-01

18

Antioxidant enzymes responses to cadmium in radish tissues.  

PubMed

To investigate the antioxidant responses of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) to cadmium (Cd) treatment, seedlings of a tolerant variety were grown in increasing concentrations of CdCl(2), ranging from 0.25-1 mM, for up to 72 h in a hydroponic system. Analysis of Cd uptake indicated that most of the Cd accumulated in the roots, but some was also translocated and accumulated in the leaves, especially at the higher concentrations of Cd used in the experiments. Roots and leaves were analysed for catalase, glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase activities. Catalase and glutathione reductase activities increased considerably in the roots and leaves after 24 h exposure to the metal, indicating a direct correlation with Cd accumulation. The analysis of native PAGE enzyme activity staining, revealed several superoxide dismutase isoenzymes in leaves, with the two predominant isoenzymes exhibiting increases in activity in response to Cd treatment. The results suggest that in radish, the activity of antioxidant enzymes responds to Cd treatment. The main response may be via the activation of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle for the removal of hydrogen peroxide, or to ensure the availability of glutathione for the synthesis of Cd-binding proteins. PMID:11397437

Vitória, A P; Lea, P J; Azevedo, R A

2001-07-01

19

Effect of pure oxygen atmosphere on antioxidant enzyme and antioxidant activity of harvested litchi fruit during storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of pure oxygen on pericarp browning, reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism, antioxidant enzyme and antioxidant activity of harvested litchi fruit were investigated. Application of pure oxygen significantly prevented pericarp browning and delayed the increase in membrane permeability of litchi fruit during storage. Litchi fruit exposed to pure oxygen showed a lower level of lipid peroxides, compared to control

Xuewu Duan; Ting Liu; Dandan Zhang; Xinguo Su; Hetong Lin; Yueming Jiang

2011-01-01

20

Alteration of antioxidant enzyme gene expression during cold acclimation of near-isogenic wheat lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are harmful to living organisms due to the potential oxidation of membranes, DNA, proteins, and carbohydrates. Freezing injury has been shown to involve the attack of ROS. Antioxidant enzymes can protect plant cells from oxidative stress imposed by freezing injury; therefore, cold acclimation may involve an increase in the expression of antioxidant enzymes. In this study,

Kwang-Hyun Baek; Daniel Z. Skinner

2003-01-01

21

Cryopreservation of epididymal cat spermatozoa: effects of in vitro antioxidative enzymes supplementation and lipid peroxidation induction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation reaction, causes of sperm damage, can be diminished by action of antioxidative enzymes. This study aimed to investigate effects of (1) the antioxidative enzymes; catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase, on epipididymal cat sperm quality and (2) the lipid peroxidation reaction induced by a transition metal (ferrous ion (II); Fe2+) on sperm quality during

P. Thuwanut; K. Chatdarong; A. Johannisson; A.-S. Bergqvist; L. Söderquist; E. Axnér

2010-01-01

22

Modulatory effect of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides on serum antioxidant enzymes activities in ovarian cancer rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, we isolated polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum and investigated its effect on serum antioxidant enzymes activity in ovarian cancer rats to explore the mechanism underlying the pharmacological anti-cancer activity of the polysaccharides. Rats were grouped into the control, model and polysaccharides-treated groups. After experiment ended, serum antioxidant enzymes activity in rats were measured. Results showed that polysaccharides

Chen YouGuo; Shen ZongJi; Chen XiaoPing

2009-01-01

23

Engineering of the yeast antioxidant enzyme Mpr1 for enhanced activity and stability.  

PubMed

The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sigma1278b has the MPR1 gene, which confers resistance to the proline analogue azetidine-2-carboxylate (AZC). This gene encodes an N-acetyltransferase Mpr1 that detoxifies AZC, and the homologous genes have been found in many yeasts. Recently, we found that Mpr1 protects yeast cells by reducing the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels under oxidative stresses, such as heat-shock, freezing, or ethanol treatment. Unlike the known antioxidant enzymes, Mpr1 is thought to acetylate toxic metabolite(s) involved in ROS generation via oxidative events. To improve the enzymatic functions of Mpr1, we applied PCR random mutagenesis to MPR1. The mutagenized plasmid library was introduced into the S. cerevisiae S288C strain lacking MPR1, and we successfully isolated two Mpr1 variants with higher AZC resistance (K63R and F65L/L117V). Interestingly, overexpression of the K63R variant was found to increase cell viability or decrease intracellular ROS levels after exposure to H(2)O(2) or ethanol compared with the wild-type Mpr1. In vitro studies with the recombinant enzymes showed that the catalytic efficiency of the K63R variant for AZC and acetyl-CoA was higher than that of the wild-type Mpr1 and that the F65L mutation greatly enhanced the thermal stability. The mutational analysis and molecular modeling suggest that an alpha-helix containing Lys63 and Phe65 has important roles in the function of Mpr1. In addition, the wild-type and K63R variant Mpr1 reduced intracellular ROS levels under ethanol stress conditions on haploid sake yeast cells. These results suggest that engineering Mpr1 might be useful in breeding oxidative stress-tolerant yeast strains. PMID:19170243

Iinoya, Kaoru; Kotani, Tetsuya; Sasano, Yu; Takagi, Hiroshi

2009-06-01

24

An Intracellular Antioxidant Determines the Expression of a Melanin-Based Signal in a Bird  

PubMed Central

To understand how traits used in animal communication evolved and are maintained as honest signals, we need to understand the mechanisms that prevent cheating. It has been proposed that honest signaling is guaranteed by the costs associated with the signal expression. However, the nature of these costs is still under debate. Melanin-based signals are intriguing because their expression seems to be tightly controlled by genes and the resource involved (i.e. melanin) seems to be not limited. However, in vertebrates, low levels of a key intracellular antioxidant (i.e. glutathione) are needed to promote melanogenesis. We propose that melanin-based ornaments can signal the ability to cope with oxidative stress because those individuals with low enough levels of glutathione, such as those required for melanin production, should manage well the whole of the antioxidant machinery in order to maintain a certain oxidative status. We analysed the expression of a melanin-based signal: the well-known black stripe of the great tit (Parus major). Great tit nestlings were injected with a specific inhibitor of glutathione production (DL-buthionine-S,R-sulfoximine; BSO) throughout their development. BSO effectively decreased intracellular glutathione levels without apparent side effects on growth or body condition. Instead, treated nestlings developed black breast stripes 70–100% larger than controls. Moreover, treated nestlings also compensated the decrease in glutathione levels by increasing the levels of circulating antioxidants. Results indicate that melanin-based signals can be at least partially permeable to environmental influences such as those associated to oxidative stress. They also reveal a potential handicap associated to the expression of this kind of signals. Finally, although other contributing factors could have been present, our findings emphasize the role of oxidative stress in shaping the evolution of animal signals in general and, in particular, those produced by pigments.

Galvan, Ismael; Alonso-Alvarez, Carlos

2008-01-01

25

Protection of cells against oxidative stress by nanomolar levels of hydroxyflavones indicates a new type of intracellular antioxidant mechanism.  

PubMed

Natural polyphenol compounds are often good antioxidants, but they also cause damage to cells through more or less specific interactions with proteins. To distinguish antioxidant activity from cytotoxic effects we have tested four structurally related hydroxyflavones (baicalein, mosloflavone, negletein, and 5,6-dihydroxyflavone) at very low and physiologically relevant levels, using two different cell lines, L-6 myoblasts and THP-1 monocytes. Measurements using intracellular fluorescent probes and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy in combination with cytotoxicity assays showed strong antioxidant activities for baicalein and 5,6-dihydroxyflavone at picomolar concentrations, while 10 nM partially protected monocytes against the strong oxidative stress induced by 200 µM cumene hydroperoxide. Wide range dose-dependence curves were introduced to characterize and distinguish the mechanism and targets of different flavone antioxidants, and identify cytotoxic effects which only became detectable at micromolar concentrations. Analysis of these dose-dependence curves made it possible to exclude a protein-mediated antioxidant response, as well as a mechanism based on the simple stoichiometric scavenging of radicals. The results demonstrate that these flavones do not act on the same radicals as the flavonol quercetin. Considering the normal concentrations of all the endogenous antioxidants in cells, the addition of picomolar or nanomolar levels of these flavones should not be expected to produce any detectable increase in the total cellular antioxidant capacity. The significant intracellular antioxidant activity observed with 1 pM baicalein means that it must be scavenging radicals that for some reason are not eliminated by the endogenous antioxidants. The strong antioxidant effects found suggest these flavones, as well as quercetin and similar polyphenolic antioxidants, at physiologically relevant concentrations act as redox mediators to enable endogenous antioxidants to reach and scavenge different pools of otherwise inaccessible radicals. PMID:23637768

Lombardo, Emanuele; Sabellico, Cristian; Hájek, Jan; Sta?ková, Veronika; Filipský, Tomáš; Balducci, Valentina; De Vito, Paolo; Leone, Stefano; Bavavea, Eugenia I; Silvestri, Ilaria Proietti; Righi, Giuliana; Luly, Paolo; Saso, Luciano; Bovicelli, Paolo; Pedersen, Jens Z; Incerpi, Sandra

2013-01-01

26

Protection of Cells against Oxidative Stress by Nanomolar Levels of Hydroxyflavones Indicates a New Type of Intracellular Antioxidant Mechanism  

PubMed Central

Natural polyphenol compounds are often good antioxidants, but they also cause damage to cells through more or less specific interactions with proteins. To distinguish antioxidant activity from cytotoxic effects we have tested four structurally related hydroxyflavones (baicalein, mosloflavone, negletein, and 5,6-dihydroxyflavone) at very low and physiologically relevant levels, using two different cell lines, L-6 myoblasts and THP-1 monocytes. Measurements using intracellular fluorescent probes and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy in combination with cytotoxicity assays showed strong antioxidant activities for baicalein and 5,6-dihydroxyflavone at picomolar concentrations, while 10 nM partially protected monocytes against the strong oxidative stress induced by 200 µM cumene hydroperoxide. Wide range dose-dependence curves were introduced to characterize and distinguish the mechanism and targets of different flavone antioxidants, and identify cytotoxic effects which only became detectable at micromolar concentrations. Analysis of these dose-dependence curves made it possible to exclude a protein-mediated antioxidant response, as well as a mechanism based on the simple stoichiometric scavenging of radicals. The results demonstrate that these flavones do not act on the same radicals as the flavonol quercetin. Considering the normal concentrations of all the endogenous antioxidants in cells, the addition of picomolar or nanomolar levels of these flavones should not be expected to produce any detectable increase in the total cellular antioxidant capacity. The significant intracellular antioxidant activity observed with 1 pM baicalein means that it must be scavenging radicals that for some reason are not eliminated by the endogenous antioxidants. The strong antioxidant effects found suggest these flavones, as well as quercetin and similar polyphenolic antioxidants, at physiologically relevant concentrations act as redox mediators to enable endogenous antioxidants to reach and scavenge different pools of otherwise inaccessible radicals.

Hajek, Jan; Stankova, Veronika; Filipsky, Tomas; Balducci, Valentina; De Vito, Paolo; Leone, Stefano; Bavavea, Eugenia I.; Silvestri, Ilaria Proietti; Righi, Giuliana; Luly, Paolo; Saso, Luciano; Bovicelli, Paolo; Pedersen, Jens Z.; Incerpi, Sandra

2013-01-01

27

Expression of prion protein increases cellular copper binding and antioxidant enzyme activities but not copper delivery.  

PubMed

The N-terminal region of the prion protein PrP(C) contains a series of octapeptide repeats. This region has been implicated in the binding of divalent metal ions, particularly copper. PrP(C) has been suggested to be involved in copper transport and metabolism and in cell defense mechanisms against oxidative insult, possibly through the regulation of the intracellular CuZn superoxide dismutase activity (CuZn-SOD) or a SOD-like activity of PrP(C) itself. However, up to now the link between PrP(C) expression and copper metabolism or SOD activity has still to be formally established; particularly because conflicting results have been obtained in vivo. In this study, we report a link between PrP(C), copper binding, and resistance to oxidative stress. Radioactive copper ((64)Cu) was used at a physiological concentration to demonstrate that binding of copper to the outer plasma cell membrane is related to the level of PrP(C) expression in a cell line expressing a doxycycline-inducible murine PrP(C) gene. Cellular PIPLC pretreatment indicated that PrP(C) was not involved in copper delivery at physiological concentrations. We also demonstrated that murine PrP(C) expression increases several antioxidant enzyme activities and glutathione levels. Prion protein may be a stress sensor sensitive to copper and able to initiate, following copper binding, a signal transduction process acting on the antioxidant systems to improve cell defenses. PMID:12500977

Rachidi, Walid; Vilette, Didier; Guiraud, Pascale; Arlotto, Marie; Riondel, Jacqueline; Laude, Hubert; Lehmann, Sylvain; Favier, Alain

2003-03-14

28

Effects of peroxisome proliferators on antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant vitamins in rats and hamsters.  

PubMed

Peroxisome proliferators (PPs) cause hepatomegaly, peroxisome proliferation, and hepatocarcinogenesis in rats and mice, whereas hamsters are less responsive to PPs. PPs increase the activities of enzymes involved in peroxisomal beta-oxidation and omega-hydroxylation of fatty acids, which has been hypothesized to result in oxidative stress. The hypothesis of this study was that differential modulation of antioxidant enzymes and vitamins might account for differences in species susceptibility to PPs. Accordingly, we measured the activities of DT-diaphorase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the hepatic content of ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol in male Sprague-Dawley rats and Syrian hamsters fed 2 doses of 3 known peroxisome proliferators (dibutyl phthalate [DBP], gemfibrozil, and [4-chloro-6-(2,3-xylidino)-2-pyrimidinylthio]acetic acid (Wy-14,643) for 6, 34, or 90 days. In untreated animals, the activity of DT-diaphorase was much higher in hamsters than in rats, but the control levels of SOD, ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol were similar. In rats and hamsters treated with Wy-14,643, we observed decreases in alpha-tocopherol content and total SOD activity. DT-diaphorase was decreased in activity following Wy-14,643 treatment in rats at all time points and doses, but only sporadically affected in hamsters. Rats and hamsters treated with DBP demonstrated increased SOD activity at 6 days; however, in the rat, DBP decreased SOD activity at 90 days and alpha-tocopherol content was decreased throughout. In gemfibrozil treated rats and hamsters, a decrease in alpha-tocopherol content and an increase in DT-diaphorase activity were observed. In either species, no consistent trend was observed in total ascorbic acid content after treatment with any of the PPs. In conclusion, these data suggest that both rats and hamsters are compromised in antioxidant capabilities following PP treatment and additional hypotheses for species susceptibility should be considered. PMID:11248139

O'Brien, M L; Twaroski, T P; Cunningham, M L; Glauert, H P; Spear, B T

2001-04-01

29

Effects of hypobaric hypoxia on antioxidant enzymes in rats.  

PubMed Central

1. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of hypobaric hypoxia, equivalent to an altitude of 5500 m, on antioxidant enzymes in rats. 2. Malondialdehyde levels in serum, heart, lung, liver and kidney of hypobaric-hypoxic rats were all significantly higher than in control rats by day 21 of exposure (P < 0.05), indicating increased oxidative stress. 3. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) catalyses the conversion of the superoxide anion to H2O2 and O2. The concentration of immunoreactive Mn-SOD in the serum of hypobaric-hypoxic rats was raised significantly from day 5 onwards, whereas in liver and lung, it had decreased significantly by day 21 (P < 0.05). 4. Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) catalyses H2O2 and certain lipid peroxides. By day 21, GSH-Px activity had increased significantly in the heart and lungs, but decreased significantly in the liver (P < 0.05). 5. Catalase catalyses H2O2. Catalase activity in the liver and kidney of hypobaric-hypoxic rats was significantly decreased on day 1 (P < 0.05) though levels then recovered. 6. Mn-SOD mRNA in the liver of hypobaric-hypoxic rats was induced during the experiment, the effect being exceptionally marked, especially during the first 3 days of exposure to hypobaric hypoxia. 7. These results suggest that the liver may be more vulnerable than the other organs tested to oxidative stress under hypobaric hypoxia. Images Figure 6

Nakanishi, K; Tajima, F; Nakamura, A; Yagura, S; Ookawara, T; Yamashita, H; Suzuki, K; Taniguchi, N; Ohno, H

1995-01-01

30

Antioxidant enzymes as potential targets in cardioprotection and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Enzyme antioxidants: the next stage of pharmacological counterwork to the oxidative stress.  

PubMed

The focus in antioxidant research is on enzyme derivative investigations. Extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) is of particular interest, as it demonstrates in vivo the protective action against development of atherosclerosis, hypertension, heart failure, diabetes mellitus. The reliable association of coronary artery disease with decreased level of heparin-released EC-SOD was established in clinical research. To create a base for and to develop antioxidant therapy, various SOD isozymes, catalase (CAT), methods of gene therapy, and combined applications of enzymes are used. Covalent bienzyme SOD-CHS-CAT conjugate (CHS, chondroitin sulphate) showed high efficacy and safety as the drug candidate. There is an evident trend to use the components of glycocalyx and extra-cellular matrix for target delivery of medical substances. Development of new enzyme antioxidants for therapeutic application is closely connected with progress in medical biotechnology, the pharmaceutical industry, and the bioeconomy. PMID:22690296

Maksimenko, Alexander V; Vavaev, Alexander V

2012-02-01

31

Microtubule Formation and Activities of Antioxidative Enzymes in PC12 Cells Exposed to Phosphatidylcholine Hydroperoxides  

PubMed Central

Aging increases free radical generation and lipid oxidation and, thereby, mediates neurodegenerative diseases. As the brain is rich in lipids (polyunsaturated fatty acids), the antioxidative system plays an important role in protecting brain tissues from oxidative injury. The changes in microtubule formation and antioxidative enzyme activities have been investigated in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells exposed to various concentrations of phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxides (PCOOH). We measured three typical antioxidative enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT). The microtubule assembly system was dependent on the antioxidative enzyme system in cells exposed to oxidative stress. The activities of the three enzymes increased in a PCOOH exposure-dependent manner. In particular, the changes in the activity as a result of PCOOH exposure were similar in the three antioxidative enzymes. This is the first report indicating the compatibility between the tubulin-microtubule and antioxidative enzyme systems in cells that deteriorate as a result of phospholipid hydroperoxide administration from an exterior source. The descending order of sensitivity of the three enzymes to PCOOH is also discussed.

Yamanaka, Yukako; Yoshida-Yamamoto, Shumi; Doi, Hiroshi

2012-01-01

32

Intracellular Localization of Enzymes of Fatty Acid-beta-Oxidation in the Alga Cyanidium caldarium.  

PubMed

The intracellular distribution of enzymes, participating in the beta-oxidation of fatty acids in the eucaryotic alga Cyanidium has been studied. After separating the organelles from a crude homogenate on a linear flotation gradient, the enzymes enoyl-CoA hydratase, hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, and thiolase were present in the mitochondrial fraction (density: 1.19 gram per cubic centimeter). Activity of an acyl-CoA synthetase was found in the mitochondrial fraction as well as in a band where mitochondrial membrane apparently had accumulated (density: 1.17 gram per cubic centimeter). None of these enzymes were present in the peroxisomes (density: 1.23 gram per cubic centimeter). Results from cell fractionation as well as properties of beta-oxidation enzymes indicate a mitochondrial location of fatty acid degradation also in the algae Galdieria sulphuraria and Cyanidioschyzon merolae. PMID:16667204

Gross, W

1989-12-01

33

Heterologous expression of leader-less pga gene in Pichia pastoris: intracellular production of prokaryotic enzyme  

PubMed Central

Background Penicillin G acylase of Escherichia coli (PGAEc) is a commercially valuable enzyme for which efficient bacterial expression systems have been developed. The enzyme is used as a catalyst for the hydrolytic production of ?-lactam nuclei or for the synthesis of semi-synthetic penicillins such as ampicillin, amoxicillin and cephalexin. To become a mature, periplasmic enzyme, the inactive prepropeptide of PGA has to undergo complex processing that begins in the cytoplasm (autocatalytic cleavage), continues at crossing the cytoplasmic membrane (signal sequence removing), and it is completed in the periplasm. Since there are reports on impressive cytosolic expression of bacterial proteins in Pichia, we have cloned the leader-less gene encoding PGAEc in this host and studied yeast production capacity and enzyme authenticity. Results Leader-less pga gene encoding PGAEcunder the control of AOX1 promoter was cloned in Pichia pastoris X-33. The intracellular overproduction of heterologous PGAEc(hPGAEc) was evaluated in a stirred 10 litre bioreactor in high-cell density, fed batch cultures using different profiles of transient phases. Under optimal conditions, the average volumetric activity of 25900 U l-1 was reached. The hPGAEc was purified, characterized and compared with the wild-type PGAEc. The ?-subunit of the hPGAEc formed in the cytosol was processed aberrantly resulting in two forms with C- terminuses extended to the spacer peptide. The enzyme exhibited modified traits: the activity of the purified enzyme was reduced to 49%, the ratios of hydrolytic activities with cephalexin, phenylacetamide or 6-nitro-3-phenylacetylamidobenzoic acid (NIPAB) to penicillin G increased and the enzyme showed a better synthesis/hydrolysis ratio for the synthesis of cephalexin. Conclusions Presented results provide useful data regarding fermentation strategy, intracellular biosynthetic potential, and consequences of the heterologous expression of PGAEc in P. pastoris X-33. Aberrant processing of the precursor of PGAEc in the cytosol yielded the mature enzyme with modified traits.

2010-01-01

34

Tamarind seed coat extract restores reactive oxygen species through attenuation of glutathione level and antioxidant enzyme expression in human skin fibroblasts in response to oxidative stress  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the role and mechanism of tamarind seed coat extract (TSCE) on normal human skin fibroblast CCD-1064Sk cells under normal and oxidative stress conditions induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Methods Tamarind seed coats were extracted with boiling water and then partitioned with ethyl acetate before the cell analysis. Effect of TSCE on intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), glutathione (GSH) level, antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase activity including antioxidant protein expression was investigated. Results TSCE significantly attenuated intracellular ROS in the absence and presence of H2O2 by increasing GSH level. In the absence of H2O2, TSCE significantly enhanced SOD and catalase activity but did not affected on GPx. Meanwhile, TSCE significantly increased the protein expression of SOD and GPx in H2O2-treated cells. Conclusions TSCE exhibited antioxidant activities by scavenging ROS, attenuating GSH level that could protect human skin fibroblast cells from oxidative stress. Our results highlight the antioxidant mechanism of tamarind seed coat through an antioxidant enzyme system, the extract potentially benefits for health food and cosmeceutical application of tamarind seed coat.

Nakchat, Oranuch; Nalinratana, Nonthaneth; Meksuriyen, Duangdeun; Pongsamart, Sunanta

2014-01-01

35

Peroxiredoxin II is an essential antioxidant enzyme that prevents the oxidative inactivation of VEGF receptor-2 in vascular endothelial cells.  

PubMed

Cellular antioxidant enzymes play crucial roles in aerobic organisms by eliminating detrimental oxidants and maintaining the intracellular redox homeostasis. Therefore, the function of antioxidant enzymes is inextricably linked to the redox-dependent activities of multiple proteins and signaling pathways. Here, we report that the VEGFR2 RTK has an oxidation-sensitive cysteine residue whose reduced state is preserved specifically by peroxiredoxin II (PrxII) in vascular endothelial cells. In the absence of PrxII, the cellular H(2)O(2) level is markedly increased and the VEGFR2 becomes inactive, no longer responding to VEGF stimulation. Such VEGFR2 inactivation is due to the formation of intramolecular disulfide linkage between Cys1199 and Cys1206 in the C-terminal tail. Interestingly, the PrxII-mediated VEGFR2 protection is achieved by association of two proteins in the caveolae. Furthermore, PrxII deficiency suppresses tumor angiogenesis in vivo. This study thus demonstrates a physiological function of PrxII as the residential antioxidant safeguard specific to the redox-sensitive VEGFR2. PMID:22099303

Kang, Dong Hoon; Lee, Doo Jae; Lee, Kyung Wha; Park, Yoon Sun; Lee, Joo Young; Lee, Sang-Hee; Koh, Young Jun; Koh, Gou-Young; Choi, Chulhee; Yu, Dae-Yeul; Kim, Jaesang; Kang, Sang Won

2011-11-18

36

Rapid upregulation of heart antioxidant enzymes during arousal from estivation in the Giant African snail (Achatina fulica).  

PubMed

Estivation is an adaptive response to environments characterized by elevated temperatures and desiccative stress, as may occur during summer dry seasons. Similar to diapause and hibernation, it is characterized by low levels of activity, a drastically suppressed metabolic rate and enhanced stress resistance. We tested the hypothesis that Achatina fulica, a pulmonate land snail, enhances stress resistance during estivation and/or arousal by upregulating intracellular antioxidant defenses in the heart, kidney, hepatopancreas and foot tissues. No statistically significant changes in mitochondrial or cytosolic superoxide dismutase levels or activities, or glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase or catalase activities were associated with estivation in any tissue, however. In contrast, during arousal from estivation, activities of several antioxidant enzymes increased in heart, hepatopancreas and foot. In heart, a rapid increase in MnSOD protein levels was observed that peaked at 2h post arousal, but no such change was observed in CuZnSOD protein levels. Glutathione peroxidase activity was upregulated at 1h post arousal and remained elevated until 8h post arousal in heart tissue. Glutathione peroxidase was also upregulated at 24h post arousal in foot tissue. Glutathione reductase activity was upregulated at 4h post arousal in heart and foot tissues whereas catalase activity showed no changes. Markers of lipid peroxidation and protein damage revealed no significant increases during estivation or arousal. Therefore, antioxidant enzymes may play a role in oxidative stress defense specifically during arousal from estivation in A. fulica. PMID:20621194

Salway, Kurtis D; Tattersall, Glenn J; Stuart, Jeffrey A

2010-11-01

37

Antioxidant enzymes mediate survival of breast cancer cells deprived of extracellular matrix.  

PubMed

Metastasis by cancer cells relies upon the acquisition of the ability to evade anoikis, a cell death process elicited by detachment from extracellular matrix (ECM). The molecular mechanisms that ECM-detached cancer cells use to survive are not understood. Striking increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS) occur in ECM-detached mammary epithelial cells, threatening cell viability by inhibiting ATP production, suggesting that ROS must be neutralized if cells are to survive ECM-detachment. Here, we report the discovery of a prominent role for antioxidant enzymes, including catalase and superoxide dismutase, in facilitating the survival of breast cancer cells after ECM-detachment. Enhanced expression of antioxidant enzymes in nonmalignant mammary epithelial cells detached from ECM resulted in ATP elevation and survival in the luminal space of mammary acini. Conversely, silencing antioxidant enzyme expression in multiple breast cancer cell lines caused ATP reduction and compromised anchorage-independent growth. Notably, antioxidant enzyme-deficient cancer cells were compromised in their ability to form tumors in mice. In aggregate, our results reveal a vital role for antioxidant enzyme activity in maintaining metabolic activity and anchorage-independent growth in breast cancer cells. Furthermore, these findings imply that eliminating antioxidant enzyme activity may be an effective strategy to enhance susceptibility to cell death in cancer cells that may otherwise survive ECM-detachment. PMID:23771908

Davison, Calli A; Durbin, Sienna M; Thau, Matthew R; Zellmer, Victoria R; Chapman, Sarah E; Diener, Justin; Wathen, Connor; Leevy, W Matthew; Schafer, Zachary T

2013-06-15

38

Effect of dietary supplementation of probiotics and palm fruits extracts on the antioxidant enzyme gene expression in the mucosae of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.).  

PubMed

Antioxidant activity is particularly important, since oxidation is an unavoidable reaction in all living bodies. At present, natural antioxidants to be used on food as an alternative to synthetic ones are being sought. Gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) specimens were fed for 4 weeks with diets enriched with bacterial probiotics (Shewanella putrefaciens Pdp11 and Bacillus sp), single or in combination with Tunisian dates palm fruit extracts. The expression of the main antioxidant enzyme genes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione reductase) in the mucosae (gut, skin and gill) was evaluated after 2 and 4 weeks. Previously, free radical scavenging and several antioxidant assays were developed to know the antioxidant properties present on the palm fruits extracts. The results demonstrated that experimental diets alter the expression of the studied antioxidant genes, primarily in the gill and skin. Furthermore, the tested probiotics and mainly, the aqueous date palm fruits extracts had significant antioxidant properties based on their protective effect against the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species, especially when administering during 4 weeks. For this reason, probiotics and date palm fruit extracts may serve as good natural antioxidants and could potentially be considered as a functional food ingredient for fish in farms. PMID:24952087

Esteban, M A; Cordero, H; Martínez-Tomé, M; Jiménez-Monreal, A M; Bakhrouf, A; Mahdhi, A

2014-08-01

39

Hydrogel microspheres for stabilization of an antioxidant enzyme: effect of emulsion cross-linking of a dual polysaccharide system on the protection of enzyme activity.  

PubMed

Catalase is an antioxidant enzyme abundant in natural resources. However, the enzyme is usually inactivated by gastric acid and digestive enzymes after oral ingestion. In this study, carboxymethyl chitosan (CM-chitosan) and hyaluronic acid (HA) conjugate hydrogel microspheres have been prepared by an emulsion cross-linking technique to retain the activity of catalase in simulated gastrointestinal (GI) fluids. Cross-linking reduced the swelling capability and increased the resistance toward hyaluronidase digestion of prepared HA-CM-chitosan hydrogel microspheres. Catalase entrapped in the hydrogel microspheres exhibited superior stability over a wide pH range (pH 2.0 and 6.0-8.0) as compared to the native enzyme. The entrapped catalase was also protected against degradation by digestive enzymes. Following the treatments, the catalase-loaded microspheres, in contrast to native catalase, could effectively decrease the intracellular H2O2 level and protect HT-29 colonic epithelial cells against H2O2-induced oxidative damage to preserve cell viability. These results suggested that the HA-CM-chitosan hydrogel microspheres can be used for entrapment, protection and intestinal delivery of catalase for H2O2 scavenging. PMID:24055882

Tang, Deh-Wei; Yu, Shu-Huei; Wu, Wen-Shin; Hsieh, Hao-Ying; Tsai, Yi-Chin; Mi, Fwu-Long

2014-01-01

40

Role of Antioxidant Enzymes in Bacterial Resistance to Organic Acids ?  

PubMed Central

Growth in aerobic environments has been shown to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) and to cause oxidative stress in most organisms. Antioxidant enzymes (i.e., superoxide dismutases and hydroperoxidases) and DNA repair mechanisms provide protection against ROS. Acid stress has been shown to be associated with the induction of Mn superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) in Lactococcus lactis and Staphylococcus aureus. However, the relationship between acid stress and oxidative stress is not well understood. In the present study, we showed that mutations in the gene coding for MnSOD (sodA) increased the toxicity of lactic acid at pH 3.5 in Streptococcus thermophilus. The inclusion of the iron chelators 2,2?-dipyridyl (DIP), diethienetriamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA), and O-phenanthroline (O-Phe) provided partial protection against 330 mM lactic acid at pH 3.5. The results suggested that acid stress triggers an iron-mediated oxidative stress that can be ameliorated by MnSOD and iron chelators. These findings were further validated in Escherichia coli strains lacking both MnSOD and iron SOD (FeSOD) but expressing a heterologous MnSOD from S. thermophilus. We also found that, in E. coli, FeSOD did not provide the same protection afforded by MnSOD and that hydroperoxidases are equally important in protecting the cells against acid stress. These findings may explain the ability of some microorganisms to survive better in acidified environments, as in acid foods, during fermentation and accumulation of lactic acid or during passage through the low pH of the stomach.

Bruno-Barcena, Jose M.; Azcarate-Peril, M. Andrea; Hassan, Hosni M.

2010-01-01

41

Potential Degradation of Swainsonine by Intracellular Enzymes of Arthrobacter sp. HW08  

PubMed Central

Swainsonine (SW) is a toxin produced by locoweeds and harmful to the livestock industry. Degrading SW by Arthrobacter sp. HW08 was demonstrated as a promising way to deal with SW poisoning. However, it is unknown which part of the subcellular enzymes in Arthrobacter sp. HW08 is responsible for biodegrading SW and whether the metabolites are atoxic. In this study, intracellular and extracellular enzymes of Arthrobacter sp. HW08 were isolated and their enzyme activity was evaluated. The metabolites were fed to mice, and physiological and histological properties of the treated mice were investigated. The results showed that only intracellular enzyme of Arthrobacter sp. HW08 (IEHW08) could degrade SW efficiently. Compared with mice in SW treatment group, mice in SW + IEHW08 treatment group (1) increased their body weights; (2) showed higher number of platelets and lower number of white blood cells; (3) decreased the levels of creatinine, urea nitrogen, alanine transaminase and aspartate aminotransferase in serum; (4) reduced the number of vacuolated cells in cerebellum, liver and kidney. All these data demonstrate that IEHW08 was potentially safe for mice, while keeping the capacity of degrading SW. This study indicates a possible application of IEHW08 as an additive in the livestock industry to protect animals from SW poisoning.

Wang, Yan; Li, Yanhong; Hu, Yanchun; Li, Jincheng; Yang, Guodong; Kang, Danju; Li, Haili; Wang, Jianhua

2013-01-01

42

Malate-aspartate shuttle mediates the intracellular ATP levels, antioxidation capacity and survival of differentiated PC12 cells  

PubMed Central

NAD+ and NADH play pivotal roles in numerous redox reactions in cells. While increasing evidence has indicated important roles of NAD+ in cell survival and cellular functions, there has been distinct deficiency in the studies regarding the biological functions of NADH. NADH shuttles mediate the transfer of the reducing equivalents of the cytosolic NADH into mitochondria. Cumulating evidence has suggested that malate-aspartate shuttle (MAS), one of the two types of NADH shuttles, plays significant roles in multiple biological processes such as glutamate synthesis in neurons. Because there has been no information regarding the roles of NADH shuttle in the energy metabolism, antioxidation capacity, and survival of any type of neural cells, in this study we used differentiated PC12 cells as a cellular model to investigate the roles of MAS in the energy metabolism, antioxidation capacity and survival of cells. We found that MAS inhibition led to a significant decrease in the levels of GSH – a major antioxidation molecule in cells, suggesting an important role of MAS in maintaining the antioxidation capacity of cells. Our study has also suggested that MAS could play critical roles in maintaining the intracellular ATP levels of the cells. Moreover, MAS inhibition was shown to significantly decrease the survival of differentiated PC12 cells. Collectively, our study has provided first evidence suggesting important roles of NADH shuttles in maintaining antioxidation capacity of cells. Our study has also suggested important roles of MAS in maintaining the intracellular ATP levels and survival of differentiated PC12 cells.

Wang, Caixia; Chen, Heyu; Zhang, Jie; Hong, Yunyi; Ding, Xianting; Ying, Weihai

2014-01-01

43

Antioxidative capacity and enzyme activity in Haematococcus pluvialis cells exposed to superoxide free radicals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The antioxidative capacity of astaxanthin and enzyme activity of reactive oxygen eliminating enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) were studied in three cell types of Haematococcus pluvialis exposed to high concentrations of a superoxide anion radical (O{2/-}). The results show that defensive enzymes and astaxanthin-related mechanisms were both active in H. pluvialis during exposure to reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as O{2/-}. Astaxanthin reacted with ROS much faster than did the protective enzymes, and had the strongest antioxidative capacity to protect against lipid peroxidation. The defensive mechanisms varied significantly between the three cell types and were related to the level of astaxanthin that had accumulated in those cells. Astaxanthin-enriched red cells had the strongest antioxidative capacity, followed by brown cells, and astaxanthin-deficient green cells. Although there was no significant increase in expression of protective enzymes, the malondialdehyde (MDA) content in red cells was sustained at a low level because of the antioxidative effect of astaxanthin, which quenched O{2/-} before the protective enzymes could act. In green cells, astaxanthin is very low or absent; therefore, scavenging of ROS is inevitably reliant on antioxidative enzymes. Accordingly, in green cells, these enzymes play the leading role in scavenging ROS, and the expression of these enzymes is rapidly increased to reduce excessive ROS. However, because ROS were constantly increased in this study, the enhance enzyme activity in the green cells was not able to repair the ROS damage, leading to elevated MDA content. Of the four defensive enzymes measured in astaxanthin-deficient green cells, SOD eliminates O{2/-}, POD eliminates H2O2, which is a by-product of SOD activity, and APX and CAT are then initiated to scavenge excessive ROS.

Liu, Jianguo; Zhang, Xiaoli; Sun, Yanhong; Lin, Wei

2010-01-01

44

Antioxidant Enzyme Activities, Metallothioneins and Lipid Peroxidation as Biomarkers in Ruditapes decussatus ?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidases (GPX)) were studied in the gills and digestive gland of clams Ruditapes decussatus from different sites of the Ria Formosa (south coast of Portugal) in order to validate these enzymes as biomarkers of metal exposure. Two other potential biomarkers, lipid peroxidation expressed as malondialdehyde (MDA), and metallothionein (MT) levels were also

Florence Geret; Angela Serafim; Maria João Bebianno

2003-01-01

45

Purification and antioxidant activities of intracellular zinc polysaccharides from Pleurotus cornucopiae SS-03.  

PubMed

Intracellular zinc polysaccharides (IZPS) from Pleurotus cornucopiae SS-03 were extracted and purified, and three subfractions (IZPS-1, IZPS-2, and IZPS-3) were separated by DEAE-52 cellulose anion-exchange column chromatography. They showed certain scavenging effects on superoxide anion (O2(-)) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals, and positive rising of reducing power in vitro. All the subfractions were found upregulated the enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), GSH peroxide (GSH-Px) and catalase (CAT) significantly, decreased the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) remarkably in vivo. In addition, five monosaccharides components, including rhamnose, xylose, mannose, glucose, and galactose with the molar ratio of 1.65:0.05:1:1.50:1.07 and contents of 29.25%, 0.78%, 19.45%, 29.84%, and 20.67%, were investigated by gas chromatography. PMID:25037435

Zhang, Jianjun; Ma, Zhao; Zheng, Lan; Zhai, Guoyin; Wang, Liqin; Jia, Mengshi; Jia, Le

2014-10-13

46

Oxidative stress and the antioxidant enzyme system in the developing brain  

PubMed Central

Preterm infants are vulnerable to the oxidative stress due to the production of large amounts of free radicals, antioxidant system insufficiency, and immature oligodendroglial cells. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a pivotal role in the development of periventricular leukomalacia. The three most common ROS are superoxide (O2•-), hydroxyl radical (OH•), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Under normal physiological conditions, a balance is maintained between the production of ROS and the capacity of the antioxidant enzyme system. However, if this balance breaks down, ROS can exert toxic effects. Superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase are considered the classical antioxidant enzymes. A recently discovered antioxidant enzyme family, peroxiredoxin (Prdx), is also an important scavenger of free radicals. Prdx1 expression is induced at birth, whereas Prdx2 is constitutively expressed, and Prdx6 expression is consistent with the classical antioxidant enzymes. Several antioxidant substances have been studied as potential therapeutic agents; however, further preclinical and clinical studies are required before allowing clinical application.

Shim, So-Yeon

2013-01-01

47

Antioxidant Enzymes and Oxidative Stress in the Erythrocytes of Iron Deficiency Anemic Patients Supplemented with Vitamins  

PubMed Central

Background: Iron deficiency anemia is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Evidences from epidemiological and clinical studies suggest a possible correlation between antioxidant levels and the anemic disease risk. The present work is to investigate antioxidant levels and lipid peroxidation in anemic patients. Methods: A number of 30 patients (15 males and 15 females) were selected for the study. Likewise, 30 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers (15 males and 15 females) were selected with their informed consent. Patients and healthy subjects were supplemented with vitamins C and E for 15 days. The lipid peroxidation both in plasma and erythrocyte lysates was determined by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and lipid peroxides. The antioxidant vitamins A, C, and E and total antioxidant activity were also analyzed. The antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase were also determined. Results: Based on analysis, we found that the increase in lipid peroxidation was higher in the anemic subjects before vitamin supplementation, which was statistically significant at P<0.05. The antioxidant enzymes were higher in the patients before antioxidant supplementation when compared with patients after vitamin supplementation. Conclusion: Our data revealed higher oxidative stress before vitamin supplementation in iron deficiency anemic patients and after supplementation, lower lipid peroxidation and increased antioxidant vitamins were achieved.

Laxmi Madhikarmi, Nirjala; Rudraiah Siddalinga Murthy, Kora

2014-01-01

48

Age-Specific Effects on Rat Lung Glutathione and Antioxidant Enzymes after Inhaling Ultrafine Soot  

PubMed Central

Vehicle exhaust is rich in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and is a dominant contributor to urban particulate pollution (PM). Exposure to PM is linked to respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in susceptible populations, such as children. PM can contribute to the development and exacerbation of asthma, and this is thought to occur because of the presence of electrophiles in PM or through electrophile generation via the metabolism of PAHs. Glutathione (GSH), an abundant intracellular antioxidant, confers cytoprotection through conjugation of electrophiles and reduction of reactive oxygen species. GSH-dependent phase II detoxifying enzymes glutathione peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase facilitate metabolism and conjugation, respectively. Ambient particulates are highly variable in composition, which complicates systematic study. In response, we have developed a replicable ultrafine premixed flame particle (PFP)-generating system for in vivo studies. To determine particle effects in the developing lung, 7–day-old neonatal and adult rats inhaled 22 ?g/m3 PFP during a single 6-hour exposure. Pulmonary GSH and related phase II detoxifying gene and protein expression were evaluated 2, 24, and 48 hours after exposure. Neonates exhibited significant depletion of GSH despite higher initial baseline levels of GSH. Furthermore, we observed attenuated induction of phase II enzymes (glutamate cysteine ligase, glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase, and glutathione peroxidase) in neonates compared with adult rats. We conclude that developing neonates have a limited ability to deviate from their normal developmental pattern that precludes adequate adaptation to environmental pollutants, which results in enhanced cytotoxicity from inhaled PM.

Chan, Jackie K. W.; Kodani, Sean D.; Charrier, Jessie G.; Morin, Dexter; Edwards, Patricia C.; Anderson, Donald S.; Anastasio, Cort

2013-01-01

49

Biological effect of rare-earth elements on anti-oxidation enzymes in wheat under acid rain stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on pot-culture experiments, the biological effect of rare-earth elements (REE) on antioxidation enzymes of wheat under\\u000a acid rain stress was studied. The results show that both acid rain and REE can affect the activity of anti-oxidation enzymes\\u000a of wheat to different extents. Under the acid rain stress, anti-oxidation enzymes (CAT, SOD) of wheat showed single peak curve\\u000a with the

Chongling Yan; Yetang Hong; Xianke Yang; Shunzhen Fu; Shanyi Wu

1999-01-01

50

Effect of enzyme treatment with ?-glucosidase on antioxidant capacity of mulberry ( Morus alba L.) leaf extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out to investigate the effect of enzyme treatment with ?-glucosidase on antioxidant capacity of the\\u000a mulberry leaf extract (MLE) using oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and cellular antioxidant capacity (CAC) assay.\\u000a The MLE was prepared by autoclaving at 121°C for 15 min and treated with ?-glucosidase for 9 hr. High pressure liquid chromatography\\u000a (HPLC) analysis showed

Gyo-Nam Kim; Hae-Dong Jang

2010-01-01

51

Red blood cell antioxidant enzymes in age-related macular degeneration.  

PubMed Central

AIMS/BACKGROUND: Oxidative damage has been proposed to be involved in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (ARMD). The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether red blood cell antioxidant enzyme activity correlates with severity of aging maculopathy in affected individuals. METHODS: Blood samples were obtained from 54 patients with varying severity of aging maculopathy and 12 similarly aged individuals with normal ophthalmoscopic examination. Macular findings were graded according to a modification of the method described for the Age-Related Eye Disease Study. (AREDS). The activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase were measured in red blood cells. Haemoglobin content of whole blood was measured, and enzyme activity was determined per mg haemoglobin. RESULTS: Multiple regression analysis and ordinal logistic regression analysis were performed to determine whether antioxidant enzyme activity was associated with severity of ARMD. No significant association between disease severity of ARMD and antioxidant enzyme activity was identified for any of the enzymes. CONCLUSION: These results do not provide evidence for a relation between oxidative stress, as measured by antioxidant enzyme activity in red blood cells, and disease severity in ARMD.

De La Paz, M A; Zhang, J; Fridovich, I

1996-01-01

52

The effect of bilirubin on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in cumene hydroperoxide-treated erythrocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, it has been suggested that bilirubin may act as a potent biological chain-breaking antioxidant. To observe the effects\\u000a of free bilirubin on antioxidant reactions in cumene hydroperoxide-treated erythrocytes (15 g hemoglobin\\/dl), we added bilirubin\\u000a at four different concentrations (0.5, 1, 5, and 10 mg\\/dl). We measured the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance and reduced\\u000a glutathione levels, and some antioxidant enzyme activities,

A. Ye?ilkaya; A. Ye?in; S. Özdem; T. A. Aksu

1998-01-01

53

Free radical scavenging of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides and its effect on antioxidant enzymes and immunity activities in cervical carcinoma rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ganoderma lucidum are used as traditional edible and medicinal materials in China. In this study, antioxidant activities of polysaccharides from G. lucidum in China were investigated. The influence of G. lucidum polysaccharides upon activities of serum antioxidant enzymes and immunity in rats with cervical cancer. The antioxidant activity was measured by DPPH?, O?, and OH? free radicals scavenging. Results showed

Chen XiaoPing; Chen Yan; Li ShuiBing; Chen YouGuo; Lan JianYun; Liu LanPing

2009-01-01

54

Influences of chlorpyrifos on antioxidant enzyme activities of Nilaparvata lugens.  

PubMed

The brown planthoppers (Nilaparvata lugens, BPH) resistant to chlorpyrifos were selected in laboratory for eight generations. In the full course, the successive changes of activities of SOD, CAT and POD were analyzed. The analyses revealed that increasing of LD50 value was parallel to increasing of SOD, CAT, and POD, all of which increased gradually generation by generation. qRT-PCR showed that CAT was not directly involved in chlorpyrifos detoxification, but could be transcriptionally induced by chlorpyrifos. The results showed that the change of CAT activity was high correlated with chlorpyrifos toxicity in the full course, indicating that CAT played very important role in BPH antioxidant defense. It was suggested that the significant induction of CAT activity could contribute to enhancing antioxidant capacity in BPH and its population growth. CAT as an oxidative stress biomarker was recommended. PMID:24064262

Ling, Shanfeng; Zhang, Hong

2013-12-01

55

Expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes during potato tuber dormancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The expression of antioxidant genes has been analyzed in a potato plant and during tuber dormancy. Manganese superoxide dismutase\\u000a (MnSOD), cytosolic copper and zinc superoide dismutase (Cu\\/ZnSOD), catalase class II, cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase (APX)\\u000a and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) are expressed at the RNA level in all the contexts analyzed. By contrast, the expression\\u000a of the iron superoxide dismutase (FeSOD) and

J. A. Rojas-Beltran; F. Dejaeghere; M. Abd Alla Kotb; P. Du Jardin

2000-01-01

56

Major Shifts in the Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Lung Antioxidant Enzymes during Influenza Pneumonia  

PubMed Central

With the incessant challenge of exposure to the air we breathe, lung tissue suffers the highest levels of oxygen tension and thus requires robust antioxidant defenses. Furthermore, following injury or infection, lung tissue faces the additional challenge of inflammation-induced reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS). Little is known about the identity or distribution of lung antioxidant enzymes under normal conditions or during infection-induced inflammation. Using a mouse model of influenza (H1N1 influenza virus A/PR/8/34 [PR8]) in combination with bioinformatics, we identified seven lung-abundant antioxidant enzymes: Glutathione peroxidase 3 (Gpx3), Superoxide dismutase 3 (Sod3), Transferrin (Tf), peroxyredoxin6 (Prdx6), glutathione S-transferase kappa 1 (Gstk1), Catalase (Cat), and Glutathione peroxidase 8 (Gpx8). Interestingly, despite the demand for antioxidants during inflammation, influenza caused depletion in two key antioxidants: Cat and Prdx6. As Cat is highly expressed in Clara cells, virus-induced Clara cell loss contributes to the depletion in Cat. Prdx6 is also reduced due to Clara cell loss, however there is a coincident increase in Prdx6 levels in the alveoli, resulting in only a subtle reduction of Prdx6 overall. Analogously, Gpx3 shifts from the basement membranes underlying the bronchioles and blood vessels to the alveoli, thus maintaining balanced expression. Taken together, these studies identify key lung antioxidants and reveal their distribution among specific cell types. Furthermore, results show that influenza depletes key antioxidants, and that in some cases there is coincident increased expression, consistent with compensatory expression. Given that oxidative stress is known to be a key risk factor during influenza infection, knowledge about the antioxidant repertoire of lungs, and the spatio-temporal distribution of antioxidants, contributes to our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of influenza-induced morbidity and mortality.

Yamada, Yoshiyuki; Limmon, Gino V.; Zheng, Dahai; Li, Na; Li, Liang; Yin, Lu; Chow, Vincent T. K.; Chen, Jianzhu; Engelward, Bevin P.

2012-01-01

57

Citrus juice modulates antioxidant enzymes and lipid profiles in orchidectomized rats.  

PubMed

Oxidative stress and hypogonadism are two factors linked to the increased incidence of cardiovascular disease in males. Eating fruits and vegetables is known to reduce the incidences of oxidative stress. The objective of this research was to delineate whether drinking daily squeezed orange juice (OJ) or grapefruit juice (GJ) modulates oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymes while impacting cardiovascular risk factors in hypogonad male rats. In the present study, 36 1-year-old male rats were equally divided among the following four treatments: sham (control), orchidectomized (ORX), ORX + OJ, and ORX + GJ. After 60 days of drinking OJ or GJ, antioxidant capacity, cholesterol, and triglycerides in serum and superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), cholesterol, and triglycerides in liver were evaluated. Serum antioxidant capacity and SOD and CAT activities decreased (P < .05), while serum cholesterol and liver triglycerides increased (P < .05) in the ORX group compared with the sham group. In contrast to the ORX group, drinking OJ was ineffective while drinking GJ decreased (P < .05) cholesterol concentration in liver and in serum. Nevertheless, OJ and GJ decreased (P < .05) triglyceride concentration in liver and increased (P < .05) serum antioxidant capacity and SOD and CAT activities compared with the ORX group. In conclusion, drinking OJ or GJ prevented oxidative stress by enhancing total antioxidant capacity and elevating liver antioxidant enzymes while modulating cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:17004910

Deyhim, Farzad; Lopez, Erica; Gonzalez, Julia; Garcia, Michelle; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

2006-01-01

58

Pharmacological modifications of endogenous antioxidant enzymes with special reference to the effects of deprenyl: a possible antioxidant strategy.  

PubMed

Limited information is available on the upregulation of endogenous antioxidant enzymes by means of administering various pharmaceuticals and/or chemicals. It has been reported that ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), a bile acid originally identified from black bear bile (a Chinese medicine, Yutan) increased glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities in mouse livers, resulting in a decrease in systemic lethal toxicity of orally challenged 1-2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene (DCNB). Also, ursolic acid found in herbal medicines (e.g. leaves of loquat) was reported to increase catalase (CAT) activities in mouse liver. Interestingly, the chemical structures of these two compounds are surprisingly similar to each other, despite the difference in their original sources. These results suggest that in the future, more and more compounds will be found to have effects on increasing endogenous antioxidant enzyme activities. Deprenyl is a monoamine oxidase B inhibitor but also possesses many other different pharmacological activities. Among these various pharmacological effects of deprenyl, a possible causal relationship between two effects of deprenyl, namely the prolongation of the survival of animals and upregulation of antioxidant enzymes in selective brain regions, has been postulated by the authors. In at least four different animal species (rats, mice, hamsters and dogs), a significant prolongation of survival by chronic administration of the drug has been reported by different groups including that of the authors. This group has reported that repeated administration of the drug for 2-3 weeks can significantly increase activities of both types of superoxide dismutase (SODs) (Cu, Zn-, and Mn-SODs) as well as of CAT selectively in brain dopaminergic regions. Both effects are dose dependent but excessive dosages become less effective and even cause an adverse effect (i.e. a decrease in enzyme activities and shortening of life span). The parallelism of the dose-effect relationship between the two phenomena suggests that modification of SOD and CAT levels is one possible mechanism for deprenyl's ability to prolong the life span of animals. PMID:10656538

Kitani, K; Kanai, S; Ivy, G O; Carrillo, M C

1999-11-01

59

[Activity of antioxidant enzymes of the rat kidneys under mercury dichloride effect].  

PubMed

Salts of heavy metals are excreted by the kidneys and, as pro-oxidants, stimulate the processes of free radical oxidation. Mercury ions are accumulated in the kidneys. So the study of the features of antioxidant enzymes adaptive response of different kidney layers in response to mercury dichloride is important. Catalase and glytathionperoxidase activity within rat kidneys 72 hours after mercury dichloride intoxication in the ratio of 5 ml per 1 kg of the animal weight was studied. It was important to reveal the influence of the mercury salts on rat kidney antioxidative system. Decreasing glytathionperoxidase activity in cortical and cerebral substances and renal papillae were accompanied by increased contents of oxidative modified proteins and lipids and morphological changes in renal tissue under salt and water loading after mercury dichloride poisoning. The results obtained evidence for the inhibition of antioxidative protection of enzymes in rat kidneys under the mercury dichloride effect. PMID:24834726

Velyka, A Ia; Pshak, V P; Lopushins'ka, I V

2014-01-01

60

Study on Activities of Antioxidant Enzyme Induced by Myclobutanil in Danio rerio  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the antioxidant responses induced by myclobutanil in zebrafish (Danio rerio) were analyzed. Changes in activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA) and catalase (CAT) in the liver of fish were determined. The results showed that as myclobutanil concentration increased, significant changes in SOD and CAT activities and MDA level were found, suggesting that activities of enzymes mentioned

Feng Ding; Wenhua Song; Zhen Li; Jing Guo

2010-01-01

61

Changes in antioxidant enzyme expression in response to hydrogen peroxide in rat astroglial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxidative stress has been causally linked to a variety of neurodegenerative diseases. To clarify the role of the antioxidant enzyme (AOE) system in oxidative brain damage primary cultures of rat astroglial cells were exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Expression of AOEs and several parameters for cell viability and functionality were measured. In our experiments astrocytes responded to low concentrations of

Elke Röhrdanz; Gabriele Schmuck; Sandra Ohler; Quynh-Hoa Tran-Thi; Regine Kahl

2001-01-01

62

Antioxidative enzymes in human nasal mucosa after exposure to ozone. Possible role of GSTM1 deficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective and design: Epithelial antioxidative enzymes (AOEs) are thought to be a first line of defense against reactive oxygen species as they are upregulated after exposure to ozone according to animal studies. We analysed the activities of the AOEs catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in a tissue culture of human nasal

R. Otto-Knapp; K. Jurgovsky; K. Schierhorn; G. Kunkel

2003-01-01

63

Antioxidant enzyme changes in neem, pigeonpea and mulberry leaves in two stages of maturity.  

PubMed

Differential expression of antioxidant enzymes in various growth and differentiation stages has been documented in several plant species. We studied here, the difference in the levels of protein content and antioxidant enzymes activity at two stages of maturity, named young and mature in neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss), pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) mill sp) and mulberry (Morus Alba L.) leaves. The results showed that detached neem and pigeonpea mature leaves possessed higher activities of catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) and lower activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) as compared with young leaves. However, glutathione reductase (GR) showed higher activity in mature leaves of neem, whereas no change in its activity was observed in pigeonpea. On the other hand, antioxidant enzymes in mulberry showed either positive (PPO) or negative (POD, GR, APX) correlation with the progression of leaf maturity. Apparently the trend of changes in antioxidant enzymes activity during leaf development is species-specific: their activity higher at mature stage in some plants and lower in others. PMID:22895104

Goud, Prashanth B; Kachole, Manvendra S

2012-10-01

64

Activities of xanthine oxidoreductase and antioxidant enzymes in different tissues of diabetic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxidative stress is an important pathogenic constituent in diabetic endothelial dysfunction. The aim of this study was to investigate whether an increase in oxidative stress related to xanthine oxidoreductase occurs in diabetes. Liver, brain, heart, and kidney xanthine oxidase (XO), xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH), antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase), and nitrite levels were measured in control and early and

Yakup Aliciguzel; Ikbal Ozen; Mutay Aslan; Umit Karayalcin

2003-01-01

65

NAD(P)H:quinone acceptor oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), a multifunctional antioxidant enzyme and exceptionally versatile cytoprotector  

PubMed Central

NAD(P)H:quinone acceptor oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) is a widely-distributed FAD-dependent flavoprotein that promotes obligatory 2-electron reductions of quinones, quinoneimines, nitroaromatics, and azo dyes, at rates that are comparable with NADH or NADPH. These reductions depress quinone levels and thereby minimize opportunities for generation of reactive oxygen intermediates by redox cycling, and for depletion of intracellular thiol pools. NQO1 is a highly-inducible enzyme that is regulated by the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE pathway. Evidence for the importance of the antioxidant functions of NQO1 in combating oxidative stress is provided by demonstrations that induction of NQO1 levels or their depletion (knockout, or knockdown) are associated with decreased and increased susceptibilities to oxidative stress, respectively. Furthermore, benzene genotoxicity is markedly enhanced when NQO1 activity is compromised. Not surprisingly, human polymorphisms that suppress NQO1 activities are associated with increased predisposition to disease. Recent studies have uncovered protective roles for NQO1 that apparently are unrelated to its enzymatic activities. NQO1 binds to and thereby stabilizes the important tumor suppressor p53 against proteasomal degradation. Indeed, NQO1 appears to regulate the degradative fate of other proteins. These findings suggest that NQO1 may exercise a selective “gatekeeping” role in regulating the proteasomal degradation of specific proteins, thereby broadening the cytoprotective role of NQO1 far beyond its highly effective antioxidant functions.

Dinkova-Kostova, Albena T.; Talalay, Paul

2010-01-01

66

Effect of acute vs chronic H2O2-induced oxidative stress on antioxidant enzyme activities.  

PubMed

H2O2 can freely crosses membranes and in the presence of Fe2+ (or Cu+) it is prone to participate in Fenton reaction. This study evaluated the concentration and time-dependent effects of H2O2-induced oxidative stress on MnSOD, Se:GPx and catalase and on aconitase. Acute and chronic H2O2 treatments were able to induce oxidative stress in HeLa cells as they significantly decreased aconitase activity and also caused a very significant decrease on antioxidant enzyme activities. The inhibition of enzyme activities was time- and concentration-dependent. Chronic treatment with 5 microM H2O2/h after 24 h was able to decrease all enzyme activities almost at the same level as the acute treatment. Acute and chronic treatments on antioxidant enzyme activities were prevented by cell treatment with ascorbic acid or N-acetylcysteine. These results indicate that antioxidant enzymes can also be affected by the same ROS they produce or neutralize if the time of exposure is long enough. PMID:19212855

Miguel, Fernanda; Augusto, Amanda C; Gurgueira, Sonia A

2009-04-01

67

Effect of the herbicide 4-CPA on human erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes in vitro.  

PubMed

To investigate the possible role of oxygen free radicals and oxidant stress in the toxic effects of phenoxyherbicides, we studied the in vitro effect of 4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (4-CPA) on various human erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes, namely glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, catalase, selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase. 4-CPA added in a dose of 1 ppm to human erythrocytes for 1 h caused a significant reduction in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (P <0.001) and catalase (P <0.001) activities, but did not significantly affect the activities of other enzymes. Such selective inactivation of specific erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes may play a role in the toxic effects of phenoxyherbicides. PMID:11523589

Alicigüzel, Y; Ozdem, S; Demir, A Y; Unal, F; Kumbul, D; Ozdem, S S; Perry, G; Smith, M A

2001-01-01

68

Higher Plasma Pyridoxal Phosphate Is Associated with Increased Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Critically Ill Surgical Patients  

PubMed Central

Critically ill patients experience severe stress, inflammation and clinical conditions which may increase the utilization and metabolic turnover of vitamin B-6 and may further increase their oxidative stress and compromise their antioxidant capacity. This study was conducted to examine the relationship between vitamin B-6 status (plasma and erythrocyte PLP) oxidative stress, and antioxidant capacities in critically ill surgical patients. Thirty-seven patients in surgical intensive care unit of Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan, were enrolled. The levels of plasma and erythrocyte PLP, serum malondialdehyde, total antioxidant capacity, and antioxidant enzyme activities (i.e., superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S-transferase, and glutathione peroxidase) were determined on the 1st and 7th days of admission. Plasma PLP was positively associated with the mean SOD activity level on day 1 (r = 0.42, P < 0.05), day 7 (r = 0.37, P < 0.05), and on changes (? (day 7 ? day 1)) (r = 0.56, P < 0.01) after adjusting for age, gender, and plasma C-reactive protein concentration. Higher plasma PLP could be an important contributing factor in the elevation of antioxidant enzyme activity in critically ill surgical patients.

Cheng, Chien-Hsiang; Huang, Shih-Chien; Chiang, Ting-Yu; Wong, Yueching

2013-01-01

69

Serum Antioxidative Enzymes Levels and Oxidative Stress Products in Age-Related Cataract Patients  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To investigate the activity of antioxidative enzymes and the products of oxidative stress in patients with age-related cataracts and compare the findings with those in healthy control subjects. Method. Sixty patients with age-related cataract and sixty healthy controls of matched age and gender were included in this study. Serum samples were obtained to detect the antioxidative enzymes of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and oxidation degradation products of malondialdehyde (MDA), 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), conjugated diene (CD), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), protein carbonyl (PC), and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). Results. Serum SOD, GSH-Px, and CAT activities in cataract group were significantly decreased as compared to the control subjects (P < 0.05). The levels of MDA, 4-HNE, and CD in cataract patients were significantly higher than those in the control subjects (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). Cataract patients had higher levels of 8-OHdG, AOPP, and PC with respect to the comparative group of normal subjects (P < 0.01). And there was no statistical significance in concentration of antioxidative enzymes and oxidative stress products in patients with different subtype cataract. Conclusions. Oxidative stress is an important risk factor in the development of age-related cataract, and augmentation of the antioxidant defence systems may be of benefit to prevent or delay cataractogenesis.

Chang, Dong; Zhang, Xuefei; Rong, Shengzhong; Sha, Qian; Liu, Peipei; Han, Tao; Pan, Hongzhi

2013-01-01

70

Extract from Eugenia punicifolia is an antioxidant and inhibits enzymes related to metabolic syndrome.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to investigate in vitro biological activities of extract of Eugenia punicifolia leaves (EEP), emphasizing the inhibitory activity of enzymes related to metabolic syndrome and its antioxidant effects. The antioxidant activity was analyzed by free radicals scavengers in vitro assays: DPPH·, ABTS(·+), O2(·?), and NO· and a cell-based assay. EEP were tested in inhibitory colorimetric assays using ?-amylase, ?-glucosidase, xanthine oxidase, and pancreatic lipase enzymes. The EEP exhibited activity in ABTS(·+), DPPH·, and O2(·?) scavenger (IC50 = 10.5 ± 1.2, 28.84 ± 0.54, and 38.12 ± 2.6 ?g/mL), respectively. EEP did not show cytotoxic effects, and it showed antioxidant activity in cells in a concentration-dependent manner. EEP exhibited inhibition of ?-amylase, ?-glucosidase, and xanthine oxidase activities in vitro assays (IC50 = 122.8 ± 6.3; 2.9 ± 0.1; 23.5 ± 2.6), respectively; however, EEP did not inhibit the lipase activity. The findings supported that extract of E. punicifolia leaves is a natural antioxidant and inhibitor of enzymes, such as ?-amylase, ?-glucosidase, and xanthine oxidase, which can result in a reduction in the carbohydrate absorption rate and decrease of risks factors of cardiovascular disease, thereby providing a novel dietary opportunity for the prevention of metabolic syndrome. PMID:24078187

Lopes Galeno, Denise Morais; Carvalho, Rosany Piccolotto; Boleti, Ana Paula de Araújo; Lima, Arleilson Sousa; Oliveira de Almeida, Patricia Danielle; Pacheco, Carolina Carvalho; Pereira de Souza, Tatiane; Lima, Emerson Silva

2014-01-01

71

Antioxidant enzymes stimulation in Aspergillus parasiticus by Lentinula edodes inhibits aflatoxin production.  

PubMed

Biosynthesis of aflatoxins, toxic metabolites produced by Aspergillus parasiticus, is correlated to the fungal oxidative stress and cell ageing. In this paper, the mechanism underlying the aflatoxin-inhibiting effect of the Lentinula edodes culture filtrates was studied by analysing their anti-oxidant activity and beta-glucan content. Mushroom beta-glucans are pharmacologically active compounds stimulating anti-oxidant responses in animal cells. L. edodes lyophilised filtrates stimulate A. parasiticus anti-oxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase) and aflatoxin inhibition was better correlated with beta-glucan content than with anti-oxidant activity of the filtrates. RT-PCR analyses on treated mycelia showed a delay in the activation of aflR, and norA, genes of aflatoxin cluster and a synchronous activation of hsf2-like, a homologue of a yeast transcription factor involved in oxidative stress responses. The first evidence of hsf2-like in A. parasiticus and its activation during aflatoxin biosynthesis is reported. L. edodes filtrates could play a role as external stimulus affecting the anti-oxidant status in the fungal cell that, in turn, leads to aflatoxin inhibition. In the fungal cell, beta-glucans present in the filtrates could stimulate the activation of transcription factors related to anti-oxidant response and anti-oxidant enzyme activity with a contemporaneous delay of aflatoxin genes transcription, which led to a marked reduction of aflatoxin production. This research suggests new perspectives to set suitable strategies against aflatoxins and L. edodes could be considered a promising tool. PMID:15838675

Reverberi, M; Fabbri, A A; Zjalic, S; Ricelli, A; Punelli, F; Fanelli, C

2005-11-01

72

Antioxidant enzymes attenuate myocardial stunning in the conscious dog  

SciTech Connect

Several studies have shown that postischemic myocardial dysfunction (myocardial stunning) is attenuated by antioxidants, implying a pathogenetic role of oxy-radicals in this phenomenon. However, since all these studies have been performed in open-chest preparations, artifacts due to anesthesia, trauma, and other nonphysiologic conditions cannot be excluded. Accordingly, chronically instrumented dogs underwent a 15-minute occlusion (o) of the left anterior descending artery followed by reperfusion. Dogs received i.v. either saline or superoxide dismutase (SOD) plus catalase (CAT) (16,000 U/kg and 55,000 U/kg, respectively, over 1 hour starting 15 minutes before O). Regional myocardial function was assessed as systolic wall thickening (WTh) using a pulsed Doppler probe. WTh after reperfusion was significantly greater in treated dogs, and this difference could not be ascribed to differences in collateral flow or hemodynamics. The authors conclude that SOD plus catalase attenuate myocardial stunning in the conscious dog, indicating that oxy-radicals play a pathogenetic role in this phenomenon under physiologic conditions.

Triana, J.F.; Unisa, A.; Bolli, R. (Baylor Coll. of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States))

1990-02-26

73

Endothelial delivery of antioxidant enzymes loaded into non-polymeric magnetic nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Antioxidant enzymes have shown promise as a therapy for pathological conditions involving increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However the efficiency of their use for combating oxidative stress is dependent on the ability to achieve therapeutically adequate levels of active enzymes at the site of ROS-mediated injury. Thus, the implementation of antioxidant enzyme therapy requires a strategy enabling both guided delivery to the target site and effective protection of the protein in its active form. To address these requirements we developed magnetically responsive nanoparticles (MNP) formed by precipitation of calcium oleate in the presence of magnetite-based ferrofluid (controlled aggregation/precipitation) as a carrier for magnetically guided delivery of therapeutic proteins. We hypothesized that antioxidant enzymes, catalase and superoxide dismutase, can be protected from proteolytic inactivation by encapsulation in MNP. We also hypothesized that catalase-loaded MNP applied with a high-gradient magnetic field can rescue endothelial cells from hydrogen peroxide toxicity in culture. To test these hypotheses, a family of enzyme-loaded MNP formulations were prepared and characterized with respect to their magnetic properties, enzyme entrapment yields and protection capacity. SOD- and catalase-loaded MNP were formed with average sizes ranging from 300 to 400 nm, and a protein loading efficiency of 20–33%. MNP were strongly magnetically responsive (magnetic moment at saturation of 14.3 emu/g) in the absence of magnetic remanence, and exhibited a protracted release of their cargo protein in plasma. Catalase stably associated with MNP was protected from proteolysis and retained 20% of its initial enzymatic activity after 24 hr of exposure to pronase. Under magnetic guidance catalase-loaded MNP were rapidly taken up by cultured endothelial cells providing increased resistance to oxidative stress (62±12% cells rescued from hydrogen peroxide induced cell death vs. 10±4% under non-magnetic conditions). We conclude that non-polymeric MNP formed using the controlled aggregation/precipitation strategy are a promising carrier for targeted antioxidant enzyme therapy, and in combination with magnetic guidance can be applied to protect endothelial cells from oxidative stress mediated damage. This protective effect of magnetically targeted MNP impregnated with antioxidant enzymes can be highly relevant for the treatment of cardiovascular disease and should be further investigated in animal models.

Chorny, Michael; Hood, Elizabeth; Levy, Robert J.; Muzykantov, Vladimir R.

2010-01-01

74

Biotransformation and antioxidant enzymes of Limnoperna fortunei detect site impact in watercourses of Córdoba, Argentina.  

PubMed

The golden mussel Limnoperna fortunei was used as a biomonitor of environmental pollution in the Suquía River basin around Córdoba City (Argentina). The sampling sites along the river were chosen according to their increasing levels of pollutants (e.g. heavy metals) as well as biological oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD). A water quality index (WQI) was constructed from the interaction of several normalized factors that affect the aquatic environment, such as the mentioned pollutants and physico-chemical characteristics of the sampling sites. Activity changes of biotransformation enzyme glutathione S-transferase (GST) and the antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) and catalase (CAT), after exposure to pollutants, served as biomarkers. Membrane bound GST and antioxidant enzymes responded at the most polluted sampling site within 1 day showing increased activities lasting for 4 days. Further sampling was restricted due to no survival of the animals. Antioxidant enzymes GPx, GR and CAT were sensitive responding to the different pollution scenarios, showing good correlation to the chemical characterization. PMID:19631986

Contardo-Jara, Valeska; Galanti, Lucas N; Amé, María V; Monferrán, Magdalena V; Wunderlin, Daniel A; Wiegand, Claudia

2009-10-01

75

In vitro inhibitory effect on digestive enzymes and antioxidant potential of commonly consumed fruits.  

PubMed

Dietary inhibitors of fats and carbohydrates degrading enzymes can reduce obesity and type 2 diabetes. In this study, we screened crude extracts from 30 commonly consumed fruits to test their in vitro inhibitory effect against key enzymes relevant for obesity (pancreatic lipase) and type 2 diabetes (?-glucosidase and ?-amylase), total phenolic content (Folin-Ciocalteu method), and antioxidant capacity (ABTS and FRAP). The IC50 values of the fruits tested varied from 39.91 to >400 mg/mL, from 1.04 to >80 mg/mL, and from 0.72 to 135.07 mg/mL against ?-glucosidase, ?-amylase, and pancreatic lipase, respectively. Antioxidant capacity ranged from 0.66 to 124.66 ?mol of TE/g of fruit and strongly correlated with phenolic content, while the enzyme inhibition was poorly correlated with total phenolic and antioxidant capacity. Among fruits tested, blue honeysuckle and red gooseberry exhibited the highest inhibitory activity with respect to the carbohydrate degrading enzymes, while lingonberry had the strongest anti-lipase activity. PMID:24785184

Pods?dek, Anna; Majewska, Iwona; Redzynia, Ma?gorzata; Sosnowska, Dorota; Kozio?kiewicz, Maria

2014-05-21

76

trans-Resveratrol Protects Ischemic PC12 Cells by Inhibiting the Hypoxia Associated Transcription Factors and Increasing the Levels of Antioxidant Defense Enzymes  

PubMed Central

An in vitro model of ischemic cerebral stroke [oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) for 6 h followed by 24 h reoxygenation (R)] with PC12 cells increases Ca2+ influx by upregulating native L-type Ca2+ channels and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. This reactive oxygen species generation and increase in intracellular Ca2+ triggers the expression of hypoxic homeostasis transcription factors such as hypoxia induced factor-1 alpha (HIF-1?), Cav-beta 3 (Cav ?3), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), heat shock protein 27 (hsp-27), and cationic channel transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7). OGD insulted PC12 cells were subjected to biologically safe doses (5, 10, and 25 ?M) of trans-resveratrol in three different treatment groups: 24 h prior to OGD (pre-treatment); 24 h post OGD (post-treatment); and from 24 h before OGD to end of reoxygenation period (whole-treatment). Here, we demonstrated that OGD-R-induced neuronal injury/death is by reactive oxygen species generation, increase in intracellular calcium levels, and decrease in antioxidant defense enzymes. trans-Resveratrol increases the viability of OGD-R insulted PC12 cells, which was assessed by using MTT, NRU, and LDH release assay. In addition, trans-resveratrol significantly decreases reactive oxygen species generation, intracellular Ca2+ levels, and hypoxia associated transcription factors and also increases the level of antioxidant defense enzymes. Our data shows that the whole-treatment group of trans-resveratrol is most efficient in decreasing hypoxia induced cell death through its antioxidant properties.

2012-01-01

77

Resveratrol Provides Cardioprotection after Ischemia/reperfusion Injury via Modulation of Antioxidant Enzyme Activities.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated the cardioprotective effects of resveratrol. Rats were intraperitoneally administered with resveratrol (25 mg/kg bw) or vehicle (ethanol 10%) for 7 days and their heart subjected to ischemia/reperfusion injury. Isolated hearts were langendorff perfused, left ventricular functions as heart rate and developed pressure, as well as, heart antioxidant status were determined. Data showed that resveratrol improved recovery of post-ischemic ventricular functions when compared to control. Resveratrol also improved myocardial lipoperoxidation, free iron and antioxidant enzyme activities. Resveratrol decreased significantly catalase while it increased peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities. In this later case, native PAGE analysis of superoxide dismutase isoforms revealed that resveratrol up regulated iron and manganese isoforms. Resveratrol exerted potential cardioprotection partly by its antioxidant properties. PMID:24523766

Mokni, Meherzia; Hamlaoui, Sonia; Karkouch, Ines; Amri, Mohamed; Marzouki, Lamjed; Limam, Ferid; Aouani, Ezzedine

2013-01-01

78

Resveratrol Provides Cardioprotection after Ischemia/reperfusion Injury via Modulation of Antioxidant Enzyme Activities  

PubMed Central

In this study, we investigated the cardioprotective effects of resveratrol. Rats were intraperitoneally administered with resveratrol (25 mg/kg bw) or vehicle (ethanol 10%) for 7 days and their heart subjected to ischemia/reperfusion injury. Isolated hearts were langendorff perfused, left ventricular functions as heart rate and developed pressure, as well as, heart antioxidant status were determined. Data showed that resveratrol improved recovery of post-ischemic ventricular functions when compared to control. Resveratrol also improved myocardial lipoperoxidation, free iron and antioxidant enzyme activities. Resveratrol decreased significantly catalase while it increased peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities. In this later case, native PAGE analysis of superoxide dismutase isoforms revealed that resveratrol up regulated iron and manganese isoforms. Resveratrol exerted potential cardioprotection partly by its antioxidant properties.

Mokni, Meherzia; Hamlaoui, Sonia; Karkouch, Ines; Amri, Mohamed; Marzouki, Lamjed; Limam, Ferid; Aouani, Ezzedine

2013-01-01

79

An Nrf2\\/Small Maf Heterodimer Mediates the Induction of Phase II Detoxifying Enzyme Genes through Antioxidant Response Elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The induction of phase II detoxifying enzymes is an important defense mechanism against intake of xenobiotics. While this group of enzymes is believed to be under the transcriptional control of antioxidant response elements (AREs), this contention is experimentally unconfirmed. Since the ARE resembles the binding sequence of erythroid transcription factor NF-E2, we investigated the possibility that the phase II enzyme

Ken Itoh; Tomoki Chiba; Satoru Takahashi; Tetsuro Ishii; Kazuhiko Igarashi; Yasutake Katoh; Tatsuya Oyake; Norio Hayashi; Kimihiko Satoh; Ichiro Hatayama; Masayuki Yamamoto; Yo-ichi Nabeshima

1997-01-01

80

Kinetics of wound-induced activation of antioxidative enzymes in Oryza sativa: differential activation at different growth stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase are major antioxidative enzymes that contribute to the oxidative stress response in plants. The activity of these enzymes was measured in wound-stressed rice plants that were wounded at seedling stage, maximum tillering stage or flowering stage. Kinetics of enzyme activity were examined in leaf extracts post-wounding. Superoxide dismutase activity increased rapidly until 6 h after

Hema Kumar Chandru; Eunsun Kim; Yongin Kuk; Kyoungwon Cho; Oksoo Han

2003-01-01

81

Effects of Launaea procumbens on brain antioxidant enzymes and cognitive performance of rat  

PubMed Central

Background Launaea procumbens is used in the treatment of oxidative stress and mental disorders. The effects of Launaea procumbens methanolic extracts (LPMEs), i.e., 100 and 200 LPME mg/kg body weight (b.w.), on cognitive performance as well as on the activity of acetylcholinesterase, and antioxidant enzymes in rat brain tissue homogenates were evaluated. Methods Thirty male Sprague–Dawley rats were divided equally into three groups. Rats in group I (control) were given saline (vehicle), group II received LPME (100 mg/kg b.w., p.o.), and group III were treated with LPME (200 mg/kg b.w., p.o.) in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for 7 days. Antioxidant potential was assessed by measuring the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSHpx), glutathione reductase (GSR) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) as well as lipid peroxidation and glutathione (GSH) contents in brain tissue homogenates. Activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and cognitive performance were also assessed. Results LPME administration reduced the levels of lipid peroxidation products (TBARS contents), increased GSH levels and enhanced the activities of SOD, CAT, GSHpx, GSR and GST. AChE activity was reduced by LPME treatment compared with untreated controls. Conclusion These findings suggested the significant impact of LPMEs on brain function. These effects could be through the antioxidant effects of the bioactive constituents present in LPME.

2012-01-01

82

Renal antioxidant enzymes and glutathione redox status in leptin-induced hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previously, we have demonstrated that leptin increases blood pressure (BP) in the rats through two oxidative stress-dependent\\u000a mechanisms: stimulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) by H2O2 and scavenging of nitric oxide (NO) by superoxide $$ \\\\left( {{\\\\text{O}}_{2} ^{ - \\\\bullet } } \\\\right) $$. Herein, we examined if renal glutathione system and antioxidant enzymes determine the mechanism of prohypertensive effect

Jerzy Be?towski; Anna Jamroz-Wi?niewska; Gra?yna Wójcicka; Ewelina ?owicka; Andrzej Wojtak

2008-01-01

83

Salt stress induction of some key antioxidant enzymes and metabolites in eight Iranian wild almond species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work describes the changes in the activities of key antioxidant enzymes and the levels of some metabolites in\\u000a relation to salt tolerance in eight wild almond species. All the species were exposed to four levels of NaCl (control, 40,\\u000a 80 and 120 mM). Plant fresh biomass, ?-, ?- and ?-tocopherol, total soluble proteins, malondialdehyde (MDAeq), H2O2, total phenolics, and

Karim Sorkheh; Behrouz Shiran; Vahid Rouhi; Mahmood Khodambashi; Adriano Sofo

84

The effect of NaCl on antioxidant enzyme activities in potato seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of NaCl on the growth and activity of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) were investigated in the seedlings of four potato cultivars (Agria, Kennebec; relatively salt tolerant, Diamant and Ajax; relatively salt sensitive). The shoot fresh mass of Agria and Kennebec did not changed at 50 mM NaCl,

H. Rahnama; H. Ebrahimzadeh

2005-01-01

85

Waterlogging induced oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activities in pigeon pea  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was conducted with two contrasting pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L.) genotypes, ICPL 84023 (tolerant) and ICP 7035 (susceptible), to study the physiological and molecular basis of waterlogging\\u000a tolerance in relation to oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activities. Waterlogging resulted in visible yellowing and\\u000a premature senescence of leaves, and greater decline in relative water content, chlorophyll content, and membrane

R. K. Sairam; D. Kumutha; K. Ezhilmathi; V. Chinnusamy; R. C. Meena

2009-01-01

86

Influence of water stress on antioxidative enzymes and yield of banana cultivars and hybrids.  

PubMed

The main aim for this field experimental study is to screening of various banana cultivars and hybrids for water deficit tolerance through antioxidative enzymes and yield. The field experiment was conducted at National Research Centre for Banana to screen the banana cultivars and hybrids for water deficit tolerance and to elucidate information on antioxidative enzymes mechanism correlated with yield of banana cultivars and hybrids. The methodology of this experimental were analyzed by split plot design and has two treatments considered as main plot (M) viz., control plot taken as M1 and water deficit plot taken as M2 and also the cultivars and hybrids were considered as sup plots (S). The stress was imposed according to the Available Soil Moisture (ASM) and this ASM was measured by using pressure plate membrane apparatus. The experimental data were significantly varied between the treatments and also cultivars and hybrids. The antioxidative enzymes of catalase, super oxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase were significantly enhanced during water deficit conditions. Among the twelve cultivars and hybrids, Karpuravalli, Karpuravalli x Pisang Jajee, Saba and Sannachenkathali was identified as tolerant to water stress with highly accelerated by water stress treatment in the range of 23 to 32% over Control in Catalase (CAT), Super Oxide Dismutase (SOD) and Ascorbate Peroxidase (APX) leads to reduced the cellular membrane damaged by reactive oxygen species and get higher yield; whereas, Matti, Pisang Jajee x Matti, Matti x Anaikomban and Anaikomban x Pisang Jajee were notified as sensitive cultivars and hybrids with lesser increase in antioxidative enzyme activity of 15% than control which is leads to get very low yield. PMID:24517018

Surendar, K Krishna; Devi, D Durga; Ravi, I; Jeyakumar, P; Velayudham, K

2013-12-15

87

The effects of pycnogenol on antioxidant enzymes in a mouse model of ozone exposure  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Ozone is an environmentally reactive oxidant, and pycnogenol is a mixture of flavonoid compounds extracted from pine tree bark that have antioxidant activity. We investigated the effects of pycnogenol on reactive nitrogen species, antioxidant responses, and airway responsiveness in BALB/c mice exposed to ozone. Methods Antioxidant levels were determined using high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Nitric oxide (NO) metabolites in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid from BALB/c mice in filtered air and 2 ppm ozone with pycnogenol pretreatment before ozone exposure (n = 6) were quantified colorimetrically using the Griess reaction. Results Uric acid and ascorbic acid concentrations were significantly higher in BAL fluid following pretreatment with pycnogenol, whereas ?-tocopherol concentrations were higher in the ozone exposed group but were similar in the ozone and pycnogenol pretreatment groups. Retinol and ?-tocopherol concentrations tended to increase in the ozone exposure group but were similar in the ozone and pycnogenol pretreatment groups following ozone exposure. Malonylaldehyde concentrations increased in the ozone exposure group but were similar in the ozone and pycnogenol plus ozone groups. The nitrite and total NO metabolite concentrations in BAL fluid, which parallel the in vivo generation of NO in the airways, were significantly greater in the ozone exposed group than the group exposed to filtered air, but decreased with pycnogenol pretreatment. Conclusions Pycnogenol may increase levels of antioxidant enzymes and decrease levels of nitrogen species, suggesting that antioxidants minimize the effects of acute ozone exposure via a protective mechanism.

Lee, Min-Sung; Moon, Kuk-Young; Bae, Da-Jeong; Park, Moo-Kyun

2013-01-01

88

Atrazine effects on antioxidant status and xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes after oral administration in peripubertal male rat.  

PubMed

Previously, we reported that in vivo applied atrazine from postnatal day 23 to 50 induced strong inhibition of testicular steroidogenesis. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate, in the same experimental model, the oxidative status in androgen-producing testicular interstitial compartment characterized by diminished steroidogenesis. In parallel, we determined activities of antioxidative and cytochrome P450 (CYP) xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in liver. To confirm the results on atrazine induced-inhibition of testicular androgenesis, we measured ex vivo production of androgen in Leydig cells. The results revealed decreased activity of antioxidant enzymes, especially glutathione S-transferase (GST), but also glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase (CAT) in testicular interstitial cells, in parallel with strongly diminished ex vivo basal and agonist-stimulated Leydig cell androgenesis. In liver, atrazine increased the activity of GSH-Px, GST, and CYP1A1/2 enzyme, but not lipid peroxidation. These results indicate that atrazine markedly affects both antioxidant status and androgenesis in peripubertal rats. PMID:22797327

Pogrmic-Majkic, Kristina; Kaisarevic, Sonja; Fa, Svetlana; Dakic, Vanja; Glisic, Branka; Hrubik, Jelena; Kovacevic, Radmila

2012-09-01

89

A potential link among antioxidant enzymes, histopathology and trace elements in canine visceral leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is a severe and fatal systemic chronic inflammatory disease. We investigated the alterations in, and potential associations among, antioxidant enzymes, trace elements and histopathology in CVL. Blood and tissue levels of Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase were measured in mixed-breed dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum chagasi, symptomatic (n = 19) and asymptomatic (n = 11). Serum levels of copper, iron, zinc, selenium and nitric oxide, and plasma lipid peroxidation were measured. Histological and morphometric analyses were conducted of lesions in liver, spleen and lymph nodes. We found lower blood catalase and glutathione peroxidase activity to be correlated with lower iron and selenium respectively. However, higher activity of Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase was not correlated with the increase in copper and decreased in zinc observed in infected animals compared to controls. Organ tissue was characterized by lower enzyme activity in infected dogs than in controls, but this was not correlated with trace elements. Lipid peroxidation was higher in symptomatic than in asymptomatic and control dogs and was associated with lesions such as chronic inflammatory reaction, congestion, haemosiderin and fibrosis. Systemic iron deposition was observed primarily in the symptomatic dogs showing a higher tissue parasite load. Dogs with symptomatic CVL displayed enhanced LPO and Fe tissue deposition associated with decreased levels of antioxidant enzymes. These results showed new points in the pathology of CVL and might open new treatment perspectives associated with antioxidants and the role of iron in the pathogenesis of CVL. PMID:24766461

Souza, Carolina C; Barreto, Tatiane de O; da Silva, Sydnei M; Pinto, Aldair W J; Figueiredo, Maria M; Ferreira Rocha, Olguita G; Cangussú, Silvia D; Tafuri, Wagner L

2014-08-01

90

Effect of feeding blended and interesterified vegetable oils on antioxidant enzymes in rats.  

PubMed

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of feeding blended and interesterified oils prepared using coconut oil (CNO) with rice bran oil (RBO) or sesame oil (SESO), with a polyunsaturated/saturated (P/S) ratio of 0.8-1.0, on oxidative stress and endogenous antioxidant system. Feeding blended oils resulted in significantly increased hepatic lipid peroxide levels in rats given blended oil CNO+RBO or CNO+SESO by 1.3 and 1.6-fold, respectively compared to rats fed diet containing CNO. The lipid peroxide level in erythrocyte membrane also increased in rats fed blended oil compared to rats fed with CNO. Rats fed interesterified oils prepared from these blended oils also showed increased lipid peroxide level compared to rats given CNO diet, however it was not significantly different from rats fed with their respective blends. There was a significant increase in the activity of endogenous antioxidant enzymes super oxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-s-transferase after feeding blended and interesterified oils. The activities of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)/Mg(2+)-ATPase were increased in rats fed blended and interesterified oils. These results indicated that the P/S ratio of dietary fat is an important factor in determining the oxidative stress, activity of endogenous antioxidant enzymes and activity of membrane bound enzymes. PMID:20937347

Reena, Malongil B; Lokesh, Belur R

2011-01-01

91

Mitochondria-targeted antioxidant enzyme activity regulates radioresistance in human pancreatic cancer cells  

PubMed Central

In recent years, cellular redox environment gained significant attention as a critical regulator of cellular responses to oxidative stress. Cellular redox environment is a balance between production of reactive oxygen species and their removal by antioxidant enzymes. We investigated the hypothesis that mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme activity regulates radioresistance in human pancreatic cancer cells. Vector-control and manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) overexpressing human pancreatic cancer cells were irradiated and assayed for cell survival and activation of the G2-checkpoint pathway. Increased MnSOD activity significantly increased cell survival following irradiation with 6 Gy of gamma-radiation (p < 0.05). The MnSOD overexpressing irradiated cells also revealed 3–4 folds increase in the percentage of G2 cells compared to irradiated vector-control. Furthermore, MnSOD overexpressing irradiated cells exhibited increased loss of phosphorylated histone H2AX protein levels. The radiation-induced increase in cyclin B1 protein levels in irradiated vector-control cells was suppressed in irradiated MnSOD overexpressing cells. Mitochondria-targeted catalase overexpression increased the survival of irradiated cells. These results support the hypothesis that mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme activity and mitochondria-generated reactive oxygen species-signaling (superoxide and hydrogen peroxide) could regulate radiation-induced G2 checkpoint activation and radioresistance in human pancreatic cancer cells.

Fisher, Carolyn J.; Goswami, Prabhat C.

2008-01-01

92

Effects of Exogenous Silicon on the Activities of Antioxidant Enzymes and Lipid Peroxidation in Chilling-Stressed Cucumber Leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to increase vegetable productivity by improving environmental conditions, this article investigates the effects of exogenous silicon on the activities of major antioxidant enzymes and on lipid peroxidation under chilling stress, and it examines whether silicon-induced chilling tolerance is mediated by an increase in antioxidant activity. Cucumis sativus cv. Jinchun 4 was hydroponically cultivated to the two-leaf stage, at

Jiao-jing LIU; Shao-hang LIN; Pei-lei XU; Xiu-juan WANG; Ji-gang BAI

2009-01-01

93

Effect of chromium(VI) on the status of plasma lipid peroxidation and erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes in chromium plating workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesThe present study was carried out to determine the effect of chromium(VI) on the status of plasma lipid peroxidation and erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes in workers exposed to chromium during chromium plating process.

Ravi Babu Kalahasthi; Rajmohan Hirehal Raghavendra Rao; Rajan Bagalur Krishna Murthy; M. Karuna Kumar

2006-01-01

94

Enzymatic metabolites of lycopene induce Nrf2-mediated expression of phase II detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes in human bronchial epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

Lycopene can be cleaved by carotene 9?,10?-oxygenase at its 9?,10? double bond to form apo-10?-lycopenoids, including apo-10?-lycopenal, -lycopenol and -lycopenoic acid. The latter has been recently shown to inhibit lung carcinogenesis both in vivo and in vitro, however, the mechanism(s) underlying this protection is not well defined. In the present study, we report that treatment with apo-10?-lycopenoic acid, in a time- and dose-dependent manner, results in the nuclear accumulation of transcription factor Nrf2 (nuclear factor E2-related factor 2) protein in BEAS-2B human bronchial epithelial cells. The activation of Nrf2 by apo-10?-lycopenoic acid is associated with the induction of phase II detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes including heme oxygenase-1, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1, glutathione S-transferases, and glutamate–cysteine ligases in BEAS-2B cells. Furthermore, apo-10?-lycopenoic acid treatment increased total intracellular glutathione levels and suppressed both endogenous reactive oxygen species generation and H2O2-induced oxidative damage in BEAS-2B cells. In addition, both apo-10?-lycopenol and apo-10?-lycopenal induced heme oxygenase-1 gene expression in BEAS-2B cells. These data strongly suggest that the anti-carcinogenic and antioxidant functions of lycopene may be mediated by apo-10?-lycopenoids via activating Nrf2 and inducing phase II detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes.

Lian, Fuzhi; Wang, Xiang-Dong

2011-01-01

95

Antioxidative and angiotensin-I-converting enzyme inhibitory potential of a Pacific Hake ( Merluccius productus ) fish protein hydrolysate subjected to simulated gastrointestinal digestion and Caco-2 cell permeation.  

PubMed

Pacific hake fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) with promising chemical assay based antioxidative capacity was studied for in vitro angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory potential, intestinal cell permeability characteristics, and intracellular antioxidative potential using the Caco-2 cell model system. FPH showed substrate-type inhibition of ACE with IC(50) of 161 microg of peptides/mL. HPLC analysis revealed that different peptides were responsible for antioxidative and ACE-inhibitory activity. FPH inhibited 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride-induced oxidation in Caco-2 cells at noncytotoxic concentrations. In vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion increased (P < 0.05) antioxidative capacity; ACE-inhibitory activity of FPH remained unchanged, although individual peptide fractions showed decreased or no activity after digestion. Some FPH peptides passed through Caco-2 cells: the permeates showed 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical scavenging activity but no ACE-inhibitory activity. These results suggest the potential for application of Pacific hake FPH to reduce oxidative processes in vivo. Further studies are needed to assess prospective antihypertensive effects. PMID:20085275

Samaranayaka, Anusha G P; Kitts, David D; Li-Chan, Eunice C Y

2010-02-10

96

The relationship between serum level of thyroid hormones, trace elements and antioxidant enzymes in dromedary camel ( Camelus dromedarius )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thyroid hormones might be able to regulate the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase\\u000a (GPX). The role of thyroid hormones in metabolic pathways and antioxidant enzyme activities are well known in many species.\\u000a Nevertheless, there is no report describing probable relationship between thyroid hormones status, erythrocyte antioxidant\\u000a enzymes and serum profiles of trace elements. This study was

S. Nazifi; M. Mansourian; B. Nikahval; S. M. Razavi

2009-01-01

97

Potato responds to salt stress by increased activity of antioxidant enzymes.  

PubMed

To understand the response of potato to salt stress, antioxidant enzyme activities and ion content were analyzed for a sensitive and a tolerant cultivar. Nodal cuttings of the tolerant cultivar, Kennebec, and the sensitive cultivar, Concord, were exposed to media without or with 30, 60, 90 or 120 mmol/L NaCl for 4 weeks. On exposure to NaCl, the length and fresh and dry weight of both shoots and roots of Concord showed greater decrease than those of Kennebec. The decrease in shoot growth was more severe than that of the root for both cultivars. The K(+) content of shoots and roots of both cultivars was reduced in a dose-dependent manner by exposure to NaCl; the Na(+) content increased. Activities of ascorbate peroxidase, catalase and glutathione reductase were increased in NaCl-exposed shoots of Kennebec; the corresponding activities in NaCl-exposed shoots of Concord were decreased. Roots of both cultivars showed similar changes in the activities of these enzymes on exposure to NaCl. These studies established that enzyme activities in Concord shoots are inversely related to the NaCl concentration, whereas those in Kennebec do not show a dose dependency, which is also the case for the roots of both cultivars. Our findings suggest that an increase in activity of antioxidant enzymes, such as ascorbate peroxidase, catalase and glutathione reductase, can contribute to salt tolerance in Kennebec, a salt resistant cultivar of potato. PMID:20021557

Aghaei, Keyvan; Ehsanpour, Ali Akber; Komatsu, Setsuko

2009-12-01

98

Endothelial targeting of nanocarriers loaded with antioxidant enzymes for protection against vascular oxidative stress and inflammation.  

PubMed

Endothelial-targeted delivery of antioxidant enzymes, catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD), is a promising strategy for protecting organs and tissues from inflammation and oxidative stress. Here we describe Protective Antioxidant Carriers for Endothelial Targeting (PACkET), the first carriers capable of targeted endothelial delivery of both catalase and SOD. PACkET formed through controlled precipitation loaded ~30% enzyme and protected it from proteolytic degradation, whereas attachment of PECAM monoclonal antibodies to surface of the enzyme-loaded carriers, achieved without adversely affecting their stability and functionality, provided targeting. Isotope tracing and microscopy showed that PACkET exhibited specific endothelial binding and internalization in vitro. Endothelial targeting of PACkET was validated in vivo by specific (vs IgG-control) accumulation in the pulmonary vasculature after intravenous injection achieving 33% of injected dose at 30 min. Catalase loaded PACkET protects endothelial cells from killing by H2O2 and alleviated the pulmonary edema and leukocyte infiltration in mouse model of endotoxin-induced lung injury, whereas SOD-loaded PACkET mitigated cytokine-induced endothelial pro-inflammatory activation and endotoxin-induced lung inflammation. These studies indicate that PACkET offers a modular approach for vascular targeting of therapeutic enzymes. PMID:24480537

Hood, Elizabeth D; Chorny, Michael; Greineder, Colin F; S Alferiev, Ivan; Levy, Robert J; Muzykantov, Vladimir R

2014-04-01

99

Description of a new Mycobacterium intracellulare pattern of PCR restriction enzyme analysis of hsp65 gene.  

PubMed

This work comprises 9 pulmonary nontuberculous mycobateria isolates obtained from sputum of 4 different patients from Brazil. The sequencing and phylogenetic analysis allowed their accurate identification as Mycobacterium intracellulare. We report a mutation at position 453 creating a new HaeIII cutting site and, therefore, a new PRA-hsp65 M. intracellulare profile. PMID:24655570

Caldas, Paulo Cesar de Souza; Campos, Carlos Eduardo Dias; Dos Reis, Lusiano Motta; Ferreira, Nicole Victor; de Carvalho, Luciana Distásio; da Silva, Mariza Villas Boas; Medeiros, Reginalda Ferreira de Melo; Montes, Fátima Cristina Onofre Fandinho; Ramos, Jesus Pais

2014-06-01

100

Desiccation tolerance in bovine sperm: A study of the effect of intracellular sugars and the supplemental roles of an antioxidant and a chelator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Desiccation preservation holds promise as a simplified alternative to cryopreservation for the long term storage of cells. We report a study on the protective effects of intracellular and extracellular sugars during bovine sperm desiccation and the supplemental effects of the addition of an antioxidant (catalase) or a chelator (desferal). The goal of the study was to preserve mammalian sperm in

Ranjan Sitaula; Heidi Elmoazzen; Mehmet Toner; Sankha Bhowmick

2009-01-01

101

Effects of phosphorus fertilizer supplementation on antioxidant enzyme activities in tomato fruits.  

PubMed

The effects of soil and foliar phosphorus supplementation on the activities and levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (POX), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) in tomato fruits were evaluated by determining enzyme activities and isoenzyme analysis. Both protein levels and enzyme activities varied depending on the variety and season. In general, phosphorus supplementation did not alter SOD, POX, and APX activities significantly;however, some treatments showed season- and stage-specific enhancement in activities as noticed with hydrophos and seniphos supplementation. Three different SOD isozymes were observed, and these isozymes showed very similar staining intensities in response to P application and during the three developmental stages studied. Two major isozymes of POX and two different APX isozymes were observed at all the developmental stages. The results suggest that antioxidant enzyme activities may be influenced by the availability of phosphorus, but are subject to considerable variation depending on the developmental stage and the season. PMID:15740037

Ahn, Taehyun; Oke, Moustapha; Schofield, Andrew; Paliyath, Gopinadhan

2005-03-01

102

Effects of Oxygen Limitation on Xylose Fermentation, Intracellular Metabolites, and Key Enzymes of Neurospora crassa AS3.1602  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of oxygen limitation on xylose fermentation of Neurospora crassa AS3.1602 were studied using batch cultures. The maximum yield of ethanol was 0.34 g/g at oxygen transfer rate (OTR) of 8.4 mmol/L·h. The maximum yield of xylitol was 0.33 g/g at OTR of 5.1 mmol/L·h. Oxygen limitation greatly affected mycelia growth and xylitol and ethanol productions. The specific growth rate (?) decreased 82% from 0.045 to 0.008 h-1 when OTR changed from 12.6 to 8.4 mmol/L·h. Intracellular metabolites of the pentose phosphate pathway, glycolysis, and tricarboxylic acid cycle were determined at various OTRs. Concentrations of most intracellular metabolites decreased with the increase in oxygen limitation. Intracellular enzyme activities of xylose reductase, xylitol dehydrogenase, and xylulokinase, the first three enzymes in xylose metabolic pathway, decreased with the increase in oxygen limitation, resulting in the decreased xylose uptake rate. Under all tested conditions, transaldolase and transketolase activities always maintained at low levels, indicating a great control on xylose metabolism. The enzyme of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase played a major role in NADPH regeneration, and its activity decreased remarkably with the increase in oxygen limitation.

Zhang, Zhihua; Qu, Yinbo; Zhang, Xiao; Lin, Jianqiang

103

Stage-specific distribution of oxidative radicals and antioxidant enzymes in the midgut of Leptinotarsa decemlineata.  

PubMed

The titers of reactive oxygen species (ROS) represented by superoxide anion and general peroxides, and the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), are regulated in the midgut of the Colorado potato beetle (CPB) relative to the gut compartment, developmental stage, and food intake. ROS concentration is low in the potato leaves but it is very high in their digest in insect's anterior midgut. It is proposed that intensive ROS production in this gut region is linked to the processing of allelochemicals. SOD and CAT activities, low oxygen tension, and unidentified redox systems that maintain a slightly reducing milieu in the midgut lumen (pe+pH=6.95 declining to 5.36), obviously contribute to the decrease of ROS concentration along the gut length to a minimum in the wall of posterior midgut region. SOD and CAT activities are higher in the potato leaves than in the midgut tissues but the role of plant enzymes in ROS elimination within the gut lumen remains to be shown. A lower level of ROS and a higher antioxidant potential in the adult than in the larval midgut indicate stage specificity in the management of oxidative stress. The antioxidant defense is high in the diapausing adults that contain no detectable superoxide and about ten times less peroxides than the reproducing adults. PMID:17126855

Krishnan, Natraj; Kodrík, Dalibor; Turanli, Ferit; Sehnal, Frantisek

2007-01-01

104

Effect of spaceflight on oxidative and antioxidant enzyme activity in rat diaphragm and intercostal muscles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are limited data regarding changes in oxidative and antioxidant enzymes induced by simulated or actual weightlessness, and any additional information would provide insight into potential mechanisms involving other changes observed in muscles from animals previously flown in space. Thus, the NASA Biospecimen Sharing Program was an opportunity to collect valuable information. Oxidative and antioxidant enzyme levels, as well as lipid peroxidation, were measured in respiratory muscles from rates flown on board Space Shuttle mission STS-54. The results indicated that there was an increasing trend in citrate synthase activity in the flight diaphragm when compared to ground based controls, and there were no significant changes observed in the intercostal muscles for any of the parameters. However, the lipid peroxidation was significantly (p less than 0.05) decreased in the flight diaphragm. These results indicate that 6 day exposure to microgravity may have a different effect on oxidative and antioxidant activity in rat respiratory muscles when compared to data from previous 14 day hindlimb suspension studies.

Lee, Mona D.; Tuttle, Ronald; Girten, Beverly

1995-01-01

105

Assessment of the effect of silicon on antioxidant enzymes in cotton plants by multivariate analysis.  

PubMed

Silicon has been extensively researched in relation to the response of plants to biotic and abiotic stress, as an element triggering defense mechanisms which activate the antioxidant system. Furthermore, in some species, adding silicon to unstressed plants modifies the activity of certain antioxidant enzymes participating in detoxifying processes. Thus, in this study, we analyzed the activity of antioxidant enzymes in leaves and roots of unstressed cotton plants fertilized with silicon (Si). Cotton plants were grown in hydroponic culture and added with increasing doses of potassium silicate; then, the enzymatic activity of catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (GPOX), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and lipid peroxidation were determined. Using multivariate analysis, we found that silicon altered the activity of GPOX, APX, and CAT in roots and leaves of unstressed cotton plants, whereas lipid peroxidation was not affected. The analysis of these four variables in concert showed a clear differentiation among Si treatments. We observed that enzymatic activities in leaves and roots changed as silicon concentration increased, to stabilize at 100 and 200 mg Si L(-1) treatments in leaves and roots, respectively. Those alterations would allow a new biochemical status that could be partially responsible for the beneficial effects of silicon. This study might contribute to adjust the silicon application doses for optimal fertilization, preventing potential toxic effects and unnecessary cost. PMID:24188169

Alberto Moldes, Carlos; Fontão de Lima Filho, Oscar; Manuel Camiña, José; Gabriela Kiriachek, Soraya; Lia Molas, María; Mui Tsai, Siu

2013-11-27

106

Hymenolepis diminuta: Activity of anti-oxidant enzymes in different parts of rat gastrointestinal tract.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the intensity of oxidative stress by measuring levels of lipid peroxidation products in the duodenum, jejunum and colon of rats infected with Hymenolepis diminuta and evaluate the effectiveness of protection against oxidative stress by measuring the glutathione levels and activity of anti-oxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase. In exposed rats we observed a significant increase of lipid peroxidation products in the duodenum and jejunum. A significant decrease in superoxide dismutase activity in all the examined parts of the digestive tract was observed. Additionally, rats from 16 to 40 days post H. diminuta infection (dpi) had a decreased catalase activity in the colon, while at 60dpi it increased. The glutathione peroxidase activity increased significantly in the colon at 60dpi. The increase in glutathione reductase activity was observed in the colon in rats 60dpi. There was a lack of changes in the levels of glutathione in the duodenum and a significant increase in its concentration in the jejunum and colon from 40 to 60dpi and from 16 to 40dpi, respectively. In this study we observed altered activity of anti-oxidant enzymes and glutathione level in experimental hymenolepidosis, as a consequence of oxidative stress. It may indicate a decrease in the efficiency of intestinal protection against oxidative stress induced by the presence of the parasite. The imbalance between oxidant and anti-oxidant processes may play a major role in pathology associated with hymenolepidosis. PMID:21376042

Kosik-Bogacka, Danuta I; Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena; Noce?, Iwona; Jakubowska, Katarzyna; Chlubek, Dariusz

2011-07-01

107

miR-335 and miR-34a Promote Renal Senescence by Suppressing Mitochondrial Antioxidative Enzymes  

PubMed Central

The molecular basis for aging of the kidney is not well understood. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) contribute to processes such as development, differentiation, and apoptosis, but their contribution to the aging process is unknown. Here, we analyzed the miRNA expression profile of young (3-month) and old (24-month) rat kidneys and identified the biologic pathways and genes regulated by differentially expressed miRNAs. We observed upregulation of 18 miRNAs with aging, mainly regulating the genes associated with energy metabolism, cell proliferation, antioxidative defense, and extracellular matrix degradation; in contrast, we observed downregulation of 7 miRNAs with aging, principally targeting the genes associated with the immune inflammatory response and cell-cycle arrest. Bioinformatics analysis suggested that superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) and thioredoxin reductase 2 (Txnrd2), located in the mitochondria, are potential targets of miR-335 and miR-34a, respectively. Aging mesangial cells exhibited significant upregulation of miR-335 and miR-34a and marked downregulation of SOD2 and Txnrd2. miR-335 and miR-34a inhibited expression of SOD2 and Txnrd2 by binding to the 3?-untranslated regions of each gene, respectively. Overexpression of miR-335 and miR-34a induced premature senescence of young mesangial cells via suppression of SOD2 and Txnrd2 with a concomitant increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS). Conversely, antisense miR-335 and miR-34a inhibited senescence of old mesangial cells via upregulation of SOD2 and Txnrd2 with a concomitant decrease in ROS. In conclusion, these results suggest that miRNAs may contribute to renal aging by inhibiting intracellular pathways such as those involving the mitochondrial antioxidative enzymes SOD2 and Txnrd2.

Bai, Xue-Yuan; Ma, Yuxiang; Ding, Rui; Fu, Bo; Shi, Suozhu

2011-01-01

108

Antioxidant activities of 5-hydroxyoxindole and its 3-hydroxy-3-phenacyl derivatives: the suppression of lipid peroxidation and intracellular oxidative stress.  

PubMed

The antioxidant activities of 5-hydroxyoxindole (1) and newly synthesized 3,5-dihydroxy-3-phenacyl-2-oxindole derivatives against rat liver microsome/tert-butylhydroperoxide system-induced lipid peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide-induced intracellular oxidative stress were investigated. Compound 1 and its derivatives showed significant suppression of lipid peroxidation and an intracellular oxidative stress. The effects of the more lipophilic derivatives tended to be greater than that of the original compound 1. The cytotoxicity of all of the oxindole derivatives on human promyelocytic leukemia HL60 cells was lower than that of 2,6-di(tert-butyl)-4-hydroxytoluene (BHT), a widely used phenolic antioxidant. These results show that compound 1 and its 3-substituted derivatives could be good lead candidates for future novel antioxidant therapeutics. PMID:24216095

Yasuda, Daisuke; Takahashi, Kyoko; Ohe, Tomoyuki; Nakamura, Shigeo; Mashino, Tadahiko

2013-12-15

109

Role of intracellular labile iron, ferritin, and antioxidant defence in resistance of chronically adapted Jurkat T cells to hydrogen peroxide  

PubMed Central

To examine the role of intracellular labile iron pool (LIP), ferritin (Ft), and antioxidant defence in cellular resistance to oxidative stress on chronic adaptation, a new H2O2-resistant Jurkat T cell line “HJ16” was developed by gradual adaptation of parental “J16” cells to high concentrations of H2O2. Compared to J16 cells, HJ16 cells exhibited much higher resistance to H2O2-induced oxidative damage and necrotic cell death (up to 3 mM) and had enhanced antioxidant defence in the form of significantly higher intracellular glutathione and mitochondrial ferritin (FtMt) levels as well as higher glutathione-peroxidase (GPx) activity. In contrast, the level of the Ft H-subunit (FtH) in the H2O2-adapted cell line was found to be 7-fold lower than in the parental J16 cell line. While H2O2 concentrations higher than 0.1 mM fully depleted the glutathione content of J16 cells, in HJ16 cells the same treatments decreased the cellular glutathione content to only half of the original value. In HJ16 cells, H2O2 concentrations higher than 0.1 mM increased the level of FtMt up to 4-fold of their control values but had no effect on the FtMt levels in J16 cells. Furthermore, while the basal cytosolic level of LIP was similar in both cell lines, H2O2 treatment substantially increased the cytosolic LIP levels in J16 but not in HJ16 cells. H2O2 treatment also substantially decreased the FtH levels in J16 cells (up to 70% of the control value). In contrast in HJ16 cells, FtH levels were not affected by H2O2 treatment. These results indicate that chronic adaptation of J16 cells to high concentrations of H2O2 has provoked a series of novel and specific cellular adaptive responses that contribute to higher resistance of HJ16 cells to oxidative damage and cell death. These include increased cellular antioxidant defence in the form of higher glutathione and FtMt levels, higher GPx activity, and lower FtH levels. Further adaptive responses include the significantly reduced cellular response to oxidant-mediated glutathione depletion, FtH modulation, and labile iron release and a significant increase in FtMt levels following H2O2 treatment.

Al-Qenaei, Abdullah; Yiakouvaki, Anthie; Reelfs, Olivier; Santambrogio, Paolo; Levi, Sonia; Hall, Nick D.; Tyrrell, Rex M.; Pourzand, Charareh

2014-01-01

110

Oxidative variables and antioxidant enzymes activities in the mdx mouse brain.  

PubMed

Dystrophin is a protein found at the plasmatic membrane in muscle and postsynaptic membrane of some neurons, where it plays an important role on synaptic transmission and plasticity. Its absence is associated with Duchenne's muscular dystrophy (DMD), in which cognitive impairment is found. Oxidative stress appears to be involved in the physiopathology of DMD and its cognitive dysfunction. In this regard, the present study investigated oxidative parameters (lipid and protein peroxidation) and antioxidant enzymes activities (superoxide dismutase and catalase) in prefrontal cortex, cerebellum, hippocampus, striatum and cortex tissues from male dystrophic mdx and normal C57BL10 mice. We observed (1) reduced lipid peroxidation in striatum and protein peroxidation in cerebellum and prefrontal cortex; (2) increased superoxide dismutase activity in cerebellum, prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and striatum; and (3) reduced catalase activity in striatum. It seems by our results, that the superoxide dismutase antioxidant mechanism is playing a protective role against lipid and protein peroxidation in mdx mouse brain. PMID:19682526

Comim, Clarissa M; Cassol-Jr, Omar J; Constantino, Leandra C; Constantino, Larissa S; Petronilho, Fabrícia; Tuon, Lisiane; Vainzof, Mariz; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Quevedo, João

2009-12-01

111

Thyroid hormones-mediated effects of insulin on antioxidant enzymes from diabetic rat hearts.  

PubMed

Free radicals, oxidative stress, and antioxidants have become commonly used terms in modern discussion of disease mechanisms. Accumulation of evidence suggests that toxic oxygen-derived reactive free radicals (superoxide, peroxide and hydroxyl radicals) play a crucial role in etiology of diabetes and its complication. Thus, it was aimed to determine the role of thyroid hormones in reversal of antioxidatant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation alterations observed in experimentally induced diabetic rat hearts. The present study investigates the antioxidant enzyme activities such as SOD, CAT, GSH-Px and lipid peroxidation products in cardiac tissues of streptozotosin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats before and after thyroidectomy. Our results showed that CAT, GPx enzyme activities and FOX, MDA levels were increased (p<0.05) during diabetes, hypothyroidism and hypothyroidism with diabetes, which can be regulated in different percentages with treatment of insulin and various doses of thyroid hormone ((p<0.05). In conclusion, in this study, the possible contribution of thyroid hormones to the insulin effect of normalizing the induced diabetic changes in cardiac tissue and serum of rat has been seen (Tab. 5, Ref. 32). PMID:23514549

Kosova, F; Altan, N; Sepici, A; Engin, A; Kocamanoglu, N

2013-01-01

112

Enzyme-mimetic effects of gold@platinum nanorods on the antioxidant activity of ascorbic acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Au@Pt nanorods were prepared by growing platinum nanodots on gold nanorods. Using electron spin resonance (ESR), we determined that the mechanisms for oxidation of ascorbic acid (AA) by Au@Pt nanorods and ascorbic acid oxidase (AAO) were kinetically similar and yielded similar products. In addition we observed that Au@Pt nanorods were stable with respect to temperature and pH. Using UV-VIS spectroscopy, the apparent kinetics of enzyme-mimetic activity of Au@Pt nanorods were studied and compared with the activity of AAO. With the help of ESR, we found that Au@Pt nanorods did not scavenge hydroxyl radicals but inhibited the antioxidant ability of AA for scavenging hydroxyl radicals produced by photoirradiating solutions containing titanium dioxide and zinc oxide. Moreover, the Au@Pt nanorods reduced the ability of AA to scavenge DPPH radicals and superoxide radicals. These results demonstrate that Au@Pt nanorods can reduce the antioxidant activity of AA. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the effects of using Pt nanoparticles together with other reducing agents or antioxidants such as AA due to the oxidase-like property of Au@Pt nanorods.Au@Pt nanorods were prepared by growing platinum nanodots on gold nanorods. Using electron spin resonance (ESR), we determined that the mechanisms for oxidation of ascorbic acid (AA) by Au@Pt nanorods and ascorbic acid oxidase (AAO) were kinetically similar and yielded similar products. In addition we observed that Au@Pt nanorods were stable with respect to temperature and pH. Using UV-VIS spectroscopy, the apparent kinetics of enzyme-mimetic activity of Au@Pt nanorods were studied and compared with the activity of AAO. With the help of ESR, we found that Au@Pt nanorods did not scavenge hydroxyl radicals but inhibited the antioxidant ability of AA for scavenging hydroxyl radicals produced by photoirradiating solutions containing titanium dioxide and zinc oxide. Moreover, the Au@Pt nanorods reduced the ability of AA to scavenge DPPH radicals and superoxide radicals. These results demonstrate that Au@Pt nanorods can reduce the antioxidant activity of AA. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the effects of using Pt nanoparticles together with other reducing agents or antioxidants such as AA due to the oxidase-like property of Au@Pt nanorods. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Ascorbic acid oxidase activity of Pt NPs and the effects of Au@Pt nanorods on hydroxyl radicals generated from the Fenton reactions and TiO2 exposed to UV radiation. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr33072e

Zhou, Yu-Ting; He, Weiwei; Wamer, Wayne G.; Hu, Xiaona; Wu, Xiaochun; Lo, Y. Martin; Yin, Jun-Jie

2013-01-01

113

Oleuropein prevents ethanol-induced gastric ulcers via elevation of antioxidant enzyme activities in rats.  

PubMed

Purified oleuropein from olive leaf extract has been shown to have antioxidant effects in our recent studies. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the antioxidant abilities of oleuropein in comparison with ranitidine in ethanol-induced gastric damages via evaluation of ulcer index inhibition, antioxidant enzyme activities, and lipid peroxidation level. Fifty-six adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into seven equal groups as follows: control group, ethanol group (absolute ethanol 1 ml/rat), oleuropein group (12 mg/kg), and oleuropein (6, 12, and 18 mg/kg) plus ethanol groups, as well as ranitidine (50 mg/kg) plus ethanol group. Pretreatment with oleuropein (12 and 18 mg/kg) significantly increased the ulcer index inhibition (percent), in comparison with oleuropein (6 mg/kg). Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity was significantly lower in the ethanol group when compared with the other groups whereas, treatment of rats with oleuropein (12 mg/kg) significantly increased glutathione content in gastric tissue when compared with the other groups, and lipid peroxidation was significantly reduced in the oleuropein- (12 and 18 mg/kg) and ranitidine-treated animals. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were both much higher in oleuropein-treated rats than the ethanol group, and although there was a moderate increase in SOD and CAT activities in ranitidine-treated rats, the differences were not significant. These findings suggest that oleuropein has beneficial antioxidant properties against ethanol-induced gastric damages in the rat. Therefore, it seems that a combination regimen including both antioxidant and antisecretory drugs may be beneficial in prevention of ethanol-mediated gastric mucosal damages. PMID:22581435

Alirezaei, Masoud; Dezfoulian, Omid; Neamati, Shima; Rashidipour, Marzyeh; Tanideh, Nader; Kheradmand, Arash

2012-12-01

114

Antioxidant enzymes in Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval): are they enhanced to protect gut tissues during oxidative stress?  

PubMed

The Egyptian armyworm Spodoptera littoralis is a polyphagous insect attacking a number of plant species including those belonging to the Solanaceae and Cruciferaceae families. Its digestive physiology must therefore adapt to the food plant to ensure maximum extraction of nutrients with minimum trade-off in terms of growth retardation by pro-oxidant allelochemicals. To investigate this, the caterpillars of S. littoralis were fed on a semi-artificial diet (Manduca Premix-Heliothis Premix) and for 24 h on potato plants (Solanum tuberosum), respectively, at the mature 6th instar, and the levels of oxidative radicals and antioxidant enzymes in their guts were compared. The gut pH, standard redox potential (Eh) and electron availability (pe) revealed that oxidizing conditions prevail which promote oxidation of pro-oxidant allelochemicals in foliage. Oxidative stress in the foregut and midgut tissue and the gut contents was assessed from the generation of superoxide radical, total peroxide content and protein carbonyl content. Antioxidant defense was measured by the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APOX) and glutathione S-transferase peroxidase (GSTpx). A significant (p < 0.001) increase in the superoxide radical production (in foregut tissue, foregut and midgut contents), concomitant with an increase in total peroxide (in foregut contents) and protein carbonyl levels (in foregut and midgut tissue) were noted in larvae fed on the plants in contrast to those fed the semi-artificial diet. Similarly, a significant up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes SOD (in midgut tissues), CAT (in foregut, midgut tissue and contents), APOX (in foregut contents, midgut tissue and contents) and GSTpx (in foregut tissues) was recorded on the plant diet in comparison to the semi-artificial diet. The pro-oxidant allelochemicals in the plant diet are thus eliminated by the insect at the expense of up-regulation of antioxidative enzymes in response to increased oxidative stress from oxidizable allelochemicals. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that increased concentrations of antioxidants form an important component of the defense of herbivorous insects against both exogenous and endogenous oxidative radicals. PMID:16242709

Krishnan, Natraj; Kodrík, Dalibor

2006-01-01

115

Intracellular compartmentation of two enzymes of berberine biosynthesis in plant cell cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Out of the eight enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of the isoquinoline alkaloid berberine, at least, two enzymes, berberine bridge enzyme and (S)-tetrahydroprotoberberine oxidase, are exclusively located in a vesicle with a specific gravity of ?=1.14 g·cm-3 as shown by direct enzymatic assay as well as immunoelectrophoresis. Electronmicroscopic examination of the enzyme-containing particulate preparation from Berberis wilsoniae var. subcaulialata cultured

M. Amann; G. Wanner; M. H. Zenk

1986-01-01

116

Antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation in the scalp of patients with alopecia areata.  

PubMed

Alopecia areata (AA) is an autoimmune inflammatory disease. However, little is known about the alterations in lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in the scalp of patients with AA. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the status of oxidative stress in the scalp of patients with AA. We measured the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) as lipid peroxidation status, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) as antioxidant enzymes in the scalp of ten patients with AA and ten control subjects. The levels of TBARS in scalp of patients with AA (3654.1+/-621.2 nmol/g tissue) were significantly higher than those of controls (1210.2+/-188.8 nmol/g tissue) (P=0.002). The levels of SOD (134.8+/-23.8 U/g tissue) and GSH-Px (332.7+/-66.2 U/g tissue) in scalp of patients with AA were also significantly higher than those of controls (63.2+/-8.8 U/g tissue, 112.0+/-18.4 U/g tissue, respectively) (P=0.019, P=0.002, respectively). The mean levels of TBARS, SOD and GSH-Px in early phase of disease were increased 2-fold as compared with late phase of the disease. These results indicate that oxidative status is affected in AA. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes may be involved in the pathogenesis of AA. Furthermore, we found high SOD and GSH-Px activities in the scalp of patient with AA. These high levels could not protect the patients against the reactive oxygen species, because lipid peroxidation could not be lowered in AA patients. PMID:12088608

Akar, Ahmet; Arca, Ercan; Erbil, Hakan; Akay, Cemal; Sayal, Ahmet; Gür, A Riza

2002-08-01

117

Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes activity in Plasmodium vivax malaria patients evolving with cholestatic jaundice  

PubMed Central

Background Plasmodium vivax infection has been considered a benign and self-limiting disease, however, recent studies highlight the association between vivax malaria and life-threatening manifestations. Increase in reactive oxygen species has already been described in vivax malaria, as a result of the increased metabolic rate triggered by the multiplying parasite, and large quantities of toxic redox-active byproducts generated. The present study aimed to study the oxidative stress responses in patients infected with P. vivax, who developed jaundice (hyperbilirubinaemia) in the course of the disease, a common clinical complication related to this species. Methods An evaluation of the lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes profile was performed in 28 healthy individuals and compared with P. vivax infected patients with jaundice, i.e., bilirubin?enzymes glutathione reductase, thioredoxin reductase, thiols and malondialdehyde also differed between jaundiced versus non-jaundiced patients. On D14 jaundice and parasitaemia had resolved and oxidative stress biomarkers were very similar to the control group. Conclusion Cholestatic hyperbilirubinaemia in vivax malaria cannot be totally disassociated from malaria-related haemolysis. However, significant increase of lipid peroxidation markers and changes in antioxidant enzymes in patients with P. vivax-related jaundice was observed. These results suggest oxidative processes contributing to malaria pathogenesis, what may be useful information for future anti-oxidant therapeutical interventions in these patients.

2013-01-01

118

Edaravone Mitigates Hexavalent Chromium-Induced Oxidative Stress and Depletion of Antioxidant Enzymes while Estrogen Restores Antioxidant Enzymes in the Rat Ovary in F1 Offspring.  

PubMed

Environmental contamination of drinking water with chromium (Cr) has been increasing in more than 30 cities in the United States. Previous studies from our group have shown that Cr affects reproductive functions in female Sprague Dawley rats. Although it is impossible to completely remove Cr from the drinking water, it is imperative to develop effective intervention strategies to inhibit Cr-induced deleterious health effects. Edaravone (EDA), a potential inhibitor of free radicals, has been clinically used to treat cancer and cardiac ischemia. This study evaluated the efficacy of EDA against Cr-induced ovarian toxicity. Results showed that maternal exposure to CrVI in rats increased follicular atresia, decreased steroidogenesis, and delayed puberty in F1 offspring. CrVI increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant (AOX) enzyme levels in the ovary. CrVI increased follicle atresia by increased expression of cleaved caspase 3, and decreased expression of Bcl2 and Bcl2l1 in the ovary. EDA mitigated or inhibited the effects of CrVI on follicle atresia, pubertal onset, steroid hormone levels, and AOX enzyme activity, as well as the expression of Bcl2 and Bcl2l1 in the ovary. In a second study, CrVI treatment was withdrawn, and F1 rats were injected with estradiol (E2) (10 ?g in PBS/ethanol per 100 g body weight) for a period of 2 wk to evaluate whether E2 treatment will restore Cr-induced depletion of AOX enzymes. E2 restored CrVI-induced depletion of glutathione peroxidase 1, catalase, thioredoxin 2, and peroxiredoxin 3 in the ovary. This is the first study to demonstrate the protective effects of EDA against any toxicant in the ovary. PMID:24804965

Stanley, Jone A; Sivakumar, Kirthiram K; Arosh, Joe A; Burghardt, Robert C; Banu, Sakhila K

2014-06-01

119

Enhanced tolerance to oxidative stress in transgenic tobacco plants expressing three antioxidant enzymes in chloroplasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of simultaneous expression of genes encoding three antioxidant enzymes, copper zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD,\\u000a EC 1.15.1.1), ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11), and dehydroascorbate (DHA) reductase (DHAR, EC 1.8.5.1), in the chloroplasts\\u000a of tobacco plants was investigated under oxidative stress conditions. In previous studies, transgenic tobacco plants expressing\\u000a both CuZnSOD and APX in chloroplast (CA plants), or DHAR in

Young-Pyo Lee; Sun-Hyung Kim; Jae-Wook Bang; Haeng-Soon Lee; Sang-Soo Kwak; Suk-Yoon Kwon

2007-01-01

120

Optimization of enzyme assisted extraction of Fructus Mori polysaccharides and its activities on antioxidant and alcohol dehydrogenase.  

PubMed

In the present study, enzyme assisted extraction of Fructus Mori polysaccharides (FMPS) from F. mori using four kinds of enzymes and three compound enzymes were examined. Research found that glucose oxidase offered a better performance in enhancement of the extraction yields of FMPS, antioxidant and activate alcohol dehydrogenase activities. The glucose oxidase assisted extraction process was further optimized by using response surface method (RSM) to obtain maximum yield of crude FMPS. The results showed that optimized extraction conditions were ratio of enzyme amount 0.40%, enzyme treated time 38min, treated temperature 58°C and liquid-solid radio 11.0. Under these conditions, the mean experimental value of extraction yield (16.16±0.14%) corresponded well with the predicted values and increased 160% than none enzyme treated ones. Pharmacological verification tests showed that F. mori crude polysaccharides had good antioxidant and activate alcohol dehydrogenase activities in vitro. PMID:25037415

Deng, Qingfang; Zhou, Xin; Chen, Huaguo

2014-10-13

121

Induction of Phase 2 Antioxidant Enzymes by Broccoli Sulforaphane: Perspectives in Maintaining the Antioxidant Activity of Vitamins A, C, and E  

PubMed Central

Consumption of fruits and vegetables is recognized as an important part of a healthy diet. Increased consumption of cruciferous vegetables in particular has been associated with a decreased risk of several degenerative and chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease and certain cancers. Members of the cruciferous vegetable family, which includes broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, and cabbage, accumulate significant concentrations of glucosinolates, which are metabolized in vivo to biologically active isothiocyanates (ITCs). The ITC sulforaphane, which is derived from glucoraphanin, has garnered particular interest as an indirect antioxidant due to its extraordinary ability to induce expression of several enzymes via the KEAP1/Nrf2/ARE pathway. Nrf2/ARE gene products are typically characterized as Phase II detoxification enzymes and/or antioxidant (AO) enzymes. Over the last decade, human clinical studies have begun to provide in vivo evidence of both Phase II and AO enzyme induction by SF. Many AO enzymes are redox cycling enzymes that maintain redox homeostasis and activity of free radical scavengers such as vitamins A, C, and E. In this review, we present the existing evidence for induction of PII and AO enzymes by SF, the interactions of SF-induced AO enzymes and proposed maintenance of the essential vitamins A, C, and E, and, finally, the current view of genotypic effects on ITC metabolism and AO enzyme induction and function.

Boddupalli, Sekhar; Mein, Jonathan R.; Lakkanna, Shantala; James, Don R.

2012-01-01

122

Production of enzymatic hydrolysates with antioxidant and angiotensin-I converting enzyme inhibitory activity from pumpkin oil cake protein isolate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein isolate from pumpkin oil cake (PuOC PI) was hydrolysed by alcalase, flavourzyme and by sequential use of these enzymes, respectively, and the antioxidant properties and angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities of hydrolysates were evaluated. Under the same reaction conditions, alcalase hydrolysates showed a higher degree of hydrolysis (DH) than did flavourzyme hydrolysates. The highest DH’s by individual enzymes

Žužana Vaštag; Ljiljana Popovi?; Senka Popovi?; Vera Krimer; Draginja Peri?in

2011-01-01

123

Wound healing activity of Ocimum sanctum Linn with supportive role of antioxidant enzymes.  

PubMed

The present study was performed to evaluate the wound healing and antioxidant effect of aqueous extract of Ocimum sanctum Linn. (O. sanctum) in rats. Albino rats of either sex were divided into 2 groups. Group I: Wounded control rats; Group II: Wounded rats administered O. sanctum aqueous extract. Wound breaking strength in incision wound model, epithelization period and percent wound contraction in excision wound model were studied. Using dead space wound model, granulation tissue breaking strength, granulation tissue dry weight, hydoxyproline level in dry granulation tissue, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase levels in wet granulation tissue were estimated in both the groups. Increased wound breaking strength, decreased epithelization period, increased percent wound contraction, increased granulation tissue weight and hydroxyproline concentrations were observed. The increased activity of antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, catalase level in extract treated group compared to controls. Granulation tissue was subjected to histopathological examination to determine the pattern of lay-down for collagen using Haematoxylin and Eosin stains which confirm the results. Owing to wound healing and antioxidant activities, O. sanctum may be useful in the management of abnormal healing such as keloids and hypertrophic scars. PMID:17051736

Shetty, Somashekar; Udupa, Saraswati; Udupa, Laxminarayana; Somayaji, Nagabhushana

2006-01-01

124

Decreased antioxidant enzyme expression and increased oxidative damage in erosive lichen planus of the vulva.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate whether increased oxidative stress occurs in erosive lichen planus of the vulva. Skin biopsies from six patients with untreated, histologically confirmed erosive lichen planus of the vulva were examined immunohistochemically using antibodies against antioxidant enzymes. The protein-bound lipid peroxidation products malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxynonenale (4-HNE) and the oxidative DNA damage marker 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) were investigated. Protein carbonyls as markers of protein oxidation were visualised using the dinitrophenylhydrazone (DNPH) method. Normal vulval tissues from 12 subjects served as controls. In vulval lichen planus tissue the enzymatic antioxidant defence was found to be significantly decreased in the epidermal layers. Furthermore, a significant increase of lipid peroxidation products and oxidative DNA damage was found within the epidermis. Protein oxidation occurred predominantly in the papillary dermis. This is the first study to demonstrate a decreased antioxidant defence and increased oxidative damage to lipids, DNA and proteins in lichen planus. These oxidative modifications point to pathophysiological alterations mainly within the basal cell layers of the epidermis and at the dermoepidermal junction. Further studies are warranted to investigate the potential role of oxidative stress in the development of autoimmunity in this disease. PMID:16225582

Sander, C S; Cooper, S M; Ali, I; Dean, D; Thiele, J J; Wojnarowska, F

2005-11-01

125

Enzyme-mimetic effects of gold@platinum nanorods on the antioxidant activity of ascorbic acid.  

PubMed

Au@Pt nanorods were prepared by growing platinum nanodots on gold nanorods. Using electron spin resonance (ESR), we determined that the mechanisms for oxidation of ascorbic acid (AA) by Au@Pt nanorods and ascorbic acid oxidase (AAO) were kinetically similar and yielded similar products. In addition we observed that Au@Pt nanorods were stable with respect to temperature and pH. Using UV-VIS spectroscopy, the apparent kinetics of enzyme-mimetic activity of Au@Pt nanorods were studied and compared with the activity of AAO. With the help of ESR, we found that Au@Pt nanorods did not scavenge hydroxyl radicals but inhibited the antioxidant ability of AA for scavenging hydroxyl radicals produced by photoirradiating solutions containing titanium dioxide and zinc oxide. Moreover, the Au@Pt nanorods reduced the ability of AA to scavenge DPPH radicals and superoxide radicals. These results demonstrate that Au@Pt nanorods can reduce the antioxidant activity of AA. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the effects of using Pt nanoparticles together with other reducing agents or antioxidants such as AA due to the oxidase-like property of Au@Pt nanorods. PMID:23329011

Zhou, Yu-Ting; He, Weiwei; Wamer, Wayne G; Hu, Xiaona; Wu, Xiaochun; Lo, Y Martin; Yin, Jun-Jie

2013-02-21

126

Chemomodulatory efficacy of basil leaf (Ocimum basilicum) on drug metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes, and on carcinogen-induced skin and forestomach papillomagenesis.  

PubMed

Basil or sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) is cultivated throughout India and is known for its medicinal value. The effects of doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight of hydroalcoholic extract (80% ethanol, 20% water) of the fresh leaves of Ocimum basilicum on xenobiotic metabolizing Phase I and Phase II enzymes, antioxidant enzymes, Glutathione content, Lactate dehydrogenase and lipid peroxidation in the liver of 8-9 weeks old Swiss albino mice were examined. Furthermore, the anticarcinogenic potential of basil leaf extract was studied, using the model of Benzo(a)pyrene-induced forestomach and 7,12 dimethyl benz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-initiated skin papillomagenesis. The hepatic glutathione S-transferase and DT-diaphorase specific activities were elevated above basal level by basil leaf treatment (from p < 0.005 to p < 0.001). Basil leaf extract was very effective in elevating antioxidant enzyme response by increasing significantly the hepatic glutathione reductase (GR) (p < 0.005), superoxide dismutase (SOD) (p < 0.05), and catalase activities (p < 0.005). Reduced glutathione (GSH), the major intracellular antioxidant, showed a significant elevation in the liver (p < 0.005) and also in all the extrahepatic organs (from p < 0.05 to p < 0.005). In the forestomach, kidney and lung, glutathione S-transferase and DT-diaphorase levels were augmented significantly, varying from p < 0.01 to p < 0.001. There were significant decreases in lipid peroxidation and lactate dehydrogenase activity. Chemopreventive response was evident from the reduced tumor burden (the average number of papillomas/mouse, p < 0.005 to p < 0.001), as well as from the reduced percentage of tumor bearing-animals. Basil leaf, as deduced from the results, augmented mainly the Phase II enzyme activity that is associated with detoxification of xenobiotics, while inhibiting the Phase I enzyme activity. There was an induction in antioxidant level that correlates with the significant reduction of lipid peroxidation and lactate dehydrogenase formation. Moreover, Basil leaf extract was highly effective in inhibiting carcinogen-induced tumor incidence in both the tumor models at peri-initiational level. PMID:15070164

Dasgupta, T; Rao, A R; Yadava, P K

2004-02-01

127

Antioxidant Enzymes and Lipid Peroxidation in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients with and without Nephropathy  

PubMed Central

Background: Oxidative stress has been considered to be a pathogenic factor of diabetic complications including nephropathy. There are many controversies and limited studies regarding the antioxidant enzymes in diabetic nephropathy. Aim: This study was to evaluate the levels of antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation in Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) patients with and without nephropathy. Materials and Methods: The study included 90 age and sex matched subjects. Blood samples of all subjects were analyzed for all biochemical and oxidative stress parameters. Results: The malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and catalase (CAT) activity were significantly increased and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) were significantly decreased in Type-2 DM with and without nephropathy as compared to controls and also in Type-2 DM with nephropathy as compared to Type-2 DM without nephropathy. There were an excellent positive correlation of glycohemoglobin (HbA1c) with MDA and a good negative correlation of GPx with GSH in controls. There were positive correlations of GR, CAT, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) with MDA in Type-2 diabetes patients with nephropathy. Conclusions: Intensity of oxidative stress in Type-2 diabetic patients with nephropathy is greater when compared with Type-2 diabetic patients without nephropathy as compared to the controls.

Kumawat, Manjulata; Sharma, Tarun Kumar; Singh, Ishwar; Singh, Neelima; Ghalaut, Veena Singh; Vardey, Satish Kumar; Shankar, Vijay

2013-01-01

128

Ferulsinaic Acid Modulates SOD, GSH, and Antioxidant Enzymes in Diabetic Kidney  

PubMed Central

The efficacy of Ferulsinaic acid (FA) to modulate the antioxidant enzymes and to reduce oxidative stress induced-diabetic nephropathy (DN) was studied. Rats were fed diets enriched with sucrose (50%, wt/wt), lard (30%, wt/wt), and cholesterol (2.5%, wt/wt) for 8 weeks to induce insulin resistance. After a DN model was induced by streptozotocin; 5, 50 and 500?mg/kg of FA were administrated by oral intragastric intubation for 12 weeks. In FA-treated diabetic rats, glucose, kidney/body weight ratio, creatinine, BUN, albuminurea, and creatinine clearance were significantly decreased compared with non treated diabetic rats. Diabetic rats showed decreased activities of SOD and GSH; increased concentrations of malondialdehyde and IL-6 in the serum and kidney, and increased levels of 8-hydroxy-2?-deoxyguanosine in urine and renal cortex. FA-treatment restored the altered parameters in a dose-dependent manner. The ultra morphologic abnormalities in the kidney of diabetic rats were markedly ameliorated by FA treatment. Furthermore, FA acid was found to attenuate chronic inflammation induced by both Carrageenan and dextran in rats. We conclude that FA confers protection against injuries in the kidneys of diabetic rats by increasing activities of antioxidant enzymes and inhibiting accumulation of oxidized DNA in the kidney, suggesting a potential drug for the prevention and therapy of DN.

Sayed, Ahmed Amir Radwan

2012-01-01

129

Anti-oxidative enzyme changes associated with chickpea calli tolerant to Ascochyta rabiei culture filtrate.  

PubMed

Ascochyta blight caused by Ascochyta rabiei (Pass.) Labrousse is a major biotic constraint in production of chickpea. In the present investigation, all chickpea genotypes [E100Y (m), Gaurav, Pb-7 and L550] induced 100% callus on standard medium with greenish colour and fragile structure. These calli were used for in vitro screening against pathogen, A. rabiei culture filtrate at 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% concentrations. Survival rate of calli in all chickpea's genotypes were reduced significantly at higher concentration (15%) of culture filtrate. The culture filtrate concentration of 20 % was lethal for calli of all chickpea's genotypes. Hence, biochemical changes viz. total soluble proteins and activities of anti-oxidative enzymes (polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase and catalase) were estimated at 15% and below concentration of culture filtrate. Tolerant calli of resistant genotype, E100 Y (m) revealed significantly higher total soluble proteins (10.04 mg g?¹ f.wt. of callus) and activity of anti-oxidative enzymes, polyphenol oxidase (9.0 unit absorbance change min?¹ mg?¹ protein) and peroxidase (19.09 unit absorbance change min?¹ mg?¹ protein) and lower catalase (18.65 ? moles of H2O2 utilized min?¹ mg?¹ protein) at higher (15%) concentration of culture filtrate followed by moderately resistant (Gaurav), and susceptible genotypes (Pb-7 and L550). Thus, higher polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase and lower catalase activity in chickpea's genotypes against culture filtrate of A. rabiei could be used as parameters for screening resistant genotypes to pathogen, A. rabiei. PMID:24813004

Kumar, Prabhat; Sangwan, M S; Mehta, Naresh; Kumar, Santosh

2014-05-01

130

Alterations in Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Cerebrospinal Fluid Related with Severity of Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy in Newborns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The antioxidant status of the tissue affected by ischemia-reperfusion is of great importance for the primary endogenous defense against the free-radical-induced injury. Objective: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the relationship between the activities of antioxidant enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD)[, ]glutathione peroxidase (GPX)[, ]and catalase (CAT)] in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and severity of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) in newborns.

Hande Gulcan; I. Cetin Ozturk; Selda Arslan

2005-01-01

131

Acute effect of ionic high osmolar contrast medium on renal antioxidant enzyme activity in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute contrast medium-induced nephrotoxicity was estimated in 3%–12% of patients receiving cardiac angiography, especially\\u000a in advanced age, renal insufficiency and diabetic patients. As intrinsic renal antioxidant enzyme activities may play a crucial\\u000a role in defence against renal oxidant injury, this study was designed to investigate the acute effect of ionic high osmolar\\u000a diatrizoate meglumine\\/diatrizoate sodium on renal antioxidant activities in

H.-W. Yen; H.-C. Lee; H.-Y. Chuang; W.-T. Lai; S.-H. Sheu

2006-01-01

132

Comparative effects of palm vitamin E and ?-tocopherol on healing and wound tissue antioxidant enzyme levels in diabetic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of supplementing 200 mg\\/kg body weight palm vitamin E (PVE) and 200 mg\\/kg body weight ?-tocopherol (?-loc) on the\\u000a healing of wounds in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats was evaluated. The antioxidant potencies of these two preparations\\u000a of vitamin E were also evaluated by determining the antioxidant enzyme activities, namely, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and\\u000a superoxide dismutase (SOD), and malondialdehyde (MDA)

M. Musalmah; M. Y. Nizrana; A. H. Fairuz; A. H. NoorAini; A. L. Azian; M. T. Gapor; W. Z. Wan Ngah

2005-01-01

133

Genetically engineered immunomodulatory Streptococcus thermophilus strains producing antioxidant enzymes exhibit enhanced anti-inflammatory activities.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to develop strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) having both immunomodulatory and antioxidant properties and to evaluate their anti-inflammatory effects both in vitro, in different cellular models, and in vivo, in a mouse model of colitis. Different Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus strains were cocultured with primary cultures of mononuclear cells. Analysis of the pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines secreted by these cells after coincubation with candidate bacteria revealed that L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 864 and S. thermophilus CRL 807 display the highest anti-inflammatory profiles in vitro. Moreover, these results were confirmed in vivo by the determination of the cytokine profiles in large intestine samples of mice fed with these strains. S. thermophilus CRL 807 was then transformed with two different plasmids harboring the genes encoding catalase (CAT) or superoxide dismutase (SOD) antioxidant enzymes, and the anti-inflammatory effects of recombinant streptococci were evaluated in a mouse model of colitis induced by trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS). Our results showed a decrease in weight loss, lower liver microbial translocation, lower macroscopic and microscopic damage scores, and modulation of the cytokine production in the large intestines of mice treated with either CAT- or SOD-producing streptococci compared to those in mice treated with the wild-type strain or control mice without any treatment. Furthermore, the greatest anti-inflammatory activity was observed in mice receiving a mixture of both CAT- and SOD-producing streptococci. The addition of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 864 to this mixture did not improve their beneficial effects. These findings show that genetically engineering a candidate bacterium (e.g., S. thermophilus CRL 807) with intrinsic immunomodulatory properties by introducing a gene expressing an antioxidant enzyme enhances its anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:24242245

Del Carmen, Silvina; de Moreno de LeBlanc, Alejandra; Martin, Rebeca; Chain, Florian; Langella, Philippe; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G; LeBlanc, Jean Guy

2014-02-01

134

Genetically Engineered Immunomodulatory Streptococcus thermophilus Strains Producing Antioxidant Enzymes Exhibit Enhanced Anti-Inflammatory Activities  

PubMed Central

The aims of this study were to develop strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) having both immunomodulatory and antioxidant properties and to evaluate their anti-inflammatory effects both in vitro, in different cellular models, and in vivo, in a mouse model of colitis. Different Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus strains were cocultured with primary cultures of mononuclear cells. Analysis of the pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines secreted by these cells after coincubation with candidate bacteria revealed that L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 864 and S. thermophilus CRL 807 display the highest anti-inflammatory profiles in vitro. Moreover, these results were confirmed in vivo by the determination of the cytokine profiles in large intestine samples of mice fed with these strains. S. thermophilus CRL 807 was then transformed with two different plasmids harboring the genes encoding catalase (CAT) or superoxide dismutase (SOD) antioxidant enzymes, and the anti-inflammatory effects of recombinant streptococci were evaluated in a mouse model of colitis induced by trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS). Our results showed a decrease in weight loss, lower liver microbial translocation, lower macroscopic and microscopic damage scores, and modulation of the cytokine production in the large intestines of mice treated with either CAT- or SOD-producing streptococci compared to those in mice treated with the wild-type strain or control mice without any treatment. Furthermore, the greatest anti-inflammatory activity was observed in mice receiving a mixture of both CAT- and SOD-producing streptococci. The addition of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 864 to this mixture did not improve their beneficial effects. These findings show that genetically engineering a candidate bacterium (e.g., S. thermophilus CRL 807) with intrinsic immunomodulatory properties by introducing a gene expressing an antioxidant enzyme enhances its anti-inflammatory activities.

del Carmen, Silvina; de Moreno de LeBlanc, Alejandra; Martin, Rebeca; Chain, Florian; Langella, Philippe; Bermudez-Humaran, Luis G.

2014-01-01

135

Measuring Intracellular Enzyme Concentrations: Assessing the Effect of Oxidative Stress on the Amount of Glyoxalase I  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Enzymology is one of the fundamental areas of biochemistry and involves the study of the structure, kinetics, and regulation of enzyme activity. Research in this area is often conducted with purified enzymes and extrapolated to "in vivo" conditions. The specificity constant, k[subscript S], is the ratio between k[subscript cat] (the catalytic…

Miranda, Hugo Vicente; Ferreira, Antonio E. N.; Quintas, Alexandre; Cordeiro, Carlos; Freire, Ana Ponces

2008-01-01

136

Oxidative stress and anti-oxidant enzyme activities in the trophocytes and fat cells of queen honeybees (Apis mellifera).  

PubMed

Trophocytes and fat cells of queen honeybees have been used for delayed cellular senescence studies, but their oxidative stress and anti-oxidant enzyme activities with advancing age are unknown. In this study, we assayed reactive oxygen species (ROS) and anti-oxidant enzymes in the trophocytes and fat cells of young and old queens. Young queens had lower ROS levels, lower superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, and higher thioredoxin reductase (TR) activity compared to old queens. These results show that oxidative stress and anti-oxidant enzyme activities in trophocytes and fat cells increase with advancing age in queens and suggest that an increase in oxidative stress and a consequent increase in stress defense mechanisms are associated with the longevity of queen honeybees. PMID:23738955

Hsieh, Yu-Shan; Hsu, Chin-Yuan

2013-08-01

137

Enzymatic hydrolysis of rice dreg protein: Effects of enzyme type on the functional properties and antioxidant activities of recovered proteins.  

PubMed

The effects of various proteases on the formation and characteristics of rice dreg protein hydrolysates (RDPHs) were investigated. Enzymatic hydrolysis of often under-utilised rice dreg protein (RDP) with different enzymes studied here was found to significantly improve protein content and solubility. RDPHs prepared by alkaline protease showed better protein recovery, producing higher protein content with much smaller peptides, while hydrolysates generated by Protamex showed the highest antioxidant activities with more than 80% solubility over a wide pH range. The results indicated that the type of protease greatly influenced the molecular weight and amino acid residue composition of RDPH. The enzyme type also determined the functional properties and antioxidant activity of the recovered proteins. It was found that an optimum allocation of alkaline protease in addition to the Neutrase enzyme could be an appropriate strategy to produce RDPH with desirable functionalities, antioxidant properties, and low salt content. PMID:25005954

Zhao, Qiang; Xiong, Hua; Selomulya, Cordelia; Chen, Xiao Dong; Zhong, Honglan; Wang, Shenqi; Sun, Wenjing; Zhou, Qiang

2012-10-01

138

Oxidative Stress and Anti-Oxidant Enzyme Activities in the Trophocytes and Fat Cells of Queen Honeybees (Apis mellifera)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Trophocytes and fat cells of queen honeybees have been used for delayed cellular senescence studies, but their oxidative stress and anti-oxidant enzyme activities with advancing age are unknown. In this study, we assayed reactive oxygen species (ROS) and anti-oxidant enzymes in the trophocytes and fat cells of young and old queens. Young queens had lower ROS levels, lower superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, and higher thioredoxin reductase (TR) activity compared to old queens. These results show that oxidative stress and anti-oxidant enzyme activities in trophocytes and fat cells increase with advancing age in queens and suggest that an increase in oxidative stress and a consequent increase in stress defense mechanisms are associated with the longevity of queen honeybees.

Hsieh, Yu-Shan

2013-01-01

139

Egg yolk peptides up-regulate glutathione synthesis and antioxidant enzyme activities in a porcine model of intestinal oxidative stress.  

PubMed

Long-term oxidative stress in the gastrointestinal tract can lead to the development of chronic intestinal disorders. Many food-derived antioxidants are effective in vitro, but the variable reports of in vivo efficacy and the pro-oxidant nature of some antioxidants necessitate alternative strategies for the reduction of in vivo oxidative stress. Compounds that up-regulate the production of endogenous antioxidants such as glutathione (GSH) and antioxidant enzymes provide novel approaches for the restoration of redox homeostatis. Egg yolk peptides (EYP) prepared from Alcalase and protease N digestion of delipidated egg yolk proteins were found to exhibit antioxidative stress properties. The effect of EYP supplementation was examined in a hydrogen peroxide-induced human colon cell line and in an animal model of intestinal oxidative stress. EYP significantly reduced the pro-inflammatory cytokine, IL-8, in Caco-2 cells. In piglets given intraperitoneal infusions of hydrogen peroxide, EYP treatment increased GSH and gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase mRNA expression and activity, significantly increased antioxidant enzyme activities, in particular catalase and glutathione S-transferase activities, and reduced protein and lipid oxidation in the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and colon. Furthermore, EYP boosted the systemic antioxidant status in blood by increasing the GSH concentration in red blood cells. These results suggest that EYP supplementation is a novel strategy for the reduction of intestinal oxidative stress. PMID:20540508

Young, Denise; Fan, Ming Z; Mine, Yoshinori

2010-07-14

140

Enzyme-assisted processing increases antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of bilberry.  

PubMed

The effects of nine cell wall-degrading enzymes on the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of bilberry were studied. Antimicrobial activity was measured using the human pathogens Salmonella enterica sv. Typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus as test strains. Enzyme treatments liberated phenolics from the cell wall matrix, which clearly increased the antimicrobial activity of berry juices, press cakes, and berry mashes on the basis of plate counts. Antibacterial effects were stronger against Salmonella than against Staphylococcus bacteria. In general, the increase in activity measured as colony-forming units per milliliter was 3-5 logarithmic units against Salmonella and 1-2 units against Staphylococcus bacteria. Increase in antimicrobial activity was observed only in acidic conditions, which is also the natural environment in various berry products, such as juices. The activity profile of the pectinase preparation affected the chemistry of the phenolics due to the presence of deglycosylating activities in some preparations. The difference in phenolic profiles was reflected in the antimicrobial effects. Bilberry mashes treated with Pectinex Ultra SP-L, Pectinex 3 XL, and Pectinex BE XXL were most efficient against Salmonella bacteria, whereas mashes treated with Pectinex Smash, Pectinex BE 3-L, and Biopectinase CCM showed the strongest antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus bacteria. Due to the liberation of phenolics from the cell wall matrix the antioxidant activity measured as radical scavenging activity was also increased on average about 30% by the enzymatic treatments. The highest increase in phenolic compounds was about 40%. Highest increases in anthocyanins and in antioxidant activity were observed in berry mash treated with Pectinex Smash XXL enzyme, and the lowest increase was observed after treatment with Pectinex BE 3-L. Enzyme-assisted processing is traditionally used to improve berry and fruit juice yields. However, enzymatic treatments also have an impact on the functional properties of the products. The increased liberation of phenolics from the cell wall matrix can prolong the shelf life of berry products by limiting the growth of contaminants during processing or storage. The increased amount of phenolic compounds may also have a positive effect on gut well-being. PMID:18211029

Puupponen-Pimiä, Riitta; Nohynek, Liisa; Ammann, Sabine; Oksman-Caldentey, Kirsi-Marja; Buchert, Johanna

2008-02-13

141

Effects of water extract of Usnea longissima on antioxidant enzyme activity and mucosal damage caused by indomethacin in rats.  

PubMed

In this study, the antiulcerogenic effect of a water extract obtained from the lichen species Usnea longissima was investigated using indomethacin-induced ulcer models in rats. Experimental groups consisted of six rats. Antiulcerogenic activities of 50, 100 and 200mg/kg body wt. doses of the water extract were determined by comparing the negative (treated only with indomethacin) and positive (ranitidine) control groups. Although all doses of the water extract of U. longissima showed significant antiulcerogenic activity as compared to negative control groups, the highest activity was observed with 100 mg/kg body wt. doses (79.8%). The water extract of U. longissima showed moderate antioxidant activity when compared with trolox and ascorbic acids used as positive antioxidants. In addition, the activities of antioxidant enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST)] were determined in the stomach tissues of rats and compared with those of the negative and positive control groups to expose the effects of antioxidant enzymes on antiulcerogenic activity. SOD and GST enzymes activities in indomethacin-administrated tissues were reduced significantly by indomethacin in comparison to control groups. These enzymes were activated, however, by the water extracts of U. longissima. In contrast to SOD and GST activities, CAT activity was increased by indomethacin and reduced by all doses of U. longissima and ranitidine. The present results indicate that the water extract of U. longissima has a protective effect in indomethacin-induced ulcers, which can be attributed to its antioxidant potential. PMID:16194053

Halici, M; Odabasoglu, F; Suleyman, H; Cakir, A; Aslan, A; Bayir, Y

2005-09-01

142

Activity of peroxisomal enzymes and intracellular distribution of catalase in Zellweger syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activity of peroxisomal enzymes was studied in human liver and cultured human skin fibroblasts in relation to the finding (Goldfischer, S. et al. (1973) Science 182, 62–64) that morphologically distinct peroxisomes are not detectable in patients with the cerebro-hepato-renal (Zellweger) syndrome. In homogenates of liver from the patients, dihydroxyacetone phosphate acyltransferase, a membrane-bound peroxisomal enzyme, is deficient (Schutgens, R.B.H.,

G. Schrakamp; H. van den Bosch; B. Roest; M. Kos; A. J. Meijer; H. S. A. Heymans; W. H. H. Tegelaers; R. B. H. Schutgens; J. M. Tager; R. J. A. Wanders

1984-01-01

143

Ultraviolet-B- and ozone-induced biochemical changes in antioxidant enzymes of Arabidopsis thaliana  

SciTech Connect

Earlier studies with Arabidopsis thaliana exposed to ultraviolet B (UV-B) and ozone (O{sub 3}) have indicated the differential responses of superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase. In this study, we have investigated whether A. thaliana genotype Landsberg erecta and its flavonoid-deficient mutant transparent testa (tt5) is capable of metabolizing UV-B- and O{sub 3}-induced activated oxygen species by invoking similar antioxidant enzymes. UV-B exposure preferentially enhanced guaiacol-peroxidases, ascorbate peroxidase, and peroxidases specific to coniferyl alcohol and modified the substrate affinity of ascorbate peroxidase. O{sub 3} exposure enhanced superoxide dismutase, peroxidases, glutathione reductase, and ascorbate peroxidase to a similar degree and modified the substrate affinity of both glutathione reductase and ascorbate peroxidase. Both UV-B and O{sub 3} exposure enhanced similar Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase isoforms. New isoforms of peroxidases and ascorbate peroxidase were synthesized in tt5 plants irradiated with UV-B. UV-B radiation, in contrast to O{sub 3}, enhanced the activation oxygen species by increasing membrane-localized NADPH-oxidase activity and decreasing catalase activities. These results collectively suggest that (a) UV-B exposure preferentially induces peroxidase-related enzymes, whereas O{sub 3} exposure invokes the enzymes of superoxide dismutase/ascorbate-glutathione cycle, and (b) in contrast to O{sub 3}, UV-B exposure generated activated oxygen species by increasing NADPH-oxidase activity. 10 figs., 4 tabs.

Rao, M.V.; Paliyath, G.; Ormrod, D.P. [Univ. of Guelph, Ontario (Canada)] [Univ. of Guelph, Ontario (Canada)

1996-01-01

144

The neuroprotective antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid induces detoxication enzymes in cultured astroglial cells.  

PubMed

alpha-Lipoic acid (LA), an antioxidant with broad neuroprotective capacity, is thought to act by scavenging reactive oxygen species and stimulation of glutathione synthesis. LA shows structural resemblance to dithiolethiones, like anethole dithiolethione (ADT). ADT protects against oxidative damage, primarily by induction of phase II detoxication enzymes, in particular NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST). Therefore, we investigated whether LA, like ADT, is capable also of inducing these protective enzymes. Our data show that LA, like ADT, induces a highly significant, time- and concentration dependent, increase in the activity of NQO1 and GST in C6 astroglial cells. The LA or ADT mediated induction of NQO1 was further confirmed by quantitative PCR and western blot analysis. This work for the first time unequivocally demonstrates LA mediated upregulation of phase II detoxication enzymes, which may highly contribute to the compounds' neuroprotective potential. Moreover, the data support the notion of a common mechanism of action of LA and ADT. PMID:12180195

Flier, Jacoba; Van Muiswinkel, Freek L; Jongenelen, Cornelis A M; Drukarch, Benjamin

2002-06-01

145

Antioxidative defense enzymes in placenta protect placenta and fetus in inherited thrombophilia from hydrogen peroxide  

PubMed Central

Our aim was to investigate the activities of antioxidative defense enzymes in the placenta, fetal blood and amnion fluid in inherited thrombophilia. Thrombophilia was associated with nearly threefold increase of activity (p < 0.001) of the placental catalase (81.1 ± 20.6 U/mg of proteins in controls and 270.0 ± 69.9 U/mg in thrombophilic subjects), glutathione (GSH) peroxidase (C: 20.2 ± 10.1 U/mg; T: 60.0 ± 15.5 U/mg), and GSH reductase (C: 28.9 ± 5.6 U/mg; T: 72.7 ± 23.0 U/mg). The placental activities of superoxide dismutating enzymes—MnSOD and CuZnSOD, did not differ in controls and thrombophilia. Likewise, the activities of catalase and SOD in the fetal blood, and the level of ascorbyl radical which represents a marker of oxidative status of amniotic fluid, were similar in controls and thrombophilic subjects. From this we concluded that in thrombophilia, placental tissue is exposed to H2O2-mediated oxidative stress, which could be initiated by pro-thrombic conditions in maternal blood. Increased activity of placental H2O2-removing enzymes protects fetus and mother during pregnancy, but may increase the risk of postpartum thrombosis.

Pristov, Jelena Bogdanovic; Spasojevic, Ivan; Mikovic, Zeljko; Mandic, Vesna; Cerovic, Nikola

2009-01-01

146

Effect of allyl isothiocyanate on antioxidant enzyme activities, flavonoids and post-harvest fruit quality of blueberries ( Vaccinium corymbosum L., cv. Duke)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) on antioxidant enzyme activities, flavonoid content, and fruit quality of blueberries var. Duke (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) was evaluated. Results from this study showed that AITC was effective in maintaining higher amounts of sugars and lower organic acids compared to untreated fruit during storage at 10°C. However, AITC reduced antioxidant enzyme activities [superoxide dismutase (SOD),

Shiow Y. Wang; Chi-Tsun Chen

2010-01-01

147

Effects of alginate on frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa quality, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes activities.  

PubMed

Although alginate was reported to play an important role as free radical scavengers in vitro and could be used as sources of natural antioxidants, there was no study about the cryoprotective effects of alginate on boar spermatozoa freezing. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of different concentrations of alginate added to the freezing extenders on boar spermatozoa motility, plasma membrane integrity, acrosomal integrity, mitochondrial activities, lipid peroxidation and antioxidative enzymes activities (SOD and GSH-Px) after thawing. Alginate was added to the TCG extender to yield six different final concentrations: 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0mg/mL. The semen extender supplemented with various doses of alginate increased (P<0.05) total motility. The spermatozoa plasma membrane integrity and mitochondrial activity were improved at four different concentrations: 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0mg/mL. The addition of alginate also provided significantly positive effect on post-thaw boar spermatozoa acrosomal integrity at concentrations of 0.6, 0.8, 1.0mg/mL, compared with that of the control (P<0.05). The freezing extenders with the presence of alginate led to higher SOD and GSH-Px activities and lower MDA levels, in comparison to the control (P<0.05). In summary, alginate exhibited a dose-related response on frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa motility, functional integrity and antioxidative capacity at appropriate concentrations. Therefore alginate could be employed as an effective cryoprotectant in boar spermatozoa cryopreservation. PMID:24814905

Hu, Jinghua; Geng, Guoxia; Li, Qingwang; Sun, Xiuzhu; Cao, Hualin; Liu, Yawei

2014-06-30

148

Chemomodulatory Effect of Moringa Oleifera, Lam, on Hepatic Carcinogen Metabolising Enzymes, Antioxidant Parameters and Skin Papillomagenesis in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modulatory effects of a hydro-alchoholic extract of drumsticks of Moringa oliefera Lam at doses of 125 mg\\/ kg bodyweight and 250 mg\\/ kg body weight for 7 and 14 days, respectively, were investigated with reference to drug metabolising Phase I (Cytochrome b 5 and Cytochrome P 450 ) and Phase II (Glutathione-S- transferase) enzymes, anti-oxidant enzymes, glutathione content and

Rupjyoti Bharali; Jawahira Tabassum; Mohammed Rekibul; Haque Azad

2003-01-01

149

Antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities of Plebeian herba (Salvia plebeia R. Br.) under different cultivation conditions.  

PubMed

An adaptation of cultural management to the specific cultural system, as well as crop demand, can further result in the improvement of the quality of horticultural products. Therefore, this study focused on the antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities of Plebeian herba (Salvia plebeia R. Br.) grown in hydroponics in comparison with those of the plant grown in soil. The antioxidant activities of Plebeian herba extract were measured as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging abilities as well as the reducing power by decreasing nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) in vitro. Interestingly, by comparison with hydroponics and traditional cultivation, Plebeian herba cultivated in nutrition-based soil improved inhibitory effect on free radicals of DPPH, ABTS, and NO and increased the contents of phenolics such as caffeic acid (1), luteolin-7-glucoside (2), homoplantaginin (3), hispidulin (4), and eupatorin. Free radical scavenging and SOD activity, as well as ?-glucosidase inhibitory effect, were higher in Plebeian herba grown in nutrition-based soil than in plants grown in hydroponics and traditional condition. PMID:24422962

Chen, Lei; Kang, Young-Hwa

2014-03-12

150

Antioxidant enzymes and fatty acid composition as related to disease resistance in postharvest loquat fruit.  

PubMed

Two cultivars of loquat fruit were stored at 20°C for 10days to investigate the relationship between disease resistance, and fatty acid composition and activities of endogenous antioxidant enzymes. The results showed that decay incidence increased with storage time in both cultivars. A significantly lower disease incidence was observed in 'Qingzhong' fruit than in 'Fuyang', suggesting 'Qingzhong' had increased disease resistance. Meanwhile, 'Qingzhong' fruit also had lower levels of superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide, and lower lipoxygenase activity, but higher levels of linolenic and linoleic acids and higher activities of catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) compared with 'Fuyang'. These results suggest that the higher levels of linolenic and linoleic acids and the higher activity of CAT and APX have a role in disease resistance of postharvest loquat fruit. PMID:24912701

Cao, Shifeng; Yang, Zhenfeng; Cai, Yuting; Zheng, Yonghua

2014-11-15

151

Antioxidant enzymes activities and protein damage in rat brain of both sexes.  

PubMed

The theory of free radicals and accumulation of damages suggests that the reactive species of oxygen play a key role in the context of aging. Thus, for the best understanding of the aging process, the study of antioxidant defenses has to be considered as part of gerontology. The present work evaluated the enzymatic activity of the enzymes catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and measured the amount of oxidative damage in proteins (carbonyl groups) in brains of rats of both sexes in the ages of 3-, 6-, 12- and 20-months. The results suggest that the patterns of activity and accumulation of damages can be sex-specific and related to the cycle of reproductive life of the organism. PMID:16581216

Ehrenbrink, Guilherme; Hakenhaar, Fernanda Schäfer; Salomon, Tiago Boeira; Petrucci, Antonella Pilla; Sandri, Marcia Rodrigues; Benfato, Mara Silveira

2006-04-01

152

Dietary antioxidant supplementation enhances lipid and protein oxidative stability of chicken broiler meat through promotion of antioxidant enzyme activity.  

PubMed

Recent nutrigenomic studies have shown that animal nutrition can have a major influence on tissue gene expression. Dietary antioxidant supplements can enhance the quality of meat through modification of tissue metabolic processes. This study investigated the influence of dietary antioxidants and quality of oil on the oxidative and enzymatic properties of chicken broiler breast meat stored in an oxygen-enriched package (HiOx: 80% O2/20% CO2) in comparison with air-permeable polyvinylchloride (PVC) or skin packaging systems during retail display at 2 to 4°C for up to 21 d. Broilers were fed either a diet with a low-oxidized (peroxide value 23 mEq of O2/kg) or high-oxidized (peroxide value 121 mEq of O2/kg) oil, supplemented with or without an algae-based Se yeast and organic mineral antioxidant pack for 42 d. Lipid and protein oxidation and tissue enzymatic activity were analyzed. In all packaging systems, lipid oxidation (TBA reactive substances) was inhibited by up to 32.5% (P < 0.05) with an antioxidant-supplemented diet when compared with diets without antioxidants, particularly in the HiOx and PVC systems. Protein sulfhydryls were significantly protected by antioxidant diets (e.g., by 14.6 and 17.8% for low-and high-oxidized dietary groups, respectively, in PVC d 7 samples). Glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activities were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in antioxidant-supplemented diets compared with the basal diet, regardless of oil quality. Also, serum carbonyls were lower in broilers fed a low-oxidized antioxidant-supplemented treatment. The results demonstrate that dietary antioxidants can minimize the oxidative instability of proteins and lipids, and the protection may be linked to improved cellular antioxidant enzymatic activity. PMID:24879706

Delles, Rebecca M; Xiong, Youling L; True, Alma D; Ao, Touying; Dawson, Karl A

2014-06-01

153

Genotoxicity and antioxidant enzyme activity induced by hexavalent chromium in Cyprinus carpio after in vivo exposure.  

PubMed

Fish, being an important native of the aquatic ecosystem, are exposed to multipollution states and are therefore considered as model organisms for ecotoxicological studies of aquatic pollutants, including metal toxicity. We investigated oxidative stress (OS) in liver, kidney and gill tissues through antioxidant enzyme activities and genotoxicity induced in whole blood and gill tissues through comet assay and micronucleus (MN) test in Cyprinus carpio after 96-hour in vivo static exposure to potassium dichromate at three sublethal (SL) test concentrations, including SL-I [93.95 mg/L, i.e. one quarter of half-maximal lethal concentration (LC50)], SL-II (187.9 mg/L, i.e. one half of LC50), and SL-III (281.85 mg/L, i.e. three quarters of LC50), along with a control. The 96-hour LC50 value for potassium dichromate was estimated to be 375.8 mg/L in a static system in the test species. Tissues samples were collected at 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours postexposure. Results indicated that the exposed fish experienced OS as characterized by significant (p < 0.05) variation in antioxidant enzyme activities, as compared to the control. Activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase increased, whereas activity of catalase decreased with the progression of the experiment. The mean percent DNA damage in comet tail and MN induction in gills and whole blood showed a concentration-dependent increase up to 96-hour exposure. The findings of this study would be helpful in organ-specific risk assessment of Cr(VI)-induced OS and genotoxicity in fishes. PMID:23534497

Kumar, Pavan; Kumar, Ravindra; Nagpure, Naresh S; Nautiyal, Prakash; Kushwaha, Basdeo; Dabas, Anurag

2013-10-01

154

Enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant activities of traditional medicinal plants: Potential application in the management of hyperglycemia  

PubMed Central

Background Traditional Indian and Australian medicinal plant extracts were investigated to determine their therapeutic potential to inhibit key enzymes in carbohydrate metabolism, which has relevance to the management of hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes. The antioxidant activities were also assessed. Methods The evaluation of enzyme inhibitory activity of seven Australian aboriginal medicinal plants and five Indian Ayurvedic plants was carried out against ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase. Antioxidant activity was determined by measuring (i) the scavenging effect of plant extracts against 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) and 2, 2?-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate (ABTS) and (ii) ferric reducing power. Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents were also determined. Results Of the twelve plant extracts evaluated, the highest inhibitory activity against both ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase enzymes was exerted by Santalum spicatum and Pterocarpus marsupium with IC50 values of 5.43??g/ml and 0.9??g/ml, respectively, and 5.16??g/ml and 1.06??g/ml, respectively. However, the extracts of Acacia ligulata (IC50?=?1.01??g/ml), Beyeria leshnaultii (0.39??g/ml), Mucuna pruriens (0.8??g/ml) and Boerhaavia diffusa (1.72??g/ml) exhibited considerable activity against ?-glucosidase enzyme only. The free radical scavenging activity was found to be prominent in extracts of Acacia kempeana, Acacia ligulata followed by Euphorbia drummondii against both DPPH and ABTS. The reducing power was more pronounced in Euphorbia drummondii and Pterocarpus marsupium extracts. The phenolic and flavonoid contents ranged from 0.42 to 30.27??g/mg equivalent of gallic acid and 0.51 to 32.94??g/mg equivalent of quercetin, respectively, in all plant extracts. Pearson’s correlation coefficient between total flavonoids and total phenolics was 0.796. Conclusion The results obtained in this study showed that most of the plant extracts have good potential for the management of hyperglycemia, diabetes and the related condition of oxidative stress.

2012-01-01

155

Intracellular Distribution of Enzymes of the Cytidine Diphosphate Choline Pathway in Castor Bean Endosperm  

PubMed Central

The occurrence and subcellular distribution of enzymes of the cytidine diphosphate choline pathway of lecithin synthesis have been examined. Choline kinase (EC 2.7.1.32) was completely soluble, while phosphorylcholine-cytidyl transferase (EC 2.7.7.15) and phosphorylcholine-glyceride transferase (EC 2.7.8.2) were associated with particulate fractions. Although components sedimenting at 10,000 to 100,000 × g contained both enzymes, phosphorylcholine-cytidyl transferase and particularly phosphorylcholine-glyceride transferase were present in the 10,000 × g pellet, which contained the major organelles, mitochondria, and glyoxysomes. When the crude homogenate was centrifuged on a sucrose density gradient, four major bands of particulate protein were recovered. A band at density 1.24 g/cm3 contained the glyoxysomes and was devoid of phosphorylcholine-cytidyl transferase and phosphorylcholine-glyceride transferase activity. Enzyme activity was barely detectable in the mitochondria, at density 1.18 g/cm2. Phosphorylcholine-glyceride transferase was found almost exclusively in a sharp band at density 1.12 g/cm3, and phosphorylcholinecytidyl transferase was found in the uppermost band at density 1.08 g/cm3. Thus, for the synthesis of lecithin in their membranes, the glyoxysomes and mitochondria depend on enzymes elsewhere in the cell; the final two steps in lecithin formation occur, apparently exclusively, in separate particulate cell components. Images

Lord, J. M.; Kagawa, T.; Beevers, Harry

1972-01-01

156

Effects of Microgravity On Oxidative and Antioxidant Enzymes In Mouse Hindlimb Muscle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gastrocnemius muscle of mice were analyzed in order to examine the effects of 12 days of microgravity on the oxidative enzyme climate synthase (CS) and the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD). The female C57BL/6J mice utilized for this study were part of the Commercial Biomedical Testing Module (CBTM) payload that flew aboard STS-108. Mice were housed in Animal Enclosure Modules (AEMs) provided by NASA Ames. The flight (FLT) group and the ground control (CON) group each had 12 mice per group. The AEMs that held the CON group operated on a 48-hour delay from the FLT group and were located inside the Orbital Environmental Simulator (OES) at Kennedy Space Center. The temperature, CO2 and relative humidity inside the OES was regulated based on downlinked information from the shuttle middeck. Student T tests were used to compare groups and a p < 0.05 was used to determine statistical significance. Results indicated that CS levels for the FLT group were significantly lower than the CON group while the SOD levels were significantly higher. The CS FLT mean was 19% lower and the SOD FLT mean was 17% higher than the respective CON group means. Although these findings are among the first muscle enzyme values reported for mice from a shuttle mission, these results are similar to some results previously reported for rats exposed to microgravity or hindlimb suspension. The changes seen during the CBTM payload are reflective of the deconditioning that takes place with disuse of the hindlimbs and indicate that muscle enzyme changes induced by disuse deconditioning are similar in both rodent species.

Girten, B.; Hoopes, R.; Steele, M.; Morony, S.; Bateman, T. A.; Sun, S. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

157

Strawberry Polyphenols Attenuate Ethanol-Induced Gastric Lesions in Rats by Activation of Antioxidant Enzymes and Attenuation of MDA Increase  

PubMed Central

Background and Aim Free radicals are implicated in the aetiology of gastrointestinal disorders such as gastric ulcer, colorectal cancer and inflammatory bowel disease. Strawberries are common and important fruit due to their high content of essential nutrient and beneficial phytochemicals which seem to have relevant biological activity on human health. In the present study we investigated the antioxidant and protective effects of three strawberry extracts against ethanol-induced gastric mucosa damage in an experimental in vivo model and to test whether strawberry extracts affect antioxidant enzyme activities in gastric mucosa. Methods/Principal Findings Strawberry extracts were obtained from Adria, Sveva and Alba cultivars. Total antioxidant capacity and radical scavenging capacity were performed by TEAC, ORAC and electron paramagnetic resonance assays. Identification and quantification of anthocyanins was carried out by HPLC-DAD-MS analyses. Different groups of animals received 40 mg/day/kg body weight of strawberry crude extracts for 10 days. Gastric damage was induced by ethanol. The ulcer index was calculated together with the determination of catalase and SOD activities and MDA contents. Strawberry extracts are rich in anthocyanins and present important antioxidant capacity. Ethanol caused severe gastric damage and strawberry consumption protected against its deleterious role. Antioxidant enzyme activities increased significantly after strawberry extract intake and a concomitantly decrease in gastric lipid peroxidation was found. A significant correlation between total anthocyanin content and percent of inhibition of ulcer index was also found. Conclusions Strawberry extracts prevented exogenous ethanol-induced damage to rats' gastric mucosa. These effects seem to be associated with the antioxidant activity and phenolic content in the extract as well as with the capacity of promoting the action of antioxidant enzymes. A diet rich in strawberries might exert a beneficial effect in the prevention of gastric diseases related to generation of reactive oxygen species.

Alvarez-Suarez, Jose M.; Dekanski, Dragana; Ristic, Slavica; Radonjic, Nevena V.; Petronijevic, Natasa D.; Giampieri, Francesca; Astolfi, Paola; Gonzalez-Paramas, Ana M.; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Tulipani, Sara; Quiles, Jose L.; Mezzetti, Bruno; Battino, Maurizio

2011-01-01

158

Potent induction of cellular antioxidants and phase 2 enzymes by resveratrol in cardiomyocytes: protection against oxidative and electrophilic injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resveratrol is known to be protective against oxidative cardiovascular disorders. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This study was undertaken to determine if resveratrol could increase endogenous antioxidants and phase 2 enzymes in cardiomyocytes, and if such increased cellular defenses could provide protection against oxidative and electrophilic cell injury. Incubation of cardiac H9C2 cells with low micromolar resveratrol resulted in

Zhuoxiao Cao; Yunbo Li

2004-01-01

159

Response of Antioxidative Enzymes and Apoplastic Bypass Transport in Thlaspi Caerulescens and Raphanus Sativus to Cadmium Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hydroponics experiment using hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens (alpine pennycress) and non-specific accumulator Raphanus sativus (common radish) was conducted to investigate the short-term effect of increasing Cd concentrations (0, 25, 50, 75, 100 ?M) on metal uptake, chlorophyll content, antioxidative enzymes, and apoplastic bypass flow. As expected, T. caerulescens generally showed better resistance to metal stress, which was reflected by higher

Saoussen Benzarti; Helmi Hamdi; Shino Mohri; Yoshiro Ono

2010-01-01

160

Influence of salt stress on growth, lipid peroxidation and antioxidative enzyme activity in borage (Borago officinalis L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of increasing salt concentrations on the growth, electrolyte leakage, lipid peroxidation, and major antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase) of borage plants were investigated. Plants were grown in half strength of Hoagland nutrient solution added with 0, 25, 50, and 75 mM of NaCl. Most measured parameters were affected by salinity. Increasing salt

K. Jaffel; S. Sai; N. K. Bouraoui; R. B. Ammar; L. Legendre; M. Lachâal; B. Marzouk

2011-01-01

161

Interplay Between Oncoproteins and Antioxidant Enzymes in Esophageal Carcinoma Treated Without and With Chemoradiotherapy: A Prospective Study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To analyze p53, bcl-2, c-myc, and cyclooxygenase-2 protein expression changes and examine their relationship with various antioxidant enzymes in esophageal carcinoma patients. Methods and Materials: Patients in Group 1 underwent transhiatal esophagectomy and those in Group 2 were administered chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery after 4 weeks of neoadjuvant therapy. Results: The relationship analysis among the various protein markers and antioxidant enzymes showed an inverse correlation between bcl-2 and superoxide dismutase/catalase in tumor tissues, irrespective of the treatment arm followed. An important positive association was observed between bcl-2 and reduced glutathione levels in the tumor tissue of patients receiving neoadjuvant therapy. Another apoptosis-modulating marker, c-myc, in the tumor tissue of Group 2 patients showed similar pattern levels (high and low) as that of superoxide dismutase/catalase. The association of cyclooxygenase-2 and p53 with various antioxidant enzymes showed a significant positive correlation between cyclooxygenase-2 expression and catalase activity and an inverse trend between p53 expression and superoxide dismutase and catalase activity in the tumor tissue of patients given neoadjuvant therapy. In addition, patients with overexpressed p53 protein levels had lower glutathione peroxidase enzyme levels and vice versa in the tumor tissue of patients who had undergone surgery as their main mode of treatment. Conclusion: The results of this study broaden the insight into the relationships shared among oncoproteins and the antioxidant defense system, and this could be helpful in the clinical management of esophageal carcinoma.

Kaur, Tranum [Department of Biophysics, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh (India); Gupta, Rajesh [Department of General Surgery, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh (India); Vaiphei, Kim [Department of Histopathology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh (India); Kapoor, Rakesh [Department of Radiotherapy, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh (India); Gupta, N.M. [Department of General Surgery, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh (India); Khanduja, K.L. [Department of Biophysics, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh (India); Department of Biophysics, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh (India)], E-mail: klkhanduja@gmail.com

2008-02-01

162

Effect of light irradiations on photosynthetic machinery and antioxidative enzymes during ex vitro acclimatization of Tylophora indica plantlets  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present communication, we studied the effect of light stress on pigment contents, net photosynthetic rate, electrolyte leakage, malondialdehyde concentration and various antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) during acclimatization of micropropagated Tylophora indica plantlets. Pigment (Chlorophyll a, b and carotenoids) contents in ex vitro formed leaves were found

Mohd Faisal; Mohammad Anis

2010-01-01

163

Grafting Increases the Copper Tolerance of Cucumber Seedlings by Improvement of Polyamine Contents and Enhancement of Antioxidant Enzymes Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study is to determine whether grafting could improve antioxidant enzyme activities and polyamine contents in leaves of cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Xintaimici) under copper stress. Grafted (using Cucurbita ficifolia as rootstock) and ungrafted cucumber seedlings were cultured in deep flow technique (DFT) with the Cu2+ concentration of 40 ?mol L?1. The results showed that

Zi-kun ZHANG; Shi-qi LIU; Shu-qin HAO; Su-hui LIU

2010-01-01

164

Antioxidant capacity and angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitory activity of a melon concentrate rich in superoxide dismutase.  

PubMed

Antioxidant capacity and angiotensin 1-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity of a melon concentrate rich in superoxide dismutase (SOD-MC) were investigated in vitro. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was measured by the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay (TEAC), the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical assay, and the ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP). The ability of the extract to scavenge three specific reactive oxygen species (superoxide radical anion (O(2)(-)), hydroxyl radical (HO()) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))) was also investigated in order to better evaluate its antioxidant properties. Even if the measures of TAC were relatively low, results clearly established an antioxidant potential of SOD-MC that exhibited the highest radical-scavenging activity towards O(2)(-), with a IC(50) 12-fold lower than that of H(2)O(2) or HO(). This lets hypothesis that the antioxidant potential of SOD-MC could be mainly due to its high level of SOD. Moreover, for the first time, an ACE inhibitory activity of SOD-MC (IC(50)=2.4±0.1mg/mL) was demonstrated, showing that its use as a functional food ingredient with potential preventive benefits in the context of hypertension may have important public health implications and should be carefully considered. PMID:22953857

Carillon, Julie; Del Rio, Daniele; Teissèdre, Pierre-Louis; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Lacan, Dominique; Rouanet, Jean-Max

2012-12-01

165

Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in isoproterenol induced oxidative stress in rat tissues.  

PubMed

The oxidative metabolism of catecholamines produce quinones which react with oxygen to produce superoxide anions (O2-.) and H2O2. The catecholamines, however, are important under stress conditions but may have damaging effects due to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and formation of oxidation products. ROS are involved as causative factors in many diseases, therefore, the generation of ROS by catecholamines may also contribute to this process. Isoproterenol (ISO) was administered to rats in two doses so as to evaluate their beta-adrenergic and toxicological actions in terms of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and the changes in the antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione (GSH) content in heart, liver and kidney. ISO treatment caused LPO in tissues, however, the heart initially showed decreased LPO. This is attributed to the condition of hypertrophy by which the heart can protect itself to a limited extent against oxidative stress. The second dose of ISO, administered 24 h after the first treatment, showed toxic effects resulting in a higher increase in LPO. The increased SOD activity in tissues 3 days after a dose of ISO suggests that the ROS may induce SOD activity to dismutate O2-. However, increased amounts of O2-., inhibited SOD activity at 3 and 6 h with recovery towards control values at 12 h of a second dose of ISO treatment. CAT activity in tissues increased at 6 h of a second dose of ISO treatment. The elevated SOD and CAT enzymes in tissues indicate a response due to increased ROS. The increase in GSH content in the heart, liver and kidney at day 2 of ISO treatment and 12 h after the second dose of ISO may also neutralise oxidative stress. The inhibition in GST activity in tissues was observed probably due to increased ROS generation, however, GST activity partially recovered by 12 h after the second dose of ISO, in an attempt to counteract oxidative stress. The result shows that ISO induced oxidative stress and the increase of the antioxidant system in tissues may attenuate oxidative stress. It is suggested that ROS generation in the oxidation of catecholamines may be partially counteracted by the antioxidant system in tissues. PMID:9774493

Rathore, N; John, S; Kale, M; Bhatnagar, D

1998-10-01

166

Intracellular Rescue of the Uroporphyrinogen III Synthase Activity in Enzymes Carrying the Hotspot Mutation C73R*  

PubMed Central

A single mutation (C73R) in the enzyme uroporphyrinogen III synthase (UROIIIS) is responsible for more than one-third of all of the reported cases of the rare autosomal disease congenital erythropoietic porphyria (CEP). CEP patients carrying this hotspot mutation develop a severe phenotype of the disease, including reduced life expectancy. Here, we have investigated the molecular basis for the functional deficit in the mutant enzyme both in vitro and in cellular systems. We show that a Cys in position 73 is not essential for the catalytic activity of the enzyme but its mutation to Arg speeds up the process of irreversible unfolding and aggregation. In the mammalian cell milieu, the mutant protein levels decrease to below the detection limit, whereas wild type UROIIIS can be detected easily. The disparate response is not produced by differences at the level of transcription, and the results with cultured cells and in vitro are consistent with a model where the protein becomes very unstable upon mutation and triggers a degradation mechanism via the proteasome. Mutant protein levels can be restored upon cell treatment with the proteasome inhibitor MG132. The intracellularly recovered C73R-UROIIIS protein shows enzymatic activity, paving the way for a new line of therapeutic intervention in CEP patients.

Fortian, Arola; Gonzalez, Esperanza; Castano, David; Falcon-Perez, Juan M.; Millet, Oscar

2011-01-01

167

Dynamic changes of anti-oxidative enzymes of 10 wheat genotypes at soil water deficits.  

PubMed

Drought is a world-spread problem seriously influencing crop production and quality, the loss of which is the total for other natural disasters, with increasing global climate change making the situation more serious. Wheat is the staple food for more than 35% of world population, so wheat anti-drought physiology study is of importance to wheat production and biological breeding for the sake of coping with abiotic and biotic conditions. Much research is involved in this hot topic, but the pace of progress is not so large because of drought resistance being a multiple-gene-control quantitative character and wheat genome being larger (16,000 Mb). On the other hand, stress adaptive mechanisms are quite different, with stress degree, different growth and developmental stages, time course, materials and experimental plots, thus increasing the complexity of the issue in question. Additionally, a little study is related to the whole life circle of wheat, which cannot provide a comprehensive understanding of its anti-drought machinery. We selected 10 kinds of wheat genotypes as materials, which have potential to be applied in practice, and measured change of relative physiological indices through wheat whole growing developmental circle (i.e. seedling, tillage and maturing). Here, we reported the dynamic anti-oxidative results of whole stage (i.e. seedling, tillage and maturing) in terms of activities of POD, SOD, CAT of 10 wheat genotypes as follows: (1) 10 wheat genotypes can be grouped into three kinds (A, B and C, respectively) according to their changing trend of the measured indices; (2) A group performed better resistance drought under the condition of treatment level 1, whose activities of anti-oxidative enzymes (POD, SOD, CAT) were higher; (3) B group exhibited stronger anti-drought under treatment level 2, whose activities of anti-oxidative enzymes were higher; (4) C group expressed anti-drought to some extent under treatment level 3, whose activities of anti-oxidative enzymes were stronger, MDA lower; (5) these results demonstrated that different wheat genotypes have different physiological mechanisms to adapt themselves to changing drought stress, whose molecular basis is discrete gene expression profiling (transcriptom); (6) our results also showed that the concept and method accepted and adopted by most researchers--that 75% FC is a proper supply for higher plants--was doubted because this level could not reflect the true suitable level of different wheat genotypes; (7) our research can provide insights into physiological mechanisms of crop anti-drought and direct practical materials for wheat anti-drought breeding; (8) POD, SOD and CAT activities of different wheat genotypes had quite different changing trend at different stages and under different soil water stress conditions, which was linked with their origin of cultivation and individual soil water stress threshold; (9) our primary results also firstly displayed that the changing trend for wheat adapting to environmental stress during life circle was an S-shaped curve, which is, by chance, consistent with Plant Growth Grand Periodicity Curve. PMID:15876527

Shao, Hong Bo; Liang, Zong Suo; Shao, Ming An; Sun, Qun

2005-05-25

168

Differential responses of the activities of antioxidant enzymes to thermal stresses between two invasive Eupatorium species in China.  

PubMed

The effect of thermal stress on the antioxidant system was investigated in two invasive plants, Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng. and E. odoratum L. The former is sensitive to high temperature, whereas the latter is sensitive to low temperature. Our aim was to explore the relationship between the response of antioxidant enzymes and temperature in the two invasive weeds with different distribution patterns in China. Plants were transferred from glasshouse to growth chambers at a constant 25 degrees C for 1 week to acclimatize to the environment. For the heat treatments, temperature was increased stepwise to 30, 35, 38 and finally to 42 degrees C. For the cold treatments, temperature was decreased stepwise to 20, 15, 10 and finally to 5 degrees C. Plants were kept in the growth chambers for 24 h at each temperature step. In E. adenophorum, the coordinated increase of the activities of antioxidant enzymes was effective in protecting the plant from the accumulation of active oxygen species (AOS) at low temperature, but the activities of catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (POD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR), and monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDAR) were not accompanied by the increase of superoxide dismutase (SOD) during the heat treatments. As a result, the level of lipid peroxidation in E. adenophorum was higher under heat stress than under cold stress. In E. odoratum, however, the lesser degree of membrane damage, as indicated by low monodehydroascorbate content, and the coordinated increase of the oxygen. Detoxifying enzymes were observed in heat-treated plants, but the antioxidant enzymes were unable to operate in cold stress. This indicates that the plants have a higher capacity for scavenging oxygen radicals in heat stress than in cold stress. The different responses of antioxidant enzymes may be one of the possible mechanisms of the differences in temperature sensitivities of the two plant species. PMID:18713373

Lu, Ping; Sang, Wei-Guo; Ma, Ke-Ping

2008-04-01

169

Differential Expression and Immunolocalization of Antioxidant Enzymes in Entamoeba histolytica Isolates during Metronidazole Stress  

PubMed Central

Entamoeba histolytica infections are endemic in the Indian subcontinent. Five to eight percent of urban population residing under poor sanitary conditions suffers from Entamoeba infections. Metronidazole is the most widely prescribed drug used for amoebiasis. In order to understand the impact of metronidazole stress on the parasite, we evaluated the expression of two antioxidant enzymes, peroxiredoxin and FeSOD, in Entamoeba histolytica isolates during metronidazole stress. The results reveal that, under metronidazole stress, the mRNA expression levels of these enzymes did not undergo any significant change. Interestingly, immunolocalization studies with antibodies targeting peroxiredoxin indicate differential localization of the protein in the cell during metronidazole stress. In normal conditions, all the Entamoeba isolates exhibit presence of peroxiredoxin in the nucleus as well as in the membrane; however with metronidazole stress the protein localized mostly to the membrane. The change in the localization pattern was more pronounced when the cells were subjected to short term metronidazole stress compared to cells adapted to metronidazole. The protein localization to the cell membrane could be the stress response mechanism in these isolates. Colocalization pattern of peroxiredoxin with CaBp1, a cytosolic protein, revealed that the membrane and nuclear localization was specific to peroxiredoxin during metronidazole stress.

Iyer, Lakshmi Rani; Singh, Nishant; Verma, Anil Kumar; Paul, Jaishree

2014-01-01

170

Isozymes of antioxidative enzymes during ripening and storage of ber ( Ziziphus mauritiana Lamk.).  

PubMed

Isozyme profile of antioxidative enzymes viz. superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POX), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) was studied during ripening and storage of two cultivars of ber fruit (Ziziphus mauritiana Lamk.) differing in their shelf-lives viz. Umran (shelf-life, 8-9 d) and Kaithali (shelf-life, 4-5 d). The profile revealed that Umran variety exhibited three bands each of SOD and POX while in Kaithali, these enzymes had two isoenzymes throughout ripening. CAT and APX, however, showed two isozymes each during ripening of both the varieties and the pattern remained the same at all the stages of ripening except at the initial stage i.e immature green stage where single CAT isozyme was visible. During storage, one extra band each of SOD and POX present only in Umran got disappeared at later stages of storage, whereas in Kaithali, the pattern remained unchanged. Also, there was no change in the pattern of CAT and APX isozymes during storage of both the varieties. One isozyme of CAT could be considered as ripening related while one isozyme each of SOD and POX could be related to higher shelf life of fruits. PMID:24493891

Kumar, Sunil; Yadav, Praduman; Jain, Veena; Malhotra, Sarla P

2014-02-01

171

Effect of Sodium Fluoride Ingestion on Malondialdehyde Concentration and the Activity of Antioxidant Enzymes in Rat Erythrocytes  

PubMed Central

Fluoride intoxication has been shown to produce diverse deleterious metabolic alterations within the cell. To determine the effects of sodium fluoride (NaF) treatment on malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in rat erythrocytes, Male Wistar rats were treated with 50 ppm of NaF or were untreated as controls. Erythrocytes were obtained from rats sacrificed weekly for up to eight weeks and the concentration of MDA in erythrocyte membrane was determined. In addition, the activity of the enzymes superoxide, dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase were determined. Treatment with NaF produces an increase in the concentration of malondialdehyde in the erythrocyte membrane only after the eight weeks of treatment. On the other hand, antioxidant enzyme activity was observed to increase after the fourth week of NaF treatment. In conclusion, intake of NaF produces alterations in the erythrocyte of the male rat, which indicates induction of oxidative stress.

Morales-Gonzalez, Jose A.; Gutierrez-Salinas, Jose; Garcia-Ortiz, Liliana; del Carmen Chima-Galan, Maria; Madrigal-Santillan, Eduardo; Esquivel-Soto, Jaime; Esquivel-Chirino, Cesar; Gonzalez-Rubio, Manuel Garcia-Luna y

2010-01-01

172

The influence of cell growth and enzyme activity changes on intracellular metabolite dynamics in AGE1.HN.AAT cells.  

PubMed

Optimization of bioprocesses with mammalian cells mainly concentrates on cell engineering, cell screening and medium optimization to achieve enhanced cell growth and productivity. For improving cell lines by cell engineering techniques, in-depth understandings of the regulation of metabolism and product formation as well as the resulting demand for the different medium components are needed. In this work, the relationship of cell specific growth and uptake rates and of changes in maximum in vitro enzyme activities with intracellular metabolite pools of glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, citric acid cycle and energy metabolism were determined for batch cultivations with AGE1.HN.AAT cells. Results obtained by modeling cell growth and consumption of main substrates showed that the dynamics of intracellular metabolite pools is primarily linked to the dynamics of specific glucose and glutamine uptake rates. By analyzing maximum in vitro enzyme activities we found low activities of pyruvate dehydrogenase and pyruvate carboxylase which suggest a reduced metabolite transfer into the citric acid cycle resulting in lactate release (Warburg effect). Moreover, an increase in the volumetric lactate production rate during the transition from exponential to stationary growth together with a transient accumulation of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, fructose 1-phosphate and ribose 5-phosphate point toward an upregulation of PK via FBP. Glutaminase activity was about 44-fold lower than activity of glutamine synthetase. This seemed to be sufficient for the supply of intermediates for biosynthesis but might lead to unnecessary dissipation of ATP. Taken together, our results elucidate regulation of metabolic networks of immortalized mammalian cells by changes of metabolite pools over the time course of batch cultivations. Eventually, it enables the use of cell engineering strategies to improve the availability of building blocks for biomass synthesis by increasing glucose as well as glutamine fluxes. An additional knockdown of the glutamine synthetase might help to prevent unnecessary dissipation of ATP, to yield a cell line with optimized growth characteristics and increased overall productivity. PMID:24657347

Rath, Alexander G; Rehberg, Markus; Janke, Robert; Genzel, Yvonne; Scholz, Sebastian; Noll, Thomas; Rose, Thomas; Sandig, Volker; Reichl, Udo

2014-05-20

173

The effect of vitamin C on the erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes in intoxicated-lead rat offsprings.  

PubMed

Objective: Lead exposure or lead poisoning is known to cause a large spectrum of physiological, biochemical, and behavioural disorders in animals. This study was aimed at assessing the effect of vitamin C on the erythrocyte superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and the glutathione reductase activities in intoxicated- lead rat offsprings. Methods: This study was performed on the pups from female Wistar albino rats. The rats were divided into 4 groups and the treatments were administered through drinking water. Group1 (control group) consumed distilled water. Group 2 (lead group) consumed a solution of lead acetate (300mg/L). Group3 (lead + vitamin C) consumed a solution of lead (300mg/L) which was supplemented with vitamin C (2g/L). Group4 (vitamin group) consumed a solution of vitamin C (2g/L). The enzyme activities were determined in all the 4 groups. Results: The administration of lead showed a decrease in the enzyme activities. The superoxide dismutase activity was increased after the administration of lead in combination with vitamin C. The lead treated rats showed significantly lower body weights at birth and at weaning. The vitamin C treatment showed a significant increase in the body weight. The haemoglobin levels were significantly decreased in the lead-treated rats. The addition of vitamin C to the lead treatment and vitamin C alone could elevate the haemoglobin levels significantly. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that lead alterates the erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activities. There was an increase in the superoxide dismutase activity following the treatment with vitamin C. This study suggests that the treatment with vitamin C during lactation has a therapeutic effect in the treatment of lead intoxication. The administration of vitamin C prevents haemoglobin reduction in the erythrocytes. PMID:23905107

Eshginia, Samira; Marjani, Abdoljalal

2013-06-01

174

The Effect of Vitamin C on the Erythrocyte Antioxidant Enzymes in Intoxicated-Lead Rat Offsprings  

PubMed Central

Objective: Lead exposure or lead poisoning is known to cause a large spectrum of physiological, biochemical, and behavioural disorders in animals. This study was aimed at assessing the effect of vitamin C on the erythrocyte superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and the glutathione reductase activities in intoxicated- lead rat offsprings. Methods: This study was performed on the pups from female Wistar albino rats. The rats were divided into 4 groups and the treatments were administered through drinking water. Group1 (control group) consumed distilled water. Group 2 (lead group) consumed a solution of lead acetate (300mg/L). Group3 (lead + vitamin C) consumed a solution of lead (300mg/L) which was supplemented with vitamin C (2g/L). Group4 (vitamin group) consumed a solution of vitamin C (2g/L). The enzyme activities were determined in all the 4 groups. Results: The administration of lead showed a decrease in the enzyme activities. The superoxide dismutase activity was increased after the administration of lead in combination with vitamin C. The lead treated rats showed significantly lower body weights at birth and at weaning. The vitamin C treatment showed a significant increase in the body weight. The haemoglobin levels were significantly decreased in the lead-treated rats. The addition of vitamin C to the lead treatment and vitamin C alone could elevate the haemoglobin levels significantly. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that lead alterates the erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activities. There was an increase in the superoxide dismutase activity following the treatment with vitamin C. This study suggests that the treatment with vitamin C during lactation has a therapeutic effect in the treatment of lead intoxication. The administration of vitamin C prevents haemoglobin reduction in the erythrocytes.

Eshginia, Samira; Marjani, Abdoljalal

2013-01-01

175

The accumulation of endogenous proline induces changes in gene expression of several antioxidant enzymes in leaves of transgenic Swingle citrumelo.  

PubMed

Plant exposure to abiotic stresses leads to an accumulation of reactive oxygen species with the concomitant increase in antioxidant defense mechanisms. Previous studies showed that exogenous application of proline mitigate the deleterious effects caused by oxidative stress due to its ability to increase the activity of antioxidant enzymes. However, there are no reports of the effects of high endogenous accumulation of proline in the transcriptional pattern of antioxidant enzymes genes under normal conditions of water supply or in response to water deficit. Here, we show that isoforms of four antioxidant enzymes genes (Ascorbate peroxidase-APX, Catalase-CAT, Superoxide dismutase-SOD and Glutathione reductase-GR) were differentially regulated in leaves of Swingle citrumelo transgenic plants with high endogenous proline accumulation submitted to water deficits and also under normal water supply condition. Proline per se caused a two-fold change in the transcription activity of APX1, APXcl, CAT2 and Cu/ZnSOD2, while during water deficit proline influenced mRNAs levels in APXs and Cu/ZnSODs isoforms, MnSODmit and GRcl. This study adds new information on the role of proline during drought conditions and, more important, without the potential confounding effects imposed by water deficiency. We showed that, in addition to its known effects on diverse plant physiological and biochemical processes, high endogenous proline can also acts as a regulatory/signalling molecule capable of altering the transcript levels of stress-related genes. PMID:23292076

de Carvalho, Kenia; de Campos, Marília Kaphan Freitas; Domingues, Douglas Silva; Pereira, Luiz Filipe Protasio; Vieira, Luiz Gonzaga Esteves

2013-04-01

176

Decreased glutathione levels and impaired antioxidant enzyme activities in drug-naive first-episode schizophrenic patients  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to determine glutathione levels and antioxidant enzyme activities in the drug-naive first-episode patients with schizophrenia in comparison with healthy control subjects. Methods It was a case-controlled study carried on twenty-three patients (20 men and 3 women, mean age = 29.3 ± 7.5 years) recruited in their first-episode of schizophrenia and 40 healthy control subjects (36 men and 9 women, mean age = 29.6 ± 6.2 years). In patients, the blood samples were obtained prior to the initiation of neuroleptic treatments. Glutathione levels: total glutathione (GSHt), reduced glutathione (GSHr) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and antioxidant enzyme activities: superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) were determined by spectrophotometry. Results GSHt and reduced GSHr were significantly lower in patients than in controls, whereas GSSG was significantly higher in patients. GPx activity was significantly higher in patients compared to control subjects. CAT activity was significantly lower in patients, whereas the SOD activity was comparable to that of controls. Conclusion This is a report of decreased plasma levels of GSHt and GSHr, and impaired antioxidant enzyme activities in drug-naive first-episode patients with schizophrenia. The GSH deficit seems to be implicated in psychosis, and may be an important indirect biomarker of oxidative stress in schizophrenia early in the course of illness. Finally, our results provide support for further studies of the possible role of antioxidants as neuroprotective therapeutic strategies for schizophrenia from early stages.

2011-01-01

177

Antioxidant activity of leaves of Salvia species in enzyme-dependent and enzyme-independent systems of lipid peroxidation and their phenolic constituents.  

PubMed

The protective effects of eleven Salvia species native to Europe against enzyme-dependent and enzyme-independent lipid peroxidation were evaluated. The 50% aqueous methanolic extracts of the leaves of all tested plants were found to be more effective than the positive control alpha-tocopherol acid succinate. The extracts of S. candelabrum, S. ringens, S. tomentosa, S. nemorosa, and S. glutinosa displayed considerable concentration-dependent antioxidative effects that were comparable to those of the medicinal and aromatic plant S. officinalis. The concentrations of flavonoids, hydroxycinnamic acids and total phenolic compounds in each extract were quantified with the aim of clarifying the connection between activity and chemical composition. PMID:11458459

Zupkó, I; Hohmann, J; Rédei, D; Falkay, G; Janicsák, G; Máthé, I

2001-06-01

178

Induced Expression of Drug Metabolizing Enzymes by Preventive Agents: Role of the Antioxidant Response Element  

PubMed Central

Identifying agents that block tumor initiation is a goal of cancer prevention. The ability of a chemically varied group of agents to induce various drug metabolizing genes in livers of rats was examined. Sprague-Dawley rats were treated for seven days with various agents in the diet or by gavage. The agents examined, which might be expected to respond via specific nuclear receptors (CAR, AhR) as well as antioxidant response elements (AREs), included Phase I/II inducers [5,6 benzoflavone (BF, 5000 mg/kg diet), diallyl sulfide (DAS, 500 mg/kg BW/day), ethoxyquin (EXO, 300 mg/kg BW/day) and phenobarbital (PB, 500 mg/kg diet)] or pure Phase II inducers [1,2 dithiol-3-thione (DTT, 500 mg/kg diet), and cyclopentadithiolthione (CPDTT, 175 mg/kg BW/day)]. Liver RNA expression was analyzed employing oligonucleotide microarrays. The agents yielded unique expression profiles. In genes with known AREs, the induction ratios (Levels Treated/Levels Controls) were: Quinone Oxidoreductase (BF, 8:1; DTT, 3.2:1; CPDTT, 3:1; DAS, 1.8:1; Exo, 1.7:1), Glutatione Transferase Pi (DTT, 36:1; CPDTT 34:1; EXO, 8:1; DAS, 5:1; BF, 2.5:1), and aldehyde keto reductase 7A3 (AFAR) (DTT and CPDTT, 14:1; DAS 6:1; EXO 4:1; PB, 1.5:1). When the search included a wider variety of Phase II drug metabolizing enzymes, no clear pattern was observed. Agent induced gene expression and preventive activity in published carcinogen induced tumor models showed limited correlation; questioning whether measuring the induction of one or two genes (e.g., quinone reductase) is a surrogate for overall Phase II inducing (antioxidant) and potential anti-tumor activity.

Lubet, Ronald A.; Yao, Ruisheng; Grubbs, Clinton J.; You, Ming; Wang, Yian

2009-01-01

179

Induced expression of drug metabolizing enzymes by preventive agents: role of the antioxidant response element.  

PubMed

Identifying agents that block tumor initiation is a goal of cancer prevention. The ability of a chemically varied group of agents to induce various drug metabolizing genes in livers of rats was examined. Sprague-Dawley rats were treated for 7 days with various agents in the diet or by gavage. The agents examined, which might be expected to respond via specific nuclear receptors (CAR, AhR) as well as antioxidant response elements (AREs), included Phase I/II inducers [5,6-benzoflavone (BF, 5000mg/kg diet), diallyl sulfide (DAS, 500mg/kg BW/day), ethoxyquin (EXO, 300mg/kg BW/day) and phenobarbital (PB, 500mg/kg diet)] or pure Phase II inducers [1,2-dithiol-3-thione (DTT, 500mg/kg diet), and cyclopentadithiolthione (CPDTT, 175mg/kg BW/day)]. Liver RNA expression was analyzed employing oligonucleotide microarrays. The agents yielded unique expression profiles. In genes with known AREs, the induction ratios (Levels Treated/Levels Controls) were: quinone oxidoreductase (BF, 8:1; DTT, 3.2:1; CPDTT, 3:1; DAS, 1.8:1; Exo, 1.7:1), glutatione transferase Pi (DTT, 36:1; CPDTT, 34:1; EXO, 8:1; DAS, 5:1; BF, 2.5:1), and aldehyde keto reductase 7A3 (AFAR) (DTT and CPDTT, 14:1; DAS, 6:1; EXO, 4:1; PB, 1.5:1). When the search included a wider variety of Phase II drug metabolizing enzymes, no clear pattern was observed. Agent induced gene expression and preventive activity in published carcinogen induced tumor models showed limited correlation; questioning whether measuring the induction of one or two genes (e.g., quinone reductase) is a surrogate for overall Phase II inducing (antioxidant) and potential anti-tumor activity. PMID:19695238

Lubet, Ronald A; Yao, Ruisheng; Grubbs, Clinton J; You, Ming; Wang, Yian

2009-11-10

180

Toxaphene affects the levels of mRNA transcripts that encode antioxidant enzymes in Hydra.  

PubMed

We evaluated toxaphene-induced acute toxicity in Hydra magnipapillata. The median lethal concentrations of the animals (LC(50)) were determined to be 34.5 mg/L, 25.0 mg/L and 12.0 mg/L after exposure to toxaphene for 24 h, 48 h and 72 h, respectively. Morphological responses of hydra polyps to a range of toxaphene concentrations suggested that toxaphene negatively affects the nervous system of H. magnipapillata. We used real-time quantitative PCR of RNA extracted from polyps exposed to two concentrations of toxaphene (0.3 mg/L and 3 mg/L) for 24 h to evaluate the differential regulation of levels of transcripts that encode six antioxidant enzymes (CAT, G6PD, GPx, GR, GST and SOD), two proteins involved in detoxification and molecular stress responses (CYP1A and UB), and two proteins involved in neurotransmission and nerve cell differentiation (AChE and Hym-355). Of the genes involved in antioxidant responses, the most striking changes were observed for transcripts that encode GPx, G6PD, SOD, CAT and GST, with no evident change in levels of transcripts encoding GR. Levels of UB and CYP1A transcripts increased in a dose-dependent manner following exposure to toxaphene. Given that toxaphene-induced neurotoxicity was not reflected in the level of AChE transcripts and only slight accumulation of Hym-355 transcript was observed only at the higher of the two doses of toxaphene tested, there remains a need to identify transcriptional biomarkers for toxaphene-mediated neurotoxicity in H. magnipapillata. Transcripts that respond to toxaphene exposure could be valuable biomarkers for stress levels in H. magnipapillata and may be useful for monitoring the pollution of aquatic environments. PMID:22498080

Woo, Seonock; Lee, Aekyung; Won, Hyokyoung; Ryu, Jae-Chun; Yum, Seungshic

2012-06-01

181

Antioxidant enzyme activity and mRNA expression in reproductive tract of adult male European Bison (Bison bonasus, Linnaeus 1758).  

PubMed

Antioxidants in the male reproductive tract are the main defence factors against oxidative stress caused by reactive oxygen species production, which compromises sperm function and male fertility. This study was designed to determine the activity of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), in the testicular and epididymidal tissues of adult male European bison (Bison bonasus). The reproductive tract tissues were subjected to real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis to quantify mRNA expression levels of five antioxidant enzymes: copper/zinc SOD (Cu/Zn SOD), secretory extracellular SOD (Ec-SOD), CAT, phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPx) and GPx5. The corpus and cauda epididymidal tissues displayed greater (p < 0.05) SOD activity compared with the testicular tissue. It was found that CAT activity was lowest (p < 0.05) in the cauda epididymidis, whereas negligible GPx activity was detected in the reproductive tract tissues. There were no detectable differences in the mRNA expression level of Cu/Zn SOD among the different reproductive tract tissues. Small amounts of Ec-SOD mRNA were found in the reproductive tract, particularly in the epididymides. The caput and cauda epididymides exhibited greater (p < 0.05) level of CAT mRNA expression, whereas PHGPx mRNA was more (p < 0.05) expressed in the testis. Furthermore, extremely large amounts of GPx5 mRNA were detected in the caput epididymidal tissue compared with other tissues of the reproductive tract. It can be suggested that the activity of the antioxidant enzymes and the relative gene expression of the enzymes confirm the presence of tissue-specific antioxidant defence systems in the bison reproductive tract, which are required for spermatogenesis, epididymal maturation and storage of spermatozoa. PMID:22458932

Koziorowska-Gilun, M; Gilun, P; Fraser, L; Koziorowski, M; Kordan, W; Stefanczyk-Krzymowska, S

2013-02-01

182

The intracellular location of lysosomal enzymes in developing Dictyostelium discoideum cells  

SciTech Connect

The author has found that developing Dictyostelium cells contain two distinct acid hydrolase-containing organelles. Vesicles from cells at different stages of development were separated using Percoll density gradients. The lower density vesicles (LDVs or lysosomes) were present in nourished and starved cells. The higher density vesicles (HDVs) arose during starvation-induced differentiation. HDVs lacked two prestalk cell-specific lysosomal enzymes which were contained in LDVs. Prespore cell-specific spore coat proteins were detected in HDVs by ELISA. ({sup 35}S)sulfate labeling revealed that HDVs contained newly made glycoproteins as well as glycoproteins found in preexisting LDVs. Pulse-chase experiments using ({sup 35}S)methionine revealed that {alpha}-mannosidase from pre-existing LDVs an newly made {alpha}-mannosidase had entered HDVs. These data suggest that prespore LDVs mature to become HDVs. He has obtained evidence that HDVs are identical to prespore vesicles. Prespore vesicles are specialized secretory organelles which arise during prespore cell differentiation and which secrete their contents during terminal differentiation. As prespore vesicles secreted their contents, there was a co-incidental increase in extracellular acid hydrolase activity and a decrease in HDV-associated enzyme activity. Electron micrographs revealed that prespore cells contained two acid phosphatase-staining organelles, one of which appeared to be identical to lysosomes from nourished cells and a second which had features similar to prespore vesicles. Ricin-gold affinity electron microscopy was used to label the mucopolysaccharide component of prespore vesicles and the spore coat. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed co-localization of {alpha}-mannosidase with ricin-gold in prespore vesicles and the spore coat.

Lenhard, J.M.

1989-01-01

183

Seasonal variations of the activity of antioxidant defense enzymes in the red mullet (Mullus barbatus l.) from the Adriatic Sea.  

PubMed

This study investigated seasonal variations of antioxidant defense enzyme activities: total, manganese, copper zinc containing superoxide dismutase (Tot SOD, Mn SOD, CuZn SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase (GR) and biotransformation phase II enzyme glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity in the liver and white muscle of red mullet (Mullus barbatus). The investigations were performed in winter and spring at two localities: Near Bar (NB) and Estuary of the River Bojana (EB) in the Southern Adriatic Sea. At both sites, Mn SOD, GSH-Px, GR and GST activities decreased in the liver in spring. In the white muscle, activities of Mn SOD, GSH-Px, GR and GST in NB decreased in spring. GR decreased in spring in EB, while CAT activity was higher in spring at both sites. The results of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) based on correlations indicated a clear separation of various sampling periods for both investigated tissues and a marked difference between two seasons. Our study is the first report on antioxidant defense enzyme activities in the red mullet in the Southern Adriatic Sea. It indicates that seasonal variations of antioxidant defense enzyme activities should be used in further biomonitoring studies in fish species. PMID:20411106

Pavlovi?, Sladjan Z; Borkovi? Miti?, Slavica S; Radovanovi?, Tijana B; Perendija, Branka R; Despotovi?, Svetlana G; Gavri?, Jelena P; Saici?, Zorica S

2010-01-01

184

Heme biosynthesis in bacterium-protozoon symbioses: enzymic defects in host hemoflagellates and complemental role of their intracellular symbiotes.  

PubMed Central

Heme biosynthetic activity in the symbiotic association involving crithidial flagellates and intracellular bacteroids was studied by enzymic, nutritional, and isotope incorporation experiments. Component organisms and their complexes in this association were analyzed separately to determine the underlying cause of the hemin requirement of hemoflagellates and the role of symbiotes in sparing this requirement of two crithidial species. Nutritional study of symbiote-free flagellates showed that their growth requires at least 0.1 mug/ml of hemin, which can be substituted by protoporphyrin IX, but not by the porphyrin precursors, delta-amino-levulinic acid or porphobilinogen. These flagellates, in the presence of protoporphyrin IX, incorporated 59Fe into heme, indicating that they possess ferrochelatase (EC 4.99.1.1), the terminal enzyme in the heme biosynthetic pathway, which catalyzes the insertion of iron into protoporphyrin IX. In symbiote-containing flagellates serially cultured in a defined medium free of tetrapyrrole compounds, heme and porphyrins can be detected by a fluorophotometric method, indicative of heme biosynthesis. Study of [14C]glycine incorporation into heme showed that the rate is much higher in symbiote-containing flagellates than in those without symbiotes. Microassay of uroporphyrinogen I synthase [EC 4.3.1.8; porphobilinogen ammonia-lyase (polymerizing)] revealed that the specific activity is high in symbiote-containing flagellates and higher still in isolated symbiotes, but essentially negligible in symbiote-free organisms. It is concluded that the bacterial symbiotes augment a very limited heme biosynthetic capacity of host flagellates by supplying uroporphyrinogen I synthase and perhaps other enzymes preceding ferrochelatase in the heme biosynthetic chain.

Chang, K P; Chang, C S; Sassa, S

1975-01-01

185

Gelatin hydrolysate from blacktip shark skin prepared using papaya latex enzyme: Antioxidant activity and its potential in model systems.  

PubMed

Antioxidant activities of gelatin hydrolysates from blacktip shark skin prepared using papaya latex enzyme with different degrees of hydrolysis (DHs: 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%) were evaluated. All antioxidant activity indices of hydrolysates increased with increasing DH (P<0.05). When gelatin hydrolysate with 40%DH was determined for its pH and thermal stability, ORAC and chelating activity remained constant or slightly increased in a wide pH range (1-9) and during heating (100°C) for 240min. It was also stable in simulated gastrointestinal tract model system. Moreover, gelatin hydrolysate at a level of 500 and 1000ppm could inhibit lipid oxidation in both ?-carotene linoleate and cooked comminuted pork model systems. Therefore, gelatin hydrolysate from blacktip shark skin (40%DH) can potentially be used as an alternative source of natural antioxidants. PMID:22953833

Kittiphattanabawon, Phanat; Benjakul, Soottawat; Visessanguan, Wonnop; Shahidi, Fereidoon

2012-12-01

186

Evaluation of antioxidant enzymes activity and malondialdehyde levels in patients with chronic periodontitis and diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed

Background: The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of diabetes, a known risk factor for periodontitis, on activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR), and catalase (CAT) as well as levels of free radical damage marker malondialdehyde (MDA) in blood and saliva of individuals with chronic periodontitis (CP). Methods: Sixty patients with CP (30 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus [DMCP] and 30 systemically healthy patients [CP]) and 60 periodontally healthy individuals (30 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and 30 systemically healthy patients [PH]) were included in this study. After clinical measurements, blood and saliva samples were collected. SOD, GR, and CAT activities in red blood cell lysate and saliva and MDA levels in plasma and saliva samples were spectrophotometrically assayed. An analysis of variance test followed by a post hoc test was used to compare the intragroup and intergroup variances among the study groups. Results: MDA levels in both the periodontitis groups were higher than in the periodontally healthy groups, but the difference between the CP and DMCP groups did not reach statistical significance (P >0.05). There was a highly significant difference between the CP and PH groups for all the enzymes studied except for SOD in blood. Only salivary SOD and GR activities were significantly different in the CP and DMCP groups. Conclusions: This study favors the role of oxidative stress in both diabetes and periodontitis. It shows that the compensatory mechanism of the body is partially collapsed because of excessive production of free radicals during periodontitis and is not able to cope with increased free radical generation attributable to diabetes, thereby worsening the situation. PMID:23895253

Trivedi, Shilpa; Lal, Nand; Mahdi, Abbas Ali; Mittal, Madhukar; Singh, Babita; Pandey, Shivani

2014-05-01

187

The inhibitors of antioxidant cell enzymes induce permeability transition in yeast mitochondria.  

PubMed

In this study we investigated the effects of exogenous and endogenous oxidative stress on mitochondrial membrane permeability transition in yeast cells. E. magnusii yeast was used in the study as it is the only yeast strain possessing a natural high-capacity ??²? transport system. The key reactive oxygen species (ROS) detoxifying enzymes in the yeast cells--catalases (CATs) and superoxide dismutases (SODs)--were fully characterized. At least five isoforms of SODs and only one isoform of CATs were found in the E. magnusii mitochondria. The assessment of the main properties of mitochondrial non-specific permeability under physiological conditions such as dynamics of the membrane potential (??) and swelling in mitochondria showed that under physiological conditions classical inhibitors of CATs (ATZ--3-amino-1, 2, 4-triazole) and of SODs (DDC--diethyldithiocarbamate) caused irreversible decline in ?? in the yeast mitochondria. This decline was accelerated in the presence of 500 ?M ??²?. The combined action of the inhibitors (ATZ + DDC) promoted moderate swelling in the isotonic medium, which was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. Mitochondrial swelling in the cells exposed to antioxidant system inhibitors was accompanied by typical signs of early apoptosis, namely by chromatin margination and condensation, vacuolization of the cytosol, and damage of the plasma membrane. Here we showed, at both cellular and mitochondrial levels, that the deregulation of oxidant-scavenging enzymes directly leads to the opening of the mPTP, followed by induction of apoptotic markers in the whole yeast cells. Our studies are the first to clarify the highly contradictory data in the literature on mPTP in yeast mitochondria. PMID:23625488

Deryabina, Yulia; Isakova, Elena; Antipov, Alexey; Saris, Nils-Erik L

2013-10-01

188

Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor attenuates monocyte adhesion to vascular endothelium through modulation of intracellular zinc.  

PubMed

To elucidate an anti-inflammatory role of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) in cardiovascular disease, we studied the effect of ACEIs in monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells and underlying molecular mechanisms. Treatment of human monocytic THP-1 cells with monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1; 100 ng/ml; 10 min) significantly increased their adhesion to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) under flow condition (P < 0.001). Preincubation of THP-1 cells with imidaprilat (50 nM; 4 h), an active metabolite of imidapril, reduced MCP-1-triggered THP-1 cell adhesion (P < 0.01). Similar effects were obtained with experiments using human peripheral monocytes (P < 0.05). MCP-1 activated protein kinase C (PKC)alpha in THP-1 cells, resulting in the up-regulation of alpha4 and beta2 integrin. Imidaprilat attenuated MCP-1-induced PKC activation and integrin up-regulation in THP-1 cells. Imidaprilat also inhibited THP-1 cell adhesion induced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), a potent PKC activator. In attempt to elucidate the mechanisms for the modulation of PKC activity by imidaprilat, we found that MCP-1 or PMA increased labile zinc in THP-1 cells, which was canceled by imidaprilat. Indeed, zinc/pyrithione activated PKC and increased THP-1 cell adhesion. Zinc chelator as well as PKC inhibitor inhibited these processes, suggesting the role for labile zinc in PKC activation and THP-1 cell adhesion. Imidaprilat attenuated zinc/pyrithione-induced PKC activation and THP-1 cell adhesion. These data suggest that ACEI reduces MCP-1 or PMA-triggered monocyte adhesion to activated HUVECs by modulating labile zinc in monocytes. Our findings may point out a novel anti-inflammatory mechanism of ACEIs in atherogenesis. PMID:17878405

Kojima, Chiari; Kawakami, Akio; Takei, Takashi; Nitta, Kosaku; Yoshida, Masayuki

2007-12-01

189

Seasonal variations of melatonin in ram seminal plasma are correlated to those of testosterone and antioxidant enzymes  

PubMed Central

Background Some breeds of sheep are highly seasonal in terms of reproductive capability, and these changes are regulated by photoperiod and melatonin secretion. These changes affect the reproductive performance of rams, impairing semen quality and modifying hormonal profiles. Also, the antioxidant defence systems seem to be modulated by melatonin secretion, and shows seasonal variations. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of melatonin and testosterone in ram seminal plasma and their variations between the breeding and non-breeding seasons. In addition, we analyzed the possible correlations between these hormones and the antioxidant enzyme defence system activity. Methods Seminal plasma from nine Rasa Aragonesa rams were collected for one year, and their levels of melatonin, testosterone, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GRD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and catalase (CAT) were measured. Results All samples presented measurable quantities of hormones and antioxidant enzymes. Both hormones showed monthly variations, with a decrease after the winter solstice and a rise after the summer solstice that reached the maximum levels in October-November, and a marked seasonal variation (P < 0.01) with higher levels in the breeding season. The yearly pattern of GRD and catalase was close to that of melatonin, and GRD showed a significant seasonal variation (P < 0.01) with a higher activity during the breeding season. Linear regression analysis between the studied hormones and antioxidant enzymes showed a significant correlation between melatonin and testosterone, GRD, SOD and catalase. Conclusions These results show the presence of melatonin and testosterone in ram seminal plasma, and that both hormones have seasonal variations, and support the idea that seasonal variations of fertility in the ram involve interplay between melatonin and the antioxidant defence system.

2010-01-01

190

Insulin, catecholamines, glucose and antioxidant enzymes in oxidative damage during different loads in healthy humans.  

PubMed

Exercise, insulin-induced hypoglycemia and oral glucose loads (50 g and 100 g) were used to compare the production of malondialdehyde and the activity of antioxidant enzymes in healthy subjects. Twenty male volunteers participated in the study. Exercise consisted of three consecutive work loads on a bicycle ergometer of graded intensity (1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 W/kg, 6 min each). Hypoglycemia was induced by insulin (Actrapid MC Novo, 0.1 IU/kg, i.v.). Oral administration of 50 g and 100 g of glucose was given to elevate plasma glucose. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was determined in red blood cells, whereas glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity was measured in whole blood. The concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) was determined by HPLC, catecholamines were assessed radioenzymatically and glucose was measured by the glucose-oxidase method. Exercise increased MDA concentrations, GSH-Px and SOD activities as well as plasma noradrenaline and adrenaline levels. Insulin hypoglycemia increased plasma adrenaline levels, but the concentrations of MDA and the activities of GSH-Px and SOD were decreased. Hyperglycemia increased plasma MDA concentrations, but the activities of GSH-Px and SOD were significantly higher after a larger dose of glucose only. Plasma catecholamines were unchanged. These results indicate that the transient increase of plasma catecholamine and insulin concentrations did not induce oxidative damage, while glucose already in the low dose was an important triggering factor for oxidative stress. PMID:10984077

Koska, J; Blazícek, P; Marko, M; Grna, J D; Kvetnanský, R; Vigas, M

2000-01-01

191

Nitric oxide level, protein oxidation and antioxidant enzymes in rats infected by Trypanosoma evansi.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the nitric oxide (NO()) level, protein oxidation and antioxidant enzymes in rats infected with Trypanosoma evansi and establish the association of NO() levels with the degree of parasitemia. Thirty-six male rats (Wistar) were divided into two groups with 18 animals each. Group A was not infected while Group B was intraperitoneally infected, receiving 7.5×10(6) trypomastigotes per animal. Each group was divided into three subgroups with 6 rats each and blood was collected during different periods post-infection (PI), as follows: day 5 (A(5) and B(5)), day 15 (A(15) and B(15)) and day 30 PI (A(30) and B(30)). Blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture to estimate the levels of nitrites/nitrates (NO(x)) and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) in serum, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities in blood. On days 15 and 30 PI NO(x) and AOPP levels were increased in serum of rats infected. Rodents infected with T. evansi showed a significant increase in SOD (days 5 and 15 PI) and CAT (day 30 PI) activities. Based on the physiological role of NO(), we can conclude that its increased concentration is related to an inflammatory response against the parasite, once a redox imbalance was observed during infection. PMID:22771866

Da Silva, Aleksandro S; Paim, Francine C; Santos, Roberto C V; Sangoi, Manuela B; Moresco, Rafael N; Lopes, Sonia T A; Jaques, Jeandre A; Baldissarelli, Jucimara; Morsch, Vera Maria; Monteiro, Silvia G

2012-10-01

192

Cationic solid lipid nanoparticles interfere with the activity of antioxidant enzymes in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.  

PubMed

Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) are colloidal drug and/or gene carriers developed from solid lipids and surfactants that are considered safe. Cationic SLN, usually used for formulating poorly water-soluble drugs and for gene delivery purposes, as positively charged particles may attach to cellular surfaces and be internalized more easily than negatively charged SLN, but they can also cause damage. The main aim of this work was to test a set of cationic SLN and investigate its influence on the amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS), on antioxidant enzymes activities and on possible oxidative damage to membrane lipids in HepG2 cells. The Dichlorofluorescein assay revealed great increase in ROS presence after cell exposure to SLN. While the exposure to SLN increased the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase it decreased glutathione reductase activity. Although no significant increase in thiobarbituric reactive species was found, a decrease in sulfhydryl groups was detected. These results indicate that cationic SLN caused oxidative stress in HepG2 cells, but under reported exposure conditions HepG2 cells could attenuate the stress and thus the damage to cellular components was minimal. PMID:24836663

Doktorovová, Slavomira; Santos, Dario L; Costa, Inês; Andreani, Tatiana; Souto, Eliana B; Silva, Amélia M

2014-08-25

193

Arsenate-induced toxicity: effects on antioxidative enzymes and DNA damage in Vicia faba.  

PubMed

A glasshouse hydroponic experiment was conducted to investigate the toxicity of arsenate to broad bean (Vicia faba) plants when grown with external arsenate concentrations at 10 micromol/L. The treated plants showed no obvious symptoms of phytotoxicity, but shoot/root growth was inhibited. Lipid peroxidation in leaves and roots increased with the addition of arsenate, indicating oxidative stress. We investigated the responses to arsenate exposure in the activities of several representative antioxidant enzymes, including peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), in plant tissues, and the DNA damage in plant leaves and root tips induced by arsenate in this plant was detected for the first time. Arsenate addition increased POD activity in the leaves significantly but decreased its activity in the roots in the 10 micromol/L treatment. Arsenate addition caused an induction of SOD and CAT activities in both leaves and roots, but not in roots at the arsenate concentration of 10 micromol/L. The DNA damage in V. faba was detected using Comet assay; in both leaves and roots, DNA damage increased with increasing arsenate concentrations, indicating genotoxicity of arsenate. These results indicate that arsenate toxicity causes oxidative stress in V. faba, which might be one of the mechanisms through which arsenic induces DNA damage. PMID:18348634

Lin, Aijun; Zhang, Xuhong; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Zhao, Fang-Jie

2008-02-01

194

Cerium oxide nanoparticles modify the antioxidative stress enzyme activities and macromolecule composition in rice seedlings.  

PubMed

Cerium oxide nanoparticles (nCeO2) have been shown to have significant interactions in plants; however, there are limited reports on their impacts in rice (Oryza sativa). Given the widespread environmental dispersal of nCeO2, it is paramount to understand its biochemical and molecular impacts on a globally important agricultural crop, such as rice. This study was carried out to determine the impact of nCeO2 on the oxidative stress, membrane damage, antioxidant enzymes' activities, and macromolecular changes in the roots of rice seedlings. Rice seeds (medium amylose) were grown for 10 days in nCeO2 suspensions (0-500 mg L(-1)). Results showed that Ce in root seedlings increased as the external nCeO2 increased without visible signs of toxicity. Relative to the control, the 62.5 mg nCeO2 L(-1) reduced the H2O2 generation in the roots by 75%. At 125 mg nCeO2 L(-1), the roots showed enhanced lipid peroxidation and electrolyte leakage, while at 500 mg L(-1), the nCeO2 increased the H2O2 generation in roots and reduced the fatty acid content. The lignin content decreased by 20% at 500 mg nCeO2 L(-1), despite the parallel increase in H2O2 content and peroxidase activities. Synchrotron ?-XRF confirmed the presence of Ce in the vascular tissues of the roots. PMID:24266714

Rico, Cyren M; Morales, Maria I; McCreary, Ricardo; Castillo-Michel, Hiram; Barrios, Ana C; Hong, Jie; Tafoya, Alejandro; Lee, Wen-Yee; Varela-Ramirez, Armando; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

2013-12-17

195

Biochemical effect of carbaryl on oxidative stress, antioxidant enzymes and osmolytes of cyanobacterium Calothrix brevissima.  

PubMed

Carbaryl is used in Indian agriculture for control of rice field pests and it is next to Benzene hexachloride in pesticide consumption. In present study, carbaryl (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 mg/L) induced toxic effects were observed after 21 days exposure on a non target rice field biofertilizer Calothrix brevissima with special reference to oxidative stress, antioxidant enzymes and osmolytes. At 40 mg/L carbaryl the decrease in carotenoid, chlorophyll, phycobilin and protein were 63%, 43%, 40% and 40% respectively in comparison to control. Total carbohydrate, malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, catalase and osmolytes showed enhancement at all the treated concentration. Increased amount of MDA (46% at 40 mg/L) indicated free radical mediated deleterious effect of carbaryl. Enhancement of SOD, APX, CAT and osmolytes in presence of carbaryl indicated their involvement in free radical scavenging. SOD, CAT and APX showed maximum activities (79%, 64% and 39% respectively) at 40 mg/L carbaryl. The order of enhancement in osmolytes was glycine-betaine (66%) > proline (54%) > sucrose (50%) at 40 mg/L which might be another adaptive defense strategy of the cyanobacterium against the pesticide. PMID:21979138

Habib, Khalid; Kumar, Satyendra; Manikar, Ningthoujam; Zutshi, Sunaina; Fatma, Tasneem

2011-12-01

196

Antioxidant Enzymes Reduce DNA Damage and Early Activation of Valvular Interstitial Cells in Aortic Valve Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Objective Accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and remodeling of the microstructure of the cusp characterize aortic valve sclerosis, the early phase of calcific aortic valve disease. These events are associated with activation of valvular interstitial cells (VICs) toward an osteogenic-like phenotype. Because ROS cause DNA damage and transcriptional activation we investigated the relationship between ROS, DNA damage response, and transdifferentiation of VICs. Methods and Results Human aortic valve cusps and patient-matched VICs were collected from 39 patients both with and without calcific aortic valve disease. VICs were exposed to hydrogen peroxide (0.1–1 mmol/L) after cell transduction with extracellular superoxide dismutase/catalase adenoviruses and characterized for DNA-damage response, osteogenic transdifferentiation, and calcification. ROS induce relocalization of phosphorylated ?H2AX, MRE11, and XRCC1 proteins with expression of osteogenic signaling molecule RUNX2 via AKT. We report a sustained activation of ?H2AX in aortic valve sclerosis-derived VICs suggesting their impaired ability to repair DNA damage. Adenovirus superoxide dismutase/catalase transduction decreases ROS-induced DNA damage and VIC transdifferentiation in aortic valve sclerosis-derived cells. Finally, adenoviral transduction with catalase reverts ROS-mediated calcification and cellular transdifferentiation. Conclusion We conclude that the ROS-induced DNA damage response is dysfunctional in early asymptomatic stages of calcific aortic valve disease. We unveiled an association among ROS, DNA-damage response, and cellular transdifferentiation, reversible by antioxidant enzymes delivery.

Branchetti, Emanuela; Sainger, Rachana; Poggio, Paolo; Grau, Juan B.; Patterson-Fortin, Jeffrey; Bavaria, Joseph E.; Chorny, Michael; Lai, Eric; Gorman, Robert C.; Levy, Robert J.; Ferrari, Giovanni

2014-01-01

197

DNA damage and effects on antioxidative enzymes in earthworm (Eisenia fetida) induced by flumorph.  

PubMed

Flumorph is an Oomycete fungicide, which is used extensively as an effective fungicide in vegetables and fruits, but little is known about its effect on nontarget soil organisms. In the present study, biochemical responses including changes in the activity of antioxidative enzymes catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), malondialdehyde (MDA), and DNA damage induced by flumorph were investigated in earthworms (Eisenis fetida). The CAT concentrations were stimulated at 5.0 mg kg(-1) over 28 days and inhibited at 10 and 20 mg kg(-1), except 10 mg kg(-1) on days 21 and 28 compared with the controls. The overall SOD activities were inhibited except 5 mg kg(-1) on day 28 and 10 mg kg(-1) on days 7 and 14. Meanwhile, the GST activities were stimulated on day 7 and decreased on the other days in summary. The MDA activities were increased notably at 5, 10, and 20 mg kg(-1) after 14 days. Clear dose-dependent DNA damage to Eisenia fetida was observed by olive tail moments in comet assay compared with controls. The results demonstrate that flumorph induces oxidative stress and DNA damage to earthworms, and the effects may be the important mechanisms of its toxicity. PMID:24352618

Cao, Xiangyu; Yang, Chao; Liu, Jianli; Hui, Xiujuan; Yang, Wei; Li, Shuangshuang; Tian, Yanan; Cai, Leiming

2014-02-01

198

The Association among Antioxidant Enzymes, Autoantibodies, and Disease Severity Score in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Comparison of Neuropsychiatric and Nonneuropsychiatric Groups  

PubMed Central

Background. Antioxidative capacity plays an important role in the severity of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), which is characterized by autoantibodies. This study aimed to determine the relationship among autoantibody titers, antioxidative stress reserve, and severity of SLE. Methods. The autoantibody titers, clinical markers, antioxidant enzyme levels, and disease activity index (SLEDAI-2k) of 32 SLE patients and 16 healthy controls were compared. We also compared both the neuropsychiatric (NPSLE) and nonneuropsychiatric (non-NPSLE) groups. Results. Superoxide dismutase in red blood cells was significantly lower in the SLE than in the control group. CRP levels are significant higher in SLE patients than in control group (P = 0.034). Among the autoantibodies, anti-U1RNP (P = 0.008), a-Sm (P = 0.027), and anti-ribosomal p (P = 0.028) significantly negatively correlated with glutathione levels. There has no significant correlation between SLE disease activity indexes (SLEDAI) and levels of C3, C4, and antioxidant enzymes. Conclusions. Erythrocyte superoxide dismutase is significantly lower in both NPSLE and non-NPSLE groups. SLE patients have both higher CRP and autoantibodies level and decreased superoxide dismutase level than the healthy control group.

Cheng, Tien-Tsai; Chen, Chung-Jen; Chiu, Wen-Chan; Chang, Wen-Neng; Tsai, Nai-Wen; Kung, Chia-Te; Lin, Wei-Che; Huang, Chih-Cheng; Chang, Ya-Ting; Su, Chih-Min; Chiang, Yi-Fang; Cheng, Ben-Chung; Lu, Cheng-Hsien

2014-01-01

199

Parmotrema tinctorum exhibits antioxidant, antiglycation and inhibitory activities against aldose reductase and carbohydrate digestive enzymes: an in vitro study.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the inhibitory potential of ethyl acetate extract of Parmotrema tinctorum (PTEE), an edible lichen, against aldose reductase (AR) and carbohydrate digestive enzymes such as ?-glucosidase and ?-amylase. It was also screened for antioxidant activities by using DPPH, ABTS, superoxide and hydroxyl radical-scavenging assays. PTEE exhibited ?-glucosidase, ?-amylase and AR inhibition along with significant antiglycation potential with an estimated IC50 value of 58.45 ± 1.24, 587.74 ± 3.27, 139.28 ± 2.6 and 285.78 ± 1.287 ?g/mL, respectively. Antioxidant activity of PTEE against DPPH (IC50 396.83 ± 2.98 ?g/mL), ABTS (151.34 ± 1.79 ?g/mL), superoxide (30.29 ± 1.17 ?g/mL) and hydroxyl (35.42 ± 1.22 ?g/mL) radicals suggests the antioxidant potential of P. tinctorum. Significant antioxidant activity and inhibitory potential against carbohydrate digestive enzymes and AR suggest that P. tinctorum can be developed as functional food/nutraceuticals for diabetes after detailed study. PMID:24735436

Salin Raj, P; Prathapan, A; Sebastian, Jomon; Antony, Antu K; Riya, Mariam Philip; Rani, M R Preetha; Biju, H; Priya, S; Raghu, K G

2014-09-01

200

The Association among Antioxidant Enzymes, Autoantibodies, and Disease Severity Score in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Comparison of Neuropsychiatric and Nonneuropsychiatric Groups.  

PubMed

Background. Antioxidative capacity plays an important role in the severity of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), which is characterized by autoantibodies. This study aimed to determine the relationship among autoantibody titers, antioxidative stress reserve, and severity of SLE. Methods. The autoantibody titers, clinical markers, antioxidant enzyme levels, and disease activity index (SLEDAI-2k) of 32 SLE patients and 16 healthy controls were compared. We also compared both the neuropsychiatric (NPSLE) and nonneuropsychiatric (non-NPSLE) groups. Results. Superoxide dismutase in red blood cells was significantly lower in the SLE than in the control group. CRP levels are significant higher in SLE patients than in control group (P = 0.034). Among the autoantibodies, anti-U1RNP (P = 0.008), a-Sm (P = 0.027), and anti-ribosomal p (P = 0.028) significantly negatively correlated with glutathione levels. There has no significant correlation between SLE disease activity indexes (SLEDAI) and levels of C3, C4, and antioxidant enzymes. Conclusions. Erythrocyte superoxide dismutase is significantly lower in both NPSLE and non-NPSLE groups. SLE patients have both higher CRP and autoantibodies level and decreased superoxide dismutase level than the healthy control group. PMID:24877055

Su, Yu-Jih; Cheng, Tien-Tsai; Chen, Chung-Jen; Chiu, Wen-Chan; Chang, Wen-Neng; Tsai, Nai-Wen; Kung, Chia-Te; Lin, Wei-Che; Huang, Chih-Cheng; Chang, Ya-Ting; Su, Chih-Min; Chiang, Yi-Fang; Cheng, Ben-Chung; Lu, Cheng-Hsien

2014-01-01

201

Alterations in seedling vigour and antioxidant enzyme activities in Catharanthus roseus under seed priming with native diazotrophs  

PubMed Central

An experiment was conducted on Catharanthus roseus to study the effect of seed treatments with native diazotrophs on its seedling growth and antioxidant enzyme activities. The treatments had significant influence on various seedling parameters. There is no significant influence on dry matter production with the diazotrophs, Azospirillum and Azotobacter. However, the vital seedling parameters such as germination percentage and vigour index were improved. Azotobacter treatment influenced maximum of 50% germination, whereas Azospirillum and Azotobacter were on par with C. roseus with respect to their vigour index. There was significant difference in the population of total diazotrophs. Azospirillum and Azotobacter between rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils of C. roseus had the same trend and were observed at various locations of the study. The activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POX) and catalase (CAT) were increased to a significant extent due to the treatment with diazotrophs.

Karthikeyan, B.; Jaleel, C.A.; Gopi, R.; Deiveekasundaram, M.

2007-01-01

202

Sodium chloride enhances cadmium tolerance through reducing cadmium accumulation and increasing anti-oxidative enzyme activity in tobacco.  

PubMed

The effect of sodium chloride (NaCl) on cadmium (Cd) uptake, translocation, and oxidative stress was investigated using 2 tobacco cultivars differing in Cd tolerance. The growth inhibition of the tobacco plants exposed to Cd toxicity was in part alleviated by moderate addition of NaCl in the culture solution. Cadmium concentration of shoots and roots in the 2 cultivars increased with increasing Cd levels in the solution and decreased with the addition of NaCl. The addition of NaCl could alleviate the oxidative stress caused by Cd toxicity, as reflected by reduced production of malondialdehyde and recovered or enhanced activities of antioxidative enzymes catalase and glutathione peroxidase. The results also showed that the enhancement of antioxidative enzyme activity by NaCl for the tobacco plants exposed to Cd stress is related to induced Ca signaling. PMID:23417770

Zhang, Bing-Lin; Shang, Sheng-Hua; Zhang, Hai-Tao; Jabeen, Zahra; Zhang, Guo-Ping

2013-06-01

203

Schizandrin C exerts anti-neuroinflammatory effects by upregulating phase II detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes in microglia.  

PubMed

We investigated the anti-neuroinflammatory properties of schizandrin C by focusing on its roles in the induction of phase II detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes and in the modulation of upstream signaling pathways. Schizandrin C induced expression of phase II detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes including heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and NADPH dehydrogenase quinone-1 (NQO-1). Activation of upstream signaling pathways, such as the cAMP/protein kinase A/cAMP response element-binding protein (cAMP/PKA/CREB) and erythroid-specific nuclear factor-regulated factor 2 (Nrf-2) pathways, significantly increased following treatment with schizandrin C. In addition, expressions of schizandrin C-mediated phase II detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes were completely attenuated by adenylyl cyclase inhibitor (ddAdo) and protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor (H-89). In microglia, schizandrin C significantly inhibited lipoteichoic acid (LTA)-stimulated pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), nitric oxide (NO), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and matrix metallopeptidase-9 (MMP-9) protein expressions. Moreover, schizandrin C suppressed LTA-induced nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B), activator protein-1 (AP-1), janus-kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STATs), and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation. Schizandrin C also effectively suppressed ROS generation and NO production, as well as iNOS promoter activity in LTA-stimulated microglia. This suppressive effect was reversed by transfection with Nrf-2 and HO-1 siRNA and co-treatment with inhibitors ddAdo and H-89. Our results indicate that schizandrin C isolated from Schisandra chinensis could be used as a natural anti-neuroinflammatory agent, inducing phase II detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes via cAMP/PKA/CREB and Nrf-2 signaling. PMID:23859871

Park, Sun Young; Park, Se Jin; Park, Tae Gyeong; Rajasekar, Seetharaman; Lee, Sang-Joon; Choi, Young-Whan

2013-10-01

204

Effects of Fomes fomentarius supplementation on antioxidant enzyme activities, blood glucose, and lipid profile in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of water extract of Fomes fomentarius (WEFF) on hepatic antioxidant enzyme activities, blood glucose, and lipid profile in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats was examined. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into nondiabetic, diabetic, and diabetic WEFF-supplemented groups. Water extract of Ffomentarius (100 mg\\/kg BW) was orally administered once a day for 2 weeks.Administering WEFF to STZ-induced diabetic rats lowered

Jeong-Sook Lee

2005-01-01

205

Differential response of antioxidant enzymes to salinity stress in two varieties of Azolla ( Azolla pinnata and Azolla filiculoides)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activity and modulation of antioxidant components were comparatively analyzed in two varieties of Azolla (Azolla pinnata and Azolla filiculoides) under different concentrations of NaCl. The total superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity increased in A. pinnata, whereas both enzyme activities decreased in A. filiculoides. The plants of A. pinnata exposed to 30mM NaCl contained a lower amount

Amjad Masood; Nisar Ahmad Shah; Mohd. Zeeshan; G. Abraham

2006-01-01

206

Influence of broccoli extract and various essential oils on performance and expression of xenobiotic- and antioxidant enzymes in broiler chickens.  

PubMed

The aim of our present study was to examine the regulation of xenobiotic- and antioxidant enzymes by phytogenic feed additives in the intestine and the liver of broilers. A total of 240 male Ross-308 broiler chickens (1 d old) were fed a commercial starter diet for 2 weeks. On day 15, the birds were assigned to six treatment groups of forty birds each. The control (Con) group was fed a diet without any additive for 3 weeks. The diet of group sulforaphane (SFN) contained broccoli extract providing 0.075 g/kg SFN, whereas the diets of the other four groups contained 0.15 g/kg essential oils from turmeric (Cuo), oregano (Oo), thyme and rosemary (Ro). Weight gain and feed conversion were slightly impaired by Cuo and Oo. In the jejunum SFN, Cuo and Ro increased the expression of xenobiotic enzymes (epoxide hydrolases 1 and 2 and aflatoxin B1 aldehyde reductase) and of the antioxidant enzyme haeme oxygenase regulated by an 'antioxidant response element' (ARE) compared to group Con. In contrast to our expectations in the liver, the expression of these enzymes was decreased by all the additives. Nevertheless, all the additives increased the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity of the jejunum and the liver and reduced Fe-induced lipid peroxidation in the liver. We conclude that the up-regulation of ARE genes in the small intestine reduces oxidative stress in the organism and represents a novel mechanism by which phytogenic feed additives improve the health of farm animals. PMID:22085616

Mueller, Kristin; Blum, Nicole M; Kluge, Holger; Mueller, Andreas S

2012-08-01

207

Diel activities of antioxidant enzymes, photosynthetic pigments and malondialdehyde content in stationary-phase cells of Tetraselmis gracilis (Prasinophyceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), as well as photosynthetic pigment contents and free malondialdehyde (MDA), were determined in senescent batch cultures of Tetraselmis gracilis (Kylin) Butcher, under a cyclic light regime. A 2.6-fold increase in SOD activity (from 53 to 137Umg?1 protein) was observed in the light phase, contrasting with

Teresa C. S. Sigaud-Kutner; Ana M. P. Neto; Ernani Pinto; Pio Colepicolo

2005-01-01

208

Comparison of lipid profile and antioxidant enzymes among south Indian men consuming coconut oil and sunflower oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we compared the lipid profile and antioxidant enzymes of normal and diabetic subjects consuming two different\\u000a types of oil as cooking medium. 70 normal, healthy subjects were taken as controls and 70 subjects with Type 2 diabetes were\\u000a recruited in patient group. Each group was further subdivided into two subgroups of 35 subjects each, consuming coconut oil

P. Sabitha; Kannan Vaidyanathan; D. M. Vasudevan; Prakash Kamath

2009-01-01

209

Effect of selenium-containing products on antioxidant enzyme activity in the kidneys, liver, and blood of guinea pigs.  

PubMed

The antioxidant system of some tissues in guinea pigs with no selenium deficiency was studied after treatment with selenium-containing products. Activity of a selenium-containing enzyme glutathione peroxidase was significantly reduced in the kidneys and blood. The kidneys were characterized by low activity of glutathione reductase and high activity of SOD. These features illustrate the development of oxidative stress in the kidneys. PMID:21234431

Sirota, T V

2010-10-01

210

Effect of paclobutrazol and salinity on ion leakage, proline content and activities of antioxidant enzymes in mango ( Mangifera indica L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to investigate the effects of paclobutrazol (PBZ) on ion leakage (IL), proline content and activities of antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) of 1-year-old ‘Olour’ mango plants subjected to NaCl stress. Plants were treated with two levels of salt, i.e., 0.0g NaCl (control) and 25g NaCl\\/25kg soil and three levels of

Manish Srivastav; Arun Kishor; Anil Dahuja; R. R. Sharma

2010-01-01

211

Effect of 1-methylcyclopropene on shelf life, visual quality, antioxidant enzymes and health-promoting compounds in broccoli florets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) on quality, antioxidant enzymes and glucosinolate contents in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) florets was investigated in the present study. Broccoli florets were treated with air (control) and 2.5?l\\/l 1-MCP for 6h at 20°C, and were then stored at 20°C for 5days. 1-MCP treatment markedly extended shelf life, reduced postharvest deterioration, retarded chlorophyll degradation and

Gaofeng Yuan; Bo Sun; Jing Yuan; Qiaomei Wang

2010-01-01

212

Paraquat pre-treatment increases activities of antioxidant enzymes and reduces lipid peroxidation in salt-stressed cucumber leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate whether paraquat (PQ) is involved in regulation of antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation under short-term\\u000a salt stress, and to elucidate the physiological mechanism of salt stress mitigated by PQ, a cucumber cultivar (cv. Chunguang\\u000a no. 2) was exposed to 100 mM NaCl for 48 h after pre-treatment with 10 ?M PQ for 1 h. When compared to the control, salt stress\\u000a increased

Shao-Hang Lin; Zhong-Jing Liu; Pei-Lei Xu; Ye-Ying Fang; Ji-Gang Bai

2011-01-01

213

Irradiance stress responses of gas exchange and antioxidant enzyme contents in pariparoba [ Pothomorphe umbellata (L.) Miq.] plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the growth and development of the medicinal species Pothomorphe umbellata (L.) Miq. under different shade levels (full sun and 30, 50, and 70 % shade, marked as I100, I70, I50, and I30, respectively) and their effects on gas exchange and activities of antioxidant enzymes. Photosynthetically active radiation\\u000a varied from 1 254 µmol m?2 s?1 at I100 to 285

J. A. Marchese; R. S. Mattana; L. C. Ming; F. Broetto; P. F. Vendramini; R. M. Moraes

2008-01-01

214

Joint effects of Penta-BDE and heavy metals on Daphnia magna survival, its antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The joint toxicity of Penta-BDE (Pe-BDE) and heavy metals including cadmium and copper on Daphnia magna (D. magna) was evaluated on the basis of determining the 48 h survival, antioxidative enzyme responses, and lipid peroxidation. The\\u000a response was classified as additive, greater than additive, or less than additive by comparing the measured “toxic units,\\u000a TU” with one. Based on the

Baohua Tang; Lingyan Zhu; Qixing Zhou

2011-01-01

215

Effects of Nitrogen Deficiency on Gas Exchange, Chlorophyll Fluorescence, and Antioxidant Enzymes in Leaves of Rice Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas exchange, chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence, and contents of photosynthetic pigments, soluble proteins (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase\\/oxygenase, RuBPCO), and antioxidant enzymes were characterized in the fully expanded 6th leaves in rice seedlings grown on either complete (CK) or on nitrogen-deficient nutrient (N-deficiency) solutions during a 20-chase period. Compared with the control plants, the lower photosynthetic capacity at saturation irradiance (Pmax) was accompanied by

Z.-A. Huang; D.-A. Jiang; Y. Yang; J.-W. Sun; S.-H. Jin

2004-01-01

216

Bioaccumulation of glyphosate and its formulation Roundup Ultra in Lumbriculus variegatus and its effects on biotransformation and antioxidant enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bioaccumulation potential of glyphosate and the formulation Roundup Ultra, as well as possible effects on biotransformation and antioxidant enzymes in Lumbriculus variegatus were compared by four days exposure to concentrations between 0.05 and 5mgL?1 pure glyphosate and its formulation. Bioaccumulation was determined using 14C labeled glyphosate. The bioaccumulation factor (BCF) varied between 1.4 and 5.9 for the different concentrations,

Valeska Contardo-Jara; Eva Klingelmann; Claudia Wiegand

2009-01-01

217

Dietary a?ai modulates ROS production by neutrophils and gene expression of liver antioxidant enzymes in rats  

PubMed Central

Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) has recently emerged as a promising source of natural antioxidants. Because increased oxidative stress and impaired antioxidant defense mechanisms are important factors in the development of diabetic complications and many health claims have been reported for açai, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the possible protective effects of açai on the production of reactive oxygen species by neutrophils and on the liver antioxidant defense system in control and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diet supplementation with 2% açai was found to increase mRNA levels for gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase and glutathione peroxidase in liver tissue and to decrease reactive oxygen species production by neutrophils. Compared to control animals, diabetic rats exhibited lower levels of mRNA coding for Zn-superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase and higher levels of reactive oxygen species production by neutrophils, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and carbonyl proteins in hepatic tissues. Although açai supplementation was not effective in restore gene expression of antioxidant enzymes in diabetic rats, it showed a protective effect, decreasing thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances levels and increasing reduced glutathione content in the liver. These findings suggest that açai can modulate reactive oxygen species production by neutrophils and that it has a significant favorable effect on the liver antioxidant defense system under fisiological conditions of oxidative stress and partially revert deleterious effects of diabetes in the liver.

Guerra, Joyce Ferreira da Costa; Magalhaes, Cintia Lopes de Brito; Costa, Daniela Caldeira; Silva, Marcelo Eustaquio; Pedrosa, Maria Lucia

2011-01-01

218

Role of Nrf2 signaling in regulation of antioxidants and phase 2 enzymes in cardiac fibroblasts: Protection against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species-induced cell injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the molecular pathway(s) of antioxidant gene regulation is of crucial importance for developing antioxidant-inducing agents for the intervention of oxidative cardiac disorders. Accordingly, this study was undertaken to determine the role of Nrf2 signaling in the basal expression as well as the chemical inducibility of endogenous antioxidants and phase 2 enzymes in cardiac fibroblasts. The basal expression of a

Hong Zhu; Ken Itoh; Masayuki Yamamoto; Jay L. Zweier; Yunbo Li

2005-01-01

219

Effect of chromium and cobalt ions on the expression of antioxidant enzymes in human U937 macrophage-like cells.  

PubMed

The main concern associated with metal-on-metal (MM) hip prosthesis is the presence of metal ions, mainly chromium (Cr) and cobalt (Co), which are found both systemically and locally in the organism of patients. Previous studies revealed that Cr(III) and Co(II) ions could induce damages to proteins in macrophage-like cells in vitro, probably through the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We then hypothesized that these ions can modify the expression of antioxidant enzymes in these cells. Results showed that Cr(VI) induced the protein expression of Mn-superoxide dismutase, Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) but had no effect of the expression of their mRNA. Cr(III) have no effect on the expression of all these antioxidant enzymes. Co(II) induced the expression of both protein and mRNA of HO-1 only. In conclusion, results showed that Cr(VI), Cr(III), and Co(II) had differential effects on the expression of antioxidant enzymes in macrophage-like cells in vitro. PMID:20186739

Tkaczyk, Cathy; Huk, Olga L; Mwale, Fackson; Antoniou, John; Zukor, David J; Petit, Alain; Tabrizian, Maryam

2010-08-01

220

Activity levels and expression of antioxidant enzymes in the ascorbate-glutathione cycle in artificially aged rice seed.  

PubMed

Reactive oxygen species are the main contributors to seed deterioration. In order to study scavenging systems for reactive oxygen species in aged seed, we performed analyses using western blotting, real-time quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, high-performance liquid chromatography, and antioxidant enzyme activity analyses in artificially aged rice seeds (Oryza sativa L. cv. wanhua no.11). Aging seeds by storing them at 50 °C for 1, 9, or 17 months increased the superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide levels and reduced the germination percentage from 99% to 92%, 55%, and 2%, respectively. The activity levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR), and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) did not change in aged seeds. In contrast, the activity levels of catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR) were significantly decreased in aged seeds, as were the expression of catalase and cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase protein. Transcript accumulation analysis showed that specific expression patterns were complex for each of the antioxidant enzyme types in the rice embryos. Overall, the expression of most genes was down-regulated, along with their protein expression. In addition, the reduction in the amount of ascorbate and glutathione was associated with the reduction in scavenging enzymes activity in aged rice embryos. Our data suggest that the depression of the antioxidant system, especially the reduction in the expression of CAT1, APX1 and MDHAR1, may be responsible for the accumulation of reactive oxygen species in artificially aged seed embryos, leading to a loss of seed vigor. PMID:24705135

Yin, Guangkun; Xin, Xia; Song, Chao; Chen, Xiaoling; Zhang, Jinmei; Wu, Shuhua; Li, Ruifang; Liu, Xu; Lu, Xinxiong

2014-07-01

221

Effects of Chronic Swimming Training and Oestrogen Therapy on Coronary Vascular Reactivity and Expression of Antioxidant Enzymes in Ovariectomized Rats  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of swimming training (SW) and oestrogen replacement therapy (ERT) on coronary vascular reactivity and the expression of antioxidant enzymes in ovariectomized rats. Animals were randomly assigned to one of five groups: sham (SH), ovariectomized (OVX), ovariectomized with E2 (OE2), ovariectomized with exercise (OSW), and ovariectomized with E2 plus exercise (OE2+SW). The SW protocol (5×/week, 60 min/day) and/or ERT were conducted for 8 weeks; the vasodilator response to bradykinin was analysed (Langendorff Method), and the expression of antioxidant enzymes (SOD-1 and 2, catalase) and eNOS and iNOS were evaluated by Western blotting. SW and ERT improved the vasodilator response to the highest dose of bradykinin (1000 ng). However, in the OSW group, this response was improved at 100, 300 and 1000 ng when compared to OVX (p<0,05). The SOD-1 expression was increased in all treated/trained groups compared to the OVX group (p<0,05), and catalase expression increased in the OSW group only. In the trained group, eNOS increased vs. OE2, and iNOS decreased vs. SHAM (p<0,05). SW may represent an alternative to ERT by improving coronary vasodilation, most likely by increasing antioxidant enzyme and eNOS expression and augmenting NO bioavailability.

Claudio, Erick R. G.; Endlich, Patrick W.; Santos, Roger L.; Moyses, Margareth R.; Bissoli, Nazare S.; Gouvea, Sonia A.; Silva, Josiane F.; Lemos, Virginia S.; Abreu, Glaucia R.

2013-01-01

222

What is the main driver of ageing in long-lived winter honeybees: antioxidant enzymes, innate immunity, or vitellogenin?  

PubMed

To date five different theories compete in explaining the biological mechanisms of senescence or ageing in invertebrates. Physiological, genetical, and environmental mechanisms form the image of ageing in individuals and groups. Social insects, especially the honeybee Apis mellifera, present exceptional model systems to study developmentally related ageing. The extremely high phenotypic plasticity for life expectancy resulting from the female caste system provides a most useful system to study open questions with respect to ageing. Here, we used long-lived winter worker honeybees and measured transcriptional changes of 14 antioxidative enzyme, immunity, and ageing-related (insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling pathway) genes at two time points during hibernation. Additionally, worker bees were challenged with a bacterial infection to test ageing- and infection-associated immunity changes. Gene expression levels for each group of target genes revealed that ageing had a much higher impact than the bacterial challenge, notably for immunity-related genes. Antimicrobial peptide and antioxidative enzyme genes were significantly upregulated in aged worker honeybees independent of bacterial infections. The known ageing markers vitellogenin and IlP-1 were opposed regulated with decreasing vitellogenin levels during ageing. The increased antioxidative enzyme and antimicrobial peptide gene expression may contribute to a retardation of senescence in long-lived hibernating worker honeybees. PMID:24077437

Aurori, Cristian M; Buttstedt, Anja; Dezmirean, Daniel S; M?rghita?, Liviu A; Moritz, Robin F A; Erler, Silvio

2014-06-01

223

Certain antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) as early warning biomarkers of soil copper exposure.  

PubMed

Copper (Cu) is a major heavy metal contaminant with various anthropogenic and natural sources. Recently, using biomarkers to monitor the effects of pollutants has attracted increased interest. Pot culture experiments using radish (Raphanus sativus L.) was performed to investigate Cu phytotoxic effects on antioxidant enzymes and other early warning biomarkers of soil Cu exposure. Under low dose Cu stress (lower than the EC10, Cu concentration reducing root length by 10%), activity and isozyme expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidases (POD) increased significantly; no significant variations in chlorophyll, carotenoid, and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in leaves and toxic symptoms were observed. Under a slightly higher Cu stress (close to the EC10), activity and isozyme expression of SOD and MDA content were enhanced significantly; those of CAT and POD decreased due to an inverted U-shape dose response. Chlorophyll content remained unchanged. Thus, antioxidant enzymes and MDA content are more sensitive to Cu stress, showing significant variations ahead of chlorophyll and toxic symptoms under Cu stress (lower than about 200 mg kg(-1) soil). Thus, the joint monitoring of antioxidant enzymes and MDA content of R. sativus can be used as biomarkers of soil Cu contamination. PMID:20728270

Sun, Bai-Ye; Kan, Shi-Hong; Zhang, Yan-Zong; Deng, Shi-Huai; Wu, Jun; Yuan, Hao; Qi, Hui; Yang, Gang; Li, Li; Zhang, Xiao-Hong; Xiao, Hong; Wang, Ying-Jun; Peng, Hong; Li, Yuan-Wei

2010-11-15

224

Coal-burning endemic fluorosis is associated with reduced activity in antioxidative enzymes and Cu/Zn-SOD gene expression.  

PubMed

To study the effect of fluorine on the oxidative stress in coal-burning fluorosis, we investigated the environmental characteristics of coal-burning endemic fluorosis combined with fluorine content surveillance in air, water, food, briquette, and clay binder samples from Bijie region, Guizhou Province, southwest of China. The activities of antioxidant enzymes including copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and level of lipid peroxidation such as malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured in serum samples obtained from subjects residing in the Bijie region. Expression of the Cu/Zn-SOD gene was assessed by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR). Our results showed that people suffering from endemic fluorosis (the high and low exposure groups) had much higher MDA level. Their antioxidant enzyme activities and Cu/Zn-SOD gene expression levels were lower when compared to healthy people (the control group). Fluorosis can decrease the activities of antioxidant enzymes, which was associated with exposure level of fluorine. Down-regulation of Cu/Zn-SOD expression may play an important role in the aggravation of oxidative stress in endemic fluorosis. PMID:23567976

Wang, Qi; Cui, Kang-ping; Xu, Yuan-yuan; Gao, Yan-ling; Zhao, Jing; Li, Da-sheng; Li, Xiao-lei; Huang, Hou-jin

2014-02-01

225

The relationship between serum level of thyroid hormones, trace elements and antioxidant enzymes in dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius).  

PubMed

Thyroid hormones might be able to regulate the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPX). The role of thyroid hormones in metabolic pathways and antioxidant enzyme activities are well known in many species. Nevertheless, there is no report describing probable relationship between thyroid hormones status, erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes and serum profiles of trace elements. This study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between these parameters in Iranian dromedary camels. Blood samples were taken from the jugular vein of 30 clinically healthy Iranian dromedary camels under aseptic conditions during 6 consecutive days of summer. The serum was analyzed for serum profile of thyroid hormones, trace elements, SOD and GPX activity. There were no significant differences in serum thyroid hormones, serum level of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), selenium and antioxidant enzymes in different days (P > 0.05). There was a significant negative correlation between SOD and Fe (P < 0.01, r = -493). There was no significant correlation between other parameters. In case of copper deficiency likewise the present study, the copper was used to produce more SOD, so there was a decrease in Fe transportation, and it might be a cause of decrease in Fe amount. On the other hand, a relatively small quantity of Fe is present in tissue myoglobin, catalase, peroxidases, and cytochromes. So it might be another cause of decrease in Fe amount. The explanation for these finding is not possible at this moment and further investigations are needed to interpret these changes. PMID:19052911

Nazifi, S; Mansourian, M; Nikahval, B; Razavi, S M

2009-01-01

226

Effect of chronic restraint stress and alpha-lipoic acid on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities in rat peripheral organs  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesThe aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of chronic restraint stress and alpha-lipoic acid (LA) administration on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities in rat peripheral organs.

Mehmet ?ahin; Gamze Sa?d?ç; O?uz Elmas; Deniz Akp?nar; Narin Derin; Mutay Aslan; Aysel Agar; Yakup Al?c?güzel; Piraye Yarg?ço?lu

2006-01-01

227

Effect of pentylenetetrazol-induced epileptic seizure on the antioxidant enzyme activities, glutathione and lipid peroxidation levels in rat erythrocytes and liver tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives:In order to clarify whether oxidative stress accompanies epilepsy, we examined the effects of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced epilepsy on the lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities in erythrocytes and liver tissues of adult Wistar rats.

S. Halide Akbas; Aysenur Yegin; Tomris Ozben

2005-01-01

228

Identification and characterization of the intracellular poly-3-hydroxybutyrate depolymerase enzyme PhaZ of Sinorhizobium meliloti  

PubMed Central

Background S. meliloti forms indeterminate nodules on the roots of its host plant alfalfa (Medicago sativa). Bacteroids of indeterminate nodules are terminally differentiated and, unlike their non-terminally differentiated counterparts in determinate nodules, do not accumulate large quantities of Poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) during symbiosis. PhaZ is in intracellular PHB depolymerase; it represents the first enzyme in the degradative arm of the PHB cycle in S. meliloti and is the only enzyme in this half of the PHB cycle that remains uncharacterized. Results The S. meliloti phaZ gene was identified by in silico analysis, the ORF was cloned, and a S. meliloti phaZ mutant was constructed. This mutant exhibited increased PHB accumulation during free-living growth, even when grown under non-PHB-inducing conditions. The phaZ mutant demonstrated no reduction in symbiotic capacity; interestingly, analysis of the bacteroids showed that this mutant also accumulated PHB during symbiosis. This mutant also exhibited a decreased capacity to tolerate long-term carbon starvation, comparable to that of other PHB cycle mutants. In contrast to other PHB cycle mutants, the S. meliloti phaZ mutant did not exhibit any decrease in rhizosphere competitiveness; however, this mutant did exhibit a significant increase in succinoglycan biosynthesis. Conclusions S. meliloti bacteroids retain the capacity to synthesize PHB during symbiosis; interestingly, accumulation does not occur at the expense of symbiotic performance. phaZ mutants are not compromised in their capacity to compete for nodulation in the rhizosphere, perhaps due to increased succinoglycan production resulting from upregulation of the succinoglycan biosynthetic pathway. The reduced survival capacity of free-living cells unable to access their accumulated stores of PHB suggests that PHB is a crucial metabolite under adverse conditions.

2010-01-01

229

Nrf2 and Nrf1 in association with Jun proteins regulate antioxidant response element-mediated expression and coordinated induction of genes encoding detoxifying enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antioxidant response element (ARE)-mediated expression and coordinated induction of genes encoding detoxifying enzymes is one mechanism of critical importance to cellular protection against oxidative stress. In the present report, we demonstrate that nuclear transcription factors Nrf2 and Nrf1 associate with Jun (c-Jun, Jun-B and Jun-D) proteins to upregulate ARE-mediated expression and coordinated induction of detoxifying enzymes in response to antioxidants

Radjendirane Venugopal; Anil K Jaiswal

1998-01-01

230

Effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) with low and superatmospheric oxygen on the quality and antioxidant enzyme system of golden needle mushrooms ( Flammulina velutipes ) during postharvest storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

To quantify the effect of oxygen concentrations on the quality and antioxidant enzyme system of stored golden needle mushroom,\\u000a modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) with low and initial superatmospheric oxygen was applied during mushroom storage, and\\u000a physiological changes associated with postharvest deterioration, activities of antioxidant enzymes, and of cellulase, were\\u000a monitored during subsequent storage for 0–34 days. Golden needle mushrooms stored in

Cheng Tao Wang; Chang Tao Wang; Yan Ping Cao; M. J. Robert Nout; Bao Guo Sun; Liu Liu

2011-01-01

231

Insulin-degrading enzyme regulates the levels of insulin, amyloid ?-protein, and the ?-amyloid precursor protein intracellular domain in vivo  

PubMed Central

Two substrates of insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE), amyloid ?-protein (A?) and insulin, are critically important in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2), respectively. We previously identified IDE as a principal regulator of A? levels in neuronal and microglial cells. A small chromosomal region containing a mutant IDE allele has been associated with hyperinsulinemia and glucose intolerance in a rat model of DM2. Human genetic studies have implicated the IDE region of chromosome 10 in both AD and DM2. To establish whether IDE hypofunction decreases A? and insulin degradation in vivo and chronically increases their levels, we characterized mice with homozygous deletions of the IDE gene (IDE ?/?). IDE deficiency resulted in a >50% decrease in A? degradation in both brain membrane fractions and primary neuronal cultures and a similar deficit in insulin degradation in liver. The IDE ?/? mice showed increased cerebral accumulation of endogenous A?, a hallmark of AD, and had hyperinsulinemia and glucose intolerance, hallmarks of DM2. Moreover, the mice had elevated levels of the intracellular signaling domain of the ?-amyloid precursor protein, which was recently found to be degraded by IDE in vitro. Together with emerging genetic evidence, our in vivo findings suggest that IDE hypofunction may underlie or contribute to some forms of AD and DM2 and provide a mechanism for the recently recognized association among hyperinsulinemia, diabetes, and AD.

Farris, Wesley; Mansourian, Stefan; Chang, Yang; Lindsley, Loren; Eckman, Elizabeth A.; Frosch, Matthew P.; Eckman, Christopher B.; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Selkoe, Dennis J.; Guenette, Suzanne

2003-01-01

232

AmiA is a penicillin target enzyme with dual activity in the intracellular pathogen Chlamydia pneumoniae.  

PubMed

Intracellular Chlamydiaceae do not need to resist osmotic challenges and a functional cell wall was not detected in these pathogens. Nevertheless, a recent study revealed evidence for circular peptidoglycan-like structures in Chlamydiaceae and penicillin inhibits cytokinesis, a phenomenon known as the chlamydial anomaly. Here, by characterizing a cell wall precursor-processing enzyme, we provide insights into the mechanisms underlying this mystery. We show that AmiA from Chlamydia pneumoniae separates daughter cells in an Escherichia coli amidase mutant. Contrary to homologues from free-living bacteria, chlamydial AmiA uses lipid II as a substrate and has dual activity, acting as an amidase and a carboxypeptidase. The latter function is penicillin sensitive and assigned to a penicillin-binding protein motif. Consistent with the lack of a regulatory domain in AmiA, chlamydial CPn0902, annotated as NlpD, is a carboxypeptidase, rather than an amidase activator, which is the case for E. coli NlpD. Functional conservation of AmiA implicates a role in cytokinesis and host response modulation. PMID:24953137

Klöckner, Anna; Otten, Christian; Derouaux, Adeline; Vollmer, Waldemar; Bühl, Henrike; De Benedetti, Stefania; Münch, Daniela; Josten, Michaele; Mölleken, Katja; Sahl, Hans-Georg; Henrichfreise, Beate

2014-01-01

233

AmiA is a penicillin target enzyme with dual activity in the intracellular pathogen Chlamydia pneumoniae  

PubMed Central

Intracellular Chlamydiaceae do not need to resist osmotic challenges and a functional cell wall was not detected in these pathogens. Nevertheless, a recent study revealed evidence for circular peptidoglycan-like structures in Chlamydiaceae and penicillin inhibits cytokinesis, a phenomenon known as the chlamydial anomaly. Here, by characterizing a cell wall precursor-processing enzyme, we provide insights into the mechanisms underlying this mystery. We show that AmiA from Chlamydia pneumoniae separates daughter cells in an Escherichia coli amidase mutant. Contrary to homologues from free-living bacteria, chlamydial AmiA uses lipid II as a substrate and has dual activity, acting as an amidase and a carboxypeptidase. The latter function is penicillin sensitive and assigned to a penicillin-binding protein motif. Consistent with the lack of a regulatory domain in AmiA, chlamydial CPn0902, annotated as NlpD, is a carboxypeptidase, rather than an amidase activator, which is the case for E. coli NlpD. Functional conservation of AmiA implicates a role in cytokinesis and host response modulation.

Klockner, Anna; Otten, Christian; Derouaux, Adeline; Vollmer, Waldemar; Buhl, Henrike; De Benedetti, Stefania; Munch, Daniela; Josten, Michaele; Molleken, Katja; Sahl, Hans-Georg; Henrichfreise, Beate

2014-01-01

234

Schisandra Chinensis Baillon regulates the gene expression of phase II antioxidant/detoxifying enzymes in hepatic damage induced rats  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES This study investigated the antioxidant activities and hepatoprotective effects of Schisandra chinensis Baillon extract (SCE) against tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced oxidative hepatic damage in rats. MATERIALS/METHODS Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were pretreated with SCE (300, 600, and 1,200 mg/kg BW) or saline once daily for 14 consecutive days. On day 14, each animal, except those belonging to the normal control group, were injected with t-BHP (0.8 mmol/kg BW/i.p.), and all of the rats were sacrificed 16 h after t-BHP injection. RESULTS Although no significant differences in AST and ALT levels were observed among the TC and SCE groups, the high-dose SCE group showed a decreasing tendency compared to the TC group. However, erythrocyte SOD activity showed a significant increase in the low-dose SCE group compared with the TC group. On the other hand, no significant differences in hepatic total glutathione (GSH) level, glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were observed among the TC and SCE groups. Hepatic histopathological evaluation revealed that pretreatment with SCE resulted in reduced t-BHP-induced incidence of lesions, such as neutrophil infiltration, swelling of liver cells, and necrosis. In particular, treatment with a high dose of SCE resulted in induction of phase II antioxidant/detoxifying enzyme expression, such as glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC). CONCLUSIONS Based on these results, we conclude that SCE exerts protective effects against t-BHP induced oxidative hepatic damage through the reduction of neutrophil infiltration, swelling of liver cells, and necrosis. In addition, SCE regulates the gene expression of phase II antioxidant/detoxifying enzymes independent of hepatic antioxidant enzyme activity.

Jang, Han I; Do, Gyeong-Min; Lee, Hye Min; Ok, Hyang Mok; Shin, Jae-Ho

2014-01-01

235

Effects of zinc on interleukins and antioxidant enzyme values in psoriasis-induced mice.  

PubMed

The effects of zinc chloride (ZnCl2), disodium zinc ethylenediamine tetraacetate (Zn-EDTA), and zinc gluconate (Zn-GLU) on the antioxidant enzyme activities and levels of interleukins (ILs) in psoriasis-induced mice were studied. One hundred twenty female mice were randomly divided into six groups with 20 mice in each group: the control, positive control (PC), methotrexate (MTX), ZnCl2, Zn-EDTA, and Zn-GLU groups. All animals except the control group were given diethylstilbestrol for three consecutive days. After successfully inducing psoriasis, the control and PC groups were given normal saline (i.g.) daily while the remaining groups were given MTX, ZnCl2, Zn-EDTA, and Zn-GLU, respectively. The results revealed that the zinc supplementation could significantly (p??0.05). The zinc treatments also caused a significant (p?

Yin, L L; Zhang, Y; Guo, D M; An, K; Yin, M S; Cui, X

2013-12-01

236

Determination of oxidative stress and activities of antioxidant enzymes in guinea pigs treated with haloperidol  

PubMed Central

Guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) were treated with haloperidol (HP), and free radical (FR) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays were used to determine oxidative stress levels. Furthermore, the superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity levels were detected and glucose levels and the reduced and oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio were measured in HP-treated and untreated guinea pigs. The present study demonstrated that the administration of HP causes significant oxidative stress in guinea pigs (P=0.022). In animals treated with HP, the activity of GST was significantly increased compared with a placebo (P= 0.007). The elevation of SOD and GR activity levels and increase in the levels of glutathione (GSH) in HP-treated animals were not statistically significant. In the HP-untreated animals, a significant positive correlation was observed between oxidative stress detected by the FR method and GST (r=0.88, P=0.008) and SOD (r=0.86, P= 0.01) activity levels, respectively. A significant negative correlation between the levels of plasma glucose and oxidative stress detected by the FRAP method was observed (r=?0.78, P=0.04). Notably, no significant correlations were observed in the treated animals. In the HP-treated group, two subgroups of animals were identified according to their responses to oxidative stress. The group with higher levels of plasma HP had higher enzyme activity and reactive oxygen species production compared with the group with lower plasma levels of HP. The greatest difference in activity (U/?l) between the two groups of animals was for GR.

GUMULEC, JAROMIR; RAUDENSKA, MARTINA; HLAVNA, MARIAN; STRACINA, TIBOR; SZTALMACHOVA, MARKETA; TANHAUSEROVA, VERONIKA; PACAL, LUKAS; RUTTKAY-NEDECKY, BRANISLAV; SOCHOR, JIRI; ZITKA, ONDREJ; BABULA, PETR; ADAM, VOJTECH; KIZEK, RENE; NOVAKOVA, MARIE; MASARIK, MICHAL

2013-01-01

237

Antioxidant enzymes in cabbage: Variability and inheritance of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cruciferous vegetables are important source of dietary nutrients and antioxidants. Antioxidants have been touted as beneficial for enhancing plant stand and mitigating the effects of biotic and abiotic stresses. The objective of the present study was to determine variability for superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase activity; its transmissibility; and correlation. Samples were harvested at fresh market stage, frozen immediately in

B. K. Singh; S. R. Sharma

2010-01-01

238

Human Vitamin K 2,3-Epoxide Reductase Complex Subunit 1-like 1 (VKORC1L1) Mediates Vitamin K-dependent Intracellular Antioxidant Function*  

PubMed Central

Human vitamin K 2,3-epoxide reductase complex subunit 1-like 1 (VKORC1L1), expressed in HEK 293T cells and localized exclusively to membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum, was found to support both vitamin K 2,3-epoxide reductase (VKOR) and vitamin K reductase enzymatic activities. Michaelis-Menten kinetic parameters for dithiothreitol-driven VKOR activity were: Km (?m) = 4.15 (vitamin K1 epoxide) and 11.24 (vitamin K2 epoxide); Vmax (nmol·mg?1·hr?1) = 2.57 (vitamin K1 epoxide) and 13.46 (vitamin K2 epoxide). Oxidative stress induced by H2O2 applied to cultured cells up-regulated VKORC1L1 expression and VKOR activity. Cell viability under conditions of no induced oxidative stress was increased by the presence of vitamins K1 and K2 but not ubinquinone-10 and was specifically dependent on VKORC1L1 expression. Intracellular reactive oxygen species levels in cells treated with 2,3-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone were mitigated in a VKORC1L1 expression-dependent manner. Intracellular oxidative damage to membrane intrinsic proteins was inversely dependent on VKORC1L1 expression and the presence of vitamin K1. Taken together, our results suggest that VKORC1L1 is responsible for driving vitamin K-mediated intracellular antioxidation pathways critical to cell survival.

Westhofen, Philipp; Watzka, Matthias; Marinova, Milka; Hass, Moritz; Kirfel, Gregor; Muller, Jens; Bevans, Carville G.; Muller, Clemens R.; Oldenburg, Johannes

2011-01-01

239

BCL-2 expression or antioxidants prevent hyperglycemia-induced formation of intracellular advanced glycation endproducts in bovine endothelial cells.  

PubMed Central

Hyperglycemia rapidly induces an increase in intracellular advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in bovine endothelial cells, causing an alteration in bFGF activity (Giardino, I., D. Edelstein, and M. Brownlee. 1994. J. Clin. Invest. 94:110-117). Because sugar or sugar-adduct autoxidation is critical for AGE formation in vitro, we evaluated the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in intracellular AGE formation, using bovine aortic endothelial cells. 30 mM glucose increased intracellular ROS formation by 250% and lipid peroxidation by 330%, while not affecting ROS in the media. In cells depleted of glutathione, intracellular AGE accumulation increased linearly with ROS generation as measured by immunoblotting and the fluorescent probe DCFH (AGE 0.258-3.531 AU* mm/5x10(4) cells, DCF 57-149 mean AU, r = .998, P < .002). Deferoxamine, alpha-tocopherol, and dimethylsulfoxide each inhibited hyperglycemia-induced formation of both ROS and AGE. To differentiate an effect of ROS generation on AGE formation from an effect of more distal oxidative processes, GM7373 endothelial cell lines were generated that stably expressed the peroxidation-suppressing proto-oncogene bcl-2. bcl-2 had no effect on hyperglycemia-induced intracellular ROS formation. In contrast, bcl-2 expression decreased both lipid peroxidation (100% at 3 h and 29% at 168 h) and AGE formation (55% at 168 h). These data show that a ROS-dependent process plays a central role in the generation of intracellular AGEs, and that inhibition of oxidant pathways prevents intracellular AGE formation.

Giardino, I; Edelstein, D; Brownlee, M

1996-01-01

240

Effects of antimony and arsenic on antioxidant enzyme activities of two steppic plant species in an old antimony mining area.  

PubMed

The present work was undertaken to determine strategies and antioxidant enzyme activities involved in the adaptation of two wild steppic plants (Hedysarum pallidum Desf. and Lygeum spartum L.) to the toxic environment of the abandoned antimony mining area of Djebel Hamimat (Algeria). For this purpose, soils and plants were collected in different zones coinciding with a Sb and As concentrations gradient in the soil. Antimony (Sb) and arsenic (As) were analyzed by ICP-OES in the soils and the aboveground parts and roots of the plants. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and antioxidant enzyme activities were measured by spectrometry. Results show levels of Sb and As exceptionally high in most soil and plant samples. The two species accumulate differently Sb and As in their above and belowground parts. MDA levels, in the two parts of both species, increase significantly with increasing soil Sb and As concentrations, but they are significantly higher in H. pallidum than in L. spartum. The activities of antioxidant enzymes differ significantly according to the soil metalloid concentrations, the plant species considered and the plant part. Apart from superoxide dismutase (SOD) whose activity is, overall, higher in H. pallidum than in L. spartum, the activities of all the other enzymes studied (glutathione S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX)) are generally higher in L. spartum than in H. pallidum. For both species, APX and GST are overall more active in the upper parts than in the roots, while it is the reverse for SOD and CAT. POD is more active in the upper parts than in the roots of L. spartum and the reverse applies to H. pallidum. It appears that the two studied plant species use different tolerance strategies to protect themselves against elevated As and Sb concentrations. PMID:24563031

Benhamdi, Asma; Bentellis, Alima; Rached, Oualida; Du Laing, Gijs; Mechakra, Aicha

2014-04-01

241

Impact of fungicides on active oxygen species and antioxidant enzymes in spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) exposed to ozone.  

PubMed

Two modern fungicides, a strobilurin, azoxystrobin (AZO), and a triazole, epoxiconazole (EPO), applied as foliar spray on spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Scarlett) 3 days prior to fumigation with injurious doses of ozone (150-250 ppb; 5 days; 7 h/day) induced a 50-60% protection against ozone injury on leaves. Fungicide treatments of barley plants at growth stage (GS) 32 significantly increased the total leaf soluble protein content. Additionally, activities of the antioxidative enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate-peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) were increased by both fungicides at maximal rates of 16, 75, 51 and 144%, respectively. Guiacol-peroxidase (POX) activity was elevated by 50-110% only in AZO treated plants, while this effect was lacking after treatments with EPO. This coincided with elevated levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) only in EPO and not in AZO treated plants. The enhancement of the plant antioxidative system by the two fungicides significantly and considerably reduced the level of superoxide (O2*-) in leaves. Fumigation of barley plants for 4 days with non-injurious ozone doses (120-150 ppb, 7 h/day) markedly and immediately stimulated O2*- accumulation in leaves, while H2O2 was increased only after the third day of fumigation. Therefore, O2*- itself or as precursor of even more toxic oxyradicals appears to be more indicative for ozone-induced leaf damage than H2O2. Ozone also induced significant increases in the activity of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, POX and CAT) after 2 days of fumigation in fungicide untreated plants, while after 4 days of fumigation these enzymes declined to a level lower than in unfumigated plants, due to the oxidative degradation of leaf proteins. This is the first report demonstrating the marked enhancement of plant antioxidative enzymes and the enhanced scavenging of potentially harmful O2*- by fungicides as a mechanism of protecting plants against noxious oxidative stress from the environment. The antioxidant effect of modern fungicides widely used in intense cereal production in many countries represents an important factor when evaluating potential air pollution effects in agriculture. PMID:11808554

Wu, Yue-xuan; von, Tiedemann Andreas

2002-01-01

242

Ubiad1 Is an Antioxidant Enzyme that Regulates eNOS Activity by CoQ10 Synthesis  

PubMed Central

Summary Protection against oxidative damage caused by excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) by an antioxidant network is essential for the health of tissues, especially in the cardiovascular system. Here, we identified a gene with important antioxidant features by analyzing a null allele of zebrafish ubiad1, called barolo (bar). bar mutants show specific cardiovascular failure due to oxidative stress and ROS-mediated cellular damage. Human UBIAD1 is a nonmitochondrial prenyltransferase that synthesizes CoQ10 in the Golgi membrane compartment. Loss of UBIAD1 reduces the cytosolic pool of the antioxidant CoQ10 and leads to ROS-mediated lipid peroxidation in vascular cells. Surprisingly, inhibition of eNOS prevents Ubiad1-dependent cardiovascular oxidative damage, suggesting a crucial role for this enzyme and nonmitochondrial CoQ10 in NO signaling. These findings identify UBIAD1 as a nonmitochondrial CoQ10-forming enzyme with specific cardiovascular protective function via the modulation of eNOS activity.

Mugoni, Vera; Postel, Ruben; Catanzaro, Valeria; De Luca, Elisa; Turco, Emilia; Digilio, Giuseppe; Silengo, Lorenzo; Murphy, Michael P.; Medana, Claudio; Stainier, Didier Y.R.; Bakkers, Jeroen; Santoro, Massimo M.

2013-01-01

243

Effect of Nigella sativa fixed and essential oils on antioxidant status, hepatic enzymes, and immunity in streptozotocin induced diabetes mellitus  

PubMed Central

Background Nigella sativa fixed (NSFO) and essential (NSEO) oils have been used to treat diabetes mellitus and its complications. Present study was undertaken to explore and validate these folkloric uses. Methods Sprague dawley rats having streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes mellitus were used to assess the role of NSFO and NSEO in the management of diabetes complications. Parameters investigated were antioxidant potential, oxidative stress, and the immunity by in vivo experiments. Results The results indicated that STZ decreased the glutathione contents (25.72%), while NSFO and NSEO increased the trait significantly (P?enzymes (P?antioxidant potential is positively associated (P?enzymes and the decrease of the nitric oxide production thus controlling the diabetes complications. Conclusions Overall, results of present study supported the traditional use of N. sativa and its derived products as a treatment for hyperglycemia and allied abnormalities. Moreover, N. sativa fixed and essential oils significantly ameliorate free radicals and improve antioxidant capacity thus reducing the risk of diabetic complications.

2014-01-01

244

Conversion of shrimp shell by using Serratia sp. TKU017 fermentation for the production of enzymes and antioxidants.  

PubMed

A chitinase (CHT), and a protease (PRO) were purified from the culture supernatant of Serratia sp. TKU017 with shrimp shell as the sole carbon/nitrogen source. The molecular masses of CHT and PRO determined by SDS-PAGE were approximately 65 kDa and 53 kDa, respectively. CHT was inhibited by Mn2+, Cu2+ and PRO was inhibited by most tested divalent metals, EDTA. The optimum pH, optimum temperature, pH stability, and thermal stability of CHT and PRO were (pH 5, 50 degrees , pH 5 degrees ) and (pH 9, 40 degrees , pH 5 degrees ), respectively. PRO retained 95% of its protease activity in the presence of 0.5 mM SDS. The result demonstrates that PRO is SDS-resistant protease and probably has a rigid structure. The 4th day supernatant showed the strongest antioxidant activity (70%, DPPH scavenging ability) and the highest total phenolic content (196+/-6.2 microng of gallic acid equival/mL). Significant associations between the antioxidant potency and the total phenolic content, as well as between the antioxidant potency and free amino groups, were found for the supernatant. With this method, we have shown that shrimp shell wastes can be utilized and it's effective in the production of enzymes and antioxidants, facilitating its potential use in industrial applications and functional foods. PMID:20134242

Wang, San-Lang; Li, Jeng-Yu; Liang, Tzu-Wen; Hsieh, Jia-Lin; Tseng, Wan-Nine

2010-01-01

245

Oral exposure to Microcystis increases activity-augmented antioxidant enzymes in the liver of loach (Misgurnus mizolepis) and has no effect on lipid peroxidation.  

PubMed

Recently, eutrophication has induced severe cyanobacterial blooms in the Naktong River, the second largest river of Korea. In the present study, lipid peroxidation and the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase, were evaluated in the liver of loach (Misgurnus mizolepis) that were orally exposed to a low dose of Microcystis through dietary supplementation with bloom scum. Loach received 75 mg of dry cells/kg body weight mass (equal to 10 microg microcystin-RR/kg body mass), for 28 days under controlled conditions. Antioxidant enzymatic activity and lipid peroxidation were measured after termination of exposure. The activities of antioxidant enzyme were significantly increased in the livers of toxin-exposed loach after 28 days of exposure, as compared to control fish. However, lipid peroxidation remained stable in both groups. These results suggest that antioxidant enzymes were able to eliminate oxidative stress induced by low concentrations of microcystins and to prevent increased lipid peroxidation in the liver of loach. PMID:16055386

Li, Xiao-Yu; Chung, Ik-Kyo; Kim, Jung-In; Lee, Jin-Ae

2005-07-01

246

Amadori products promote cellular senescence activating insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor and down-regulating the antioxidant enzyme catalase.  

PubMed

Activation of the insulin growth factor receptor-1 signaling pathways has been largely related to the aging process. Amadori products are produced in pathological conditions such as diabetes and aging, and are potentially involved in diabetic nephropathy or age-associated decline of renal function. We hypothesize that Amadori products induce senescence in primary human mesangial cells through the activation of IGF-1 receptor and investigate, in the present work, the intracellular mechanism involved after this activation. We treated cultured human mesangial cells with glycated albumin, one of the most abundant Amadori product, and senescence was assessed by determining the senescence associated ?-galactosidase activity and the expression of the cell cycle regulators p53 and p21. We demonstrated that prolonged exposition (more than 24h) to glycated albumin induced senescence and, in parallel, incremented the release of IGF-1 and the activation of the IGF-1 receptor. Inhibition of the IGF-1 activation prevented the GA induced senescence. Activation of IGF-1R, after GA addition, promoted a reduction in the catalase content through the constitutive activation of Ras and erk1/2 proteins which were, in turn, responsible of the observed GA-induced senescence. In conclusion, we propose that the Amadori product, glycated albumin, promotes premature cell senescence in mesangial cells through the activation of the IGF-1 receptor and the subsequent reduction in the antioxidant enzyme catalase. PMID:23579096

Del Nogal-Ávila, María; Troyano-Suárez, Nuria; Román-García, Pablo; Cannata-Andía, Jorge B; Rodriguez-Puyol, Manuel; Rodriguez-Puyol, Diego; Kuro-O, Makoto; Ruiz-Torres, María P

2013-07-01

247

Enrichment of antioxidant compounds from lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) by pressurized liquid extraction and enzyme-assisted extraction.  

PubMed

In this work enzyme-assisted extraction (EAE) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) are applied for extraction of natural compounds from lemon balm (Melissa officinalis). Cellulase, endo-?-1,4 xylanase and pectinase were studied in order to degrade cell wall of lemon balm leaves and to release phenolic compounds. On the other hand, in order to compare the performance obtained with EAE, PLE using water and ethanol was employed maintaining 150°C as extraction temperature. The obtained extracts were characterized in terms of antioxidant capacity by using DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) in vitro assays, whereas the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure was employed to estimate the total phenols content. On the other hand, extracts were chemically characterized by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The results showed that EAE enhanced the total phenolic content and the antioxidant capacity compared to a non-enzymatic control. PLE extracts presented higher amount of phenols and antioxidant capacity than enzyme-assisted extracts, reaching the highest values on water extracts (193.18mggallicacid/gextract and EC50=6.81?g/mL). Among the bioactive phenolic compounds identified in lemon balm, rosmarinic acid was the main component, although other important compounds were also identified, such as caffeic acid derivatives (salvianolic acids, lithospermic acid) and rosmarinic acid derivatives (rosmarinic acid hexoside, sagerinic acid, sulfated rosmarinic acid). The present study confirms that EAE and PLE can be considered alternative methods for the extraction of natural compounds with biological activity from natural sources. PMID:23528869

Miron, T L; Herrero, M; Ibáñez, E

2013-05-01

248

Modulatory influence of Adhatoda vesica (Justicia adhatoda) leaf extract on the enzymes of xenobiotic metabolism, antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of two different doses (50 and 100 mg\\/kg body wt\\/day for 14 days) of 80% ethanolic extract of the leaves of Adhatoda vesica were examined on drug metabolizing phase I and phase II enzymes, antioxidant enzymes, glutathione content, lactate dehydrogenase and lipid peroxidation in the liver of 8 weeks old Swiss albino mice. The modulatory effect of the

Rana Pratap Singh; Bandhuvula Padmavathi; Araga Ramesha Rao

2000-01-01

249

Chronic accumulation of cadmium and its effects on antioxidant enzymes and malondialdehyde in Oxya chinensis (Orthoptera: Acridoidea).  

PubMed

The accumulation of cadmium (Cd) and its effects on antioxidant enzyme activities and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels of Chinese rice grasshopper (Oxya chinensis) were evaluated under the laboratory conditions. Our results showed that Cd accumulation in O. chinensis exhibited a concentration-dependent increase in both males and females under Cd pollution. Environmental Cd can lead to the absorption of large quantities of Cd, which induces oxidative damage in insects by altering antioxidant defense enzyme systems. Our results demonstrated that Cd stress caused a significant decrease in glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels and a significant increase in superoxide (SOD) dismutase and catalase (CAT) activities. In the grasshoppers, the MDA content was also enhanced, with an increase in Cd concentrations and a positive correlation between them; for females from second instar nymphs to the adult stage, R(2) was 0.6467, 0.9136, 0.6516, 0.942 and 0.7182, whereas for males, it was 0.6467, 0.8239, 0.9302, 0.7861, 0.8632, respectively. We also observed differences in the effects of Cd between grasshoppers of different developmental stages and genders, which suggested that the insect's developmental stage and sex should be considered when studying enzyme activity. PMID:21435721

Zhang, Yuping; Sun, Ge; Yang, Meiling; Wu, Haihua; Zhang, Jianzhen; Song, Shaojuan; Ma, Enbo; Guo, Yaping

2011-07-01

250

The effect of intracellular antioxidant delivery (catalase) on hydrogen peroxide and proinflammatory cytokine synthesis: a new therapeutic horizon.  

PubMed

Reactive oxygen species synthesized by endothelial cells may be responsible for cell damage and altered physiologic function. After endotoxin stimulation, free radicals including H(2)O(2) are produced. We have developed a method of intracellular drug delivery using albumin microcapsules. Catalase would be an excellent compound to alter H(2)O(2) production. However, the large molecular size of catalase limits cellular penetration. Endothelial cells have been previously shown to readily phagocytoze albumin microcapsules. Methods: Catalase was added to an albumin solution to form a 10% solution of catalase. Microspheres from 2 to 7 microm in size were formed using a Bucchi spray dryer. Human endothelial cells were incubated with varying concentrations of microencapsulated catalase. The cells were then exposed to Escherichia coli endotoxin to determine if increased intracellular penetration of catalase would inhibit H(2)O(2), nitrate, and cytokine synthesis. Results: There was a 7.2-fold increase in endothelial intracellular catalase after 48 h incubation. H(2)O(2) was inhibited by 72%, nitrate 96%, TNF 90%, IL1 21%, IL6 42%. Conclusions: These results demonstrate that inhibition of H(2)O(2) as a result of increased intracellular delivery of catalase inhibits proinflammatory cytokine synthesis after endotoxin exposure. PMID:19845487

Siwale, Rodney C; Yeboah, George K; Addo, Richard; Oettinger, Carl W; D'Souza, Martin J

2009-11-01

251

Alteration of antioxidant enzymes and impairment of DNA in the SiO2 nanoparticles exposed zebra fish (Danio rerio).  

PubMed

The incorporation of nanoparticles in industrial and biomedical applications has increased significantly in recent years, yet their hazardous and toxic effects have not been studied extensively. While standard toxicological test methods are generally capable of detecting the toxic effects, the choice of relevant methods for nanomaterials is still discussed. Among the various oxide nanomaterials, silica nanoparticles are widely used in biological applications that include nano-medicine. But studies on adverse effects of silica nanoparticle exposure to fish remain unclear. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the oxidative toxic effects of silicon dioxide nanoparticles using fish model. The size of the SiO2 nanoparticles was between 68 and 100 nm which was confirmed by X-ray diffractometer, dynamic light scattering, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. The zebra fish were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations (5 and 2.5 mg/L) of characterized SiO2 nanoparticles for a period of 7 days. After 7 days, SiO2 nanoparticle-treated fishes were sacrificed, and tissues such as liver, muscle and gill were dissected out for the analysis of antioxidant enzymes and DNA fragmentation. The DNA profiles were analysed in the tissues of zebra fish that treated with SiO2 nanoparticles. Tissues of fish from clean water were used as control, and DNA profiles were analysed. It is found that DNA from control tissues was intact, whereas the tissues treated with SiO2 were all fragmented. SiO2 nanoparticle-mediated antioxidant enzymes activities, such as catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione (GSH)-S-transferase, glutathione reductase and GSH, in the tissues of zebra fish were measured. The results revealed that alteration of antioxidant enzymes due to SiO2 nanoparticle can be considered as a biomarker to SiO2-mediated oxidative stress in biological samples. PMID:23196406

Ramesh, R; Kavitha, P; Kanipandian, N; Arun, S; Thirumurugan, R; Subramanian, P

2013-07-01

252

24-Epibrassinolide regulates photosynthesis, antioxidant enzyme activities and proline content of Cucumis sativus under salt and/or copper stress.  

PubMed

Brassinosteroids have been extensively used to overcome various abiotic stresses. But its role in combined stress of salt and excess copper remains unexplored. Seeds of two cultivars (Rocket and Jumbo) of Cucumis sativus were grown in sand amended with copper (100 mg kg(-1)), and developed seedlings were exposed to salt stress in the form of NaCl (150 mM) at the 30-day stage of growth for 3 days. These seedlings were subsequently sprayed with 0 or 0.01 ?M of 24-epibrassinolide (EBL) at the 35-day stage. The plants exposed to NaCl and Cu in combination exhibited a significant decline in fresh and dry mass of plant, chlorophyll content, activities of carbonic anhydrase, net photosynthetic rate and maximum quantum yield of the PSII primary photochemistry followed by NaCl and Cu stress alone, more severely in Jumbo than in Rocket. However, the follow-up treatment with EBL to the stressed and nonstressed plant improved growth, chlorophyll content, carbonic anhydrase activity and photosynthetic efficiency, and further enhanced the activity of various antioxidant enzymes viz. catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase and content of proline at the 40-day stage of growth, and the response of the hormone was more effective in Rocket than in Jumbo. The elevated level of antioxidant enzymes as well as proline could have conferred tolerance to the NaCl- and/or Cu-stressed plants resulting in improved growth, water relations and photosynthetic attributes. Furthermore, antioxidant enzyme activity and proline content were more enhanced in Rocket than in Jumbo cultivar. PMID:23443638

Fariduddin, Q; Khalil, Radwan R A E; Mir, Bilal A; Yusuf, M; Ahmad, A

2013-09-01

253

Nitrate reductase (NR)-dependent NO production mediates ABA- and H2O2-induced antioxidant enzymes.  

PubMed

Abscisic acid (ABA), H2O2 and nitric oxide (NO) are important signals in gene expression and physiological responses during plant adaptation to environmental stresses. The essential role of NR-derived NO production in ABA and H2O2 induced antioxidant enzymes were studied using transgenic tobacco plants over-expressing Stylosanthes guianensis 9-cis-epoxycartenoid dioxygenase gene (SgNCED1) for elevated ABA level, or over-expressing wheat oxalate oxidase gene (OxO) for elevated H2O2 level in comparison to the wild type. Compared to the wild type, higher levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and nitrate reductase (NR) activities and NO production were observed in all transgenic plants. For investigating the relationship of ABA, H2O2, and NR-produced NO in the induction of antioxidant enzyme activities, an inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis, scavengers of H2O2 and NO, and an inhibitor of NR were used in the experiments. The results indicate that H2O2-induced activities of SOD, CAT, and APX depends on NR-derived NO in OxO transgenic plants, while ABA-induced activities depends on H2O2 and NR-derived NO in SgNCED1 transgenic plants. Compared to unaltered nitrate reductase 2 (NIA2), NIA1 transcript was induced in both types of transgenic plants. It is suggested NR-derived NO is essential for ABA- or H2O2-induced antioxidant enzyme activities. PMID:24246669

Lu, Shaoyun; Zhuo, Chunliu; Wang, Xianghui; Guo, Zhenfei

2014-01-01

254

Antioxidant  

SciTech Connect

Organic material is stabilized against oxidative degradation by the addition of a small amount of an antioxidant compound or mixture of compounds containing a central segment of one to about ten divalent o-hydrocarbyl phenol groups (e.g., O-tertbutylphenol) bonded to each other through a methylene group and having terminal 3,5-dihydrocarbyl-4-hydroxybenzyl groups at each end. They are made by first condensing o-hydrocarbyl phenol with formaldehyde and then reacting the intermediate with 2,6dihydrocarbyl phenol and formaldehyde.

Malec, R.E.

1980-09-16

255

Antioxidant  

SciTech Connect

Organic material is stabilized against oxidative degradation by the addition of a small amount of an antioxidant compound or mixture of compounds containing a central segment of one to about ten divalent o-hydrocarbyl phenyl groups (e.g. O-tertbutylphenol) bonded to each other through a methylene group and having terminal 3,5-dihydrocarbyl-4-hydroxybenzyl groups at each end. They are made by first condensing o-hydrocarbyl phenol with formaldehyde and then reacting the intermediate with 2,6-dihydrocarbyl phenol and formaldehyde.

Malec, R.E.

1981-07-14

256

Changes of anti-oxidative enzymes and membrane peroxidation for soil water deficits among 10 wheat genotypes at seedling stage.  

PubMed

Drought is one of the major factors limiting crop production globally, with increasing global climate change making the situation more serious. Wheat is the staple food for more than 35% of world population, so wheat anti-drought physiology study is of importance to wheat production and biological breeding for the sake of coping with abiotic and biotic conditions. Much research is involved in this hot topic, but the pace of progress is not so large because of drought resistance being a multiple-gene-control quantitative character and wheat genome being larger (16,000 Mb). On the other hand, stress adaptive mechanisms are quite different, with stress degree, time course, materials, and experimental plots, thus increasing the complexity of the issue in question. Additionally, a little study is related to the whole life circle of wheat, which cannot provide a comprehensive understanding of its anti-drought machinery. We selected 10 kinds of wheat genotypes as materials, which have potential to be applied in practice, and measured relative change of anti-oxidative enzymes and membrane peroxidation through wheat whole growth-developmental circle (i.e. seedling, tillering and maturing). Here, we firstly reported the results of seedling stage as follows: (1) 10 wheat genotypes can be grouped into three kinds (A-C, respectively) according to their changing trend of the measured indices; (2) A performed better resistance drought under the condition of treatment level 1 (appropriate level), whose activities of anti-oxidative enzymes (POD, SOD, CAT) were higher and MDA lower and chlorophyll a+b higher; (3) B exhibited stronger anti-drought under treatment level 2 (light stress level), whose activities of anti-oxidative enzymes were higher, MDA lower and chlorophyll higher; (4) C expressed anti-drought to some extent under treatment level 3 (serious stress), whose activities of anti-oxidative enzymes were stronger, MDA lower and chlorophyll higher; (5) these results demonstrated that different wheat genotypes have different physiological mechanisms to adapt themselves to changing drought stress, whose molecular basis is discrete gene expression profiling (transcriptom); (6) our results also showed that the concept accepted by most researchers, 70-75% QF is a proper supply for plants, was doubted, because this level could not reflect the true suitable level of wheat. The study in this respect is the key to wheat anti-drought and biological saving-water; (7) our research can provide insights into physiological mechanisms of crop anti-drought and direct practical materials for wheat anti-drought breeding. PMID:15833661

Shao, Hong Bo; Liang, Zong Suo; Shao, Ming An; Wang, Bo Chu

2005-05-10

257

Novel forms of copper–metallothionein and anti-oxidant defense enzymes in crustacea that use copper for oxygen transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

Copper is an essential, but potentially toxic, metal. Defense mechanisms against copper-mediated oxidative damage include sequestration of copper by metallothionein (MT) and increased levels of anti-oxidant defense enzymes. The blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, has two copper-inducible (CuMT-I and CuMT-II) and two cadmium-inducible (CdMT-I and CdMT-II) MT isoforms. CuMT-I and CdMT-I are the same protein with different metals. CuMT-II is a

M. Brouwer; T. Hoexum Brouwer; R. A. Syring

2000-01-01

258

Effects of salicylic acid and salinity on apoplastic antioxidant enzymes in two wheat cultivars differing in salt tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of salicylic acid (SA) and salinity on the activity of apoplastic antioxidant enzymes were studied in the leaves\\u000a of two wheat (Triticum aestivam L.) cultivars: salt-tolerant (Gerek-79) and salt-sensitive (Bezostaya). The leaves of 10-d-old seedlings grown at nutrient\\u000a solution with 0 (control), 250 or 500 mM NaCl were sprayed with 0.01 or 0.1 mM SA. Then, the activities

S. Mutlu; Ö. Atici; B. Nalbantoglu

2009-01-01

259

Response of enzymes involved in the processes of antioxidation towards benthiocarb and methylparathion in cyanobacteria Nostoc muscorum  

SciTech Connect

Recently, it has been observed in the authors' laboratory that growth, nitrogen fixation, protein content of cyanobacteria Nostoc muscorum were reduced by methylparathion and benthiocarb treatment. Though many works on toxicity of pesticides on cyanobacteria, specially on growth, photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation are available, the effects of pesticides on antioxidant enzyme levels is still unclear. In this communication, studies have been presented on the effects of organophosphate insecticide methyl-parathione and carbamate herbicide benthiocarb, on glutathione content, glutathione reductase (GR) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities of filamentous, nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria Nostoc muscorum.

Bhunia, A.K.; Roy, D.; Basu, N.K.; Chakrabarti, A.; Banerjee, S.K. (Univ. College of Science, Calcutta (India))

1991-08-01

260

Antioxidant enzyme activities of iron-saturated bovine lactoferrin (Fe-bLf) in human gut epithelial cells under oxidative stress.  

PubMed

Chemoprevention by dietary constituents in the form of functional food has emerged as a novel approach to control inflammatory diseases and cancers. Recently we reported for the first time that iron content is a critical determinant in the anti-tumour activity of bovine milk lactoferrin (bLf). We therefore wanted to evaluate the chemo-preventative efficacy of Apo-bLF and 100% iron-saturated bLF (Fe-bLF) on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced colon carcinogenesis, and their influence on antioxidant enzyme activities within colon carcinogenesis. This was undertaken through observing how oxidative stress induced by H2O2 alters antioxidant enzyme activity within HT29 colon cancer cells, and then observing changes in this activity by treatments with the different antioxidants ascorbic acid (AA), Apo-bLF and Fe-bLF. All antioxidant enzymes (catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-s-transferase (GsT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) appeared to be increased within HT29 cells, even prior to H2O2 exposure, and all enzymes showed significant decreased activity when cells were treated with the antioxidants AA, Apo-bLF or Fe-bLF, with or without H2O2 exposure. The results indicate that all three antioxidants have the ability to scavenge ROS, lower antioxidant enzyme activities within already excited states, and possibly allow colon cancer cells to be overcome by oxidative stress that would normally be prevented, perhaps leading to damage and potential apoptosis of the cancer cells. In conclusion, the anti-oxidative effects of Apo-bLF and Fe-bLf studied for the first time, show dynamic changes that may allow for necessary protection from imbalanced oxidative conditions, and potential at reducing the ability of cancer cells to protect themselves from oxidative stress states. PMID:21486205

Burrow, Hannah; Kanwar, Rupinder K; Kanwar, Jagat R

2011-05-01

261

Plasma Homocysteine Is Associated with Increased Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Enzyme Activity in Welders  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to examine the association of vitamin B6 status and plasma homocysteine with oxidative stress and antioxidant capacities in welders. Workers were divided into either the welding exposure group (n = 57) or the nonexposure controls (n = 42) based on whether they were employed as welders. There were no significant differences in vitamin B6 status and plasma homocysteine concentration between the welding exposure group and the nonexposure controls. The welding exposure group had significantly higher levels of oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and lower erythrocyte glutathione concentration and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities when compared to nonexposure controls. Plasma pyridoxal 5?-phosphate concentration did not correlate with oxidative stress indicators or antioxidant capacities in either group. However, plasma homocysteine significantly correlated with total antioxidant capacity (TAC) (partial rs = ?0.34, P < 0.05) and erythrocyte SOD activities (partial rs = 0.29, P < 0.05) after adjusting for potential confounders in the welding exposure group. In the welding exposure group, adequate vitamin B6 status was not associated with oxidative stress or antioxidant capacities. However, elevated plasma homocysteine seemed to be a major contributing factor to antioxidant capacities (TAC and erythrocyte SOD activities) in welders.

Liu, Hung-Hsin; Shih, Tung-Sheng; Huang, Hsin-Ru; Huang, Shih-Chien; Lee, Lien-Hsiung; Huang, Yi-Chia

2013-01-01

262

Effects of Cr(VI) long-term and low-dose action on mammalian antioxidant enzymes (an in vitro study)  

SciTech Connect

In order to investigate the low-dose long-term Cr(VI) action on antioxidant enzymes in cultured mammalian cells we estimated the activity of glutathione dependent antioxidant enzymes, catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) under various chromium concentrations in human epithelial-like L-41 cells. The long-term action of 20 mu-M causes the toxicity that results in losing of the cell viability by activating the apoptotic process, as identified by morphological analysis, the activation of caspase-3, and DNA fragmentation. The toxic chromium concentration totally destroys glutathione antioxidant system, and diminishes the activity of catalase and cytosolic Cu, ZnSOD. The non-toxic concentration (2 mu-M) causes the activation of the antioxidant defense systems, and they neutralize the oxidative impact.

Asatiani, N.; Sapojnikova, N.; Abuladze, M.; Kartvelishvili, T.L.; Kulikova, N.; Kiziria, E.; Namchevadze, E.; Holman, H.-Y.N.

2003-08-01

263

The Effect of Extra Virgin Olive Oil and Soybean on DNA, Cytogenicity and Some Antioxidant Enzymes in Rats  

PubMed Central

We investigated the effect of extra virgin (EV) olive oil and genetically modified (GM) soybean on DNA, cytogenicity and some antioxidant enzymes in rodents. Forty adult male albino rats were used in this study and divided into four groups. The control group of rodents was fed basal ration only. The second group was given basal ration mixed with EV olive oil (30%). The third group was fed basal ration mixed with GM (15%), and the fourth group survived on a combination of EV olive oil, GM and the basal ration for 65 consecutive days. On day 65, blood samples were collected from each rat for antioxidant enzyme analysis. In the group fed on basal ration mixed with GM soyabean (15%), there was a significant increase in serum level of lipid peroxidation, while glutathione transferase decreased significantly. Interestingly, GM soyabean increased not only the percentage of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MPCE), but also the ratio of polychromatic erythrocytes to normochromatic erythrocytes (PEC/NEC); however, the amount of DNA and NCE were significantly decreased. Importantly, the combination of EV olive oil and GM soyabean significantly altered the tested parameters towards normal levels. This may suggest an important role for EV olive oil on rodents’ organs and warrants further investigation in humans.

El-Kholy, Thanaa A.; Abu Hilal, Mohammad; Ali Al-Abbadi, Hatim; Salim Serafi, Abdulhalim; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmad K.; Sobhy, Hanan M.; Richardson, John R. C.

2014-01-01

264

The effect of extra virgin olive oil and soybean on DNA, cytogenicity and some antioxidant enzymes in rats.  

PubMed

We investigated the effect of extra virgin (EV) olive oil and genetically modified (GM) soybean on DNA, cytogenicity and some antioxidant enzymes in rodents. Forty adult male albino rats were used in this study and divided into four groups. The control group of rodents was fed basal ration only. The second group was given basal ration mixed with EV olive oil (30%). The third group was fed basal ration mixed with GM (15%), and the fourth group survived on a combination of EV olive oil, GM and the basal ration for 65 consecutive days. On day 65, blood samples were collected from each rat for antioxidant enzyme analysis. In the group fed on basal ration mixed with GM soyabean (15%), there was a significant increase in serum level of lipid peroxidation, while glutathione transferase decreased significantly. Interestingly, GM soyabean increased not only the percentage of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MPCE), but also the ratio of polychromatic erythrocytes to normochromatic erythrocytes (PEC/NEC); however, the amount of DNA and NCE were significantly decreased. Importantly, the combination of EV olive oil and GM soyabean significantly altered the tested parameters towards normal levels. This may suggest an important role for EV olive oil on rodents' organs and warrants further investigation in humans. PMID:24959949

El-Kholy, Thanaa A; Abu Hilal, Mohammad; Al-Abbadi, Hatim Ali; Serafi, Abdulhalim Salim; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmad K; Sobhy, Hanan M; Richardson, John R C

2014-06-01

265

The enhancement of antioxidant compounds extracted from Thymus vulgaris using enzymes and the effect of extracting solvent.  

PubMed

We evaluate the total phenolic compounds (TPC) content and the antioxidant activity (AA) of extracts obtained from ground fresh thyme (FT) and depleted thyme (DT), a by-product of the process of essential oil extraction. In addition, enzymatic treatments were evaluated to improve the extraction yields of polyphenolic compounds from thyme. Extractions were performed using several solvents as methanol, ethanol, and water. Enzymes were applied prior to extraction or during the extraction process. The best results were obtained using a mixture of methanol and water, resulting in 2790 and 220 mg Gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/L of TPC for FT and DT, respectively. A similar result was observed for AA. With regard to enzymatic treatment, application of Grindamyl CA 150 enzyme as a pre-treatment resulted in the production of an extract from DT with 614 mg TE (trolox equivalent)/L of AA, 70% more than the control, and an AA of 621 mg TE/L (74% more than the control sample) was obtained using Grindamyl CA 150 during the extraction process. These results suggest that enzymatic treatment is an interesting alternative for producing antioxidant extracts from DT. PMID:23561089

Cerda, Alejandra; Martínez, María Eugenia; Soto, Carmen; Poirrier, Paola; Perez-Correa, Jose R; Vergara-Salinas, Jose R; Zúñiga, María Elvira

2013-08-15

266

Effects of osmotic stress on antioxidant enzymes activities in leaf discs of PSAG12-IPT modified gerbera  

PubMed Central

Leaf senescence is often caused by water deficit and the chimeric gene PSAG12-IPT is an auto-regulated gene delaying leaf senescence. Using in vitro leaf discs culture system, the changes of contents of chlorophylls, carotenoids, soluble protein and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and antioxidant enzymes activities were investigated during leaf senescence of PSAGl2-IPT modified gerbera induced by osmotic stress compared with the control plant (wild type). Leaf discs were incubated in 20%, 40% (w/v) polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6 000 nutrient solution for 20 h under continuous light [130 µmol/(m2·s)]. The results showed that the contents of chlorophylls, carotenoids and soluble protein were decreased by osmotic stress with the decrease being more pronounced at 40% PEG, but that, at the same PEG concentration the decrease in the transgenic plants was significantly lower than that in the control plant. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalases (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) were stimulated by PEG treatment. However, the increases were higher in PSAG12-IPT transgenic plants than in the control plants, particularly at 40% PEG treatment. Lipid peroxidation (TBARS content) was increased by PEG treatment with the increase being much lower in transgenic plant than in the control plant. It could be concluded that the increases in the activities of antioxidant enzymes including SOD, CAT, APX, GPX and DHAR were responsible for the delay of leaf senescence induced by osmotic stress.

Lai, Qi-xian; Bao, Zhi-yi; Zhu, Zhu-jun; Qian, Qiong-qiu; Mao, Bi-zeng

2007-01-01

267

Bioactive compounds extracted from Indian wild legume seeds: antioxidant and type II diabetes-related enzyme inhibition properties.  

PubMed

Seven different wild legume seeds (Acacia leucophloea, Bauhinia variegata, Canavalia gladiata, Entada scandens, Mucuna pruriens, Sesbania bispinosa and Tamarindus indica) from various parts of India were analyzed for total free phenolics, l-Dopa (l-3,4 dihydroxyphenylalanine), phytic acid and their antioxidant capacity (ferric-reducing antioxidant power [FRAP] and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl [DPPH] assay) and type II diabetes-related enzyme inhibition activitiy (?-amylase). S. bispinosa had the highest content in both total free phenolics and l-Dopa, and relatively low phytic acid when compared with other seeds. Phytic acid content, being highest in E. scandens, M. pruriens and T. indica, was highly predictive for FRAP (r = 0.47, p < 0.05) and DPPH (r = 0.66, p < 0.001) assays. The phenolic extract from T. indica and l-Dopa extract from E. scandens showed significantly higher FRAP values among others. All seed extracts demonstrated a remarkable reducing power (7-145 mM FeSO4 per mg extract), DPPH radical scavenging activity (16-95%) and ?-amylase enzyme inhibition activity (28-40%). PMID:21970446

Gautam, Basanta; Vadivel, Vellingiri; Stuetz, Wolfgang; Biesalski, Hans K

2012-03-01

268

Antioxidant Enzyme Activity and Malondialdehyde Concentration in the Plasma and Erythrocytes of Patients With Urticaria Induced by Nonsteroidal Anti-infl ammatory Drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract Background: It has been suggested that oxidative stress is a crucial event in some forms of urticaria. Aim: To evaluate the blood oxidant\\/antioxidant profi le of patients suffering from urticaria induced by nonsteroidal anti-infl ammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Methods: We measured the activity of the antioxidant enzymes copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu\\/ZnSOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and catalase (CAT), and the

A Kasperska-Zajac; Z Brzoza; B Rogala; R Polaniak; E Birkner

269

Diabetic retinopathy is associated with oxidative stress and mitigation of gene expression of antioxidant enzymes  

PubMed Central

Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disease associated with serious complications, including diabetic retinopathy (DR). The authors’ main aim was to investigate biochemical parameters and the oxidative stress associated with the type 2 DR patients and to study gene expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) among patients with DR [DR(+)] compared with a control nondiabetic group. In all, 67 patients with DR included in this study were diabetic for more than 10 years. Among them, 22 patients were DR(+), and 45 patients did not have DR [DR(?)]. The subjects’ age range was 14 years to 80 years old with diabetes duration range between 2 and 45 years. Body mass index (BMI) was 31.43 ± 5.94 and 32.33 ± 6.54, systolic blood pressure was 117.15 ± 18.16 mmHg and 126.15 ± 20.26 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure was 81.11 ± 10.55 mmHg and 82.77 ± 10.85 mmHg, HbA1c was 7.2 ± 1.1 and 8.19 ± 1.95, serum total cholesterol was 6.61 ± 1.11 and 4.11 ± 0.31, serum triglycerides were 3.52 ± 0.89 and 3.42 ± 0.79, serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) was 2.12 ± 0.10 and 2.42 ± 0.15, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) was 2.66 ± 0.30 and 2.55 ± 0.21, SOD was 3.12 ± 0.87 and 1.53 ± 0.14, GPx was 11.14 ± 2.21 and 8.2 ± 1.84, CAT was 26.43 ± 3.34 and 9.60 ± 2.14, for DR(?) and DR(+) patients, respectively. SOD, GPx and CAT polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products of the DR(+) patients revealed the diminished expression of CAT gene followed by GPx and SOD genes. All were significant compared with the normal controls, P < 0.05. Linear regression analysis revealed a strong significant positive correlation between the retinopathy grade and the diastolic blood pressure, diabetes duration, hemoglobin A1c (HA1c)%, and fasting blood glucose (P < 0.001). A marginally significant positive correlation between the retinopathy grade and LDL-cholesterol was observed (P < 0.05), and a significant negative correlation between the retinopathy grade and total cholesterol was observed (P < 0.05). Poor glycemic control and alteration in mRNA gene expression of antioxidant enzymes are strongly associated with development of DR and the regular screening is mandatory for early detection and treatment.

El-Bab, Mohamed Fath; Zaki, Nashaat S; Mojaddidi, Moaz A; AL-Barry, Maan; El-Beshbishy, Hesham A

2013-01-01

270

Oxidative Stress, DNA Damage, and Antioxidant Enzyme Activity Induced by Hexavalent Chromium in Sprague-Dawley Rats  

PubMed Central

Chromium is a widespread industrial compound. The soluble hexavalent chromium Cr (VI) is an environmental contaminant widely recognized as carcinogen, mutagen, and teratogen toward humans and animals. The fate of chromium in the environment is dependent on its oxidation state. The reduction of Cr (VI) to Cr (III) results in the formation of reactive intermediates leading to oxidative tissue damage and cellular injury. In the present investigation, Potassium dichromate was given intraperitoneally to Sprague-Dawley rats for 5 days with the doses of 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10 mg/kg body weight per day. Oxidative stress including the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the extent of lipid peroxidation and the activity of antioxidant enzymes in both liver and kidney was determined. DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes was determined by single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay). The results indicated that administration of Cr (VI) had caused a significant increase of ROS level in both liver and kidney after 5 days of exposure, accompanied with a dose-dependent increase in superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. The malondialdehyde content in liver and kidney was elevated as compared with the control animals. Dose- and time-dependent effects were observed on DNA damage after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h posttreatment. The results obtained from the present study showed that Cr (VI) could induce dose- and time-dependent effects on DNA damage, both liver and kidney show defense against chromium-induced oxidative stress by enhancing their antioxidant enzyme activity. However, liver was found to exhibit more antioxidant defense than the kidney.

Patlolla, Anita K.; Barnes, Constance; Yedjou, Clement; Velma, V. R.; Tchounwou, Paul B.

2009-01-01

271

Chemomodulatory action of Brassica compestris (var sarason) on hepatic carcinogen metabolizing enzymes, antioxidant profiles and lipid peroxidation.  

PubMed

The effect of two different doses (400 and 800 mg/kg body wt/day for 15 days) of a 95% ethanolic extract of the seeds of Brassica compestris (var sarason) was examined on carcinogen metabolizing phase-I and phase-II enzymes,antioxidant enzymes and glutathione content and lipid peroxidation in the liver of Swiss albino mice. Positive control mice were treated with butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). Significant elevation in the levels of cytochrome p450 (p<0,.05), cytochrome b5 (p < 0.05) glutathione s-transferase (p<0.01), DT-diaphorase (p<0.05), superoxide dismutase (p<0.01), catalase (p < 0.001) and reduced glutathione (p<0.001) was noted in the group treated with 800 mg/kg body wt. of Brassica extract in comparison with the negative control group. Brassica compestris acted as a bifunctional inducer since it induced both phase - I and phase - H enzyme systems. Since phase-I and phase-II enzymes are considered to be reliable markers for evaluating the chemoprevention efficacy of particular test materials,these findings are suggestive of potential chemopreventive roles for Brassica seed extract. PMID:15244524

Kumar, Ashok; Qiblawi, Samir; Khan, A K; Banerjee, S; Rao, A R

2004-01-01

272

Fungal enzymes as a powerful tool to release antioxidants from olive mill wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enzymatic hydrolysis of olive mill wastewater compounds (OMW) using culture broth of Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma atroviride and Trametes trogii was tested in order to release free simple phenolic compounds having high antioxidant activity. HPLC analysis of treated and untreated OMW indicated the release of large amounts of free hydroxytyrosol (HT). Enzymatic pre-treatment of OMW by A. niger and T. atroviride

Manel Hamza; Sonia Khoufi; Sami Sayadi

273

Allopurinol and reperfusion-induced arrhythmias: Increased protection by simultaneous administration of anti-oxidant enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have assessed whether the xanthine oxidase inhibitor, allopurinol, can afford maximal protection against the formation of reperfusion-induced arrhythmias or whether the addition of free radical scavengers and anti-oxidants can increase this protection. Using an anesthetized rat preparation with transient coronary artery occlusion, we have compared the ability of allopurinol pretreatment alone to that of a combination therapy of allopurinol,

Renata Crome; Allan S. Manning

1988-01-01

274

Antioxidant effects of Etlingera elatior flower extract against lead acetate - induced perturbations in free radical scavenging enzymes and lipid peroxidation in rats  

PubMed Central

Background Etlingera elatior or 'pink torch ginger' (Zingiberaceae) are widely cultivated in tropical countries and used as spices and food flavoring. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant effects of Etlingera elatior against lead - induced changes in serum free radical scavenging enzymes and lipid hydroperoxides in rats. Findings Rats were exposed to lead acetate in drinking water (500 ppm) for 14 days alone or plus the ethanol extract of E. elatior (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg). Blood lead levels, lipid hydroperoxides, protein carbonyl contents and oxidative marker enzymes were estimated. Lead acetate in drinking water elicited a significant increase in lipid hydroperoxides (LPO) and protein-carbonyl-contents (PCC). There was a significant decrease in total antioxidants, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase levels with lead acetate treatment. Supplementation of E. elatior was associated with reduced serum LPO and PCC and a significant increase in total antioxidants and antioxidant enzyme levels. Conclusions The results suggest that flower extract of Etlingera elatior has powerful antioxidant effect against lead - induced oxidative stress and the extract may be useful therapeutic agent against lead toxicity. However, detailed evaluations are required to identify the active antioxidant compounds from this plant extract.

2011-01-01

275

Abscisic acid-induced apoplastic H2O2 accumulation up-regulates the activities of chloroplastic and cytosolic antioxidant enzymes in maize leaves.  

PubMed

The histochemical and cytochemical localization of abscisic acid (ABA)-induced H(2)O(2) production in leaves of maize (Zea mays L.) plants were examined, using 3,3-diaminobenzidine (DAB) and CeCl(3) staining, respectively, and the relationship between ABA-induced H(2)O(2) production and ABA-induced subcellular activities of antioxidant enzymes was studied. H(2)O(2) generated in response to ABA treatment was detected within 0.5 h in major veins of the leaves and maximized at about 2-4 h. In mesophyll and bundle sheath cells, ABA-induced H(2)O(2) accumulation was observed only in apoplast, and the greatest accumulation occurred in the walls of mesophyll cells facing large intercellular spaces. Meanwhile, ABA treatment led to a significant increase in the activities of the leaf chloroplastic and cytosolic antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR), and pretreatment with the NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), the O (2) (-) scavenger Tiron and the H(2)O(2) scavenger dimethylthiourea (DMTU) almost completely arrested the increase in the activities of these antioxidant enzymes. Our results indicate that the accumulation of apoplastic H(2)O(2) is involved in the induction of the chloroplastic and cytosolic antioxidant enzymes. Moreover, an oxidative stress induced by paraquat (PQ), which generates O (2) (-) and then H(2)O(2) in chloroplasts, also up-regulated the activities of the chloroplastic and cytosolic antioxidant enzymes, and the up-regulation was blocked by the pretreatment with Tiron and DMTU. These data suggest that H(2)O(2) produced at a specific cellular site could coordinate the activities of antioxidant enzymes in different subcellular compartments. PMID:16049674

Hu, Xiuli; Jiang, Mingyi; Zhang, Aying; Lu, Jun

2005-12-01

276

Enzyme  

MedlinePLUS

Enzymes are complex proteins that cause a specific chemical change in all parts of the body. For ... use them. Blood clotting is another example of enzymes at work. Enzymes are needed for all body ...

277

Effects of age increment and 36-week exercise training on antioxidant enzymes and apoptosis in rat heart tissue.  

PubMed

This study investigated the onset of age-related changes in the myocardial antioxidant enzymes and apoptosis and the vulnerability of the myocardium to oxidative stress following exercise training. Few studies have investigated the influence of the most prevalent life-prolonging strategy physical exercise, on the age increment alterations in the myocardial antioxidant enzymes and apoptosis at mid age and to determine whether exercise-induced antioxidant defense system could attenuate lipid peroxidation. Thirty six male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to exercise trained (n = 18) and sedentary (n = 18) groups. The rats in the training group went under 12, 24 and 36 weeks of moderate exercise trainings (25 m·min(-1) for 60-min with a 0% slope). Six sedentary controls were killed together with each exercise group at the end of the training programs. Levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and catalase (CAT) activity in myocardial homogenates were unchanged by training irrespective of the protocol duration. However, an increased content of the TBARS was detected in hearts from both the 24 and 36-week trained and sedentary control rats when compared with their corresponding 12-week groups (p<0.01). The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) remained unchanged after the 12-week training period whereas a significant increase was observed in heart homogenates of 24-week trained animals as compared with their sedentary controls (p<0.05). The activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPX) remained unchanged. The rates of apoptosis which was detected by ELISA assays, were significantly modified after 24 and 36-week of training (p<0.05). These results demonstrate that a long-term endurance training (24 weeks) induced increases in SOD activities in rat myocardium and elicited a marked reduction in apoptosis rate. However, a shorter training program (12 weeks) was not effective in increasing heart antioxidant defenses. Key pointsExercise training induces activity of myocardial SOD.Long-term regular moderate-intensity exercise decreases the rate of myocardial apoptosis.Short-term regular moderate-intensity exercises do not change the rate of myocardial anti oxidant capacity and apoptosis. PMID:24149335

Ahmadiasl, Nasser; Soufi, Farhad Ghadiri; Alipour, Mohammadreza; Bonyadi, Mohammadreza; Sheikhzadeh, Farzam; Vatankhah, Amirmansour; Salehi, Iraj; Mesgari, Mehran

2007-01-01

278

Effects of Age Increment and 36-Week Exercise Training on Antioxidant Enzymes and Apoptosis in Rat Heart Tissue  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the onset of age-related changes in the myocardial antioxidant enzymes and apoptosis and the vulnerability of the myocardium to oxidative stress following exercise training. Few studies have investigated the influence of the most prevalent life-prolonging strategy physical exercise, on the age increment alterations in the myocardial antioxidant enzymes and apoptosis at mid age and to determine whether exercise-induced antioxidant defense system could attenuate lipid peroxidation. Thirty six male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to exercise trained (n = 18) and sedentary (n = 18) groups. The rats in the training group went under 12, 24 and 36 weeks of moderate exercise trainings (25 m·min-1 for 60-min with a 0% slope). Six sedentary controls were killed together with each exercise group at the end of the training programs. Levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and catalase (CAT) activity in myocardial homogenates were unchanged by training irrespective of the protocol duration. However, an increased content of the TBARS was detected in hearts from both the 24 and 36-week trained and sedentary control rats when compared with their corresponding 12-week groups (p<0.01). The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) remained unchanged after the 12-week training period whereas a significant increase was observed in heart homogenates of 24-week trained animals as compared with their sedentary controls (p<0.05). The activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPX) remained unchanged. The rates of apoptosis which was detected by ELISA assays, were significantly modified after 24 and 36-week of training (p<0.05). These results demonstrate that a long-term endurance training (24 weeks) induced increases in SOD activities in rat myocardium and elicited a marked reduction in apoptosis rate. However, a shorter training program (12 weeks) was not effective in increasing heart antioxidant defenses. Key pointsExercise training induces activity of myocardial SOD.Long-term regular moderate-intensity exercise decreases the rate of myocardial apoptosis.Short-term regular moderate-intensity exercises do not change the rate of myocardial anti oxidant capacity and apoptosis

Ahmadiasl, Nasser; Soufi, Farhad Ghadiri; Alipour, Mohammadreza; Bonyadi, Mohammadreza; Sheikhzadeh, Farzam; Vatankhah, Amirmansour; Salehi, Iraj; Mesgari, Mehran

2007-01-01

279

Upregulation of intracellular antioxidant enzymes in brain and heart during estivation in the African lungfish Protopterus dolloi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The African slender lungfish, Protopterus dolloi, is highly adapted to withstand periods of drought by secreting a mucous cocoon and estivating for periods of months to years.\\u000a Estivation is similar to the diapause and hibernation of other animal species in that it is characterized by negligible activity\\u000a and a profoundly depressed metabolic rate. As is typically observed in quiescent states,

Melissa M. Page; Kurtis D. Salway; Yuen Kwong Ip; Shit F. Chew; Sarah A. Warren; James S. Ballantyne; Jeffrey A. Stuart

2010-01-01

280

Effect of feeding blended and interesterified vegetable oils on antioxidant enzymes in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of feeding blended and interesterified oils prepared using coconut oil (CNO) with rice bran oil (RBO) or sesame oil (SESO), with a polyunsaturated\\/saturated (P\\/S) ratio of 0.8–1.0, on oxidative stress and endogenous antioxidant system. Feeding blended oils resulted in significantly increased hepatic lipid peroxide levels in rats given blended oil CNO+RBO

Malongil B. Reena; Belur R. Lokesh

2011-01-01

281

The effects of acute melatonin and ethanol treatment on antioxidant enzyme activities in rat testes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pineal hormone melatonin (N -acetyl, 5-methoxytryptamine) was recently accepted to act as an antioxidant under both in vivo and in vitro conditions. In this study, we examined the possible preventive effect of melatonin on ethanol-induced lipid peroxidation in rat testes. Thirty-seven male Wistar albino rats, 5.5–6 months old, were randomly divided into four groups (9–10 animals in each). The

Y. Öner-?yidogan; F. Gürdöl; P. Öner

2001-01-01

282

Antioxidant enzyme status in biliary obstructed rats: effects of N-acetylcystee  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a modulator of thiol levels that protects against hepato- toxic agents. The aim of this study was to investigate whether NAC might improve hepatic antioxidant de- fenses in chronically biliary obstructed rats. Methods: Secondary biliary cirrhosis was induced by 28 days of bile-duct obstruction. Groups of control and cirrhotic animals received NAC (50 ~01 - kg-'

Ana Pastor; Pilar S. Collado; M. Almar; Javier Gonzalez-Gallego

283

Lipid peroxidation and the levels of antioxidant enzymes in coronary artery disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coronary Artery Disease is the major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Traditional risk factors account for only\\u000a half of the morbidity and mortality from coronary artery disease. There is substantial evidence that oxidative stress plays\\u000a the major role in the atherosclerotic process. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the level of lipid peroxidation\\u000a (by measuring malondialdehyde) and antioxidant

K. Kaur; G. Bedi; M. Kaur; Anil Vij; Inderpreet Kaur

2008-01-01

284

Exogenous paraquat changes antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation in drought-stressed cucumber leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to examine whether paraquat modifies the functioning of antioxidants and oxidative stress levels in drought-stressed plants, a cucumber cultivar (Cucumis sativus cv. Yuexiu no. 3) was grown hydroponically for 2 days. Drought stress, which was induced by polyethylene glycol (PEG), increased the contents of malonaldehyde (MDA), superoxide radical (O2?) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in cucumber leaves, while pretreatment

Zhong-Jing Liu; Xiao-Long Zhang; Ji-Gang Bai; Bang-Xia Suo; Pei-Lei Xu; Lin Wang

2009-01-01

285

Effect of cadmium on lipid peroxidation and activities of antioxidant enzymes in growing pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH) content, total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione\\u000a peroxidase (GSH-Px), and glutathione transferase (GST) activities were studied in serum, liver, and kidney of growing pigs\\u000a after graded doses of cadmium administration in diets. One hundred ninety-two barrows (Duroc x Landrace x Yorkshire), with\\u000a similar initial body weight 27.67±1.33 kg, were randomly allotted into 4

Xin-Yan Han; Zi-Rong Xu; Yi-Zhen Wang; Qi-Chun Huang

2006-01-01

286

Phytoestrogens enhance antioxidant enzymes after swimming exercise and modulate sex hormone plasma levels in female swimmers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our aim was to investigate the effects of diet supplementation with phytoestrogens on sex hormone levels, antioxidant adaptive\\u000a responses and oxidative damage induced by exercise. Ten female swimmers participated for 26 days in a diet intervention with\\u000a either a functional beverage rich in vitamins C and E or the same beverage but also supplemented with Lippia citriodora extract (PLX) containing 20 mg\\/100 ml

Antonia Mestre-Alfaro; Miguel D. Ferrer; Antoni Sureda; Pedro Tauler; Elisa Martínez; Maria M. Bibiloni; Vicente Micol; Josep A. Tur; Antoni Pons

287

Effect of defatting and enzyme type on antioxidative activity of shrimp processing byproducts hydrolysate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shrimp processing byproducts (SPB) was digested by 6 proteases (trypsin, pepsin, neutrase, Protamex, Flavourzyme, and Alcalase)\\u000a to produce antioxidative peptides. Both degree of hydrolysis (DH) and DPPH radical scavenging activity (DSA) of the Alcalase\\u000a hydrolysate were the highest of all. The effect of defatting on DH and DSA of the Alcalase hydrolysate was significant. The\\u000a DH decreased while the DSA

Guang-Rong Huang; Jing Zhao; Jia-Xin Jiang

2011-01-01

288

Enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant activities of Viburnum tinus L. relevant to its neuroprotective potential.  

PubMed

In vitro neuroprotective activity of the extracts of Viburnum tinus L. was investigated via inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), and tyrosinase (TYRO) by microtitre plate assays. Their antioxidant activity was tested using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylendiamine (DMPD), super oxide (SO), and nitric oxide (NO) radical-scavenging activities, ferric ion-chelation capacity, ferric- (FRAP), and phosphomolybdenum-reducing antioxidant power (PRAP) assays. Total phenol and flavonoid content of the extracts was determined spectrophotometrically. The branch-ethyl acetate and fruit-methanol extracts exerted potent anticholinesterase effects (66.4 ± 0.65% to 97.7 ± 0.47%), while the fruit-methanol extract had the highest TYRO inhibition (47.0 ± 0.68%). The methanol extracts showed higher activities in most of the antioxidant tests. All the extracts displayed notable NO-scavenging effects (47.5 ± 5.03% to 74.5 ± 1.80%). Only the fruit-ethyl acetate extract quenched SO radical (38.4 ± 1.01%) at 500 ?g ml(-1). Our data indicate that the fruit and branch extracts of V. tinus may provide potential neuroprotection. PMID:23768397

Y?lmaz, Betül Sever; Altun, Mehmet Levent; Orhan, Ilkay Erdogan; Ergene, Burcin; Citoglu, Gülcin Saltan

2013-11-01

289

The role of intracellular signaling in insulin-mediated regulation of drug metabolizing enzyme gene and protein expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endogenous factors, including hormones, growth factors and cytokines, play an important role in the regulation of hepatic drug metabolizing enzyme expression in both physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Diabetes, fasting, obesity, protein-calorie malnutrition and long-term alcohol consumption produce changes in hepatic drug metabolizing enzyme gene and protein expression. This difference in expression alters the metabolism of xenobiotics, including procarcinogens, carcinogens, toxicants

Sang K. Kim; Raymond F. Novak

2007-01-01

290

Effect of reactive oxygen and carbonyl species on crucial cellular antioxidant enzymes.  

PubMed

Numerous reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive carbonyl species (RCS) issuing from lipid and sugar oxidation are known to damage a large number of proteins leading to enzyme inhibition and alteration of cellular functions. Whereas studies in literature only focus on the reactivity of one or two of these compounds, we aimed at comparing in the same conditions of incubations (4 and 24h at 37°C) the effects of both various RCS (4-hydroxynonenal, 4-hydroxyhexenal, acrolein, methylglyoxal, glyoxal, malondialdehyde) and ROS (H?O?, AAPH) on the activity of key enzymes involved in cellular oxidative stress: superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH). This was realized both in vitro on purified proteins and MIAPaCa-2 cells. Incubation of these enzymes with RCS resulted in a significant time- and concentration-dependent inhibition for both pure enzymes and in cell lysates. Among all RCS and ROS, hydroxynonenal (HNE) was observed as the most toxic for all studied enzymes except for SOD and is followed by hydrogen peroxide. At 100?M, HNE resulted in a 50% reduction of GPx, 56% of GST, 65% of G6PDH, and only 10% of Cu,Zn-SOD. Meanwhile it seems that concentrations used in our study are closer to biological conditions for ROS than for RCS. H?O? and AAPH-induced peroxyl radicals may be probably more toxic towards the studied enzymes in vivo. PMID:21216240

Lesgards, Jean-François; Gauthier, Cyrielle; Iovanna, Juan; Vidal, Nicolas; Dolla, Alain; Stocker, Pierre

2011-03-15

291

Antioxidative peptides derived from enzyme hydrolysis of bone collagen after microwave assisted acid pre-treatment and nitrogen protection.  

PubMed

This study focused on the preparation method of antioxidant peptides by enzymatic hydrolysis of bone collagen after microwave assisted acid pre-treatment and nitrogen protection. Phosphoric acid showed the highest ability of hydrolysis among the four other acids tested (hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid and/or citric acid). The highest degree of hydrolysis (DH) was 9.5% using 4 mol/L phosphoric acid with a ratio of 1:6 under a microwave intensity of 510 W for 240 s. Neutral proteinase gave higher DH among the four protease tested (Acid protease, neutral protease, Alcalase and papain), with an optimum condition of: (1) ratio of enzyme and substrate, 4760 U/g; (2) concentration of substrate, 4%; (3) reaction temperature, 55 °C and (4) pH 7.0. At 4 h, DH increased significantly (P < 0.01) under nitrogen protection compared with normal microwave assisted acid pre-treatment hydrolysis conditions. The antioxidant ability of the hydrolysate increased and reached its maximum value at 3 h; however DH decreased dramatically after 3 h. Microwave assisted acid pre-treatment and nitrogen protection could be a quick preparatory method for hydrolyzing bone collagen. PMID:21151439

Lin, Yun-Jian; Le, Guo-Wei; Wang, Jie-Yun; Li, Ya-Xin; Shi, Yong-Hui; Sun, Jin

2010-01-01

292

Effect of grazing pastures of different botanical composition on antioxidant enzyme activities and oxidative stability of lamb meat.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to study the influence of different pastures (Intensive ryegrass, Botanically diverse and Leguminosa rich pastures) on the antioxidant status and oxidative stability of meat from lambs that had been exclusively grazing for three months. Lipid, colour and protein oxidation, ?-tocopherol content and activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (Cat) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px)) were measured in Longisimus thoracis et lumborum muscle samples taken 1 day after slaughter. Pasture type significantly affected protein oxidation and the activity of GSH-Px, but no significant differences were found for the ?-tocopherol content, colour and lipid oxidation, and the activities of SOD and Cat. Grazing a Botanically diverse pasture induced significantly higher protein oxidation in meat, as measured by the free thiol and carbonyl contents, compared to a Leguminosa rich or Intensive ryegrass pasture (P<0.05). The GSH-Px activity was significantly higher in meat from lambs on the Leguminosa rich pasture compared to the other pasture groups (P<0.01). PMID:22064039

Petron, M J; Raes, K; Claeys, E; Lourenço, M; Fremaut, D; De Smet, S

2007-04-01

293

Effects of progesterone application on antioxidant enzyme activities and K+/Na+ ratio in bean seeds exposed to salt stress.  

PubMed

This study aimed to investigate the influence of progesterone, a mammalian sex hormone, on germination of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds exposed to salt stress. The exogenous addition of 10(-6), 10(-8) and 10(-10) M progesterone to the stressing media in which bean seeds were germinated in combination with the salt (100 mM NaCl) stressor induced significant protective changes in the germination and early growth parameters. The mitigating effect of progesterone was evaluated by the measurement of radicle and plumule lengths, activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POX) and catalase (CAT). In addition, it is the first study that exhibited changes in K/Na ratio. The obtained results showed that progesterone application stimulated germination and growth of salt-stressed seeds. Similarly, it stimulated significantly SOD, POX and CAT activities compared to both control and salt control. Salt stress significantly increased the lipid peroxidation compared to the control seeds. However, parallel to the increase in antioxidant activity, lipid peroxidation was significantly reduced by progesterone application. The best stimulatory effects on investigated parameters were recorded at 10(-8) M progesterone-applied seeds. On the other hand, salt stress reduced remarkably K/Na ratio by 50% in radicle and by 80% in plumule. However, progesterone application significantly mitigated the reduction in K/Na ratio. These findings clearly demonstrate that progesterone has a positive role in moderate detrimental effects induced by salt. PMID:22258627

Erdal, Serkan; Genisel, Mucip; Turk, Hulya; Gorcek, Zeynep

2012-11-01

294

Increased Levels of 8-Hydroxydeoxyguanosine and Malondialdehyde and its Relationship with Antioxidant Enzymes in Saliva of Periodontitis Patients  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities in whole saliva of patients with chronic periodontitis. Moreover, the relationship among the oxidative damage biomarkers, antioxidant enzymes activities and clinical periodontal status were investigated. Methods: Whole saliva samples were collected from 30 patients with chronic periodontitis and 30 periodontally healthy control. To determine the clinical condition of each subject, the plaque index, gingival index, clinical attachment level, and probing depth were measured. The salivary 8-OHdG level was measured using the ELISA method. SOD and GPx activities and MDA levels were determined spectrophotometrically. Results: Higher salivary 8-OHdG and MDA levels (P<.001), and lower salivary SOD and GPx activities (P<.05) were detected in periodontitis patients compared to the healthy controls. Additionally, there were significant negative correlations between salivary levels of 8-OHdG and both salivary SOD and GPx activities as well as between salivary levels of MDA and both salivary SOD and GPx activities (P<.001). Conclusions: Higher salivary 8-OHdG and MDA levels and lower salivary antioxidant activities seem to reflect increased oxygen radical activity during periodontal inflammation.

Canakci, Cenk Fatih; Cicek, Yasin; Yildirim, Abdulkadir; Sezer, Ufuk; Canakci, Varol

2009-01-01

295

Effects of Single Exposure of Sodium Fluoride on Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Enzymes in Salivary Glands of Rats  

PubMed Central

Many studies suggest that fluoride exposure can inhibit the activity of various enzymes and can generate free radicals, which interfere with antioxidant defence mechanisms in living systems. To further the understanding of this issue, this present study examined the effects of low-dose fluoride treatment on the activity of enzymatic antioxidant superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), as well as the levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the parotid (PA) and submandibular (SM) salivary glands of rats. Rats were injected with a single dose of sodium fluoride (NaF) (15?mg?F?/kg b.w.) then euthanized at various time intervals up to 24 hours (h) following exposure. NaF exposure did not cause significant differences in SOD or CAT activity or LPO levels in PA glands compared to control. Conversely, SM glands presented increased SOD activity after 3?h and decreased SOD activity after 1, 12, and 24?h, while LPO was increased after 6, 12, and 24?h of the NaF injection. There were no significant differences in the CAT activity in the groups studied. Our results demonstrated that NaF intoxication caused oxidative stress in salivary glands few hours after administration. These changes were more pronounced in SM than in PA gland.

Yamaguti, Paula Mochidome; Simoes, Alyne; Ganzerla, Emily; Souza, Douglas Nesadal; Nogueira, Fernando Neves; Nicolau, Jose

2013-01-01

296

Potential toxic effect of trifloxystrobin on cellular microstructure, mRNA expression and antioxidant enzymes in Chlorella vulgaris.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effects of trifloxystrobin that one strobilurin used widely in the world as an effective fungicidal agent to control Asian soybean rust on aquatic unicellular algae Chlorella vulgaris. We determined the potential toxic effect of trifloxystrobin on C. vulgaris, and found median inhibition concentration (IC50) value 255.58 (95% confidence interval, 207.81-330.29)?gL(-1). In addition, the algal cells were obviously depressed or shrunk at different concentrations by electron microscopy. In the study, a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay showed changes in transcript abundances of three photosynthetic genes, psaB, psbC, and rbcL, and one energy gene, ATPs. The results showed that trifloxystrobin reduced the transcript abundances of the three genes and enhanced expression of ATPs after 48 and 96h. The lowest abundances of psaB, psbC and rbcL transcripts in response to trifloxystrobin exposure were 58%, 79% and 60% of those of the control, respectively. For the potential toxic influences, trifloxystrobin could decrease the soluble protein and total antioxidant contents (T-AOC), and increase superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activity with a gradual concentration-response relationship. Overall, the present study demonstrated that trifloxystrobin could affect the activities of antioxidant enzymes, disrupts photosynthesis in C. vulgaris, and damage cellular structure. PMID:24762415

Shen, Yu-Feng; Liu, Lei; Gong, Yu-Xin; Zhu, Bin; Liu, Guang-Lu; Wang, Gao-Xue

2014-05-01

297

The effect of progressive resistance training on oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activity in erythrocytes in untrained men.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of progressive resistance-training (PRT) on plasma oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activity in erythrocytes. Twenty male volunteers were randomly assigned to 2 groups: PRT and control. Blood samples were collected before and after 8 wk of PRT and analyzed for enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in erythrocytes, plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and malondialdehyde concentration (MDA, an index of lipid per oxida- tion in plasma). Resistance training commenced with 8 exercises on nonconsecutive days for 8 wk at 50% of estimated 1-repetition maximum (E1RM) and reached 80% E1RM by Week 8. The results showed that PRT significantly increased erythrocyte SOD activity (1,323 ± 212.52 vs. 1,449.9 ± 173.8 U/g Hb, p = .014). Plasma concentration of MDA also decreased (5.39 ± 1.7 vs. 3.67.4 ± 0.7 nmol/ml, p = .030), although TAC (1.42 ± 0.21 vs. 1.61 ± 0.19 mmol/L, p = .1530) and GPx (39.87 ± 11.5 vs. 48.18 ± 14.48 U/g Hb, p = .883) activity did not undergo any considerable changes. Based on these data, the authors conclude that an 8-wk program of PRT strengthens the defensive system of erythrocytes against free-radical damage and therefore can be applied as a useful approach to alleviate oxidative stress. PMID:23239675

Azizbeigi, Kamal; Azarbayjani, Mohammad Ali; Peeri, Maghsoud; Agha-alinejad, Hamid; Stannard, Stephen

2013-06-01

298

Influence of extremely low-frequency magnetic field on the activity of antioxidant enzymes during skin wound healing in rats.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of the antioxidant enzymes mitochondrial and cytosolic superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1), glutathione peroxidase (POX, EC 1.11.1.9) and glutathione S-transferase (EC 3.1.2.7), as well as the concentration of malone dialdehyde (MDA), as an indicator of lipid peroxidation rate in the liver tissue homogenates and blood serum of male rats exposed to extremely low-frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF) in order to improve the healing process of an experimental cut wound on the back of each animal. The exposure to ELF-MF with frequency 40 Hz and magnetic flux density 10 mT induced an increase in POX serum activity and a decrease in MDA contents in the liver tissue, which suggests the inhibition of phospholipid peroxidation and subsequent stabilization of cellular membranes, as a result of ELF-MF action. Based on the results obtained, it seems that ELF-MF could be a useful supplement in the complex treatment of prolonged wound healing, due to the activation of endogenous enzymatic antioxidant system. PMID:23323798

Glinka, Marek; Siero?, Aleksander; Birkner, Ewa; Cie?lar, Grzegorz

2013-12-01

299

Ecotoxicological effects of a veterinary food additive, copper sulphate, on antioxidant enzymes and mRNA expression in earthworms.  

PubMed

The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of the veterinary food additive copper sulphate (CuSO?) on the eco-toxicological responses of earthworms Eisenia fetida (E. fetida). The following biomarkers were measured: catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities. Gene expression analyses such as metallothionein (MT) and heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) were also examined. A time-dependent increase of CAT activity was found at 400 mg/kg and SOD activity at 200 and 400 mg/kg. The highest expression of Hsp70 (4.4-fold) was observed at day 15 at 400 mg/kg. Our results indicated that the measured antioxidant enzymes (except GST) had the ability to provide antioxidant defenses against the stressor; and compared to expression of MT, expression of Hsp70 could be more reliable molecular tools with predictive possibilities to monitor the eco-toxicity of stressors such as feed additive CuSO?. PMID:24322621

Xiong, Wenguang; Ding, Xueyao; Zhang, Yiming; Sun, Yongxue

2014-01-01

300

Effects of sago starch content in the diet on lipid peroxidation and antioxidative enzyme activities in rats.  

PubMed

The effects of sago starch content in diets on the status of lipid peroxidation and antioxidative enzyme activities were examined with rats fed cholesterol-free and cholesterol-enriched diets. Despite the diets with and without supplemental cholesterol, both food intake and the value of plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) showed a lower tendency or lower values in the rats fed the diet with a high ratio of sago starch as compared to a low ratio. Liver superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities, and serum and liver alpha-tocopherol concentrations were higher in the rats fed the cholesterol-free and enriched diets with a high ratio of sago starch as compared to a low ratio. From these results, it was suggested that a higher ratio of sago starch in the diet may be useful to keep the in vivo oxidative status at a lower level. PMID:12882401

Hirao, Kazuko; Igarashi, Kiharu

2003-02-01

301

Enantioselective effect of bifenthrin on antioxidant enzyme gene expression and stress protein response in PC12 cells.  

PubMed

Enantioselectivity in toxicology and the health risk of chiral xenobiotics have become frontier topics interfacing chemistry and toxicology. Our previous results showed that cis-bifenthrin (cis-BF) induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in vitro in an enantioselective manner. However, the exact molecular mechanisms of synthetic pyrethroid-induced enantioselective apoptosis and cytotoxicity have so far received limited research attention. In the present study, the expression patterns of different genes encoding heat shock protein and antioxidant enzymes were investigated by real-time quantitative PCR in rat adrenal pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells after exposure to cis-BF and its enantiomers. The results showed that exposure to 1S-cis-BF resulted in increased transcription of HSP90, HSP70, HSP60, Cu-Zn-superoxide dismutase, Mn-superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione-s-transferase at a concentration of 5 µm and above, while exposure to 1R-cis-BF and rac-cis-BF exhibited these effects to lesser degrees. In addition, induction of antioxidant enzyme gene expression produced by 1S-cis-BF might occur, at least in part, through activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and extracellular regulated kinases, while increase in stress protein response produced by 1S-cis-BF might occur through the p38 MAPK signaling pathway. The results not only suggest that enantioselectivity should be considered in evaluating the ecotoxicological effects and health risk of chiral contaminants, but also will improve the understanding of molecular mechanism for chiral chemical-induced cytotoxicity. PMID:22718203

Lu, Xianting

2013-07-01

302

RAP2.6L overexpression delays waterlogging induced premature senescence by increasing stomatal closure more than antioxidant enzyme activity.  

PubMed

Waterlogging usually results from overuse or poor management of irrigation water and is a serious constraint due to its damaging effects. RAP2.6L (At5g13330) overexpression enhances plant resistance to jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, abscisic acid (ABA) and ethylene in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, it is not known whether RAP2.6L overexpression in vivo improves plant tolerance to waterlogging stress. In this study, the RAP2.6L transcript was induced by waterlogging or an ABA treatment, which was reduced after pretreatment with an ABA biosynthesis inhibitor tungstate. Water loss and membrane leakage were reduced in RAP2.6L overexpression plants under waterlogging stress. Time course analyses of ABA content and production of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) showed that increased ABA precedes the increase of H(2)O(2). It is also followed by a marked increase in the antioxidant enzyme activities. Increased ABA promoted stomatal closure and made leaves exhibit a delayed waterlogging induced premature senescence. Furthermore, RAP2.6L overexpression caused significant increases in the transcripts of antioxidant enzyme genes APX1 (ascorbate peroxidase 1) and FSD1 (Fe-superoxide dismutase 1), the ABA biosynthesis gene ABA1 (ABA deficient 1) and signaling gene ABH1 (ABA-hypersensitive 1) and the waterlogging responsive gene ADH1 (alcohol dehydrogenase 1), while the transcript of ABI1 (ABA insensitive 1) was decreased. ABA inhibits seed germination and seedling growth and phenotype analysis showed that the integration of abi1-1 mutation into the RAP2.6L overexpression lines reduces ABA sensitivity. These suggest that RAP2.6L overexpression delays waterlogging induced premature senescence and might function through ABI1-mediated ABA signaling pathway. PMID:22661072

Liu, Peiqing; Sun, Feng; Gao, Rong; Dong, Hansong

2012-08-01

303

Antioxidant enzyme polymorphisms and neuropsychological outcomes in medulloblastoma survivors: a report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study  

PubMed Central

Psychological or neurocognitive impairment is often seen in medulloblastoma survivors after craniospinal radiation; however, significant variability in outcomes exists. This study investigated the role of antioxidant enzyme polymorphisms in moderating this outcome and hypothesized that patients who had polymorphisms associated with lower antioxidant enzyme function would have a higher occurrence of impairment. From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS) cohort, 109 medulloblastoma survivors and 143 siblings were identified who completed the CCSS Neurocognitive Questionnaire (NCQ) and the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18) and who provided buccal DNA samples. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) allelic discrimination was used for SOD2 (rs4880), GPX1 (rs1050450), and GSTP1 (rs1695 and rs1138272) genotyping and PCR for GSTM1 and GSTT1 gene deletions. Outcomes on NCQ and BSI-18 subscale scores were examined in association with genotypes and clinical factors, including age at diagnosis, sex, and radiation dose, using univariate and multivariate analysis of variance. Patients <7 years of age at diagnosis displayed more problems with task efficiency (P < .001) and fewer problems with somatic complaints (P = .004) than did patients ?7 years of age. Female patients reported more organization problems than did male patients (P = .02). Patients with homozygous GSTM1 gene deletion reported higher anxiety (mean null genotype = 47.3 ± 9.2, non-null = 43.9 ± 7.8; P = .04), more depression (null = 51.0 ± 9.8, non-null = 47.0 ± 9.4; P = .03), and more global distress (null = 50.2 ± 9.7, non-null = 45.2 ± 9.9; P = .01). All associations for the GSTM1 polymorphism remained statistically significant in a multivariate model controlling for age, sex, and radiation dose. Homozygous GSTM1 gene deletion was consistently associated with greater psychological distress in medulloblastoma survivors across multiple domains, suggesting that this genotype may predispose patients for increased emotional late effects.

Brackett, Julienne; Krull, Kevin R.; Scheurer, Michael E.; Liu, Wei; Srivastava, Deo Kumar; Stovall, Marilyn; Merchant, Thomas E.; Packer, Roger J.; Robison, Leslie L.; Okcu, M. Fatih

2012-01-01

304

Effect of sodium chloride and cadmium on the growth, oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activities of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zygosaccharomyces rouxii is a salt-tolerant yeast species capable of removing cadmium (Cd) pollutant from aqueous solution. Presently, the physiological characteristics of Z. rouxii under the stress of sodium chloride (NaCl) and Cd are poorly understood. This study investigated the effects of NaCl and Cd on the growth, oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activities of Z. rouxii after stress treatment for 24 h. Results showed that NaCl or Cd alone negatively affected the growth of Z. rouxii, but the growth-inhibiting effect of Cd on Z. rouxii was reduced in the presence of NaCl. Flow cytometry assay showed that under Cd stress, NaCl significantly reduced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell death of Z. rouxii compared with those in the absence of NaCl. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) of Z. rouxii were significantly enhanced by 2%-6% NaCl, which likely contributed to the high salt tolerance of Z. rouxii. The POD activity was inhibited by 20 mg L-1 Cd while the SOD and CAT activities were enhanced by 8 mg L-1 Cd and inhibited by 20 mg L-1 or 50 mg L-1 Cd. The inhibitory effect of high-level Cd on the antioxidant enzyme activities of Z. rouxii was counteracted by the combined use of NaCl, especially at 6%. This probably accounted for the decrease in Cd-induced ROS production and cell death of Z. rouxii after incubation with NaCl and Cd. Our work provided physiological clues as to the use of Z. rouxii as a biosorbent for Cd removal from seawater and liquid highly salty food.

Li, Chunsheng; Xu, Ying; Jiang, Wei; Lv, Xin; Dong, Xiaoyan

2014-06-01

305

Amendment in phosphorus levels moderate the chromium toxicity in Raphanus sativus L. as assayed by antioxidant enzymes activities.  

PubMed

Chromium (Z=24), a d-block element, is a potent carcinogen, whereas phosphorus is an essential and limiting nutrient for the plant growth and development. This study undertakes the role of phosphorus in moderating the chromium toxicity in Raphanus sativus L., as both of them compete with each other during the uptake process. Two-factor complete randomized experiment (5 chromium × 5 phosphorus concentrations) was conducted for twenty eight days in green house. The individuals of R. sativus were grown in pots supplied with all essential nutrients. The toxic effects of chromium and the moderation of toxicity due to phosphorus amendment were determined as accumulation of chromium, nitrogen, phosphorus in root tissues and their effects were also examined in the changes in biomass, chlorophyll and antioxidant enzyme levels. Cr and N accumulation were almost doubled at the highest concentration of Cr supply, without any P amendment, whereas at the highest P concentration (125 mM), the accumulation was reduced to almost half. A significant reduction in toxic effects of Cr was determined as there was three-fold increase in total chlorophyll and biomass at the highest P amendment. Antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase and lipid peroxidation were analyzed at various levels of Cr each amended with five levels of P. It was observed that at highest level of P amendment, the reduction percentage in toxicity was 33, 44, 39 and 44, correspondingly. Conclusively, the phosphorus amendment moderates the toxicity caused by the supplied chromium in R. sativus. This finding can be utilized to develop a novel technology for the amelioration of chromium stressed fields. PMID:23810367

Sayantan, D; Shardendu

2013-09-01

306

TEMPORAL PATTERNS OF LIPOPEROXIDATION AND ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES ARE MODIFIED IN THE HIPPOCAMPUS OF VITAMIN A-DEFICIENT RATS  

PubMed Central

Animals can adapt their behavior to predictable temporal fluctuations in the environment through both, memory-and-learning processes and an endogenous time-keeping mechanism. Hippocampus plays a key role in memory and learning and is especially susceptible to oxidative stress. In compensation, antioxidant enzymes activity, such as Catalase (CAT) and Glutathione peroxidase (GPx), has been detected in this brain region. Daily rhythms of antioxidant enzymes activitiy, as well as of glutathione and lipid peroxides levels, have been described in brain. Here, we investigate day/night variations in lipoperoxidation, CAT and GPx expression and activity, as well as the temporal fluctuations of two key components of the endogenous clock, BMAL1 and PER1, in the rat hippocampus and evaluate to which extent vitamin A deficiency may affect their amplitude or phase. Holtzman male rats from control, vitamin A-deficient and vitamin A-refed groups were sacrificed throughout a 24-h period. Daily levels of clock proteins, lipoperoxidation, CAT and GPx mRNA, protein, and activity, were determined in the rat hippocampus obtained every 4 or 5 h. Gene expression of RAR? and RXR? was also quantified in the hippocampus of the three groups of rats. Our results show significant daily variations of BMAL1 and PER1 protein expression. Rhythmic lipoperoxidation, CAT, and GPx, expression and activity, were also observed in the rat hippocampus. Vitamin A deficiency reduced RXR? mRNA level, as well as the amplitude of BMAL1 and PER1 daily oscillation, phase-shifted the daily peak of lipoperoxidation, and had a differential effect on the oscillating CAT and GPx mRNA, protein, and activity. Learning how vitamin A deficiency affects the circadian gene expression in the hippocampus may have an impact on the neurobiology, nutritional and chronobiology fields, emphasizing for the first time the importance of nutritional factors, such as dietary micronutrients, in the regulation of circadian parameters in this brain memory-and-learning-related region.

Navigatore Fonzo, Lorena S.; Golini, Rebeca S.; Delgado, Silvia M.; Ponce, Ivana T.; Bonomi, Myrta R.; Rezza, Irma G.; Gimenez, Maria S.; Anzulovich, Ana C.

2011-01-01

307

Copper steam laser irradiation modulates the theraupeutic effect of 5-fluorouracil and the activity of antioxidant enzymes in tumor-bearing mice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low-energy laser irradiation (LELI) is known to modulate some parameters of immune system and free radical and antioxidant reactions in organism. LELI have been shown to enhance the efficacy of chemo- and radiotherapy in experimental models of tumor growth. The aim of our work was to study the ability of copper steam laser irradiation to modulate the antitumor effect of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and antioxidant enzyme activities in blood and tumor tissue of mice with transplanted Lewis lung carcinoma. The data obtained show that the copper steam laser irradiation is able to increase the efficacy of treatment with 5-FU. Laser irradiation increase the SOD activity in plasma and in contrary, decreases it in tumor tissue. Laser irradiation effect on the activity of antioxidant enzymes may be considered as one of the mechanisms mediating its ability to increase the efficacy of cytostatic therapy.

Cherdyntseva, N. V.; Kuznetsova, A.; Kondakova, I.; Yevtushenko, V.

1998-06-01

308

Hemoglobin Conjugates with Antioxidant Enzymes (Hemoglobin-Superoxide Dismutase-Catalase) via Poly(Ethylene Glycol) Crosslinker for Protection of Pancreatic Beta RINm5F Cells in Hypoxia  

PubMed Central

A low p50 hemoglobin (Hb) (p50 indicates O2 tension at which Hb is half-saturated)-based oxygen carrier conjugated to antioxidant enzymes via dicarboxymethylated poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) linker may have the beneficial effect in protecting pancreatic beta cells from severe hypoxia at transplantation sites. In this study, the oxygen dissociation curves, Hill plots, Bohr Effect, and oxygen content of Hb conjugates were measured. The protective effect due to incubation of Hb-conjugates (Hb/PEG molar ratio 1:10) with pancreatic beta cells (RINm5F) against hypoxia (6%, 3%, and 1% oxygen) was evaluated by an MTT assay and confocal microscopy. Quantitatively, Hb conjugates with antioxidant enzymes offered statistically significant protection (p<0.01, increased viability ?80%) from hypoxia compared to control cells in 1% oxygen environment. Confocal images also showed that the low p50?Hb conjugates with antioxidants protected RINm5F cells from hypoxia.

Nadithe, Venkatareddy

2011-01-01

309

The neem limonoids azadirachtin and nimbolide inhibit hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis by modulating xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes, DNA damage, antioxidants, invasion and angiogenesis.  

PubMed

The neem tree has attracted considerable research attention as a rich source of limonoids that have potent antioxidant and anti-cancer properties. The present study was designed to evaluate the chemopreventive potential of the neem limonoids azadirachtin and nimbolide based on in vitro antioxidant assays and in vivo inhibitory effects on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis. Both azadirachtin and nimbolide exhibited concentration-dependent anti-radical scavenging activity and reductive potential in the order: nimbolide > azadirachtin > ascorbate. Administration of both azadirachtin and nimbolide inhibited the development of DMBA-induced HBP carcinomas by influencing multiple mechanisms including prevention of procarcinogen activation and oxidative DNA damage, upregulation of antioxidant and carcinogen detoxification enzymes and inhibition of tumour invasion and angiogenesis. On a comparative basis, nimbolide was found to be a more potent antioxidant and chemopreventive agent and offers promise as a candidate agent in multitargeted prevention and treatment of cancer. PMID:19391054

Priyadarsini, Ramamurthi Vidya; Manikandan, Palrasu; Kumar, Gurram Harish; Nagini, Siddavaram

2009-05-01

310

Responses of antioxidant enzymes to cold and high light are not correlated to freezing tolerance in natural accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana.  

PubMed

Low temperatures and high light cause imbalances in primary and secondary reactions of photosynthesis, and thus can result in oxidative stress. Plants employ a range of low-molecular weight antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes to prevent oxidative damage, and antioxidant defence is considered an important component of stress tolerance. To figure out whether oxidative stress and antioxidant defence are key factors defining the different cold acclimation capacities of natural accessions of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, we investigated hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) production, antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation during a time course of cold treatment and exposure to high light in four differentially cold-tolerant natural accessions of Arabidopsis (C24, Nd, Rsch, Te) that span the European distribution range of the species. All accessions except Rsch (from Russia) had elevated H2 O2 in the cold, indicating that production of reactive oxygen species is part of the cold response in Arabidopsis. Glutathione reductase activity increased in all but Rsch, while ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase were unchanged and catalase decreased in all but Rsch. Under high light, the Scandinavian accession Te had elevated levels of H2 O2 . Te appeared most sensitive to oxidative stress, having higher malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the cold and under high light, while only high light caused elevated MDA in the other accessions. Although the most freezing-tolerant, Te had the highest sensitivity to oxidative stress. No correlation was found between freezing tolerance and activity of antioxidant enzymes in the four accessions investigated, arguing against a key role for antioxidant defence in the differential cold acclimation capacities of Arabidopsis accessions. PMID:23578291

Distelbarth, H; Nägele, T; Heyer, A G

2013-11-01

311

Effect of lower doses of vanadate in combination with Azadirachta indica leaf extract on hepatic and renal antioxidant enzymes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.  

PubMed

The present study was undertaken to investigate short-term (21 days) effects of oral administration of Azadirachta indica leaf extract and vanadate, separately and in combination, on the activities of antioxidant enzymes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Vanadate is a remarkable antidiabetic agent and shows insulin mimetic effect. However, severe toxicity is associated with vanadate when used in high concentration while at lower concentration the hypoglycemic property of vanadate is reduced. So, we used a low dose of vanadate in combination with A. indica leaf extract and evaluated their effect on the antioxidant defense system. Streptozotocin-diabetic rats were treated separately with insulin, vanadate (0.6 mg/ml), A. indica, and with combined dose of vanadate (0.2 mg/ml) and A. indica. At the end of the experiment, rats were sacrificed and serum glucose levels and activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase were determined in cytosolic fraction of liver and kidney. Diabetic rats showed hyperglycemic condition and alteration in antioxidant enzyme activities. Treatment with antidiabetic compounds resulted in the reduction of glucose levels and restoration of enzyme activities to normal. Results showed that combined treatment of vanadate and A. indica leaf extract was the most effective in normalizing altered antioxidant enzyme system. PMID:24081779

Upreti, Jaya; Ali, Shakir; Basir, Seemi Farhat

2013-12-01

312

Polyamines reduce salt-induced oxidative damage by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes and decreasing lipid peroxidation in Virginia pine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyamines play an important role in the plant response to adverse environmental conditions including salt and osmotic stresses. In this investigation, the responses of polyamines to salt-induced oxidative stress were studied in callus cultures and plantlets in Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana Mill.). Our results demonstrated that polyamines reduce salt-induced oxidative damage by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes and decreasing

Wei Tang; Ronald J. Newton

2005-01-01

313

Hypothyroidism attenuates protein tyrosine nitration, oxidative stress and renal damage induced by ischemia and reperfusion: effect unrelated to antioxidant enzymes activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: It has been established that hypothyroidism protects rats against renal ischemia and reperfusion (IR) oxidative damage. However, it is not clear if hypothyroidism is able to prevent protein tyrosine nitration, an index of nitrosative stress, induced by IR or if antioxidant enzymes have involved in this protective effect. In this work it was explored if hypothyroidism is able to

Verónica M Tenorio-Velázquez; Diana Barrera; Martha Franco; Edilia Tapia; Rogelio Hernández-Pando; Omar Noel Medina-Campos; José Pedraza-Chaverri

2005-01-01

314

Oral exposure to Microcystis increases activity-augmented antioxidant enzymes in the liver of loach ( Misgurnus mizolepis) and has no effect on lipid peroxidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, eutrophication has induced severe cyanobacterial blooms in the Naktong River, the second largest river of Korea. In the present study, lipid peroxidation and the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase, were evaluated in the liver of loach (Misgurnus mizolepis) that were orally exposed to a low dose of Microcystis through dietary supplementation with bloom scum. Loach received

Xiao-Yu Li; Ik-Kyo Chung; Jung-In Kim; Jin-Ae Lee

2005-01-01

315

Cadmium-induced physiological response and antioxidant enzyme changes in the novel cadmium accumulator, Tagetes patula.  

PubMed

The accumulation and effect of cadmium (Cd) on the growth and enzymatic activities changes of antioxidants in Tagetes patula, French marigold, were investigated to reveal the physiological mechanisms corresponding to its Cd tolerance and accumulation. Hydroponically grown T. patula plants were treated with different concentrations of Cd (0, 10, 25, 50 ?M Cd Cl(2)) at various regime of times. T. patula accumulated Cd to a maximum of 450 mg Cd kg(-1) dry weight (DW) in shoot and 3500 mg Cd kg(-1) DW in root after 14 days' exposure at 10 and 50 ?M Cd Cl(2), respectively. The translocation factors of Cd were greater than 1 in plants exposed to 10 ?M Cd Cl(2). Toxic effects were gradually observed with increasing Cd concentration (25 and 50 ?M) accompanied with the reduction of biomass, chlorophyll content, decrease of cell viability and the increase level of lipid peroxidation. In leaves of T. patula, the activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were induced by Cd. However, in roots, activities of APX, GR, SOD and catalase (CAT) were significantly reduced by 25 and 50 ?M Cd treatment but not 10 ?M Cd. In-gel zymography analysis revealed that Cd induced the enzymatic activities of APX, MnSOD, CuZnSOD and different isozymes of GR in leaves. These results indicate that T. patula is a novel Cd accumulator and able to tolerate with Cd-induced toxicity by activation of its antioxidative defense system. PMID:21458916

Liu, Yu-Ting; Chen, Zueng-Sang; Hong, Chwan-Yang

2011-05-30

316

Antioxidant activity and enzyme inhibition of phenolic acids from fermented rice bran with fungus Rizhopus oryzae.  

PubMed

The solid-state fermentation (SSF) has been employed as a form making available a higher content of functional compounds from agroindustrial wastes. In this work, the effect of SSF with the Rhizopus oryzae fungus on the phenolic acid content of rice bran was studied. Phenolic extracts derived from rice bran and fermented rice bran were evaluated for their ability to reduce free radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrihidrazil (DPPH) and for the ability to inhibit the enzymes peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase. The phenolic compound content increased by more than two times with fermentation. A change in the content of phenolic acids was observed, with ferulic acid presenting the greatest increase with the fermentation, starting from 33mg/g in rice bran and reaching 765mg/g in the fermented bran. The phenolic extracts showed an inhibition potential for DPPH and for the peroxidase enzyme, however did not inhibit the polyphenol oxidase enzyme. PMID:24176356

Schmidt, Cristiano G; Gonçalves, Letícia M; Prietto, Luciana; Hackbart, Helen S; Furlong, Eliana B

2014-03-01

317

CO(2)-induced total phenolics in suspension cultures of Panax ginseng C. A. Mayer roots: role of antioxidants and enzymes.  

PubMed

The effects of different concentrations of CO(2) (1%, 2.5% and 5%) on the antioxidant capacity, total phenols, flavonoids, protein content and phenol biosynthetic enzymes in roots of Panax ginseng were studied in bioreactor (working volume 4 l) after 15, 30 and 45 days. CO(2) induced accumulation of total phenolics in a concentration and duration dependent manner. Total phenols, flavonoids and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) activity increased 60%, 30% and 20% at 2.5% CO(2) after 45 days compared to control in P. ginseng roots which indicated that phenolics compounds played an important role in protecting the plants from CO(2). Hypothesizing that increasing the phenolic compounds in roots of P. ginseng may increase its nutritional functionality; we investigated whether pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), shikimate/phenylpropanoid pathway enzymes have a role in phenolics mobilization in P. ginseng roots. Fresh weight (FW), dry weight (DW) and growth ratio was increased at 1% and 2.5% CO(2) only after 45 days, however, unaffected after 15 and 30 days. Results also indicated that high CO(2) progressively stimulated the activities of glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH, E.C. 1.1.1.49), shikimate dehydrogenase (SKDH, E.C. 1.1.1.25), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL, E.C. 4.3.1.5), cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD, E.C. 1.1.1.195), caffeic acid (CA) peroxidase and chlorogenic acid (CGA) peroxidase after 15, 30 and 45 days. Increased CO(2) levels resulted in increases in accumulation of total protein (45%), non-protein thiol (NP-SH) (30%) and cysteine contents (52%) after 45 days compared to control and increased activities of beta-glucosidase (GS, E.C. 3.2.1.21) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO, E.C. 1.10.3.2) in P. ginseng roots indicated that they played an important role in protecting the plants from CO(2). These results strongly suggest that high concentration of CO(2) delivered to ginseng root suspension cultures induced the accumulation of total phenolics possessing high antioxidant properties probably useful for human health. Therefore, roots of P. ginseng are considered as a good source of phenolics compounds with high antioxidants capacity and can be produced on a large scale. PMID:15878284

Ali, Mohammad Babar; Hahn, Eun Joo; Paek, Kee-Yoeup

2005-05-01

318

Effect of sprout extract from Tuscan black cabbage on xenobiotic-metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes in rat liver.  

PubMed

In recent years, health protection by natural products has received considerable attention, and a multitude of nutraceuticals have been characterized and their use promoted. Dietary consumption of Cruciferous vegetables, rich in glucosinolates (GLs), and their myrosinase-mediated hydrolysis products isothiocyanates (ITCs), were associated with reductions in cancer risk. In this study, the chemo-preventive potential of sprout extract of Tuscan black cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala subvar. Laciniata L.) (TBCSE), through modulation of the xenobiotic-metabolizing apparatus and antioxidant defenses, was investigated in Sprague-Dawley rat liver. TBCSE was administered either orally or intraperitoneally, at a dose of 15mg/kg b.w., daily for twenty-one consecutive days, in the absence or presence of exogenous myrosinase, ?-thioglucoside glucohydrolase (MYR), to distinguish the effects of intact GLs and ITCs, in the context of the extract. A complex, mild modulation pattern of P450-related monooxygenases was observed, mainly regarding CYP content (up to 36% loss), NADPH cytochrome (P450) c-reductase (up to 26% loss), CYP1A1 (up to 23% loss), but no evident distinctions among the effects of the extracts containing GLs or ITCs, were noted. In contrast, significant inductions of phase-II enzymes (up to 107% for UDP-glucuronosyl-transferase, and up to 36% for glutathione S-transferase) were recorded only where the GLs to ITCs conversion had occurred. A boosting effect on catalase (up to 38%), NAD(P)H:quinone reductase (up to 70%), glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase (up to 10%) was also recorded, suggesting an indirect antioxidant capacity of the extracts. Overall, the general phase-I inhibition, together with the up-regulation of detoxifying phase-II and antioxidant enzymes, exerted by the TBCSE supplementation, seem to be in line with the classical chemopreventive theory, but whether the addition of exogenous MYR is relevant, still remains to be clarified. These results are in support of the potential health-promoting application of TBCSE, as a nutraceutical. PMID:23183052

Melega, Simone; Canistro, Donatella; Pagnotta, Eleonora; Iori, Renato; Sapone, Andrea; Paolini, Moreno

2013-02-18

319

Starvation and re-feeding affect Hsp expression, MAPK activation and antioxidant enzymes activity of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).  

PubMed

In the context of food deprivation in fish (wild and farmed), understanding of cellular responses is necessary in order to develop strategies to minimize stress caused by starvation in the aquaculture section. The present study evaluates the effects of long term starvation (1F-3S: one-month feeding-three-month starvation) and starvation/re-feeding (2S-2F: two-month starvation-two-month re-feeding) compared to the control group (4F-0S: four-month feeding-zero month starvation) on cellular stress response and antioxidant defense in organs, like the intestine, the liver, the red and white muscle of European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax. Molecular responses were addressed through the expression of Hsp70 and Hsp90, the phosphorylation of stress-activated protein kinases and particularly p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) and the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK-1/2). For the determination of the effect of the oxidative stress caused by food deprivation and/or re-feeding, the (maximum) activities of antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidise (GPx), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) as well as the determination of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were studied. The experimental feeding trials caused a tissue distinct and differential response on the cellular and antioxidant capacity of sea bass not only during the stressful process of starvation but also in re-feeding. Specifically, the intestine phosphorylation of ERKs and antioxidant enzymatic activities increased in the 2S-2F fish group, while in the 1F-3S group an increase was detected in the levels of the same proteins except for GPx. In the liver and the red muscle of 2S-2F fish, decreased Hsp70 and phosphorylated p38 MAPK levels and increased Hsp90 levels were observed. Additionally, SOD activity decreased in the red muscle of 2S-2F and 1F-3S groups. In the liver and red muscle of 1F-3S group Hsp70 levels increased, while the activation of p38 MAPK in the liver decreased. In the white muscle, Hsp90 levels decreased and the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK increased in both feeding regimes compared to control. In the same tissue, GPx and catalase levels were decreased in 2S-2F regime, while SOD levels were decreased in 1F-3S regime. PMID:23462223

Antonopoulou, Efthimia; Kentepozidou, Elissavet; Feidantsis, Konstantinos; Roufidou, Chrysoula; Despoti, Smaragda; Chatzifotis, Stavros

2013-05-01

320

Intracellular beta-carbonic anhydrase of the unicellular green alga Coccomyxa. Cloning of the cdna and characterization of the functional enzyme overexpressed in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Carbonic anhydrase (CA) (EC 4.2.1.1) enzymes catalyze the reversible hydration of CO2, a reaction that is important in many physiological processes. We have cloned and sequenced a full-length cDNA encoding an intracellular beta-CA from the unicellular green alga Coccomyxa. Nucleotide sequence data show that the isolated cDNA contains an open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 227 amino acids. The predicted polypeptide is similar to beta-type CAs from Escherichia coli and higher plants, with an identity of 26% to 30%. The Coccomyxa cDNA was overexpressed in E. coli, and the enzyme was purified and biochemically characterized. The mature protein is a homotetramer with an estimated molecular mass of 100 kD. The CO2-hydration activity of the Coccomyxa enzyme is comparable with that of the pea homolog. However, the activity of Coccomyxa CA is largely insensitive to oxidative conditions, in contrast to similar enzymes from most higher plants. Fractionation studies further showed that Coccomyxa CA is extrachloroplastic. PMID:9701590

Hiltonen, T; Björkbacka, H; Forsman, C; Clarke, A K; Samuelsson, G

1998-08-01

321

The Role of Intracellular Signaling in Insulin-mediated Regulation of Drug Metabolizing Enzyme Gene and Protein Expression  

PubMed Central

Endogenous factors, including hormones, growth factors and cytokines, play an important role in the regulation of hepatic drug metabolizing enzyme expression in both physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Alterations of hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes gene and protein expression, observed in diabetes, fasting, obesity, protein-calorie malnutrition and long-term alcohol consumption alters the metabolism of xenobiotics, including procarcinogens, carcinogens, toxicants, and therapeutic agents and may also impact the efficacy and safety of therapeutic agents, as well as result in drug-drug interactions. Although the mechanisms by which xenobiotics regulate drug metabolizing enzymes have been studied intensively, less is known regarding the cellular signaling pathways and components which regulate drug metabolizing enzyme gene and protein expression in response to hormones and cytokines. Recent findings, however, have revealed that several cellular signaling pathways are involved in hormone- and growth factor-mediated regulation of drug metabolizing enzymes. Our laboratory, and others, have demonstrated that insulin and growth factors regulate drug metabolizing enzyme gene and protein expression, including cytochromes P450, glutathione S-transferases and microsomal epoxide hydrolase, through receptors which are members of the large receptor tyrosine kinase family, and by downstream effectors such as phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, the mitogen activated protein kinase, Akt/protein kinase B, mTOR, and the p70S6 kinase. Here, we review current knowledge of the signaling pathways implicated in regulation of drug metabolizing enzyme gene and protein expression in response to insulin and growth factors, with the goal of increasing our understanding of how chronic disease affects these signaling pathways, components, and ultimately gene expression and translational control.

Kim, Sang K.; Novak, Raymond F.

2007-01-01

322

Intracellular Hydrogen Peroxide and Superoxide Poison 3-Deoxy-D-Arabinoheptulosonate 7-Phosphate Synthase, the First Committed Enzyme in the Aromatic Biosynthetic Pathway of Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

In Escherichia coli, aromatic compound biosynthesis is the process that has shown the greatest sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide stress. This pathway has long been recognized to be sensitive to superoxide as well, but the molecular target was unknown. Feeding experiments indicated that the bottleneck lies early in the pathway, and the suppressive effects of fur mutations and manganese supplementation suggested the involvement of a metalloprotein. The 3-deoxy-d-arabinoheptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase (DAHP synthase) activity catalyzes the first step in the pathway, and it is provided by three isozymes known to rely upon a divalent metal. This activity progressively declined when cells were stressed with either oxidant. The purified enzyme was activated more strongly by ferrous iron than by other metals, and only this metalloform could be inactivated by hydrogen peroxide or superoxide. We infer that iron is the prosthetic metal in vivo. Both oxidants displace the iron atom from the enzyme. In peroxide-stressed cells, the enzyme accumulated as an apoprotein, potentially with an oxidized cysteine residue. In superoxide-stressed cells, the enzyme acquired a nonactivating zinc ion in its active site, an apparent consequence of the repeated ejection of iron. Manganese supplementation protected the activity in both cases, which matches the ability of manganese to metallate the enzyme and to provide substantial oxidant-resistant activity. DAHP synthase thus belongs to a family of mononuclear iron-containing enzymes that are disabled by oxidative stress. To date, all the intracellular injuries caused by physiological doses of these reactive oxygen species have arisen from the oxidation of reduced iron centers. PMID:24659765

Sobota, Jason M; Gu, Mianzhi; Imlay, James A

2014-06-01

323

Activation of the antioxidant enzyme 1-CYS peroxiredoxin requires glutathionylation mediated by heterodimerization with ?GST  

PubMed Central

1-cys peroxiredoxin (1-cysPrx), a member of the peroxiredoxin superfamily, can protect cells against membrane oxidation through glutathione (GSH)-dependent reduction of phospholipid hydroperoxides to corresponding alcohols. However, purified native or recombinant enzyme in vitro generally lacks GSH peroxidase (GPx) activity because of oxidation of its single conserved cysteine. Reduction of the resultant oxidized cysteine is difficult because of its protected location within the homodimer formed by the oxidized protein monomers. Partial purification of 1-cysPrx from bovine lung revealed the presence of ?GST in an active preparation, while purification to homogeneity yielded enzyme that inactivated with time. We show that heterodimerization of 1-cysPrx with GSH-saturated ?GST results in glutathionylation of the oxidized cysteine in 1-cysPrx followed by subsequent spontaneous reduction of the mixed disulfide and restoration of enzymatic activity. Maximum activation of 1-cysPrx occurred with a 1:1 molar ratio of GSH-saturated ?GST and a 2:1 molar ratio of GSH to 1-cysPrx. Liposome-mediated delivery of oxidized recombinant enzyme into NCI-H441 cells that lack 1-cysPrx but express ?GST resulted in 1-cysPrx activation, whereas activation in MCF7 cells required co-delivery of ?GST. Our data indicate a physiological mechanism for glutathionylation of the oxidized catalytic cysteine of 1-cysPrx by its heterodimerization with ?GST followed by its GSH-mediated reduction and enzyme activation.

Manevich, Y.; Feinstein, S. I.; Fisher, A. B.

2004-01-01

324

Effect of reactive oxygen and carbonyl species on crucial cellular antioxidant enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive carbonyl species (RCS) issuing from lipid and sugar oxidation are known to damage a large number of proteins leading to enzyme inhibition and alteration of cellular functions. Whereas studies in literature only focus on the reactivity of one or two of these compounds, we aimed at comparing in the same conditions of incubations

Jean-François Lesgards; Cyrielle Gauthier; Juan Iovanna; Nicolas Vidal; Alain Dolla; Pierre Stocker

2011-01-01

325

Chemoprotective influence of Zanthoxylum sps. on hepatic carcinogen metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes and skin papillomagenesis in murine model.  

PubMed

In the present study, the putative potential of pericarp of dried fruit of Zanthoxylum (Rutaceae Family), a common spice additive in India's west coast cuisines, in protecting against carcinogenesis has been reported. Extract from dried fruit of Zanthoxylum was orally administered to mice at two dose levels: 100 and 200 mg/kg body wt. for 14 days. Results reveal bifunctional nature of Zanthoxylum species as deduced from its potential to induce phase-I and phase-II enzyme activities associated with carcinogen activation and detoxification in the liver of mice. Hepatic glutathione S-transferase and DT-diaphorase were found significantly elevated by the treatment. Zanthoxylum was also effective in augmenting the antioxidant enzyme activities of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase albeit significantly by high dose of the extract (P < 0.05; P < 0.01). Reduced glutathione was also significantly elevated in the liver of treated animals (P < 0.05). The present study also investigated peri-initiation application of acetone extract of Zanthoxylum on initiated mouse skin. Results showed a significant reduction in tumor incidence from 68% to 36% (P < 0.05); as well as, a reduction in tumor burden per effective mouse from 3.87 to 0.72 (P < 0.01). Cumulatively, the findings strongly suggest cancer chemopreventive potential of Zanthoxylum sps. PMID:22126017

Rajamani, Paulraj; Banerjeet, Sanjeev; Rao, A Ramesha

2011-11-01

326

Antioxidant relevance to human health.  

PubMed

Human ecology requires both oxygen and water with the generation from food of an immediate energy source, ATP, by oxidative phosphorylation. A continuing balance between oxidation and antioxidation is necessary for longer less-disabled lives, taking account of oxidative stresses and the critical roles of oxidants in defence against infection, tissue repair and signalling. Antioxidant capacity is derived both exogenously (from food, beverage and sunlight) and endogenously (from enzymatic and non-enzymatic pathways). A number of oxidant food factors service antioxidant metallo-enzymes. The capacity operates extra- or intracellularly. Uric acid is the major antioxidant in primate blood. Uric acid synthesis is increased by dietary fructose from fruit, sugary foods and drinks. This indirect antioxidant effect of fruit is separate from that attributable to its flavonoids. Alcohol also increases serum uric acid. Urate excess and retention is associated with disease. The high prevalence of hyperuricaemia in NE Asia presents a major public health dilemma in regard to putative benefits and risks. Foods with high antioxidant activity include berries, nuts and legumes, tomatoes and sweet potato leaves. Each of the antioxidants in these foods is pleiotropic being inter-alia anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic or anti-neoplastic. Moreover, food matrices and patterns contribute to the safety of antioxidant consumption. There is no evidence to date that isolated antioxidants as food supplements improve health outcomes or survival; and some that indicate unacceptable risk. Their use as biomarkers of food cannot justify their isolated use. Nevertheless, a spectrum of dietary pluripotential antioxidants for tissues, metabolic and immune systems is advantageous. PMID:23635359

Wahlqvist, Mark L

2013-01-01

327

Antioxidative enzymes in the response of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum moench) to ultraviolet B radiation.  

PubMed

The behavior of the enzymatic antioxidant defense system was studied in buckwheat leaves and seedlings subjected to short-term enhanced UV-B radiation. The effects of UV-B action were monitored immediately after irradiation as well as after recovery. The applied dose induced an increase in lipid peroxidation and total flavonoid content, a decrease in chlorophyll content, and a change in enzymatic digestibility of extracted DNA. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase, and soluble peroxidase, as well as the isoelectric focusing (IEF) pattern of peroxidase isoforms, was analyzed. In treated as well as recovered seedlings, soluble and ascorbate peroxidase activities were increased. The activity of SOD was not altered, whereas CAT activity was decreased. In contrast to seedlings, only CAT activity was increased in treated and recovered leaves. PMID:17147435

Jovanovic, Zivko S; Milosevic, Jelena D; Radovic, Svetlana R

2006-12-13

328

Low Ascorbic Acid in the vtc-1 Mutant of Arabidopsis Is Associated with Decreased Growth and Intracellular Redistribution of the Antioxidant System1  

PubMed Central

Ascorbic acid has numerous and diverse roles in plant metabolism. We have used the vtc-1 mutant of Arabidopsis, which is deficient in ascorbate biosynthesis, to investigate the role of ascorbate concentration in growth, regulation of photosynthesis, and control of the partitioning of antioxidative enyzmes. The mutant possessed 70% less ascorbate in the leaves compared with the wild type. This lesion was associated with a slight increase in total glutathione but no change in the redox state of either ascorbate or glutathione. In vtc-1, total ascorbate in the apoplast was decreased to 23% of the wild-type value. The mutant displayed much slower shoot growth than the wild type when grown in air or at high CO2 (3 mL L?1), where oxidative stress is diminished. Leaves were smaller, and shoot fresh weight and dry weight were lower in the mutant. No significant differences in the light saturation curves for CO2 assimilation were found in air or at high CO2, suggesting that the effect on growth was not due to decreased photosynthetic capacity in the mutant. Analysis of chlorophyll a fluorescence quenching revealed only a slight effect on non-photochemical energy dissipation. Hydrogen peroxide contents were similar in the leaves of the vtc-1 mutant and the wild type. Total leaf peroxidase activity was increased in the mutant and compartment-specific differences in ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity were observed. In agreement with the measurements of enzyme activity, the expression of cytosolic APX was increased, whereas that for chloroplast APX isoforms was either unchanged or slightly decreased. These data implicate ascorbate concentration in the regulation of the compartmentalization of the antioxidant system in Arabidopsis.

Veljovic-Jovanovic, Sonja D.; Pignocchi, Cristina; Noctor, Graham; Foyer, Christine H.

2001-01-01

329

Effects of permethrin exposure on antioxidant enzymes and protein status in Mediterranean clams Ruditapes decussatus.  

PubMed

The effects of permethrin (PER) on a panel of antoxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) and indices of protein oxidation status (carbonylation and free thiols) were determined in digestive gland and gills of the clam Ruditapes decussatus. Animals were exposed to 100 ppb PER for 2 days. These enzyme activities increased significantly in digestive gland (p<0.05) after PER treatment and oxidative modification of proteins was detected in both gill and digestive gland extracts using redox proteomics. PER exposure significantly reduced the amount of protein free thiol groups in digestive gland rather than in gill, when compared to controls. Conversely, digestive gland showed significantly higher levels of carbonylated proteins than gill after PER exposure. Some proteins were successfully identified by mass spectrometry of tryptic peptides. Our data suggest that digestive gland of R. decussatus can be used as a model tissue for investigating environmental risk of PER contamination. PMID:24337996

Sellami, Badreddine; Louati, Hela; Dellali, Mohamed; Aissa, Patricia; Mahmoudi, Ezzeddine; Coelho, Ana Varela; Sheehan, David

2014-03-01

330

Mitochondrial oxygen consumption, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme systems in skeletal muscle of senile dystrophic mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate age-dependent abnormalities in mitochondrial redox metabolism specifically in dystrophic skeletal muscle, oxygen\\u000a consumption, thiobarbituric acid reactivity (TBARS), free-radical scavengers and oxidative marker enzymes were measured in\\u000a the skeletal muscle from adult and senile control (C57BL\\/10) and dystrophic (mdx\\/+) mice. Mitochondrial oxygen consumption in state 3 was significantly lowered with age in the senile dystrophic (–52%) and\\u000a less markedly

Veronika Faist; Jürgen Koenig; Harald Hoeger; Ibrahim Elmadfa

1998-01-01

331

Resistance pattern and antioxidant enzyme profiles of protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PROTOX) inhibitor-resistant transgenic rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

We quantified the resistance levels of transgenic rice plants, expressing Myxococcus xanthus protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PROTOX) in chloroplasts and mitochondria, to PROTOX inhibitors, acifluorfen, oxyfluorfen, carfentrazone-ethyl, and oxadiazon. We also determined whether active oxygen species-scavenging enzymes are involved in the resistance mechanism of transgenic rice. The transgenic rice line M4 was about >200-fold more resistant to oxyfluorfen than the wild-type (WT).

Ha Il Jung; Yong In Kuk; Kyoungwhan Back; Nilda R. Burgos

2008-01-01

332

Enalapril Increases Antioxidant Enzyme Activity in Renal Cortical Tissue of Five-Sixths- Nephrectomized Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

In rats with five-sixths nephrectomy (remnant kidney), blood pressure, glomerulosclerosis, and proteinuria are significantly reduced by administration of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor enalapril, during 16 weeks after reduction of the nephron number. The activity of catalase in remnant-kidney cortex homogenate is not influenced by enalapril treatment; the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase are significantly increased. Elevated lipid peroxidation

Dierik L. Verbeelen; Dirk De Craemer; Patrick Peeters; Katherina Vanden Houte; Christiane Van den Branden

1998-01-01

333

Antioxidative enzymes from chloroplasts, mitochondria, and peroxisomes during leaf senescence of nodulated pea plants.  

PubMed

In this work the influence of the nodulation of pea (Pisum sativum L.) plants on the oxidative metabolism of different leaf organelles from young and senescent plants was studied. Chloroplasts, mitochondria, and peroxisomes were purified from leaves of nitrate-fed and Rhizobium leguminosarum-nodulated pea plants at two developmental stages (young and senescent plants). In these cell organelles, the activity of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle enzymes ascorbate peroxidase (APX), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), and glutathione reductase (GR), and the ascorbate and glutathione contents were determined. In addition, the total superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, the pattern of mitochondrial and peroxisomal NADPH-generating dehydrogenases, some of the peroxisomal photorespiratory enzymes, the glyoxylate cycle and oxidative metabolism enzymes were also analysed in these organelles. Results obtained on the metabolism of cell organelles indicate that nodulation with Rhizobium accelerates senescence in pea leaves. A considerable decrease of the ascorbate content of chloroplasts, mitochondria, and peroxisomes was found, and in these conditions a metabolic conversion of leaf peroxisomes into glyoxysomes, characteristic of leaf senescence, took place. PMID:16698815

Palma, José M; Jiménez, Ana; Sandalio, Luisa M; Corpas, Francisco J; Lundqvist, Marianne; Gómez, Manuel; Sevilla, Francisca; del Río, Luis A

2006-01-01

334

Effect of tamoxifen on erythrocyte membrane lipids, lipid peroxides, and antioxidative enzymes in breast cancer women.  

PubMed

Fasting blood samples were taken from 64 tamoxifen-treated postmenopausal women with early stage breast cancer. The levels of erythrocyte lipid peroxidation and the status of erythrocyte detoxifying enzymes were analyzed in untreated and treated patients for 3 months and 6 months with tamoxifen. Erythrocyte membrane lipid peroxidation and membrane cholesterol, phospholipid were also determined in all the patients. The 3 months and 6 months tamoxifen-treated patients showed significantly decreased levels of erythrocyte, erythrocyte membrane lipid peroxide with concomitantly increased levels of detoxifying enzymes when compared with baseline values of untreated women. Erythrocyte membrane cholesterol and phospholipid levels were markedly decreased in tamoxifen-treated patients than in untreated women. An interesting finding of this study indicates that the lipid peroxide, as well as, the lipid lowering efficacy of tamoxifen, was increased in patients with greater levels of baseline lipid and lipid peroxides in their erythrocyte membrane. These results indicate that tamoxifen is a potent suppressor of lipid peroxide formation through the favorable effects on membrane lipids and protective enzyme system. PMID:7767903

Thangaraju, M; Ezhilarasi, R; Sachdanandam, P

1995-01-01

335

Comparative effect of Piper betle, Chlorella vulgaris and tocotrienol-rich fraction on antioxidant enzymes activity in cellular ageing of human diploid fibroblasts  

PubMed Central

Background Human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs) undergo a limited number of cellular divisions in culture and progressively reach a state of irreversible growth arrest, a process termed cellular ageing. Even though beneficial effects of Piper betle, Chlorella vulgaris and tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) have been reported, ongoing studies in relation to ageing is of interest to determine possible protective effects that may reverse the effect of ageing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of P. betle, C. vulgaris and TRF in preventing cellular ageing of HDFs by determining the activity of antioxidant enzymes viz.; catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase. Methods Different passages of HDFs were treated with P. betle, C. vulgaris and TRF for 24 h prior to enzymes activity determination. Senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA ?-gal) expression was assayed to validate cellular ageing. Results In cellular ageing of HDFs, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities were reduced, but SOD activity was heightened during pre-senescence. P. betle exhibited the strongest antioxidant activity by reducing SA ?-gal expression, catalase activities in all age groups, and SOD activity. TRF exhibited a strong antioxidant activity by reducing SA ?-gal expression, and SOD activity in senescent HDFs. C. vulgaris extract managed to reduce SOD activity in senescent HDFs. Conclusion P. betle, C. vulgaris, and TRF have the potential as anti-ageing entities which compensated the role of antioxidant enzymes in cellular ageing of HDFs.

2013-01-01

336

Curcumin Induces Nrf2 Nuclear Translocation and Prevents Glomerular Hypertension, Hyperfiltration, Oxidant Stress, and the Decrease in Antioxidant Enzymes in 5/6 Nephrectomized Rats  

PubMed Central

Renal injury resulting from renal ablation induced by 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6NX) is associated with oxidant stress, glomerular hypertension, hyperfiltration, and impaired Nrf2-Keap1 pathway. The purpose of this work was to know if the bifunctional antioxidant curcumin may induce nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and prevents 5/6NX-induced oxidant stress, renal injury, decrease in antioxidant enzymes, and glomerular hypertension and hyperfiltration. Four groups of rats were studied: (1) control, (2) 5/6NX, (3) 5/6NX +CUR, and (4) CUR (n = 8–10). Curcumin was given by gavage to NX5/6 +CUR and CUR groups (60?mg/kg/day) starting seven days before surgery. Rats were studied 30 days after NX5/6 or sham surgery. Curcumin attenuated 5/6NX-induced proteinuria, systemic and glomerular hypertension, hyperfiltration, glomerular sclerosis, interstitial fibrosis, interstitial inflammation, and increase in plasma creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. This protective effect was associated with enhanced nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and with prevention of 5/6NX-induced oxidant stress and decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes. It is concluded that the protective effect of curcumin against 5/6NX-induced glomerular and systemic hypertension, hyperfiltration, renal dysfunction, and renal injury was associated with the nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and the prevention of both oxidant stress and the decrease of antioxidant enzymes.

Tapia, Edilia; Soto, Virgilia; Ortiz-Vega, Karla Mariana; Zarco-Marquez, Guillermo; Molina-Jijon, Eduardo; Cristobal-Garcia, Magdalena; Santamaria, Jose; Garcia-Nino, Wylly Ramses; Correa, Francisco; Zazueta, Cecilia; Pedraza-Chaverri, Jose

2012-01-01

337

Serum selenium and plasma malondialdehyde levels and antioxidant enzyme activities in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

There is mounting evidence indicating that reactive free radical species are involved in initiation and development of many different forms of human pathologies including psychiatric disorders. In the present study, we aimed to determine whether serum selenium (Se), antioxidant enzyme (glutathione peroxidase, GSH-Px, superoxide dismutase, SOD, and catalase, CAT) activities, and plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, a product of lipid peroxidation, were associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The participants were 28 patients with OCD that were drug-free at least for a month and a control group (n=28) of healthy subjects, matched with respect to age and sex. In both groups, the levels of the erythrocyte MDA, GSH-Px, SOD, Se, and the CAT were measured. The levels of MDA and SOD were statistically significantly higher (p<0.01, p<0.05 respectively) in patients than controls. The activities of CAT, GSH-Px, and serum Se levels were statistically significantly lower (p<0.0001, p<0.001, and p<0.001 respectively) in patients than controls. There was a positive correlation in patients between plasma GSH-Px activity and Se concentration (r=52, p=0.001). However, in patients with OCD, CAT and SOD activities were significantly and negatively correlated with MDA levels (r=-0.45, p=0.017 for CAT and r=-0.54, p=0.020 for SOD). The study shows the presence of a significant relationship of OCD and oxidative stress, and consequently, an involvement of free radicals and of the antioxidant defence. PMID:18957313

Ozdemir, Ercan; Cetinkaya, Sevil; Ersan, Serpil; Kucukosman, Seda; Ersan, E Erdal

2009-02-01

338

Antioxidant enzyme activity and malondialdehyde levels can be modulated by Piper betle, tocotrienol rich fraction and Chlorella vulgaris in aging C57BL/6 mice  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity and the superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and plasma malondialdehyde levels in aging mice and to evaluate how these measures are modulated by potential antioxidants, including the tocotrienol-rich fraction, Piper betle, and Chlorella vulgaris. METHOD: One hundred and twenty male C57BL/6 inbred mice were divided into three age groups: young (6 months old), middle-aged (12 months old), and old (18 months old). Each age group consisted of two control groups (distilled water and olive oil) and three treatment groups: Piper betle (50 mg/kg body weight), tocotrienol-rich fraction (30 mg/kg), and Chlorella vulgaris (50 mg/kg). The duration of treatment for all three age groups was two months. Blood was withdrawn from the orbital sinus to determine the antioxidant enzyme activity and the malondialdehyde level. RESULTS: Piper betle increased the activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase in the young, middle, and old age groups, respectively, when compared to control. The tocotrienol-rich fraction decreased the superoxide dismutase activity in the middle and the old age groups but had no effect on catalase or glutathione peroxidase activity for all age groups. Chlorella vulgaris had no effect on superoxide dismutase activity for all age groups but increased glutathione peroxidase and decreased catalase activity in the middle and the young age groups, respectively. Chlorella vulgaris reduced lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde levels) in all age groups, but no significant changes were observed with the tocotrienol-rich fraction and the Piper betle treatments. CONCLUSION: We found equivocal age-related changes in erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity when mice were treated with Piper betle, the tocotrienol-rich fraction, and Chlorella vulgaris. However, Piper betle treatment showed increased antioxidant enzymes activity during aging.

Aliahmat, Nor Syahida; Noor, Mohd Razman Mohd; Yusof, Wan Junizam Wan; Makpol, Suzana; Ngah, Wan Zurinah Wan; Yusof, Yasmin Anum Mohd

2012-01-01

339

Effects of shock waves on oxidative stress, antioxidant enzyme and element levels in kidney of rats.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) on kidney oxidative stress and trace element levels of adult rats. Twelve male Wistar albino rats were divided equally into two groups. First group was used as control. The right-side kidneys of animals in second group were treated with 2,000 18-kV shock waves under anesthesia. Localization of the right kidney was achieved following contrast medium injection through a tail vein under flouroscopy control. The animals were sacrificed 72 h after the ESWL treatment, and the kidneys were taken. Malondialdehyde level was higher in the ESWL group than in the control. Reduced glutathione levels, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase activities were lower in the ESWL group than those of the control. Fe, Cu, Pb, Mn, Cd, and Ni levels were lower in the ESWL group than in the control, although Mg level was higher in the ESWL group than in the control. In conclusion, the result of the present study indicated that ESWL treatment produced oxidative stress in the kidney and caused impairments on the antioxidant and trace element levels in the kidneys of rats. PMID:21701835

Gecit, ?lhan; Kavak, Servet; Meral, Ismail; Pirinçci, Necip; Güne?, Mustafa; Demir, Halit; Cengiz, Nureddin; Ceylan, Kadir

2011-12-01

340

Activities of antioxidant enzymes in muscle, liver and lung of chickens with inherited muscular dystrophy.  

PubMed

An inherited form of muscular dystrophy in chickens has been used as a model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. The pectoralis major muscle of chickens with this disease showed a significantly elevated activity of catalase (CAT) one day after hatching, and by 7 days showed elevated superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities. Increases were also found in tissues of the dystrophic birds that, unlike the pectoralis muscle, are considered to be unaffected by the pathology of muscular dystrophy. The soleus muscle contained significantly increased levels of SOD and GPX in 1 and 7 day old chickens, and increased GST in 1, 14, and 28 day old birds. CAT was significantly increased in liver from 1 and 7 day old chickens, while GPX was increased in lung from 1, 7 and 14 day old birds. These results support the possibility that excess oxygen free-radicals or altered cellular antioxidant defenses play some role in the pathogenesis of muscular dystrophy. PMID:3947339

Murphy, M E; Kehrer, J P

1986-01-29

341

Studies on antioxidant enzymes in Canna indica plant under copper stress.  

PubMed

Bright red-flowered Canna indica L. plants were subjected to grow in nutrient solution supplemented with five different concentrations (0, 5, 10, 30 and 50 microM) of CuCl2 to study antioxidant defense responses of the plant. Accumulation of Cu was dose-dependent and much higher in the roots (108-191 microg g(-1) d. wt.) than in the leaves (23.36-40.43 microg g d.wt.). Total ascorbate content did not changed in both tissues, but ascorbate redox state decreased (0.570-0.640) in Cu-treated Canna roots. In contrast, both total and reduced glutathione contents increased (387-591.9 nmol g(-1) f. wt.) considerably in roots, accompanied with enhanced activities of dehydroascorbate reductase (153.3-160 nmol mg(-1) protein) and glutathione reductase (67-87.5 nmol mg(-1) protein). No significant change, however, was observed for monodehydroascorbate reductase activity in both tissues of the treated plant. The efficient scavenging of hydrogen peroxide was performed by normal (control level) activities of both ascorbate peroxidase and catalase in leaf and increased activity of only catalase in root, preventing its accumulation at toxic concentrations (despite high superoxide dismutase activity) and subsequent damage of membrane lipids by peroxidation. Together, these ensured normal dry weight of leaves and roots, indicating tolerance of Canna indica plant to Cu-induced oxidative stress. PMID:24006813

Talukdar, Dibyendu

2013-01-01

342

Increased 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine in plasma and decreased mRNA expression of human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1, anti-oxidant enzymes, mitochondrial biogenesis-related proteins and glycolytic enzymes in leucocytes in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.  

PubMed

We measured plasma levels of the oxidative DNA damage marker 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and leucocyte mRNA expression levels of the genes encoding the 8-OHdG repair enzyme human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 (hOGG1), the anti-oxidant enzymes copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/ZnSOD), manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx-1), GPx-4, glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione synthetase (GS), the mitochondrial biogenesis-related proteins mtDNA-encoded ND 1 polypeptide (ND1), ND6, ATPase 6, mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam), nuclear respiratory factor 1(NRF-1), pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 component alpha subunit (PDHA1), pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isoenzyme 1 (PDK-1) and hypoxia inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) and the glycolytic enzymes hexokinase-II (HK-II), glucose 6-phosphate isomerase (GPI), phosphofructokinase (PFK), glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHa). We analysed their relevance to oxidative damage in 85 systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients, four complicated SLE patients undergoing rituximab treatment and 45 healthy individuals. SLE patients had higher plasma 8-OHdG levels (P?anti-oxidant enzymes (P?enzymes (P?anti-oxidant enzymes (P?enzymes (P?anti-oxidant enzymes, GAPDH, Tfam and PDHA1, experienced better therapeutic outcomes after rituximab therapy. In conclusion, higher oxidative damage with suboptimal increases in DNA repair, anti-oxidant capacity, mitochondrial biogenesis and glucose metabolism may be implicated in SLE deterioration, and this impairment might be improved by targeted biological therapy. PMID:24345202

Lee, H-T; Lin, C-S; Lee, C-S; Tsai, C-Y; Wei, Y-H

2014-04-01

343

c-Maf negatively regulates ARE-mediated detoxifying enzyme genes expression and anti-oxidant induction.  

PubMed

Anti-oxidant response element (ARE) and nuclear factors including Nrf2 and small Maf (MafG and MafK) proteins are known to regulate expression and induction of detoxifying enzyme genes including quinone oxidoreductase1 (NQO1). Nrf2 upregulates and small Maf proteins lacking the transcriptional activation domain down regulates ARE-mediated expression and induction. In this report, we have investigated the role of c-Maf (large Maf) containing the transcriptional activation domain in the regulation of ARE-mediated genes expression. The overexpression of c-Maf in human hepatoblastoma (Hep-G2) cells led to the repression of ARE-mediated NQO1 and GST Ya genes expression and induction in response to tert-butyl hydroquinone (t-BHQ). This was in contrast to the role of c-Maf in the activation of Maf recognition element (MARE) mediated p53 gene expression. Deletion of transcriptional activation domain of c-Maf (?-Maf) led to significant loss of MARE-mediated p53 gene expression but had no effect on the repression of ARE-mediated NQO1 gene expression. The overexpression of MafG in Hep-G2 cells repressed both ARE and MARE-mediated genes expression. The co-expression of c-Maf with MafG rescued the MafG repression of MARE but not ARE-mediated gene expression. Band and super shift assays showed the presence of c-Maf in the ARE-nuclear protein complex. Similar assays with in vitro translated proteins revealed that both c-Maf and ?-Maf bound to NQO1 gene ARE as homodimers and heterodimers with small Maf but not as heterodimers with Nrf2. Mutational analysis of the NQO1 gene ARE indicated that core ARE sequence is essential for binding of c-Maf leading to repression of NQO1 gene expression. Northern analysis revealed that c-Maf expression increases 2 h after t-BHQ treatment. It reached a plateau at 4 h after t-BHQ treatment. The results together led to the conclusion that c-Maf negatively regulates ARE-mediated detoxifying enzyme genes expression and induction in response to anti-oxidants. PMID:12149651

Dhakshinamoorthy, Saravanakumar; Jaiswal, Anil K

2002-08-01

344

Characterization of the antioxidant enzyme, thioredoxin peroxidase, from the carcinogenic human liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini  

PubMed Central

The human liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini, induces inflammation of the hepatobiliary system. Despite being constantly exposed to inimical oxygen radicals released from inflammatory cells, the parasite survives for many years. The mechanisms by which it avoids oxidative damage are unknown. In this study, thioredoxin peroxidase (TPx), a member of the peroxiredoxin superfamily, was cloned from an O. viverrini cDNA library. O. viverrini TPx cDNA encoded a polypeptide of 212 amino acid residues, of molecular mass 23.57 kDa. The putative amino acid sequence shared 60-70% identity with TPXs from other helminths and from mammals, and phylogenetic analysis revealed a close relationship between TPxs from O. viverrini and other trematodes. Recombinant O. viverrini TPx was expressed as soluble protein in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein dimerized, and its antioxidant activity was deduced by observing protection of nicking of supercoiled plasmid DNA by hydroxyl radicals. Antiserum raised against O. viverrini TPx recognized native proteins from egg, metacercaria and adult developmental stages of the liver fluke and excretory-secretory products released by adult O. viverrini. Immunolocalization studies revealed ubiquitous expression of TPx in O. viverrini organs and tissues. TPx was also detected in bile fluid and bile duct epithelial cells surrounding the flukes two weeks after infection of hamsters with O. viverrini. In addition, TPx was observed in the secondary (small) bile ducts where flukes cannot reach due to their large size. These results suggested that O. viverrini TPx plays a significant role in protecting the parasite against damage induced by reactive oxygen species from inflammation.

Suttiprapa, Sutas; Loukas, Alex; Laha, Thewarach; Wongkham, Sopit; Kaewkes, Sasithorn; Gaze, Soraya; Brindley, Paul J.; Sripa, Banchob

2013-01-01

345

Chemomodulatory effect of Moringa oleifera, Lam, on hepatic carcinogen metabolising enzymes, antioxidant parameters and skin papillomagenesis in mice.  

PubMed

The modulatory effects of a hydro-alcoholic extract of drumsticks of Moringa oliefera Lam at doses of 125 mg/kg bodyweight and 250 mg/ kg body weight for 7 and 14 days, respectively, were investigated with reference to drug metabolising Phase I (Cytochrome b(5) and Cytochrome p(450) ) and Phase II (Glutathione-S- transferase) enzymes, anti-oxidant enzymes, glutathione content and lipid peroxidation in the liver of 6-8 week old female Swiss albino mice. Further, the chemopreventive efficacy of the extract was evaluated in a two stage model of 7,12 - dimethylbenz(a)anthracene induced skin papillomagenesis. Significant increase (p<0.05 to p<0.01) in the activities of hepatic cytochrome b(5), cytochrome p(450), catalase, glutathione peroxidase ( GPx ), glutathione reductase (GR), acid soluble sulfhydryl content (-SH ) and a significant decrease ( p<0.01 ) in the hepatic MDA level were observed at both dose levels of treatment when compared with the control values. Glutathione-S- transferase ( GST )activity was found to be significantly increased (p<0.01 ) only at the higher dose level. Butylated hydroxyanisol (BHA ) fed at a dose of 0.75% in the diet for 7 and 14 days (positive control ) caused a significant increase (p<0.05 to p<0.01) in the levels of hepatic phase I and phase II enzymes, anti- oxidant enzymes, glutathione content and a decrease in lipid peroxidation. The skin papillomagenesis studies demonstrated a significant decrease (p<0.05 ) in the percentage of mice with papillomas, average number of papillomas per mouse and papillomas per papilloma bearing mouse when the animals received a topical application of the extract at a dose of 5mg/ kg body weight in the peri-initiation phase 7 days before and 7 days after DMBA application, Group II ), promotional phase (from the day of croton oil application and continued till the end of the experiment, Group III ) and both peri and post initiation stages (from 7 days prior to DMBA application and continued till the end of the experiment, Group IV) compared to the control group (Group I ). The percentage inhibition of tumor multiplicity has been recorded to be 27, 72, and 81 in Groups II, III, and IV, respectively. These findings are suggestive of a possible chemopreventive potential of Moringa oliefera drumstick extract against chemical carcinogenesis. PMID:12875626

Bharali, Rupjyoti; Tabassum, Jawahira; Azad, Mohammed Rekibul Haque

2003-01-01

346

Differential expression of genes encoding anti-oxidant enzymes in Sydney rock oysters, Saccostrea glomerata (Gould) selected for disease resistance.  

PubMed

Sydney rock oysters (Saccostrea glomerata) selectively bred for disease resistance (R) and wild-caught control oysters (W) were exposed to a field infection of disseminating neoplasia. Cumulative mortality of W oysters (31.7%) was significantly greater than R oysters (0.0%) over the 118 days of the experiment. In an attempt to understand the biochemical and molecular pathways involved in disease resistance, differentially expressed sequence tags (ESTs) between R and W S. glomerata hemocytes were identified using the PCR technique, suppression subtractive hybridisation (SSH). Sequencing of 300 clones from two SSH libraries revealed 183 distinct sequences of which 113 shared high similarity to sequences in the public databases. Putative function could be assigned to 64 of the sequences. Expression of nine ESTs homologous to genes previously shown to be involved in bivalve immunity was further studied using quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR). The base-line expression of an extracellular superoxide dismutase (ecSOD) and a small heat shock protein (sHsP) were significantly increased, whilst peroxiredoxin 6 (Prx6) and interferon inhibiting cytokine factor (IK) were significantly decreased in R oysters. From these results it was hypothesised that R oysters would be able to generate the anti-parasitic compound, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) faster and to higher concentrations during respiratory burst due to the differential expression of genes for the two anti-oxidant enzymes of ecSOD and Prx6. To investigate this hypothesis, protein extracts from hemolymph were analysed for oxidative burst enzyme activity. Analysis of the cell free hemolymph proteins separated by native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) failed to detect true superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity by assaying dismutation of superoxide anion in zymograms. However, the ecSOD enzyme appears to generate hydrogen peroxide, presumably via another process, which is yet to be elucidated. This corroborates our hypothesis, whilst phylogenetic analysis of the complete coding sequence (CDS) of the S. glomerata ecSOD gene is supportive of the atypical nature of the ecSOD enzyme. Results obtained from this work further the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in resistance to disease in this economically important bivalve, and shed further light on the anomalous oxidative processes involved. PMID:19332130

Green, Timothy J; Dixon, Tom J; Devic, Emilie; Adlard, Robert D; Barnes, Andrew C

2009-05-01

347

Three antagonistic cyclic di-GMP-catabolizing enzymes promote differential Dot/Icm effector delivery and intracellular survival at the early steps of Legionella pneumophila infection.  

PubMed

Legionella pneumophila is an intracellular pathogen which replicates within protozoan cells and can accidently infect alveolar macrophages, causing an acute pneumonia in humans. The second messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) has been shown to play key roles in the regulation of various bacterial processes, including virulence. While investigating the function of the 22 potential c-di-GMP-metabolizing enzymes of the L. pneumophila Lens strain, we found three that directly contribute to its ability to infect both protozoan and mammalian cells. These three enzymes display diguanylate cyclase (Lpl0780), phosphodiesterase (Lpl1118), and bifunctional diguanylate cyclase/phosphodiesterase (Lpl0922) activities, which are all required for the survival and intracellular replication of L. pneumophila. Mutants with deletions of the corresponding genes are efficiently taken up by phagocytic cells but are partially defective for the escape of the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV) from the host degradative endocytic pathway and result in lower survival. In addition, Lpl1118 is required for efficient endoplasmic reticulum recruitment to the LCV. Trafficking and biogenesis of the LCV are dependent upon the orchestrated actions of several type 4 secretion system Dot/Icm effectors proteins, which exhibit differentially altered translocation in the three mutants. While translocation of some effectors remained unchanged, others appeared over- and undertranslocated. A general translocation offset of the large repertoire of Dot/Icm effectors may be responsible for the observed defects in the trafficking and biogenesis of the LCV. Our results suggest that L. pneumophila uses cyclic di-GMP signaling to fine-tune effector delivery and ensure effective evasion of the host degradative pathways and establishment of a replicative vacuole. PMID:24379287

Allombert, Julie; Lazzaroni, Jean-Claude; Baïlo, Nathalie; Gilbert, Christophe; Charpentier, Xavier; Doublet, Patricia; Vianney, Anne

2014-03-01

348

Alterations in antioxidant metabolism and associated enzymes in pea (Pisum sativum) exposed to sulfur dioxide  

SciTech Connect

The response of glutathione and ascorbate and the enzymes glutathione reductase (GR) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) was studied in two cultivars of pea known to be differentially sensitive to SO{sub 2} (0.8 ppm). Total glutathione accumulated more rapidly on exposure to SO{sub 2} in insensitive cultivar Progress compared to the sensitive cultivar Nugget, confirming our previous results. However, corresponding changes in oxidized glutathione were not observed and ascorbate levels did not change over the course of the exposure. Changes in the activity of GR corresponded to the changes in total glutatione levels. Preliminary results indicate that SOD activity increased to a significantly higher extent in Progress than in Nugget. These data suggest a significant role for GR and possibly SOD in resistance to oxidative stress.

Madamanchi, N.R.; Alscher, R.G. (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg (USA))

1990-05-01

349

Pulmonary antioxidants  

SciTech Connect

One of the most vital of the cellular defenses against pollution is an antioxidant armanentarium which consists of oxidant scavenging molecules such as vitamin E, glutathione, vitamin C, and uric acid as well as a number of enzymes (superoxide dismutase, semidehydroascorbate reductase, catalase, GSH synthetase, GSH peroxidase, GSH reductase, and GSH transferase) and appears to function in keeping oxidant forces under control. Pollutants can upset the oxidant/antioxidant balance of cells by inhibiting vital enzymes, by reacting with oxidant scavengers, or by forming free radical intermediates which initiate uncontrolled tissue reactions with molecular oxygen. The book chapter reviews possible interactions between pollutants and the oxidant/antioxidant balance.

Massaro, E.J.; Grose, E.C.; Hatch, G.E.; Slade, R.

1987-05-01

350

Sulforaphane and phenylethyl isothiocyanate protect human skin against UVR-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis: role of Nrf2-dependent gene expression and antioxidant enzymes.  

PubMed

Chronic UVR-exposure may impair the stress response and antioxidant defense mechanisms of human skin. The transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) orchestrates the expression of genes coding for the stress response and antioxidant proteins. Here, we tested sulforaphane (SFN) and phenylethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) for their ability to counteract UVR-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in ex vivo human full-thickness skin combined with in vitro HaCaT keratinocytes. Investigation of Nrf2 transactivation and induction of genes coding for Nrf2-dependent phase II antioxidative enzymes (?-glutamylcysteine-synthetase (?GCS), heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1)) was performed in HaCaT keratinocytes. Comparative investigations in human ex vivo skin were conducted for analysis of gene expression of above mentioned phase II enzymes and catalase (CAT) as well as hematoxylin/eosin (H&E) and immunofluorescence (catalase, cleaved Casp-3). UVR exposure of human skin (300mJ/cm(2)) resulted in a significant time-dependent increase of the number of sunburn cells and caspase-3 activation as biomarkers of apoptosis for up to 48h (p<0.001) and induced a significant decrease of the antioxidant enzyme catalase (p<0.001). This was significantly counteracted by the pre-treatment of human skin with SFN and PEITC (5?M and 10?M). Mechanistic cell culture studies revealed SFN and PEITC to increase Nrf2 activity and Nrf2-dependent gene expression (?GCS, HO-1, NQO1); this was paralleled in human full skin mRNA. In conclusion, the induction of Nrf2-dependent antioxidant pathways seems to be a potential mechanism by which SFN and PEITC protect against UVR-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in human skin. PMID:24121007

Kleszczy?ski, Konrad; Ernst, Insa M A; Wagner, Anika E; Kruse, Nathalie; Zillikens, Detlef; Rimbach, Gerald; Fischer, Tobias W

2013-12-01

351

Juniperus communis Linn oil decreases oxidative stress and increases antioxidant enzymes in the heart of rats administered a diet rich in cholesterol.  

PubMed

It has been asserted that consumption of dietary cholesterol (Chol) raises atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases and that Chol causes an increase in free radical production. Hypercholesterolemic diet has also been reported to cause changes in the antioxidant system. In our study, different doses of Juniperus communis Linn (JCL) oil, a tree species growing in Mediterranean and Isparta regions and having aromatic characteristics, were administered to rats; and the levels of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assay (TBARS) were examined in the heart tissue of rats. In this study, 35 Wistar Albino male adult rats weighing approximately 250-300 g were used. The rats were divided into five groups of seven each. The control group was administered normal pellet chow, and the Chol group was administered pellet chow including 2% Chol, while 50 JCL, 100 JCL, and 200 JCL groups were administered 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg JCL oil dissolved in 0.5% sodium carboxy methyl cellulose, respectively, in addition to the pellet chow containing 2% Chol, by gavage. After 30 days, the experiment was terminated and the antioxidant enzyme activities were examined in the heart tissue of rats. While consumption of dietary Chol decreases the activities of SOD, GSH-Px, and CAT in heart tissue of rats (not significant), administeration of 200 mg/kg JCL oil in addition to Chol led to a significant increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Administering Chol led to a significant increase in TBARS level. Administering 100 and 200 mg/kg JCL oil together with Chol prevented significantly the increase in lipid peroxides. As a result of the study, JCL oil showed oxidant-antioxidant effect in the heart tissue of rats. PMID:23293127

Gümral, Nurhan; Doguc Kumbul, Duygu; Aylak, Firdevs; Saygin, Mustafa; Savik, Emin

2013-01-01

352

Comparison of antioxidant enzyme activities between Solanum tuberosum L. Cultivars Danshaku and Kitaakari during low-temperature storage.  

PubMed

We compared the antioxidant enzyme activities between Solanum tuberosum L. cultivars Kitaakari and "Danshaku" during storage at 1 degrees C and 20 degrees C. The Kitaakari and Danshaku plants contained approximately 330 microM and 120 microM ascorbic acid (AsA) immediately after the harvest, respectively. At 1 degrees C, the activity of ascorbate peroxidase (APx) in the Kitaakari plants showed the tendency to increase, while in the Danshaku its activity increased temporally by 9 weeks and thereafter returned to basal levels. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity increased after 12 weeks in the case of the Kitaakari at 1 degrees C. Catalase did not show any difference in both cultivars at each temperature. The contents of AsA, which was one of the substrates of APx, decreased more rapidly at 1 degrees C than at 20 degrees C in both cultivars. Particularly in the case of the Danshaku, AsA contents were already less than 30 microM at 9 weeks, which confirmed that APx was inactivated. PMID:10888508

Kawakami, S; Mizuno, M; Tsuchida, H

2000-06-01

353

Increased oxidative stress and imbalance in antioxidant enzymes in the brains of alloxan-induced diabetic rats.  

PubMed

Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is associated with pathological changes in the central nervous system (SNC) as well as alterations in oxidative stress. Thus, the main objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the animal model of diabetes induced by alloxan on memory and oxidative stress. Diabetes was induced in Wistar rats by using a single injection of alloxan (150 mg/kg), and fifteen days after induction, the rats memory was evaluated through the use of the object recognition task. The oxidative stress parameters and the activity of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) were measured in the rat brain. The results showed that diabetic rats did not have alterations in their recognition memory. However, the results did show that diabetic rats had increases in the levels of superoxide in the prefrontal cortex, and in thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) production in the prefrontal cortex and in the amygdala in submitochondrial particles. Also, there was an increase in protein oxidation in the hippocampus and striatum, and in TBARS oxidation in the striatum and amygdala. The SOD activity was decreased in diabetic rats in the striatum and amygdala. However, the CAT activity was increased in the hippocampus taken from diabetic rats. In conclusion, our findings illustrate that the animal model of diabetes induced by alloxan did not cause alterations in the animals' recognition memory, but it produced oxidants and an imbalance between SOD and CAT activities, which could contribute to the pathophysiology of diabetes. PMID:22645603

Ceretta, Luciane B; Réus, Gislaine Z; Abelaira, Helena M; Ribeiro, Karine F; Zappellini, Giovanni; Felisbino, Francine F; Steckert, Amanda V; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Quevedo, João

2012-01-01

354

Increased Oxidative Stress and Imbalance in Antioxidant Enzymes in the Brains of Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats  

PubMed Central

Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is associated with pathological changes in the central nervous system (SNC) as well as alterations in oxidative stress. Thus, the main objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the animal model of diabetes induced by alloxan on memory and oxidative stress. Diabetes was induced in Wistar rats by using a single injection of alloxan (150?mg/kg), and fifteen days after induction, the rats memory was evaluated through the use of the object recognition task. The oxidative stress parameters and the activity of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) were measured in the rat brain. The results showed that diabetic rats did not have alterations in their recognition memory. However, the results did show that diabetic rats had increases in the levels of superoxide in the prefrontal cortex, and in thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) production in the prefrontal cortex and in the amygdala in submitochondrial particles. Also, there was an increase in protein oxidation in the hippocampus and striatum, and in TBARS oxidation in the striatum and amygdala. The SOD activity was decreased in diabetic rats in the striatum and amygdala. However, the CAT activity was increased in the hippocampus taken from diabetic rats. In conclusion, our findings illustrate that the animal model of diabetes induced by alloxan did not cause alterations in the animals' recognition memory, but it produced oxidants and an imbalance between SOD and CAT activities, which could contribute to the pathophysiology of diabetes.

Ceretta, Luciane B.; Reus, Gislaine Z.; Abelaira, Helena M.; Ribeiro, Karine F.; Zappellini, Giovanni; Felisbino, Francine F.; Steckert, Amanda V.; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Quevedo, Joao

2012-01-01

355

Amelioration of Ozone-Induced Oxidative Damage in Wheat Plants Grown under High Carbon Dioxide (Role of Antioxidant Enzymes).  

PubMed Central

O3-induced changes in growth, oxidative damage to protein, and specific activities of certain antioxidant enzymes were investigated in wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L. cv Roblin) grown under ambient or high CO2. High CO2 enhanced shoot biomass of wheat plants, whereas O3 exposure decreased shoot biomass. The shoot biomass was relatively unaffected in plants grown under a combination of high CO2 and O3. O3 exposure under ambient CO2 decreased photosynthetic pigments, soluble proteins, and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase protein and enhanced oxidative damage to proteins, but these effects were not observed in plants exposed to O3 under high CO2. O3 exposure initially enhanced the specific activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and ascorbate peroxidase irrespective of growth in ambient or high CO2. However, the specific activities decreased in plants with prolonged exposure to O3 under ambient CO2 but not in plants exposed to O3 under high CO2. Native gels revealed preferential changes in the isoform composition of superoxide dismutase, peroxidases, and ascorbate peroxidase of plants grown under a combination of high CO2 and O3. Furthermore, growth under high CO2 and O3 led to the synthesis of one new isoform of glutathione reductase. This could explain why plants grown under a combination of high CO2 and O3 are capable of resisting O3-induced damage to growth and proteins compared to plants exposed to O3 under ambient CO2.

Rao, M. V.; Hale, B. A.; Ormrod, D. P.

1995-01-01

356

Impacts of chloramine-T treatment on antioxidant enzyme activities and genotoxicity in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum).  

PubMed

Juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum) were exposed to therapeutic, and higher concentrations of chloramine-T (Cl-T) to assess the effects of this chemical on the antioxidant enzyme system and genetic structure. Red blood cells acetylcholinesterase, ?-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase, paraoxonase and liver glutathione S-transferase activity were increased at 10 and 20 mg L(-1) Cl-T-exposed fish, while they were decreased at 30 mg L(-1) Cl-T-exposed fish. On the other hand, liver catalase activity and liver protein levels increased at 10 mg L(-1) and decreased at 20 and 30 mg L(-1) concentrations of Cl-T. Liver super-oxide dismutase activity decreased at 10 mg L(-1) and 20 mg L(-1) Cl-T and increased at 30 mg L(-1) of Cl-T. Compared to control, comet assay indicated that Cl-T did not cause significant DNA damage to red blood cells of the fish. Results indicate that 10 or 20 mg L(-1) Cl-T can be safely used to prevent or treat external parasitic and bacterial infection of rainbow trout. PMID:23952530

Boran, H; Altinok, I

2014-05-01

357

[Combined effects of copper and simulated acid rain on copper accumulation, growth, and antioxidant enzyme activities of Rumex acetosa].  

PubMed

A pot experiment was conducted to study the combined effects of Cu (0-1500 mg x kg(-1)) and simulated acid rain (pH 2.5-5.6) on the copper accumulation, growth, and antioxidant enzyme activities of Rumex acetosa. With the increasing concentration of soil Cu, the Cu accumulation in R. acetosa increased, being higher in root than in stem and leaf. The exposure to low pH acid rain promoted the Cu uptake by R. acetosa. With the increase of soil Cu concentration and/or of acid rain acidity, the biomass of R. acetosa decreased, leaf and root MDA contents increased and had good correlation with soil Cu concentration, and the SOD and POD activities in leaf and root displayed a decreasing trend after an initial increase. This study showed that R. acetosa had a strong adaptive ability to Cu and acid rain stress, exhibiting a high application potential in the remediation of Cu-contaminated soil in acid rain areas. PMID:21608265

He, Shan-Ying; Gao, Yong-Jie; Shentu, Jia-Li; Chen, Kun-Bai

2011-02-01

358

Recovery of maize (Zea mays L.) inbreds and hybrids from chilling stress of various duration: photosynthesis and antioxidant enzymes.  

PubMed

The differences between two maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines and their F1 hybrids in their response to chilling periods of various duration (1, 2, 3 or 4 weeks) and subsequent return to optimum temperatures were analysed by the measurement of the photosystem (PS) 1 and 2 activity, the photosynthetic pigments' content and the activity of antioxidant enzymes. The PS2 activity and the chlorophyll content decreased in plants subjected to 3 or 4 weeks of chilling, but not in those subjected to 1 or 2 weeks of chilling. This decrease was more pronounced in inbreds compared to their hybrids. The activity of superoxide dismutase did not much change with the increasing length of chilling period in the inbreds but decreased in the hybrids, the glutathione reductase activity increased in both types of genotypes but more in the inbred lines, while for ascorbate peroxidase and catalase the changes in parents-hybrids relationship did not show any specific trend. The PS1 activity and the carotenoids' content was not much affected. PMID:16884820

Holá, Dana; Kocová, Marie; Rothová, Olga; Wilhelmová, Nad'a; Benesová, Monika

2007-07-01

359

Response of growth and antioxidant enzymes in Azolla plants (Azolla pinnata and Azolla filiculoides) exposed to UV-B.  

PubMed

Effect of ultravilolet-B (0.4 Wm(-2)) irradiation on growth, flavonoid content, lipid peroxidation, proline accumulation and activities of superoxide dismutase and peroxidase was comparatively analysed in Azolla pinnata and Azolla filiculoides. Growth measured as increment in dry weight reduced considerably due to all UV-B treatments. However, the reduction was found to be severe in A. filiculoides as compared to A. pinnata. The level of UV-absorbing compound flavonoids increased significantly in A. pinnata plants whereas only a slight increase in the flavonoid content was observed in A. filiculoides. UV-B exposure led to enhanced production of malondialdehyde (MDA) and electrolyte leakage in A. filiculoides than A. pinnata. Proline accumulation also showed a similar trend. Marked differences in the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) was noticed in both the plants exposed to UV-B. Our comparative studies indicate A. pinnata to be better tolerant to UV-B as compared with A. filiculoides which appears to be sensitive. PMID:18637563

Masood, Amjad; Zeeshan, M; Abraham, G

2008-06-01

360

Curcuma comosa prevents the neuron loss and affects the antioxidative enzymes in hippocampus of ethanol-treated rats.  

PubMed

Curcuma comosa Roxb. is widely used as a gynaecological traditional medicine in South-East Asia and recent behavioral studies have shown that C. comosa extract significantly improved the spatial memory in rats. The present study investigated the protective effects of Curcuma comosa hexane extract on the ethanol (EtOH)-induced oxidation in rat brains. Young female Wistar rats were given 20% of EtOH intraperitoneally to induce the oxidative stress. Subsequently, C. comosa hexane extract was intraperitoneally co-administered at the doses of 100 and 250 mg kg(-1) b.wt. to the EtOH-induced rats for 14 days. The neuron densities of CA1, CA3 and CA4 areas of the hippocampus were counted and the activities of hippocampal Catalase (CAT), Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) and Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) were determined. EtOH significantly decreased the neuron densities in Cornu Ammonis (CA), including CA1 and CA3 areas; however, the decrease was prevented by C. comosa co-administration. EtOH administration also increased the CAT and GPx activities in the hippocampus which were reversed by C. comosa co-administration. Moreover, C. comosa administration increased the SOD activity in a dose-dependent manner in the EtOH treated groups. C. comosa prevented the neuron loss in the hippocampus caused by EtOH. The possible neural protective mechanism may involve with the changes in activities of the antioxidant enzymes in the hippocampus. PMID:24199465

Su, Jian; Sripanidkulchai, Kittisak; Hu, Ying; Sripanidkulchai, Bungorn

2012-04-15

361

Response of antioxidative enzymes and apoplastic bypass transport in Thlaspi caerulescens and Raphanus sativus to cadmium stress.  

PubMed

A hydroponics experiment using hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens (alpine pennycress) and non-specific accumulator Raphanus sativus (common radish) was conducted to investigate the short-term effect of increasing Cd concentrations (0, 25, 50, 75, 100 microM) on metal uptake, chlorophyll content, antioxidative enzymes, and apoplastic bypass flow. As expected, T. caerulescens generally showed better resistance to metal stress, which was reflected by higher Cd accumulation within plant tissues with no signs of chlorosis, or wilt. Glutathione reductase (GR) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in fresh leaves were monitored as the plant metal-detoxifying response. In general, both plant species exhibited an increase trend of GR activity before declining at 100 microM likely due to excessive levels of phytotoxic Cd. SOD activity exhibited almost a similar variation pattern to GR and decreased also at 100 microM Cd. For both plant species, fluorescent PTS uptake (8-hydroxy-1,3,6-pyrenetrisulphonic acid) increased significantly with metal level in exposure solutions indicating that Cd has a comparable effect to drought or salinity in terms of the gain of relative importance in apoplastic bypass transport under such stress conditions. PMID:21166344

Benzarti, Saoussen; Hamdi, Helmi; Mohri, Shino; Ono, Yoshiro

2010-01-01

362

Evaluation of bamboo shoot peptide preparation with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant abilities from byproducts of canned bamboo shoots.  

PubMed

In this paper, aqueous extract fractions from byproducts of the processing of canned bamboo shoots, including boiled water, filled liquid, and squeezed juice, were obtained by 5 kDa molecular cutoff membranes and marcoporous resin DA201-C treatment. The enriched bamboo shoot angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptide preparation fraction (called BSP for short) was extracted with ethyl acetate and n-butanol. The ethyl acetate fraction and n-butanol fraction exhibited higher antioxidant capacities than the leaving water fraction (BSML), which was attributed to the higher phenolic acid and flavonoid content of both fractions, while BSML exhibited the strongest ACE inhibitory activity. Sephadex G-15 gel filtration and semipreparative high-performance liquid chromatography were used for further purification of bamboo shoot ACE inhibitory peptide from BSML. Asp-Tyr was identified as the key active component by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. A short-term antihypertensive assay stated that both Asp-Tyr [10 mg day(-1) (kg of body weight)(-1)] and BSP [50 mg day(-1) (kg of body weight)(-1)] could significantly reduce the systolic blood pressure of spontaneously hypertensive rats (3-6 h). This study provides further examples of utilization of byproducts from the processing of canned bamboo shoots for the prevention of hypertension and attenuation of oxidative stress. PMID:23647018

Liu, Lianliang; Liu, Lingyi; Lu, Baiyi; Chen, Meiqin; Zhang, Ying

2013-06-12

363

Enzyme-based online monitoring and measurement of antioxidant activity using an optical oxygen sensor coupled to an HPLC system.  

PubMed

It is estimated that up to 50% of the adult population take antioxidant products on a daily basis to promote their health status. Strangely, despite the well-recognized importance of antioxidants, currently there is no international standard index for labeling owing to the lack of standardized methods for antioxidant measurement in complex products. Here, an online high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-based method to detect and measure the total antioxidant capacity of antioxidant samples is presented. In this approach, complex samples containing antioxidants are separated by the HPLC system, which is further coupled to an antioxidant measuring system consisting of an optical oxygen sensor, laccase, and tetramethoxy azobismethylene quinone (TMAMQ). The antioxidants, separated via HPLC, reduce TMAMQ to syringaldazine, which is then reoxidized by laccase while simultaneously consuming O(2). The amount of consumed oxygen is directly proportional to the concentration of antioxidants and is measured by the optical oxygen sensor. The sensor is fabricated by coating a glass capillary with an oxygen-sensitive thin layer made of platinum(II) meso-tetra(4-fluorophenyl)tetrabenzoporphyrin and polystyrene, which makes real-time analysis possible (t(90) = 1.1 s in solution). Four selected antioxidants (3 mM), namely, catechin, ferulic acid, naringenin (used as a control), and Trolox, representing flavonol, hydrocinnamic acid, flavanone, and vitamin E, respectively, were injected into the online antioxidant monitoring system, separated, and then mixed with the TMAMQ/laccase solution, which resulted in oxygen consumption. This study shows that, with the use of such a system, the antioxidant activity of individual antioxidant molecules in a sample and their contribution to the total antioxidant activity of the sample can be correctly assigned. PMID:23307126

Quaranta, Michela; Nugroho Prasetyo, Endry; Koren, Klaus; Nyanhongo, Gibson S; Murkovic, Michael; Klimant, Ingo; Guebitz, Georg M

2013-03-01

364

Changes of platelet antioxidative enzymes during oxidative stress: the protective effect of polyphenol-rich extract from berries of Aronia melanocarpa and grape seeds.  

PubMed

Aronia melanocarpa fruits (Rosaceae) and grape seeds (seeds of Vitis vinifera, Vitaceae) are two of the richest plant sources of phenolic substances, and they have been shown to have various biological activities. The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the action of phenolic extracts (at concentrations 5-100?µg/mL) of two different plants, berries of A. melanocarpa (chokebbery) and grape seeds, on the activities of various antioxidative enzymes, the amount of glutathione (as an important component of redox status) in control the platelets and platelets treated with H(2)O(2) (the strong physiological oxidant) in vitro. The properties of these two tested extracts were also compared with the action of a well characterized antioxidative and antiplatelet commercial monomeric polyphenol - resveratrol. The extract from berries of A. melanocarpa, like the extract from grape seeds, reduced the changes in activities of different antioxidative enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase) in platelets treated with H(2)O(2). The action of the two tested plant extracts and H(2)O(2) evoked a significant increase of reduced glutathione in platelets compared with platelets treated with H(2)O(2) only. Comparative studies indicate that the two tested plant extracts had similar antioxidative properties, and were found to be more reactive in blood platelets than the solution of resveratrol. PMID:21299394

Kedzierska, Magdalena; Olas, Beata; Wachowicz, Barbara; Stochmal, Anna; Oleszek, Wies?aw; Erler, Joachim

2011-01-01

365

Nanoparticles for targeted delivery of antioxidant enzymes to the brain after cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury  

PubMed Central

Stroke is one of the major causes of death and disability in the United States. After cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury, the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species may contribute to the disease process through alterations in the structure of DNA, RNA, proteins, and lipids. We generated various nanoparticles (liposomes, polybutylcyanoacrylate (PBCA), or poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)) that contained active superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme (4,000 to 20,000?U/kg) in the mouse model of cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury to determine the impact of these molecules. In addition, the nanoparticles were untagged or tagged with nonselective antibodies or antibodies directed against the N-methyl-𝒟-aspartate (NMDA) receptor 1. The nanoparticles containing SOD protected primary neurons in vitro from oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) and limited the extent of apoptosis. The nanoparticles showed protection against ischemia and reperfusion injury when applied after injury with a 50% to 60% reduction in infarct volume, reduced inflammatory markers, and improved behavior in vivo. The targeted nanoparticles not only showed enhanced protection but also showed localization to the CA regions of the hippocampus. Nanoparticles alone were not effective in reducing infarct volume. These studies show that targeted nanoparticles containing protective factors may be viable candidates for the treatment of stroke.

Yun, Xiang; Maximov, Victor D; Yu, Jin; Zhu, Hong; Vertegel, Alexey A; Kindy, Mark S

2013-01-01

366

Aging-Dependent Regulation of Antioxidant Enzymes and Redox Status in Chronically Loaded Rat Dorsiflexor Muscles  

PubMed Central

This study compares changes in the pro-oxidant production and buffering capacity in young and aged skeletal muscle after exposure to chronic repetitive loading (RL). The dorsiflexors from one limb of young and aged rats were loaded 3 times/week for 4.5 weeks using 80 maximal stretch-shortening contractions per session. RL increased H2O2 in tibialis anterior muscles of young and aged rats and decreased the ratio of reduced/oxidized glutathione and lipid peroxidation in aged but not young adult animals. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity decreased whereas catalase activity increased with RL in muscles from young and aged rats. RL increased CuZn superoxide disumutase (SOD) and Mn SOD protein concentration and CuZn SOD activity in muscles from young but not aged animals. There were no changes in protein content for GPx-1 and catalase or messenger RNA for any of the enzymes studied. These data show that aging reduces the adaptive capacity of muscles to buffer increased pro-oxidants imposed by chronic RL.

Ryan, Michael J.; Dudash, Holly J.; Docherty, Megan; Geronilla, Kenneth B.; Baker, Brent A.; Haff, G. Gregory; Cutlip, Robert G.; Alway, Stephen E.

2009-01-01

367

Elevated levels of the norspermidine synthesis enzyme NspC enhance Vibrio cholerae biofilm formation without affecting intracellular norspermidine concentrations.  

PubMed

Biofilm formation in Vibrio cholerae is in part regulated by norspermidine, a polyamine synthesized by the enzyme carboxynorspermidine decarboxylase (NspC). The absence of norspermidine in the cell leads to a marked reduction in V. cholerae biofilm formation by an unknown mechanism. In this work, we show that overexpression of nspC results in large increases in biofilm formation and vps gene expression as well as a significant decrease in motility. Interestingly, increased NspC levels do not lead to increased concentrations of norspermidine in the cell. Our results show that NspC levels inversely regulate biofilm and motility and implicate the presence of an effective feedback mechanism maintaining norspermidine homeostasis in V. cholerae. Moreover, we provide evidence that NspC and the norspermidine sensor protein, NspS, provide independent and distinct inputs into the biofilm regulatory network. PMID:22239666

Parker, Zachary M; Pendergraft, Samuel S; Sobieraj, Jim; McGinnis, Marcus M; Karatan, Ece

2012-04-01

368

Transient, oxidant-induced antioxidant transcript and enzyme levels correlate with greater oxidant-resistance in paraquat-resistant Conyza bonariensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  ?The elucidation of mechanisms plants use to overcome oxidative stress is facilitated where there is intra-specific genetic\\u000a variability. The differential induction of higher levels of mRNAs, cytosol and chloroplast antioxidant enzyme activities,\\u000a and proteins occurred after sub-lethal paraquat treatment of the oxidant-resistant biotype of Conyza bonariensis (L.) Cronq. By 6 h after sub-lethal paraquat treatment the activities of superoxide dismutase

Bin Ye; Jonathan Gressel

2000-01-01

369

Differential antioxidative response of ascorbate glutathione pathway enzymes and metabolites to chromium speciation stress in green gram ( Vigna radiata (L.) R.Wilczek. cv CO 4) roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

The response of the antioxidant enzymes and metabolites of the ascorbate glutathione pathway to oxidative stress caused by equal concentration (50?M) of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) was studied in 15-day-old seedlings of green gram (Vigna radiata (L.) R.Wilczek. cv CO 4) for 5 days after imposition of stress. Significant increase in lipid peroxidation and H2O2 generation was seen 5h after stress

Arun K Shanker; M Djanaguiraman; R Sudhagar; C. N Chandrashekar; G Pathmanabhan

2004-01-01

370

Changes in the activities of pro- and anti-oxidant enzymes in peach fruit inoculated with Cryptococcus laurentii or Penicillium expansum at 0 or 20 °C  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peach fruit (Amygdalus persica cv. Okubao) were inoculated with either antagonist Cryptococcus laurentii or pathogen Penicillium expansum and stored at 20 and 0°C to investigate the effect of antagonist and pathogen on some pro- and anti-oxidant enzymes in non-infected flesh of fruit during storage. Both C. laurentii and P. expansum markedly induced activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), peroxidase (POD) and

You Sheng Wang; Shi Ping Tian; Yong Xu; Guo Zheng Qin; Hongjie Yao

2004-01-01

371

The effects of organophosphate insecticide methidathion on lipid peroxidation and anti-oxidant enzymes in rat erythrocytes: role of vitamins E and C  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of organophosphate insecticide methidathion (MD) on lipid peroxidation and anti-oxidant enzymes and the ameliorating effects of a combination of vitamins E and C against MD toxicity were evaluated in rat erythrocytes. Experimental groups were: control group, MD-treated group (MD), and MD+vitamin E+vitamin Ctreated group (MD+Vit). MD and MD+Vit groups were treated orally with a single dose of 8

I Altuntas; N Delibas; R Sutcu

2002-01-01

372

Chemomodulatory Influence of Ferula asafoetida on Mammary Epithelial Differentiation, Hepatic Drug Metabolizing Enzymes, Antioxidant Profiles and N -methyl- N -Nitrosourea-Induced Mammary Carcinogenesis in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was conducted to ascertain the modulatory influences of Ferula asafoetida L. (asafoetida, flavoring agent) on the mammary epithelial tissue differentiation, hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes, antioxidant profiles and N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced mammary carcinogenesis in Sprague-Dawley rats. Feeding with two doses of asafoetida (1.25 and 2.5% w\\/w in diet) showed a remarkable increase in the development and differentiation of ducts\\/ductules

G. U. Mallikarjuna; S. Dhanalakshmi; S. Raisuddin; A. Ramesha Rao

2003-01-01

373

Effect of Antioxidant-Rich Foods on Plasma Ascorbic Acid, Cardiac Enzyme, and Lipid Peroxide Levels in Patients Hospitalized with Acute Myocardial Infarction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To determine whether a fat- and energy-reduced diet rich in antioxidant vitamins C and E, beta carotene, and soluble dietary fiber reduces free-radical stress and cardiac enzyme level and increases plasma ascorbic acid level 1 week after acute myocardial infarction.Design Randomized, single blind, controlled study.Setting Primary- and secondary-care research center for patients with myocardial infarction.Subjects All subjects with suspected

RAM B SINGH; MOHAMMAD A NIAZ; POONAM AGARWAL; RAHEENA BEGOM; SHANTI S RASTOGI

1995-01-01

374

Autoantibody against one of the antioxidant repair enzymes, methionine sulfoxide reductase A, in systemic sclerosis: association with pulmonary fibrosis and vascular damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a connective tissue disease characterized by fibrosis and vascular changes in the skin and internal\\u000a organs with autoimmune background. It has been suggested that oxidative stress plays an important role in the development\\u000a of SSc. To determine the prevalence and clinical correlation of autoantibody to methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MSRA), one\\u000a of the antioxidant repair enzymes,

Fumihide OgawaKazuhiro; Kazuhiro Shimizu; Toshihide Hara; Eiji Muroi; Kazuhiro Komura; Motoi Takenaka; Minoru Hasegawa; Manabu Fujimoto; Kazuhiko Takehara; Shinichi Sato

2010-01-01

375

Exposure of the clam Tapes philippinarum to 4-nonylphenol: changes in anti-oxidant enzyme activities and re-burrowing capability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of 4-nonylphenol on anti-oxidant enzyme (superoxide dismutase and catalase) activity in both gills and digestive gland and re-burrowing capability of the clam Tapes philippinarum were investigated after 7 days’ exposure to various sublethal concentrations of nonylphenol (NP). NP caused a significant decrease in superoxide dismutase activity in both tissues from the lowest concentration tested, whereas no significant alteration

Valerio Matozzo; Loriano Ballarin; Maria Gabriella Marin

2004-01-01

376

Effects of Different Treatments of Salicylic Acid on Heat Tolerance, Chlorophyll Fluorescence, and Antioxidant Enzyme Activity in Seedlings of Cucumis sativa L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of different treatments of salicylic acid (SA) on lipid peroxidation, chlorophyll fluorescence and antioxidant\\u000a enzyme activity in seedlings of Cucumis sativa L. were studied before heat stress treatment, 36 h after heat stress and 24 h after recovery. Compared with the controls\\u000a (foliar spray of distilled water), a foliar spray of 1 mM SA (SSA treatment) decreased electrolyte leakage and the

Qinghua Shi; Zhiyi Bao; Zhujun Zhu; Quansheng Ying; Qiongqiu Qian

2006-01-01

377

An insect model for assessing mercury toxicity: Effect of mercury on antioxidant enzyme activities of the housefly ( Musca domestica ) and the cabbage looper moth ( Trichoplusia ni )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of mercury as Hg2Cl2 and HgCl2 on the antioxidant enzyme levels and its toxicity was investigated in an insect model comprised of adult females of the common housefly, Musca domestica, and fourth-instar larvae of the cabbage looper moth, Trichoplusia ni. HgCl2 was found to be more toxic than Hg2Cl2 to both M. domestica and T. ni. The LC50s

K. Zaman; R. S. MacGill; J. E. Johnson; S. Ahmad; R. S. Pardini

1994-01-01

378

Wakame and Nori in Restructured Meats Included in Cholesterol-enriched Diets Affect the Antioxidant Enzyme Gene Expressions and Activities in Wistar Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of diets including restructured meats (RM) containing Wakame or Nori on total liver glutathione status, and several\\u000a antioxidant enzyme gene expressions and activities were tested. Six groups of ten male growing Wistar rats each were fed a\\u000a mix of 85% AIN-93 M diet and 15% freeze-dried RM for 35 days. The control group (C) consumed control RM, the Wakame (W)

Adriana Schultz Moreira; Laura González-Torres; Raul Olivero-David; Sara Bastida; Juana Benedi; Francisco J. Sánchez-Muniz

2010-01-01

379

Bioactivity comparison of extracts from various parts of common and tartary buckwheats: evaluation of the antioxidant- and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activities  

PubMed Central

Background Buckwheat flour and buckwheat sprouts possess antioxidant properties, and previous studies have reported on buckwheat flour displaying an inhibitory activity for angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE). Information is lacking on the bioactivity of other parts of the buckwheat, such as the seed hulls and plant stalks. This study investigates the ACE inhibitory activity and antioxidant activity of various parts of 2 types of buckwheat, n