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Sample records for intracellular antioxidant enzymes

  1. Intracellular Oxidant Activity, Antioxidant Enzyme Defense System, and Cell Senescence in Fibroblasts with Trisomy 21

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Sureda, Víctor; Vilches, Ángel; Sánchez, Olga; Audí, Laura; Domínguez, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Down's syndrome (DS) is characterized by a complex phenotype associated with chronic oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Overexpression of genes on chromosome-21 is thought to underlie the pathogenesis of the major phenotypic features of DS, such as premature aging. Using cultured fibroblasts with trisomy 21 (T21F), this study aimed to ascertain whether an imbalance exists in activities, mRNA, and protein expression of the antioxidant enzymes SOD1, SOD2, glutathione-peroxidase, and catalase during the cell replication process in vitro. T21F had high SOD1 expression and activity which led to an interenzymatic imbalance in the antioxidant defense system, accentuated with replicative senescence. Intracellular ROS production and oxidized protein levels were significantly higher in T21F compared with control cells; furthermore, a significant decline in intracellular ATP content was detected in T21F. Cell senescence was found to appear prematurely in DS cells as shown by SA-β-Gal assay and p21 assessment, though not apoptosis, as neither p53 nor the proapoptotic proteins cytochrome c and caspase 9 were altered in T21F. These novel findings would point to a deleterious role of oxidatively modified molecules in early cell senescence of T21F, thereby linking replicative and stress-induced senescence in cultured cells to premature aging in DS. PMID:25852816

  2. Intracellular antioxidant enzymes are not globally upregulated during hibernation in the major oxidative tissues of the 13-lined ground squirrel Spermophilus tridecemlineatus.

    PubMed

    Page, Melissa M; Peters, Craig W; Staples, James F; Stuart, Jeffrey A

    2009-01-01

    Hibernating mammals exhibit oxidative stress resistance in brain, liver and other tissues. In many animals, cellular oxidative stress resistance is associated with enhanced expression of intracellular antioxidant enzymes. Intracellular antioxidant capacity may be upregulated during hibernation to protect against oxidative damage associated with the ischemia-reperfusion that occurs during transitions between torpor and arousal. We tested the hypothesis that the 13-lined ground squirrel (Spermophilus tridecemlineatus), upregulates intracellular antioxidant enzymes in major oxidative tissues during hibernation. The two major intracellular isoforms of superoxide dismutase (MnSOD and CuZnSOD), which catalyze the first step in superoxide detoxification, were quantified in heart, brain and liver tissue using immunodetection and an in-gel activity assay. However, no differences in SOD protein expression or activity were found between active and hibernating squirrels. Measurements of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase, which catalyze hydrogen peroxide removal, were not broadly upregulated during hibernation. The activity of catalase, which catalyzes an alternative hydrogen peroxide detoxification pathway, was higher in heart and brain of torpid squirrels, but lower in liver. Taken together, these data do not support the hypothesis that hibernation is associated with enhanced oxidative stress resistance due to an upregulation of intracellular antioxidant enzymes in the major oxidative tissues. PMID:18948223

  3. Diverse age-related effects of Bacopa monnieri and donepezil in vitro on cytokine production, antioxidant enzyme activities, and intracellular targets in splenocytes of F344 male rats.

    PubMed

    Priyanka, Hannah P; Singh, Ran Vijay; Mishra, Miti; ThyagaRajan, Srinivasan

    2013-02-01

    Aged people are more prone to developing neurodegenerative and infectious diseases, autoimmune disorders, and cancer due to impairment of neuroendocrine-immune functions. Neuronal degeneration and immunosuppression aided by increased generation of reactive oxygen species combined with loss of antioxidant enzyme activities promote the aging process. Bacopa monnieri (brahmi), an Ayurvedic herb, and donepezil, a reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, have been used to reverse cognitive dysfunctions in several neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of in vitro incubation of lymphocytes from spleens of young (3-month-old), early middle-aged (8- to 9-month-old), and old (18-month-old) F344 rats with brahmi (0.001%, 0.01%, 0.05%, 0.1%, and 1%) and donepezil (5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 ?g/ml) on Concanavalin (Con A)-induced proliferation of T lymphocytes and cytokine production, and the activities of antioxidant enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST)]. In addition, the effects of these compounds on the expression of intracellular signaling pathway markers (ERK, p-ERK, CREB, p-CREB, Akt and p-Akt), nitric oxide (NO) production, and the extent of lipid peroxidation were measured in the splenocytes. Age-related decline in Con A-induced proliferation of T lymphocytes was not reversed by treatment with brahmi and donepezil but donepezil alone further reduced the lymphocyte proliferation in young rats. Lower doses of brahmi treatment reversed the age-related decrease in Con A-induced IL-2 and IFN-? production by the splenocytes while their production by splenocytes was suppressed by treatment with donepezil in the young and early middle-aged rats. An age-associated decline in the activities of SOD, CAT, GPx, and GST was evident in the lymphocytes of spleen. Brahmi enhanced CAT activity of lymphocytes in all the age groups while donepezil increased SOD activity in old rats. Both brahmi and donepezil increased GPx and GST activities in a dose-dependent manner in the lymphocytes of all age groups. There was an age-related decline in NO production and increase in the extent of lipid peroxidation in the splenocytes. Brahmi and donepezil increased NO production in the lymphocytes of early middle-aged and old rats. Brahmi reversed the age-related increase in lipid peroxidation in the splenocytes of both early-middle-aged and old rats while donepezil suppressed lipid peroxidation only in the splenocytes of old rats. The expressions of p-ERK1/2 and p-CREB in the splenocytes were elevated following treatment with brahmi and donepezil in the early middle-aged and old rats while age-related decline in p-Akt expression was reversed by treatment of lymphocytes with brahmi alone in early-middle-aged and old rats. Taken together, these results suggest that both brahmi and donepezil exert distinct age-related effects on the cell-mediated immune responses through selective modulation of antioxidant enzyme activities and intracellular targets that may influence the therapeutic efficacy of these drugs in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23257614

  4. Estrogen modulates ?2-adrenoceptor-induced cell-mediated and inflammatory immune responses through ER-? involving distinct intracellular signaling pathways, antioxidant enzymes, and nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Priyanka, Hannah P; Singh, Ran Vijay; Pratap, Uday P; ThyagaRajan, Srinivasan

    2014-01-01

    Sympathetic noradrenergic neuronal activity in the lymphoid organs regulates immunity through the release and binding of norepinephrine to ?2-adrenergic receptors (AR) on lymphocytes. In women, estrogen modulates immune responses during menstrual cycles, and in aging and age-associated diseases. The intent of the present study is to characterize the extent of immunomodulation by ?2-AR in the presence of estrogen and the involvement of intracellular signaling mechanisms including the role of antioxidant enzymes (AOE) in lymphocytes. In vitro effects of terbutaline, ?2-AR agonist, either alone or in combination with 17?-estradiol (E2) were examined on splenocyte proliferation, cytokine (IFN-?, IL-2, and IL-6) production, intracellular signaling molecules (p-ERK, p-CREB, p-Akt, and p-NF-?B) expression, NO production, and AOE activities [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)]. The specificity of their actions was investigated using ?-AR antagonist, and inhibitors of signaling targets and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Terbutaline suppressed T cell proliferation and IL-6 production and increased AOE activities involving ERK, PKA, PKC, and NF-?B pathways and NO production. E2 alone enhanced T cell proliferation and decreased IL-6 production and NF-?B expression through ER-?. E2 in the presence of terbutaline reversed terbutaline-induced effects on T cell proliferation, IL-6 production, p-ERK and p-CREB expression, AOE activities, NO production, and NF-?B expression. Estrogen through ER-? differentially modulates ?2-AR-induced immune responses involving ERK, PKA, PKC, and NF-?B pathways, and NO that may be responsible for estrogen-induced immunosenescence and development of female-specific diseases. PMID:25240148

  5. Estrogen modulates in vitro T cell responses in a concentration- and receptor-dependent manner: effects on intracellular molecular targets and antioxidant enzymes.

    PubMed

    Priyanka, Hannah P; Krishnan, Harini C; Singh, Ran Vijay; Hima, Lalgi; Thyagarajan, Srinivasan

    2013-12-01

    Estrogen is a key hormone in facilitating ovulation and maintenance of pregnancy in young females and subsequent decline in its production contributes to the development of age-associated disorders such as hormone-dependent cancer, osteoporosis, and cardiovascular diseases. The mechanisms through which estrogen promotes female-specific diseases with advancing age are unclear especially, its effects on immune system which is vital for the maintenance of homeostasis and health. Although the diverse effects of estrogen on Th immunity (Th1 vs. Th2) have been characterized in several cell-types and animal models, there is no direct mechanistic study to understand its immunomodulatory actions. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the in vitro effects of 17?-estradiol on lymphocytes from the spleen influence cell-mediated immune responses based on its concentration and type of estrogen receptors (ERs) and to assess its mechanism of action at the cellular level. Lymphocytes from the spleens of young Sprague-Dawley rats were isolated and incubated with various concentrations of 17?-estradiol (10(-6)-10(-14)M) and specific ER?- and ?-agonists (10(-6)M, 10(-8)M and 10(-10)M) without or with concanavalin A (Con A) to measure T lymphocyte proliferation, IFN-? and IL-2 production, p-ERK 1/2, p-CREB, and p-Akt, activities of antioxidant enzymes[superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)], and nitric oxide (NO) production. The specificity of ER-mediated actions in lymphocytes was examined by coincubation with nonspecific ER antagonists ICI(182,780) or tamoxifen. Lower concentrations of 17?-estradiol enhanced proliferation of T lymphocytes and IFN-? production without or with Con A stimulation but had no effect on IL-2 production. ER? and ER? agonists induced an increase in T cell proliferation and IFN-? production and these effects were inhibited by tamoxifen. ER? agonist alone enhanced IL-2 production by the lymphocytes. Coincubation with 17?-estradiol and ER?- and ?-agonists augmented p-ERK 1/2, p-CREB, and p-Akt expression in the lymphocytes and tamoxifen reversed the ER agonist-induced effects on these molecular targets. Estrogen increased the activities of SOD, CAT, and GPx in both non-stimulated and Con A-stimulated splenocytes in a concentration-dependent manner. Both ER?- and ?-agonists enhanced CAT and GPx activity while ER?-agonist decreased SOD activity and ER?-agonist increased SOD activity. The effects of ER agonists on the antioxidant enzymes were reversed by ICI(182,780). Coincubation of lower doses of 17?-estradiol with Con A and both ER agonists enhanced NO production while higher dose of estrogen with Con A and ER? agonist suppressed its production and these effects were reversed by tamoxifen. Taken together, these results suggest that the effects of estrogen on the cell-mediated immune responses are dependent upon its concentrations and mediated through specific estrogen receptors involving intracellular signaling pathways and antioxidant enzymes. PMID:23911387

  6. Screening of dietary antioxidants against mitochondria-mediated oxidative stress by visualization of intracellular redox state.

    PubMed

    Maharjan, Sunita; Sakai, Yasuyoshi; Hoseki, Jun

    2016-04-01

    Mitochondrial impairment and the resulting generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been associated with aging and its related pathological conditions. Recently, dietary antioxidants have gained significant attention as potential preventive and therapeutic agents against ROS-generated aging and pathological conditions. We previously demonstrated that food-derived antioxidants prevented intracellular oxidative stress under proteasome inhibition conditions, which was attributed to mitochondrial dysfunction and ROS generation, followed by cell death. Here, we further screened dietary antioxidants for their activity as redox modulators by visualization of the redox state using Redoxfluor, a fluorescent protein redox probe. Direct alleviation of ROS by antioxidants, but not induction of antioxidative enzymes, prevented mitochondria-mediated intracellular oxidation. The effective antioxidants scavenged mitochondrial ROS and suppressed cell death. Our study indicates that redox visualization under mitochondria-mediated oxidative stress is useful for screening potential antioxidants to counteract mitochondrial dysfunction, which has been implicated in aging and the pathogenesis of aging-related diseases. PMID:26967637

  7. Two complementary approaches for intracellular delivery of exogenous enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Rust, Aleksander; Hassan, Hazirah H. A.; Sedelnikova, Svetlana; Niranjan, Dhevahi; Hautbergue, Guillaume; Abbas, Shaymaa A.; Partridge, Lynda; Rice, David; Binz, Thomas; Davletov, Bazbek

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular delivery of biologically active proteins remains a formidable challenge in biomedical research. Here we show that biomedically relevant enzymes can be delivered into cells using a new DNA transfection reagent, lipofectamine 3000, allowing assessment of their intracellular functions. We also show that the J774.2 macrophage cell line exhibits unusual intracellular uptake of structurally and functionally distinct enzymes providing a convenient, reagent-free approach for evaluation of intracellular activities of enzymes. PMID:26207613

  8. Reactive oxygen species and antioxidant enzymes activity of Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 (Cyanobacterium) under simulated microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gen-bao; Liu, Yong-ding; Wang, Gao-hong; Song, Li-rong

    2004-12-01

    It was found that reactive oxygen species in Anabaena cells increased under simulated microgravity provided by clinostat. Activities of intracellular antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase were higher than those in the controlled samples during the 7 days' experiment. However, the contents of gluathione, an intracellular antioxidant, decreased in comparison with the controlled samples. The results suggested that microgravity provided by clinostat might break the oxidative/antioxidative balance. It indicated a protective mechanism in algal cells, that the total antioxidant system activity increased, which might play an important role for algal cells to adapt the environmental stress of microgravity.

  9. Relationships among alcoholic liver disease, antioxidants, and antioxidant enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Han, Kyu-Ho; Hashimoto, Naoto; Fukushima, Michihiro

    2016-01-01

    Excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages is a serious cause of liver disease worldwide. The metabolism of ethanol generates reactive oxygen species, which play a significant role in the deterioration of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Antioxidant phytochemicals, such as polyphenols, regulate the expression of ALD-associated proteins and peptides, namely, catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase. These plant antioxidants have electrophilic activity and may induce antioxidant enzymes via the Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1-NF-E2-related factor-2 pathway and antioxidant responsive elements. Furthermore, these antioxidants are reported to alleviate cell injury caused by oxidants or inflammatory cytokines. These phenomena are likely induced via the regulation of mitogen-activating protein kinase (MAPK) pathways by plant antioxidants, similar to preconditioning in ischemia-reperfusion models. Although the relationship between plant antioxidants and ALD has not been adequately investigated, plant antioxidants may be preventive for ALD because of their electrophilic and regulatory activities in the MAPK pathway. PMID:26755859

  10. Relationships among alcoholic liver disease, antioxidants, and antioxidant enzymes.

    PubMed

    Han, Kyu-Ho; Hashimoto, Naoto; Fukushima, Michihiro

    2016-01-01

    Excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages is a serious cause of liver disease worldwide. The metabolism of ethanol generates reactive oxygen species, which play a significant role in the deterioration of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Antioxidant phytochemicals, such as polyphenols, regulate the expression of ALD-associated proteins and peptides, namely, catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase. These plant antioxidants have electrophilic activity and may induce antioxidant enzymes via the Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1-NF-E2-related factor-2 pathway and antioxidant responsive elements. Furthermore, these antioxidants are reported to alleviate cell injury caused by oxidants or inflammatory cytokines. These phenomena are likely induced via the regulation of mitogen-activating protein kinase (MAPK) pathways by plant antioxidants, similar to preconditioning in ischemia-reperfusion models. Although the relationship between plant antioxidants and ALD has not been adequately investigated, plant antioxidants may be preventive for ALD because of their electrophilic and regulatory activities in the MAPK pathway. PMID:26755859

  11. Spectrophotometric assays for antioxidant enzymes in plants.

    PubMed

    Elavarthi, Sathya; Martin, Bjorn

    2010-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are formed in biological systems as part of normal metabolism. Adverse environmental factors like drought stress result in increased levels of ROS that are detrimental to the plant (1, 2). To avoid damage caused by these excess ROS, plants have developed elaborate mechanisms to manage them at sustainable levels. Enzymes play an important role in lowering the ROS levels and helping avoid oxidative stress. Superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and glutathione reductase play a vital role in combating oxidative stress. Measuring these enzyme activities spectrophotometrically provides researchers an easy and precise way to study and understand an important part of the defense against oxidative stress. In this chapter we provide details of the assays we used to determine the enzyme activities spectrophotometrically. Antioxidant enzyme responses to moderate water-deficit stress were studied. All enzyme assays were conducted using wheat leaf tissue. PMID:20387052

  12. Antioxidant enzymes activities in obese Tunisian children

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The oxidant stress, expected to increase in obese adults, has an important role in the pathogenesis of many diseases. It results when free radical formation is greatly increased or protective antioxidant mechanisms are compromised. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the antioxidant response to obesity-related stress in healthy children. Methods A hundred and six healthy children (54 obese and 52 controls), aged 612 years old, participated in this study. The collected data included anthropometric measures, blood pressure, fasting glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides and enzymatic antioxidants (Superoxide dismutase: SOD, Catalase: CAT and Glutathione peroxidase: GPx). Results The first step antioxidant response, estimated by the SOD activity, was significantly higher in obese children compared with normal-weight controls (p?enzymes were not affected by the BMI increase. Although, total cholesterol levels were statistically higher in the obese group, there was no significant association with the SOD activity. Conclusions The obesity-related increase of the oxidant stress can be observed even in the childhood period. In addition to the complications of an increased BMI, obesity itself can be considered as an independent risk factor of free radical production resulting in an increased antioxidant response. PMID:23360568

  13. Dynamic Reorganization of Metabolic Enzymes into Intracellular Bodies

    PubMed Central

    OConnell, Jeremy D.; Zhao, Alice; Ellington, Andrew D.; Marcotte, Edward M.

    2013-01-01

    Both focused and large-scale cell biological and biochemical studies have revealed that hundreds of metabolic enzymes across diverse organisms form large intracellular bodies. These proteinaceous bodies range in form from fibers and intracellular focisuch as those formed by enzymes of nitrogen and carbon utilization and of nucleotide biosynthesisto high-density packings inside bacterial microcompartments and eukaryotic microbodies. Although many enzymes clearly form functional mega-assemblies, it is not yet clear for many recently discovered cases whether they represent functional entities, storage bodies, or aggregates. In this article, we survey intracellular protein bodies formed by metabolic enzymes, asking when and why such bodies form and what their formation implies for the functionalityand dysfunctionalityof the enzymes that comprise them. The panoply of intracellular protein bodies also raises interesting questions regarding their evolution and maintenance within cells. We speculate on models for how such structures form in the first place and why they may be inevitable. PMID:23057741

  14. The Assessments of the Intracellular Antioxidant Protection of the Organism after LLLT Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitinger-Skalicka, Zuzana; Navratil, Leos; Zolzer, Friedo; Hon, Zdenek

    2009-06-01

    The antioxidants are chemical compounds that can bind to free oxygen radicals preventing these radicals from damaging healthy cells. Low levels of antioxidants, or inhibition of the antioxidant enzymes causes oxidative stress and may damage or kill cells. The purpose of this project was to establish the changes at intracellular antioxidant protection of the organism after LLLT irradiation. We used female mice of the strain CD1. The mice were exposed in the abdomen region to laser light. From the blood was assessment the Glutathione peroxidase, Reduced Glutathione and Plasma Antioxidant Capacity. The results obtained in the present study demonstrated that in vivo irradiation of the mice with low level lasers did not cause any statistically significant changes in superoxide dismutase and Glutathione peroxidase but we found changes in Reduced Glutathione and Plasma Antioxidant Capacity after exposing the mice to the LLLT during the 30 minutes after irradiation, as well on the 4th day. Do not replace the word "abstract," but do replace the rest of this text. If you must insert a hard line break, please use Shift+Enter rather than just tapping your "Enter" key. You may want to print this page and refer to it as a style sample before you begin working on your paper.

  15. The Assessments of the Intracellular Antioxidant Protection of the Organism after LLLT Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Freitinger-Skalicka, Zuzana; Navratil, Leos; Zolzer, Friedo; Hon, Zdenek

    2009-06-19

    The antioxidants are chemical compounds that can bind to free oxygen radicals preventing these radicals from damaging healthy cells. Low levels of antioxidants, or inhibition of the antioxidant enzymes causes oxidative stress and may damage or kill cells. The purpose of this project was to establish the changes at intracellular antioxidant protection of the organism after LLLT irradiation. We used female mice of the strain CD1. The mice were exposed in the abdomen region to laser light. From the blood was assessment the Glutathione peroxidase, Reduced Glutathione and Plasma Antioxidant Capacity. The results obtained in the present study demonstrated that in vivo irradiation of the mice with low level lasers did not cause any statistically significant changes in superoxide dismutase and Glutathione peroxidase but we found changes in Reduced Glutathione and Plasma Antioxidant Capacity after exposing the mice to the LLLT during the 30 minutes after irradiation, as well on the 4th day. Do not replace the word ''abstract,'' but do replace the rest of this text. If you must insert a hard line break, please use Shift+Enter rather than just tapping your ''Enter'' key. You may want to print this page and refer to it as a style sample before you begin working on your paper.

  16. Intracellular antioxidant detoxifying effects of diosmetin on 2,2-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH)-induced oxidative stress through inhibition of reactive oxygen species generation.

    PubMed

    Liao, Wenzhen; Ning, Zhengxiang; Chen, Luying; Wei, Qingyi; Yuan, Erdong; Yang, Jiguo; Ren, Jiaoyan

    2014-08-27

    The intracellular antioxidant activities of diosmetin were evaluated by cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assay, 2,2-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH)-induced erythrocyte hemolysis assay and cupric chloride (CuCl2)-induced plasma oxidation assay. The results showed that diosmetin exhibits strong cellular antioxidant activity (EC50 = 7.98 ?mol, CAA value = 58 ?mol QE/100 ?mol). It was also found that diosmetin treatment could effectively attenuate AAPH-induced erythrocyte hemolysis (91.0% inhibition at 100 ?g/mL) and CuCl2-induced plasma oxidation through inhibition of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Diosmetin could significantly restore AAPH-induced increase of intracelluar antioxidant enzyme (SOD, GPx, and CAT) activities to normal levels, as well as inhibit intracellular malondialdehyde (MDA) formation. Thus, the intracellular antioxidant detoxifying mechanism of diosmetin is associated with both nonenzymatic and enzymatic defense systems. PMID:25075433

  17. Paradoxical Roles of Antioxidant Enzymes: Basic Mechanisms and Health Implications.

    PubMed

    Lei, Xin Gen; Zhu, Jian-Hong; Cheng, Wen-Hsing; Bao, Yongping; Ho, Ye-Shih; Reddi, Amit R; Holmgren, Arne; Arnér, Elias S J

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are generated from aerobic metabolism, as a result of accidental electron leakage as well as regulated enzymatic processes. Because ROS/RNS can induce oxidative injury and act in redox signaling, enzymes metabolizing them will inherently promote either health or disease, depending on the physiological context. It is thus misleading to consider conventionally called antioxidant enzymes to be largely, if not exclusively, health protective. Because such a notion is nonetheless common, we herein attempt to rationalize why this simplistic view should be avoided. First we give an updated summary of physiological phenotypes triggered in mouse models of overexpression or knockout of major antioxidant enzymes. Subsequently, we focus on a series of striking cases that demonstrate "paradoxical" outcomes, i.e., increased fitness upon deletion of antioxidant enzymes or disease triggered by their overexpression. We elaborate mechanisms by which these phenotypes are mediated via chemical, biological, and metabolic interactions of the antioxidant enzymes with their substrates, downstream events, and cellular context. Furthermore, we propose that novel treatments of antioxidant enzyme-related human diseases may be enabled by deliberate targeting of dual roles of the pertaining enzymes. We also discuss the potential of "antioxidant" nutrients and phytochemicals, via regulating the expression or function of antioxidant enzymes, in preventing, treating, or aggravating chronic diseases. We conclude that "paradoxical" roles of antioxidant enzymes in physiology, health, and disease derive from sophisticated molecular mechanisms of redox biology and metabolic homeostasis. Simply viewing antioxidant enzymes as always being beneficial is not only conceptually misleading but also clinically hazardous if such notions underpin medical treatment protocols based on modulation of redox pathways. PMID:26681794

  18. Enzyme-activated intracellular drug delivery with tubule clay nanoformulation

    PubMed Central

    Dzamukova, Maria R.; Naumenko, Ekaterina A.; Lvov, Yuri M.; Fakhrullin, Rawil F.

    2015-01-01

    Fabrication of stimuli-triggered drug delivery vehicle s is an important milestone in treating cancer. Here we demonstrate the selective anticancer drug delivery into human cells with biocompatible 50-nm diameter halloysite nanotube carriers. Physically-adsorbed dextrin end stoppers secure the intercellular release of brilliant green. Drug-loaded nanotubes penetrate through the cellular membranes and their uptake efficiency depends on the cells growth rate. Intercellular glycosyl hydrolases-mediated decomposition of the dextrin tube-end stoppers triggers the release of the lumen-loaded brilliant green, which allowed for preferable elimination of human lung carcinoma cells (?549) as compared with hepatoma cells (Hep3b). The enzyme-activated intracellular delivery of brilliant green using dextrin-coated halloysite nanotubes is a promising platform for anticancer treatment. PMID:25976444

  19. Opposing Biological Functions of Tryptophan Catabolizing Enzymes During Intracellular Infection

    PubMed Central

    Divanovic, Senad; Sawtell, Nancy M.; Trompette, Aurelien; Warning, Jamie I.; Dias, Alexandra; Cooper, Andrea M.; Yap, George S.; Arditi, Moshe; Shimada, Kenichi; DuHadaway, James B.; Prendergast, George C.; Basaraba, Randall J.; Mellor, Andrew L.; Munn, David H.; Aliberti, Julio

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have underscored physiological and pathophysiological roles for the tryptophan-degrading enzyme indolamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) in immune counterregulation. However, IDO was first recognized as an antimicrobial effector, restricting tryptophan availability to Toxoplasma gondii and other pathogens in vitro. The biological relevance of these findings came under question when infectious phenotypes were not forthcoming in IDO-deficient mice. The recent discovery of an IDO homolog, IDO-2, suggested that the issue deserved reexamination. IDO inhibition during murine toxoplasmosis led to 100% mortality, with increased parasite burdens and no evident effects on the immune response. Similar studies revealed a counterregulatory role for IDO during leishmaniasis (restraining effector immune responses and parasite clearance), and no evident role for IDO in herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection. Thus, IDO plays biologically important roles in the host response to diverse intracellular infections, but the dominant nature of this roleantimicrobial or immunoregulatoryis pathogen-specific. PMID:21990421

  20. Enzyme-activated intracellular drug delivery with tubule clay nanoformulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzamukova, Maria R.; Naumenko, Ekaterina A.; Lvov, Yuri M.; Fakhrullin, Rawil F.

    2015-05-01

    Fabrication of stimuli-triggered drug delivery vehicle s is an important milestone in treating cancer. Here we demonstrate the selective anticancer drug delivery into human cells with biocompatible 50-nm diameter halloysite nanotube carriers. Physically-adsorbed dextrin end stoppers secure the intercellular release of brilliant green. Drug-loaded nanotubes penetrate through the cellular membranes and their uptake efficiency depends on the cells growth rate. Intercellular glycosyl hydrolases-mediated decomposition of the dextrin tube-end stoppers triggers the release of the lumen-loaded brilliant green, which allowed for preferable elimination of human lung carcinoma cells (A549) as compared with hepatoma cells (Hep3b). The enzyme-activated intracellular delivery of brilliant green using dextrin-coated halloysite nanotubes is a promising platform for anticancer treatment.

  1. Antioxidant Enzyme Gene Transfer for Ischemic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jian; Hecker, James G.; Chiamvimonvat, Nipavan

    2009-01-01

    The balance of redox is pivotal for normal function and integrity of tissues. Ischemic insults occur as results of a variety of conditions, leading to an accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and an imbalanced redox status in the tissues. The oxidant stress may activate signaling mechanisms provoking more toxic events, and eventually cause tissue damage. Therefore, treatments with antioxidants, free radical scavengers and their mimetics, as well as gene transfer approaches to overexpress antioxidant genes represent potential therapeutic options to correct the redox imbalance. Among them, antioxidant gene transfer may enhance the production of antioxidant scavengers, and has been employed to experimentally prevent or treat ischemic injury in cardiovascular, pulmonary, hepatic, intestinal, central nervous or other systems in animal models. With improvements in vector systems and delivery approaches, innovative antioxidant gene therapy has conferred better outcomes for myocardial infarction, reduced restenosis after coronary angioplasty, improved the quality and function of liver grafts, as well as outcome of intestinal and cerebral ischemic attacks. However, it is crucial to be mindful that like other therapeutic armentarium, the efficacy of antioxidant gene transfer requires extensive preclinical investigation before it can be used in patients, and that it may have unanticipated short- or long-term adverse effects. Thus, it is critical to balance between the therapeutic benefits and potential risks, to develop disease-specific antioxidant gene transfer strategies, to deliver the therapy with an optimal time window and in a safe manner. This review attempts to provide the rationale, the most effective approaches and the potential hurdles of available antioxidant gene transfer approaches for ischemic injury in various organs, as well as the possible directions of future preclinical and clinical investigations of this highly promising therapeutic modality. PMID:19233238

  2. Aspergillus flavus impairs antioxidative enzymes of Sternochetus mangiferae during mycosis.

    PubMed

    Jayanthi, Kamala P D; Ayyasamy, Arthikirubha; Kempraj, Vivek; Aurade, Ravindra M; Govindan, Selvakumar; Verghese, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    Insects depend upon cuticular, humoral and cellular defenses to resist mycosis. However, entomopathogenic fungi through co-evolution have developed mechanisms to counter such defenses. Although a plethora of mechanisms of mycosis by entomopathogenic fungi are well-established, studies on the impairment of insects' antioxidative enzymes during mycosis remain elusive. Here, we used the interaction of Sternochetus mangiferae and its associated entomopathogenic fungus, Aspergillus flavus, as a model to validate our hypothesis. Uninfected insects were exposed to fungal spores for infection to occur. We observed symptoms of mycosis within 48 h of incubation period. Biochemical studies on antioxidative enzymes namely catalase, peroxidase and phenoloxidase, in infected and uninfected insects revealed decreased activity of these enzymes. It appears that A. flavus disables the host's antioxidative enzyme system that plays a crucial role in elimination of oxidative toxins produced during mycosis. PMID:25446036

  3. Significance of selected antioxidant enzymes in cancer cell progression.

    PubMed

    Bu?dak, Rafa? Jakub; Bu?dak, ?ukasz; Kukla, Micha?; Gabriel, Andrzej; Zwirska-Korczala, Krystyna

    2014-10-01

    Antioxidant enzymes (AOEs), including superoxide dismutase isoenzymes (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) along with glutathione reductase (GR), reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione transferase (GST), are thought to be necessary for life process in all oxygen-metabolizing cells by removing reactive oxygen species (ROS). The biological significance of AOEs in transformed cells is still unclear, but their capacity to survive may be affected by changes in cellular process such as proliferation, invasiveness, migration, apoptosis and drug resistance. This review summaries the significance of antioxidant enzymes in cancer cell progression mainly in an in vitro context. PMID:25372413

  4. Antioxidant enzymes as redox-based biomarkers: a brief review

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hee-Young; Lee, Tae-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    The field of redox proteomics focuses to a large extent on analyzing cysteine oxidation in proteins under different experimental conditions and states of diseases. The identification and localization of oxidized cysteines within the cellular milieu is critical for understanding the redox regulation of proteins under physiological and pathophysiological conditions, and it will in turn provide important information that are potentially useful for the development of novel strategies in the treatment and prevention of diseases associated with oxidative stress. Antioxidant enzymes that catalyze oxidation/reduction processes are able to serve as redox biomarkers in various human diseases, and they are key regulators controlling the redox state of functional proteins. Redox regulators with antioxidant properties related to active mediators, cellular organelles, and the surrounding environments are all connected within a network and are involved in diseases related to redox imbalance including cancer, ischemia/reperfusion injury, neurodegenerative diseases, as well as normal aging. In this review, we will briefly look at the selected aspects of oxidative thiol modification in antioxidant enzymes and thiol oxidation in proteins affected by redox control of antioxidant enzymes and their relation to disease. [BMB Reports 2015; 48(4): 200-208] PMID:25560698

  5. Relationships between single nucleotide polymorphisms of antioxidant enzymes and disease.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Amanda; Fassett, Robert G; Geraghty, Dominic P; Kunde, Dale A; Ball, Madeleine J; Robertson, Iain K; Coombes, Jeff S

    2012-06-15

    The presence and progression of numerous diseases have been linked to deficiencies in antioxidant systems. The relationships between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) arising from specific antioxidant enzymes and diseases associated with elevated oxidative stress have been studied with the rationale that they may be useful in screening for diseases. The purpose of this narrative review is to analyse evidence from these studies. The antioxidant enzyme SNPs selected for analysis are based on those most frequently investigated in relation to diseases in humans: superoxide dismutase (SOD2) Ala16Val (80 studies), glutathione peroxidise (GPx1) Pro197Leu (24 studies) and catalase C-262T (22 studies). Although the majority of evidence supports associations between the SOD2 Ala16Val SNP and diseases such as breast, prostate and lung cancers, diabetes and cardiovascular disease, the presence of the SOD2 Ala16Val SNP confers only a small, clinically insignificant reduction (if any) in the risk of these diseases. Other diseases such as bladder cancer, liver disease, nervous system pathologies and asthma have not been consistently related to this SOD SNP genotype. The GPx1 Pro197Leu and catalase C-262T SNP genotypes have been associated with breast cancer, but only in a small number of studies. Thus, currently available evidence suggests antioxidant enzyme SNP genotypes are not useful for screening for diseases in humans. PMID:22525041

  6. Enzyme-Enhanced Extraction of Antioxidant Ingredients from Algae.

    PubMed

    Adalbjrnsson, Bjrn V; Jnsdttir, Rsa

    2015-01-01

    Marine algae are not only a rich source of dietary fibre, proteins, vitamins, and minerals, but also contain a great variety of secondary metabolites with diverse biological activities. Marine macroalgae are a rich source of various natural antioxidants such as polyphenols, especially phlorotannins (made of polyphloroglucinol units) derived from brown algae, which play an important role in preventing lipid peroxidation. In recent years, a number of potent antioxidant compounds have been isolated and identified from different types of edible seaweeds. Extraction methods commonly used for the isolation of antioxidants are based on conventional water or organic solvent extractions. However, recent advances have shown that enzymatic hydrolysis can achieve higher yield of bioactive compounds from algae. Here we describe a method based on enzymatic hydrolysis which both increases yield and decreases cost associated with organic solvents. This method achieves cell wall disruption and breakdown of internal storage components for more effective release of intracellular bioactive compounds. In addition, hydrolysis of proteins produces peptides which may have antioxidant properties, thus enhancing the bioactivity of the algal extract. The method described can be used for production of extracts from red and brown macroalgal species. PMID:26108503

  7. Cigarette smoke–induced induction of antioxidant enzyme activities in airway leukocytes is absent in active smokers with COPD

    PubMed Central

    Dove, Rosamund E.; Leong-Smith, Pheneatia; Roos-Engstrand, Ester; Pourazar, Jamshid; Shah, Mittal; Behndig, Annelie F.; Mudway, Ian S.; Blomberg, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Background Oxidative injury to the airway has been proposed as an important underlying mechanism in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). As the extent of oxidant-mediated damage is dependent on the endogenous antioxidant defences within the airways, we examined whether COPD was associated with deficiencies in the antioxidant network within the respiratory tract lining fluids (RTLFs) and resident airway leukocytes. We hypothesised that COPD would be associated with both basal depression of antioxidant defences and impaired adaptive antioxidant responses to cigarette smoke. Methods Low molecular weight and enzymatic antioxidants together with metal-handling proteins were quantified in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and airway leukocytes, derived from current (n=9) and ex-smoking COPD patients (n=15), as well as from smokers with normal lung function (n=16) and healthy never smokers (n=13). Results Current cigarette smoking was associated with an increase in ascorbate and glutathione within peripheral RTLFs in both smokers with normal lung function compared with healthy never smokers and in COPD smokers compared with COPD ex-smokers. In contrast, intra-cellular antioxidant enzyme activities (glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and catalase) were only up-regulated in smokers with normal lung function compared with healthy never smokers and not in actively smoking COPD patients relative to COPD ex-smokers. Conclusions We found no evidence of impaired basal antioxidant defences, within either the RTLFs or airway leukocytes in stable ex-smoking COPD patients compared with healthy never smoking controls. Current cigarette smoking induced an up-regulation of low molecular weight antioxidants in the RTLFs of both control subjects with normal lung function and patients with COPD. Importantly, the present data demonstrated a cigarette smoke–induced increase in intra-cellular antioxidant enzyme activities only within the smokers with normal lung function, implying that patients with COPD who continue to smoke will experience enhanced oxidative stress, prompting disease progression. PMID:26557249

  8. Effect of UV treatment on antioxidant capacity, antioxidant enzyme activity and decay in strawberry fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The changes in antioxidant capacity, enzyme activity and decay inhibition in strawberry fruit (Fragaria x ananassa) illuminated with different UV-C dosages were investigated. Three UV-C illumination durations and dosages, 1 min, 5 min and 10 min, (0.43, 2.15 and 4.30 kJ m-2) tested promoted the anti...

  9. Nigella sativa fixed and essential oil improves antioxidant status through modulation of antioxidant enzymes and immunity.

    PubMed

    Sultan, Muhammad Tauseef; Butt, Masood Sadiq; Karim, Roselina; Ahmad, Nisar; Ahmad, Rabia Shabbir; Ahmad, Waqas

    2015-03-01

    The onset of 21st century witnessed the awareness among the masses regarding the diet-health linkages. The researchers attempted to explore traditional products/plants were in the domain of pharmacy and nutrition focussing on their health benefits. In the present research intervention, we investigate the role of Nigella sativa fixed oil (NSFO) and essential oil (NSEO) in improving antioxidant status and modulation of enzymes. The National Institute of Health (NIH) provided us 30 Sprague Dawley rats that were equally placed in three groups. The groups were fed on their respective diets (56 days) two experimental diets i.e. D2 (NSFO @ 4.0%) and D3 (NSEO @ 0.30%) and control. The indices pertaining to antioxidant status, antioxidant enzymes, and parameters pertaining to immunity were evaluated at 4 weeks interval. The experimental diets (NSFO@ 4.0% & NSEO@ 0.30%) modulated the activities of antioxidant enzymes i.e., catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), positively. Indices of antioxidant status like tocopherols and glutathione were in linear relationship with that of GPx, GR and GST (P<0.01). Myeloperoxidase activities were in negative correlation with GST (P<0.01) but positive correlation with some other parameters. In the nutshell, the fixed and essential oil of Nigella sativa are effective in improving the indices pertaining to antioxidant status, however, the immune boosting potential needs further clarification. However, authors are of the view that there is need to explore the molecular targets of Nigella sativa fixed and essential oils. Findings from such studies would be useful to validate this instant study for health promoting potential against diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disorders. PMID:25730812

  10. Intracellular Localization of Some Key Enzymes of Crassulacean Acid Metabolism in Sedum praealtum.

    PubMed

    Spalding, M H; Schmitt, M R; Ku, S B; Edwards, G E

    1979-04-01

    The intracellular locations of six key enzymes of Crassulacean acid metabolism were determined using enzymically isolated mesophyll protoplasts of Sedum praealtum D.C. Data from isopycnic sucrose density gradient centrifugation established the chloroplastic location of pyruvate Pi dikinase, the mitochondrial location of NAD-linked malic enzyme, and exclusively nonparticulate (not associated with chloroplasts, peroxisomes, or mitochondria) locations of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, NADP-linked malic enzyme, enolase, and phosphoglycerate mutase. The consequences of this enzyme distribution with respect to compartmentalization of the pathway and the transport of metabolites in Crassulacean acid metabolism are discussed. PMID:16660803

  11. Intracellular Localization of Some Key Enzymes of Crassulacean Acid Metabolism in Sedum praealtum1

    PubMed Central

    Spalding, Martin H.; Schmitt, Mark R.; Ku, S. B.; Edwards, Gerald E.

    1979-01-01

    The intracellular locations of six key enzymes of Crassulacean acid metabolism were determined using enzymically isolated mesophyll protoplasts of Sedum praealtum D.C. Data from isopycnic sucrose density gradient centrifugation established the chloroplastic location of pyruvate Pi dikinase, the mitochondrial location of NAD-linked malic enzyme, and exclusively nonparticulate (not associated with chloroplasts, peroxisomes, or mitochondria) locations of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, NADP-linked malic enzyme, enolase, and phosphoglycerate mutase. The consequences of this enzyme distribution with respect to compartmentalization of the pathway and the transport of metabolites in Crassulacean acid metabolism are discussed. Images PMID:16660803

  12. The Role of Genetic Polymorphisms in Antioxidant Enzymes and Potential Antioxidant Therapies in Neonatal Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Poggi, Chiara

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Oxidative stress is involved in the development of newborn lung diseases, such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia and persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn. The activity of antioxidant enzymes (AOEs), which is impaired as a result of prematurity and oxidative injury, may be further affected by specific genetic polymorphisms or an unfavorable combination of more of them. Recent Advances: Genetic polymorphisms of superoxide dismutase and catalase were recently demonstrated to be protective or risk factors for the main complications of prematurity. A lot of research focused on the potential of different antioxidant strategies in the prevention and treatment of lung diseases of the newborn, providing promising results in experimental models. Critical Issues: The effect of different genetic polymorphisms on protein synthesis and activity has been poorly detailed in the newborn, hindering to derive conclusive results from the observed associations with adverse outcomes. Therapeutic strategies that aimed at enhancing the activity of AOEs were poorly studied in clinical settings and partially failed to produce clinical benefits. Future Directions: The clarification of the effects of genetic polymorphisms on the proteomics of the newborn is mandatory, as well as the assessment of a larger number of polymorphisms with a possible correlation with adverse outcome. Moreover, antioxidant treatments should be carefully translated to clinical settings, after further details on optimal doses, administration techniques, and adverse effects are provided. Finally, the study of genetic polymorphisms could help select a specific high-risk population, who may particularly benefit from targeted antioxidant strategies. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 1863–1880. PMID:24382101

  13. [Effect of ionol and dimethylsulfoxide on activity of enzymes of the antioxidant system in chickens].

    PubMed

    Kalytka, V V; Savrans'ka, O V; Kaluhina, I P

    1994-01-01

    We have researched the influence of ionol, dimethylsulfoxide and distinol preparation with different mole correlation of ingredients on the intensity of formation of malonic aldehyde and the activity of antioxidant enzymes in chickens' tissues. Results showed that distinol preparation with mole correlation of ionol and dimethylsulfoxide 1:2 parallel with anti-radical and antioxidant action, increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes in chickens' organs, exerting great indirect antioxidative effect. PMID:7747341

  14. [Flowcytomeric analysis on neutrophil intracellular enzyme activity in patients on hemodialysis and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis].

    PubMed

    Otsubo, H; Kaito, K; Shiba, K

    2000-01-01

    To elucidate the mechanism of neutrophil dysfunction in patients with maintenance hemodialysis (HD) and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD), intracellular enzyme activity such as oxidative burst, elastase, cathepsin, and collagenase, was investigated. Response of enzyme activity to in vitro addition of TNF-alpha, which is known to have a powerful priming effect on neutrophils, was also evaluated. Peripheral blood from 15 HD and 15 CAPD patients was washed and incubated with Cell Probe, an indicator for intracellular enzyme activity. Mean fluorescent intensity of neutrophils, which represents neutrophil enzyme activity, was measured by flowcytometry. In HD group, unstimulated enzyme activity was similar to that of control, but activity after addition of TNF-alpha was significantly lower than the control. In the group of CAPD, enzyme activity without stimulation was not different from that of control, and in TNF-alpha stimulated neutrophils, only elastase activity was lower than control. Many of the enzyme activities after stimulation were lower in HD than in CAPD. Response to in vitro addition of TNF-alpha was diminished in both dialysis groups, but more prominent in HD neutrophils. Duration of dialysis, serum concentration of beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2-MG) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) was significantly related inversely to intracellular enzyme activity in HD patients. To the contrary, in CAPD group, although beta 2-MG and PTH showed similar negative correlation, duration of dialysis was not related to enzyme activity. These results indicate that neutrophils in patients with maintenance dialysis have diminished intracellular oxidative burst, elastase, and cathepsin activity. Especially, impaired response to TNF-alpha closely related to neutrophil dysfunction in dialysis patients. PMID:10695298

  15. Characterization and antioxidant activities of extracellular and intracellular polysaccharides from Fomitopsis pinicola.

    PubMed

    Hao, Limin; Sheng, Zhicun; Lu, Jike; Tao, Ruyu; Jia, Shiru

    2016-05-01

    Fomitopsis pinicola (F. pinicola) is a kind of medicinal fungi, and few studies has been carried out on F. pinicola polysaccharides from liquid submerged cultivation. The characterization and antioxidant activities of extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) and intracellular polysaccharide (IPS) isolated from F. pinicola were investigated. The results showed that the molecular weight of EPS was 2.30×10(4)Da, and EPS was composed of mannose, rhamnose, xylose and galactose with the molar ratio of 0.1:1.0:0.3:0.5. The molecular weight of IPS was 4.07×10(5)Da, and the monosaccharide compositions included glucose, mannose, rhamnose, xylose and galactose with the molar ratio of 1.0:0.9:0.9:0.8:1.1. Antioxidant activities of both EPS and IPS including in vitro scavenging activities on 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl radicals, cellular protective effects on yeast cells from ultraviolet (UV) radiation and H2O2 oxidative damage were tested. Both EPS and IPS showed antioxidant activities in a dose dependent manner, and IPS had higher antioxidant activity than EPS. So EPS and IPS could be potential novel antioxidants for functional food. PMID:26876995

  16. Organochlorine pesticides and antioxidant enzymes are inversely correlated with liver enzyme gene expression in Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Karaca, Melis; Var??l?, Lokman; Korkmaz, Kemal; zayd?n, Okan; Perin, Fatih; Orhan, Hilmi

    2014-10-15

    The present study was designed to investigate the association between levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and liver enzyme responses in Cyprinus carpio. Fish were caught at three stations in the Byk Menderes River (BMR): the origin, the Sarayky station, and the estuary. Seventeen OCPs were quantified in liver tissue, as well as in river water by gas chromatography (GC)-electron capture detection, and structures were confirmed by negative chemical ionization-GC-mass spectrometry. The activities of CYP1A, GST, Se-GPx, CAT, and SODs were determined by spectrophotometry or fluorimetry. The mRNA levels of CYP1A, GST, and SOD1 were quantified by real-time RT-PCR. CYP1A and antioxidant enzyme activities were dramatically higher at the Sarayky station, where OCP pollution is higher than the other two stations. Mn-SOD is responsible for the increase in total SOD activity in the Sarayky samples. However, gene expression levels of certain enzymes were heavily suppressed. Our findings show that the transcriptional and functional responses of CYP1A and antioxidant enzymes are inversely correlated. PMID:24583044

  17. Antioxidant enzyme activities are not broadly correlated with longevity in 14 vertebrate endotherm species

    PubMed Central

    Page, Melissa M.; Richardson, Jean; Wiens, Brent E.; Tiedtke, Esther; Peters, Craig W.; Faure, Paul A.; Burness, Gary

    2010-01-01

    The free radical theory of ageing posits that accrual of oxidative damage underlies the increased cellular, tissue and organ dysfunction and failure associated with advanced age. In support of this theory, cellular resistance to oxidative stress is highly correlated with life span, suggesting that prevention or repair of oxidative damage might indeed be essential for longevity. To test the hypothesis that the prevention of oxidative damage underlies longevity, we measured the activities of the five major intracellular antioxidant enzymes in brain, heart and liver tissue of 14 mammalian and avian species with maximum life spans (MLSPs) ranging from 3years to over 100years. Our data set included Snell dwarf mice in which life span is increased by ?50% compared to their normal littermates. We found that CuZn superoxide dismutase, the major cytosolic superoxide dismutase, showed no correlation with MLSP in any of the three organs. Similarly, neither glutathione peroxidase nor glutathione reductase activities correlated with MLSP. MnSOD, the sole mitochondrial superoxide dismutase in mammals and birds, was positively correlated with MLSP only for brain tissue. This same trend was observed for catalase. For all correlational data, effects of body mass and phylogenetic relatedness were removed using residual analysis and Felsensteins phylogenetically independent contrasts. Our results are not consistent with a causal role for intracellular antioxidant enzymes in longevity, similar to recent reports from studies utilising genetic modifications of mice (Prez et al., Biochim Biophys Acta 1790:10051014, 2009). However, our results indicate a specific augmentation of reactive oxygen species neutralising activities in brain associated with longevity. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11357-010-9131-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20431992

  18. Bilberry and blueberry anthocyanins act as powerful intracellular antioxidants in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Bornsek, Spela Moze; Ziberna, Lovro; Polak, Tomaz; Vanzo, Andreja; Ulrih, Natasa Poklar; Abram, Veronika; Tramer, Federica; Passamonti, Sabina

    2012-10-15

    Berry anthocyanins have pronounced health effects, even though they have a low bioavailability. The common mechanism underlying health protection is believed to relate to antioxidant activity. Berry extracts, chemically characterised for their phenolic content, were prepared from bilberries (Vaccinium myrtillusL.) and blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosumL.); the bilberry extract was further purified to obtain the anthocyanin fraction. The antioxidant activity of each extract was examined at the cellular level. For this purpose a specific assay, known as cellular antioxidant activity assay (CAA), was implemented in different cell lines: human colon cancer (Caco-2), human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2), human endothelial (EA.hy926) and rat vascular smooth muscle (A7r5). Here we show for the first time that anthocyanins had intracellular antioxidant activity if applied at very low concentrations (<1 μg/l; nM range), thereby providing a long-sought rationale for their health protecting effects in spite of their unfavorable pharmacokinetic properties. PMID:23442633

  19. FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING CAPACITY AND ANTIOXIDANT ENZYME ACTIVITY IN DEERBERRY (Vaccinium stamineum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit from three genotypes (B-76, B-59 and SHF-3A) of deerberry [Vaccinium stamineum L.] were evaluated for fruit quality, total anthocyanin and phenolic contents, antioxidants, antioxidant capacity, and antioxidant enzyme activity. The fruit soluble solids, titratable acids, total anthocyanins, an...

  20. Engineering of the yeast antioxidant enzyme Mpr1 for enhanced activity and stability.

    PubMed

    Iinoya, Kaoru; Kotani, Tetsuya; Sasano, Yu; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2009-06-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sigma1278b has the MPR1 gene, which confers resistance to the proline analogue azetidine-2-carboxylate (AZC). This gene encodes an N-acetyltransferase Mpr1 that detoxifies AZC, and the homologous genes have been found in many yeasts. Recently, we found that Mpr1 protects yeast cells by reducing the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels under oxidative stresses, such as heat-shock, freezing, or ethanol treatment. Unlike the known antioxidant enzymes, Mpr1 is thought to acetylate toxic metabolite(s) involved in ROS generation via oxidative events. To improve the enzymatic functions of Mpr1, we applied PCR random mutagenesis to MPR1. The mutagenized plasmid library was introduced into the S. cerevisiae S288C strain lacking MPR1, and we successfully isolated two Mpr1 variants with higher AZC resistance (K63R and F65L/L117V). Interestingly, overexpression of the K63R variant was found to increase cell viability or decrease intracellular ROS levels after exposure to H(2)O(2) or ethanol compared with the wild-type Mpr1. In vitro studies with the recombinant enzymes showed that the catalytic efficiency of the K63R variant for AZC and acetyl-CoA was higher than that of the wild-type Mpr1 and that the F65L mutation greatly enhanced the thermal stability. The mutational analysis and molecular modeling suggest that an alpha-helix containing Lys63 and Phe65 has important roles in the function of Mpr1. In addition, the wild-type and K63R variant Mpr1 reduced intracellular ROS levels under ethanol stress conditions on haploid sake yeast cells. These results suggest that engineering Mpr1 might be useful in breeding oxidative stress-tolerant yeast strains. PMID:19170243

  1. Dieckol enhances the expression of antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes by the activation of Nrf2-MAPK signalling pathway in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min-Sup; Lee, Bonggi; Park, Kyoung-Eun; Utsuki, Tadanobu; Shin, Taisun; Oh, Chul Woong; Kim, Hyeung-Rak

    2015-05-01

    Dieckol was previously reported to exhibit antioxidant and anticancer activities in vitro studies. In this study, we characterised the mechanism underlying the dieckol-mediated expression of antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes. Dieckol suppressed the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species in the presence or absence of H2O2 and increased glutathione level in HepG2 cells. Dieckol enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes, and the expression of detoxifying enzymes including heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), NAD(P)H:quinine oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) in HepG2 cells. Enhanced expression of antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes by dieckol was presumed to be the activation of the nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2) demonstrated by its nuclear translocation and transcriptional activity via activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated dieckol induced the expression of HO-1 in mouse liver. These results demonstrate that the dieckol-mediated cytoprotection in HepG2 cells is mediated through a ROS-independent up-regulation of antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes via Nrf2 activation as well as its intrinsic antioxidant activity, suggesting that dieckol may be used as a natural cytoprotective agent. PMID:25529716

  2. Intracellular location of NADP(+)-linked malic enzyme in C 3 plants.

    PubMed

    El-Shora, H M; Ap Rees, T

    1991-10-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the maximum catalytic activity and intracellular location of NADP(+)-linked malic enzyme (EC 1.1.1.40) in C3 plants. Appreciable activities, ranging from 80 to 712 nmol · (gFW)(-1) · min(-1), were found in a wide range of tissues (roots and leaves of Pisum sativum L., cotyledons of Cucurbit a pepo Alef., developing seeds of Brassica napus L., mesocarp of Persea americana Gaertn., and suspension cultures of Glycine max L.). Overall, activity showed a rough positive correlation with biosynthesis. Differential and density-gradient fractionation of extracts of the cotyledons of germinating marrow (C. pepo) and lysates of protoplasts of suspension cultures of G. showed that the enzyme had the same distribution as the plastid marker enzymes. It is suggested that in C3 plants NADP(+)-linked malic enzyme is confined to the plastids and involved in biosynthesis. PMID:24186419

  3. The role of antioxidant vitamins and enzymes in the prevention of exercise-induced muscle damage.

    PubMed

    Dekkers, J C; van Doornen, L J; Kemper, H C

    1996-03-01

    A growing amount of evidence indicates that free radicals play an important role as mediators of skeletal muscle damage and inflammation after strenuous exercise. It has been postulated that the generation of oxygen free radicals is increased during exercise as a result of increases in mitochondrial oxygen consumption and electron transport flux, inducing lipid peroxidation. The literature suggests that dietary antioxidants are able to detoxify the peroxides produced during exercise, which could otherwise result in lipid peroxidation, and that they are capable of scavenging peroxyl radicals and therefore may prevent muscle damage. Endogenous antioxidant enzymes also play a protective role in the process of lipid peroxidation. The studies reviewed (rodent and human) show significant increases of malondialdehyde (a product of lipid peroxidation) after exercise to exhaustion, and also favourable changes in plasma antioxidant levels and in antioxidant enzyme activity. In trained individuals and trained rats, the antioxidant enzyme activity increases markedly. In this way, the increased oxidative stress induced by exercise is compromised by increased antioxidant activity, preventing lipid peroxidation. Human studies have shown that dietary supplementation with antioxidant vitamins has favourable effects on lipid peroxidation after exercise. Although several points of discussion still exist, the question whether antioxidant vitamins and antioxidant enzymes play a protective role in exercise-induced muscle damage can be answered affirmatively. The human studies reviewed indicate that antioxidant vitamin supplementation can be recommended to individuals performing regular heavy exercise. Moreover, trained individuals have an advantage compared with untrained individuals, as training results in increased activity of several major antioxidant enzymes and overall antioxidant status. However, future studies are needed in order to be able to give more specific information and recommendations on this topic. PMID:8776010

  4. Potential Degradation of Swainsonine by Intracellular Enzymes of Arthrobacter sp. HW08

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Li, Yanhong; Hu, Yanchun; Li, Jincheng; Yang, Guodong; Kang, Danju; Li, Haili; Wang, Jianhua

    2013-01-01

    Swainsonine (SW) is a toxin produced by locoweeds and harmful to the livestock industry. Degrading SW by Arthrobacter sp. HW08 was demonstrated as a promising way to deal with SW poisoning. However, it is unknown which part of the subcellular enzymes in Arthrobacter sp. HW08 is responsible for biodegrading SW and whether the metabolites are atoxic. In this study, intracellular and extracellular enzymes of Arthrobacter sp. HW08 were isolated and their enzyme activity was evaluated. The metabolites were fed to mice, and physiological and histological properties of the treated mice were investigated. The results showed that only intracellular enzyme of Arthrobacter sp. HW08 (IEHW08) could degrade SW efficiently. Compared with mice in SW treatment group, mice in SW + IEHW08 treatment group (1) increased their body weights; (2) showed higher number of platelets and lower number of white blood cells; (3) decreased the levels of creatinine, urea nitrogen, alanine transaminase and aspartate aminotransferase in serum; (4) reduced the number of vacuolated cells in cerebellum, liver and kidney. All these data demonstrate that IEHW08 was potentially safe for mice, while keeping the capacity of degrading SW. This study indicates a possible application of IEHW08 as an additive in the livestock industry to protect animals from SW poisoning. PMID:24240642

  5. An Investigation of the Role of Intraluminal Proteolytic Enzymes and Intracellular Enzyme Inhibitors in Ulcerative Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, D. M.; Campbell, R.; Roy, A. D.

    1972-01-01

    The output of trypsin and chymotrypsin was determined in 26 patients with ulcerative colitis and 8 with polyposis coli, each of whom had undergone total colectomy and ileostomy. Measurements were made in each subject over periods ranging from 3 to 8 days on a standard diet. The output of each enzyme was lower in the group with ulcerative colitis, but serial post-operative measurements suggested that this was due to the relatively poorer nutritional status of patients in this group, and no consistent difference was apparent between individuals in both groups whose ileostomy had been established more than one year before the measurements were made. The activity of proteolytic enzyme inhibitors was determined in 20 samples of colonic mucosa obtained from patients with ulcerative colitis and 18 samples of histologically normal colonic mucosa from patients with carcinoma of the colon. Higher levels of trypsin inhibitor were found in mucosa affected by ulcerative colitis, there being an apparent correlation between inhibitor level and the severity of the lesion as assessed by the extent of ulceration, necrosis and haemorrhage. The data do not support the view that a high intraluminal concentration of pancreatic proteases, or a reduced cellular protection against their action, are primary or secondary causes of mucosal damage in ulcerative colitis. PMID:4538442

  6. The role of oxidative stress in skeletal muscle injury and regeneration: focus on antioxidant enzymes.

    PubMed

    Kozakowska, Magdalena; Pietraszek-Gremplewicz, Katarzyna; Jozkowicz, Alicja; Dulak, Jozef

    2015-12-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated in skeletal muscle both during the rest and contractile activity. Myogenic cells are equipped with antioxidant enzymes, like superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, ?-glutamylcysteine synthetase and heme oxygenase-1. These enzymes not only neutralise excessive ROS, but also affect myogenic regeneration at several stages: influence post-injury inflammatory reaction, enhance viability and proliferation of muscle satellite cells and myoblasts and affect their differentiation. Finally, antioxidant enzymes regulate also processes accompanying muscle regeneration-induce angiogenesis and reduce fibrosis. Elevated ROS production was also observed in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a disease characterised by degeneration of muscle tissue and therefore-increased rate of myogenic regeneration. Antioxidant enzymes are consequently considered as target for therapies counteracting dystrophic symptoms. In this review we present current knowledge regarding the role of oxidative stress and systems of enzymatic antioxidant defence in muscular regeneration after both acute injury and persistent muscular degeneration. PMID:26728750

  7. Developmental Regulation of Antioxidant Enzymes and Their Impact on Neonatal Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Farrow, Kathryn N.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Deficient antioxidant defenses and compromised ability to respond to oxidative stress burden the immature lung. Routine neonatal therapies can cause increased oxidative stress with subsequent injury to the premature lung. Novel therapeutic approaches to protect the premature lung are greatly needed. Recent Advances: Live cell imaging with targeted redox probes allows for the measurement of subcellular oxidative stress and for comparisons of oxidative stress across development. Comprehension of subcellular and cell-type-specific responses to oxidative stress may influence the targeting of future antioxidant therapies. Critical Issues: Challenges remain in identifying the optimal cellular targets, degree of enzyme activity, and appropriate antioxidant therapy. Further, the efficacy of delivering exogenous antioxidants to specific cell types or subcellular compartments remains under investigation. Treatment with a nonselective antioxidant could unintentionally compromise cellular function or impact cellular defense mechanisms and homeostasis. Future Directions: Genetic and/or biomarker screening may identify infants at the greatest risk for oxidative lung injury and guide the use of more selective antioxidant therapies. Novel approaches to the delivery of antioxidant enzymes may allow cell type- or cellular organelle-specific therapy. Improved comprehension of the antioxidant enzyme regulation across cell type, cell compartment, gender, and developmental stage is critical to the design and optimization of therapy. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 18371848. PMID:24295375

  8. Tamarind seed coat extract restores reactive oxygen species through attenuation of glutathione level and antioxidant enzyme expression in human skin fibroblasts in response to oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Nakchat, Oranuch; Nalinratana, Nonthaneth; Meksuriyen, Duangdeun; Pongsamart, Sunanta

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role and mechanism of tamarind seed coat extract (TSCE) on normal human skin fibroblast CCD-1064Sk cells under normal and oxidative stress conditions induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Methods Tamarind seed coats were extracted with boiling water and then partitioned with ethyl acetate before the cell analysis. Effect of TSCE on intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), glutathione (GSH) level, antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase activity including antioxidant protein expression was investigated. Results TSCE significantly attenuated intracellular ROS in the absence and presence of H2O2 by increasing GSH level. In the absence of H2O2, TSCE significantly enhanced SOD and catalase activity but did not affected on GPx. Meanwhile, TSCE significantly increased the protein expression of SOD and GPx in H2O2-treated cells. Conclusions TSCE exhibited antioxidant activities by scavenging ROS, attenuating GSH level that could protect human skin fibroblast cells from oxidative stress. Our results highlight the antioxidant mechanism of tamarind seed coat through an antioxidant enzyme system, the extract potentially benefits for health food and cosmeceutical application of tamarind seed coat. PMID:25182723

  9. In situ assay of intracellular enzymes of yeast (Kluyveromyces fragilis) by digitonin permeabilization of cell membrane.

    PubMed

    Gowda, L R; Joshi, M S; Bhat, S G

    1988-12-01

    The yeast, Kluyveromyces fragilis was permeabilized to a number of low-molecular-weight substrates using digitonin. The activities of intracellular yeast enzymes, viz., alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), beta-galactosidase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, aspartase, and hexokinase were found to be much higher in the permeabilized cells than the untreated cells. The optimum conditions for permeabilization with reference to ADH were 0.1% digitonin at 37 degrees C for 15 min. The ADH activity in permeabilized cells was several-fold higher than that in cell free extracts prepared by either physical or chemical methods. PMID:3149161

  10. Effect of inhibitors of arachidonic acid metabolism on efflux of intracellular enzymes from skeletal muscle following experimental damage.

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, M J; Wagenmakers, A J; Edwards, R H

    1987-01-01

    The role of arachidonic acid metabolism in the efflux of intracellular enzymes from damaged skeletal muscle has been examined in vitro using inhibitors of cyclo-oxygenase and lipoxygenase enzymes. Damage to skeletal muscle induced by either calcium ionophore A23187 (25 microM) or dinitrophenol (1 mM) caused an increase in the efflux of prostaglandins E2 and F2 alpha together with a large efflux of intracellular creatine kinase. Use of a cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor completely prevented the efflux of prostaglandins, but had no effect on creatine kinase efflux. However, several agents having the ability to inhibit lipoxygenase enzymes dramatically reduced creatine kinase efflux following damage. These data suggest that a product or products of lipoxygenase enzymes may be mediators of the changes in plasma membrane integrity which permit efflux of intracellular enzymes as a consequence of skeletal muscle damage. PMID:3109374

  11. Effect of inhibitors of arachidonic acid metabolism on efflux of intracellular enzymes from skeletal muscle following experimental damage.

    PubMed

    Jackson, M J; Wagenmakers, A J; Edwards, R H

    1987-01-15

    The role of arachidonic acid metabolism in the efflux of intracellular enzymes from damaged skeletal muscle has been examined in vitro using inhibitors of cyclo-oxygenase and lipoxygenase enzymes. Damage to skeletal muscle induced by either calcium ionophore A23187 (25 microM) or dinitrophenol (1 mM) caused an increase in the efflux of prostaglandins E2 and F2 alpha together with a large efflux of intracellular creatine kinase. Use of a cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor completely prevented the efflux of prostaglandins, but had no effect on creatine kinase efflux. However, several agents having the ability to inhibit lipoxygenase enzymes dramatically reduced creatine kinase efflux following damage. These data suggest that a product or products of lipoxygenase enzymes may be mediators of the changes in plasma membrane integrity which permit efflux of intracellular enzymes as a consequence of skeletal muscle damage. PMID:3109374

  12. [Genetic and biochemical mechanisms of involvement of antioxidant defense enzymes in the development of bronchial asthma].

    PubMed

    Polonikov, A V; Ivanov, V P; Bogomazov, A D; Solodilova, M A

    2015-01-01

    In the present review we have analyzed and summarized recent literature data on genetic and biochemical mechanisms responsible for involvement of antioxidant defense enzymes in the etiology and pathogenesis of bronchial asthma. It has been shown that the mechanisms of asthma development are linked with genetically determined abnormalities in the functioning of antioxidant defense enzymes. These alterations are accompanied by a systemic imbalance between oxidative and anti-oxidative reactions with the shift of the redox state toward increased free radical production and oxidative stress, a key element in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma. PMID:26350733

  13. Studies on antioxidant activity of teasaponins after hydrolyzed by enzyme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Jing; Zhao, Sen; Xu, Longquan; Fei, Xu; Wang, Xiuying; Wang, Yi

    The biological activity of teasaponins and their molecular structure are closely related, and the activity of saponins may be increased with the change of their molecular structure. In this report, teasaponins were hydrolyzed by Aspergillus niger for increasing the antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity of teasaponins before and after hydrolyzed was tested by DPPH, and the result showed four new teasaponins were produced after hydrolysis, and their antioxidant activity was increased significantly than the original teasaponins before hydrolysis, the radical scavenging capacity (RSC) was partly up to 95 %.

  14. Antioxidative capacity and enzyme activity in Haematococcus pluvialis cells exposed to superoxide free radicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jianguo; Zhang, Xiaoli; Sun, Yanhong; Lin, Wei

    2010-01-01

    The antioxidative capacity of astaxanthin and enzyme activity of reactive oxygen eliminating enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) were studied in three cell types of Haematococcus pluvialis exposed to high concentrations of a superoxide anion radical (O{2/-}). The results show that defensive enzymes and astaxanthin-related mechanisms were both active in H. pluvialis during exposure to reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as O{2/-}. Astaxanthin reacted with ROS much faster than did the protective enzymes, and had the strongest antioxidative capacity to protect against lipid peroxidation. The defensive mechanisms varied significantly between the three cell types and were related to the level of astaxanthin that had accumulated in those cells. Astaxanthin-enriched red cells had the strongest antioxidative capacity, followed by brown cells, and astaxanthin-deficient green cells. Although there was no significant increase in expression of protective enzymes, the malondialdehyde (MDA) content in red cells was sustained at a low level because of the antioxidative effect of astaxanthin, which quenched O{2/-} before the protective enzymes could act. In green cells, astaxanthin is very low or absent; therefore, scavenging of ROS is inevitably reliant on antioxidative enzymes. Accordingly, in green cells, these enzymes play the leading role in scavenging ROS, and the expression of these enzymes is rapidly increased to reduce excessive ROS. However, because ROS were constantly increased in this study, the enhance enzyme activity in the green cells was not able to repair the ROS damage, leading to elevated MDA content. Of the four defensive enzymes measured in astaxanthin-deficient green cells, SOD eliminates O{2/-}, POD eliminates H2O2, which is a by-product of SOD activity, and APX and CAT are then initiated to scavenge excessive ROS.

  15. Induction of antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation level in ion-beam-bombarded rice seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semsang, Nuananong; Yu, LiangDeng

    2013-07-01

    Low-energy ion beam bombardment has been used to mutate a wide variety of plant species. To explore the indirect effects of low-energy ion beam on biological damage due to the free radical production in plant cells, the increase in antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation level was investigated in ion-bombarded rice seeds. Local rice seeds were bombarded with nitrogen or argon ion beams at energies of 29-60 keV and ion fluences of 1 × 1016 ions cm-2. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and lipid peroxidation level were assayed in the germinated rice seeds after ion bombardment. The results showed most of the enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation levels in both the argon and nitrogen bombarded samples were higher than those in the natural control. N-ion bombardment could induce higher levels of antioxidant enzyme activities in the rice samples than the Ar-ion bombardment. Additional effects due to the vacuum condition were found to affect activities of some antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation level. This study demonstrates that ion beam bombardment and vacuum condition could induce the antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation level which might be due to free radical production in the bombarded rice seeds.

  16. Cationic triblock copolymer micelles enhance antioxidant activity, intracellular uptake and cytotoxicity of curcumin.

    PubMed

    Yoncheva, Krassimira; Kamenova, Katya; Perperieva, Teodora; Hadjimitova, Vera; Donchev, Petar; Kaloyanov, Kaloyan; Konstantinov, Spiro; Kondeva-Burdina, Magdalena; Tzankova, Virginia; Petrov, Petar

    2015-07-25

    The aim of the present study was to develop curcumin loaded cationic polymeric micelles and to evaluate their loading, preservation of curcumin antioxidant activity and intracellular uptake ability. The micelles were prepared from a triblock copolymer consisting of poly(?-caprolactone) and very short poly(2-(dimethylamino) ethyl methacrylate) segments (PDMAEMA9-PCL70-PDMAEMA9). The micelles showed monomodal size distribution, mean diameter of 145 nm, positive charge (+72 mV), critical micellar concentration around 0.05 g/l and encapsulation efficiency of 87%. The ability of the micellar curcumin to scavenge the ABTS radical and hypochlorite ions was higher than that of the free curcumin. Confocal microscopy revealed that the uptake of curcumin by chronic myeloid leukemia derived K-562 cells and human multiple myeloma cells U-266 was more intensive when curcumin was loaded into the micelles. These results correlated with the higher cytotoxicity of the micellar curcumin compared to free curcumin. Intraperitoneal treatment of Wistar rats indicated that PDMAEMA-PCL-PDMAEMA copolymer, comprising very short cationic chains, did not change the levels of malondialdehyde and glutathione in livers indicating an absence of oxidative stress. Thus, PDMAEMA-PCL-PDMAEMA triblock micelles could be considered efficient and safe platform for curcumin delivery. PMID:26026253

  17. Age-Specific Effects on Rat Lung Glutathione and Antioxidant Enzymes after Inhaling Ultrafine Soot

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Jackie K. W.; Kodani, Sean D.; Charrier, Jessie G.; Morin, Dexter; Edwards, Patricia C.; Anderson, Donald S.; Anastasio, Cort

    2013-01-01

    Vehicle exhaust is rich in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and is a dominant contributor to urban particulate pollution (PM). Exposure to PM is linked to respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in susceptible populations, such as children. PM can contribute to the development and exacerbation of asthma, and this is thought to occur because of the presence of electrophiles in PM or through electrophile generation via the metabolism of PAHs. Glutathione (GSH), an abundant intracellular antioxidant, confers cytoprotection through conjugation of electrophiles and reduction of reactive oxygen species. GSH-dependent phase II detoxifying enzymes glutathione peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase facilitate metabolism and conjugation, respectively. Ambient particulates are highly variable in composition, which complicates systematic study. In response, we have developed a replicable ultrafine premixed flame particle (PFP)-generating system for in vivo studies. To determine particle effects in the developing lung, 7day-old neonatal and adult rats inhaled 22 ?g/m3 PFP during a single 6-hour exposure. Pulmonary GSH and related phase II detoxifying gene and protein expression were evaluated 2, 24, and 48 hours after exposure. Neonates exhibited significant depletion of GSH despite higher initial baseline levels of GSH. Furthermore, we observed attenuated induction of phase II enzymes (glutamate cysteine ligase, glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase, and glutathione peroxidase) in neonates compared with adult rats. We conclude that developing neonates have a limited ability to deviate from their normal developmental pattern that precludes adequate adaptation to environmental pollutants, which results in enhanced cytotoxicity from inhaled PM. PMID:23065132

  18. Thioredoxin 1 in Prostate Tissue Is Associated with Gleason Score, Erythrocyte Antioxidant Enzyme Activity, and Dietary Antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    Vance, Terrence M.; Azabdaftari, Gissou; Pop, Elena A.; Lee, Sang Gil; Su, L. Joseph; Fontham, Elizabeth T. H.; Bensen, Jeannette T.; Steck, Susan E.; Arab, Lenore; Mohler, James L.; Chen, Ming-Hui; Koo, Sung I.; Chun, Ock K.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Prostate cancer is the most common noncutaneous cancer and second leading cause of cancer-related mortality in men in the US. Growing evidence suggests that oxidative stress is involved in prostate cancer. Methods. In this study, thioredoxin 1 (Trx 1), an enzyme and subcellular indicator of redox status, was measured in prostate biopsy tissue from 55 men from the North Carolina-Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project. A pathologist blindly scored levels of Trx 1. The association between Trx 1 and the Gleason score, erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity, and dietary antioxidant intake was determined using Fisher's exact test. Results. Trx 1 levels in benign prostate tissue in men with incident prostate cancer were positively associated with the Gleason score (P = 0.01) and inversely associated with dietary antioxidant intake (P = 0.03). In prostate cancer tissue, Trx 1 levels were associated with erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity (P = 0.01). No association was found for other erythrocyte enzymes. Greater Gleason score of malignant tissue corresponds to a greater difference in Trx 1 levels between malignant and benign tissue (P = 0.04). Conclusion. These results suggest that the redox status of prostate tissue is associated with prostate cancer grade and both endogenous and exogenous antioxidants. PMID:26357575

  19. Correlation of antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes to oxygen radical scavenging activities in berries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Berry fruits contain high levels of antioxidant compounds. In addition to the usual nutrients such as vitamins and minerals, berry fruits are also rich in flavonols, anthocyanidins, proanthocyanidins, catechins, flavones, and their glycosides. These antioxidants are capable of performing a number of...

  20. Antioxidant enzymes and pulmonary function in steel mill welders.

    PubMed

    Stepnewski, Marek; Kolarzyk, Emilia; Pietrzycka, Agata; Kitlinski, Mariusz; Helbin, Jadwiga; Brzyszczan, Klaudyna

    2003-01-01

    It is known that high levels of nitric oxide and ozone lead to disturbances of the balance between oxidants and antioxidants. The purpose of this study was to investigate ventilatory parameters in relation to the antioxidant status measured as total antioxidant status (TAS), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CT). The study group consisted of 94 welders, aged 41.2 +/- 10.0 years, employed in the Steel Mill in Krakw, Poland, and exposed to nitric oxides and ozone in concentrations exceeding the threshold limit values. The control group consisted of 115 unexposed healthy workers aged 40.8 +/- 10.2 years. All the subjects under study were smokers. Determination of ventilatory efficiency was based on a "flow-volume" curve and spirometry. TAS was measured using reagents from the Randox Laboratories Ltd, SOD according to Fridovich and CT with Aebi's method. It was found that in the group of welders, the concentrations of TAS, CT and SOD were lower compared to controls (TAS-1.15/1.33 mmol/ml; CT-18.1/28.4 m/gHb, SOD-767.6/855.6 U/gHb). The incidence of extreme obstructive pulmonary disease and small airway disease in the welder group was more frequent than in controls. Changes in the concentration (or activity) of antioxidant parameters cannot be used as early markers of ventilatory dysfunction, although the values in the lowest class of TAS, SOD and CT showed a significantly larger number of welders than controls. PMID:12705716

  1. Developmental expression of antioxidant enzymes in guinea pig lung and liver.

    PubMed

    Rickett, G M; Kelly, F J

    1990-02-01

    Antioxidant enzyme activities, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and total glutathione concentration were determined in guinea pig lung and liver over the final period of gestation (days 50-68) and at several ages post-partum. Pulmonary antioxidant capacity increased markedly over the final days of gestation, individual changes ranging from 29% (glutathione) to 198% (GSH-Px). Liver antioxidant capacity was always 4-fold to 10-fold greater than that of the lung and exhibited very similar developmental profiles to those observed in the lung. From day 60 gestation to term (68 days), activity of the liver antioxidants increased, ranging from 246% (CAT) to 610% (glutathione). A number of antioxidants in both lung and liver exhibited either immediate pre- or post-birth decreases in activity. These falls could not be attributed to the way in which the results were expressed: i.e. they were similar, expressed per unit DNA, per unit protein, or per g wet wt. Following birth, liver antioxidant capacity increased such that the highest enzyme activities or glutathione concentration were recorded at 66 days post-partum. In lung, only Mn-SOD and glutathione exhibited higher levels at 66 days postpartum than at birth. In combination, these results of pulmonary and hepatic antioxidant enzyme activity indicate that the lung is not unique in acquiring increased antioxidant protection in the final period of gestation. They also suggest that a tissue's antioxidant requirement is dictated more by metabolic rate (hence free radical production) than incident partial pressure of oxygen. PMID:2351072

  2. Mitochondrial respiratory and antioxidative enzyme activities in turkey meat.

    PubMed

    Janisch, S; Wicke, M; Krischek, C

    2012-02-01

    Meat quality and (anti)oxidative metabolism of m. pectoralis superficialis (MPS), m. gastrocnemius (MG) and m. iliotibilialis lateralis (MIL) from turkey toms were analysed. After slaughter, pH of MPS and MG decreased and electrical conductivity of the MPS increased. The MG had generally higher pH values. The meat lightness (L) and redness (a) increased in MG and MPS after slaughter. The MPS always had higher L and lower a values. Mitochondrial respiratory activities (MRA) were higher in the MIL than the MPS. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase, analysed in the MPS, increased and the glutathione reductase activity decreased after slaughter. Meat samples with lower pH24 h p.m. had higher drip loss and L values. The MRA were tendentially lower and the SOD activities higher in these samples. These results indicate a relation between the meat quality, the antioxidative metabolism and mitochondrial respiration. PMID:22436194

  3. Protective Effects of Coenzyme Q10 Against Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Oxidative Stress in PC12 Cell: The Role of Nrf2 and Antioxidant Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Du, Jikun; Lian, Yaru; Zhang, Yun; Li, Xingren; Liu, Ying; Zou, Liyi; Wu, Tie

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a major component of harmful cascades activated in neurodegenerative disorders. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), an essential component in the mitochondrial respiratory chain, has recently gained attention for its potential role in the treatment of neurodegenerative disease. Here, we investigated the possible protective effects of CoQ10 on H2O2-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells and the underlying mechanism. CoQ10 showed high free radical-scavenging activity as measured by a DPPH and TEAC. Pre-treatment of cells with CoQ10 diminished intracellular generation of ROS in response to H2O2. H2O2 decreased viability of PC12 cells which was reversed by pretreatment with CoQ10 according to MTT assay. H2O2-induced lipid peroxidation was attenuated by CoQ10 as shown by inhibition of MDA formation. Furthermore, pre-incubation of the cells with CoQ10 also restored the activity of cellular antioxidant enzymes which had been altered by H2O2. Moreover, CoQ10 induced Nrf2 nuclear translocation, the upstream of antioxidant enzymes. These findings suggest CoQ10 augments cellular antioxidant defense capacity through both intrinsic free radical-scavenging activity and activation of Nrf2 and subsequently antioxidant enzymes induction, thereby protecting the PC12 cells from H2O2-induced oxidative cytotoxicity. PMID:26072159

  4. [Effect of bacteriophage on the lipid peroxidation process and antioxidant protective enzymes in experimental uveitis].

    PubMed

    Karimova, M Kh; Bakhritdinova, F A

    2002-01-01

    Experimental uveitis features distinct hyperlipoperoxidation in damaged eye tissues, blood serum and the liver. The activity of antioxidant defense (AOD) enzymes decreases in tissues and blood of experimental animals whereas catalase compensatorily activates in hepatic tissue. Experimental therapy of uveitis with gentamycin and bacteriophage results in reducing hyperlipoperoxidation, increased activity of AOD enzymes but no complete normalization is observed. This manifested in preservation of inflammations to a certain degree. PMID:12506658

  5. Costus afer Possesses Carbohydrate Hydrolyzing Enzymes Inhibitory Activity and Antioxidant Capacity In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Tchamgoue, Armelle D; Tchokouaha, Lauve R Y; Tarkang, Protus A; Kuiate, Jules-Roger; Agbor, Gabriel A

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder of glucose metabolism which correlates with postprandial hyperglycemia and oxidative stress. Control of blood glucose level is imperative in the management of diabetes. The present study tested the hypothesis that Costus afer, an antihyperglycemic medicinal plant, possesses inhibitory activity against carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes. Hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water extracts were prepared from the leaf, stem, and rhizome of C. afer and subjected to phytochemical screening, assayed for α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities and antioxidant capacity (determined by total phenolic and total flavonoids contents, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and DPPH radical scavenging activity). All extracts inhibited α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities. Ethyl acetate rhizome and methanol leaf extracts exhibited the best inhibitory activity against α-amylase and α-glucosidase (IC50: 0.10 and 5.99 mg/mL), respectively. Kinetic analysis revealed two modes of enzyme inhibition (competitive and mixed). All extracts showed antioxidant capacity, with hexane extracts exhibiting the best activity. DPPH assay revealed that methanol leaf, rhizome, and ethyl acetate stem extracts (IC50 < 5 mg/mL) were the best antioxidants. The presence of bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, alkaloids, phenols, and tannins may account for the antioxidant capacity and carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme inhibitory activity of C. afer. PMID:26246844

  6. Costus afer Possesses Carbohydrate Hydrolyzing Enzymes Inhibitory Activity and Antioxidant Capacity In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Tchamgoue, Armelle D.; Tchokouaha, Lauve R. Y.; Tarkang, Protus A.; Kuiate, Jules-Roger; Agbor, Gabriel A.

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder of glucose metabolism which correlates with postprandial hyperglycemia and oxidative stress. Control of blood glucose level is imperative in the management of diabetes. The present study tested the hypothesis that Costus afer, an antihyperglycemic medicinal plant, possesses inhibitory activity against carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes. Hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water extracts were prepared from the leaf, stem, and rhizome of C. afer and subjected to phytochemical screening, assayed for ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities and antioxidant capacity (determined by total phenolic and total flavonoids contents, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and DPPH radical scavenging activity). All extracts inhibited ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase activities. Ethyl acetate rhizome and methanol leaf extracts exhibited the best inhibitory activity against ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase (IC50: 0.10 and 5.99?mg/mL), respectively. Kinetic analysis revealed two modes of enzyme inhibition (competitive and mixed). All extracts showed antioxidant capacity, with hexane extracts exhibiting the best activity. DPPH assay revealed that methanol leaf, rhizome, and ethyl acetate stem extracts (IC50 < 5?mg/mL) were the best antioxidants. The presence of bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, alkaloids, phenols, and tannins may account for the antioxidant capacity and carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme inhibitory activity of C. afer. PMID:26246844

  7. Pharmacological modifications of endogenous antioxidant enzymes with special reference to the effects of deprenyl: a possible antioxidant strategy.

    PubMed

    Kitani, K; Kanai, S; Ivy, G O; Carrillo, M C

    1999-11-01

    Limited information is available on the upregulation of endogenous antioxidant enzymes by means of administering various pharmaceuticals and/or chemicals. It has been reported that ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), a bile acid originally identified from black bear bile (a Chinese medicine, Yutan) increased glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities in mouse livers, resulting in a decrease in systemic lethal toxicity of orally challenged 1-2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene (DCNB). Also, ursolic acid found in herbal medicines (e.g. leaves of loquat) was reported to increase catalase (CAT) activities in mouse liver. Interestingly, the chemical structures of these two compounds are surprisingly similar to each other, despite the difference in their original sources. These results suggest that in the future, more and more compounds will be found to have effects on increasing endogenous antioxidant enzyme activities. Deprenyl is a monoamine oxidase B inhibitor but also possesses many other different pharmacological activities. Among these various pharmacological effects of deprenyl, a possible causal relationship between two effects of deprenyl, namely the prolongation of the survival of animals and upregulation of antioxidant enzymes in selective brain regions, has been postulated by the authors. In at least four different animal species (rats, mice, hamsters and dogs), a significant prolongation of survival by chronic administration of the drug has been reported by different groups including that of the authors. This group has reported that repeated administration of the drug for 2-3 weeks can significantly increase activities of both types of superoxide dismutase (SODs) (Cu, Zn-, and Mn-SODs) as well as of CAT selectively in brain dopaminergic regions. Both effects are dose dependent but excessive dosages become less effective and even cause an adverse effect (i.e. a decrease in enzyme activities and shortening of life span). The parallelism of the dose-effect relationship between the two phenomena suggests that modification of SOD and CAT levels is one possible mechanism for deprenyl's ability to prolong the life span of animals. PMID:10656538

  8. Optimization of ABTS radical cation assay specifically for determination of antioxidant capacity of intracellular extracts of microalgae and cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Guedes, A Catarina; Amaro, Helena M; Gio, Maria S; Malcata, F Xavier

    2013-05-01

    A renewed interest in antioxidants has arisen in recent years; microalgae and cyanobacteria are potential sources thereof for use as food/feed ingredients. However, improved methods for comprehensive screening of antioxidant capacity specifically in intracellular extracts of marine microorganisms are required - encompassing lipophilic and hydrophilic compounds simultaneously. The original ABTS method was thus improved, and in particular the procedures of cell disruption and storage were optimized. The best solvent found was ethanol/water (1:1, v/v). The reaction to form ABTS(+) in said solvent was essentially complete by eight hours, and this radical cation was stable for at least 6 days; at room temperature, the ABTS(+) solution remained within an allowable analytical range for up to 13 h. Ultra Turrax was the best cell disruption method, and refrigeration was the best preservation method. This improved methodology was validated with four representative strains that respond poorly to cell disruption. PMID:23265534

  9. Sucrase-isomaltase deficiency in humans. Different mutations disrupt intracellular transport, processing, and function of an intestinal brush border enzyme.

    PubMed Central

    Naim, H Y; Roth, J; Sterchi, E E; Lentze, M; Milla, P; Schmitz, J; Hauri, H P

    1988-01-01

    Eight cases of congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency were studied at the subcellular and protein level with monoclonal antibodies against sucrase-isomaltase. At least three phenotypes were revealed: one in which sucrase-isomaltase protein accumulated intracellularly probably in the endoplasmic reticulum, as a membrane-associated high-mannose precursor, one in which the intracellular transport of the enzyme was apparently blocked in the Golgi apparatus, and one in which catalytically altered enzyme was transported to the cell surface. All patients expressed electrophoretically normal or near normal high-mannose sucrase-isomaltase. The results suggest that different, probably small, mutations in the sucrase-isomaltase gene lead to the synthesis of transport-incompetent or functionally altered enzyme which results in congenital sucrose intolerance. Images PMID:3403721

  10. Interspecific diversity in root antioxidative enzyme activities reflect root turnover strategies and preferred habitats in wetland graminoids.

    PubMed

    Ycel, Ca?da? Kera; Bor, Melike; Ryser, Peter

    2014-03-01

    Antioxidant enzymes protect cells against oxidative stress and are associated with stress tolerance and longevity. In animals, variation in their activities has been shown to relate to species ecology, but in plants, comparative studies with wild species are rare. We investigated activities of five antioxidant enzymes - ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), peroxidase (POX), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) - in roots of four perennial graminoid wetland species over a growing season to find out whether differences in root turnover or habitat preferences would be associated with variation in seasonal patterns of antioxidant enzyme activities. The investigated species differ in their root turnover strategies (fine roots senesce in the fall or fine roots survive the winter) and habitat preferences (nutrient-poor vs. productive wetlands). Roots were collected both in the field and from garden-grown plants. Antioxidant enzyme activities were higher and lipid peroxidation rates lower in species with annual root systems, and for species of the nutrient-poor wetland, compared with perennial roots and species of productive wetlands, respectively. There was variation in the activities of individual antioxidant enzymes, but discriminant analyses with all enzymes revealed a clear picture, indicating consistent associations of antioxidant enzyme activities with the type of root turnover strategy and with the preferred habitat. We conclude that antioxidant enzyme activities in plant roots are associated with the species' ecological strategies and can be used as traits for the characterization of the species' position along plant economics spectrum. PMID:24683465

  11. Interspecific diversity in root antioxidative enzyme activities reflect root turnover strategies and preferred habitats in wetland graminoids

    PubMed Central

    Ycel, a?da? Kera; Bor, Melike; Ryser, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Antioxidant enzymes protect cells against oxidative stress and are associated with stress tolerance and longevity. In animals, variation in their activities has been shown to relate to species ecology, but in plants, comparative studies with wild species are rare. We investigated activities of five antioxidant enzymes ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), peroxidase (POX), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in roots of four perennial graminoid wetland species over a growing season to find out whether differences in root turnover or habitat preferences would be associated with variation in seasonal patterns of antioxidant enzyme activities. The investigated species differ in their root turnover strategies (fine roots senesce in the fall or fine roots survive the winter) and habitat preferences (nutrient-poor vs. productive wetlands). Roots were collected both in the field and from garden-grown plants. Antioxidant enzyme activities were higher and lipid peroxidation rates lower in species with annual root systems, and for species of the nutrient-poor wetland, compared with perennial roots and species of productive wetlands, respectively. There was variation in the activities of individual antioxidant enzymes, but discriminant analyses with all enzymes revealed a clear picture, indicating consistent associations of antioxidant enzyme activities with the type of root turnover strategy and with the preferred habitat. We conclude that antioxidant enzyme activities in plant roots are associated with the species' ecological strategies and can be used as traits for the characterization of the species' position along plant economics spectrum. PMID:24683465

  12. Drug-metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes in monosodium L-glutamate obese mice.

    PubMed

    Matoukov, Petra; Brtkov, Hana; Bouov, Iva; Levorov, Lucie; Szotkov, Barbora; Sklov, Lenka

    2015-02-01

    The prevalence of obesity is rapidly increasing across the world. Physiologic alterations associated with obesity are known to alter enzyme expression and/or activities. As drug-metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes serve as defense system against potentially toxic compounds, their modulation might have serious consequences. In this work, we studied selected antioxidant and drug-metabolizing enzymes (DME) in monosodium glutamate-mouse model of obesity. Specific activities, protein, and mRNA expressions of these enzymes in liver as well as in small intestine were compared in obese male mice and in their lean counterparts. Furthermore, expression of the NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and its relation to obesity were tested. Obtained results showed that obesity affects expression and/or activities of some DME and antioxidant enzymes. In obese mice, upregulation of UDP-glucuronosyltransferases 1A (UGT1A), NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), nuclear transcription factor Nrf2, and downregulation of some isoforms of glutathione S-transferases (GST) were observed. Most of these changes were tissue and/or isoform specific. NQO1 seems to be regulated transcriptionally via Nrf2, but other enzymes might be regulated post-transcriptionally and/or post-translationally. Enhanced expression of Nrf2 in livers of obese mice is expected to play a role in protective adaptation. In contrast, elevated activities of NQO1 and UGT1A may cause alterations in drug pharmacokinetics in obese individuals. Moreover, decreased capacity of GST in obese animals indicates potentially reduced antioxidant defense and weaker chemoprotection. PMID:25473020

  13. Alternation of antioxidative enzyme gene expression in rice seedlings exposed to methylene blue.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-Zhang; Zhang, Xue-Hong; Yue, Dong-Ming

    2014-12-01

    Hydroponic experiments were conducted with rice seedlings (Oryza sativa L. cv. ND1) exposed to methylene blue (MB) to investigate the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and activities and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes. Results showed that a linear decrease in relative growth rate and water use efficiency was observed with rice seedlings with increasing MB concentrations. MB-induced accumulation of H2O2 was evident in both roots and shoots. The activities of antioxidative enzymes were analyzed and found to be different at different MB treatment concentrations. The activities of enzymes related to the ascorbate-glutathione cycle were more sensitive to MB treatments than other antioxidative enzymes. Transcript level, by real-time quantitative PCR, of antioxidative enzymes showed that the analyzed genes were differently expressed during different MB concentrations in both roots and shoots. The isoform analysis of superoxide dismutase (SOD) gene showed that the expressions of Cu/ZnSOD and MnSOD were relatively constant, where significant upregulation of FeSOD was observed with rice seedlings exposed to high MB concentrations. Furthermore, the expression of CAT, POD, and MDHAR genes responded biphasically to MB treatments by showing negligible changes at 1.56-15.63 ?M MB and significant induction at 31.36-62.52 ?M MB. The expression of GR, APX, and DHAR genes showed a remarkable induction to MB. Our results suggest that on transcription level, and in accordance with enzymatic responses, enzymes of GR, APX, and DHAR play central role in the H2O2 detoxification in rice seedlings under MB exposure. PMID:25037098

  14. Higher Plasma Pyridoxal Phosphate Is Associated with Increased Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Critically Ill Surgical Patients

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chien-Hsiang; Huang, Shih-Chien; Chiang, Ting-Yu; Wong, Yueching

    2013-01-01

    Critically ill patients experience severe stress, inflammation and clinical conditions which may increase the utilization and metabolic turnover of vitamin B-6 and may further increase their oxidative stress and compromise their antioxidant capacity. This study was conducted to examine the relationship between vitamin B-6 status (plasma and erythrocyte PLP) oxidative stress, and antioxidant capacities in critically ill surgical patients. Thirty-seven patients in surgical intensive care unit of Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan, were enrolled. The levels of plasma and erythrocyte PLP, serum malondialdehyde, total antioxidant capacity, and antioxidant enzyme activities (i.e., superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S-transferase, and glutathione peroxidase) were determined on the 1st and 7th days of admission. Plasma PLP was positively associated with the mean SOD activity level on day 1 (r = 0.42, P < 0.05), day 7 (r = 0.37, P < 0.05), and on changes (Δ (day 7 − day 1)) (r = 0.56, P < 0.01) after adjusting for age, gender, and plasma C-reactive protein concentration. Higher plasma PLP could be an important contributing factor in the elevation of antioxidant enzyme activity in critically ill surgical patients. PMID:23819116

  15. Gene delivery of antioxidant enzymes inhibits HIV-1 gp120-induced expression of caspases

    PubMed Central

    Louboutin, Jean-Pierre; Agrawal, Lokesh; Reyes, Beverly A.S.; Van Bockstaele, Elisabeth J; Strayer, David S

    2016-01-01

    Caspases are implicated in neuronal death in neurodegenerative and other Central Nervous System (CNS) diseases. In a rat model of HIV-1 associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), we previously characterized HIV-1 envelope gp120-induced neuronal apoptosis by TUNEL assay. In this model, neuronal apoptosis occurred probably via gp120-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS). Antioxidant gene delivery blunted gp120-related apoptosis. Here, we studied the effect of gp120 on different caspases (3, 6, 8, 9) expression. Caspases production increased in the rat caudate-putamen (CP) 6h after gp120 injection into the same structure. The expression of caspases peaked by 24h. Caspases colocalized mainly with neurons. Prior gene delivery of the antioxidant enzymes Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) or glutathione peroxidase (GPx1) into the CP before injecting gp120 there reduced levels of gp120-induced caspases, recapitulating the effect of antioxidant enzymes on gp120-induced apoptosis observed by TUNEL. Thus, HIV-1 gp120 increased caspases expression in the CP. Prior antioxidant enzyme treatment mitigated production of these caspases, probably by reducing ROS levels. PMID:22531373

  16. The influence of cadmium on the antioxidant enzyme activities in polychaete Perinereis aibuhitensis Grube (Annelida: Polychaeta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xiutang; Chen, Aihua; Zhou, Yibing; Liu, Haiying; Yang, Dazuo

    2010-07-01

    The infaunal polychaete Perinereis aibuhitensis Grube, distributed widely along Asian coasts and estuaries, is considered a useful animal model in ecotoxicological tests and a promising candidate in biomonitoring programs. This paper deals with the activities of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidases (GSH-Px) in infaunal polychaete P. aibuhitensis exposed to a series of sublethal water-bound cadmium (Cd) concentrations (0, 0.34, 1.72, 3.44, 6.89, and 17.22 mg L-1) under a short-term exposure (1-8 d). The results indicate that the SOD and GSH-Px activities in P. aibuhitensis are stimulated first and then renewed to the original level. The CAT activity of worms decreases at an earlier exposure time but increases to the control values at a later exposure time. Our study suggests that Cd can interfere with the antioxidant defense system of P. aibuhitensis. However, the changes in antioxidant enzyme activities for this species do not show the best promise as biomarkers in Cd biomonitoring of estuarine and coastal zones because weak or non-dose-effect relationships between the antioxidant enzymes activities and Cd levels are found.

  17. Wheat bran feruloyl oligosaccharides modulate the phase II detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes via Nrf2 signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huijuan; Wang, Jing; Liu, Yingli; Sun, Baoguo

    2015-03-01

    The antioxidant activities of wheat bran feruloyl oligosaccharides (FOs) were determined in rats by determining the activities and mRNA expression levels of phase II detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in rat organs. FOs was given by gavage at doses of 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75 mmol/kg body weight every day for 15 days. Compared with the control group, the activities of SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px in FOs treatment groups significantly (P<0.05) increased in heart, liver, and kidney. All the FOs treatment also significantly (P<0.05) increased the glutathione (GSH) contents in heart (28-58%), liver (32-71%), and kidney (31-73%) compared with the control. FOs up regulated the mRNA expression levels of SOD, CAT, and HO-1 in organs. Moreover, the immunoblot analysis revealed increased nuclear factor-E2-related factor (Nrf2) protein expression levels in organs and there were positive correlations between the mRNA expression of phase II detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes and the expressions of Nrf2 protein, which demonstrated FOs treatment could modulate the detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes via Nrf2 signaling. PMID:25542177

  18. Time course variations of antioxidant enzyme activities and histopathology of gilthead seabream gills exposed to malathion.

    PubMed

    Rosety, M; Rosety-Rodrguez, M; Ordonez, F J; Rosety, I

    2005-10-01

    In a widely distributed and commercially important fish, gilthead seabream Sparus aurata L., we have studied sublethal effects of malathion in order to identify early warning bioindicators of exposure before irreversible damage occurs. To achieve this goal, groups of 10 juvenile specimens were exposed for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h to a sublethal concentration of malathion (0.4 mg/l). Another group was used as control. The activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase) and histopathological features from exposed gills were assessed. It should also be mentioned that no mortality was observed during the whole experience. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) were altered significantly from 24 h onward (p<0.05). It is of interest to note that catalase activity was decreased after exposure instead of increasing as other antioxidant enzymes assessed. On the other hand, histopathological alterations of the gills were observed as early as at 48 h-exposure, but the most severe damage occurred at 96 h exposure. The evidence presented here, together with other data from the literature, unequivocally established oxidative-stress-inducing effects of malathion in gilthead seabream Sparus aurata. It is also concluded antioxidants employed (SOD, CAT and GPX) changed significantly a long time before histopathological alterations of gills became evident. Consequently, these antioxidant enzymes may be highly recommended as early-warning bioindicators of environmental pollution by malathion in the areas where it is proposed to be used in pest control activities. PMID:16136482

  19. Antioxidant enzyme dysfunction in monocytes and CSF of Hispanic women with HIV-associated cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Velzquez, Ixane; Plaud, Marins; Wojna, Valerie; Skolasky, Richard; Laspiur, Juliana Prez; Melndez, Loyda M.

    2010-01-01

    HIV-associated cognitive neurological disorders (HAND) prevail in the antiretroviral therapy era. Proteomics analysis of CSF revealed expression of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn SOD) in Hispanic women with cognitive impairment (CI). We tested the hypothesis that there is reduced capacity of antioxidant enzymes in CI by measures of expression and activity of Cu/Zn SOD, catalase, and Se-glutathione peroxidase in HAND. Our results showed that the function of these antioxidants was decreased in the CSF and monocytes of women with CI. These findings have important implications regarding their possible contribution to oxidative stress and in the diagnosis and therapy for HAND. PMID:19101040

  20. The Antioxidant Profiles, Lysosomal and Membrane Enzymes Activity in Patients with Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Milnerowicz, Halina; Bukowski, Radosław; Jabłonowska, Monika; Ściskalska, Milena; Milnerowicz, Stanisław

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators, such as IL-6, play an important role in the pathophysiology of acute pancreatitis. The study was aimed to assess the degree of the pro/antioxidative imbalance and estimate which antioxidant plays a role in the maintenance of pro/antioxidative balance during acute pancreatitis. The study was investigated in the blood of 32 patients with acute pancreatitis and 37 healthy subjects. IL-6 concentration as early marker of inflammation was determinated. The intensity of oxidative stress was assessed by TBARS concentration. To investigate antioxidative status, the GPx and Cu/Zn SOD activities and the levels of GSH, MT, SH groups, and TRAP were measured. The concentrations of Cu and Zn as ions participating in the maintenance of antioxidant enzymes stability and playing a role in the course of disease were determinated. The activities of GGT, AAP, NAG, and β-GD as markers of tissue damage were also measured. An increase in IL-6 concentration, which correlated with Ranson criteria, and an increase in GPx activity, levels of MT, TBARS, or GGT, and NAG activities in patients group compared to healthy subjects were demonstrated. A decrease in GSH level in patients group compared to control group was noted. The studies suggest that GPx/GSH and MT play the role of the first line of defence against oxidative stress and pro/antioxidant imbalance in the course of acute pancreatitis. PMID:25298618

  1. Biotransformation and antioxidant enzymes of Limnoperna fortunei detect site impact in watercourses of Crdoba, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Contardo-Jara, Valeska; Galanti, Lucas N; Am, Mara V; Monferrn, Magdalena V; Wunderlin, Daniel A; Wiegand, Claudia

    2009-10-01

    The golden mussel Limnoperna fortunei was used as a biomonitor of environmental pollution in the Suqua River basin around Crdoba City (Argentina). The sampling sites along the river were chosen according to their increasing levels of pollutants (e.g. heavy metals) as well as biological oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD). A water quality index (WQI) was constructed from the interaction of several normalized factors that affect the aquatic environment, such as the mentioned pollutants and physico-chemical characteristics of the sampling sites. Activity changes of biotransformation enzyme glutathione S-transferase (GST) and the antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) and catalase (CAT), after exposure to pollutants, served as biomarkers. Membrane bound GST and antioxidant enzymes responded at the most polluted sampling site within 1 day showing increased activities lasting for 4 days. Further sampling was restricted due to no survival of the animals. Antioxidant enzymes GPx, GR and CAT were sensitive responding to the different pollution scenarios, showing good correlation to the chemical characterization. PMID:19631986

  2. Free radicals and antioxidant enzymes in fish and their responses to metal pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Zelikoff, J.T.; Flescher, E.

    1994-12-31

    Reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) are continuously produced as metabolic by-products by virtually all tissues. Without adequate protection from these free radicals, cells/tissues can suffer significant oxidative damage. While superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and NADPH-quinone reductase (QR) are well recognized antioxidant enzymes in mammalian cells, little is known concerning these enzymes in cells from aquatic species. In addition, the effects of environmental contaminants on ROI production and on these protective enzymes in fish have not been well studied. For this investigation, whole kidney cell homogenates from medaka (Oryzias latipes) were used to evaluate the activity of SOD, catalase, and QR, as well as production of the ROI`s, superoxide (O{sub 2{sup {minus}}}) and hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}). Fish were also exposed to cadmium (Cd{sup 2+})-contaminated water at 60 ppb for five days and the effects on ROI production and these same enzyme systems were evaluated. Findings demonstrate that kidney cells from medaka stimulated in vitro with phorbol myristate acetate produced large quantities of free radicals, as well as expressed all three protective enzymes at levels comparable to those measured in mammalian immune cells. Exposure of fish to Cd{sup 2+} levels below the LC{sub 50} concentration altered these parameters. The results demonstrate the presence of antioxidant enzymes in fish immune cells and suggest the applicability of these endpoints to serve as biomarkers of aquatic metal pollution.

  3. Intracellular antioxidants dissolve man-made antioxidant nanoparticles: using redox vulnerability of nanoceria to develop a responsive drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Faheem; Wang, Aifei; Qi, Wenxiu; Zhang, Shixing; Zhu, Guangshan

    2014-01-01

    Regeneratable antioxidant property of nanoceria has widely been explored to minimize the deleterious influences of reactive oxygen species. Limited information is, however, available regarding the biological interactions and subsequent fate of nanoceria in body fluids. This study demonstrates a surprising dissolution of stable and ultrasmall (4 nm) cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) in response to biologically prevalent antioxidant molecules (glutathione, vitamin C). Such a redox sensitive behavior of CeO2 NPs is subsequently exploited to design a redox responsive drug delivery system for transporting anticancer drug (camptothecin). Upon exposing the CeO2 capped and drug loaded nanoconstruct to vitamin c or glutathione, dissolution-accompanied aggregation of CeO2 nanolids unleashes the drug molecules from porous silica to achieve a significant anticancer activity. Besides stimuli responsive drug delivery, immobilization of nanoceria onto the surface of mesoporous silica also facilitates us to gain a basic insight into the biotransformation of CeO2 in physiological mediums. PMID:25312332

  4. Effect of hypobaric storage on quality, antioxidant enzyme and antioxidant capability of the Chinese bayberry fruits

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra Sieb. and Zucc.) is a subtropical fruit native to China, with unique flavor, sweet and sour taste, and high nutrition and health values. The fruit is highly perishable and susceptible to mechanical injury, physiological deterioration and fungal decay once harvested. This study was to investigate the effect of hypobaric storage on the quality of Chinese bayberry fruit and then develop storage technology to prolong the supply of the fruit. Results The fruit stored under hypobaric conditions exhibited lower decay, higher titratable acidity and total phenolics compared with those stored under normal atmospheric conditions. Hypobaric storage significantly reduced malonaldehyde accumulation, respiratory rate and maintained high catalase and peroxidase activities of Chinese bayberry fruit. Ferric reducing antioxidant power was also higher in the fruit stored under hypobaric condition than those under normal atmospheric conditions. Conclusion Hypobaric storage improved the metabolism, antioxidant system and postharvest quality of Chinese bayberry fruit and provided an effective alternative method to prolong the storage life of this fruit. PMID:23311675

  5. Role of antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant compound probucol in antiradical protection of pancreatic beta-cells during alloxan-induced diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lankin, V Z; Korchin, V I; Konovalova, G G; Lisina, M O; Tikhaze, A K; Akmaev, I G

    2004-01-01

    The severity of disturbances in carbohydrate metabolism in rats with alloxan-induced diabetes depended on activity of antioxidant enzymes in the target organ (pancreas). Damage to the pancreas is related to intensive generation of reactive oxygen species, free radicals, and lipid peroxides. Alloxan-induced diabetes in rats is a free radical disease, which in vivo serves as a useful model for the search for pharmacological preparations with antiradical and antioxidant properties. The antioxidant compound probucol indirectly increased activity of antioxidant enzymes in the pancreas and prevented the development of alloxan-induced diabetes in rats. Our results indicate that different sensitivity of laboratory animals of various species (rats and guinea pigs) to the influence of alloxan is associated with abnormal variations in activity of enzymes utilizing reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxides in mammalian pancreatic cells. PMID:15085236

  6. Enzyme Inhibitory Properties, Antioxidant Activities, and Phytochemical Profile of Three Medicinal Plants from Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Zengin, Gokhan; Guler, Gokalp Ozmen; Aktumsek, Abdurrahman; Ceylan, Ramazan; Picot, Carene Marie Nancy; Mahomoodally, M. Fawzi

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the inhibitory potential of three medicinal plants (Hedysarum varium, Onobrychis hypargyrea, and Vicia truncatula) from Turkey against key enzymes involved in human pathologies, namely, diabetes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase), neurodegenerative disorders (tyrosinase, acetylcholinesterase, and butyrylcholinesterase), and hyperpigmentation (tyrosinase). The antioxidant potential, phenolic and flavonoid content of ethyl acetate, and methanolic and aqueous extracts were investigated using in vitro assays. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC), β-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching activity, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH•), 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS•+), cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and metal chelating activity on ferrous ions were used to evaluate the antioxidant capabilities of the extracts. The half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of the extracts on cholinesterase, tyrosinase, and α-amylase were significantly higher than the references, galantamine, kojic acid, and acarbose, respectively. The half-maximal effective concentrations (EC50) of the extracts on TAC, CUPRAC, and FRAP were significantly higher than trolox. The phenol and flavonoid contents of the plant extracts were in the range 20.90 ± 0.190–83.25 ± 0.914 mg gallic acid equivalent/g extract and 1.45 ± 0.200–39.71 ± 0.092 mg rutin equivalent/g extract, respectively. The plants were found to possess moderate antioxidant capacities and interesting inhibitory action against key enzymes. PMID:26798334

  7. Comparative studies on antioxidant enzyme action and ion accumulation in soybean cultivars under salinity stress.

    PubMed

    Arshi, Anjum; Ahmad, Altaf; Aref, Ibrahim M; Iqbal, Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    Plant biomass, antioxidant enzymes activity, ions accumulation and proline level in four soybean cultivars were investigated atdifferent NaCl concentrations (20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 mM) applied to plants 15 days after sowing. There was a significant decrease in plant biomass and soluble protein content with each NaCl treatment. Accumulation of Na+ and Cl- was maximum in roots, followed by the stem and leaves in all the treated cultivars; Pusa 9712 being the top accumulator. On the contrary, K+ and Ca2+ ion concentrations were inhibited in all the treated cultivars. Activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase) and proline content increased significantly in all the cultivars with each NaCl treatment. The maximum increase was found in Pusa 9712. However, catalase activity decreased in all the cultivars except in Pusa 9712. On the whole, Pusa 9712 was most efficient in managing protection against salinity stress. PMID:23033637

  8. Phenolic Compounds from Olea europaea L. Possess Antioxidant Activity and Inhibit Carbohydrate Metabolizing Enzymes In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Dekdouk, Nadia; Malafronte, Nicola; Russo, Daniela; Faraone, Immacolata; De Tommasi, Nunziatina; Ameddah, Souad; Severino, Lorella; Milella, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Phenolic composition and biological activities of fruit extracts from Italian and Algerian Olea europaea L. cultivars were studied. Total phenolic and tannin contents were quantified in the extracts. Moreover 14 different phenolic compounds were identified, and their profiles showed remarkable quantitative differences among analysed extracts. Moreover antioxidant and enzymatic inhibition activities were studied. Three complementary assays were used to measure their antioxidant activities and consequently Relative Antioxidant Capacity Index (RACI) was used to compare and easily describe obtained results. Results showed that Chemlal, between Algerian cultivars, and Coratina, among Italian ones, had the highest RACI values. On the other hand all extracts and the most abundant phenolics were tested for their efficiency to inhibit α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes. Leccino, among all analysed cultivars, and luteolin, among identified phenolic compounds, were found to be the best inhibitors of α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes. Results demonstrated that Olea europaea fruit extracts can represent an important natural source with high antioxidant potential and significant α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory effects. PMID:26557862

  9. Effects of smokeless dipping tobacco (Naswar) consumption on antioxidant enzymes and lipid profile in its users.

    PubMed

    Sajid, Faiza; Bano, Samina

    2015-09-01

    Dipping tobacco, traditionally referred to as moist snuff, is a type of finely ground, moistened smokeless tobacco product. Naswar is stuffed in the floor of the mouth under the lower lip, or inside the cheek, for extended periods of time. Tobacco use causes dyslipidemia and also induces oxidative stress, leading to alteration in levels of antioxidant enzymes. Dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in turn play a vital role in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Studies conducted on smokeless tobacco products reveal contradictory findings regarding its effects on lipid profile and antioxidant enzymes. As use of Naswar is quite common in Pakistan, the current study aimed to evaluate levels of the antioxidant enzymes viz glutathione per oxidase (GPx) and super oxide dismutase (SOD), alongside lipid profile parameters such as total cholesterol, triglycerides, High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) to assess the risk of adverse cardiovascular events in Naswar users.90 Healthy males aged 16-43 years, who consumed Naswar daily, were selected for the study, alongside 68 age-matched non-tobacco users as controls. Both GPx and SOD levels as well as serum HDL-C were significantly reduced (P<0.01) in Naswar users, whereas serum total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglycerides and LDL-C/HDL-C ratio were significantly increased (P<0.01) in Naswar consumers compared to controls. Our findings indicate deleterious effects of Naswar usage on health by causing altered lipid profile and antioxidant enzymes thereby placing its consumers at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. PMID:26525023

  10. Effects of aortic coarctation on aortic antioxidant enzymes and NADPH oxidase protein expression.

    PubMed

    Sindhu, Ram K; Roberts, Christian K; Ehdaie, Ashkan; Zhan, Chang-De; Vaziri, Nosratola D

    2005-01-01

    Abdominal aortic coarctation above the renal arteries leads to severe hypertension above the stenotic site and provides a model for simultaneous testing of the effects of increased and decreased pressure and consequently shear stress in the same animal. The effects of increased pressure, per se, on oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme expression is unknown. We studied the protein expressions of antioxidant enzymes and NADPH oxidase (gp91phox subunit) in the aortic segments above and below the stenosis site in sham-operated control and aortic-banded rats at four weeks postoperatively. Compared with the control group, the banded group showed significant up-regulation of NADPH oxidase, catalase (CAT), Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Mn SOD protein content in the thoracic aorta. In contrast, Mn SOD, Cu/Zn SOD and NADPH oxidase protein abundance were unchanged in the abdominal aortic segment below the stricture where blood pressure is not elevated, whereas CAT protein abundance was also elevated in the abdominal aorta. No changes were noted for glutathione peroxidase (GPX) protein content either in the thoracic or abdominal aortic segments. Coarctation-induced hypertension is associated with increased aortic CAT, Cu/Zn SOD, Mn SOD and NADPH oxidase protein expression. The up-regulation of NADPH oxidase increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation noted in the present study and contributes to inactivation of nitric oxide (NO) as shown previously in this model. Upregulation of antioxidant enzymes may be a compensatory response in the face of elevated pressure and oxidative stress. The normality of protein abundance in the abdominal aorta wherein blood pressure is not elevated points to the role of baromechanical factors, as opposed to circulating humoral factors that were similar in both segments, as a mechanism responsible for increased antioxidant enzyme expression. PMID:15589970

  11. Antioxidant enzyme activity in endemic Baikalean versus Palaearctic amphipods: tagma- and size-related changes.

    PubMed

    Timofeyev, M A

    2006-03-01

    The activities of key antioxidant enzymes in two endemic Baikalean amphipod species: Pallasea cancelloides (Gerstf), Eulimnogammarus verrucosus (Gerstf) and the widely distributed Palearctic species Gammarus lacustris (Sars) were studied. This work was done to prove or disprove the hypothesis that Baikalean endemics have specifics in antioxidants system different from Palearctic species. The activities of antioxidant enzymes peroxidase, catalase and glutathione-S-transferase were measured in different sections (tagmata) of the amphipods' bodies as well as in different size groups. Well expressed tagma-related differences in peroxidase activity as well as smaller differences in catalase activity were shown in all studied species. There were no measured differences in glutathione-S-transferase activity among body sections. The existence of size-related changes in some antioxidant enzymes and the difference in such changes between Baikalean and Palearctic amphipods were noted. A significant increase in peroxidase activity with the size was found in both Baikalean species while a significant decrease in peroxidase activity was observed in the Palearctic G. lacustris. In Baikalean P. cancelloides, a significant decrease of catalase activity with the increase in age of crustaceans was noted, while in E. verrucosus no such relationship was found. In the Palearctic G. lacustris, a significant increase in catalase activity with the increase in size was noted. All species are shown to have no size-related differences in glutathione-S-transferase activity. The differences between species as well as between both different tagmata and size-classes within a particular species were estimated. It was assumed that the estimated differences in enzymes activity most likely depend on interspecific variation, rather than on conditional specifics in Lake Baikal. PMID:16460977

  12. Transcriptional analysis of disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus) antioxidant enzymes against marine bacteria and virus challenge.

    PubMed

    De Zoysa, Mahanama; Whang, Ilson; Nikapitiya, Chamilani; Oh, Chulhong; Choi, Cheol Young; Lee, Jehee

    2011-07-01

    Diverse antioxidant enzymes are essential for marine organisms to overcome oxidative stress as well as for the fine-tuning of immune reactions through activating different signal transduction pathways. This study describes the transcriptional analysis of antioxidant enzymes of disk abalone by challenging with bacteria (Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahemolyticus, and Listeria monocytogenes) and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV). Upon bacteria and VHSV challenge, Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), Copper, Zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), catalase, thioredoxin peroxidase (TPx), Selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (SeGPx), and thioredoxin-2 (TRx-2) expression levels were altered in gills, and hemocytes at different magnitudes. In gills, only MnSOD, catalase, and SeGPx genes were completely upregulated by post-challenge of bacterial and VHSV. Among them, SeGPx demonstrated strong upregulation by 16-fold (bacteria) and 2-fold (VHSV) in gills, and 5-fold (bacteria) and 3.0-fold (VHSV) in hemocytes. None of the genes examined were downregulated (in gills and hemocytes) by bacteria challenge even though CuZnSOD and TPx showed downregulation (completely) in hemocytes by VHSV. In general, abalone hemocytes had lower potential to induce antioxidant enzyme transcripts upon bacteria and VHSV challenge than gills. Based upon these results, we suggest that abalones induce oxidative stress in tissues during the bacteria and VHSV challenge, and the identified response of antioxidant enzymes could be supported for maintaining a low-level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that may serve as a signal for activating immune reactions against pathogenic conditions. PMID:21549200

  13. Influence of water stress on antioxidative enzymes and yield of banana cultivars and hybrids.

    PubMed

    Surendar, K Krishna; Devi, D Durga; Ravi, I; Jeyakumar, P; Velayudham, K

    2013-12-15

    The main aim for this field experimental study is to screening of various banana cultivars and hybrids for water deficit tolerance through antioxidative enzymes and yield. The field experiment was conducted at National Research Centre for Banana to screen the banana cultivars and hybrids for water deficit tolerance and to elucidate information on antioxidative enzymes mechanism correlated with yield of banana cultivars and hybrids. The methodology of this experimental were analyzed by split plot design and has two treatments considered as main plot (M) viz., control plot taken as M1 and water deficit plot taken as M2 and also the cultivars and hybrids were considered as sup plots (S). The stress was imposed according to the Available Soil Moisture (ASM) and this ASM was measured by using pressure plate membrane apparatus. The experimental data were significantly varied between the treatments and also cultivars and hybrids. The antioxidative enzymes of catalase, super oxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase were significantly enhanced during water deficit conditions. Among the twelve cultivars and hybrids, Karpuravalli, Karpuravalli x Pisang Jajee, Saba and Sannachenkathali was identified as tolerant to water stress with highly accelerated by water stress treatment in the range of 23 to 32% over Control in Catalase (CAT), Super Oxide Dismutase (SOD) and Ascorbate Peroxidase (APX) leads to reduced the cellular membrane damaged by reactive oxygen species and get higher yield; whereas, Matti, Pisang Jajee x Matti, Matti x Anaikomban and Anaikomban x Pisang Jajee were notified as sensitive cultivars and hybrids with lesser increase in antioxidative enzyme activity of 15% than control which is leads to get very low yield. PMID:24517018

  14. Effects of Oxygen Limitation on Xylose Fermentation, Intracellular Metabolites, and Key Enzymes of Neurospora crassa AS3.1602

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhihua; Qu, Yinbo; Zhang, Xiao; Lin, Jianqiang

    The effects of oxygen limitation on xylose fermentation of Neurospora crassa AS3.1602 were studied using batch cultures. The maximum yield of ethanol was 0.34 g/g at oxygen transfer rate (OTR) of 8.4 mmol/Lh. The maximum yield of xylitol was 0.33 g/g at OTR of 5.1 mmol/Lh. Oxygen limitation greatly affected mycelia growth and xylitol and ethanol productions. The specific growth rate (?) decreased 82% from 0.045 to 0.008 h-1 when OTR changed from 12.6 to 8.4 mmol/Lh. Intracellular metabolites of the pentose phosphate pathway, glycolysis, and tricarboxylic acid cycle were determined at various OTRs. Concentrations of most intracellular metabolites decreased with the increase in oxygen limitation. Intracellular enzyme activities of xylose reductase, xylitol dehydrogenase, and xylulokinase, the first three enzymes in xylose metabolic pathway, decreased with the increase in oxygen limitation, resulting in the decreased xylose uptake rate. Under all tested conditions, transaldolase and transketolase activities always maintained at low levels, indicating a great control on xylose metabolism. The enzyme of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase played a major role in NADPH regeneration, and its activity decreased remarkably with the increase in oxygen limitation.

  15. Hepatic biotransformation and antioxidant enzyme activities in Mediterranean fish from different habitat depths.

    PubMed

    Ribalta, C; Sanchez-Hernandez, J C; Sole, M

    2015-11-01

    Marine fish are threatened by anthropogenic chemical discharges. However, knowledge on adverse effects on deep-sea fish or their detoxification capabilities is limited. Herein, we compared the basal activities of selected hepatic detoxification enzymes in several species (Solea solea, Dicentrarchus labrax, Trachyrhynchus scabrus, Mora moro, Cataetix laticeps and Alepocehalus rostratus) collected from the coast, middle and lower slopes of the Blanes Canyon region (Catalan continental margin, NW Mediterranean Sea). The xenobiotic-detoxifying enzymes analysed were the phase-I carboxylesterases (CbEs), and the phase-II conjugation activities uridine diphosphate glucuronyltransferase (UDPGT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST). Moreover, some antioxidant enzyme activities, i.e., catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione reductase (GR), were also included in this comparative study. Because CbE activity is represented by multiple isoforms, the substrates ?-naphthyl acetate (?NA) and ?-nitrophenyl acetate (?NPA) were used in the enzyme assays, and in vitro inhibition kinetics with dichlorvos were performed to compare interspecific CbE sensitivity. Activity of xenobiotic detoxification enzymes varied among the species, following a trend with habitat depth and body size. Thus, UDPGT and some antioxidant enzyme activities decreased in fish inhabiting lower slopes of deep-sea, whereas UDPGT and ?NA-CbE activities were negatively related to fish size. A trend between CbE activities and the IC50 values for dichlorvos suggested S. solea and M. moro as potentially more sensitive to anticholinesterasic pesticides, and T. scabrus as the most resistant one. A principal component analysis considering all enzyme activities clearly identified the species but this grouping was not related to habitat depth or phylogeny. Although these results can be taken as baseline levels of the main xenobiotic detoxification enzymes in Mediterranean fish, further research is needed to evaluate their response to environmental contaminant exposure. PMID:26070027

  16. The effect of quercetin on the mRNA expression of different antioxidant enzymes in hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Rhrdanz, Elke; Bittner, Achim; Tran-Thi, Quynh-Hoa; Kahl, Regine

    2003-09-01

    The flavonol quercetin shows a wide range of effects in biological systems. We investigated whether quercetin exerts its proposed antioxidant properties via the antioxidant enzyme system. Quercetin in a concentration range from 5 to 100 microM decreased manganese superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and copper zinc superoxide dismutase mRNA expression levels each by 30-40% in rat hepatoma H4IIE cells. Catalase mRNA expression levels increased about 30% but only with the cytotoxic concentration of 100 microM. Despite the down-regulation of antioxidant enzyme mRNA expression quercetin treatment of cells induced only a mild oxidative stress. Pretreatment of H4IIE cells with quercetin even protected against an oxidative stress resulting from hydrogen peroxide exposure. In conclusion, the antioxidant capacity of quercetin was shown not to be due to the antioxidant enzyme system. PMID:12756520

  17. The effects of pycnogenol on antioxidant enzymes in a mouse model of ozone exposure

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Min-Sung; Moon, Kuk-Young; Bae, Da-Jeong; Park, Moo-Kyun

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims Ozone is an environmentally reactive oxidant, and pycnogenol is a mixture of flavonoid compounds extracted from pine tree bark that have antioxidant activity. We investigated the effects of pycnogenol on reactive nitrogen species, antioxidant responses, and airway responsiveness in BALB/c mice exposed to ozone. Methods Antioxidant levels were determined using high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Nitric oxide (NO) metabolites in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid from BALB/c mice in filtered air and 2 ppm ozone with pycnogenol pretreatment before ozone exposure (n = 6) were quantified colorimetrically using the Griess reaction. Results Uric acid and ascorbic acid concentrations were significantly higher in BAL fluid following pretreatment with pycnogenol, whereas ?-tocopherol concentrations were higher in the ozone exposed group but were similar in the ozone and pycnogenol pretreatment groups. Retinol and ?-tocopherol concentrations tended to increase in the ozone exposure group but were similar in the ozone and pycnogenol pretreatment groups following ozone exposure. Malonylaldehyde concentrations increased in the ozone exposure group but were similar in the ozone and pycnogenol plus ozone groups. The nitrite and total NO metabolite concentrations in BAL fluid, which parallel the in vivo generation of NO in the airways, were significantly greater in the ozone exposed group than the group exposed to filtered air, but decreased with pycnogenol pretreatment. Conclusions Pycnogenol may increase levels of antioxidant enzymes and decrease levels of nitrogen species, suggesting that antioxidants minimize the effects of acute ozone exposure via a protective mechanism. PMID:23526176

  18. Dietary aai modulates ROS production by neutrophils and gene expression of liver antioxidant enzymes in rats

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Joyce Ferreira da Costa; Magalhes, Cntia Lopes de Brito; Costa, Daniela Caldeira; Silva, Marcelo Eustquio; Pedrosa, Maria Lcia

    2011-01-01

    Aai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) has recently emerged as a promising source of natural antioxidants. Because increased oxidative stress and impaired antioxidant defense mechanisms are important factors in the development of diabetic complications and many health claims have been reported for aai, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the possible protective effects of aai on the production of reactive oxygen species by neutrophils and on the liver antioxidant defense system in control and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diet supplementation with 2% aai was found to increase mRNA levels for gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase and glutathione peroxidase in liver tissue and to decrease reactive oxygen species production by neutrophils. Compared to control animals, diabetic rats exhibited lower levels of mRNA coding for Zn-superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase and higher levels of reactive oxygen species production by neutrophils, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and carbonyl proteins in hepatic tissues. Although aai supplementation was not effective in restore gene expression of antioxidant enzymes in diabetic rats, it showed a protective effect, decreasing thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances levels and increasing reduced glutathione content in the liver. These findings suggest that aai can modulate reactive oxygen species production by neutrophils and that it has a significant favorable effect on the liver antioxidant defense system under fisiological conditions of oxidative stress and partially revert deleterious effects of diabetes in the liver. PMID:22128218

  19. Dietary aai modulates ROS production by neutrophils and gene expression of liver antioxidant enzymes in rats.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Joyce Ferreira da Costa; Magalhes, Cntia Lopes de Brito; Costa, Daniela Caldeira; Silva, Marcelo Eustquio; Pedrosa, Maria Lcia

    2011-11-01

    Aai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) has recently emerged as a promising source of natural antioxidants. Because increased oxidative stress and impaired antioxidant defense mechanisms are important factors in the development of diabetic complications and many health claims have been reported for aai, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the possible protective effects of aai on the production of reactive oxygen species by neutrophils and on the liver antioxidant defense system in control and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diet supplementation with 2% aai was found to increase mRNA levels for gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase and glutathione peroxidase in liver tissue and to decrease reactive oxygen species production by neutrophils. Compared to control animals, diabetic rats exhibited lower levels of mRNA coding for Zn-superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase and higher levels of reactive oxygen species production by neutrophils, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and carbonyl proteins in hepatic tissues. Although aai supplementation was not effective in restore gene expression of antioxidant enzymes in diabetic rats, it showed a protective effect, decreasing thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances levels and increasing reduced glutathione content in the liver. These findings suggest that aai can modulate reactive oxygen species production by neutrophils and that it has a significant favorable effect on the liver antioxidant defense system under fisiological conditions of oxidative stress and partially revert deleterious effects of diabetes in the liver. PMID:22128218

  20. [The activity of gas metabolism, thermoregulation, and antioxidant enzymes in aging C57Bl/6 mice].

    PubMed

    Utko, N O; Pishel', I M; Bezrukov, V V; Muradian, Kh K

    2008-01-01

    The distribution type and correlative links between physiological and biochemical indices characterizing functional condition of the systems of gaseous exchange (V(O2) and V(CO2)), thermoregulation (body temperature and coefficient of thermoconductivity) and antioxidant defense have been studied in 62 young (3-5 mo.) and 58 old (23-26 mo.) male C57Bl/ 6 mice. The coefficients of variation differed significantly depending on the variable but not the age-group. Mean values of V(O2) and V(CO2), body temperature and thermoconductivity, but not activities of the antioxidant enzymes, declined in aging. Moreover, the activities of catalase, glutathione-peroxidase and glutathionereductase, i.e. enzymes involved in regulation of hydrogen peroxide level, increased in aging. The correlations between V(O2) and V(CO2), V(O2) and body temperature or V(O2) and the liver pH, as well as between the antioxidant enzyme activities exhibited little age-changes. However, three-dimensional non-linear models revealed significant age-changes in relations between the studied variables. PMID:18589690

  1. A potential link among antioxidant enzymes, histopathology and trace elements in canine visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Souza, Carolina C; Barreto, Tatiane de O; da Silva, Sydnei M; Pinto, Aldair W J; Figueiredo, Maria M; Rocha, Olguita G Ferreira; Cangussú, Silvia D; Tafuri, Wagner L

    2014-08-01

    Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is a severe and fatal systemic chronic inflammatory disease. We investigated the alterations in, and potential associations among, antioxidant enzymes, trace elements and histopathology in CVL. Blood and tissue levels of Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase were measured in mixed-breed dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum chagasi, symptomatic (n = 19) and asymptomatic (n = 11). Serum levels of copper, iron, zinc, selenium and nitric oxide, and plasma lipid peroxidation were measured. Histological and morphometric analyses were conducted of lesions in liver, spleen and lymph nodes. We found lower blood catalase and glutathione peroxidase activity to be correlated with lower iron and selenium respectively. However, higher activity of Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase was not correlated with the increase in copper and decreased in zinc observed in infected animals compared to controls. Organ tissue was characterized by lower enzyme activity in infected dogs than in controls, but this was not correlated with trace elements. Lipid peroxidation was higher in symptomatic than in asymptomatic and control dogs and was associated with lesions such as chronic inflammatory reaction, congestion, haemosiderin and fibrosis. Systemic iron deposition was observed primarily in the symptomatic dogs showing a higher tissue parasite load. Dogs with symptomatic CVL displayed enhanced LPO and Fe tissue deposition associated with decreased levels of antioxidant enzymes. These results showed new points in the pathology of CVL and might open new treatment perspectives associated with antioxidants and the role of iron in the pathogenesis of CVL. PMID:24766461

  2. A potential link among antioxidant enzymes, histopathology and trace elements in canine visceral leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Carolina C; Barreto, Tatiane de O; da Silva, Sydnei M; Pinto, Aldair W J; Figueiredo, Maria M; Ferreira Rocha, Olguita G; Cangussú, Silvia D; Tafuri, Wagner L

    2014-01-01

    Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is a severe and fatal systemic chronic inflammatory disease. We investigated the alterations in, and potential associations among, antioxidant enzymes, trace elements and histopathology in CVL. Blood and tissue levels of Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase were measured in mixed-breed dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum chagasi, symptomatic (n = 19) and asymptomatic (n = 11). Serum levels of copper, iron, zinc, selenium and nitric oxide, and plasma lipid peroxidation were measured. Histological and morphometric analyses were conducted of lesions in liver, spleen and lymph nodes. We found lower blood catalase and glutathione peroxidase activity to be correlated with lower iron and selenium respectively. However, higher activity of Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase was not correlated with the increase in copper and decreased in zinc observed in infected animals compared to controls. Organ tissue was characterized by lower enzyme activity in infected dogs than in controls, but this was not correlated with trace elements. Lipid peroxidation was higher in symptomatic than in asymptomatic and control dogs and was associated with lesions such as chronic inflammatory reaction, congestion, haemosiderin and fibrosis. Systemic iron deposition was observed primarily in the symptomatic dogs showing a higher tissue parasite load. Dogs with symptomatic CVL displayed enhanced LPO and Fe tissue deposition associated with decreased levels of antioxidant enzymes. These results showed new points in the pathology of CVL and might open new treatment perspectives associated with antioxidants and the role of iron in the pathogenesis of CVL. PMID:24766461

  3. Effect of feeding blended and interesterified vegetable oils on antioxidant enzymes in rats.

    PubMed

    Reena, Malongil B; Lokesh, Belur R

    2011-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of feeding blended and interesterified oils prepared using coconut oil (CNO) with rice bran oil (RBO) or sesame oil (SESO), with a polyunsaturated/saturated (P/S) ratio of 0.8-1.0, on oxidative stress and endogenous antioxidant system. Feeding blended oils resulted in significantly increased hepatic lipid peroxide levels in rats given blended oil CNO+RBO or CNO+SESO by 1.3 and 1.6-fold, respectively compared to rats fed diet containing CNO. The lipid peroxide level in erythrocyte membrane also increased in rats fed blended oil compared to rats fed with CNO. Rats fed interesterified oils prepared from these blended oils also showed increased lipid peroxide level compared to rats given CNO diet, however it was not significantly different from rats fed with their respective blends. There was a significant increase in the activity of endogenous antioxidant enzymes super oxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-s-transferase after feeding blended and interesterified oils. The activities of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)/Mg(2+)-ATPase were increased in rats fed blended and interesterified oils. These results indicated that the P/S ratio of dietary fat is an important factor in determining the oxidative stress, activity of endogenous antioxidant enzymes and activity of membrane bound enzymes. PMID:20937347

  4. Antioxidant enzymes expression and activity in liver of stressed wistar rat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djordjevi?, J.; Ni?iforovi?, A.; Radoj?i?, M. B.

    2009-09-01

    Altered activities of antioxidant defence system enzymes and the levels of free radicals scavengers have been found to correlate with various physiological or pathological conditions, including stress. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of chronic 21 day isolation stress on antioxidant enzymes (AOEs) expression and activity in Wistar rat liver tissue. The serum corticosterone (CORT) and glucose (GLU) levels were also measured, as one of the most important indicators of stress. Our data revealed that in chronic stress conditions, when both CORT and GLU were low, the AOEs expression was markedly induced. This increase in MnSOD, CuZnSOD, and catalase exhibited similar trend implying efficient detoxification of O_2^{ - .} and H2O2. However, this trend was not followed by the respective enzyme activity. While the total SOD activity was induced by the stress, catalase activity remained unaltered. This discrepancy led us to a conclusion that chronic isolation stress may cause oxidant-antioxidant imbalance in rat liver tissue, favoring H2O2 accumulation.

  5. Threonine modulates immune response, antioxidant status and gene expressions of antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant-immune-cytokine-related signaling molecules in juvenile blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala).

    PubMed

    Habte-Tsion, Habte-Michael; Ren, Mingchun; Liu, Bo; Ge, Xianping; Xie, Jun; Chen, Ruli

    2016-04-01

    A 9-week feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of graded dietary threonine (Thr) levels (0.58-2.58%) on the hematological parameters, immune response, antioxidant status and hepatopancreatic gene expression of antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant-immune-cytokine-related signaling molecules in juvenile blunt snout bream. For this purpose, 3 tanks were randomly arranged and assigned to each experimental diet. Fish were fed with their respective diet to apparent satiation 4 times daily. The results indicated that white blood cell, red blood cell and haemoglobin significantly responded to graded dietary Thr levels, while hematocrit didn't. Complement components (C3 and C4), total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), immunoglobulin M (IgM), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) increased with increasing dietary Thr levels up to 1.58-2.08% and thereafter tended to decrease. Dietary Thr regulated the gene expressions of Cu/Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD and CAT, GPx1, glutathione S-transferase mu (GST), nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), heat shock protein-70 (Hsp70), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA1), glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and fructose-bisphosphate aldolase B (ALDOB); while the gene expression of peroxiredoxin II (PrxII) was not significantly modified by graded Thr levels. These genes are involved in different functions including antioxidant, immune, and defense responses, energy metabolism and protein synthesis. Therefore, this study could provide a new molecular tool for studies in fish immunonutrition and shed light on the regulatory mechanisms that dietary Thr improved the antioxidant and immune capacities of fish. PMID:26631806

  6. GENOTYPIC THERMOTOLERANCE IS ASSOCIATED WITH ELEVATED PRE-STRESS ANTIOXIDANT ENZYME ACTIVITY IN COTTON LEAVES AND PISTILS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous studies have illustrated the need for antioxidant enzymes in acquired photosynthetic thermotolerance, but information on their possible role in promoting innate thermotolerance in either leaves or reproductive tissues is limited for cotton. We investigated the hypothesis that genotypic diff...

  7. Effect of ageing and oxidative stress on antioxidant enzyme activity in different regions of the rat kidney.

    PubMed

    Thiab, Noor Riyadh; King, Nicola; Jones, Graham L

    2015-10-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in ageing and the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease. We examined levels of antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase, catalase and superoxide dismutase as modulated by age and oxidative stress in different regions of the kidney. Antioxidant enzymes were examined in different regions of the kidney in male Wistar rats. Kidneys from rats of different ages (5, 12, 36 and 60weeks) were dissected into cortex, outer medulla and inner medulla. Tissues were incubated for 30min with or without 0.2mM H2O2 to induce oxidative stress. Antioxidant enzyme activities progressively decreased with age under both control and stress conditions (P<0.05) after peaking at 12weeks. Antioxidant enzyme activities were greater in the cortex (P<0.05) by comparison with the outer and inner medulla, respectively. PMID:26169983

  8. Lipoamide Acts as an Indirect Antioxidant by Simultaneously Stimulating Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Phase II Antioxidant Enzyme Systems in ARPE-19 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lin; Liu, Zhongbo; Jia, Haiqun; Feng, Zhihui; Liu, Jiankang; Li, Xuesen

    2015-01-01

    In our previous study, we found that pretreatment with lipoamide (LM) more effectively than alpha-lipoic acid (LA) protected retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells from the acrolein-induced damage. However, the reasons and mechanisms for the greater effect of LM than LA are unclear. We hypothesize that LM, rather than the more direct antioxidant LA, may act more as an indirect antioxidant. In the present study, we treated ARPE-19 cells with LA and LM and compared their effects on activation of mitochondrial biogenesis and induction of phase II enzyme systems. It is found that LM is more effective than LA on increasing mitochondrial biogenesis and inducing the expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and its translocation to the nucleus, leading to an increase in expression or activity of phase II antioxidant enzymes (NQO-1, GST, GCL, catalase and Cu/Zn SOD). Further study demonstrated that mitochondrial biogenesis and phase II enzyme induction are closely coupled via energy requirements. These results suggest that LM, compared with the direct antioxidant LA, plays its protective effect on oxidative damage more as an indirect antioxidant to simultaneously stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis and induction of phase II antioxidant enzymes. PMID:26030919

  9. State of the antioxidative enzymes of rat bone marrow cells after irradiation, fractures, and a combination of both

    SciTech Connect

    Bogdanova, I.A.; Ovchinnikov, K.G.; Torbenko, V.P.; Gerasimov, A.M.

    1987-11-01

    The authors study bone marrow levels of antioxidative (antiradical) defensive systems (ADS) enzymes, namely superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GP), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione: dehydroascorbate oxidoreductase (GDAR), rats and changes in their activity in the bone marrow at various times after irradiation, mechanical trauma, and a combination of both. Development of acute radiation sickness as a result of a single irradiation was accompanied by marked changes in the enzymic antioxidative system of rat bone marrow cells.

  10. Protopanaxatriol Ginsenoside Rh1 Upregulates Phase II Antioxidant Enzyme Gene Expression in Rat Primary Astrocytes: Involvement of MAP Kinases and Nrf2/ARE Signaling.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ji-Sun; Lee, Sang-Yoon; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Kim, Hee-Sun

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress activates several intracellular signaling cascades that may have deleterious effects on neuronal cell survival. Thus, controlling oxidative stress has been suggested as an important strategy for prevention and/or treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we found that ginsenoside Rh1 inhibited hydrogen peroxide-induced reactive oxygen species generation and subsequent cell death in rat primary astrocytes. Rh1 increased the expression of phase II antioxidant enzymes, such as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1, superoxide dismutase-2, and catalase, that are under the control of Nrf2/ARE signaling pathways. Further mechanistic studies showed that Rh1 increased the nuclear translocation and DNA binding of Nrf2 and c-Jun to the antioxidant response element (ARE), and increased the ARE-mediated transcription activities in rat primary astrocytes. Analysis of signaling pathways revealed that MAP kinases are important in HO-1 expression, and act by modulating ARE-mediated transcriptional activity. Therefore, the upregulation of antioxidant enzymes by Rh1 may provide preventive therapeutic potential for various neurodegenerative diseases that are associated with oxidative stress. PMID:26759699

  11. Protopanaxatriol Ginsenoside Rh1 Upregulates Phase II Antioxidant Enzyme Gene Expression in Rat Primary Astrocytes: Involvement of MAP Kinases and Nrf2/ARE Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Ji-Sun; Lee, Sang-Yoon; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Kim, Hee-Sun

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress activates several intracellular signaling cascades that may have deleterious effects on neuronal cell survival. Thus, controlling oxidative stress has been suggested as an important strategy for prevention and/or treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we found that ginsenoside Rh1 inhibited hydrogen peroxide-induced reactive oxygen species generation and subsequent cell death in rat primary astrocytes. Rh1 increased the expression of phase II antioxidant enzymes, such as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1, superoxide dismutase-2, and catalase, that are under the control of Nrf2/ARE signaling pathways. Further mechanistic studies showed that Rh1 increased the nuclear translocation and DNA binding of Nrf2 and c-Jun to the antioxidant response element (ARE), and increased the ARE-mediated transcription activities in rat primary astrocytes. Analysis of signaling pathways revealed that MAP kinases are important in HO-1 expression, and act by modulating ARE-mediated transcriptional activity. Therefore, the upregulation of antioxidant enzymes by Rh1 may provide preventive therapeutic potential for various neurodegenerative diseases that are associated with oxidative stress. PMID:26759699

  12. Effects of ghrelin, leptin and melatonin on the levels of reactive oxygen species, antioxidant enzyme activity and viability of the HCT 116 human colorectal carcinoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Bułdak, Rafał Jakub; Pilc-Gumuła, Katarzyna; Bułdak, Łukasz; Witkowska, Daria; Kukla, Michał; Polaniak, Renata; Zwirska-Korczala, Krystyna

    2015-08-01

    Obesity is associated with an increased risk of certain types of cancer, including colon cancer. Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ that produces biologically active substances, such as leptin and ghrelin. Recent research has suggested that adipose-derived hormones may be associated with mechanisms linked to tumorigenesis and cancer progression. Furthermore, previous studies have demonstrated that pineal gland-derived melatonin possesses important oncostatic and antioxidant properties. The present study aimed to determine the effects of the adipokines ghrelin and leptin, and the melatonin on intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the activity of selected antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase. The effects of these compounds were also determined on the viability of HCT 116 human colorectal carcinoma cells in vitro. The pro-oxidant and growth inhibitory effects of melatonin resulted in an accumulation of ROS and decreased antioxidant capacity in melatonin-treated cells. Ghrelin administration alone caused a significant decrease in the levels of ROS, due to an increased activity of CAT in the HCT 116 cells. In addition, the present study observed increased lipid peroxidation following melatonin treatment, and decreased levels of malondialdehyde following ghrelin or leptin treatment. In conclusion, ghrelin, leptin and melatonin have various influences on the antioxidant capacity of HCT 116 cells. Compared with the adipokines, treatment with melatonin increased ROS levels and decreased cellular viability. PMID:25873273

  13. Antioxidant gene-enzyme responses in Medicago truncatula genotypes with different degree of sensitivity to salinity.

    PubMed

    Mhadhbi, Haythem; Fotopoulos, Vasileios; Mylona, Photini V; Jebara, Moez; Elarbi Aouani, Mohamed; Polidoros, Alexios N

    2011-03-01

    Antioxidant responses and nodule function of Medicago truncatula genotypes differing in salt tolerance were studied. Salinity effects on nodules were analysed on key nitrogen fixation proteins such as nitrogenase and leghaemoglobin as well as estimating lipid peroxidation levels, and were found more dramatic in the salt-sensitive genotype. Antioxidant enzyme assays for catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6), superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1), ascorbate peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.11) and guaiacol peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7) were analysed in nodules, roots and leaves treated with increasing concentrations of NaCl for 24 and 48 h. Symbiosis tolerance level, depending essentially on plant genotype, was closely correlated with differences of enzyme activities, which increased in response to salt stress in nodules (except CAT) and roots, whereas a complex pattern was observed in leaves. Gene expression responses were generally correlated with enzymatic activities in 24-h treated roots in all genotypes. This correlation was lost after 48 h of treatment for the sensitive and the reference genotypes, but it remained positively significant for the tolerant one that manifested a high induction for all tested genes after 48 h of treatment. Indeed, tolerance behaviour could be related to the induction of antioxidant genes in plant roots, leading to more efficient enzyme stimulation and protection. High induction of CAT gene was also distinct in roots of the tolerant genotype and merits further consideration. Thus, part of the salinity tolerance in M. truncatula is related to induction and sustained expression of highly regulated antioxidant mechanisms. PMID:21114673

  14. Endothelial targeting of nanocarriers loaded with antioxidant enzymes for protection against vascular oxidative stress and inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Hood, Elizabeth D.; Chorny, Michael; Greineder, Colin F.; Alferiev, Ivan; Levy, Robert J.; Muzykantov, Vladimir R.

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial-targeted delivery of antioxidant enzymes, catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD), is promising strategy for protecting organs and tissues from inflammation and oxidative stress. Here we describe Protective Antioxidant Carriers for Endothelial Targeting (PACkET), the first carriers capable of targeted endothelial delivery of both catalase and SOD. PACkET formed through controlled precipitation loaded ~30% enzyme and protected it from proteolytic degradation, whereas attachment of PECAM monoclonal antibodies to surface of the enzyme-loaded carriers, achieved without adversely affecting their stability and functionality, provided targeting. Isotope tracing and microscopy showed that PACkET exhibited specific endothelial binding and internalization in vitro. Endothelial targeting of PACkET was validated in vivo by specific (vs IgG-control) accumulation in the pulmonary vasculature after intravenous injection achieving 33% of injected dose at 30 min. Catalase loaded PACkET protects endothelial cells from killing by H2O2 and alleviated the pulmonary edema and leukocyte infiltration in mouse model of endotoxin-induced lung injury, whereas SOD-loaded PACkET mitigated cytokine-induced endothelial pro-inflammatory activation and endotoxin-induced lung inflammation. These studies indicate that PACkET offers a modular approach for vascular targeting of therapeutic enzymes. PMID:24480537

  15. Intracellular Redox State as Target for Anti-Influenza Therapy: Are Antioxidants Always Effective?

    PubMed Central

    Sgarbanti, Rossella; Amatore, Donatella; Celestino, Ignacio; Marcocci, Maria Elena; Fraternale, Alessandra; Ciriolo, Maria Rosa; Magnani, Mauro; Saladino, Raffaele; Garaci, Enrico; Palamara, Anna Teresa; Nencioni, Lucia

    2014-01-01

    Influenza virus infections represent a big issue for public health since effective treatments are still lacking. In particular, the emergence of strains resistant to drugs limits the effectiveness of anti-influenza agents. For this reason, many efforts have been dedicated to the identification of new therapeutic strategies aimed at targeting the virus-host cell interactions. Oxidative stress is a characteristic of some viral infections including influenza. Because antioxidants defend cells from damage caused by reactive oxygen species induced by different stimuli including pathogens, they represent interesting molecules to fight infectious diseases. However, most of the available studies have found that these would-be panaceas could actually exacerbate the diseases they claim to prevent, and have thus revealed "the dark side" of these molecules. This review article discusses the latest opportunities and drawbacks of the antioxidants used in anti-influenza therapy and new perspectives. PMID:25478883

  16. Effect of abscisic acid and hydrogen peroxide on antioxidant enzymes in Syzygium cumini plant.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Ramkishan; Saroha, Ajaya Eesha; Swarnkar, P L

    2012-10-01

    The present study was undertaken to study the effect of abscisic acid and hydrogen peroxide on the activities of antioxidant enzymes namely superoxide dismutase (SOD; E.C. 1.15.1.1), catalase (CAT; E.C. 1.11.1.6) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX; E.C. 1.11.1.11) in Syzygium cumini plant. The varying concentrations of ABA (2-8mM/l) and H2O2 (2-8mM/l) modulated enzyme activities differently. In general, some concentrations of the ABA and H2O2 stimulated the activities of all the three enzymes except that there was a dose dependent reduction in catalase activity in the plants treated with ABA. PMID:24082280

  17. Antioxidant Activity and Induction of mRNA Expressions of Antioxidant Enzymes in HEK-293 Cells of Moringa oleifera Leaf Extract.

    PubMed

    Vongsak, Boonyadist; Mangmool, Supachoke; Gritsanapan, Wandee

    2015-08-01

    The leaves of Moringa oleifera, collected in different provinces in Thailand, were determined for the contents of total phenolics, total flavonoids, major components, and antioxidant activity. The extract and its major active components were investigated for the inhibition of H2O2-induced reactive oxygen species production and the effects on antioxidant enzymes mRNA expression. The extract, crypto-chlorogenic acid, isoquercetin and astragalin, significantly reduced the reactive oxygen species production inducing by H2O2 in HEK-293 cells. Treatment with isoquercetin significantly increased the mRNA expression levels of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and heme oxygenase 1. These results confirm that M. oleifera leaves are good sources of natural antioxidant with isoquercetin as an active compound. PMID:26166137

  18. Glutathione status and antioxidant enzymes in a crocodilian species from the swamps of the Brazilian Pantanal.

    PubMed

    Hermes-Lima, Marcelo; Carreiro, Ceclia; Moreira, Daniel C; Polcheira, Cssia; Machado, Daniel P; Campos, Elida G

    2012-10-01

    In a previous study oxidative damage markers - lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation - were determined in organs of wild Caiman yacare captured in winter-2001 and summer-2002 at various developmental stages. An increase in oxidative damage occurred in the hatchling-juvenile transition (but not in the juvenile-adult transition) and winter-summer transition (in juveniles), suggesting that oxidative stress is associated with development and season. Herein the effect of development and season on glutathione (GSH) metabolism and the effect of development on the activity of antioxidant enzymes (catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase) and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase were analyzed. The ratio GSSG:GSH-eq increased in lung, liver, kidney and brain by 1.8- to 4-fold in the embryo/hatchling to juvenile transition. No changes occurred in juvenile-adult transition. GSSG:GSH-eq across seasons was significantly elevated in summer. Total-glutathione content was mostly stable in various organs; in liver it increased in the embryo-juvenile transition. Enzyme activities were only determined in summer-animals (embryos, hatchlings and juveniles). For most antioxidant enzymes, activities increased from embryo/hatchling to juvenile in liver and Kidney. In lung, there was an inverse trend for enzyme activities and total glutathione content. Thus, increased metabolic rates during early caiman growth - in embryo-juvenile transition - appears to be related to redox imbalance as suggested by increased GSSG:GSH-eq and activation of antioxidant defenses. Differences in oxidative stress across seasons were related with summer-winter nocturnal temperatures. These results, as a whole, were interpreted in the context of ecological biochemistry. PMID:22750313

  19. The Role of the Endogenous Antioxidant Enzymes and Malondialdehyde in Essential Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Aquil; Singhal, Usha; Hossain, Mohd Mobark; Islam, Najmul; Rizvi, Imran

    2013-01-01

    Context: Oxidative Stress is caused by an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species and a biological systems ability to readily detoxify the reactive intermediates. Aims: 1. To compare the levels of Malondialdehyde (MDA), in hypertensive and normotensive subjects. 2. To compare the levels of the antioxidant enzymes, namely, Catalase, Glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) in hypertensive and normotensive subjects. 3. To determine the correlation between the MDA levels and the mean arterial pressure (MAP) among hypertensive subjects. 4. To determine the correlation between the antioxidant enzyme levels and MAP among the hypertensive subjects and to evaluate the effect of 6 months of antihypertensive therapy with a tight blood pressure control on the MDA levels. Materials and Methods : In this cross sectional study, 25 normotensive and 40 hypertensive subjects were recruited. The hypertensive subjects were further subdivided into three subgroups: Prehypertensives, Stage I hypertensives and Stage II hypertensives. All the subjects underwent a blood pressure measurement and the markers of oxidative stress in their sera were estimated. The subjects of Stage I hypertension and Stage II hypertension were given antihypertensive treatment for 6 months and their blood pressures were tightly regulated and brought to the normotensive state. After 6 months, the estimations of the markers of oxidative stress were done again. Results: The MDA levels were significantly increased in the stage I and stage II hypertension groups as compared to those of the control group (p<0.05). The antioxidant enzymes (SOD, Catalase and GPX) were significantly decreased (p<0.05) in the prehypertension and in the stage I and stage II hypertension groups as compared to those in the control group. There was a significant increase in the levels of the antioxidant enzymes after 6 months of a tight regulation and bringing of the blood pressure to the normotensive state by giving antihypertensive therapy. Conclusion: On comparison of the present study with other studies in which the use of antioxidants were found to be ineffective in the blood pressure reduction, it can be concluded that oxidative stress is an effect rather than a cause of essential hypertension. PMID:23905086

  20. Effect of Alpinia zerumbet components on antioxidant and skin diseases-related enzymes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The skin is chronically exposed to endogenous and environmental pro-oxidant agents, leading to the harmful generation of reactive oxygen species. Antioxidant is vital substances which possess the ability to protect the body from damage cause by free radicals induce oxidative stress. Alpinia zerumbet, a traditionally important economic plant in Okinawa, contains several interesting bioactive constituents and possesses health promoting properties. In this regard, we carried out to test the inhibitory effect of crude extracts and isolated compounds from A. zerumbet on antioxidant and skin diseases-related enzymes. Methods The antioxidant activities were examined by DPPH, ABTS and PMS-NADH radical scavenging. Collagenase, elastase, hyaluronidase and tyrosinase were designed for enzymatic activities to investigate the inhibitory properties of test samples using a continuous spectrophotometric assay. The inhibitory capacity of test samples was presented at half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50). Results The results showed that aqueous extract of the rhizome was found to have greater inhibitory effects than the others on both of antioxidant and skin diseases-related enzymes. Furthermore, 5,6-dehydrokawain (DK), dihydro-5,6-dehydrokawain (DDK) and 8(17),12-labdadiene-15,16-dial (labdadiene), isolated from rhizome, were tested for antioxidant and enzyme inhibitions. We found that DK showed higher inhibitory activities on DPPH, ABTS and PMS-NADH scavenging (IC50?=?122.14??1.40, 110.08??3.34 and 127.78??4.75??g/ml, respectively). It also had stronger inhibitory activities against collagenase, elastase, hyaluronidase and tyrosinase (IC50?=?24.93??0.97, 19.41??0.61, 19.48??0.24 and 76.67??0.50??g/ml, respectively) than DDK and labdadiene. Conclusion Our results indicate that the rhizome aqueous extract proved to be the source of bioactive compounds against enzymes responsible for causing skin diseases. Moreover, DK could be used as a potent inhibitor and be further exploited to be used in anti-skin disease formulations. PMID:22827920

  1. Flavonoids in Juglans regia L. Leaves and Evaluation of In Vitro Antioxidant Activity via Intracellular and Chemical Methods

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ming-Hui; Liu, Tao; Li, Rong

    2014-01-01

    Flavonoids are rich in Juglans regia L. leaves. They have potent antioxidant properties, which have been related to regulating immune function and enhancing anticancer activity. Herein, qualitative and quantitative determination of flavonoids from J. regia leaves was carried out using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization and negative ion detection (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) by comparison of the retention times and mass spectral fragments with standard substances or related literatures. Seventeen compounds were identified and major components are quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside (453.11??g/g, dry weight), quercetin-3-O-arabinoside (73.91??g/g), quercetin-3-O-xyloside (70.04??g/g), kaempferol-O-pentoside derivative (49.04??g/g), quercetin-3-O-galactoside (48.61??g/g), and kaempferol-O-pentoside (48.46??g/g). The in vitro intracellular antioxidation indicated that flavonoids from J. regia leaves could reduce the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in RAW264.7 cells and showed good radical scavenging activities. These results proved to be more related to the flavonoids that could be considered in the design of new formulations of dietary supplements or functional foods. PMID:25133218

  2. Zinc, copper and antioxidant enzyme activities in healthy elderly Tunisian subjects.

    PubMed

    Sfar, Sonia; Jawed, Abdelhafidh; Braham, Hamadi; Amor, Salah; Laporte, Franois; Kerkeni, Abdelhamid

    2009-12-01

    Trace elements like zinc and copper play an important role in maintaining metabolic homeostasis in elderly subjects and is therefore expected to have a crucial effect on antioxidant mechanism. The objective of the present study was to investigate age-related variations of zinc, copper and antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase: SOD, glutathione peroxidase: GPx and catalase: CAT) taking into account gender differences in a Tunisian elderly population. A group of 100 healthy elderly subjects (55-85 years old) were then separated in three sub-groups according to age intervals. A control group of 100 adults aged between 30 and 45 years was considered. The obtained results confirmed the decrease of plasma zinc level with age increase in both men and women. Moreover, prevalence of zinc deficiency increased with age: normal zinc concentration was obtained in about 60% of adults and only in 35% of the elderly subjects over 75 years old. No significant variation was obtained for copper concentration. GPx and SOD activities were lower in aged subjects in comparison to adults. Zinc and antioxidant enzyme activities were found to be negatively correlated to age. However, an investigation on a large size sample with various health and well-controlled dietary statuses should be conducted for a better understanding of the zinc or copper metabolism and their effect on oxidant stress during aging. PMID:19836441

  3. Effect of spaceflight on oxidative and antioxidant enzyme activity in rat diaphragm and intercostal muscles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Mona D.; Tuttle, Ronald; Girten, Beverly

    1995-01-01

    There are limited data regarding changes in oxidative and antioxidant enzymes induced by simulated or actual weightlessness, and any additional information would provide insight into potential mechanisms involving other changes observed in muscles from animals previously flown in space. Thus, the NASA Biospecimen Sharing Program was an opportunity to collect valuable information. Oxidative and antioxidant enzyme levels, as well as lipid peroxidation, were measured in respiratory muscles from rates flown on board Space Shuttle mission STS-54. The results indicated that there was an increasing trend in citrate synthase activity in the flight diaphragm when compared to ground based controls, and there were no significant changes observed in the intercostal muscles for any of the parameters. However, the lipid peroxidation was significantly (p less than 0.05) decreased in the flight diaphragm. These results indicate that 6 day exposure to microgravity may have a different effect on oxidative and antioxidant activity in rat respiratory muscles when compared to data from previous 14 day hindlimb suspension studies.

  4. Hymenolepis diminuta: Activity of anti-oxidant enzymes in different parts of rat gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Kosik-Bogacka, Danuta I; Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena; Noce?, Iwona; Jakubowska, Katarzyna; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the intensity of oxidative stress by measuring levels of lipid peroxidation products in the duodenum, jejunum and colon of rats infected with Hymenolepis diminuta and evaluate the effectiveness of protection against oxidative stress by measuring the glutathione levels and activity of anti-oxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase. In exposed rats we observed a significant increase of lipid peroxidation products in the duodenum and jejunum. A significant decrease in superoxide dismutase activity in all the examined parts of the digestive tract was observed. Additionally, rats from 16 to 40 days post H. diminuta infection (dpi) had a decreased catalase activity in the colon, while at 60dpi it increased. The glutathione peroxidase activity increased significantly in the colon at 60dpi. The increase in glutathione reductase activity was observed in the colon in rats 60dpi. There was a lack of changes in the levels of glutathione in the duodenum and a significant increase in its concentration in the jejunum and colon from 40 to 60dpi and from 16 to 40dpi, respectively. In this study we observed altered activity of anti-oxidant enzymes and glutathione level in experimental hymenolepidosis, as a consequence of oxidative stress. It may indicate a decrease in the efficiency of intestinal protection against oxidative stress induced by the presence of the parasite. The imbalance between oxidant and anti-oxidant processes may play a major role in pathology associated with hymenolepidosis. PMID:21376042

  5. Lipid Peroxides and Antioxidant Enzymes in Cisplatin-Induced Chronic Nephrotoxicity in Rats

    PubMed Central

    González, Ricardo; Romay, Cheyla; Borrego, Aluet; Hernández, Frank; Merino, Nelson; Zamora, Zullyt; Rojas, Enis

    2005-01-01

    Cisplatin (CDDP), an anticancer drug, induces remarkable toxicity in the kidneys of animals and humans and it has been well documented that reactive oxygen species and the renal antioxidant system are strongly involved in acute renal damage induced by CDDP. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether or not the renal antioxidant system plays also an important role in chronic renal damage induced by repeated doses of CDDP (1 mg/kg intraperitoneally twice weekly during 10 weeks in rats). In order to elucidate it, serum creatinine and urea levels, renal glutathione and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) content, as well as renal superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities were measured in the kidney homogenates of chronically CDDP-treated rats and additionally histological studies were performed in the rat kidneys. The chronic treatment with CDDP induced a significant increase in creatinine and urea levels in serum, but the other parameters mentioned above were not significantly modified as compared to the values in nontreated rats. Taking into account these results, we conclude that chronic CDDP administration induces also severe nephrotoxicity, in contrast to CDDP acute application, without any significant modification in the activity of relevant antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, renal glutathione and lipid peroxides, by which the role of the antioxidant system in chronic nephrotoxicity induced by CDDP in rats is uncertain. PMID:16106099

  6. Emerging Roles of Nrf2 and Phase II Antioxidant Enzymes in Neuroprotection

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Meijuan; An, Chengrui; Gao, Yanqin; Leak, Rehana K.; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Phase II metabolic enzymes are a battery of critical proteins that detoxify xenobiotics by increasing their hydrophilicity and enhancing their disposal. These enzymes have long been studied for their preventative and protective effects against mutagens and carcinogens and for their regulation via the Keap1 (Kelch-like ECH associated protein 1) / Nrf2 (Nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2) / ARE (antioxidant response elements) pathway. Recently, a series of studies have reported the altered expression of phase II genes in postmortem tissue of patients with various neurological diseases. These observations hint at a role for phase II enzymes in the evolution of such conditions. Furthermore, promising findings reveal that overexpression of phase II genes, either by genetic or chemical approaches, confers neuroprotection in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, there is a need to summarize the current literature on phase II genes in the central nervous system (CNS). This should help guide future studies on phase II genes as therapeutic targets in neurological diseases. In this review, we first briefly introduce the concept of phase I, II and III enzymes, with a special focus on phase II enzymes. We then discuss their expression regulation, their inducers and executors. Following this background, we expand our discussion to the neuroprotective effects of phase II enzymes and the potential application of Nrf2 inducers to the treatment of neurological diseases. PMID:23025925

  7. Co-occurring increases of calcium and organellar reactive oxygen species determine differential activation of antioxidant and defense enzymes in Ulva compressa (Chlorophyta) exposed to copper excess.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Alberto; Vera, Jeannette; Castro, Jorge; Dennett, Geraldine; Mellado, Macarena; Morales, Bernardo; Correa, Juan A; Moenne, Alejandra

    2010-10-01

    In order to analyse copper-induced calcium release and (reactive oxygen species) ROS accumulation and their role in antioxidant and defense enzymes activation, the marine alga Ulva compressa was exposed to 10 M copper for 7 d. The level of calcium, extracellular hydrogen peroxide (eHP), intracellular hydrogen peroxide (iHP) and superoxide anions (SA) as well as the activities of ascorbate peroxidase (AP), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and lipoxygenase (LOX) were determined. Calcium release showed a triphasic pattern with peaks at 2, 3 and 12 h. The second peak was coincident with increases in eHP and iHP and the third peak with the second increase of iHP. A delayed wave of SA occurred after day 3 and was not accompanied by calcium release. The accumulation of iHP and SA was mainly inhibited by organellar electron transport chains inhibitors (OETCI), whereas calcium release was inhibited by ryanodine. AP activation ceased almost completely after the use of OETCI. On the other hand, GR and GST activities were partially inhibited, whereas defense enzymes were not inhibited. In contrast, PAL and LOX were inhibited by ryanodine, whereas AP was not inhibited. Thus, copper stress induces calcium release and organellar ROS accumulation that determine the differential activation of antioxidant and defense enzymes. PMID:20444222

  8. Age-related protective effect of deprenyl on changes in the levels of diagnostic marker enzymes and antioxidant defense enzymes activities in cerebellar tissue in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Manju V; James, T J

    2010-09-01

    Antioxidants are free radical scavengers and protect living organisms against oxidative damage to tissues. Experimental evidence implicates oxygen-derived free radicals as important causative agents of aging and the present study was designed to evaluate the age-related effects of deprenyl on the antioxidant defense in the cerebellum of male Wistar rats. Experimental rats of three age groups (6, 12, and 18 months old) were administered with liquid deprenyl (2 mg/kg body weight/day for a period of 15 days i.p) and levels of diagnostic marker enzymes (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase and creatine phosphokinase) in plasma, lipid peroxides, reduced glutathione and activities of glutathione-dependent antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase) and antiperoxidative enzymes (catalase and superoxide dismutase) in the cerebellar tissue were determined. Intraperitonial administration of deprenyl (2 mg/kg body weight/day for a period of 15 days) significantly (p < 0.05) attenuated the age-related alterations noted in the levels of diagnostic marker enzymes plasma of experimental animals. Deprenyl also exerted an antioxidant effect against aging process by hindering lipid peroxidation to an extent. Moderate rise in the levels of reduced glutathione and activities of glutathione-dependent antioxidant enzymes and antiperoxidative enzymes was also observed. The results of the present investigation indicated that the protective potential of deprenyl was probably due to the increase of the activity of the free radical scavenging enzymes or to a counteraction of free radicals by its antioxidant nature or to a strengthening of neuronal membrane by its membrane-stabilizing action. Histopathological observations also confirmed the protective effect of deprenyl against the age-related aberrations in rat cerebellum. These data on the effect of deprenyl on parameters of normal aging provides new additional information concerning the anti-aging potential of deprenyl. PMID:20224915

  9. Age-related protective effect of deprenyl on changes in the levels of diagnostic marker enzymes and antioxidant defense enzymes activities in cerebellar tissue in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    James, T. J.

    2010-01-01

    Antioxidants are free radical scavengers and protect living organisms against oxidative damage to tissues. Experimental evidence implicates oxygen-derived free radicals as important causative agents of aging and the present study was designed to evaluate the age-related effects of deprenyl on the antioxidant defense in the cerebellum of male Wistar rats. Experimental rats of three age groups (6, 12, and 18months old) were administered with liquid deprenyl (2mg/kg body weight/day for a period of 15days i.p) and levels of diagnostic marker enzymes (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase and creatine phosphokinase) in plasma, lipid peroxides, reduced glutathione and activities of glutathione-dependent antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase) and antiperoxidative enzymes (catalase and superoxide dismutase) in the cerebellar tissue were determined. Intraperitonial administration of deprenyl (2mg/kg body weight/day for a period of 15days) significantly (p?enzymes plasma of experimental animals. Deprenyl also exerted an antioxidant effect against aging process by hindering lipid peroxidation to an extent. Moderate rise in the levels of reduced glutathione and activities of glutathione-dependent antioxidant enzymes and antiperoxidative enzymes was also observed. The results of the present investigation indicated that the protective potential of deprenyl was probably due to the increase of the activity of the free radical scavenging enzymes or to a counteraction of free radicals by its antioxidant nature or to a strengthening of neuronal membrane by its membrane-stabilizing action. Histopathological observations also confirmed the protective effect of deprenyl against the age-related aberrations in rat cerebellum. These data on the effect of deprenyl on parameters of normal aging provides new additional information concerning the anti-aging potential of deprenyl. PMID:20224915

  10. Antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes status of rats fed on n-3 PUFA rich Garden cress (Lepidium Sativum L) seed oil and its blended oils.

    PubMed

    Umesha, Shankar Shetty; Naidu, K Akhilender

    2015-04-01

    Garden cress (Lepidium sativum L) seed oil (GCO) is a rich source of ?-linolenic acid (ALA, 33.6%) and the oil has a fairly balanced SFA, MUFA and PUFA ratio. In this study we have investigated the effect of GCO and its blends with n-6 PUFA rich edible vegetable oils sunflower oil (SFO), rice bran oil (RBO) and sesame oil (SESO) on antioxidant status of oils and antioxidative enzymes in Wistar rats. Physical blending of GCO with n-6 PUFA rich vegetable oils (SFO, RBO and SESO) increased content of natural antioxidants such as tocopherols, oryzanol and lignans, decreased the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio and improved the radical scavenging activity of blended oils. Dietary feeding of GCO and its blended oils for 60days, increased the tocopherols levels (12.2-21.6%) and activity of antioxidant enzymes namely catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), but did not affect the activity of glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) in liver compared to native oil fed rats. Thus, blending of GCO with other vegetable oil decreased n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio (>2.0) and dietary feeding of GCO blended oils increased the antioxidant status and activity of antioxidant enzymes (catalase and GPx) in experimental rats. PMID:25829579

  11. Role of intracellular labile iron, ferritin, and antioxidant defence in resistance of chronically adapted Jurkat T cells to hydrogen peroxide

    PubMed Central

    Al-Qenaei, Abdullah; Yiakouvaki, Anthie; Reelfs, Olivier; Santambrogio, Paolo; Levi, Sonia; Hall, Nick D.; Tyrrell, Rex M.; Pourzand, Charareh

    2014-01-01

    To examine the role of intracellular labile iron pool (LIP), ferritin (Ft), and antioxidant defence in cellular resistance to oxidative stress on chronic adaptation, a new H2O2-resistant Jurkat T cell line HJ16 was developed by gradual adaptation of parental J16 cells to high concentrations of H2O2. Compared to J16 cells, HJ16 cells exhibited much higher resistance to H2O2-induced oxidative damage and necrotic cell death (up to 3mM) and had enhanced antioxidant defence in the form of significantly higher intracellular glutathione and mitochondrial ferritin (FtMt) levels as well as higher glutathione-peroxidase (GPx) activity. In contrast, the level of the Ft H-subunit (FtH) in the H2O2-adapted cell line was found to be 7-fold lower than in the parental J16 cell line. While H2O2 concentrations higher than 0.1mM fully depleted the glutathione content of J16 cells, in HJ16 cells the same treatments decreased the cellular glutathione content to only half of the original value. In HJ16 cells, H2O2 concentrations higher than 0.1mM increased the level of FtMt up to 4-fold of their control values but had no effect on the FtMt levels in J16 cells. Furthermore, while the basal cytosolic level of LIP was similar in both cell lines, H2O2 treatment substantially increased the cytosolic LIP levels in J16 but not in HJ16 cells. H2O2 treatment also substantially decreased the FtH levels in J16 cells (up to 70% of the control value). In contrast in HJ16 cells, FtH levels were not affected by H2O2 treatment. These results indicate that chronic adaptation of J16 cells to high concentrations of H2O2 has provoked a series of novel and specific cellular adaptive responses that contribute to higher resistance of HJ16 cells to oxidative damage and cell death. These include increased cellular antioxidant defence in the form of higher glutathione and FtMt levels, higher GPx activity, and lower FtH levels. Further adaptive responses include the significantly reduced cellular response to oxidant-mediated glutathione depletion, FtH modulation, and labile iron release and a significant increase in FtMt levels following H2O2 treatment. PMID:24333634

  12. Regulation of growth and antioxidant enzyme activities by 28-homobrassinolide in seedlings of Raphanus sativus L. under cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Indu; Pati, Pratap Kumar; Bhardwaj, Renu

    2010-06-01

    28-Homobrassinolide (28-HBL), a brassinosteroid is reported to play significant role in diverse physiological processes. It induces a range of cellular and adaptive responses to a range of environmental stresses. Cadmium (Cd) is a non-essential metal which alters various physiological processes and generates ROS, which can oxidize biological macromolecules and causes oxidative stress. This stress is generally overcome by the internal antioxidative defense system and stress shielding phytohormones. In this study, effect of 28-HBL was studied on growth and activities of antioxidant enzymes in known hyperaccumulator Raphanus sativus L. (radish) seedlings grown under cadmium (Cd) metal stress. To determine the influence of 28-HBL (0, 10-(11), 10-(9), 10-(7) M) in radish seedlings subjected to Cd (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 mM) stress, the activities of antioxidant enzymes (APOX, CAT, GR, POD and SOD) were analyzed. In addition, length and biomass of radish seedlings was also recorded. Cd toxicity resulted in reduced length, biomass, protein content and activities of antioxidant enzymes. 28-HBL treatments lowered the Cd toxicity by enhancing the activities of antioxidant enzymes, biomass and seedling length. The present study thus suggests a possible role of 28-HBL in amelioration of metal stress by regulating the activities of antioxidant enzymes in radish. PMID:20653289

  13. Antioxidant activity and angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibition by enzymatic hydrolysates from bee bread.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Takeshi; Nagashima, Toshio; Suzuki, Nobutaka; Inoue, Reiji

    2005-01-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysates were prepared from bee bread using three proteases. The antioxidant properties of these hydrolysates were measured using four different methods. These had remarkable antioxidant activity similar or superior to that of 1 mM alpha-tocopherol. They also had high scavenging activities against active oxygen species as the superoxide anion radical and hydroxyl radicals. Moreover, they showed angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory activities and the activities were similar to those from various fermented foods such as fish sauce, sake, vinegar, cheese, miso, and natto. The present studies reveal that enzymatic hydrolysates from bee bread are of benefit not only for the materials of health food diets, but also for in patients undergoing various diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and hypertension. PMID:15787258

  14. Effects of dietary menadione on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Jinghua; Xu, Wei; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Wenbing; Feng, Xiuni; Liufu, Zhiguo

    2012-01-01

    A 240-day growth experiment in a re-circulating water system was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary menadione on the growth and antioxidant responses of abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino. Triplicate groups of juvenile abalone (initial weight: 1.19 ± 0.01 g; shell length: 19.23 ± 0.01 mm) were fed to satiation with 3 semi-purified diets containing 0, 10, and 1 000 mg menadione sodium bisulfite (MSB)/kg, respectively. Results show that there were no significant differences in the rate of weight gain or in the daily increment in shell length of abalone among different treatments. Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) in viscera were significantly decreased with dietary menadione. However, activities of these enzymes except for GPX in muscle were increased. Therefore, antioxidant responses of abalone were increased in muscle and decreased in viscera by dietary menadione.

  15. Mcy protein, a potential antidiabetic agent: evaluation of carbohydrate metabolic enzymes and antioxidant status.

    PubMed

    Marella, Saritha; Maddirela, Dilip Rajasekhar; Kumar, E G T V; Tilak, Thandaiah Krishna; Badri, Kameswara Rao; Chippada, Apparao

    2016-05-01

    The objective of the present study is to elucidate the long-term effects of anti-hyperglycemic active principle, Mcy protein (MCP), isolated from the fruits of Momordica cymbalaria on carbohydrate metabolism and oxidative stress in experimental diabetic rats. We used streptozotocin induced diabetic rats for the current studies. Our studies showed that MCP (2.5mg/kg.b.w) treatment significantly normalized the deranged activities of critical carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes, hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-bis phosphatase. In addition MCP showed inhibitory activity on α-glucosidase and aldose reductase enzymes in in vitro assays. Further MCP treatment improved the antioxidant defensive mechanism by preventing deleterious oxidative products of cellular metabolism, which initiates the lipid peroxidation and by normalizing the antioxidant enzyme (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase) activities. Additional structural studies using circular dichroism spectroscopy indicate that MCP contains majorly α-helix. Our findings suggest MCP regulates blood glucose and better manage diabetes mellitus associated complications by regulating carbohydrate metabolism and by protecting from the deleterious effects of oxidative stress. PMID:26826289

  16. Measuring Intracellular Enzyme Concentrations: Assessing the Effect of Oxidative Stress on the Amount of Glyoxalase I

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Hugo Vicente; Ferreira, Antonio E. N.; Quintas, Alexandre; Cordeiro, Carlos; Freire, Ana Ponces

    2008-01-01

    Enzymology is one of the fundamental areas of biochemistry and involves the study of the structure, kinetics, and regulation of enzyme activity. Research in this area is often conducted with purified enzymes and extrapolated to "in vivo" conditions. The specificity constant, k[subscript S], is the ratio between k[subscript cat] (the catalytic

  17. Measuring Intracellular Enzyme Concentrations: Assessing the Effect of Oxidative Stress on the Amount of Glyoxalase I

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Hugo Vicente; Ferreira, Antonio E. N.; Quintas, Alexandre; Cordeiro, Carlos; Freire, Ana Ponces

    2008-01-01

    Enzymology is one of the fundamental areas of biochemistry and involves the study of the structure, kinetics, and regulation of enzyme activity. Research in this area is often conducted with purified enzymes and extrapolated to "in vivo" conditions. The specificity constant, k[subscript S], is the ratio between k[subscript cat] (the catalytic…

  18. Edaravone Mitigates Hexavalent Chromium-Induced Oxidative Stress and Depletion of Antioxidant Enzymes while Estrogen Restores Antioxidant Enzymes in the Rat Ovary in F1 Offspring1

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Jone A.; Sivakumar, Kirthiram K.; Arosh, Joe A.; Burghardt, Robert C.; Banu, Sakhila K.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Environmental contamination of drinking water with chromium (Cr) has been increasing in more than 30 cities in the United States. Previous studies from our group have shown that Cr affects reproductive functions in female Sprague Dawley rats. Although it is impossible to completely remove Cr from the drinking water, it is imperative to develop effective intervention strategies to inhibit Cr-induced deleterious health effects. Edaravone (EDA), a potential inhibitor of free radicals, has been clinically used to treat cancer and cardiac ischemia. This study evaluated the efficacy of EDA against Cr-induced ovarian toxicity. Results showed that maternal exposure to CrVI in rats increased follicular atresia, decreased steroidogenesis, and delayed puberty in F1 offspring. CrVI increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant (AOX) enzyme levels in the ovary. CrVI increased follicle atresia by increased expression of cleaved caspase 3, and decreased expression of Bcl2 and Bcl2l1 in the ovary. EDA mitigated or inhibited the effects of CrVI on follicle atresia, pubertal onset, steroid hormone levels, and AOX enzyme activity, as well as the expression of Bcl2 and Bcl2l1 in the ovary. In a second study, CrVI treatment was withdrawn, and F1 rats were injected with estradiol (E2) (10 ?g in PBS/ethanol per 100 g body weight) for a period of 2 wk to evaluate whether E2 treatment will restore Cr-induced depletion of AOX enzymes. E2 restored CrVI-induced depletion of glutathione peroxidase 1, catalase, thioredoxin 2, and peroxiredoxin 3 in the ovary. This is the first study to demonstrate the protective effects of EDA against any toxicant in the ovary. PMID:24804965

  19. Edaravone mitigates hexavalent chromium-induced oxidative stress and depletion of antioxidant enzymes while estrogen restores antioxidant enzymes in the rat ovary in F1 offspring.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Jone A; Sivakumar, Kirthiram K; Arosh, Joe A; Burghardt, Robert C; Banu, Sakhila K

    2014-07-01

    Environmental contamination of drinking water with chromium (Cr) has been increasing in more than 30 cities in the United States. Previous studies from our group have shown that Cr affects reproductive functions in female Sprague Dawley rats. Although it is impossible to completely remove Cr from the drinking water, it is imperative to develop effective intervention strategies to inhibit Cr-induced deleterious health effects. Edaravone (EDA), a potential inhibitor of free radicals, has been clinically used to treat cancer and cardiac ischemia. This study evaluated the efficacy of EDA against Cr-induced ovarian toxicity. Results showed that maternal exposure to CrVI in rats increased follicular atresia, decreased steroidogenesis, and delayed puberty in F1 offspring. CrVI increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant (AOX) enzyme levels in the ovary. CrVI increased follicle atresia by increased expression of cleaved caspase 3, and decreased expression of Bcl2 and Bcl2l1 in the ovary. EDA mitigated or inhibited the effects of CrVI on follicle atresia, pubertal onset, steroid hormone levels, and AOX enzyme activity, as well as the expression of Bcl2 and Bcl2l1 in the ovary. In a second study, CrVI treatment was withdrawn, and F1 rats were injected with estradiol (E?) (10 ?g in PBS/ethanol per 100 g body weight) for a period of 2 wk to evaluate whether E? treatment will restore Cr-induced depletion of AOX enzymes. E? restored CrVI-induced depletion of glutathione peroxidase 1, catalase, thioredoxin 2, and peroxiredoxin 3 in the ovary. This is the first study to demonstrate the protective effects of EDA against any toxicant in the ovary. PMID:24804965

  20. Enzyme-mimetic effects of gold@platinum nanorods on the antioxidant activity of ascorbic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yu-Ting; He, Weiwei; Wamer, Wayne G.; Hu, Xiaona; Wu, Xiaochun; Lo, Y. Martin; Yin, Jun-Jie

    2013-01-01

    Au@Pt nanorods were prepared by growing platinum nanodots on gold nanorods. Using electron spin resonance (ESR), we determined that the mechanisms for oxidation of ascorbic acid (AA) by Au@Pt nanorods and ascorbic acid oxidase (AAO) were kinetically similar and yielded similar products. In addition we observed that Au@Pt nanorods were stable with respect to temperature and pH. Using UV-VIS spectroscopy, the apparent kinetics of enzyme-mimetic activity of Au@Pt nanorods were studied and compared with the activity of AAO. With the help of ESR, we found that Au@Pt nanorods did not scavenge hydroxyl radicals but inhibited the antioxidant ability of AA for scavenging hydroxyl radicals produced by photoirradiating solutions containing titanium dioxide and zinc oxide. Moreover, the Au@Pt nanorods reduced the ability of AA to scavenge DPPH radicals and superoxide radicals. These results demonstrate that Au@Pt nanorods can reduce the antioxidant activity of AA. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the effects of using Pt nanoparticles together with other reducing agents or antioxidants such as AA due to the oxidase-like property of Au@Pt nanorods.Au@Pt nanorods were prepared by growing platinum nanodots on gold nanorods. Using electron spin resonance (ESR), we determined that the mechanisms for oxidation of ascorbic acid (AA) by Au@Pt nanorods and ascorbic acid oxidase (AAO) were kinetically similar and yielded similar products. In addition we observed that Au@Pt nanorods were stable with respect to temperature and pH. Using UV-VIS spectroscopy, the apparent kinetics of enzyme-mimetic activity of Au@Pt nanorods were studied and compared with the activity of AAO. With the help of ESR, we found that Au@Pt nanorods did not scavenge hydroxyl radicals but inhibited the antioxidant ability of AA for scavenging hydroxyl radicals produced by photoirradiating solutions containing titanium dioxide and zinc oxide. Moreover, the Au@Pt nanorods reduced the ability of AA to scavenge DPPH radicals and superoxide radicals. These results demonstrate that Au@Pt nanorods can reduce the antioxidant activity of AA. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the effects of using Pt nanoparticles together with other reducing agents or antioxidants such as AA due to the oxidase-like property of Au@Pt nanorods. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Ascorbic acid oxidase activity of Pt NPs and the effects of Au@Pt nanorods on hydroxyl radicals generated from the Fenton reactions and TiO2 exposed to UV radiation. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr33072e

  1. Aging reduces responsiveness to BSO- and heat stress-induced perturbations of glutathione and antioxidant enzymes.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Joanna P; Coleman, Mitchell C; Aunan, Elizabeth S; Walsh, Susan A; Spitz, Douglas R; Kregel, Kevin C

    2005-10-01

    Aging alters cellular responses to both heat and oxidative stress. Thiol-mediated metabolism of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is believed to be important in aging. To begin to determine the role of thiols in aging and heat stress, we depleted liver glutathione (GSH) by administering l-buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) in young (6 mo) and old (24 mo) Fisher 344 rats before heat stress. Animals were given BSO (4 mmol/kg ip) or saline (1 ml ip) 2 h before heat stress and subsequently heated to a core temperature of 41 degrees C over a 90-min period. Liver tissue was collected before and 0, 30, and 60 min after heat stress. BSO inhibited glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL, the rate-limiting enzyme in GSH synthesis) catalytic activity and resulted in a decline in liver GSH and GSSG that was more pronounced in young compared with old animals. Catalase activity did not change between groups until 60 min after heat stress in young BSO-treated rats. Young animals experienced a substantial and persistent reduction in Cu,Zn-SOD activity with BSO treatment. Mn-SOD activity increased with BSO but declined after heat stress. The differences in thiol depletion observed between young and old animals with BSO treatment may be indicative of age-related differences in GSH compartmentalization that could have an impact on maintenance of redox homeostasis and antioxidant balance immediately after a physiologically relevant stress. The significant changes in antioxidant enzyme activity after GSH depletion suggest that thiol status can influence the regulation of other antioxidant enzymes. PMID:15947071

  2. Combined Effects of Lanthanum (III) and Acid Rain on Antioxidant Enzyme System in Soybean Roots.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuanbo; Du, Yuping; Wang, Lihong; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua; Sun, Zhaoguo

    2015-01-01

    Rare earth element pollution (REEs) and acid rain (AR) pollution simultaneously occur in many regions, which resulted in a new environmental issue, the combined pollution of REEs and AR. The effects of the combined pollution on the antioxidant enzyme system of plant roots have not been reported. Here, the combined effects of lanthanum ion (La3+), one type of REE, and AR on the antioxidant enzyme system of soybean roots were investigated. In the combined treatment of La3+ (0.08 mM) and AR, the cell membrane permeability and the peroxidation of cell membrane lipid of soybean roots increased, and the superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase and reduced ascorbic acid served as scavengers of reactive oxygen species. In other combined treatments of La3+ (0.40 mM, 1.20 mM) and AR, the membrane permeability, malonyldialdehyde content, superoxide dismutase activity, peroxidase activity and reduced ascorbic acid content increased, while the catalase activity decreased. The increased superoxide dismutase activity, peroxidase activity and reduced ascorbic acid content were inadequate to scavenge the excess hydrogen peroxide and superoxide, leading to the damage of the cell membrane, which was aggravated with the increase in the concentration of La3+ and the level of AR. The deleterious effects of the combined treatment of La3+ and AR were stronger than those of the single treatment of La3+ or AR. Moreover, the activity of antioxidant enzyme system in the combined treatment group was affected directly and indirectly by mineral element content in soybean plants. PMID:26230263

  3. Combined Effects of Lanthanum (III) and Acid Rain on Antioxidant Enzyme System in Soybean Roots

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuanbo; Du, Yuping; Wang, Lihong; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua; Sun, Zhaoguo

    2015-01-01

    Rare earth element pollution (REEs) and acid rain (AR) pollution simultaneously occur in many regions, which resulted in a new environmental issue, the combined pollution of REEs and AR. The effects of the combined pollution on the antioxidant enzyme system of plant roots have not been reported. Here, the combined effects of lanthanum ion (La3+), one type of REE, and AR on the antioxidant enzyme system of soybean roots were investigated. In the combined treatment of La3+ (0.08 mM) and AR, the cell membrane permeability and the peroxidation of cell membrane lipid of soybean roots increased, and the superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase and reduced ascorbic acid served as scavengers of reactive oxygen species. In other combined treatments of La3+ (0.40 mM, 1.20 mM) and AR, the membrane permeability, malonyldialdehyde content, superoxide dismutase activity, peroxidase activity and reduced ascorbic acid content increased, while the catalase activity decreased. The increased superoxide dismutase activity, peroxidase activity and reduced ascorbic acid content were inadequate to scavenge the excess hydrogen peroxide and superoxide, leading to the damage of the cell membrane, which was aggravated with the increase in the concentration of La3+ and the level of AR. The deleterious effects of the combined treatment of La3+ and AR were stronger than those of the single treatment of La3+ or AR. Moreover, the activity of antioxidant enzyme system in the combined treatment group was affected directly and indirectly by mineral element content in soybean plants. PMID:26230263

  4. Induction of the Expressions of Antioxidant Enzymes by Luteinizing Hormone in the Bovine Corpus Luteum

    PubMed Central

    KAWAGUCHI, Syota; SAKUMOTO, Ryosuke; OKUDA, Kiyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Luteoprotective mechanisms of luteinizing hormone (LH) involved in the maintenance of bovine corpus luteum (CL) function have not been completely clarified. Since antioxidant enzymes are well documented as antiapoptotic factors in the CL of many mammals, we hypothesized that the luteoprotective action of LH is mediated by stimulating the local production and action of antioxidant enzymes. To test the above hypothesis, in the present study, we examined the mechanisms involved in the luteoprotective actions of LH. Cultured bovine luteal cells obtained from the CL at the mid-luteal stage (days 812 of the estrous cycle) were treated with LH (10 ng/ml), onapristone (OP; a specific progesterone receptor antagonist, 100 ?M) and diethyldithiocarbamate [DETC; an inhibitor of superoxide dismutase (SOD), 100 ?M] for 24 h. LH in combination with or without OP significantly increased the mRNA and protein expressions of manganese SOD (Mn-SOD) and catalase (CATA) and SOD activity. While LH alone significantly increased the mRNA and protein expressions of SOD containing copper and zinc (Cu,Zn-SOD), OP in combination with or without LH significantly decreased the mRNA and protein expressions of Cu,Zn-SOD. In addition, Cu,Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD and CATA mRNA expressions were higher at the mid luteal phase than the other luteal phases. LH in combination with DETC significantly decreased LH-increased cell viability. The overall results suggest that LH increases cell viability by LH-increased antioxidant enzymes, resulting in maintenance of CL function during the luteal phase in cattle. PMID:23386101

  5. Potent AChE enzyme inhibition activity of Zizyphus oxyphylla: A new source of antioxidant compounds.

    PubMed

    Mazhar, Farhana; Khanum, Raisa; Ajaib, Muhammad; Jahangir, Muhammad

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the antioxidant potential and enzyme inhibition of various fractions of Zizyphus oxyphylla. The plant metabolites were extracted in methanol and partitioned with n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol successively. Phytochemical screening showed presence of alkaloids, terpenoids and flavonoids in ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions. The antioxidant potential and acetylcholine esterase assay of all these fractions and remaining aqueous fraction was evaluated by using reported methods. The results revealed that chloroform soluble fraction exhibited highest percent inhibition of DPPH radical as compared to other fractions. It showed 95.01 0.37% inhibition of DPPH radical at a concentration of 120 ?g/mL. The IC?? of this fraction was 13.20 0.27 ?g/mL, relative to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, a reference standard), having IC?? of 12.10 0.29 ?g/mL. It also showed highest total antioxidant activity i.e. 1.723 0.34 as well as highest FRAP value (339.5 0.57 TE ?m/mL) and highest total phenolic contents (142.65 1.20 GAE mg/g) as compared to the other studied fractions. The fractions were also studied for Acetylcholine esterase enzyme (AChE) enzyme inhibition activity and n-butanol soluble fraction exhibited maximum inhibition (95.5 0.13 mg/mL with IC50 =9.58 0.08 mg/mL relative to galanthamine (13.26 0.73 mg/mL), while n- hexane soluble fraction (165.15 0.94 mg/mL) showed non-significant. We are still working to isolate pure compounds for active fractions targeting potent inhibition responsible for some activities. PMID:26639499

  6. Antioxidant enzymes regulate reactive oxygen species during pod elongation in Pisum sativum and Brassica chinensis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Nan; Lin, Zhifang; Guan, Lanlan; Gaughan, Gerald; Lin, Guizhu

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has focused on the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cell wall loosening and cell extension in plant vegetative growth, but few studies have investigated ROS functions specifically in plant reproductive organs. In this study, ROS levels and antioxidant enzyme activities were assessed in Pisum sativum and Brassica chinensis pods at five developmental stages. In juvenile pods, the high levels of O2.- and .OH indicates that they had functions in cell wall loosening and cell elongation. In later developmental stages, high levels of .OH were also related to increases in cell wall thickness in lignified tissues. Throughout pod development, most of the O2.- was detected on plasma membranes of parenchyma cells and outer epidermis cells of the mesocarp, while most of the H2O2 was detected on plasma membranes of most cells throughout the mesocarp. This suggests that these sites are presumably the locations of ROS generation. The antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) apparently contributed to ROS accumulation in pod wall tissues. Furthermore, specifically SOD and POD were found to be associated with pod growth through the regulation of ROS generation and transformation. Throughout pod development, O2.- decreases were associated with increased SOD activity, while changes in H2O2 accumulation were associated with changes in CAT and POD activities. Additionally, high POD activity may contribute to the generation of(.)OH in the early development of pods. It is concluded that the ROS are produced in different sites of plasma membranes with the regulation of antioxidant enzymes, and that substantial ROS generation and accumulation are evident in cell elongation and cell wall loosening in pod wall cells. PMID:24503564

  7. l-carnitine Mediated Reduction in Oxidative Stress and Alteration in Transcript Level of Antioxidant Enzymes in Sheep Embryos Produced In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Mishra, A; Reddy, I J; Gupta, Psp; Mondal, S

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to find out the effect of l-carnitine on oocyte maturation and subsequent embryo development, with l-carnitine-mediated alteration if any in transcript level of antioxidant enzymes (GPx, Cu/Zn-SOD (SOD1) and Mn-SOD (SOD2) in oocytes and developing sheep embryos produced in vitro. Different concentrations of l-carnitine (0 mm, 2.5 mm, 5 mm, 7.5 mm and 10 mm) were used in maturation medium. Oocytes matured with 10 mm l-carnitine showed significantly (p < 0.05) higher cleavage (66.80% vs 39.66, 41.76, 44.64, 64.31%), morula (48.50% vs 20.88, 26.01, 26.99, 44.72%) and blastocyst (33.22% vs 7.66, 9.19, 10.71, 28.57%) percentage as compared to lower concentrations (0 mm, 2.5 mm, 5 mm and 7.5 mm). Cleavage percentage between 10 mm and 7.5 mm l-carnitine were not significantly different. Maturation rate was not influenced by supplementation of any experimental concentration of l-carnitine. There was a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in intracellular ROS and increase in intracellular GSH in 10 mm l-carnitine-treated oocytes and embryos than control group. Antioxidant effect of l-carnitine was proved by culturing oocytes and embryos with H2 O2 in the presence of l-carnitine which could be able to protect oocytes and embryos from H2 O2 -induced oxidative damage. l-carnitine supplementation significantly (p < 0.05) upregulated the expression of GPx and downregulated the expression of SOD2 genes, whereas the expression pattern of SOD1 and GAPDH (housekeeping gene) genes was unaffected in oocytes and embryos. It was concluded from the study that l-carnitine supplementation during in vitro maturation reduces oxidative stress-induced embryo toxicity by decreasing intracellular ROS and increasing intracellular GSH that in turn improved developmental potential of oocytes and embryos and alters transcript level of antioxidant enzymes. PMID:26934867

  8. A new bifunctional chitosanase enzyme from Streptomyces sp. and its application in production of antioxidant chitooligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Sujata; Tripathi, Pushplata; Chand, Subhash

    2012-07-01

    Chitosanases produced by microbes and plants are getting attention to explore vastly available marine waste. Chitooligosaccharides and glucosamine can be produced using chitosanase enzyme and have applications in food, pharma and other industries. A potential microbial chitosanase source was found after isolation and screening of chitosan degrading microbes from garden soil. An isolate, designated as C6 produced chitosanase enzyme upon induction by chitosan substrates. Production of 6 U/ml of chitosanase enzyme was achieved from this isolate on chitosan minimal salt broth medium at 32 °C after 3 days of growth. The enzyme was able to hydrolyse both chitosan and cellulosic substrates. Enzymatic production of D -glucosamine and chitooligosaccharides were studied with various chitosan substrates using crude enzyme. The yield of glucosamine was found to be 40% after 2 h of reaction at 40 °C, and chitosan oligomers were produced having two to six polymerizations at 60 °C reaction temperature. The hydrolysates showed 50% antioxidant activity as compared to ascorbic acid. PMID:22322828

  9. Changes in nitrogen metabolism and antioxidant enzyme activities of maize tassel in black soils region of northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hongwen; Lu, Yan; Xie, Zhiming; Song, Fengbin

    2014-01-01

    Two varieties of maize (Zea mays L.) grown in fields in black soils of northeast China were tested to study the dynamic changes of nitrogen metabolism and antioxidant enzyme activity in tassels of maize. Results showed that antioxidant enzyme activity in tassels of maize increased first and then decreased with the growing of maize, and reached peak value at shedding period. Pattern of proline was consistent with antioxidant enzyme activity, showing that osmotic adjustment could protect many enzymes, which are important for cell metabolism. Continuous reduction of soluble protein content along with the growing of maize was observed in the study, which indicated that quantitative material and energy were provided for pollen formation. Besides, another major cause was that a large proportion of nitrogen was used for the composition of structural protein. Nitrate nitrogen concentrations of tassels were more variable than ammonium nitrogen, which showed that nitrate nitrogen was the favored nitrogen source for maize. PMID:25324855

  10. Antioxidant peptides with Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory activities and applications for Angiotensin converting enzyme purification.

    PubMed

    Hou, Wen-Chi; Chen, Hsien-Jung; Lin, Yaw-Huei

    2003-03-12

    Five commercial peptides, namely, reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), carnosine, homocarnosine, and anserine, were used to test angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory (ACEI) activities using N-[3-(2-furyl)acryloyl]-Phe-Gly-Gly (FAPGG) as a substrate. All of these peptides showed dose-dependent ACEI activities. Using 50% inhibition (IC(50)) of captopril as 0.00781 microM for the reference, the IC(50) values of GSH, carnosine, homocarnosine, and anserine were determined to be 32.4 microM, 5.216 mM, 6.147 mM, and 6.967 mM, respectively. GSH or carnosine showed mixed noncompetitive inhibition against ACE. When 0.0164 mM GSH or 0.4098 mM carnosine was added, the apparent inhibition constant (K(i)) was 49.7 microM or 3.899 mM, respectively. Commercial glutathione-Sepharose 4 fast flow, GSH-coupled CNBr-activated and GSH-coupled EAH-activated Sepharose gels were used for ACE purification. Commercial ACE could be adsorbed only by EAH-coupled GSH gels and eluted off the gels by increasing salt concentrations. These EAH-coupled GSH gels might be developed as affinity aids for ACE purification. PMID:12617609

  11. Induction of Phase 2 Antioxidant Enzymes by Broccoli Sulforaphane: Perspectives in Maintaining the Antioxidant Activity of Vitamins A, C, and E

    PubMed Central

    Boddupalli, Sekhar; Mein, Jonathan R.; Lakkanna, Shantala; James, Don R.

    2012-01-01

    Consumption of fruits and vegetables is recognized as an important part of a healthy diet. Increased consumption of cruciferous vegetables in particular has been associated with a decreased risk of several degenerative and chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease and certain cancers. Members of the cruciferous vegetable family, which includes broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, and cabbage, accumulate significant concentrations of glucosinolates, which are metabolized in vivo to biologically active isothiocyanates (ITCs). The ITC sulforaphane, which is derived from glucoraphanin, has garnered particular interest as an indirect antioxidant due to its extraordinary ability to induce expression of several enzymes via the KEAP1/Nrf2/ARE pathway. Nrf2/ARE gene products are typically characterized as Phase II detoxification enzymes and/or antioxidant (AO) enzymes. Over the last decade, human clinical studies have begun to provide in vivo evidence of both Phase II and AO enzyme induction by SF. Many AO enzymes are redox cycling enzymes that maintain redox homeostasis and activity of free radical scavengers such as vitamins A, C, and E. In this review, we present the existing evidence for induction of PII and AO enzymes by SF, the interactions of SF-induced AO enzymes and proposed maintenance of the essential vitamins A, C, and E, and, finally, the current view of genotypic effects on ITC metabolism and AO enzyme induction and function. PMID:22303412

  12. Chronic intermittent hypobaric hypoxia protects the heart against ischemia/reperfusion injury through upregulation of antioxidant enzymes in adult guinea pigs

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Hui-cai; Zhang, Zhe; Zhang, Li-nan; Xiong, Chen; Feng, Chen; Liu, Qian; Liu, Xu; Shi, Xiao-lu; Wang, Yong-li

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the protection and the anti-oxidative mechanism afforded by chronic intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (CIHH) against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in guinea pig hearts. Methods: Adult male guinea pigs were exposed to CIHH by mimicking a 5000 m high altitude (pB=404 mmHg, pO2=84 mmHg) in a hypobaric chamber for 6 h/day for 28 days. Langendorff-perfused isolated guinea pig hearts were used to measure variables of left ventricular function during baseline perfusion, ischemia and the reperfusion period. The activity and protein expression of antioxidant enzymes in the left myocardium were evaluated using biochemical methods and Western blotting, respectively. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were assessed using ROS-sensitive fluorescence. Results: After 30 min of global no-flow ischemia followed by 60 min of reperfusion, myocardial function had better recovery rates in CIHH guinea pig hearts than in control hearts. The activity and protein expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were significantly increased in the myocardium of CIHH guinea pigs. Pretreatment of control hearts with an antioxidant mixture containing SOD and CAT exerted cardioprotective effects similar to CIHH. The irreversible CAT inhibitor aminotriazole (ATZ) abolished the cardioprotection of CIHH. Cardiac contractile dysfunction and oxidative stress induced by exogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were attenuated by CIHH and CAT. Conclusions: These data suggest that CIHH protects the heart against I/R injury through upregulation of antioxidant enzymes in guinea pig. PMID:19543301

  13. [Intracellular localisation of urea-cycle enzymes in liver (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Maier, K P; Talke, H; Hoppe-Seyler, G; Frhlich, J; Schollmeyer, P; Schnbach, G; Erhart, K P; Gerok, W

    1976-11-01

    Enzymes of the Krebs-Henseleit urea-cycle were localized by means of differential centrifugation and fractional tissue extraction in rat liver and in human liver. Argininosuccinatlyase (ASAL) and Argininosuccinatsynthetase (ASAS) represent enzymes of the soluble cytoplasmic fraction. Ornithine-ketoacid-transaminase(OKT), carbamyl-phosphate-synthetase (CPS) and ornithine-carbamyl-transferase (OCT) are localized in the mitochondrial and nuclei fractions of the liver cell. Most of the arginase activity is bound to subcellular structures (probably to nuclei). A small portion of arginase-activity was found in the soluble cytoplasmatic fraction. The enzymes of the Krebs-Henseleit urea-cycle are equally distributed in rat liver and in human liver. Differences in the subcellular localisation of (mitochondrial) enzymes in human liver could be attributed to mitochondrial breakage during tissue preparation and do not represent in-vivo conditions. PMID:994456

  14. Taurine Boosts Cellular Uptake of Small D-Peptides for Enzyme-Instructed Intracellular Molecular Self-Assembly.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jie; Du, Xuewen; Li, Jie; Yamagata, Natsuko; Xu, Bing

    2015-08-19

    Due to their biostability, D-peptides are emerging as an important molecular platform for biomedical applications. Being proteolytically resistant, D-peptides lack interactions with endogenous transporters and hardly enter cells. Here we show that taurine, a natural amino acid, drastically boosts the cellular uptake of small D-peptides in mammalian cells by >10-fold, from 118 μM (without conjugating taurine) to >1.6 mM (after conjugating taurine). The uptake of a large amount of the ester conjugate of taurine and D-peptide allows intracellular esterase to trigger intracellular self-assembly of the D-peptide derivative, further enhancing their cellular accumulation. The study on the mechanism of the uptake reveals that the conjugates enter cells via both dynamin-dependent endocytosis and macropinocytosis, but likely not relying on taurine transporters. Differing fundamentally from the positively charged cell-penetrating peptides, the biocompatibility, stability, and simplicity of the enzyme-cleavable taurine motif promise new ways to promote the uptake of bioactive molecules for countering the action of efflux pump and contributing to intracellular molecular self-assembly. PMID:26235707

  15. Neuroprotection of antioxidant enzymes against transient global cerebral ischemia in gerbils

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae-Chul

    2014-01-01

    Experimentally transient global cerebral ischemia using animal models have been thoroughly studied and numerous reports suggest the involvement of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of neuronal death in ischemic lesions. In animal models, during the reperfusion period after ischemia, increased oxygen supply results in the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are involved in the process of cell death. ROS, such as superoxide anions, hydroxyl free radicals, hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide are produced as a consequence of metabolic reactions and central nervous system activity. These reactive species are directly involved in the oxidative damage of cellular macromolecules such as nucleic acids, lipids and proteins in ischemic tissues, which can lead to cell death. Antioxidant enzymes are believed to be among the major mechanisms by which cells counteract the deleterious effect of ROS after cerebral ischemia. Consequently, antioxidant strategies have been long suggested as a therapy for experimental ischemic stroke; however, clinical trials have not yet been able to promote the translation of this concept into patient treatment regimens. This article focuses on the contribution of oxidative stress or antioxidants to the post-ischemic neuronal death following transient global cerebral ischemia by using a gerbil model. PMID:25276473

  16. Nitric oxide induces specific isoforms of antioxidant enzymes in soybean leaves subjected to enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation.

    PubMed

    Santa-Cruz, Diego M; Pacienza, Natalia A; Zilli, Carla G; Tomaro, Maria L; Balestrasse, Karina B; Yannarelli, Gustavo G

    2014-12-01

    Antioxidant enzymes play a key role in plant tolerance to different types of stress, including ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation. Here we report that nitric oxide (NO) enhances antioxidant enzymes gene expression and increases the activity of specific isoforms protecting against UV-B radiation. Pre-treatments with sodium nitroprussiate (SNP), a NO-donor, prevented lipid peroxidation, ion leakage and H2O2 and superoxide anion accumulation in leaves of UV-B-treated soybean plants. Transcripts levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) were significantly induced by SNP. These data correlated with the enhancement of particular antioxidant enzyme isoforms, such as one CAT isoform and two APX isoforms. Moreover, SNP induced the expression of three new isoforms of SOD, identified as Mn-SOD subclass. Further results showed that total activities of SOD, CAT and APX significantly increased by 2.2-, 1.8- and 2.1-fold in SNP-treated plants compared to controls, respectively. The protective effect of SNP against UV-B radiation was negated by addition of the specific NO scavenger cPTIO, indicating that NO released by SNP mediates the enhancement of antioxidant enzymes activities. In conclusion, NO is involved in the signaling pathway that up-regulates specific isoforms of antioxidant enzymes protecting against UV-B-induced oxidative stress. PMID:25463668

  17. Microbial responses to membrane cleaning using sodium hypochlorite in membrane bioreactors: Cell integrity, key enzymes and intracellular reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiaomeng; Wang, Zhiwei; Wang, Xueye; Zheng, Xiang; Ma, Jinxing; Wu, Zhichao

    2016-01-01

    Sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) is a commonly used reagent for membrane cleaning in membrane bioreactors (MBRs), while it, being a kind of disinfectant (oxidant), may impair viability of microbes or even totally inactivate them upon its diffusion into mixed liquor during membrane cleaning. In this study, we systematically examine the effects of NaClO on microorganisms in terms of microbial cell integrity, metabolism behaviours (key enzymes), and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) under various NaClO concentrations. Different proportions of microbial cells in activated sludge were damaged within several minutes dependent on NaClO dosages (5-50 mg/g-SS), and correspondingly organic matters were released to bulk solution. Inhibition of key enzymes involved in organic matter biodegradation, nitrification and denitrification was observed in the presence of NaClO above 1 mg/g-SS, and thus organic matter and nitrogen removal efficiencies were decreased. It was also demonstrated that intracellular ROS production was increased with the NaClO dosage higher than 1 mg/g-SS, which likely induced further damage to microbial cells. PMID:26512807

  18. Effect of Yeast Probiotic on Growth, Antioxidant Enzyme Activities and Malondialdehyde Concentration of Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Aluwong, Tagang; Kawu, Mohammed; Raji, Moshood; Dzenda, Tavershima; Govwang, Felix; Sinkalu, Victor; Ayo, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of yeast probiotic on body weight, and the activities of anti-oxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration of broiler chickens. The experiment was carried out on hybrid Hubbard broiler chickens (n = 200). Two-hundred day-old chicks were randomly selected and distributed into four groups of 50 day-old chicks each: Control, C, and treatment groups comprising T1, T2 and T3 administered with 0.25 mL, 0.5 mL and 1.0 mL yeast probiotic, respectively. Chicks were fed a commercial starter diet for the first 28 days of age, followed by pelleted finisher diet from 29 to 42 days. Chickens in T1 had a significantly (p < 0.01) higher body weight at 4th week of age when compared with the control. SOD activity in all treatment groups was not significantly (p > 0.05) different when compared with the control. GPx activity was significantly (p < 0.01) higher in T1, when compared with the control. GPx activity in T2 was higher (p < 0.01) when compared with the control. There was no significant (p > 0.05) difference in MDA level in all the treatment groups. In conclusion, administering yeast probiotic supplement increased body weight and enhanced serum anti-oxidant enzyme activities of broiler chickens. PMID:26784468

  19. Zinc Affects Differently Growth, Photosynthesis, Antioxidant Enzyme Activities and Phytochelatin Synthase Expression of Four Marine Diatoms

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen-Deroche, Thi Le Nhung; Caruso, Aurore; Le, Thi Trung; Bui, Trang Viet; Schoefs, Benot; Tremblin, Grard; Morant-Manceau, Annick

    2012-01-01

    Zinc-supplementation (20??M) effects on growth, photosynthesis, antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, catalase), and the expression of phytochelatin synthase gene were investigated in four marine diatoms (Amphora acutiuscula, Nitzschia palea, Amphora coffeaeformis and Entomoneis paludosa). Zn-supplementation reduced the maximum cell density. A linear relationship was found between the evolution of gross photosynthesis and total chlorophyll content. The Zn treatment decreased the electron transport rate except in A. coffeaeformis and in E. paludosa at high irradiance. A linear relationship was found between the efficiency of light to evolve oxygen and the size of the light-harvesting antenna. The external carbonic anhydrase activity was stimulated in Zn-supplemented E. paludosa but was not correlated with an increase of photosynthesis. The total activity of the antioxidant enzymes did not display any clear increase except in ascorbate peroxidase activity in N. palea. The phytochelatin synthase gene was identified in the four diatoms, but its expression was only revealed in N. palea, without a clear difference between control and Zn-supplemented cells. Among the four species, A. paludosa was the most sensitive and A. coffeaeformis, the most tolerant. A. acutiuscula seemed to be under metal starvation, whereas, to survive, only N. palea developed several stress responses. PMID:22645501

  20. Zinc affects differently growth, photosynthesis, antioxidant enzyme activities and phytochelatin synthase expression of four marine diatoms.

    PubMed

    Nguyen-Deroche, Thi Le Nhung; Caruso, Aurore; Le, Thi Trung; Bui, Trang Viet; Schoefs, Benot; Tremblin, Grard; Morant-Manceau, Annick

    2012-01-01

    Zinc-supplementation (20 ?M) effects on growth, photosynthesis, antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, catalase), and the expression of phytochelatin synthase gene were investigated in four marine diatoms (Amphora acutiuscula, Nitzschia palea, Amphora coffeaeformis and Entomoneis paludosa). Zn-supplementation reduced the maximum cell density. A linear relationship was found between the evolution of gross photosynthesis and total chlorophyll content. The Zn treatment decreased the electron transport rate except in A. coffeaeformis and in E. paludosa at high irradiance. A linear relationship was found between the efficiency of light to evolve oxygen and the size of the light-harvesting antenna. The external carbonic anhydrase activity was stimulated in Zn-supplemented E. paludosa but was not correlated with an increase of photosynthesis. The total activity of the antioxidant enzymes did not display any clear increase except in ascorbate peroxidase activity in N. palea. The phytochelatin synthase gene was identified in the four diatoms, but its expression was only revealed in N. palea, without a clear difference between control and Zn-supplemented cells. Among the four species, A. paludosa was the most sensitive and A. coffeaeformis, the most tolerant. A. acutiuscula seemed to be under metal starvation, whereas, to survive, only N. palea developed several stress responses. PMID:22645501

  1. Antioxidant enzymes activities of Burkholderia spp. strains-oxidative responses to Ni toxicity.

    PubMed

    Dourado, M N; Franco, M R; Peters, L P; Martins, P F; Souza, L A; Piotto, F A; Azevedo, R A

    2015-12-01

    Increased agriculture production associated with intense application of herbicides, pesticides, and fungicides leads to soil contamination worldwide. Nickel (Ni), due to its high mobility in soils and groundwater, constitutes one of the greatest problems in terms of environmental pollution. Metals, including Ni, in high concentrations are toxic to cells by imposing a condition of oxidative stress due to the induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which damage lipids, proteins, and DNA. This study aimed to characterize the Ni antioxidant response of two tolerant Burkholderia strains (one isolated from noncontaminated soil, SNMS32, and the other from contaminated soil, SCMS54), by measuring superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities. Ni accumulation and bacterial growth in the presence of the metal were also analyzed. The results showed that both strains exhibited different trends of Ni accumulation and distinct antioxidant enzymes responses. The strain from contaminated soil (SCMS54) exhibited a higher Ni biosorption and exhibited an increase in SOD and GST activities after 5 and 12 h of Ni exposure. The analysis of SOD, CAT, and GR by nondenaturing PAGE revealed the appearance of an extra isoenzyme in strain SCMS54 for each enzyme. The results suggest that the strain SCMS54 isolated from contaminated soil present more plasticity with potential to be used in soil and water bioremediation. PMID:26289332

  2. Toxic effects of nitenpyram on antioxidant enzyme system and DNA in zebrafish (Danio rerio) livers.

    PubMed

    Yan, Saihong; Wang, Jinhua; Zhu, Lusheng; Chen, Aimei; Wang, Jun

    2015-12-01

    Nitenpyram is one of the most commonly used neonicotinoid pesticide worldwide and was found to be toxic to non-target aquatic organisms. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the oxidative stress, changes in the detoxifying system and DNA damage in zebrafish induced by nitenpyram. In the present study, zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to four concentrations (0.6, 1.2, 2.5, and 5.0 mg L(-1)) for 28 d and then sampled in triplicate on days 7, 14, 21 and 28. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were dramatically inhibited at most exposure times compared with the control group, except SOD at low concentration (0.6 mg L(-1)) of nitenpyram and CAT on day 21. This difference is due to the excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced and increased malondialdehyde (MDA) content in zebrafish livers. The activity of glutathione S-transferase (GST) increased in in the treatment groups at a higher concentration compared with the control group. We found that nitenpyram exposure could affect the antioxidant enzymes and DNA damage in the exposed zebrafish livers. Additionally, the changes in the antioxidant enzyme activities could be an adaptive response protecting against the toxicity induced by nitenpyram. PMID:26202306

  3. Induction of salt tolerance in Azolla microphylla Kaulf through modulation of antioxidant enzymes and ion transport.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Gerard; Dhar, Dolly Wattal

    2010-09-01

    Azolla microphylla plants exposed directly to NaCl (13 dsm(-1)) did not survive the salinity treatment beyond a period of one day, whereas plants exposed directly to 4 and 9 dsm(-1) NaCl were able to grow and produce biomass. However, plants pre-exposed to NaCl (2 dsm(-1)) for 7 days on subsequent exposure to 13 dsm(-1) NaCl were able to grow and produce biomass although at a slow rate and are hereinafter designated as pre-exposed plants. The pre-exposed and directly exposed plants distinctly differed in their response to salt in terms of lipid peroxidation, proline accumulation, activity of antioxidant enzymes, such as SOD, APX, and CAT, and Na(+)/K(+) ratio. Efficient modulation of antioxidant enzymes coupled with regulation of ion transport play an important role in the induction of salt tolerance. Results show that it is possible to induce salt adaptation in A. microphylla by pre-exposing them to low concentrations of NaCl. PMID:20422236

  4. Photosynthesis performance, antioxidant enzymes, and ultrastructural analyses of rice seedlings under chromium stress.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jing; Lv, Chunfang; Xu, Minli; Chen, Guoxiang; Lv, Chuangen; Gao, Zhiping

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to examine the effects of increasing concentrations of chromium (Cr(6+)) (0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 μmol) on rice (Oryza sativa L.) morphological traits, photosynthesis performance, and the activities of antioxidative enzymes. In addition, the ultrastructure of chloroplasts in the leaves of hydroponically cultivated rice (O. sativa L.) seedlings was analyzed. Plant fresh and dry weights, height, root length, and photosynthetic pigments were decreased by Cr-induced toxicity (200 μM), and the growth of rice seedlings was starkly inhibited compared with that of the control. In addition, the decreased maximum quantum yield of primary photochemistry (Fv/Fm) might be ascribed to the decreased the number of active photosystem II reaction centers. These results were confirmed by inhibited photophosphorylation, reduced ATP content and its coupling factor Ca(2+)-ATPase, and decreased Mg(2+)-ATPase activities. Furthermore, overtly increased activities of antioxidative enzymes were observed under Cr(6+) toxicity. Malondialdehyde and the generation rates of superoxide (O2̄) also increased with Cr(6+) concentration, while hydrogen peroxide content first increased at a low Cr(6+) concentration of 25 μM and then decreased. Moreover, transmission electron microscopy showed that Cr(6+) exposure resulted in significant chloroplast damage. Taken together, these findings indicate that high Cr(6+)concentrations stimulate the production of toxic reactive oxygen species and promote lipid peroxidation in plants, causing severe damage to cell membranes, degradation of photosynthetic pigments, and inhibition of photosynthesis. PMID:26396015

  5. Tocopherol Succinate: Modulation of Antioxidant Enzymes and Oncogene Expression, and Hematopoietic Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Vijay K.; Parekh, Vaishali I.; Brown, Darren S.; Kao, Tzu-Cheg; Mog, Steven R.

    2011-02-01

    Purpose: A class of naturally occurring isoforms of tocopherol (tocols) was shown to have varying degrees of protection when administered before radiation exposure. We recently demonstrated that {alpha}-tocopherol succinate (TS) is a potential radiation prophylactic agent. Our objective in this study was to further investigate the mechanism of action of TS in mice exposed to {sup 60}Co {gamma}-radiation. Methods and Materials: We evaluated the effects of TS on expression of antioxidant enzymes and oncogenes by quantitative RT-PCR in bone marrow cells of {sup 60}Co {gamma}-irradiated mice. Further, we tested the ability of TS to rescue and repopulate hematopoietic stem cells by analyzing bone marrow cellularity and spleen colony forming unit in spleen of TS-injected and irradiated mice. Results: Our results demonstrate that TS modulated the expression of antioxidant enzymes and inhibited expression of oncogenes in irradiated mice at different time points. TS also increased colony forming unit-spleen numbers and bone marrow cellularity in irradiated mice. Conclusions: Results provide additional support for the observed radioprotective efficacy of TS and insight into mechanisms.

  6. Effect of cadmium on the growth and antioxidant enzymes in two varieties of Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Irfan, Mohd; Ahmad, Aqil; Hayat, Shamsul

    2014-04-01

    Increasing contamination and higher enrichment ratio of non-essential heavy metal cadmium (Cd) induce various toxic responses in plants when accumulated above the threshold level. These effects and growth responses are genotype and Cd level dependent. An experiment was conducted to analyze the effect of Cd toxicity in Brassica juncea [L] Czern and Coss by selecting its two varieties Varuna and RH-30. Cadmium (0, 25, 50 or 100 mg CdCl2 kg(-1) of soil) fed to soil decreased the values of growth characteristics, activity of nitrate reductase and leaf water potential, whereas activities of antioxidant enzymes and proline content increased with the increasing concentration of Cd, observed at 30 and 60 day stages of growth, in both the varieties. Moreover, Cd uptake by the roots was higher in RH-30 than Varuna. Also the activity of antioxidant enzymes and proline accumulation were higher in Varuna with increasing soil level of Cd. Out of the two varieties, Varuna was more tolerant than RH-30 to Cd stress. PMID:24600304

  7. Chlorophyll a fluorescence, antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation in tomato in response to ozone and benomyl.

    PubMed

    Calatayud, A; Barreno, E

    2001-01-01

    Ozone is a widely distributed phytotoxic air pollutant and is known to reduce the yield of several important agricultural crops in Spain. However, benomyl has been found to lessen the adverse impact of ozone on plants. We studied the effects of ozone and benomyl on chlorophyll a fluorescence, antioxidant enzymes, and lipid peroxidation in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Tiny Tim) grown in open-top chambers in the field. Our results indicate that benomyl prevented the peroxidation of membrane lipids and increased protection of PSII from ozone. There was also a significant reduction in the activity of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase in ozone-exposed plants that had not been treated with benomyl. Comparing plants treated with benomyl to untreated plants we found that, on exposure to ozone, a greater fraction of light absorption energy was cycled through the photosynthetic system in benomyl-treated plants, as shown by the higher PSII-mediated electron flow and the higher fraction of open PSII reaction centers. The values analyzed in the fluorescence parameters and lipid peroxidation were similar for plants without benomyl grown in a charcoal-filtered environment and benomyl-treated plants exposed to ozone. PMID:11706801

  8. Copper phytoremediation potential of Calandula officinalis L. and the role of antioxidant enzymes in metal tolerance.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Sunayana; Das, Suchismita

    2016-04-01

    Cu phytoremediation potential of an ornamental plant, Calandula officinalis, was explored in terms of growth responses, photosynthetic activities and antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, CAT and GPX. The results showed that this plant had high Cu tolerance of up to 400mg/kg, which is far above the phytotoxic range for non hyperaccumulators. It grew normally in soils at all the doses (150-400mg/kg) without showing external signs of phytotoxicity. At 150mg/kg, flowering was augmented; root and shoot biomass, root lengths and leaf soluble protein contents remained same as that of the control. However, chlorophyll and carotenoid pigment contents declined significantly along with significant elevations in lipid peroxidation, at all the doses. Elevations of antioxidant enzymes reflected stress as well as probable mitigation of reactive oxygen species due to Cu stress. Except for the highest conc. (400mg/kg), leaf accumulation of Cu was higher than root accumulations. The Cu accumulation peaked at 300mg/kg Cu in soil, with leaf and root accumulations to be respectively, 4675 and 3995µg/g dry wt., far more than the minimum of 1000µg/g dry wt. for a Cu hyperaccumulator. The plant root at all the doses tolerated Cu, with the tolerance index ranging from 94-62.7. The soil to plant metal uptake capacity, indicated by extraction coefficient and the root to shoot translocation, indicated by translocation factor, at all the doses of Cu were >1, pointed towards efficient phytoremediation potential. PMID:26773830

  9. The effects of detraining on blood adipokines and antioxidant enzyme in Korean overweight children.

    PubMed

    Woo, Jinhee; Shin, Ki Ok; Yoo, Jae-Ho; Park, Soyoung; Kang, Sunghwun

    2012-02-01

    The present study examined the change to clarify the effects of detraining on the concentration of lipid profiles, serum adipokines and antioxidant enzyme gene expression in Korean overweight children. The subjects were normal children (n?=?19) and obese children (n?=?20) who were further subdivided into the overweight training (OT) group (n?=?10) and the overweight detraining (OD) group (n?=?10). Maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2)max); body composition; lipid profiles (TG, TC); adipokines (adiponectin and leptin); antioxidants (blood and gene expressions SOD and GPX) were measured before, 12 weeks, and 24 weeks after the exercise program. Body mass index (BMI) and %fat were significantly higher in the OD group only. However, waist hip ration (WHR) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were significantly decreased in the OT group. TG was significantly decreased in the OT group. There was a significant difference in TG level between the two groups. Besides, adiponectin was significantly increased in both the OT group and the OD group. Furthermore, leptin was significantly decreased in the OT group. There was a significant difference in leptin level between the two groups. In training groups, the expression of SOD was significantly increased after a 12- and 24-week period (p?antioxidant enzyme the protein and expression. PMID:21701811

  10. Genetically Engineered Immunomodulatory Streptococcus thermophilus Strains Producing Antioxidant Enzymes Exhibit Enhanced Anti-Inflammatory Activities

    PubMed Central

    del Carmen, Silvina; de Moreno de LeBlanc, Alejandra; Martin, Rebeca; Chain, Florian; Langella, Philippe; Bermdez-Humarn, Luis G.

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to develop strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) having both immunomodulatory and antioxidant properties and to evaluate their anti-inflammatory effects both in vitro, in different cellular models, and in vivo, in a mouse model of colitis. Different Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus strains were cocultured with primary cultures of mononuclear cells. Analysis of the pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines secreted by these cells after coincubation with candidate bacteria revealed that L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 864 and S. thermophilus CRL 807 display the highest anti-inflammatory profiles in vitro. Moreover, these results were confirmed in vivo by the determination of the cytokine profiles in large intestine samples of mice fed with these strains. S. thermophilus CRL 807 was then transformed with two different plasmids harboring the genes encoding catalase (CAT) or superoxide dismutase (SOD) antioxidant enzymes, and the anti-inflammatory effects of recombinant streptococci were evaluated in a mouse model of colitis induced by trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS). Our results showed a decrease in weight loss, lower liver microbial translocation, lower macroscopic and microscopic damage scores, and modulation of the cytokine production in the large intestines of mice treated with either CAT- or SOD-producing streptococci compared to those in mice treated with the wild-type strain or control mice without any treatment. Furthermore, the greatest anti-inflammatory activity was observed in mice receiving a mixture of both CAT- and SOD-producing streptococci. The addition of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 864 to this mixture did not improve their beneficial effects. These findings show that genetically engineering a candidate bacterium (e.g., S. thermophilus CRL 807) with intrinsic immunomodulatory properties by introducing a gene expressing an antioxidant enzyme enhances its anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:24242245

  11. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant activities of enzymatically synthesized phenolic and vitamin glycosides.

    PubMed

    Charles, Rajachristu Einstein; Ponrasu, Thangavel; Sivakumar, Ramaiah; Divakar, Soundar

    2009-03-01

    Amyloglucosidase from Rhizopus mould and beta-glucosidase from sweet almond were employed for the preparation of phenolic and vitamin glycosides of vanillin, N-vanillylnonanamide, DL-dopa, dopamine, curcumin, alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E), pyridoxine (vitamin B(6)), ergocalciferol (vitamin D(2)), thiamin (vitamin B(1)) and riboflavin (vitamin B(2)). Approx. 20 enzymatically prepared phenolic and vitamin glycosides were subjected to ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) inhibition activity measurements, and 14 glycosides were tested for antioxidant activities. Both phenolic and vitamin glycosides exhibited IC(50) values for ACE inhibition in the 0.52+/-0.03-3.33+/-0.17 mM range and antioxidant activities ranging from 0.8+/-0.04 to 1.18+/-0.06 mM. Comparable ACE inhibition values were observed between free phenols and vitamin glycosides. However, antioxidant activities of glycosides were, in general, lesser than those of free phenols. Best IC(50) value for ACE inhibition were observed for 11-O-(D-fructofuranosyl)thiamin (0.52+/-0.03 mM), 3-hydroxy-4-O-(6-D-sorbitol)phenylalanine (0.56+/-0.03 mM), 4-O-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl)vanillin (0.61+/-0.03 mM), 4-O-(D-galactopyranosyl)vanillin (0.61+/-0.03 mM) and pyridoxine-D-glucoside (0.84+/-0.04 mM). Similarly, best IC(50) values for antioxidant activity were observed for 1,7-O-(bis-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)curcumin (0.8+/-0.04 mM), 4-O-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl)vanillin (0.9+/-0.05 mM), 3-hydroxy-4-O-(beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1'-->4)beta-D-glucopyranosyl)phenylalanine (0.9+/-0.05 mM), 20-O-(D-glucopyranosyl)ergocalciferol (0.9+/-0.05 mM) and dopamine-D-galactoside (0.93+/-0.05 mM). PMID:18547170

  12. Inhibition of DNA methyltransferase or histone deacetylase protects retinal pigment epithelial cells from DNA damage induced by oxidative stress by the stimulation of antioxidant enzymes.

    PubMed

    Tokarz, Paulina; Kaarniranta, Kai; Blasiak, Janusz

    2016-04-01

    Epigenetic modifications influence DNA damage response (DDR). In this study we explored the role of DNA methylation and histone acetylation in DDR in cells challenged with acute or chronic oxidative stress. We used retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19), which natively are exposed to oxidative stress due to permanent exposure to light and high blood flow. We employed a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor - RG108 (RG), or a histone deacetylase inhibitor - valproic acid (VA). ARPE-19 cells were exposed to tert-butyl hydroperoxide, an acute oxidative stress inducer, or glucose oxidase, which slowly liberates low-doses of hydrogen peroxide in the presence of glucose, creating chronic conditions. VA and RG reduced level of intracellular reactive oxygen species and DNA damage in ARPE-19 cells in normal condition and in oxidative stress. This protective effect of VA and RG was associated with the up-regulated expression of antioxidant enzyme genes: CAT, GPx1, GPx4, SOD1 and SOD2. RG decreased the number of cells in G2/M checkpoint in response to chronic oxidative stress. Neither RG nor VA changed the DNA repair or apoptosis induced by oxidative stress. Therefore, certain epigenetic manipulations may protect ARPE-19 cells from detrimental effects of oxidative stress by modulation of antioxidative enzyme gene expression, which may be further explored in pharmacological studies on oxidative stress-related eye diseases. PMID:26899469

  13. The radical induced cell death protein 1 (RCD1) supports transcriptional activation of genes for chloroplast antioxidant enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Hiltscher, Heiko; Rudnik, Radoslaw; Shaikhali, Jehad; Heiber, Isabelle; Mellenthin, Marina; Meirelles Duarte, Iuri; Schuster, Günter; Kahmann, Uwe; Baier, Margarete

    2014-01-01

    The rimb1 (redox imbalanced 1) mutation was mapped to the RCD1 locus (radical-induced cell death 1; At1g32230) demonstrating that a major factor involved in redox-regulation genes for chloroplast antioxidant enzymes and protection against photooxidative stress, RIMB1, is identical to the regulator of disease response reactions and cell death, RCD1. Discovering this link let to our investigation of its regulatory mechanism. We show in yeast that RCD1 can physically interact with the transcription factor Rap2.4a which provides redox-sensitivity to nuclear expression of genes for chloroplast antioxidant enzymes. In the rimb1 (rcd1-6) mutant, a single nucleotide exchange results in a truncated RCD1 protein lacking the transcription factor binding site. Protein-protein interaction between full-length RCD1 and Rap2.4a is supported by H2O2, but not sensitive to the antioxidants dithiotreitol and ascorbate. In combination with transcript abundance analysis in Arabidopsis, it is concluded that RCD1 stabilizes the Rap2.4-dependent redox-regulation of the genes encoding chloroplast antioxidant enzymes in a widely redox-independent manner. Over the years, rcd1-mutant alleles have been described to develop symptoms like chlorosis, lesions along the leaf rims and in the mesophyll and (secondary) induction of extra- and intra-plastidic antioxidant defense mechanisms. All these rcd1 mutant characteristics were observed in rcd1-6 to succeed low activation of the chloroplast antioxidant system and glutathione biosynthesis. We conclude that RCD1 protects plant cells from running into reactive oxygen species (ROS)-triggered programs, such as cell death and activation of pathogen-responsive genes (PR genes) and extra-plastidic antioxidant enzymes, by supporting the induction of the chloroplast antioxidant system. PMID:25295044

  14. Enzymatic hydrolysis of rice dreg protein: effects of enzyme type on the functional properties and antioxidant activities of recovered proteins.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qiang; Xiong, Hua; Selomulya, Cordelia; Chen, Xiao Dong; Zhong, Honglan; Wang, Shenqi; Sun, Wenjing; Zhou, Qiang

    2012-10-01

    The effects of various proteases on the formation and characteristics of rice dreg protein hydrolysates (RDPHs) were investigated. Enzymatic hydrolysis of often under-utilised rice dreg protein (RDP) with different enzymes studied here was found to significantly improve protein content and solubility. RDPHs prepared by alkaline protease showed better protein recovery, producing higher protein content with much smaller peptides, while hydrolysates generated by Protamex showed the highest antioxidant activities with more than 80% solubility over a wide pH range. The results indicated that the type of protease greatly influenced the molecular weight and amino acid residue composition of RDPH. The enzyme type also determined the functional properties and antioxidant activity of the recovered proteins. It was found that an optimum allocation of alkaline protease in addition to the Neutrase enzyme could be an appropriate strategy to produce RDPH with desirable functionalities, antioxidant properties, and low salt content. PMID:25005954

  15. Hepatoprotective effects of Nigella sativa L and Urtica dioica L on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme systems and liver enzymes in carbon tetrachloride-treated rats

    PubMed Central

    Kanter, Mehmet; Coskun, Omer; Budancamanak, Mustafa

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of Nigella sativa L (NS) and Urtica dioica L (UD) on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme systems and liver enzymes in CCl4-treated rats. METHODS: Fifty-six healthy male Wistar albino rats were used in this study. The rats were randomly allotted into one of the four experimental groups: A (CCl4-only treated), B (CCl4+UD treated), C (CCl4+NS treated) and D (CCl4+UD+NS treated), each containing 14 animals. All groups received CCl4 (0.8 mL/kg of body weight, sc, twice a week for 60 d). In addition, B, C and D groups also received daily i.p. injections of 0.2 mL/kg NS or/and 2 mL/kg UD oils for 60 d. Group A, on the other hand, received only 2 mL/kg normal saline solution for 60 d. Blood samples for the biochemical analysis were taken by cardiac puncture from randomly chosen-seven rats in each treatment group at beginning and on the 60th d of the experiment. RESULTS: The CCl4 treatment for 60 d increased the lipid peroxidation and liver enzymes, and also decreased the antioxidant enzyme levels. NS or UD treatment (alone or combination) for 60 d decreased the elevated lipid peroxidation and liver enzyme levels and also increased the reduced antioxidant enzyme levels. The weight of rats decreased in group A, and increased in groups B, C and D. CONCLUSION: NS and UD decrease the lipid per-oxidation and liver enzymes, and increase the anti-oxidant defense system activity in the CCl4-treated rats. PMID:16425366

  16. Egg yolk peptides up-regulate glutathione synthesis and antioxidant enzyme activities in a porcine model of intestinal oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Young, Denise; Fan, Ming Z; Mine, Yoshinori

    2010-07-14

    Long-term oxidative stress in the gastrointestinal tract can lead to the development of chronic intestinal disorders. Many food-derived antioxidants are effective in vitro, but the variable reports of in vivo efficacy and the pro-oxidant nature of some antioxidants necessitate alternative strategies for the reduction of in vivo oxidative stress. Compounds that up-regulate the production of endogenous antioxidants such as glutathione (GSH) and antioxidant enzymes provide novel approaches for the restoration of redox homeostatis. Egg yolk peptides (EYP) prepared from Alcalase and protease N digestion of delipidated egg yolk proteins were found to exhibit antioxidative stress properties. The effect of EYP supplementation was examined in a hydrogen peroxide-induced human colon cell line and in an animal model of intestinal oxidative stress. EYP significantly reduced the pro-inflammatory cytokine, IL-8, in Caco-2 cells. In piglets given intraperitoneal infusions of hydrogen peroxide, EYP treatment increased GSH and gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase mRNA expression and activity, significantly increased antioxidant enzyme activities, in particular catalase and glutathione S-transferase activities, and reduced protein and lipid oxidation in the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and colon. Furthermore, EYP boosted the systemic antioxidant status in blood by increasing the GSH concentration in red blood cells. These results suggest that EYP supplementation is a novel strategy for the reduction of intestinal oxidative stress. PMID:20540508

  17. Increased oxidative stress levels and normal antioxidant enzyme activity in circulating mononuclear cells from patients of familial hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Real, Jose T; Martínez-Hervás, Sergio; Tormos, M Carmen; Domenech, Elena; Pallardó, Federico V; Sáez-Tormo, Guillermo; Redon, Josep; Carmena, Rafael; Chaves, F Javier; Ascaso, Juan F; García-García, Ana-Barbara

    2010-02-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a clinical condition with high risk for developing atherosclerosis. Increased oxidative stress (OS) and FH have been related to atherosclerosis, but no data are available on levels of OS and antioxidant enzyme activity in circulating mononuclear cells (CMCs) from FH patients. Circulating mononuclear cells are important mediators in atherosclerosis development, and chronically increased blood OS present in FH can induce modification in CMC activity. The objective of the study was to analyze the OS levels in CMCs from FH patients and controls. We have selected 30 nonrelated FH index patients and 30 normoglycemic and normocholesterolemic controls matched by age, sex, body mass index, abdominal circumference, and homeostasis model assessment index. Production of free radicals was analyzed by measurement of xanthine oxidase activity in plasma, reduced and oxidized glutathione (GSH and GSSG, respectively), and malonyldialdehyde in levels CMCs. Antioxidant status was analyzed by measuring antioxidant enzyme activity as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. We have found that FH patients showed significantly higher xanthine oxidase and malonyldialdehyde enzyme activities, as well as increased GSSG and lower GSH values resulting in a higher GSSG/GSH ratio. These data indicate a higher free radical production in plasma and increased OS levels in CMCs from patients than from controls. No significant differences were found in superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities between both groups. These data show an important alteration of OS regulation in FH and the absence of antioxidant response in CMCs mediated by some of the major antioxidant enzymes. PMID:19800085

  18. Intracellular Concentrations of Coenzyme A and Its Derivatives from Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 and Their Roles in Enzyme Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Boynton, Zhuang L.; Bennett, George N.; Rudolph, Frederick B.

    1994-01-01

    Intracellular levels of coenzyme A (CoA) and its derivatives involved in the metabolic pathways for Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 were analyzed by using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). During the shift from the acidogenic to the solventogenic or stationary growth phase, the concentration of butyryl-CoA increased rapidly and the concentrations of free CoA and acetyl-CoA decreased. These changes were accompanied by a rapid increase of the solvent pathway enzyme activity and a decrease of the acid pathway enzyme activity. Assays with several non-solvent-producing mutant strains were also carried out. Upon entry of the mutant strains to the stationary phase, the butyryl-CoA concentrations for these mutant strains were comparable to those for the wild type even though the mutants were deficient in solvent-producing enzymes. Levels of acetoacetyl-CoA, ?-hydroxy-butyryl-CoA, and crotonyl-CoA compounds in both wild-type and mutant extracts were below HPLC detection thresholds (<21 ?M). PMID:16349164

  19. Enzyme occupancy measurement of intracellular protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B using photoaffinity probes.

    PubMed

    Skorey, Kathryn; Waddleton, Deena; Therien, Michel; Leriche, Tammy

    2006-02-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is believed to be one of the enzymes involved in down-regulating the insulin receptor and is a drug target for the treatment of type II diabetes. To better understand the in vitro and in vivo behavior of PTP1B inhibitors, a cell-based assay to directly measure enzyme occupancy of PTP1B by inhibitors using photoaffinity labeling was developed. Two photoaffinity probes were synthesized containing the photolabile diazirine moiety. These photoprobes were specific for PTP1B and T-cell protein tyrosine phosphatase over CD45, with the most potent photoprobe having an IC(50) value of 0.2nM for PTP1B. Activation of the photoprobes with a 40-W UV lamp in the presence of purified AspTyrLysAspAspAspAspLys (Flag)-PTP1B formed a 1:1 irreversible adduct with the enzyme. The photolabeling was competed by known PTP1B inhibitors, vanadate, and the peptide inhibitor N-benzoyl-l-glutamyl-[4-phosphono(difluoromethyl)]-l-phenylalanyl-[4-phosphono(difluoromethyl)]l-phenylalanineamide (BzN-EJJ-amide). In HepG2 (human hepatoma cell line) cells, endogenous PTP1B was labeled by the UV-activated photoprobes in both lysed and intact cells. Enzyme occupancy measurements were conducted with a series of PTP1B inhibitors using the photoprobe affinity assay. Several compounds were shown to bind to endogenous PTP1B in the HepG2 intact cells. PMID:16360107

  20. Ultraviolet-B- and ozone-induced biochemical changes in antioxidant enzymes of Arabidopsis thaliana

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, M.V.; Paliyath, G.; Ormrod, D.P.

    1996-01-01

    Earlier studies with Arabidopsis thaliana exposed to ultraviolet B (UV-B) and ozone (O{sub 3}) have indicated the differential responses of superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase. In this study, we have investigated whether A. thaliana genotype Landsberg erecta and its flavonoid-deficient mutant transparent testa (tt5) is capable of metabolizing UV-B- and O{sub 3}-induced activated oxygen species by invoking similar antioxidant enzymes. UV-B exposure preferentially enhanced guaiacol-peroxidases, ascorbate peroxidase, and peroxidases specific to coniferyl alcohol and modified the substrate affinity of ascorbate peroxidase. O{sub 3} exposure enhanced superoxide dismutase, peroxidases, glutathione reductase, and ascorbate peroxidase to a similar degree and modified the substrate affinity of both glutathione reductase and ascorbate peroxidase. Both UV-B and O{sub 3} exposure enhanced similar Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase isoforms. New isoforms of peroxidases and ascorbate peroxidase were synthesized in tt5 plants irradiated with UV-B. UV-B radiation, in contrast to O{sub 3}, enhanced the activation oxygen species by increasing membrane-localized NADPH-oxidase activity and decreasing catalase activities. These results collectively suggest that (a) UV-B exposure preferentially induces peroxidase-related enzymes, whereas O{sub 3} exposure invokes the enzymes of superoxide dismutase/ascorbate-glutathione cycle, and (b) in contrast to O{sub 3}, UV-B exposure generated activated oxygen species by increasing NADPH-oxidase activity. 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Reduced levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species and apoptotic status are not correlated with increases in cryotolerance of bovine embryos produced in vitro in the presence of antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Rocha-Frigoni, Nathlia A S; Leo, Beatriz C S; Nogueira, riklis; Accorsi, Mnica F; Mingoti, Gisele Z

    2014-01-01

    The effects of intracellular (cysteine and ?-mercaptoethanol) and extracellular (catalase) antioxidant supplementation at different times during in vitro production (IVM and/or in vitro culture (IVC)) on bovine embryo development, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, apoptosis and re-expansion rates after a vitrification-thawing process were examined. Blastocyst frequencies were not affected by either antioxidant supplementation (40.5%-56.4%) or the timing of supplementation (41.7%-55.4%) compared with control (48.7%; P>0.05). Similarly, antioxidants and the moment of supplementation did not affect (P>0.05) the total number of blastomeres (86.2-90.5 and 84.4-90.5, respectively) compared with control (85.7). However, the percentage of apoptotic cells was reduced (P<0.05) in groups supplemented during IVM (1.7%), IVC (2.0%) or both (1.8%) compared with control (4.3%). Intracellular ROS levels measured in Day 7 blastocysts were reduced (P<0.05) in all groups (0.60-0.78), with the exception of the group supplemented with ?-mercaptoethanol during IVC (0.88), which did not differ (P>0.05) from that in the control group (1.00). Re-expansion rates were not affected (P>0.05) by the treatments (50.0%-93.0%). In conclusion, antioxidant supplementation during IVM and/or IVC reduces intracellular ROS and the rate of apoptosis; however, supplementation does not increase embryonic development and survival after vitrification. PMID:25319378

  2. The Deubiquitinating Enzyme AMSH3 Is Required for Intracellular Trafficking and Vacuole Biogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Isono, Erika; Katsiarimpa, Anthi; Mller, Isabel Karin; Anzenberger, Franziska; Stierhof, York-Dieter; Geldner, Niko; Chory, Joanne; Schwechheimer, Claus

    2010-01-01

    Ubiquitination, deubiquitination, and the formation of specific ubiquitin chain topologies have been implicated in various cellular processes. Little is known, however, about the role of ubiquitin in the development of cellular organelles. Here, we identify and characterize the deubiquitinating enzyme AMSH3 from Arabidopsis thaliana. AMSH3 hydrolyzes K48- and K63-linked ubiquitin chains in vitro and accumulates both ubiquitin chain types in vivo. amsh3 mutants fail to form a central lytic vacuole, accumulate autophagosomes, and mis-sort vacuolar protein cargo to the intercellular space. Furthermore, AMSH3 is required for efficient endocytosis of the styryl dye FM4-64 and the auxin efflux facilitator PIN2. We thus present evidence for a role of deubiquitination in intracellular trafficking and vacuole biogenesis. PMID:20543027

  3. Enzyme-Instructed Intracellular Molecular Self-Assembly to Boost Activity of Cisplatin against Drug-Resistant Ovarian Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Kuang, Yi; Shi, Junfeng; Zhou, Jie; Medina, Jamie E; Zhou, Rong; Yuan, Dan; Yang, Cuihong; Wang, Huaimin; Yang, Zhimou; Liu, Jianfeng; Dinulescu, Daniela M; Xu, Bing

    2015-11-01

    Anticancer drug resistance demands innovative approaches that boost the activity of drugs against drug-resistant cancers without increasing the systemic toxicity. Here we show the use of enzyme-instructed self-assembly (EISA) to generate intracellular supramolecular assemblies that drastically boost the activity of cisplatin against drug-resistant ovarian cancer cells. We design and synthesize small peptide precursors as the substrates of carboxylesterase (CES). CES cleaves the ester bond pre-installed on the precursors to form the peptides that self-assemble in water to form nanofibers. At the optimal concentrations, the precursors themselves are innocuous to cells, but they double or triple the activity of cisplatin against the drug-resistant ovarian cancer cells. This work illustrates a simple, yet fundamental, new way to introduce non-cytotoxic components into combination therapies with cisplatin without increasing the systemic burden or side effects. PMID:26365295

  4. Association of erythrocytes antioxidant enzymes and their cofactors with markers of oxidative stress in patients with sickle cell anemia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Naama, Lamia M.; Hassan, Mea'ad K.; Mehdi, Jawad K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is an inherited blood disease with known complications as a result of certain pathophysiological dysfunctions. It has been suggested that an increase in oxidative stress contributes to the incidence of these changes. Objectives: This study investigated the oxidant/antioxidant status of patients with SCA, and evaluated the effect of SCA on antioxidant enzymes and their cofactors. Methods: The study included 42 patients with SCA (in steady state), and a control group of 50 age-matched individuals without SCA. Serum malondialdehyde (MDA), copper, zinc, ferritin and iron levels, red blood cell (RBC) superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase levels were measured for the SCA and control groups. Results: Significantly lower levels of antioxidant enzymes (RBC SOD and catalase) and higher serum MDA levels (biomarker of oxidative stress) were found in SCA patients compared to the control group (all p < 0.001). Increased levels of serum ferritin, iron and copper and decreased zinc concentrations were also found in the SCA patients compared to the control group (all p < 0.001). In the SCA group, there were significant negative correlations between MDA levels and RBC SOD, RBC catalase, and serum zinc levels (p < 0.01), while a significant positive correlation between MDA with serum copper and iron levels (p < 0.01) was observed. Conclusion: SCA is associated with alterations in markers of oxidative stress including an increased MDA level, decreased antioxidant enzyme levels, and altered levels of enzyme cofactors (zinc, copper, and iron). This suggests that these antioxidant enzymes could be used as effective therapeutic targets for the treatment of this disease and supplementation of patients with substances with antioxidant properties may reduce the complications of this disease. PMID:26835411

  5. Enzymatic metabolites of lycopene induce Nrf2-mediated expression of phase II detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes in human bronchial epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Fuzhi; Wang, Xiang-Dong

    2011-01-01

    Lycopene can be cleaved by carotene 9′,10′-oxygenase at its 9′,10′ double bond to form apo-10′-lycopenoids, including apo-10′-lycopenal, -lycopenol and -lycopenoic acid. The latter has been recently shown to inhibit lung carcinogenesis both in vivo and in vitro, however, the mechanism(s) underlying this protection is not well defined. In the present study, we report that treatment with apo-10′-lycopenoic acid, in a time- and dose-dependent manner, results in the nuclear accumulation of transcription factor Nrf2 (nuclear factor E2-related factor 2) protein in BEAS-2B human bronchial epithelial cells. The activation of Nrf2 by apo-10′-lycopenoic acid is associated with the induction of phase II detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes including heme oxygenase-1, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1, glutathione S-transferases, and glutamate–cysteine ligases in BEAS-2B cells. Furthermore, apo-10′-lycopenoic acid treatment increased total intracellular glutathione levels and suppressed both endogenous reactive oxygen species generation and H2O2-induced oxidative damage in BEAS-2B cells. In addition, both apo-10′-lycopenol and apo-10′-lycopenal induced heme oxygenase-1 gene expression in BEAS-2B cells. These data strongly suggest that the anti-carcinogenic and antioxidant functions of lycopene may be mediated by apo-10′-lycopenoids via activating Nrf2 and inducing phase II detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes. PMID:18566994

  6. Fullerenol C60(OH)24 effects on antioxidative enzymes activity in irradiated human erythroleukemia cell line.

    PubMed

    Bogdanovi?, Visnja; Stankov, Karmen; Icevi?, Ivana; Zikic, Dragan; Nikoli?, Aleksandra; Solaji?, Slavica; Djordjevi?, Aleksandar; Bogdanovi?, Gordana

    2008-05-01

    Radiotherapy-induced toxicity is a major dose-limiting factor in anti-cancer treatment. Ionizing radiation leads to the formation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) that are associated with radiation-induced cell death. Investigations of biological effects of fullerenol have provided evidence for its ROS/RNS scavenger properties in vitro and radioprotective efficiency in vivo. Therefore we were interested to evaluate its radioprotective properties in vitro in the human erythroleukemia cell line. Pre-treatment of irradiated cells by fullerenol exerted statistically significant effects on cell numbers and the response of antioxidative enzymes to X-ray irradiation-induced oxidative stress in cells. Our study provides evidence that the pre-treatment with fullerenol enhanced the enzymatic activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in irradiated K562 cells. PMID:18285660

  7. Interactions of temperature, salinity and diesel oil on antioxidant defense enzymes of the limpet Nacella concinna.

    PubMed

    Feijó de Oliveira, Mariana; Rodrigues Júnior, Edson; Suda, Cecília N K; Vani, Gannabathula S; Donatti, Lucélia; Rodrigues, Edson; Lavrado, Helena P

    2015-08-15

    The intertidal and subtidal environments in the Antarctic Peninsula are vulnerable to pollutants, such as diesel oil, a commonly used fuel. Nacella concinna is capable of accumulating polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and is a potential biomonitor of diesel oil contamination. This work investigates the interaction of diesel oil, temperature and salinity on the activity of antioxidants enzymes defense of the gills, foot muscle and digestive glands. Upregulation of superoxide dismutase occurred in the three tissues by warming. The foot muscle catalase and the gill glutathione reductase were upregulated only by diesel. The inability to upregulate catalase and glutathione S-transferase in the digestive gland, as well as the increase of lipoperoxidation, suggested that this gland is more susceptible to the deleterious effects from oxidative stress. PMID:26077159

  8. Nephroprotective Effect Exogenous Antioxidant Enzymes during Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced Damage of Renal Tissue.

    PubMed

    Palutina, O A; Sharapov, M G; Temnov, A A; Novoselov, V I

    2016-01-01

    Nephroprotective effect of exogenous chimeric antioxidant enzyme with combined superoxide dismutase and peroxide activities (PSH protein) was studied on the model of ischemia/reperfusion damage of the renal tissue. It was shown that post-ischemic (25- and 45-min ischemia) intravenous administration of PSH protein significantly normalized the levels of creatinine and urea. Histological studies showed that as distinct from ischemic kidney, the structure of renal corpuscles and tubules remained unchanged, the number of atrophied glomeruli and glomeruli with exudates and protein inclusions decreased in the capsular teeth after postischemic intravenous administration of PSH protein. Immunohistochemical investigations showed that post-ischemic intravenous injection of PSH protein significantly reduced the intensity of apoptosis in ischemic renal tissues. PMID:26742734

  9. Effects of phthalate ester treatment on seed germination and antioxidant enzyme activities of Phaseolus radiatus L.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenli; Zhang, Chongbang; Liu, Shuyuan

    2014-05-01

    Effects of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and di-n-butyl phthalate on seed germination rate and antioxidant enzymes activities of mung bean (Phaseolus radiatus L.) were investigated. Results showed that under the treatment with 10 mg/kg of phthalate esters (PAEs), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase and catalase (CAT) activities were higher than those of the control (p > 0.05). But SOD and CAT activities decreased with the PAEs concentrations and the treatment duration, and were significantly lower than those of the control (p < 0.05). Effect of PAEs stress on SOD activity in germinating seeds of mung bean displayed a significant dose-effect relationship. PMID:24535285

  10. The effects of dopamine on antioxidant enzymes activities and reactive oxygen species levels in soybean roots

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Bruno Ribeiro; Siqueira-Soares, Rita de Cássia; dos Santos, Wanderley Dantas; Marchiosi, Rogério; Soares, Anderson Ricardo; Ferrarese-Filho, Osvaldo

    2014-01-01

    In the current work, we investigated the effects of dopamine, an neurotransmitter found in several plant species on antioxidant enzyme activities and ROS in soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) roots. The effects of dopamine on SOD, CAT and POD activities, as well as H2O2, O2•−, melanin contents and lipid peroxidation were evaluated. Three-day-old seedlings were cultivated in half-strength Hoagland nutrient solution (pH 6.0), without or with 0.1 to 1.0 mM dopamine, in a growth chamber (25°C, 12 h photoperiod, irradiance of 280 μmol m−2 s−1) for 24 h. Significant increases in melanin content were observed. The levels of ROS and lipid peroxidation decreased at all concentrations of dopamine tested. The SOD activity increased significantly under the action of dopamine, while CT activity was inhibited and POD activity was unaffected. The results suggest a close relationship between a possible antioxidant activity of dopamine and melanin and activation of SOD, reducing the levels of ROS and damage on membranes of soybean roots. PMID:25482756

  11. Antioxidant enzymes and proteins of wetland plants: their relation to Pb tolerance and accumulation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Junxing; Ye, Zhihong

    2015-02-01

    Constructed wetlands used to clean up toxic metals such as lead (Pb) from contaminated wastewater are considered as an effective and low-cost technology. The effect of Pb on the biomass, tolerance, soluble protein, and antioxidant enzymes in 18 candidate wetland plant species grown in soils without (control) and spiked with 900 and 1800 mg Pb kg(-1) was studied in a pot trial. Our pot experiment showed that the biomass, tolerance, and leaf protein contents decreased with increasing concentrations of Pb in soil. There were significant differences between the plants in their Pb tolerance indices (29-82 % in the 900 mg Pb kg(-1) amended soil) and also Pb uptake (13-749 mg kg(-1) in shoots and 1112-4891 mg kg(-1) in roots, in the same treatments). Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) in leaves of most of the plants increased with increasing level of soil Pb concentration. Conversely, catalase (CAT) activity in leaves declined when plants were subjected to Pb stress. Lead accumulation by the 18 wetland plant species screened was strongly dependent on the species and Pb concentrations in the soil. However, Pb translocation from root to shoot was generally low in all species. Increases in SOD and POD activities suggest that the antioxidant system may play an important role in alleviating Pb toxicity in wetland plants. The data obtained should help in future species selection for the use in designing wetlands in Pb-contaminated environments. PMID:25269838

  12. The Protective Roles of the Antioxidant Enzymes Superoxide Dismutase and Catalase in the Green Photosynthetic Bacterium Chloroflexus Aurantiacus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blankenship, Robert E.; Rothschild, Lynn (Technical Monitor)

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the biochemical response of the green thermophilic photosynthetic bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus to oxidative stress. Lab experiments focused primarily on characterizing the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase and the response of this organism to oxidative stress. Experiments in the field at the hotsprings in Yellowstone National Park focused on the changes in the level of these enzymes during the day in response to oxidants and to the different types of ultraviolet radiation.

  13. Enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant activities of traditional medicinal plants: Potential application in the management of hyperglycemia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Traditional Indian and Australian medicinal plant extracts were investigated to determine their therapeutic potential to inhibit key enzymes in carbohydrate metabolism, which has relevance to the management of hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes. The antioxidant activities were also assessed. Methods The evaluation of enzyme inhibitory activity of seven Australian aboriginal medicinal plants and five Indian Ayurvedic plants was carried out against α-amylase and α-glucosidase. Antioxidant activity was determined by measuring (i) the scavenging effect of plant extracts against 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) and 2, 2′-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate (ABTS) and (ii) ferric reducing power. Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents were also determined. Results Of the twelve plant extracts evaluated, the highest inhibitory activity against both α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes was exerted by Santalum spicatum and Pterocarpus marsupium with IC50 values of 5.43 μg/ml and 0.9 μg/ml, respectively, and 5.16 μg/ml and 1.06 μg/ml, respectively. However, the extracts of Acacia ligulata (IC50 = 1.01 μg/ml), Beyeria leshnaultii (0.39 μg/ml), Mucuna pruriens (0.8 μg/ml) and Boerhaavia diffusa (1.72 μg/ml) exhibited considerable activity against α-glucosidase enzyme only. The free radical scavenging activity was found to be prominent in extracts of Acacia kempeana, Acacia ligulata followed by Euphorbia drummondii against both DPPH and ABTS. The reducing power was more pronounced in Euphorbia drummondii and Pterocarpus marsupium extracts. The phenolic and flavonoid contents ranged from 0.42 to 30.27 μg/mg equivalent of gallic acid and 0.51 to 32.94 μg/mg equivalent of quercetin, respectively, in all plant extracts. Pearson’s correlation coefficient between total flavonoids and total phenolics was 0.796. Conclusion The results obtained in this study showed that most of the plant extracts have good potential for the management of hyperglycemia, diabetes and the related condition of oxidative stress. PMID:22713130

  14. Effects of Microgravity On Oxidative and Antioxidant Enzymes In Mouse Hindlimb Muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Girten, B.; Hoopes, R.; Steele, M.; Morony, S.; Bateman, T. A.; Sun, S. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Gastrocnemius muscle of mice were analyzed in order to examine the effects of 12 days of microgravity on the oxidative enzyme climate synthase (CS) and the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD). The female C57BL/6J mice utilized for this study were part of the Commercial Biomedical Testing Module (CBTM) payload that flew aboard STS-108. Mice were housed in Animal Enclosure Modules (AEMs) provided by NASA Ames. The flight (FLT) group and the ground control (CON) group each had 12 mice per group. The AEMs that held the CON group operated on a 48-hour delay from the FLT group and were located inside the Orbital Environmental Simulator (OES) at Kennedy Space Center. The temperature, CO2 and relative humidity inside the OES was regulated based on downlinked information from the shuttle middeck. Student T tests were used to compare groups and a p < 0.05 was used to determine statistical significance. Results indicated that CS levels for the FLT group were significantly lower than the CON group while the SOD levels were significantly higher. The CS FLT mean was 19% lower and the SOD FLT mean was 17% higher than the respective CON group means. Although these findings are among the first muscle enzyme values reported for mice from a shuttle mission, these results are similar to some results previously reported for rats exposed to microgravity or hindlimb suspension. The changes seen during the CBTM payload are reflective of the deconditioning that takes place with disuse of the hindlimbs and indicate that muscle enzyme changes induced by disuse deconditioning are similar in both rodent species.

  15. Angiotensin-I Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitory and Anti-Oxidant Activities of Sea Cucumber (Actinopyga lecanora) Hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Ghanbari, Raheleh; Zarei, Mohammad; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Abdul-Hamid, Azizah; Ismail, Amin; Saari, Nazamid

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, food protein-derived hydrolysates have received considerable attention because of their numerous health benefits. Amongst the hydrolysates, those with anti-hypertensive and anti-oxidative activities are receiving special attention as both activities can play significant roles in preventing cardiovascular diseases. The present study investigated the angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory and anti-oxidative activities of Actinopyga lecanora (A. lecanora) hydrolysates, which had been prepared by alcalase, papain, bromelain, flavourzyme, pepsin, and trypsin under their optimum conditions. The alcalase hydrolysate showed the highest ACE inhibitory activity (69.8%) after 8 h of hydrolysis while the highest anti-oxidative activities measured by 2,2-diphenyl 1-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging (DPPH) (56.00%) and ferrous ion-chelating (FIC) (59.00%) methods were exhibited after 24 h and 8 h of hydrolysis, respectively. The ACE-inhibitory and anti-oxidative activities displayed dose-dependent trends, and increased with increasing protein hydrolysate concentrations. Moreover, strong positive correlations between angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory and anti-oxidative activities were also observed. This study indicates that A. lecanora hydrolysate can be exploited as a source of functional food owing to its anti-oxidant as well as anti-hypertension functions. PMID:26690117

  16. Angiotensin-I Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitory and Anti-Oxidant Activities of Sea Cucumber (Actinopyga lecanora) Hydrolysates

    PubMed Central

    Ghanbari, Raheleh; Zarei, Mohammad; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Abdul-Hamid, Azizah; Ismail, Amin; Saari, Nazamid

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, food protein-derived hydrolysates have received considerable attention because of their numerous health benefits. Amongst the hydrolysates, those with anti-hypertensive and anti-oxidative activities are receiving special attention as both activities can play significant roles in preventing cardiovascular diseases. The present study investigated the angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory and anti-oxidative activities of Actinopyga lecanora (A. lecanora) hydrolysates, which had been prepared by alcalase, papain, bromelain, flavourzyme, pepsin, and trypsin under their optimum conditions. The alcalase hydrolysate showed the highest ACE inhibitory activity (69.8%) after 8 h of hydrolysis while the highest anti-oxidative activities measured by 2,2-diphenyl 1-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging (DPPH) (56.00%) and ferrous ion-chelating (FIC) (59.00%) methods were exhibited after 24 h and 8 h of hydrolysis, respectively. The ACE-inhibitory and anti-oxidative activities displayed dose-dependent trends, and increased with increasing protein hydrolysate concentrations. Moreover, strong positive correlations between angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory and anti-oxidative activities were also observed. This study indicates that A. lecanora hydrolysate can be exploited as a source of functional food owing to its anti-oxidant as well as anti-hypertension functions. PMID:26690117

  17. The intracellular location of lysosomal enzymes in developing Dictyostelium discoideum cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lenhard, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    The author has found that developing Dictyostelium cells contain two distinct acid hydrolase-containing organelles. Vesicles from cells at different stages of development were separated using Percoll density gradients. The lower density vesicles (LDVs or lysosomes) were present in nourished and starved cells. The higher density vesicles (HDVs) arose during starvation-induced differentiation. HDVs lacked two prestalk cell-specific lysosomal enzymes which were contained in LDVs. Prespore cell-specific spore coat proteins were detected in HDVs by ELISA. ({sup 35}S)sulfate labeling revealed that HDVs contained newly made glycoproteins as well as glycoproteins found in preexisting LDVs. Pulse-chase experiments using ({sup 35}S)methionine revealed that {alpha}-mannosidase from pre-existing LDVs an newly made {alpha}-mannosidase had entered HDVs. These data suggest that prespore LDVs mature to become HDVs. He has obtained evidence that HDVs are identical to prespore vesicles. Prespore vesicles are specialized secretory organelles which arise during prespore cell differentiation and which secrete their contents during terminal differentiation. As prespore vesicles secreted their contents, there was a co-incidental increase in extracellular acid hydrolase activity and a decrease in HDV-associated enzyme activity. Electron micrographs revealed that prespore cells contained two acid phosphatase-staining organelles, one of which appeared to be identical to lysosomes from nourished cells and a second which had features similar to prespore vesicles. Ricin-gold affinity electron microscopy was used to label the mucopolysaccharide component of prespore vesicles and the spore coat. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed co-localization of {alpha}-mannosidase with ricin-gold in prespore vesicles and the spore coat.

  18. Selenium accumulation in unicellular green alga Chlorella vulgaris and its effects on antioxidant enzymes and content of photosynthetic pigments.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xian; Zhong, Yu; Huang, Zhi; Yang, Yufeng

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate selenite effects in the unicellular green algae Chlorella vulgaris as a primary producer and the relationship with intracellular bioaccumulation. The effects of selenite were evaluated by measuring the effect of different selenite concentrations on algal growth during a 144 h exposure period. It was found that lower Se concentrations (? 75 mg L(-1)) positively promoted C. vulgaris growth and acted as antioxidant by inhibiting lipid peroxidation (LPO) and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). The antioxidative effect was associated with an increase in guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and photosynthetic pigments. Meanwhile, significant increase in the cell growth rate and organic Se content was also detected in the algae. In contrast, these changes were opposite in C. vulgaris exposed to Se higher than 100 mg L-1. The antioxidation and toxicity appeared to be correlated to Se bioaccumulation, which suggests the appropriate concentration of Se in the media accumulation of C. vulgaris should be 75 mg L-1. Taken together, C. vulgaris possesses tolerance to Se, and Se-Chlorella could be developed as antioxidative food for aquaculture and human health. PMID:25375113

  19. Selenium Accumulation in Unicellular Green Alga Chlorella vulgaris and Its Effects on Antioxidant Enzymes and Content of Photosynthetic Pigments

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xian; Zhong, Yu; Huang, Zhi; Yang, Yufeng

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate selenite effects in the unicellular green algae Chlorella vulgaris as a primary producer and the relationship with intracellular bioaccumulation. The effects of selenite were evaluated by measuring the effect of different selenite concentrations on algal growth during a 144 h exposure period. It was found that lower Se concentrations (≤75 mg L−1) positively promoted C. vulgaris growth and acted as antioxidant by inhibiting lipid peroxidation (LPO) and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). The antioxidative effect was associated with an increase in guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and photosynthetic pigments. Meanwhile, significant increase in the cell growth rate and organic Se content was also detected in the algae. In contrast, these changes were opposite in C. vulgaris exposed to Se higher than 100 mg L−1. The antioxidation and toxicity appeared to be correlated to Se bioaccumulation, which suggests the appropriate concentration of Se in the media accumulation of C. vulgaris should be 75 mg L−1. Taken together, C. vulgaris possesses tolerance to Se, and Se-Chlorella could be developed as antioxidative food for aquaculture and human health. PMID:25375113

  20. Effect of allyl isothiocyanate on antioxidant enzyme activities, flavonoids and fruit quality of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L., cv. Duke)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) on antioxidant enzyme activities, flavonoid content, and fruit quality of blueberries var. Duke (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) was evaluated. Results from this study showed that AITC was effective in maintaining higher amounts of sugars and lower organic acids co...

  1. Induction of Heat Shock Proteins and Antioxidant Enzymes in 2,3,7,8-TCDD-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Sook; Park, So-Young; Yoo, Ki-Yeol

    2012-01-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) is an environmental toxicant with a polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbon structure and is one of the most toxic man-made chemicals. Exposure to 2,3,7,8-TCDD induces reproductive toxicity, immunotoxicity, and hepatotoxicity. In this study, we evaluated how 2,3,7,8-TCDD-induced hepatotoxicity affect the expression of heat shock proteins and antioxidant enzymes using the real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in rat. 2,3,7,8-TCDD increased heat shock protein (Hsp27, α-B-crystallin, Mortalin, Hsp105, and Hsp90s) and antioxidant enzymes (SOD-3, GST and catalase) expression after a 1 day exposure in livers of rats, whereas heat shock protein (α-B-crystallin, Hsp90, and GRP78) and antioxidant enzymes (SOD-1, SOD-3, catalase, GST, and GPXs) expression decreased on day 2 and then slowly recovered back to control levels on day 8. These results suggest that heat shock proteins and antioxidant enzymes were induced as protective mechanisms against 2,3,7,8-TCDD induced hepatotoxicity, and that prolonged exposure depressed their levels, which recovered to control levels due to reduced 2,3,7,8-TCDD induced hepatotoxicity. PMID:23269910

  2. The Role of Antioxidant Enzymes in Adaptive Responses to Sheath Blight Infestation under Different Fertilization Rates and Hill Densities

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Xuejie; Shah, Farooq; Fahad, Shah; Huang, Jianliang

    2014-01-01

    Sheath blight of rice, caused by Rhizoctonia solani, is one of the most devastating rice diseases worldwide. No rice cultivar has been found to be completely resistant to this fungus. Identifying antioxidant enzymes activities (activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT)) and malondialdehyde content (MDA) responding to sheath blight infestation is imperative to understand the defensive mechanism systems of rice. In the present study, two inoculation methods (toothpick and agar block method) were tested in double-season rice. Toothpick method had greater lesion length than agar block method in late season. A higher MDA content was found under toothpick method compared with agar block method, which led to greater POD and SOD activities. Dense planting caused higher lesion length resulting in a higher MDA content, which also subsequently stimulated higher POD and SOD activity. Sheath blight severity was significantly related to the activity of antioxidant enzyme during both seasons. The present study implies that rice plants possess a system of antioxidant protective enzymes which helps them in adaptation to sheath blight infection stresses. Several agronomic practices, such as rational use of fertilizers and optimum planting density, involved in regulating antioxidant protective enzyme systems can be regarded as promising strategy to suppress the sheath blight development. PMID:25136671

  3. Effect of curcumin on hepatic antioxidant enzymes activities and gene expressions in rats intoxicated with aflatoxin B1.

    PubMed

    El-Bahr, S M

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight rats were examined in a 5-week experiment to investigate the effect of curcumin on gene expression and activities of hepatic antioxidant enzymes in rats intoxicated with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 ). The rats were divided into four groups. Rats in 1-4 groups served as control, oral curcumin treated (15?mg/kg body weight), single i.p. dose of AFB1 (3?mg/kg body weight) and combination of single i.p. dose of AFB1 with oral curcumin treated, respectively. AFB1 Liver damage and oxidative stress were evident in untreated AFB1 -intoxicated rats as indicated by a significant elevation in hepatic transaminases, elevation in lipid peroxide biomarkers (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances; TBARS), reduction of reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration, reduction in the activities of antioxidant enzymes namely catalase (CAT), total superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and down-regulation of gene expression of these antioxidant enzymes compared to control. Liver sections of rats intoxicated with AFB1 showed a disrupted lobular architecture, scattered necrotic cells and biliary proliferation. Administration of curcumin with AFB1 resulted in amelioration of AFB1 -induced effects compared to untreated AFB1 -intoxicated rats via an up-regulation of antioxidant enzyme gene expression, activation of the expressed genes and increase in the availability of GSH. PMID:25639897

  4. Interplay Between Oncoproteins and Antioxidant Enzymes in Esophageal Carcinoma Treated Without and With Chemoradiotherapy: A Prospective Study

    SciTech Connect

    Kaur, Tranum; Gupta, Rajesh; Vaiphei, Kim; Kapoor, Rakesh; Gupta, N.M.; Khanduja, K.L.

    2008-02-01

    Purpose: To analyze p53, bcl-2, c-myc, and cyclooxygenase-2 protein expression changes and examine their relationship with various antioxidant enzymes in esophageal carcinoma patients. Methods and Materials: Patients in Group 1 underwent transhiatal esophagectomy and those in Group 2 were administered chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery after 4 weeks of neoadjuvant therapy. Results: The relationship analysis among the various protein markers and antioxidant enzymes showed an inverse correlation between bcl-2 and superoxide dismutase/catalase in tumor tissues, irrespective of the treatment arm followed. An important positive association was observed between bcl-2 and reduced glutathione levels in the tumor tissue of patients receiving neoadjuvant therapy. Another apoptosis-modulating marker, c-myc, in the tumor tissue of Group 2 patients showed similar pattern levels (high and low) as that of superoxide dismutase/catalase. The association of cyclooxygenase-2 and p53 with various antioxidant enzymes showed a significant positive correlation between cyclooxygenase-2 expression and catalase activity and an inverse trend between p53 expression and superoxide dismutase and catalase activity in the tumor tissue of patients given neoadjuvant therapy. In addition, patients with overexpressed p53 protein levels had lower glutathione peroxidase enzyme levels and vice versa in the tumor tissue of patients who had undergone surgery as their main mode of treatment. Conclusion: The results of this study broaden the insight into the relationships shared among oncoproteins and the antioxidant defense system, and this could be helpful in the clinical management of esophageal carcinoma.

  5. Strawberry Polyphenols Attenuate Ethanol-Induced Gastric Lesions in Rats by Activation of Antioxidant Enzymes and Attenuation of MDA Increase

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Suarez, José M.; Dekanski, Dragana; Ristić, Slavica; Radonjić, Nevena V.; Petronijević, Nataša D.; Giampieri, Francesca; Astolfi, Paola; González-Paramás, Ana M.; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Tulipani, Sara; Quiles, José L.; Mezzetti, Bruno; Battino, Maurizio

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aim Free radicals are implicated in the aetiology of gastrointestinal disorders such as gastric ulcer, colorectal cancer and inflammatory bowel disease. Strawberries are common and important fruit due to their high content of essential nutrient and beneficial phytochemicals which seem to have relevant biological activity on human health. In the present study we investigated the antioxidant and protective effects of three strawberry extracts against ethanol-induced gastric mucosa damage in an experimental in vivo model and to test whether strawberry extracts affect antioxidant enzyme activities in gastric mucosa. Methods/Principal Findings Strawberry extracts were obtained from Adria, Sveva and Alba cultivars. Total antioxidant capacity and radical scavenging capacity were performed by TEAC, ORAC and electron paramagnetic resonance assays. Identification and quantification of anthocyanins was carried out by HPLC-DAD-MS analyses. Different groups of animals received 40 mg/day/kg body weight of strawberry crude extracts for 10 days. Gastric damage was induced by ethanol. The ulcer index was calculated together with the determination of catalase and SOD activities and MDA contents. Strawberry extracts are rich in anthocyanins and present important antioxidant capacity. Ethanol caused severe gastric damage and strawberry consumption protected against its deleterious role. Antioxidant enzyme activities increased significantly after strawberry extract intake and a concomitantly decrease in gastric lipid peroxidation was found. A significant correlation between total anthocyanin content and percent of inhibition of ulcer index was also found. Conclusions Strawberry extracts prevented exogenous ethanol-induced damage to rats' gastric mucosa. These effects seem to be associated with the antioxidant activity and phenolic content in the extract as well as with the capacity of promoting the action of antioxidant enzymes. A diet rich in strawberries might exert a beneficial effect in the prevention of gastric diseases related to generation of reactive oxygen species. PMID:22016781

  6. Dynamic changes of anti-oxidative enzymes of 10 wheat genotypes at soil water deficits.

    PubMed

    Shao, Hong Bo; Liang, Zong Suo; Shao, Ming An; Sun, Qun

    2005-05-25

    Drought is a world-spread problem seriously influencing crop production and quality, the loss of which is the total for other natural disasters, with increasing global climate change making the situation more serious. Wheat is the staple food for more than 35% of world population, so wheat anti-drought physiology study is of importance to wheat production and biological breeding for the sake of coping with abiotic and biotic conditions. Much research is involved in this hot topic, but the pace of progress is not so large because of drought resistance being a multiple-gene-control quantitative character and wheat genome being larger (16,000 Mb). On the other hand, stress adaptive mechanisms are quite different, with stress degree, different growth and developmental stages, time course, materials and experimental plots, thus increasing the complexity of the issue in question. Additionally, a little study is related to the whole life circle of wheat, which cannot provide a comprehensive understanding of its anti-drought machinery. We selected 10 kinds of wheat genotypes as materials, which have potential to be applied in practice, and measured change of relative physiological indices through wheat whole growing developmental circle (i.e. seedling, tillage and maturing). Here, we reported the dynamic anti-oxidative results of whole stage (i.e. seedling, tillage and maturing) in terms of activities of POD, SOD, CAT of 10 wheat genotypes as follows: (1) 10 wheat genotypes can be grouped into three kinds (A, B and C, respectively) according to their changing trend of the measured indices; (2) A group performed better resistance drought under the condition of treatment level 1, whose activities of anti-oxidative enzymes (POD, SOD, CAT) were higher; (3) B group exhibited stronger anti-drought under treatment level 2, whose activities of anti-oxidative enzymes were higher; (4) C group expressed anti-drought to some extent under treatment level 3, whose activities of anti-oxidative enzymes were stronger, MDA lower; (5) these results demonstrated that different wheat genotypes have different physiological mechanisms to adapt themselves to changing drought stress, whose molecular basis is discrete gene expression profiling (transcriptom); (6) our results also showed that the concept and method accepted and adopted by most researchers--that 75% FC is a proper supply for higher plants--was doubted because this level could not reflect the true suitable level of different wheat genotypes; (7) our research can provide insights into physiological mechanisms of crop anti-drought and direct practical materials for wheat anti-drought breeding; (8) POD, SOD and CAT activities of different wheat genotypes had quite different changing trend at different stages and under different soil water stress conditions, which was linked with their origin of cultivation and individual soil water stress threshold; (9) our primary results also firstly displayed that the changing trend for wheat adapting to environmental stress during life circle was an S-shaped curve, which is, by chance, consistent with Plant Growth Grand Periodicity Curve. PMID:15876527

  7. Antioxidant capacity and angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitory activity of a melon concentrate rich in superoxide dismutase.

    PubMed

    Carillon, Julie; Del Rio, Daniele; Teissdre, Pierre-Louis; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Lacan, Dominique; Rouanet, Jean-Max

    2012-12-01

    Antioxidant capacity and angiotensin 1-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity of a melon concentrate rich in superoxide dismutase (SOD-MC) were investigated in vitro. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was measured by the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay (TEAC), the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical assay, and the ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP). The ability of the extract to scavenge three specific reactive oxygen species (superoxide radical anion (O(2)(-)), hydroxyl radical (HO()) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))) was also investigated in order to better evaluate its antioxidant properties. Even if the measures of TAC were relatively low, results clearly established an antioxidant potential of SOD-MC that exhibited the highest radical-scavenging activity towards O(2)(-), with a IC(50) 12-fold lower than that of H(2)O(2) or HO(). This lets hypothesis that the antioxidant potential of SOD-MC could be mainly due to its high level of SOD. Moreover, for the first time, an ACE inhibitory activity of SOD-MC (IC(50)=2.40.1mg/mL) was demonstrated, showing that its use as a functional food ingredient with potential preventive benefits in the context of hypertension may have important public health implications and should be carefully considered. PMID:22953857

  8. Temperature increase results in oxidative stress in goldfish tissues. 2. Antioxidant and associated enzymes.

    PubMed

    Lushchak, Volodymyr I; Bagnyukova, Tetyana V

    2006-05-01

    Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), and glucose-6-phophate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) were measured in four tissues of goldfish, Carassius auratus L., over 1-12 h of high temperature (35 degrees C) exposure followed by 4 or 24 h of lower temperature (21 degrees C) recovery. SOD activity was strongly affected by heat shock, increasing 4-fold in brain, liver, and kidney, but was mainly reversed at recovery. In some tissues, activities of SOD, catalase, GPx, and G6PDH decreased significantly after 1 h heat shock exposure suggesting that thermal inactivation possibly occurred, but were renewed at further exposure. In many cases, 4 h of return to the initial temperature decreased enzyme activities. High correlation coefficients between SOD activities and levels of lipid peroxidation products suggest that these products might be involved in up-regulation of antioxidant defense. Several enzymes (SOD, GST, GR) responded to stress in coordinated manner. PMID:16426898

  9. Bioactive properties of commercialised pomegranate (Punica granatum) juice: antioxidant, antiproliferative and enzyme inhibiting activities.

    PubMed

    Les, Francisco; Prieto, Jose M; Arbons-Mainar, Jose Miguel; Valero, Marta Sofa; Lpez, Vctor

    2015-06-01

    Pomegranate juice and related products have long been used either in traditional medicine or as nutritional supplements claiming beneficial effects. Although there are several studies on this food plant, only a few studies have been performed with pomegranate juice or marketed products. The aim of this work is to evaluate the antioxidant effects of pomegranate juice on cellular models using hydrogen peroxide as an oxidizing agent or DPPH and superoxide radicals in cell free systems. The antiproliferative effects of the juice were measured on HeLa and PC-3 cells by the MTT assay and pharmacologically relevant enzymes (cyclooxygenases, xanthine oxidase, acetylcholinesterase and monoamine oxidase A) were selected for enzymatic inhibition assays. Pomegranate juice showed significant protective effects against hydrogen peroxide induced toxicity in the Artemia salina and HepG2 models; these effects may be attributed to radical scavenging properties of pomegranate as the juice was able to reduce DPPH and superoxide radicals. Moderate antiproliferative activities in HeLa and PC-3 cancer cells were observed. However, pomegranate juice was also able to inhibit COX-2 and MAO-A enzymes. This study reveals some mechanisms by which pomegranate juice may have interesting and beneficial effects in human health. PMID:26030005

  10. Change of antioxidant enzymes activity of hazel (Corylus avellana L.) cells by AgNPs.

    PubMed

    Jamshidi, Mitra; Ghanati, Faezeh; Rezaei, Ayatollah; Bemani, Ebrahim

    2014-11-18

    Elicitation effect of silver nano particles (AgNPs) and triggering of defence system by production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as a signaling molecule in the regulation of the activity of stress-related enzymes and production of Taxol was evaluated in suspension- cultured hazel cells (Corylus avellana L.). The cells were treated with different concentrations of AgNPs (0, 2.5, 5, and 10ppm), in their logarithmic growth phase (d7) and were harvested after 1 week. Treatment of hazel cells with AgNPs decreased the viability of the cells. Also the results showed that while the activity of certain radical scavenging enzymes in particular of catalase and peroxidase increased by 2.5 and 5ppm AgNPs, the activity of superoxide dismutase decreased in these treatments. The highest activity of ascorbate peroxidase was observed in 10ppm AgNPs treatments. This treatment also showed the highest contents of H2O2 and phenolic compounds, as well as the highest activity of phenylalanine ammonialyase. According to the results, 5ppm AgNPs was the best concentration for elicitation of hazel cells to produce efficient amounts of H2O2 in order for stimulation of antioxidant defence system, production of Taxol at the highest capacity of the cells, meanwhile reserving their viability. PMID:25404256

  11. Managing odds in stem cells: insights into the role of mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme MnSOD.

    PubMed

    Sheshadri, Preethi; Kumar, Anujith

    2016-05-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been poised at a straddled state of being beneficiary as well detrimental depending on its threshold levels. Maintaining the homeostasis of ROS is imperative for normal cellular physiology, wherein physiological concentrations of ROS are involved in cell signaling and elevated ROS contribute to the development of various diseases. Superoxide dismutases (SODs), enzymes involved in dismutation of superoxide anion to hydrogen peroxide, arrive as a first line of defense when there is perturbation in the homeostasis of ROS. As mitochondria are the main site of superoxide production, among SODs, mitochondrial manganese SOD (MnSOD) is the primary antioxidant enzyme that protects cells from ROS. Most importantly, knockout of MnSOD leads to postnatal lethality and tissue-specific conditional knockout in brain resulted in death of mice, conclusively portraying the essential role of MnSOD in development. Although MnSOD has been extensively discussed with the purview of tumor biology and aging, understanding the crucial role of MnSOD in stem cell physiology is still at its infant stage. Ever increasing progress in stem cell research has recently unveiled the essential role of MnSOD in self-renewal and differentiation of stem cells. In this review, we will conglomerate the current aspects by which MnSOD can contribute to embryonic stem cells' and adult stem cells' functions and interpret the necessity of understanding MnSOD for further stem cell mediated applications. PMID:26899340

  12. Abalone Protein Hydrolysates: Preparation, Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme Inhibition and Cellular Antioxidant Activity.

    PubMed

    Park, Soo Yeon; Je, Jae-Young; Hwang, Joung-Youl; Ahn, Chang-Bum

    2015-09-01

    Abalone protein was hydrolyzed by enzymatic hydrolysis and the optimal enzyme/substrate (E/S) ratios were determined. Abalone protein hydrolysates (APH) produced by Protamex at E/S ratio of 1:100 showed angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitory activity with IC50 of 0.46 mg/mL, and APH obtained by Flavourzyme at E/S ratio of 1:100 possessed the oxygen radical absorbance capacity value of 457.6 μM trolox equivalent/mg sample. Flavourzyme abalone protein hydrolysates (FAPH) also exhibited H2O2 scavenging activity with IC50 of 0.48 mg/mL and Fe(2+) chelating activity with IC50 of 2.26 mg/mL as well as high reducing power. FAPH significantly (P<0.05) protected H2O2-induced hepatic cell damage in cultured hepatocytes, and the cell viability was restored to 90.27% in the presence of FAPH. FAPH exhibited 46.20% intracellular ROS scavenging activity and 57.89% lipid peroxidation inhibition activity in cultured hepatocytes. Overall, APH may be useful as an ingredient for functional foods. PMID:26451354

  13. Abalone Protein Hydrolysates: Preparation, Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme Inhibition and Cellular Antioxidant Activity

    PubMed Central

    Park, Soo Yeon; Je, Jae-Young; Hwang, Joung-Youl; Ahn, Chang-Bum

    2015-01-01

    Abalone protein was hydrolyzed by enzymatic hydrolysis and the optimal enzyme/substrate (E/S) ratios were determined. Abalone protein hydrolysates (APH) produced by Protamex at E/S ratio of 1:100 showed angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitory activity with IC50 of 0.46 mg/mL, and APH obtained by Flavourzyme at E/S ratio of 1:100 possessed the oxygen radical absorbance capacity value of 457.6 μM trolox equivalent/mg sample. Flavourzyme abalone protein hydrolysates (FAPH) also exhibited H2O2 scavenging activity with IC50 of 0.48 mg/mL and Fe2+ chelating activity with IC50 of 2.26 mg/mL as well as high reducing power. FAPH significantly (P<0.05) protected H2O2-induced hepatic cell damage in cultured hepatocytes, and the cell viability was restored to 90.27% in the presence of FAPH. FAPH exhibited 46.20% intracellular ROS scavenging activity and 57.89% lipid peroxidation inhibition activity in cultured hepatocytes. Overall, APH may be useful as an ingredient for functional foods. PMID:26451354

  14. TRPM2 and TRPM7: channel/enzyme fusions to generate novel intracellular sensors.

    PubMed

    Scharenberg, Andrew M

    2005-10-01

    Within the transient receptor potential (Trp) superfamily of ion channels, three members of the Trp (melastatin) (TRPM) subfamily stand out as their amino acid sequences indicate that they possess both ion channel and enzymatic functions. Recently, progress has been made in understanding the relationships between these disparate functionalities for two of these proteins, TRPM2 and TRPM7. TRPM2 appears to have adapted an ADP-ribose hydrolase (ADPRibase) enzyme's structure as a means of binding ADP-ribose and conveying information about the accumulation of ADP-ribose to the cell via the activation of Na(+)/Ca(2+) entry through the channel domain. While the ADPRibase activity of TRPM2's enzymatic domain is not required for channel gating, whether a converse relationship exists, wherein channel gating or ion flow modulates the enzymatic domain's ADPRibase activity, is not known. In contrast, TRPM7 appears to have evolved to place a Mg(2+)-regulated protein kinase domain in close proximity to a Mg(2+)-permeant ion channel, such that the kinase domain's phosphotransferase activity is able respond to local changes in free Mg(2+) occurring as the result of the flux of Mg(2+) through the channel. As with TRPM2, the activity of TRPM7's enzymatic domain is not required for gating of its channel domain, although evidence exists that it may have an alternative means of influencing channel gating. These insights into the functional relationships between the channel and enzymatic domains of TRPM2 and TRPM7 suggest informative models for their roles in vertebrate cell physiology. PMID:16001276

  15. Effect of Sodium Fluoride Ingestion on Malondialdehyde Concentration and the Activity of Antioxidant Enzymes in Rat Erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Gonzlez, Jos A.; Gutirrez-Salinas, Jos; Garca-Ortiz, Liliana; del Carmen Chima-Galn, Mara; Madrigal-Santilln, Eduardo; Esquivel-Soto, Jaime; Esquivel-Chirino, Csar; Gonzlez-Rubio, Manuel Garca-Luna y

    2010-01-01

    Fluoride intoxication has been shown to produce diverse deleterious metabolic alterations within the cell. To determine the effects of sodium fluoride (NaF) treatment on malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in rat erythrocytes, Male Wistar rats were treated with 50 ppm of NaF or were untreated as controls. Erythrocytes were obtained from rats sacrificed weekly for up to eight weeks and the concentration of MDA in erythrocyte membrane was determined. In addition, the activity of the enzymes superoxide, dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase were determined. Treatment with NaF produces an increase in the concentration of malondialdehyde in the erythrocyte membrane only after the eight weeks of treatment. On the other hand, antioxidant enzyme activity was observed to increase after the fourth week of NaF treatment. In conclusion, intake of NaF produces alterations in the erythrocyte of the male rat, which indicates induction of oxidative stress. PMID:20640162

  16. Effect of sodium fluoride ingestion on malondialdehyde concentration and the activity of antioxidant enzymes in rat erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Morales-Gonzlez, Jos A; Gutirrez-Salinas, Jos; Garca-Ortiz, Liliana; Del Carmen Chima-Galn, Mara; Madrigal-Santilln, Eduardo; Esquivel-Soto, Jaime; Esquivel-Chirino, Csar; Gonzlez-Rubio, Manuel Garca-Luna Y

    2010-01-01

    Fluoride intoxication has been shown to produce diverse deleterious metabolic alterations within the cell. To determine the effects of sodium fluoride (NaF) treatment on malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in rat erythrocytes, Male Wistar rats were treated with 50 ppm of NaF or were untreated as controls. Erythrocytes were obtained from rats sacrificed weekly for up to eight weeks and the concentration of MDA in erythrocyte membrane was determined. In addition, the activity of the enzymes superoxide, dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase were determined. Treatment with NaF produces an increase in the concentration of malondialdehyde in the erythrocyte membrane only after the eight weeks of treatment. On the other hand, antioxidant enzyme activity was observed to increase after the fourth week of NaF treatment. In conclusion, intake of NaF produces alterations in the erythrocyte of the male rat, which indicates induction of oxidative stress. PMID:20640162

  17. Complex of vitamins and antioxidants protects low-density lipoproteins in blood plasma from free radical oxidation and activates antioxidants enzymes in erythrocytes from patients with coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Konovalova, G G; Lankin, V Z; Tikhaze, A K; Nezhdanova, I B; Lisina, M O; Kukharchuk, V V

    2003-08-01

    We studied the effect of a complex containing antioxidant vitamins C and E, provitamin A, and antioxidant element selenium on the contents of primary (lipid peroxides) and secondary products (malonic dialdehyde) of free radical lipid oxidation in low-density lipoproteins isolated from the plasma of patients with coronary heart disease and hypercholesterolemia by means of preparative ultracentrifugation. Activity of key antioxidant enzymes in the blood was measured during treatment with the antioxidant preparation. Combination treatment with antioxidant vitamins and antioxidant element selenium sharply decreased the contents of primary and secondary free radical oxidation products in circulating low-density lipoproteins and increased activity of antioxidant enzymes in erythrocytes. Activities of superoxide dismutase and selenium-containing glutathione peroxidase increased 1 and 2 months after the start of therapy, respectively. PMID:14631494

  18. Active peptides from skate (Okamejei kenojei) skin gelatin diminish angiotensin-I converting enzyme activity and intracellular free radical-mediated oxidation.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Dai-Hung; Ryu, BoMi; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2014-01-15

    Skin gelatin of skate (Okamejei kenojei) was hydrolyzed using Alcalase, flavourzyme, Neutrase and protamex. It was found that the Alcalase hydrolysate exhibited the highest angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity. Then, Alcalase hydrolysate was further hydrolyzed with protease and separated by an ultrafiltration membrane system. Finally, two peptides responsible for ACE inhibitory activity were identified to be MVGSAPGVL (829Da) and LGPLGHQ (720Da), with IC50 values of 3.09 and 4.22μM, respectively. Moreover, the free radical-scavenging activity of the purified peptides was determined in human endothelial cells. In addition, the antioxidative mechanism of the purified peptides was evaluated by protein and gene expression levels of antioxidant enzymes. The current study demonstrated that the peptides derived from skate skin gelatin could be used in the food industry as functional ingredients with potent antihypertensive and antioxidant benefits. PMID:24054237

  19. Evaluation of the Activities of Antioxidant Enzyme and Lysosomal Enzymes of the Longissimus dorsi Muscle from Hanwoo (Korean Cattle) in Various Freezing Conditions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the activities of antioxidant enzyme (glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px)) and lysosomal enzymes (alpha-glucopyranosidase (AGP) and beta-N-acetyl-glucosaminidase (BNAG)) of the longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle from Hanwoo (Korean cattle) in three freezing conditions. Following freezing at -20, -60, and -196℃ (liquid nitrogen), LD samples (48 h post-slaughter) were treated as follows: 1) freezing for 14 d, 2) 1 to 4 freeze-thaw cycles (2 d of freezing in each cycle), and 3) refrigeration (4℃) for 7 d after 7 d of freezing. The control was the fresh (non-frozen) LD. Freezing treatment at all temperatures significantly (p<0.05) increased the activities of GSH-Px, AGP, and BNAG. The -196 ℃ freezing had similar effects to the -20℃ and -60℃ freezing. Higher (p<0.05) enzymes activities were sustained in frozen LD even after 4 freeze-thaw cycles and even for 7 d of refrigeration after freezing. These findings suggest that freezing has remarkable effects on the activities of antioxidant enzyme and lysosomal enzymes of Hanwoo beef in any condition. PMID:26761669

  20. Evaluation of the Activities of Antioxidant Enzyme and Lysosomal Enzymes of the Longissimus dorsi Muscle from Hanwoo (Korean Cattle) in Various Freezing Conditions.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sun Moon; Kang, Geunho; Seong, Pil-Nam; Park, Beomyoung; Kim, Donghun; Cho, Soohyun

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the activities of antioxidant enzyme (glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px)) and lysosomal enzymes (alpha-glucopyranosidase (AGP) and beta-N-acetyl-glucosaminidase (BNAG)) of the longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle from Hanwoo (Korean cattle) in three freezing conditions. Following freezing at -20, -60, and -196? (liquid nitrogen), LD samples (48 h post-slaughter) were treated as follows: 1) freezing for 14 d, 2) 1 to 4 freeze-thaw cycles (2 d of freezing in each cycle), and 3) refrigeration (4?) for 7 d after 7 d of freezing. The control was the fresh (non-frozen) LD. Freezing treatment at all temperatures significantly (p<0.05) increased the activities of GSH-Px, AGP, and BNAG. The -196 ? freezing had similar effects to the -20? and -60? freezing. Higher (p<0.05) enzymes activities were sustained in frozen LD even after 4 freeze-thaw cycles and even for 7 d of refrigeration after freezing. These findings suggest that freezing has remarkable effects on the activities of antioxidant enzyme and lysosomal enzymes of Hanwoo beef in any condition. PMID:26761669

  1. Effect of benzo[a]pyrene on detoxification and the activity of antioxidant enzymes of marine microalgae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Chen; Miao, Jingjing; Li, Yun; Pan, Luqing

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) on the detoxification and antioxidant systems of two microalgae, Isochrysis zhanjiangensis and Platymonas subcordiformis. In our study, these two algae were exposed to BaP for 4 days at three different concentrations including 0.5 μg L-1 (low), 3 μg L-1 (mid) and 18 μg L-1 (high). The activity of detoxification enzymes, ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) increased in P. subcordiformis in all BaP-treated groups. In I. zhanjiangensis, the activity of these two enzymes increased at the beginning of exposure, and then decreased in the groups treated with mid- and high BaP. The activity of antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased in I. zhanjiangensis in all BaP-treated groups, and then decreased in high BaP-treated group, while no significant change was observed in P. subcordiformis. The activity of antioxidant enzyme catalase (CAT) increased in I. zhanjiangensis and P. subcordiformis in all BaPtreated groups. The content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in Isochrysis zhanjiangensis increased first, and then decreased in high BaP-treated group, while no change occurred in P. subcordiformis. These results demonstrated that BaP significantly influenced the activity of detoxifying and antioxidant enzymes in microalgae. The metabolic related enzymes (EROD, GST and CAT) may serve as sensitive biomarkers of measuring the contamination level of BaP in marine water.

  2. Salt and genotype impact on antioxidative enzymes and lipid peroxidation in two rice cultivars during de-etiolation.

    PubMed

    Turan, Satpal; Tripathy, Baishnab C

    2013-02-01

    Crop yield is severely affected by soil salinity, as salt levels that are harmful to plant growth occur in large terrestrial areas of the world. The present investigation describes the studies of enzymatic activities, in-gel assays, gene expression of some of the major antioxidative enzymes, tocopherol accumulation, lipid peroxidation, ascorbate and dehydroascorbate contents in a salt-sensitive rice genotype PB1, and a relatively salt-tolerant cultivar CSR10 in response to 200 mM NaCl. Salt solution was added to the roots of hydroponically grown 5-day-old etiolated rice seedlings, 12 h prior to transfer to cool white fluorescent?+?incandescent light (100 ?mol photons m(-2) s(-1)). Total tocopherol and ascorbate contents declined in salt-stressed rice seedlings. Among antioxidative enzymes, an increase in the activities of superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1), catalase (EC 1.11.1.6), ascorbate peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.11), glutathione reductase (EC 1.6.4.2), and their gene expression was observed in both cultivars in response to salt stress. The salt-tolerant cultivar CSR10 resisted stress due to its early preparedness to combat oxidative stress via upregulation of gene expression and enzymatic activities of antioxidative enzymes and a higher redox status of the antioxidant ascorbate even in a non-stressed environment. PMID:22434153

  3. Protective Potential of Antioxidant Enzymes as Vaccines for Schistosomiasis in a Non-Human Primate Model

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho-Queiroz, Claudia; Nyakundi, Ruth; Ogongo, Paul; Rikoi, Hitler; Egilmez, Nejat K.; Farah, Idle O.; Kariuki, Thomas M.; LoVerde, Philip T.

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis remains a major cause of morbidity in the world. The challenge today is not so much in the clinical management of individual patients, but rather in population-based control of transmission in endemic areas. Despite recent large-scale efforts, such as integrated control programs aimed at limiting schistosomiasis by improving education and sanitation, molluscicide treatment programs and chemotherapy with praziquantel, there has only been limited success. There is an urgent need for complementary approaches, such as vaccines. We demonstrated previously that anti-oxidant enzymes, such as Cu–Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione S peroxidase (GPX), when administered as DNA-based vaccines induced significant levels of protection in inbred mice, greater than the target 40% reduction in worm burden compared to controls set as a minimum by the WHO. These results led us to investigate if immunization of non-human primates with antioxidants would stimulate an immune response that could confer protection as a prelude study for human trials. Issues of vaccine toxicity and safety that were difficult to address in mice were also investigated. All baboons in the study were examined clinically throughout the study and no adverse reactions occurred to the immunization. When our outbred baboons were vaccinated with two different formulations of SOD (SmCT-SOD and SmEC-SOD) or one of GPX (SmGPX), they showed a reduction in worm number to varying degrees, when compared with the control group. More pronounced, vaccinated animals showed decreased bloody diarrhea, days of diarrhea, and egg excretion (transmission), as well as reduction of eggs in the liver tissue and in the large intestine (pathology) compared to controls. Specific IgG antibodies were present in sera after immunizations and 10 weeks after challenge infection compared to controls. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells, mesenteric, and inguinal node cells from vaccinated animals proliferated and produced high levels of cytokines and chemokines in response to crude and recombinant antigens compared with controls. All together, these data demonstrate the potential of antioxidants as a vaccine in a non-human primate model. PMID:26082781

  4. Genetic Variation in Antioxidant Enzymes, Cigarette Smoking and Longitudinal Change in Lung Function

    PubMed Central

    Tang, W; Bentley, AR; Kritchevsky, SB; Harris, TB; Newman, AB; Bauer, DC; Meibohm, B; Cassano, PA

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Antioxidant enzymes play an important role in the defense against oxidative stress in the lung and in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Sequence variation in genes encoding antioxidant enzymes may alter susceptibility to COPD by affecting longitudinal change in lung function in adults. Methods We genotyped 384 sequence variants in 56 candidate genes in 1,281 African-American and 1,794 European-American elderly adults of the Health, Aging, and Body Composition study. Single-marker associations and gene-by-smoking interactions with rate of change in FEV1 and FEV1/ FVC were evaluated using linear mixed effects models, stratified by race/ethnicity. Results In European-Americans, rs17883901 in GCLC was statistically significantly associated with rate of change in FEV1/FVC; the recessive genotype (TT) was associated with a 0.9% per year steeper decline (P = 4.50 × 10−5). Statistically significant gene-by-smoking interactions were observed for variants in two genes in European-Americans: the minor allele of rs2297765 in mGST3 attenuated the accelerated decline in FEV1/FVC in smokers by 0.45% per year (P = 1.13 × 10−4); for participants with greater baseline smoking pack-years, the minor allele of rs2073192 in IDH3B was associated with an accelerated decline in FEV1/FVC (P = 2.10 × 10−4). For both genes, nominally significant interactions (P < 0.01) were observed at the gene-level in African-Americans (P = 0.007 and 4.60 × 10−4, respectively). Nominally significant evidence of association was observed for variants in SOD3 and GLRX2 in multiple analyses. Conclusions This study identifies two novel genes associated with longitudinal lung function phenotypes in both African- and European-Americans, and confirms a prior finding for GCLC. These findings suggest novel mechanisms and molecular targets for future research and advance the understanding of genetic determinants of lung function and COPD risk. PMID:23688726

  5. Chemical characterization, antioxidant and inhibitory effects of some marine sponges against carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background More than 15,000 marine products have been described up to now; Sponges are champion producers, concerning the diversity of products that have been found. Most bioactive compounds from sponges were classified into anti-inflammatory, antitumor, immuno- or neurosurpressive, antiviral, antimalarial, antibiotic, or antifouling. Evaluation of in vitro inhibitory effects of different extracts from four marine sponges versus some antioxidants indices and carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes concerned with diabetes mellitus was studied. The chemical characterizations for the extracts of the predominating sponges; SP1 and SP3 were discussed. Methods All chemicals served in the biological study were of analytical grade and purchased from Sigma, Merck and Aldrich. All kits were the products of Biosystems (Spain), Sigma Chemical Company (USA), Biodiagnostic (Egypt). Carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes; α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and β-galactosidase (EC3.2.1.1, EC3.2.1.20, and EC3.2.1.23, respectively) were obtained from Sigma Chemical Company (USA). Results Four marine sponges; Smenospongia (SP1), Callyspongia (SP2), Niphates (SP3), and Stylissa (SP4), were collected from the Red Sea at Egyptian coasts, and taxonomically characterized. The sponges' extracts exhibited diverse inhibitory effects on oxidative stress indices and carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes in linear relationships to some extent with concentration of inhibitors (dose dependant). The extracts of sponges (3, 1, and 2) showed, respectively, potent-reducing power. Purification and Chemical characterization of sponge 1 using NMR and mass spectroscopy, recognized the existence of di-isobutyl phthalate (1), di-n-butyl phthalate (2), linoleic acid (3), ?-sitosterol (4), and cholesterol (5). Sponge 3 produced bis-[2-ethyl]-hexyl-phthylester (6) and triglyceride fatty acid ester (7). Conclusion Marine sponges are promising sources for delivering of bioactive compounds. Four marine sponges, collected from Red Sea at Egyptian coasts, were identified as Smenospongia (SP1), Callyspongia (SP2), Niphates (SP3), and Stylissa (SP4). The results demonstrated that different sponges extracts exhibited inhibitory effects on oxidative stress indices and carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes in linear relationships to some extent with concentration of inhibitors (dose dependant). The extracts of sponges (3, 1, and 2) showed, respectively, potent-reducing power. Chemical characterizations of sponges SP1 and SP3 were discussed. Based on this study, marine sponges are considered as talented sources for production of diverse and multiple biologically active compounds. PMID:22898269

  6. Temperature stress, anti-oxidative enzyme activity and virus acquisition in Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In most eukaryotic systems, antioxidants provide protection when cells are exposed to stressful environmental conditions. Antioxidants, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and catalase, function in a stepwise series with SOD initially preventing oxidative damage by conve...

  7. Modulation of glutathione and antioxidant enzymes by Ocimum sanctum and its role in protection against radiation injury.

    PubMed

    Devi, P U; Ganasoundari, A

    1999-03-01

    Aqueous extract (OE) of the leaves of Ocimum sanctum, the Indian holy basil, has been found to protect mouse against radiation lethality and chromosome damage and to possess significant antioxidant activity in vitro. Therefore a study was conducted to see if OE protects against radiation induced lipid peroxidation in liver and to determine the role, if any, of the inherent antioxidant system in radioprotection by OE. Adult Swiss mice were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 10 mg/kg of OE for 5 consecutive days and exposed to 4.5 Gy of gamma radiation 30 min after the last injection. Glutathione (GSH) and the antioxidant enzymes glutathione transferase (GST), reductase (GSRx), peroxidase (GSPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), as well as lipid peroxide (LPx) activity were estimated in the liver at 15 min, 30 min, 1, 2, 4 and 8 hr post-treatment. LPx was also studied after treatment with a single dose of 50 mg/kg of OE with/without irradiation. OE itself increased the GSH and enzymes significantly above normal levels whereas radiation significantly reduced all the values. The maximum decline was at 30-60 min for GSH and related enzymes and at 2 hr for SOD. Pretreatment with the extract checked the radiation induced depletion of GSH and all the enzymes and maintained their levels within or above the control range. Radiation significantly increased the lipid peroxidation rate, reaching a maximum value at 2 hr after exposure (approximately 3.5 times that of control). OE pretreatment significantly (P < 0.0001) reduced the lipid peroxidation and accelerated recovery to normal levels. The results indicate that Ocimum extract protects against radiation induced lipid peroxidation and that GSH and the antioxidant enzymes appear to have an important role in the protection. PMID:10641157

  8. AmiA is a penicillin target enzyme with dual activity in the intracellular pathogen Chlamydia pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Klckner, Anna; Otten, Christian; Derouaux, Adeline; Vollmer, Waldemar; Bhl, Henrike; De Benedetti, Stefania; Mnch, Daniela; Josten, Michaele; Mlleken, Katja; Sahl, Hans-Georg; Henrichfreise, Beate

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular Chlamydiaceae do not need to resist osmotic challenges and a functional cell wall was not detected in these pathogens. Nevertheless, a recent study revealed evidence for circular peptidoglycan-like structures in Chlamydiaceae and penicillin inhibits cytokinesis, a phenomenon known as the chlamydial anomaly. Here, by characterizing a cell wall precursor-processing enzyme, we provide insights into the mechanisms underlying this mystery. We show that AmiA from Chlamydia pneumoniae separates daughter cells in an Escherichia coli amidase mutant. Contrary to homologues from free-living bacteria, chlamydial AmiA uses lipid II as a substrate and has dual activity, acting as an amidase and a carboxypeptidase. The latter function is penicillin sensitive and assigned to a penicillin-binding protein motif. Consistent with the lack of a regulatory domain in AmiA, chlamydial CPn0902, annotated as NlpD, is a carboxypeptidase, rather than an amidase activator, which is the case for E. coli NlpD. Functional conservation of AmiA implicates a role in cytokinesis and host response modulation. PMID:24953137

  9. Superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase are constitutively more thermotolerant than other antioxidant enzymes in Chenopodium album.

    PubMed

    Khanna-Chopra, Renu; Semwal, Vimal Kumar

    2011-10-01

    Thermal stability of antioxidant defense enzymes was investigated in leaf and inflorescence of heat adaptive weed Chenopodium album. Leaf samples were taken at early and late seedling stage in December (LD, 20 °C/4 °C) and March (LM, 31 °C/14 °C). Young inflorescence (INF) was sampled at flowering in April (40 °C/21 °C). LD, LM and INF crude protein extracts were subjected to elevated temperatures (5 to 100 °C) for 30'. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) was the most heat stable enzyme followed by Ascorbate peroxidase (APX). Two heat stable SOD isozymes were visible on native-PAGE at 100 °C in both leaf and INF. Some heat stable APX isozymes were more abundant in INF than leaf. Thermostability of catalase (CAT) increased with age and increasing ambient temperatures in leaves. CAT activity was observed up to 60 °C in leaves and INF while peroxidase (POX) retained activity up to 100 °C in INF due to one thermostable isozyme. Glutathione reductase (GR), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR, EC 1.8.5.1) and monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR) showed activity up to 70 °C in both leaves and INF. DHAR activity was stable up to 60 °C while GR and MDHAR declined sharply after 40 °C. Constitutive heat stable isozymes of SOD and APX in leaves and INF may contribute towards heat tolerance in C. album. PMID:23573027

  10. Antioxidant Properties of the Extracts of Talinum Triangulare and its Effect on Antioxidant enzymes in Tissue Homogenate of Swiss Albino Rat

    PubMed Central

    Afolabi, Olakunle Bamikole; Oloyede, Omotade Ibidun

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study was designed to put into consideration both the in vitro and in vivo investigations on Talinum triangulare (Tt), an herbaceous perennial plant that is a native of tropical America and one of the most important vegetables in Nigeria. Methods: Total phenolic contents in (mg GAE/100 g), flavonoid contents, the ferric reducing antioxidant properties (FRAP), 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl free radical scavenging ability (OH-) and iron chelating ability were carried out in vivo using standard described methods while GSH, GPx, catalase and SOD were determined in vivo using standard described methods. Results: In the three different solvents extraction of T. triangulare that were studied in vitro, it was noted that ethyl acetate and ethanolic fractions of T. triangulare showed potent antioxidant activity against DPPH and iron chelating property with high phenolic content except Hydroxyl free radical scavenging ability that showed highest value in the aqueous extract, while the Reduced GSH indicated the highest in the parameter determined in vivo. Conclusion: The antioxidant properties showed in this solvent extractable component probably could have been the basis for the enhanced activities of antioxidant enzymes at very lower dose in the examined tissue homogenates. Therefore, T. triangulare can thereby serve as a means of Preventing some of major degenerative diseases challenging Humans PMID:25948971

  11. Chemomodulatory efficacy of lycopene on antioxidant enzymes and carcinogen-induced cutaneum carcinoma in mice.

    PubMed

    Shen, Cunsi; Wang, Siliang; Shan, Yunlong; Liu, Zhaoguo; Fan, Fangtian; Tao, Li; Liu, Yuping; Zhou, Liang; Pei, Changsong; Wu, Hongyan; Tian, Chao; Ruan, Junshan; Chen, Wenxing; Wang, Aiyun; Zheng, Shizhong; Lu, Yin

    2014-07-25

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in various pathological processes, including skin tumourigenesis. Cutaneum carcinoma is commonly responsible for considerable morbidity and mortality, and treatments have not progressed substantially in recent years. Alternative strategies, such as chemoprevention, are being considered. In this study, we investigated the chemomodulatory potential of lycopene against 9,10-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)/12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced oxidative stress and skin carcinogenesis in female ICR mice. Pretreatment with lycopene at various doses significantly delayed tumour formation and growth. These treatments markedly reduced the tumour incidence and tumour volume. Moreover, lycopene inhibited the formation of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde, prevented the loss of glutathione, and affected the activities of a battery of oxidant enzymes in the skin of mice. Furthermore, mice that were administered lycopene exhibited higher levels of translocation of nuclear-factor-erythroid-2-related factor 2 into the nucleus compared with the vehicle-treated and model mice. Collectively, these results indicated that lycopene exerts a protective effect against DMBA/TPA-induced cutaneum carcinoma through antioxidant defence. PMID:24781038

  12. Studies on antioxidative enzymes induced by cadmium in pea plants (Pisum sativum).

    PubMed

    Pandey, Nalini; Singh, Gaurav Kumar

    2012-03-01

    Pea plants (Pisum sativum cv. Swati) exposed to different concentration of cadmium (50,100, 200 microM Cd) under controlled glass house conditions were quantified for different physiological parameters and antioxidative enzymes. In pea plants, Cd produced a significant inhibition of growth and induced chlorosis, marginal yellowing and necrosis in young leaves, the effect being most pronounced at 200 microM Cd supply. An alteration in the activated oxygen metabolism of pea plants were also detected as evidenced by an increase in concentration of H2O2 and TBARS along with decrease in the chlorophyll and carotenoid concentration in leaves. Cadmium toxicity induced an increase in non-protein thiol, ascorbate, proline and cysteine concentration. A significant increment in the activity of SOD, APX and GR, and a decrease in CAT was observed as a result of Cd treatment. The enhanced activity of SOD and inhibition of CAT and POD produces a high build up of H2O2 which appears to be the main cause of oxidative stress due to Cd toxicity in pea plants. PMID:23033681

  13. [Antioxidant enzyme gene expression as molecular biomarkers of exposure to polycyclic musks].

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun; Zhou, Qi-xing; Liu, Xiao-wei

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the molecular toxicological effects of low level synthetic musks exposure on the earthworm Eisenia fetida. The method of Sybr Green I real time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) for detecting gene expression level was established. SOD (superoxide dismutase) and CAT (catalase) mRNA expression levels were measured after 28 days. of AHTN and HHCB exposure. The analysis results of both sequence alignment and melting curve demonstrated that the selected primers were suitable for mRNA quantification. The liner correlation coefficients of SOD and CAT standard curves were 0.997 and 0.994, respectively, and the PCR amplification efficiencies were both close to 100%. Therefore, relative quantification method could be applied to analyze the gene expression levels. The significant elevation of malondialdehyde (MDA) levels indicated that the reactive oxygen species-induced cellular oxidative injury might be one of the main toxic effects of AHTN and HHCB. Besides, a significant positive correlation was observed between the up-regulation of SOD, CAT mRNA and the MDA levels, suggesting that possible changes in the transcript expression of antioxidant enzyme genes were associated with the oxidative stress. Furthermore, the dose-response correlation between SOD, CAT mRNA levels and the exposure concentrations was also found. The overall results indicated that SOD and CAT genes might be potential molecular biomarkers for the evaluation of the pollution stress and toxicological effects of synthetic musks in the environment. PMID:23213915

  14. Antioxidant Enzymes Reduce DNA Damage and Early Activation of Valvular Interstitial Cells in Aortic Valve Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Branchetti, Emanuela; Sainger, Rachana; Poggio, Paolo; Grau, Juan B.; Patterson-Fortin, Jeffrey; Bavaria, Joseph E.; Chorny, Michael; Lai, Eric; Gorman, Robert C.; Levy, Robert J.; Ferrari, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Objective Accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and remodeling of the microstructure of the cusp characterize aortic valve sclerosis, the early phase of calcific aortic valve disease. These events are associated with activation of valvular interstitial cells (VICs) toward an osteogenic-like phenotype. Because ROS cause DNA damage and transcriptional activation we investigated the relationship between ROS, DNA damage response, and transdifferentiation of VICs. Methods and Results Human aortic valve cusps and patient-matched VICs were collected from 39 patients both with and without calcific aortic valve disease. VICs were exposed to hydrogen peroxide (0.1–1 mmol/L) after cell transduction with extracellular superoxide dismutase/catalase adenoviruses and characterized for DNA-damage response, osteogenic transdifferentiation, and calcification. ROS induce relocalization of phosphorylated γH2AX, MRE11, and XRCC1 proteins with expression of osteogenic signaling molecule RUNX2 via AKT. We report a sustained activation of γH2AX in aortic valve sclerosis-derived VICs suggesting their impaired ability to repair DNA damage. Adenovirus superoxide dismutase/catalase transduction decreases ROS-induced DNA damage and VIC transdifferentiation in aortic valve sclerosis-derived cells. Finally, adenoviral transduction with catalase reverts ROS-mediated calcification and cellular transdifferentiation. Conclusion We conclude that the ROS-induced DNA damage response is dysfunctional in early asymptomatic stages of calcific aortic valve disease. We unveiled an association among ROS, DNA-damage response, and cellular transdifferentiation, reversible by antioxidant enzymes delivery. PMID:23241403

  15. Correlation among lung damage after radiation, amount of lipid peroxides, and antioxidant enzyme activities

    SciTech Connect

    Nozue, M.; Ogata, T.

    1989-04-01

    The correlation between lipid peroxidation and morphologic changes was examined in Sprague-Dawley rat lungs after 30 Gy single thoracic radiation. The rats were sacrificed every week until the end of the fifth week after radiation. The left lungs were used for the measurement of lipid peroxides and antioxidant enzymes activities. The right lungs were examined by light and electron microscopy. Amounts of lung lipid peroxides were within normal limits, and no cellular degenerative changes were observed in the lungs except for subendothelial and interstitial edema 2 weeks after radiation. Lipid peroxides drastically increased and marked degenerative cellular changes such as edematous swelling, vacuolation, and destruction of cell membranes occurred in the alveolar septa following the third week after radiation. The activities of catalase were significantly higher during the period from the second to the fifth week and those of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase increased at the end of the fifth week. Our results demonstrated that the acceleration of lipid peroxidation was well correlated with the morphologic expression of cell injury in the irradiated lungs.

  16. Antioxidant enzymes are induced by phenol in the marine microalga Lingulodinium polyedrum.

    PubMed

    Martins, P L G; Marques, L G; Colepicolo, P

    2015-06-01

    Knowing the impacts of different anthropogenic activities on ecosystems promotes preservation of aquatic organisms. Aiming to facilitate the identification of polluted or contaminated areas, the study of microalga Lingulodinium polyedrum in phenol-containing medium comprises the determination of toxic and metabolic phenol effects, featuring a possible use of this microorganism as bioindicator for this pollutant. Marine microalga L. polyedrum exposure to phenol increases superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities. The 20% and 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC20 and IC50) of cells exposed to phenol were 40 ?mol L(-1) and 120 ?mol L(-1), respectively. Phenol biodegradation by L. polyedrum was 0.02 ?mol h(-1)cell(-1), and its biotransformation was catalyzed by glutathione S-transferase (GST), phenol hydroxylase and catechol 2,3-dihydroxygenase metabolic pathways. Phenol exposure produced the metabolites 2-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde acid, 1,2-dihydroxybenzene (catechol), and 2-oxo-4-pentenoic acid; also, it induced the activity of key antioxidant biomarker enzymes SOD and CAT by three folds compared to that in the controls. Further, phenol decreased the glutathione/oxidized glutathione ratio (GSH/GSSG), highlighting the effective glutathione oxidation in L. polyedrum. Overall, our results suggest that phenol alters microalga growth conditions and microalgae are sensitive bioindicators to pollution by phenol in marine environments. PMID:25770655

  17. Gelatin hydrolysate from blacktip shark skin prepared using papaya latex enzyme: Antioxidant activity and its potential in model systems.

    PubMed

    Kittiphattanabawon, Phanat; Benjakul, Soottawat; Visessanguan, Wonnop; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2012-12-01

    Antioxidant activities of gelatin hydrolysates from blacktip shark skin prepared using papaya latex enzyme with different degrees of hydrolysis (DHs: 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%) were evaluated. All antioxidant activity indices of hydrolysates increased with increasing DH (P<0.05). When gelatin hydrolysate with 40%DH was determined for its pH and thermal stability, ORAC and chelating activity remained constant or slightly increased in a wide pH range (1-9) and during heating (100°C) for 240min. It was also stable in simulated gastrointestinal tract model system. Moreover, gelatin hydrolysate at a level of 500 and 1000ppm could inhibit lipid oxidation in both β-carotene linoleate and cooked comminuted pork model systems. Therefore, gelatin hydrolysate from blacktip shark skin (40%DH) can potentially be used as an alternative source of natural antioxidants. PMID:22953833

  18. Effects of thermal stress on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities of the predatory mite, Neoseiulus cucumeris (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guo-Hao; Liu, Huai; Wang, Jin-Jun; Wang, Zi-Ying

    2014-01-01

    Changes in temperature are known to cause a variety of physiological stress responses in insects and mites. Thermal stress responses are usually associated with the increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), resulting in oxidative damage. In this study, we examined the time-related effect (durations for 1, 2, 3, and 5 h) of thermal stress conditions-i.e., relatively low (0, 5, 10, and 15 °C) or high (35, 38, 41, and 44 °C) temperatures-on the activities of antioxidant enzymes including catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POX), glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) of the predatory mite Neoseiulus cucumeris. Also the lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels of the predatory mite were measured under thermal stress conditions. The results confirmed that thermal stress results in a condition of so-called oxidative stress and the four antioxidant enzymes play an important role in combating the accumulation of ROS in N. cucumeris. CAT and POX activity changed significantly when the mites were exposed to cold and heat shock, respectively. The elevated levels of SOD and GSTs activity, expressed in a time-dependent manner, may have an important role in the process of antioxidant response to thermal stress. However, the levels of LPO in N. cucumeris were high, serving as an important signal that these antioxidant enzyme-based defense mechanisms were not always adequate to counteract the surplus ROS. Thus, we hypothesize that thermal stress, especially extreme temperatures, may contribute much to the generation of ROS in N. cucumeris, and eventually to its death. PMID:24687176

  19. Antioxidative Properties and Inhibition of Key Enzymes Relevant to Type-2 Diabetes and Hypertension by Essential Oils from Black Pepper

    PubMed Central

    Oboh, Ganiyu; Ademosun, Ayokunle O.; Odubanjo, Oluwatoyin V.; Akinbola, Ifeoluwa A.

    2013-01-01

    The antioxidant properties and effect of essential oil of black pepper (Piper guineense) seeds on α-amylase, α-glucosidase (key enzymes linked to type-2 diabetes), and angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) (key enzyme linked to hypertension) were assessed. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and dried with anhydrous Na2SO4, and the phenolic content, radical [1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and nitric oxide (NO)] scavenging abilities as well as the ferric reducing antioxidant property (FRAP) and Fe2+-chelating ability of the essential oil were investigated. Furthermore, the effect on α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and ACE enzyme activities was also investigated. The characterization of the constituents was done using GC. The essential oil scavenged DPPH∗, NO∗, and ABTS∗ and chelated Fe2+. α-Pinene, β-pinene, cis-ocimene, myrcene, allo-ocimene, and 1,8-cineole were among the constituents identified by GC. The essential oil inhibited α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and ACE enzyme activities in concentration-dependent manners, though exhibiting a stronger inhibition of α-glucosidase than α-amylase activities. Conclusively, the phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and inhibition of α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and angiotensin-1 converting enzyme activities by the essential oil extract of black pepper could be part of the mechanism by which the essential oil could manage and/or prevent type-2 diabetes and hypertension. PMID:24348547

  20. Production of feather hydrolysates with antioxidant, angiotensin-I converting enzyme- and dipeptidyl peptidase-IV-inhibitory activities.

    PubMed

    Fontoura, Roberta; Daroit, Daniel J; Correa, Ana P F; Meira, Stela M M; Mosquera, Mauricio; Brandelli, Adriano

    2014-09-25

    The antioxidant and antihypertensive activities of feather hydrolysates obtained with the bacterium Chryseobacterium sp. kr6 were investigated. Keratin hydrolysates were produced with different concentrations of thermally denatured feathers (10-75 g l(-1)) and initial pH values (6.0-9.0). Soluble proteins accumulated in high amounts in media with 50 and 75 g l(-1) of feathers, reaching values of 18.5 and 22 mg ml(-1), respectively, after 48 hours of cultivation. In media with 50 g l(-1) of feathers, initial pH had minimal effect after 48 hours. Maximal protease production was observed after 24 hours of cultivation, and feather concentration and initial pH values showed no significant effect on enzyme yields at this time. Feather hydrolysates displayed in vitro antioxidant properties, and optimal antioxidant activities were observed in cultures with 50 g l(-1) feathers, at initial pH 8.0, after 48 hours growth at 30C. Also, feather hydrolysates were demonstrated to inhibit the angiotesin I-converting enzyme by 65% and dipeptidyl peptidase-IV by 44%. The bioconversion of an abundant agroindustrial waste such as chicken feathers can be utilized as a strategy to obtain hydrolysates with antioxidant and antihypertensive activities. Feather hydrolysates might be employed as supplements in animal feed, and also as a potential source of bioactive molecules for feed, food and drug development. PMID:25038398

  1. Effects of nitrogen dioxide and its acid mist on reactive oxygen species production and antioxidant enzyme activity in Arabidopsis plants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaofang; Hou, Fen; Li, Guangke; Sang, Nan

    2015-08-01

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is one of the most common and harmful air pollutants. To analyze the response of plants to NO2 stress, we investigated the morphological change, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and antioxidant enzyme activity in Arabidopsis thaliana (Col-0) exposed to 1.7, 4, 8.5, and 18.8 mg/m(3) NO2. The results indicate that NO2 exposure affected plant growth and chlorophyll (Chl) content, and increased oxygen free radical (O2(-)) production rate in Arabidopsis shoots. Furthermore, NO2 elevated the levels of lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation, accompanied by the induction of antioxidant enzyme activities and change of ascorbate (AsA) and glutathione (GSH) contents. Following this, we mimicked nitric acid mist under experimental conditions, and confirmed the antioxidant mechanism of the plant to the stress. Our results imply that NO2 and its acid mist caused pollution risk to plant systems. During the process, increased ROS acted as a signal to induce a defense response, and antioxidant status played an important role in plant protection against NO2/nitric acid mist-caused oxidative damage. PMID:26257351

  2. The Association among Antioxidant Enzymes, Autoantibodies, and Disease Severity Score in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Comparison of Neuropsychiatric and Nonneuropsychiatric Groups

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Tien-Tsai; Chen, Chung-Jen; Chiu, Wen-Chan; Chang, Wen-Neng; Tsai, Nai-Wen; Kung, Chia-Te; Lin, Wei-Che; Huang, Chih-Cheng; Chang, Ya-Ting; Su, Chih-Min; Chiang, Yi-Fang; Cheng, Ben-Chung; Lu, Cheng-Hsien

    2014-01-01

    Background. Antioxidative capacity plays an important role in the severity of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), which is characterized by autoantibodies. This study aimed to determine the relationship among autoantibody titers, antioxidative stress reserve, and severity of SLE. Methods. The autoantibody titers, clinical markers, antioxidant enzyme levels, and disease activity index (SLEDAI-2k) of 32 SLE patients and 16 healthy controls were compared. We also compared both the neuropsychiatric (NPSLE) and nonneuropsychiatric (non-NPSLE) groups. Results. Superoxide dismutase in red blood cells was significantly lower in the SLE than in the control group. CRP levels are significant higher in SLE patients than in control group (P = 0.034). Among the autoantibodies, anti-U1RNP (P = 0.008), a-Sm (P = 0.027), and anti-ribosomal p (P = 0.028) significantly negatively correlated with glutathione levels. There has no significant correlation between SLE disease activity indexes (SLEDAI) and levels of C3, C4, and antioxidant enzymes. Conclusions. Erythrocyte superoxide dismutase is significantly lower in both NPSLE and non-NPSLE groups. SLE patients have both higher CRP and autoantibodies level and decreased superoxide dismutase level than the healthy control group. PMID:24877055

  3. RSM based optimized enzyme-assisted extraction of antioxidant phenolics from underutilized watermelon (Citrullus lanatus Thunb.) rind.

    PubMed

    Mushtaq, Muhammad; Sultana, Bushra; Bhatti, Haq Nawaz; Asghar, Muhammad

    2015-08-01

    Enzyme assisted solvent extraction (EASE) of phenolic compounds from watermelon (C. lanatus) rind (WMR) was optimized using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) with Rotatable Central Composite Design (RCCD). Four variables each at five levels i.e. enzyme concentration (EC) 0.5-6.5%, pH6-9, temperature (T) 25-75C and treatment time (t) 30-90min, were augmented to get optimal yield of polyphenols with maximum retained antioxidant potential. The polyphenol extracts obtained under optimum conditions were evaluated for their in-vitro antioxidant activities and characterized for individual phenolic profile by RP-HPLC-DAD. The results obtained indicated that optimized EASE enhanced the liberation of antioxidant phenolics up to 3 folds on fresh weight basis (FW) as compared to conventional solvent extraction (CSE), with substantial level of total phenolics (173.70mg GAE/g FW), TEAC 279.96mg TE/g FW and DPPH radical scavenging ability (IC50) 112.27mg/mL. Chlorogenic acid (115.60-1611.04), Vanillic acid (26.13-2317.01) and Sinapic acid (113.01-241.12?g/g) were major phenolic acid found in EASEx of WMR. Overall, it was concluded that EASE might be efficient and green technique to revalorize under-utilized WMR into potent antioxidant phenolic for their further application in food and nutraceutical industries. PMID:26243925

  4. Genetic polymorphisms in antioxidant enzyme genes and susceptibility to hepatocellular carcinoma in Chinese population: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Su, Song; He, Kai; Li, Jing; Wu, Jiali; Zhang, Mengyu; Feng, Chunhong; Xia, Xianming; Li, Bo

    2015-06-01

    An increased oxidant burden has been implicated in hepatocarcinogenesis, and several antioxidant enzymes counteract potential oxidative damage. So, polymorphisms in the genes encoding antioxidant enzymes may play an important role in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). To test this hypothesis, we investigated the association of polymorphisms in antioxidant enzyme genes, including three superoxide dismutases (SODs), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), with HCC in a Chinese population consisting of 434 HCC patients and 480 control subjects. Genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CIs) were estimated by unconditional logistic regression. For the ECSOD Ala40Thr polymorphism, a significant association was observed between this polymorphism and HCC risk in non-hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers but not in HBV carriers, and individuals with one 40Thr allele (Ala/Thr genotype) (OR = 2.13, 95 % CI = 1.25-3.64, P = 0.006) or at least one 40Thr allele (Ala/Thr and Thr/Thr genotype) (OR = 1.90, 95 % CI = 1.15-3.15, P = 0.012) showed significantly higher risk to HCC, compared with Ala/Ala genotype. No significant associations were observed between three other polymorphisms (MnSOD Ala16Val, CAT-262C/T, GPx Pro198Leu) and HCC susceptibility in both HBV carriers and non-HBV carriers. Furthermore, no other signs of combined effects, except for a combined effect of ECSOD Ala40Thr and MnSOD Val16Ala in non-HBV carriers, were observed for each combination of these four polymorphisms. In conclusion, our results indicate that the antioxidant enzyme gene polymorphisms at least partially contribute to the susceptibility to HCC. PMID:25894370

  5. Antioxidant enzymes in the developing lungs of egg-laying and metamorphosing vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Starrs, A P; Orgeig, S; Daniels, C B; Davies, M; Lopatko, O V

    2001-11-01

    The activities of the pulmonary antioxidant enzymes (AOE), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase, increase in the final 10-20 % of gestation in the mammalian lung, to protect the lung from attack by increasing levels of reactive oxygen species at birth. Whether the increase occurs as a normal 'preparation for birth', i.e. by a genetically determined mechanism, or in response to increased levels of oxygen, i.e. in response to the environment, is not completely understood. We examined the activities of catalase, SOD and GPx in the developing lungs of two oviparous vertebrate species, the chicken (Gallus gallus) and an agamid lizard (Pogona vitticeps), and in a metamorphosing vertebrate, the anuran Limnodynastes terraereginae. During in ovo development embryos come into contact with higher levels of environmental oxygen, and at a much earlier stage of development, compared with the intrauterine development of mammals. Furthermore, in metamorphosing frogs, the lungs are inflated at an early stage to aid in buoyancy, although the gas-exchange function only develops much later upon final metamorphosis. Here, we hypothesise that the activity of the AOE will be elevated relatively much earlier during development in both oviparous and metamorphosing vertebrates. We also examined the effect of mild hypoxia (17 % oxygen) on the development of the pulmonary AOE in the chicken, to test the hypothesis that these enzymes are responsive to environmental oxygen. In the normoxic lung of both Gallus gallus and Pogona vitticeps, catalase and GPx activities were significantly increased in late incubation, whereas SOD activity decreased in late incubation. Catalase and SOD activities were virtually identical in hypoxic and normoxic embryos of the chicken, but GPx activity was significantly affected by hypoxia. In the developing frog, the activities of all enzymes were high at stage 30, demonstrating that the system is active before the lung displays any significant gas-exchange function. SOD and GPx activity did not increase further with development. Catalase activity increased after stage 40, presumably correlating with an increase in air-breathing. In summary, catalase expression in the two oviparous vertebrates appears to be completely under genetic control as the activity of this enzyme does not change in response to changes in oxygen tension. However, in tadpoles, catalase may be responsive to environmental oxygen. SOD also appears to follow a largely genetically determined program in all species. Under normoxic conditions, GPx appears to follow a genetically determined developmental pattern, but this enzyme demonstrated the largest capacity to respond to environmental oxygen fluctuations. In conclusion, it appears that the AOE are differentially regulated. Furthermore, the AOE in the different species appear to have evolved different levels of dependency on environmental variables. Finally, the late developmental increase in AOE activity seen in mammals is not as pronounced in oviparous and metamorphosing vertebrates. PMID:11807115

  6. Effects of ethylene on photosystem II and antioxidant enzyme activity in Bermuda grass under low temperature.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhengrong; Fan, Jibiao; Chen, Ke; Amombo, Erick; Chen, Liang; Fu, Jinmin

    2016-04-01

    The phytohormone ethylene has been reported to mediate plant response to cold stress. However, it is still debated whether the effect of ethylene on plant response to cold stress is negative or positive. The objective of the present study was to explore the role of ethylene in the cold resistance of Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon (L).Pers.). Under control (warm) condition, there was no obvious effect of the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) or the antagonist Ag(+) of ethylene signaling on electrolyte leakage (EL) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content. Under cold stress conditions, ACC-treated plant leaves had a greater level of EL and MDA than the untreated leaves. However, the EL and MDA values were lower in the Ag(+) regime versus the untreated. In addition, after 3 days of cold treatment, ACC remarkably reduced the content of soluble protein and also altered antioxidant enzyme activity. Under control (warm) condition, there was no significant effect of ACC on the performance of photosystem II (PS II) as monitored by chlorophyll α fluorescence transients. However, under cold stress, ACC inhibited the performance of PS II. Under cold condition, ACC remarkably reduced the performance index for energy conservation from excitation to the reduction of intersystem electron acceptors (PI ABS), the maximum quantum yield of primary photochemistry (φP 0), the quantum yield of electron transport flux from Q A to Q B (φE 0), and the efficiency/probability of electron transport (ΨE 0). Simultaneously, ACC increased the values of specific energy fluxes for absorption (ABS/RC) and dissipation (DI0/RC) after 3 days of cold treatment. Additionally, under cold condition, exogenous ACC altered the expressions of several related genes implicated in the induction of cold tolerance (LEA, SOD, POD-1 and CBF1, EIN3-1, and EIN3-2). The present study thus suggests that ethylene affects the cold tolerance of Bermuda grass by impacting the antioxidant system, photosystem II, as well as the CBF transcriptional regulatory cascade. PMID:26497139

  7. Evaluation of the Inhibition of Carbohydrate Hydrolyzing Enzymes, the Antioxidant Activity, and the Polyphenolic Content of Citrus limetta Peel Extract

    PubMed Central

    Flores-Fernandez, Jos Miguel; Owolabi, Moses S.; Villanueva-Rodrguez, Socorro

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is one of the most frequent causes of death in Mexico, characterized by chronic hyperglycemia. One alternative strategy for this metabolic abnormality is inhibiting the enzymes responsible for the metabolism of carbohydrates. We evaluated whether the aqueous Citrus limetta peel extract could inhibit the metabolism of carbohydrates. We found that this extract inhibited primarily the enzyme ?-amylase by 49.6% at a concentration of 20?mg/mL and to a lesser extent the enzyme ?-glucosidase with an inhibition of 28.2% at the same concentration. This inhibition is likely due to the high polyphenol content in the Citrus limetta peel (19.1?mg?GAE/g). Antioxidant activity of the Citrus limetta peel demonstrated dose-dependent antioxidant activity, varying from 6.5% at 1.125?mg/mL to 42.5% at 20?mg/mL. The study of these polyphenolic compounds having both antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activities may provide a new approach to the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:25587557

  8. Effects of rosmarinic acid on liver and kidney antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation and tissue ultrastructure in aging mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Chen, Xiaoqiang; Yang, Lei; Zu, Yuangang; Lu, Qi

    2015-03-01

    Rosmarinic acid (RA), which is a natural polyphenol, was isolated from Rosmarinus. officinalis L. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of rosmarinic acid on liver and kidney antioxidant enzymes and the tissue ultrastructure in aging mice. RA was administrated at a dosage of 50, 100 or 200 mg kg(-1) once a day with a normal control group and an aging control group for 30 days. The livers and kidneys of the mice were harvested for antioxidant enzyme activities and histological assessments. RA produced significant (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01) increases in the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) with a decrease in malondialdehyde (MDA) at 200 mg kg(-1) compared to the aging control. The histopathological study showed RA may induce significant structural changes in liver and kidney tissues at 200 mg kg(-1). The results in this study demonstrate that RA has the potential for promoting in vivo antioxidant enzyme activity. PMID:25635678

  9. [Effects of NaCl stress on the growth, antioxidant enzyme activities and reactive oxygen metabolism of grafted eggplant].

    PubMed

    Liu, Zheng-Lu; Zhu, Yue-Lin; Hu, Chun-Mei; Wei, Guo-Ping; Yang, Li-Fei; Zhang, Gu-Wen

    2007-03-01

    By the method of hydroponics and with the salt-tolerant eggplant cultivar 'Torvum Vigor' (Solanum torvum) from Japan as rootstock and the cultivar 'Suqiqie' (Solanum melongena L. ) as scion, this paper studied the differences between grafted and own-root seedlings in their photosynthetic characteristics, antioxidant enzyme activities, and reactive oxygen metabolism under 80 mmol x L(-1) NaCl stress. The results showed that under NaCl stress, the dry mass, chlorophyll content and photosynthetic rate of grafted seedlings were 67.8%, 8. 8% and 31.1% higher than those of own-root seedlings, respectively, and the antioxidant enzyme activities were significantly higher while the O2* producing rate and the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondiadehyde (MDA) contents were significantly lower in grafted seedlings leaves than in own-root seedlings. For both grafted and own-root seedlings, NaCl stress reduced the chlorophyll content and photosynthetic rate, but increased the O2* producing rate and the H2O2 and MDA contents significantly. However, the growth of grafted seedlings was less affected by NaCl stress. The stronger salt tolerance of grafted eggplant seedlings was related to their higher antioxidant enzyme activities and less oxidative damage. PMID:17552189

  10. [Impacts of root-zone hypoxia stress on muskmelon growth, its root respiratory metabolism, and antioxidative enzyme activities].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi-Ling; Li, Tian-Lai; Sun, Zhou-Ping; Chen, Ya-Dong

    2010-06-01

    By using aeroponics culture system, this paper studied the impacts of root-zone hypoxia (10% O2 and 5% O2) stress on the plant growth, root respiratory metabolism, and antioxidative enzyme activities of muskmelon at its fruit development stage. Root-zone hypoxia stress inhibited the plant growth of muskmelon, resulting in the decrease of plant height, root length, and fresh and dry biomass. Comparing with the control (21% O2), hypoxia stress reduced the root respiration rate and malate dehydrogenase (MDH) activity significantly, and the impact of 5% O2 stress was more serious than that of 10% O2 stress. Under hypoxic conditions, the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) activities and the malondialdehyde (MDA) content were significantly higher than the control. The increment of antioxidative enzyme activities under 10% O2 stress was significantly higher than that under 5% O2 stress, while the MDA content was higher under 5% O2 stress than under 10% O2 stress, suggesting that when the root-zone oxygen concentration was below 10%, the aerobic respiration of muskmelon at its fruit development stage was obviously inhibited while the anaerobic respiration was accelerated, and the root antioxidative enzymes induced defense reaction. With the increasing duration of hypoxic stress, the lipid peroxidation would be aggravated, resulting in the damages on muskmelon roots, inhibition of plant growth, and decrease of fruit yield and quality. PMID:20873618

  11. Region specific increase in the antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation products in the brain of rats exposed to lead.

    PubMed

    Bennet, Christopher; Bettaiya, Rajanna; Rajanna, Sharada; Baker, Levenia; Yallapragada, Prabhakara Rao; Brice, Jon J; White, Samuel L; Bokara, Kiran Kumar

    2007-03-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the effect of lead (pb) on antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation products in different regions of rat brain. Wistar male rats were treated with lead acetate (500 ppm) through drinking water for a period of 8 weeks. Control animals were maintained on sodium acetate. Treated and control rats were sacrificed at intervals of 1st, 4th and 8th week and the whole brains were dissected on ice into four regions namely the cerebellum, the hippocampus, the frontal cortex and the brain stem. Antioxidant enzymes namely catalase and superoxide dismutase in all the four regions of brain were determined. In addition, lipid peroxidation products were also estimated. The results indicated a gradual increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes in different regions of the brain and this response was time-dependent. However, the increase was more in the cerebellum and the hippocampus compared to other regions of the brain. The lipid peroxidation products also showed a similar trend suggesting increased effect of lead in these two regions of the brain. The data indicated a region-specific oxidative stress in the brain exposed to lead. PMID:17364954

  12. Certain antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) as early warning biomarkers of soil copper exposure.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bai-Ye; Kan, Shi-Hong; Zhang, Yan-Zong; Deng, Shi-Huai; Wu, Jun; Yuan, Hao; Qi, Hui; Yang, Gang; Li, Li; Zhang, Xiao-Hong; Xiao, Hong; Wang, Ying-Jun; Peng, Hong; Li, Yuan-Wei

    2010-11-15

    Copper (Cu) is a major heavy metal contaminant with various anthropogenic and natural sources. Recently, using biomarkers to monitor the effects of pollutants has attracted increased interest. Pot culture experiments using radish (Raphanus sativus L.) was performed to investigate Cu phytotoxic effects on antioxidant enzymes and other early warning biomarkers of soil Cu exposure. Under low dose Cu stress (lower than the EC10, Cu concentration reducing root length by 10%), activity and isozyme expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidases (POD) increased significantly; no significant variations in chlorophyll, carotenoid, and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in leaves and toxic symptoms were observed. Under a slightly higher Cu stress (close to the EC10), activity and isozyme expression of SOD and MDA content were enhanced significantly; those of CAT and POD decreased due to an inverted U-shape dose response. Chlorophyll content remained unchanged. Thus, antioxidant enzymes and MDA content are more sensitive to Cu stress, showing significant variations ahead of chlorophyll and toxic symptoms under Cu stress (lower than about 200 mg kg(-1) soil). Thus, the joint monitoring of antioxidant enzymes and MDA content of R. sativus can be used as biomarkers of soil Cu contamination. PMID:20728270

  13. What is the main driver of ageing in long-lived winter honeybees: antioxidant enzymes, innate immunity, or vitellogenin?

    PubMed

    Aurori, Cristian M; Buttstedt, Anja; Dezmirean, Daniel S; Mărghitaş, Liviu A; Moritz, Robin F A; Erler, Silvio

    2014-06-01

    To date five different theories compete in explaining the biological mechanisms of senescence or ageing in invertebrates. Physiological, genetical, and environmental mechanisms form the image of ageing in individuals and groups. Social insects, especially the honeybee Apis mellifera, present exceptional model systems to study developmentally related ageing. The extremely high phenotypic plasticity for life expectancy resulting from the female caste system provides a most useful system to study open questions with respect to ageing. Here, we used long-lived winter worker honeybees and measured transcriptional changes of 14 antioxidative enzyme, immunity, and ageing-related (insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling pathway) genes at two time points during hibernation. Additionally, worker bees were challenged with a bacterial infection to test ageing- and infection-associated immunity changes. Gene expression levels for each group of target genes revealed that ageing had a much higher impact than the bacterial challenge, notably for immunity-related genes. Antimicrobial peptide and antioxidative enzyme genes were significantly upregulated in aged worker honeybees independent of bacterial infections. The known ageing markers vitellogenin and IlP-1 were opposed regulated with decreasing vitellogenin levels during ageing. The increased antioxidative enzyme and antimicrobial peptide gene expression may contribute to a retardation of senescence in long-lived hibernating worker honeybees. PMID:24077437

  14. Variations of antioxidant enzyme activity and malondialdehyde content in nemertean Cephalothrix hongkongiensis after exposure to heavy metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Haiyi; Zhao, Xidan; Sun, Shichun

    2010-07-01

    The antioxidant enzyme activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content of Cephalothrix hongkongiensis were studied to assess variations in the biochemical/physiological parameters of nemerteans under heavy metal stress. Worms were exposed to copper, zinc and cadmium solutions at different concentrations, and the activity of three antioxidant enzymes, catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and MDA content were measured. The results show that the activity of each enzyme changed immediately after exposure to heavy metals. CAT was invariably inhibited throughout the experimental period, while the SOD activity was significantly elevated by exposure to Cu2+ for 48 h, but then decreased. SOD was inhibited by Zn2+during the first 12 h of exposure, but activated when exposed for longer periods. Under Cd2+ stress, SOD activity decreased within 72 h. GPX activity varied greatly, being significantly increased by both Cu2+ and Zn2+, but significantly inhibited by Cd2+ in the first 12-24 h after exposure. MDA content increased on Cu2+ exposure, but normally decreased on Zn2+ exposure. MDA content followed an increase-decrease-increase pattern under Cd2+ stress. In conclusion, the antioxidant system of this nemertean is sensitive to heavy metals, and its CAT activity may be a potential biomarker for monitoring heavy metal levels in the environment.

  15. Antioxidants

    MedlinePLUS

    ... available as dietary supplements. Examples of antioxidants include Beta-carotene Lutein Lycopene Selenium Vitamin A Vitamin C Vitamin ... in some cases. For example, high doses of beta-carotene may increase the risk of lung cancer in ...

  16. Tempol, an Intracellular Antioxidant, Inhibits Tissue Factor Expression, Attenuates Dendritic Cell Function, and Is Partially Protective in a Murine Model of Cerebral Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Francischetti, Ivo M. B.; Gordon, Emile; Bizzarro, Bruna; Gera, Nidhi; Andrade, Bruno B.; Oliveira, Fabiano; Ma, Dongying; Assumpo, Teresa C. F.; Ribeiro, Jos M. C.; Pena, Mirna; Qi, Chen-Feng; Diouf, Ababacar; Moretz, Samuel E.; Long, Carole A.; Ackerman, Hans C.; Pierce, Susan K.; S-Nunes, Anderson; Waisberg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background The role of intracellular radical oxygen species (ROS) in pathogenesis of cerebral malaria (CM) remains incompletely understood. Methods and Findings We undertook testing Tempola superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetic and pleiotropic intracellular antioxidantin cells relevant to malaria pathogenesis in the context of coagulation and inflammation. Tempol was also tested in a murine model of CM induced by Plasmodium berghei Anka infection. Tempol was found to prevent transcription and functional expression of procoagulant tissue factor in endothelial cells (ECs) stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This effect was accompanied by inhibition of IL-6, IL-8, and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1) production. Tempol also attenuated platelet aggregation and human promyelocytic leukemia HL60 cells oxidative burst. In dendritic cells, Tempol inhibited LPS-induced production of TNF-?, IL-6, and IL-12p70, downregulated expression of co-stimulatory molecules, and prevented antigen-dependent lymphocyte proliferation. Notably, Tempol (20 mg/kg) partially increased the survival of mice with CM. Mechanistically, treated mice had lowered plasma levels of MCP-1, suggesting that Tempol downmodulates EC function and vascular inflammation. Tempol also diminished blood brain barrier permeability associated with CM when started at day 4 post infection but not at day 1, suggesting that ROS production is tightly regulated. Other antioxidantssuch as ?-phenyl N-tertiary-butyl nitrone (PBN; a spin trap), MnTe-2-PyP and MnTBAP (Mn-phorphyrin), Mitoquinone (MitoQ) and Mitotempo (mitochondrial antioxidants), M30 (an iron chelator), and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG; polyphenol from green tea) did not improve survival. By contrast, these compounds (except PBN) inhibited Plasmodium falciparum growth in culture with different IC50s. Knockout mice for SOD1 or phagocyte nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (gp91phox/) or mice treated with inhibitors of SOD (diethyldithiocarbamate) or NADPH oxidase (diphenyleneiodonium) did not show protection or exacerbation for CM. Conclusion Results with Tempol suggest that intracellular ROS contribute, in part, to CM pathogenesis. Therapeutic targeting of intracellular ROS in CM is discussed. PMID:24586264

  17. Determination of oxidative stress and activities of antioxidant enzymes in guinea pigs treated with haloperidol

    PubMed Central

    GUMULEC, JAROMIR; RAUDENSKA, MARTINA; HLAVNA, MARIAN; STRACINA, TIBOR; SZTALMACHOVA, MARKETA; TANHAUSEROVA, VERONIKA; PACAL, LUKAS; RUTTKAY-NEDECKY, BRANISLAV; SOCHOR, JIRI; ZITKA, ONDREJ; BABULA, PETR; ADAM, VOJTECH; KIZEK, RENE; NOVAKOVA, MARIE; MASARIK, MICHAL

    2013-01-01

    Guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) were treated with haloperidol (HP), and free radical (FR) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays were used to determine oxidative stress levels. Furthermore, the superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity levels were detected and glucose levels and the reduced and oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio were measured in HP-treated and untreated guinea pigs. The present study demonstrated that the administration of HP causes significant oxidative stress in guinea pigs (P=0.022). In animals treated with HP, the activity of GST was significantly increased compared with a placebo (P= 0.007). The elevation of SOD and GR activity levels and increase in the levels of glutathione (GSH) in HP-treated animals were not statistically significant. In the HP-untreated animals, a significant positive correlation was observed between oxidative stress detected by the FR method and GST (r=0.88, P=0.008) and SOD (r=0.86, P= 0.01) activity levels, respectively. A significant negative correlation between the levels of plasma glucose and oxidative stress detected by the FRAP method was observed (r=?0.78, P=0.04). Notably, no significant correlations were observed in the treated animals. In the HP-treated group, two subgroups of animals were identified according to their responses to oxidative stress. The group with higher levels of plasma HP had higher enzyme activity and reactive oxygen species production compared with the group with lower plasma levels of HP. The greatest difference in activity (U/?l) between the two groups of animals was for GR. PMID:23403848

  18. Lead-induced increase in antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation products in developing rat brain.

    PubMed

    Bokara, Kiran Kumar; Brown, Erika; McCormick, Rashidi; Yallapragada, Prabhakara Rao; Rajanna, Sharada; Bettaiya, Rajanna

    2008-02-01

    Pregnant rats were treated with 0.4% lead acetate through drinking water from 6th day of gestation and this treatment was continued till 21 post natal days (PND). Four regions of the brain namely hippocampus, cerebellum, frontal cortex and brain stem were dissected at 10, 20, 30 and 40 PND for estimation of lipid peroxidation products (LPP), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). The results indicate that there was a significant (P < 0.05) increase of LPP in exposed rats than their corresponding control at 10, 20 and 30 PND both in hippocampus and cerebellum. At PND 40, the LPP of control and exposed were found to be almost same in both the tissues indicating recovery from lead toxicity. CAT activity was significantly (P < 0.05) high in hippocampus of exposed rats up to PND 30 but up to PND 20 in cerebellum and frontal cortex. However, in brain stem, a significant (P < 0.05) increase in CAT activity was observed only at PND 10. A significant (P < 0.05) increase in SOD activity was observed up to PND 30 both in hippocampus and cerebellum on lead exposure. Frontal cortex exhibited a similar significant (P < 0.05) increase of SOD activity up to PND 20 and for brain stem up to PND 10. There was no significant change in the activity of antioxidant enzymes (CAT and SOD) and LPP in all the four brain tissues of control and exposed rats at PND 40 indicating recovery from lead-induced oxidative stress. PMID:18214713

  19. Seasonal changes in antioxidant enzyme activities of freshwater biofilms in a metal polluted Mediterranean stream.

    PubMed

    Bonet, Berta; Corcoll, Natlia; Acu?a, Vicen; Sigg, Laura; Behra, Renata; Guasch, Helena

    2013-02-01

    While seasonal variations in fluvial communities have been extensively investigated, effects of seasonality on community responses to environmental and/or chemical stress are poorly documented. The aim of this study was to describe antioxidant enzyme activity (AEA) variability in fluvial biofilms over an annual cycle, under multi-stress scenarios due to environmental variability (e.g., light intensity, water flow, and temperature) and metal pollution (Zn, Mn and Fe). The annual monitoring study was performed at three sites according to their water and biofilm metal concentrations. Metal concentration was affected by water flow due to dilution. Low flow led to higher dissolved Zn concentrations, and thus to higher Zn accumulation in the biofilm. Water temperature, light intensity and phosphate concentration were the environmental factors which determined the seasonality of biofilm responses, whereas dissolved Zn and Zn accumulation in biofilms were the parameters linked to sites and periods of highest metal pollution. Community algal succession, from diatoms in cold conditions to green algae in warm conditions, was clearer in the non metal-polluted site than in those metal-polluted, presumably due to the selection pressure exerted by metals. Most AEA were related with seasonal environmental variability at the sites with low or no-metal pollution, except glutathione-S-transferase (GST) which was related with Zn (dissolved and accumulated in biofilm) pollution occurring at the most polluted site. We can conclude that seasonal variations of community composition and function are masked by metal pollution. From this study we suggest the use of a multi-biomarker approach, including AEA and a set of biological and physicochemical parameters as an effect-based field tool to assess metal pollution. PMID:23262325

  20. Influence of thermal treatment on color, enzyme activities, and antioxidant capacity of innovative pastelike parsley products.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Andrea; Brinkmann, Maike; Carle, Reinhold; Kammerer, Dietmar R

    2012-03-28

    Conventional spice powders are often characterized by low sensory quality and high microbial loads. Furthermore, genuine enzymes are only inhibited but not entirely inactivated upon drying, so that they may regain their activity upon rehydration of dried foods. To overcome these problems, initial heating was applied in the present study as the first process step for the production of innovative pastelike parsley products. For this purpose, fresh parsley was blanched (80, 90, and 100 C for 1-10 min) and subsequently comminuted to form a paste. Alternatively, mincing was carried out prior to heat treatment. Regardless of temperature, the color of the latter product did not show any change after heating for 1 min. With progressing exposure time the green color turned to olive hues due to marked pheophytin formation. Inactivation of genuine peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was achieved at all temperature-time regimes applied. In contrast, the parsley products obtained after immediate water-blanching were characterized by brighter green colors and enhanced pigment retention. With the exception of the variants water-blanched at 80 C, POD and PPO were completely inactivated at any of the thermal treatments. Furthermore, in water-blanched samples, antioxidant capacities as determined by the TEAC and FRAP assays were even enhanced compared to unheated parsley, whereas a decrease of phenolic contents could not be prevented. Consequently, the innovative process presented in this study allows the production of novel herb and spice products characterized by improved sensory quality as compared to conventional spice products. PMID:22375822

  1. Viral-mediated Inhibition of Antioxidant Enzymes Contributes to the Pathogenesis of Severe Respiratory Syncytial Virus Bronchiolitis

    PubMed Central

    Hosakote, Yashoda M.; Jantzi, Paul D.; Esham, Dana L.; Spratt, Heidi; Kurosky, Alexander; Casola, Antonella; Garofalo, Roberto P.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of lower respiratory tract infections in children, for which no specific treatment or vaccine is currently available. We have previously shown that RSV induces reactive oxygen species in cultured cells and oxidative injury in the lungs of experimentally infected mice. The mechanism(s) of RSV-induced oxidative stress in vivo is not known. Objectives: To measure changes of lung antioxidant enzymes expression/activity and activation of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a transcription factor that regulates detoxifying and antioxidant enzyme gene expression, in mice and in infants with naturally acquired RSV infection. Methods: Superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD 1), SOD 2, SOD 3, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione S-transferase, as well as Nrf2 expression, were measured in murine bronchoalveolar lavage, cell extracts of conductive airways, and/or in human nasopharyngeal secretions by Western blot and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Antioxidant enzyme activity and markers of oxidative cell injury were measured in either murine bronchoalveolar lavage or nasopharyngeal secretions by colorimetric/immunoassays. Measurements and Main Results: RSV infection induced a significant decrease in the expression and/or activity of SOD, catalase, glutathione S-transferase, and glutathione peroxidase in murine lungs and in the airways of children with severe bronchiolitis. Markers of oxidative damage correlated with severity of clinical illness in RSV-infected infants. Nrf2 expression was also significantly reduced in the lungs of viral-infected mice. Conclusions: RSV infection induces significant down-regulation of the airway antioxidant system in vivo, likely resulting in lung oxidative damage. Modulation of oxidative stress may pave the way toward important advances in the therapeutic approach of RSV-induced acute lung disease. PMID:21471094

  2. Existing and potential therapeutic uses for N-acetylcysteine: the need for conversion to intracellular glutathione for antioxidant benefits.

    PubMed

    Rushworth, Gordon F; Megson, Ian L

    2014-02-01

    N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) has long been used therapeutically for the treatment of acetaminophen (paracetamol) overdose, acting as a precursor for the substrate (l-cysteine) in synthesis of hepatic glutathione (GSH) depleted through drug conjugation. Other therapeutic uses of NAC have also emerged, including the alleviation of clinical symptoms of cystic fibrosis through cysteine-mediated disruption of disulfide cross-bridges in the glycoprotein matrix in mucus. More recently, however, a wide range of clinical studies have reported on the use of NAC as an antioxidant, most notably in the protection against contrast-induced nephropathy and thrombosis. The results from these studies are conflicting and a consensus is yet to be reached regarding the merits or otherwise of NAC in the antioxidant setting. This review seeks to re-evaluate the mechanism of action of NAC as a precursor for GSH synthesis in the context of its activity as an "antioxidant". Results from recent studies are examined to establish whether the pre-requisites for effective NAC-induced antioxidant activity (i.e. GSH depletion and the presence of functional metabolic pathways for conversion of NAC to GSH) have received adequate consideration in the interpretation of the data. A key conclusion is a reinforcement of the concept that NAC should not be considered to be a powerful antioxidant in its own right: its strength is the targeted replenishment of GSH in deficient cells and it is likely to be ineffective in cells replete in GSH. PMID:24080471

  3. The effect of dietary-induced obesity on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymes and total plasma antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Bełtowski, J; Wójcicka, G; Górny, D; Marciniak, A

    2000-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of dietary-induced obesity on some parameters of oxidative stress and antioxidant defence. The studies were performed in adult male Wistar rats. Control group received normal laboratory chow (62% calories as carbohydrates, 26% protein and 12% fat). High-calorie high-fat group (HCHF) was fed standard chow supplemented with lard (48% calories as carbohydrates, 20% as protein and 32% as fat) and high-calorie normal-fat group (HCNF) received standard chow and liquid diet containing sucrose, glucose, whole milk powder and soybean powder (60% carbohydrates, 26% protein, 14% fat). After 8 weeks body weight of HCHF and HCNF-fed rats was higher than body weight of controls by 9.3% and 15.2%, respectively. Plasma concentration of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) increased in these groups by 43% and 52%, respectively. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) decreased in HCHF group by 47.5% and in HCNF group by 21.1%. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in the blood tended to increase in both experimental groups but this was not significant. Plasma total antioxidant status (TAS) measuring the combined free radicals scavenging ability of nonenzymatic antioxidants was lower in HCHF and in HCNF group compared to control (-8.8% and -9%, respectively). The major observed lipid abnormalities were hypertriglyceridemia in HCHF group and decreased HDL-cholesterol in HCNF group. TBARS correlated negatively with SOD (r = -0.84, p < 0.001) and with TAS (r = -0.47, p < 0.05). These results indicate that obesity leads to oxidative stress which can contribute to obesity-associated diseases such as atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus and arterial hypertension. PMID:11220496

  4. Factors affecting the activation and inhibition of intracellular enzymes for degradation of 1,2 diamino benzene: kinetics and thermodynamic studies.

    PubMed

    P, Saranya; G, Sekaran

    2015-11-01

    Citrobacter freundii, the bacterium isolated from marine sediments was capable of degrading 1,2 diamino benzene (DAB), an endocrine disruptor. The mixed intracellular enzymes from C. freundii were extracted and purified. The mixed intracellular enzymes were used for the degradation of DAB and degree of degradation was evaluated in terms of pyruvic acid, the end product, formed. The variables such as effect of pH, temperature and metal ions on the degradation of DAB using mixed intracellular enzymes (MICE) were investigated. The maximum amount of pyruvic acid formed was found to be 569 5 g with 96% degradation efficiency at pH 7; temperature 25 C; zinc nitrate 0.1 mM; and copper sulphate ions 0.15 mM. The stability of MICE at different temperatures and the interaction of MICE with metal ions were confirmed using FT-IR spectroscopy. The formation of pyruvic acid from degradation of DAB followed pseudo-second-order rate kinetics and it was a spontaneous, exothermic process. The activation energy of degradation of DAB by MICE was found to be 82.55 kJ/mol. PMID:26334986

  5. Oxidative stress and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats under hyperbaric oxygen exposure

    PubMed Central

    Matsunami, Tokio; Sato, Yukita; Sato, Takuya; Ariga, Satomi; Shimomura, Toshiko; Yukawa, Masayoshi

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) causes not only hyperglycemia but oxidative stress, resulting mainly enhanced production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS). Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatments are applied various diseases including diabetic patients with unhealing foot ulcers, however, and also increases the formation of ROS. Recently, it has been reported that oxidative stress worsens many pathological conditions including DM and obesity suggesting possible changes in regulation of genes associated with the oxidative stress, however, effects of HBO which could induce ROS on the gene expressions of oxidative stress parameters in DM animals are unknown. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of HBO exposure on the gene expression of three important antioxidant enzymes, cytosolic superoxide dismutase (Cu-Zn SOD), cytosolic glutathione peroxidase (GPx-1), and catalase (CAT) in DM rats, respectively. We used streptozotocin-induced DM model rats and examined both mRNA expressions and the activities of these antioxidant enzymes in the liver, skeletal muscle, and pancreas. The mRNA expressions of Cu-Zn SOD and CAT decreased significantly (p < 0.001), and GPx increased significantly (p < 0.001) in all the studied organs of DM rats under HBO exposure compared to those from DM-induced rats not exposed to HBO. Similarly, activities of these three enzymes changed in accordance with the mRNA levels. These results suggested that DM induction and HBO exposure might synergistically affect antioxidant enzymes, resulting increase of oxidative stress state. Thus, HBO exposure seems to be an excellent model system for investigating oxidative stress. PMID:20126586

  6. Ambient particulate air pollution and circulating antioxidant enzymes: A repeated-measure study in healthy adults in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shaowei; Wang, Bin; Yang, Di; Wei, Hongying; Li, Hongyu; Pan, Lu; Huang, Jing; Wang, Xin; Qin, Yu; Zheng, Chanjuan; Shima, Masayuki; Deng, Furong; Guo, Xinbiao

    2016-01-01

    The association of systemic antioxidant activity with ambient air pollution has been unclear. A panel of 40 healthy college students underwent repeated blood collection for 12 occasions under three exposure scenarios before and after relocating from a suburban area to an urban area in Beijing, China in 2010-2011. We measured various air pollutants including fine particles (PM2.5) and determined circulating levels of antioxidant enzymes extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) and glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) in the laboratory. An interquartile range increase of 63.4?g/m(3) at 3-d PM2.5 moving average was associated with a 6.3% (95% CI: 0.6, 12.4) increase in EC-SOD and a 5.5% (95% CI: 1.3, 9.8) increase in GPX1. Several PM2.5 chemical constituents, including negative ions (nitrate and chloride) and metals (e.g., iron and strontium), were consistently associated with increases in EC-SOD and GPX1. Our results support activation of circulating antioxidant enzymes following exposure to particulate air pollution. PMID:26074023

  7. Changes in photochemical and antioxidant enzyme activities in maize (Zea mays L.) leaves exposed to excess copper.

    PubMed

    Tanyola, Deniz; Ekmeki, Yasemin; Unalan, Seniz

    2007-02-01

    Changes in photosynthetic and antioxidant activities in maize (Zea mays L.) leaves of cultivars 3223 and 31G98 exposed to excess copper (Cu) were investigated. Cu treatment reduced the shoot and root length of both cultivars. No significant difference of Cu accumulation in the roots of both cultivars was observed while the cultivar 3223 accumulated significantly higher Cu in leaves than 31G98. The observed decreases in effective quantum efficiency of PSII, ETR and qP indicate an over excitation of photochemical system in 3223 compared to 31G98. The leaf chlorophyll and carotenoid contents of both cultivars decreased with increasing Cu concentration. A far higher production of anthocyanins in 31G98 has been observed than that of 3223. At 1.5 mM Cu concentration, all antioxidant enzyme activities increased in leaves of the cultivar 31G98 while there were no significant changes in SOD and GR activities in 3223 compared to the control except increased APX and POD activities. The lower Cu accumulation in leaves and higher antioxidant enzyme activities in 31G98 suggested an enhanced tolerance capacity of this cultivar to protect the plant from oxidative damage. PMID:17109927

  8. Fisetin Modulates Antioxidant Enzymes and Inflammatory Factors to Inhibit Aflatoxin-B1 Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Rats.

    PubMed

    Maurya, Brajesh Kumar; Trigun, Surendra Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Fisetin, a known antioxidant, has been found to be cytotoxic against certain cell lines. However, the mechanism by which it inhibits tumor growth in vivo remains unexplored. Recently, we have demonstrated that Aflatoxin-B1 (AFB1) induced hepatocarcinogenesis is associated with activation of oxidative stress-inflammatory pathway in rat liver. The present paper describes the effect of in vivo treatment with 20?mg/kg?b.w. Fisetin on antioxidant enzymes vis-a-vis oxidative stress level and on the profile of certain proinflammatory cytokines in the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) induced by two doses of 1?mg/kg?b.w. AFB1 i.p. in rats. The reduced levels of most of the antioxidant enzymes, coinciding with the enhanced level of reactive oxygen species in the HCC liver, were observed to regain their normal profiles due to Fisetin treatment. Also, Fisetin treatment could normalize the enhanced expression of TNF? and IL1?, the two proinflammatory cytokines, reported to be involved in HCC pathogenesis. These observations were consistent with the regression of neoplastic lesion and declined GST-pi (placental type glutathione-S-transferase) level, a HCC marker, in the liver of the Fisetin treated HCC rats. The findings suggest that Fisetin attenuates oxidative stress-inflammatory pathway of AFB1 induced hepatocarcinogenesis. PMID:26682000

  9. Fisetin Modulates Antioxidant Enzymes and Inflammatory Factors to Inhibit Aflatoxin-B1 Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Maurya, Brajesh Kumar; Trigun, Surendra Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Fisetin, a known antioxidant, has been found to be cytotoxic against certain cell lines. However, the mechanism by which it inhibits tumor growth in vivo remains unexplored. Recently, we have demonstrated that Aflatoxin-B1 (AFB1) induced hepatocarcinogenesis is associated with activation of oxidative stress-inflammatory pathway in rat liver. The present paper describes the effect of in vivo treatment with 20 mg/kg b.w. Fisetin on antioxidant enzymes vis-a-vis oxidative stress level and on the profile of certain proinflammatory cytokines in the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) induced by two doses of 1 mg/kg b.w. AFB1 i.p. in rats. The reduced levels of most of the antioxidant enzymes, coinciding with the enhanced level of reactive oxygen species in the HCC liver, were observed to regain their normal profiles due to Fisetin treatment. Also, Fisetin treatment could normalize the enhanced expression of TNFα and IL1α, the two proinflammatory cytokines, reported to be involved in HCC pathogenesis. These observations were consistent with the regression of neoplastic lesion and declined GST-pi (placental type glutathione-S-transferase) level, a HCC marker, in the liver of the Fisetin treated HCC rats. The findings suggest that Fisetin attenuates oxidative stress-inflammatory pathway of AFB1 induced hepatocarcinogenesis. PMID:26682000

  10. Function of antioxidant enzymes and metabolites during maturation of pea fruits

    PubMed Central

    Matamoros, Manuel A.; Loscos, Jorge; Dietz, Karl-Josef; Aparicio-Tejo, Pedro M.; Becana, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    In plant cells, antioxidants keep reactive oxygen species at low concentrations, avoiding oxidative damage while allowing them to play crucial functions in signal transduction. However, little is known about the role of antioxidants during fruit maturation, especially in legumes. Snap pea (Pisum sativum) plants, which have edible fruits, were grown under nodulating and non-nodulating conditions. Fruits were classified in three maturity stages and antioxidants were determined in the seeds and seedless pods. Maturation or prolonged storage of fruits at 25 C led to a decline in antioxidant activities and metabolites and in ?-glutamylcysteine synthetase protein. Notable exceptions were superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione peroxidase protein, which increased in one or both of these processes. During maturation, cytosolic peroxiredoxin decreased in seeds but increased in pods, and ascorbate oxidase activity was largely reduced in seeds. In stored fruits, ascorbate oxidase activity was nearly abolished in seeds but doubled in pods. It is concluded that symbiotic nitrogen fixation is as effective as nitrogen fertilization in maintaining the antioxidant capacity of pea fruits and that, contrary to climacteric fruits, a general decrease in antioxidants during maturation does not involve oxidative stress. Results underscore the importance of the antioxidant system in reproductive organs and point to ascorbateglutathione metabolism and cytosolic peroxiredoxin as key players in pea fruit development. PMID:19822534

  11. Curcumin attenuates CFA induced thermal hyperalgesia by modulation of antioxidant enzymes and down regulation of TNF-?, IL-1? and IL-6.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ajeet Kumar; Vinayak, Manjula

    2015-03-01

    Reactive oxygen species are signaling mediators of nociceptive pathways. Exogenous administrations of antioxidants show anti-hyperalgesic effect. However, very little is known about the role of endogenous antioxidant defense system in pain pathology. Curcumin is a dietary antioxidant which shows ameliorative effect on thermal hypersensitivity, however detailed study is lacking. Present study was aimed to analyze the changes in oxidative stress, modulation of antioxidant enzymes and pro-inflammatory cytokines in complete Freund's adjuvant induced inflammatory hyperalgesia and the effect of curcumin on antioxidant defense system and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Anti-hyperalgesic activity of curcumin was evidenced after 6 h of treatment. Oxidative stress was evidenced in paw skin and spinal cord of hyperalgesic rats by high level of lipid peroxidation. A decrease in activity of antioxidant enzymes like catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and an increase in level of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-?, IL-1? and IL-6 in paw skin was observed as compared to normal rats. However, activity of antioxidant enzymes was enhanced in spinal cord. The changes were brought towards normal level after curcumin treatment. The results suggest that modulation of antioxidant defense system is early event in initiation of inflammatory hyperalgesia which might lead to initiation of other signaling pathways mediated by lipid peroxide, TNF-?, IL-1? and IL-6. Decrease in oxidative stress and down regulation of these cytokines by curcumin is suggested to be involved in its anti-hyperalgesic effect. PMID:25479948

  12. Activity profile of glutathione-dependent enzymes and respiratory chain complexes in rats supplemented with antioxidants and treated with carcinogens.

    PubMed

    Desai, V G; Casciano, D; Feuers, R J; Aidoo, A

    2001-10-15

    Appropriate dietary interventions may reduce the potentially damaging effects of free radicals generated during metabolism and various physiological conditions. We have investigated the effects of dietary vitamins C, E, beta-carotene, or selenium (Se) on the activity of endogenous antioxidant enzymes and respiratory chain complexes in rats exposed to 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA), a mammary carcinogen and bleomycin (BLM), an antineoplastic drug. These agents are known to generate DNA-reactive species during their metabolism, which may enhance oxidative stress in cells. Female Fischer 344 rats aged 4 months were given antioxidant supplements singly or as a mixture 2 weeks prior to mutagen treatments; antioxidant supplementation continued for an additional 4 weeks. In rats treated with mutagens, the antioxidant intake lowered the activity of Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase (Se-GPx) in liver cytosolic and mitochondrial fractions, compared to activity in rats treated with mutagens alone. However, the vitamins, but not Se supplement, persistently increased Se-GPx activity in untreated control animals. Treatment of animals with mutagen raised K(m) value of Se-GPx and this correlated with an increase in V(max). However, Se intake, either singly or mixture, significantly reduced K(m) value in mutagen-treated and untreated rats in both fractions. Se intake increased glutathione S-transferases (GST) activity (P < 0.05) in both liver fractions of mutagen-treated and untreated animals. Similar response was seen in Se-independent GPx. Since GST-alpha possesses Se-independent GPx activity, the enhanced effect observed in GST activity may be due, in part, to increased activity in Se-independent GPx. Also, selenium or the antioxidant vitamin supplementation increased the activity of all four respiratory chain complexes in untreated rats. Although BLM treatment significantly increased the activity of electron transport complexes III and IV, selenium or the vitamin supplements modulated the responses. These results indicate that the intake of dietary vitamins or Se enhances antioxidant capacity in chemically exposed animals compared to animals receiving antioxidants alone. Furthermore, in addition to being an enhancer of the catalytic function of glutathione peroxidase, selenium may directly play a role as an antioxidant. PMID:11594740

  13. Piper nigrum: micropropagation, antioxidative enzyme activities, and chromatographic fingerprint analysis for quality control.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Nisar; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Rahman, Inayat ur; Fazal, Hina

    2013-04-01

    A reliable in vitro regeneration system for the economical and medicinally important Piper nigrum L. has been established. Callus and shoot regeneration was encouraged from leaf portions on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium augmented with varied concentrations of plant growth regulators. A higher callus production (90 %) was observed in explants incubated on MS medium incorporated with 1.0 mg L(-1) 6-benzyladenine (BA) along with 0.5 mg L(-1) gibberellic acid after 4 weeks of culture. Moreover, a callogenic response of 85 % was also recorded for 1.0 mg L(-1) BA in combination with 0.25 mg L(-1) α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and 0.25 mg L(-1) 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid or 0.5 mg L(-1) indole butyric acid (IBA) along with 0.25 mg L(-1) NAA and indole acetic acid. Subsequent sub-culturing of callus after 4 weeks of culture onto MS medium supplemented with 1.5 mg L(-1) thiodiazoran or 1.5 mg L(-1) IBA induced 100 % shoot response. Rooted plantlets were achieved on medium containing varied concentrations of auxins. The antioxidative enzyme activities [superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX)] revealed that significantly higher SOD was observed in regenerated plantlets than in other tissues. However, POD, CAT, and APX were higher in callus than in other tissues. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint analysis protocol was established for quality control in different in vitro-regenerated tissues of P. nigrum L. During analysis, most of the common peaks represent the active principle "piperine." The chemical contents, especially piperine, showed variation from callus culture to whole plantlet regeneration. Based on the deviation in chromatographic peaks, the in vitro-regenerated plantlets exhibit a nearly similar piperine profile to acclimated plantlets. The in vitro regeneration system and HPLC fingerprint analysis established here brought a novel approach to the quality control of in vitro plantlets, producing metabolites of interest with substantial applications for the conservation of germplasm. PMID:23354497

  14. Flavonol Glucoside and Antioxidant Enzyme Biosynthesis Affected by Mycorrhizal Fungi in Various Cultivars of Onion (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Mollavali, Mohanna; Bolandnazar, Saheb Ali; Schwarz, Dietmar; Rohn, Sascha; Riehle, Peer; Zaare Nahandi, Fariborz

    2016-01-13

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of mycorrhizal symbiosis on qualitative characteristics of onion (Allium cepa L.). For this reason, five onion cultivars with different scale color and three different strains of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Diversispora versiformis, Rhizophagus intraradices, Funneliformis mosseae) were used. Red cultivars, mainly 'Red Azar-shahr', showed the highest content in vitamin C, flavonols, and antioxidant enzymes. Mycorrhizal inoculation increased total phenolic, pyruvic acid, and vitamin C of onion plants. Considerable increase was observed in quercetin-4'-O-monoglucoside and isorhamnetin-4'-O-monoglucoside content in plants inoculated with Diversispora versiformis, but quercetin-3,4'-O-diglucoside was not significantly influenced. Analyses for phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and antioxiodant enzyme activities such as polyphenol oxidase (PPO), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) revealed that all except PPO were enhanced by mycorrhizal inoculation. Overall, these findings suggested that mycorrhizal inoculation influenced biosynthesis of flavonol glucosides and antioxidant enzymes by increasing nutrient uptake or by induction of the plant defense system. PMID:26694086

  15. Enrichment of antioxidant compounds from lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) by pressurized liquid extraction and enzyme-assisted extraction.

    PubMed

    Miron, T L; Herrero, M; Ibez, E

    2013-05-01

    In this work enzyme-assisted extraction (EAE) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) are applied for extraction of natural compounds from lemon balm (Melissa officinalis). Cellulase, endo-?-1,4 xylanase and pectinase were studied in order to degrade cell wall of lemon balm leaves and to release phenolic compounds. On the other hand, in order to compare the performance obtained with EAE, PLE using water and ethanol was employed maintaining 150C as extraction temperature. The obtained extracts were characterized in terms of antioxidant capacity by using DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) in vitro assays, whereas the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure was employed to estimate the total phenols content. On the other hand, extracts were chemically characterized by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The results showed that EAE enhanced the total phenolic content and the antioxidant capacity compared to a non-enzymatic control. PLE extracts presented higher amount of phenols and antioxidant capacity than enzyme-assisted extracts, reaching the highest values on water extracts (193.18mggallicacid/gextract and EC50=6.81?g/mL). Among the bioactive phenolic compounds identified in lemon balm, rosmarinic acid was the main component, although other important compounds were also identified, such as caffeic acid derivatives (salvianolic acids, lithospermic acid) and rosmarinic acid derivatives (rosmarinic acid hexoside, sagerinic acid, sulfated rosmarinic acid). The present study confirms that EAE and PLE can be considered alternative methods for the extraction of natural compounds with biological activity from natural sources. PMID:23528869

  16. Differential Activity and Expression Profile of Antioxidant Enzymes and Physiological Changes in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Under Drought.

    PubMed

    Sheoran, Sonia; Thakur, Vidisha; Narwal, Sneh; Turan, Rajita; Mamrutha, H M; Singh, Virender; Tiwari, Vinod; Sharma, Indu

    2015-11-01

    Wheat crop may experience water deficit at crucial stages during its life cycle, which induces oxidative stress in the plants. The antioxidant status of the plant plays an important role in providing tolerance against the water stress. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of water stress on physiological traits, antioxidant activity and transcript profile of antioxidant enzyme related genes in four wheat genotypes (C306, AKAW3717, HD2687, PBW343) at three crucial stages of plants under medium (75% of field capacity) and severe stress (45% of field capacity) in pots. Drought was applied by withholding water for 10 days at a particular growth stage viz. tillering, anthesis and 15 days after anthesis (15DAA). For physiological traits, a highly significant effect of water stress at a particular stage and genotypic variations for resistance to drought tolerance was observed. Under severe water stress, the malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased while the relative water content (RWC) and chlorophyll index decreased significantly in all the genotypes. The drought susceptibility index (DSI) of the genotypes varied from 0.18 to 1.9. The drought treatment at the tillering and anthesis stages was found more sensitive in terms of reduction in thousand grain weight (TGW) and grain yield. Antioxidant enzyme activities [superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POX)] increased with the decrease in osmotic potential in drought tolerant genotypes C306 and AKAW3717. Moreover, the transcript profile of Mn-SOD upregulated significantly and was consistent with the trend of the variation in SOD activity, which suggests that Mn-SOD might play an important role in drought tolerance. PMID:26319568

  17. [Changes of endogenous hormone contents and antioxidative enzyme activities in wheat leaves under low temperature stress at jointing stage].

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-yan; Xu, Wen; Liu, Li-wei; Yang, Jing; Zhu, Xin-kai; Guo, Wen-shan

    2015-07-01

    Low temperature stresses (-3 and -5 °C) were simulated using artificial temperature-controlled phytotrons to study the freezing rate, the contents of endogenous hormones, and the activities of antioxidative enzymes in the leaves of wheat plants of Yangmai 16 (YM 16) and Xumai 30 (XM 30) at jointing stage. The grade and index of freezing injury increased with lower temperature and longer stress. The freezing rate was at the 5th level and the main stems and tillers of both cultivars were finally dead under -5 °C lasting for 72 h. On the last day of stress initiation, the contents of abscisic acid (ABA) and zeatin riboside (ZR), and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxide dismutase (POD), and catalase (CAT) in leaves increased at the beginning and then declined as low temperature progressed. On the 3rd day after stress, the contents of ABA and ZR and the activities of antioxidative enzymes were higher than those on the last day of cold stress, and then reduced to the level of the control on the 6th day after stress. The content of gibberellins (GA3) was lowered by cold stress. For YM 16, GA3 content increased from the 3rd day to the 6th day after cold stress, whereas, for XM 30, it increased first and then decreased. For the treatment of -5 °C lasting for 72 h, the contents of hormones and the activities of antioxidative enzymes were significantly lower than those of the other treatments. Correlation analyses showed that higher ABA and ZR contents, and higher SOD, POD and CAT activities as well as lower GA3 content could alleviate the low-temperature injury in wheat plants under low temperature stress. PMID:26710627

  18. 24-Epibrassinolide regulates photosynthesis, antioxidant enzyme activities and proline content of Cucumis sativus under salt and/or copper stress.

    PubMed

    Fariduddin, Q; Khalil, Radwan R A E; Mir, Bilal A; Yusuf, M; Ahmad, A

    2013-09-01

    Brassinosteroids have been extensively used to overcome various abiotic stresses. But its role in combined stress of salt and excess copper remains unexplored. Seeds of two cultivars (Rocket and Jumbo) of Cucumis sativus were grown in sand amended with copper (100 mg kg(-1)), and developed seedlings were exposed to salt stress in the form of NaCl (150 mM) at the 30-day stage of growth for 3 days. These seedlings were subsequently sprayed with 0 or 0.01 μM of 24-epibrassinolide (EBL) at the 35-day stage. The plants exposed to NaCl and Cu in combination exhibited a significant decline in fresh and dry mass of plant, chlorophyll content, activities of carbonic anhydrase, net photosynthetic rate and maximum quantum yield of the PSII primary photochemistry followed by NaCl and Cu stress alone, more severely in Jumbo than in Rocket. However, the follow-up treatment with EBL to the stressed and nonstressed plant improved growth, chlorophyll content, carbonic anhydrase activity and photosynthetic efficiency, and further enhanced the activity of various antioxidant enzymes viz. catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase and content of proline at the 40-day stage of growth, and the response of the hormone was more effective in Rocket than in Jumbo. The elevated level of antioxidant enzymes as well as proline could have conferred tolerance to the NaCl- and/or Cu-stressed plants resulting in improved growth, water relations and photosynthetic attributes. Furthermore, antioxidant enzyme activity and proline content were more enhanced in Rocket than in Jumbo cultivar. PMID:23443638

  19. The effect of sulfite and chronic restraint stress on brain lipid peroxidation and anti-oxidant enzyme activities.

    PubMed

    Derin, Narin; Yargio?lu, Piraye; Aslan, Mutay; Elmas, O?uz; Agar, Aysel; Aicigzel, Yakup

    2006-07-01

    Sulfites are used as anti-microbial and anti-oxidant agents in a variety of drugs, and function as a preservative in many food preparations. In addition to these effects, sulfites oxidize to sulfite radicals initiating lipid peroxidation. The objective of our study was to investigate the effect of restraint stress and sulfite on brain lipid peroxidation and anti-oxidant enzyme activities. Forty male Wistar rats, aged three months, were randomized to one of the following groups: control, restraint stress, sulfite-treated and restraint stress + sulfite-treated. Chronic restraint stress was applied for 21 days (1 h/day) and sodium metabisulfite (520 mg/kg per day) was given by gavage for the same period. Lipid peroxidation was measured using the thiobarbituric acid (TBA) fluorometric assay. TBA-reactive substances (TBARS) were found increased in all treatment groups when compared to the control group. Spectrophotometric measurement of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn SOD) and catalase (CAT) revealed decreased enzyme activities in rats exposed to restraint stress compared to control and sulfite-treated rats. GSH-Px activities were significantly decreased in the restraint stress and sulfite-treated rats compared with the control rats. GSH-Px activity measured in restraint stress + sulfite-treated rats was significantly lower than in the other groups. The presented data confirms the pro-oxidant activity of restraint stress and establishes that decreased anti-oxidant enzyme activities in restraint stress-treated rats enhances brain lipid peroxidation caused via the ingestion of sulfites. PMID:16924954

  20. Nitrate reductase (NR)-dependent NO production mediates ABA- and H2O2-induced antioxidant enzymes.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shaoyun; Zhuo, Chunliu; Wang, Xianghui; Guo, Zhenfei

    2014-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA), H2O2 and nitric oxide (NO) are important signals in gene expression and physiological responses during plant adaptation to environmental stresses. The essential role of NR-derived NO production in ABA and H2O2 induced antioxidant enzymes were studied using transgenic tobacco plants over-expressing Stylosanthes guianensis 9-cis-epoxycartenoid dioxygenase gene (SgNCED1) for elevated ABA level, or over-expressing wheat oxalate oxidase gene (OxO) for elevated H2O2 level in comparison to the wild type. Compared to the wild type, higher levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and nitrate reductase (NR) activities and NO production were observed in all transgenic plants. For investigating the relationship of ABA, H2O2, and NR-produced NO in the induction of antioxidant enzyme activities, an inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis, scavengers of H2O2 and NO, and an inhibitor of NR were used in the experiments. The results indicate that H2O2-induced activities of SOD, CAT, and APX depends on NR-derived NO in OxO transgenic plants, while ABA-induced activities depends on H2O2 and NR-derived NO in SgNCED1 transgenic plants. Compared to unaltered nitrate reductase 2 (NIA2), NIA1 transcript was induced in both types of transgenic plants. It is suggested NR-derived NO is essential for ABA- or H2O2-induced antioxidant enzyme activities. PMID:24246669

  1. Enzyme

    MedlinePLUS

    Enzymes are complex proteins that cause a specific chemical change in all parts of the body. For ... use them. Blood clotting is another example of enzymes at work. Enzymes are needed for all body ...

  2. Antioxidant regulation of genes encoding enzymes that detoxify xenobiotics and carcinogens.

    PubMed

    Dhakshinamoorthy, S; Long, D J; Jaiswal, A K

    2000-01-01

    Antioxidants are substances that delay or prevent the oxidation of cellular oxidizable substrates. The various antioxidants exert their effect by scavenging superoxide or by activating a battery of detoxifying/defensive proteins. In this chapter, we have focused on the mechanisms by which antioxidants induce gene expression. Many xenobiotics (e.g., beta-naphthoflavone) activate genes similar to those activated by antioxidants. The promoters of these genes contain a common cis-element, termed the antioxidant response element (ARE), which contains two TRE (TPA response element) or TRE-like elements followed by GC box. Mutational studies have identified GTGAC***GC as the core of the ARE sequence. Many transcription factors, including Nrf, Jun, Fos, Fra, Maf, YABP, ARE-BP1, Ah (aromatic hydrocarbon) receptor, and estrogen receptor bind to the ARE from the various genes. Among these factors, Nrf-Jun heterodimers positively regulate ARE-mediated expression and induction of genes in response to antioxidants and xenobiotics. This Nrf-Jun heterodimerization and binding to the ARE requires unknown cytosolic factors. The mechanism of signal transduction from antioxidants and xenobiotics includes several steps: (1) Antioxidants and xenobiotics undergo metabolism to generate superoxide and related reactive species, leading to the generation of a signal to activate expression of detoxifying/defensive genes. (2) The generation of superoxide and related reactive species is followed by activation of yet to be identified cytosolic factors by unknown mechanism(s). (3). Activated cytosolic factors catalyze modification of Nrf and/or Jun proteins, which bind to the ARE in promoters of the various detoxifying/defensive genes. (4) The transcription of genes encoding detoxifying/defensive proteins is increased. The unknown cytosolic factors are significant molecules because they represent the oxidative sensors within the cells. Identification of the cytosolic factors will be of considerable importance in the field of antioxidants and gene regulation research. Future studies will also be required to completely understand the molecular mechanism of signal transduction from antioxidants and xenobiotics to Nrf-Jun. In addition to the Nrf-Jun pathway, mammalian cells also contain other pathways that activate gene expression in response to oxidative stress. These include NF-KB-, HIF-1-, Mac-1-, and SRF-mediated pathways. It is expected that collectively these pathways increase transcription of more than four dozen genes to protect cells against oxidative stress. PMID:10842753

  3. Changes of anti-oxidative enzymes and membrane peroxidation for soil water deficits among 10 wheat genotypes at seedling stage.

    PubMed

    Shao, Hong Bo; Liang, Zong Suo; Shao, Ming An; Wang, Bo Chu

    2005-05-10

    Drought is one of the major factors limiting crop production globally, with increasing global climate change making the situation more serious. Wheat is the staple food for more than 35% of world population, so wheat anti-drought physiology study is of importance to wheat production and biological breeding for the sake of coping with abiotic and biotic conditions. Much research is involved in this hot topic, but the pace of progress is not so large because of drought resistance being a multiple-gene-control quantitative character and wheat genome being larger (16,000 Mb). On the other hand, stress adaptive mechanisms are quite different, with stress degree, time course, materials, and experimental plots, thus increasing the complexity of the issue in question. Additionally, a little study is related to the whole life circle of wheat, which cannot provide a comprehensive understanding of its anti-drought machinery. We selected 10 kinds of wheat genotypes as materials, which have potential to be applied in practice, and measured relative change of anti-oxidative enzymes and membrane peroxidation through wheat whole growth-developmental circle (i.e. seedling, tillering and maturing). Here, we firstly reported the results of seedling stage as follows: (1) 10 wheat genotypes can be grouped into three kinds (A-C, respectively) according to their changing trend of the measured indices; (2) A performed better resistance drought under the condition of treatment level 1 (appropriate level), whose activities of anti-oxidative enzymes (POD, SOD, CAT) were higher and MDA lower and chlorophyll a+b higher; (3) B exhibited stronger anti-drought under treatment level 2 (light stress level), whose activities of anti-oxidative enzymes were higher, MDA lower and chlorophyll higher; (4) C expressed anti-drought to some extent under treatment level 3 (serious stress), whose activities of anti-oxidative enzymes were stronger, MDA lower and chlorophyll higher; (5) these results demonstrated that different wheat genotypes have different physiological mechanisms to adapt themselves to changing drought stress, whose molecular basis is discrete gene expression profiling (transcriptom); (6) our results also showed that the concept accepted by most researchers, 70-75% QF is a proper supply for plants, was doubted, because this level could not reflect the true suitable level of wheat. The study in this respect is the key to wheat anti-drought and biological saving-water; (7) our research can provide insights into physiological mechanisms of crop anti-drought and direct practical materials for wheat anti-drought breeding. PMID:15833661

  4. Response of enzymes involved in the processes of antioxidation towards benthiocarb and methylparathion in cyanobacteria Nostoc muscorum

    SciTech Connect

    Bhunia, A.K.; Roy, D.; Basu, N.K.; Chakrabarti, A.; Banerjee, S.K. )

    1991-08-01

    Recently, it has been observed in the authors' laboratory that growth, nitrogen fixation, protein content of cyanobacteria Nostoc muscorum were reduced by methylparathion and benthiocarb treatment. Though many works on toxicity of pesticides on cyanobacteria, specially on growth, photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation are available, the effects of pesticides on antioxidant enzyme levels is still unclear. In this communication, studies have been presented on the effects of organophosphate insecticide methyl-parathione and carbamate herbicide benthiocarb, on glutathione content, glutathione reductase (GR) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities of filamentous, nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria Nostoc muscorum.

  5. [Effects of low salinity stress on the antioxidant enzyme activities in juvenile Pampus argenteus liver and the APTase activities in its gill and kidney].

    PubMed

    Yin, Fei; Sun, Peng; Peng, Shi-ming; Shi, Zhao-hong

    2011-04-01

    By decreasing water salinity gradually, the Pampus argenteus juveniles were cultured at water salinity 25, 20, 15 and 10, for 24 h, 48 h, 96 h and 120 h, respectively, with the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and glutathione reductase (GR) in liver and the activities of Na+/K+- and Ga2+/Mg2+ -ATPase in gill and kidney determined. With the lowering of water salinity and the elongation of treated time, the liver SOD and GST activities had a trend of decreasing after an initial increase (P < 0.05), while the CAT activity was lower than the control except that it had a slight increase at salinity 20 cultured for 24 h and at salinity 15 cultured for 48 h (P < 0.05). The liver GPX activity had an increasing trend (P < 0.05), while the GR activity at salinity 15 cultured for 24 h increased first and then fell down to a relatively low level (P < 0.05). The Na+/K+ - and Ga2+/Mg2+-ATPase activities in the gill and kidney also decreased after an initial increase (P < 0.05), only the increase of ATPase activity at the thresholds of water salinity and treated time differed between the two organs. The results indicated that the decrease of water salinity could effectively stimulate and enhance the antioxidant enzyme activities in juvenile P. argenteus liver and the ATPase activities in its gill and kidney, and thereby, could effectively eliminate the excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS), sustain the intracellular homeostasis, and minimize the body damage. However, characterized by certain specificity and time sequentiality, the activation of test enzymes could also be inhibited when the salinity varied beyond the tolerance range of the body. PMID:21774333

  6. Intracellular Localization of Enzymes of Carbon Metabolism in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum Exhibiting C3 Photosynthetic Characteristics or Performing Crassulacean Acid Metabolism 1

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Klaus; Foster, Joyce G.; Edwards, Gerald E.; Holtum, Joseph A. M.

    1982-01-01

    Mesembryanthemum crystallinum, a halophilic, inducible Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) species, was grown at NaCl concentrations of 20 and 400 millimolar in the rooting medium. Plants from the low salinity treatment showed exclusively C3-photosynthetic net CO2 fixation, whereas plants exposed to the high salinity level exhibited net CO2 dark fixation involving CAM. Mesophyll protoplasts, isolated from both tissues, were gently ruptured, and the intracellular localization of enzymes was studied following differential centrifugation and Percoll density gradient centrifugation of protoplast extracts. Both centrifugation techniques resulted in the separation of intact chloroplasts, with up to 90% yield, from other organelles and the nonparticulate fraction of cells. Enzymes were identified by determination of activity and by sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis of enzyme protein. Experiments established the extraorganellar (cytoplasmic) location of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, enolase, phosphoglyceromutase, and NADP-malic enzyme; the mitochondrial location of NAD-malic enzyme; and the chloroplastic location of pyruvate, Pi dikinase. NAD-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, phosphohexose isomerase, and phosphoglycerate kinase were associated with both cytoplasm and chloroplasts. NADP-dependent malate dehydrogenase activity was found in both the chloroplastic and extrachloroplastic fractions; the activity in the chloroplast showed an optimum at pH 8.0 and was dependent upon preincubation of enzyme with dithiothreitol. The extrachloroplastic activity showed an optimum at pH 6.5 and was independent of pretreatment with dithiothreitol. Protoplast extracts of M. crystallinum performing CAM exhibited higher activities (expressed per mg chlorophyll per min) of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, pyruvate, Pi dikinase, NADP-malic enzyme, NAD-malic enzyme, NADP-malate dehydrogenase, enolase, phosphoglyceromutase, NAD-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, phosphoglycerate kinase, and phosphohexose isomerase than protoplast extracts from M. crystallinum not exhibiting CAM. The increase in total activity of the latter three enzymes following exposure of plants to 400 millimolar NaCl and the development of CAM was due to specific increases in the levels of activity in the cytoplasm. PMID:16662197

  7. Plasma Homocysteine Is Associated with Increased Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Enzyme Activity in Welders

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hung-Hsin; Shih, Tung-Sheng; Huang, Hsin-Ru; Huang, Shih-Chien; Lee, Lien-Hsiung; Huang, Yi-Chia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association of vitamin B6 status and plasma homocysteine with oxidative stress and antioxidant capacities in welders. Workers were divided into either the welding exposure group (n = 57) or the nonexposure controls (n = 42) based on whether they were employed as welders. There were no significant differences in vitamin B6 status and plasma homocysteine concentration between the welding exposure group and the nonexposure controls. The welding exposure group had significantly higher levels of oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and lower erythrocyte glutathione concentration and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities when compared to nonexposure controls. Plasma pyridoxal 5′-phosphate concentration did not correlate with oxidative stress indicators or antioxidant capacities in either group. However, plasma homocysteine significantly correlated with total antioxidant capacity (TAC) (partial rs = −0.34, P < 0.05) and erythrocyte SOD activities (partial rs = 0.29, P < 0.05) after adjusting for potential confounders in the welding exposure group. In the welding exposure group, adequate vitamin B6 status was not associated with oxidative stress or antioxidant capacities. However, elevated plasma homocysteine seemed to be a major contributing factor to antioxidant capacities (TAC and erythrocyte SOD activities) in welders. PMID:24106453

  8. Antioxidant enzyme activities of iron-saturated bovine lactoferrin (Fe-bLf) in human gut epithelial cells under oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Burrow, Hannah; Kanwar, Rupinder K; Kanwar, Jagat R

    2011-05-01

    Chemoprevention by dietary constituents in the form of functional food has emerged as a novel approach to control inflammatory diseases and cancers. Recently we reported for the first time that iron content is a critical determinant in the anti-tumour activity of bovine milk lactoferrin (bLf). We therefore wanted to evaluate the chemo-preventative efficacy of Apo-bLF and 100% iron-saturated bLF (Fe-bLF) on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced colon carcinogenesis, and their influence on antioxidant enzyme activities within colon carcinogenesis. This was undertaken through observing how oxidative stress induced by H2O2 alters antioxidant enzyme activity within HT29 colon cancer cells, and then observing changes in this activity by treatments with the different antioxidants ascorbic acid (AA), Apo-bLF and Fe-bLF. All antioxidant enzymes (catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-s-transferase (GsT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) appeared to be increased within HT29 cells, even prior to H2O2 exposure, and all enzymes showed significant decreased activity when cells were treated with the antioxidants AA, Apo-bLF or Fe-bLF, with or without H2O2 exposure. The results indicate that all three antioxidants have the ability to scavenge ROS, lower antioxidant enzyme activities within already excited states, and possibly allow colon cancer cells to be overcome by oxidative stress that would normally be prevented, perhaps leading to damage and potential apoptosis of the cancer cells. In conclusion, the anti-oxidative effects of Apo-bLF and Fe-bLf studied for the first time, show dynamic changes that may allow for necessary protection from imbalanced oxidative conditions, and potential at reducing the ability of cancer cells to protect themselves from oxidative stress states. PMID:21486205

  9. Effect of the French oak wood extract Robuvit on markers of oxidative stress and activity of antioxidant enzymes in healthy volunteers: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Horvathova, Martina; Orszaghova, Zuzana; Laubertova, Lucia; Vavakova, Magdalena; Sabaka, Peter; Rohdewald, Peter; Durackova, Zdenka; Muchova, Jana

    2014-01-01

    We examined in vitro antioxidant capacity of polyphenolic extract obtained from the wood of oak Quercus robur (QR), Robuvit, using TEAC (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) method and the effect of its intake on markers of oxidative stress, activity of antioxidant enzymes, and total antioxidant capacity in plasma of 20 healthy volunteers. Markers of oxidative damage to proteins, DNA, and lipids and activities of Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were determined in the erythrocytes. We have found an in vitro antioxidant capacity of Robuvit of 6.37 micromole Trolox equivalent/mg of Robuvit. One month intake of Robuvit in daily dose of 300?mg has significantly decreased the serum level of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) and lipid peroxides (LP). Significantly increased activities of SOD and CAT as well as total antioxidant capacity of plasma after one month intake of Robuvit have been shown. In conclusion, we have demonstrated for the first time that the intake of Robuvit is associated with decrease of markers of oxidative stress and increase of activity of antioxidant enzymes and total antioxidant capacity of plasma in vivo. PMID:25254080

  10. Effect of the French Oak Wood Extract Robuvit on Markers of Oxidative Stress and Activity of Antioxidant Enzymes in Healthy Volunteers: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Orszaghova, Zuzana; Laubertova, Lucia; Sabaka, Peter; Rohdewald, Peter; Durackova, Zdenka; Muchova, Jana

    2014-01-01

    We examined in vitro antioxidant capacity of polyphenolic extract obtained from the wood of oak Quercus robur (QR), Robuvit, using TEAC (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) method and the effect of its intake on markers of oxidative stress, activity of antioxidant enzymes, and total antioxidant capacity in plasma of 20 healthy volunteers. Markers of oxidative damage to proteins, DNA, and lipids and activities of Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were determined in the erythrocytes. We have found an in vitro antioxidant capacity of Robuvit of 6.37 micromole Trolox equivalent/mg of Robuvit. One month intake of Robuvit in daily dose of 300?mg has significantly decreased the serum level of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) and lipid peroxides (LP). Significantly increased activities of SOD and CAT as well as total antioxidant capacity of plasma after one month intake of Robuvit have been shown. In conclusion, we have demonstrated for the first time that the intake of Robuvit is associated with decrease of markers of oxidative stress and increase of activity of antioxidant enzymes and total antioxidant capacity of plasma in vivo. PMID:25254080

  11. 2-Benzoxazolinone (BOA) induced oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation and changes in some antioxidant enzyme activities in mung bean (Phaseolus aureus).

    PubMed

    Batish, D R; Singh, H P; Setia, N; Kaur, S; Kohli, R K

    2006-01-01

    2-Benzoxazolinone (BOA), a well-known allelochemical with strong phytotoxicity, is a potential herbicidal candidate. The aim of the present study was to determine whether phytotoxicity of BOA is due to induction of oxidative stress caused by generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the changes in levels of antioxidant enzymes induced in response to BOA. Effect of BOA was studied on electrolyte leakage, lipid peroxidation (LP), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) generation, proline (PRO) accumulation, and activities of antioxidant enzymes-superoxide dismutase (SOD, 1.15.1.1), ascorbate peroxidase (APX, 1.11.1.11), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX, 1.11.1.7), catalase (CAT, 1.11.1.6) and glutathione reductase (GR, 1.6.4.2) in Phaseolus aureus (mung bean). BOA significantly enhanced malondialdehyde (MDA) content, a product of LP, in both leaves and roots of mung bean. The amount of H(2)O(2), a product of oxidative stress, and endogenous PRO increased many-fold in response to BOA. Accumulation of PRO, MDA and H(2)O(2) indicates the cellular damage in the target tissue caused by ROS generated by BOA. In response to BOA, there was a significant increase in the activities of scavenging enzymes SOD, APX, GPX, CAT, and GR in root and leaf tissue of mung bean. At 5 mM BOA, GR activity in roots showed a nearly 22-fold increase over that in control. The present study concludes that BOA induces oxidative stress in mung bean through generation of ROS and upregulation of activities of various scavenging enzymes. PMID:17107811

  12. Selenium ameliorates arsenic induced oxidative stress through modulation of antioxidant enzymes and thiols in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amit; Singh, Rana Pratap; Singh, Pradyumna Kumar; Awasthi, Surabhi; Chakrabarty, Debasis; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar; Tripathi, Rudra Deo

    2014-09-01

    Arsenic (As) contamination of rice is a major problem for South-East Asia. In the present study, the effect of selenium (Se) on rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants exposed to As was studied in hydroponic culture. Arsenic accumulation, plant growth, thiolic ligands and antioxidative enzyme activities were assayed after single (As and Se) and simultaneous supplementations (As + Se). The results indicated that the presence of Se (25 M) decreased As accumulation by threefold in roots and twofold in shoots as compared to single As (25 M) exposed plants. Arsenic induced oxidative stress in roots and shoots was significantly ameliorated by Se supplementation. The observed positive response was found associated with the increased activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX; EC 1.11.1.11), catalase (CAT; EC 1.11.1.6) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx; EC 1.11.1.9) and induced levels of non-protein thiols (NPTs), glutathione (GSH) and phytochelatins (PCs) in As + Se exposed plants as compared to single As treatment. Selenium supplementation modulated the thiol metabolism enzymes viz., ?-glutamylcysteine synthetase (?-ECS; EC 6.3.2.2), glutathione-S-transferase (GST; EC 2.5.1.18) and phytochelatin synthase (PCS; EC 2.3.2.15). Gene expression analysis of several metalloid responsive genes (LOX, SOD and MATE) showed upregulation during As stress, however, significant downregulation during As + Se exposure as compared to single As treatment. Gene expressions of enzymes of antioxidant and GSH and PC biosynthetic systems, such as APX, CAT, GPx, ?-ECS and PCS were found to be significantly positively correlated with their enzyme activities. The findings suggested that Se supplementation could be an effective strategy to reduce As accumulation and toxicity in rice plants. PMID:24985886

  13. Postnatal exposure to chromium through mothers milk accelerates follicular atresia in F1 offspring through increased oxidative stress and depletion of antioxidant enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Jone A.; Sivakumar, Kirthiram K.; Nithy, Thamizh K.; Arosh, Joe A.; Hoyer, Patricia B.; Burghardt, Robert C.; Banu, Sakhila K.

    2013-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium, CrVI, is a heavy metal endocrine disruptor, known as a mutagen, teratogen, and a group A carcinogen. Environmental contamination with CrVI, including drinking water, has been increasing in more than 30 cities in the United States. CrVI is rapidly converted to CrIII intracellularly, and CrIII can cause DNA strand breaks and cancer or apoptosis through different mechanisms. Our previous study demonstrated that lactational exposure to chromium results in a delay or arrest in follicle development and a decrease in steroid hormone levels in F1 female rats, both of which are mitigated (partial inhibition) by vitamin C. The current study tested the hypothesis that lactational exposure to CrIII accelerates follicle atresia in F1 offspring by increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decreasing cellular antioxidants. Results showed that lactational exposure to CrIII dose-dependently increased follicular atresia and decreased steroidogenesis in postnatal day 25, 45, and 65 rats. Vitamin C mitigated or inhibited the effects of CrIII at all doses. CrIII increased hydrogen peroxide and lipid hydroperoxide in plasma and ovary; decreased the antioxidant enzymes (AOXs) GPx1, GR, SOD, and catalase; and increased glutathione S-transferase in plasma and ovary. To understand the effects of CrVI on ROS and AOXs in granulosa (GC) and theca (TC) cell compartments in the ovary, ROS levels and mRNA expression of cytosolic and mitochondrial AOXs, such as SOD1, SOD2, catalase, GLRX1, GSTM1, GSTM2, GSTA4, GR, TXN1, TXN2, TXNRD2, and PRDX3, were studied in GCs and TCs and in a spontaneously immortalized granulosa cell line (SIGC). Overall, CrVI downregulated each of the AOXs; and vitamin C mitigated the effects of CrVI on these enzymes in GCs and SIGCs, but failed to mitigate CrVI effects on GSTM1, GSTM2, TXN1, and TXN2 in TCs. Thus, these data for the first time reveal that lactational exposure to CrIII accelerated follicular atresia and decreased steroidogenesis in F1 female offspring by altering the ratio of ROS and AOXs in the ovary. Vitamin C is able to protect the ovary from CrIII-induced oxidative stress and follicle atresia through protective effects on GCs rather than TCs. PMID:23470461

  14. Influence of Alternanthera brasiliana (L.) Kuntze on Altered Antioxidant Enzyme Profile during Cutaneous Wound Healing in Immunocompromised Rats

    PubMed Central

    Barua, Chandana Choudhury; Ara Begum, Shameem; Talukdar, Archana; Datta Roy, Jayanti; Buragohain, Bhaben; Chandra Pathak, Debesh; Kumar Sarma, Dilip; Saikia Bora, Rumi; Gupta, Asheesh

    2012-01-01

    Alternanthera brasiliana (L.) Kuntze (Amaranthaceae) is a herbaceous plant used against inflammation, cough, and diarrhea in Brazilian popular medicine. In our preliminary study, promising wound healing activity of methanol extract of leaves of A. brasiliana (MEAB) was observed in normal excision and incision wound models. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the wound healing activity along with the antioxidant enzyme profile during cutaneous excision immunocompromised wound after topical application of 5% w/w ointment of MEAB in rats. Immunocompromised state was induced by pretreatment with hydrocortisone (HC) at 40 mg/kg body weight (i.m.) in male rats. Following one-week pretreatment with HC, wounds were created. The vehicle, 5% (w/w) ointment of MEAB, or standard drug (Himax) was applied topically twice daily. Healing potential was evaluated by the rate of wound contraction, estimation of enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants like catalase, SOD, GSH, protein, vitamin C, and hydroxyproline content, which was supported by histopathological study on the 8th day following wounding. There was significant increase in the enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant parameters in the extract-reated group as compared to control group. Histopathological study revealed collagen deposition, fibroblast proliferation, angiogenesis, and development of basement membrane in A. brasiliana group. The results of the present investigation revealed significant wound healing activity of MEAB. PMID:22934192

  15. The interactive effects of mercury and selenium on metabolic profiles, gene expression and antioxidant enzymes in halophyte Suaeda salsa.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoli; Lai, Yongkai; Sun, Hushan; Wang, Yiyan; Zou, Ning

    2016-04-01

    Suaeda salsa is the pioneer halophyte in the Yellow River Delta and was consumed as a popular vegetable. Mercury has become a highly risky contaminant in the sediment of intertidal zones of the Yellow River Delta. In this work, we investigated the interactive effects of mercury and selenium in S. salsa on the basis of metabolic profiling, antioxidant enzyme activities and gene expression quantification. Our results showed that mercury exposure (20 μg L(-1) ) inhibited plant growth of S. salsa and induced significant metabolic responses and altered expression levels of INPS, CMO, and MDH in S. salsa samples, together with the increased activities of antioxidant enzymes including SOD and POD. Overall, these results indicated osmotic and oxidative stresses, disturbed protein degradation and energy metabolism change in S. salsa after mercury exposures. Additionally, the addition of selenium could induce both antagonistic and synergistic effects including alleviating protein degradation and aggravating osmotic stress caused by mercury. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 440-451, 2016. PMID:25346288

  16. Seasonal variation in the mixed-function oxygenase system and antioxidant enzymes of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis

    SciTech Connect

    Sole, M.; Porte, C.; Albaiges, J. . Dept. of Environmental Chemistry)

    1995-01-01

    Seasonal variations in the mixed-function oxygenase (MFO) system components (cytochrome P450, 418 peak, and NADPH-cytochrome c[P450] reductase) and antioxidant enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase [SOD], glutathione peroxidase [GPX], and DT-diaphorase) of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis have been evaluated. Its relation with contaminant body burden (PAHs, PCBs, DDTs, and lindane) as well as environmental parameters (water temperature, salinity, oxygen concentrations, and suspended matter) was determined. As a general trend, low MFO and antioxidant enzyme activities were detected in February--March, a peak in late April, and a gradual decrease with a minimum in June. This pattern was similar to tissue concentrations of PAHs, PCBs, DDTs, and lindate normalized to lipid weight. Cytochrome P450 content, however, exhibited a steady decrease from February to June. The observed seasonal variations are presumably related to the metabolic status of the animal, itself dependent on such factors as gonadal ripening, food availability, and the hydrological cycle, which regulates productivity in the area.

  17. Protective effects of ascorbic acid and vitamin E on antioxidant enzyme activity of freeze-thawed semen of Qinchuan bulls.

    PubMed

    Zhao, X L; Li, Y K; Cao, S J; Hu, J H; Wang, W H; Hao, R J; Gui, L S; Zan, L S

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the protective effects of the combination of ascorbic acid (Vc) and vitamin E (VE) on antioxidant enzyme activity, sperm motility, viability, and acrosome integrity of Qinchuan bulls after freeze-thaw. In this study, we determined the effects of Vc and VE on the activity of the antioxidant enzyme defense system comprising glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase (GR), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD). The combination of Vc and VE had protective effects on sperm motility and viability. With respect to acrosome integrity and the activity of GR and SOD, differences were observed between the experimental groups with added Vc (7 mg/mL) and VE (0.12 IU/mL) and the control group. The activity of GSH-Px in the experimental group (1400 IU/mL Vc and 0.12 IU/mL VE) was not different (P > 0.05) compared with that in the control group, while the activity of CAT showed a significant difference between the 2 groups (P < 0.05). Therefore, we inferred that the combination of Vc (1400 IU/mL) and VE (0.12 IU/mL) protected the sperm quality in the freeze-thaw process. PMID:25867404

  18. Effects of osmotic stress on antioxidant enzymes activities in leaf discs of PSAG12-IPT modified gerbera

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Qi-xian; Bao, Zhi-yi; Zhu, Zhu-jun; Qian, Qiong-qiu; Mao, Bi-zeng

    2007-01-01

    Leaf senescence is often caused by water deficit and the chimeric gene PSAG12-IPT is an auto-regulated gene delaying leaf senescence. Using in vitro leaf discs culture system, the changes of contents of chlorophylls, carotenoids, soluble protein and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and antioxidant enzymes activities were investigated during leaf senescence of PSAGl2-IPT modified gerbera induced by osmotic stress compared with the control plant (wild type). Leaf discs were incubated in 20%, 40% (w/v) polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6 000 nutrient solution for 20 h under continuous light [130 mol/(m2s)]. The results showed that the contents of chlorophylls, carotenoids and soluble protein were decreased by osmotic stress with the decrease being more pronounced at 40% PEG, but that, at the same PEG concentration the decrease in the transgenic plants was significantly lower than that in the control plant. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalases (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) were stimulated by PEG treatment. However, the increases were higher in PSAG12-IPT transgenic plants than in the control plants, particularly at 40% PEG treatment. Lipid peroxidation (TBARS content) was increased by PEG treatment with the increase being much lower in transgenic plant than in the control plant. It could be concluded that the increases in the activities of antioxidant enzymes including SOD, CAT, APX, GPX and DHAR were responsible for the delay of leaf senescence induced by osmotic stress. PMID:17610324

  19. Expression Profile of Antioxidant Enzymes in Hemocytes from Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii Exposed to an Elevated Level of Copper.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hui; Miao, Yu-Tao; Xian, Jian-An; Qian, Kun; Wang, An-Li

    2015-10-01

    This study evaluated the expression level of antioxidant enzymes Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu, Zn-SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) in hemocytes of Macrobrachium rosenbergii exposed to copper by real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Results showed that the mRNA expression of Cu, Zn-SOD increased to reach a peak at 6 h, then recovered to its normal level at 48 h. CAT expression level was significantly increased at 12 h and reached a peak at 24 h, but recovered to its normal level later. GPx expression level was significantly increased at 6 h and reached the peak at 12 h. GST expression level was significantly induced from 12 to 24 h and then dropped to its normal level at 48 h. These results indicated that antioxidant enzymes were inducible, possibly for removing excessive reactive oxygen species to protect prawn from oxidative stress. PMID:26215459

  20. The enhancement of antioxidant compounds extracted from Thymus vulgaris using enzymes and the effect of extracting solvent.

    PubMed

    Cerda, Alejandra; Martnez, Mara Eugenia; Soto, Carmen; Poirrier, Paola; Perez-Correa, Jose R; Vergara-Salinas, Jose R; Ziga, Mara Elvira

    2013-08-15

    We evaluate the total phenolic compounds (TPC) content and the antioxidant activity (AA) of extracts obtained from ground fresh thyme (FT) and depleted thyme (DT), a by-product of the process of essential oil extraction. In addition, enzymatic treatments were evaluated to improve the extraction yields of polyphenolic compounds from thyme. Extractions were performed using several solvents as methanol, ethanol, and water. Enzymes were applied prior to extraction or during the extraction process. The best results were obtained using a mixture of methanol and water, resulting in 2790 and 220 mg Gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/L of TPC for FT and DT, respectively. A similar result was observed for AA. With regard to enzymatic treatment, application of Grindamyl CA 150 enzyme as a pre-treatment resulted in the production of an extract from DT with 614 mg TE (trolox equivalent)/L of AA, 70% more than the control, and an AA of 621 mg TE/L (74% more than the control sample) was obtained using Grindamyl CA 150 during the extraction process. These results suggest that enzymatic treatment is an interesting alternative for producing antioxidant extracts from DT. PMID:23561089

  1. Effects of chilled storage and cryopreservation on sperm characteristics, antioxidant enzyme activities, and lipid peroxidation in Pacific cod Gadus microcephalus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xueying; Shi, Xuehui; Liu, Yifan; Yu, Daode; Guan, Shuguang; Liu, Qinghua; Li, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of chilled storage and cryopreservation on sperm motion characteristics, antioxidant enzyme activities, and lipid peroxidation in the Pacific cod Gadus macrocephalus. Sperm motility and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (Gr), and lipid peroxidation (measured via malondialdehyde (MDA) content) were determined after the milt was stored at 4°C for 12 h, cryopreserved without cryoprotectant in 12% propylene glycol (PG), cryopreserved in 12% PG+0.1 mol/L trehalose, or cryopreserved in 12% PG spermatozoa but centrifuged to decant the supernatant prior to cryopreservation (only sperm cells were cryopreserved). After chilled storage or cryopreservation, the SOD, CAT and GPx activities were reduced in sperm cells and increased in seminal plasma in almost all treatments; sperm motility parameters were also decreased. However, the addition of trehalose into the cryoprotectant could significantly improve the postthaw sperm quality as revealed by the sperm average path velocity. This improvement might be attributed to the function of trehalose in scavenging reactive oxygen species. Chilled storage and cryopreservation had significant effects on sperm motion characteristics, antioxidant enzyme activities, and lipid peroxidation in the Pacific cod.

  2. The effect of extra virgin olive oil and soybean on DNA, cytogenicity and some antioxidant enzymes in rats.

    PubMed

    El-Kholy, Thanaa A; Abu Hilal, Mohammad; Al-Abbadi, Hatim Ali; Serafi, Abdulhalim Salim; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmad K; Sobhy, Hanan M; Richardson, John R C

    2014-06-01

    We investigated the effect of extra virgin (EV) olive oil and genetically modified (GM) soybean on DNA, cytogenicity and some antioxidant enzymes in rodents. Forty adult male albino rats were used in this study and divided into four groups. The control group of rodents was fed basal ration only. The second group was given basal ration mixed with EV olive oil (30%). The third group was fed basal ration mixed with GM (15%), and the fourth group survived on a combination of EV olive oil, GM and the basal ration for 65 consecutive days. On day 65, blood samples were collected from each rat for antioxidant enzyme analysis. In the group fed on basal ration mixed with GM soyabean (15%), there was a significant increase in serum level of lipid peroxidation, while glutathione transferase decreased significantly. Interestingly, GM soyabean increased not only the percentage of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MPCE), but also the ratio of polychromatic erythrocytes to normochromatic erythrocytes (PEC/NEC); however, the amount of DNA and NCE were significantly decreased. Importantly, the combination of EV olive oil and GM soyabean significantly altered the tested parameters towards normal levels. This may suggest an important role for EV olive oil on rodents' organs and warrants further investigation in humans. PMID:24959949

  3. Platycodi Radix attenuates dimethylnitrosamine-induced liver fibrosis in rats by inducing Nrf2-mediated antioxidant enzymes.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jae Ho; Jin, Sun Woo; Kim, Hyung Gyun; Khanal, Tilak; Hwang, Yong Pil; Lee, Kyung Jin; Choi, Chul Yung; Chung, Young Chul; Lee, Young Chun; Jeong, Hye Gwang

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-fibrotic effects of the aqueous extract of the Platycodi Radix root (Changkil: CK) on dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)-induced liver fibrosis in rats. DMN treatment for 4 weeks led to marked liver fibrosis as assessed by serum biochemistry, histopathological examination, and hepatic lipid peroxidation and collagen content. CK significantly inhibited DMN-induced increases in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities, fibrosis score, and hepatic malondialdehyde and collagen content. CK also inhibited DMN-induced reductions in rat body and liver weights. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot analyses revealed that CK inhibited DMN-induced increases in matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) mRNA, and collagen type I and ?-smooth muscle actin protein. DMN-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) activation was reduced by CK treatment. Furthermore, CK induced activation of nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-mediated antioxidant enzymes such as ?-glutamylcysteine synthetase (?-GCS), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in HepG2 cells. These results demonstrated that CK attenuates DMN-induced liver fibrosis through the activation of Nrf2-mediated antioxidant enzymes. PMID:23485615

  4. The Effect of Extra Virgin Olive Oil and Soybean on DNA, Cytogenicity and Some Antioxidant Enzymes in Rats

    PubMed Central

    El-Kholy, Thanaa A.; Abu Hilal, Mohammad; Ali Al-Abbadi, Hatim; Salim Serafi, Abdulhalim; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmad K.; Sobhy, Hanan M.; Richardson, John R. C.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effect of extra virgin (EV) olive oil and genetically modified (GM) soybean on DNA, cytogenicity and some antioxidant enzymes in rodents. Forty adult male albino rats were used in this study and divided into four groups. The control group of rodents was fed basal ration only. The second group was given basal ration mixed with EV olive oil (30%). The third group was fed basal ration mixed with GM (15%), and the fourth group survived on a combination of EV olive oil, GM and the basal ration for 65 consecutive days. On day 65, blood samples were collected from each rat for antioxidant enzyme analysis. In the group fed on basal ration mixed with GM soyabean (15%), there was a significant increase in serum level of lipid peroxidation, while glutathione transferase decreased significantly. Interestingly, GM soyabean increased not only the percentage of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MPCE), but also the ratio of polychromatic erythrocytes to normochromatic erythrocytes (PEC/NEC); however, the amount of DNA and NCE were significantly decreased. Importantly, the combination of EV olive oil and GM soyabean significantly altered the tested parameters towards normal levels. This may suggest an important role for EV olive oil on rodents organs and warrants further investigation in humans. PMID:24959949

  5. Flixweed Is More Competitive than Winter Wheat under Ozone Pollution: Evidences from Membrane Lipid Peroxidation, Antioxidant Enzymes and Biomass

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yong; Zheng, Yan-Hai; Jiang, Gao-Ming

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effects of ozone on winter wheat and flixweed under competition, two species were exposed to ambient, elevated and high [O3] for 30 days, planted singly or in mixculture. Eco-physiological responses were examined at different [O3] and fumigating time. Ozone reduced the contents of chlorophyll, increased the accumulation of H2O2 and malondialdehyde in both wheat and flixweed. The effects of competition on chlorophyll content of wheat emerged at elevated and high [O3], while that of flixweed emerged only at high [O3]. The increase of H2O2 and malondialdehyde of flixweed was less than that of wheat under the same condition. Antioxidant enzyme activities of wheat and flixweed were seriously depressed by perennial and serious treatment using O3. However, short-term and moderate fumigation increased the activities of SOD and POD of wheat, and CAT of flixweed. The expression levels of antioxidant enzymes related genes provided explanation for these results. Furthermore, the increase of CAT expression of flixweed was much higher than that of SOD and POD expression of wheat. Ozone and competition resulted in significant reductions in biomass and grain yield in both winter wheat and flixweed. However, the negative effects on flixweed were less than wheat. Our results demonstrated that winter wheat is more sensitive to O3 and competition than flixweed, providing valuable data for further investigation on responses of winter wheat to ozone pollution, in particular combined with species competition. PMID:23533669

  6. Response of antioxidative enzymes to arsenic-induced phytotoxicity in leaves of a medicinal daisy, Wedelia chinensis Merrill

    PubMed Central

    Talukdar, Tulika; Talukdar, Dibyendu

    2013-01-01

    Background: Wedelia chinensis Merrill (Asteraceae) is a medicinally important herb, grown abundantly in soils contaminated with heavy metals, including toxic metalloid arsenic (As). The leaves have immense significance in treatment of various ailments. Objective: The present study was undertaken to ascertain whether the edible/usable parts experience oxidative stress in the form of membrane damage during As exposure or not. Materials and Methods: Responses of seven antioxidant enzymes were studied in leaves under 20 mg/L of As treatment in pot experiment. Results: When compared to control, activities of superoxide dismutase, monodehydroascorbatereductase, dehydroascorbatereductase, glutathione reductase, and gluathione peroxidase had increased, while the catalase level reduced and ascorbate peroxidase activity changed non-significantly in As-treated seedlings. This suggested overall positive response of antioxidant enzymes to As-induced oxidative stress. Although hydrogen peroxide content increased, level of lipid peroxidation and magnitude of membrane damage was quite normal, leading to normal growth (dry weight of shoot) of plant under Astreatment. Conclusion: W.chinensis is tolerant of As-toxicity, and thus, can be grown in As-contaminated zones. PMID:24082737

  7. Placental extracts induce the expression of antioxidant enzyme genes and suppress melanogenesis in B16 melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Masahiro; Hasegawa, Shinya; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Yuka; Sakai, Chihiro; Ashizawa, Yoko; Asai, Yuuki; Kanzaki, Mamiko; Fukui, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    One of the activities of placental extracts (PEs) is skin-whitening effect, but the physiological and genetic mechanism for this effect has not yet been clarified. Here, we focus on PE as a regulator of antioxidant enzyme genes. Porcine PE was prepared, and its activity was investigated in B16 melanoma cells. PE treatment decreased the melanin content of UV-irradiated B16 cells in a dose-dependent manner. PE directly reduced the enzyme activity of tyrosinase in a cell-free assay. In addition, PE treatment increased the gene expression of cytosolic superoxide dismutase (SOD-1), extracellular SOD (SOD-3) and catalase but did not affect the expression of tyrosinase. Moreover, PE protected the B16 cells from H2O2-induced cell death. Taken together, our data suggest that PEs could play a role not only as a suppressor of melanin synthesis but also as a regulator of antioxidant genes and might protect the skin against oxidative stress. PMID:25435062

  8. Construction of a Near-Infrared-Activatable Enzyme Platform To Remotely Trigger Intracellular Signal Transduction Using an Upconversion Nanoparticle.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hua-De; Thanasekaran, Pounraj; Chiang, Chao-Wei; Hong, Jia-Lin; Liu, Yen-Chun; Chang, Yu-Hsu; Lee, Hsien-Ming

    2015-07-28

    Photoactivatable (caged) bioeffectors provide a way to remotely trigger or disable biochemical pathways in living organisms at a desired time and location with a pulse of light (uncaging), but the phototoxicity of ultraviolet (UV) often limits its application. In this study, we have demonstrated the near-infrared (NIR) photoactivatable enzyme platform using protein kinase A (PKA), an important enzyme in cell biology. We successfully photoactivated PKA using NIR to phosphorylate its substrate, and this induced a downstream cellular response in living cells with high spatiotemporal resolution. In addition, this system allows NIR to selectively activate the caged enzyme immobilized on the nanoparticle surface without activating other caged proteins in the cytosol. This NIR-responsive enzyme-nanoparticle system provides an innovative approach to remote-control proteins and enzymes, which can be used by researchers who need to avoid direct UV irradiation or use UV as a secondary channel to turn on a bioeffector. PMID:26102426

  9. The Sasa quelpaertensis Leaf Extract Inhibits the Dextran Sulfate Sodium-induced Mouse Colitis Through Modulation of Antioxidant Enzyme Expression

    PubMed Central

    Yeom, Yiseul; Kim, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. The objective of this study is to investigate the protective effect of Sasa quelpaertensis leaf extract (SQE) against oxidative stress in mice with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. Methods: Mice were treated with SQE (100 mg/kg or 300 mg/kg body weight) by gavage in advance two weeks before inflammation was induced. Then, the mice were administered with 2.5% DSS in drinking water for 7 days and normal drinking water for 7 days between two DSS treatment. Disease activity index values, gut motility, and severity of the resulting oxidative DNA damage were analyzed. The antioxidant effect of SQE was evaluated by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in plasma samples. Catalase activity and expressions levels of glutathione peroxidase 1 (Gpx1), SOD1, and SOD2 were also detected in colon tissues. Results: Administration of SQE significantly reduced the severity of DSS-induced colitis compared to the control (Ctrl) group. Levels of 8-oxo-dG, an oxidative DNA damage marker, were significantly lower in the SQE group compared to the untreated DSS Ctrl group. In the SQE (300 mg/kg) group, MDA levels were significantly lower, while SOD and catalase activity levels in the plasma samples were significantly higher compared with the DSS Ctrl group. The expression levels of the antioxidant enzymes, SOD2 and Gpx1, were significantly higher, while the levels of SOD 1 expression were lower, in the colon tissues of the DSS Ctrl group compared with those of the Ctrl group. In contrast, administration of SQE significantly down-regulated SOD2 and Gpx1 expressions and up-regulated SOD1 expression. Conclusions: These results indicate that SQE efficiently suppresses oxidative stress in DSS-induced colitis in mice, and its action is associated with the regulation of antioxidant enzymes. PMID:26151047

  10. Green tea diet decreases PCB 126-induced oxidative stress in mice by up-regulating antioxidant enzymes.

    PubMed

    Newsome, Bradley J; Petriello, Michael C; Han, Sung Gu; Murphy, Margaret O; Eske, Katryn E; Sunkara, Manjula; Morris, Andrew J; Hennig, Bernhard

    2014-02-01

    Superfund chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls pose a serious human health risk due to their environmental persistence and link to multiple diseases. Selective bioactive food components such as flavonoids have been shown to ameliorate PCB toxicity, but primarily in an in vitro setting. Here, we show that mice fed a green tea-enriched diet and subsequently exposed to environmentally relevant doses of coplanar PCB exhibit decreased overall oxidative stress primarily due to the up-regulation of a battery of antioxidant enzymes. C57BL/6 mice were fed a low-fat diet supplemented with green tea extract (GTE) for 12 weeks and exposed to 5 ?mol PCB 126/kg mouse weight (1.63 mg/kg-day) on weeks 10, 11 and 12 (total body burden: 4.9 mg/kg). F2-isoprostane and its metabolites, established markers of in vivo oxidative stress, measured in plasma via HPLC-MS/MS exhibited fivefold decreased levels in mice supplemented with GTE and subsequently exposed to PCB compared to animals on a control diet exposed to PCB. Livers were collected and harvested for both messenger RNA and protein analyses, and it was determined that many genes transcriptionally controlled by aryl hydrocarbon receptor and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 proteins were up-regulated in PCB-exposed mice fed the green tea-supplemented diet. An increased induction of genes such as SOD1, GSR, NQO1 and GST, key antioxidant enzymes, in these mice (green tea plus PCB) may explain the observed decrease in overall oxidative stress. A diet supplemented with green tea allows for an efficient antioxidant response in the presence of PCB 126, which supports the emerging paradigm that healthful nutrition may be able to bolster and buffer a physiological system against the toxicities of environmental pollutants. PMID:24378064

  11. Effects of Cr(VI) long-term and low-dose action on mammalian antioxidant enzymes (an in vitro study)

    SciTech Connect

    Asatiani, N.; Sapojnikova, N.; Abuladze, M.; Kartvelishvili, T.L.; Kulikova, N.; Kiziria, E.; Namchevadze, E.; Holman, H.-Y.N.

    2003-08-01

    In order to investigate the low-dose long-term Cr(VI) action on antioxidant enzymes in cultured mammalian cells we estimated the activity of glutathione dependent antioxidant enzymes, catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) under various chromium concentrations in human epithelial-like L-41 cells. The long-term action of 20 mu-M causes the toxicity that results in losing of the cell viability by activating the apoptotic process, as identified by morphological analysis, the activation of caspase-3, and DNA fragmentation. The toxic chromium concentration totally destroys glutathione antioxidant system, and diminishes the activity of catalase and cytosolic Cu, ZnSOD. The non-toxic concentration (2 mu-M) causes the activation of the antioxidant defense systems, and they neutralize the oxidative impact.

  12. Association between maternal micronutrient status, oxidative stress, and common genetic variants in antioxidant enzymes at 15 weeks׳ gestation in nulliparous women who subsequently develop preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Mistry, Hiten D; Gill, Carolyn A; Kurlak, Lesia O; Seed, Paul T; Hesketh, John E; Méplan, Catherine; Schomburg, Lutz; Chappell, Lucy C; Morgan, Linda; Poston, Lucilla

    2015-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific condition affecting 2-7% of women and a leading cause of perinatal and maternal morbidity and mortality. Deficiencies of specific micronutrient antioxidant activities associated with copper, selenium, zinc, and manganese have previously been linked to preeclampsia at the time of disease. Our aims were to investigate whether maternal plasma micronutrient concentrations and related antioxidant enzyme activities are altered before preeclampsia onset and to examine the dependence on genetic variations in these antioxidant enzymes. Predisease plasma samples (15±1 weeks׳ gestation) were obtained from women enrolled in the international Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints (SCOPE) study who subsequently developed preeclampsia (n=244) and from age- and BMI-matched normotensive controls (n=472). Micronutrient concentrations were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry; associated antioxidant enzyme activities, selenoprotein-P, ceruloplasmin concentration and activity, antioxidant capacity, and markers of oxidative stress were measured by colorimetric assays. Sixty-four tag-single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within genes encoding the antioxidant enzymes and selenoprotein-P were genotyped using allele-specific competitive PCR. Plasma copper and ceruloplasmin concentrations were modestly but significantly elevated in women who subsequently developed preeclampsia (both P<0.001) compared to controls (median (IQR), copper, 1957.4 (1787, 2177.5) vs 1850.0 (1663.5, 2051.5) µg/L; ceruloplasmin, 2.5 (1.4, 3.2) vs 2.2 (1.2, 3.0) µg/ml). There were no differences in other micronutrients or enzymes between groups. No relationship was observed between genotype for SNPs and antioxidant enzyme activity. This analysis of a prospective cohort study reports maternal micronutrient concentrations in combination with associated antioxidant enzymes and SNPs in their encoding genes in women at 15 weeks׳ gestation that subsequently developed preeclampsia. The modest elevation in copper may contribute to oxidative stress, later in pregnancy, in those women that go on to develop preeclampsia. The lack of evidence to support the hypothesis that functional SNPs influence antioxidant enzyme activity in pregnant women argues against a role for these genes in the etiology of preeclampsia. PMID:25463281

  13. Association between maternal micronutrient status, oxidative stress, and common genetic variants in antioxidant enzymes at 15 weeks? gestation in nulliparous women who subsequently develop preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Mistry, Hiten D.; Gill, Carolyn A.; Kurlak, Lesia O.; Seed, Paul T.; Hesketh, John E.; Mplan, Catherine; Schomburg, Lutz; Chappell, Lucy C.; Morgan, Linda; Poston, Lucilla

    2015-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific condition affecting 27% of women and a leading cause of perinatal and maternal morbidity and mortality. Deficiencies of specific micronutrient antioxidant activities associated with copper, selenium, zinc, and manganese have previously been linked to preeclampsia at the time of disease. Our aims were to investigate whether maternal plasma micronutrient concentrations and related antioxidant enzyme activities are altered before preeclampsia onset and to examine the dependence on genetic variations in these antioxidant enzymes. Predisease plasma samples (151 weeks? gestation) were obtained from women enrolled in the international Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints (SCOPE) study who subsequently developed preeclampsia (n=244) and from age- and BMI-matched normotensive controls (n=472). Micronutrient concentrations were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry; associated antioxidant enzyme activities, selenoprotein-P, ceruloplasmin concentration and activity, antioxidant capacity, and markers of oxidative stress were measured by colorimetric assays. Sixty-four tagsingle-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within genes encoding the antioxidant enzymes and selenoprotein-P were genotyped using allele-specific competitive PCR. Plasma copper and ceruloplasmin concentrations were modestly but significantly elevated in women who subsequently developed preeclampsia (both P<0.001) compared to controls (median (IQR), copper, 1957.4 (1787, 2177.5) vs 1850.0 (1663.5, 2051.5) g/L; ceruloplasmin, 2.5 (1.4, 3.2) vs 2.2 (1.2, 3.0) g/ml). There were no differences in other micronutrients or enzymes between groups. No relationship was observed between genotype for SNPs and antioxidant enzyme activity. This analysis of a prospective cohort study reports maternal micronutrient concentrations in combination with associated antioxidant enzymes and SNPs in their encoding genes in women at 15 weeks? gestation that subsequently developed preeclampsia. The modest elevation in copper may contribute to oxidative stress, later in pregnancy, in those women that go on to develop preeclampsia. The lack of evidence to support the hypothesis that functional SNPs influence antioxidant enzyme activity in pregnant women argues against a role for these genes in the etiology of preeclampsia. PMID:25463281

  14. Dietary blueberries sttenuate atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice by upregulating antioxidant enzymes expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blueberries (BB) contain high levels of polyphenols and exhibit high antioxidant capacity. In this study, protective effects of BB against atherosclerosis and possible underlying mechanisms in reducing oxidative stress were examined in ApoE deficient (apoE-/-) mice. ApoE-/- mice were fed AIN-93G die...

  15. Effect of a polybrominated diphenyl ether congener (BDE-47) on growth and antioxidative enzymes of two mangrove plant species, Kandelia obovata and Avicennia marina, in South China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Zhu, Haowen; Tam, Nora Fung Yee

    2014-08-30

    The effects of BDE-47 on the growth and antioxidative responses of the seedlings of Kandelia obovata (Ko) and Avicennia marina (Am) were compared in an 8-week hydroponic culture spiked with different levels of BDE-47, 0.1, 1, 5 and 10 mg l(-1). The two highest BDE-47 levels significantly suppressed the growth and increased the activities of three antioxidative enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT), of Ko in week 1. However, SOD and POD activities at high levels of BDE-47 became lower than the control in week 8. On the contrary, growth of Am was not affected at all contamination levels, and the activities of three enzymes were enhanced by BDE-47 in weeks 1 and 4, but such stimulatory effect became insignificant in week 8. Avicennia was more tolerant to BDE-47 toxicity than Kandelia, as its antioxidative enzymes could better counter-balance the oxidative stress caused by BDE-47. PMID:24631399

  16. Effects of heat acclimation on photosynthesis, antioxidant enzyme activities, and gene expression in orchardgrass under heat stress.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin Xin; Huang, Lin Kai; Zhang, Xin Quan; Li, Zhou; Peng, Yan

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine the effects of heat acclimation on enzymatic activity, transcription levels, the photosynthesis processes associated with thermostability in orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.).The stomatal conductance (Gs), net photosynthetic rate (Pn), and transpiration rates (Tr) of both heat-acclimated (HA) and non-acclimated (NA) plants were drastically reduced during heat treatment [using a 5-day heat stress treatment (38/30 C ? day/night) followed by a 3-day recovery under control conditions (25/20 C ? day/night), in order to consolidate the second cycle was permitted]. Water use efficiency increased more steeply in the HA (4.9 times) versus the NA (1.8 times) plants, and the intercellular CO2 concentration decreased gently in NA (10.9%) and HA (25.3%) plants after 20 d of treatments compared to 0 days'. Furthermore, heat-acclimated plants were able to maintain significant activity levels of superoxide disumutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (POD), and transcription levels of genes encoding these enzymes; in addition, HA plants displayed lower malondialdehyde content and lower electrolyte leakage than NA plants. These results suggest that maintenance of activity and transcription levels of antioxidant enzymes as well as photosynthesis are associated with variable thermostability in HA and NA plants. This likely occurs through cellular membrane stabilization and improvements in water use efficiency in the photosynthetic process during heat stress. The association between antioxidant enzyme activity and gene expression, both of which may vary with genetic variation in heat tolerance, is important to further understand the molecular mechanisms that contribute to heat tolerance. PMID:25255756

  17. Antioxidant Enzyme Activity and Meat Quality of Meat Type Ducks Fed with Dried Oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) Powder.

    PubMed

    Park, J H; Kang, S N; Shin, D; Shim, K S

    2015-01-01

    One-day-old Cherry valley meat-strain ducks were used to investigate the effect of supplemental dried oregano powder (DOP) in feed on the productivity, antioxidant enzyme activity, and breast meat quality. One hundred sixty five ducks were assigned to 5 dietary treatments for 42 days. The dietary treatment groups were control group (CON; no antibiotic, no DOP), antibiotic group (ANT; CON+0.1% Patrol), 0.1% DOP (CON+0.1% DOP), 0.5% DOP (CON+0.5% DOP), and 1.0% DOP (CON+1.0% DOP). Upon feeding, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity of oregano extracts was higher than that of tocopherol, although it was less than that of ascorbic acid. As a result of in vivo study, DOP in the diet showed no effects on final body weight, feed intake, or feed conversion ratio. However, dietary 0.5% and 1% DOP supplementation caused a significant increase in the serum enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) compared with CON and ANT, while glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in tissue was increased as compared to ANT (p<0.05). Cooking loss from ducks fed with DOP decreased compared with the control ducks. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values of duck breast meat at 5 d post slaughter was found to be significantly reduced in ducks whose diets were supplemented with 0.5% and 1% DOP (p<0.05). These results suggest that diets containing 0.5% and 1% DOP may beneficially affect antioxidant enzyme activity of GPx and SOD, improve meat cooking loss, and reduce TBARS values in breast meat at 5 d of storage in ducks. PMID:25557678

  18. Antioxidant Enzyme Activity and Meat Quality of Meat Type Ducks Fed with Dried Oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) Powder

    PubMed Central

    Park, J. H.; Kang, S. N.; Shin, D.; Shim, K. S.

    2015-01-01

    One-day-old Cherry valley meat-strain ducks were used to investigate the effect of supplemental dried oregano powder (DOP) in feed on the productivity, antioxidant enzyme activity, and breast meat quality. One hundred sixty five ducks were assigned to 5 dietary treatments for 42 days. The dietary treatment groups were control group (CON; no antibiotic, no DOP), antibiotic group (ANT; CON+0.1% Patrol), 0.1% DOP (CON+0.1% DOP), 0.5% DOP (CON+0.5% DOP), and 1.0% DOP (CON+1.0% DOP). Upon feeding, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity of oregano extracts was higher than that of tocopherol, although it was less than that of ascorbic acid. As a result of in vivo study, DOP in the diet showed no effects on final body weight, feed intake, or feed conversion ratio. However, dietary 0.5% and 1% DOP supplementation caused a significant increase in the serum enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) compared with CON and ANT, while glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in tissue was increased as compared to ANT (p<0.05). Cooking loss from ducks fed with DOP decreased compared with the control ducks. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values of duck breast meat at 5 d post slaughter was found to be significantly reduced in ducks whose diets were supplemented with 0.5% and 1% DOP (p<0.05). These results suggest that diets containing 0.5% and 1% DOP may beneficially affect antioxidant enzyme activity of GPx and SOD, improve meat cooking loss, and reduce TBARS values in breast meat at 5 d of storage in ducks. PMID:25557678

  19. Dehydroepiandrosterone supplement increases malate dehydrogenase activity and decreases NADPH-dependent antioxidant enzyme activity in rat hepatocellular carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sook-Hee; Choi, Haymie

    2008-01-01

    Beneficial effects of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) supplement on age-associated chronic diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance and diabetes, have been reported. However, its mechanism of action in hepatocellular carcinoma in vivo has not been investigated in detail. We have previously shown that during hepatocellular carcinogenesis, DHEA treatment decreases formation of preneoplastic glutathione S-transferase placental form-positive foci in the liver and has antioxidant effects. Here we aimed to determine the mechanism of actions of DHEA, in comparison to vitamin E, in a chemically-induced hepatocellular carcinoma model in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were administered with control diet without a carcinogen, diets with 1.5% vitamin E, 0.5% DHEA and both of the compounds with a carcinogen for 6 weeks. The doses were previously reported to have anti-cancer effects in animals without known toxicities. With DHEA treatment, cytosolic malate dehydrogenase activities were significantly increased by ~5 fold and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities were decreased by ~25% compared to carcinogen treated group. Activities of Se-glutathione peroxidase in the cytotol was decreased significantly with DHEA treatment, confirming its antioxidative effect. However, liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 content and NADPH-dependent cytochrome P-450 reductase activities were not altered with DHEA treatment. Vitamin E treatment decreased cytosolic Se-glutathione peroxidase activities in accordance with our previous reports. However, vitamin E did not alter glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase or malate dehydrogenase activities. Our results suggest that DHEA may have decreased tumor nodule formation and reduced lipid peroxidation as previously reported, possibly by increasing the production of NADPH, a reducing equivalent for NADPH-dependent antioxidant enzymes. DHEA treatment tended to reduce glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities, which may have resulted in limited supply for de novo synthesis of DNA via inhibiting the hexose monophophaste pathway. Although both DHEA and vitamin E effectively reduced preneoplastic foci in this model, they seemed to function in different mechanisms. In conclusion, DHEA may be used to reduce hepatocellular carcinoma growth by targeting NADPH synthesis, cell proliferation and anti-oxidant enzyme activities during tumor growth. PMID:20126370

  20. Oxidative stress as a risk factor for osteoporosis in elderly Mexicans as characterized by antioxidant enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Snchez-Rodrguez, Martha A; Ruiz-Ramos, Mirna; Correa-Muoz, Elsa; Mendoza-Nez, Vctor Manuel

    2007-01-01

    Background Oxidative stress (OxS) has recently been linked with osteoporosis; however, we do not know the influence of OxS as an independent risk factor for this disease. Methods We conducted a case-control study in 94 subjects ?60 years of age, 50 healthy and 44 with osteoporosis. We measured total antioxidant status, plasma lipid peroxides, antioxidant activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and calculated the SOD/GPx ratio. Bone mineral density was obtained at the peripheral DXA in calcaneus using a portable Norland Apollo Densitometer. Osteoporosis was considered when subjects had a BMD of 2.5 standard deviations or more below the mean value for young adults. Results GPx antioxidant activity was significantly lower in the group of subjects with osteoporosis in comparison with the group of healthy subjects (p < 0.01); in addition, the SOD/GPx ratio was significantly higher in the group of individuals with osteoporosis (p < 0.05). In logistic regression analysis, we found OxS to be an independent risk factor for osteoporosis (odds ratio [OR] = 2.79; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.087.23; p = 0.034). Conclusion Our findings suggest that OxS is an independent risk factor for osteoporosis linked to increase of SOD/GPx ratio. PMID:18088440

  1. The Role of Intracellular Signaling in Insulin-mediated Regulation of Drug Metabolizing Enzyme Gene and Protein Expression

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang K.; Novak, Raymond F.

    2007-01-01

    Endogenous factors, including hormones, growth factors and cytokines, play an important role in the regulation of hepatic drug metabolizing enzyme expression in both physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Alterations of hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes gene and protein expression, observed in diabetes, fasting, obesity, protein-calorie malnutrition and long-term alcohol consumption alters the metabolism of xenobiotics, including procarcinogens, carcinogens, toxicants, and therapeutic agents and may also impact the efficacy and safety of therapeutic agents, as well as result in drug-drug interactions. Although the mechanisms by which xenobiotics regulate drug metabolizing enzymes have been studied intensively, less is known regarding the cellular signaling pathways and components which regulate drug metabolizing enzyme gene and protein expression in response to hormones and cytokines. Recent findings, however, have revealed that several cellular signaling pathways are involved in hormone- and growth factor-mediated regulation of drug metabolizing enzymes. Our laboratory, and others, have demonstrated that insulin and growth factors regulate drug metabolizing enzyme gene and protein expression, including cytochromes P450, glutathione S-transferases and microsomal epoxide hydrolase, through receptors which are members of the large receptor tyrosine kinase family, and by downstream effectors such as phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, the mitogen activated protein kinase, Akt/protein kinase B, mTOR, and the p70S6 kinase. Here, we review current knowledge of the signaling pathways implicated in regulation of drug metabolizing enzyme gene and protein expression in response to insulin and growth factors, with the goal of increasing our understanding of how chronic disease affects these signaling pathways, components, and ultimately gene expression and translational control. PMID:17097148

  2. Antitumor properties and modulation of antioxidant enzymes' activity by Aloe vera leaf active principles isolated via supercritical carbon dioxide extraction.

    PubMed

    El-Shemy, H A; Aboul-Soud, M A M; Nassr-Allah, A A; Aboul-Enein, K M; Kabash, A; Yagi, A

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential anticancer properties and modulatory effect of selected Aloe vera (A. vera) active principles on antioxidant enzyme activities. Thus, three anthraquinones (Namely: aloesin, aloe-emodin and barbaloin) were extracted from A. vera leaves by supercritical fluid extraction and subsequently purified by high performance liquid chromatography. Additionally, the N-terminal octapeptide derived from verectin, a biologically active 14 kDa glycoprotein present in A. vera, was also tested. In vivo, active principles exhibited significant prolongation of the life span of tumor-transplanted animals in the following order: barbaloin> octapeptide> aloesin > aloe-emodin. A. vera active principles exhibited significant inhibition on Ehrlich ascite carcinoma cell (EACC) number, when compared to positive control group, in the following order: barbaloin> aloe-emodin > octapeptide > aloesin. Moreover, in trypan blue cell viability assay, active principles showed a significant concentration-dependent cytotoxicity against acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute lymphocytes leukemia (ALL) cancerous cells. Furthermore, in MTT cell viability test, aloe-emodin was found to be active against two human colon cancer cell lines (i.e. DLD-1 and HT2), with IC(50) values of 8.94 and 10.78 microM, respectively. Treatments of human AML leukemic cells with active principles (100 microg ml(-1)) resulted in varying intensities of internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, hallmark of cells undergoing apoptosis, in the following order: aloe-emodin> aloesin> barbaloin> octapeptide. Intererstingly, treatment of EACC tumors with active principles resulted in a significant elevation activity of key antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GST, tGPx, and LDH). Our data suggest that the tested A. vera compounds may exert their chemo-preventive effect through modulating antioxidant and detoxification enzyme activity levels, as they are one of the indicators of tumorigenesis. These findings are discussed in the light of the potential of A. vera plant extracts for developing efficient, specific and non-toxic anticancer drugs that are affordable for developing countries. PMID:19941474

  3. Effects of supplemental zinc source and level on antioxidant ability and fat metabolism-related enzymes of broilers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z H; Lu, L; Wang, R L; Lei, H L; Li, S F; Zhang, L Y; Luo, X G

    2015-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of dietary supplemental Zinc (Zn) source and level on antioxidant ability and fat metabolism-related enzymes of broilers. Dietary treatments included the Zn-unsupplemented corn-soybean meal basal diet (control) and basal diets supplemented with 60, 120, or 180 mg Zn/kg as Zn sulfate, Zn amino acid chelate with a weak chelation strength of 6.5 quotient of formation (Qf) (11.93% Zn) (Zn-AA W), Zn proteinate with a moderate chelation strength of 30.7 Qf (13.27% Zn) (Zn-Pro M), or Zn proteinate with an extremely strong chelation strength of 944.0 Qf (18.61% Zn) (Zn-Pro S). The results showed that dietary supplemental Zn increased (P < 0.01) Zn contents in the liver, breast, and thigh muscles of broilers, and up-regulated mRNA expressions of copper and Zn containing superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) and metallothioneins (MT) in the liver (P < 0.01) and thigh muscle (P < 0.05), and also enhanced (P < 0.05) CuZnSOD activities in the breast and thigh muscles, which exerted antioxidant ability and a decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) level in the liver (P < 0.01) and breast and thigh muscles (P < 0.05) of broilers. Furthermore, supplemental Zn increased activities of malate dehydrogenase (MDH) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in the abdominal fat (P < 0.05), and fatty acid synthetase (FAS) and LPL in the liver (P < 0.01), which were accompanied with up-regulation (P < 0.01) of the mRNA expressions levels of these enzymes in the abdominal fat and liver of broilers. Dietary Zn source, and an interaction between Zn source and level, had no effects on any measurements. It is concluded that dietary Zn supplementation improved Zn status and resulted in promoting antioxidant ability and activities and gene expressions of fat metabolism-related enzymes of broilers regardless of Zn source and level, and the addition of 60 mg Zn/kg to the corn-soybean meal basal diet (a total dietary Zn of approximately 90 mg/kg) was appropriate for improving the above aspects of broilers. PMID:26500268

  4. Oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymes in liver and white muscle of Nile tilapia juveniles in chronic ammonia exposure.

    PubMed

    Hegazi, Mona M; Attia, Zeinab I; Ashour, Omeyma A

    2010-08-15

    Oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activities in liver and white muscle of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) juveniles (10+/-1.2g) in chronic exposure to sublethal total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) were studied. The fish were exposed to the TAN concentrations, 5 mg L(-1) (low) or 10 mg L(-1) (high) for consecutive 70 days at 26+/-0.5 degrees C temperature. At the end of experimental period, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation levels and the activities of xanthine oxidase (XO), aldehyde oxidase (AO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), gamma-glutamyl cysteinyl synthetase (gamma-GCS), and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma-GT) in liver and white muscle were assayed. The levels of oxidative stress biomarkers and the activities of the enzymes assayed were significantly increased in liver and white muscle of fish exposed to both low and high TAN levels. The changes in these parameters were intensified at high TAN level. The significance of these alterations in enzyme activities is discussed. PMID:20434782

  5. Methionine sulfoxide reductases: ubiquitous enzymes involved in antioxidant defense, protein regulation, and prevention of aging-associated diseases.

    PubMed

    Moskovitz, Jackob

    2005-01-17

    Oxidative damage to proteins is considered to be one of the major causes of aging and age-related diseases, and thus mechanisms have evolved to prevent or reverse these modifications. Methionine is one of the major targets of reactive oxygen species (ROS), where it is oxidized to methionine sulfoxide (MetO). Recently, evidence has accumulated suggesting that methionine (Met) oxidation may play an important role in the development and progression of neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Oxidative alteration of Met to Met(O) is reversed by the methionine sulfoxide reductases (consisting of MsrA enzymes that reduce S-MetO and MsrB enzymes that reduce R-MetO, respectively). A major biological role of the Msr system is suggested by the fact that the MsrA null mouse (MT) exhibits a neurological disorder in the form of ataxia ("tip toe walking"), is more sensitive to oxidative stress, and has a shorter life span (by approximately 40%) than wild-type (WT) mice. By their action, the Msr enzymes can regulate protein function, be involved in signal-transduction pathways, and prevent cellular accumulation of faulty proteins. Malfunction of the Msr system can lead to cellular changes resulting in compromised antioxidant defense, enhanced age-associated diseases involving neurodegeneration, and shorter life span. In this review, the function and possible roles of the Msr system in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, in general, and in neurodegenerative diseases, in particular, will be discussed. PMID:15680229

  6. Detoxifying and anti-oxidant enzymes of Fasciola gigantica worms under triclabendazole sulphoxide (TCBZ-SX): an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Shehab, Amel Y; Ebeid, Samia M; El-Samak, Mohamed Y; Hussein, Neveen M

    2009-04-01

    Triclabendazole (TCBZ) is an efficient fasciolicide that affects both juvenile and adult worms. After oral administration it is rapidly metabolized to TCBZ sulphoxide and sulphone that were found responsible for its fasciolicidal activity. Parasite defense mechanisms include detoxifying and anti-oxidant enzymes that would suppress its oxidative killing. The present work aimed at evaluating these enzymes under TCBZ-SX. Thirty juvenile and 30 adult F. gigantica worms collected from the liver parenchyma and bile ducts formed the subject of the study. Levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and glutathione (GSH) were measured in juvenile and adult worms incubated, without and with 15 and 50 microg/ml TCBZ-SX for 18 hours at 37 degrees C. Results demonstrated a significant decrease in SOD activity and an increase in GST level in both juvenile and adult worms after incubation in the two concentrations. The remaining enzymes and GSH revealed variable levels. PMID:19530611

  7. Hesperidin a citrus bioflavonoid modulates hepatic biotransformation enzymes and enhances intrinsic antioxidants in experimental breast cancer rats challenged with 7, 12-dimethylbenz (a) anthracene.

    PubMed

    Nandakumar, Natarajan; Balasubramanian, Maruthaiveeran Periyasamy

    2012-01-01

    DMBA is a major class of potent genotoxic chemical carcinogen present in the environment and it may increase breast cancer risk. Flavonoids have been shown to have interesting biological activities in many experimental investigations. Hesperidin is one of the citrus flavonoid shown to be active against various oxidative stress mediated diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate the beneficial impact of a natural citrus flavonoglycoside hesperidin against 7, 12-Dimethylbenz [a] anthracene challenged experimental breast carcinogenesis with reference to drug metabolizing enzymes and intrinsic antioxidant status. The female Sprague-Dawley rats were orally administered with single dose of 7, 12-DMBA to induce breast cancer and were treated with hesperidin [30mg/kg/body weight] for a consecutive 45 days. The results revealed that there was a significant reduction in the status of antioxidants levels and also significant alterations in the drug metabolizing enzymes were found in genotoxin DMBA exposed animals. Interestingly these, altered levels were significantly revered back to near normal in hesperidin administered animals via enhancing the intrinsic antioxidant levels and induction in Phase II enzymes and modulation in Phase I enzyme levels. Thus the antigenotoxic activity of hesperidin may be due to the modulatory effect in biotransformation enzymes and excellent antioxidant potentials which paving a way to consider hesperidin against the genotoxin involved oxidative stress mediated diseases. PMID:22545425

  8. Tissue-specific changes in the activities of antioxidant enzymes during the development of the chicken embryo.

    PubMed

    Surai, P F

    1999-07-01

    1. Tissue-specific profiles of the expression of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase (CAT) and the concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH) during the development of the chick embryo were investigated. 2. The liver, brain, yolk sac membrane (YSM), kidney, lung, heart and skeletal muscles were collected at the following days of embryo development: 10, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19, 21 and 22 (day-old chicks). 3. The different tissues of the embryo displayed distinct development strategies with regard to the acquisition of antioxidant capacity. In the liver the specific activity of SOD increased between days 10 and 11 of development, then significantly decreased up to day 15 and remained at the same value during the rest of the developmental period. GSH-Px specific activity increased through the time of development. CAT had 2 peaks of specific activity at day 10 of the development and in day-old chicks. 4. The brain was characterised by comparatively high SOD-specific activity especially during the last days of incubation. The specific activities of GSH-Px and CAT were low throughout development. 5. In the YSM maximal GSH-Px and CAT-specific activities were found on day 15 of incubation. In the kidney and heart GSH-Px-specific activity increased at hatching time. CAT-specific activity in the kidney increased just after hatching. 6. It is concluded that each tissue studied expressed a profile of antioxidant defence mechanisms to deal with oxidative stress at hatching time. PMID:10475639

  9. Respiratory syncytial virus infection down-regulates antioxidant enzyme expression by triggering deacetylation-proteasomal degradation of Nrf2.

    PubMed

    Komaravelli, Narayana; Tian, Bing; Ivanciuc, Teodora; Mautemps, Nicholas; Brasier, Allan R; Garofalo, Roberto P; Casola, Antonella

    2015-11-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most important cause of viral acute respiratory tract infections and hospitalizations in children, for which no vaccine or treatment is available. RSV infection in cells, mice, and children leads to rapid generation of reactive oxygen species, which are associated with oxidative stress and lung damage, due to a significant decrease in the expression of airway antioxidant enzymes (AOEs). Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of RSV-induced lung disease, as antioxidants ameliorate clinical disease and inflammation in vivo. The aim of this study is to investigate the unknown mechanism(s) of virus-induced inhibition of AOE expression. RSV infection is shown to induce a progressive reduction in nuclear and total cellular levels of the transcription factor NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), resulting in decreased binding to endogenous AOE gene promoters and decreased AOE expression. RSV induces Nrf2 deacetylation and degradation via the proteasome pathway in vitro and in vivo. Histone deacetylase and proteasome inhibitors block Nrf2 degradation and increase Nrf2 binding to AOE endogenous promoters, resulting in increased AOE expression. Known inducers of Nrf2 are able to increase Nrf2 activation and subsequent AOE expression during RSV infection in vitro and in vivo, with significant amelioration of oxidative stress. This is the first study to investigate the mechanism(s) of virus-induced inhibition of AOE expression. RSV-induced inhibition of Nrf2 activation, due to deacetylation and proteasomal degradation, could be targeted for therapeutic intervention aimed to increase airway antioxidant capacity during infection. PMID:26073125

  10. ErbB2 overexpression upregulates antioxidant enzymes, reduces basal levels of reactive oxygen species, and protects against doxorubicin cardiotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Belmonte, Frances; Das, Samarjit; Sysa-Shah, Polina; Sivakumaran, Vidhya; Stanley, Brian; Guo, Xin; Paolocci, Nazareno; Aon, Miguel A; Nagane, Masaki; Kuppusamy, Periannan; Steenbergen, Charles; Gabrielson, Kathleen

    2015-10-01

    Levels of the HER2/ErbB2 protein in the heart are upregulated in some women during breast cancer therapy, and these women are at high risk for developing heart dysfunction after sequential treatment with anti-ErbB2/trastuzumab or doxorubicin. Doxorubicin is known to increase oxidative stress in the heart, and thus we considered the possibility that ErbB2 protein influences the status of cardiac antioxidant defenses in cardiomyocytes. In this study, we measured reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cardiac mitochondria and whole hearts from mice with cardiac-specific overexpression of ErbB2 (ErbB2(tg)) and found that, compared with control mice, high levels of ErbB2 in myocardium result in lower levels of ROS in mitochondria (P = 0.0075) and whole hearts (P = 0.0381). Neonatal cardiomyocytes isolated from ErbB2(tg) hearts have lower ROS levels and less cellular death (P < 0.0001) following doxorubicin treatment. Analyzing antioxidant enzyme levels and activities, we found that ErbB2(tg) hearts have increased levels of glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1) protein (P < 0.0001) and GPx activity (P = 0.0031) in addition to increased levels of two known GPx activators, c-Abl (P = 0.0284) and Arg (P < 0.0001). Interestingly, although mitochondrial ROS emission is reduced in the ErbB2(tg) hearts, oxygen consumption rates and complex I activity are similar to control littermates. Compared with these in vivo studies, H9c2 cells transfected with ErbB2 showed less cellular toxicity and produced less ROS (P < 0.0001) after doxorubicin treatment but upregulated GR activity (P = 0.0237) instead of GPx. Our study shows that ErbB2-dependent signaling contributes to antioxidant defenses and suggests a novel mechanism by which anticancer therapies involving ErbB2 antagonists can harm myocardial structure and function. PMID:26254336

  11. A potential antioxidant enzyme belonging to the atypical 2-Cys peroxiredoxin subfamily characterized from rock bream, Oplegnathus fasciatus.

    PubMed

    Saranya Revathy, Kasthuri; Umasuthan, Navaneethaiyer; Whang, Ilson; Jung, Hyung-Bok; Lim, Bong-Soo; Nam, Bo-Hye; Lee, Jehee

    2015-09-01

    Peroxiredoxins (Prxs), a diverse family of antioxidant enzymes, exert their antioxidant function through which different peroxide species are detoxified. This study describes both structural and functional characterization of a mitochondrial Prx identified in rock bream, Oplegnathus fasciatus (RbPrx5). The ORF (573 bp) of RbPrx5 encoded a protein of 190 amino acids (20 kDa) containing a putative mitochondrial targeting sequence (residues 1-20) and a thioredoxin-2 motif (residues 31-190) and three conserved Cys residues. Homology assessment and phylogenetic analysis clearly disclosed relatively higher amino acid sequence similarities and a closer evolutionary position of RbPrx5 with those of other teleost homologs. The ORF of RbPrx5 was distributed among six exons as found in other vertebrates, but it possessed an additional exon in its 5'-UTR. In silico examination of RbPrx5 gene's putative promoter region revealed the presence of several cis-elements which may be important in its transcriptional regulation. Constitutive expression of RbPrx5 was detected in eleven tissues with the highest level in the heart. Modulation of RbPrx5 transcription was evidenced from varying mRNA levels in head kidney post in vivo LPS-, poly I:C-, Edwardsiella tarda bacterial- and rock bream iridoviral-challenges. The antioxidant function of RbPrx5 was investigated using recombinant RbPrx5 protein. Results of an in vitro mixed-function oxidase assay demonstrated a dose-dependent inhibition of DNA damage by rRbPrx5. A H2O2 tolerance assay showed that in vivo overexpression of rRbPrx5 increased the bacterial survival under H2O2-mediated oxidative stress condition. These findings provide an overall insight into the structural, expressional and functional aspects of RbPrx5. PMID:25934084

  12. Influence of cataract maturity on aqueous humor lipid peroxidation markers and antioxidant enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Miric, D J; Kisic, B M; Zoric, L D; Miric, B M; Mirkovic, M; Mitic, R

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The impact of cataract maturity on the aqueous humor (AH) oxidant/antioxidant balance is largely controversial. This study was aimed at assessing the relationships between cataract maturity and AH lipid peroxidation markers and enzymatic antioxidants. Patients and methods The concentrations of conjugated dienes (CD), lipofuscin-like fluorescent end-products (LLF), soluble proteins, as well as the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were measured in AH samples from nondiabetic patients with either immature (n=15) or mature (n=15) cataract. Results In the overall AH sample, the mean values of CD, LLF, SOD, and CAT were 0.1600.024 (OD234), 16627 RFU, 24.57.1?U/ml, and 31.93.9?pmol/ml, respectively. CD was positively correlated with SOD (r=0.647; P<0.001), CAT (r=?0.394; P=0.031), and LLF (r=?0.399; P=0.029). The LLF was negatively correlated with SOD (r=?0.461; P=0.010). In samples adjusted for confounding factors, differences between immature and mature cataract groups regarding SOD, CD, LLF, and total proteins were significant (P<0.05; for all variables). The multiple logistic regression analysis identified LLF (OR=4.08; P=0.038) and SOD (OR=4.99; P=0.031) as independent predictors of cataract maturity. Conclusions These results suggest that AH lipid peroxidation markers and antioxidants may significantly depend on the cataract maturity stage. PMID:24097121

  13. Environmentally realistic concentrations of the antibiotic Trimethoprim affect haemocyte parameters but not antioxidant enzyme activities in the clam Ruditapes philippinarum.

    PubMed

    Matozzo, Valerio; De Notaris, Chiara; Finos, Livio; Filippini, Raffaella; Piovan, Anna

    2015-11-01

    Several biomarkers were measured to evaluate the effects of Trimethoprim (TMP; 300, 600 and 900ng/L) in the clam Ruditapes philippinarum after exposure for 1, 3 and 7 days. The actual TMP concentrations were also measured in the experimental tanks. The total haemocyte count significantly increased in 7 day-exposed clams, whereas alterations in haemocyte volume were observed after 1 and 3 days of exposure. Haemocyte proliferation was increased significantly in animals exposed for 1 and 7 days, whereas haemocyte lysate lysozyme activity decreased significantly after 1 and 3 days. In addition, TMP significantly increased haemolymph lactate dehydrogenase activity after 3 and 7 days. Regarding antioxidant enzymes, only a significant time-dependent effect on CAT activity was recorded. This study demonstrated that environmentally realistic concentrations of TMP affect haemocyte parameters in clams, suggesting that haemocytes are a useful cellular model for the assessment of the impact of TMP on bivalves. PMID:26301695

  14. Effects of selenium on the antioxidant enzymes response of Neocaridina heteropoda exposed to ambient nitrite.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-wei; Xu, Hai-ming; Xiao, Guo-hua; Zhao, Chun-long; Wang, Zi-hui; Cai, Duan-bo; Li, Hong-quan; Zhao, Jian-hua

    2010-01-01

    The effects of dietary Selenium (Se) supplementation on muscle superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activities and haemolymph superoxide anions (O(2)-) of Neocaridina heteropoda exposed to ambient nitrite were investigated. The results showed supplementation of Se in diet could enhance the resistance of shrimp to low concentration ambient nitrite. The results demonstrated that Se might have a potentially useful role as an effective antioxidant and resistance to aqueous nitrite in shrimp and the effect of the organic Se was better than that of the inorganic Se. PMID:19924364

  15. Optimization, Composition, and Antioxidant Activities of Exo- and Intracellular Polysaccharides in Submerged Culture of Cordyceps gracilis (Grev.) Durieu & Mont.

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sapan Kumar; Atri, Narender Singh

    2015-01-01

    Under present experiments, EPS and IPS production, monosaccharide composition, and antioxidant activities of C. gracilis were studied for the first time under submerged culture conditions. Effect of different factors on polysaccharides production was studied by orthogonal experiments using one-factor-at-a-time method. Incubation of culture in the medium with capacity 200?mL (675.12 5.01 and 385.20 5.01?mg/L), rotation speed 150?rpm (324.62 3.32 and 254.62 4.62?mg/L), 6-day culture incubation time (445.24 1.11, 216.60 1.71?mg/L), pH 6.0 (374.81 2.52 and 219.45 2.59?mg/L), and temperature 23C (405.24 1.11 and 215.60 1.71?mg/L) produced higher EPS and IPS, respectively. Maximum EPS and IPS production was observed in the medium supplemented with glucose as a carbon source (464.82 2.12 and 264.42 2.62?mg/L) and yeast extract as a nitrogen source (465.21 3.11 and 245.17 3.24?mg/L), respectively. Carbon to nitrogen ratio for maximum EPS and IPS production was observed as 10?:?1 (395.29 2.15 and 235.62 1.40?mg/L), respectively. Glucose was found to be the major monosaccharide (62.15 7.33%). Both EPS and IPS of C. gracilis showed significant DPPH radical scavenging activity, ABTS radical scavenging activity, reducing power, and iron chelating activity. PMID:25878715

  16. Potential toxic effect of trifloxystrobin on cellular microstructure, mRNA expression and antioxidant enzymes in Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yu-Feng; Liu, Lei; Gong, Yu-Xin; Zhu, Bin; Liu, Guang-Lu; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the effects of trifloxystrobin that one strobilurin used widely in the world as an effective fungicidal agent to control Asian soybean rust on aquatic unicellular algae Chlorella vulgaris. We determined the potential toxic effect of trifloxystrobin on C. vulgaris, and found median inhibition concentration (IC(50)) value 255.58 (95% confidence interval, 207.81-330.29)μgL(-1). In addition, the algal cells were obviously depressed or shrunk at different concentrations by electron microscopy. In the study, a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay showed changes in transcript abundances of three photosynthetic genes, psaB, psbC, and rbcL, and one energy gene, ATPs. The results showed that trifloxystrobin reduced the transcript abundances of the three genes and enhanced expression of ATPs after 48 and 96 h. The lowest abundances of psaB, psbC and rbcL transcripts in response to trifloxystrobin exposure were 58%, 79% and 60% of those of the control, respectively. For the potential toxic influences, trifloxystrobin could decrease the soluble protein and total antioxidant contents (T-AOC), and increase superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activity with a gradual concentration-response relationship. Overall, the present study demonstrated that trifloxystrobin could affect the activities of antioxidant enzymes, disrupts photosynthesis in C. vulgaris, and damage cellular structure. PMID:24762415

  17. Effect of the Antihypertensive Drug Enalapril on Oxidative Stress Markers and Antioxidant Enzymes in Kidney of Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat

    PubMed Central

    Chandran, G.; Sirajudeen, K. N. S.; Swamy, M.; Samarendra, Mutum S.

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been suggested to play a role in hypertension and hypertension induced organ damage. This study examined the effect of enalapril, an antihypertensive drug, on oxidative stress markers and antioxidant enzymes in kidney of spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) and Nω -nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) administered SHR. Male rats were divided into four groups (SHR, SHR+enalapril, SHR+L-NAME, and SHR+enalapril+L-NAME). Enalapril (30 mg kg−1 day−1) was administered from week 4 to week 28 and L-NAME (25 mg kg−1 day−1) was administered from week 16 to week 28 in drinking water. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured during the experimental period. At the end of experimental periods, rats were sacrificed; urine, blood, and kidneys were collected for the assessment of creatinine clearance, total protein, total antioxidant status (TAS), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT), as well as histopathological examination. Enalapril treatment significantly enhanced the renal TAS level (P < 0.001) and SOD activity (P < 0.001), reduced the TBARS levels (P < 0.001), and also prevented the renal dysfunction and histopathological changes. The results indicate that, besides its hypotensive and renoprotective effects, enalapril treatment also diminishes oxidative stress in the kidneys of both the SHR and SHR+L-NAME groups. PMID:25254079

  18. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activity and antioxidant properties of Nepeta crassifolia Boiss & Buhse and Nepeta binaludensis Jamzad.

    PubMed

    Tundis, Rosa; Nadjafi, Farsad; Menichini, Francesco

    2013-04-01

    This article reports phytochemical and biological studies on Nepeta binaludensis and Nepeta crassifolia. Both species were investigated for their angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity and antioxidant properties through three in vitro models [2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay]. Aerial parts were extracted with methanol and partitioned between water and subsequently n-hexane, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. N. binaludensis methanol extract exerted significantly higher reducing power (1.9 ?M Fe(II)/g) than did the positive control butylhydroxytoluene (63.2??M Fe(II)/g) in FRAP assay. The highest DPPH radical scavenging activity was found for N. crassifolia, with IC50 values of 9.6 and 12.1 g/mL for ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions, respectively. n-Butanol fraction of both species showed the highest ACE inhibitory activity, with IC50 values of 59.3 and 81.7 g/mL for N. binaludensis and N. crassifolia, respectively. Phytochemical investigations resulted in the isolation of ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, apigenin, luteolin and ixoroside. Apigenin-7-O-glucoside, 8-hydroxycirsimaritin and cirsimaritin were furthermore identified in N. crassifolia ethyl acetate-soluble fraction. Nepetanudoside B was isolated from the n-butanol fraction of N. binaludensis. PMID:22693035

  19. Amelioration of altered serum, liver, and kidney antioxidant enzymes activities by sodium selenite in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadvand, Hassan; Ghasemi Dehnoo, Maryam; Cheraghi, Roohangiz; Rasoulian, Bahram; Ezatpour, Behrouzb; Azadpour, Mozhgan; Baharvand, Kaveh

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible protective effect of sodium selenite on serum, liver, and kidney antioxidant enzymes activities in alloxan-induced type 1 diabetic rats. Methods: Forty Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomly divided into four groups; Group one as control, Group two as sham-treated with sodium selenite by 1 mg/kg intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections daily, Group three as diabetic untreated, and Group four as diabetic treated with sodium selenite by 1 mg/kg i.p. injections daily .Diabetes was induced in the third and fourth groups by subcutaneous alloxan injections. After eight weeks the animals were euthanized and livers and kidneys were immediately removed and used fresh or kept frozen until analysis. Before the rats were killed blood samples were also collected to measure glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and catalase (CAT) activities in sera. Results: Glutathione peroxidase and CAT activities serum, liver, and kidney were all significantly less in the diabetic rats than in the controls. Sodium selenite treatment of the diabetic rats resulted in significant increases in GPX activity in the kidneys and livers, and CAT activity in the sera and livers. Conclusions: Our results indicate that sodium selenite might be a potent antioxidant that exerts beneficial effects on both GPX and CAT activities in alloxan-induced type 1 diabetic rats. PMID:26989732

  20. Hydrolysates of sheep cheese whey as a source of bioactive peptides with antioxidant and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activities.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Ana Paula Folmer; Daroit, Daniel Joner; Fontoura, Roberta; Meira, Stela Maris Meister; Segalin, Jeferson; Brandelli, Adriano

    2014-11-01

    Enzymatic proteolysis may be employed to release bioactive peptides, which have been investigated for potential benefits from both technological and human health perspectives. In this study, sheep cheese whey (SCW) was hydrolyzed with a protease preparation from Bacillus sp. P7, and the hydrolysates were evaluated for antioxidant and angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activities. Soluble protein and free amino acids increased during hydrolysis of SCW for up to 4h. Antioxidant activity of hydrolysates, evaluated by the 2,2'azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid radical scavenging method, increased 3.2-fold from 0 h (15.9%) to 6h of hydrolysis (51.3%). Maximum Fe(2+) chelation was reached in 3h hydrolysates, and the reducing power peaked at 1h of hydrolysis, representing 6.2 and 2.1-fold increase, respectively, when compared to that of non-hydrolyzed SCW. ACE inhibition by SCW (12%) was improved through hydrolysis, reaching maximal values (55% inhibition) in 4h, although 42% inhibition was already observed after 1h hydrolysis. The peptide LAFNPTQLEGQCHV, derived from β-lactoglobulin, was identified from 4-h hydrolysates. Such a biotechnological approach might be an interesting strategy for SCW processing, potentially contributing to the management and valorization of this abundant dairy byproduct. PMID:25218972

  1. Effects of Single Exposure of Sodium Fluoride on Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Enzymes in Salivary Glands of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguti, Paula Mochidome; Simes, Alyne; Ganzerla, Emily; Souza, Douglas Nesadal; Nogueira, Fernando Neves; Nicolau, Jos

    2013-01-01

    Many studies suggest that fluoride exposure can inhibit the activity of various enzymes and can generate free radicals, which interfere with antioxidant defence mechanisms in living systems. To further the understanding of this issue, this present study examined the effects of low-dose fluoride treatment on the activity of enzymatic antioxidant superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), as well as the levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the parotid (PA) and submandibular (SM) salivary glands of rats. Rats were injected with a single dose of sodium fluoride (NaF) (15?mg?F?/kg b.w.) then euthanized at various time intervals up to 24 hours (h) following exposure. NaF exposure did not cause significant differences in SOD or CAT activity or LPO levels in PA glands compared to control. Conversely, SM glands presented increased SOD activity after 3?h and decreased SOD activity after 1, 12, and 24?h, while LPO was increased after 6, 12, and 24?h of the NaF injection. There were no significant differences in the CAT activity in the groups studied. Our results demonstrated that NaF intoxication caused oxidative stress in salivary glands few hours after administration. These changes were more pronounced in SM than in PA gland. PMID:23738039

  2. Antioxidative peptides derived from enzyme hydrolysis of bone collagen after microwave assisted acid pre-treatment and nitrogen protection.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yun-Jian; Le, Guo-Wei; Wang, Jie-Yun; Li, Ya-Xin; Shi, Yong-Hui; Sun, Jin

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on the preparation method of antioxidant peptides by enzymatic hydrolysis of bone collagen after microwave assisted acid pre-treatment and nitrogen protection. Phosphoric acid showed the highest ability of hydrolysis among the four other acids tested (hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid and/or citric acid). The highest degree of hydrolysis (DH) was 9.5% using 4 mol/L phosphoric acid with a ratio of 1:6 under a microwave intensity of 510 W for 240 s. Neutral proteinase gave higher DH among the four protease tested (Acid protease, neutral protease, Alcalase and papain), with an optimum condition of: (1) ratio of enzyme and substrate, 4760 U/g; (2) concentration of substrate, 4%; (3) reaction temperature, 55 C and (4) pH 7.0. At 4 h, DH increased significantly (P < 0.01) under nitrogen protection compared with normal microwave assisted acid pre-treatment hydrolysis conditions. The antioxidant ability of the hydrolysate increased and reached its maximum value at 3 h; however DH decreased dramatically after 3 h. Microwave assisted acid pre-treatment and nitrogen protection could be a quick preparatory method for hydrolyzing bone collagen. PMID:21151439

  3. Influence of UV radiation on chlorophyll, and antioxidant enzymes of wetland plants in different types of constructed wetland.

    PubMed

    Xu, Defu; Wu, Yinjuan; Li, Yingxue; Howard, Alan; Jiang, Xiaodong; Guan, Yidong; Gao, Yongxia

    2014-09-01

    A surface- and vertical subsurface-flow-constructed wetland were designed to study the response of chlorophyll and antioxidant enzymes to elevated UV radiation in three types of wetland plants (Canna indica, Phragmites austrail, and Typha augustifolia). Results showed that (1) chlorophyll content of C. indica, P. austrail, and T. augustifolia in the constructed wetland was significantly lower where UV radiation was increased by 10 and 20 % above ambient solar level than in treatment with ambient solar UV radiation (p < 0.05). (2) The malondialdehyde (MDA) content, guaiacol peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities of wetland plants increased with elevated UV radiation intensity. (3) The increased rate of MDA, SOD, POD, and CAT activities of C. indica, P. australis, and T. angustifolia by elevated UV radiation of 10 % was higher in vertical subsurface-flow-constructed wetland than in surface-flow-constructed wetland. The sensitivity of MDA, SOD, POD, and CAT activities of C. indica, P. austrail, and T. augustifolia to the elevated UV radiation was lower in surface-flow-constructed wetland than in the vertical subsurface-flow-constructed wetland, which was related to a reduction in UV radiation intensity through the dissolved organic carbon and suspended matter in the water. C. indica had the highest SOD and POD activities, which implied it is more sensitive to enhanced UV radiation. Therefore, different wetland plants had different antioxidant enzymes by elevated UV radiation, which were more sensitive in vertical subsurface-flow-constructed wetland than in surface-flow-constructed wetland. PMID:24788860

  4. Mycorrhizal-induced calmodulin mediated changes in antioxidant enzymes and growth response of drought-stressed trifoliate orange

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yong-Ming; Srivastava, A. K.; Zou, Ying-Ning; Ni, Qiu-Dan; Han, Yu; Wu, Qiang-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Trifoliate orange [Poncirus trifoliata (L) Raf.] is considered highly arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) dependent for growth responses through a series of signal transductions in form of various physiological responses. The proposed study was carried out to evaluate the effect of an AM fungus (Funneliformis mosseae) on growth, antioxidant enzyme (catalase, CAT; superoxide dismutase, SOD) activities, leaf relative water content (RWC), calmodulin (CaM), superoxide anion (O2?), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentrations in leaves of the plants exposed to both well-watered (WW) and drought stress (DS) conditions. A 58-day of DS significantly decreased mycorrhizal colonization by 60% than WW. Compared to non-AM seedlings, AM seedlings displayed significantly higher shoot morphological properties (plant height, stem diameter, and leaf number), biomass production (shoot and root fresh weight) and leaf RWC, regardless of soil water status. AM inoculation significantly increased CaM and soluble protein concentrations and CAT activity, whereas significantly decreased O2? and H2O2 concentration under both WW and DS conditions. The AM seedlings also exhibited significantly higher Cu/Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD activities than the non-AM seedlings under DS but not under WW, which are triggered by higher CaM levels in AM plants on the basis of correlation studies. Further, the negative correlation of Cu/Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD activities with O2? and H2O2 concentration showed the DS-induced ROS scavenging ability of CaM mediated SODs under mycorrhization. Our results demonstrated that AM-inoculation elevated the synthesis of CaM in leaves and up-regulated activities of the antioxidant enzymes, thereby, repairing the possible oxidative damage to plants by lowering the ROS accumulation under DS condition. PMID:25538696

  5. The Antioxidant Enzyme GPX1 Gene Polymorphisms Are Associated with Low BMD and Increased Bone Turnover Markers

    PubMed Central

    Mlakar, Simona Jurkovic; Osredkar, Josko; Prezelj, Janez; Marc, Janja

    2010-01-01

    Recently, oxidative stress has been suggested as participating in the development of osteoporosis. Glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) is one of antioxidant enzymes responsible for the defence of cells against oxidative damage and thus for protection against age related diseases such as osteoporosis. The aim of present study was to associate genetic variances of GPX1 enzyme with bone mineral density (BMD) and biochemical bone turnover markers and to show the influence of antioxidative defence system in genetics of osteoporosis. We evaluated 682 Slovenian subjects: 571 elderly women and 111 elderly men. All subjects were genotyped for the presence of GPX1 gene polymorphisms Pro198Leu and polyAla region. BMD and biochemical markers were also measured. General linear model analysis, adjusted to height, and (one-way) analysis of variance were used to assess differences between the genotype.and haplotype subgroups, respectively. The significant or borderline significant associations were found between the polyAla or the Pro198Leu polymorphisms and total hip BMD (0.018; 0.023, respectively), femoral neck BMD (0.117; 0.026, respectively) and lumbar spine BMD (0.032; 0.086, respectively), and with biochemical bone turnover markers such as plasma osteocalcin (0.027; 0.025, respectively) and serum C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen concentrations (0.114; 0.012, respectively) in whole group. Haplotype analysis revealed that the 6-T haplotype is associated significantly with low BMD values (p > 0.025) at all measured locations of the skeleton, and with high plasma osteocalcin concentrations (p = 0.008). This study shows for the first time that the polymorphisms polyAla and Pro198Leu of the GPX1 gene, individually and in combination, are associated with BMD and therefore may be useful as genetic markers for bone disease. Moreover, it implies the important contribution of the oxidative stress to pathogenesis of osteoporosis. PMID:21045266

  6. Amendment in phosphorus levels moderate the chromium toxicity in Raphanus sativus L. as assayed by antioxidant enzymes activities.

    PubMed

    Sayantan, D; Shardendu

    2013-09-01

    Chromium (Z=24), a d-block element, is a potent carcinogen, whereas phosphorus is an essential and limiting nutrient for the plant growth and development. This study undertakes the role of phosphorus in moderating the chromium toxicity in Raphanus sativus L., as both of them compete with each other during the uptake process. Two-factor complete randomized experiment (5 chromium 5 phosphorus concentrations) was conducted for twenty eight days in green house. The individuals of R. sativus were grown in pots supplied with all essential nutrients. The toxic effects of chromium and the moderation of toxicity due to phosphorus amendment were determined as accumulation of chromium, nitrogen, phosphorus in root tissues and their effects were also examined in the changes in biomass, chlorophyll and antioxidant enzyme levels. Cr and N accumulation were almost doubled at the highest concentration of Cr supply, without any P amendment, whereas at the highest P concentration (125 mM), the accumulation was reduced to almost half. A significant reduction in toxic effects of Cr was determined as there was three-fold increase in total chlorophyll and biomass at the highest P amendment. Antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase and lipid peroxidation were analyzed at various levels of Cr each amended with five levels of P. It was observed that at highest level of P amendment, the reduction percentage in toxicity was 33, 44, 39 and 44, correspondingly. Conclusively, the phosphorus amendment moderates the toxicity caused by the supplied chromium in R. sativus. This finding can be utilized to develop a novel technology for the amelioration of chromium stressed fields. PMID:23810367

  7. Effects of paraquat on photosynthetic pigments, antioxidant enzymes, and gene expression in Chlorella pyrenoidosa under mixotrophic compared with autotrophic conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weiguo; Liu, Min; Zhang, Peiliang; Yu, Fugen; Lu, Shan; Li, Pengfu; Zhou, Junying

    2014-11-01

    Only limited information is available on herbicide toxicity to algae under mixotrophic conditions. In the present study, we studied the effects of the herbicide paraquat on growth, photosynthetic pigments, antioxidant enzymes, and gene expression in Chlorella pyrenoidosa under mixotrophic compared with autotrophic conditions. The mean measured exposure concentrations of paraquat under mixotrophic and autotrophic conditions were in the range of 0.3-3.4 and 0.6-3.6 ?M, respectively. Exposure to paraquat for 72 h under both autotrophic and mixotrophic conditions induced decreased growth and chlorophyll (Chl) content, increased superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities, and decreased transcript abundances of three photosynthesis-related genes (light-independent protochlorophyllide reductase subunit, photosystem II protein D1, and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large subunit [rbcL]). Compared with autotrophic conditions, the inhibition percentage of growth rate under mixotrophic conditions was lower at 0.8 ?M paraquat, whereas it was greater at 1.8 and 3.4 ?M paraquat. With exposure to 0.8-3.4 ?M paraquat, the inhibition rates of Chl a and b content under mixotrophic conditions (43.1-52.4% and 54.6-59.7%, respectively) were greater compared with autotrophic conditions, whereas the inhibition rate of rbcL gene transcription under mixotrophic conditions (35.7-44.0%) was lower. These data showed that similar to autotrophic conditions, paraquat affected the activities of antioxidant enzymes and decreased Chl synthesis and transcription of photosynthesis-related genes in C. pyrenoidosa under mixotrophic conditions, but a differential susceptibility to paraquat toxicity occurred between autotrophically versus mixotrophically grown cells. PMID:25038722

  8. Effect of sodium chloride and cadmium on the growth, oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activities of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chunsheng; Xu, Ying; Jiang, Wei; Lv, Xin; Dong, Xiaoyan

    2014-06-01

    Zygosaccharomyces rouxii is a salt-tolerant yeast species capable of removing cadmium (Cd) pollutant from aqueous solution. Presently, the physiological characteristics of Z. rouxii under the stress of sodium chloride (NaCl) and Cd are poorly understood. This study investigated the effects of NaCl and Cd on the growth, oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activities of Z. rouxii after stress treatment for 24 h. Results showed that NaCl or Cd alone negatively affected the growth of Z. rouxii, but the growth-inhibiting effect of Cd on Z. rouxii was reduced in the presence of NaCl. Flow cytometry assay showed that under Cd stress, NaCl significantly reduced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell death of Z. rouxii compared with those in the absence of NaCl. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) of Z. rouxii were significantly enhanced by 2%-6% NaCl, which likely contributed to the high salt tolerance of Z. rouxii. The POD activity was inhibited by 20 mg L-1 Cd while the SOD and CAT activities were enhanced by 8 mg L-1 Cd and inhibited by 20 mg L-1 or 50 mg L-1 Cd. The inhibitory effect of high-level Cd on the antioxidant enzyme activities of Z. rouxii was counteracted by the combined use of NaCl, especially at 6%. This probably accounted for the decrease in Cd-induced ROS production and cell death of Z. rouxii after incubation with NaCl and Cd. Our work provided physiological clues as to the use of Z. rouxii as a biosorbent for Cd removal from seawater and liquid highly salty food.

  9. Oxidative injury and antioxidant enzymes regulation in arsenic-exposed seedlings of four Brassica napus L. cultivars.

    PubMed

    Farooq, Muhammad A; Li, Lan; Ali, Basharat; Gill, Rafaqat A; Wang, Jian; Ali, Shafaqat; Gill, Muhammad B; Zhou, Weijun

    2015-07-01

    Environmental contamination due to arsenic (As) has become a major risk throughout the world; this affects plant growth and productivity. Its accumulation in food chain may pose a severe threat to organisms. The present study was carried out to observe the toxic effects of As (0, 50, 100, and 200 ?M) on physiological and biochemical changes in four Brassica napus cultivars (ZS 758, Zheda 619, ZY 50, and Zheda 622). Results showed that As toxicity provoked a significant inhibition in growth parameters of B. napus cultivars and this reduction was more obvious in cultivar Zheda 622. The highest concentration of MDA, H2O2, and O2 (-) contents in both leaf and root tissues were observed at 200 ?M As level, and a gradual decrease was observed at lower concentrations. Increasing As concentration gradually decreased chlorophyll and carotenoids contents. Activity of antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, CAT, APX, GR, and GSH was positively correlated with As treatments in all cultivars. The microscopic study of leaves and roots at 200 ?M As level showed the disorganization in cell organelles. Disturbance in the morphology of chloroplast, broken cell wall, increase in size, and number of starch grains and immature nucleus were found in leaf ultrastructures under higher concentration of As. Moreover, damaged nucleus, diffused cell wall, enlarged vacuoles, and a number of mitochondria were observed in root tip cells at 200 ?M As level. These results suggest that B. napus cultivars have efficient mechanism to tolerate As toxicity, as evidenced by an increased level of antioxidant enzymes. PMID:25752633

  10. Fragrance chemicals lyral and lilial decrease viability of HaCat cells' by increasing free radical production and lowering intracellular ATP level: protection by antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Usta, Julnar; Hachem, Yassmine; El-Rifai, Omar; Bou-Moughlabey, Yolla; Echtay, Karim; Griffiths, David; Nakkash-Chmaisse, Hania; Makki, Rajaa Fakhoury

    2013-02-01

    We investigate in this study the biochemical effects on cells in culture of two commonly used fragrance chemicals: lyral and lilial. Whereas both chemicals exerted a significant effect on primary keratinocyte(s), HaCat cells, no effect was obtained with any of HepG2, Hek293, Caco2, NIH3T3, and MCF7 cells. Lyral and lilial: (a) decreased the viability of HaCat cells with a 50% cell death at 100 and 60 nM respectively; (b) decreased significantly in a dose dependant manner the intracellular ATP level following 12-h of treatment; (c) inhibited complexes I and II of electron transport chain in liver sub-mitochondrial particles; and (d) increased reactive oxygen species generation that was reversed by N-acetyl cysteine and trolox and the natural antioxidant lipoic acid, without influencing the level of free and/or oxidized glutathione. Lipoic acid protected HaCat cells against the decrease in viability induced by either compound. Dehydrogenation of lyral and lilial produce ?,?-unsaturated aldehydes, that reacts with lipoic acid requiring proteins resulting in their inhibition. We propose lyral and lilial as toxic to mitochondria that have a direct effect on electron transport chain, increase ROS production, derange mitochondrial membrane potential, and decrease cellular ATP level, leading thus to cell death. PMID:22940465

  11. Oxidative stability and antioxidant enzyme activities of dry-cured bacons as affected by the partial substitution of NaCl with KCl.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haizhou; Yan, Wenjing; Zhuang, Hong; Huang, Mingming; Zhao, Jianying; Zhang, Jianhao

    2016-06-15

    This study investigated the influence of partial substitution of NaCl with KCl on protein and lipid oxidation as well as antioxidant enzyme activities in dry-cured bacons during processing. The partial substitution was 0% KCl (I), 40% KCl (II), and 70% KCl (III). Compared with 0% KCl (I), the substitution of 40% NaCl with KCl did not significantly influence the protein and lipid oxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities. The bacons that were treated with 70% KCl treatment (III) showed increased lipid oxidation and antioxidant enzyme GSH-Px activity, whereas samples treated with formulas I and II showed higher protein oxidation and antioxidant enzyme catalase activity. These results demonstrate that the substitution of NaCl with KCl by more than 40% may significantly affect protein and lipid oxidation and that for the substitution of NaCl in further processed meat products with other chloride salts, salt content is very important for control of protein and lipid biochemical changes in finished products. PMID:26868571

  12. Mannitol alleviates chromium toxicity in wheat plants in relation to growth, yield, stimulation of anti-oxidative enzymes, oxidative stress and Cr uptake in sand and soil media.

    PubMed

    Adrees, Muhammad; Ali, Shafaqat; Iqbal, Muhammad; Aslam Bharwana, Saima; Siddiqi, Zeenat; Farid, Mujahid; Ali, Qasim; Saeed, Rashid; Rizwan, Muhammad

    2015-12-01

    Chromium (Cr) is one of the most phytotoxic metals in the agricultural soils and its concentration is continuously increasing mainly through anthropogenic activities. Little is known on the role of mannitol (M) on plant growth and physiology under metal stress. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of growth amelioration and antioxidant enzyme activities in Cr-stressed wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Lasani 2008) by exogenously applied mannitol. For this, wheat seedlings were sown in pots containing soil or sand and subjected to increasing Cr concentration (0, 0.25 and 0.5mM) in the form of of K2Cr2O7 with and without foliar application of 100mM mannitol. Plants were harvested after four months and data regarding growth characteristics, biomass, photosynthetic pigments, and antioxidant enzymes were recorded. Mannitol application increased plant biomass, photosynthetic pigments and antioxidant enzymes while decreased Cr uptake and accumulation in plants as compared to Cr treatments alone. In this study, we observed that M applied exogenously to Cr-stressed wheat plants, which normally cannot synthesize M, improved their Cr tolerance by increasing growth, photosynthetic pigments and enhancing activities of antioxidant enzymes and by decreasing Cr uptake and translocation in wheat plants. From this study, it can be concluded that M could be used to grow crops on marginally contaminated soils for which separate remediation techniques are time consuming and not cost effective. PMID:26164268

  13. Impact of processing on the phenolic profiles of small millets: evaluation of their antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory properties associated with hyperglycemia.

    PubMed

    Pradeep, P M; Sreerama, Yadahally N

    2015-02-15

    The effects of germination, steaming and microwave treatments of whole grain millets (barnyard, foxtail and proso) on their phenolic composition, antioxidant activities and inhibitory properties against α-amylase and α-glucosidase were investigated. Compositional analysis of phenolics by HPLC revealed that vanillic and ferulic acids were the principal phenolic acids and kaempferol was the predominant flavonoid found in raw millets. Different processing treatments brought about relevant changes in the composition and content of certain phenolic acids and flavonoids in processed millets. Phenolic extracts of raw and processed millets exhibited multiple antioxidant activities and are also potent inhibitors of α-amylase and α-glucosidase. In general, germinated millets showed highest phenolic content as well as superior antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities. These results suggest that germinated millet grains are potential source of phenolic antioxidants and also great sources of strong natural inhibitors for α-amylase and α-glucosidase. PMID:25236251

  14. Protective effect of Tuscan black cabbage sprout extract against serum lipid increase and perturbations of liver antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Melega, S; Canistro, D; De Nicola, G R; Lazzeri, L; Sapone, A; Paolini, M

    2013-09-28

    A diet rich in fat is considered a primary risk factor for CVD, cancer and failures in metabolism and endocrine functions. Hyperlipidaemia generates oxidative stress and weakens antioxidant defences as well as metabolic detoxification systems. Brassicaceae are vegetables rich in glucosinolates and isothiocyanates, affecting enzymatic antioxidant as well as phase II enzymes and conceivably counteracting high-fat diet (HFD)-associated pathologies. The protective role of Tuscan black cabbage (a variety of kale) sprout extract (TBCSE) intake against HFD alterations was here studied. The effects on rat hepatic antioxidant as well as detoxifying enzymes, and serum lipid- and body weightlowering properties of TBCSE, were investigated. Feeding the animals with a HFD for 21 d increased body as well as liver weights, and induced hyperlipidaemia, as confirmed by a higher serum lipid profile v. control diet. Daily intragastric administration of TBCSE to HFD-fed rats lowered serum total cholesterol, TAG and NEFA. Body and liver weight gains were also reduced. Antioxidant (catalase, NAD(P)H:quinone reductase, oxidised glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase) and phase II (glutathione S-transferase and uridine diphosphate glucuronosyl transferase) enzymes were down-regulated by the HFD, while the extract restored normal levels in most groups. Generation of toxic intermediates, and membrane fatty acid composition changes by the HFD, might account for the altered hepatic antioxidant and detoxifying enzyme functions. The recovering effects of TBCSE could be attributed to high flavonoid, phenolic and organosulphur compound content, which possess free-radical-scavenging properties, enhance the antioxidant status and stimulate lipid catabolism. TBCSE intake emerges to be an effective alimentary strategy to counteract the perturbations associated with a diet rich in fat. PMID:23433361

  15. Nutritional, amylolytic enzymes inhibition and antioxidant properties of bread incorporated with Stevia rebaudiana.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Ruiz, Jorge C; Moguel-Ordoez, Yolanda B; Matus-Basto, Angel J; Segura-Campos, Maira R

    2015-01-01

    Wheat bread with sucrose content replaced with different levels of stevia extract was compared with traditional wheat bread. The ability to reduce glucose intake was highlighted by performing enzymatic assays using ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase. Antioxidant activity was measured by determining the scavenging effect on ?,?-diphenyl-?-picrylhydrazyl radical. In comparison with the control, the bread with stevia extract was softer and had lower microbial growth during the shelf-life study. The sensory test showed that the substitution of 50% stevia extract was more acceptable when comparing with all the quality characteristics. Regarding the nutritional contribution, the content of dietary fiber and digestible carbohydrates in the bread with stevia extract was higher and lower respectively, so caloric intake was significantly reduced. The results showed that the biological properties of Stevia rebaudiana extract were retained after the bread making process and that the proposed bread could be suitable as functional food in human nutrition. PMID:26299814

  16. Reactive oxygen species production and antioxidant enzyme activity during epididymal sperm maturation in Corynorhinus mexicanus bats.

    PubMed

    Edith, Arenas-Ríos; Adolfo, Rosado García; Edith, Cortés-Barberena; Mina, Königsberg; Marcela, Arteaga-Silva; Ahiezer, Rodríguez-Tobón; Gisela, Fuentes-Mascorro; Angel, León-Galván Miguel

    2016-03-01

    Prolonged sperm storage in the epididymis of Corynorhinus mexicanus bats after testicular regression has been associated with epididymal sperm maturation in the caudal region, although the precise factors linked with this phenomenon are unknown. The aim of this work is to determine the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and changes in antioxidant enzymatic activity occurring in the spermatozoa and epididymal fluid over time, in sperm maturation and storage in the caput, corpus and cauda of the bat epididymis. Our data showed that an increment in ROS production coincided with an increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in epididymal fluid and with a decrease in glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity in the spermatozoa in at different time points and epididymal regions. The increase in ROS production was not associated with oxidative damage measured by lipid peroxidation. The results of the current study suggest the existence of a shift in the redox balance, which might be associated with sperm maturation and storage. PMID:26952757

  17. Heat stress and antioxidant enzyme activity in bubaline (Bubalus bubalis) oocytes during in vitro maturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waiz, Syma Ashraf; Raies-ul-Haq, Mohammad; Dhanda, Suman; Kumar, Anil; Goud, T. Sridhar; Chauhan, M. S.; Upadhyay, R. C.

    2016-01-01

    In vitro environments like heat stress usually increase the production of reactive oxygen species in bubaline oocytes which have been implicated as one of the major causes for reduced developmental competence. Oocytes during meiotic maturation are sensitive to oxidative stress, and heat stress accelerates cellular metabolism, resulting in the higher production of free radicals. Therefore, the aim of present work was to assess the impact of heat stress during meiotic maturation on bubaline cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC), denuded oocytes (DO), and cumulus cell mass in terms of their oxidative status. Accordingly, for control group, COC were matured at 38.5 °C for complete 24 h of meiotic maturation and heat stress of 40.5 and 41.5 °C was applied to COC during the first 12 h of maturation and then moved to 38.5 °C for rest of the 12 h. In another group, COC after maturation were denuded from the surrounding cumulus cells by manual pipetting. Results indicated that the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxides, and nitric oxide (NO) was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the oocytes subjected to heat stress (40.5 and 41.5 °C) during meiotic maturation compared to the oocytes matured under standard in vitro culture conditions (38.5 °C). Also, the antioxidant enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase were significantly (P < 0.05) increased in all the treatment groups compared to the control group. Therefore, the present study clearly establishes that heat stress ensues oxidative stress in bubaline oocytes which triggers the induction of antioxidant enzymatic defense system for scavenging the ROS.

  18. Role of antioxidant and anaerobic metabolism enzymes in providing tolerance to maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings against waterlogging.

    PubMed

    Chugh, Vishal; Kaur, Narinder; Gupta, Anil K

    2011-10-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to identify the possible mode of mechanism that could provide tolerance to maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings under waterlogging. Using cup method, a number of maize genotypes were screened on the basis of survival of the seedlings kept under waterlogging. Two tolerant (LM5 and Parkash) and three susceptible (PMH2, JH3459 and LM14) genotypes were selected for the present study. Activities of antioxidant and ethanolic fermentation enzymes and content of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), glutathione and ascorbic acid were determined in roots of these genotypes after 72 h of waterlogging. Waterlogging treatment caused decline in activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) in all the genotypes. However, only susceptible genotypes showed slight increase in glutathione reductase (GR) activity. Significant reduction in APX/GR ratio in susceptible genotypes might be the cause of their susceptibility to waterlogging. The tolerant seedlings had higher GR activity than susceptible genotypes under unstressed conditions. Stress led to decrease in H202 and increase in glutathione content of both tolerant and susceptible genotypes, but only tolerant genotypes exhibited increase in ascorbic acid under waterlogging conditions. In the tolerant genotypes, all the enzymes of anaerobic metabolism viz. alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) and pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) were upregulated under waterlogging, whereas in susceptible genotypes, only ADH was upregulated, suggesting that efficient upregulation of entire anaerobic metabolic machinery is essential for providing tolerance against waterlogging. The study provides a possible mechanism for waterlogging tolerance in maize. PMID:22165294

  19. Effects of permethrin exposure on antioxidant enzymes and protein status in Mediterranean clams Ruditapes decussatus.

    PubMed

    Sellami, Badreddine; Louati, Hela; Dellali, Mohamed; Aissa, Patricia; Mahmoudi, Ezzeddine; Coelho, Ana Varela; Sheehan, David

    2014-03-01

    The effects of permethrin (PER) on a panel of antoxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) and indices of protein oxidation status (carbonylation and free thiols) were determined in digestive gland and gills of the clam Ruditapes decussatus. Animals were exposed to 100 ppb PER for 2 days. These enzyme activities increased significantly in digestive gland (p<0.05) after PER treatment and oxidative modification of proteins was detected in both gill and digestive gland extracts using redox proteomics. PER exposure significantly reduced the amount of protein free thiol groups in digestive gland rather than in gill, when compared to controls. Conversely, digestive gland showed significantly higher levels of carbonylated proteins than gill after PER exposure. Some proteins were successfully identified by mass spectrometry of tryptic peptides. Our data suggest that digestive gland of R. decussatus can be used as a model tissue for investigating environmental risk of PER contamination. PMID:24337996

  20. Response of antioxidant enzymes to intermittent and continuous hyperbaric O sub 2

    SciTech Connect

    Harabin, A.L.; Braisted, J.C.; Flynn, E.T. )

    1990-02-26

    Rats and guinea pigs were exposed to 2.8 ATA O{sub 2} (HBO) delivered either continuously or intermittently (repeated cycles of 10 minutes 100% O{sub 2}:2.5 minutes air). The O{sub 2} time required to produce convulsions and death was increased significantly in both species by intermittency. To determine whether changes in brain and lung superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) correlated with the observed tolerance, enzyme activities were measured after short or long HBO exposures. For each exposure duration, one group received continuous and one intermittent HBO; O{sub 2} times were matched. HBO had marked effects on these enzymes: Lung SOD increased (guinea pigs 47%, rats 88%), CAT and GSHPx activities decreased (33%) in brain and lung. No differences were seen in lung GSHPx or brain CAT in rats or brain SOD of either species. In guinea pigs, but less so in rats, the observed changes in activity were usually modulated by intermittency. Increases in hematocrit, organ protein, and lung DNA, which may also reflect ongoing oxidative damage, were also slowed with intermittency in guinea pigs. Intermittency benefitted both species by postponing gross symptoms of toxicity, but its modulation of changes in enzyme activities and other biochemical variables was more pronounced in guinea pigs than in rats suggesting additional mechanisms for tolerance.

  1. Proline induces heat tolerance in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) plants by protecting vital enzymes of carbon and antioxidative metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kaushal, Neeru; Gupta, Kriti; Bhandhari, Kalpna; Kumar, Sanjeev; Thakur, Prince; Nayyar, Harsh

    2011-07-01

    Chickpea is a heat sensitive crop hence its potential yield is considerably reduced under high temperatures exceeding 35 °C. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of proline in countering the damage caused by heat stress to growth and to enzymes of carbon and antioxidative metabolism in chickpea. The chickpea seeds were raised without (control) and with proline (10 μM) at temperatures of 30/25 °C, 35/30 °C, 40/35 °C and 45/40 °C as day/ night (12 h/12 h) in a growth chamber. The shoot and root length at 40/35 °C decreased by 46 and 37 %, respectively over control while at 45/40 °C, a decrease of 63 and 47 %, respectively over control was observed. In the plants growing in the presence of 10 μM proline at 40/35 °C and 45/40 °C, the shoot length showed improvement of 32 and 53 %, respectively over untreated plants, while the root growth was improved by 22 and 26 %, respectively. The stress injury (as membrane damage) increased with elevation of temperatures while cellular respiration, chlorophyll content and relative leaf water content reduced as the temperature increased to 45/40 °C. The endogenous proline was elevated to 46 μmol g(-1) dw at 40/35 °C but declined to 19 μmol g(-1) dw in plants growing at 45/40 °C that was associated with considerable inhibition of growth at this temperature. The oxidative damage measured as malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide content increased manifolds in heat stressed plants coupled with inhibition in the activities of enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase) and levels of non-enzymatic (ascorbic acid, glutathione, proline) antioxidants. The enzymes associated with carbon fixation (RUBISCO), sucrose synthesis (sucrose phosphate synthase) and sucrose hydrolysis (invertase) were strongly inhibited at 45/40 °C. The plants growing in the presence of proline accumulated proline up to 63 μmol g(-1) dw and showed less injury to membranes, had improved content of chlorophyll and water, especially at 45/40 °C. Additionally, the oxidative injury was significantly reduced coupled with elevated levels of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. A significant improvement was also noticed in the activities of enzymes of carbon metabolism in proline-treated plants. We report here that proline imparts partial heat tolerance to chickpea's growth by reducing the cellular injury and protection of some vital enzymes related to carbon and oxidative metabolism and exogenous application of proline appears to have a countering effect against elevated high temperatures on chickpea. PMID:23573011

  2. Investigation into the effects of antioxidant-rich extract of Tamarindus indica leaf on antioxidant enzyme activities, oxidative stress and gene expression profiles in HepG2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Razali, Nurhanani; Abdul Aziz, Azlina; Lim, Chor Yin

    2015-01-01

    The leaf extract of Tamarindus indica L. (T. indica) had been reported to possess high phenolic content and showed high antioxidant activities. In this study, the effects of the antioxidant-rich leaf extract of the T. indica on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme activities, H2O2-induced ROS production and gene expression patterns were investigated in liver HepG2 cells. Lipid peroxidation and ROS production were inhibited and the activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase was enhanced when the cells were treated with the antioxidant-rich leaf extract. cDNA microarray analysis revealed that 207 genes were significantly regulated by at least 1.5-fold (p < 0.05) in cells treated with the antioxidant-rich leaf extract. The expression of KNG1, SERPINC1, SERPIND1, SERPINE1, FGG, FGA, MVK, DHCR24, CYP24A1, ALDH6A1, EPHX1 and LEAP2 were amongst the highly regulated. When the significantly regulated genes were analyzed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software, “Lipid Metabolism, Small Molecule Biochemistry, Hematological Disease” was the top biological network affected by the leaf extract, with a score of 36. The top predicted canonical pathway affected by the leaf extract was the coagulation system (P < 2.80 × 10−6) followed by the superpathway of cholesterol biosynthesis (P < 2.17 × 10−4), intrinsic prothrombin pathway (P < 2.92 × 10−4), Immune Protection/Antimicrobial Response (P < 2.28 × 10−3) and xenobiotic metabolism signaling (P < 2.41 × 10−3). The antioxidant-rich leaf extract of T. indica also altered the expression of proteins that are involved in the Coagulation System and the Intrinsic Prothrombin Activation Pathway (KNG1, SERPINE1, FGG), Superpathway of Cholesterol Biosynthesis (MVK), Immune protection/antimicrobial response (IFNGR1, LEAP2, ANXA3 and MX1) and Xenobiotic Metabolism Signaling (ALDH6A1, ADH6). In conclusion, the antioxidant-rich leaf extract of T. indica inhibited lipid peroxidation and ROS production, enhanced antioxidant enzyme activities and significantly regulated the expression of genes and proteins involved with consequential impact on the coagulation system, cholesterol biosynthesis, xenobiotic metabolism signaling and antimicrobial response. PMID:26557426

  3. Bioelectronic Tongue Employing Enzyme-Modified Sensors for the Resolution of Phenolic Antioxidant Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cet, Xavier; Cspedes, Francisco; Pividori, Maria Isabel; Gutirrez, Juan Manuel; Haddi, Zouhair; Bouchikhi, Benachir; del Valle, Manel

    2011-09-01

    This work reports the application of a BioElectronic Tongue (BioET) in the analysis of polyphenols. For this, a voltammetric BioET formed by an array of epoxy-graphite biosensors, bulk-modified with different redox enzymes, aimed to the simultaneous determination of different polyphenols was used. Departure information was the set of voltammograms generated with the biosensor array and Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) were used for extraction and quantification of each compound. Cathecol, caffeic acid and catechine formed the three-analyte study case resolved in this work, with good prediction ability attained, therefore permitting the separate quantification of the three phenols.

  4. Studies on the antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds of enzyme-assisted water extracts from Du-zhong (Eucommia ulmoides Oliv.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jiyang; Tian, Chengrui; Xu, Jianguo; Sun, Ye

    2009-12-01

    Enzyme-assisted water extracts (EWEDL) and ethanol extracts of Du-zhong leaves (EEDL) were evaluated for their antioxidant activities using the DPPH radical-scavenging assay, Fe(2+)-chelating assay, and inhibition ability of the linoleic acid peroxidation assay. In general, the antioxidant activity of Du-zhong leaf extracts increased with increasing concentration. Based on the two extracting methods with different antioxidative reactions, it was shown that the enzyme-assisted water extracting method was more effective for antioxidant extraction from Du-zhong leaves. By HPLC-MS analysis, the main phenolic compounds (geniposidic acid, epicatechin, and chlorogenic acid) identified in EWEDL and EEDL were similar. EWEDL and EEDL had total phenolic contents of 13.84 +/- 0.11 and 14.72 +/- 0.14 mg chlorogenic acid equivalents (CAE) in each gram of extract, respectively. However, there was no positive correlation between total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of EWEDL and EEDL measured by the three different assays. PMID:19912062

  5. Activities of antioxidant enzymes in muscle, liver and lung of chickens with inherited muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Murphy, M E; Kehrer, J P

    1986-01-29

    An inherited form of muscular dystrophy in chickens has been used as a model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. The pectoralis major muscle of chickens with this disease showed a significantly elevated activity of catalase (CAT) one day after hatching, and by 7 days showed elevated superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities. Increases were also found in tissues of the dystrophic birds that, unlike the pectoralis muscle, are considered to be unaffected by the pathology of muscular dystrophy. The soleus muscle contained significantly increased levels of SOD and GPX in 1 and 7 day old chickens, and increased GST in 1, 14, and 28 day old birds. CAT was significantly increased in liver from 1 and 7 day old chickens, while GPX was increased in lung from 1, 7 and 14 day old birds. These results support the possibility that excess oxygen free-radicals or altered cellular antioxidant defenses play some role in the pathogenesis of muscular dystrophy. PMID:3947339

  6. Studies on antioxidant enzymes in Canna indica plant under copper stress.

    PubMed

    Talukdar, Dibyendu

    2013-01-01

    Bright red-flowered Canna indica L. plants were subjected to grow in nutrient solution supplemented with five different concentrations (0, 5, 10, 30 and 50 microM) of CuCl2 to study antioxidant defense responses of the plant. Accumulation of Cu was dose-dependent and much higher in the roots (108-191 microg g(-1) d. wt.) than in the leaves (23.36-40.43 microg g d.wt.). Total ascorbate content did not changed in both tissues, but ascorbate redox state decreased (0.570-0.640) in Cu-treated Canna roots. In contrast, both total and reduced glutathione contents increased (387-591.9 nmol g(-1) f. wt.) considerably in roots, accompanied with enhanced activities of dehydroascorbate reductase (153.3-160 nmol mg(-1) protein) and glutathione reductase (67-87.5 nmol mg(-1) protein). No significant change, however, was observed for monodehydroascorbate reductase activity in both tissues of the treated plant. The efficient scavenging of hydrogen peroxide was performed by normal (control level) activities of both ascorbate peroxidase and catalase in leaf and increased activity of only catalase in root, preventing its accumulation at toxic concentrations (despite high superoxide dismutase activity) and subsequent damage of membrane lipids by peroxidation. Together, these ensured normal dry weight of leaves and roots, indicating tolerance of Canna indica plant to Cu-induced oxidative stress. PMID:24006813

  7. Nanoalumina induces apoptosis by impairing antioxidant enzyme systems in human hepatocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Alarifi, Saud; Ali, Daoud; Alkahtani, Saad

    2015-01-01

    Alumina nanoparticles (Al2O3NPs) are gradually used in various areas, including nanomedicine, biosensors, and electronics. The current study aimed to explore the DNA damage and cytotoxicity due to Al2O3NPs on human hepatocarcinoma cells (HepG2). The MTT and neutral red uptake assays showed that Al2O3NPs induce significant cell death in a dose- and time-dependent manner. However, Al2O3NPs induced significant intracellular reactive oxygen species production and elevated lipid peroxidation and superoxide dismutase levels in the HepG2 cells. Al2O3NPs also induced significant decrease in reduced glutathione levels and increase caspase-3 activity in HepG2 cells. DNA fragmentation analysis using the alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis showed that Al2O3NPs cause genotoxicity in dose- and time-dependent manner. However, they induce reactive oxygen species production and oxidative stress, leading to oxidative DNA damage, a probable mechanism of genotoxicity. This study warrants more careful assessment of Al2O3NPs before their industrial application. PMID:26045665

  8. Nanoalumina induces apoptosis by impairing antioxidant enzyme systems in human hepatocarcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Alarifi, Saud; Ali, Daoud; Alkahtani, Saad

    2015-01-01

    Alumina nanoparticles (Al2O3NPs) are gradually used in various areas, including nanomedicine, biosensors, and electronics. The current study aimed to explore the DNA damage and cytotoxicity due to Al2O3NPs on human hepatocarcinoma cells (HepG2). The MTT and neutral red uptake assays showed that Al2O3NPs induce significant cell death in a dose- and time-dependent manner. However, Al2O3NPs induced significant intracellular reactive oxygen species production and elevated lipid peroxidation and superoxide dismutase levels in the HepG2 cells. Al2O3NPs also induced significant decrease in reduced glutathione levels and increase caspase-3 activity in HepG2 cells. DNA fragmentation analysis using the alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis showed that Al2O3NPs cause genotoxicity in dose- and time-dependent manner. However, they induce reactive oxygen species production and oxidative stress, leading to oxidative DNA damage, a probable mechanism of genotoxicity. This study warrants more careful assessment of Al2O3NPs before their industrial application. PMID:26045665

  9. Antioxidant Enzyme Inhibitor Role of Phosphine Metal Complexes in Lung and Leukemia Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Kele?, Tu?ba; Serinda?, Osman

    2014-01-01

    Phosphine metal complexes have been recently evaluated in the field of cancer therapy. In this research, the cytotoxic effects of some metal phosphines {[PdCl2((CH2OH)2PCH2)2NCH3] (C1), [RuCl2(((CH2OH)2PCH2)2NCH3)2] (C2), [PtCl2((Ph2PCH2)2NCH3)(timin)2] (C3)} on K562 (human myelogenous leukemia cell line) and A549 (adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial cells) cells were investigated using the MTT test. C1 and C2 are water-soluble metal complexes, which may have some advantages in in vitro and in vivo studies. The effects of the above-mentioned metal complexes on thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) (EC: 1.8.1.9), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) (EC: 1.11.1.9), and catalase (Cat) (EC: 1.11.1.6) enzymes were also tested. The results of this research showed that all three metal complexes indicated dose-dependent cytotoxicity on A549 and K562 cell lines and that the complexes inhibited different percentages of the TrxR, GPx, and Cat enzymes of these tumor cells. PMID:25610346

  10. [Regulation by opiod peptides of the antioxidant enzyme activity and the prostanoid system in myocardium during stress].

    PubMed

    Rebrova, T Iu; Maslov, L N; Lishmanov, Iu B

    2005-01-01

    The six hour stress in rats was modeled by the method of O. Desiderato. Cardiac damage was estimated by myocardial uptace of radioactive 99Tc-pyrophosphate. Intravenous administration of mixed mu and delta opioid receptor agonist, D- Ala2, Leu5, Arg6-enkephalin (dalargin), (non-penetrating through the blood brain barrier) at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg before stress decreased stress-induced 99Tc-pyroposphate uptake. Pretreatment with dalargin completely abolished the stress-induced increase in conjugated dienes and malondialdehyde levels in myocardium and prevented a decrease in total lipid soluble antioxidant levels in the heart after stress exposure. Stress is accompanied by an increase in activity of catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and a decrease in activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD). Pretreatment with dalargin completely reversed stress-induced decrease in SOD activity but had minor effect on the activity of other antioxidant enzymes. Stress also resulted in an increase in myocardial content of thromboxane and a decrease in prostacycline and prostaglandin E levels in the heart. Pretreatment with dalargin completely eliminated these stress-induced changes in myocardial prostanoid levels. We propose that stress-induced heart injury depends on the activation of lipid peroxidation processes and changes in the prostanoid levels in the heart. Cardioprotective effect of dalargin during stress may be mediated via peripheral mu and delta opioid receptor stimulation and an inhibition of lipid peroxidation processes through SOD activation and also a recovery, of normal prostanoid levels in the heart. PMID:15945351

  11. Effect of iron stress on Withania somnifera L.: antioxidant enzyme response and nutrient elemental uptake of in vitro grown plants.

    PubMed

    Rout, Jyoti Ranjan; Behera, Sadhana; Keshari, Nitin; Ram, Shidharth Sankar; Bhar, Subhajit; Chakraborty, Anindita; Sudarshan, Mathummal; Sahoo, Santi Lata

    2015-03-01

    In the present study the response of antioxidant enzyme activities and the level of expression of their corresponding genes on bioaccumulation of iron (Fe) were investigated. In vitro germinated Withania somnifera L. were grown in Murashige and Skoog's liquid medium with increasing concentrations (0, 25, 50, 100 and 200 µM) of FeSO4 for 7 and 14 days. Root and leaf tissues analyzed for catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6), superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) and guaiacol peroxidase (GPX, EC 1.11.1.7), have shown an increase in content with respect to exposure time. Isoforms of CAT, SOD and GPX were separated using non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and observed that the isoenzymes were greatly affected by higher concentrations of Fe. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis performed by taking three pairs of genes of CAT (RsCat, Catalase1, Cat1) and SOD (SodCp, TaSOD1.2, MnSOD) to find out the differential expression of antioxidant genes under Fe excess. RsCat from CAT and MnSOD from SOD have exhibited high levels of gene expression under Fe stress, which was consistent with the changes of the activity assayed in solution after 7 days of treatment. Analysis by proton induced X-ray emission exhibited an increasing uptake of Fe in plants by suppressing and expressing of other nutrient elements. The results of the present study suggest that higher concentration of Fe causes disturbance in nutrient balance and induces oxidative stress in plant. PMID:25480472

  12. Changes in the activities of antioxidant enzymes of the lymphoid organs of 21-day pregnant rats due to administration of fish oil by gavage.

    PubMed

    De Souza, J A; De Oliveria, H R; Miyasaka, C K; Gacek, F; Torres, R P; Mancini Filho, J; Curi, R

    1997-10-01

    1. The effect of fish oil administration by gavage (0.4% body weight) on activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and on content of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs) of the lymphoid organs [thymus, spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN)] and liver was investigated in 21-day pregnant rats. The results were compared with those obtained by administration of soybean oil, cocoa butter and coconut oil. 2. Oil administration did not have any significant effect on antioxidant enzyme activities of the liver, whereas marked changes were found in the lymphoid organs. The MLN presented the most pronounced changes: SOD and catalase activities were increased by the four oils; GSH-Px activity was raised by soybean and fish oils; coconut oil reduced the activity of the three antioxidant enzymes in this organ. 3. Fish oil given by gavage does affect the antioxidant capacity of the lymphoid organs; however, similar effect was also observed for cocoa butter and soybean oil. These changes in the antioxidant enzyme activities were able to prevent the lipid peroxidation process in the lymphoid organs. PMID:9352301

  13. Comparative effect of Piper betle, Chlorella vulgaris and tocotrienol-rich fraction on antioxidant enzymes activity in cellular ageing of human diploid fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs) undergo a limited number of cellular divisions in culture and progressively reach a state of irreversible growth arrest, a process termed cellular ageing. Even though beneficial effects of Piper betle, Chlorella vulgaris and tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) have been reported, ongoing studies in relation to ageing is of interest to determine possible protective effects that may reverse the effect of ageing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of P. betle, C. vulgaris and TRF in preventing cellular ageing of HDFs by determining the activity of antioxidant enzymes viz.; catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase. Methods Different passages of HDFs were treated with P. betle, C. vulgaris and TRF for 24 h prior to enzymes activity determination. Senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA β-gal) expression was assayed to validate cellular ageing. Results In cellular ageing of HDFs, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities were reduced, but SOD activity was heightened during pre-senescence. P. betle exhibited the strongest antioxidant activity by reducing SA β-gal expression, catalase activities in all age groups, and SOD activity. TRF exhibited a strong antioxidant activity by reducing SA β-gal expression, and SOD activity in senescent HDFs. C. vulgaris extract managed to reduce SOD activity in senescent HDFs. Conclusion P. betle, C. vulgaris, and TRF have the potential as anti-ageing entities which compensated the role of antioxidant enzymes in cellular ageing of HDFs. PMID:23948056

  14. Effect of Commiphora mukul gum resin on hepatic marker enzymes, lipid peroxidation and antioxidants status in pancreas and heart of streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, B; Karuna, R; Sreenivasa, Reddy S; Haritha, K; Sai, Mangala D; Sasi, Bhusana Rao B; Saralakumari, D

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the antioxidant efficacy of Commiphora mukul (C. mukul) gum resin ethanolic extract in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Methods The male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into four groups of eight animals each: Control group (C), CM-treated control group (C+CMEE), Diabetic control group (D), CM- treated diabetic group (D+CMEE). Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of STZ (55 mg/kg/ bwt). After being confirmed the diabetic rats were treated with C. mukul gum resin ethanolic extract (CMEE) for 60 days. The biochemical estimations like antioxidant, oxidative stress marker enzymes and hepatic marker enzymes of tissues were performed. Results The diabetic rats showed increased level of enzymatic activities aspartate aminotransaminase (AST), alanine aminotransaminase (ALT) in liver and kidney and oxidative markers like lipid peroxidation (LPO) and protein oxidation (PO) in pancreas and heart. Antioxidant enzyme activities were significantly decreased in the pancreas and heart compared to control group. Administration of CMEE (200 mg/kg bw) to diabetic rats for 60 days significantly reversed the above parameters towards normalcy. Conclusions In conclusion, our data indicate the preventive role of C. mukul against STZ-induced diabetic oxidative stress; hence this plant could be used as an adjuvant therapy for the prevention and/or management of diabetes and aggravated antioxidant status. PMID:23569867

  15. AtROS1 overexpression provides evidence for epigenetic regulation of genes encoding enzymes of flavonoid biosynthesis and antioxidant pathways during salt stress in transgenic tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Bharti, Poonam; Mahajan, Monika; Vishwakarma, Ajay K.; Bhardwaj, Jyoti; Yadav, Sudesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    In plants, epigenetic changes have been identified as regulators of developmental events during normal growth as well as environmental stress exposures. Flavonoid biosynthetic and antioxidant pathways play a significant role in plant defence during their exposure to environmental cues. The aim of this study was to unravel whether genes encoding enzymes of flavonoid biosynthetic and antioxidant pathways are under epigenetic regulation, particularly DNA methylation, during salt stress. For this, a repressor of silencing from Arabidopsis, AtROS1, was overexpressed in transgenic tobacco. Generated transgenics were evaluated to examine the influence of AtROS1 on methylation status of promoters as well as on coding regions of genes encoding enzymes of flavonoids biosynthesis and antioxidant pathways. Overexpression of AtROS1 increases the demethylation levels of both promoters as well as coding regions of genes encoding chalcone synthase, chalcone isomerase, flavanone 3-hydroxylase, flavonol synthase, dihydroflavonol 4-reductase, and anthocyanidin synthase of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway, and glutathione S-transferase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase of the antioxidant pathway during control conditions. The level of demethylation was further increased at promoters as well as coding regions of these genes during salt-stress conditions. Transgenic tobacco overexpressing AtROS1 showed tolerance to salt stress that could have been due to the higher expression levels of the genes encoding enzymes of the flavonoid biosynthetic and antioxidant pathways. This is the first comprehensive study documenting the epigenetic regulation of flavonoid biosynthetic and antioxidant pathways during salt-stress exposure of plants. PMID:26116024

  16. Gene expression of antioxidant enzymes and coffee seed quality during pre- and post-physiological maturity.

    PubMed

    Santos, F C; Caixeta, F; Clemente, A C S; Pinho, E V; Rosa, S D V F

    2014-01-01

    Seeds collected at different maturation stages vary in physiological quality and patterns of protective antioxidant systems against deterioration. In this study we investigated the expression of genes that codify catalase (CAT), dismutase superoxide (SOD), and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) during the pre- and post-physiological maturation phases in whole seeds and in endosperms and embryos extracted from the seeds. Coffea arabica L. berries were collected at the green, yellowish-green, cherry, over-ripe, and dry stages, and the seeds were examined physiologically. The transcription levels of the genes were quantified by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction using coffee-specific primers. The highest level of SOD expression was observed in the endosperm at the cherry and over-ripe stages; in addition, these seeds presented the greatest physiological quality (assessed via germination test). The highest CAT3 transcript expression was observed at the green stage in whole seeds, and at the green and over-ripe stages in the embryos and endosperms. High expression of the PPO transcript was observed at the green and yellowish-green stages in whole seeds. In embryos and endosperms, peak expression of the PPO transcript was observed at the green stage; subsequently, peaks at the cherry and over-ripe stages were observed. We concluded that the expression patterns of the SOD and CAT3 transcripts were similar at the more advanced maturation stages, which corresponded to enhanced physiological seed quality. High expression of the PPO transcript at the over-ripe stage, also observed in the embryos and endosperms at the cherry stage, coincided with the highest physiological seed quality. PMID:25526219

  17. Effects of cadmium on antioxidant enzyme and photosynthetic activities in leaves of two maize cultivars.

    PubMed

    Ekmeki, Yasemin; Tanyola, Deniz; Ayhan, Beycan

    2008-04-18

    Effects of cadmium (Cd(2+)) on photosynthetic and antioxidant activities of maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars (3223 and 32D99) were investigated. Fourteen-day-old cultivar seedlings were exposed to different Cd concentrations [0, 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9mM Cd(NO(3))(2) x 4H(2)O] for 8 days. The results of chlorophyll fluorescence indicated that different levels of Cd affected photochemical efficiency in 3223 much more than that in 32D99. In parallel, the level of Cd at 0.9mM caused oxidative damage but did not indicate cessation of PSII activity of the cultivars; plant death was not observed at highly toxic Cd levels. Additionally, the increase in Cd concentration caused loss of chlorophylls and carotenoid and membrane damage in both cultivars, but greater membrane damage was observed in 3223 than in 32D99. Depending on Cd accumulation, a significant reduction in dry biomass was observed in both cultivars at all Cd concentrations. The accumulation of Cd was higher in roots than in leaves for both cultivars. Nevertheless, cultivar 3223 transferred more Cd from roots to leaves than did 32D99. On the other hand, our results suggest that there were similar responses in SOD, APX and GR activities with increasing Cd concentrations for both cultivars. However, POD activity significantly increased at highly toxic Cd levels in 32D99. This result may be regarded as an indication of better tolerance of the Z. mays L. cultivar 32D99 to Cd contamination. PMID:17728009

  18. Trehalose improves semen antioxidant enzymes activity, post-thaw quality, and fertility in Nili Ravi buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Sajid; Andrabi, Syed Murtaza Hassan; Riaz, Amjad; Durrani, Aneela Zameer; Ahmad, Nasim

    2016-03-15

    Our objectives were to study the effect of trehalose in extender on (1) antioxidant enzymes profile during cryopreservation (after dilution, before freezing, and after thawing), (2) in vitro quality (after thawing), and (3) in vivo fertility of Nili Ravi buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bull spermatozoa. Semen samples (n = 20) from four buffalo bulls were diluted in Tris-citric acid-based extender having different concentrations of trehalose (0.0, 15, 30, 45, and 60 mM) and frozen in French straws. At post dilution, profile of sperm catalase (U/mL) was higher (P < 0.05) in extenders containing 15, 30, and 45 mM of trehalose as compared to control. Although profiles of superoxide dismutase (U/mL) and total glutathione (μM) were higher (P < 0.05) in extenders containing 15 and 30 mM of trehalose as compared to control. At prefreezing, sperm catalase, superoxide dismutase, and total glutathione profiles were higher (P < 0.05) in all the treatment groups as compared to control. At post thawing, the profiles of catalase and total glutathione were higher (P < 0.05) in extender containing 30-mM trehalose as compared to other treatment groups and control. Whereas, profile of superoxide dismutase was higher (P < 0.05) in extenders containing 30, 45, and 60 mM of trehalose as compared to control and 15mM group. Post thaw total sperm motility (%) was higher (P < 0.05) in extender containing 30-mM trehalose as compared to control and 15 and 60-mM groups. Although sperm progressive motility (%), rapid velocity (%), average path velocity (μm/s), straight line velocity (μm/s), curvilinear velocity (μm/s), plasma membrane (structural and functional, %), acrosome (%), and DNA (%) integrity were higher (P < 0.05) in extender containing 30 mM trehalose as compared to other treatment groups and control. The fertility rates (61% vs. 43%) were higher (P < 0.05) in buffaloes inseminated with semen doses cryopreserved in extender containing 30 mM of trehalose than the control. It is concluded that addition of 30-mM trehalose in extender improves the semen antioxidant enzymes activity, post thaw quality, and fertility in Nili Ravi buffaloes. PMID:26653954

  19. Endogenous antioxidant enzymes and glutathione S-transferase in protection of mesothelioma cells against hydrogen peroxide and epirubicin toxicity.

    PubMed Central

    Kinnula, K.; Linnainmaa, K.; Raivio, K. O.; Kinnula, V. L.

    1998-01-01

    We have previously shown that cultured malignant mesothelioma cells contain elevated manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) mRNA levels and activities compared with non-malignant mesothelial cells. As many cytotoxic drugs generate both superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, we assessed the relative significance of catalase and the glutathione redox cycle, as well as glutathione S-transferase (GST), in protecting these cells against hydrogen peroxide and epirubicin toxicity. Mesothelioma cell lines containing high (M38K cells) and low (M14K cells) MnSOD, and non-malignant MeT-5A mesothelial cells were selected for the study. M38K cells were the most resistant of these three cell types to hydrogen peroxide (0.1-0.5 mM, 4 h) and epirubicin (0.1-0.5 microg ml(-1), 48 h) as judged by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and by high-energy nucleotide (ATP, ADP, AMP) depletion. Total glutathione was higher in M38K cells (63.8 +/- 20.3 nnmol mg(-1) protein) than in M14K (25.2 +/- 8.2 nmol mg[-1]) or MeT-5A cells (23.5 +/- 4.5 nmol mg[-1]). Furthermore, GST specific activity was higher in M38K cells (111.3 +/- 15.8 U mg[-1]) than in M14K cells (77.4 +/- 6.6 U mg[-1]) or in MeT-5A cells (68.8 +/- 7.6 U mg[-1]). Western blotting indicated the presence of GST-pi in all these cells, the reactivity again being highest in M38K cells. Depletion of glutathione by buthionine sulphoximine and inhibition of catalase by aminotriazole enhanced hydrogen peroxide toxicity in all cell types, while only the depletion of glutathione increased epirubicin toxicity. We conclude that simultaneous induction of multiple antioxidant enzymes can occur in human mesothelioma cells. In addition to the high MnSOD activity, hydrogen peroxide scavenging antioxidant enzymes, glutathione and GST can partly explain the high hydrogen peroxide and epirubicin resistance of these cells in vitro. Images Figure 4 PMID:9569045

  20. Alterations in antioxidant metabolism and associated enzymes in pea (Pisum sativum) exposed to sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Madamanchi, N.R.; Alscher, R.G. )

    1990-05-01

    The response of glutathione and ascorbate and the enzymes glutathione reductase (GR) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) was studied in two cultivars of pea known to be differentially sensitive to SO{sub 2} (0.8 ppm). Total glutathione accumulated more rapidly on exposure to SO{sub 2} in insensitive cultivar Progress compared to the sensitive cultivar Nugget, confirming our previous results. However, corresponding changes in oxidized glutathione were not observed and ascorbate levels did not change over the course of the exposure. Changes in the activity of GR corresponded to the changes in total glutatione levels. Preliminary results indicate that SOD activity increased to a significantly higher extent in Progress than in Nugget. These data suggest a significant role for GR and possibly SOD in resistance to oxidative stress.

  1. Enzyme-Controlled Intracellular Self-Assembly of (18)F Nanoparticles for Enhanced MicroPET Imaging of Tumor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yaling; Miao, Qingqing; Zou, Pei; Liu, Longfei; Wang, Xiaojing; An, Linna; Zhang, Xiaoliu; Qian, Xiangping; Luo, Shineng; Liang, Gaolin

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we report the development of a new "smart" radioactive probe (i.e., 1) which can undergo furin-controlled condensation and self-assembly of radioactive nanoparticles (i.e., 1-NPs) in tumor cells and its application for enhanced microPET imaging of tumors in nude mice co-injected with its cold analog (i.e., 1-Cold). Furin-controlled condensation of 1-Cold and self-assembly of its nanoparticles (i.e., 1-Cold-NPs) in vitro were validated and characterized with HPLC, mass spectra, SEM, and TEM analyses. Cell uptake studies showed that both 1 and 1-Cold have good cell permeability. TEM images of 1-Cold-treated MDA-MB-468 cells directly uncovered that the intracellular 1-Cold-NPs were at/near the location of furin (i.e., Golgi bodies). MTT results indicated that 50 M 1-Cold did not impose cytotoxicity to MDA-MB-468 cells up to 12 hours. MicroPET imaging of MDA-MB-468 tumor-bearing mice indicated that mice co-injected with 1 and 1-Cold showed higher uptake and longer attenuation of the radioactivity in tumors than those mice only injected with same dosage of 1. Tumor uptake ratios of 1 between these two groups of mice reached the maximum of 8.2 folds at 240 min post injection. Biodistribution study indicated that the uptake ratios of 1 in kidneys between these two groups continuously increased and reached 81.9 folds at 240 min post injection, suggesting the formation of radioactive NPs (i.e., 1-NPs) in MDA-MB-468 tumors of mice co-injected with 1 and 1-Cold. And the nanoparticles were slowly digested and secreted from the tumors, accumulating in the kidneys. Our ''smart'' probe (i.e., 1), together with the strategy of co-injection, might help researchers trace the biomarkers of interest within a longer time window. PMID:26199645

  2. Enzyme-Controlled Intracellular Self-Assembly of 18F Nanoparticles for Enhanced MicroPET Imaging of Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yaling; Miao, Qingqing; Zou, Pei; Liu, Longfei; Wang, Xiaojing; An, Linna; Zhang, Xiaoliu; Qian, Xiangping; Luo, Shineng; Liang, Gaolin

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we report the development of a new “smart” radioactive probe (i.e., 1) which can undergo furin-controlled condensation and self-assembly of radioactive nanoparticles (i.e., 1-NPs) in tumor cells and its application for enhanced microPET imaging of tumors in nude mice co-injected with its cold analog (i.e., 1-Cold). Furin-controlled condensation of 1-Cold and self-assembly of its nanoparticles (i.e., 1-Cold-NPs) in vitro were validated and characterized with HPLC, mass spectra, SEM, and TEM analyses. Cell uptake studies showed that both 1 and 1-Cold have good cell permeability. TEM images of 1-Cold-treated MDA-MB-468 cells directly uncovered that the intracellular 1-Cold-NPs were at/near the location of furin (i.e., Golgi bodies). MTT results indicated that 50 µM 1-Cold did not impose cytotoxicity to MDA-MB-468 cells up to 12 hours. MicroPET imaging of MDA-MB-468 tumor-bearing mice indicated that mice co-injected with 1 and 1-Cold showed higher uptake and longer attenuation of the radioactivity in tumors than those mice only injected with same dosage of 1. Tumor uptake ratios of 1 between these two groups of mice reached the maximum of 8.2 folds at 240 min post injection. Biodistribution study indicated that the uptake ratios of 1 in kidneys between these two groups continuously increased and reached 81.9 folds at 240 min post injection, suggesting the formation of radioactive NPs (i.e., 1-NPs) in MDA-MB-468 tumors of mice co-injected with 1 and 1-Cold. And the nanoparticles were slowly digested and secreted from the tumors, accumulating in the kidneys. Our ''smart'' probe (i.e., 1), together with the strategy of co-injection, might help researchers trace the biomarkers of interest within a longer time window. PMID:26199645

  3. Flavonoid rich fraction of Dioscorea bulbifera Linn. (Yam) enhances mitochondrial enzymes and antioxidant status and thereby protects heart from isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Jayachandran, K S; Vasanthi, Hannah R; Rajamanickama, G V

    2010-12-01

    With recent advances in nutrition sciences, natural products and health-promoting foods have received extensive attention from both health professionals and the common population. The flavonoid rich fraction (FRF) of Dioscorea bulbifera Linn. has a strong free radical scavenging activity. FRF (150 mg/kg) when intervened for a period of 35 days prior to isoproterenol (ISO) challenge to rats maintained the creatine kinase - MB (CK-MB) activity in serum without elevation. Alterations in the antioxidant status in the mitochondria were recognized in the heart tissue of ISO induced rats. ISO induced rats pretreated with FRF (150 mg/kg) ameliorated the lipid peroxidation and thereby enhanced the antioxidant status as evidenced by the increase in the reduced glutathione (GSH) content and the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Moreover, the tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes such isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), malate dehydrogenase (MDH) and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (α-KGDH), which were found decreased in the ISO induced rats showed an enhanced activity in FRF (150 mg/kg) pretreated rats. The activity of NADH dehydrogenase and cytochrome-C-oxidase the enzymes, which transfer the electron in the electron transport chain (ETC) was also increased significantly (p<0.05) in FRF (150 mg/kg) pretreated rats, when compared with ISO induced rats. These results suggest the cardioprotective effect of FRF of Dioscorea bulbifera Linn. in ISO induced MI by attenuating the lipid peroxidation by scavenging free radicals and modulating the energy producing mitochondrial enzymes. PMID:20874686

  4. Pre-extraction preparation (fresh, frozen, freeze-dried, or acetone powdered) and long-term storage of fruit and vegetable tissues: effects on antioxidant enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Lester, Gene E; Hodges, D Mark; Meyer, Robert D; Munro, Kathleen D

    2004-04-21

    Activities of the antioxidant enzymes ascorbate peroxidase, catalase, dehydroascorbate reductase, glutathione reductase, guaiacol peroxidase, monodehydroascorbate reductase, and superoxide dismutase were assayed in honeydew (Cucumis melo L.) fruit and spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) leaves either as fresh, frozen to -80 degrees C, frozen in liquid nitrogen, freeze-dried, or acetone powder, representing the various ways tissues are treated prior to enzyme extraction. Treated tissues were analyzed following treatment or stored for up to 8 weeks at -80 degrees C. Enzyme activities in fruit frozen with or without liquid nitrogen and leaves frozen with or without liquid nitrogen or freeze-dried were equal to those of fresh tissue. Enzyme activities in freeze-dried or acetone-powdered fruit and leaves and in acetone-powdered tissues were significantly higher or lower than those in fresh tissue. Enzyme activities in both tissues frozen with or without liquid nitrogen and stored for 8 weeks at -80 degrees C changed little; those in freeze-dried and acetone-powdered tissues, however, significantly increased/decreased over the same period. Fresh tissue should be used in antioxidant enzyme assays, but if storage is necessary, tissues should be placed directly into a -80 degrees C freezer. PMID:15080616

  5. Acute Liver Failure in Rats Activates Glutamine-Glutamate Cycle but Declines Antioxidant Enzymes to Induce Oxidative Stress in Cerebral Cortex and Cerebellum

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Santosh; Mondal, Papia; Trigun, Surendra K.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Liver dysfunction led hyperammonemia (HA) causes a nervous system disorder; hepatic encephalopathy (HE). In the brain, ammonia induced glutamate-excitotoxicity and oxidative stress are considered to play important roles in the pathogenesis of HE. The brain ammonia metabolism and antioxidant enzymes constitute the main components of this mechanism; however, need to be defined in a suitable animal model. This study was aimed to examine this aspect in the rats with acute liver failure (ALF). Methods ALF in the rats was induced by intraperitoneal administration of 300 mg thioacetamide/Kg. b.w up to 2 days. Glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutaminase (GA), the two brain ammonia metabolizing enzymes vis a vis ammonia and glutamate levels and profiles of all the antioxidant enzymes vis a vis oxidative stress markers were measured in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum of the control and the ALF rats. Results The ALF rats showed significantly increased levels of ammonia in the blood (HA) but little changes in the cortex and cerebellum. This was consistent with the activation of the GS-GA cycle and static levels of glutamate in these brain regions. However, significantly increased levels of lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl contents were consistent with the reduced levels of all the antioxidant enzymes in both the brain regions of these ALF rats. Conclusion ALF activates the GS-GA cycle to metabolize excess ammonia and thereby, maintains static levels of ammonia and glutamate in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum. Moreover, ALF induces oxidative stress by reducing the levels of all the antioxidant enzymes which is likely to play important role, independent of glutamate levels, in the pathogenesis of acute HE. PMID:24755687

  6. Antioxidant relevance to human health.

    PubMed

    Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2013-01-01

    Human ecology requires both oxygen and water with the generation from food of an immediate energy source, ATP, by oxidative phosphorylation. A continuing balance between oxidation and antioxidation is necessary for longer less-disabled lives, taking account of oxidative stresses and the critical roles of oxidants in defence against infection, tissue repair and signalling. Antioxidant capacity is derived both exogenously (from food, beverage and sunlight) and endogenously (from enzymatic and non-enzymatic pathways). A number of oxidant food factors service antioxidant metallo-enzymes. The capacity operates extra- or intracellularly. Uric acid is the major antioxidant in primate blood. Uric acid synthesis is increased by dietary fructose from fruit, sugary foods and drinks. This indirect antioxidant effect of fruit is separate from that attributable to its flavonoids. Alcohol also increases serum uric acid. Urate excess and retention is associated with disease. The high prevalence of hyperuricaemia in NE Asia presents a major public health dilemma in regard to putative benefits and risks. Foods with high antioxidant activity include berries, nuts and legumes, tomatoes and sweet potato leaves. Each of the antioxidants in these foods is pleiotropic being inter-alia anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic or anti-neoplastic. Moreover, food matrices and patterns contribute to the safety of antioxidant consumption. There is no evidence to date that isolated antioxidants as food supplements improve health outcomes or survival; and some that indicate unacceptable risk. Their use as biomarkers of food cannot justify their isolated use. Nevertheless, a spectrum of dietary pluripotential antioxidants for tissues, metabolic and immune systems is advantageous. PMID:23635359

  7. Effect of nonylphenol on male reproduction: Analysis of rat epididymal biochemical markers and antioxidant defense enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Aly, Hamdy A.A.; Domènech, Òscar; Banjar, Zainy M.

    2012-06-01

    The mechanism by which nonylphenol (NP) interferes with male reproduction is not fully elucidated. Therefore, the present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of NP on male reproductive organ's weight, sperm characteristics, and to elucidate the nature and mechanism of action of NP on the epididymis. Adult male Wistar rats were gavaged with NP, dissolved in corn oil, at 0, 100, 200 or 300 mg/kg/day for 30 consecutive days. Control rats were gavaged with vehicle (corn oil) alone. Body weight did not show any significant change while, absolute testes and epididymides weights were significantly decreased. Sperm count in cauda and caput/corpus epididymides, and sperm motility was significantly decreased. Daily sperm production was significantly decreased in a dose-related manner. Sperm transit time in cauda epididymis was significantly decreased by 300 mg/kg, while in the caput/corpus epididymis it was significantly decreased by 200 and 300 mg/kg of NP. Plasma LDH was significantly increased while; plasma testosterone was significantly decreased in a dose-related pattern. In the epididymal sperm, NP decreased acrosome integrity, Δψm and 5′-nucleotidase activity. Hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) production and LPO were significantly increased in a dose-related pattern. The activities of SOD, CAT and GPx were significantly decreased in the epididymal sperm. In conclusion, this study revealed that NP treatment impairs spermatogenesis and has a cytotoxic effect on epididymal sperm. It disrupts the prooxidant and antioxidant balance. This leads oxidative stress in epididymal sperms of rat. Moreover, the reduction in sperm transit time may affect sperm quality and fertility potential. -- Highlights: ► The nature and mechanism of action of NP on rat epididymis were elucidated. ► NP decreased sperm count, motility, daily sperm production and sperm transit time. ► NP decreased sperm acrosome integrity, Δψm and 5′-nucleotidase activity. ► Plasma LDH was significantly increased and testosterone was significantly decreased. ► NP induced oxidative stress in epididymal sperm.

  8. [Synergistic effects of water temperature and salinity on the growth and liver antioxidant enzyme activities of juvenile GIFT Oreochromis niloticus].

    PubMed

    Qiang, Jun; Ren, Hong-Tao; Xu, Pao; He, Jie; Li, Rui-Wei

    2012-01-01

    By adopting two-factor central composite design (CCD) and response surface methodology (RSM), this paper studied the synergistic effects of water temperature (16-37 degrees C) and salinity (0-18) on the specific growth rate (SGR) and liver superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities of juvenile GIFT Oreochromis niloticus. Water temperature and salinity had significant linear and quadratic effects on the SGR (P < 0.05), respectively. With increasing water temperature or salinity, the SGR decreased after an initial increase. There existed significant synergistic effects between water temperature and salinity (P < 0.05). The SGR was higher at 16-20 degrees C and salinity 9-10, at 27-32 degrees C and salinity 3-5, and at 35-37 degrees C and in freshwater. The SOD and CAT activities were higher at 28-30 degrees C and salinity 6-8. The linear of temperature and quadratic of salinity had significant effects on the two enzymes (P < 0.05), and there was a significant synergistic effect on CAT activity. High temperature and high salinity were not favorable to the expression of SOD and CAT activities. The coefficients of determination of quadratic regression equations for SGR, SOD and CAT activities reached to 0. 954, 0. 831, and 0. 942 (P < 0. 05), respectively, and could be used for prediction. The growth and antioxidant enzyme activities were more affected by water temperature than by water salinity. In the culture practice of 0. niloticus, it would be necessary to optimize culture environment and reduce oxidative stress to promote the growth and disease-resistance of the tilapia. PMID:22489507

  9. Sublethal gamma irradiation affects reproductive impairment and elevates antioxidant enzyme and DNA repair activities in the monogonont rotifer Brachionus koreanus.

    PubMed

    Han, Jeonghoon; Won, Eun-Ji; Kim, Il-Chan; Yim, Joung Han; Lee, Su-Jae; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2014-10-01

    To examine the effects of gamma radiation on marine organisms, we irradiated several doses of gamma ray to the microzooplankton Brachionus koreanus, and measured in vivo and in vitro endpoints including the survival rate, lifespan, fecundity, population growth, gamma ray-induced oxidative stress, and modulated patterns of enzyme activities and gene expressions after DNA damage. After gamma radiation, no individuals showed any mortality within 96 h even at a high intensity (1200 Gy). However, a reduced fecundity (e.g. cumulated number of offspring) of B. koreanus at over 150 Gy was observed along with a slight decrease in lifespan. At 150 Gy and 200 Gy, the reduced fecundity of the rotifers led to a significant decrease in population growth, although in the second generation the population growth pattern was not affected even at 200 Gy when compared to the control group. At sub-lethal doses, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels dose-dependently increased with GST enzyme activity. In addition, up-regulations of the antioxidant and chaperoning genes in response to gamma radiation were able to recover cellular damages, and life table parameters were significantly influenced, particularly with regard to fecundity. DNA repair-associated genes showed significantly up-regulated expression patterns in response to sublethal doses (150 and 200 Gy), as shown in the expression of the gamma-irradiated B. koreanus p53 gene, suggesting that these sublethal doses were not significantly fatal to B. koreanus but induced DNA damages leading to a decrease of the population size. PMID:25000471

  10. Antioxidative enzyme profiling and biosorption ability of Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 and Pseudomonas putida mt2 under cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Shamim, Saba; Rehman, Abdul

    2015-03-01

    Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 and Pseudomonas putida mt2 were used as cadmium (Cd)-resistant and -sensitive bacteria, respectively, to study their biosorption ability and their antioxidative enzymes. The minimal inhibitory concentration of C. metallidurans CH34 for Cd was found to be 30 mM, and for P. putida mt2 it was 1.25 mM. The tube dilution method revealed the heavy-metal resistance pattern of C. metallidurans CH34 as Ni(2+) (10 mM)>Zn(2+) (4 mM)>Cu(2+) (2 mM)>Hg(2+) (1 mM)>Cr(2+) (1 mM)>Pb(2+) (0 mM), whereas P. putida mt2 was only resistant to Zn(2+) (1 mM). Under Cd stress, the induction of GSH was higher in C. metallidurans CH34 (0.359 ± 0.010 mM g(-1)  FW) than in P. putida mt2 (0.286 ± 0.005 mM g(-1)  FW). Glutathione reductase was more highly expressed in the mt2 strain, in contrast to non-protein thiols and peroxidase. Unlike dead bacterial cells, live cells of both bacteria showed significant Cd biosorption, i.e. more than 80% at 48 h. C. metallidurans CH34 used only catalase, whereas P. putida mt2 used superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase to combat Cd stress. This study investigated the Cd biosorption ability and enzymes involved in the Cd detoxification mechanisms of C. metallidurans CH34 and P. putida mt2. PMID:23832807

  11. Nanoparticles for targeted delivery of antioxidant enzymes to the brain after cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Xiang; Maximov, Victor D; Yu, Jin; Zhu, Hong; Vertegel, Alexey A; Kindy, Mark S

    2013-01-01

    Stroke is one of the major causes of death and disability in the United States. After cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury, the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species may contribute to the disease process through alterations in the structure of DNA, RNA, proteins, and lipids. We generated various nanoparticles (liposomes, polybutylcyanoacrylate (PBCA), or poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)) that contained active superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme (4,000 to 20,000 U/kg) in the mouse model of cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury to determine the impact of these molecules. In addition, the nanoparticles were untagged or tagged with nonselective antibodies or antibodies directed against the N-methyl-𝒟-aspartate (NMDA) receptor 1. The nanoparticles containing SOD protected primary neurons in vitro from oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) and limited the extent of apoptosis. The nanoparticles showed protection against ischemia and reperfusion injury when applied after injury with a 50% to 60% reduction in infarct volume, reduced inflammatory markers, and improved behavior in vivo. The targeted nanoparticles not only showed enhanced protection but also showed localization to the CA regions of the hippocampus. Nanoparticles alone were not effective in reducing infarct volume. These studies show that targeted nanoparticles containing protective factors may be viable candidates for the treatment of stroke. PMID:23385198

  12. Oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymes activities in the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, experimentally challenged with Escherichia coli and Vibrio fischeri.

    PubMed

    Adeyemi, Joseph A

    2014-04-01

    The impacts of bacterial infection on cultivated fish species, African catfish, were investigated using oxidative stress biomarkers [lipid peroxidation (LPO) and protein carbonylation] and the activities of important antioxidant/detoxifying enzymes [catalase and glutathione S-transferase (GST)]. Fish were inoculated via oral gavage with one of the following treatments: 1 10(5) CFU/ml of Escherichia coli (EC1), 2 10(5) CFU/ml of E. coli (EC2), 1 10(5) CFU/ml of Vibrio fischeri (V1), 2 10(5) CFU/ml of V. fischeri (V2), gavaged with distilled water and not gavaged. Fish were maintained in the laboratory for 7 days after the bacterial inoculation, and the levels of LPO, protein carbonylation, GST, and catalase activities were determined in the muscle, gills, and liver of fish. Fish inoculated with bacteria (either E. coli or V. fischeri) had a significant higher levels of tissue LPO, protein carbonylation, and GST activities in a tissue-specific pattern (liver > muscle > gills). This appears to be related with the levels of bacterial inoculation, with effects more pronounced in fish inoculated with either EC2 or V2. The catalase activity did not differ significantly between the inoculated and fish that were not inoculated. The results of this study indicate that bacterial inoculation could result in oxidative stress in fish, and liver has a higher rate of oxidative stress per mg tissue compared to the gills and the muscle. PMID:23974670

  13. [Role of glycolysis and antioxidant enzymes in the toxicity of amyloid beta peptide Abeta25-35 to erythrocytes].

    PubMed

    Kosenko, E A; Solomadin, I N; Marov, N V; Venediktova, N I; Pogosian, A S; Kaminski?, Iu G

    2008-01-01

    The role of glycolysis and antioxidant enzymes in amyloid beta peptide Abeta(25-35) toxicity to human and rat erythrocytes was studied. The erythrotoxicity of Abeta(25-35) was shown to increase two- to fourfold both in the absence of glucose in the incubation medium and upon the addition of sodium fluoride, an enolase inhibitor. Potassium cyanide, a Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase inhibitor, abolishes the toxic effect of Abeta(25-35) to erythrocytes, whereas mercaptosuccinate, a glutathione peroxidase inhibitor, and ouabain, a Na+,K+-ATPase inhibitor, promote it. Sodium azide, a catalase inhibitor, did not affect the cell lysis under the action of Abeta(25-35) . The results support the hypothesis that H2O2, Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase are involved in the toxicity mechanism rather than superoxide radical. Glycolysis and Na+,K+-ATPase play a substantial protective role. Fullerene C(60) nanoparticles are toxic to erythrocytes of both types; their toxicity is not related to enhanced oxidative stress and the mechanism of toxicity differs from that of Abeta(25-35) . PMID:19060940

  14. Effect of Butachlor on Antioxidant Enzyme Status and Lipid Peroxidation in Fresh Water African Catfish, (Clarias gariepinus)

    PubMed Central

    Farombi, E. O.; Ajimoko, Y. R.; Adelowo, O. A.

    2008-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the influence of butachlor, a widely used herbicide, on antioxidant enzyme system and lipid peroxidation formation in African cat fish (Clarias gariepinus). Fish were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of butachlor 1, 2, 2.5 ppm and sacrificed 24hrs after treatment. A significant increase in malondialdehyde formation was observed in the liver, kidney, gills and heart of the fish following exposure to different concentrations of butachlor. Superoxide dismutase and catalase activities increased in the liver and kidney but decreased in the gills and heart in a concentration-dependent pattern. Glutathione level and glutathione-S-transferase activities increased (P<0.05) in the liver but decreased in the kidneys, gills and heart when fishes were exposed to the three concentrations of butachlor. The results suggest that butachlor induced oxidative stress in the various tissues of the fish particularly in the kidney and as such the organ may be subjected to severe oxidative toxicity due to depressed glutathione detoxification system. PMID:19151438

  15. Recovery of maize (Zea mays L.) inbreds and hybrids from chilling stress of various duration: photosynthesis and antioxidant enzymes.

    PubMed

    Holá, Dana; Kocová, Marie; Rothová, Olga; Wilhelmová, Nad'a; Benesová, Monika

    2007-07-01

    The differences between two maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines and their F1 hybrids in their response to chilling periods of various duration (1, 2, 3 or 4 weeks) and subsequent return to optimum temperatures were analysed by the measurement of the photosystem (PS) 1 and 2 activity, the photosynthetic pigments' content and the activity of antioxidant enzymes. The PS2 activity and the chlorophyll content decreased in plants subjected to 3 or 4 weeks of chilling, but not in those subjected to 1 or 2 weeks of chilling. This decrease was more pronounced in inbreds compared to their hybrids. The activity of superoxide dismutase did not much change with the increasing length of chilling period in the inbreds but decreased in the hybrids, the glutathione reductase activity increased in both types of genotypes but more in the inbred lines, while for ascorbate peroxidase and catalase the changes in parents-hybrids relationship did not show any specific trend. The PS1 activity and the carotenoids' content was not much affected. PMID:16884820

  16. Response of growth and antioxidant enzymes in Azolla plants (Azolla pinnata and Azolla filiculoides) exposed to UV-B.

    PubMed

    Masood, Amjad; Zeeshan, M; Abraham, G

    2008-06-01

    Effect of ultravilolet-B (0.4 Wm(-2)) irradiation on growth, flavonoid content, lipid peroxidation, proline accumulation and activities of superoxide dismutase and peroxidase was comparatively analysed in Azolla pinnata and Azolla filiculoides. Growth measured as increment in dry weight reduced considerably due to all UV-B treatments. However, the reduction was found to be severe in A. filiculoides as compared to A. pinnata. The level of UV-absorbing compound flavonoids increased significantly in A. pinnata plants whereas only a slight increase in the flavonoid content was observed in A. filiculoides. UV-B exposure led to enhanced production of malondialdehyde (MDA) and electrolyte leakage in A. filiculoides than A. pinnata. Proline accumulation also showed a similar trend. Marked differences in the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) was noticed in both the plants exposed to UV-B. Our comparative studies indicate A. pinnata to be better tolerant to UV-B as compared with A. filiculoides which appears to be sensitive. PMID:18637563

  17. Blood antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GPX), biochemical and haematological parameters in pigs naturally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Stukelj, M; Toplak, I; Svete, A Nemec

    2013-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) has become one of the most economically important diseases for the swine industry worldwide. The objective of the study was to determine selected blood antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase (GPX), superoxide dismutase (SOD)), biochemical and haematological parameters in PRRS positive and negative pigs of three different categories, mainly to test oxidative stress hypothesis in pigs naturally infected with PRRS virus. Ninety PRRS positive and 90 PRRS negative pigs were included in the study. The presence of PRRS was confirmed by serological detection of antibodies against PRRS virus (PRRSV) and detection of PRRS viral RNA by RT-PCR. Pigs were further divided into three groups of 30: piglets just before weaning (weaners), fatteners and finishers. Blood samples for determining selected blood parameters were collected from the vena cava cranialis. Significantly (P < 0.05) higher activities of SOD in weaners and fatteners and of GPX in weaners were determined in PRRS positive pigs than in corresponding groups of PRRS negative pigs. In contrast, significantly (P < 0.05) lower GPX activity was observed in finishers of PRRS positive pigs than in the corresponding group of PRRS negative pigs. Concentrations of serum total protein in PRRS positive weaners and fatteners were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those found in PRRS negative pigs. Leukopenia was observed in all three groups of PRRS positive pigs. It has been demonstrated, for the first time, that oxidative stress might be increased in PRRSV naturally infected pigs, especially in weaners. PMID:23971206

  18. Effects of temperature - heavy metal interactions, antioxidant enzyme activity and gene expression in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Ergün, N; Özçubukçu, S; Kolukirik, M; Temizkan, Ö

    2014-12-01

    In this study, the effect of heat and chromium (Cr) heavy metal interactions on wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Ç-1252 and Gun91) was investigated by measuring total chlorophyll and carotenoid levels, catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) antioxidant enzyme activities, and MYB73, ERF1 and TaSRG gene expression. Examination of pigment levels demonstrated a decrease in total chlorophyll in both species of wheat under combined heat and heavy metal stress, while the carotenoid levels showed a slight increase. APX activity increased in both species in response to heavy metal stress, but the increase in APX activity in the Gun91 seedlings was higher than that in the Ç-1252 seedlings. CAT activity increased in Gun91 seedlings but decreased in Ç-1252 seedlings. These results showed that Gun91 seedling had higher resistance to Cr and Cr + heat stresses than the Ç-1252 seedling. The quantitative molecular analyses implied that the higher resistance was related to the overexpression of TaMYB73, TaERF1 and TaSRG transcription factors. The increase in the expression levels of these transcription factors was profound under combined Cr and heat stress. This study suggests that TaMYB73, TaERF1 and TaSRG transcription factors regulate Cr and heat stress responsive genes in wheat. PMID:25475983

  19. Capsaicin induces apoptosis in MG63 human osteosarcoma cells via the caspase cascade and the antioxidant enzyme system

    PubMed Central

    CHO, WON HO; LEE, HYUN JOO; CHOI, YOON JI; OH, JOO HAN; KIM, HAN SOO; CHO, HWAN SEONG

    2013-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most common malignant bone tumor in children and adolescents. This aggressive cancer mostly occurs in the long bones. Therefore, novel therapeutic approaches, such as biological therapies and gene therapy, are required to efficiently treat osteosarcoma. Capsaicin (trans-8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide) has been demonstrated to inhibit the growth of several types of cancer cells and a number of studies have shown that osteosarcoma may be vulnerable to biological therapies. However, little is known regarding the therapeutic effects of capsaicin on osteosarcoma. This study investigated the effects of capsaicin on MG63 human osteosarcoma cells, in addition to elucidating the regulatory signaling pathways underlying the effects of capsaicin, the caspase cascade and the antioxidant enzyme system. The MG63 cell line was treated with various concentrations of capsaicin. Cells were analyzed using MTT and flow cytometry, and the presence of DNA fragmentation was evaluated using TUNEL assay. Results showed capsaicin induced apoptosis in MG63 cells. Thus, capsaicin exhibited an anticancer effect in osteosarcoma cells. PMID:24142063

  20. Alterations in antioxidant enzyme activities and proline content in pea leaves under long-term drought stress.

    PubMed

    Karataş, Ilhami; Öztürk, Lokman; Demir, Yavuz; Unlükara, Ali; Kurunç, Ahmet; Düzdemir, Oral

    2014-09-01

    The effects of long-term drought stress on chlorophyll, proline, protein and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) contents, malondialdehyde (MDA) in terms of lipid peroxidation and on the changes in the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11), catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) and peroxidase (POX; EC 1.11.1.7) in the leaves of pea (Pisum sativum L.) were studied in field conditions. Chlorophyll and protein contents in leaves decreased significantly with increased drought stress. The proline content increased markedly under water deficit. MDA amounts were elevated as a result of water shortage, whereas H(2)O(2) content changed slightly in pea leaves exposed to drought stress. Drought stress markedly enhanced the activities of SOD, CAT and POX but slightly changed the activity of APX. We conclude that in field conditions, long-term water shortage increased the susceptibility to drought in peas. PMID:23047611

  1. Impacts of chloramine-T treatment on antioxidant enzyme activities and genotoxicity in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum).

    PubMed

    Boran, H; Altinok, I

    2014-05-01

    Juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum) were exposed to therapeutic, and higher concentrations of chloramine-T (Cl-T) to assess the effects of this chemical on the antioxidant enzyme system and genetic structure. Red blood cells acetylcholinesterase, ?-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase, paraoxonase and liver glutathione S-transferase activity were increased at 10 and 20 mg L(-1) Cl-T-exposed fish, while they were decreased at 30 mg L(-1) Cl-T-exposed fish. On the other hand, liver catalase activity and liver protein levels increased at 10 mg L(-1) and decreased at 20 and 30 mg L(-1) concentrations of Cl-T. Liver super-oxide dismutase activity decreased at 10 mg L(-1) and 20 mg L(-1) Cl-T and increased at 30 mg L(-1) of Cl-T. Compared to control, comet assay indicated that Cl-T did not cause significant DNA damage to red blood cells of the fish. Results indicate that 10 or 20 mg L(-1) Cl-T can be safely used to prevent or treat external parasitic and bacterial infection of rainbow trout. PMID:23952530

  2. Morin hydrate attenuates the acrylamide-induced imbalance in antioxidant enzymes in a murine model

    PubMed Central

    SINGH, MAHENDRA PAL; JAKHAR, REKHA; KANG, SUN CHUL

    2015-01-01

    Liver diseases are among the most serious health issues nowadays. Hepatocellular carcinoma, one of the most lethal types of cancer worldwide, can be caused by chemically-induced oxidative stress. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the protective effects of morin hydrate (MH) against acrylamide (AA)-induced hepatotoxicity in male ICR mice. The mice were randomly allocated into 4 groups [the control, the group subcutaneously injected with AA alone (50 mg/kg body weight), the group subcutaneously injected with AA (50 mg/kg body weight) and MH (5 mg/kg body weight) and the group subcutaneously injected with AA (50 mg/kg body weight) and MH (15 mg/kg body weight) for 5 consecutive days]. Histopathological evaluations were performed and the levels of serum hepatic enzymes were analyzed to determine initial liver injury, and the mice in the AA-treated groups were compared with the mice receiving no treatment and with the mice administered MH in combination with AA. Furthermore, oxidative stress, hepatic inflammation and the levels of DNA damage-related markers were evaluated to determine the extent of liver damage induced by AA within a short-term period. The subcutaneous administration of AA induced severe hepatic injury, and combined treatment with AA and MH resulted in a significant improvement in all evaluated parameters. This recovery was most obvious in the group receiving AA and 15 mg/kg body weight dose of MH. The findings of our study demonstrated that MH protected mice from severe hepatic injury induced by AA. Moreover, MH is a natural polyphenolic compound, and thus it has potential for use in the treatment of severe liver diseases, in place of many synthetic drugs. PMID:26252199

  3. A Greenhouse Study on Lead Uptake and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Vetiver Grass (Vetiveria zizanioides) as a Function of Lead Concentration and Soil Physico-Chemical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andra, S. P.; Datta, R.; Sarkar, D.; Saminathan, S. K.

    2006-05-01

    Lead (Pb) is a toxic non-essential metal that can cause permanent learning disabilities, retardation, mental and behavioral problems in children. Lead accumulation in soils result from weathering, chipping, scraping, sanding and sand blasting of housing structures constructed prior to 1978, bearing lead-based paint. The primary objective of this study is to develop a cost-effective, chelate-assisted phytoremediation for cleaning up lead contaminated soils. Soils are a unique environment of diverse physical and chemical characteristics that influence the extent of phytoavailable (labile) Pb forms. The success of phytoremediation strategy depends on the physiological/ biochemical tolerance of the plants to lipid peroxidation induced by Pb at sub-lethal levels. Oxidative challenge is alleviated by antioxidant compounds, but more importantly by the induction of antioxidant enzymes, which are crucial for scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) and terminating lipid peroxidation chain reaction. A column study was conducted in a temperature and humidity-controlled greenhouse setting to assess the extent of Pb phytoextraction and antioxidant response in a lead accumulator, vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides). Treatments consisted of a randomized block arrangement of 4 soil types (Immokalee, Pahokee Muck, Tobosa, and Millhopper) and 3 soil Pb concentrations [normal - 400 mg/kg lead (following federal soil standards for lead), moderate - 800 mg/kg lead, and excessive - 1200 mg/kg lead] in 4 replicates. At the end of 6 months, selected columns were amended with a biodegradable chelating agent, ethylenediamene disuccinate (10 mmol/ kg EDDS), to mobilize Pb and enhance Pb uptake by vetiver. Total and exchangeable (labile) Pb were correlated with phytoextracted Pb, and levels of antioxidant enzymes viz., superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the root and shoot tissues of vetiver grass. Results indicate that Pb uptake and antioxidant enzymes activity in vetiver grass is dependent on soil physico-chemical properties and phytoavailable Pb concentrations.

  4. Activities of cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases and antioxidant enzymes in different organs of Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) inhabiting reference and contaminated sites.

    PubMed

    Fouchcourt, M O; Rivire, J L

    1995-12-01

    Wild Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) were collected from a site contaminated by a range of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), mineral oils, polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) and heavy metals. Activities of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (ethoxy-, pentoxy- and benzoxy-resorufin O-dealkylases, and 4-nitrophenol hydroxylase) were measured in microsomal fractions from liver and lung. Antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, selenium-dependent and non-selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidases) were also measured in cytosolic fractions from lung and liver, and in erythrocytes. The levels of activities were compared with those found in control laboratory rats and in wild Norway rats reared in a terrarium. Results show that rats living in a polluted environment have monooxygenase activities higher than that of control animals in both liver and lung. Some modifications of antioxidant enzyme activities were also found in these animals. PMID:8574547

  5. Stimulation of gene expression and activity of antioxidant related enzyme in Sprague Dawley rat kidney induced by long-term iron toxicity.

    PubMed

    Budak, Harun; Kocpinar, Enver Fehim; Gonul, Nurdan; Ceylan, Hamid; Erol, Huseyin Serkan; Erdogan, Orhan

    2014-11-01

    The trace elements such as iron are vital for various enzyme activities and for other cellular proteins, but iron toxicity causes the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that causes alterations in morphology and function of the nephron. The present study was designed to determine the effect of long-term iron overload on the renal antioxidant system and to determine any possible correlation between enzymatic and molecular levels. Our data showed that reduced glutathione (GSH) levels, which is a marker for oxidative stress, strikingly decreased with a long-term iron overload in rat kidney. While renal mRNA levels of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6pd), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6pgd) and glutathione peroxidase (Gpx) were significantly affected in the presence of ferric iron, no changes were seen for glutathione reductase (Gsr) and glutathione S-transferases (Gst). While the iron affected the enzymatic activity of G6PD, GSR, GST, and GPX, it had no significant effect on 6PGD activity in the rat kidney. In conclusion, we reported here that the gene expression of G6pd, 6pgd, Gsr, Gpx, and Gst did not correlate to enzyme activity, and the actual effect of long-term iron overload on renal antioxidant system is observed at protein level. Furthermore, the influence of iron on the renal antioxidant system is different from its effect on the hepatic antioxidant system. PMID:25038477

  6. Effects of oxidized cooking oil and ?-lipoic acid on blood antioxidants: enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Zalejska-Fiolka, Jolanta; Wielkoszy?ski, Tomasz; Kasperczyk, S?awomir; Kasperczyk, Aleksandra; Birkner, Ewa

    2012-02-01

    The effects of administration of oxidized rapeseed oil and ?-lipoic acid on activities of blood antioxidant enzymes and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration were studied in laboratory rats fed a high-fat diet. Addition of oxidized oil resulted in increased production of oxygen radicals, evidenced by elevated plasma MDA production. Such effect was counteracted by administration of ?-lipoic acid. There was an increase of the activities of superoxide dismutase (total and Cu/Zn-SOD) and catalase in rats fed a high-fat diet to which 10% oxidized oil was added. Administration of ?-lipoic acid resulted in a decrease of the activities of these enzymes. PMID:21882067

  7. Seasonal-dependent variations in metabolic status of spermatozoa and antioxidant enzyme activity in the reproductive tract fluids of wild boar/domestic pig hybrids.

    PubMed

    Dziekońska, A; Fraser, L; Koziorowska-Gilun, M; Strzezek, J; Koziorowski, M; Kordan, W

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated seasonal changes in the metabolic performance of spermatozoa and activity of the antioxidant enzymes in the seminal plasma of three wild boar/domestic pigs (aged 1.5 to 2.5 years) and the activity of the antioxidant enzymes in fluids of the cauda epididymidis and vesicular glands from 16 wild boar/domestic pig hybrids (aged 1 to 3 years). Parameters of the sperm metabolic activity, such as total motility, mitochondrial functions, and measurements of oxygen uptake, ATP content and L-lactate production, were analyzed during the spring-summer and autumn-winter periods. Besides these sperm metabolic parameters, the sperm membrane integrity was also assessed. Total protein content and activity of the antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), were measured in the reproductive tract fluids. There were no marked significant differences (P > 0.05) between the seasonal periods in terms of sperm motility, mitochondrial function and oxygen uptake; however, spermatozoa collected during the autumn-winter period exhibited higher (P < 0.05) ATP content and L-lactate production than those harvested during the spring-summer period. It was found that the vesicular gland fluid exhibited a higher level of SOD activity during the spring-summer period compared with the autumn-winter period. Furthermore, CAT activity in the seminal plasma and vesicular gland fluid was greater during the autumn-winter. Total protein content was significantly higher in the vesicular gland fluid, whereas the cauda epididymidal fluid exhibited greater SOD and GPx activities, irrespective of the seasonal period. The findings of this study confirmed seasonal-related differences in the metabolic performance of spermatozoa and activity of antioxidant enzymes of the reproductive tract of the boar/domestic pig hybrids. PMID:24988857

  8. Curcumin regulates gene expression of insulin like growth factor, B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 and antioxidant enzymes in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The effects of curcumin on the activities and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione-S-transferase (G-ST), B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in diabetic rats were studied. Methods Twenty four rats were assigned to three groups (8 rats for each). Rats of first group were non diabetic and rats of the second group were rendered diabetic by streptozotocin (STZ). Both groups received vehicle, corn oil only (5 ml/kg body weight) and served as negative and positive controls, respectively. Rats of the third group were rendered diabetic and received oral curcumin dissolved in corn oil at a dose of 15 mg/5 ml/kg body weight for 6 weeks. Results Diabetic rats showed significant increase of blood glucose, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and activities of all antioxidant enzymes with significant reduction of reduced glutathione (GSH) compare to the control non diabetic group. Gene expression of Bcl2, SOD, CAT, GPX and GST was increased significantly in diabetic untreated rats compare to the control non diabetic group. The administration of curcumin to diabetic rats normalized significantly their blood sugar level and TBARS values and increased the activities of all antioxidant enzymes and GSH concentration. In addition, curcumin treated rats showed significant increase in gene expression of IGF-1, Bcl2, SOD and GST compare to non diabetic and diabetic untreated rats. Conclusion Curcumin was antidiabetic therapy, induced hypoglycemia by up-regulation of IGF-1 gene and ameliorate the diabetes induced oxidative stress via increasing the availability of GSH, increasing the activities and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes and Bcl2. Further studies are required to investigate the actual mechanism of action of curcumin regarding the up regulation of gene expression of examined parameters. PMID:24364912

  9. Protective Effect of Free and Bound Polyphenol Extracts from Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) on the Hepatic Antioxidant and Some Carbohydrate Metabolizing Enzymes of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kazeem, Mutiu Idowu; Akanji, Musbau Adewunmi; Yakubu, Musa Toyin; Ashafa, Anofi Omotayo Tom

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the hepatoprotective effects of polyphenols from Zingiber officinale on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by assessing liver antioxidant enzymes, carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes and liver function indices. Initial oral glucose tolerance test was conducted using 125?mg/kg, 250?mg/kg, and 500?mg/kg body weight of both free and bound polyphenols from Z. officinale. 28 day daily oral administration of 500?mg/kg body weight of free and bound polyphenols from Z. officinale to streptozotocin-induced (50?mg/kg) diabetic rats significantly reduced (P < 0.05) the fasting blood glucose compared to control groups. There was significant increase (P < 0.05) in the antioxidant enzymes activities in the animals treated with both polyphenols. Similarly, the polyphenols normalised the activities of some carbohydrate metabolic enzymes (hexokinase and phosphofructokinase) in the liver of the rats treated with it and significantly reduced (P < 0.05) the activities of liver function enzymes. The results from the present study have shown that both free and bound polyphenols from Z. officinale especially the free polyphenol could ameliorate liver disorders caused by diabetes mellitus in rats. This further validates the use of this species as medicinal herb and spice by the larger population of Nigerians. PMID:24367390

  10. Effects of iron glycine chelate on growth, tissue mineral concentrations, fecal mineral excretion, and liver antioxidant enzyme activities in broilers.

    PubMed

    Ma, W Q; Sun, H; Zhou, Y; Wu, J; Feng, J

    2012-11-01

    The study was conducted to determine the effects of iron glycine chelate (Fe-Gly) on growth, tissue mineral concentrations, fecal mineral excretion, and liver antioxidant enzyme activities in broilers. A total of 360 1-day-old commercial broilers (Ross Ross) were randomly allotted to six dietary treatments with six replications of ten chicks per replicate. Broilers were fed a control diet with no Fe supplementation, while five other treatments consisted of 40, 80, 120, and 160 mg Fe/kg diets from Fe-Gly, and 160 mg Fe/kg from ferrous sulfate, respectively. After a 42-day feeding trial, the results showed that 120 and 160 mg Fe/kg as Fe-Gly improved the average daily gain (P < 0.05) and average daily feed intake (P < 0.05) of broilers (4-6 weeks). Addition with 120 and 160 mg Fe/kg from Fe-Gly and 160 mg Fe/kg from FeSO(4) increased Fe concentration in serum (P < 0.05), liver (P < 0.05), breast muscle (P < 0.05), tibia (P < 0.05), and feces (P < 0.01) at 21 and 42 days. There were linear responses to the addition of Fe-Gly from 0 to 160 mg/kg Fe on Fe concentration in serum (21 days, P = 0.005; 42 days, P = 0.001), liver (P = 0.001), breast muscle (P = 0.001), tibia (P = 0.001), and feces (21 days, P = 0.011; 42 days, P = 0.032). Liver Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase activities of chicks were increased by the addition of 80, 120, and 160 mg Fe/kg as Fe-Gly to diets at 42 days. There were no differences in liver catalase activities of chicks among the treatments (P > 0.05). This study indicates that addition with Fe-Gly could improve growth performance and iron tissue storage and improves the antioxidant status of broiler chickens. PMID:22549700

  11. Germinating Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Seedlings Attenuated Selenite-Induced Toxicity by Activating the Antioxidant Enzymes and Mediating the Ascorbate-Glutathione Cycle.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guang; Zhang, Hong; Lai, Furao; Wu, Hui

    2016-02-17

    Selenite can enhance the selenium nutrition level of crops, but excessive selenite may be toxic to plant growth. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying the role of selenite in production and detoxification of oxidative toxicity, peanut seedlings were developed with sodium selenite (0, 3, and 6 mg/L). The effects of selenite on antioxidant capacity, transcript levels of antioxidant enzyme genes, and enzyme activities in hypocotyl were investigated. The CuZn-SOD, GSH-Px, GST, and APX gene expression levels and their enzyme activities in selenite treatments were 1.0-3.6-fold of the control. Selenite also significantly increased the glutathione and ascorbate concentrations by mediating the ascorbate-glutathione cycle, and the selenite-induced hydrogen peroxide may act as a second messenger in the signaling pathways. This work has revealed a complex antioxidative response to selenite in peanut seedling. Understanding these mechanisms may help future research in increasing selenite tolerance and selenium accumulation in peanut and other crops. PMID:26824138

  12. Interplay between the chalcone cardamonin and selenium in the biosynthesis of Nrf2-regulated antioxidant enzymes in intestinal Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    De Spirt, Silke; Eckers, Anna; Wehrend, Carina; Micoogullari, Mustafa; Sies, Helmut; Stahl, Wilhelm; Steinbrenner, Holger

    2016-02-01

    Selenoenzymes and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-regulated phase II enzymes comprise key components of the cellular redox and antioxidant systems, which show multiple interrelations. Deficiency of the micronutrient selenium (Se) and impaired biosynthesis of selenoproteins have been reported to result in induction of Nrf2 target genes. Conversely, transcription of the selenoenzymes glutathione peroxidase 2 (GPx2) and thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1) is up-regulated upon Nrf2 activation. Here, we have studied the interplay between Se and the secondary plant metabolite cardamonin, an Nrf2-activating chalcone, in the regulation of Nrf2-controlled antioxidant enzymes. Se-deficient and Se-repleted (sodium selenite-supplemented) human intestinal Caco-2 cells were exposed to cardamonin. Uptake of cardamonin by the Caco-2 cells was independent of their Se status. Cardamonin strongly induced gene expression of GPx2 and TrxR1. However, cardamonin treatment did not result in elevated GPx or TrxR activity and protein levels, possibly relating to a concomitant down-regulation of O-phosphoseryl-tRNA(Sec) kinase (PSTK), an enzyme involved in translation of selenoprotein mRNAs. On the other hand, induction of the Nrf2-regulated enzyme heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) by cardamonin was diminished in Se-replete compared to Se-deficient cells. Our findings suggest that cardamonin interferes with the biosynthesis of Nrf2-regulated selenoenzymes, in contrast to the Nrf2-activating isothiocyanate compound sulforaphane, which has been shown earlier to synergize with Se-mediated cytoprotection. Conversely, the cellular Se status apparently affects the cardamonin-mediated induction of non-selenoprotein antioxidant enzymes such as HO-1. PMID:26698667

  13. Role of Oxidative Stress in HIV-1-Associated Neurocognitive Disorder and Protection by Gene Delivery of Antioxidant Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Louboutin, Jean-Pierre; Strayer, David

    2014-01-01

    HIV encephalopathy covers a range of HIV-1-related brain dysfunction. In the Central Nervous System (CNS), it is largely impervious to Highly Active AntiRetroviral Therapy (HAART). As survival with chronic HIV-1 infection improves, the number of people harboring the virus in their CNS increases. Neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory changes may continue despite the use of HAART. Neurons themselves are rarely infected by HIV-1, but HIV-1 infects resident microglia, periventricular macrophages, leading to increased production of cytokines and to release of HIV-1 proteins, the most likely neurotoxins, among which are the envelope glycoprotein gp120 and HIV-1 trans-acting protein Tat. Gp120 and Tat induce oxidative stress in the brain, leading to neuronal apoptosis/death. We review here the role of oxidative stress in animal models of HIV-1 Associated Neurocognitive Disorder (HAND) and in patients with HAND. Different therapeutic approaches, including clinical trials, have been used to mitigate oxidative stress in HAND. We used SV40 vectors for gene delivery of antioxidant enzymes, Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1), or glutathione peroxidase (GPx1) into the rat caudate putamen (CP). Intracerebral injection of SV (SOD1) or SV (GPx1) protects neurons from apoptosis caused by subsequent inoculation of gp120 and Tat at the same location. Vector administration into the lateral ventricle or cisterna magna protects from intra-CP gp120-induced neurotoxicity comparably to intra-CP vector administration. These models should provide a better understanding of the pathogenesis of HIV-1 in the brain as well as offer new therapeutic avenues. PMID:26785240

  14. Lipid peroxidation, proteins modifications, anti-oxidant enzymes activities and selenium deficiency in the plasma of hashitoxicosis patients

    PubMed Central

    Mseddi, Malek; Ben Mansour, Riadh; Mnif, Fatma; Gargouri, Bochra; Abid, Mohamed; Guermazi, Fadhel; Attia, Hamadi; Lassoued, Saloua

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore the oxidative stress profile in hashitoxicosis (HTX) and to compare it with that of healthy subjects. Patients and methods: Spectrophotometric methods were used to evaluate the oxidative stress markers. The selenium level was investigated by atomic absorption. Results: High levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) and conjugated dienes were found in HTX patients (p = 0.034 and p = 0.043, respectively) compared with healthy controls. For antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities increased, whereas that of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) decreased (p = 0.000, p = 0.014, p = 0.000, respectively) compared with controls. A reduction in the level of selenium (p = 0.029) and thiol groups (p = 0.008) were shown in patients; however, levels of carbonyl group and malondialdehyde (MDA) protein adducts decreased (p = 0.000) compared with controls. Positive correlation was shown between levels of free thyroxine (FT4) and TBARS (r = 0.711, p = 0.048) and between FT4 level and SOD activity (r = 0.713, p = 0.047). Conversely, GPx activity presented a negative correlation with FT4 and free triiodothyronine (FT3) levels (r = 0.934, p = 0.001; r = 0.993, p = 0.000, respectively). In addition, GPx activity showed positive correlation with selenium level (r = 0.981, p = 0.019) and the FT3 level correlated negatively with the level of thiol groups (r = 0.892, p = 0.017). Conclusions: This study shows the presence of an oxidative stress and selenium deficiency in HTX patients and suggests that the hyperthyroid state is strongly implicated in the establishment of this disturbed oxidative profile. PMID:26445640

  15. Histological changes and antioxidant enzyme activity in signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus) associated with sub-acute peracetic acid exposure.

    PubMed

    Chupani, Latifeh; Zuskova, Eliska; Stara, Alzbeta; Velisek, Josef; Kouba, Antonin

    2016-01-01

    Peracetic acid (PAA) is a powerful disinfectant recently adopted as a therapeutic agent in aquaculture. A concentration of 10 mg L(-1) PAA effectively suppresses zoospores of Aphanomyces astaci, the agent of crayfish plague. To aid in establishing safe therapeutic guideline, the effects of PAA on treated crayfish were investigated through assessment of histological changes and oxidative damage. Adult female signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus (n = 135) were exposed to 2 mg L(-1) and 10 mg L(-1) of PAA for 7 days followed by a 7 day recovery period in clean water. Superoxide dismutase activity was significantly lower in gill and hepatopancreas after three days exposure to 10 mg L(1) PAA than in the group treated with 2 mg L(-1) PAA and a control in only clean water. Catalase activity in gill and hepatopancreas remained unaffected by both exposures. Glutathione reductase was significantly decreased in gill of 10 mg L(-1) PAA treated crayfish and increased in group exposed to 2 mg L(-1) compared to control after 7 days exposure. Antioxidant enzyme activity in exposed groups returned to control values after recovery period. Gill, hepatopancreas, and antennal gland showed slight damage in crayfish treated with 2 mg L(-1) of PAA compared to the control group. The extent and frequency of histological alterations were more pronounced in animals exposed to 10 mg L(-1). The gill was the most affected organ, infiltrated by granular hemocytes and displaying malformations of lamella tips and disorganization of epithelial cells. After a 7 day recovery period, the infiltrating cells in affected tissues of the exposed crayfish began to return to normal levels. Results suggested that the given concentrations could be applied to signal crayfish against crayfish plague agent in aquaculture; however, further studies are required for safe use. PMID:26611721

  16. Amelioration of Ozone-Induced Oxidative Damage in Wheat Plants Grown under High Carbon Dioxide (Role of Antioxidant Enzymes).

    PubMed Central

    Rao, M. V.; Hale, B. A.; Ormrod, D. P.

    1995-01-01

    O3-induced changes in growth, oxidative damage to protein, and specific activities of certain antioxidant enzymes were investigated in wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L. cv Roblin) grown under ambient or high CO2. High CO2 enhanced shoot biomass of wheat plants, whereas O3 exposure decreased shoot biomass. The shoot biomass was relatively unaffected in plants grown under a combination of high CO2 and O3. O3 exposure under ambient CO2 decreased photosynthetic pigments, soluble proteins, and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase protein and enhanced oxidative damage to proteins, but these effects were not observed in plants exposed to O3 under high CO2. O3 exposure initially enhanced the specific activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and ascorbate peroxidase irrespective of growth in ambient or high CO2. However, the specific activities decreased in plants with prolonged exposure to O3 under ambient CO2 but not in plants exposed to O3 under high CO2. Native gels revealed preferential changes in the isoform composition of superoxide dismutase, peroxidases, and ascorbate peroxidase of plants grown under a combination of high CO2 and O3. Furthermore, growth under high CO2 and O3 led to the synthesis of one new isoform of glutathione reductase. This could explain why plants grown under a combination of high CO2 and O3 are capable of resisting O3-induced damage to growth and proteins compared to plants exposed to O3 under ambient CO2. PMID:12228603

  17. Antioxidant enzyme activities in biofilms as biomarker of Zn pollution in a natural system: an active bio-monitoring study.

    PubMed

    Bonet, Berta; Corcoll, Natàlia; Tlili, Ahmed; Morin, Soizic; Guasch, Helena

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed to explore the use of antioxidant enzyme activities (AEA) and biofilm metal accumulation capacity in natural communities as effect-based indicator of metal exposure in fluvial systems. To achieve these objectives, an active biomonitoring using fluvial biofilm communities was performed during 5 weeks. Biofilm was colonized over artificial substrata in a non-polluted site. After 5 weeks, biofilms were translocated to four different sites with different metal pollution in the same stream. The evolution of environmental parameters as well as biofilm responses was analysed over time. Physicochemical parameters were different between sampling times as well as between the most polluted site and the less polluted ones, mainly due to Zn pollution. In contrast, AEA and metal accumulation in biofilms allowed us to discriminate the high and moderate metal pollution sites from the rest. Zn, the metal with the highest contribution to potential toxicity, presented a fast and high accumulation capacity in biofilms. According to the multivariate analysis, AEA showed different responses. While catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) variability was mainly attributed to environmental stress (pH, temperature and phosphate concentration), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) changes were related to metal pollution. Glutathione reductase (GR) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) responses were related to both stress factors. AEA and metal accumulation are proposed as sensitive effect-based field methods, to evaluate biofilm responses after acute metal exposure (e.g. an accidental spill) due to their capacity to respond after few hours, but also in routinely monitoring due to their persistent changes after few weeks of exposure. These tools could improve the Common Implementation Strategy (CIS) of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) as expert group request. PMID:24378183

  18. A Comparative Study for the Evaluation of Two Doses of Ellagic Acid on Hepatic Drug Metabolizing and Antioxidant Enzymes in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Celik, Gurbet; Semiz, Asl?; Karakurt, Serdar; Arslan, Sevki; Adali, Orhan; Sen, Alaattin

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate different doses of ellagic acid (EA) in vivo in rats for its potential to modulate hepatic phases I, II, and antioxidant enzymes. EA (10 or 30?mg/kg/day, intragastrically) was administered for 14 consecutive days, and activity, protein, and mRNA levels were determined. Although the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2B and CYP2E enzyme activities were decreased significantly, the activities of all other enzymes were unchanged with the 10?mg/kg/day EA. In addition, western-blot and qRT-PCR results clearly corroborated the above enzyme expressions. On the other hand, while the NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities were increased significantly, CYP1A, 2B, 2C, 2E, and 19 enzyme activities were reduced significantly with 30?mg/kg/day EA. In addition, CYP2B, 2C6, 2E1, and 19 protein and mRNA levels were substantially decreased by the 30?mg/kg/day dose of EA, but the CYP1A protein, and mRNA levels were not changed. CYP3A enzyme activity, protein and mRNA levels were not altered by neither 10 nor 30?mg/kg/day ellagic acid. These results indicate that EA exerts a dose-dependent impact on the metabolism of chemical carcinogens and drugs by affecting the enzymes involved in xenobiotics activation/detoxification and antioxidant pathways. PMID:23971029

  19. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate modulates anti-oxidant defense enzyme expression in murine submandibular and pancreatic exocrine gland cells and human HSG cells.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Douglas; DeRossi, Scott; Yu, Hongfang; Thomas, Cristina; Kragor, Chris; Paquin, Becky; Hahn, Emily; Ohno, Seiji; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Hsu, Stephen

    2014-05-01

    Sjogren's syndrome (SS) and type-1 diabetes are prevalent autoimmune diseases in the USA. We reported previously that epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) prevented and delayed the onset of autoimmune disease in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, a model for both SS and type-1 diabetes. EGCG also normalized the levels of proteins related to DNA repair and anti-oxidant activity in NOD.B10.Sn-H2 mice, a model for primary SS, prior to disease onset. The current study examined the effect of EGCG on the expression of anti-oxidant enzymes in the submandibular salivary gland and the pancreas of NOD mice and cultured human salivary gland acinar cells. NOD mice consuming 0.2% EGCG daily dissolved in water showed higher protein levels of peroxiredoxin 6 (PRDX6), a major anti-oxidant defense protein, and catalase, while the untreated NOD mice exhibited significantly lowered levels of PRDX6. Similarly, pancreas samples from water-fed NOD mice were depleted in PRDX6 and superoxide dismutase, while EGCG-fed mice showed high levels of these anti-oxidant enzymes. In cultured HSG cells EGCG increased PRDX6 levels significantly, and this was inhibited by p38 and JNK inhibitors, suggesting that the EGCG-mediated increase in protective anti-oxidant capacity is regulated in part through mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway signaling. This mechanism may explain the higher levels of PRDX6 found in EGCG-fed NOD mice. These preclinical observations warrant future preclinical and clinical studies to determine whether EGCG or green tea polyphenols could be used in novel preventive and therapeutic approaches against autoimmune diseases and salivary dysfunction involving oxidative stress. PMID:24444391

  20. Effects of in vitro UVA irradiation and PUVA treatment on membrane fatty acids and activities of antioxidant enzymes in human keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Punnonen, K.; Jansen, C.T.; Puntala, A.; Ahotupa, M. )

    1991-02-01

    Human Keratinocytes (NCTC 2544) in culture were exposed to either plain ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation or to 8-methoxypsoralen plus UVA (PUVA) treatment. Lipid peroxidation, activities of antioxidant enzymes, and percentage amounts of 14C-arachidonic acid in various cellular lipid subclasses and in the culture medium were measured. Both UVA irradiation and PUVA treatment induced significant changes in the distribution of arachidonic acid and increased the liberation of arachidonic acid from membrane phospholipids. At 24 h after either UVA irradiation or PUVA treatment the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive material was significantly increased, whereas the amount of conjugated dienes was unaffected. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes, catalase and superoxide dismutase, were already significantly decreased at 0.5 h after UVA irradiation or PUVA treatment. The enzyme activities were partially restored during the following 24 h incubation. From the present study, we suggest that in keratinocytes both plain UVA irradiation and PUVA treatment induce changes in the distribution of membrane fatty acids and cause an impairment in the enzymic defense system against oxidative stress.

  1. Variation in antioxidant enzyme activities and nonenzyme components among cultivars of rabbiteye blueberries (Vaccinium ashei Reade) and V. ashei derivatives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit from forty-two blueberry (Vaccinium species) cultivars, including thirty-six rabbiteye rabbiteye cultivars (Vaccinium ashei Reade), three V. ashei hybrid derivatives and three northern highbush (V. corymbosum L.) standards were evaluated for antioxidant activities (AA), levels of antioxidant e...

  2. Effects of different acute high ambient temperatures on function of hepatic mitochondrial respiration, antioxidative enzymes, and oxidative injury in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Tan, G-Y; Yang, L; Fu, Y-Q; Feng, J-H; Zhang, M-H

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of different acute high ambient temperatures on dysfunction of hepatic mitochondrial respiration, the antioxidative enzyme system, and oxidative injury in broiler chickens. One hundred twenty-eight 6-wk-old broiler chickens were assigned randomly to 4 groups and subsequently exposed to 25 (control), 32, 35, and 38 degrees C (RH, 70 +/- 5%) for 3 h, respectively. The rectal temperatures, activity of antioxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase), content of malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl, and the activity of mitochondrial respiratory enzymes were determined. The results showed that exposure to high ambient temperature induced a significant elevation of rectal temperature, antioxidative enzyme activity, and formation of malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl, as well as dysfunction of the mitochondrial respiratory chain in comparison with control (P < 0.05). Almost all of the indicators changed in a temperature-dependent manner with the gradual increase of ambient temperature from 32 to 38 degrees C; differences in each parameter (except catalase) among the groups exposed to different high ambient temperatures were also statistically significant (P < 0.05). The results of the present study suggest that, in the broiler chicken model used here, acute exposure to high temperatures may depress the activity of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. This inactivation results subsequently in overproduction of reactive oxygen species, which ultimately results in oxidative injury. However, this hypothesis needs to be evaluated more rigorously in future studies. It has also been shown that, with the gradual increase in temperature, the oxidative injury induced by heat stress in broiler chickens becomes increasingly severe, and this stress response presents in a temperature-dependent manner in the temperature range of 32 to 38 degrees C. PMID:20008809

  3. Transcriptome analysis of the Tan sheep testes: Differential expression of antioxidant enzyme-related genes and proteins in response to dietary vitamin E supplementation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chenchen; Zuo, Zhaoyun; Liu, Kun; Jia, Huina; Zhang, Yuwei; Luo, Hailing

    2016-03-15

    Gene-chip technology was employed to study the effect of dietary vitamin E on gene expression in sheep testes based on our previous research. Thirty-five male Tan sheep (20-30days after weaning) with similar body weight were randomly allocated into five groups and supplemented 0, 20, 100, 200 and 2000IUsheep(-1)day(-1) vitamin E (treatments denoted as E0, E20, E100, E200, and E2000, respectively) for 120days. At the end of the study the sheep were slaughtered and the testis samples were immediately collected and stored in liquid nitrogen. Differences in gene expression between different treated groups were identified. Based on GO enrichment analysis and the KEGG database to evaluate the gene expression data we found that vitamin E might affect genes in the testes by modulating the oxidation level, by affecting the expression of various receptors and transcription factors in biological pathways, and by regulating the expression of metabolism-associated genes. The effect of vitamin E supplementation on the expression of oxidative enzyme-related genes was detected by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blot. The results show that dietary vitamin E, at various doses, can significantly increase (P<0.05) the mRNA and protein expression of Glutathione peroxidase 3 and Glutathione S-transferase alpha 1. In addition, the results of qRT-PCR of the antioxidant enzyme genes were consistent with those obtained using the gene chip microarray analysis. In summary, the dietary vitamin E treatment altered the expression of a number of genes in sheep testes. The increase in the mRNA and protein levels of antioxidant enzyme genes, coupled with the elevation in the activity of the antioxidant enzymes were primarily responsible for the improved reproductive performance promoted by dietary vitamin E. PMID:26723511

  4. [Functional activity of metal contained enzymes with antioxidant activity in blood of patients with stomach cancer and during the use of anticancer autovaccine].

    PubMed

    P'iatchanina, T V; Rozumi?, D O; Mel'nykov, O R; Momot, V Ia; Chorny?, V O; Sydoryk, Ie P

    2007-01-01

    The authors presented in the article results of assessment of metal contained enzymes with antioxidant activity, ceruloplasmin (CP) in plasma blood, Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase in red blood cells of patients with I-IV stage stomach cancer during surgical treatment and application of anticancer autovaccine (AAV) to prevent relapses and methastases. It was revealed compared with the donors that at stages of the treatment, before operation and after resuscitation, the level of activity of CP was higher in 1,3 times and in 3 times was higher the level of SOD. The change of catalase activity was within the limits of physiological values. Discrepancy in levels of activity of enzymes- synergists in relation to the elimination of radical forms testifies about the disbalance in functioning of the antioxidant system protection and is one of the signs of the manifestation of oxidant stress. The presence of wide ranges of changes in activity of metal contained enzymes before surgical operation and after resuscitation may depict the presence of significant tension in the functioning of antioxidant system in patients and may demand to carry out an analysis of each parameter. Normalization or stabilization of the level of activity of metal contained enzymes at the stage of surgical treatment or during the use of AAV reflects an availability of adaptation and compensatory mechanisms and it may be considered as a favorable prognostic factor of the treatment. The use of AAV in a complex treatment of patients with not local stomach canser lead to 3 years survival by 22% in comparison with surgical treatment of the patients. PMID:18663938

  5. Effects of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug(NSAID) naproxen on gene expression of antioxidant enzymes in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Stancov, V; Zikov, A; Svobodov, Z; Kloas, W

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of naproxen on the gene expression of antioxidant enzymes in adult zebrafish. Surprisingly, after 2 weeks exposure no significant effect on the mRNA expression of the target genes was found in the liver. However, mRNA levels of three genes were altered significantly in the intestine. The expression of Ucp-2 decreased at the environmental concentration of 1?g/L while mRNA expression of GST p2 increased at the concentration of 100?g/L. The mRNA level for the antioxidant enzyme CAT was up-regulated significantly at both the concentrations used. Exposure to naproxen caused only moderate effects on the expression of antioxidant genes in the intestine rather than in the liver, which demonstrates that the intestine is more sensitive to waterborne naproxen exposure than the liver. Interestingly, the adverse side effects of NSAIDs occur in the gastrointestinal tract of humans. To our knowledge, this is the first study that has focused on transcriptional effects of naproxen on zebrafish. PMID:26233559

  6. DR2539 is a novel DtxR-like regulator of Mn/Fe ion homeostasis and antioxidant enzyme in Deinococcus radiodurans

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Huan; Zhejiang Institute of Microbiology, Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou 310012 ; Wu, Rongrong; Xu, Guangzhi; Fang, Xu; Qiu, Xiaoli; Guo, Hongyin; Tian, Bing; Hua, Yuejin

    2010-05-28

    Transcriptional regulators of the diphtheria toxin repressor (DtxR) family control the expression of genes involved in the uptake of iron and manganese, which is not only necessitous nutrients but also was suggested to be essential for intracellular redox cycling of microorganisms. We identified a unique DtxR homologue (DR2539) with special characteristics from Deinococcus radiodurans, which is known for its extreme resistance to radiation and oxidants. The dr2539 mutant showed higher resistance to hydrogen peroxide than the wild-type strain R1. Intracellular catalase activity assay and semiquantitative PCR analysis demonstrated that this DtxR is a negative regulator of catalase (katE). Furthermore, quantitative real-time PCR, global transcription profile and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry analysis showed that the DtxR is involved in the regulation of antioxidant system by maintaining the intracellular Mn/Fe ion homeostasis of D. radiodurans. However, unlike the other DtxR homologues, the DtxR of D. radiodurans acts as a negative regulator of a Mn transporter gene (dr2283) and as a positive regulator of Fe-dependent transporter genes (dr1219, drb0125) in D. radiodurans.

  7. Maximizing Antioxidants in Fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruits contain high levels of antioxidant compounds, such as carotenoids, flavonoids, vitamins, and phenols. These antioxidants are capable of performing a number of functions including free radical scavengers, peroxide decomposers, singlet and triplet oxygen quenchers, enzyme inhibitors, and syner...

  8. Maximizing Antioxidants in Fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruits contain high levels of antioxidant compounds, such as carotenoids, flavonoids, vitamins, and phenols. These antioxidants are capable of performing a number of functions including free radical scavengers, peroxide decomposers, singlet and triplet oxygen quenchers, enzyme inhibitors, and synerg...

  9. Dietary oxidized cholesterol increases expression and activity of antioxidative enzymes and reduces the concentration of glutathione in the liver of rats.

    PubMed

    Ringseis, Robert; Eder, Klaus

    2004-01-01

    An experiment was conducted with rats to investigate the effect of dietary oxidized cholesterol on the antioxidant status. Four groups of male, growing Sprague-Dawley rats received diets containing unoxidized or oxidized cholesterol (5 g/kg diet) with either coconut oil or salmon oil as dietary fat (100 g/kg diet) for 5 weeks. The oxidized cholesterol preparation consisted of 7 g of various cholesterol oxidation products and 93 g of unmodified cholesterol per 100 g preparation. No significant amounts of oxysterols were detected in the unoxidized cholesterol-supplemented diets. As parameters of the antioxidant status activities, mRNA concentrations of several antioxidative enzymes and the concentrations of glutathione were measured. Rats fed the diets containing oxidized cholesterol had significantly higher mRNA concentrations of glutathione peroxidase (p < 0.001) and superoxide dismutase (p < 0.01), a significantly higher activity of glutathione peroxidase (p < 0.001), and significantly lower concentrations of total (p < 0.05) and reduced glutathione (p < 0.01) in the liver than rats fed diets containing unoxidized cholesterol. These effects were independent of the dietary fat. In conclusion, the study suggests that dietary oxidized cholesterol stresses the antioxidant defense system in rats. PMID:15060904

  10. Salivary Antigen-5/CAP Family Members Are Cu2+-dependent Antioxidant Enzymes That Scavenge O2? and Inhibit Collagen-induced Platelet Aggregation and Neutrophil Oxidative Burst*

    PubMed Central

    Assumpo, Teresa C. F.; Ma, Dongying; Schwarz, Alexandra; Reiter, Karine; Santana, Jaime M.; Andersen, John F.; Ribeiro, Jos M. C.; Nardone, Glenn; Yu, Lee L.; Francischetti, Ivo M. B.

    2013-01-01

    The function of the antigen-5/CAP family of proteins found in the salivary gland of bloodsucking animals has remained elusive for decades. Antigen-5 members from the hematophagous insects Dipetalogaster maxima (DMAV) and Triatoma infestans (TIAV) were expressed and discovered to attenuate platelet aggregation, ATP secretion, and thromboxane A2 generation by low doses of collagen (<1 ?g/ml) but no other agonists. DMAV did not interact with collagen, glycoprotein VI, or integrin ?2?1. This inhibitory profile resembles the effects of antioxidants Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD) in platelet function. Accordingly, DMAV was found to inhibit cytochrome c reduction by O2? generated by the xanthine/xanthine oxidase, implying that it exhibits antioxidant activity. Moreover, our results demonstrate that DMAV blunts the luminescence signal of O2? generated by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-stimulated neutrophils. Mechanistically, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and fluorescence spectroscopy revealed that DMAV, like Cu,Zn-SOD, interacts with Cu2+, which provides redox potential for catalytic removal of O2?. Notably, surface plasmon resonance experiments (BIAcore) determined that DMAV binds sulfated glycosaminoglycans (e.g. heparin, KD ?100 nmol/liter), as reported for extracellular SOD. Finally, fractions of the salivary gland of D. maxima with native DMAV contain Cu2+ and display metal-dependent antioxidant properties. Antigen-5/CAP emerges as novel family of Cu2+-dependent antioxidant enzymes that inhibit neutrophil oxidative burst and negatively modulate platelet aggregation by a unique salivary mechanism. PMID:23564450

  11. Update on the Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2-Angiotensin (1–7)-Mas Receptor Axis: Fetal Programing, Sex Differences, and Intracellular Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Chappell, Mark C.; Marshall, Allyson C.; Alzayadneh, Ebaa M.; Shaltout, Hossam A.; Diz, Debra I.

    2013-01-01

    The renin-angiotensin-system (RAS) constitutes an important hormonal system in the physiological regulation of blood pressure. Indeed, dysregulation of the RAS may lead to the development of cardiovascular pathologies including kidney injury. Moreover, the blockade of this system by the inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) or antagonism of the angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) constitutes an effective therapeutic regimen. It is now apparent with the identification of multiple components of the RAS that the system is comprised of different angiotensin peptides with diverse biological actions mediated by distinct receptor subtypes. The classic RAS can be defined as the ACE-Ang II-AT1R axis that promotes vasoconstriction, sodium retention, and other mechanisms to maintain blood pressure, as well as increased oxidative stress, fibrosis, cellular growth, and inflammation in pathological conditions. In contrast, the non-classical RAS composed of the ACE2-Ang-(1–7)-Mas receptor axis generally opposes the actions of a stimulated Ang II-AT1R axis through an increase in nitric oxide and prostaglandins and mediates vasodilation, natriuresis, diuresis, and oxidative stress. Thus, a reduced tone of the Ang-(1–7) system may contribute to these pathologies as well. Moreover, the non-classical RAS components may contribute to the effects of therapeutic blockade of the classical system to reduce blood pressure and attenuate various indices of renal injury. The review considers recent studies on the ACE2-Ang-(1–7)-Mas receptor axis regarding the precursor for Ang-(1–7), the intracellular expression and sex differences of this system, as well as an emerging role of the Ang1-(1–7) pathway in fetal programing events and cardiovascular dysfunction. PMID:24409169

  12. In vitro digestion of purified ?-casein variants A(1), A(2), B, and I: effects on antioxidant and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory capacity.

    PubMed

    Petrat-Melin, B; Andersen, P; Rasmussen, J T; Poulsen, N A; Larsen, L B; Young, J F

    2015-01-01

    Genetic polymorphisms of bovine milk proteins affect the protein profile of the milk and, hence, certain technological properties, such as casein (CN) number and cheese yield. However, reports show that such polymorphisms may also affect the health-related properties of milk. Therefore, to gain insight into their digestion pattern and bioactive potential, ?-CN was purified from bovine milk originating from cows homozygous for the variants A(1), A(2), B, and I by a combination of cold storage, ultracentrifugation, and acid precipitation. The purity of the isolated ?-CN was determined by HPLC, variants were verified by mass spectrometry, and molar extinction coefficients at ?=280nm were determined. ?-Casein from each of the variants was subjected to in vitro digestion using pepsin and pancreatic enzymes. Antioxidant and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory capacities of the hydrolysates were assessed at 3 stages of digestion and related to that of the undigested samples. Neither molar extinction coefficients nor overall digestibility varied significantly between these 4 variants; however, clear differences in digestion pattern were indicated by gel electrophoresis. In particular, after 60min of pepsin followed by 5min of pancreatic enzyme digestion, one ?4kDa peptide with the N-terminal sequence (106)H-K-E-M-P-F-P-K- was absent from ?-CN variant B. This is likely a result of the (122)Ser to (122)Arg substitution in variant B introducing a novel trypsin cleavage site, leading to the changed digestion pattern. All investigated ?-CN variants exhibited a significant increase in antioxidant capacity upon digestion, as measured by the Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity assay. After 60min of pepsin + 120min of pancreatic enzyme digestion, the accumulated increase in antioxidant capacity was ?1.7-fold for the 4 ?-CN variants. The ACE inhibitory capacity was also significantly increased by digestion, with the B variant reaching the highest inhibitory capacity at the end of digestion (60min of pepsin + 120min of pancreatic enzymes), possibly because of the observed alternative digestion pattern. These results demonstrate that genetic polymorphisms affect the digestion pattern and bioactivity of milk proteins. Moreover, their capacity for radical scavenging and ACE inhibition is affected by digestion. PMID:25465543

  13. Reversal effect of monoisoamyl dimercaptosuccinic acid (MiADMSA) for arsenic and lead induced perturbations in apoptosis and antioxidant enzymes in developing rat brain.

    PubMed

    Sannadi, Saritha; Kadeyala, Praveen Kumar; Gottipolu, Rajarami Reddy

    2013-11-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of many neurodegenerative disorders. Several studies have shown that exposure to arsenic (As) and lead (Pb) produces oxidative stress, one of the most noted molecular mechanisms for the neurotoxicity of these metals. In the present study, we examined the effect of combined exposure to these metals (As and Pb) on the activity levels of antioxidant enzymes and apoptotic marker enzymes in brain regions (cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum) of rats at postnatal day (PND) 21, 28 and 3 months age and compared the toxicity levels with individual metals (As or Pb). Further, we also evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of a chelating agent, monoisoamyl dimercaptosuccinic acid (MiADMSA) against arsenic and lead induced developmental neurotoxicity. Pregnant rats were exposed to sodium meta-arsenite (50 ppm) and lead acetate (0.2%) individually, and in combination (As=25 ppm+Pb=0.1%) via drinking water throughout perinatal period (GD 6 to PND 21). MiADMSA (50 mg/kg, orally through gavage) was given for three consecutive days to the PND 18 pups (i.e., PND 18 to PND 20). Exposure to metal mixture resulted in a significant decrease in the activity levels of antioxidant enzymes such as manganese-superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) while the malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and mRNA expression levels of caspase-3 and caspase-9 were significantly increased in all the three brain regions. The observed alterations were greater with exposure to metal mixture than individual metals (As or Pb) and the changes were more prominent at PND 28 and greater in cerebral cortex than hippocampus and cerebellum. Interestingly, chelation therapy with MiADMSA showed significant recovery in antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation and gene expression levels of caspase-3 and caspase-9. From these findings, it can be concluded that combined exposure to As and Pb showed an additive effect on antioxidant enzymes than individual metal exposure and chelation therapy with MiADMSA significantly reversed the As and Pb induced apoptosis and oxidative stress, a major contributing factor to neurotoxicity. PMID:23906897

  14. Antihypertensive Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Activity and Antioxidant Activity of Vitis hybrid-Vitis coignetiae Red Wine Made with Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Jeong-Hoon

    2011-01-01

    A Vitis hybrid-Vitis coignetiae red wine was vinified by fermentation of a mixture of a Vitis hybrid-Vitis coignetiae must with Saccharomyces cerevisiae KCTC 7904 at 25℃ for 10 days. The Vitis hybrid-Vitis coignetiae red wine showed high antihypertensive angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity (67.8%) and antioxidant activity (76.7%). The antihypertensive ACE inhibitor in the Vitis hybrid-Vitis coignetiae red wine was partially purified by solid phase extraction chromatography, and its ACE inhibitory activity yielded an IC50 of 1.8 mg/mL. Six kinds of oligopeptides, including five new kinds, were contained in the partially purified ACE inhibitor fraction from the red wine after 10 days of fermentation. Antioxidant activity decreased significantly from 76.7% to 40.5% when the post-fermentation period was prolonged to 30 days. PMID:22783093

  15. Suppression of endogenous antioxidant enzymes by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-induced oxidative stress in chicken liver during development.

    PubMed

    Lim, J; DeWitt, J C; Sanders, R A; Watkins, J B; Henshel, D S

    2007-05-01

    Domestic chickens (Gallus gallus) are an excellent model in which to evaluate developmental toxicity and oxidative stress because of their high sensitivity to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). The goal of this study was to measure the effects of environmentally relevant doses of TCDD on endogenous hepatic antioxidant enzyme activity in hatchling chickens. The vehicle (sunflower oil) or 2, 20, or 200 pg/g TCDD was injected into chicken eggs before incubation. On hatching, livers were harvested and quickly frozen. The changes in activity of antioxidant enzymes, including glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GRx), copper zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) were determined as indicators of oxidative stress. TCDD exposure was associated with a significant suppression of the activities of the protective endogenous enzymes GPx, GRx, and SOD in the liver, even at the lowest dose. CAT activity was also suppressed, but not significantly. The measured decreases were 37% to 63% for GPx, 50% to 58% for GRx, 30% to 40% for SOD, and 16% to 24% for CAT. Noncomplex dose-response relationships were evident in GPx and GRx, whereas SOD and CAT curves were U-shaped. These results demonstrate that a decreased ability to scavenge reactive oxygen species may result from developmental TCDD exposure at very low doses, contributing to oxidative stress and thus to the embryotoxicity of TCDD. PMID:17285237

  16. Green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate triggered hepatotoxicity in mice: responses of major antioxidant enzymes and the Nrf2 rescue pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongxu; Wang, Yijun; Wan, Xiaochun; Yang, Chung S; Zhang, Jinsong

    2015-02-15

    (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a constituent of green tea, has been suggested to have numerous health-promoting effects. On the other hand, high-dose EGCG is able to evoke hepatotoxicity. In the present study, we elucidated the responses of hepatic major antioxidant enzymes and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) rescue pathway to high-dose levels of EGCG in Kunming mice. At a non-lethal toxic dose (75mg/kg, i.p.), repeated EGCG treatments markedly decreased the levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. As a rescue response, the nuclear distribution of Nrf2 was significantly increased; a battery of Nrf2-target genes, including heme oxygenase 1 (HO1), NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and those involved in glutathione and thioredoxin systems, were all up-regulated. At the maximum tolerated dose (45mg/kg, i.p.), repeated EGCG treatments did not disturb the major antioxidant defense. Among the above-mentioned genes, only HO1, NQO1, and GST genes were significantly but modestly up-regulated, suggesting a comprehensive and extensive activation of Nrf2-target genes principally occurs at toxic levels of EGCG. At a lethal dose (200mg/kg, i.p.), a single EGCG treatment dramatically decreased not only the major antioxidant defense but also the Nrf2-target genes, demonstrating that toxic levels of EGCG are able to cause a biphasic response of Nrf2. Overall, the mechanism of EGCG-triggered hepatotoxicity involves suppression of major antioxidant enzymes, and the Nrf2 rescue pathway plays a vital role for counteracting EGCG toxicity. PMID:25585349

  17. OsDMI3-mediated activation of OsMPK1 regulates the activities of antioxidant enzymes in abscisic acid signalling in rice.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ben; Ni, Lan; Liu, Yanpei; Zhang, Aying; Tan, Mingpu; Jiang, Mingyi

    2014-02-01

    In rice, the Ca(2+) /calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK) OsDMI3 has been shown to be required for abscisic acid (ABA)-induced antioxidant defence. However, it is not clear how OsDMI3 participates in this process in rice. In this study, the cross-talk between OsDMI3 and the major ABA-activated MAPK OsMPK1 in ABA-induced antioxidant defence was investigated. ABA treatment induced the expression of OsDMI3 and OsMPK1 and the activities of OsDMI3 and OsMPK1 in rice leaves. In the mutant of OsDMI3, the ABA-induced increases in the expression and the activity of OsMPK1 were substantially reduced. But in the mutant of OsMPK1, the ABA-induced increases in the expression and the activity of OsDMI3 were not affected. Pretreatments with MAPKK inhibitors also did not affect the ABA-induced activation of OsDMI3. Further, a transient expression analysis in combination with mutant analysis in rice protoplasts showed that OsMPK1 is required for OsDMI3-induced increases in the activities of antioxidant enzymes and the production of H2 O2 . Our data indicate that there exists a cross-talk between OsDMI3 and OsMPK1 in ABA signalling, in which OsDMI3 functions upstream of OsMPK1 to regulate the activities of antioxidant enzymes and the production of H2 O2 in rice. PMID:23777258

  18. Dual Neuroprotective Pathways of a Pro-Electrophilic Compound via HSF-1-activated Heat Shock Proteins and Nrf2-activated Phase 2 Antioxidant Response Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Satoh, Takumi; Rezaie, Tayebeh; Seki, Masaaki; Sunico, Carmen R.; Tabuchi, Takahito; Kitagawa, Tomomi; Yanagitai, Mika; Senzaki, Mutsumi; Kosegawa, Chihiro; Taira, Hideharu; McKercher, Scott R.; Hoffman, Jennifer K.; Roth, Gregory P.; Lipton, Stuart A.

    2015-01-01

    Activation of the Keap1/Nrf2 pathway and consequent induction of phase 2 antioxidant enzymes is known to afford neuroprotection. Here, we present a series of novel electrophilic compounds that protect neurons via this pathway. Natural products, such as carnosic acid (CA), are present in high amounts in the herbs rosemary and sage as ortho-dihydroquinones, and have attracted particular attention because they are converted by oxidative stress to their active form (ortho-quinone species) that stimulate the Keap1/Nrf2 transcriptional pathway. Once activated, this pathway leads to the production of a series of antioxidant phase 2 enzymes. Thus, such dihydroquinones function as redox-activated pro-electrophiles. Here, we explored the concept that related para-dihydroquinones represent even more effective bioactive pro-electrophiles for the induction of phase 2 enzymes without producing toxic side effects. We synthesized several novel para-hydroquinone-type pro-electrophilic compounds (designated D1 and D2) in order to analyze their protective mechanism. DNA microarray, PCR, and Western blot analyses showed that compound D1 induced expression of heat-shock proteins (HSPs), including HSP70, HSP27 and DnaJ, in addition to phase 2 enzymes such as hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1), NADP(H) quinine-oxidoreductase1, and the Na+-independent cystine/glutamate exchanger. Treatment with D1 resulted in activation of Nrf2 and HSF-1 transcriptional elements, thus inducing phase 2 enzymes and HSPs, respectively. In this manner, D1 protected neuronal cells from both oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-related stress. Additionally, D1 suppressed induction of GRP78, an ER chaperone protein, and inhibited hyperoxidation of peroxiredoxin 2 (PRX2), a molecule that in it reduced state can protect from oxidative stress. These results suggest that D1 is a novel pro-electrophilic compound that activates both the Nrf2 and HSF-1 pathways, and may thus offer protection from oxidative and ER stress. PMID:21883218

  19. Alteration of Antioxidant Enzymes and Associated Genes Induced by Grape Seed Extracts in the Primary Muscle Cells of Goats In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tan; Li, Xiaomin; Zhu, Wang; Chen, Cheng; Sun, Zhihong; Tan, Zhiliang; Kang, Jinghe

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate how the activity and expression of certain paramount antioxidant enzymes respond to grape seed extract (GSE) addition in primary muscle cells of goats. Gluteal primary muscle cells (PMCs) isolated from a 3-week old goat were cultivated as an unstressed cell model, or they were exposed to 100 µM H2O2 to establish a H2O2-stimulated cell model. The activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutases (SOD) and glutathione peroxidases (GPx) in combination with other relevant antioxidant indexes [i.e., reduced glutathione (GSH) and total antioxidant capacity (TAOC)] in response to GSE addition were tested in the unstressed and H2O2-stimulated cell models, and the relative mRNA levels of the CAT, GuZu-SOD, and GPx-1 genes were measured by qPCR. In unstressed PMCs, GSE addition at the dose of 10 µg/ml strikingly attenuated the expression levels of CAT and CuZn-SOD as well as the corresponding enzyme activities. By contrast, in cells pretreated with 100 µM H2O2, the expression and activity levels of these two antioxidant enzymes were enhanced by GSE addition at 10 µg/ml. GSE addition promoted GPx activity in both unstressed and stressed PMCs, while the expression of the GPx 1 gene displayed partial divergence with GPx activity, which was mitigated by GSE addition at 10 µg/ml in unstressed PMCs. GSH remained comparatively stable except for GSE addition to H2O2-stimulated PMCs at 60 µg/ml, in which a dramatic depletion of GSH occurred. Moreover, GSE addition enhanced TAOC in unstressed (but not H2O2-stimulated) PMCs. GSE addition exerted a bidirectional modulating effect on the mRNA levels and activities of CAT and SOD in unstressed and stressed PMCs at a moderate dose, and it only exhibited a unidirectional effect on the promotion of GPx activity, reflecting its potential to improve antioxidant protection in ruminants. PMID:25238394

  20. Antioxidative activity and inhibition of key enzymes linked to type-2 diabetes (α-glucosidase and α-amylase) by Khaya senegalensis.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mohammed Auwal; Koorbanally, Neil Anthony; Islam, Md Shahidul

    2014-09-01

    This study evaluated the in vitro antioxidative activity of Khaya senegalensis extracts and inhibitory effects of some solvent fractions on α-glucosidase and α-amylase activities. The stem bark, root and leaf samples of the plant were sequentially extracted with ethyl acetate, ethanol and water and then tested for antioxidative activity. Our findings revealed that the ethanolic extract of the root had the highest antioxidative activity. Solvent-solvent fractionation of the root ethanolic extract yielded a butanol fraction that showed higher antioxidative activity than other fractions. Furthermore, the butanol fraction had significantly higher (p < 0.05) α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory activities with IC50 values of 2.89 ± 0.46 and 97.51 ± 5.72 μg mL⁻¹, respectively. Enzyme kinetic studies indicated that the butanol fraction is a non-competitive inhibitor for α-glucosidase with an inhibition binding constant K(i) of 1.30 μg mL⁻¹ and a competitive inhibitor of α-amylase with a K(i) of 7.50 μg mL⁻¹. GC-MS analysis revealed that the butanol fraction contained two chromones, p-anilinophenol and 3-ethyl-5-(3-ethyl-(3H)-benzothiazol-2-ylidene)-2-(p-tolylvinylamino)-4-thiazolidinone. Data obtained in the study suggest that the butanol fraction derived from the ethanolic extract of K. senegalensis root possessed excellent antioxidative as well as α-glucosidase and a-amylase inhibitory activities while chromones and/or p-anilinophenol could be the main bioactive compounds responsible for the observed activities. PMID:25296677

  1. Water deficit and aluminum interactive effects on generation of reactive oxygen species and responses of antioxidative enzymes in the seedlings of two rice cultivars differing in stress tolerance.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Poonam; Srivastava, Rajneesh Kumar; Rajpoot, Ritika; Rani, Anjana; Pandey, Akhilesh Kumar; Dubey, R S

    2016-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) is a major constraint to crop productivity in acid soils, whereas water deficit severely limits crop production in arid and semi-arid regions of the world. The objective of the present study was to examine the effects of both stresses, Al excess and water deficit, individually and in combination on the production of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) superoxide anion (O2˙(-)), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), hydroxyl radical, and lipid peroxidation and the activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) in the seedlings of two rice (Oryza sativa L.) cvs. Malviya-36 (sensitive to water deficit and Al) and Vandana (tolerant to water deficit and Al). When 15-day grown seedlings were exposed to water deficit (created with 15 % polyethylene glycol, PEG-6000) or Al (1 mM AlCl3) treatment or both treatments together for 24-72 h, the lengths and fresh weights of root/shoot declined in the seedlings of the sensitive cultivar, whereas in the tolerant seedlings, either little or insignificant decline in these parameters was observed due to the treatments. Biochemical determinations and histochemical studies revealed that under a similar level of water deficit, Al, or combined treatment, seedlings of sensitive cultivar showed a higher level of production of O2˙(-), H2O2, hydroxyl radical, and lipid peroxides compared to the tolerant seedlings. Seedlings of tolerant cultivars, both in roots and shoots, had constitutively higher activity levels of antioxidative enzymes SOD, CAT, and GPX and showed a greater increase in activity under water deficit or Al treatment alone or in combination compared to the similarly treated seedlings of sensitive cultivar. Our results suggest that a lower constitutive level of ROS and a high antioxidative enzyme capacity are associated with tolerance to both water deficit and Al excess in rice seedlings. PMID:26374546

  2. Effects of Fenugreek Seed Extract and Swimming Endurance Training on Plasma Glucose and Cardiac Antioxidant Enzymes Activity in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Arshadi, Sajad; Bakhtiyari, Salar; Haghani, Karimeh; Valizadeh, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Objective Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by chronic hyperglycemia condition resulting from defective insulin secretion or resistance insulin action, or both. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of 6 weeks swimming training and Trigonella foenum-graecum seed (fenugreek) extract, alone and in combination, on plasma glucose and cardiac antioxidant enzyme activity of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Methods Fifty male Wistar rats were divided into five groups: diabetic control (DC, n = 8); healthy control (HC, n = 11); swimming training (S, n = 11); swimming training + fenugreek seed extract (1.74 g/kg body weight; SF1, n = 11); and swimming training + fenugreek seed extract (0.87 g/kg body weight; SF2, n = 9). Streptozotocin was used for the induction of diabetes. Results were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey test. Results In comparison with the DC group, all groups exhibited a significant decrease in body weight (p < 0.05), except for the HC group. SF1 and HC groups showed significant decreases in plasma glucose levels compared with the DC group (p < 0.05). S, SF1, SF2, and HC groups showed significant elevations in cardiac antioxidant enzymes activity in comparison with the DC group. Conclusion The results indicated that the combination of endurance swimming training and fenugreek seed extract can significantly reduce the plasma glucose levels and increase cardiac antioxidant enzymes activity in diabetic rats. Our findings suggest that this combination could be useful for the treatment of hyperglycemia and cardiac oxidative stress induced by diabetes mellitus. PMID:25938017

  3. Metformin reduces the expression of NADPH oxidase and increases the expression of antioxidative enzymes in human monocytes/macrophages cultured in vitro

    PubMed Central

    BUŁDAK, ŁUKASZ; ŁABUZEK, KRZYSZTOF; BUŁDAK, RAFAŁ JAKUB; MACHNIK, GRZEGORZ; BOŁDYS, ALEKSANDRA; BASIAK, MARCIN; BOGUSŁAW, OKOPIEŃ

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of diabetes and its complications is a key challenge for healthcare professionals. Accelerated atherosclerosis is associated with progressive diabetes, and it has been indicated that macrophages serve a crucial function in this process. Currently, the first-line treatment of diabetes is based on metformin, which is an inducer of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and belongs to the biguanide class of pharmaceuticals. It has been previously demonstrated that metformin exhibits more than just hypoglycemic effects. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro impact of metformin on cell viability and the expression levels of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAPDH) oxidase (p22phox), a major enzyme in reactive oxygen species generation, and the three antioxidative enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT) in monocytes/macrophages derived from 10 healthy volunteers. The effects of metformin were observed in the presence or absence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which was administered to induce oxidative stress. Furthermore, certain cells were treated with compound C, an inhibitor of AMPK, in order to determine the mechanistic role played by AMPK in the oxidative changes in the macrophages. Cell viability was evaluated using trypan blue and MTT assays. The mRNA and protein expression levels of p22phox and the various antioxidative enzymes were determined using polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis, respectively. The results indicated that metformin, predominantly in LPS-pretreated monocytes/macrophages, reduced the expression levels of p22phox and increased those of SOD and GPx, but had only a minor effect on CAT levels. Therefore, metformin appears to alter the oxidative status of macrophages toward increasingly antioxidative activity, which may account for the pleiotropic effects observed during metformin treatment. PMID:26998043

  4. The N-terminal segment of endothelin-converting enzyme (ECE)-1b contains a di-leucine motif that can redirect neprilysin to an intracellular compartment in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells.

    PubMed Central

    Cailler, F; Zappulla, J P; Boileau, G; Crine, P

    1999-01-01

    Endothelin-converting enzyme (ECE)-1 is a membrane-bound metallopeptidase of the neprilysin (NEP) family. ECE-1 is responsible for the conversion of inactive big-endothelins into active endothelins. Three different isoforms of human ECE-1 (ECE-1a, ECE-1b and ECE-1c) have been identified. They differ in their N-terminal cytosolic regions, have distinct tissue distribution and intracellular localization. ECE-1a and ECE-1c are both located at the cell surface whereas ECE-1b is targeted to an intracellular compartment. To better understand the nature of the signal responsible for the targeting of ECE-1b to the intracellular compartment, we have constructed several ECE/NEP chimaeric proteins and expressed them by transfection into Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. This allowed us to identify a nine amino acid segment in the cytosolic tail of ECE-1b that is sufficient to relocate NEP from the cell surface to an intracellular compartment. Site-directed mutagenesis on these chimaeras led to the identification of two leucine residues as part of the intracellular retention signal. PMID:10377252

  5. Coordinated Changes in Antioxidative Enzymes Protect the Photosynthetic Machinery from Salinity Induced Oxidative Damage and Confer Salt Tolerance in an Extreme Halophyte Salvadora persica L.

    PubMed Central

    Rangani, Jaykumar; Parida, Asish K.; Panda, Ashok; Kumari, Asha

    2016-01-01

    Salinity-induced modulations in growth, photosynthetic pigments, relative water content (RWC), lipid peroxidation, photosynthesis, photosystem II efficiency, and changes in activity of various antioxidative enzymes were studied in the halophyte Salvadora persica treated with various levels of salinity (0, 250, 500, 750, and 1000 mM NaCl) to obtain an insight into the salt tolerance ability of this halophyte. Both fresh and dry biomass as well as leaf area (LA) declined at all levels of salinity whereas salinity caused an increase in leaf succulence. A gradual increase was observed in the Na+ content of leaf with increasing salt concentration up to 750 mM NaCl, but at higher salt concentration (1000 mM NaCl), the Na+ content surprisingly dropped down to the level of 250 mM NaCl. The chlorophyll and carotenoid contents of the leaf remained unaffected by salinity. The photosynthetic rate (PN), stomatal conductance (gs), the transpiration rate (E), quantum yield of PSII (ΦPSII), photochemical quenching (qP), and electron transport rate remained unchanged at low salinity (250 to 500 mM NaCl) whereas, significant reduction in these parameters were observed at high salinity (750 to 1000 mM NaCl). The RWC% and water use efficiency (WUE) of leaf remained unaffected by salinity. The salinity had no effect on maximum quantum efficiency of PS II (Fv/Fm) which indicates that PS II is not perturbed by salinity-induced oxidative damage. Analysis of the isoforms of antioxidative enzymes revealed that the leaves of S. persica have two isoforms each of Mn-SOD and Fe-SOD and one isoform of Cu-Zn SOD, three isoforms of POX, two isoforms of APX and one isoform of CAT. There was differential responses in activity and expression of different isoforms of various antioxidative enzymes. The malondialdehyde (MDA) content (a product of lipid peroxidation) of leaf remained unchanged in S. persica treated with various levels of salinity. Our results suggest that the absence of pigment degradation, the reduction of water loss, and the maintenance of WUE and protection of PSII from salinity-induced oxidative damage by the coordinated changes in antioxidative enzymes are important factors responsible for salt tolerance of S. persica. PMID:26904037

  6. Chemical analysis of Hericium erinaceum polysaccharides and effect of the polysaccharides on derma antioxidant enzymes, MMP-1 and TIMP-1 activities.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hui; Wu, Pin-ru; Shen, Zheng-yu; Chen, Xiang-dong

    2010-07-01

    Hericium erinaceum was a traditional edible mushroom in Asia. In this study, we extracted polysaccharides from H. erinaceum. HPLC analysis indicated that H. erinaceum polysaccharides were mainly composed of glucose and galactose. The FT-IR spectra of H. erinaceum polysaccharides showed characteristic absorption bands of polysaccharides. The pharmacological properties of H. erinaceum polysaccharides were investigated in aged rats. Results showed that H. erinaceum polysaccharides significantly enhanced skin antioxidant enzymes, MMP-1, TIMP-1 activities and collagen protein levels in a dose-dependent manner. It can be concluded that H. erinaceum polysaccharides possess anti-skin-aging activities. PMID:20380848

  7. Coordinated Changes in Antioxidative Enzymes Protect the Photosynthetic Machinery from Salinity Induced Oxidative Damage and Confer Salt Tolerance in an Extreme Halophyte Salvadora persica L.

    PubMed

    Rangani, Jaykumar; Parida, Asish K; Panda, Ashok; Kumari, Asha

    2016-01-01

    Salinity-induced modulations in growth, photosynthetic pigments, relative water content (RWC), lipid peroxidation, photosynthesis, photosystem II efficiency, and changes in activity of various antioxidative enzymes were studied in the halophyte Salvadora persica treated with various levels of salinity (0, 250, 500, 750, and 1000 mM NaCl) to obtain an insight into the salt tolerance ability of this halophyte. Both fresh and dry biomass as well as leaf area (LA) declined at all levels of salinity whereas salinity caused an increase in leaf succulence. A gradual increase was observed in the Na(+) content of leaf with increasing salt concentration up to 750 mM NaCl, but at higher salt concentration