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Sample records for intraconal orbital cavernous

  1. Purely endoscopic trans-nasal management of orbital intraconal cavernous haemangiomas: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Lenzi, Riccardo; Bleier, Benjamin S; Felisati, Giovanni; Muscatello, Luca

    2016-09-01

    The surgical management of medial and inferior orbital lesions is demanding via traditional external approach, since the conic-shaped surgical field is narrow and damage to neural, muscular or vascular structures of the orbit can have serious consequences. In recent years, the evolution of endoscopic endonasal approaches for lesions that goes beyond the nose brought the orbit to the attention of rhinosurgeons. If procedures such as transnasal orbital decompression and lacrimal pathways surgery have been described some decades ago, the last frontier of transnasal orbital surgery, namely intraconal tumor surgery, is a new and rapidly expanding field. Papers describing endoscopic endonasal approaches to the orbit appeared in the international literature, but most of them contain a small number of cases, also because the relatively rarity of intraorbital lesions. We herein report the results of a systematic review of the literature regarding the endoscopic endonasal approach to intraconal cavernous haemangiomas, the most common benign orbital lesion. The endoscopic management of intraconal cavernous haemangiomas results feasible and safe. A critical step of this kind of surgery is the management of the medial rectus muscle, mandatory to expose the intraconal space. PMID:26210157

  2. The role of Tc-99m RBC scintigraphy in the differential diagnosis of orbital cavernous hemangioma.

    PubMed

    Sayit, E; Durak, I; Capakaya, G; Yilmaz, M; Durak, H

    2001-04-01

    The cavernous hemangioma is the most common benign orbital tumor in adults. Its presentation is during the forth to fifth decades with a slowly progressive unilateral proptosis. Intraconal cavernous hemangiomas may be difficult to differentiate from other intraconal lesions such as schwannomas, meningiomas and hemangiopericytomas. We report a case of orbital cavernous hemangioma diagnosed by Tc-99m RBC scintigraphy. Tc-99m RBC scintigraphy revealed a typical scintigraphic pattern in which there is intense focally increased uptake on the delayed image. We conclude that Tc-99m RBC scintigraphy can be a useful method in the differential diagnosis of orbital cavernous hemangioma as in hepatic hemangioma. PMID:11448074

  3. Orbital intraconal abducens nerve schwannoma: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Bhaganagare, Amresh Subhash; Bidkar, Vishakha Chandrakant; Rodrigus, Elvis; Naik, Vikas; Pai, Balaji

    2015-01-01

    Authors report a case of right orbital intraconal abducens nerve schwannoma in a 32-year lady, who presented with a sense of tightness and discomfort in right eye on looking extreme right side since 4 months. The tumor was totally excised with functional preservation of the nerve by superior orbitotomy. The clinical, radiological features and the management are discussed. PMID:25767598

  4. Intraconal amphotericin B for the treatment of rhino-orbital mucormycosis.

    PubMed

    Luna, J D; Ponssa, X S; Rodríguez, S D; Luna, N C; Juárez, C P

    1996-08-01

    Rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis is a disease that is frequently fatal. A 39-year-old man with diabetic ketoacidosis was referred to the authors' ophthalmic service with fever, orbital apex syndrome in the right eye, lethargy, and a black eschar in the palate. He was treated with systemic and local (intraconal) amphotericin B and his ketoacidosis was controlled; exenteration was not performed. Biopsy of the palate proved mucormycosis. Eighteen months later the patient was still alive and had a blind, anatomically preserved right eye with ptosis and intact extraocular muscle function without proptosis or pain. The authors propose this alternative means of treatment to achieve higher doses of the drug at the site of infection and better cosmetic and psychological results. PMID:8858637

  5. Diagnosis of orbital cavernous hemangioma with Tc-99m RBC SPECT.

    PubMed

    Ki, W W; Shin, J W; Won, K S; Ryu, J S; Yang, S O; Lee, H K; Kim, Y J

    1997-08-01

    The authors report two cases of orbital cavernous hemangioma diagnosed by Tc-99m RBC SPECT. Tc-99m RBC SPECT showed a typical scintigraphic pattern commonly seen in hepatic hemangioma in which there is intense focally increased uptake on delayed SPECT images. Tc-99m RBC SPECT in orbital cavernous hemangioma may be as useful a diagnostic modality as in hepatic hemangioma. PMID:9262901

  6. Co-occurrence of a cerebral cavernous malformation and an orbital cavernous hemangioma in a patient with seizures and visual symptoms: Rare crossroads for vascular malformations

    PubMed Central

    Choudhri, Omar; Feroze, Abdullah H.; Lad, Eleonora M.; Kim, Jonathan W.; Plowey, Edward D.; Karamchandani, Jason R.; Chang, Steven D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are angiographically occult vascular malformations of the central nervous system. As a result of hemorrhage and mass effect, patients may present with focal neurologic deficits, seizures, and other symptoms necessitating treatment. Once symptomatic, most often from hemorrhage, CCMs are treated with microsurgical resection. Orbital cavernous hemangiomas (OCHs) are similar but distinct vascular malformations that present within the orbital cavity. Even though CCMs and OCHs are both marked by dilated endothelial-lined vascular channels, they are infrequently seen in the same patient. Case Description: We provide a brief overview of the two related pathologies in the context of a patient presenting to our care with concomitant lesions, which were both resected in full without complication. Conclusion: This is the first known report that describes a case of concomitant CCM and OCH and explores the origins of two pathologies that are rarely encountered together in neurosurgical practice. Recognition of disparate symptomatologies is important for properly managing these patients. PMID:25071938

  7. Limestone Caverns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Richard L.

    1970-01-01

    Describes the origin of limestone caverns, using Mammoth Cave as an example, with particular reference to the importance of groundwater information of caverns, the present condition of groundwater, and how caverns develop within fluctuating groundwater zones. (BR)

  8. A difficult surgical approach for primary orbital hydatid cyst: transconjunctival medial orbitotomy.

    PubMed

    Sendul, Selam Yekta; Ucgul, Cemile; Dirim, Burcu; Demir, Mehmet; Acar, Zeynep; Guven, Dilek

    2015-01-01

    Hydatid cysts rarely appear isolated in the orbital cavity without involvement of other organs. The cysts are usually located in the retrobulbar region, and may be extraconal or intraconal. Herein we present a case of primary orbital cyst hydatid that is adjacent to the medial rectus muscle and optic nerve in the intraconal space and the difficulties during the surgical and medical treatment period. PMID:26655075

  9. A difficult surgical approach for primary orbital hydatid cyst: transconjunctival medial orbitotomy

    PubMed Central

    Sendul, Selam Yekta; Ucgul, Cemile; Dirim, Burcu; Demir, Mehmet; Acar, Zeynep; Guven, Dilek

    2015-01-01

    Hydatid cysts rarely appear isolated in the orbital cavity without involvement of other organs. The cysts are usually located in the retrobulbar region, and may be extraconal or intraconal. Herein we present a case of primary orbital cyst hydatid that is adjacent to the medial rectus muscle and optic nerve in the intraconal space and the difficulties during the surgical and medical treatment period. PMID:26655075

  10. Cavernous sinus gas.

    PubMed

    Chen, S S; Shao, K N; Chiang, J H; Chang, C Y; Luo, C B; Lirng, J F; Teng, M M

    2000-07-01

    Gas within the cavernous sinus is an unusual finding. We report three patients who demonstrated gas in the cavernous sinus on computerized tomography (CT). The clinical information of these patients was reviewed for the possible source of the gas and the symptoms induced by the gas. Cavernous sinus gas was seen in two patients with sphenoid sinus fracture and in one patient after intravenous fluid infusion. None of the patients had symptoms referable to the cavernous sinus gas, but one patient had a grave prognosis due to trauma. Identification of cavernous sinus gas on CT and correlation with the clinical information is mandatory for further management. PMID:10934814

  11. Endoscopic treatment of orbital tumors

    PubMed Central

    Signorelli, Francesco; Anile, Carmelo; Rigante, Mario; Paludetti, Gaetano; Pompucci, Angelo; Mangiola, Annunziato

    2015-01-01

    Different orbital and transcranial approaches are performed in order to manage orbital tumors, depending on the location and size of the lesion within the orbit. These approaches provide a satisfactory view of the superior and lateral aspects of the orbit and the optic canal but involve risks associated with their invasiveness because they require significant displacement of orbital structures. In addition, external approaches to intraconal lesions may also require deinsertion of extraocular muscles, with subsequent impact on extraocular mobility. Recently, minimally invasive techniques have been proposed as valid alternative to external approaches for selected orbital lesions. Among them, transnasal endoscopic approaches, “pure” or combined with external approaches, have been reported, especially for intraconal lesions located inferiorly and medially to the optic nerve. The avoidance of muscle detachment and the shortness of the surgical intraorbital trajectory makes endoscopic approach less invasive, thus minimizing tissue damage. Endoscopic surgery decreases the recovery time and improves the cosmetic outcome not requiring skin incisions. The purpose of this study is to review and discuss the current surgical techniques for orbital tumors removal, focusing on endoscopic approaches to the orbit and outlining the key anatomic principles to follow for safe tumor resection. PMID:25789299

  12. About Cavernous Angioma

    MedlinePlus

    ... and School CCM3 Mutation Resources Our Videos Angioma Alliance Night at the Cincinnati Reds Cavernous Angioma and Children Dr. Issam Awad at the Angioma Alliance Family Conference info@AngiomaAlliance.org | © Angioma Alliance | Disclaimer | ...

  13. Jejunal cavernous lymphangioma

    PubMed Central

    Morris-Stiff, Gareth; Falk, Gavin A; El-Hayek, Kevin; Vargo, John; Bronner, Mary; Vogt, David P

    2011-01-01

    Cavernous lymphangiomas are usually identified in infants and children with the majority of lesions found around the head and neck, trunk or extremities. Tumours affecting the intra-abdominal organs are rare. The authors report a case of small bowel cavernous lymphangioma arising within the jejunum of a 34-year-old woman presenting with dyspnoea and anaemia, and review the existing literature relating to this uncommon tumour. PMID:22696733

  14. Gas intrusion into SPR caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Hinkebein, T.E.; Bauer, S.J.; Ehgartner, B.L.; Linn, J.K.; Neal, J.T.; Todd, J.L.; Kuhlman, P.S.; Gniady, C.T.; Giles, H.N.

    1995-12-01

    The conditions and occurrence of gas in crude oil stored in Strategic Petroleum Reserve, SPR, caverns is characterized in this report. Many caverns in the SPR show that gas has intruded into the oil from the surrounding salt dome. Historical evidence and the analyses presented here suggest that gas will continue to intrude into many SPR caverns in the future. In considering why only some caverns contain gas, it is concluded that the naturally occurring spatial variability in salt permeability can explain the range of gas content measured in SPR caverns. Further, it is not possible to make a one-to-one correlation between specific geologic phenomena and the occurrence of gas in salt caverns. However, gas is concluded to be petrogenic in origin. Consequently, attempts have been made to associate the occurrence of gas with salt inhomogeneities including anomalies and other structural features. Two scenarios for actual gas intrusion into caverns were investigated for consistency with existing information. These scenarios are gas release during leaching and gas permeation through salt. Of these mechanisms, the greater consistency comes from the belief that gas permeates to caverns through the salt. A review of historical operating data for five Bryan Mound caverns loosely supports the hypothesis that higher operating pressures reduce gas intrusion into caverns. This conclusion supports a permeability intrusion mechanism. Further, it provides justification for operating the caverns near maximum operating pressure to minimize gas intrusion. Historical gas intrusion rates and estimates of future gas intrusion are given for all caverns.

  15. Bilateral cavernous sinus and superior ophthalmic vein thrombosis in the setting of facial cellulitis

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Bruce; Hise, Joseph; Philip, Joseph; Spak, Cedric; Opatowsky, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Cavernous sinus thrombosis is a rare, potentially fatal cause of cerebral venous thrombosis. Infectious causes typically arise from the mid face, orbit, or sinonasal region. We present a case of bilateral cavernous sinus and superior ophthalmic thrombosis secondary to an extreme case of facial cellulitis. PMID:26722163

  16. Late intracranial haemorrhage and subsequent carotid-cavernous sinus fistula after fracture of the facial bones.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chien-Ming; Cheng, Chi-Sheng

    2013-12-01

    Carotid-cavernous sinus fistula is an arteriovenous fistula between the internal carotid artery and the cavernous sinus, and is usually caused by a traumatic tear or a ruptured aneurysm of the cavernous segment of the internal carotid artery. We describe a rare case of delayed intracranial haemorrhage and carotid-cavernous sinus fistula that presented 3 weeks after fracture of the facial bones. The patient developed orbital apex syndrome including ptosis of upper eyelid, pulsatile exophthalmos, chemosis, loss of ocular motility, monocular blindness on the right, and numbness of the right infraorbital region. After transcatheter intra-arterial embolisation, the ptosis and chemosis improved. PMID:23958350

  17. Bilateral Persistent Trigeminal Arteries with Unilateral Trigeminal Artery to Cavernous Sinus Fistula

    PubMed Central

    Chen, David; Chen, Chi-Jen; Chen, Jiann-Jy; Tseng, Ying-Chi; Hsu, Hui-Ling; Ku, Jan-Wen

    2013-01-01

    Summary A 59-year-old man who denied a history of trauma presented with left pulsatile tinnitus and left orbital swelling for six months. Digital subtraction angiography showed a left persistent trigeminal artery (PTA) with a trigeminal artery to cavernous sinus (trigeminal-cavernous sinus) fistula and a right PTA. Transarterial detachable coil embolization of the left trigeminal-cavernous sinus fistula was performed, and the symptoms subsided. There has been no report of bilateral PTAs with a spontaneous fistula connected from one PTA to the ipsilateral cavernous sinus. This paper reports such a rare circumstance. PMID:24070083

  18. Bilateral persistent trigeminal arteries with unilateral trigeminal artery to cavernous sinus fistula. A case report.

    PubMed

    Chen, David; Chen, Chi-Jen; Chen, Jiann-Jy; Tseng, Ying-Chi; Hsu, Hui-Ling; Ku, Jan-Wen

    2013-09-01

    A 59-year-old man who denied a history of trauma presented with left pulsatile tinnitus and left orbital swelling for six months. Digital subtraction angiography showed a left persistent trigeminal artery (PTA) with a trigeminal artery to cavernous sinus (trigeminal-cavernous sinus) fistula and a right PTA. Transarterial detachable coil embolization of the left trigeminal-cavernous sinus fistula was performed, and the symptoms subsided. There has been no report of bilateral PTAs with a spontaneous fistula connected from one PTA to the ipsilateral cavernous sinus. This paper reports such a rare circumstance. PMID:24070083

  19. Cavernous Angioma and Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... neurologist to see if there might be an alternative medication. Children with even mild muscle weakness or decreased coordination resulting from a cavernous malformation bleed often have reduced physical stamina. It simply requires more energy to use legs that feel heavy or that ...

  20. Posttraumatic carotid-cavernous fistula: Pathogenetic mechanisms, diagnostic management and proper treatment. A case report

    PubMed Central

    Marín-Fernández, Ana-Belén; Román-Ramos, María; Fernandez-Solis, José; Martínez-Lara, Ildefonso

    2016-01-01

    Carotid-cavernous fistulas are an uncommon diseases characterized by abnormal communications between arteries and veins located in the cavernous sinus. According with Barrow´s classification they could be divided in two groups: direct and indirect. The typical symptoms showed by theses pathologies are: pulsating exophthalmos and orbital blow. The present study describes a case of direct posttraumatic carotid-cavernous fistula in a 26 years old man. Furthermore, we present the images that we used to make the diagnosis. In this light, we decided to treat this case with endovascular approach after considering several therapeutic options. The aim of the present report is twofold. First, we examine the importance of the proper management of the direct posttraumatic carotid-cavernous fistula. Second, we describe this rare syndrome with the goal of proposing suitable treatments. Key words:Carotid cavernous fistulas, pulsating exophthalmos, orbital blow, endovascular approach, Barrow´s classification. PMID:27034767

  1. Cavernous Carotid Artery Pseudoaneurysm Following a Radical Cavernous Sinus Resection

    PubMed Central

    Katzir, Miki; Gil, Ziv; Cohen, José Enrique; Sviri, Gill Efraim

    2016-01-01

    Iatrogenic cavernous carotid pseudoaneurysms are a special group among other intracranial aneurysms. They can occur during the dissection phase of the surgery if the tumor encases a vessel. Complications of their rupture as hemorrhage or stroke are life threatening. Early recognition and treatment is mandatory to avoid catastrophic sequelae. We present the successful diagnosis and endovascular treatment of a postoperative cavernous carotid pseudoaneurysm following radical cavernous sinus resection. PMID:27330923

  2. Manufactured caverns in carbonate rock

    DOEpatents

    Bruce, David A.; Falta, Ronald W.; Castle, James W.; Murdoch, Lawrence C.

    2007-01-02

    Disclosed is a process for manufacturing underground caverns suitable in one embodiment for storage of large volumes of gaseous or liquid materials. The method is an acid dissolution process that can be utilized to form caverns in carbonate rock formations. The caverns can be used to store large quantities of materials near transportation facilities or destination markets. The caverns can be used for storage of materials including fossil fuels, such as natural gas, refined products formed from fossil fuels, or waste materials, such as hazardous waste materials. The caverns can also be utilized for applications involving human access such as recreation or research. The method can also be utilized to form calcium chloride as a by-product of the cavern formation process.

  3. 3-D Cavern Enlargement Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    EHGARTNER, BRIAN L.; SOBOLIK, STEVEN R.

    2002-03-01

    Three-dimensional finite element analyses simulate the mechanical response of enlarging existing caverns at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). The caverns are located in Gulf Coast salt domes and are enlarged by leaching during oil drawdowns as fresh water is injected to displace the crude oil from the caverns. The current criteria adopted by the SPR limits cavern usage to 5 drawdowns (leaches). As a base case, 5 leaches were modeled over a 25 year period to roughly double the volume of a 19 cavern field. Thirteen additional leaches where then simulated until caverns approached coalescence. The cavern field approximated the geometries and geologic properties found at the West Hackberry site. This enabled comparisons are data collected over nearly 20 years to analysis predictions. The analyses closely predicted the measured surface subsidence and cavern closure rates as inferred from historic well head pressures. This provided the necessary assurance that the model displacements, strains, and stresses are accurate. However, the cavern field has not yet experienced the large scale drawdowns being simulated. Should they occur in the future, code predictions should be validated with actual field behavior at that time. The simulations were performed using JAS3D, a three dimensional finite element analysis code for nonlinear quasi-static solids. The results examine the impacts of leaching and cavern workovers, where internal cavern pressures are reduced, on surface subsidence, well integrity, and cavern stability. The results suggest that the current limit of 5 oil drawdowns may be extended with some mitigative action required on the wells and later on to surface structure due to subsidence strains. The predicted stress state in the salt shows damage to start occurring after 15 drawdowns with significant failure occurring at the 16th drawdown, well beyond the current limit of 5 drawdowns.

  4. Cavernous sinus thrombosis revisited.

    PubMed Central

    Yarington, C T

    1977-01-01

    In summary, cavernous sinus thrombosis is still with us. Patients now survive the disease more often than not, and therapy and diagnosis are reasonably clear cut. An increasing array of antibiotic-resistant bacteria have been balanced by an increasing army of antibiotics. The controversy over anticoagulation has not changed since reviewed by Parsons (1967). Ancillary measures remain more of value in diagnosis than in therapy. It is a disease primarily diagnosed by physical signs and symptoms, which requires prompt treatment. In our modern age of computerization and laboratory-based medical care, cavernous sinus thrombosis demands the diagnostic skill of the clinician, whose prompt ministrations should usually yield a favourable result. PMID:331338

  5. Malignant fungal infection of the cavernous sinus: case report.

    PubMed

    Neil, Jayson A; Orlandi, Richard R; Couldwell, William T

    2016-03-01

    Intracranial spread of fungal infection is a life-threatening condition that usually affects immunocompromised patients. Here the authors present a case of biopsy-proven Aspergillus fumigatus infection of the paranasal sinuses in an immunocompetent patient with documented spread to the orbit, cavernous sinus, and petrous apex despite medical antifungal treatment. As a life-saving treatment, cavernous sinus resection with external carotid artery-middle cerebral artery bypass was performed. The authors discuss the literature regarding the intracranial spread of paranasal sinus fungal infections in immunocompetent patients and management strategies. PMID:26315007

  6. Giant Cardiac Cavernous Hemangioma.

    PubMed

    Unger, Eric; Costic, Joseph; Laub, Glenn

    2015-07-01

    We report the case of an asymptomatic giant cardiac cavernous hemangioma in a 71-year-old man. The intracardiac mass was discovered incidentally during surveillance for his prostate cancer; however, the patient initially declined intervention. On presentation to our institution 7 years later, the lesion had enlarged significantly, and the patient consented to excision. At surgery, an 8 × 6.5 × 4.8 cm intracardiac mass located on the inferior heart border was excised with an intact capsule through a median sternotomy approach. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course. We discuss the diagnostic workup, treatment, and characteristics of this rare cardiac tumor. PMID:26140782

  7. Orbital extension of trigeminal schwannoma.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Shantanu; Das, Debabrata; Varshney, Rahul; Nandy, Sumit

    2015-01-01

    Schwannomas, also known as neurilemmomas, are benign peripheral nerve sheath tumors. Trigeminal schwannomas are rare intracranial tumors. Here, we report a 35-year-old female presenting with an axial proptosis of right eyeball with right-sided III, IV and VI cranial nerve palsy. Her best corrected visual acuity in the right eye was perception of light absent and in the left eye was 20/20. MRI scan revealed a large right-sided heterogeneous, extra-axial middle cranial fossa mass that extended to the intraconal space of right orbit. A diagnosis of intracranial trigeminal nerve schwannoma with right orbital extension was made. Successful surgical excision of the mass with preservation of the surrounding tissues and orbital exenteration was done. Post-operative period was uneventful. PMID:25552864

  8. Orbital extension of trigeminal schwannoma

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Shantanu; Das, Debabrata; Varshney, Rahul; Nandy, Sumit

    2015-01-01

    Schwannomas, also known as neurilemmomas, are benign peripheral nerve sheath tumors. Trigeminal schwannomas are rare intracranial tumors. Here, we report a 35-year-old female presenting with an axial proptosis of right eyeball with right-sided III, IV and VI cranial nerve palsy. Her best corrected visual acuity in the right eye was perception of light absent and in the left eye was 20/20. MRI scan revealed a large right-sided heterogeneous, extra-axial middle cranial fossa mass that extended to the intraconal space of right orbit. A diagnosis of intracranial trigeminal nerve schwannoma with right orbital extension was made. Successful surgical excision of the mass with preservation of the surrounding tissues and orbital exenteration was done. Post-operative period was uneventful. PMID:25552864

  9. Imaging of orbital disorders.

    PubMed

    Cunnane, Mary Beth; Curtin, Hugh David

    2016-01-01

    Diseases of the orbit can be categorized in many ways, but in this chapter we shall group them according to etiology. Inflammatory diseases of the orbits may be infectious or noninfectious. Of the infections, orbital cellulitis is the most common and typically arises as a complication of acute sinusitis. Of the noninfectious, inflammatory conditions, thyroid orbitopathy is the most common and results in enlargement of the extraocular muscles and proliferation of the orbital fat. Idiopathic orbital inflammatory syndrome is another cause of inflammation in the orbit, which may mimic thyroid orbitopathy or even neoplasm, but typically presents with pain. Masses in the orbit may be benign or malignant and the differential diagnosis primarily depends on the location of the mass lesion, and on the age of the patient. Lacrimal gland tumors may be lymphomas or epithelial lesions of salivary origin. Extraocular muscle tumors may represent lymphoma or metastases. Tumors of the intraconal fat are often benign, typically hemangiomas or schwannomas. Finally, globe tumors may be retinoblastomas (in children), or choroidal melanomas or metastases in adults. PMID:27432687

  10. Cavernous lymphangioma: Two case reports

    PubMed Central

    Sargunam, Cynthia; Thomas, Jayakar; Raneesha, P. K.

    2013-01-01

    Lymphangiomas are congenital malformation of the lymphatic system that involve the skin and subcutaneous tissues. We are reporting two cases of cavernous lymphangioma. These cases are presented for their rarity. PMID:23984237

  11. Worsening angle closure glaucoma and choroidal detachments subsequent to closure of a carotid cavernous fistula

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Carotid cavernous fistulas are abnormal communications between the cavernous sinus and the external or internal carotid arteries. Although rare, closure of carotid cavernous fistulas can lead to immediate ocular complications. To our knowledge, our case represents the first report of worsening angle closure glaucoma and choroidal detachments over an extended period of two months subsequent to closure of a carotid cavernous fistula. Case presentation A 70-year-old female with a history of primary angle closure glaucoma presented with 4 mm of proptosis, resistance to retropulsion, tortuous corkscrew blood vessels and an orbital bruit of the right eye. Diagnostic cerebral angiogram showed a small indirect Barrow type D right carotid cavernous fistula. Transarterial embolization was planned but repeat cerebral angiography prior to the procedure demonstrated spontaneous partial closure of the carotid cavernous fistula and the procedure was aborted. One month later, our patient was noted to have worsening vision and choroidal detachments of the right eye. She declined further testing and was thus started on self-administered manual carotid jugular compressions. One month later, she developed progressive worsening of her choroidal detachments and angle closure. She eventually opted for surgical intervention but repeat cerebral angiography showed significant thrombosis of the carotid cavernous fistula and no intervention was warranted. Examination two months later showed complete resolution of the choroidal detachments and open angles of both eyes. Conclusions Our patient demonstrated worsening angle closure glaucoma and choroidal detachments after spontaneous closure of her carotid cavernous fistula had been noted. Ocular complications, including acute angle closure, have been reported to occur immediately after closure of carotid cavernous fistulas, but not over months as in our patient. It is imperative that individuals who have undergone apparent closure

  12. Interaction effects of storage caverns in salt

    SciTech Connect

    Hilton, P.D.; Tillerson, J.R.; Benzley, S.E.; Gubbels, M.H.

    1980-08-01

    The US Strategic Petroleum Reserve program for crude oil stockpiling utilizes some existing solution mined caverns in Gulf Coast salt domes. Geomechanical analyses are impotant tools used to assess the structural stability of these caverns. This report addresses the ineractions between adjacent caverns which result from maintaining different pressures in the caverns. Finite element models of two adjacent caverns are analyzed for four different cavern spacings. The brine pressure is simulated in one cavern while the pressure in the adjacent cavern ranges from that of the oil head to atmospheric conditions. Stress distributions and deformed profiles of the caverns are plotted for the conditions simulated. Since the tensile strength of salt is low (typically 100 to 300 psi), regions in which tensile stresses occur are considered to have a significant probability of slabbing. A preliminary recommendation is made to maintain similar pressures to adjacent caverns in which the pillar thickness/cavern diameter ratio of the web between caverns is less than 0.5 unless cavern specific assessments indicate that the potential for pillar slabbing is minimal.

  13. Secondary mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the orbit

    PubMed Central

    Siuw, Chin Pei; Tan, Siow W; Abdul Wahid, Adrena B; Vasudevan, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    A 40-year-old man presented with right eye axial proptosis and ophthalmoplegia for 3 months. Imaging study showed a right intraconal mass with the erosion of the orbital floor. Incisional biopsy revealed mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Nasal endoscopy was normal and systemic tumor screening was negative for a primary source. The patient underwent right orbital exenteration, uncinectomy, nasal and maxillary mucosal biopsy. Malignant cells were found present in the mucosa of maxillary sinus roof and uncinate bone. The postoperative positron emission tomography scan showed residual active lesion in right orbital apex and maxilla but no primary lesion elsewhere. The patient subsequently underwent 35 cycles of postoperative radiotherapy. Primary mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the orbit is rare and typically arises from the lacrimal gland or sac. Those tumors not arising from lacrimal apparatus should be presumed metastatic in origin, and the thorough systemic survey should be undertaken in the search for the primary tumor. PMID:27146939

  14. Secondary mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the orbit.

    PubMed

    Siuw, Chin Pei; Tan, Siow W; Abdul Wahid, Adrena B; Vasudevan, Suresh

    2016-03-01

    A 40-year-old man presented with right eye axial proptosis and ophthalmoplegia for 3 months. Imaging study showed a right intraconal mass with the erosion of the orbital floor. Incisional biopsy revealed mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Nasal endoscopy was normal and systemic tumor screening was negative for a primary source. The patient underwent right orbital exenteration, uncinectomy, nasal and maxillary mucosal biopsy. Malignant cells were found present in the mucosa of maxillary sinus roof and uncinate bone. The postoperative positron emission tomography scan showed residual active lesion in right orbital apex and maxilla but no primary lesion elsewhere. The patient subsequently underwent 35 cycles of postoperative radiotherapy. Primary mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the orbit is rare and typically arises from the lacrimal gland or sac. Those tumors not arising from lacrimal apparatus should be presumed metastatic in origin, and the thorough systemic survey should be undertaken in the search for the primary tumor. PMID:27146939

  15. Orbital cellulitis.

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Hirsch, D P; Habashi, S; Hinton, A H; Kotecha, B

    1992-01-01

    Orbital cellulitis is an emergency. It may cause blindness and progress to life-threatening sequelae such as brain abscess, meningitis and cavernous sinus thrombosis. Successful management is dependent upon urgent referral and immediate treatment. Although isolated eyelid erythema and swelling usually indicate primary infection anterior to the orbital septum, they may also be the first signs of an underlying frontal or ethmoidal sinusitis. The condition always requires emergency referral to both an ophthalmologist and otorhinolaryngologist. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:1388488

  16. Interdural cavernous sinus epidermoid cyst.

    PubMed

    Bonde, Vivek; Goel, Atul

    2008-02-01

    We report a patient with an uncommon interdural epidermoid tumor, located within the confines of dural layers of the lateral wall of the cavernous sinus. The tumor was resected by a basal subtemporal extradural-interdural approach. Following the surgery, the 45-year-old female patient recovered completely from her symptoms of atypical neuralgic facial pains. PMID:18083573

  17. Effects of cavern spacing on the performance and stability of gas-filled storage caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, E.L.

    1993-04-01

    Three-dimensional finite element analyses of gas-filled storage caverns in domal salt were performed to investigate the effects of cavern spacing on surface subsidence, storage loss, and cavern stability. The finite element model used for this study models a seven cavern storage field with one center cavern and six hexagonally spaced surrounding caverns. Cavern spacing is described in terms of the P/D ratio which is the pillar thickness (the width between two caverns) divided by the cavern diameter. With the stratigraphy and cavern size held constant, simulations were performed for P/D ratios of 6.0, 3.0, 2.0, 1.0, and 0.5. Ten year simulations were performed modeling a constant 400 psi gas pressure applied to the cavern lining. The calculations were performed using JAC3D, a three dimensional finite element analysis code for nonlinear quasistatic solids. For the range of P/D ratios studied, cavern deformation and storage volume were relatively insensitive to P/D ratio, while subsidence volume increased with increasing P/D ratio. A stability criterion which describes stability in terms of a limiting creep strain was used to investigate cavern stability. The stability criterion indicated that through-pillar instability was possible for the cases of P/D = 0.5 and 1.0.

  18. New public information resources on salt caverns.

    SciTech Connect

    Tomasko, D.; Veil, J. A.

    1999-08-25

    For the past decade, interest has been growing in using underground salt caverns for disposing of wastes. The Railroad Commission of Texas has permitted a few caverns for disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW) and one cavern for disposal of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) from oil field activities. Several salt caverns in Canada have also been permitted for disposal of NOW. In addition, oil and gas agencies in Louisiana and New Mexico are developing cavern disposal regulations. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has funded several studies to evaluate the technical feasibility, legality, economic viability, and risk of disposing of NOW and NORM in caverns. The results of these studies have been disseminated to the scientific and regulatory communities. However, as use of caverns for waste disposal increases, more government and industry representatives and members of the public will become aware of this practice and will need adequate information about how disposal caverns operate and the risks they pose. In anticipation of this need, DOE has fi.mded Argonne National Laboratory to develop a salt cavern public outreach program. Key components of this program are an informational brochure designed for nontechnical persons and a website that provides greater detail on cavern operations and allows downloadable access to the reports on the topic funded by DOE. This paper provides an overview of the public outreach program.

  19. New public information resources on salt caverns.

    SciTech Connect

    Tomasko, D.; Veil, J. A.

    1999-08-25

    For the past decade, interest has been growing in using underground salt caverns for disposing of wastes. The Railroad Commission of Texas has permitted a few caverns for disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW) and one cavern for disposal of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) from oil field activities. Several salt caverns in Canada have also been permitted for disposal of NOW. In addition, oil and gas agencies in Louisiana and New Mexico are developing cavern disposal regulations. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has funded several studies to evaluate the technical feasibility, legality, economic viability, and risk of disposing of NOW and NORM in caverns. The results of these studies have been disseminated to the scientific and regulatory communities. However, as use of caverns for waste disposal increases, more government and industry representatives and members of the public will become aware of this practice and will need adequate information about how disposal caverns operate and the risks they pose. In anticipation of this need, DOE has funded Argonne National Laboratory to develop a salt cavern public outreach program. Key components of this program are an informational brochure designed for nontechnical persons and a website that provides greater detail on cavern operations and allows downloadable access to the reports on the topic funded by DOE. This paper provides an overview of the public outreach program.

  20. Cavernous angioma of the pineal region.

    PubMed

    Donati, P; Maiuri, F; Gangemi, M; Gallicchio, B; Sigona, L

    1992-01-01

    The pineal region is one of the most rare localizations of intracranial cavernous angiomas, with only 8 cases reported up today. The Authors report a case of cavernous angioma of such localization and review the pertinent literature. Magnetic resonance allows the correct diagnosis of cavernous malformations on the basis of their typical aspect, even in the absence of histological verification. We suggest that this imaging technique will allow to identify more frequently pineal cavernomas preoperatively, thus avoiding useless irradiation. PMID:1484302

  1. Salt caverns for oil field waste disposal.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.; Ford, J.; Rawn-Schatzinger, V.; Environmental Assessment; RMC, Consultants, Inc.

    2000-07-01

    Salt caverns used for oil field waste disposal are created in salt formations by solution mining. When created, caverns are filled with brine. Wastes are introduced into the cavern by pumping them under low pressure. Each barrel of waste injected to the cavern displaces a barrel of brine to the surface. The brine is either used for drilling mud or is disposed of in an injection well. Figure 8 shows an injection pump used at disposal cavern facilities in west Texas. Several types of oil field waste may be pumped into caverns for disposal. These include drilling muds, drill cuttings, produced sands, tank bottoms, contaminated soil, and completion and stimulation wastes. Waste blending facilities are constructed at the site of cavern disposal to mix the waste into a brine solution prior to injection. Overall advantages of salt cavern disposal include a medium price range for disposal cost, large capacity and availability of salt caverns, limited surface land requirement, increased safety, and ease of establishment of individual state regulations.

  2. Effects of cavern depth on surface subsidence and storage loss of oil-filled caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, E L

    1992-01-01

    Finite element analyses of oil-filled caverns were performed to investigate the effects of cavern depth on surface subsidence and storage loss, a primary performance criteria of SPR caverns. The finite element model used for this study was axisymmetric, approximating an infinite array of caverns spaced at 750 ft. The stratigraphy and cavern size were held constant while the cavern depth was varied between 1500 ft and 3000 ft in 500 ft increments. Thirty year simulations, the design life of the typical SPR cavern, were performed with boundary conditions modeling the oil pressure head applied to the cavern lining. A depth dependent temperature gradient of 0.012{degrees}F/ft was also applied to the model. The calculations were performed using ABAQUS, a general purpose of finite element analysis code. The user-defined subroutine option in ABAQUS was used to enter an elastic secondary creep model which includes temperature dependence. The calculations demonstrated that surface subsidence and storage loss rates increase with increasing depth. At lower depths the difference between the lithostatic stress and the oil pressure is greater. Thus, the effective stresses are greater, resulting in higher creep rates. Furthermore, at greater depths the cavern temperatures are higher which also produce higher creep rates. Together, these factors result in faster closure of the cavern. At the end of the 30 year simulations, a 1500 ft-deep cavern exhibited 4 percent storage loss and 4 ft of subsidence while a 3000 ft-deep cavern exhibited 33 percent storage loss and 44 ft of subsidence. The calculations also demonstrated that surface subsidence is directly related to the amount of storage loss. Deeper caverns exhibit more subsidence because the caverns exhibit more storage loss. However, for a given amount of storage loss, nearly the same magnitude of surface subsidence was exhibited, independent of cavern depth.

  3. Carotid Cavernous Fistula Associated with Persistent Trigeminal Artery

    PubMed Central

    Hurst, Robert W.; Howard, Robert S.; Zager, Eric

    1998-01-01

    Carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF) associated with persistent trigeminal artery (PTA) is a rare but important clinical entity. We present a case treated by microcoil embolization with preservation of internal carotid, PTA, and hasilar artery flow following embolization. A 62-year-old female developed pulsatile tinnitus followed by left eye proptosis and diplopia. Examination revealed a cranial nerve VI palsy and an objective bruit over the left orbit. Angiographic evaluation revealed a carotid cavernous fistula originating from a persistent trigeminal artery. Placement of a detachable balloon across the fistula site while preserving the PTA proved impossible, and the fistula was treated with microcoils following placement of a microcatheter across the fistula into the cavernous sinus. Complete closure of the fistula was followed by resolution of the patient's symptoms. Preservation of all major vessels including the PTA was accomplished through the use of coil embolization. Careful evaluation of the angiogram is necessary to identify PTA associated with a CCF. Previous reports have described treatment of CCF with PTA by surgical or balloon ocolusion, some involving sacrifice of the PTA. Examination of the relevant embryology and anatomy reveals, however, that occlusion of the PTA must be approached with caution due to potential supply to the posterior circulation. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:17171071

  4. Giant Cavernous Haemangioma of the Anterior Mediastinum

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Seyda Ors; Samancılar, Ozgur; Usluer, Ozan; Acar, Tuba; Yener, Ali Galip

    2015-01-01

    Cavernous hemangiomas of the anterior mediastinum is rare. We present a case of a 56-year-old male patient with a giant cavernous hemangioma of the anterior mediastinum, 18 cm in diameters, approached by left posterolateral thoracotomy. To the best of our knowledge, such a unique case has not been previously presented in the literature. PMID:26644773

  5. Genetics Home Reference: cerebral cavernous malformation

    MedlinePlus

    ... R, Awad IA, Ginsberg MH. Cerebral cavernous malformations proteins inhibit Rho kinase to stabilize vascular integrity. J Exp Med. 2010 Apr 12;207(4):881-96. doi: 10.1084/jem.20091258. Epub 2010 Mar 22. Citation on ... CCM1 and CCM2 protein interactions in cell signaling: implications for cerebral cavernous ...

  6. Disposal of NORM waste in salt caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.; Smith, K.P.; Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Blunt, D.; Williams, G.P.

    1998-07-01

    Some types of oil and gas production and processing wastes contain naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). If NORM is present at concentrations above regulatory levels in oil field waste, the waste requires special disposal practices. The existing disposal options for wastes containing NORM are limited and costly. This paper evaluates the legality, technical feasibility, economics, and human health risk of disposing of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns. Cavern disposal of NORM waste is technically feasible and poses a very low human health risk. From a legal perspective, there are no fatal flaws that would prevent a state regulatory agency from approving cavern disposal of NORM. On the basis of the costs charged by caverns currently used for disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW), NORM waste disposal caverns could be cost competitive with existing NORM waste disposal methods when regulatory agencies approve the practice.

  7. A 12-year cavern abandonment test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bérest, P.; Brouard, B.; Hévin, G.

    2010-06-01

    In 1997-1998, an abandonment test was performed in a 950-m deep, 8000-m3 salt cavern operated by GDF SUEZ at Etrez, France. In this relatively small brine-filled cavern, which had been kept idle for 15 years before the test, thermal equilibrium was reached. A special system was designed to monitor leaks, which proved to be exceedingly small. In these conditions, brine permeation and cavern creep closure are the only factors to play significant roles in pressure evolution. This test strongly suggested that obtaining an equilibrium pressure such that the effects of these two factors were exactly equal would be reached in the long term. Four years later, pressure monitoring in the closed cavern resumed. Pressure evolution during the 2002-2009 period confirmed that cavern brine pressure will remain constant and significantly smaller than geostatic pressure in the long term, precluding any risk of fracturing and brine seepage to the overburden layers.

  8. Transvenous embolization of a dural carotid-cavernous sinus fistula via the inferior ophthalmic vein.

    PubMed

    Michels, Kevin S; Ng, John D; Falardeau, Julie; Roberts, Warren G; Petersen, Bryan; Nesbit, Gary M; Barnwell, Stanley L

    2007-01-01

    A 76-year-old woman presented with an acute onset of right periocular pain, diplopia, ocular injection, progressive proptosis, and periocular swelling. She had an unremarkable past medical history, and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and complete blood count were normal. A carotid-cavernous sinus fistula was suspected, and an MRI demonstrated enlargement of the superior ophthalmic vein posterior to the globe and enlargement of the inferior ophthalmic vein throughout its entire course. Cerebral arteriography demonstrated a dural cavernous sinus fistula. The inferior ophthalmic vein was accessed via the inferonasal orbital space and was catheterized for delivery of multiple platinum coils to the cavernous sinus fistula. Follow-up venograms demonstrated occlusion of the fistula. At 2-month follow-up, there was a residual sixth nerve palsy and resolution of symptoms, including proptosis and periocular swelling. PMID:18030122

  9. Granulomatous orbital inflammation associated with intraorbital titanium-impregnated acetate fiber.

    PubMed

    Chappelow, Aimee V; McMahon, James T; Jones, Curtiss L; Kosmorsky, Greg

    2010-06-01

    Herein we report a 52-year-old man with subacute right-sided proptosis and diffuse intraconal enhancing abnormality on MRI. Orbital biopsy revealed granulomatous inflammation consistent with idiopathic orbital inflammatory syndrome (IOIS), or orbital pseudotumor. However, further examination under polarizing light microscopy also revealed acetate fiber fragments within the orbit. Prominent speckles within the acetate fibers were identified as titanium by Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDXA). Acetate impregnated with titanium (as a delustrant) is a common synthetic fiber used in textile and clothing manufacture. The mechanism for entrance into the orbit in this case is not known. Granulomatous idiopathic orbital inflammatory syndrome without local or systemic cause is an uncommon clinical entity, with less than 50 cases reported in the literature. Predominance of lacrimal gland (and thus superficial) involvement in granulomatous IOIS suggests the possibility of occult foreign body in such cases. PMID:20497088

  10. Interior cavern conditions and salt fall potential

    SciTech Connect

    Munson, D.E.; Molecke, M.A.; Myers, R.E.

    1998-03-01

    A relatively large number of salt caverns are used for fluid hydrocarbon storage, including an extensive set of facilities in the Gulf Coast salt domes for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) Program. Attention is focused on the SPR caverns because of available histories that detail events involving loss and damage of the hanging string casing. The total number of events is limited, making the database statistically sparse. The occurrence of the events is not evenly distributed, with some facilities, and some caverns, more susceptible than others. While not all of these events could be attributed to impacts from salt falls, many did show the evidence of such impacts. As a result, a study has been completed to analyze the potential for salt falls in the SPR storage caverns. In this process, it was also possible to deduce some of the cavern interior conditions. Storage caverns are very large systems in which many factors could possibly play a part in casing damage. In this study, all of the potentially important factors such as salt dome geology, operational details, and material characteristics were considered, with all being logically evaluated and most being determined as secondary in nature. As a result of the study, it appears that a principal factor in determining a propensity for casing damage from salt falls is the creep and fracture characteristics of salt in individual caverns. In addition the fracture depends strongly upon the concentration of impurity particles in the salt. Although direct observation of cavern conditions is not possible, the average impurity concentration and the accumulation of salt fall material can be determined. When this is done, there is a reasonable correlation between the propensity for a cavern to show casing damage events and accumulation of salt fall material. The accumulation volumes of salt fall material can be extremely large, indicating that only a few of the salt falls are large enough to cause impact damage.

  11. Multiphase Flow and Cavern Abandonment in Salt

    SciTech Connect

    Ehgartner, Brian; Tidwell, Vince

    2001-02-13

    This report will explore the hypothesis that an underground cavity in gassy salt will eventually be gas filled as is observed on a small scale in some naturally occurring salt inclusions. First, a summary is presented on what is known about gas occurrences, flow mechanisms, and cavern behavior after abandonment. Then, background information is synthesized into theory on how gas can fill a cavern and simultaneously displace cavern fluids into the surrounding salt. Lastly, two-phase (gas and brine) flow visualization experiments are presented that demonstrate some of the associated flow mechanisms and support the theory and hypothesis that a cavity in salt can become gas filled after plugging and abandonment

  12. Management of a complex cavern storage facility for natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    The Epe cavern storage facility operated by Ruhrgas AG has developed into one of the largest gas cavern storage facilities in the world. Currently, there are 32 caverns and 18 more are planned in the future. Working gas volume will increase from approximately 1.5 {times} 10{sup 9} to 2 {times} 10{sup 9} m{sup 3}. The stratified salt deposit containing the caverns has a surface area of approximately 7 km{sup 2} and is 250 m thick at the edge and 400 m thick in the center. Caverns are leached by a company that uses the recovered brine in the chlorine industry. Cavern dimensions are determined before leaching. The behavior of each cavern, as well as the thermodynamic properties of natural gas must be considered in cavern management. The full-length paper presents the components of a complex management system covering the design, construction, and operation of the Epe gas-storage caverns.

  13. Bayou Choctaw Caverns 15 and 17 web analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ehgartner, B.

    1993-01-01

    The relatively thin web of salt that separates Bayou Choctaw Caverns 15 and 17 was evaluated using the finite-element method. The stability calculations provided insight as to whether or not any operationrestrictions or recommendations are necessary. Because of the uncertainty in the exact dimensions of the salt web, various web thicknesses were examined under different operating scenarios that included individual cavern workovers and drawdowns. Cavern workovers were defined by a sudden drop in the oil side pressure at the wellhead to atmospheric. Workovers represent periods of low cavern pressure. Cavern drawdowns were simulated by enlargening the cavern diameters, thus decreasing the thickness of the web. The calculations predict that Cavern 15 dominates the behavior of the web because of its larger diameter. Thus, giventhe choice of caverns, Cavern 17 should be used for oil withdrawal in order to minimize the adverse impacts on web resulting from pressure drops or cavern enlargement. From a stability point of view, maintaining normal pressures in Cavern 15 was found to be more important than operating the caverns as a gallery where both caverns are maintained at the same pressure. However, during a workover, it may be prudent to operate the caverns under similar pressures to avoid the possibility of a sudden pressure surge at the wellhead should the web fail.

  14. Cavernous sinus thrombosis progression from trismus

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jin Yong; Kim, Hyeon Min

    2015-01-01

    In the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, patients with trismus can be easily identified. If the cause of trismus is infection of the masticatory space near the pterygoid plexus, the possibility of cavernous sinus thrombosis should be considered. We report the case of a patient who presented with limited mouth opening and progressed to cavernous sinus thrombosis, along with a review of the relevant literature. PMID:25741468

  15. Cavernous hemangioma of the glans penis

    PubMed Central

    Mondal, Soumya; Biswal, Deepak Kumar; Pal, Dilip Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Cavernous hemangioma of the glans penis is a very rare lesion, and only a few cases are reported in the literature. Urologists are in a dilemma to treat such lesion with cosmetic and to obtain good functional outcome. Here, we report a case of cavernous hemangioma of the glans penis in a 22-year-old boy with a successful outcome by intralesional sclerotherapy with 3% sodium tetradecyl sulfate with a review of the literature on the subject. PMID:26229337

  16. Unilateral Direct Carotid Cavernous Fistula Causing Bilateral Ocular Manifestation

    PubMed Central

    Demartini Jr., Zeferino; Liebert, Fernando; Gatto, Luana Antunes Maranha; Jung, Thiago Simiano; Rocha Jr., Carlos; Santos, Alex Marques Borges; Koppe, Gelson Luis

    2015-01-01

    Unilateral carotid cavernous fistula presents with ipsilateral ocular findings. Bilateral presentation is only seen in bilateral fistulas, usually associated with indirect (dural) carotid cavernous fistulas. Direct carotid cavernous fistulas are an abnormal communication between the internal carotid artery and the cavernous sinus. They typically begin with a traumatic disruption in the artery wall into the cavernous sinus, presenting with a classic triad of unilateral pulsatile exophthalmos, cranial bruit and episcleral venous engorgement. We report the case of a 38-year-old male with traumatic right carotid cavernous sinus fistula and bilateral ocular presentation successfully treated by interventional neuroradiology. PMID:26955353

  17. Analysis of cavern stability at the West Hackberry SPR site.

    SciTech Connect

    Ehgartner, Brian L.; Sobolik, Steven Ronald

    2009-05-01

    This report presents computational analyses that simulate the structural response of caverns at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) West Hackberry site. The cavern field comprises 22 caverns. Five caverns (6, 7, 8, 9, 11) were acquired from industry and have unusual shapes and a history dating back to 1946. The other 17 caverns (101-117) were leached according to SPR standards in the mid-1980s and have tall cylindrical shapes. The history of the caverns and their shapes are simulated in a three-dimensional geomechanics model of the site that predicts deformations, strains, and stresses. Future leaching scenarios corresponding to oil drawdowns using fresh water are also simulated by increasing the volume of the caverns. Cavern pressures are varied in the model to capture operational practices in the field. The results of the finite element model are interpreted to provide information on the current and future status of subsidence, well integrity, and cavern stability. The most significant results in this report are relevant to Cavern 6. The cavern is shaped like a bowl with a large ceiling span and is in close proximity to Cavern 9. The analyses predict tensile stresses at the edge of the ceiling during repressuization of Cavern 6 following workover conditions. During a workover the cavern is at low pressure to service a well. The wellhead pressures are atmospheric. When the workover is complete, the cavern is repressurized. The resulting elastic stresses are sufficient to cause tension around the edge of the large ceiling span. With time, these stresses relax to a compressive state because of salt creep. However, the potential for salt fracture and propagation exists, particularly towards Cavern 9. With only 200 ft of salt between the caverns, the operational consequences must be examined if the two caverns become connected. A critical time may be during a workover of Cavern 9 in part because of the operational vulnerabilities, but also because dilatant damage is

  18. Experience in testing of a solution mined storage cavern

    SciTech Connect

    Goin, K.L.

    1982-01-01

    Recertification tests were made of the U.S. Department of Energy/Strategic Petroleum Reserve oil storage cavern No. 6 in the West Hackberry, LA, salt dome. The cavern has a volume of 8,600,000 bbl. Tests included hydrostatic tests of the brine filled cavern and nitrogen leak tests of the 3 wells entering the cavern. Test procedures are described and test results are discussed.

  19. Analysis of cavern stability at the Bryan Mound SPR site.

    SciTech Connect

    Ehgartner, Brian L.; Sobolik, Steven Ronald

    2009-04-01

    This report presents computational analyses that simulate the structural response of caverns at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Bryan Mound site. The cavern field comprises 20 caverns. Five caverns (1, 2, 4, and 5; 3 was later plugged and abandoned) were acquired from industry and have unusual shapes and a history dating back to 1946. The other 16 caverns (101-116) were leached according to SPR standards in the mid-1980s and have tall cylindrical shapes. The history of the caverns and their shapes are simulated in a 3-D geomechanics model of the site that predicts deformations, strains, and stresses. Future leaching scenarios due to oil drawdowns using fresh water are also simulated by increasing the volume of the caverns. Cavern pressures are varied in the model to capture operational practices in the field. The results of the finite element model are interpreted to provide information on the current and future status of subsidence, well integrity, and cavern stability. The most significant result in this report is relevant to caverns 1, 2, and 5. The caverns have non-cylindrical shapes and have potential regions where the surrounding salt may be damaged during workover procedures. During a workover the normal cavern operating pressure is lowered to service a well. At this point the wellhead pressures are atmospheric. When the workover is complete, the cavern is repressurized. The resulting elastic stresses are sufficient to cause tension and large deviatoric stresses at several locations. With time, these stresses relax to a compressive state due to salt creep. However, the potential for salt damage and fracturing exists. The analyses predict tensile stresses at locations with sharp-edges in the wall geometry, or in the case of cavern 5, in the neck region between the upper and lower lobes of the cavern. The effects do not appear to be large-scale, however, so the only major impact is the potential for stress-induced salt falls in cavern 5, potentially leading to

  20. Overfilling of cavern blamed for LPG blasts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-06

    Three explosions and a fire Apr. 7 at an LPG salt dome storage cavern near Brenham, Tex., were triggered when the cavern was overfilled, the Texas Railroad Commission (TRC) has reported. This paper reports that a TRC investigation found that LPG escaped to the surface at the Brenham site through brine injection tubing after excessive fill from an LPG line forced the cavern's water level below the brine tubing's bottom. At the surface, LPG was released into a brine storage pit where it turned into a dense, explosive vapor. At 7:08 a.m., the vapor was ignited by an unknown source. The resulting blast killed three persons and injured 19 and brought operations at the site to a halt.

  1. Analysis of cavern shapes for the strategic petroleum reserve.

    SciTech Connect

    Ehgartner, Brian L.; Sobolik, Steven Ronald

    2006-07-01

    This report presents computational analyses to determine the structural integrity of different salt cavern shapes. Three characteristic shapes for increasing cavern volumes are evaluated and compared to the baseline shape of a cylindrical cavern. Caverns with enlarged tops, bottoms, and mid-sections are modeled. The results address pillar to diameter ratios of some existing caverns in the system and will represent the final shape of other caverns if they are repeatedly drawn down. This deliverable is performed in support of the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Several three-dimensional models using a close-packed arrangement of 19 caverns have been built and analyzed using a simplified symmetry involving a 30-degree wedge portion of the model. This approach has been used previously for West Hackberry (Ehgartner and Sobolik, 2002) and Big Hill (Park et al., 2005) analyses. A stratigraphy based on the Big Hill site has been incorporated into the model. The caverns are modeled without wells and casing to simplify the calculations. These calculations have been made using the power law creep model. The four cavern shapes were evaluated at several different cavern radii against four design factors. These factors included the dilatant damage safety factor in salt, the cavern volume closure, axial well strain in the caprock, and surface subsidence. The relative performance of each of the cavern shapes varies for the different design factors, although it is apparent that the enlarged bottom design provides the worst overall performance. The results of the calculations are put in the context of the history of cavern analyses assuming cylindrical caverns, and how these results affect previous understanding of cavern behavior in a salt dome.

  2. A lymph nodal capillary-cavernous hemangioma.

    PubMed

    Dellachà, A; Fulcheri, E; Campisi, C

    1999-09-01

    A capillary-cavernous hemangioma in an obturator lymph node was found incidentally in a 64 year-old woman who had undergone unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and lymphadenectomy for an ovarian neoplasm. Vascular tumors of lymph nodes are briefly reviewed including eight previously described nodal capillary-cavernous hemangiomas. The association with other splanchnic hemangiomas is pointed out and the likelihood that the lesion is a hamartoma rather than a true neoplasm is addressed. Despite its rarity, this entity needs to be recognized by lymphologists who image lymph nodes by lymphangiography as well as by lymph nodal pathologists. PMID:10494525

  3. 3-D Finite Element Analyses of the Egan Cavern Field

    SciTech Connect

    Klamerus, E.W.; Ehgartner, B.L.

    1999-02-01

    Three-dimensional finite element analyses were performed for the two gas-filled storage caverns at the Egan field, Jennings dome, Louisiana. The effects of cavern enlargement on surface subsidence, storage loss, and cavern stability were investigated. The finite element model simulated the leaching of caverns to 6 and 8 billion cubic feet (BCF) and examined their performance at various operating conditions. Operating pressures varied from 0.15 psi/ft to 0.9 psi/ft at the bottom of the lowest cemented casing. The analysis also examined the stability of the web or pillar of salt between the caverns under differential pressure loadings. The 50-year simulations were performed using JAC3D, a three dimensional finite element analysis code for nonlinear quasistatic solids. A damage criterion based on onset of dilatancy was used to evaluate cavern instability. Dilation results from the development of microfractures in salt and, hence, potential increases in permeability onset occurs well before large scale failure. The analyses predicted stable caverns throughout the 50-year period for the range of pressures investigated. Some localized salt damage was predicted near the bottom walls of the caverns if the caverns are operated at minimum pressure for long periods of time. Volumetric cavern closures over time due to creep were moderate to excessive depending on the salt creep properties and operating pressures. However, subsidence above the cavern field was small and should pose no problem, to surface facilities.

  4. Sonar surveys used in gas-storage cavern analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Crossley, N.G.

    1998-05-04

    Natural-gas storage cavern internal configuration, inspection information, and cavern integrity data can be obtained during high-pressure operations with specialized gas-sonar survey logging techniques. TransGas Ltd., Regina, Sask., has successfully performed these operations on several of its deepest and highest pressurized caverns. The data can determine gas-in-place inventory and assess changes in spatial volumes. These changes can result from cavern creep, shrinkage, or closure or from various downhole abnormalities such as fluid infill or collapse of the sidewall or roof. The paper discusses conventional surveys with sonar, running surveys in pressurized caverns, accuracy of the sonar survey, initial development of Cavern 5, a roof fall, Cavern 4 development, and a damaged string.

  5. Air quality in the Carlsbad cavern

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Yung-Seng; Chen, Tou-Rong; Wasiolek, P.T.

    1994-11-01

    The air quality in the Carlsbad Cavern has been investigated, but there are no reports on radon progeny and aerosols. The purpose of this experiment was to determine the activity size distribution of radon progeny and the air exchange rate inside the Cavern. Teams from ITRI and New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology (NMT) conducted the field study in July 1994. The ITRI graded diffusion battery (GDB) was used to determine the activity size distribution, progeny concentration, equilibrium factor, and unattached fraction of the radon progeny. The design, calibration, and performance of the GDB have been described. For this study, each stage of the GDB contained one stainless steel screen, with the mesh sizes arranged in a series of 30, 50, 145, 200, and 635 mesh from the air inlet to the outlet. A 47-nm type A/E glass fiber filter was used to collect all particles that penetrated the screens. The flow rate was 5 L/min. The average ventilation rate in the cavern is 0.0026 V/hr. Our results showed that the cavern atmosphere may be quite different from other underground environments. The atmosphere in the summer is stable and relatively free of airborne particles, partly due to the extremely slow air exchange rate.

  6. Imaging in orbital trauma

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ken Y.; Ngai, Philip; Echegoyen, Julio C.; Tao, Jeremiah P.

    2012-01-01

    Orbital trauma is one of the most common reasons for ophthalmology specialty consultation in the emergency department setting. We survey the literature from 1990 to present to describe the role of computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and their associated angiography in some of the most commonly encountered orbital trauma conditions. CT orbit can often detect certain types of foreign bodies, lens dislocation, ruptured globe, choroidal or retinal detachments, or cavernous sinus thrombosis and thus complement a bedside ophthalmic exam that can sometimes be limited in the setting of trauma. CT remains the workhorse for acute orbital trauma owing to its rapidity and ability to delineate bony abnormalities; however MRI remains an important modality in special circumstances such as soft tissue assessment or with organic foreign bodies. PMID:23961028

  7. A Rare Cavernous Hemangioma of the Adrenal Gland

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Cheng; Wu, Pengjie; Zhu, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Adrenal cavernous hemangiomas are rare nonfunctioning benign tumors. This case report presents a patient with a huge nonfunctioning adrenal cavernous hemangioma presenting as an adrenal incidentaloma suspicious for adrenal myelolipoma. Although adrenal cavernous hemangiomas are rare, they should be considered as a part of the differential diagnosis of adrenal neoplasms. The proper treatment is surgical excision due the risk of spontaneous tumor rupture and the difficulty of ruling out malignancy. PMID:26793524

  8. Cavernous sinus syndrome: need for early diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Toro, Jaime; Burbano, Lisseth Estefania; Reyes, Saúl; Barreras, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Cavernous sinus syndrome (CSS) is a rare condition characterised by ophthalmoplegia, proptosis, ocular and conjunctival congestion, trigeminal sensory loss and Horner's syndrome. These signs and symptoms result from the involvement of the cranial nerves passing through the cavernous sinus. We report the case of a 53-year-old man with a history of daily stabbing headache associated with dizziness, progressive blurred vision, right ocular pain, ptosis and ophthalmoplegia. After working up the patient, a meningioma was identified as the cause of the CSS. Despite advances in neuroimaging techniques, in some cases, the aetiology of CSS remains difficult to determine. We highlight the clinical and radiological features of a meningioma, one of the causes of CSS. Early diagnosis and treatment of CSS play a key role in a better prognosis. PMID:25819816

  9. [Cavernous hemangioma of the liver (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Lanuza, A; Olagüe, R; Vallcanera, A; Gracía, A; Páramo, C; Villanueva, A

    1978-02-01

    A three-month old asymptomatic infant was incidentally found to have an abdominal mass. Through standard radiological and vascular procedures it was defined as being of hepatic origin, vascular etiology and of benign prognosis. Differences among cavernous hemangioma, hepatoma, metastasis and hemangio-endothelioma are summarized. The importance of angiography is emphasized as an essential procedure previous to the surgical evaluation and therapy. PMID:566065

  10. Thoracic Cavernous Lymphangioma Provoking Massive Chyloptysis

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Robert; Hodges, Jeffrey; Harness-Brumley, Cayce; Girod, Carlos; Bartolome, Sonja

    2013-01-01

    Chyloptysis is a relatively rare embodiment of disease that encompasses a lengthy differential and provides many diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Presented here is the case of a young woman with massive chyloptysis due to a thoracic cavernous lymphangioma arising in the peripartum period. The severity of her condition mandated the use of cardiopulmonary bypass to resect her lymphangioma. We believe that the extent of her symptoms, etiology of disease, and surgical management represent a unique scenario in the literature. PMID:26425583

  11. Allowable pillar to diameter ratio for strategic petroleum reserve caverns.

    SciTech Connect

    Ehgartner, Brian L.; Park, Byoung Yoon

    2011-05-01

    This report compiles 3-D finite element analyses performed to evaluate the stability of Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) caverns over multiple leach cycles. When oil is withdrawn from a cavern in salt using freshwater, the cavern enlarges. As a result, the pillar separating caverns in the SPR fields is reduced over time due to usage of the reserve. The enlarged cavern diameters and smaller pillars reduce underground stability. Advances in geomechanics modeling enable the allowable pillar to diameter ratio (P/D) to be defined. Prior to such modeling capabilities, the allowable P/D was established as 1.78 based on some very limited experience in other cavern fields. While appropriate for 1980, the ratio conservatively limits the allowable number of oil drawdowns and hence limits the overall utility and life of the SPR cavern field. Analyses from all four cavern fields are evaluated along with operating experience gained over the past 30 years to define a new P/D for the reserve. A new ratio of 1.0 is recommended. This ratio is applicable only to existing SPR caverns.

  12. Strategic petroleum reserve (SPR): oil-storage cavern, Sulphur Mines 6 certification tests and analysis. [Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Beasley, R.R.

    1982-04-01

    Well leak tests and a cavern pressure test were conducted in June and July 1981 and indicated that oil leakage from the cavern is unlikely to exceed the DOE criterion if oil is stored at near atmospheric wellhead brine pressures and higher pressures are only used for short periods of oil fill and withdrawal. The data indicate that cavern structural failure during oil storage is unlikely and that there was no leakage from cavern 6 to the adjacent cavern 7. Because of the proximity of cavern 6 to cavern 7, it is recommended that a similar type of oil be stored in these two caverns.

  13. Balloon-Assisted Coiling of the Cavernous Sinus to Treat Direct Carotid Cavernous Fistula

    PubMed Central

    De Renzis, Alioscia.; Nappini, Sergio.; Consoli, Arturo; Renieri, Leonardo; Limbucci, Nicola; Rosi, Andrea; Vignoli, Chiara; Pellicanò, Giannantonio; Mangiafico, Salvatore

    2013-01-01

    Summary This study evaluated clinical and neuroradiological results in 13 consecutive patients with spontaneous and traumatic direct carotid cavernous fistulas treated at our center between January 2006 and September 2012. All patients were treated by coiling of the cavernous sinus. Coiling was always performed while a semi-compliant non-detachable balloon was temporarily inflated in the internal carotid artery. This technique (balloon-assisted coiling) permitted a clear visualization of the fistula, facilitated coil positioning and protected the patency of the artery. All patients’ clinical data and radiological examinations were reviewed; nine patients underwent radiological and clinical follow-up, with a mean duration of 3.8 years (range: six months-six years). Overall results at discharge showed a complete occlusion of the fistula in seven patients (7/13, 54%) and a resolution of symptoms in eight patients (8/12, 67%). Radiological follow-up showed complete occlusion of the fistula in all patients (9/9, 100%) and clinical follow-up showed a resolution of symptoms in eight patients (8/9, 89%) and persistent symptoms in one (1/9, 11%). No procedure-related complications occurred. Balloon-assisted coiling of the cavernous sinus for the treatment of direct carotid cavernous fistulas proved an effective and safe technique, both in angiographic and clinical terms, and may be considered a technical improvement. PMID:24070084

  14. Endovascular treatment of carotid cavernous sinus fistula: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Korkmazer, Bora; Kocak, Burak; Tureci, Ercan; Islak, Civan; Kocer, Naci; Kizilkilic, Osman

    2013-01-01

    Carotid cavernous sinus fistulas are abnormal communications between the carotid system and the cavernous sinus. Several classification schemes have described carotid cavernous sinus fistulas according to etiology, hemodynamic features, or the angiographic arterial architecture. Increased pressure within the cavernous sinus appears to be the main factor in pathophysiology. The clinical features are related to size, exact location, and duration of the fistula, adequacy and route of venous drainage and the presence of arterial/venous collaterals. Noninvasive imaging (computed tomography, magnetic resonance, computed tomography angiography, magnetic resonance angiography, Doppler) is often used in the initial work-up of a possible carotid cavernous sinus fistulas. Cerebral angiography is the gold standard for the definitive diagnosis, classification, and planning of treatment for these lesions. The endovascular approach has evolved as the mainstay therapy for definitive treatment in situations including clinical emergencies. Conservative treatment, surgery and radiosurgery constitute other management options for these lesions. PMID:23671750

  15. Salt caverns show promise for nonhazardous oil field waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.

    1996-11-18

    Salt caverns show promise for the disposal of non-hazardous oil field wastes, and there are no apparent regulatory barriers to this application. Solution-mined salt caverns have been used for many years for storing hydrocarbon products. Argonne National laboratory has reviewed the legality, technical suitability, and feasibility of disposing of nonhazardous oil and gas exploration and production wastes in salt caverns. An analysis of regulations indicates that there are no outright regulatory prohibitions on cavern disposal of oil field wastes at either the federal level or in the 11 oil-producing states that were studied (Kansas, Louisiana, Michigan, Mississippi, New Mexico, New York, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, and Texas). The paper discusses the two types of salt deposits in the US, regulatory concerns, wastes, cavern design, disposal operations, closure and remediation, and results of the feasibility study.

  16. [A case of mediastinal cavernous hemangioma].

    PubMed

    Maebeya, S; Nishimura, O; Yokoi, H; Shimizu, T; Yoshimasu, T; Naito, Y

    1990-03-01

    A 6-year-old boy had an abnormal shadow on the chest X-ray film. It showed a tumor shadow with calcification on the right hilum. The plain CT scan showed an anterior mediastinal mass and its density was similar to that of large vessels. On the angio CT scan the lesion displayed a much lower enhancement than large vessels. The tumor was resected completely by median sternotomy. It was 5.6 X 3.6 X 3.0 cm in size and contained a phlebolith 5 mm in diameter. The histological diagnosis was cavernous hemangioma. PMID:2348129

  17. Primary Intraosseous Cavernous Hemangioma in the Skull.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi; Guan, Jian; Ma, Wenbin; Li, Yongning; Xing, Bing; Ren, Zuyuan; Su, Changbao; Wang, Renzhi

    2016-03-01

    Primary intraosseous cavernous hemangiomas (PICHs) are benign vascular tumors that may involve any part of the body. PICH occurs more frequently in the spine and less commonly in skull. The earliest description in the English literature was in 1845 by Toynbee, who reported a vascular tumor arising in the confines of the parietal bone. Skull PICHs do not always have typical radiologic features and should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of malignant skull lesions. We now reviewed and analyzed related literatures in detail with reporting a rare case of PICH in the left front bone that was surgically resected. PMID:26986133

  18. Primary Intraosseous Cavernous Hemangioma in the Skull

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yi; Guan, Jian; Ma, Wenbin; Li, Yongning; Xing, Bing; Ren, Zuyuan; Su, Changbao; Wang, Renzhi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Primary intraosseous cavernous hemangiomas (PICHs) are benign vascular tumors that may involve any part of the body. PICH occurs more frequently in the spine and less commonly in skull. The earliest description in the English literature was in 1845 by Toynbee, who reported a vascular tumor arising in the confines of the parietal bone. Skull PICHs do not always have typical radiologic features and should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of malignant skull lesions. We now reviewed and analyzed related literatures in detail with reporting a rare case of PICH in the left front bone that was surgically resected. PMID:26986133

  19. Disposal of oil field wastes into salt caverns: Feasibility, legality, risk, and costs

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.

    1997-10-01

    Salt caverns can be formed through solution mining in the bedded or domal salt formations that are found in many states. Salt caverns have traditionally been used for hydrocarbon storage, but caverns have also been used to dispose of some types of wastes. This paper provides an overview of several years of research by Argonne National Laboratory on the feasibility and legality of using salt caverns for disposing of oil field wastes, the risks to human populations from this disposal method, and the cost of cavern disposal. Costs are compared between the four operating US disposal caverns and other commercial disposal options located in the same geographic area as the caverns. Argonne`s research indicates that disposal of oil field wastes into salt caverns is feasible and legal. The risk from cavern disposal of oil field wastes appears to be below accepted safe risk thresholds. Disposal caverns are economically competitive with other disposal options.

  20. Glaucoma Management in Carotid Cavernous Fistula

    PubMed Central

    Calafiore, Silvia; Perdicchi, Andrea; Scuderi, Gianluca; Contestabile, Maria Teresa; Abdolrahimzadeh, Solmaz; Recupero, Santi Maria

    2016-01-01

    Carotid cavernous fistulas (CCF) are vascular communications between the carotid artery and the cavernous sinus. Ophthalmologists are called to diagnose and manage the condition in cases that present with ocular features. A 73-year-old female was referred to our glaucoma center clinic. Eight years before, she had started receiving medication for glaucoma and had undergone laser iridotomy, but a satisfactory management of intraocular pressure (IOP) had not been achieved. The patient was complaining of intermittent diplopia, bilateral proptosis, and conjunctival chemosis over the past 6 months. Best-corrected visual acuity in the right (OD) and left eye (OS) was 9/10 and 10/10, respectively. Visual field testing showed slight paracentral field defects mostly in OS. IOP was 20 mm Hg in OD and 34 mm Hg in OS. We referred the patient to neuroradiology, and MRI angiography revealed a CCF with angiographic classification of Cognard grade 2. Closure of the CCF by transarterial embolization was performed in the neuroradiology department. One week following the procedure, the clinical signs of diplopia, proptosis, and conjunctival chemosis had greatly improved, and IOP was reduced to 12 mm Hg OD and 19 mm Hg in OS. Glaucoma treatment was maintained with topical brimatoprost, brinzolamide, and timolol. Owing to the risk of vision loss associated with vascular stasis, retinal ischemia, and high IOP, ophthalmologists must be aware of the clinical features of CCF and should request appropriate imaging studies such as MRI angiography in order to confirm the diagnosis and plan multidisciplinary treatment. PMID:27462258

  1. Glaucoma Management in Carotid Cavernous Fistula.

    PubMed

    Calafiore, Silvia; Perdicchi, Andrea; Scuderi, Gianluca; Contestabile, Maria Teresa; Abdolrahimzadeh, Solmaz; Recupero, Santi Maria

    2016-01-01

    Carotid cavernous fistulas (CCF) are vascular communications between the carotid artery and the cavernous sinus. Ophthalmologists are called to diagnose and manage the condition in cases that present with ocular features. A 73-year-old female was referred to our glaucoma center clinic. Eight years before, she had started receiving medication for glaucoma and had undergone laser iridotomy, but a satisfactory management of intraocular pressure (IOP) had not been achieved. The patient was complaining of intermittent diplopia, bilateral proptosis, and conjunctival chemosis over the past 6 months. Best-corrected visual acuity in the right (OD) and left eye (OS) was 9/10 and 10/10, respectively. Visual field testing showed slight paracentral field defects mostly in OS. IOP was 20 mm Hg in OD and 34 mm Hg in OS. We referred the patient to neuroradiology, and MRI angiography revealed a CCF with angiographic classification of Cognard grade 2. Closure of the CCF by transarterial embolization was performed in the neuroradiology department. One week following the procedure, the clinical signs of diplopia, proptosis, and conjunctival chemosis had greatly improved, and IOP was reduced to 12 mm Hg OD and 19 mm Hg in OS. Glaucoma treatment was maintained with topical brimatoprost, brinzolamide, and timolol. Owing to the risk of vision loss associated with vascular stasis, retinal ischemia, and high IOP, ophthalmologists must be aware of the clinical features of CCF and should request appropriate imaging studies such as MRI angiography in order to confirm the diagnosis and plan multidisciplinary treatment. PMID:27462258

  2. Evaluating the effects of the number of caverns on the performance of underground oil storage facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, E.L.; Ehgartner, B.L.

    1992-01-01

    Three dimensional finite element calculations were performed to investigate the effect field size, in terms of the number of caverns, on the performance of SPR oil storage caverns leached in domal salt (interms of surface subsidence, storage losses, and cavern integrity). The calculations were performed for cavern fields containing 1, 7, 19, and an infinite number of caverns. The magnitude and volume of subsidence was significantly affected by increasing the number of caverns (nearly an order of magnitude increase was predicted for each increase in field size), while the extent of subsidence (approximately 2000 m fromthe center of the field) and storage loss were not. Furthermore, the percentage of storage loss volume manifested as surface subsidence increased as the cavern field was enlarged. This was attributed to elasticvolumetric dilatation of overlying strata. The multiple cavern calculations demonstrate that storage losses are greater for caverns farther from the center of the caverns field. Based on an accumulated strain stability criteria, the larger cavern fields are predicted to have a shorter life. This criteria also indicates that caverns on the periphery of a field may show signs of instability before the inner caverns. The West Hackberry site (containing 22 caverns) subsidence data closely agrees with the 19 cavern model subsidence predictions, providing confidence in the calculations. Even a 19 cavern field, substantially large by SPR standards, does not approach the behavior predicted by infinite cavern models (which are frequently used because they are economical). This demonstrates that 3D modeling is required to accurately investigate the performance of a multi-cavern array. Although based on a typical SPR cavern design, the results of this study describe mechanics common to all multi-cavern fields and should, in general, be useful tocavern engineers and architects.

  3. CaveMan Version 3.0: A Software System for SPR Cavern Pressure Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    BALLARD,SANFORD; EHGARTNER,BRIAN L.

    2000-07-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy Strategic Petroleum Reserve currently has approximately 500 million barrels of crude oil stored in 62 caverns solution-mined in salt domes along the Gulf Coast of Louisiana and Texas. One of the challenges of operating these caverns is ensuring that none of the fluids in the caverns are leaking into the environment. The current approach is to test the mechanical integrity of all the wells entering each cavern approximately once every five years. An alternative approach to detecting cavern leaks is to monitor the cavern pressure, since leaking fluid would act to reduce cavern pressure. Leak detection by pressure monitoring is complicated by other factors that influence cavern pressure, the most important of which are thermal expansion and contraction of the fluids in the cavern as they come into thermal equilibrium with the host salt, and cavern volume reduction due to salt creep. Cavern pressure is also influenced by cavern enlargement resulting from salt dissolution following introduction of raw water or unsaturated brine into the cavern. However, this effect only lasts for a month or two following a fluid injection. In order to implement a cavern pressure monitoring program, a software program called CaveMan has been developed. It includes thermal, creep and salt dissolution models and is able to predict the cavern pressurization rate based on the operational history of the cavern. Many of the numerous thermal and mechanical parameters in the model have been optimized to produce the best match between the historical data and the model predictions. Future measurements of cavern pressure are compared to the model predictions, and significant differences in cavern pressure set program flags that notify cavern operators of a potential problem. Measured cavern pressures that are significantly less than those predicted by the model may indicate the existence of a leak.

  4. Strategic petroleum reserve caverns casing damage update 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Munson, D.E.; Molecke, M.A.; Neal, J.T.

    1998-01-01

    Hanging casing strings are used for oil and brine transfer in the domal salt storage caverns of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). Damage to these casings is of concern because hanging string replacement is costly and because of implications on cavern stability. Although the causes of casing damage are not always well defined, many events leading to damage are assumed to be the result of salt falls impacting the hanging strings. However, in some cases, operational aspects may be suspected. The history of damage to hanging strings is updated in this study to include the most recent events. Potential general domal and local operational and material factors that could influence the tendency for caverns to have salt falls are examined in detail. As a result of this examination, general factors, such as salt dome anomalies and crude type, and most of the operational factors, such as geometry, location and depressurizations, are not believed to be primary causes of casing damage. Further analysis is presented of the accumulation of insolubles during cavern solutioning and accumulation of salt fall material on the cavern floor. Inaccuracies in sump geometry probably make relative cavern insolubles contents uncertain. However, determination of the salt fall accumulations, which are more accurate, suggest that the caverns with the largest salt fall accumulations show the greatest number of hanging string events. There is good correlation between the accumulation rate and the number of events when the event numbers are corrected to an equivalent number for a single hanging string in a quiescent, operating cavern. The principal factor that determines the propensity for a cavern to exhibit this behavior is thought to be the effect of impurity content on the fracture behavior of salt.

  5. Disposal of nonhazardous oil field wastes into salt caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.; Elcock, D.; Raivel, M.; Caudle, D.

    1996-12-31

    Bedded and domal salt deposits occur in many states. If salt deposits are thick enough, salt caverns can be formed through solution mining. These caverns are created either incidentally as a result of salt recovery or intentionally to create an underground chamber that can be used for storing hydrocarbon products or disposing of wastes. This paper evaluates the legality, feasibility, and suitability of disposing of nonhazardous oil and gas exploration, development, and production wastes (hereafter referred to as oil field wastes, unless otherwise noted) in salt caverns.

  6. [Cavernous hemangioma confined to the tongue].

    PubMed

    Galletti, C

    1988-12-01

    The authors relate on a case of an isolated cavernous haemangioma of the body of the tongue characterized by considerable size. Such neoplasms, usually described within the more extensive chapter of the more common angiomatous lesion of the oral cavity, are relatively rare. The authors describe a personal case discussing the diagnostic spects of such lesion and emphasizing the importance of the arteriography of the carotid artery and the of the selective arteriography of the lingual arteries, especially in considering surgery. Biopsies are not recommended. After discussing the histopathological and clinical aspects of such lesions the Authors emphasize the therapeutic ones. Even though radiotherapy, cryotherapy, laser therapy, medical treatment, injection of sclerosing substances and the selective embolization, of the lingual artery seem to have some efficacy, the authors conclude that surgery in the therapy of choice in the isolated vascular lesions of the body of the tongue. PMID:3274631

  7. No more fear of the cavernous sinuses!

    PubMed

    Charbonneau, F; Williams, M; Lafitte, F; Héran, F

    2013-10-01

    After a review of the anatomy of the cavernous sinuses (CS), this work presents the clinical picture and imaging protocol of lesions which occur in this area. It outlines extension and imaging features of these lesions. It emphasises MRI appearance, such as T1, T2 and diffusion signal, type of contrast medium uptake. A complementary CT scan is performed if an associated abnormality of the base of the skull is suspected on MRI (lysis, condensation). This paper proposes a straightforward classification system depending on imaging and sets out the principal symptoms of the main aetiologies of CS lesions which are represented by various diseases such as tumours, inflammations, vascular abnormalities. Complementary to imaging, their diagnosis is based on clinical data i.e. known cancer, signs suggesting inflammation. Its rich iconography allows this article to be used as a reference in current clinical practice. PMID:24099909

  8. Cerebral cavernous malformation proteins at a glance.

    PubMed

    Draheim, Kyle M; Fisher, Oriana S; Boggon, Titus J; Calderwood, David A

    2014-02-15

    Loss-of-function mutations in genes encoding KRIT1 (also known as CCM1), CCM2 (also known as OSM and malcavernin) or PDCD10 (also known as CCM3) cause cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs). These abnormalities are characterized by dilated leaky blood vessels, especially in the neurovasculature, that result in increased risk of stroke, focal neurological defects and seizures. The three CCM proteins can exist in a trimeric complex, and each of these essential multi-domain adaptor proteins also interacts with a range of signaling, cytoskeletal and adaptor proteins, presumably accounting for their roles in a range of basic cellular processes including cell adhesion, migration, polarity and apoptosis. In this Cell Science at a Glance article and the accompanying poster, we provide an overview of current models of CCM protein function focusing on how known protein-protein interactions might contribute to cellular phenotypes and highlighting gaps in our current understanding. PMID:24481819

  9. Reference value developed for mechanical integrity of storage caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Crotogino, F.

    1996-10-28

    A reference value to verify the mechanical integrity of salt-cavern wells used in hydrocarbon storage has been developed. Salt caverns play important roles in large-scale storage of hydrocarbon gases and liquids. Required for safe and economical operation of these storage caverns is verification of the external mechanical integrity of the access (injection and withdrawal) wells. This study had the following goals: Provision of an overview of current practice; and Development of a reference for external well mechanical-integrity testing with respect to performance, data evaluation, and assessment. The storage cavern operators expected to gain the following: Comparability between method and assessments; Aid in influencing the movement towards standardization by regulators; and A firm technical base for use in litigation between the operator and other parties.

  10. Optic chiasmal cavernous angioma: A rare suprasellar vascular malformation

    PubMed Central

    Abou-Al-Shaar, Hussam; Bahatheq, Ayman; Takroni, Radwan; Al-Thubaiti, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Background: Suprasellar cavernous malformation in the optic pathway is not commonly encountered. To date, there are only few reports present in the literature. Case Description: The authors report a rare case of suprasellar optic pathway cavernous malformation in a 33-year-old female who presented with progressive visual loss. Her imaging revealed a large heterogeneous, hyperintense, hemorrhagic right suprasellar extra-axial complex cystic structure, causing mass effect on the adjacent hypothalamus and third ventricle displacing these structures. Gross total resection of the lesion was achieved utilizing a right frontal craniotomy approach. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of suprasellar chiasmal cavernous malformation. Conclusion: Although visual pathway cavernous malformation is a rare event, it should be included in the differential diagnosis of lesions occurring suprasellarly in the visual pathway and hypothalamus. PMID:27583178

  11. Urethral cavernous hemangioma in a female patient: a rare entity

    PubMed Central

    Bolat, Mustafa Suat; Yüzüncü, Kubilay; Akdeniz, Ekrem; Demirdoven, Ayse Nurten

    2015-01-01

    Genitourinary hemangiomas are rare entities of the urinary system. We reported a female patient who suffered dyspareunia and intermitant hematuria that was proved as urethral cavernous hemangioma. Despite its benign nature, hemangiomas may recur due to incomplet excision. PMID:26985270

  12. Orbital apex disorders: a case series.

    PubMed

    Warburton, R E; Brookes, C C D; Golden, B A; Turvey, T A

    2016-04-01

    Orbital apex syndrome is an uncommon disorder characterized by ophthalmoplegia, proptosis, ptosis, hypoesthesia of the forehead, and vision loss. It may be classified as part of a group of orbital apex disorders that includes superior orbital fissure syndrome and cavernous sinus syndrome. Superior orbital fissure syndrome presents similarly to orbital apex syndrome without optic nerve impairment. Cavernous sinus syndrome includes hypoesthesia of the cheek and lower eyelid in addition to the signs seen in orbital apex syndrome. While historically described separately, these three disorders share similar causes, diagnostic course, and management strategies. The purpose of this study was to report three cases of orbital apex disorders treated recently and to review the literature related to these conditions. Inflammatory and vascular disorders, neoplasm, infection, and trauma are potential causes of orbital apex disorders. Management is directed at the causative process. The cases described represent a rare but important group of conditions seen by the maxillofacial surgeon. A review of the clinical presentation, etiology, and management of these conditions may prompt timely recognition and treatment. PMID:26725107

  13. Burkitt leukemia with numb chin syndrome and cavernous sinus involvement.

    PubMed

    Seixas, Daniela Vasconcelos; Lobo, Ana Luísa; Farinha, Nuno Jorge; Cavadas, Laurentina; Campos, Maria Manuel; Ayres-Basto, Margarida; Pimenta, Maria Teresa Lavandeira

    2006-05-01

    Cavernous sinus syndrome is a rare event. Non-Hodgkin lymphomas, are one possible cause. Neurological presentation of these lymphomas is also exceptional. We report the case of an 11-year-old boy that developed a right third cranial nerve palsy and numbness in the distribution of the right mental nerve, with normal CSF, and enlargement of cavernous sinus on the same side, who was diagnosed Burkitt leukemia. PMID:16621630

  14. Oil field waste disposal in salt caverns: An information website

    SciTech Connect

    Tomasko, D.; Veil, J. A.

    1999-12-10

    Argonne National Laboratory has completed the construction of a Website for the US Department of Energy (DOE) that provides detailed information on salt caverns and their use for disposing of nonhazardous oil field wastes (NOW) and naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). Specific topics in the Website include the following: descriptions of salt deposits and salt caverns within the US, salt cavern construction methods, potential types of wastes, waste emplacement, regulatory issues, costs, carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic human health risks associated with postulated cavern release scenarios, new information on cavern disposal (e.g., upcoming meetings, regulatory issues, etc.), other studies supported by the National Petroleum Technology Office (NPTO) (e.g., considerations of site location, cavern stability, development issues, and bedded salt characterization in the Midland Basin), and links to other associated Web sites. In addition, the Website allows downloadable access to reports prepared on the topic that were funded by DOE. Because of the large quantities of NOW and NORM wastes generated annually by the oil industry, information presented on this Website is particularly interesting and valuable to project managers, regulators, and concerned citizens.

  15. Giant cystic cerebral cavernous malformation with multiple calcification - case report.

    PubMed

    Kim, Il-Chun; Kwon, Ki-Young; Rhee, Jong-Joo; Lee, Jong-Won; Hur, Jin-Woo; Lee, Hyun-Koo

    2013-09-01

    Cerebral cavernous malformation with giant cysts is rare and literature descriptions of its clinical features are few. In this case study, the authors describe the clinical symptoms, radiological findings, and pathological diagnosis of cerebral cavernous malformations with giant cysts, reviewing the relevant literature to clearly differentiate this from other disease entities. The authors present a case of a 19-year-old male with a giant cystic cavernous malformation, who was referred to the division of neurosurgery due to right sided motor weakness (grade II/II). Imaging revealed a large homogenous cystic mass, 7.2×4.6×6 cm in size, in the left fronto-parietal lobe and basal ganglia. The mass had an intra-cystic lesion, abutting the basal portion of the mass. The initial diagnosis considered this mass a glioma or infection. A left frontal craniotomy was performed, followed by a transcortical approach to resect the mass. Total removal was accomplished without post-operative complications. An open biopsy and a histopathological exam diagnosed the mass as a giant cystic cavernous malformation. Imaging appearances of giant cavernous malformations may vary. The clinical features, radiological features, and management of giant cavernous malformations are described based on pertinent literature review. PMID:24167810

  16. Recurrent proptotic diplopia due to congestive expansion of cavernous haemangioma with relapsing right-sided cardiac failure

    PubMed Central

    O'Mahony, D.; O'Neill, E.

    1999-01-01

    A 75-year-old man with a recent history of pulmonary embolism, presented with collapse followed by a gran mal seizure and right-sided non-pulsatile proptosis. On recovery, he had diplopia on lateral and upward gaze and signs of congestive cardiac failure. Further pulmonary embolism was proven by lung scintigraphy. Computed tomography of his orbits confirmed a contrast-enhancing space-occupying lesion of the medial wall of the right orbit, with no intracranial abnormality. The patient was investigated for metastatic tumour as a possible cause of the space-occupying lesion and the unprovoked thromboembolic event, but no evidence of malignancy was found. The orbital lesion was not biopsied because of the risk of bleeding from anticoagulation. Three weeks later, the patient re-presented with recurrent cardiac failure, proptosis, and diplopia. A transorbital ultrasound confirmed an encapsulated, well-defined vascular lesion, with typical appearances and Doppler flow characteristics of a cavernous haemangioma. Diuretic therapy abolished the proptosis and diplopia in tandem with relief of the cardiac failure. This is the first description of recurrent proptosis with diplopia due to recurrent congestive expansion of an orbital cavernous haemangioma.


Keywords: haemangioma; proptosis; diplopia; cardiac failure PMID:10621902

  17. Barotraumatic orbital emphysema of rhinogenic origin in a breath-hold diver: a case report.

    PubMed

    Bolognini, A; Delehaye, E; Cau, M; Cosso, L

    2008-01-01

    Orbital emphysema is a well-recognized complication of fractures involving the orbit. Commonly, it occurs when high pressure develops in nasal cavity as during nose blowing, coughing or Valsalva's maneuver and usually occurs in the subcutaneous tissues. We report the case of a young breath-hold diver who developed spontaneous, non compressive orbital emphysema during underwater fishing, with a maximal depth of 25-30 meters in the Sardinian sea. He was otherwise healthy, without previous cranio-facial trauma and nasosinusal diseases or surgery were not present in the history. When he was referred to our attention the patient presented right eyelid ptosis but diplopia and vision impairment were absent. Computer tomography scans showed subcutaneous air in the right upper eyelid and around the eyeball, particularly near the orbit's roof but optic nerve area, intraconal, was free of air. A dehiscence in lamina papyracea was evident. In our opinion, this has been the point of air entry into the orbit. A supportive therapy was advised and two weeks later the emphysema was recovered completely and the subject was symptoms free. The literature has been revised and to our knowledge no previous cases of barotraumatic orbital emphysema, in a breath-hold diver, are referred. PMID:18619111

  18. ADVANCED UNDERGROUND GAS STORAGE CONCEPTS REFRIGERATED-MINED CAVERN STORAGE

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    Limited demand and high cost has prevented the construction of hard rock caverns in this country for a number of years. The storage of natural gas in mined caverns may prove technically feasible if the geology of the targeted market area is suitable; and economically feasible if the cost and convenience of service is competitive with alternative available storage methods for peak supply requirements. It is believed that mined cavern storage can provide the advantages of high delivery rates and multiple fill-withdrawal cycles in areas where salt cavern storage is not possible. In this research project, PB-KBB merged advanced mining technologies and gas refrigeration techniques to develop conceptual designs and cost estimates to demonstrate the commercialization potential of the storage of refrigerated natural gas in hard rock caverns. Five regions of the U.S.A. were studied for underground storage development and PB-KBB reviewed the literature to determine if the geology of these regions was suitable for siting hard rock storage caverns. Area gas market conditions in these regions were also studied to determine the need for such storage. Based on an analysis of many factors, a possible site was determined to be in Howard and Montgomery Counties, Maryland. The area has compatible geology and a gas industry infrastructure for the nearby market populous of Baltimore and Washington D.C.. As Gas temperature is lowered, the compressibility of the gas reaches an optimum value. The compressibility of the gas, and the resultant gas density, is a function of temperature and pressure. This relationship can be used to commercial advantage by reducing the size of a storage cavern for a given working volume of natural gas. This study looks at this relationship and and the potential for commercialization of the process in a storage application. A conceptual process design, and cavern design were developed for various operating conditions. Potential site locations were considered

  19. Features of Bayou Choctaw SPR caverns and internal structure of the salt dome.

    SciTech Connect

    Munson, Darrell E.

    2007-07-01

    The intent of this study is to examine the internal structure of the Bayou Choctaw salt dome utilizing the information obtained from graphical representations of sonar survey data of the internal cavern surfaces. Many of the Bayou Choctaw caverns have been abandoned. Some existing caverns were purchased by the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) program and have rather convoluted histories and complex cavern geometries. In fact, these caverns are typically poorly documented and are not particularly constructive to this study. Only two Bayou Choctaw caverns, 101 and 102, which were constructed using well-controlled solutioning methods, are well documented. One of these was constructed by the SPR for their use while the other was constructed and traded for another existing cavern. Consequently, compared to the SPR caverns of the West Hackberry and Big Hill domes, it is more difficult to obtain a general impression of the stratigraphy of the dome. Indeed, caverns of Bayou Choctaw show features significantly different than those encountered in the other two SPR facilities. In the number of abandoned caverns, and some of those existing caverns purchased by the SPR, extremely irregular solutioning has occurred. The two SPR constructed caverns suggest that some sections of the caverns may have undergone very regular solutioning to form uniform cylindrical shapes. Although it is not usually productive to speculate, some suggestions that point to the behavior of the Bayou Choctaw dome are examined. Also the primary differences in the Bayou Choctaw dome and the other SPR domes are noted.

  20. Evidence for remotely triggered microearthquakes during salt cavern collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jousset, Philippe; Rohmer, Jérémy

    2012-10-01

    Microseismicity is a good indicator of spatio-temporal evolution of physical properties of rocks prior to catastrophic events like volcanic eruptions or landslides and may be triggered by a number of causes including dynamic characteristics of processes in play or/and external forces. We show evidence of triggered microseismicity observed in the vicinity of an underground salt cavern prone to collapse by a remote M˜ 7.2 earthquake, which occurred ˜12 000 km away. High-dynamic range broad-band records reveal the strong time-correlation between a dramatic change in the rate of local high-frequency microseismicity and the passage of low-frequency seismic waves, including body, Love and Rayleigh surface waves. Pressure was lowered in the cavern by pumping operations of brine out of the cavern. We demonstrate the near critical state of the cavern before the collapse by means of 2-D axisymmetric elastic finite-element simulations. On this basis, we show that the increment of stress necessary for the failure of the Dolomite layer, which ensures the stability of the whole system, is of the same order of magnitude as the maximum dynamic stress magnitude observed during the passage of the earthquakes waves. This suggests that the stress oscillations due to the seismic waves correlated with the recorded microearthquakes induced damage of the overburden, which eventually led to the collapse of the salt cavern. We show that the contribution of Rayleigh waves is the most efficient to trigger microseismicity at periods close to the natural fundamental frequency of the cavern system found at about 10-20 s by investigating the impulse response of the cavern + overburden + brine system.

  1. Evidence for remotely triggered microearthquakes during salt cavern collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jousset, Philippe; Rohmer, Jérémy

    2016-04-01

    Microseismicity is a good indicator of spatio-temporal evolution of physical properties of rocks prior to catastrophic events like volcanic eruptions or landslides and may be triggered by a number of causes including dynamic characteristics of processes in play or/and external forces. We show evidence of triggered microseismicity observed in the vicinity of an underground salt cavern prone to collapse by a remote M ˜ 7.2 earthquake, which occurred ˜12 000 km away. High-dynamic range broad-band records reveal the strong time-correlation between a dramatic change in the rate of local high-frequency microseismicity and the passage of low-frequency seismic waves, including body, Love and Rayleigh surface waves. Pressure was lowered in the cavern by pumping operations of brine out of the cavern. We demonstrate the near critical state of the cavern before the collapse by means of 2-D axisymmetric elastic finite-element simulations. On this basis, we show that the increment of stress necessary for the failure of the Dolomite layer, which ensures the stability of the whole system, is of the same order of magnitude as the maximum dynamic stress magnitude observed during the passage of the earthquakes waves. This suggests that the stress oscillations due to the seismic waves correlated with the recorded microearthquakes induced damage of the overburden, which eventually led to the collapse of the salt cavern. We show that the contribution of Rayleigh waves is the most efficient to trigger microseismicity at periods close to the natural fundamental frequency of the cavern system found at about 10-20 s by investigating the impulse response of the cavern + overburden + brine system.

  2. Lunar Holes and Their Associating Subsurface Caverns: From SELENE (Kaguya) to UZUME

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haruyama, J.; Kawano, I.; Nishibori, T.; Iwata, T.; Yamamoto, Y.; Shimada, K.; Yamamoto, K.; Hasenaka, T.; Morota, T.; Nishino, M. N.; Hashizume, K.; Shirao, M.; Komatsu, G.; Hasebe, N.; Shimizu, H.; Kobayashi, K.; Yokobori, S.; Miyake, Y.; Michikawa, Y.; Tsuji, T.; Shinoda, R.

    2016-05-01

    We present a summary of lunar holes and associated caverns. Furthermore, we also introduce the project Unprecedented Zipangu Underworld of the Moon/Mars Exploration (UZUME) to explore the holes and caverns.

  3. Treatment of Traumatic Carotid-Cavernous Fistula

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, C.; YANG, X.; Li, Y.

    2000-01-01

    Summary From 1986 to the end of 1998, 482 cases of traumatic carotid-cavernous fistula (TCCF) were treated by means of intravascular embolisation technique. The experience is overviewed in this article. Many kinds of detachable balloon catheters (including Chinese made detachable balloon catheters), coils and cyano aery late were used as embolic materials. Transcervical, transfemoral, anterior communicating artery, posterior communicating artery approach, or transvenous approach were selected according to conditions. A combination of different approaches or materials was used for complex TCCF. We found that the special sign, named “bileakage sign”, indicated multileakage of TCCF and was not mentioned before. All 482 cases of TCCF were embolised successfully, of which 405 cases maintained the patency of internal carotid artery (ICA). No death related to the treatment occurred in our group and the symptoms or signs in 462 cases were relieved after embolisation. Emergency embolisation was needed in some conditions such as serious epistaxis, delayed or repeatedly subdural haematoma and rapid visual impairment. Endovascular treatment of TCCF is a safe and efficient method. The time of operation, approach, and materials for embolisation must be carefully selected in order to obtain the best result. PMID:20667206

  4. Unusual Presentation of Cerebral Cavernous Malformation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Won-Hyung; Lim, Dong-Jun; Choi, Jong-Il; Ha, Sung-Kon; Kim, Sang-Dae; Kim, Se-Hoon

    2015-09-01

    Cerebral cavernous malformations (CMs) are vascular malformations of the central nervous system, which can be detected in the absence of any clinical symptoms. Nodules and cysts with mixed signal intensity and a peripheral hemosiderin rim are considered brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings typical of CMs. A 48-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of abnormal MRI findings without significant neurological symptoms. A cyst with an internal fluid-fluid level was found in the left basal ganglia on the initial brain MRI. We decided to observe the natural course of the asymptomatic lesion with serial MRI follow-up. On MRI at the 5-month follow-up, the cystic mass was enlarged and showed findings consistent with those of cystic CM. Surgical resection was performed and the pathological diagnosis was CM. Our experience suggests that the initial presentation of a CM can be a pure cyst and neurosurgeons should consider the likelihood of CMs in cases of cystic cerebral lesions with intracystic hemorrhage. PMID:26523262

  5. Unusual Presentation of Cerebral Cavernous Malformation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Won-Hyung; Choi, Jong-Il; Ha, Sung-Kon; Kim, Sang-Dae; Kim, Se-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral cavernous malformations (CMs) are vascular malformations of the central nervous system, which can be detected in the absence of any clinical symptoms. Nodules and cysts with mixed signal intensity and a peripheral hemosiderin rim are considered brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings typical of CMs. A 48-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of abnormal MRI findings without significant neurological symptoms. A cyst with an internal fluid-fluid level was found in the left basal ganglia on the initial brain MRI. We decided to observe the natural course of the asymptomatic lesion with serial MRI follow-up. On MRI at the 5-month follow-up, the cystic mass was enlarged and showed findings consistent with those of cystic CM. Surgical resection was performed and the pathological diagnosis was CM. Our experience suggests that the initial presentation of a CM can be a pure cyst and neurosurgeons should consider the likelihood of CMs in cases of cystic cerebral lesions with intracystic hemorrhage. PMID:26523262

  6. Spontaneous closure of posttraumatic high-flow carotid-cavernous fistula following cerebral angiography

    PubMed Central

    Meena, Ugan Singh; Gupta, Pankaj; Shrivastava, Trilochan; Purohit, Devendra

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic carotid-cavernous fistula (TCCF) is a direct communication between cavernous portion of the internal carotid artery (ICA) and cavernous sinus due to tear in ICA. Most of the cases are treated by endovascular embolization. Spontaneous resolution of high-flow TCCFs is extremely rare. We report a case of posttraumatic, direct, high-flow carotid cavernous fistula (Barrow type A) that resolved spontaneously after cerebral angiography. PMID:27057229

  7. Spontaneous closure of posttraumatic high-flow carotid-cavernous fistula following cerebral angiography.

    PubMed

    Meena, Ugan Singh; Gupta, Pankaj; Shrivastava, Trilochan; Purohit, Devendra

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic carotid-cavernous fistula (TCCF) is a direct communication between cavernous portion of the internal carotid artery (ICA) and cavernous sinus due to tear in ICA. Most of the cases are treated by endovascular embolization. Spontaneous resolution of high-flow TCCFs is extremely rare. We report a case of posttraumatic, direct, high-flow carotid cavernous fistula (Barrow type A) that resolved spontaneously after cerebral angiography. PMID:27057229

  8. CAVERN ROOF STABILITY FOR NATURAL GAS STORAGE IN BEDDED SALT

    SciTech Connect

    DeVries, Kerry L; Mellegard, Kirby D; Callahan, Gary D; Goodman, William M

    2005-06-01

    This report documents research performed to develop a new stress-based criterion for predicting the onset of damage in salt formations surrounding natural gas storage caverns. Laboratory tests were conducted to investigate the effects of shear stress, mean stress, pore pressure, temperature, and Lode angle on the strength and creep characteristics of salt. The laboratory test data were used in the development of the new criterion. The laboratory results indicate that the strength of salt strongly depends on the mean stress and Lode angle. The strength of the salt does not appear to be sensitive to temperature. Pore pressure effects were not readily apparent until a significant level of damage was induced and the permeability was increased to allow penetration of the liquid permeant. Utilizing the new criterion, numerical simulations were used to estimate the minimum allowable gas pressure for hypothetical storage caverns located in a bedded salt formation. The simulations performed illustrate the influence that cavern roof span, depth, roof salt thickness, shale thickness, and shale stiffness have on the allowable operating pressure range. Interestingly, comparison of predictions using the new criterion with that of a commonly used criterion indicate that lower minimum gas pressures may be allowed for caverns at shallow depths. However, as cavern depth is increased, less conservative estimates for minimum gas pressure were determined by the new criterion.

  9. Cavernous angioma of the optic chiasm--case report.

    PubMed

    Iwai, Y; Yamanaka, K; Nakajima, H; Miyaura, T

    1999-08-01

    A 31-year-old female presented with cavernous angioma originating from the optic chiasm manifesting as sudden onset of right retroorbital pain and right visual disturbance. She had a psychomotor seizure 10 years ago. Cavernous angioma at the right basal ganglia had been partially removed at that time. After the operation, the patient had left hemiparesis, but gradually improved. Neurological examination revealed decreased right visual acuity, left homonymous hemianopsia, and left hemiparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mixed signal intensity mass at the right optic nerve to the optic chiasm with a low signal intensity rim on T2-weighted imaging, situated at the right basal ganglia where the cavernous angioma had been partially resected. Right frontotemporal craniotomy was performed by the pterional approach. A subpial hematoma was situated at the right optic nerve to the optic chiasm. The hematoma with an angiomatous component was completely resected from the surrounding structure. Histological examination of the specimens confirmed cavernous angioma. Postoperatively, her right visual acuity was slightly improved, but the visual field defect was unchanged. We emphasize the importance of correct diagnosis by magnetic resonance imaging and subsequent resection for preserving and improving the visual function of patients with cavernous angiomas of the optic chiasm. PMID:10487042

  10. [Trigeminal-cavernous fistula. Report of a case and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Santos Franco, Jorge; Sánchez Olivera, Carlos; Saavedra Andrade, Rafael; Sandoval Balanzario, Miguel Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Persistent primitive trigeminal artery is a rare anatomical variant resulting from the absence of obliteration of the embryonic trigeminal artery. The shunt between the persistent primitive trigeminal artery and the cavernous sinus is called trigeminal-cavernous fistula. We report the case of a woman with a trigeminal-cavernous fistula secondary to head trauma who was treated by transarterial embolization. PMID:24108341

  11. Threat of a sinkhole: A reevaluation of Cavern 4, Bayou Choctaw salt dome, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Neal, J.T.; Todd, J.L.; Linn, J.K.; Magorian, T.R.

    1993-09-01

    Cavern Lake at Bayou Choctaw salt dome resulted from the failure of Cavern 7 in 1954. Uncontrolled solutioning of this cavern through the thin caprock had set the stage for overburden to collapse into the cavern below. A similar situation developed with nearby Cavern 4, but with less dissolutioning of the caprock. Because pressure loss was already a problem and because another 800 ft diameter lake would have endangered surface operations, solutioning of Cavern 4 was stopped and the cavern abandoned in 1957 in order to protect the already-small site. In 1978 the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) acquired a number of caverns at Bayou Choctaw, including Cavern 4, and the possible repeat of the Cavern 7 failure and formation of another lake thus became an issue. The cavern dimensions were re-sonared in 1980 for comparison with 1963 and 1977 surveys. Annual surface leveling between 1982--1992 showed less subsidence occurring than the site average, and a cavern monitoring system, installed in 1984, has revealed no anomalous motion. Repeat sonar surveys in 1992 showed very little, if any, change occurred since 1980 although a small amount of uncertainty exists as a result of changing sonar techniques. We conclude that significant additional solutioning or erosion of the caprock has not occurred and that there is no increased threat to SPR operations.

  12. Optical stimulation of the cavernous nerves in the rat prostate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fried, Nathaniel M.; Lagoda, Gwen A.; Scott, Nicholas J.; Su, Li-Ming; Burnett, Arthur L.

    2008-02-01

    Laser nerve stimulation has recently been studied as an alternative to electrical stimulation in neuroscience. Advantages include non-contact stimulation, improved spatial selectivity, and elimination of electrical stimulation artifacts. This study explores laser stimulation of the rat cavernous nerves, as a potential alternative to electrical nerve mapping during nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy. The cavernous nerves were surgically exposed in a total of 10 male rats. A Thulium fiber laser stimulated the nerves, with a wavelength of 1870 nm, pulse energy of 7.5 mJ, radiant exposure of 1 J/cm2, pulse duration of 2.5 ms, pulse rate of 10 Hz, and 1-mm laser spot diameter, for a stimulation time of 60 s. A significant increase in the intracavernosal pressure was detected upon laser stimulation, with pressure returning to baseline levels after stimulation. This study demonstrates the feasibility of non-contact laser stimulation of the cavernous nerves using near-infrared laser radiation.

  13. Scanning electron microscopy of a liver cavernous hemangioma.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, K; Itoshima, T; Ito, T; Ukida, M; Ogawa, H; Kitadai, M; Hattori, S; Mizutani, S; Nagashima, H

    1983-02-01

    A 39-year-old female with a large cavernous hemangioma of the liver was successfully treated by ligation of the left hepatic artery. A wedge biopsy specimen of the hemangioma was obtained after the ligation and was examined by scanning electron microscopy. The hemangioma was demarcated from the surrounding normal liver parenchyma and had a labyrinth of caves 50-150 microns in diameter. The caves were separated by fibrous septa 20-40 microns in width. Endothelial cells of the caves were spindle-shaped and arranged in parallel. The surface property of the caves resembled that of the hepatic artery and differed from that of the portal vein or hepatic vein. These findings support that the cavernous hemangioma of the liver was supplied by the hepatic artery. The labyrinthine structure of the cavernous hemangioma may explain the long standing contrast enhancement of the hemangioma after hepatic arteriography. PMID:6832546

  14. Tolerance of cranial nerves of the cavernous sinus to radiosurgery

    SciTech Connect

    Tishler, R.B.; Loeffler, J.S.; Alexander, E. III; Kooy, H.M. ); Lunsford, L.D.; Duma, C.; Flickinger, J.C. )

    1993-09-20

    Stereotactic radiosurgery is becoming a more accepted treatment option for benign, deep seated intracranial lesions. However, little is known about the effects of large single fractions of radiation on cranial nerves. This study was undertaken to assess the effect of radiosurgery on the cranial nerves of the cavernous sinus. The authors examined the tolerance of cranial nerves (II-VI) following radiosurgery for 62 patients (42/62 with meningiomas) treated for lesions within or near the cavernous sinus. Twenty-nine patients were treated with a modified 6 MV linear accelerator (Joint Center for Radiation Therapy) and 33 were treated with the Gamma Knife (University of Pittsburgh). Three-dimensional treatment plans were retrospectively reviewed and maximum doses were calculated for the cavernous sinus and the optic nerve and chiasm. Median follow-up was 19 months (range 3-49). New cranial neuropathies developed in 12 patients from 3-41 months following radiosurgery. Four of these complications involved injury to the optic system and 8 (3/8 transient) were the result of injury to the sensory or motor nerves of the cavernous sinus. There was no clear relationship between the maximum dose to the cavernous sinus and the development of complications for cranial nerves III-VI over the dose range used (1000-4000 cGy). For the optic apparatus, there was a significantly increased incidence of complications with dose. Four of 17 patients (24%) receiving greater than 800 cGy to any part of the optic apparatus developed visual complications compared with 0/35 who received less than 800 cGy (p = 0.009). Radiosurgery using tumor-controlling doses of up to 4000 cGy appears to be a relatively safe technique in treating lesions within or near the sensory and motor nerves (III-VI) of the cavernous sinus. The dose to the optic apparatus should be limited to under 800 cGy. 21 refs., 4 tabs.

  15. Cavernous Sinus Dural Fistula Treated by Transvenous Facial Vein Approach

    PubMed Central

    Prochazka, V.; Cizek, V.; Kacirova, R.

    2004-01-01

    Summary We report on the endovascular treatment of the spontaneous indirect dural carotid cavernous sinus type D fistula in a 60-year-old woman, in whom ipsilateral facial, angular and superior ophthalmic veins catheterization was performed to get access to the fistula site for embolization treatment. Approach via the facial vein is helpful after inferior petrosal sinus treatment failure. Although this technique requires caution in the angular vein region it allows a safe and effective treatment of these lesions. 3D rotational digital angiography can obtain more information of the angioarchitecture of the cavernous plexus and venous outflow for the catheter navigation. PMID:20587267

  16. Endonasal Endoscopic Management of Parasellar and Cavernous Sinus Meningiomas.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Bjorn; Zhang, Xin; Barkhoudarian, Garni; Griffiths, Chester F; Kelly, Daniel F

    2015-07-01

    The management of cavernous sinus and invasive parasellar meningiomas often requires a multimodality treatment approach. Early attempts at complete or near-complete removal of parasellar meningiomas involving the cavernous sinus, Meckel cave, clivus, and sella using anterolateral or lateral skull base approaches were typically unsuccessful and yielded high rates of new cranial neuropathy and other complications. This article presents a strategy of endonasal endoscopic parasellar skull base bony decompression and limited tumor removal followed by stereotactic radiotherapy, stereotactic radiosurgery, or observation. Patient selection, technical nuances, potential complications, and initial outcomes in a small series of patients are discussed. PMID:26141358

  17. [Ovarian torsion revealing an ovarian cavernous hemangioma in a child].

    PubMed

    M'pemba Loufoua-Lemay, A-B; Peko, J-F; Mbongo, J-A; Mokoko, J-C; Nzingoula, S

    2003-11-01

    The authors report one case of cavernous hemangioma of the left ovary, which was revealed by ovarian torsion. Such benign tumors of the blood vessels are rare in ovaries during childhood. This hemangioma was observed in a 13-year-old patient, who presented with abdominal and pelvic pain and vomiting. The pelvic mass was noted and sonography revealed a cystic tumor. An annexectomia was realized. Histology showed narcotized ovary cells, with an increased number of vascular channels composed of thin walled vessels, whose wall consisted of an endothelium. This aspect evoked a cavernous hemangioma of the ovary. PMID:14613693

  18. Ovarian cavernous hemangioma in an 8-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Mirilas, P; Georgiou, G; Zevgolis, G

    1999-04-01

    The case of an ovarian cavernous hemangioma with torsion in an 8-year-old girl is described. Current literature records less than 50 cases of which only 8 are in children. The presenting symptoms of acute abdomen and the ultrasonographic study led to the preoperative diagnosis of torsion of an ovarian tumor. Salpingo-oophorectomy and appendicectomy were performed with an uneventful postoperative course. The histological pattern of the tumor was that of an entirely cavernous hemangioma. The case is reported in view of its rarity. PMID:10342121

  19. [Pericardial Cavernous Hemangioma;Report of a Case].

    PubMed

    Marui, Tsutomu; Azuma, Kenichirou; Arakawa, Yuki; Murakami, Eiji; Murakawa, Shinji

    2016-03-01

    A case of pericardial cavernous hemangioma is presented. A 62-year-old man had a chest pain and was referred to our hospital because of an abnormal shadow in the mediastinum. Chest computed tomography showed a hypervascular tumor of 2.0 cm in size at the left side of pulmonary artery. Magnetic resonance imaging findings suggested the mucinous part of the tumor, suggesting liposarcoma, thymoma, and neurinoma etc. At surgery, the tumor was found to be in the pericardial cavity. After pericardotomy, the tumor was resected. The diagnosis of the tumor was cavernous hemangioma. There was no evidence of recurrence 2 years after the operation. PMID:27075295

  20. Herpes zoster ophthalmicus presenting as orbital abscess along with superior orbital fissure syndrome: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Lavaju, Poonam; Badhu, Badri Prasad; Shah, Sangeeta

    2015-01-01

    Orbital abscess and superior orbital fissure syndrome (SOFS) are rare manifestations of herpes zoster ophthalmicus. Herein, we report a case of orbital abscess along with SOFS in a 2.5-year-old-male child secondary to herpes zoster infection. He presented with a 5-day history of proptosis and ptosis of the right eye that had been preceded by vesicular eruptions on the right forehead and scalp. Computed tomography scan of the head and orbit showed orbital abscess and right cavernous sinus thrombosis. A diagnosis of orbital abscess with SOFS secondary to herpes infection was made. The condition subsequently improved following antiviral therapy, intravenous vancomycin and amikacin, and oral corticosteroids. PMID:26632131

  1. Endoscopic transnasal approach for orbital tumors: A report of four cases.

    PubMed

    Arai, Yasuhiro; Kawahara, Nobutaka; Yokoyama, Takaakira; Oridate, Nobuhiko

    2016-06-01

    Endoscopic transnasal approach is an excellent technique for resecting orbital tumors located inferiorly and/or medially to the optic nerve. The aim of this study was to present four cases of orbital tumor which were, at least in part, resected by an endoscopic transnasal approach and to discuss both indications and limitations of this approach through a comparison of the location and tumor status, including the pathology, of these cases. In two cases with orbital tumor located in a medial-inferior quadrant, we were able to resect it only by an endoscopic transnasal approach. Because we experienced transient diplopia and dyschromatopsia after resecting intraconal tumors, a careful choice for the best approach is suggested in view of the location, size and properties of the tumor. In the third case, with tumor located in an inferior-lateral quadrant, it was eventually resected using a frontal-zygomatic approach because the medial and inferior borders of the tumor could not be identified and the lateral border was beyond the limits of manipulation by an endoscopic transnasal approach. In the last case with possible malignant tumor adhered to the lateral vital, the tumor was resected using a transantral approach. Based on these experiences, we introduce the indications for an endoscopic transnasal resection of orbital tumors. PMID:26642943

  2. A singular case of cavernous internal carotid artery aneurysm in patient with cavernous sinus syndrome and bacterial meningitis.

    PubMed

    Sacchetti, Federico; Stagni, Silvia; Spinardi, Luca; Raumer, Luigi; Dentale, Nicola; Cirillo, Luigi

    2016-09-01

    We report the uncommon case of an acute cavernous sinus syndrome in a patient who was consequently discovered to have both a cavernous internal carotid artery aneurysm and bacterial meningitis. Which came first, the chicken or the egg? Which of the two, the aneurysm or the meningitis, gave rise to the patient's symptoms? We briefly reviewed the literature of similar cases and tried to analyze the possible pathophysiological relationship between these findings. Moreover, this case highlights the importance of a multidisciplinary management of these patients to better decide between a medical and a surgical and/or endovascular treatment. PMID:27594955

  3. Disposal of oil field wastes and NORM wastes into salt caverns.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.

    1999-01-27

    Salt caverns can be formed through solution mining in the bedded or domal salt formations that are found in many states. Salt caverns have traditionally been used for hydrocarbon storage, but caverns have also been used to dispose of some types of wastes. This paper provides an overview of several years of research by Argonne National Laboratory on the feasibility and legality of using salt caverns for disposing of nonhazardous oil field wastes (NOW) and naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), the risk to human populations from this disposal method, and the cost of cavern disposal. Costs are compared between the four operating US disposal caverns and other commercial disposal options located in the same geographic area as the caverns. Argonne's research indicates that disposal of NOW into salt caverns is feasible and, in most cases, would not be prohibited by state agencies (although those agencies may need to revise their wastes management regulations). A risk analysis of several cavern leakage scenarios suggests that the risk from cavern disposal of NOW and NORM wastes is below accepted safe risk thresholds. Disposal caverns are economically competitive with other disposal options.

  4. Converting LPG caverns to natural-gas storage permits fast response to market

    SciTech Connect

    Crossley, N.G.

    1996-02-19

    Deregulation of Canada`s natural-gas industry in the late 1980s led to a very competitive North American natural-gas storage market. TransGas Ltd., Regina, Sask., began looking for method for developing cost-effective storage while at the same time responding to new market-development opportunities and incentives. Conversion of existing LPG-storage salt caverns to natural-gas storage is one method of providing new storage. To supply SaskEnergy Inc., the province`s local distribution company, and Saskatchewan customers, TransGas previously had developed solution-mined salt storage caverns from start to finish. Two Regina North case histories illustrate TransGas` experiences with conversion of LPG salt caverns to gas storage. This paper provides the testing procedures for the various caverns, cross-sectional diagrams of each cavern, and outlines for cavern conversion. It also lists storage capacities of these caverns.

  5. Intracranial Pseudoaneurysms, Fusiform Aneurysms and Carotid-Cavernous Fistulas

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Xianli; Jiang, Chuhan; Li, Youxiang; Lv, Ming; Zhang, Jingbo; Wu, Zhongxue

    2008-01-01

    Summary The study assessed the effectiveness and safety of endovascular covered stents in the management of intracranial pseudoaneurysms, fusiform aneurysms and direct carotid-cavernous fistulas. Fourteen endovascular covered stents were used to repair three pseudoaneurysms, six fu-siform aneurysms and six direct carotid-cavernous fistulas. Aneurysms were in the carotid artery in seven cases, in the vertebral artery two cases. It was not possible to treat two additional cases transcutaneously for technical reasons
2/15. Percutaneous closure of the lesions with an endovascular covered stent was successful in 13 of 15 cases. Initial follow-up showed good stent patency. No complications were observed after stent implantation. During follow-up, stent thromboses were detected in two of nine patients with follow-up digital subtracted angiography. One carotid-cavernous fistula of Barrow Type A transformed into Barrow Type D at nine month follow-up study was cured with a procudure of Onyx-18 injection. Endovascular covered stents may be an option for percutaneous closure of intracranial pseudoaneurysms, fusiform aneurysms and direct carotid-cavernous fistulas. Endoluminal vascular repair with covered stents offers an alternative therapeutic approach to conventional modalities. PMID:20557743

  6. Spontaneous carotid cavernous fistula in Ehlers Danlos syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Fox, R; Pope, F M; Narcisi, P; Nicholls, A C; Kendall, B E; Hourihan, M D; Compston, D A

    1988-01-01

    A patient is described with Ehlers Danlos syndrome presenting with spontaneous carotid cavernous fistula, in whom there was biochemical evidence for defective type III collagen synthesis. Despite the risks associated with arterial manipulation, the fistula was successfully closed by interventional neuroradiology and the patient has since remained well. This outcome is in contrast with the results in previous reports. Images PMID:3204406

  7. Simulation of Cavern Formation and Karst Development Using Salt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Douglas C.; Ross, Alex R.

    1975-01-01

    A salt model was developed as a teaching tool to demonstrate the development of caverns and karst topography. Salt slabs are placed in a watertight box to represent fractured limestone. Erosion resulting from water flow can be photographed in time-lapse sequence or demonstrated in the laboratory. (Author/CP)

  8. 36 CFR 7.47 - Carlsbad Caverns National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Cave entry. (1) With the exception of the regular trips into Carlsbad Caverns under the guidance or supervision of employees of the National Park Service, no person shall enter any cave or undeveloped part or passage of any cave without a permit. (2) Permits. The Superintendent may issue written permits for...

  9. 36 CFR 7.47 - Carlsbad Caverns National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Cave entry. (1) With the exception of the regular trips into Carlsbad Caverns under the guidance or supervision of employees of the National Park Service, no person shall enter any cave or undeveloped part or passage of any cave without a permit. (2) Permits. The Superintendent may issue written permits for...

  10. 36 CFR 7.47 - Carlsbad Caverns National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Cave entry. (1) With the exception of the regular trips into Carlsbad Caverns under the guidance or supervision of employees of the National Park Service, no person shall enter any cave or undeveloped part or passage of any cave without a permit. (2) Permits. The Superintendent may issue written permits for...

  11. 36 CFR 7.47 - Carlsbad Caverns National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Cave entry. (1) With the exception of the regular trips into Carlsbad Caverns under the guidance or supervision of employees of the National Park Service, no person shall enter any cave or undeveloped part or passage of any cave without a permit. (2) Permits. The Superintendent may issue written permits for...

  12. 36 CFR 7.47 - Carlsbad Caverns National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Cave entry. (1) With the exception of the regular trips into Carlsbad Caverns under the guidance or supervision of employees of the National Park Service, no person shall enter any cave or undeveloped part or passage of any cave without a permit. (2) Permits. The Superintendent may issue written permits for...

  13. Analysis of SPR salt cavern remedial leach program 2013.

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Paula D.; Gutierrez, Karen A.; Lord, David L.; Rudeen, David Keith

    2013-09-01

    The storage caverns of the US Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) exhibit creep behavior resulting in reduction of storage capacity over time. Maintenance of oil storage capacity requires periodic controlled leaching named remedial leach. The 30 MMB sale in summer 2011 provided space available to facilitate leaching operations. The objective of this report is to present the results and analyses of remedial leach activity at the SPR following the 2011 sale until mid-January 2013. This report focuses on caverns BH101, BH104, WH105 and WH106. Three of the four hanging strings were damaged resulting in deviations from normal leach patterns; however, the deviations did not affect the immediate geomechanical stability of the caverns. Significant leaching occurred in the toes of the caverns likely decreasing the number of available drawdowns until P/D ratio criteria are met. SANSMIC shows good agreement with sonar data and reasonably predicted the location and size of the enhanced leaching region resulting from string breakage.

  14. Horizontal natural gas storage caverns and methods for producing same

    DOEpatents

    Russo, Anthony

    1995-01-01

    The invention provides caverns and methods for producing caverns in bedded salt deposits for the storage of materials that are not solvents for salt. The contemplated salt deposits are of the bedded, non-domed variety, more particularly salt found in layered formations that are sufficiently thick to enable the production of commercially usefully sized caverns completely encompassed by walls of salt of the formation. In a preferred method, a first bore hole is drilled into the salt formation and a cavity for receiving insolubles is leached from the salt formation. Thereafter, at a predetermined distance away from the first bore hole, a second bore hole is drilled towards the salt formation. As this drill approaches the salt, the drill assumes a slant approach and enters the salt and drills through it in a horizontal direction until it intersects the cavity for receiving insolubles. This produces a substantially horizontal conduit from which solvent is controlledly supplied to the surrounding salt formation, leaching the salt and producing a concentrated brine which is removed through the first bore hole. Insolubles are collected in the cavity for receiving insolubles. By controlledly supplying solvent, a horizontal cavern is produced with two bore holes extending therefrom.

  15. Analogue of Caldera Dynamics: the Controlled Salt Cavern Collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jousset, P. G.; Rohmer, J.

    2012-12-01

    Caldera collapse (or pit-crater) dynamics are inferred from geological observations and laboratory experiments. Here, we present an analogue of caldera collapse at field scale and possible analogy with large scale caldera dynamics. Through an original exploitation technique in sedimentary environment, a salt layer is emptied, leaving a brine-filled cavern, which eventually collapses after overburden falls into the cavern. Such a collapse was monitored in East France by many instruments (including GPS, extensometers, geophones, broadband seismological sensors, tiltmeter, gravity meter, … ), which allowed us to describe mechanisms of the collapse. Micro-seismicity is a good indicator of spatio-temporal evolution of physical properties of rocks prior to catastrophic events like volcanic eruptions or landslides and may be triggered by a number of causes including dynamic characteristics of processes in play or/and external forces. We show evidence of triggered micro-seismicity observed in the vicinity of this underground salt cavern prone to collapse by a remote M~7.2 earthquake, which occurred ~12000 kilometres away. High-dynamic broadband records reveal the strong time-correlation between a dramatic change in the rate of local high-frequency micro-seismicity and the passage of low-frequency seismic waves, including body, Love and Rayleigh surface waves. Pressure was lowered in the cavern by pumping operations of brine out of the cavern. We demonstrate the near critical state of the cavern before the collapse by means of 2D axisymmetric elastic finite-element simulations. Stress oscillations due to the seismic waves may have exceeded the strength required for the rupture of the complex media made of brine and rock triggering micro-earthquakes and leading to damage of the overburden and eventually collapse of the salt cavern. The increment of stress necessary for the failure of a Dolomite layer is of the same order or magnitude as the maximum dynamic stress magnitude

  16. Numerical Simulations of Leakage from Underground LPG Storage Caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Hajime; Pruess, Karsten

    2004-09-01

    To secure a stable supply of petroleum gas, underground storage caverns for liquified petroleum gas (LPG) are commonly used in many countries worldwide. Storing LPG in underground caverns requires that the surrounding rock mass remain saturated with groundwater and that the water pressure be higher than the liquid pressure inside the cavern. In previous studies, gas containment criteria for underground gas storage based on hydraulic gradient and pressure have been discussed, but these studies do not consider the physicochemical characteristics and behavior of LPG such as vaporization and dissolution in groundwater. Therefore, while these studies are very useful for designing storage caverns, they do not provide better understanding of the either the environmental effects of gas contamination or the behavior of vaporized LPG. In this study, we have performed three-phase fluid flow simulations of gas leakage from underground LPG storage caverns, using the multiphase multicomponent nonisothermal simulator TMVOC (Pruess and Battistelli, 2002), which is capable of solving the three-phase nonisothermal flow of water, gas, and a multicomponent mixture of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) in multidimensional heterogeneous porous media. A two-dimensional cross-sectional model resembling an actual underground LPG facility in Japan was developed, and gas leakage phenomena were simulated for three different permeability models: (1) a homogeneous model, (2) a single-fault model, and (3) a heterogeneous model. In addition, the behavior of stored LPG was studied for the special case of a water curtain suddenly losing its function because of operational problems, or because of long-term effects such as clogging of boreholes. The results of the study indicate the following: (1) The water curtain system is a very powerful means for preventing gas leakage from underground storage facilities. By operating with appropriate pressure and layout, gas containment can be ensured. (2

  17. Fracture and Healing of Rock Salt Related to Salt Caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, K.S.; Fossum, A.F.; Munson, D.E.

    1999-03-01

    In recent years, serious investigations of potential extension of the useful life of older caverns or of the use of abandoned caverns for waste disposal have been of interest to the technical community. All of the potential applications depend upon understanding the reamer in which older caverns and sealing systems can fail. Such an understanding will require a more detailed knowledge of the fracture of salt than has been necessary to date. Fortunately, the knowledge of the fracture and healing of salt has made significant advances in the last decade, and is in a position to yield meaningful insights to older cavern behavior. In particular, micromechanical mechanisms of fracture and the concept of a fracture mechanism map have been essential guides, as has the utilization of continuum damage mechanics. The Multimechanism Deformation Coupled Fracture (MDCF) model, which is summarized extensively in this work was developed specifically to treat both the creep and fracture of salt, and was later extended to incorporate the fracture healing process known to occur in rock salt. Fracture in salt is based on the formation and evolution of microfractures, which may take the form of wing tip cracks, either in the body or the boundary of the grain. This type of crack deforms under shear to produce a strain, and furthermore, the opening of the wing cracks produce volume strain or dilatancy. In the presence of a confining pressure, microcrack formation may be suppressed, as is often the case for triaxial compression tests or natural underground stress situations. However, if the confining pressure is insufficient to suppress fracture, then the fractures will evolve with time to give the characteristic tertiary creep response. Two first order kinetics processes, closure of cracks and healing of cracks, control the healing process. Significantly, volume strain produced by microfractures may lead to changes in the permeability of the salt, which can become a major concern in

  18. Traumatic carotid-cavernous sinus fistula accompanying abducens nerve (VI) palsy in blowout fractures: missed diagnosis of 'white-eyed shunt'.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Woo; Kim, Sun-Jong; Kim, Myung-Rae

    2013-04-01

    We report the case of a 32-year-old woman with bilateral blowout fractures. She presented with diplopia showing impaired abduction of the left eye soon after trauma. No other orbito-ocular signs, such as exophthalmos, ptosis, or chemosis, were found. Orbital reconstruction was performed, but no improvement in her ophthalmoplegia was observed after surgery. A carotid angiography showed that she was suffering from a posteriorly draining carotid-cavernous sinus fistula with isolated abducens nerve palsy. Coil embolization was conducted under the consultation of a neurosurgeon, after which her ophthalmoplegia resolved fully. This is a rare case of posteriorly draining carotid-cavernous sinus fistula without classic orbito-ocular signs, the absence of which may cause diagnostic confusion. PMID:23415244

  19. Long-term sealing analyses for US Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Ehgartner, B.

    1994-02-01

    It is inevitable that sealing and abandonment will someday occur in a SPR cavern or caverns. To gain insight into the long-term behavior of a typical SPR cavern following sealing and abandonment, a suite of mechanical finite-element calculations was performed. The initial analyses predict how quickly and to what extent a cavern pressurizes after it is plugged. The analyses also examine the stability of the cavern as it changes shape due to the excessive pressures generated as the salt creeps and the brine in the cavern thermally expands. These large-scale analyses do not include the details of the plug but assume a good seal is established in the cavern wells. In another series of analyses, the potential for forming a leak at the plug is evaluated. A cement plug, emplaced in the casing seat of a cavern well, is loaded using the predicted brine pressures from the cavern analyses. The plugged casing analyses examine the potential for forming a leak path in and along the interfaces of salt, casing, and cement plug. In the last set of analysis, the dimensional scale of the problem is further reduced to examine a preexisting crack along a casing/salt interface. The cracked interface is assumed to be fluid filled and fully pressurized by the cavern fluids. The analyses address the potential for the fluid path to extend upwards along a plugged casing should an open microannulus surround the casing after it is plugged.

  20. Preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil field waste into salt caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.; Elcock, D.; Raivel, M.; Caudle, D.; Ayers, R.C. Jr.; Grunewald, B.

    1996-06-01

    Caverns can be readily formed in salt formations through solution mining. The caverns may be formed incidentally, as a result of salt recovery, or intentionally to create an underground chamber that can be used for storing hydrocarbon products or compressed air or disposing of wastes. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the feasibility, suitability, and legality of disposing of nonhazardous oil and gas exploration, development, and production wastes (hereafter referred to as oil field wastes, unless otherwise noted) in salt caverns. Chapter 2 provides background information on: types and locations of US subsurface salt deposits; basic solution mining techniques used to create caverns; and ways in which salt caverns are used. Later chapters provide discussion of: federal and state regulatory requirements concerning disposal of oil field waste, including which wastes are considered eligible for cavern disposal; waste streams that are considered to be oil field waste; and an evaluation of technical issues concerning the suitability of using salt caverns for disposing of oil field waste. Separate chapters present: types of oil field wastes suitable for cavern disposal; cavern design and location; disposal operations; and closure and remediation. This report does not suggest specific numerical limits for such factors or variables as distance to neighboring activities, depths for casings, pressure testing, or size and shape of cavern. The intent is to raise issues and general approaches that will contribute to the growing body of information on this subject.

  1. Sensitivity of storage field performance to geologic and cavern design parameters in salt domes.

    SciTech Connect

    Ehgartner, Brian L.; Park, Byoung Yoon

    2009-03-01

    A sensitivity study was performed utilizing a three dimensional finite element model to assess allowable cavern field sizes for strategic petroleum reserve salt domes. A potential exists for tensile fracturing and dilatancy damage to salt that can compromise the integrity of a cavern field in situations where high extraction ratios exist. The effects of salt creep rate, depth of salt dome top, dome size, caprock thickness, elastic moduli of caprock and surrounding rock, lateral stress ratio of surrounding rock, cavern size, depth of cavern, and number of caverns are examined numerically. As a result, a correlation table between the parameters and the impact on the performance of storage field was established. In general, slower salt creep rates, deeper depth of salt dome top, larger elastic moduli of caprock and surrounding rock, and a smaller radius of cavern are better for structural performance of the salt dome.

  2. Beta electron fluxes inside a magnetic plasma cavern: Calculation and comparison with experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stupitskii, E. L.; Smirnov, E. V.; Kulikova, N. A.

    2010-12-01

    We study the possibility of electrostatic blanking of beta electrons in the expanding spherical blob of a radioactive plasma in a rarefied ionosphere. From numerical studies on the dynamics of beta electrons departing a cavern, we obtain the form of a function that determines the portion of departing electrons and calculate the flux density of beta electrons inside the cavern in relation to the Starfish Prime nuclear blast. We show that the flux density of electrons in geomagnetic flux tubes and inside the cavern depend on a correct allowance for the quantity of beta electrons returning to the cavern. On the basis of a physical analysis, we determine the approximate criterion for the return of electrons from a geomagnetic flux tube to the cavern. We compare calculation results in terms of the flux density of beta electrons inside the cavern with the recently published experimental results from operation Starfish Prime.

  3. Regulatory, technical pressures prompt more U. S. salt-cavern gas storage

    SciTech Connect

    Barron, T.F. )

    1994-09-12

    Natural-gas storage in US salt caverns is meeting the need for flexible, high delivery and injection storage following implementation Nov. 1, 1993, of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's Order 636. This ruling has opened the US underground natural-gas storage market to more participants and created a demand for a variety of storage previously provided by pipelines as part of their bundled sales services. Many of these new services such as no-notice and supply balancing center on use of high-delivery natural gas storage from salt caverns. Unlike reservoir storage, nothing restricts flow in a cavern. The paper discusses the unique properties of salt that make it ideal for gas storage, choosing a location for the storage facility, cavern depth and shape, cavern size, spacing, pressures, construction, conversion or brine or LPG storage caverns to natural gas, and operation.

  4. Sensitivity of storage field performance to geologic and cavern design parameters in salt domes.

    SciTech Connect

    Ehgartner, Brian L.; Park, Byoung Yoon; Herrick, Courtney Grant

    2010-06-01

    A sensitivity study was performed utilizing a three dimensional finite element model to assess allowable cavern field sizes in strategic petroleum reserve salt domes. A potential exists for tensile fracturing and dilatancy damage to salt that can compromise the integrity of a cavern field in situations where high extraction ratios exist. The effects of salt creep rate, depth of salt dome top, dome size, caprock thickness, elastic moduli of caprock and surrounding rock, lateral stress ratio of surrounding rock, cavern size, depth of cavern, and number of caverns are examined numerically. As a result, a correlation table between the parameters and the impact on the performance of a storage field was established. In general, slower salt creep rates, deeper depth of salt dome top, larger elastic moduli of caprock and surrounding rock, and a smaller radius of cavern are better for structural performance of the salt dome.

  5. Multidetector computed tomography evaluation of cavernous haemangioma of the azygous vein

    PubMed Central

    Das, Karuna Moy; Ahmed, Ali M.; Aljubab, Abdulwahab; Alzoum, Mohammed A.

    2013-01-01

    Giant cavernous haemangioma of azygous arch is extremely rare. We present the multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) features of a mediastinal cavernous haemangioma in an asymptomatic child detected in a follow-up examination. MDCT features with multiple venous lakes filling from the periphery, focal specks of calcification, low-density soft tissue mass along with tortuous varicose veins and large feeding veins from the abdomen are suggestive of cavernous haemangioma. PMID:23660735

  6. Cavernous hemangioma of the submandibular gland with parapharyngeal extension in an adult: Case report.

    PubMed

    Azadarmaki, Roya; Then, Matthew T; Walia, Rohit; Lango, Miriam N

    2016-02-01

    Cavernous hemangiomas of the submandibular gland are rare. Signs and symptoms typically resemble those of sialolithiasis and chronic sialadenitis. If a lesion extends into the parapharyngeal space, otalgia and sore throat can result. Spontaneous regression is not a characteristic of cavernous hemangiomas. Surgical excision is a management option. We report the case of an adult with a submandibular gland cavernous hemangioma with parapharyngeal extension. PMID:26930336

  7. A giant frontal cavernous malformation with review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Arvind; Mittal, Radhey Shyam

    2016-01-01

    Cavernous malformations (CMs) are vascular anomalies with dilated spaces called caverns. These spaces are lined by endothelial cells and collage and devoid of smooth muscle or intervening neural tissue, and filled with blood at various stages of stasis, thrombosis, organization, and calcification. Most CMs are relatively small in size but when they are large enough they can produce sing of mass effect and may simulate neoplastic, vascular, inflammatory pathology. Giant CM (size >6 cm) are very rare lesions and very few cases are reported in world literature. We are reporting such a rare case of a 16 year male. Our case is also unique in the sense that it is the largest reported CM in Indian population. PMID:27114662

  8. Red blood cell scan in cavernous hemangioma of the larynx

    SciTech Connect

    Finkelstein, D.M.; Noyek, A.M.; Kirsh, J.C. )

    1989-09-01

    Cavernous hemangioma of the larynx is an uncommon, difficult-to-diagnose vascular tumor for which there is no significant imaging literature to date. The possibility of improved diagnosis through RBC scanning might obviate injudicious biopsy and potential hemorrhage within the airway. Utilizing the radionuclide RBC scan, which labels the patient's own RBCs initially with cold pyrophosphate, and subsequently with technetium 99m as pertechnetate, we have identified successfully four patients with cavernous hemangioma of the larynx. All presented with a supraglottic mass involving at least the aryepiglottic fold and arytenoid region unilaterally. This report describes our satisfactory diagnostic imaging experience with the radionuclide RBC scan and suggests both its imaging specificity and its role in the management of this lesion.

  9. Fiber optic remote inspecting technique for caverned large oil tanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weilai; Jiang, Desheng; Cao, He

    2000-12-01

    In the management of caverned fuel oil inventory, a strict rule of fire control has always been the first priority due to the special conditions. It is always a challenge to perform automatic measurement by means of conventional electrical devices for inspecting oil tank level there. Introduced in this paper is a fiber optic gauging technique with millimeter precision for automatic measurement in caverned tanks. Instead of using any electrical device, it uses optical encoders and optical fibers for converting and transmitting signals. Its principle, specifications, installation and applications are discussed in detail. Theoretical analysis of the factors affecting its accuracy, stability, and special procedures adopted in the installation of the fiber optic gauge are also discussed.

  10. [Post-traumatic carotid cavernous fistula: report of two cases].

    PubMed

    Pons, Y; Ukkola-Pons, E; Hunkemöller, I; Raynal, M; Lepage, P; Blondet, E; Rigal-Sastourne, J C; Héran, F; Kossowski, M

    2010-01-01

    Carotid cavernous fistula (CCF) is an abnormal communication between the cavernous sinus and the carotid arterial system. The authors reported the clinical presentation and therapeutic procedure of two cases. The physician has to be aware of this diagnosis when a patient is referred for a posttraumatic exophthalmia. The medical behaviour is multidisciplinary (ENT, ophthalmologist, radiologist and neurosurgeon). The imaging of choice is the angiography but angio-MRI and angio-CT can help to confirm the diagnosis. The endovascular embolization is the treatment of choice. It presents an acceptable risk of complication and a low risk of failure. In this paper the authors report 2 posttraumatic CCF cases treated with success by endovascular embolization. PMID:21491776

  11. STORAGE OF CHILLED NATURAL GAS IN BEDDED SALT STORAGE CAVERNS

    SciTech Connect

    JOel D. Dieland; Kirby D. Mellegard

    2001-11-01

    This report provides the results of a two-phase study that examines the economic and technical feasibility of converting a conventional natural gas storage facility in bedded salt into a refrigerated natural gas storage facility for the purpose of increasing the working gas capacity of the facility. The conceptual design used to evaluate this conversion is based on the design that was developed for the planned Avoca facility in Steuben County, New York. By decreasing the cavern storage temperature from 43 C to -29 C (110 F to -20 F), the working gas capacity of the facility can be increased by about 70 percent (from 1.2 x 10{sup 8} Nm{sup 3} or 4.4 billion cubic feet (Bcf) to 2.0 x 10{sup 8} Nm{sup 3} or 7.5 Bcf) while maintaining the original design minimum and maximum cavern pressures. In Phase I of the study, laboratory tests were conducted to determine the thermal conductivity of salt at low temperatures. Finite element heat transfer calculations were then made to determine the refrigeration loads required to maintain the caverns at a temperature of -29 C (-20 F). This was followed by a preliminary equipment design and a cost analysis for the converted facility. The capital cost of additional equipment and its installation required for refrigerated storage is estimated to be about $13,310,000 or $160 per thousand Nm{sup 3} ($4.29 per thousand cubic feet (Mcf)) of additional working gas capacity. The additional operating costs include maintenance refrigeration costs to maintain the cavern at -29 C (-20 F) and processing costs to condition the gas during injection and withdrawal. The maintenance refrigeration cost, based on the current energy cost of about $13.65 per megawatt-hour (MW-hr) ($4 per million British thermal units (MMBtu)), is expected to be about $316,000 after the first year and to decrease as the rock surrounding the cavern is cooled. After 10 years, the cost of maintenance refrigeration based on the $13.65 per MW-hr ($4 per MMBtu) energy cost is

  12. Cataract surgery in a case of carotid cavernous fistula

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Akshay Gopinathan; Praveen, Smita Vittal; Noronha, Veena Olma

    2014-01-01

    A carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF) is an abnormal communication between the cavernous sinus and the carotid arterial system. The ocular manifestations include conjunctival chemosis, proptosis, globe displacement, raised intraocular pressure and optic neuropathy. Although management of CCF in these patients is necessary, the ophthalmologist may also have to treat other ocular morbidities such as cataract. Cataract surgery in patients with CCF may be associated with many possible complications, including suprachoroidal hemorrhage. We describe cataract extraction surgery in 60-year-old female with bilateral spontaneous low-flow CCF. She underwent phacoemulsification via a clear corneal route under topical anesthesia and had an uneventful postoperative phase and recovered successfully. Given the various possible ocular changes in CCF, one must proceed with an intraocular surgery with caution. In this communication, we wish to describe the surgical precautions and the possible pitfalls in cataract surgery in patients with CCF. PMID:25370401

  13. Relative Evaluation of the Independent Volume Measures of Caverns

    SciTech Connect

    MUNSON,DARRELL E.

    2000-08-01

    Throughout the construction and operation of the caverns of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR), three types of cavern volume measurements have been maintained. These are: (1) the calculated solution volume determined during initial construction by solution mining and any subsequent solutioning during oil transfers, (2) the calculated sonar volume determined through sonar surveys of the cavern dimensions, and (3) the direct metering of oil to determine the volume of the cavern occupied by the oil. The objective of this study is to compare these measurements to each other and determine, if possible, the uncertainties associated with a given type of measurement. Over time, each type of measurement has acquired a customary, or an industry accepted, stated uncertainty. This uncertainty is not necessarily the result of a technical analysis. Ultimately there is one definitive quantity, the oil volume measure by the oil custody transfer meters, taken by all parties to the transfer as the correct ledger amount and for which the SPR Project is accountable. However, subsequent transfers within a site may not be with meters of the same accuracy. In this study, a very simple theory of the perfect relationship is used to evaluate the correlation (deviation) of the various measures. This theory permits separation of uncertainty and bias. Each of the four SPR sites are examined, first with comparisons between the calculated solution volumes and the sonar volumes determined during construction, then with comparisons of the oil inventories and the sonar volumes obtained either by surveying through brine prior to oil filling or through the oil directly.

  14. Cavernous angioma with olivary hypertrophy and contralateral cerebellar diaschisis.

    PubMed

    Komaba, Y; Nomoto, T; Kitamura, S; Terashi, A

    1997-07-01

    We describe a 66-year-old man with a 20-year history of ataxic gait who suddenly developed diplopia on rightward gaze. Neurologic examination revealed right hemi-ataxia and hemi-hypesthesia, and left internuclear ophthalmoplegia. MRI showed a cavernous angioma in the left tectum, mild right cerebellar atrophy, and left interior olivary hypertrophy. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging demonstrated contralateral cerebellar diaschisis. We discuss the findings and review the literature concerning contralateral cerebellar diaschisis. PMID:9240502

  15. Configuration of Fibrous and Adipose Tissues in the Cavernous Sinus

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Liang; Gao, Fei; Xu, Qunyuan; Zhang, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Objective Three-dimensional anatomical appreciation of the matrix of the cavernous sinus is one of the crucial necessities for a better understanding of tissue patterning and various disorders in the sinus. The purpose of this study was to reveal configuration of fibrous and adipose components in the cavernous sinus and their relationship with the cranial nerves and vessels in the sinus and meningeal sinus wall. Materials and Methods Nineteen cadavers (8 females and 11 males; age range, 54–89 years; mean age, 75 years) were prepared as transverse (6 sets), coronal (3 sets) and sagittal (10 sets) plastinated sections that were examined at both macroscopic and microscopic levels. Results Two types of the web-like fibrous networks were identified and localized in the cavernous sinus. A dural trabecular network constituted a skeleton-frame in the sinus and contributed to the sleeves of intracavernous cranial nerves III, IV, V1, V2 and VI. A fine trabecular network, or adipose tissue, was the matrix of the sinus and was mainly distributed along the medial side of the intracavernous cranial nerves, forming a dumbbell-shaped adipose zone in the sinus. Conclusions This study revealed the nature, fine architecture and localization of the fine and dural trabecular networks in the cavernous sinus and their relationship with intracavernous cranial nerves and vessels. The results may be valuable for better understanding of tissue patterning in the cranial base and better evaluation of intracavernous disorders, e.g. the growth direction and extent of intracavernous tumors. PMID:24586578

  16. The depth of the oil/brine interface and crude oil leaks in SPR caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Heffelfinger, G.S.

    1991-06-01

    Monitoring wellhead pressure evolution is the best method of detecting crude oil leaks in SPR caverns while oil/brine interface depth measurements provide additional insight. However, to fully utilize the information provided by these interface depth measurements, a thorough understanding of how the interface movement corresponds to cavern phenomena, such as salt creep, crude oil leakage, and temperature equilibration, as well as to wellhead pressure, is required. The time evolution of the oil/brine interface depth is a function of several opposing factors. Cavern closure due to salt creep and crude oil leakage, if present, move the interface upward. Brine removal and temperature equilibration of the oil/brine system move the interface downward. Therefore, the relative magnitudes of these factors determine the net direction of interface movement. Using a mass balance on the cavern fluids, coupled with a simplified salt creep model for closure in SPR caverns, the movement of the oil/brine interface has been predicted for varying cavern configurations, including both right-cylindrical and carrot-shaped caverns. Three different cavern depths and operating pressures have been investigated. In addition, the caverns were investigated at four different points in time, allowing for varying extents of temperature equilibration. Time dependent interface depth changes of a few inches to a few feet were found to be characteristic of the range of cases studied. 5 refs, 19 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Can nonhazardous oil field wastes be disposed of in salt caverns?

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.

    1996-10-01

    Solution-mined salt caverns have been used for many years for storing hydrocarbon products. This paper summarizes an Argonne National Laboratory report that reviews the legality, technical suitability, and feasibility of disposing of nonhazardous oil and gas exploration and production wastes in salt caverns. An analysis of regulations indicated that there are no outright regulatory prohibitions on cavern disposal -of oil field wastes at either the federal level or in the 11 oil-producing states that were studied. There is no actual field experience on the long-term impacts that might arise following closure of waste disposal caverns. Although research has found that pressures will build up in a closed cavern, none has specifically addressed caverns filled with oil field wastes. More field research on pressure build up in closed caverns is needed. On the basis of preliminary investigations, we believe that disposal of oil field wastes in salt caverns is legal and feasible. The technical suitability of the practice depends on whether the caverns are well-sited and well-designed, carefully operated, properly closed, and routinely monitored.

  18. New information on disposal of oil field wastes in salt caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.

    1996-10-01

    Solution-mined salt caverns have been used for many years for storing hydrocarbon products. This paper summarizes an Argonne National Laboratory report that reviews the legality, technical suitability, and feasibility of disposing of nonhazardous oil and gas exploration and production wastes in salt caverns. An analysis of regulations indicated that there are no outright regulatory prohibitions on cavern disposal of oil field wastes at either the federal level or in the 11 oil-producing states that were studied. There is no actual field experience on the long-term impacts that might arise following closure of waste disposal caverns. Although research has found that pressures will build-up in a closed cavern, none has specifically addressed caverns filled with oil field wastes. More field research on pressure build-up in closed caverns is needed. On the basis of preliminary investigations, we believe that disposal of oil field wastes in salt caverns is legal and feasible. The technical suitability of the practice depends on whether the caverns are well-sited and well-designed, carefully operated, properly closed, and routinely monitored.

  19. Structural analysis of the West Hackbery No. 6 SPR storage cavern

    SciTech Connect

    Benzley, S.E.

    1980-08-01

    Four separate structural analyses of the West Hackberry No. 6 SPR storage cavern are presented. One analysis covers the creep response of the cavern beginning shortly before the time when an accidental fire occurred and proceeding through the cavern recertification pressure test. The second analysis models the surface uplife that is expected during the same pressure test. The third and fourth numerical studies investigate the structural response of West Hackberry No. 6 to slabbing and a rapid pressure drop. All analyses indicate that this cavern should be structurally stable for the conditions assumed.

  20. Update on cavern disposal of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.

    1998-09-22

    Some types of oil and gas production and processing wastes contain naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). If NORM is present at concentrations above regulatory levels in oil field waste, the waste requires special disposal practices. The existing disposal options for wastes containing NORM are limited and costly. Argonne National Laboratory has previously evaluated the feasibility, legality, risk and economics of disposing of nonhazardous oil field wastes, other than NORM waste, in salt caverns. Cavern disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste, other than NORM waste, is occurring at four Texas facilities, in several Canadian facilities, and reportedly in Europe. This paper evaluates the legality, technical feasibility, economics, and human health risk of disposing of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns as well. Cavern disposal of NORM waste is technically feasible and poses a very low human health risk. From a legal perspective, a review of federal regulations and regulations from several states indicated that there are no outright prohibitions against NORM disposal in salt caverns or other Class II wells, except for Louisiana which prohibits disposal of radioactive wastes or other radioactive materials in salt domes. Currently, however, only Texas and New Mexico are working on disposal cavern regulations, and no states have issued permits to allow cavern disposal of NORM waste. On the basis of the costs currently charged for cavern disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW), NORM waste disposal in caverns is likely to be cost competitive with existing NORM waste disposal methods when regulatory agencies approve the practice.

  1. Geotechnical issues and guidelines for storage of compressed air in excavated hard rock caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R.D.; Doherty, T.J.; Fossum, A.F.

    1982-04-01

    The results of a literature survey on the stability of excavated hard rock caverns are presented. The objective of the study was to develop geotechnical criteria for the design of compressed air energy storage (CAES) caverns in hard rock formations. These criteria involve geologic, hydrological, geochemical, geothermal, and in situ stress state characteristics of generic rock masses. Their relevance to CAES caverns, and the identification of required research areas, are identified throughout the text. This literature survey and analysis strongly suggests that the chief geotechnical issues for the development and operation of CAES caverns in hard rock are impermeability for containment, stability for sound openings, and hydrostatic balance.

  2. Fractionated Proton Radiotherapy for Benign Cavernous Sinus Meningiomas

    SciTech Connect

    Slater, Jerry D.; Loredo, Lilia N.; Chung, Arthur; Bush, David A.; Patyal, Baldev; Johnson, Walter D.; Hsu, Frank P.K.; Slater, James M.

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of fractionated proton radiotherapy for a population of patients with benign cavernous sinus meningiomas. Methods and Materials: Between 1991 and 2002, 72 patients were treated at Loma Linda University Medical Center with proton therapy for cavernous sinus meningiomas. Fifty-one patients had biopsy or subtotal resection; 47 had World Health Organization grade 1 pathology. Twenty-one patients had no histologic verification. Twenty-two patients received primary proton therapy; 30 had 1 previous surgery; 20 had more than 1 surgery. The mean gross tumor volume was 27.6 cm{sup 3}; mean clinical target volume was 52.9 cm{sup 3}. Median total doses for patients with and without histologic verification were 59 and 57 Gy, respectively. Mean and median follow-up periods were 74 months. Results: The overall 5-year actuarial control rate was 96%; the control rate was 99% in patients with grade 1 or absent histologic findings and 50% for those with atypical histology. All 21 patients who did not have histologic verification and 46 of 47 patients with histologic confirmation of grade 1 tumor demonstrated disease control at 5 years. Control rates for patients without previous surgery, 1 surgery, and 2 or more surgeries were 95%, 96%, and 95%, respectively. Conclusions: Fractionated proton radiotherapy for grade 1 cavernous sinus meningiomas achieves excellent control rates with minimal toxicities, regardless of surgical intervention or use of histologic diagnosis. Disease control for large lesions can be achieved by primary fractionated proton therapy.

  3. Transarterial and Transvenous Embolization for Cavernous Sinus Dural Arteriovenous Fistulae

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, J.; Lv, X.; Jiang, C.; Li, Y.; Yang, X.; Wu, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Summary We report on the safety and efficacy of transarterial and transvenous Onyx embolization in the treatment of dural arteriovenous fistulae (DAVFs) of the cavernous sinus. We reviewed the findings from a retrospectively database for 22 patients with cavernous sinus DAVFs who were treated with either transarterial Onyx embolization alone (n = 8) or transarterial and transvenous Onyx embolization (n = 14) over a four year period. The mean follow-up period after endovascular treatment was 21.6 months (range 3-42 mths). Total number of embolizations was 27 for 22 patients. Two patients were treated transvenously after transarterial embolization. All 22 patients (100%) experienced improvement of their clinical symptoms. All 22 patients (100%) experienced total obliteration of their DAVFs, as documented by angiography performed at a mean follow-up of 5.8 months after the last treatment. No patient experienced a recurrence of symptoms after angiography showed DAVF obliteration. One patient exhibited temporary deterioration of ocular symptoms secondary to venous hypertension after near total obliteration; one had transient V cranial nerve deficit related to transarterial embolization, and two patients exhibited transient III and VI cranial nerve weakness related to transvenous embolization. Two patients experienced recurrent symptoms after incomplete transarterial embolization and underwent transvenous embolization at three and four months. Both patients achieved clinical and angiographic cures. Transarterial and transvenous embolization with Onyx, whenever possible, proved to be a safe and effective management for patients with cavernous sinus DAVFs. PMID:20977859

  4. Sclerosed Hemangioma Accompanied by Multiple Cavernous Hemangiomas of the Liver

    PubMed Central

    Yuki, Michiko; Emoto, Yuko; Kinoshita, Yuichi; Yoshizawa, Katsuhiko; Yuri, Takashi; Tsubura, Airo

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Male, 81 Final Diagnosis: Sclerosed hemangioma Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Autopsy Specialty: Diagnostics, Laboratory Objective: Rare disease Background: A sclerosed hemangioma of the liver, an extremely rare type of benign hepatic tumor, was found at autopsy. Case Report: An 81-year-old Japanese man was admitted to our hospital for surgical resection of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin in his left forearm. At admission, serological tests for hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis C antibody were negative with no evidence of cirrhosis. At 2, 3, and 5 months after the removal of the forearm tumor, skin grafting was performed because of unhealed skin ulceration. Although anti-bacterial drugs were prescribed, the patient died after the 3rd skin graft (5 months after the surgery) because of pneumonia. During the treatment course, the patient was diagnosed as having multiple liver masses suspected to be cysts of the liver based on non-contrasted computed tomography results. Autopsy revealed a sclerosed hemangioma occupying the entire left lobe accompanied by multiple small cavernous hemangiomas in the right lobe of the liver. Conclusions: Sclerosed hemangioma, a rare benign disease, occurred in association with degeneration and sclerosis of cavernous hemangiomas of the liver. The VEGF pathway may be involved in the genesis of cavernous and sclerosed hemangioma of the liver. PMID:26116763

  5. Bryan Mound SPR cavern 113 remedial leach stage 1 analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Rudeen, David Keith; Weber, Paula D.; Lord, David L.

    2013-08-01

    The U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve implemented the first stage of a leach plan in 2011-2012 to expand storage volume in the existing Bryan Mound 113 cavern from a starting volume of 7.4 million barrels (MMB) to its design volume of 11.2 MMB. The first stage was terminated several months earlier than expected in August, 2012, as the upper section of the leach zone expanded outward more quickly than design. The oil-brine interface was then re-positioned with the intent to resume leaching in the second stage configuration. This report evaluates the as-built configuration of the cavern at the end of the first stage, and recommends changes to the second stage plan in order to accommodate for the variance between the first stage plan and the as-built cavern. SANSMIC leach code simulations are presented and compared with sonar surveys in order to aid in the analysis and offer projections of likely outcomes from the revised plan for the second stage leach.

  6. [Case of invasive sino-orbital aspergillosis developing orbital apex syndrome].

    PubMed

    Kamoshima, Yuuta; Sawamura, Yutaka; Iwasaki, Yoshinobu; Hamada, Shinsuke; Izumi, Naoto; Okugawa, Shu

    2007-10-01

    Sino-orbital invasive aspergillosis has been regarded as a lethal disease. The authors report a case with a successful treatment result. A 65 year-old woman, with mild diabetes mellitus, presented progressive right visual disturbance, diplopia, ptosis, and severe periorbital pain over a period of 2 weeks. MR images with gadolinium contrast showed a heterogeneously enhanced mass extending from the right orbital apex to the cavernous sinus. Despite steroid pulse therapy, her symptoms progressed. An open biopsy revealed invasive sino-orbital aspergillosis. Intravenous and oral antifungal agents were administered, but the aspergilloma gradually expanded. Her general status deteriorated due to intractable periorbital pain that was resistant to narcotic analgesics. By a craniotomy, the aspergilloma involving the orbit and cavernous sinus was radically removed leaving the internal carotid artery intact and simultaneously rhizotomy of the trigeminal nerve was carried out. The postoperative course was uneventful and the pain was remarkably ameliorated. Three years after the surgery, she has been well, receiving voriconazole and experiencing no relapse of the disease. PMID:17969338

  7. Geomechanical Analysis and Design Considerations for Thin-Bedded Salt Caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Michael S. Bruno

    2005-06-15

    The bedded salt formations located throughout the United States are layered and interspersed with non-salt materials such as anhydrite, shale, dolomite and limestone. The salt layers often contain significant impurities. GRI and DOE have initialized this research proposal in order to increase the gas storage capabilities by providing operators with improved geotechnical design and operating guidelines for thin bedded salt caverns. Terralog has summarized the geologic conditions, pressure conditions, and critical design factors that may lead to: (1) Fracture in heterogeneous materials; (2) Differential deformation and bedding plane slip; (3) Propagation of damage around single and multiple cavern; and (4) Improved design recommendations for single and multiple cavern configurations in various bedded salt environments. The existing caverns within both the Permian Basin Complex and the Michigan and Appalachian Basins are normally found between 300 m to 1,000 m (1,000 ft to 3,300 ft) depth depending on local geology and salt dissolution depth. Currently, active cavern operations are found in the Midland and Anadarko Basins within the Permian Basin Complex and in the Appalachian and Michigan Basins. The Palo Duro and Delaware Basins within the Permian Basin Complex also offer salt cavern development potential. Terralog developed a number of numerical models for caverns located in thin bedded salt. A modified creep viscoplastic model has been developed and implemented in Flac3D to simulate the response of salt at the Permian, Michigan and Appalachian Basins. The formulation of the viscoplastic salt model, which is based on an empirical creep law developed for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Program, is combined with the Drucker-Prager model to include the formation of damage and failure. The Permian salt lab test data provided by Pfeifle et al. 1983, are used to validate the assumptions made in the material model development. For the actual cavern simulations two

  8. Risk assessment of nonhazardous oil-field waste disposal in salt caverns.

    SciTech Connect

    Elcock, D.

    1998-03-05

    In 1996, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil-field wastes (NOW) into salt caverns. Argonne determined that if caverns are sited and designed well, operated carefully, closed properly, and monitored routinely, they could be suitable for disposing of oil-field wastes. On the basis of these findings, Argonne subsequently conducted a preliminary evaluation of the possibility that adverse human health effects (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) could result from exposure to contaminants released from the NOW disposed of in domal salt caverns. Steps used in this evaluation included the following: identifying potential contaminants of concern, determining how humans could be exposed to these contaminants, assessing contaminant toxicities, estimating contaminant intakes, and calculating human cancer and noncancer risk estimates. Five postclosure cavern release scenarios were assessed. These were inadvertent cavern intrusion, failure of the cavern seal, failure of the cavern through cracks, failure of the cavern through leaky interbeds, and a partial collapse of the cavern roof. Assuming a single, generic, salt cavern and generic oil-field wastes, potential human health effects associated with constituent hazardous substances (arsenic, benzene, cadmium, and chromium) were assessed under each of these scenarios. Preliminary results provided excess cancer risk and hazard index (referring to noncancer health effects) estimates that were well within the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) target range for acceptable exposure risk levels. These results led to the preliminary conclusion that from a human health perspective, salt caverns can provide an acceptable disposal method for nonhazardous oil-field wastes.

  9. Analysis of cavern and well stability at the West Hackberry SPR site using a full-dome model.

    SciTech Connect

    Sobolik, Steven R.

    2015-08-01

    This report presents computational analyses that simulate the structural response of caverns at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) West Hackberry site. The cavern field comprises 22 caverns. Five caverns (6, 7, 8, 9, 11) were acquired from industry and have unusual shapes and a history dating back to 1946. The other 17 caverns (101-117) were leached according to SPR standards in the mid-1980s and have tall cylindrical shapes. The history of the caverns and their shapes are simulated in a three-dimensional geomechanics model of the site that predicts deformations, strains, and stresses. Future leaching scenarios corresponding to oil drawdowns using fresh water are also simulated by increasing the volume of the caverns. Cavern pressures are varied in the model to capture operational practices in the field. The results of the finite element model are interpreted to provide information on the current and future status of subsidence, well integrity, and cavern stability. The most significant results in this report are relevant to Cavern 6. The cavern is shaped like a bowl with a large ceiling span and is in close proximity to Cavern 9. The analyses predict tensile stresses at the edge of the ceiling during repressurization of Cavern 6 following workover conditions. During a workover the cavern is at low pressure to service a well. The wellhead pressures are atmospheric. When the workover is complete, the cavern is repressurized. The resulting elastic stresses are sufficient to cause tension around the edge of the large ceiling span. With time, these stresses relax to a compressive state because of salt creep. However, the potential for salt fracture and propagation exists, particularly towards Cavern 9. With only 200 feet of salt between the caverns, the operational consequences must be examined if the two caverns become connected. A critical time may be during a workover of Cavern 9 in part because of the operational vulnerabilities, but also because dilatant damage

  10. Increased Number of White Matter Lesions in Patients with Familial Cerebral Cavernous Malformations

    PubMed Central

    Golden, Michael J.; Morrison, Leslie A.; Kim, Helen; Hart, Blaine L.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGKROUND AND PURPOSE Familial cerebral cavernous malformations, an autosomal dominant disorder, result in excess morbidity and mortality in affected patients. The disorder is most prevalent in the Southwest United States, where the affected families are most often carriers of the CCM1-KRIT1 Common Hispanic Mutation. The brain and spinal cord parenchyma in these individuals is usually affected by multiple cavernous malformations. Previous studies have shown abnormalities of endothelial cell junctions and the blood-brain barrier in cerebral cavernous malformations. Endothelial cell abnormalities have also been described in pathologic studies of white matter hyperintensities. We compared the prevalence of white matter hyperintensities in a population with known familial cerebral cavernous malformations. MATERIALS AND METHODS We examined 191 subjects with familial cerebral cavernous malformations who were enrolled into an institutional review board-approved study. All carry the same Common Hispanic Mutation in the CCM1 gene. Each subject underwent 3TMR imaging, including gradient recalled-echo, SWI, and FLAIR sequences. The number of cavernous malformations and the number of nonhemorrhagic white matter hyperintensities were counted. Subjects older than 60 yearsof age were excluded due to the high prevalence of white matter lesions in this population, and children younger than 6 were excluded due to potential sedation requirements. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the prevalence of abnormal white matter hyperintensities in those with familial cerebral cavernous malformations compared with healthy controls or those with sporadic cerebral cavernous malformation within the familial cerebral cavernous malformations group; it was also performed to evaluate the associations between abnormal white matter hyperintensities and age, sex, headaches, thyroid disease, diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, seizure history, or modified Rankin Scale score

  11. Spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage due to ruptured cavernous internal carotid artery aneurysm after medical prolactinoma treatment.

    PubMed

    Khalsa, Siri Sahib; Hollon, Todd C; Shastri, Ravi; Trobe, Jonathan D; Gemmete, Joseph J; Pandey, Aditya S

    2016-01-01

    Aneurysms of the cavernous segment of the internal carotid artery (ICA) are believed to have a low risk of subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH), given the confines of the dural rings and the anterior clinoid process. The risk may be greater when the bony and dural protection has been eroded. We report a case of spontaneous SAH from rupture of a cavernous ICA aneurysm in a patient whose large prolactinoma had markedly decreased in size as the result of cabergoline treatment. After passing a balloon test occlusion, the patient underwent successful endovascular vessel deconstruction. This case suggests that an eroding skull base lesion may distort normal anterior cranial base anatomy and allow communication between the cavernous ICA and subarachnoid space. The potential for SAH due to cavernous ICA aneurysm rupture should be recognised in patients with previous pituitary or other skull base lesions adjacent to the cavernous sinus. PMID:27277584

  12. Risk assessment of nonhazardous oil-field waste disposal in salt caverns.

    SciTech Connect

    Elcock, D.

    1998-03-10

    Salt caverns can be formed in underground salt formations incidentally as a result of mining or intentionally to create underground chambers for product storage or waste disposal. For more than 50 years, salt caverns have been used to store hydrocarbon products. Recently, concerns over the costs and environmental effects of land disposal and incineration have sparked interest in using salt caverns for waste disposal. Countries using or considering using salt caverns for waste disposal include Canada (oil-production wastes), Mexico (purged sulfates from salt evaporators), Germany (contaminated soils and ashes), the United Kingdom (organic residues), and the Netherlands (brine purification wastes). In the US, industry and the regulatory community are pursuing the use of salt caverns for disposal of oil-field wastes. In 1988, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a regulatory determination exempting wastes generated during oil and gas exploration and production (oil-field wastes) from federal hazardous waste regulations--even though such wastes may contain hazardous constituents. At the same time, EPA urged states to tighten their oil-field waste management regulations. The resulting restrictions have generated industry interest in the use of salt caverns for potentially economical and environmentally safe oil-field waste disposal. Before the practice can be implemented commercially, however, regulators need assurance that disposing of oil-field wastes in salt caverns is technically and legally feasible and that potential health effects associated with the practice are acceptable. In 1996, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil-field wastes (NOW) into salt caverns. It investigated regulatory issues; the types of oil-field wastes suitable for cavern disposal; cavern design and location considerations; and disposal operations, closure and remediation issues. It determined

  13. Cavernous angioma of the cauda equina: a case report and systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Nie, Q-B; Chen, Z; Jian, F-Z; Wu, H; Ling, F

    2012-01-01

    Cavernous angioma is an uncommon vascular malformation of the central nervous system with a tumoural aspect. Spinal cavernous angioma mainly occurs within vertebral bodies; only 3-5% of tumours are located entirely in the vertebral canal. This case report describes a case of cavernous angioma, originating from the nerve roots of the cauda equina at the L1 level, in a 57-year-old woman presenting with acute lower back pain. The lesion was surgically resected 6 months after symptom onset and the structural integrity of the nerve root was maintained. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of cavernous angioma. The patient experienced no postoperative neurological deficit or recurrence. The diagnosis, histopathological features and surgical treatment of this case are presented, together with a literature review of clinical details and surgical procedures undertaken in cases of cavernous angioma of the cauda equina. PMID:23206484

  14. Mechanical Behavior of Salt Caverns: Closed-Form Solutions vs Numerical Computations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Linlin; Bérest, Pierre; Brouard, Benoît

    2015-11-01

    Creep closure and structural stability of a cylindrical elongated cavern leached out from a salt formation are discussed. The Norton-Hoff creep law, or "power law", is used to capture the main features of salt rheological behavior. Two failure criteria are considered: (1) shear stresses must not be larger than a certain fraction of the mean stress (dilation criterion); and (2) the effective stress at the cavern wall (actual stress plus cavern fluid pressure) must not be tensile. The case of a brine-filled cavern whose pressure is kept constant is discussed first. It is proved that creep closure reaches a steady state such that stresses in the rock mass remain constant. However, decades are needed to reach such a state. During the transient phase that results from the slow redistribution of stresses in the rock mass, deviatoric stresses decrease at the vicinity of the cavern wall, and onset of dilation is less and less likely. At this point, the case of a rapid brine pressure increase, typical of a tightness test, is considered. It is proved that during such a swift pressure increase, cavern behavior is almost perfectly elastic; there is no risk of dilation onset. However, even when cavern pressure remains significantly smaller than geostatic, the effective stress at cavern wall can become tensile. These results, obtained through numerical computations, are confirmed by closed-form solutions obtained in the case of an idealized perfectly cylindrical cavern; these solutions provide a better insight into the main structural features of the behavior of the cavern.

  15. Advanced Underground Gas Storage Concepts: Refrigerated-Mined Cavern Storage, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-30

    Over the past 40 years, cavern storage of LPG's, petrochemicals, such as ethylene and propylene, and other petroleum products has increased dramatically. In 1991, the Gas Processors Association (GPA) lists the total U.S. underground storage capacity for LPG's and related products of approximately 519 million barrels (82.5 million cubic meters) in 1,122 separate caverns. Of this total, 70 are hard rock caverns and the remaining 1,052 are caverns in salt deposits. However, along the eastern seaboard of the U.S. and the Pacific northwest, salt deposits are not available and therefore, storage in hard rocks is required. Limited demand and high cost has prevented the construction of hard rock caverns in this country for a number of years. The storage of natural gas in mined caverns may prove technically feasible if the geology of the targeted market area is suitable; and economically feasible if the cost and convenience of service is competitive with alternative available storage methods for peak supply requirements. Competing methods include LNG facilities and remote underground storage combined with pipeline transportation to the area. It is believed that mined cavern storage can provide the advantages of high delivery rates and multiple fill withdrawal cycles in areas where salt cavern storage is not possible. In this research project, PB-KBB merged advanced mining technologies and gas refrigeration techniques to develop conceptual designs and cost estimates to demonstrate the commercialization potential of the storage of refrigerated natural gas in hard rock caverns. DOE has identified five regions, that have not had favorable geological conditions for underground storage development: New England, Mid-Atlantic (NY/NJ), South Atlantic (DL/MD/VA), South Atlantic (NC/SC/GA), and the Pacific Northwest (WA/OR). PB-KBB reviewed published literature and in-house databases of the geology of these regions to determine suitability of hard rock formations for siting storage

  16. Orbit to orbit transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergeron, R. P.

    1980-01-01

    Orbital transfer vehicle propulsion options for SPS include both chemical (COTV) and electrical (EOTV) options. The proposed EOTV construction method is similar to that of the SPS and, by the addition of a transmitting antenna, may serve as a demonstration or precursor satellite option. The results of the studies led to the selection of a single stage COTV for crew and priority cargo transfer. An EOTV concept is favored for cargo transfer because of the more favorable orbital burden factor over chemical systems. The gallium arsenide solar array is favored over the silicon array because of its self annealing characteristics of radiation damage encountered during multiple transitions through the Van Allen radiation belt. Transportation system operations are depicted. A heavy lift launch vehicle (HLLV) delivers cargo and propellants to LEO, which are transferred to a dedicated EOTV by means of an intraorbit transfer vehicle (IOTV) for subsequent transfer to GEO. The space shuttle is used for crew transfer from Earth to LEO. At the LEO base, the crew module is removed from the shuttle cargo bay and mated to a COTV for transfer to GEO. Upon arrival at GEO, the SPS construction cargo is transferred from the EOTV to the SPS construction base by IOTV. Crew consumables and resupply propellants are transported to GEO by the EOTV. Transportation requirements are dominated by the vast quantity of materials to be transported to LEO and GEO.

  17. The 'Pinocchio' nasal deformity due to cavernous lymphangioma.

    PubMed Central

    Hobby, J L; Tiernan, E; Mayou, B J

    1995-01-01

    The 'Pinocchio' or 'Cyrano' nose is a rare condition in which deformity of the nasal tip is produced by an underlying soft tissue tumour. Previously reported cases have been due to either capillary or cavernous haemangiomas (angiolipomas). The deformity is the cause of much teasing in children. There has been debate as to whether surgical intervention is indicated, as a proportion of cases will regress spontaneously. We report a case of 'Pinocchio' nose with a lymphangioma of the nasal tip which is previously undescribed and review the options for management. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:7562857

  18. The anterior interhemispheric approach to a third ventricular cavernous malformation.

    PubMed

    Martirosyan, Nikolay L; Kalani, M Yashar S; Nakaji, Peter; Spetzler, Robert F

    2016-01-01

    The anterior interhemispheric approach is a workhorse for treatment of lesions in the third ventricle. In this case, we demonstrate the utility of this approach for resecting a complex third ventricular cavernous malformation. We discuss patient positioning, optimal location of the craniotomy, and surgical resection techniques for safe removal of these lesions. We also demonstrate the importance of gravity retraction using the falx to prevent injury to the dominant frontal lobe. The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/38woc28er7M . PMID:26722693

  19. Cavernous hemangioma with large phlebolith of the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hwan Jun; Lee, Joo Chul; Kim, Jun Hyuk; Lee, Young Man; Lee, Hyun Joo

    2013-11-01

    Hemangiomas are vascular anomalies characterized by increased proliferation and turnover of endothelial cells. Hemangiomas of the parotid region are relatively uncommon in adult population, and there are a few reports of hemangioma with large phlebolith within the parotid gland. We herein report a case of it. Sialography may be a useful investigation method in the evaluation of radiopaque lesions localized intraglandularly in the parotid area to rule out the sialolith. Cavernous hemangioma with phleboliths should be included in the differential diagnosis of a swelling in the mandibular area. PMID:24220486

  20. Cavernous Hemangioma of the Skull and Meningioma: Association or Coincidence?

    PubMed Central

    Kilani, M.; Darmoul, M.; Hammedi, F.; Ben Nsir, A.; Hattab, M. N.

    2015-01-01

    Intraosseous cavernous hemangiomas of the skull are rare. Meningiomas are quite frequently encountered in a neurosurgical practice. The association between these two entities is nevertheless very uncommon. The authors present a case of a 72-year-old woman suffering from headache. The MRI showed a parietal meningioma with adjacent thick bone. The meningioma and the bone were removed. The histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of meningioma and revealed a cavernoma of the skull. The relationship between the lesions suggests more than a coincidental association. Several hypotheses are proposed to explain common causal connections. PMID:25960899

  1. Orbital cellulitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Haemophilus influenzae B) vaccine. The bacteria Staphylococcus aureus , Streptococcus pneumoniae , and beta-hemolytic streptococci may also cause orbital cellulitis. Orbital cellulitis infections in children may get worse very quickly and can lead ...

  2. Orbital pseudotumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... Names Idiopathic orbital inflammatory syndrome (IOIS) Images Skull anatomy References Goodlick TA, Kay MD, Glaser JS, Tse DT, Chang WJ. Orbital disease and neuro-ophthalmology. In: Tasman W, Jaeger EA, eds. Duane’s ...

  3. Kepler's Orbit

    NASA Video Gallery

    Kepler does not orbit the Earth, rather it orbits the Sun in concert with the Earth, slowly drifting away from Earth. Every 61 Earth years, Kepler and Earth will pass by each other. Throughout the ...

  4. Effects of cavern spacing and pressure on subsidence and storage losses for the US Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    SciTech Connect

    Ehgartner, B.

    1992-03-01

    The effects of cavern spacing and operating pressure on surface subsidence and cavern storage losses were evaluated using the finite- element method. The base case for the two sensitivity studies was a typical SPR cavern. The predicted responses of the base case and those from the pressurization study compared quite closely to measured surface subsidence and oil pressurization rates. This provided credibility for the analyses and constitutive models used. Subsidence and cavern storage losses were found to be strongly influenced by cavern spacing and pressurization. The relationship between subsidence volume and losses in storage volume varied as cavern spacing and operating pressure deviated from the base case. However, for a typical SPR cavern subsidence volume is proportional to storage loss and when expressed in ft., subsidence is equal to the percentage of storage loss.

  5. Cerebral cavernous malformations: from genes to proteins to disease.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, Daniel D; Kalani, M Yashar S; Martirosyan, Nikolay L; Eales, Justin; Spetzler, Robert F; Preul, Mark C

    2012-01-01

    Over the past half century molecular biology has led to great advances in our understanding of angio- and vasculogenesis and in the treatment of malformations resulting from these processes gone awry. Given their sporadic and familial distribution, their developmental and pathological link to capillary telangiectasias, and their observed chromosomal abnormalities, cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are regarded as akin to cancerous growths. Although the exact pathological mechanisms involved in the formation of CCMs are still not well understood, the identification of 3 genetic loci has begun to shed light on key developmental pathways involved in CCM pathogenesis. Cavernous malformations can occur sporadically or in an autosomal dominant fashion. Familial forms of CCMs have been attributed to mutations at 3 different loci implicated in regulating important processes such as proliferation and differentiation of angiogenic precursors and members of the apoptotic machinery. These processes are important for the generation, maintenance, and pruning of every vessel in the body. In this review the authors highlight the latest discoveries pertaining to the molecular genetics of CCMs, highlighting potential new therapeutic targets for the treatment of these lesions. PMID:21962164

  6. Retroperitoneal cavernous hemangioma resected by a pylorus preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy

    PubMed Central

    Hanaoka, Marie; Hashimoto, Masaji; Sasaki, Kazunari; Matsuda, Masamichi; Fujii, Takeshi; Ohashi, Kenichi; Watanabe, Goro

    2013-01-01

    A retroperitoneal hemangioma is a rare disease. We report on the diagnosis and treatment of a retroperitoneal hemangioma which had uncommonly invaded into both the pancreas and duodenum, thus requiring a pylorus preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (PpPD). A 36-year-old man presented to our hospital with abdominal pain. An enhanced computed tomography scan without contrast enhancement revealed a 12 cm × 9 cm mass between the pancreas head and right kidney. Given the high rate of malignancy associated with retroperitoneal tumors, surgical resection was performed. Intraoperatively, the tumor was inseparable from both the duodenum and pancreas and PpPD was performed due to the invasive behavior. Although malignancy was suspected, pathological diagnosis identified the tumor as a retroperitoneal cavernous hemangioma for which surgical resection was the proper diagnostic and therapeutic procedure. Reteoperitoneal cavernous hemangioma is unique in that it is typically separated from the surrounding organs. However, clinicians need to be aware of the possibility of a case, such as this, which has invaded into the surrounding organs despite its benign etiology. From this case, we recommend that combined resection of inseparable organs should be performed if the mass has invaded into other tissues due to the hazardous nature of local recurrence. In summary, this report is the first to describe a case of retroperitoneal hemangioma that had uniquely invaded into surrounding organs and was treated with PpPD. PMID:23901241

  7. Cavernous hemangioma of the parotid gland in adults

    PubMed Central

    Peral-Cagigal, Beatriz; Madrigal-Rubiales, Beatriz; Verrier-Hernández, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Hemangiomas account for 0.4-0.6% of all tumors of the parotid gland and most of them occur in children, nevertheless in adults hemangiomas are very rare. We report the case of a 62 year old woman with a mass in the parotid right tail associated with fluctuating swelling episodes unrelated to meals and with a slowly progressive growth. The provisional diagnosis was a pleomorphic adenoma, so a right superficial parotidectomy was performed. During surgery, the macroscopic appearance makes suspect a vascular lesion. The histopathological result was a cavernous hemangioma. The classic clinical presentation of a parotid hemangioma is an intraglandular mass associated or not with skin lesions characterized by reddish macules and/or papules, and a vibration or pulsation when palpating the parotid region. In imaging tests, phleboliths could be observed which are very suggestive of a hemangioma or a vascular malformation. In the absence of these signs, the diagnosis could be difficult, particularly in an adult due to its low prevalence, with about 50 cases reported worldwide. However a hemangioma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of parotid tumors in adults. Key words:Cavernous hemangioma, parotid gland, superficial parotidectomy, pleomorphic adenoma. PMID:25674332

  8. Cavernous hemangioma in the thymus: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ose, Naoko; Kobori, Yuko; Takeuchi, Yukiyasu; Susaki, Yoshiyuki; Taniguchi, Seiji; Maeda, Hajime

    2016-12-01

    Cavernous hemangioma is not a neoplasm, but rather a congenital venous malformation with the potential to develop in all parts of the body, though it is very rarely seen in the thymus. We report a case of cavernous hemangioma in the thymus partially resected. A 71-year-old woman presented with pericardial discomfort, and chest computed tomography (CT) showed a left lateral mediastinal mass which was 2.0 × 1.2 × 1.8 cm in size, with border regularity and without calcification. Its interior was partially enhanced. Three-dimensional chest computed tomography image showed a tortuous vessel connecting to the tumor. Surgical resection was performed for the purpose of providing a definitive diagnosis and treatment because a mediastinal tumor such as thymoma or teratoma was suspected. Partial resection of the thymus including the mass was done by utilizing a three-port, left-sided video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) approach with hoisting of the third rib with the patient in a spinal position. A wine-colored mass bulging from the surface of the left lobe of the thymus was identified along with the communicating vessel which could only be cut with an energy device. It is considered that thymic partial resection using VATS is a better option for small and non-infiltrative lesions. PMID:26943686

  9. PDCD10 Gene Mutations in Multiple Cerebral Cavernous Malformations

    PubMed Central

    Cigoli, Maria Sole; Avemaria, Francesca; De Benedetti, Stefano; Gesu, Giovanni P.; Accorsi, Lucio Giordano; Parmigiani, Stefano; Corona, Maria Franca; Capra, Valeria; Mosca, Andrea; Giovannini, Simona; Notturno, Francesca; Ciccocioppo, Fausta; Volpi, Lilia; Estienne, Margherita; De Michele, Giuseppe; Antenora, Antonella; Bilo, Leda; Tavoni, Antonietta; Zamponi, Nelia; Alfei, Enrico; Baranello, Giovanni; Riva, Daria; Penco, Silvana

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are vascular abnormalities that may cause seizures, intracerebral haemorrhages, and focal neurological deficits. Familial form shows an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance with incomplete penetrance and variable clinical expression. Three genes have been identified causing familial CCM: KRIT1/CCM1, MGC4607/CCM2, and PDCD10/CCM3. Aim of this study is to report additional PDCD10/CCM3 families poorly described so far which account for 10-15% of hereditary cerebral cavernous malformations. Our group investigated 87 consecutive Italian affected individuals (i.e. positive Magnetic Resonance Imaging) with multiple/familial CCM through direct sequencing and Multiplex Ligation-Dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA) analysis. We identified mutations in over 97.7% of cases, and PDCD10/CCM3 accounts for 13.1%. PDCD10/CCM3 molecular screening revealed four already known mutations and four novel ones. The mutated patients show an earlier onset of clinical manifestations as compared to CCM1/CCM2 mutated patients. The study of further families carrying mutations in PDCD10/CCM3 may help define a possible correlation between genotype and phenotype; an accurate clinical follow up of the subjects would help define more precisely whether mutations in PDCD10/CCM3 lead to a characteristic phenotype. PMID:25354366

  10. Nitrogen Monitoring of West Hackberry 117 Cavern Wells.

    SciTech Connect

    Bettin, Giorgia; Lord, David

    2015-02-01

    U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) oil storage cavern West Hackberry 117 was tested under extended nitrogen monitoring following a successful mechanical integrity test in order to validate a newly developed hydrostatic column model to be used to differentiate between normal "tight" well behavior and small-leak behavior under nitrogen. High resolution wireline pressure and temperature data were collected during the test period and used in conjunction with the hydrostatic column model to predict the nitrogen/oil interface and the pressure along the entire fluid column from the bradenhead flange nominally at ground surface to bottom of brine pool. Results here and for other SPR caverns have shown that wells under long term nitrogen monitoring do not necessarily pressurize with a relative rate (P N2 /P brine) of 1. The theoretical relative pressure rate depends on the well configuration, pressure and the location of the nitrogen-oil interface and varies from well to well. For the case of WH117 the predicted rates were 0.73 for well A and 0.92 for well B. The measured relative pressurization rate for well B was consistent with the model prediction, while well A rate was found to be between 0.58-0.68. A number of possible reasons for the discrepancy between the model and measured rates of well A are possible. These include modeling inaccuracy, measurement inaccuracy or the possibility of the presence of a very small leak (below the latest calculated minimum detectable leak rate).

  11. [Plea for a unifying concept of the cavernous sinus and the trigeminal cavity].

    PubMed

    Bataille, B; Sakka, M; Lapierre, F

    The object of this study is a scientific research in human and compared anatomy of the cavernous sinus and Meckel's cave. The observations made in the foetus and human adult are compared to these made in non human primates and domestic mammals, the cavernous sinus and the Meckel's cave contribute to realize a entirety that we call "a morphological and functional anatomical system". The human cavernous sinus and Meckel's cave are described as an indissociable parasellar space representing a heavy traffic area for vascular and nervous structures. In the human and non human primates, the authors observe a parasellar space which agreed with the concept of "trigeminal-cavernous anatomical system". In the cat, the same observations are made and an osseous outline closing the roof of the parasellar space is observed; this is the evidence of a more ancient osseous or cartilaginous wall. The authors demonstrate in the last part of this study that the morphogenesis of this trigeminal-cavernous system is in relation with the phylogenic development of its morphological and functional environment, that we call the "externation". This study is of interest: to a best understanding of the tumors involving the cavernous sinus, to a semantic point of view: an attempt to a review of the terminology applied to the cavernous sinus and Meckel's cave. PMID:7729219

  12. Simulation of production and injection performance of gas storage caverns in salt formations

    SciTech Connect

    Hagoort, J. )

    1994-11-01

    This paper presents a simple yet comprehensive mathematical model for simulation of injection and production performance of gas storage caverns in salt formations. The model predicts the pressure and temperature of the gas in the cavern and at the wellhead for an arbitrary sequence of production and injection cycles. The model incorporates nonideal gas properties, thermodynamic heat effects associated with gas expansion and compression in the cavern and tubing, heat exchange with the surrounding salt formation, and non-uniform initial temperatures but does not include rock-mechanical effects. The model is based on a mass and energy balance for the gas-filled cavern and on the Bernoulli equation and energy balance for flow in the wellbore. Cavern equations are solved iteratively at successive timesteps, and wellbore equations are solved within an iteration cycle of the cavern equations. Gas properties are calculated internally with generally accepted correlations and basic thermodynamic relations. Example calculations show that the initial temperature distribution has a strong effect on production performance of a typical gas storage cavern. The primary application of the model is in the design, planning, and operation of gas storage projects.

  13. Literature Survey Concerning the Feasibility of Remedial Leach for Select Phase I Caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Paula D.; Flores, Karen A.; Lord, David L.

    2015-09-01

    Bryan Mound 5 ( BM5 ) and West Hackberry 9 ( WH9 ) have the potential to create a significant amount of new storage space should the caverns be deemed "leach - ready". This study discusses the original drilling history of the caverns, surrounding geology, current stability, and, based on this culmination of data, makes a preliminary assessment of the leach potential for the cavern. The risks associated with leaching BM5 present substantial problems for the SPR . The odd shape and large amount of insoluble material make it difficult to de termine whether a targeted leach would have the desired effect and create useable ullage or further distort the shape with preferential leaching . T he likelihood of salt falls and damaged or severed casing string is significant . In addition, a targeted le ach would require the relocation of approximately 27 MMB of oil . Due to the abundance of unknown factors associated with this cavern, a targeted leach of BM5 is not recommended. A targeted leaching of the neck of WH 9 could potentially eliminate or diminis h the mid - cavern ledge result ing in a more stable cavern with a more favorable shape. A better understanding of the composition of the surrounding salt and a less complicated leaching history yields more confidence in the ability to successfully leach this region. A targeted leach of WH9 can be recommended upon the completion of a full leach plan with consideration of the impacts upon nearby caverns .

  14. Risk analyses for disposing of nonhazardous oil field wastes in salt caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Veil, J.

    1997-09-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has completed an evaluation of the possibility that adverse human health effects (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) could result from exposure to contaminants released from nonhazardous oil field wastes (NOW) disposed of in domal salt caverns. In this assessment, several steps were used to evaluate potential human health risks: identifying potential contaminants of concern; determining how humans could be exposed to these contaminants; assessing the contaminants` toxicities; estimating contaminant intakes; and, finally, calculating human cancer and noncancer risks. Potential human health risks associated with hazardous substances (arsenic, benzene, cadmium, and chromium) in NOW were assessed under four postclosure cavern release scenarios: inadvertent cavern intrusion, failure of the cavern seal, failure of the cavern through cracks or leaky interbeds, and a partial collapse of the cavern roof. To estimate potential human health risks for these scenarios, contaminant concentrations at the receptor were calculated using a one-dimensional solution to an advection/dispersion equation that included first order degradation. Even under worst-case conditions, the risks have been found to be within the US EPA target range for acceptable exposure levels. From a human health risk perspective, salt caverns can provide an acceptable disposal method for NOW.

  15. Hydrogeologic factors affecting cavern morphology within rocks of Mississippian age in northwestern Arkansas

    SciTech Connect

    Fanning, B.J. . Dept. of Geology); Brahana, J.V. . Geological Survey)

    1993-02-01

    Cavern development within rocks of Mississippian age in northwestern Arkansas is associated with two Pleistocene erosional features, the Boston Mountains Plateau and the Springfield Plateau. Each plateau is characterized by a distinct stratigraphic sequence with unique lithologies. Cavern morphology (both cross-sectional and planimetric) in each plateau is the result of the complex interaction of numerous hydrogeologic factors. Four of the most dominant factors which affect cavern morphology appear to be: (1) composition and continuity of the confining units; (2) percentage of noncarbonate components in rocks of the cavern-forming interval; (3) nature and distribution of ground-water recharge to the cavern-forming interval; and (4) nature and distribution of fractures within the cavern-forming interval. Network maze patterns typically develop in the Pitkin Limestone, the formation in which most caverns form beneath the Boston Mountains Plateau. The Pitkin, a bioclastic limestone, is confined above by siltstones of the Cane Hill member of the Hale Formation and below by shales of the Fayetteville Formation. The maze pattern indicates that these caverns probably were formed by dissolution of the rock matrix by diffuse recharge moving vertically through leaky confining units. Single rooms are the dominant cavern morphology in the chert-dominated Boone Formation of the Springfield Plateau. Where the concentration of chert is greater than 50 percent, the Boone lacks structural integrity and fails to develop well-integrated conduit networks. Point recharge features in outcrop areas of the Boone Formation are not visible in most of the Springfield Plateau because the insoluble residuum masks the upper bedrock surface. Where the Boone Formation is less than 7 meters thick, surface karst features are more prevalent.

  16. Estimate of the risks of disposing nonhazardous oil field wastes into salt caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Veil, J.

    1997-12-31

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has completed an evaluation of the possibility that adverse human health effects (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) could result from exposure to contaminants released from nonhazardous oil field wastes (NOW) disposed in domal salt caverns. Potential human health risks associated with hazardous substances (arsenic, benzene, cadmium, and chromium) in NOW were assessed under four postclosure cavern release scenarios: inadvertent cavern intrusion, failure of the cavern seal, failure of the cavern through cracks or leaky interbeds, and a partial collapse of the cavern roof. To estimate potential human health risks for these scenarios, contaminant concentrations at the receptor were calculated using a one-dimensional solution to an advection/dispersion equation that included first order degradation. Assuming a single, generic salt cavern and generic oil-field wastes, the best-estimate excess cancer risks ranged from 1.7 {times} 10{sup {minus}12} to 1.1 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} and hazard indices (referring to noncancer health effects) ranged from 7 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} to 7 {times} 10{sup {minus}4}. Under worse-case conditions in which the probability of cavern failure is 1.0, excess cancer risks ranged from 4.9 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} to 1.7 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} and hazard indices ranged from 7.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} to 0.07. Even under worst-case conditions, the risks are within the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) target range for acceptable exposure levels. From a human health risk perspective, salt caverns can, therefore, provide an acceptable disposal method for NOW.

  17. Abducens Nerve Palsy and Ipsilateral Horner Syndrome in a Patient With Carotid-Cavernous Fistula.

    PubMed

    Kal, Ali; Ercan, Zeynep E; Duman, Enes; Arpaci, Enver

    2015-10-01

    The combination of abducens nerve palsy and ipsilateral Horner syndrome was first described by Parkinson and considered as a localizing sign of posterior cavernous sinus lesions. The authors present a case with right abducens nerve palsy with ipsilateral Horner syndrome in a patient with carotid-cavernous fistula because of head trauma. The patient was referred to the ophthalmology clinic with diplopia complaint after suffering a head trauma during a motorcycle accident. Cerebral angiography showed low-flow carotid-cavernous fistula. PMID:26468854

  18. Novel strategy for orbital tumor resection: surgical "displacement" into the maxillary cavity.

    PubMed

    Kosaka, Masaaki; Mizoguchi, Takayuki; Matsunaga, Kazuhide; Fu, Rong; Nakao, Yuzo

    2006-11-01

    Surgical intervention consisting of lateral orbitotomy, the indication of which is extremely wide for orbital tumor surgery, has been applied in cases of large, retrobulbar cavernous hemangioma. However, no method exists involving displacement of the tumor from the crowded orbital contents, with the exception of tumor traction toward the outer side. The impact of traction force on the fragile hemangioma is extremely traumatic and dangerous. The authors examined how a tumor might be "displaced" in the absence of traction force effect, into an appropriate cavity neighboring the orbit. The maxillary sinus may afford the most suitable space to shift the laterally situated orbital tumor. Thus, the osteotomy level was extended to the lateral half of the inferior orbital floor and orbital rim in order to displace the tumor through an "escape window" of sufficient size between the orbit and maxilla. This report describes the treatment of two cases with long histories of progressive proptosis associated with retrobulbar large cavernous hemangiomas. This novel procedure resulted in a successful outcome. The current approach and management, which involves displacement of the tumor into the maxillary sinus through the orbital floor escape window, is a novel procedure for orbital tumor surgery. PMID:17119440

  19. Transcervical excision of intramasseteric cavernous hemangioma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    CHENG, YU-TING; LAI, CHIEN-CHUNG

    2016-01-01

    Intramuscular hemangiomas (IMHs) of the masseter muscle are extremely rare in the head and neck region and, thus, are often misdiagnosed as parotid tumors prior to surgery. Excisional resection remains the standard treatment for IMH. Since these tumors are located on the proximal side of the facial nerve, it is important to preserve the facial nerve during surgery. This study reports the case of a 57-year-old male who presented with a progressive tender swelling on the right side of the face, which had been present for >6 months. Computed tomography of the neck revealed a heterogeneous highly-vascularized mass located in the superficial layer of the masseter muscle. The patient subsequently underwent surgical resection via a collar incision, and pathological examination revealed a cavernous IMH. During the one-year follow-up period, the patient exhibited a good prognosis, and one-year magnetic resonance imaging revealed no local recurrence. PMID:26998058

  20. Brainstem Hemorrhage Caused by Direct Carotid-Cavernous Fistula

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Fook-How; Shen, Chao-Yu; Liu, Jung-Tung; Li, Cho-Shun

    2014-01-01

    Summary A 34-year-old woman presented with a history of persisting headache for years, and a newly developed dizziness, left facial palsy and right hemiparesis two days prior to this admission. Initial computed tomographic angiography of the head demonstrated an area of increased density in the left middle and posterior fossae. Multiple aneurysmally dilated venous ectasias with contrast enhancement at the left pre-pontine cistern causing a massive mass effect to the brainstem were also noted, suggesting a huge vascular abnormality. Digital subtraction angiography revealed an abnormal vascular lesion surrounding the brainstem, which indicated a left direct carotid-cavernous fistula with posterior drainage. As her consciousness deteriorated the next day, a follow-up computed tomography scan was done which revealed a pontine hemorrhage. Subsequently, endovascular closure of the fistula with sacrifice of the left ICA was performed, which successfully eliminated the imaging abnormalities. PMID:25207913

  1. Intramedullary cavernous malformation of the spinal cord in two dogs.

    PubMed

    MacKillop, E; Olby, N J; Linder, K E; Brown, T T

    2007-07-01

    Intramedullary cavernous malformations (CVMs) of the spinal cord were diagnosed in 2 adult dogs that presented for paraparesis. An intramedullary spinal cord lesion was identified on a myelogram in the first dog, and expansion of the vertebral canal was evident on radiographs in the second. Extensive intraparenchymal hemorrhage was found on gross postmortem examination in both dogs, and a distinct lobulated intramedullary mass was evident in the second dog. Microscopically, both lesions were composed of dilated, thin-walled vascular channels with little-to-no intervening neural parenchyma. Both dogs had evidence of channel thrombosis along with perilesional hemorrhage and hemosiderin accumulation. The second dog had additional degenerative changes, including thickened fibrous channel walls with hyalinization, foci of mineralization, and occasional tongues of entrapped gliotic neuropil. CVMs appear to be an uncommon cause of both acute and chronic spinal cord disease in the dog. PMID:17606517

  2. Treatment of Nystagmus in Brainstem Cavernous Malformation with Botulinum Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Fredrick, Douglas; Steinberg, Gary K; Liao, Yaping J

    2016-01-01

    We report a long-term eye movement study of a 68-year-old female with pontomedullary junction cavernous malformation whose dysconjugate nystagmus was treated with retrobulbar botulinum toxin A injections. Sequential, bilateral retrobulbar injections of botulinum toxin A were performed. Injections immediately decreased oscillopsia and nystagmus, and improved visual acuities. One to three months following injection, three-dimensional infrared oculography measured a significant 39-100% (P = 0.001) decrease in nystagmus amplitudes at multiple dimensions. This improvement diminished by six months in the right eye but sustained for about one year in the left eye. Over two years, botulinum toxin A injections were performed twice in the left eye and five times in the right eye. Our study supported the safe and effective use of repetitive retrobulbar botulinum toxin A injections in symptomatic nystagmus that failed medical therapy. PMID:27182467

  3. Observations on vapor pressure in SPR caverns : sources.

    SciTech Connect

    Munson, Darrell Eugene

    2010-05-01

    The oil of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) represents a national response to any potential emergency or intentional restriction of crude oil supply to this country, and conforms to International Agreements to maintain such a reserve. As assurance this reserve oil will be available in a timely manner should a restriction in supply occur, the oil of the reserve must meet certain transportation criteria. The transportation criteria require that the oil does not evolve dangerous gas, either explosive or toxic, while in the process of transport to, or storage at, the destination facility. This requirement can be a challenge because the stored oil can acquire dissolved gases while in the SPR. There have been a series of reports analyzing in exceptional detail the reasons for the increases, or regains, in gas content; however, there remains some uncertainty in these explanations and an inability to predict why the regains occur. Where the regains are prohibitive and exceed the criteria, the oil must undergo degasification, where excess portions of the volatile gas are removed. There are only two known sources of gas regain, one is the salt dome formation itself which may contain gas inclusions from which gas can be released during oil processing or storage, and the second is increases of the gases release by the volatile components of the crude oil itself during storage, especially if the stored oil undergoes heating or is subject to biological generation processes. In this work, the earlier analyses are reexamined and significant alterations in conclusions are proposed. The alterations are based on how the fluid exchanges of brine and oil uptake gas released from domal salt during solutioning, and thereafter, during further exchanges of fluids. Transparency of the brine/oil interface and the transfer of gas across this interface remains an important unanswered question. The contribution from creep induced damage releasing gas from the salt surrounding the cavern is

  4. [Orbital inflammation].

    PubMed

    Mouriaux, F; Coffin-Pichonnet, S; Robert, P-Y; Abad, S; Martin-Silva, N

    2014-12-01

    Orbital inflammation is a generic term encompassing inflammatory pathologies affecting all structures within the orbit : anterior (involvement up to the posterior aspect of the globe), diffuse (involvement of intra- and/or extraconal fat), apical (involvement of the posterior orbit), myositis (involvement of only the extraocular muscles), dacryoadenitis (involvement of the lacrimal gland). We distinguish between specific inflammation and non-specific inflammation, commonly referred to as idiopathic inflammation. Specific orbital inflammation corresponds to a secondary localization of a "generalized" disease (systemic or auto-immune). Idiopathic orbital inflammation corresponds to uniquely orbital inflammation without generalized disease, and thus an unknown etiology. At the top of the differential diagnosis for specific or idiopathic orbital inflammation are malignant tumors, represented most commonly in the adult by lympho-proliferative syndromes and metastases. Treatment of specific orbital inflammation begins with treatment of the underlying disease. For idiopathic orbital inflammation, treatment (most often corticosteroids) is indicated above all in cases of visual loss due to optic neuropathy, in the presence of pain or oculomotor palsy. PMID:25455557

  5. Giant primary ossified cavernous hemangioma of the skull in an adult: A rare calvarial tumor

    PubMed Central

    Tyagi, Devendra K; Balasubramaniam, Srikant; Sawant, Hemant V

    2011-01-01

    Primary intraosseous cavernous hemangiomas (PICHs) of the cranium are rare benign vascular tumors that account for about 0.2 % of all bone tumors and 10 % of benign skull tumors. They generally present as osteolytic lesions with honeycomb pattern of calcification. Completely ossified cavernous hemangioma of the calvarium in an adult has not been reported previously. A 28-year-old female presented to us with a large right parietal skull mass that had been present since the last 15 years. Total resection of the lesion was performed. Pathological examination was suggestive of cavernous hemangioma of the skull bone. Cavernous hemangioma should be considered as one of the differential diagnosis in any case of bony swelling of the calvarium so that adequate preoperative planning can be made to minimize blood loss and subsequent morbidity. PMID:21897684

  6. Cavernous hemangioma of the skull presenting with subdural hematoma. Case report.

    PubMed

    Gottfried, Oren N; Gluf, Wayne M; Schmidt, Meic H

    2004-10-15

    Cavernous hemangioma of the calvaria is a very rare disease, and patients usually present with headaches or a visible skull deformity. Few reports of patients presenting with intradiploic or epidural hemorrhages are found in the literature. No case of an intradural hemorrhage from a cavernous hemangioma of the skull has been reported to date. The authors present the case of a 50-year-old man in whom a symptomatic subdural hematoma (SDH) resulting from a cavernous hemangioma of the calvaria had hemorrhaged and eroded through the inner table of the skull and dura mater. The patient underwent surgery for evacuation of the SDH and resection of the calvarial lesion. Postoperatively, the patient experienced immediate relief of his symptoms and had no clinical or radiological recurrence. Calvarial cavernous hemangiomas should be considered in the differential diagnosis of nontraumatic SDHs. Additionally, skull lesions that present with intracranial hemorrhages must be identified and resected at the time of hematoma evacuation to prevent recurrences. PMID:15633993

  7. Diagnosis and management of trigemino-cavernous fistulas: case reports and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Miller, Timothy R; Jindal, Gaurav; Mohan, Suyash; Fortes, Manuel; Hurst, Robert; Pukenas, Bryan; Gandhi, Dheeraj

    2015-01-01

    Although usually asymptomatic, a persistent trigeminal artery (PTA) can rarely be associated with a direct fistula to the cavernous sinus (ie, trigemino-cavernous fistula). We present three patients with trigemino-cavernous fistulas; two were subsequently treated using modern endovascular techniques while the third initially declined therapy. We then review the literature of reported cases of this unusual entity. The aberrant anatomy associated with a PTA presents unique challenges to the management of these lesions, and must be well delineated prior to treatment. Finally, conservative management of trigemino-cavernous fistulas, either de novo or recurrent, may be considered if they demonstrate no evidence of cortical venous reflux and patient symptoms are tolerable. PMID:24394154

  8. Ultrasonography guided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation for hepatic cavernous hemangioma

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yan; Zhou, Li-Yan; Dong, Man-Ku; Wang, Ping; Ji, Min; Li, Xiao-Ou; Chen, Chang-Wei; Liu, Zi-Pei; Xu, Yong-Jie; Zhang, Hong-Wen

    2003-01-01

    AIM: Hepatic cavernous hemangioma (HCH) is the most common benign tumor of the liver and its management is still controversial. Recent success in situ radiofrequency ablation of hepatic malignancies has led us to consider using this technique in patients with HCH. This study was to assess the efficacy, safety, and complications of percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (PRFA) under ultrasonography guidance in patients with HCH. METHODS: Twelve patients (four men and eight women, age ranged 33-56 years, mean age was 41.7 years) with 15 hepatic cavernous hemangiomas (2.5 cm to 9.5 cm) were treated using the RF-2000 generator and 10-needle LeVeen electrode percutaneously guided by B-ultrasound. Lesions larger than 3 cm were treated by multiple overlapping ablations that encompass the entire lesion as well as a rim of normal liver tissue (approximately 0.5 cm). RESULTS: All the patients who received PRFA therapy had no severe pain, bleeding or bile leakage during and after the procedures. Nine to 34 months’ follow-up (mean, 21 months) by ultrasound and/or spiral CT scan demonstrated that the ablated lesions in this group were shrunk remarkably, and the shrunken range was 38%-79% (mean, 67% per 21 months). The contrast enhancement was disappeared within the tumor or at its periphery in all cases on spiral CT scans obtained 3 to 6 months after treatment. CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that PRFA therapy is a mini-invasive, simple, safe, and effective method for the treatment of selected patients with HCH. PMID:12970923

  9. Defective autophagy is a key feature of cerebral cavernous malformations

    PubMed Central

    Marchi, Saverio; Corricelli, Mariangela; Trapani, Eliana; Bravi, Luca; Pittaro, Alessandra; Delle Monache, Simona; Ferroni, Letizia; Patergnani, Simone; Missiroli, Sonia; Goitre, Luca; Trabalzini, Lorenza; Rimessi, Alessandro; Giorgi, Carlotta; Zavan, Barbara; Cassoni, Paola; Dejana, Elisabetta; Retta, Saverio Francesco; Pinton, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM) is a major cerebrovascular disease affecting approximately 0.3–0.5% of the population and is characterized by enlarged and leaky capillaries that predispose to seizures, focal neurological deficits, and fatal intracerebral hemorrhages. Cerebral cavernous malformation is a genetic disease that may arise sporadically or be inherited as an autosomal dominant condition with incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity. Causative loss-of-function mutations have been identified in three genes, KRIT1 (CCM1), CCM2 (MGC4607), and PDCD10 (CCM3), which occur in both sporadic and familial forms. Autophagy is a bulk degradation process that maintains intracellular homeostasis and that plays essential quality control functions within the cell. Indeed, several studies have identified the association between dysregulated autophagy and different human diseases. Here, we show that the ablation of the KRIT1 gene strongly suppresses autophagy, leading to the aberrant accumulation of the autophagy adaptor p62/SQSTM1, defective quality control systems, and increased intracellular stress. KRIT1 loss-of-function activates the mTOR-ULK1 pathway, which is a master regulator of autophagy, and treatment with mTOR inhibitors rescues some of the mole-cular and cellular phenotypes associated with CCM. Insufficient autophagy is also evident in CCM2-silenced human endothelial cells and in both cells and tissues from an endothelial-specific CCM3-knockout mouse model, as well as in human CCM lesions. Furthermore, defective autophagy is highly correlated to endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition, a crucial event that contributes to CCM progression. Taken together, our data point to a key role for defective autophagy in CCM disease pathogenesis, thus providing a novel framework for the development of new pharmacological strategies to prevent or reverse adverse clinical outcomes of CCM lesions. PMID:26417067

  10. EXAMINE AND EVALUATE A PROCESS TO USE SALT CAVERNS TO RECEIVE SHIP BORNE LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Michael M. McCall; William M. Bishop; D. Braxton Scherz

    2003-04-24

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy cooperative research project is to define, describe, and validate, a process to utilize salt caverns to receive and store the cargoes of LNG ships. The project defines the process as receiving LNG from a ship, pumping the LNG up to cavern injection pressures, warming it to cavern compatible temperatures, injecting the warmed vapor directly into salt caverns for storage, and distribution to the pipeline network. The performance of work under this agreement is based on U.S. Patent 5,511,905, and other U.S. and Foreign pending patent applications. The cost sharing participants in the research are The National Energy Technology Laboratory (U.S. Department of Energy), BP America Production Company, Bluewater Offshore Production Systems (U.S.A.), Inc., and HNG Storage, L.P. Initial results indicate that a salt cavern based receiving terminal could be built at about half the capital cost, less than half the operating costs and would have significantly higher delivery capacity, shorter construction time, and be much more secure than a conventional liquid tank based terminal. There is a significant body of knowledge and practice concerning natural gas storage in salt caverns, and there is a considerable body of knowledge and practice in handling LNG, but there has never been any attempt to develop a process whereby the two technologies can be combined. Salt cavern storage is infinitely more secure than surface storage tanks, far less susceptible to accidents or terrorist acts, and much more acceptable to the community. The project team developed conceptual designs of two salt cavern based LNG terminals, one with caverns located in Calcasieu Parish Louisiana, and the second in Vermilion block 179 about 50 miles offshore Louisiana. These conceptual designs were compared to conventional tank based LNG terminals and demonstrate superior security, economy and capacity. The potential for the development of LNG receiving terminals

  11. Numerical evaluation of the groundwater drainage system for underground storage caverns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Eui Seob; Chae, Byung Gon

    2015-04-01

    A novel concept storing cryogenic liquefied natural gas in a hard rock lined cavern has been developed and tested for several years as an alternative. In this concept, groundwater in rock mass around cavern has to be fully drained until the early stage of construction and operation to avoid possible adverse effect of groundwater near cavern. And then rock mass should be re-saturated to form an ice ring, which is the zone around cavern including ice instead of water in several joints within the frozen rock mass. The drainage system is composed of the drainage tunnel excavated beneath the cavern and drain holes drilled on rock surface of the drainage tunnel. In order to de-saturate sufficiently rock mass around the cavern, the position and horizontal spacing of drain holes should be designed efficiently. In this paper, a series of numerical study results related to the drainage system of the full-scale cavern are presented. The rock type in the study area consists mainly of banded gneiss and mica schist. Gneiss is in slightly weathered state and contains a little joint and fractures. Schist contains several well-developed schistosities that mainly stand vertically, so that vertical joints are better developed than the horizontals in the area. Lugeon tests revealed that upper aquifer and bedrock are divided in the depth of 40-50m under the surface. Groundwater level was observed in twenty monitoring wells and interpolated in the whole area. Numerical study using Visual Modflow and Seep/W has been performed to evaluate the efficiency of drainage system for underground liquefied natural gas storage cavern in two hypothetically designed layouts and determine the design parameters. In Modflow analysis, groundwater flow change in an unconfined aquifer was simulated during excavation of cavern and operation of drainage system. In Seep/W analysis, amount of seepage and drainage was also estimated in a representative vertical section of each cavern. From the results

  12. Disposal of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in Salt Caverns.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.; Smith, K. P.; Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Blunt, D.; Williams, G. P.

    1998-08-28

    In 1995, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, asked Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to conduct a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW) into salt caverns. That study concluded that disposal of NOW into salt caverns is feasible and legal. If caverns are sited and designed well, operated carefully, closed properly, and monitored routinely, they can be a suitable means of disposing of NOW (Veil et al. 1996). Considering these findings and the increased U.S. interest in using salt caverns for NOW disposal, the Office of Fossil Energy asked Argonne to conduct further research on the cost of cavern disposal compared with the cost of more traditional NOW disposal methods and on preliminary identification and investigation of the risks associated with such disposal. The cost study (Veil 1997) found that disposal costs at the four permitted disposal caverns in the United States were comparable to or lower than the costs of other disposal facilities in the same geographic area. The risk study (Tomasko et al. 1997) estimated that both cancer and noncancer human health risks from drinking water that had been contaminated by releases of cavern contents were significantly lower than the accepted risk thresholds. Since 1992, DOE has funded Argonne to conduct a series of studies evaluating issues related to management and disposal of oil field wastes contaminated with naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). Included among these studies were radiological dose assessments of several different NORM disposal options (Smith et al. 1996). In 1997, DOE asked Argonne to conduct additional analyses on waste disposal in salt caverns, except that this time the wastes to be evaluated would be those types of oil field wastes that are contaminated by NORM. This report describes these analyses. Throughout the remainder of this report, the term ''NORM waste'' is used to mean ''oil field waste

  13. Disposal of NORM-Contaminated Oil Field Wastes in Salt Caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Blunt, D.L.; Elcock, D.; Smith, K.P.; Tomasko, D.; Viel, J.A.; and Williams, G.P.

    1999-01-21

    In 1995, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, asked Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to conduct a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW) into salt caverns. That study concluded that disposal of NOW into salt caverns is feasible and legal. If caverns are sited and designed well, operated carefully, closed properly, and monitored routinely, they can be a suitable means of disposing of NOW (Veil et al. 1996). Considering these findings and the increased U.S. interest in using salt caverns for NOW disposal, the Office of Fossil Energy asked Argonne to conduct further research on the cost of cavern disposal compared with the cost of more traditional NOW disposal methods and on preliminary identification and investigation of the risks associated with such disposal. The cost study (Veil 1997) found that disposal costs at the four permitted disposal caverns in the United States were comparable to or lower than the costs of other disposal facilities in the same geographic area. The risk study (Tomasko et al. 1997) estimated that both cancer and noncancer human health risks from drinking water that had been contaminated by releases of cavern contents were significantly lower than the accepted risk thresholds. Since 1992, DOE has funded Argonne to conduct a series of studies evaluating issues related to management and disposal of oil field wastes contaminated with naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). Included among these studies were radiological dose assessments of several different NORM disposal options (Smith et al. 1996). In 1997, DOE asked Argonne to conduct additional analyses on waste disposal in salt caverns, except that this time the wastes to be evaluated would be those types of oil field wastes that are contaminated by NORM. This report describes these analyses. Throughout the remainder of this report, the term ''NORM waste'' is used to mean ''oil field waste

  14. Traumatic Persistent Trigeminal Artery - Cavernous Sinus Fistula Treated by Transcatheter Arterial Embolization

    PubMed Central

    Asai, K.; Hasuo, K.; Hara, T.; Miyagishima, T.; Terano, N.

    2010-01-01

    Summary We describe a rare case of traumatic persistent trigeminal artery (PTA) - cavernous sinus fistula. Cerebral angiography showed direct communication between the right PTA and the cavernous sinus which was treated by transcathether arterial embolization. Although previous reports have indicated the use of more coils to treat this condition, we successfully treated the patient with only two coils placed near the orifice of the fistula after sufficient anatomical evaluation. PMID:20377986

  15. Traumatic persistent trigeminal artery--cavernous sinus fistula treated by transcatheter arterial embolization. A case report.

    PubMed

    Asai, K; Hasuo, K; Hara, T; Miyagishima, T; Terano, N

    2010-03-01

    We describe a rare case of traumatic persistent trigeminal artery (PTA) - cavernous sinus fistula. Cerebral angiography showed direct communication between the right PTA and the cavernous sinus which was treated by transcathether arterial embolization. Although previous reports have indicated the use of more coils to treat this condition, we successfully treated the patient with only two coils placed near the orifice of the fistula after sufficient anatomical evaluation. PMID:20377986

  16. Risk analyses for disposing nonhazardous oil field wastes in salt caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Veil, J.; Caudle, D.

    1997-12-01

    Salt caverns have been used for several decades to store various hydrocarbon products. In the past few years, four facilities in the US have been permitted to dispose nonhazardous oil field wastes in salt caverns. Several other disposal caverns have been permitted in Canada and Europe. This report evaluates the possibility that adverse human health effects could result from exposure to contaminants released from the caverns in domal salt formations used for nonhazardous oil field waste disposal. The evaluation assumes normal operations but considers the possibility of leaks in cavern seals and cavern walls during the post-closure phase of operation. In this assessment, several steps were followed to identify possible human health risks. At the broadest level, these steps include identifying a reasonable set of contaminants of possible concern, identifying how humans could be exposed to these contaminants, assessing the toxicities of these contaminants, estimating their intakes, and characterizing their associated human health risks. The contaminants of concern for the assessment are benzene, cadmium, arsenic, and chromium. These were selected as being components of oil field waste and having a likelihood to remain in solution for a long enough time to reach a human receptor.

  17. Spindletop salt-cavern points way for future natural-gas storage

    SciTech Connect

    Shotts, S.A.; Neal, J.R.; Solis, R.J. ); Oldham, C. )

    1994-09-12

    Spindletop underground natural-gas storage complex began operating in 1993, providing 1.7 bcf of working-gas capacity in its first cavern. The cavern and related facilities exemplify the importance and advantages of natural-gas storage in leached salt caverns. Development of a second cavern, along with continued leaching of the initial cavern, target 5 bcf of available working-gas capacity in both caverns by the end of this year. The facilities that currently make up the Spindletop complex include two salt dome gas-storage wells and a 24,000-hp compression and dehydration facility owned by Sabine Gas; two salt dome gas-storage wells and a 15,900-hp compression and dehydration facility owned by Centana; a 7,000-hp leaching plant; and three jointly owned brine-disposal wells. The paper discusses the development of the storage facility, design goals, leaching plant and wells, piping and compressors, dehydration and heaters, control systems, safety and monitoring, construction, first years operation, and customer base.

  18. Hazard assessment of the stability of a cavern roof along the coastline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reina, A.; Lollino, P.

    2009-04-01

    This work concerns the hazard assessment about the stability of a large shallow depth cavern, located along the coastline rocky sector of Polignano town (Apulia, Southern Italy) under an intensely urbanised area. This cavern, which lies at the sea level, has been created by a prolonged process of sea erosion within a rock mass formed of a lower stratified limestone mass and an upper Gravina Calcarenite mass. The thickness of the cavern roof, which has a dome shape, is less than 10 metres in the centre. Important buildings, as hotels and private houses, are located just above the top of the roof. Erosion processes have been observed to be still active along the whole cavern due to climate factors and, in particular, to sea salt weathering and sea spray effects. In 2007 a large calcarenite block, 3 m large, fell down from the cavern roof and consequently a field investigation campaign was carried out for a rational stabilization plan in order to understand the current stability conditions of the roof and the potential failure mechanism. Therefore, a thorough geo-structural survey has firstly been carried out, together with laboratory and in-situ testing for measuring the physical and mechanical properties of the calcarenite rock and of the corresponding joints. A monitoring system has also been planned and installed in order to measure the erosional rate and the block displacements in the cavern.

  19. Cavernous sinus syndrome, an atypical presentation of tertiary syphilis: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Noel, Colin B; Moeketsi, Khulile; Kies, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    Cavernous sinus syndrome is rarely caused by tertiary syphilitic infection. To our knowledge only two other cases of cavernous sinus syndrome caused by syphilis have been reported in the literature. We report a case of a 62-year-old female who presented with a mass in the cavernous sinus, which was initially diagnosed as a meningioma radiologically, necessitating a biopsy for diagnostic confirmation. Clinical features of syphilitic aortitis and subsequent positive neurosyphilis laboratory results lead to the suspicion of a gumma infiltrating the cavernous sinus. Empirical treatment with penicillin in an attempt to defer the need for biopsy led to both significant clinical improvement and radiological resolution. This confirmed the diagnosis of a syphilitic gumma in the cavernous sinus. In this paper we emphasize the rarity of cavernous sinus syndrome as a result of syphilitic infection, highlight the diagnostic difficulties using current serological and radiological measures, and propose treating intracerebral mass lesions in serum positive cases empirically prior to more invasive measures. PMID:20884116

  20. COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC AND ULTRASONOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF CAVERNOUS TRANSFORMATION OF THE OBSTRUCTED PORTAL VEIN IN SMALL ANIMALS.

    PubMed

    Specchi, Swan; Pey, Pascaline; Ledda, Gianluca; Lustgarten, Meghann; Thrall, Donald; Bertolini, Giovanna

    2015-01-01

    In humans, the process of development of collateral vessels with hepatopetal flow around the portal vein in order to bypass an obstruction is called "cavernous transformation of the portal vein." The purpose of this retrospective, cross-sectional, multicentric study was to describe presumed cavernous transformation of the portal vein in small animals with portal vein obstruction using ultrasound and multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT). Databases from three different institutions were searched for patients with an imaging diagnosis of cavernous transformation of the portal vein secondary to portal vein obstruction of any cause. Images were retrieved and reanalyzed. With MDCT-angiography, two main portoportal collateral pathways were identified: short tortuous portoportal veins around/inside the thrombus and long portoportal collaterals bypassing the site of portal obstruction. Three subtypes of the long collaterals, often coexisting, were identified. Branches of the hepatic artery where involved in collateral circulation in nine cases. Concomitant acquired portosystemic shunts were identified in six patients. With ultrasound, cavernous transformation of the portal vein was suspected in three dogs and one cat based on visualization of multiple and tortuous vascular structures corresponding to periportal collaterals. In conclusion, the current study provided descriptive MDCT and ultrasonographic characteristics of presumed cavernous transformation of the portal vein in a sample of small animals. Cavernous transformation of the portal vein could occur as a single condition or could be concurrent with acquired portosystemic shunts. PMID:25877678

  1. Japan's exploration of vertical holes and subsurface caverns on the Moon and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haruyama, J.; Kawano, I.; Kubota, T.; Yoshida, K.; Kawakatsu, Y.; Kato, H.; Otsuki, M.; Watanabe, K.; Nishibori, T.; Yamamoto, Y.; Iwata, T.; Ishigami, G.; Yamada, T. T.

    2013-12-01

    Recently, gigantic vertical holes exceeding several tens of meters in diameter and depth were discovered on the Moon and Mars. Based on high-resolution image data, lunar holes and some Martian pits (called 'holes' hereafter) are probably skylights of subsurface caverns such as lava tubes or magma chambers. We are starting preparations for exploring the caverns through the vertical holes. The holes and subsurface caverns have high potential as resources for scientific studies. Various important geological and mineralogical processes could be uniquely and effectively observed inside these holes and subsurface caverns. The exposed fresh lava layers on the vertical walls of the lunar and Martian holes would provide information on volcanic eruption histories. The lava layers may also provide information on past magnetic fields of the celestial bodies. The regolith layers may be sandwiched between lava layers and may preserve volatile elements including solar wind protons that could be a clue to understanding past solar activities. Water molecules from solar winds or cometary/meteorite impacts may be stored inside the caverns because of mild temperatures there. The fresh lava materials forming the walls and floors of caverns might trap endogenic volatiles from magma eruptions that will be key materials for revealing the formation and early evolution of the Moon and Mars. Furthermore, the Martian subsurface caverns are highly expected to be life cradles where the temperatures are probably stable and that are free from ultra-violet and other cosmic rays that break chemical bonds, thus avoiding polymerization of molecules. Discovering extraterrestrial life and its varieties is one of our ultimate scientific purposes for exploring the lunar and Martian subsurface caverns. In addition to scientific interests, lunar and Martian subsurface caverns are excellent candidates for future lunar bases. We expect such caverns to have high potential due to stable temperatures; absence

  2. Acute abducens nerve palsy as a presenting feature in carotid-cavernous fistula in a 6-year-old girl

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Neelam; Ramakrishanan, R.; Maheshwari, Devendra; Ravindran, Meenakshi

    2013-01-01

    Carotid-cavernous fistulas (CCF) are abnormal communications between the internal carotid artery and the cavernous sinus. Traumatic carotid-cavernous fistulae are rare potential complications of craniofacial trauma. Typical findings of CCF are proptosis, chemosis, headache, oculomotor or abducens nerve palsy, trigeminal pain and pulsating bruit over the temporal skull and the bulb. CCF are reported very rarely in childhood. This report describes the clinical and radiological findings of a pediatric patient presented with CCF.

  3. Construction of the bridge in the cavern in the Vrata tunnel (Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garasic, Mladen; Sasa Kovacevic, Meho; Juric-Kacunic, Danijela

    2010-05-01

    In the Dinaric karst system in Croatia some 11500 speleological objects have been explored so far, more than 1000 of which were discovered during construction works. Such speleological objects without natural entrance on the terrain surface (which are called "caverns") have been discovered on the construction sites of the highways. Over the past twenty years they have been systematically investigated and treated. A special kind of remediation was conducted in the cavern's large hall of the "Vrata" tunnel on the Zagreb - Rijeka highway. Due to size, shape, cavern's position and hydrogeological parameters (fissured and karstified aquifers) within the karst system it was necessary to design and construct a 58 m bridge over the cavern. In addition, the cavern's vault had to be reinforced and stabilized, as the overburden was very thin. The beam-and -stringer grid with special anchors was used. The cavern's rehabilitation in the "Vrata" tunnel was a unique undertaking, and the bridge (without piers) is the cavern's longest bridge in the world. A speleological object of large dimensions was discovered in the "Vrata"tunnel's right tube on the Rijeka-Zagreb highway. Speleological, geotechnical, engineering geological and hydrogeological investigation works were carried out for the purpose of preservation the speleological object (cavern). On the basis of classification results of rock masses and conducted numerical analyses the support system for the cavern's vault stabilization was selected. The support system's elements include the beam-and-stringer grid constructed on the terrain's surface above the cavern, tendons and geotechnical anchors. To ensure stability of the speleological object, and to conduct the backward numerical analyses the measurement of vertical deformations from the terrain's surface along the rock's mass by means of sliding micrometers was undertaken. Backward numerical analyses combined with geotechnical measurements enable safer and more rational

  4. Thermo-mechanical modelling of salt caverns due to fluctuating loading conditions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böttcher, N.

    2015-12-01

    This work summarizes the development and application of a numerical model for the thermo-mechanical behaviour of salt caverns during cyclic gas storage. Artificial salt caverns are used for short term energy storage, such as power-to-gas or compressed air energy storage. Those applications are characterized by highly fluctuating operation pressures due to the unsteady power levels of power plants based on renewable energy. Compression and expansion of the storage gases during loading and unloading stages lead to rapidly changing temperatures in the host rock of the caverns. This affects the material behaviour of the host rock within a zone that extends several meters into the rock mass adjacent to the cavern wall, and induces thermo-mechanical stresses and alters the creep response.The proposed model features the thermodynamic behaviour of the storage medium, conductive heat transport in the host rock, as well as temperature dependent material properties of rock salt using different thermo-viscoplastic material models. The utilized constitutive models are well known and state-of-the-art in various salt mechanics applications. The model has been implemented into the open-source software platform OpenGeoSys. Thermal and mechanical processes are solved using a finite element approach, coupled via a staggered coupling scheme. The simulation results allow the conclusion, that the cavern convergence rate (and thus the efficiency of the cavern) is highly influenced by the loading cycle frequency and the resulting gas temperatures. The model therefore allows to analyse the influence of operation modes on the cavern host rock or on neighbouring facilities.

  5. Orbiter's Skeleton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The structure of NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft is constructed from composite panels of carbon layers over aluminum honeycomb, lightweight yet strong. This forms a basic structure or skeleton on which the instruments, electronics, propulsion and power systems can be mounted. The propellant tank is contained in the center of the orbiter's structure. This photo was taken at Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, during construction of the spacecraft.

  6. Operative surgical nuances of modified extradural temporopolar approach with mini-peeling of dura propria based on cadaveric anatomical study of lateral cavernous structures

    PubMed Central

    Otani, Naoki; Wada, Kojiro; Toyooka, Terushige; Fujii, Kazuya; Kobayashi, Yasushi; Mori, Kentaro

    2016-01-01

    Background: Extradural temporopolar approach (ETA) has been modified as less invasive manner and named as trans-superior orbital fissure (SOF) approach with mini-peeling technique. The present study discusses the operative nuances of this modified technique on the basis of cadaveric study of lateral cavernous structures. Methods: In five consecutive cadaveric specimens, we performed an extradural anterior clinoidectomy with mini-peeling of the dura propria to expose the anterior clinoid process entirely. We also investigated the histological characteristics of the lateral cavernous sinus (CS) between the dura propria and periosteal dura at the SOF, foramen rotundum (FR), and foramen ovale (FO) levels, and of each trigeminal nerve division. Results: Coronal histological examination of the lateral wall of the CS showed invagination of the dura propria and periosteal dura into the SOF. In contrast, no such invagination was observed at the levels of the FR and FO. This finding supports the technical rationale of the only skeletonization of the SOF for peeling of the dura propria but not FR. In addition, our modified ETA method needs only minimal dural incision between the SOF and FR where no cranial nerves are present. Conclusion: Our technical modification of ETA may be recommended for surgical treatment of paraclinoid lesions to reduce the risk of intraoperative neurovascular injury. PMID:27500005

  7. Gamma Knife radiosurgery for the treatment of cavernous sinus hemangiomas

    PubMed Central

    XU, QINGSHENG; SHEN, JIAN; FENG, YIPING; ZHAN, RENYA

    2016-01-01

    The present retrospective study aimed to analyze the outcome of patients with cavernous sinus hemangioma (CSH) treated with Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKS). Between August 2011 and April 2014, 7 patients with CSHs underwent GKS. GKS was performed as the sole treatment option in 5 patients, whilst partial resection had been performed previously in 1 patient and biopsy had been performed in 1 patient. The mean volume of the tumors at the time of GKS was 12.5±10.2 cm3 (range, 5.3–33.2 cm3), and the median prescription of peripheral dose was 14.0 Gy (range, 10.0–15.0 Gy). The mean follow-up period was 20 months (range, 6–40 months). At the last follow-up, the lesion volume had decreased in all patients, and all cranial neuropathies observed prior to GKS had improved. There were no radiation-induced neuropathies or complications during the follow-up period. GKS appears to be an effective and safe treatment modality for the management of CSHs. PMID:26893777

  8. Magnetic response properties of gaudiene - a cavernous and aromatic carbocage.

    PubMed

    Rauhalahti, M; Muñoz-Castro, A; Sundholm, D

    2016-07-28

    A spherical and cavernous carbocage molecule exhibiting faces with larger ring sizes than regular fullerenes is a suitable species for investigating how molecular magnetic properties depend on the structure of the molecular framework. The studied all-carbon gaudiene (C72) is a highly symmetrical molecule with three- and four-fold faces formed by twelve membered rings. Here, we attempt to unravel the magnetic response properties of C72 by performing magnetic shielding and current density calculations with the external magnetic field applied in different directions. The obtained results indicate that the induced current density flows mainly along the chemical bonds that are largely perpendicular to the magnetic field direction. However, the overall current strength for different directions of the magnetic field is nearly isotropic differing by only 10% indicating that C72 can to some extent be considered to be a spherical aromatic molecule, whose current density and magnetic shielding are ideally completely isotropic. The induced magnetic field is found to exhibit long-range shielding cones in the field direction with a small deshielding region located perpendicularly to the field outside the molecule. The magnetic shielding is isotropic inside the molecular framework of C72, whereas an orientation-dependent magnetic response appears mainly at the exterior of the molecular cage. PMID:27352814

  9. Chlorophyll f-driven photosynthesis in a cavernous cyanobacterium.

    PubMed

    Behrendt, Lars; Brejnrod, Asker; Schliep, Martin; Sørensen, Søren J; Larkum, Anthony W D; Kühl, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Chlorophyll (Chl) f is the most recently discovered chlorophyll and has only been found in cyanobacteria from wet environments. Although its structure and biophysical properties are resolved, the importance of Chl f as an accessory pigment in photosynthesis remains unresolved. We found Chl f in a cyanobacterium enriched from a cavernous environment and report the first example of Chl f-supported oxygenic photosynthesis in cyanobacteria from such habitats. Pigment extraction, hyperspectral microscopy and transmission electron microscopy demonstrated the presence of Chl a and f in unicellular cyanobacteria found in enrichment cultures. Amplicon sequencing indicated that all oxygenic phototrophs were related to KC1, a Chl f-containing cyanobacterium previously isolated from an aquatic environment. Microsensor measurements on aggregates demonstrated oxygenic photosynthesis at 742 nm and less efficient photosynthesis under 768- and 777-nm light probably because of diminished overlap with the absorption spectrum of Chl f and other far-red absorbing pigments. Our findings suggest the importance of Chl f-containing cyanobacteria in terrestrial habitats. PMID:25668158

  10. Introduction to cerebral cavernous malformation: a brief review.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jaehong

    2016-05-01

    The disease known as cerebral cavernous malformations mostly occurs in the central nervous system, and their typical histological presentations are multiple lumen formation and vascular leakage at the brain capillary level, resulting in disruption of the blood-brain barrier. These abnormalities result in severe neurological symptoms such as seizures, focal neurological deficits and hemorrhagic strokes. CCM research has identified 'loss of function' mutations of three ccm genes responsible for the disease and also complex regulation of multiple signaling pathways including the WNT/β-catenin pathway, TGF-β and Notch signaling by the ccm genes. Although CCM research is a relatively new and small scientific field, as CCM research has the potential to regulate systemic blood vessel permeability and angiogenesis including that of the blood-brain barrier, this field is growing rapidly. In this review, I will provide a brief overview of CCM pathogenesis and function of ccm genes based on recent progress in CCM research. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(5): 255-262]. PMID:26923303

  11. Scintigraphic evaluation of liver masses: cavernous hepatic hemangioma.

    PubMed

    Rubin, R A; Lichtenstein, G R

    1993-05-01

    Hepatic cavernous hemangioma must be included in the differential diagnosis of any hepatic solid mass. It is the second most common neoplasm of the liver, following intrahepatic metastases. With the exception of giant or symptomatic HCH, it does not require specific intervention. The ability to diagnose HCH radiologically (Table 2) has significant clinical importance. When confronted with clinical data and a preliminary radiologic study suggestive of HCH, serial planar blood-pool scintigraphy (with SPECT if the lesion is < 3-4 cm) should probably be the initial diagnostic examination. In comparison to MRI, it is safer, less expensive and easier for some patients to tolerate. For small, deep seated lesions or those adjacent to the heart or large vessels, MRI is the preferred test. Dynamic CT is probably most useful in patients with normal renal function in whom optimal imaging of the extrahepatic abdomen is desired. If the etiology of an incidental hepatic mass suspected to be an HCH is still not evident after these studies, angiography or biopsy are the remaining options. As described, angiography is sensitive and relatively specific for HCH. Although percutaneous biopsy may be associated with increased risk of bleeding, fine-needle biopsy has been shown to be safe for hemangiomas. However, fine-needle biopsy is more useful for confirming a suspected malignancy than for actually diagnosing hemangioma. PMID:8478723

  12. Induced Seismicity Monitoring of an Underground Salt Cavern Prone to Collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercerat, E. D.; Driad-Lebeau, L.; Bernard, P.

    2010-02-01

    Within the framework of a large research project launched to assess the feasibility of microseismic monitoring of growing underground caverns, this specific work focuses on the analysis of the induced seismicity recorded in a salt mine environment. A local seismic network has been installed over an underground salt cavern located in the Lorraine basin (Northeast of France). The microseismic network includes four 3-components and three single component geophones deployed at depths between 30 and 125 m in cemented boreholes drilled in the vicinity of the study area. The underground cavern under monitoring is located within a salt layer at 180 m depth and it presents a rather irregular shape that can be approximated by a cylindrical volume of 50 m height and 180 m diameter. Presently, the cavern is full of saturated brine inducing a significant pressure on its walls (~2.0 MPa) to keep the overburden mechanically stable. Nevertheless some small microseismic events were recorded by the network and analyzed (approximately 2,000 events in 2 years of recording). In October 2005 and April 2007, two controlled pressure transient experiments were carried out in the cavern, in order to analyze the mechanical response of the overburden by tracking the induced microseismicity. The recorded events were mainly grouped in clusters of 3-30 s of signal duration with emergent first arrivals and rather low frequency content (between 20 and 120 Hz). Some of these events have been spatially located by travel-time picking close to the actual cavern and its immediate roof. Preliminary spectral analysis of isolated microearthquakes suggests sources with non-negligible tensile components possibly related to fluid-filled cracks. Rock-debris falling into the cavern from delamination of clay marls in the immediate roof is probably another source of seismic excitation. This was later confirmed when the most important seismic swarms occurred at the site during May 2007, accompanied by the

  13. Visualization of hydraulic connections using Borehole Array around LPG Underground Storage Cavern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimo, M.; Mashimo, H.; Maejima, T.; Aoki, K.

    2006-12-01

    This paper presents a systematic approach to visualize the hydraulic connections within the fractured rock mass around the underground LPG storage caverns using array of water injection boreholes. By taking advantage that water injection boreholes are located so as to cover the storage caverns, a complete sketch of hydraulic conditions around the caverns, such as locations of water conducting fractures, hydraulic conductivity and groundwater pressure can be obtained. Applicability of the proposed techniques have been tested in an on-going construction project operated by JOGMEC, Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation, at Namikata, Western part of Japan. Three 26m x 30m x 485m caverns, located at 150 - 200 m below the ground surface in a granitic rock, are under construction. By systematically monitoring the pressure responses between the neighboring boreholes during drilling of total 387 boreholes around the two propane caverns, a spatial profile of the hydraulic connections and hydraulic conductivity around the caverns has been successfully obtained. Locations of localized depressurized zones created during an arch excavation have been detected by monitoring pressure in each borehole after stopping water supply to that borehole temporarily. Measurement has been conducted using each one of the 302 boreholes, one at a time. Observation shows that there is a clear correlation between total pressure drop and pressure gradient versus time curve on semi-logarithmic plot, dH/log10t, as expected by the numerical prediction. Regions where dH/log10t is larger than a certain criteria, determined by a numerical simulation for flow around a cavern in a rock with uniform hydraulic conductivity, have been evaluated as a depressurized zone caused by insufficient water supply, possibly due to existence of the high permeable zones. Separate pore pressure measurement around the caverns also supports this interpretation that a low pressure is prevailing near the borehole

  14. Heavily T2-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Landmarks of the Cavernous Sinus and Paracavernous Region

    PubMed Central

    Hermann, M.; Bobek-Billewicz, B.; Sloniewski, P.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the magnetic resonance anatomy of the cavernous sinus. Heavily T2-weighted submillimetric sequence in sagittal, coronal, and axial planes was performed in 16 healthy patients. The sequence provides high contrast between fluid and other structures of the cavernous sinus. High signal intensity of the venous spaces of the cavernous sinus provides a kind of a background for internal carotid artery, cranial nerves, and meninges, as well as bony and fibrous structures. The study was performed with the help of an anatomic atlas. Different magnetic resonance (MR) landmarks of the cavernous and parasellar region were introduced and demonstrated. MR images, superior to computer tomography, allow a detailed assessment of the cavernous sinus anatomy. Delineation by magnetic resonance of tiny anatomical structures may help the neurosurgeon trace the exact outline of a tumor and help to plan an adequate strategy if complete resection is attempted. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 8 PMID:17171105

  15. EFFECTS OF HYPERGLYCEMIA ON RAT CAVERNOUS NERVE AXONS: A FUNCTIONAL AND ULTRASTRUCTURAL STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Zotova, Elena G.; Schaumburg, Herbert H.; Raine, Cedric S.; Cannella, Barbara; Tar, Moses; Melman, Arnold; Arezzo, Joseph C.

    2008-01-01

    The present study explored parallel changes in the physiology and structure of myelinated (Aδ) and unmyelinated (C) small diameter axons in the cavernous nerve of rats associated with streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemia. Damage to these axons is thought to play a key role in diabetic autonomic neuropathy and erectile dysfunction, but their pathophysiology has been poorly studied. Velocities in slow conducting fibers were measured by applying multiple unit procedures; histopathology was evaluated with both light and electron microscopy. To our knowledge, these are the initial studies of slow nerve conduction velocities in the distal segments of the cavernous nerve. We report that hyperglycemia is associated with a substantial reduction in the amplitude of the slow conducting response, as well as a slowing of velocities within this very slow range (<2.5 m/sec). Even with prolonged hyperglycemia (> 4 months), histopathological abnormalities were mild and limited to the distal segments of the cavernous nerve. Structural findings included dystrophic changes in nerve terminals, abnormal accumulations of glycogen granules in unmyelinated and preterminal axons, and necrosis of scattered smooth muscle fibers. The onset of slowing of velocity in the distal cavernous nerve occurred subsequent to slowing in somatic nerves in the same rats. The functional changes in the cavernous nerve anticipated and exceeded the axonal degeneration detected by morphology. The physiologic techniques outlined in these studies are feasible in most electrophysiologic laboratories and could substantially enhance our sensitivity to the onset and progression of small fiber diabetic neuropathy. PMID:18687329

  16. Orbital Debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessler, D. J. (Compiler); Su, S. Y. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    Earth orbital debris issues and recommended future activities are discussed. The workshop addressed the areas of environment definition, hazards to spacecraft, and space object management. It concluded that orbital debris is a potential problem for future space operations. However, before recommending any major efforts to control the environment, more data are required. The most significant required data are on the population of debris smaller than 4 cm in diameter. New damage criteria are also required. When these data are obtained, they can be combined with hypervelocity data to evaluate the hazards to future spacecraft. After these hazards are understood, then techniques to control the environment can be evaluated.

  17. Speckle reduction during all-fiber common-path optical coherence tomography of the cavernous nerves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitchian, Shahab; Fiddy, Michael; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2009-02-01

    Improvements in identification, imaging, and visualization of the cavernous nerves during prostate cancer surgery, which are responsible for erectile function, may improve nerve preservation and postoperative sexual potency. In this study, we use a rat prostate, ex vivo, to evaluate the feasibility of optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a diagnostic tool for real-time imaging and identification of the cavernous nerves. A novel OCT system based on an all single-mode fiber common-path interferometer-based scanning system is used for this purpose. A wavelet shrinkage denoising technique using Stein's unbiased risk estimator (SURE) algorithm to calculate a data-adaptive threshold is implemented for speckle noise reduction in the OCT image. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was improved by 9 dB and the image quality metrics of the cavernous nerves also improved significantly.

  18. Effects of anomalous salt features on caverns in Gulf Coast domes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Early solution miners encountered occasional difficulties with nonsymmetric caverns (including wings'' and chimneys''), gas releases, insoluble stringers, and excessive anhydrite sands.'' Apparently there was no early recognition of trends for these encounters, although certain areas were avoided after problems appeared consistently within them. Solution mining has now matured, and an accumulation of experience indicates that anomalous salt features occur on a number of Gulf Coast domes. Trends incorporating concentrations of anomalous features will be referred to as anomalous zones,'' or AZs (after Kupfer). The main objective of this Project is to determine the effects of AZ encounters on solution-mined caverns and related storage operations in domes. Geological features of salt domes related directly to cavern operations and AZs will be described briefly, but discussions of topics related generally to the evolution of Gulf Coast salt structures are beyond the scope of this Project.

  19. Effects of anomalous salt features on caverns in Gulf Coast domes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    Early solution miners encountered occasional difficulties with nonsymmetric caverns (including ``wings`` and ``chimneys``), gas releases, insoluble stringers, and excessive anhydrite ``sands.`` Apparently there was no early recognition of trends for these encounters, although certain areas were avoided after problems appeared consistently within them. Solution mining has now matured, and an accumulation of experience indicates that anomalous salt features occur on a number of Gulf Coast domes. Trends incorporating concentrations of anomalous features will be referred to as ``anomalous zones,`` or AZs (after Kupfer). The main objective of this Project is to determine the effects of AZ encounters on solution-mined caverns and related storage operations in domes. Geological features of salt domes related directly to cavern operations and AZs will be described briefly, but discussions of topics related generally to the evolution of Gulf Coast salt structures are beyond the scope of this Project.

  20. Cavernous sinus thrombosis secondary to aspergillus granuloma: A case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Brenet, Esteban; Boulagnon-Rombi, Camille; N'guyen, Yohan; Litré, Claude-Fabien

    2016-10-01

    Cavernous sinus thrombosis is a rare but serious complication of sphenoid aspergillosis. The rarity of this pathology makes its diagnostic very difficult on a clinical, biological and radiological sense. The authors present a case of cavernous sinus thrombosis with ipsilateral internal carotid artery thrombosis secondary to a non-invasive sphenoid aspergillosis in an immunocompetent host, responsible of a cavernous syndrome associated to a Claude Bernard Horner syndrome. One year after surgery, the patient is still asymptomatic without recurrence. Diagnostic modalities are detailed and several management of this pathology are compared. Surgery is essential in a diagnostic and therapeutic sense. There is no evidence of the interest of adjuvant therapies such as antibiotic and anticoagulation. Concerning the antifungal treatment, the attitude towards a non-invasive sphenoid aspergillosis in an immunocompetent host is unclear. PMID:26860234

  1. Mapping a gene causing cerebral cavernous malformation to 7q11.2-q21.

    PubMed Central

    Günel, M; Awad, I A; Anson, J; Lifton, R P

    1995-01-01

    Cerebral cavernous malformation is a common disease of the brain vasculature of unknown cause characterized by dilated thin-walled sinusoidal vessels (caverns); these lesions cause varying clinical presentations which include headache, seizure, and hemorrhagic stroke. This disorder is frequently familial, with autosomal dominant inheritance. Using a general linkage approach in two extended cavernous malformation kindreds, we have identified linkage of this trait to chromosome 7q11.2-q21. Multipoint linkage analysis yields a peak logarithm of odds (lod) score of 6.88 with zero recombination with locus D7S669 and localizes the gene to a 7-cM region in the interval between loci ELN and D7S802. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:7604043

  2. Giant cavernous carotid artery aneurysm mimicking a fungal granuloma and presenting with massive epistaxis

    PubMed Central

    Roopesh Kumar, V R; Madhugiri, Venkatesh S; Sasidharan, Gopalakrishnan M; Gundamaneni, Sudheer K

    2012-01-01

    A 42-year-old man presented with frequent minor nasal bleeds since 1 month. He was undergoing chemotherapy for pulmonary tuberculosis. MRI brain revealed a space occupying lesion in the right cavernous sinus extending to sphenoid sinus, with T2 inversion. An initial diagnosis of fungal granuloma was made and endoscopic trans-nasal biopsy was attempted. During surgery, a pink pulsating mass was seen in the sphenoid sinus and the procedure was abandoned. A cerebral CT-angiography done subsequently revealed a giant right cavernous segment internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysm. He was then referred to our centre and upon admission he collapsed secondary to a major bout of epistaxis. An emergency cervical carotid artery ligation resulted in transient control of epistaxis. Owing to recurrence of bleed, trapping of the aneurysm was done resulting in cure. The present case shows that a giant cavernous ICA aneurysm can occasionally be erroneously diagnosed as fungal granuloma. PMID:23010464

  3. Rock Cavern Stability Analysis Under Different Hydro-Geological Conditions Using the Coupled Hydro-Mechanical Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H. M.; Zhao, Z. Y.; Choo, L. Q.; Sun, J. P.

    2016-02-01

    Rock cavern stability has a close relationship with the uncertain geological parameters, such as the in situ stress, the joint configurations, and the joint mechanical properties. Therefore, the stability of the rock cavern should be studied with variable geological conditions. In this paper, the coupled hydro-mechanical model, which is under the framework of the discontinuous deformation analysis, is developed to study the underground cavern stability when considering the hydraulic pressure after excavation. Variable geological conditions are taken into account to study their impacts on the seepage rate and the cavern stability, including the in situ stress ratio, joint spacing, and joint dip angle. In addition, the two cases with static hydraulic pressure and without hydraulic pressure are also considered for the comparison. The numerical simulations demonstrate that the coupled approach can capture the cavern behavior better than the other two approaches without the coupling effects.

  4. Disposal of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns -- Legality, technical feasibility, economics, and risk

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.; Smith, K.P.; Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Blunt, D.; Williams, G.P.

    1998-07-01

    Some types of oil and gas production and processing wastes contain naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). If NORM is present at concentrations above regulatory levels in oil field waste, the waste requires special disposal practices. The existing disposal options for wastes containing NORM are limited and costly. This paper evaluates the legality, technical feasibility, economics, and human health risk of disposing of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns. Cavern disposal of NORM waste is technically feasible and poses a very low human health risk. From a legal perspective, there are no fatal flaws that would prevent a state regulatory agency from approaching cavern disposal of NORM. On the basis of the costs charged by caverns currently used for disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW), NORM waste disposal caverns could be cost competitive with existing NORM waste disposal methods when regulatory agencies approve the practice.

  5. Salinization of groundwater around underground LPG storage caverns, Korea : statistical interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.; Chang, H.

    2001-12-01

    In this research, we investigate the reciprocal influence between groundwater flow and its salinization occurred in two underground cavern sites, using major ion chemistry, PCA for chemical analysis data, and cross-correlation for various hydraulic data. The study areas are two underground LPG storage facilities constructed in South Sea coast, Yosu, and West Sea coastal regions, Pyeongtaek, Korea. Considerably high concentration of major cations and anions of groundwaters at both sites showed brackish or saline water types. In Yosu site, some great chemical difference of groundwater samples between rainy and dry season was caused by temporal intrusion of high-saline water into propane and butane cavern zone, but not in Pyeongtaek site. Cl/Br ratios and δ 18O- δ D distribution for tracing of salinization source water in both sites revealed that two kind of saline water (seawater and halite-dissolved solution) could influence the groundwater salinization in Yosu site, whereas only seawater intrusion could affect the groundwater chemistry of the observation wells in Pyeongtaek site. PCA performed by 8 and 10 chemical ions as statistical variables in both sites showed that intensive intrusion of seawater through butane cavern was occurred at Yosu site while seawater-groundwater mixing was observed at some observation wells located in the marginal part of Pyeongtaek site. Cross-correlation results revealed that the positive relationship between hydraulic head and cavern operating pressure was far more conspicuous at propane cavern zone in both sites (65 ~90% of correlation coefficients). According to the cross-correlation results of Yosu site, small change of head could provoke massive influx of halite-dissolved solution from surface through vertically developed fracture networks. However in Pyeongtaek site, the pressure-sensitive observation wells are not completely consistent with seawater-mixed wells, and the hydraulic change of heads at these wells related to the

  6. Evaluation of Seawater Intrusion Potential into a Coastal Underground Oil Storage Cavern in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, E.; Lim, J.; Moon, H.; Lee, K.

    2010-12-01

    Underground oil storage caverns have been operated in Korea since 1990s, and the facility at Yeosu, south coast of Korea, is one of the largest underground oil storage facilities in Korea. Hydrologic and water quality monitoring of the facility has been performed to find out whether the facility maintains secure containment condition and long-term stability. Recently, seawater intrusion into the base of the storage cavern was suspected based on the long-term monitoring of water levels and chemical analyses of seepage water pumped out from cavern bottom. The sudden decrease of water pressure during the construction of storage tunnel seems to cause the inland movement of saline water. In this study, numerical analysis was performed to estimate the potential of seawater intrusion into underground oil storage cavern using a three dimensional groundwater simulation model, FEFLOW (Diersch, 2005). The geometry of the cavern and water curtain was represented by using the implemented functions. The groundwater flow field and seawater intrusion in response to construction activity was also estimated. The simulation results were validated by comparing EC and salinity of seepage water monitoring data. Sensitivity analyses on hydraulic conductivity and water pressure from the water curtain or injection well were also conducted. Relatively high groundwater level was observed at this site due to the low hydraulic conductivity of base rock and high altitude of the mountains. Therefore, the amount of intruded seawater does not seem to be significant. However, apparent decrease of water level was observed along the main fracture zone and seawater could be intruded along these paths. Simulation results show that the seawater intrusion to the cavern is mainly controlled by the fracture zone, which would be the main channel of groundwater movement. The injection of fresh water to the injection wells along the coast may retard the intrusion of seawater.

  7. Fluctuating nature of an orbital venous-lymphatic anomaly in association with intracranial vascular malformations: a classical presentation.

    PubMed

    Kanagalingam, Sivashakthi; Wyse, Emily; Merbs, Shannath L; Pearl, Monica Smith

    2015-01-01

    Venous-lymphatic anomalies (VLA) are rare and benign congenital lesions of the lymphatic system, composed of endothelial-lined lymphatic cysts. They are most frequently located in the region of the head and neck, and represent 4% of all orbital masses. In those patients with extensive orbital VLAs, a strong association with intracranial vascular anomalies has been reported. Factors known to suddenly increase the size of these lesions include upper respiratory tract infections or intralesional haemorrhage; however, complete spontaneous regression is rare. We report on the classic presentation of a patient with a fluctuating right orbital VLA in association with an intracranial cavernous malformation and intracranial developmental venous anomaly. PMID:26438679

  8. A Promising Adjuvant to Detachable Coils for Cavernous Packing: Onyx

    PubMed Central

    Lv, X.; Jiang, C.; Li, Y.; Wu, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Transvenous embolization of cavernous dural arteriovenous fistulae (CDAVFs) with Onyx has recently been reported. This study was undertaken to assess the value of Onyx in transvenous treatment of CDAVFs. We retrospectively reviewed 18 patients who underwent transvenous embolization for CDAVFs of Barrow Type D with detachable coils and Onyx at our institution over five years. Patients were divided into two groups: group A, patients who had been treated with detachable coils; group B, patients who had been treated with a combination of detachable coils and Onyx. The approach routes, angiographic results, complications and clinical outcome were assessed for both groups. Eighteen patients with CDAVFs of Barrow Type D were treated: nine women and nine men; mean age was 41.9 years. Eleven patients treated by 19 procedures of transvenous coiling belonged to group A. Seven patients treated by eight procedures of transvenous Onyx injection belonged to group B. The periprocedural complication rate associated with coiling for both groups was 18.2% vs 16.7% with Onyx. The duration of the procedure in both groups was 6.77±2.49 hours vs 3.75±1.63 hours with coiling vs Onyx, and the cost of Onyx was cheaper than coils. An excellent outcome was achieved in both groups: 90.9% vs 100% (group A vs group B). Our results associated with both modalities of CDAVFs treatment with clinical outcome show that transvenous embolization with Onyx is a safe alternative to detachable coils in the treatment of CDAVFs. However, more cases need to be evaluated. PMID:20465891

  9. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI evaluation of cerebral cavernous malformations.

    PubMed

    Hart, Blaine L; Taheri, Saeid; Rosenberg, Gary A; Morrison, Leslie A

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study is to quantitatively evaluate the behavior of CNS cavernous malformations (CCMs) using a dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCEMRI) technique sensitive for slow transfer rates of gadolinium. The prospective study was approved by the institutional review board and was HIPPA compliant. Written informed consent was obtained from 14 subjects with familial CCMs (4 men and 10 women, ages 22-76 years, mean 48.1 years). Following routine anatomic MRI of the brain, DCEMRI was performed for six slices, using T1 mapping with partial inversion recovery (TAPIR) to calculate T1 values, following administration of 0.025 mmol/kg gadolinium DTPA. The transfer rate (Ki) was calculated using the Patlak model, and Ki within CCMs was compared to normal-appearing white matter as well as to 17 normal control subjects previously studied. All subjects had typical MRI appearance of CCMs. Thirty-nine CCMs were studied using DCEMRI. Ki was low or normal in 12 lesions and elevated from 1.4 to 12 times higher than background in the remaining 27 lesions. Ki ranged from 2.1E-6 to 9.63E-4 min(-1), mean 3.55E-4. Normal-appearing white matter in the CCM patients had a mean Ki of 1.57E-4, not statistically different from mean WM Ki of 1.47E-4 in controls. TAPIR-based DCEMRI technique permits quantifiable assessment of CCMs in vivo and reveals considerable differences not seen with conventional MRI. Potential applications include correlation with biologic behavior such as lesion growth or hemorrage, and measurement of drug effects. PMID:24323376

  10. Ophthalmologic outcome of direct and indirect carotid cavernous fistulas.

    PubMed

    Grumann, Astor Junior; Boivin-Faure, Laeticia; Chapot, René; Adenis, Jean Paul; Robert, Pierre Yves

    2012-04-01

    Carotid cavernous fistulas (CCFs) can be classified as direct and indirect, depending on their flow rates and their etiology. Both forms can cause the same characteristic ophthalmological symptoms and signs. We analyzed these ocular characteristics and determined the prognostics factors associated with treatment outcome. Forty-seven patients with an angiographically confirmed diagnosis of CCF, a preoperative ophthalmic evaluation and at least one ophthalmic sign or symptom at the initial presentation were retrospectively evaluated. The patients were followed-up ophthalmically until the end of treatment, and the complications and the remaining ophthalmological signs and symptoms were then recorded. The patients' ages ranged from 13 to 89 years, with an average of 55.78 (±20.73) years, and a predominance of 28 female (57.8 %) patients. The patients with a direct CCF had a lower average age (p = 0.02). The most common symptoms were blurred vision in 17 (36.2 %) and proptosis in 37 (78.7 %) patients. Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) was more prevalent in patients with an indirect CCF (p = 0.02). Thrill was more prevalent in patients with direct CCF (p = 0.01). The presence of an initial decrease of visual acuity at the first ophthalmic evaluation was significantly associated with the persistence of ocular symptoms after fistula treatment (odds ratio 3.33). In conclusion our study shows a slight difference in ophthalmic symptoms among patients with different types of fistula. Elevated IOP was significantly associated with indirect fistulas, whereas thrill was significantly associated with direct fistulas. The presence of an initial decrease of visual acuity was significantly associated with a worse ophthalmic prognosis. PMID:22447030