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1

Thoracoscopic renal denervation for intractable autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease-related pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors report a case of intractable autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease-related pain associated with normal renal function, treated with renal denervation. Renal denervation was performed via a thoracoscopic approach. The good medium-term result suggests that thoracoscopic sympatho-splanchnicectomy would be an attractive procedure for pain management in autosomal polycystic kidney disease.

Olivier Chapuis; Philippe Sockeel; Gilbert Pallas; François Pons; René Jancovici

2004-01-01

2

Thoracoscopic renal denervation for intractable autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease-related pain.  

PubMed

The authors report a case of intractable autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease-related pain associated with normal renal function, treated with renal denervation. Renal denervation was performed via a thoracoscopic approach. The good medium-term result suggests that thoracoscopic sympatho-splanchnicectomy would be an attractive procedure for pain management in autosomal polycystic kidney disease. PMID:14712440

Chapuis, Olivier; Sockeel, Philippe; Pallas, Gilbert; Pons, François; Jancovici, René

2004-01-01

3

Renal Artery Embolization Controls Intractable Pain in a Patient with Polycystic Kidney Disease  

SciTech Connect

A 65-year-old man with adult polycystic kidney disease (APKD) and chronic renal failure suffered from intractable abdominal pain and distension for 2 weeks. Meperidine infusion did not alleviate his pain. However, pain and abdominal distension were successfully controlled by embolization of both renal arteries.

Hahn, Seong Tai; Park, Seog Hee; Lee, Jae Mun; Kim, Choon-Yul [Department of Radiology, St. Mary's Hospital, Catholic Medical Center, Catholic University of Korea, 62, Youido-dong, Yongdungpo-gu, Seoul, 150-010 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Yoon Sik [Department of Internal Medicine, St. Mary's Hospital, Catholic Medical Center, Catholic University of Korea, 62, Youido-dong, Yongdungpo-gu, Seoul, 150-010, Korea (Korea, Republic of)

1999-09-15

4

Comparative Study of Endolymphatic Sac Decompression and Vestibular Neurectomy in Intractable Meniere's Disease.  

PubMed

To comparative study the clinical effect of endolymphatic sac decompression (ELSD) and vestibular neurectomy (VN) in intractable Meniere's disease (MD). The study included 30 MD intractable patients, 21 of which underwent ELSD and nine of which were treated by VN via retrosigmoid approach. Follow-up period ranged from 3 to 6 years. In 21 patients by ELSD, excellent vertigo control and good control were noted in 11 patients (52.4 %) and 4 patients (19.0 %), partial control in 4 and no control in 2 patients. All the 9 patients by VN, vertigo was excellent control. ELSD can improve hearing and tinnitus, but VN not. VN can achieve much better effect in improving vertigo in intractable MD patients. But relative to ELSD, it has much more disadvantages. PMID:25621233

Liu, Yiqing; Han, Jie; Zhou, Xuanchen; Luan, Deheng; Xie, Fengyang; Gao, Kun

2015-03-01

5

Intractable hiccups--an early feature of Addison's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hiccups has not been previously reported as a manifestation of Addison's disease. We report two cases where persistent hiccups was an early feature of Addison's disease. Steroid replacement cured the symptoms in both patients with no recurrence.

P. G. Hardo

1989-01-01

6

Evaluation of retrosigmoid vestibular neurectomy for intractable vertigo in Ménière’s disease: an interdisciplinary review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a Background. Retrosigmoid vestibular neurectomy is suggested to be the most effective and safe procedure to control intractable vertigo\\u000a associated with Ménière’s disease. The purpose of this study is to report the excellent efficacy of vertigo control, the good\\u000a preservation of hearing, the rare complications and the simplicity of retrosigmoid vestibular neurectomy performed by an interdisciplinary\\u000a team of neurosurgery and

C.-S. Li; J.-T. Lai

2008-01-01

7

Von-Willebrand Disease Presenting as Intractable Epistaxis after Nasal Polypectomy  

PubMed Central

Von-Willebrand disease (VWD) is one of the platelet dysfunction disorders that results from a deficiency of Von-Willebrand factor, which is essential for hemostasis. VWD patients typically have normal laboratory results on screening for bleeding disorders. To suspect and diagnose VWD, a careful review of past medical history and laboratory tests is critical. A 59-year-old male patient presented with intractable nasal bleeding after nasal polypectomy. The bleeding was controlled by platelet transfusion, and he was later diagnosed with VWD. PMID:25243089

Park, Jeong Jin; Kim, Chang-Hoon; Lee, Jeung-Gweon

2014-01-01

8

Duodenal adenocarcinoma might be the cause of intractable nausea and vomiting in patient with coeliac disease  

PubMed Central

Coeliac disease (CD) is an autoimmune disorder which leads to chronic inflammation of the gut. Untreated CD is associated with upper gastrointestinal malignancies, Small-bowel lymphoma and adenocarcinoma are recognized complications of untreated coeliac disease (CD). We report the case of a 43-year-old male suffering from CD who was treated with a gluten-free diet one year, presenting with complaints of intractable nausea and vomiting. After several studies, He underwent push enteroscopy, which identified one large mass lesion in the third part of duodenum. However, histopathological examination showed adenocarcinoma. Subsequently, a duodenal segment resection was performed. After surgery, the patient recovered well and left our hospital in good condition. Clinicians should take into small bowel adenocarcinoma is rare but associated with CD particularly in CD patients with worrying symptoms such as nausea and vomiting unresponsiveness to treatment and these patients should be screened for long term complications like malignancy. PMID:24834228

Rajabalinia, Hassan; Dabiri, Reza; Shahbazi, Shahin; Ghobakhlou, Mehdi; Bahreiny, Rasoul; Molaei, Mahsa; Nejad, Mohammad Rostami

2012-01-01

9

Duodenal adenocarcinoma might be the cause of intractable nausea and vomiting in patient with coeliac disease.  

PubMed

Coeliac disease (CD) is an autoimmune disorder which leads to chronic inflammation of the gut. Untreated CD is associated with upper gastrointestinal malignancies, Small-bowel lymphoma and adenocarcinoma are recognized complications of untreated coeliac disease (CD). We report the case of a 43-year-old male suffering from CD who was treated with a gluten-free diet one year, presenting with complaints of intractable nausea and vomiting. After several studies, He underwent push enteroscopy, which identified one large mass lesion in the third part of duodenum. However, histopathological examination showed adenocarcinoma. Subsequently, a duodenal segment resection was performed. After surgery, the patient recovered well and left our hospital in good condition. Clinicians should take into small bowel adenocarcinoma is rare but associated with CD particularly in CD patients with worrying symptoms such as nausea and vomiting unresponsiveness to treatment and these patients should be screened for long term complications like malignancy. PMID:24834228

Rajabalinia, Hassan; Dabiri, Reza; Shahbazi, Shahin; Ghobakhlou, Mehdi; Bahreiny, Rasoul; Molaei, Mahsa; Rostami Nejad, Mohammad; Fatemi, Seyed Reza

2012-01-01

10

[My way to "Keep Pioneering": integrated neuroscience and immunology research produces a paradigm shift for intractable neurological disease].  

PubMed

The motto of Prof. Yoshigoro Kuroiwa, who established the first independent neurology department in Japan at Kyushu University, is "Keep Pioneering". His students have followed this motto in all fields. I hereby present my efforts to keep pioneering in the following fields: (1) multiple sclerosis (MS); (2) central nervous system (CNS) involvement associated with peripheral atopic inflammation; and (3) care network for patients with intractable neurological disease. In MS, I propose that Th1/Th17 cell-mediated connexin astrocytopathy may play a critical role in producing huge demyelinating lesions in MS, neuromyelitis optica (NMO), and Baló's concentric sclerosis. I discovered a peculiar myelitis that occurred in patients with atopic disorders, and designated it atopic myelitis. In this condition, allodynia and neuropathic pain are cardinal features, regardless of the presence or absence of spinal cord MRI lesions. We found that peripheral atopic inflammation in mice produces allodynia as well as activation of microglia and astroglia in the spinal cord. It is important to involve a variety of medical specialists and care coordinators for collaborative work on medical and social care issues for people with intractable disease. The motto of "Keep Pioneering" in neurology covers not only advanced research for the creation of new therapies for intractable neurological disease, but also caring for actual people with intractable disease, which I believe is the corporate social responsibility of our neurological society. I think that "Keep Pioneering" is a challenging process that never ends throughout one's life. PMID:25672676

Kira, Jun-ichi

2014-01-01

11

High-dose short-term chlorambucil for intractable sympathetic ophthalmia and Behçet's disease.  

PubMed Central

We treated five patients with intractable sympathetic ophthalmia and six patients with severe Behçet's disease by high-dose, short-term chlorambucil therapy. We used a total dose ranging from 306 mg to 4.2 g and a duration of therapy no longer than 36 weeks and in most cases less than 24 weeks. After termination of therapy all 11 patients had a sustained remission of their eye disease. Unless subretinal neovascularisation was present, all had a final visual acuity of 20/50 or better. Malignancy has not developed in any of our cases, with a follow-up ranging from 6 months to 12 years (mean, 4.5 years). Although 30- and 40-year follow-ups and larger numbers of patients may be necessary fully to realise the risks of chlorambucil, we believe that our high-dose, short-term regimen (Behçet's disease: average duration, 23 weeks; average total dose 2.2 g; sympathetic ophthalmia: average duration, 11 weeks; total average dose, 0.9 g) may be safer than previously reported chlorambucil regimens of one to two years or longer. In addition we fulfilled our aim of discontinuing all concomitant systemic corticosteroids within a relatively short time (usually six to eight weeks). PMID:2378842

Tessler, H H; Jennings, T

1990-01-01

12

Deep Anterior Lamellar Keratoplasty Using Irradiated Acellular Cornea with Amniotic Membrane Transplantation for Intractable Ocular Surface Diseases  

PubMed Central

Purpose To report the clinical outcomes of deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) when sterile gamma-irradiated acellular corneal tissues (VisionGraft) are used in combination with amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT) for intractable ocular surface diseases. Methods The medical records of fifteen patients who had DALK with AMT were retrospectively reviewed. Indications for surgery included ocular burn, bacterial keratitis, herpes simplex virus keratitis, corneal opacity with Stevens-Johnson syndrome, Mooren's ulcer, idiopathic myxoid degeneration of corneal stroma, and recurrent band keratopathy. DALK was performed using partial-thickness acellular corneal tissue and a temporary amniotic membrane patch was added at the end of the operation. Results All cases that underwent DALK with AMT became epithelialized within 2 postoperative weeks. Twelve patients showed favorable outcomes without graft rejection, corneal opacification, or neovascularization. The other three grafts developed corneal opacification and neovascularization, and required additional penetrating keratoplasty (PK). Unlike the results of previous PKs, there were no graft rejections and the graft clarity was well-maintained in these three cases for at least 8 months after PK. Conclusions DALK using sterile acellular corneal tissues in combination with AMT may be a good therapeutic strategy for treating intractable ocular surface diseases because of lowered immune rejection, fibroblast activation, and facilitation of epithelialization. Furthermore, DALK can help stabilize the ocular surface, prolong graft survival, and may allow better outcomes when combined with subsequent PK.

Wee, Sung Wook; Choi, Sang Uk

2015-01-01

13

An intractable case of suspected psoriatic arthritis combined with Dupuytren’s disease  

PubMed Central

Some cases of psoriatic arthritis (PsA) cannot be explicitly diagnosed, especially when the skin and nail lesions present years after the joint disease or are absent. Autoimmunity may also play a role in the development of Dupuytren's disease. However, the simultaneous presence of PsA and Dupuytren’s disease is very rare. We present a patient displaying arthritis in multiple small joints, with bone erosions and bony fusions in all four extremities, combined with Dupuytren’s disease. Because of the atypical clinical manifestation, the diagnosis perplexed doctors for decades. Without formal treatment, the disease followed a natural course over time. Reviewing the patient’s data, a potential diagnosis of PsA, combined with Dupuytren’s disease, was eventually made. After surgery, contractures of palmar and plantar fascia as well the thumb web were released, and the hallux valgus was corrected.

Ding, Wen Quan; Gu, Jian Hui

2015-01-01

14

A 44 year-old lady with chronic renal disease and intractable ulcers: a case report  

PubMed Central

Calciphylaxis is a rare but potentially fatal condition occurring in patients with end stage renal disease on dialysis. Due to interplay of various factors, disturbances occur in the metabolism of calcium and phosphate leading to calcification within the vessel walls. The net result is tissue ischemia and necrosis. Clinically this presents as painful non-healing skin ulcers, which contribute to significant morbidity and mortality due to septic progression of the lesion. In this case report, we highlight the rapidly progressive nature of this disease, its etiopathogenesis and the role of early diagnosis in preventing life-threatening complications. PMID:19646226

Pujar, Thejeswi; Spinello, Irene M

2009-01-01

15

Sac-vein decompression for intractable Meniere's disease: Two-year treatment results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surgical intervention has been offered to patients with Meniere's disease who have failed medical treatment and have disabling symptoms. Surgical options have included labyrinthectomy (mechanical and chemical), vestibular neurectomy, and endolymphatic sac surgery with or without shunting. We present a modification of endolymphatic sac decompression surgery that includes wide decompression of the sigmoid sinus, posterior cranial fossa dura, and endolymphatic

Gerard J. Gianoli; Michael J. LaRouere; Jack M. Kartush; John Wayman

1998-01-01

16

Eosinophilic Jejunitis Presenting as Intractable Abdominal Pain  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is an uncommon disease characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract. The clinical manifestations are related to the layer(s) and extent of the bowel involved. In this paper, we present a case of intractable abdominal pain caused by jejunal submucosal eosinophilic infiltration without mucosal involvement, diagnosed by deep endoscopic biopsies. The patient was successfully treated with steroids without need for surgery for diagnosis or therapy. PMID:25565932

Mungan, Zeynel; Attila, Tan; Kapran, Yersu; Tokatli, Ilyas Pinar; Unal, Zeynep

2014-01-01

17

Predictors of intractable childhood epilepsy.  

PubMed

Our study sought to identify early predictive factors of medically intractable childhood epilepsy. A cohort of epileptic children from the city of Mersin was retrospectively investigated. All patients received care from the same Department of Pediatric Neurology. The epileptic cohort was divided into a drug-responsive epilepsy group and an intractable epilepsy group. Intractable epilepsy is defined as continued seizures in children despite adequate therapy with two or more antiepileptic drugs for more than 18 months. Strong univariate association was observed between intractability and several factors: age of onset, high initial seizure frequency, symptomatic etiology, mixed seizure types, previous history of status epilepticus, febrile and neonatal seizures, mental and motor developmental delay, multiple seizures in 1 day, electroencephalogram abnormalities, magnetic resonance imaging findings, and specific epileptic syndromes. Logistic regression analysis revealed that a previous history of epilepticus status, abnormal electroencephalogram results, and multiple seizures in 1 day comprise independent predictors of medically intractable childhood epilepsy. We suggest that medical intractability in childhood epilepsy can be predicted by monitoring these factors. Along with early prediction, alternative therapies may be designed to provide patients better seizure control and quality of life. PMID:23290021

Seker Yilmaz, Berna; Okuyaz, Cetin; Komur, Mustafa

2013-01-01

18

Forehead carbuncle with intractable headache  

PubMed Central

Although carbuncles are commonly seen and may heal on their own or respond well to treatment, in rare conditions, bacteria from carbuncles can spread into the bloodstream and migrate to other areas of the body. Herein, we report on an elderly female who suffered from forehead carbuncle with intractable headache, later confirmed as having subgaleal abscess. Physicians should pay special attention to elderly and immune-compromised patients with carbuncles located on the middle of the face, especially when accompanied by intractable headache, to avoid poor outcome.

Chou, Ping-yin; Chen, Yin-Chun; Huang, Poyin

2015-01-01

19

Management of intractable spontaneous epistaxis  

PubMed Central

Background: Epistaxis is a common otolaryngology emergency and is often controlled with first-line interventions such as cautery, hemostatic agents, or anterior nasal packing. A subset of patients will continue to bleed and require more aggressive therapy. Methods: Intractable spontaneous epistaxis was traditionally managed with posterior nasal packing and prolonged hospital admission. In an effort to reduce patient morbidity and shorten hospital stay, surgical and endovascular techniques have gained popularity. A literature review was conducted. Results: Transnasal endoscopic sphenopalatine artery ligation and arterial embolization provide excellent control rates but the decision to choose one over the other can be challenging. The role of transnasal endoscopic anterior ethmoid artery ligation is unclear but may be considered in certain cases when bleeding localizes to the ethmoid region. Conclusion: This article will focus on the management of intractable spontaneous epistaxis and discuss the role of endoscopic arterial ligation and embolization as it pertains to this challenging clinical scenario. PMID:22391084

Rudmik, Luke

2012-01-01

20

Kidney Disease Statistics for the United States  

MedlinePLUS

... Info Statistics Research Resources About Us Español National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse Publications Tools and ... Titles : Kidney Disease Statistics for the United States Kidney Disease Statistics for the United States On this ...

21

Oral bismuth for chronic intractable diarrheal conditions?  

PubMed Central

Objective Bismuth has antidiarrheal, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory properties. We report our single-center experience with oral colloidal bismuth subcitrate (CBS) treatment for patients with chronic intractable diarrhea. Method We interrogated our web-based Inflammatory Bowel Disease Clinical and Research database to ascertain clinical details on all patients in our tertiary hospital gastroenterology service treated with CBS between 2000 and 2010. Treatment responses were based on prospective scoring of daily number of liquid stools. Responses were recorded prior to commencement of CBS and at follow-up visits over 12 months. Results Thirty-one patients, mean age 47 years (range 17–79 years) and a mean duration of diarrhea of 22 weeks (range 6–104 weeks), were prescribed CBS at doses ranging from 120 mg to 480 mg/day for ?1 month. Of these, 23 patients (74%) had an initial clinical response and 12 (39%) who continued with this treatment had a sustained clinical response at 1 year. Twelve patients with pouchitis and four patients with indeterminate colitis had initial responses of 92% and 75%, respectively, and sustained responses of 50% and 75%, respectively. Ulcerative colitis patients (n = 5) responded poorly with respect to both initial and sustained responses. Three patients with microscopic colitis showed encouraging initial response of 100% but did not have any sustained benefit. Three of four patients with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (dIBS) had an initial response and two (50%) had good sustained responses. There were no serious adverse events. One patient stopped therapy because of nausea. Conclusion This is the largest report of oral bismuth treatment in chronic intractable diarrhea. CBS is cheap and appears to have the potential to be effective for ameliorating diarrheal symptoms in indeterminate colitis, pouchitis, and dIBS. An appropriately powered, blinded, randomized, controlled study appears warranted to establish the position of oral bismuth in routine practice. PMID:23515887

Thazhath, Sony S; Haque, Mazhar; Florin, Timothy H

2013-01-01

22

A Team Approach to the Management of Intractable Leg Ulcers  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The management of intractable leg ulcers requires a team approach which includes vascular surgeons and plastic surgeons. We retrospectively reviewed the results of the management of intractable leg ulcers by plastic surgeons. Patients and Methods: A total of 73 patients with intractable leg ulcers, (79 limbs) were treated at the Department of Plastic Surgery at our institution. Skin perfusion pressure (SPP) around the ulcer on the limb was measured before and after arterial reconstructive procedures. Local ulcer management involved intra-wound continuous negative pressure and irrigation therapy or negative pressure wound therapy. We examined the rates of wound healing and associated prognostic factors. Results: There were 21 limbs without ischemia (non-peripheral arterial disease [Non-PAD] group) and 58 limbs with ischemia (PAD group). The healing rates were 66% in the PAD group and 81% in the Non-PAD group, but the difference between the groups was not significant. A total of 41 limbs in the PAD group underwent revascularization, which involved bypass surgery in 18 limbs and endovascular therapy in 23 limbs. The salvage rate of the revascularized limbs was 83% at 1 year. The primary patency rates at 1 year were 87% for bypass surgery and 58% for endovascular therapy. The healing rate of the revascularized limbs was 66%, and the presence of concomitant hemodialysis, infected ulcers, and limbs without improved SPP were shown to be poor prognostic factors. Limbs treated with bypass surgery had a better healing rate than limbs treated with endovascular therapy, but the difference was not significant. Conclusion: Good ulcer-healing rates were achieved by effective revascularization and aggressive local management. These results suggest that a team approach is useful for the management of intractable leg ulcers. (English translation of Jpn J Vasc Surg 2011; 20: 913-920) PMID:23641282

Kiyokawa, Kensuke; Akaiwa, Keiichi; Ishida, Masaru; Furuyama, Tadashi; Onohara, Toshihiro

2013-01-01

23

Sequencing Intractable DNA to Close Microbial Genomes  

SciTech Connect

Advancement in high throughput DNA sequencing technologies has supported a rapid proliferation of microbial genome sequencing projects, providing the genetic blueprint for for in-depth studies. Oftentimes, difficult to sequence regions in microbial genomes are ruled intractable resulting in a growing number of genomes with sequence gaps deposited in databases. A procedure was developed to sequence such difficult regions in the non-contiguous finished Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132 genome (6 intractable gaps) and the Desulfovibrio africanus genome (1 intractable gap). The polynucleotides surrounding each gap formed GC rich secondary structures making the regions refractory to amplification and sequencing. Strand-displacing DNA polymerases used in concert with a novel ramped PCR extension cycle supported amplification and closure of all gap regions in both genomes. These developed procedures support accurate gene annotation, and provide a step-wise method that reduces the effort required for genome finishing.

Hurt, Jr., Richard Ashley [ORNL; Brown, Steven D [ORNL; Podar, Mircea [ORNL; Palumbo, Anthony Vito [ORNL; Elias, Dwayne A [ORNL

2012-01-01

24

The intractable cigarette ‘filter problem’  

PubMed Central

Background When lung cancer fears emerged in the 1950s, cigarette companies initiated a shift in cigarette design from unfiltered to filtered cigarettes. Both the ineffectiveness of cigarette filters and the tobacco industry's misleading marketing of the benefits of filtered cigarettes have been well documented. However, during the 1950s and 1960s, American cigarette companies spent millions of dollars to solve what the industry identified as the ‘filter problem’. These extensive filter research and development efforts suggest a phase of genuine optimism among cigarette designers that cigarette filters could be engineered to mitigate the health hazards of smoking. Objective This paper explores the early history of cigarette filter research and development in order to elucidate why and when seemingly sincere filter engineering efforts devolved into manipulations in cigarette design to sustain cigarette marketing and mitigate consumers' concerns about the health consequences of smoking. Methods Relevant word and phrase searches were conducted in the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library online database, Google Patents, and media and medical databases including ProQuest, JSTOR, Medline and PubMed. Results 13 tobacco industry documents were identified that track prominent developments involved in what the industry referred to as the ‘filter problem’. These reveal a period of intense focus on the ‘filter problem’ that persisted from the mid-1950s to the mid-1960s, featuring collaborations between cigarette producers and large American chemical and textile companies to develop effective filters. In addition, the documents reveal how cigarette filter researchers' growing scientific knowledge of smoke chemistry led to increasing recognition that filters were unlikely to offer significant health protection. One of the primary concerns of cigarette producers was to design cigarette filters that could be economically incorporated into the massive scale of cigarette production. The synthetic plastic cellulose acetate became the fundamental cigarette filter material. By the mid-1960s, the meaning of the phrase ‘filter problem’ changed, such that the effort to develop effective filters became a campaign to market cigarette designs that would sustain the myth of cigarette filter efficacy. Conclusions This study indicates that cigarette designers at Philip Morris, British-American Tobacco, Lorillard and other companies believed for a time that they might be able to reduce some of the most dangerous substances in mainstream smoke through advanced engineering of filter tips. In their attempts to accomplish this, they developed the now ubiquitous cellulose acetate cigarette filter. By the mid-1960s cigarette designers realised that the intractability of the ‘filter problem’ derived from a simple fact: that which is harmful in mainstream smoke and that which provides the smoker with ‘satisfaction’ are essentially one and the same. Only in the wake of this realisation did the agenda of cigarette designers appear to transition away from mitigating the health hazards of smoking and towards the perpetuation of the notion that cigarette filters are effective in reducing these hazards. Filters became a marketing tool, designed to keep and recruit smokers as consumers of these hazardous products. PMID:21504917

2011-01-01

25

Intractable verrucous hyperplasia: a surgically corrected case.  

PubMed

Skin problems commonly occur after lower limb amputation. One such skin anomaly that develops on the residual limb is wart-like lesions of verrucous hyperplasia. The process is reversible if external compression is applied in combination with adequate control of bacterial infection and edema. Prosthetic adjustments usually help with this condition. We report an intractable verrucous hyperplasia in a 66-year-old female patient. She complained of a painful, oozing, verrucous papule at the amputation site. Despite management with typical treatment procedures, the lesion worsened; therefore, surgery was performed. Our case demonstrates that an intractable case is possible despite appropriate management and that sometimes surgical correction is necessary. PMID:25479281

Chang, Ji Hea; Moon, Hee Bong; Kim, Chang Jae; Nam, Kiyeun; Lee, Ho Jun; Kwon, Bum Sun; Park, Jin-Woo

2015-03-01

26

Noninvasive treatment alternative for intractable startle epilepsy  

PubMed Central

We describe a treatment alternative for intractable, startle-provoked, epileptic seizures in four children aged between 8 and 14. Three of the four children had symptomatic localization-related epilepsy. They all suffered from intractable epilepsy precipitated by sudden sounds. The fact that seizures tended to occur with high frequency – more than one seizure a day – had a clear impact on daily life. Clinical seizure pattern demonstrated asymmetric tonic posturing in all four children. Three children experienced several seizure types including focal seizure onset. All children had focal neurological signs or learning disabilities or a combination of both. Our noninvasive treatment method using psychoeducational counseling and sound generators was applied in four children, resulting in a seizure frequency reduction of ? 50% in two of them. PMID:25667869

Klinkenberg, Sylvia; Ubbink, Sander; Vles, Johannes; de Louw, Anton; van Hall, Mariette Debeij; Scheijen, Dyon; Brokx, Jan

2014-01-01

27

Bayesian model comparison with intractable likelihoods  

E-print Network

Markov random field models are used widely in computer science, statistical physics and spatial statistics and network analysis. However, Bayesian analysis of these models using standard Monte Carlo methods is not possible due to their intractable likelihood functions. Several methods have been developed that permit exact, or close to exact, simulation from the posterior distribution. However, estimating the evidence and Bayes' factors (BFs) for these models remains challenging in general. This paper describes new random weight importance sampling and sequential Monte Carlo methods for estimating BFs that use simulation to circumvent the evaluation of the intractable likelihood, and compares them to existing methods. In some cases we observe an advantage in the use of biased weight estimates; an initial investigation into the theoretical and empirical properties of this class of methods is presented.

Everitt, Richard G; Rowing, Ellen; Evdemon-Hogan, Melina

2015-01-01

28

Epilepsy surgery: perioperative investigations of intractable epilepsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in our understanding of the basic mechanisms of epilepsy have derived, to a large extent, from increasing\\u000a ability to carry out detailed studies on patients surgically treated for intractable epilepsy. Clinical and experimental perioperative\\u000a studies divide into three different phases: before the surgical intervention (preoperative studies), on the intervention itself\\u000a (intraoperative studies), and on the period when the

A. Gorji; H. Straub; E.-J. Speckmann

2005-01-01

29

Gastric Electrical Stimulation in Intractable Symptomatic Gastroparesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The treatment of gastroparesis remains unsatisfactory despite prokinetic and anti-emetic drugs. Gastric electrical stimulation has been proposed as a therapeutic option. We have assessed the effect of gastric electrical stimulation on symptoms, medical treatment, body weight and gastric emptying in patients with intractable symptomatic gastroparesis in a non-placebo-controlled study. Methods: In this multicenter study, 38 highly symptomatic patients with

Thomas L. Abell; Eric Van Cutsem; Hasse Abrahamsson; Jan D. Huizinga; J. W. Konturek; Jean Paul Galmiche; Guy VoelIer; Ludo Filez; Bernt Everts; William E. Waterfall; W. Domschke; Stanislas Bruley des Varannes; Babajide O. Familoni; Ivan M. Bourgeois; Jozef Janssens; Gervais Tougas

2002-01-01

30

Penn State: Plant Disease Fact Sheets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This selection of online fact sheets concerned with plant diseases was compiled by Professor Gary W. Moorman, a Professor of Plant Pathology at Penn State. The concise fact sheets address "common diseases of plants frequently grown in greenhouses, interiorscapes, and in outdoor landscapes and nurseries in the northeastern U.S." The sheets are organized under categories for Woody Ornamental, and Floral and Foliage Plants, as well as a General Information category. Factsheets address such diseases as Bacterial Leaf Scorch, Pythium Root Rot, Botrytis Blight, Rhizoctonia, and more. There are sheets for a wide variety of plants and trees including Iris, Tulip, Maple, and Oak, to name a few.

31

Study on expression of laminin in patients with intractable epilepsy.  

PubMed

In this study, we examined differences in serum laminin expression in patients with intractable epilepsy. Our results suggest that elevated laminin may contribute to the pathogenesis of intractable epilepsy. ELISA and western blots were used to measure laminin in the serum of 30 intractable epilepsy patients, 46 nonintractable epilepsy patients, and 20 normal subjects. By ELISA, serum laminin levels were greater in intractable epilepsy patients (177.396 +/- 30.602) and nonintractable epilepsy patients (121.915 +/- 35.215) than in normal control subjects (67.474 +/- 7.197); laminin was significantly greater in the intractable epilepsy group than in the nonintractable epilepsy group. In western blots, the optical density ratio of laminin to ss-actin was 0.871 +/- 0.032 for the intractable epilepsy group, 0.686 +/- 0.017 for the nonintractable epilepsy group, and 0.385 +/- 0.024 for the normal control group. The optical density ratios of the intractable and nonintractable epilepsy groups were higher than those for the normal control group, and the intractable epilepsy group was even greater than the nonintractable epilepsy group. Thus, laminin is significantly increased in epilepsy patients, and this increase is more profound in intractable epilepsy patients. PMID:19916850

Wu, Yuan; Feng, Yun; Pang, Jia-Rong; Tang, Mei; Liu, Xiu-Ying; Li, Jia-Quan; Wang, Xue-Feng

2009-01-01

32

Insulinoma Presenting as Medically Intractable Temporal Lobe Epilepsy  

PubMed Central

We describe a female insulinoma patient who presented with recurrent attacks of abnormal behavior, confusion, and seizure. Her interictal EEG showed epileptiform discharges on the left temporal area, therefore she was initially misdiagnosed as temporal lobe epilepsy. In the video-EEG monitoring, hypoglycemic state was detected during the seizure attack, so the right diagnosis was made after the endocrinologic investigations. After surgical removal of the tumor, the patient became seizure-free, and no abnormality was found in the follow-up EEG after six months. Since insulinoma shares some common clinical and EEG features with complex partial seizure of temporal lobe origin, insulioma should be included in the differential diagnosis for medically intractable temporal lobe epilepsy. PMID:24977127

Park, So-Hee; Kim, Dong Wook

2014-01-01

33

The Gandhi Technique: A New Procedure for Intractable Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes problem of treating clients with intractable difficulties. Presents Gandhi Technique as simple, dramatic and seemingly effective procedure to resolve intractable difficulties. Describes technique and its application in different cases. Discusses several theories which may account for the efficacy of the technique. Proposes that Gandhi…

Schiff, Neil P.; Belson, Richard

1988-01-01

34

Sustained improvement of intractable rheumatoid arthritis after total lymphoid irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) was administered to 11 patients who had intractable rheumatoid arthritis that was unresponsive to conventional medical therapy, including aspirin, multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, gold salts, and D-penicillamine. Total lymphoid irradiation was given as an alternative to cytotoxic drugs such as azathioprine and cyclophosphamide. After radiotherapy, 9 of the 11 patients showed a marked improvement in clinical disease activity as measured by morning stiffness, joint tenderness, joint swelling, and overall functional abilities. The mean improvement of disease activity in all patients ranged from 40-70 percent and has persisted throughout a 13-28 month followup period. This improvement permitted the mean daily steroid dose to be reduced by 54%. Complications included severe fatigue and other constitutional symptoms during radiotherapy, development of Felty's syndrome in 1 patient, and an exacerbation of rheumatoid lung disease in another. After therapy, all patients exhibited a profound T lymphocytopenia, and a reversal in their T suppressor/cytotoxic cell to helper cell ratio. The proliferative responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to phytohemagglutinin, concanavalin A, and allogeneic leukocytes (mixed leukocyte reaction) were markedly reduced, as was in vitro immunoglobulin synthesis after stimulation with pokeweed mitogen. Alterations in T cell numbers and function persisted during the entire followup period, except that the mixed leukocyte reaction showed a tendency to return to normal values.

Field, E.H.; Strober, S.; Hoppe, R.T.; Calin, A.; Engleman, E.G.; Kotzin, B.L.; Tanay, A.S.; Calin, H.J.; Terrell, C.P.; Kaplan, H.S.

1983-08-01

35

Deep brain stimulation for intractable psychiatric disorders.  

PubMed

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has virtually replaced ablative neurosurgery for use in medication-refractory movement disorders. DBS is now being studied in severe psychiatric conditions, such as treatment-resistant depression (TRD) and intractable obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Effects of DBS have been reported in ?100 cases of OCD and ?50 cases of TRD for seven (five common) anatomic targets. Although these published reports differ with respect to study design and methodology, the overall response rate appears to exceed 50% in OCD for some DBS targets. In TRD, >50% of patients responded during acute and long-term bilateral electrical stimulation in a different target. DBS was generally well tolerated in both OCD and TRD, but some unique, target- and stimulation-specific adverse effects were observed (e.g., hypomania). Further research is needed to test the efficacy and safety of DBS in psychiatric disorders, compare targets, and identify predictors of response. PMID:22034866

Goodman, Wayne K; Alterman, Ron L

2012-01-01

36

Microcatheter Embolization of Intractable Idiopathic Epistaxis  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To assess the efficacy and safety of microcatheter embolization in the treatment of intractable idiopathic epistaxis. Methods: Thirty-seven patients underwent microcatheter embolization in 1991-1998. We evaluated retrospectively the technical and clinical outcome, the number of complications, the duration of embolization in each case, and the number of blood transfusions needed. All embolizations were done with biplane digital subtraction angiography (DSA) equipment. The procedure was carried out under local anesthesia using transfemoral catheterization, except in one case where the translumbar route was used. Tracker 18 or 10 microcatheters were advanced as far as possible to the distal branches of the sphenopalatine artery. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) particles were used for embolization in most cases, while platinum coils or a combination of these two materials were occasionally used. The primary outcome was always assessed immediately by angiography. Follow-up data were obtained from patient records, by interviewing patients on the telephone or by postal questionnaires when necessary. The mean follow-up time was 21 months. Results: The embolization was technically successful in all 37 cases. A curative outcome was achieved in 33 cases (89%). The mean duration of the procedure was 110 min. Four patients (8%) had mild transient complications, but no severe or persistent complications were encountered. Twenty-three patients needed a blood transfusion. Slight rebleeding occurred in three patients during the follow-up; all responded to conservative treatment. One patient suffered two episodes of rebleeding within 2 months after primary embolization. Re-embolizations successfully stopped the bleeding. Conclusion: Embolization is the primary invasive modality for treating intractable idiopathic epistaxis. It proved both safe and effective over a relatively long follow-up.

Leppaenen, Martti; Seppaenen, Seppo [Department of Radiology, Tampere University Hospital, P.O. Box 2000, FIN-33521 Tampere (Finland); Laranne, Jussi [Department of Otolaryngology, Tampere University Hospital, P.O. Box 2000, FIN-33521 Tampere (Finland); Kuoppala, Katriina [Department of Neurology, Seinaejoki Central Hospital, Hanneksenrinne 7, FIN-60220 Seinaejoki (Finland)

1999-11-15

37

Clinical experiences with topiramate in children with intractable epilepsy.  

PubMed

At a tertial referral epilepsy centre 39 children were consecutively enrolled in an open add-on study with topiramate (TPM). All children had intractable epilepsy; the mean seizure frequency was 36 per month, and 31 children were treated with polypharmacy. All but five children were mentally retarded. The initial dose of TPM was 0.5-1 mg/kg daily, slowly titrated with 1-3 mg/kg daily every second week with an estimated target dose of 10 mg/kg daily. At latest follow-up 19 children continued on TPM, three (8%) were seizure-free, eight (21%) had a seizure reduction of more than 50% and eight (21%) improved their general condition. Mean follow-up was 13 months (range 9-36 months). Seizure reduction was seen in focal as well as generalized epilepsies. Adverse effects were reported in 21 cases (54%), weight loss and sedation being most frequent. The mean steady state dose in the children continuing on TPM was at latest follow-up: 14 mg/kg daily (< 5 years), 10 mg/kg daily (5-7 years), 5.8 mg/kg daily (8-17 years). The corresponding plasma level varied from 3 to 45 mumol/litre, and a significant correlation between the daily dose in mg/kg and the plasma level was found. Two patients with progressive myoclonus epilepsy are described separately; one had a dramatic general improvement. It is concluded that TPM seems to be a promising new broad-spectrum anti-epileptic drug, which is efficacious even in epilepsy syndromes, intractable to other new anti-epileptic drugs such as vigabatrin and lamotrigine. PMID:10461565

Uldall, P; Buchholt, J M

1999-01-01

38

Potential Use and Challenges of Functional Connectivity Mapping in Intractable Epilepsy  

PubMed Central

This review focuses on the use of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data to assess functional connectivity in the human brain and its application in intractable epilepsy. This approach has the potential to predict outcomes for a given surgical procedure based on the pre-surgical functional organization of the brain. Functional connectivity can also identify cortical regions that are organized differently in epilepsy patients either as a direct function of the disease or through indirect compensatory responses. Functional connectivity mapping may help identify epileptogenic tissue, whether this is a single focal location or a network of seizure-generating tissues. This review covers the basics of connectivity analysis and discusses particular issues associated with analyzing such data. These issues include how to define nodes, as well as differences between connectivity analyses of individual nodes, groups of nodes, and whole-brain assessment at the voxel level. The need for arbitrary thresholds in some connectivity analyses is discussed and a solution to this problem is reviewed. Overall, functional connectivity analysis is becoming an important tool for assessing functional brain organization in epilepsy. PMID:23734143

Constable, Robert Todd; Scheinost, Dustin; Finn, Emily S.; Shen, Xilin; Hampson, Michelle; Winstanley, F. Scott; Spencer, Dennis D.; Papademetris, Xenophon

2013-01-01

39

Cell mechanics and human disease states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation will provide summary of our very recent studies exploring the effects of biochemical factors, influenced by foreign organisms or in vivo processes, on intracellular structural reorganization, single-cell mechanical response and motility of a population of cells in the context of two human diseases: malaria induced by Plasmodium falciparum merozoites that invade red blood cells, and gastrointestinal cancer metastasis involving epithelial cells. In both cases, particular attention will be devoted to systematic changes induced in specific molecular species in response to controlled alterations in disease state. The role of critical proteins in influencing the mechanical response of human red bloods during the intra-erythrocytic development of P. falciparum merozoites has also been assessed quantitatively using specific protein knock-out experiments by recourse to gene inactivation methods. Single-cell mechanical response characterization entails such tools as optical tweezers and mechanical plate stretchers whereas cell motility assays and cell-population biorheology characterization involves microfluidic channels. The experimental studies are accompanied by three-dimensional computational simulations at the continuum and mesoscopic scales of cell deformation. An outcome of such combined experimental and computational biophysical studies is the realization of how chemical factors influence single-cell mechanical response, cytoadherence, the biorheology of a large population of cells through microchannels representative of in vivo conditions, and the onset and progression of disease states.

Suresh, Subra

2006-03-01

40

The Effect of Stellate Ganglion Block on Intractable Lymphedema after Breast Cancer Surgery  

PubMed Central

Lymphedema of the upper limb after breast cancer surgery is a disease that carries a life-long risk and is difficult to cure once it occurs despite the various treatments which have been developed. Two patients were referred from general surgery department for intractable lymphedema. They were treated with stellate ganglion blocks (SGBs), and the circumferences of the mid-point of their each upper and lower arms were measured on every visit to the pain clinic. A decrease of the circumference in each patient was observed starting after the second injection. A series of blocks were established to maintain a prolonged effect. Both patients were satisfied with less swelling and pain. This case demonstrates the benefits of an SGB for intractable upper limb lymphedema. PMID:25589949

Kim, Jin; Cho, Soo Young; Baik, Hee Jung; Kim, Jong Hak

2015-01-01

41

Selective microsurgical vestibular neurectomy: an option in the treatment of intractable vertigo and related microsurgical landmarks.  

PubMed

Selective microsurgical vestibular neurectomy (SMVN) is an accepted and effective means of treating patients with intractable vertigo, a resistant component of Meniere's syndrome. Meniere's syndrome is a condition characterized by fluctuating hearing loss, tinnitus and serious vertigo attacks. Vertigo is the most disabling symptom of the disease. There may be permanent hearing loss in untreated cases and vertigo may continue after deafness. Selective microsurgical vestibular neurectomy is an elite surgical procedure providing exact relief from vertigo while protecting the preoperative hearing level. In this report, clinical results of nine patients with intractable vertigo operated in the University of Ankara Medical Faculty, Department of Neurosurgery between 1999 and 2001 are discussed. Accordingly, we aimed to represent the landmarks often required for microsurgical exposure. From this study we conclude that SMVN is an effective neurosurgical procedure for those patients who are resistant for medical treatment and require hearing preservation. PMID:15100934

Bademci, G; Batay, F; Yorulmaz, I; Küçük, B; Ca?lar, S

2004-02-01

42

Epigenome mapping in normal and disease States.  

PubMed

Epigenomes are comprised, in part, of all genome-wide chromatin modifications, including DNA methylation and histone modifications. Unlike the genome, epigenomes are dynamic during development and differentiation to establish and maintain cell type-specific gene expression states that underlie cellular identity and function. Chromatin modifications are particularly labile, providing a mechanism for organisms to respond and adapt to environmental cues. Results from studies in animal models clearly demonstrate that epigenomic variability leads to phenotypic variability, including susceptibility to disease that is not recognized at the DNA sequence level. Thus, capturing epigenomic information is invaluable for comprehensively understanding development, differentiation, and disease. Herein, we provide a brief overview of epigenetic processes, how they are relevant to human health, and review studies using technologies that enable epigenome mapping. We conclude by describing feasible applications of epigenome mapping, focusing on epigenome-wide association studies (eGWAS), which have the potential to revolutionize current studies of human diseases and will likely promote the discovery of novel diagnostic, preventative, and treatment strategies. PMID:20689072

Maunakea, Alika K; Chepelev, Iouri; Zhao, Keji

2010-08-01

43

Intractable itch relieved by 4-phenylbutyrate therapy in patients with progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 1  

PubMed Central

Background Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 1 (PFIC1), an inherited liver disease caused by mutations in ATP8B1, progresses to severe cholestasis with a sustained intractable itch. Currently, no effective therapy has been established for PFIC1. Decreased function of the bile salt export pump (BSEP) in hepatocytes is suggested to be responsible for the severe cholestasis observed in PFIC1. We found a previously unidentified pharmacological effect of 4-phenylbutyrate (4PB) that increases the expression and function of BSEP. Here, we tested 4PB therapy in three patients with PFIC1. Methods The therapeutic potency of 4PB in these patients was tested by oral administration of this drug with gradually increasing dosage (200, 350, and 500 mg/kg/day) for 6 months. Biochemical, histological, and clinical data were collected. Results 4PB therapy had no beneficial effect on the patients’ liver functions, as assessed by biochemical and histological analyses, despite an increase in hepatic BSEP expression. However, therapy with 4PB at a dosage of 350 or 500 mg/kg/day significantly relieved the intractable itch. Serum levels of potential pruritogens in cholestasis were much higher than the reference ranges during the 4PB therapy. Conclusions 4PB therapy may be a new medication for patients with intractable cholestatic pruritus and may improve quality of life for patients and their families. PMID:25022842

2014-01-01

44

Infectious Disease Hospitalizations Among Infants in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE. This study describes the burden and epidemiologic features of infectious disease hospitalizations among infants in the United States. METHODS. Hospitalizations with an infectious disease listed as a primary diagnosis for infants (1 year of age) in the United States during 2003 were examined by using the Kids' Inpatient Database. National estimates of infectious disease hospitalizations, hospitalization rates, and various

Krista L. Yorita; Robert C. Holman; James J. Sejvar; Claudia A. Steiner; Lawrence B. Schonberger

2010-01-01

45

Human Prion Diseases in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Prion diseases are a family of rare, progressive, neurodegenerative disorders that affect humans and animals. The most common form of human prion disease, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), occurs worldwide. Variant CJD (vCJD), a recently emerged human prion disease, is a zoonotic foodborne disorder that occurs almost exclusively in countries with outbreaks of bovine spongiform encephalopathy. This study describes the occurrence

Robert C. Holman; Ermias D. Belay; Krista Y. Christensen; Ryan A. Maddox; Arialdi M. Minino; Arianne M. Folkema; Dana L. Haberling; Teresa A. Hammett; Kenneth D. Kochanek; James J. Sejvar; Lawrence B. Schonberger

2010-01-01

46

West Nile Virus Neuroinvasive Disease Incidence by State - United States, 2014 (as of August 12, 2014)  

MedlinePLUS

... gov . West Nile Virus Share Compartir West Nile Virus Neuroinvasive Disease Incidence by State – United States, 2014 ( ... map shows the incidence of human West Nile virus neuroinvasive disease (e.g., meningitis, encephalitis, or acute ...

47

Expression of laminin ?1 and integrin ?2 in the anterior temporal neocortex tissue of patients with intractable epilepsy.  

PubMed

We investigated the expression of laminin ?1 and integrin ?2 in the anterior temporal neocortex tissue of patients with intractable epilepsy and explored the role of these molecules in the pathogenesis of this disease. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence were used to test the expression of laminin ?1 and integrin ?2 in samples (from the brain bank of our department, n=32) of surgically removed anterior temporal neocortex tissues from intractable epilepsy patients, and the results were compared with those of controls (n=10). We found that laminin ?1 and integrin ?2 protein expression was significantly increased in the anterior temporal neocortex as compared with controls (immunohistochemistry optical density: laminin ?1 = 0.36 ± 0.01 vs. 0.10 ± 0.03 for control; integrin ?2=0.42 ± 0.02 vs. 0.04 ± 0.01 for control; p<.05). Immunofluorescence staining indicated that laminin ?1 and integrin ?2 accumulated in the plasma membrane and cytoplasm, with strong fluorescence intensity in the anterior temporal neocortex tissue of patients with intractable epilepsy. Thus, our work demonstrates that laminin ?1 and integrin ?2 expression is elevated in the anterior temporal neocortex tissue from patients with intractable epilepsy. PMID:21370991

Wu, Yuan; Wang, Xue-feng; Mo, Xue-an; Li, Jing-mei; Yuan, Jie; Zheng, Jin-ou; Feng, Yun; Tang, Mei

2011-06-01

48

A Case of Intractable Psychogenic Essential Palatal Tremor  

PubMed Central

Essential palatal tremor (EPT) is a rare disorder which shows rhythmic involuntary movement of the muscles of soft palate, especially tensor veli palatini muscle. EPT is classified by two subtypes, which is primary and secondary EPT. Secondary EPT includes psychogenic type. We describe a case of intractable psychogenic EPT. PMID:24868416

Chung, Eun Joo; Jung, Hyun; Kim, Sang Jin

2012-01-01

49

Hydrophilic treatment of porous PTFE for intractable glaucoma implant devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intractable glaucoma results from hindrances in the eyeball aqueous humor pathways that increase the intraocular pressure above normal physiological levels (over 20 mmHg). In this study porous PTFE membranes were made hydrophilic with a photochemical method that use ethyl alcohol and water for the chemical solution.

Murahara, Masataka M.; Sato, Yuji; Fernandez, Viviana; Fantes, Francisco; Nose, Izuru; Lee, William E.; Milne, Peter J.; Parel, Jean-Marie A.

2001-06-01

50

Successful monotherapy of severe and intractable atopic dermatitis by photopheresis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Patients with chronic atopic dermatitis can become unresponsive to standard immunosuppressive therapy and thus pose a serious therapeutic problem. Objective: Our purpose was to evaluate the therapeutic effectiveness of photopheresis in the management of patients with severe and intractable atopic dermatitis. Methods: Photopheresis was used as monotherapy in patients (n = 3) who previously did not respond to treatment

Heike I. Richter; Claudia Billmann-Eberwein; Markus Grewe; Helger Stege; Mark Berneburg; Thomas Ruzicka; Jean Krutmann

1998-01-01

51

[Surgical therapy in Menière's disease. Historical development and today's state of the art].  

PubMed

After P. Menière's first description of the typical symptoms in 1861 it took more than 40 years before the first otosurgical procedures were performed to cure Menière's disease. Various surgical methods were established during the twentieth century, which still are employed in the treatment of intractable Menière's disease, especially saccotomy and vestibular neurectomy but also intoxication of the labyrinth by intratympanic application of gentamicin. Despite the good results of such therapeutic regimens the basic pathological mechanism is still not fully understood. Since the description of an endolymphatic hydrops by Hallpike und Cairns in 1938 as a typical feature, there have been some observations of a possible infectious, allergic and autoimmunological (co)pathogenesis without enough proof to explain the disease in every case. This article aims to present the current scientific data, diagnostics and therapy of Menière's disease with special emphasis on surgical treatment options. PMID:18418565

Baier, G; Ott, I

2008-05-01

52

The geographic distribution of Lyme disease in the United States.  

PubMed

In 1982, national surveillance for Lyme disease was established by the Centers for Disease Control to monitor trends and determine endemic geographic areas. Initially, the endemic areas corresponded to the known distribution of Ixodes dammini, a five-state area of the northeastern seaboard (New York, New Jersey, Connecticut, Rhode Island, and Massachusetts) and Wisconsin and Minnesota. Increasing numbers of cases have been reported outside these areas, however, 86% of the provisional 5731 cases reported to CDC were acquired in these seven states. The number of reported cases increased from 491 in 1982 to approximately 1500 per year in 1984-1986, making Lyme disease the most commonly reported tick-borne illness in the United States. The apparently widening distribution of Lyme disease indicates that physicians in all regions of the country should be familiar with its signs and symptoms. Investigations of the vector in areas endemic for Lyme disease where Ixodes ticks are not found are warranted. PMID:3190099

Ciesielski, C A; Markowitz, L E; Horsley, R; Hightower, A W; Russell, H; Broome, C V

1988-01-01

53

Aspects of early arthritis. Definition of disease states in early arthritis: remission versus minimal disease activity  

PubMed Central

With regard to rheumatoid arthritis, remission as currently used in the literature can have two meanings: either a state with persistent absence of clinical and radiological signs of disease activity without being treated for a specific time period, or it may point to a disease state with minimal disease activity during antirheumatic treatment. A risk factor for the first is absence of autoantibodies, with the anti-CCP-antibodies as best predictors, whereas risk factors for achieving a drug-induced state of minimal disease activity are not well defined. These definitions of remission refer to different disease states; therefore, we propose that the term remission is reserved for patients that are not treated with antirheumatic drugs. PMID:16879719

van der Helm-van Mil, Annette HM; Breedveld, Ferdinand C; Huizinga, Tom WJ

2006-01-01

54

Clinical application of kampo medicine (rikkunshito) for common and/or intractable symptoms of the gastrointestinal tract.  

PubMed

Gastroenterological reflux disease and functional dyspepsia are usually treatable using Western medical practices. Nonetheless, some cases present with intractable symptoms that are not amenable to these therapies. Treatment with kampo, a traditional Japanese medicine, recently has been proposed as an alternative therapy for use in combination with the Western practices. In general, traditional Japanese medicines have been used empirically for intractable symptoms correctively designated as "general malaises." Accumulating lines of evidence, including basic and clinical researches, have demonstrate detailed mechanisms where traditional Japanese medicines exert pharmacological action to improve symptoms. Therefore, traditional Japanese medicines have been gaining use by various medical doctors as the specific modes of pharmacological action are recognized. This review covers both the pharmacological functions and the clinical efficacies of rikkunshito for use in treating disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:25688209

Tominaga, Kazunari; Arakawa, Tetsuo

2015-01-01

55

Treatment of intractable skin ulcers caused by vascular insufficiency with allogeneic cultured dermal substitute: a report of eight cases.  

PubMed

Chronic leg ulcers have various causes and can be difficult to treat, although topical treatments, including basic fibroblast growth factor and PGE1, have been used. We applied an allogeneic cultured dermal substitute (CDS) to eight patients with intractable ulcers. The patients had various underlying diseases, including diabetes mellitus, systemic lupus erythematosus, antiphospholipid syndrome, necrobiosis lipoidica, stasis dermatitis, livedo vasculopathy, and rheumatoid arthritis. The CDS was prepared by seeding cultured human fibroblasts on a spongy matrix consisting of hyaluronic acid and atelocollagen. Good clinical results were achieved, as demonstrated by reepithelization, healthy granulation tissue formation, and a subsequent decrease in wound size. Daily dressing changes became unnecessary when the allogeneic CDS was used. Based on these results, we suggest that CDS may be useful for the treatment of intractable skin ulcers. PMID:21861088

Taniguchi, Tomonori; Amoh, Yasuyuki; Tanabe, Kenichi; Katsuoka, Kensei; Kuroyanagi, Yoshimitsu

2012-03-01

56

Lymphoproliferative disease virus in wild turkeys in southeast United States  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Previously, retroviral neoplasms reported in wild upland game birds in the United States of America have typically been associated with reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) infection. The information presented herein described the first reports of lymphoproliferative disease virus (LPDV) infection in ...

57

Infectious Diseases Treated in Emergency Departments: United States, 2001  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emergency departments (EDs) are an important source of medical care in the United States. Information is limited concerning epidemiologic patterns of ED visits for infectious diseases. Data for 2001 from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS) were analyzed for infectious disease visits. The NHAMCS is a national probability sample survey of visits to hospital EDs and outpatient departments

Nelson Adekoya

2005-01-01

58

MULTI-STATE BLUETONGUE DISEASE SURVEILLANCE PROJECT: VECTOR STUDY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The distribution of the biting midge, Culicoides sonorensis, the major vector (carrier) of bluetongue viruses, was determined across the multi-state region of Nebraska, South, and North Dakota. This study was part of a larger study of bluetongue disease in cattle. Bluetongue disease is important b...

59

OBSERVATIONS ON THE STATE OF MARINE DISEASE STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

State of marine disease studies is described. erhaps the greatest area of success in the last 20 years has been in the identification and characterization of viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoan and metazoan disease agents. pening of new areas of investigation such as that of inte...

60

Indicators for chronic disease surveillance - United States, 2013.  

PubMed

Chronic diseases are an important public health problem, which can result in morbidity, mortality, disability, and decreased quality of life. Chronic diseases represented seven of the top 10 causes of death in the United States in 2010 (Murphy SL, Xu J, Kochanek KD. Deaths: final data for 2010. Natl Vital Stat Rep 2013;6. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr61/nvsr61_04.pdf Adobe PDF file). Chronic diseases and risk factors vary by geographic area such as state and county, where essential public health interventions are implemented. The chronic disease indicators (CDIs) were established in the late 1990s through collaboration among CDC, the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists, and the Association of State and Territorial Chronic Disease Program Directors (now the National Association of Chronic Disease Directors) to enable public health professionals and policymakers to retrieve data for chronic diseases and risk factors that have a substantial impact on public health. This report describes the latest revisions to the CDIs, which were developed on the basis of a comprehensive review during 2011-2013. The number of indicators is increasing from 97 to 124, with major additions in systems and environmental indicators and additional emphasis on high-impact diseases and conditions as well as emerging topics. PMID:25578080

Holt, James B; Huston, Sara L; Heidari, Khosrow; Schwartz, Randy; Gollmar, Charles W; Tran, Annie; Bryan, Leah; Liu, Yong; Croft, Janet B

2015-01-01

61

Neuraxial (epidural and intrathecal) opioids for intractable pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Neuraxial opioids are considered for use in patients who have resistant intractable pain that fails to respond to other treatment options or pain that responds to analgesia but for which the doses required result in unacceptable side-effects.2. Neuraxial opiods can be considered for both chronic non-malignant pain and chronic cancer-related pain.3. Effectiveness in chronic non-malignant pain and cancer pain

Paul Farquhar-Smith; Suzanne Chapman

2012-01-01

62

Neglected parasitic infections in the United States: Chagas disease.  

PubMed

Chagas disease, which is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, can lead to severe cardiac and gastrointestinal disease. Most persons acquire this infection through contact with vector bugs carrying T. cruzi in endemic areas of Latin America. Infection can also be acquired by congenital, transfusion, transplantation, and foodborne transmission. Although an estimated 300,000 persons with Chagas disease live in the United States, little is known about the burden of chagasic heart disease. It is not known how often congenital or vector-borne transmission of T. cruzi occurs in the United States, although it is known that infected mothers and infected vector bugs are found in this country. Better diagnostic tests and treatment drugs are needed to improve patient care, and research is needed to define transmission risks and develop strategies to prevent new infections and reduce the burden of disease. PMID:24808250

Montgomery, Susan P; Starr, Michelle C; Cantey, Paul T; Edwards, Morven S; Meymandi, Sheba K

2014-05-01

63

Trypanosoma cruzi and Chagas' Disease in the United States  

PubMed Central

Summary: Chagas' disease is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi and causes potentially life-threatening disease of the heart and gastrointestinal tract. The southern half of the United States contains enzootic cycles of T. cruzi, involving 11 recognized triatomine vector species. The greatest vector diversity and density occur in the western United States, where woodrats are the most common reservoir; other rodents, raccoons, skunks, and coyotes are also infected with T. cruzi. In the eastern United States, the prevalence of T. cruzi is highest in raccoons, opossums, armadillos, and skunks. A total of 7 autochthonous vector-borne human infections have been reported in Texas, California, Tennessee, and Louisiana; many others are thought to go unrecognized. Nevertheless, most T. cruzi-infected individuals in the United States are immigrants from areas of endemicity in Latin America. Seven transfusion-associated and 6 organ donor-derived T. cruzi infections have been documented in the United States and Canada. As improved control of vector- and blood-borne T. cruzi transmission decreases the burden in countries where the disease is historically endemic and imported Chagas' disease is increasingly recognized outside Latin America, the United States can play an important role in addressing the altered epidemiology of Chagas' disease in the 21st century. PMID:21976603

Bern, Caryn; Kjos, Sonia; Yabsley, Michael J.; Montgomery, Susan P.

2011-01-01

64

The Epidemiology of Meningococcal Disease in the United States  

PubMed Central

Neisseria meningitidis is a leading cause of bacterial meningitis and other serious infections worldwide. The epidemiology of N. meningitidis is highly changeable, with major changes in disease incidence and serogroup distribution. Six serogroups are responsible for most meningococcal disease worldwide, namely serogroups, A, B, C, W-135, X, and Y; the epidemiology of disease caused by each serogroup is unique. No vaccine is available for endemic disease caused by serogroup B strains. Two tetravalent (A/C/Y/W-135) meningococcal vaccines are licensed in the United States, a purified polysaccharide product and a polysaccharide–protein conjugate vaccine. The conjugate vaccine is recommended for all adolescents, although vaccine coverage remains low, and other high risk groups. A comprehensive program to prevent invasive meningococcal disease in the US will require immunization of infants; several conjugate vaccines for infants may become available in the near future. Broadly protective vaccines for endemic serogroup B disease are also needed. PMID:20144015

Harrison, Lee H.

2009-01-01

65

Nuclear magnetic resonance of iron and copper disease states  

SciTech Connect

The tissue levels of paramagnetic ions are an important factor in the determination of T/sub 1/ values as observed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging. The increased levels of iron present in human disease states such as hemochromatosis lead to decreased T/sub 1/ values. The mean liver T/sub 1/ of three patients with iron storage disease was determined to be 130 msec, significantly different from the value of 154 msec, the mean for 14 normal controls. Whether NMR will be able to detect the increased copper levels in liver and brain in Wilson disease remains for further clinical trials to evaluate. NMR imaging, however, does serve as a noninvasive method for the diagnosis of states of iron overload and as a technique to follow progression of disease or response to medical therapy.

Runge, V.M. (Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN); Clanton, J.A.; Smith, F.W.; Hutchison, J.; Mallard, J.; Partain, C.L.; James, A.E. Jr.

1983-11-01

66

Intractable pneumothorax managed by talc pleurodesis and bronchial occlusion with spigots  

PubMed Central

Three cases of inoperable secondary spontaneous pneumothorax were diagnosed in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Two cases initially underwent bronchial occlusion with endobronchial Watanabe spigot (EWS), while one underwent talc poudrage with pleuroscopy. As air leaks were not stopped completely in all cases with the initial procedures, we performed additional interventional treatments: pleuroscopic talc poudrage in cases when bronchial occlusion was performed first; and bronchial occlusion with EWS for a case that initially underwent talc pleurodesis. The air leaks ceased in all cases without complication. We successfully removed chest tubes 2–10 days after secondary procedure, which was 10–23 days after the first procedure. The combination of talc pleurodesis and bronchial occlusion with EWS, when a single, initial interventional treatment fails, can be considered in cases of intractable, inoperable secondary pneumothorax. PMID:25802742

Ishida, Atsuko; Kida, Hirotaka; Muraoka, Hiromi; Nishine, Hiroki; Mineshita, Masamichi; Miyazawa, Teruomi

2015-01-01

67

A rare case intractable diarrhea secondary to Clostridium difficile and cytomegalovirus coinfection  

PubMed Central

Patient: Male, 63 Final Diagnosis: Cytomegalo virus (CMV) infection Symptoms: Diarrhea Medication:— Clinical Procedure:— Specialty: Infectious Diseases Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Coinfection with cytomegalovirus in a patient with Clostridium difficile persistent diarrhea and colitis can lead to a delay in diagnosis and treatment. Case Report: A 63-year-old man with squamous cell carcinoma of the lower lip, status post surgical resection and currently on chemoradiation presented with intractable diarrhea and abdominal pain. Initial workup showed Clostridium difficile diarrhea with pancolitis. Diarrhea persisted despite being on antibiotics and bacteriological cure for C. difficile. Further noninvasive work up revealed associated cytomegalovirus infection, and patient had a dramatic response to ganciclovir without any relapse. Conclusions: Physicians should be cognizant about other causes of diarrhea and colitis in immunocompromised patient when treatment for primary diagnosis fails to resolve their symptoms. PMID:24298304

John, Santhosh Gheevarghese; Dominguez, Cristian; Chandiramani, Vijay; Vemulappalli, Tejo

2013-01-01

68

Roux-en-Y gastric bypass for intractable biliary reflux in an individual with incomplete tetraplegia.  

PubMed

Context Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common complication in the spinal cord injury (SCI) population. Surgical treatment of GERD has a unique risk/benefit profile in this population. Findings This 68-year-old male with chronic incomplete tetraplegia, dyslipidemia, and well-controlled diabetes mellitus underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGBP) for intractable biliary reflux. Postoperatively, the patient had resolution of his symptoms but he also presented with significant weight loss and dumping syndrome. While he did have improvement in his dyslipidemia there was no change in his functional status. Conclusions RYGBP is an option for refractory GERD treatment in the SCI population but preoperative risk assessment and close monitoring postoperatively is essential. PMID:25243335

Caruso, Deborah; Tower, Donald; Goetz, Lance

2014-09-22

69

Homozygous nonsense mutation in SYNJ1 associated with intractable epilepsy and tau pathology.  

PubMed

The tauopathies are a heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the shared presence of tau aggregates and neurofibrillary tangles within the central nervous system. Here, we present a child with a severe neurodegenerative disorder characterized by intractable seizures and significant tau-immunoreactive neurofibrillary degeneration localized predominantly to the substantia nigra on neuropathology with absence of beta-amyloid plaques and Lewy or Pick bodies. Whole-exome sequencing identified a homozygous truncating mutation in Synaptojanin 1 (SYNJ1). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blot experiments demonstrated diminished SYNJ1 messenger RNA and protein. Knockout Synj1(-/-) mice have convulsions and die early in life. More recently, homozygous missense mutations have been reported in 2 families with early-onset parkinsonism and seizures. Our findings broaden the spectrum of disease associated with alteration of SYNJ1 and further implicate defects in synaptic vesicle recycling in the tauopathies. PMID:25316601

Dyment, David A; Smith, Amanda C; Humphreys, Peter; Schwartzentruber, Jeremy; Beaulieu, Chandree L; Bulman, Dennis E; Majewski, Jacek; Woulfe, John; Michaud, Jean; Boycott, Kym M

2015-02-01

70

Intractable pain due to rectus abdominis intramuscular haemangioma.  

PubMed

Haemangiomas are tumours of vascular origin accounting for approximately 7 % of all benign tumours. Three types of haemangioma have been described according to the vessel type involved: capillary, cavernous and mixed. Intramuscular haemangiomas (IMHs) are infrequent, accounting for less than 1 % of all haemangiomas and are mostly located in the extremities and the trunk. Intramuscular haemangiomas of the rectus abdominis muscle are extremely rare, with only one previous case reported in the literature to the best of our knowledge. In this report, we present the case of a patient with intractable pain related to IMHs of the rectus abdominis and we analyse diagnostic assessment and surgical management of the condition. PMID:23263560

Scozzari, G; Reddavid, R; Conti, L; Trombetta, F; Toppino, M; Sandrucci, S

2014-08-01

71

Incidence of Hansen's Disease--United States, 1994-2011.  

PubMed

Hansen's disease (HD), or leprosy, is caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium leprae and is reportable in many states. It is a chronic disease affecting the skin and nerves, commonly presenting as pale or reddish skin patches with diminished sensation. Without treatment, it can progress to a severely debilitating disease with nerve damage, tissue destruction, and functional loss. An important factor in limiting HD morbidity is early diagnosis and prompt initiation of therapy. Because HD is rare, clinicians in the United States are often unfamiliar with it; however, HD continues to cause morbidity in the United States. To better characterize at-risk U.S. populations, HD trends during 1994-2011 were evaluated by reviewing records from the National Hansen's Disease Program (NHDP). When the periods 1994-1996 and 2009-2011 were compared, a decline in the rate for new diagnoses from 0.52 to 0.43 per million was observed. The rate among foreign-born persons decreased from 3.66 to 2.29, whereas the rate among U.S.-born persons was 0.16 in both 1994-1996 and 2009-2011. Delayed diagnosis was more common among foreign-born persons. Clinicians throughout the United States should familiarize themselves with the signs and symptoms of HD and understand that HD can occur in the United States. PMID:25356604

Nolen, Leisha; Haberling, Dana; Scollard, David; Truman, Richard; Rodriguez-Lainz, Alfonso; Blum, Laura; Blaney, David

2014-10-31

72

[Chronic intrathecal drug administration for the control of intractable pain].  

PubMed

Intrathecal drug administration for the control of intractable pain has been practiced over many years in various countries; however, because of government regulation, no drugs except baclofen are approved for chronic intrathecal use in Japan. In this review, I have summarized the current international situation regarding the chronic intrathecal administration of various types of drugs for the control of intractable cancer and non-cancer pain. Morphine is the gold standard for this purpose, but its combination with local anesthetics or clonidine may be essential. Although this combination has presented strong evidence of cancer pain control, it shows weak evidence of non-malignant chronic pain control, probably because of the complex pathophysiology of the latter condition. A few new drugs such as ziconotide and gabapentin have been investigated, but the effective control of neuropathic pain, including complex regional pain syndrome, still appears difficult. Contrary to the general belief, intrathecal drug administration via an implantable pump is cost-effective, and I believe that this intrathecal drug delivery system should be used more extensively used for pain management in Japan. PMID:18516973

Taira, Takaomi

2008-05-01

73

Motive attribution asymmetry for love vs. hate drives intractable conflict.  

PubMed

Five studies across cultures involving 661 American Democrats and Republicans, 995 Israelis, and 1,266 Palestinians provide previously unidentified evidence of a fundamental bias, what we term the "motive attribution asymmetry," driving seemingly intractable human conflict. These studies show that in political and ethnoreligious intergroup conflict, adversaries tend to attribute their own group's aggression to ingroup love more than outgroup hate and to attribute their outgroup's aggression to outgroup hate more than ingroup love. Study 1 demonstrates that American Democrats and Republicans attribute their own party's involvement in conflict to ingroup love more than outgroup hate but attribute the opposing party's involvement to outgroup hate more than ingroup love. Studies 2 and 3 demonstrate this biased attributional pattern for Israelis and Palestinians evaluating their own group and the opposing group's involvement in the current regional conflict. Study 4 demonstrates in an Israeli population that this bias increases beliefs and intentions associated with conflict intractability toward Palestinians. Finally, study 5 demonstrates, in the context of American political conflict, that offering Democrats and Republicans financial incentives for accuracy in evaluating the opposing party can mitigate this bias and its consequences. Although people find it difficult to explain their adversaries' actions in terms of love and affiliation, we suggest that recognizing this attributional bias and how to reduce it can contribute to reducing human conflict on a global scale. PMID:25331879

Waytz, Adam; Young, Liane L; Ginges, Jeremy

2014-11-01

74

End State Renal Disease among Native Americans, 1983-86.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Determines the incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) among Native Americans and Whites in the United States from 1983-86. Findings indicate 1,075 Native American cases represented an annual incidence 2.8 times the rate for Whites. Fifty-six percent of Native American cases and 27 percent of White cases were attributed to diabetes. (JS)

Newman, Jeffrey M.; And Others

1990-01-01

75

Resting state brain networks and their implications in neurodegenerative disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neurons are the basic units of the brain, and form network by connecting via synapses. So far, there have been limited ways to measure the brain networks. Recently, various imaging modalities are widely used for this purpose. In this paper, brain network mapping using resting state fMRI will be introduced with several applications including neurodegenerative disease such as Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal lobar degeneration and Parkinson's disease. The resting functional connectivity using intrinsic functional connectivity in mouse is useful since we can take advantage of perturbation or stimulation of certain nodes of the network. The study of brain connectivity will open a new era in understanding of brain and diseases thus will be an essential foundation for future research.

Sohn, William S.; Yoo, Kwangsun; Kim, Jinho; Jeong, Yong

2012-10-01

76

Lamotrigine for intractable migraine-like headaches in Sturge-Weber syndrome.  

PubMed

We herein report that naratriptan remarkably improved intractable migraine-like headaches in a patient with Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS) despite his past history of cerebral infarction. In addition, lamotrigine had a prophylactic effect on his visual aura and headaches. An 18-year-old male patient with SWS had intractable migraine-like headaches every several months from the age of 3years. His migraine-like headaches were characterized by pulsating attacks preceded by left homonymous hemianopsia, which persisted after headache disappearance. In addition, after 14years of age, the pulsating headaches were preceded by photophobia without homonymous hemianopsia and occurred almost daily. Headache pains were not improved by acetaminophen or loxoprofen sodium hydrate. Furthermore, various prophylactic drugs were ineffective. After obtaining informed consent, naratriptan was administered. The pain severity was reduced and the duration of headache with homonymous hemianopsia was shortened from several days to several hours. Interestingly, naratriptan also shortened the duration of homonymous hemianopsia to several hours. We confirmed that his headache attacks were not epileptic seizures by ictal electroencephalography. However, 25mg/day of lamotrigine had a prophylactic effect on the frequency of headache. Moreover, lamotrigine led to complete remission of his headache without homonymous hemianopsia. Lamotrigine may have an advantage in terms of reducing the risk of cerebrovascular disease caused by migraine-like headaches and the use of triptans. The most effective management for migraine-like headaches in patients with SWS has not been established. Lamotrigine is a potentially effective option for patients with SWS with migraine-like headaches. PMID:23877022

Nomura, Shohei; Shimakawa, Shuichi; Fukui, Miho; Tanabe, Takuya; Tamai, Hiroshi

2014-05-01

77

Deletions of recessive disease genes: CNV contribution to carrier states and disease-causing alleles  

PubMed Central

Over 1200 recessive disease genes have been described in humans. The prevalence, allelic architecture, and per-genome load of pathogenic alleles in these genes remain to be fully elucidated, as does the contribution of DNA copy-number variants (CNVs) to carrier status and recessive disease. We mined CNV data from 21,470 individuals obtained by array-comparative genomic hybridization in a clinical diagnostic setting to identify deletions encompassing or disrupting recessive disease genes. We identified 3212 heterozygous potential carrier deletions affecting 419 unique recessive disease genes. Deletion frequency of these genes ranged from one occurrence to 1.5%. When compared with recessive disease genes never deleted in our cohort, the 419 recessive disease genes affected by at least one carrier deletion were longer and located farther from known dominant disease genes, suggesting that the formation and/or prevalence of carrier CNVs may be affected by both local and adjacent genomic features and by selection. Some subjects had multiple carrier CNVs (307 subjects) and/or carrier deletions encompassing more than one recessive disease gene (206 deletions). Heterozygous deletions spanning multiple recessive disease genes may confer carrier status for multiple single-gene disorders, for complex syndromes resulting from the combination of two or more recessive conditions, or may potentially cause clinical phenotypes due to a multiply heterozygous state. In addition to carrier mutations, we identified homozygous and hemizygous deletions potentially causative for recessive disease. We provide further evidence that CNVs contribute to the allelic architecture of both carrier and recessive disease-causing mutations. Thus, a complete recessive carrier screening method or diagnostic test should detect CNV alleles. PMID:23685542

Boone, Philip M.; Campbell, Ian M.; Baggett, Brett C.; Soens, Zachry T.; Rao, Mitchell M.; Hixson, Patricia M.; Patel, Ankita; Bi, Weimin; Cheung, Sau Wai; Lalani, Seema R.; Beaudet, Arthur L.; Stankiewicz, Pawel; Shaw, Chad A.; Lupski, James R.

2013-01-01

78

Surveillance of Lyme disease in the United States, 1982.  

PubMed

Lyme disease is a tick-borne illness that has been reported from three regions in the United States--the Northeast, Midwest, and West--which correspond to the distribution of the recognized vectors of the disease, Ixodes dammini and Ixodes pacificus. In 1982, a surveillance system designed to define the morbidity and geographic distribution for Lyme disease by using a clinical case definition received information on 491 definite cases and 38 probable cases. Of the definite cases, 489 were acquired in endemic areas of the Northeast or Midwest; one case was acquired in Utah and one in western Pennsylvania, two areas where the illness had not been previously reported. Three states that previously had not reported cases of Lyme disease (Kentucky, Indiana, Montana) reported probable cases. In 37% of the definite cases, the patients had neurological symptoms (most commonly reported was headache with stiff neck, suggestive of meningitis), 10% cardiac symptoms (most commonly reported was palpitations), and 54% arthritic symptoms (most commonly reported in large joints). The occurrence of Lyme disease in areas outside the currently recognized endemic regions, as well as the recent description of Amblyomma americanum as a probable vector, suggest that additional vectors may be described in the future. PMID:3998509

Schmid, G P; Horsley, R; Steere, A C; Hanrahan, J P; Davis, J P; Bowen, G S; Osterholm, M T; Weisfeld, J S; Hightower, A W; Broome, C V

1985-06-01

79

[Diagnostic and therapeutic devices for patients with chronic intractable pain: preface and comments].  

PubMed

New diagnostic and therapeutic devices for patients with chronic intractable pain are used in Japan. The following articles describe topics of new diagnostic and therapeutic devices for patients with chronic intractable pain including thermography, functional MRI, device for the quantitative analysis of perception and pain sensation, epiduroscopy, device for phototherapy, Racz catheter and device for spinal cord stimulation (SCS). PMID:25098129

Hanaoka, Kazuo

2014-07-01

80

Various indications for a modified Atkins diet in intractable childhood epilepsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: We reviewed retrospectively our experiences with children with intractable epilepsy who were indicated for a modified Atkins diet (MAD). Methods: Twenty children (8 female, 12 male) who were aged 2–17years with intractable epilepsy and tried the MAD between September 2008 and December 2010 were enrolled. Outcome measures included seizure frequency, adverse reactions and tolerability of the diet. Results: Finally

Yoon Mi Kim; Varsha Viranchi Vaidya; Timur Khusainov; Heung Dong Kim; Shin-Hye Kim; Eun Joo Lee; Young Mock Lee; Joon Soo Lee; Hoon-Chul Kang

81

Management in intractable obstetric haemorrhage: an audit study on 61 cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To refine the indications of bilateral hypogastric artery ligation (BHAL) and angiographic selective embolisation (ASE) in intractable obstetric haemorrhage. Design: an audit study. Setting: Tertiary care university hospital. Population and methods: Retrospective analysis of 61 cases of obstetric intractable post partum haemorrhage (PPH) initially managed either by hysterectomy or a conservative approach in a tertiary referral centre between 1983

Nathalie Lédée; Yves Ville; Dominique Musset; Frédéric Mercier; René Frydman; Hervé Fernandez

2001-01-01

82

Neural Synchrony-Monitoring Wireless Brain Implant for Intractable Epilepsy Neuromodulation  

E-print Network

Neural Synchrony-Monitoring Wireless Brain Implant for Intractable Epilepsy Neuromodulation Karim Abstract-- A validation of a closed-loop system-on-chip (SoC) for epilepsy treatment is presented. A 12mm2 in vivo experiment validates the SoC in early seizure detection and as a closed-loop intractable epilepsy

Genov, Roman

83

Patient satisfaction with spinal cord stimulation for predominant complaints of chronic, intractable low back pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background context: Results of subsequent surgical intervention in patients with intractable pain after lumbar spine surgery are typically worse than for initial surgery, particularly in those with predominant complaints of back pain rather than lower extremity pain. Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has been found to yield good results in patients with primary complaints of intractable lower extremity pain. Technological advances

Donna D Ohnmeiss; Ralph F Rashbaum

2001-01-01

84

Pars plana vitrectomy with pars plana tube implantation in eyes with intractable glaucoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMSIntractable glaucoma is glaucoma resistant to medical therapy and conventional surgical procedures. In this study, a planned surgical technique is discussed for controlling the increased intraocular pressure in selected cases with intractable glaucoma.METHODSTotal pars plana vitrectomy with pars plana tube implantation was performed in 17 eyes of 17 cases with intractable glaucoma. Patients with neovascular glaucoma were not included in

Suleyman Kaynak; Nalan Fatma Tekin; Ismet Durak; Ayse Tulin Berk; Ali Osman Saatci; Meltem Fatma Soylev

1998-01-01

85

Bayesian experimental design for models with intractable likelihoods.  

PubMed

In this paper we present a methodology for designing experiments for efficiently estimating the parameters of models with computationally intractable likelihoods. The approach combines a commonly used methodology for robust experimental design, based on Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling, with approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) to ensure that no likelihood evaluations are required. The utility function considered for precise parameter estimation is based upon the precision of the ABC posterior distribution, which we form efficiently via the ABC rejection algorithm based on pre-computed model simulations. Our focus is on stochastic models and, in particular, we investigate the methodology for Markov process models of epidemics and macroparasite population evolution. The macroparasite example involves a multivariate process and we assess the loss of information from not observing all variables. PMID:24131221

Drovandi, Christopher C; Pettitt, Anthony N

2013-12-01

86

A Case of Intractable Suspected Perilymph Fistula with Severe Depression  

PubMed Central

A 68-year-old woman presented dizziness whenever she put her finger into the right ear and also complained of water-streaming tinnitus, which indicated she would have been suffering from perilymph fistula. An exploratory tympanotomy was conducted. Leakage of perilymph from the round window was suspected, although the cochlin-tomoprotein (CTP) results were negative. After the procedure, the patient's finger-induced dizziness, tinnitus, and vertigo spells disappeared completely. However, her dizzy symptom did not improve. The patient also complained of general fatigue, weight loss, and insomnia, which led us to suspect comorbid depression. Antidepressants and vestibular rehabilitation treatment resulted in a significant improvement in her dizziness. Although it is not apparent whether the patient had a perilymph fistula, this case demonstrates the importance of evaluating not only physical symptoms but also psychological comorbidity, especially when the physical symptoms are intractable despite treatment. PMID:25395985

Oishi, Naoki; Tsutsumi, Tomoko; Ogawa, Kaoru

2014-01-01

87

Successful hemostasis of intractable rectal variceal bleeding using variceal embolization.  

PubMed

Portal hypertension causes portosystemic shunting along the gastrointestinal tract, resulting in gastrointestinal varices. Rectal varices and their bleeding is a rare complication, but it can be fatal without appropriate treatment. However, because of its rarity, no established treatment strategy is yet available. In the setting of intractable rectal variceal bleeding, a transjugular intravenous portosystemic shunt can be a treatment of choice to enable portal decompression and thus achieve hemostasis. However, in the case of recurrent rectal variceal bleeding despite successful transjugular intravenous portosystemic shunt, alternative measures to control bleeding are required. Here, we report on a patient with liver cirrhosis who experienced recurrent rectal variceal bleeding even after successful transjugular intravenous portosystemic shunt and was successfully treated with variceal embolization. PMID:25741168

Ahn, Sung Soo; Kim, Eun Hye; Kim, Man Deuk; Lee, Won Jae; Kim, Seung Up

2015-02-28

88

Successful hemostasis of intractable rectal variceal bleeding using variceal embolization  

PubMed Central

Portal hypertension causes portosystemic shunting along the gastrointestinal tract, resulting in gastrointestinal varices. Rectal varices and their bleeding is a rare complication, but it can be fatal without appropriate treatment. However, because of its rarity, no established treatment strategy is yet available. In the setting of intractable rectal variceal bleeding, a transjugular intravenous portosystemic shunt can be a treatment of choice to enable portal decompression and thus achieve hemostasis. However, in the case of recurrent rectal variceal bleeding despite successful transjugular intravenous portosystemic shunt, alternative measures to control bleeding are required. Here, we report on a patient with liver cirrhosis who experienced recurrent rectal variceal bleeding even after successful transjugular intravenous portosystemic shunt and was successfully treated with variceal embolization. PMID:25741168

Ahn, Sung Soo; Kim, Eun Hye; Kim, Man Deuk; Lee, Won Jae; Kim, Seung Up

2015-01-01

89

A case of intractable suspected perilymph fistula with severe depression.  

PubMed

A 68-year-old woman presented dizziness whenever she put her finger into the right ear and also complained of water-streaming tinnitus, which indicated she would have been suffering from perilymph fistula. An exploratory tympanotomy was conducted. Leakage of perilymph from the round window was suspected, although the cochlin-tomoprotein (CTP) results were negative. After the procedure, the patient's finger-induced dizziness, tinnitus, and vertigo spells disappeared completely. However, her dizzy symptom did not improve. The patient also complained of general fatigue, weight loss, and insomnia, which led us to suspect comorbid depression. Antidepressants and vestibular rehabilitation treatment resulted in a significant improvement in her dizziness. Although it is not apparent whether the patient had a perilymph fistula, this case demonstrates the importance of evaluating not only physical symptoms but also psychological comorbidity, especially when the physical symptoms are intractable despite treatment. PMID:25395985

Goto, Fumiyuki; Oishi, Naoki; Tsutsumi, Tomoko; Ogawa, Kaoru

2014-10-01

90

Montana State University-Bozeman: Insects, Disease, and History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As carriers of many serious diseases throughout time, insects have certainly played a significant role in shaping world history. Edited by Drs. Gary Miller and Robert Peterson, this website from Montana State University devotes itself to understanding the impact of insect-borne diseases on world history. The site contains several feature articles including: The Role of Insects as Biological Weapons; Historical Natural History: Insects and the Civil War; and Yellow Fever and the Strategy of the Mexican-American War. The website also contains A Primer to Medical Entomology, suggested readings, and a brief section on Disease, Epidemics, and Historical Periods. Related links and a glossary -- including terms such as anaphylaxis, anthropophilic, delusory parasitosis, and Hymenoptera -- are included as well.

2007-12-12

91

Montana State University-Bozeman: Insects, Disease, and History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As carriers of many serious diseases throughout time, insects have certainly played a significant role in shaping world history. Edited by Drs. Gary Miller and Robert Peterson, this website from Montana State University devotes itself to understanding the impact of insect-borne diseases on world history. The site contains several feature articles including: The Role of Insects as Biological Weapons; Historical Natural History: Insects and the Civil War; and Yellow Fever and the Strategy of the Mexican-American War. The website also contains A Primer to Medical Entomology, suggested readings, and a brief section on Disease, Epidemics, and Historical Periods. Related links and a glossary -- including terms such as anaphylaxis, anthropophilic, delusory parasitosis, and Hymenoptera -- are included as well.

92

The intrinsic resting state voice network in Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Over 90 percent of patients with Parkinson's disease experience speech-motor impairment, namely, hypokinetic dysarthria characterized by reduced pitch and loudness. Resting-state functional connectivity analysis of blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging is a useful measure of intrinsic neural functioning. We utilized resting-state functional connectivity modeling to analyze the intrinsic connectivity in patients with Parkinson's disease within a vocalization network defined by a previous meta-analysis of speech (Brown et al., 2009). Functional connectivity of this network was assessed in 56 patients with Parkinson's disease and 56 gender-, age-, and movement-matched healthy controls. We also had item 5 and 18 of the UPDRS, and the PDQ-39 Communication subscale available for correlation with the voice network connectivity strength in patients. The within-group analyses of connectivity patterns demonstrated a lack of subcortical-cortical connectivity in patients with Parkinson's disease. At the cortical level, we found robust (homotopic) interhemispheric connectivity but only inconsistent evidence for many intrahemispheric connections. When directly contrasted to the control group, we found a significant reduction of connections between the left thalamus and putamen, and cortical motor areas, as well as reduced right superior temporal gyrus connectivity. Furthermore, most symptom measures correlated with right putamen, left cerebellum, left superior temporal gyrus, right premotor, and left Rolandic operculum connectivity in the voice network. The results reflect the importance of (right) subcortical nodes and the superior temporal gyrus in Parkinson's disease, enhancing our understanding of the neurobiological underpinnings of vocalization impairment in Parkinson's disease. Hum Brain Mapp 36:1951-1962, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25627959

New, Anneliese B; Robin, Donald A; Parkinson, Amy L; Eickhoff, Claudia R; Reetz, Kathrin; Hoffstaedter, Felix; Mathys, Christian; Sudmeyer, Martin; Grefkes, Christian; Larson, Charles R; Ramig, Loraine O; Fox, Peter T; Eickhoff, Simon B

2015-05-01

93

Quality of life and emotional state in chronic skin disease.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between chronic inflammatory skin conditions and patients' emotional state and quality of life. The following self-rated questionnaires were used: Emotional State Questionnaire, a self-report scale assessing depression and anxiety symptoms; Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI); and RAND-36, a measure of health-related quality of life. The study group comprised 40 patients with psoriasis, 40 with eczema, 40 with acne, 15 with seborrhoeic dermatitis and 40 healthy controls. Patients with chronic skin diseases had lower DLQI and lower RAND-36 physical functioning scores, more perceived physical limitations and pain, and lower emotional well-being and general health ratings compared with the control group. In conclusion, chronic skin diseases are associated with symptoms of emotional distress, in particular insomnia and general anxiety. PMID:24978135

Pärna, Ene; Aluoja, Anu; Kingo, Külli

2015-03-01

94

The effect of leucotomy in intractable adolescent weight phobia (primary anorexia nervosa)  

PubMed Central

Anorexia nervosa is best construed as a phobic avoidance response to the psychosocial maturational implications of adolescent weight. Within this state, surrender to the impulse to eat and consequent weight gain is associated with panic, depression and sometimes specific intense fear of loss of control. So long as the avoidance posture can be maintained the experience of such turmoil is largely avoided. Complicated ritualistic behaviour may arise to promote and secure the posture. However, its unrewarding and lonely nature still increasingly leaves the individual liable to the experience of depression. Established treatment procedures often assist recovery from the illness but intractable cases arise and it is amongst these that the majority of deaths occur either from inanition or suicide. The basis for the changes characteristically induced by leucotomy is complex. The procedure often leads to reduced tension and release of appetitive behaviour. This is taken to be due to some direct effect of the cerebral lesion and possibly the intervention may also be construed by some patients as a licence to behave differently. In patients with anorexia nervosa such appetitive release can be expected to promote considerable weight gain. However, the adverse psychological implications of such weight gain for the patient do not appear always to be so immediately or easily relieved. They may still experience panic, shame or depression and new patterns of social avoidance, or vomiting behaviour may develop. Intensive help of a psychotherapeutic and rehabilitative kind is then still required if the patient is to have the best chance of adjusting healthily to her newly found potential for a more normal nutritional status. Four patients who have undergone such treatment are described in this paper. It is concluded that leucotomy has a small but definite place in the treatment of patients with intractable anorexia nervosa. ImagesFig. 2 PMID:4806268

Crisp, A. H.; Kalucy, R. S.

1973-01-01

95

Emergence of hantaviral disease in the southwestern United States.  

PubMed Central

Hantaviruses are parasites of small mammals, predominantly peridomestic and commensal rodents. They have a worldwide distribution. Hantavirus-related illness occurs in rural areas where humans come into contact with rodents. In most cases human infection is manifested by one of a variety of acute illnesses involving hemorrhagic fever and renal disease. In May 1993, a cluster of patients with an acute pulmonary disease with high mortality was noted in the Four Corners region of the southwestern United States. Serologic and genetic studies indicated that the etiologic agent was a novel hantavirus. The uncertainty engendered by the emergence of a new disease with high mortality forced a rapid response by state and federal agencies and by the University of New Mexico Medical Center, Albuquerque, where most patients from this region were referred. Considerable progress has been made in identifying infected cases on clinical and laboratory grounds and in ensuring that appropriate supportive care is made available to patients as soon as they are suspected of having hantaviral infection. Cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome--both new and retrospectively diagnosed--are still being recognized throughout the western United States. Many important questions remain unanswered. Images PMID:7810123

Hjelle, B; Jenison, S; Mertz, G; Koster, F; Foucar, K

1994-01-01

96

EDICALLY intractable epilepsy develops in approx-imately 15,000 to 30,000 people each year in the  

E-print Network

EDICALLY intractable epilepsy develops in approx- imately 15,000 to 30,000 people each year in the US. Epilepsy is considered intractable when it significantly reduces the quality of a person's life.34 In most cases of surgically remediable medically intractable epilepsy, the pathological disorder

Hampton, Robert

97

Atypical language laterality is associated with large-scale disruption of network integration in children with intractable focal epilepsy.  

PubMed

Epilepsy is associated with disruption of integration in distributed networks, together with altered localization for functions such as expressive language. The relation between atypical network connectivity and altered localization is unknown. In the current study we tested whether atypical expressive language laterality was associated with the alteration of large-scale network integration in children with medically-intractable localization-related epilepsy (LRE). Twenty-three right-handed children (age range 8-17) with medically-intractable LRE performed a verb generation task in fMRI. Language network activation was identified and the Laterality index (LI) was calculated within the pars triangularis and pars opercularis. Resting-state data from the same cohort were subjected to independent component analysis. Dual regression was used to identify associations between resting-state integration and LI values. Higher positive values of the LI, indicating typical language localization were associated with stronger functional integration of various networks including the default mode network (DMN). The normally symmetric resting-state networks showed a pattern of lateralized connectivity mirroring that of language function. The association between atypical language localization and network integration implies a widespread disruption of neural network development. These findings may inform the interpretation of localization studies by providing novel insights into reorganization of neural networks in epilepsy. PMID:25681650

Ibrahim, George M; Morgan, Benjamin R; Doesburg, Sam M; Taylor, Margot J; Pang, Elizabeth W; Donner, Elizabeth; Go, Cristina Y; Rutka, James T; Snead, O Carter

2015-04-01

98

On the Computational Intractability of Exact and Approximate Dictionary Learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The efficient sparse coding and reconstruction of signal vectors via linear observations has received a tremendous amount of attention over the last decade. In this context, the automated learning of a suitable basis or overcomplete dictionary from training data sets of certain signal classes for use in sparse representations has turned out to be of particular importance regarding practical signal processing applications. Most popular dictionary learning algorithms involve NP-hard sparse recovery problems in each iteration, which may give some indication about the complexity of dictionary learning but does not constitute an actual proof of computational intractability. In this technical note, we show that learning a dictionary with which a given set of training signals can be represented as sparsely as possible is indeed NP-hard. Moreover, we also establish hardness of approximating the solution to within large factors of the optimal sparsity level. Furthermore, we give NP-hardness and non-approximability results for a recent dictionary learning variation called the sensor permutation problem. Along the way, we also obtain a new non-approximability result for the classical sparse recovery problem from compressed sensing.

Tillmann, Andreas M.

2015-01-01

99

Stimulation of primary motor cortex for intractable deafferentation pain.  

PubMed

The stimulation of the primary motor cortex (M1) has proved to be an effective treatment for intractable deafferentation pain. This treatment started in 1990, and twenty-eight studies involving 271 patients have been reported so far. The patients who have been operated on were suffering from post-stroke pain (59%), trigeminal neuropathic pain, brachial plexus injury, spinal cord injury, peripheral nerve injury and phantom-limb pain. The method of stimulation was: a) epidural, b) subdural, and c) within the central sulcus. Overall, considering the difficulty in treating central neuropathic pain, trigeminal neuropathic pain and certain types of refractory peripheral pain, the electrical stimulation of M1 is a very promising technique; nearly 60% of the treated patients improved with a higher than 50% pain relief after several months of follow-up and sometimes of a few years in most reports. The mechanism of pain relief by the electrical stimulation of M1 has been under investigation. Recently, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of M1 has been reported to be effective on deafferentation pain. In the future, rTMS may take over from electrical stimulation as a treatment for deafferentation pain. PMID:17691289

Saitoh, Y; Yoshimine, T

2007-01-01

100

Endovascular Treatment of Traumatic Pseudoaneurysm Presenting as Intractable Epistaxis  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the clinical efficacy of individual endovascular management for the treatment of different traumatic pseudoaneurysms presenting as intractable epistaxis. Materials and Methods For 14 consecutive patients with traumatic pseudoaneurysm presenting as refractory epistaxes, 15 endovascular procedures were performed. Digital subtraction angiography revealed that the pseudoaneurysms originated from the internal maxillary artery in eight patients; and all were treated with occlusion of the feeding artery. In six cases, they originated from the internal carotid artery (ICA); out of which, two were managed with detachable balloons, two with covered stents, one by means of cavity embolization, and the remaining one with parent artery occlusion. All of these cases were followed up clinically from six to 18 months, with a mean follow up time of ten months; moreover, three cases were also followed with angiography. Results Complete cessation of bleeding was achieved in all the 15 instances (100%) immediately after the endovascular therapies. Of the six patients who suffered from ICA pseudoaneurysms, one presented with a permanent stroke and one had an episode of rebleeding requiring intervention. Conclusion In patients presenting with a history of craniocerebral trauma, traumatic pseudoaneurysm must be considered as a differential diagnosis. Individual endovascular treatment is a relatively safe, plausible, and reliable means of managing traumatic pseudoaneurysms. PMID:21076585

Zhang, Chang wei; You, Chao; Mao, Bo yong; Wang, Chao hua; He, Min; Sun, Hong

2010-01-01

101

Novel interventional treatment technique for intractable pancreatic fistula due to dehiscence of pancreatico-jejunal anastomosis following pancreaticoduodenectomy.  

PubMed

Despite recent technological advances in the treatment of hepatobiliary pancreatic disease, intractable external pancreatic fistula is still a major critical complication after pancreaticoduodenectomy, and the treatment strategy is not well defined. We report here a case that was successfully treated by our novel interventional internal drainage technique. A 62-year-old woman underwent pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy for carcinoma of the papilla of Vater, with reconstruction by a modified Child's procedure. One year later, she was readmitted to our hospital because of external pancreatic fistula. Both computed tomography and fistulography demonstrated a pancreatic fistula derived from dehiscence of the pancreatico-jejunal anastomosis. The pancreatic fistula persisted for 1 week with conservative management. Therefore, we performed repeated fistulography and cannulation, using two comparatively stiff guidewires introduced into the main pancreatic duct and stenotic anastomosed jejunal lumen, respectively, and we placed an endoprosthesis, using bilateral guidewires to connect the two lumens. Consequently, the pancreatic fistula was successfully closed within a few days. Our novel technique is simple, rapid, and not costly. Therefore, it should be considered an effective treatment strategy for persistent pancreatic fistula following pancreaticoduodenectomy that fails to respond to initial conservative management and an endoscopic approach. Also, this technique is applicable to other intractable fistulous situations. PMID:18670851

Komatsu, Shuhei; Sonoyama, Teruhisa; Ochiai, Toshiya; Ichikawa, Daisuke; Ikoma, Hisashi; Okamura, Hiroko; Yamagishi, Hisakazu; Otsuji, Eigo

2008-01-01

102

[Treatment of intractable tuberculous meningitis using intrathecal isoniazid administration and steroid pulse therapy; a report of two cases].  

PubMed

Tuberculous meningitis (TbM) is a neurological emergency condition that requires prompt initiation of treatment. The standard initial treatment for TbM is often insufficient for producing remission because the anti-tuberculosis agent may cause severe side effects, or vasculitis and hydrocephalus may induce an intractable state. Moreover, it is difficult to distinguish paradoxical expansion from its own deterioration. We treated 2 cases of adult TbM by using multidisciplinary therapy, including methyl prednisolone pulse and intrathecal isoniazid administration. Both cases had not been diagnosed as pulmonary or other tuberculosis, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture and polymerase chain reaction at approximately 1 week after hospitalization identified the cases as TbM. We administered the standard initial treatment recommended by the British Infection Society guidelines for adults, but both cases deteriorated and showed elevation of intracranial pressure. We indwelled a lumbar drainage for Case 1 and an Ommaya reservoir for Case 2. We removed CSF and administrated isoniazid regularly using each of the drainage devices, added streptomycin, and increased the steroid dose including addition of steroid pulse therapy. Both cases improved, and their neurological dysfunction did not persist. After the induction of an intractable state occurs due to TbM, we are likely to assume poor prognosis and neurological sequelae. However, our experience in these cases showed amelioration of the symptoms leading to the rehabilitation of these patients in society. PMID:22975852

Takahashi, Ikuko; Yamada, Moemi; Matsushima, Masaaki; Sato, Kazunori; Kano, Takahiro; Yabe, Ichiro; Sasaki, Hidenao

2012-01-01

103

Use of an Oral Elemental Diet in Infants with Severe Intractable Diarrhea  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluated was the use of an oral elemental diet consisting of crystalline amino acids, glucose, electrolytes, and vitamins to control severe intractable diarrhea in 27 infants (1-day to 9-months of age). (DB)

Sherman, Joseph O.; And Others

1975-01-01

104

Intractable Headache - The Pain in Your Head that Just Won't Quit  

MedlinePLUS

... Print Email Intractable Headache – The pain in Your Head that Just Won’t Quit ACHE Newsletter Sign ... untreatable headache. What is going on in your head when the pain is so resistant to treatment? ...

105

Efficacy of total lymphoid irradiation in intractable rheumatoid arthritis. A double-blind, randomized trial  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-six patients participated in a randomized, double-blind study of the efficacy of total lymphoid irradiation in the treatment of intractable rheumatoid arthritis. All 26 patients, for whom therapy with gold compounds and penicillamine had failed, would ordinarily have been considered candidates for cytotoxic or antimetabolite drug therapy. Thirteen patients randomly assigned to receive full-dose total lymphoid irradiation (2000 rad) and 11 patients assigned to receive control low-dose total lymphoid irradiation (200 rad) completed radiotherapy. Alleviation of joint disease activity was significantly greater in the high-dose group as judged by morning stiffness, joint tenderness, and functional assessment (global composite score) at 3 and 6 months after radiotherapy. The high-dose group had a marked reduction in both T-lymphocyte function and numbers, but this finding was not observed in the low-dose group. Complications seen in the high-dose but not low-dose group included transient neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, pericarditis, and pleurisy.

Strober, S.; Tanay, A.; Field, E.; Hoppe, R.T.; Calin, A.; Engleman, E.G.; Kotzin, B.; Brown, B.W.; Kaplan, H.S.

1985-04-01

106

Melatonin and sleep-related problems in children with intractable epilepsy.  

PubMed

Children with epilepsy have high rates of sleep problems. Melatonin has been advocated in treatment of sleep disorders, and its beneficial effect has been confirmed in insomnia. The aim of this study was to assess melatonin levels in children with intractable epilepsy and its relation to pattern of sleep and characteristics of seizure disorder, as well as the effect of melatonin therapy on those parameters. The study was conducted on 23 children with intractable epilepsy and 14 children with controlled seizures. Patients were evaluated by psychometric sleep assessment and assay of diurnal and nocturnal melatonin levels. Children with intractable epilepsy received oral melatonin before bedtime. They were reassessed after 3 months. Children with intractable epilepsy had higher scores for each category of sleep walking, forcible teeth grinding, and sleep apnea. At the end of therapeutic trial, patients with intractable epilepsy exhibited significant improvement in bedtime resistance, sleep duration, sleep latency, frequent nocturnal arousals, sleep walking, excessive daytime sleepiness, nocturnal enuresis, forcible teeth grinding, sleep apnea, and Epworth sleepiness scores. There was also significant reduction in seizure severity. Thus, use of melatonin in patients with intractable seizures was associated with improvement of both many sleep-related phenomena and the severity of seizures. PMID:20304327

Elkhayat, Hamed A; Hassanein, Sahar M; Tomoum, Hoda Y; Abd-Elhamid, Iman A; Asaad, Tarek; Elwakkad, Amany S

2010-04-01

107

Characteristics and safety assessment of intractable proteins in genetically modified crops.  

PubMed

Genetically modified (GM) crops may contain newly expressed proteins that are described as "intractable". Safety assessment of these proteins may require some adaptations to the current assessment procedures. Intractable proteins are defined here as those proteins with properties that make it extremely difficult or impossible with current methods to express in heterologous systems; isolate, purify, or concentrate; quantify (due to low levels); demonstrate biological activity; or prove equivalency with plant proteins. Five classes of intractable proteins are discussed here: (1) membrane proteins, (2) signaling proteins, (3) transcription factors, (4) N-glycosylated proteins, and (5) resistance proteins (R-proteins, plant pathogen recognition proteins that activate innate immune responses). While the basic tiered weight-of-evidence approach for assessing the safety of GM crops proposed by the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) in 2008 is applicable to intractable proteins, new or modified methods may be required. For example, the first two steps in Tier I (hazard identification) analysis, gathering of applicable history of safe use (HOSU) information and bioinformatics analysis, do not require protein isolation. The extremely low level of expression of most intractable proteins should be taken into account while assessing safety of the intractable protein in GM crops. If Tier II (hazard characterization) analyses requiring animal feeding are judged to be necessary, alternatives to feeding high doses of pure protein may be needed. These alternatives are discussed here. PMID:24662477

Bushey, Dean F; Bannon, Gary A; Delaney, Bryan F; Graser, Gerson; Hefford, Mary; Jiang, Xiaoxu; Lee, Thomas C; Madduri, Krishna M; Pariza, Michael; Privalle, Laura S; Ranjan, Rakesh; Saab-Rincon, Gloria; Schafer, Barry W; Thelen, Jay J; Zhang, John X Q; Harper, Marc S

2014-07-01

108

Epidemiology and Estimated Population Burden of Selected Autoimmune Diseases in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autoimmune diseases cause significant and chronic morbidity and disability. The actual number of persons in the United States that are affected by autoimmune diseases and the resultant magnitude of their impact on the public's health are limited to a few specific diseases. In order to understand the clinical, public health and economic importance of these diseases it is necessary to

Denise L. Jacobson; Stephen J. Gange; Noel R. Rose; Neil M. H. Graham

1997-01-01

109

Predicting progression from cognitive impairment to Alzheimer's disease with the Disease State Index.  

PubMed

We evaluated the performance of the Disease State Index (DSI) method when predicting progression to Alzheimer's disease (AD) in patients with subjective cognitive impairment (SCI), amnestic or non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI, naMCI). The DSI model measures patients' similarity to diagnosed cases based on available data, such as cognitive tests, the APOE genotype, CSF biomarkers and MRI. We applied the DSI model to data from the DESCRIPA cohort, where non-demented patients (N=775) with different subtypes of cognitive impairment were followed for 1 to 5 years. Classification accuracies for the subgroups were calculated with the DSI using leave-one-out crossvalidation. The DSI's classification accuracy in predicting progression to AD was 0.75 (AUC=0.83) in the total population, 0.70 (AUC=0.77) for aMCI and 0.71 (AUC=0.76) for naMCI. For a subset of approximately half of the patients with high or low DSI values, accuracy reached 0.86 (all), 0.78 (aMCI), and 0.85 (naMCI). For patients with MRI or CSF biomarker data available, theywere 0.78 (all), 0.76 (aMCI) and 0.76 (naMCI), while for clear cases the accuracies rose to 0.90 (all), 0.83 (aMCI) and 0.91 (naMCI). The results show that the DSI model can distinguish between clear and ambiguous cases, assess the severity of the disease and also provide information on the effectiveness of different biomarkers. While a specific test or biomarker may confound analysis for an individual patient, combining several different types of tests and biomarkers could be able to reveal the trajectory of the disease and improve the prediction of AD progression. PMID:25523428

Hall, Anette; Mattila, Jussi; Koikkalainen, Juha; Lötjonen, Jyrki; Wolz, Robin; Scheltens, Philip; Frisoni, Giovanni; Tsolaki, Magdalini; Nobili, Flavio; Freund-Levi, Yvonne; Minthon, Lennart; Frölich, Lutz; Hampel, Harald; Visser, Pieter Jelle; Soininen, Hilkka

2015-01-01

110

New York State Department of Health Meningococcal Disease  

E-print Network

is meningococcal disease? Meningococcal disease is a severe bacterial infection of the bloodstream or meninges (a meningococcal disease? Anyone can get meningococcal disease, but it is more common in infants and children meningitis is prevalent. How is the meningococcus germ spread? The meningococcus germ is spread by direct

111

Surveillance for Waterborne Disease Outbreaks Associated with Drinking Water United States, 2007-2008  

EPA Science Inventory

Problem/Condition: Since 1971, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists have maintained a collaborative Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance System (WBDOS...

112

Precipitation and the occurrence of lyme disease in the Northeastern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The occurrence of Lyme disease is a growing concern in the United States, and various studies have been performed to understand the factors related to Lyme disease occurrence. In the United States, Lyme disease has occurred most frequently in the northeastern United States. Positive correlations between the number of cases of Lyme disease reported in the northeastern United States during the 1992-2002 period indicate that late spring/early summer precipitation was a significant climate factor affecting the occurrence of Lyme disease. When late spring/early summer precipitation was greater than average, the occurrence of Lyme disease was above average, possibly due to increased tick activity and survival rate during wet conditions. Temperature did not seem to explain the variability in Lyme disease reports for the northeastern United States. ?? Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

McCabe, G.J.; Bunnell, J.E.

2004-01-01

113

The changing state of surgery for adult congenital heart disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number of patients with adult congenital heart disease is expected to increase by 25% during this decade, so that by 2010 there will be more patients undergoing surgery for congenital heart disease over 16 years of age than under

J Monro

2005-01-01

114

Children and End-State Renal Disease (ERSD)  

MedlinePLUS

... outside the U.S. I'm a caregiver Children & End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) How to tell if ... card Your Social Security card CMS Form 2728 ("End-Stage Renal Disease Medical Evidence Report Medicare Entitlement ...

115

United States medical students’ knowledge of Alzheimer disease  

PubMed Central

Purpose: A knowledge gap exists between general physicians and specialists in diagnosing and managing Alzheimer disease (AD). This gap is concerning due to the estimated rise in prevalence of AD and cost to the health care system. Medical school is a viable avenue to decrease the gap, educating future physicians before they specialize. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge level of students in their first and final years of medical school. Methods: Fourteen participating United States medical schools used e-mail student rosters to distribute an online survey of a quantitative cross-sectional assessment of knowledge about AD; 343 students participated. Knowledge was measured using the 12-item University of Alabama at Birmingham AD Knowledge Test for Health Professionals. General linear models were used to examine the effect of demographic variables and previous experience with AD on knowledge scores. Results: Only 2.5% of first year and 68.0% of final year students correctly scored ten or more items on the knowledge scale. Personal experience with AD predicted higher knowledge scores in final year students (P= 0.027). Conclusion: Knowledge deficiencies were common in final year medical students. Future studies to identify and evaluate the efficacy of AD education programs in medical schools are warranted. Identifying and disseminating effective programs may help close the knowledge gap. PMID:23750313

Nagle, Brian J.; Usita, Paula M.; Edland, Steven D.

2013-01-01

116

Expression of laminin beta1 in hippocampi of patients with intractable epilepsy.  

PubMed

We investigated laminin beta1 expression in the hippocampi of patients with intractable epilepsy and explored the role of laminin beta1 in the pathogenesis of this condition. Fluorescence quantitative PCR, immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry and Western blotting were used to measure laminin beta1 expression in surgically removed hippocampi of patients with intractable epilepsy, and the results were compared with control hippocampi. Fluorescence quantitative PCR showed increased expression of laminin beta1 mRNA in patient hippocampi compared with control tissues. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that laminin beta1 protein expression was significantly increased in patient hippocampi, and immunofluorescence microscopy showed accumulation of laminin beta1 in the cell membrane and cytoplasm of patient hippocampi. These findings were confirmed by Western blotting of protein preparations from patient hippocampi. Elevated expression of laminin beta1 mRNA and protein in the hippocampus suggests that laminin beta1 may play a role in the development of epileptic seizures in patients with intractable epilepsy. PMID:18691630

Wu, Yuan; Wang, Xue-feng; Mo, Xue-an; Sun, Hong-bin; Li, Jin-mei; Zeng, Yan; Lin, Tao; Yuan, Jie; Xi, Zhi-qin; Zhu, Xi; Zheng, Jin-ou

2008-10-10

117

Use of paced respiration to alleviate intractable hiccups (Singultus): a case report.  

PubMed

Heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback is an emerging treatment for many health conditions involving dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system including hypertension, gastric pain, anxiety, and depression. Hiccups are frequently considered an annoyance. However, when intractable (lasting over 1 month), they can become debilitating, with some patients resorting to invasive treatments that often involve the phrenic nerve. Theoretically, HRV biofeedback should also provide a means to stimulate the phrenic nerve and could be an alternative option. We report the successful treatment of a 5 year-long case of intractable hiccups with one session of HRV biofeedback training. These results suggest that biofeedback may be a useful, non-invasive means of relieving intractable hiccups. No clear causality can be inferred from a single case, and further study is needed to determine if this finding has wider applicability. PMID:23568280

Hurst, Duane F; Purdom, Catherine L; Hogan, Michael J

2013-06-01

118

Intractable epilepsy due to angiocentric glioma: A case report and minireview  

PubMed Central

The aim of this case report and minireview was to investigate the diagnosis of and therapeutic approaches for angiocentric glioma (AG) and to summarize the clinical manifestations and the pathological and imaging characteristics of the disease. Intraoperative cortical electroencephalogram (ECoG) monitoring was performed to locate the epileptic foci in a child with AG who presented with intractable epilepsy, prior to the total resection of the tumor being performed under the microscope. The clinical features, imaging characteristics, intraoperative conditions, surgical methods and pathological results were analyzed and compared with the literature. The review revealed that to date, the clinical features of the 52 reported cases of AG (including this case) have been mainly characterized by epilepsy. High T2-weighted image (WI) and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) signals may be detected with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning of the cranium; however, no enhancement signals are detected by enhanced scanning. The prognosis following surgical resection is favorable. The lesions in the present case demonstrated clear boundaries with a central cystic affection accompanied by an arachnoid cyst on the left temporal pole. Pathological examination revealed that the lesion was positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), S-100 protein, vimentin, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), cluster of differentiation 99 (CD99) and D2-40. The Ki-67/MIBk-1 labeling index was ~1%. In conclusion, AG exhibits characteristic features in imaging; however, its diagnosis depends on histopathological examination. The prognosis of total surgical resection is good and intraoperative ECoG may be used to assist positioning. PMID:24348765

CHEN, GUOQIANG; WANG, LIN; WU, JINTING; JIN, YONGJIAN; WANG, XIAOSONG; JIN, YULAN

2014-01-01

119

State of progress in treating cystic fibrosis respiratory disease  

PubMed Central

Since the discovery of the gene associated with cystic fibrosis (CF), there has been tremendous progress in the care of patients with this disease. New therapies have entered the market and are part of the standard treatment of patients with CF, and have been associated with marked improvement in survival. Now there are even more promising therapies directed at different components of the pathophysiology of this disease. In this review, our current knowledge of the pathophysiology of lung disease in patients with CF is described, along with the current treatment of CF lung disease, and the therapies in development that offer great promise to our patients. PMID:22883684

2012-01-01

120

A sterile-female technique proposed for control of Striga hermonthica and other intractable weeds: Advantages, shortcomings, and risk management  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Weeds have posed intractable challenges to farmers since the dawn of agriculture. This article describes in detail a proposed control strategy based on the introduction of genes conferring female-sterility into the genomes of intractable target weeds. Spread of these genes through target populations...

121

Tolerance of benznidazole in a United States chagas disease clinic.  

PubMed

The US-based Center of Excellence for Chagas Disease performed an observational study on the safety and tolerance of benznidazole 5 mg/kg/day for 60 days in 30 adults with chronic Chagas disease. The side-effect profile was suboptimal, including 5 cases of debilitating neuropathy and an unusually high angioedema rate. PMID:25601454

Miller, David A; Hernandez, Salvador; Rodriguez De Armas, Lissette; Eells, Samantha J; Traina, Mahmoud M; Miller, Loren G; Meymandi, Sheba K

2015-04-15

122

An Analysis of Intractable Nightmares in a Two-Year Old Boy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses a case study of therapeutic intervention with a 2-year-old boy. The child's major presenting symptom is intractable insomnia caused by nightmares, but his problems are linked to general patterns resulting from early paternal loss. The report analyzes the first 30 sessions of treatment. Discussion focuses on the unusual…

Feinberg, Daniel

123

A Hybrid Public Key Encryption in Standard Model and A New Intractibility Assumption  

E-print Network

A Hybrid Public Key Encryption in Standard Model and A New Intractibility Assumption Mahabir Prasad a hybrid public-key encryption scheme which is provably secure against adaptive cho- sen ciphertext attack-Hellman(DDH) assumption. Keywords: IND-CCA2(adaptive chosen ciphertext security), public-key encryption, DDH- As- sumption

Bandyopadhyay, Antar

124

Developing Agency through Peacebuilding in the Midst of Intractable Conflict: The Case of Israel and Palestine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the presence of "peacebuilding islands" within civil society as potential agents of transformation in the midst of intractable conflict. Focusing on the particular case of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, the argument stems from a deconstruction of the legacy of national myopia perpetuated through social and political…

Plonski, Sharri

2005-01-01

125

Intractable Postpartum Hemorrhage Resulting from Uterine Artery Pseudoaneurysm: Superselective Arteriographic Embolization via the Collateral Route  

SciTech Connect

We present a patient with intractable postpartum hemorrhage resulting from uterine artery pseudoaneurysm despite bilateral hypogastric artery ligation who was successfully treated by an endovascular approach via the collateral route. Although there is a good argument for postponing surgery until transcatheter embolization has been attempted, this case shows that embolization can still be successful even if the iliac vessels have been ligated.

Doenmez, Halil, E-mail: hdonmez68@yahoo.com; Oztuerk, M. Halil; Guergen, Fatma; Soylu, Serra O.; Hekimoglu, Baki [S.B. Diskapi Yildirim Beyazit Egitim ve Arastirma Hastanesi, Department of Radiology (Turkey)

2007-04-15

126

Ethical issues in surgical decision making concerning children with medically intractable epilepsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The widespread inclusion of surgical strategies in the treatment of medically intractable epilepsy is largely justified by the medical and psychosocial burden of the illness. Performing these procedures in pediatric populations is associated with distinct challenges ranging from unique seizure etiologies to issues surrounding brain development and functional plasticity. As the trend toward more aggressive surgical intervention continues, the ethical

George M. Ibrahim; Aria Fallah; O. Carter Snead; Irene Elliott; James M. Drake; Mark Bernstein; James T. Rutka

2011-01-01

127

Modified Atkins diet to children and adolescents with medical intractable epilepsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the tolerability and efficacy of the modified Atkins diet given to children and adolescents with antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment resistant epilepsy.15 children with medically intractable epilepsy were enrolled in the study. Inclusion criteria were at least one seizure a week and a trial of at least two AEDs without obtaining seizure

Susanne Weber; Christian Mølgaard; KarenTaudorf; Peter Uldall

2009-01-01

128

A Modified Atkins Diet Is Effective for the Treatment of Intractable Pediatric Epilepsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: Purpose: The Atkins diet may induce ketosis as does the ketogenic diet, without restrictions on calories, fluids, protein, or need for an inpatient fast and admission. Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of a modified Atkins diet for intractable childhood epilepsy. Methods: Twenty children were treated prospectively in a hospital-based ambulatory clinic from September 2003 to

Eric H. Kossoff; Jane R. McGrogan; Renee M. Bluml; Diana J. Pillas; James E. Rubenstein; Eileen P. Vining

2006-01-01

129

The Linked Importance Sampler Auxiliary Variable Metropolis Hastings Algorithm for Distributions with Intractable Normalising Constants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract We consider parameter inference for the class of models where the likelihood function is analytically intractable as a result of a complicated normalising con- stant. This means that an MCMC algorithm for drawing from the posterior of the parameters of the model would involve evaluating an acceptance ratio con- taining a ratio of unknown,normalising constants. We propose to improve

Johan H. Koskinen

130

Growth Failure in Children with Intractable Epilepsy Is Not Due to Increased Resting Energy Expenditure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to evaluate the resting energy expenditure (REE) of children with intractable epilepsy (IE) compared with healthy children, and to determine factors that contribute to the pattern of REE. REE, growth status, and body composition were assessed in 25 prepubertal children with IE (15 males, 10 females; mean age 5y 5mo [SD 2y…

Bergqvist, A. G. Christina; Trabulsi, Jillian; Schall, Joan I.; Stallings, Virginia A.

2008-01-01

131

Evaluation and treatment of chronic intractable rectal pain—A frustrating endeavor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was undertaken to assess the evaluation and treatment of chronic intractable rectal pain. Sixty consecutive patients, 23 males and 37 females with a mean age of 69 (range, 29–87) years and a mean length of symptoms of 4.5 years, were evaluated by questionnaire, office examination, anal manometry, electromyography, cinedefecography, and pudendal nerve study. In all cases, organic abdominopelvic

Gow Ching Ger; Steven D. Wexner; J. Marcio N. Jorge; Eleanor Lee; L. Amar Amaranath; Steve Heymen; Juan J. Nogueras; David G. Jagelman

1993-01-01

132

Mechanisms of dopamine transporter regulation in normal and disease states  

PubMed Central

The dopamine transporter (DAT) controls the spatial and temporal dynamics of dopamine (DA) neurotransmission by driving reuptake of extracellular transmitter into presynaptic neurons. Many diseases such as depression, bipolar disorder, Parkinson’s disease, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are associated with abnormal DA levels, implicating DAT as a factor in their etiology. Medications used to treat these disorders and many addictive drugs target DAT and enhance dopaminergic signaling by suppressing transmitter reuptake. We now understand that transport and binding properties of DAT are regulated by complex and overlapping mechanisms that provide neurons the ability to modulate DA clearance in response to physiological demands. These processes are controlled by endogenous signaling pathways and affected by exogenous transporter ligands, demonstrating their importance for normal neurotransmission, drug abuse, and disease treatments. Increasing evidence supports the disruption of these mechanisms in DA disorders, implicating dysregulation of transport in disease etiologies and suggesting these processes as potential points for therapeutic manipulation of DA availability. PMID:23968642

Vaughan, Roxanne A.; Foster, James D.

2013-01-01

133

AJTMH manuscript number 00-231 Title: LYME DISEASE IN NEW YORK STATE: SPATIAL PATTERN AT A REGIONAL  

E-print Network

1 COVER PAGE AJTMH manuscript number 00-231 Title: LYME DISEASE IN NEW YORK STATE: SPATIAL PATTERN-442-4343; FAX: 518-442-4767 Key Words: correlation distance, Lyme disease, New York State, spatial 2001, pp. 538-555. #12;2 LRH: GLAVANAKOV AND OTHERS RRH: SPATIAL PATTERN IN LYME DISEASE LYME DISEASE

Varela, Carlos

134

Pathophysiology and evaluation of iron overload in various disease states  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron overload can result from increased iron absorption or from repeated blood transfusions. Primary iron overload is associated with genetic factors that boost iron absorption, such as hereditary haemochromatosis, while secondary iron overload results from chronic blood transfusions that are used to treat anaemia in conditions such as thalassaemia, sickle cell disease (SCD), and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). The consequences of

John B. Porter

135

Challenges in designing a national surveillance program for inflammatory bowel disease in the United States.  

PubMed

This review describes the history of U.S. government funding for surveillance programs in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), provides current estimates of the incidence and prevalence of IBD in the United States, and enumerates a number of challenges faced by current and future IBD surveillance programs. A rationale for expanding the focus of IBD surveillance beyond counts of incidence and prevalence, to provide a greater understanding of the burden of IBD, disease etiology, and pathogenesis, is provided. Lessons learned from other countries are summarized, in addition to potential resources that may be used to optimize a new form of IBD surveillance in the United States. A consensus recommendation on the goals and available resources for a new model for disease surveillance are provided. This new model should focus on "surveillance of the burden of disease," including (1) natural history of disease and (2) outcomes and complications of the disease and/or treatments. PMID:24280882

Long, Millie D; Hutfless, Susan; Kappelman, Michael D; Khalili, Hamed; Kaplan, Gilaad G; Bernstein, Charles N; Colombel, Jean Frederic; Gower-Rousseau, Corinne; Herrinton, Lisa; Velayos, Fernando; Loftus, Edward V; Nguyen, Geoffrey C; Ananthakrishnan, Ashwin N; Sonnenberg, Amnon; Chan, Andrew; Sandler, Robert S; Atreja, Ashish; Shah, Samir A; Rothman, Kenneth J; Leleiko, Neal S; Bright, Renee; Boffetta, Paolo; Myers, Kelly D; Sands, Bruce E

2014-02-01

136

A State-Wide Research Network for Alzheimer's Disease  

SciTech Connect

The Specific Aim of the proposal was to develop an administrative structure that will facilitate the development of AD research across the state of SC by providing key services such as (but not limited to) seeking funding research opportunities, financial tracking, regulatory management, central recruitment, training for investigators and coordinators, data collection, data storing, and data processing to researchers across the state.

Mintzer, Jacobo E.; Bachman, D. L.; Stuckey, M.; Ebeling, M.; Wagner, M. T.; Evans, W. J.; Hirth, V.; Walker, A.; Joglekar, R.; Faison, W.

2014-03-13

137

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and vascular disease: State-of-the-art  

PubMed Central

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the most common of chronic liver disease in Western Country, is closely related to insulin resistance and oxidative stress and includes a wide spectrum of liver diseases ranging from steatosis alone, usually a benign and non-progressive condition, to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which may progress to liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. NAFLD is considered the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome with which shares several characteristics, however recent data suggest that NAFLD is linked to increased cardiovascular risk independently of the broad spectrum of risk factors of metabolic syndrome. Accumulating evidence suggests that the clinical burden of NAFLD is not restricted to liver-related morbidity and mortality, with the majority of deaths in NAFLD patients related to cardiovascular disease and cancer and not to the progression of liver disease. Retrospective and prospective studies provide evidence of a strong association between NAFLD and subclinical manifestation of atherosclerosis (increased intima-media thickness, endothelial dysfunction, arterial stiffness, impaired left ventricular function and coronary calcification). A general agreement emerging from these studies indicates that patients with NASH are at higher risk of cardiovascular diseases than those with simple steatosis, emphasizing the role of chronic inflammation in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis of these patients. It is very likely that the different mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in patients with NAFLD have a different relevance in the patients according to individual genetic background. In conclusion, in the presence of NAFLD patients should undergo a complete cardiovascular evaluation to prevent future atherosclerotic complications. Specific life-style modification and aggressive pharmaceutical modification will not only reduce the progression of liver disease, but also reduce morbidity for cardiovascular disease improving overall prognosis and survival. PMID:25309067

Fargion, Silvia; Porzio, Marianna; Fracanzani, Anna Ludovica

2014-01-01

138

GENOMIC AND PROTEOMIC ANALYSIS OF SURROGATE TISSUES FOR ASSESSING TOXIC EXPOSURES AND DISEASE STATES  

EPA Science Inventory

Genomic and Proteomic Analysis of Surrogate Tissues for Assessing Toxic Exposures and Disease States David J. Dix and John C. Rockett Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, USEPA, ...

139

SURVEILLANCE FOR WATERBORNE DISEASE AND OUTBREAK ASSOCIATED WITH RECREATIONAL WATER - UNITED STATES 2003-2004  

EPA Science Inventory

Problem/Condition: Since 1971, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists have maintained a collaborative surveillance system for collecting and periodically reporting da...

140

The potential for emergence of Chagas disease in the United States  

E-print Network

Abstract. To determine the risk for Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis) in the United States, the characteristics that make the triatomine vector effective and the areas most at risk for transmission were delineated. In addition, the status of Chagas disease awareness among physicians in

Rebecca Click Lambert; Korine N. Kolivras; Lynn M. Resler; Carlyle C. Brewster; L. Paulson

141

ASSESSMENT OF COCOA FARMERS CHEMICAL USAGE PATTERN IN PEST AND DISEASE MANAGEMENT IN ONDO STATE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adeogun S. O. and Agbongiarhuoyi A. E. 2009. Assessment of Cocoa Farmers Chemical Usage Pattern in Pest and Disease Management in Ondo State. J. Innov. Dev. Strategy. 3(2):27-34 Cocoa farmers use a wide range of chemicals to limit losses from pests and diseases in cocoa production. This study was carried out between January and April 2006 in two local government

STEPHEN OLUSEUN ADEOGUN; ANTHONY EGHE AGBONGIARHUOYI

142

Norovirus and Foodborne Disease, United States, 1991-2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efforts to prevent foodborne illness target bacterial pathogens, yet noroviruses (NoV) are suspected to be the most common cause of gastroenteritis. New molecular assays allow for better estimation of the role of NoV in food- borne illness. We analyzed 8,271 foodborne outbreaks reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 1991 to 2000 and additional data from 6

Marc-Alain Widdowson; Alana Sulka; Sandra N. Bulens; R. Suzanne Beard; Sandra S. Chaves; Roberta Hammond; Ellen D. P. Salehi; Ellen Swanson; Jessica Totaro; Ray Woron; Paul S. Mead; Joseph S. Bresee; Stephan S. Monroe; Roger I. Glass

2005-01-01

143

Most States Not Ready to Handle Infectious Disease Outbreaks  

MedlinePLUS

... control at medical centers, attempts to prepare for climate change, and surveillance efforts to track cases of HIV ... strike the United States as a result of climate change. These include mosquito-borne illnesses like chikungunya, West ...

144

Botanical medicines used for kidney disease in the United States.  

PubMed

Herbal medicines are being used with greater frequency by practitioners of natural medicine in the United States. Many categories of herbs are used, primarily angiotensin antagonists, nonspecific nephroprotective, and immunomodulating/adaptogenic herbs. The most common herbs in each category are discussed both from a historical and scientific perspective. For the first time, a case series of the use of the proposed herbal angiotensin antagonist herb indigenous to the United States, Lespedeza capitata, is reported based on the author's clinical practice. PMID:23146977

Yarnell, Eric L

2012-11-01

145

Ultrasound-guided Pulsed Radiofrequency Lesioning of the Phrenic Nerve in a Patient with Intractable Hiccup  

PubMed Central

Persistent and intractable hiccups (with respective durations of more than 48 hours and 1 month) can result in depression, fatigue, impaired sleep, dehydration, weight loss, malnutrition, and aspiration syndromes. The conventional treatments for hiccups are either non-pharmacological, pharmacological or a nerve block treatment. Pulsed radiofrequency lesioning (PRFL) has been proposed for the modulation of the excited nervous system pathway of pain as a safe and nondestructive treatment method. As placement of the electrode in close proximity to the targeted nerve is very important for the success of PRFL, ultrasound appears to be well suited for this technique. A 74-year-old man suffering from intractable hiccups that had developed after a coronary artery bypass graft and had continued for 7 years was referred to our pain clinic. He had not been treated with conventional methods or medications. We performed PRFL of the phrenic nerve guided by ultrasound and the hiccups disappeared. PMID:20830266

Kang, Keum Nae; Park, In Kyung; Suh, Jeong Hun; Leem, Jeong Gill

2010-01-01

146

Intravenous lidocaine and magnesium for management of intractable trigeminal neuralgia: a case series of nine patients.  

PubMed

Most patients suffering from trigeminal neuralgia (TN) benefit from medical therapy, for example carbamazepin, gabapentin, and pregabalin, individually or in combination. Nonetheless, some patients experience severe and intractable pain despite such medication, or the medication eliminates their pain but they experience intolerable side effects sufficient to warrant discontinuation. Intravenous magnesium and lidocaine have been used for management of intractable neuropathic pain. We treated nine patients with TN by using an intravenous infusion of a combination of 1.2 g magnesium and 100 mg lidocaine for 1 hour, once a week for 3 weeks. All patients experienced sound pain relief after the combined intravenous infusion therapy. Two patients experienced short and mild dizziness after the therapy, but no severe side effects were reported. PMID:23712613

Arai, Young-Chang P; Hatakeyama, Noboru; Nishihara, Makoto; Ikeuchi, Masahiko; Kurisuno, Makoto; Ikemoto, Tatsunori

2013-12-01

147

Kissing Bugs in the United States: Risk for Vector-Borne Disease in Humans  

PubMed Central

Eleven species of kissing bugs are found in the United States. Their home ranges may be expanding northward, perhaps as a consequence of climate change. At least eight of the species, perhaps all, are reported to harbor Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasite that causes Chagas disease. Because humans are encroaching on kissing bug habitat, there is concern for vector-transmitted Chagas disease in the United States. To date, documented autochthonous cases of Chagas in humans in the United States are rare. Kissing bugs are capable of adapting to new habitats such as human domiciles; however, they do not colonize homes in the United States as in Central and South America. We review the biology, behavior, and medical importance of kissing bugs and the risk they pose for transmission of Chagas disease in the United States. Where possible, descriptions of US species are compared to the epidemiologically important Latin American species. PMID:25574143

Klotz, Stephen A; Dorn, Patricia L; Mosbacher, Mark; Schmidt, Justin O

2014-01-01

148

Botulinum toxin-type A: could it be an effective treatment option in intractable trigeminal neuralgia?  

PubMed Central

Background Botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) has been reported to have analgesic effects independent of its action on muscle tone, mostly by acting on neurogenic inflammatory mediators and controlling the neurotransmitter release of sensory and autonomic nerve terminals that are involved in many chronic painful conditions as chronic intractable trigeminal neuralgia (TN). The aim of our work was evaluating the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of BTX-A for the treatment of intractable idiopathic TN. Methods This was a randomized, single-blinded, placebo-control study carried out on 20 Egyptian patients with intractable TN. Patients received a one-time subcutaneous administration of BTX-A using “follow the pain” method. The primary efficacy measure was reduction in pain severity on the 10-cm VAS score as well as in paroxysms frequency from the baseline to week 12 (endpoint last observation carried forward [LOCF]). Secondary efficacy measures included QoL assessment and number of acute medications received from baseline to the endpoint. Results Pain reduction at the 12-week endpoint was significant in BTX-A group (p<0.0001); VAS scores at endpoint LOCF relative to baseline for BTX-A group showed a decrease of 6.5 compared with a decrease of 0.3 for placebo, also there was a significant decrease in the number of acute medications and an increase in QoL functioning scale. Conclusion These results indicate that BTX-A has a direct analgesic effect in patients with TN and can represent a therapeutic option for intractable cases. PMID:24251833

2013-01-01

149

A case of intractable facial pain secondary to metastatic lung cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Persistent idiopathic facial pain, once called atypical facial pain, rarely anticipates the detection of a lung carcinoma.\\u000a Thirty-six cases of intractable facial pain secondary to lung neoplasm are described in the literature. The onset of facial\\u000a pain usually precedes the onset of symptoms and signs due to lung cancer by several months and therefore it should be considered,\\u000a when present,

Silvia Ruffatti; Giorgio Zanchin; Ferdinando Maggioni

2008-01-01

150

Clinical trial of allogeneic cultured dermal substitutes for intractable skin ulcers of the lower leg  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of allogeneic cultured dermal substitute (CDS) on wound healing was evaluated in six patients with intractable\\u000a skin ulcers on the lower extremities. Allogeneic CDS was repeatedly applied to wounds at intervals of 4–7 days to prepare\\u000a a wound bed acceptable for skin grafting or to induce resurfacing through the granulation tissue formation associated with\\u000a epithelialization. In one patient

Naoto Yamada; Eiju Uchinuma; Yoshimitsu Kuroyanagi

2008-01-01

151

Free deepithelialized anterolateral thigh myocutaneous flaps for chronic intractable empyema with bronchopleural fistula  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Free deepithelialized anterolateral thigh (DALT) flaps have been used for treatment of chronic intractable empyema with bronchopleural fistula at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital since 1997.Methods. Twelve patients with chronic empyema were treated at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital from January 1997 to January 2001. Their age ranged from 31 to 70 years (mean age 48.6 years). Left-sided involvement was predominant

Feng-chou Tsai; Hung-chi Chen; Samuel Huan-tang Chen; Bruno Coessens; Hui-ping Liu; Yi-cheng Wu; Ping-chang Lin

2002-01-01

152

Spinal Cord Stimulation for Intractable Visceral Pain due to Chronic Pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

Pain caused by chronic pancreatitis is medically intractable and resistant to conventional interventional or surgical treatment. We report a case of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) for intractable pain due to chronic pancreatitis. The patient had a history of nonalcoholic chronic pancreatitis and multiple emergency room visits as well as repeated hospitalization including multiple nerve block and morphine injection for 3 years. We implanted surgical lead at T6-8 level on this patient after successful trial of percutaneous electrode. The patient experienced a decreased visual analog scale (VAS) scores for pain intensity and amount of opioid intake. The patient was followed for more than 14 months with good outcome and no further hospitalization. From our clinical case, spinal cord stimulation on intractable pain due to chronic pancreatitis revealed moderate pain control outcome. We suggest that SCS is an effective, noninvasive treatment option for abdominal visceral pain. Further studies and long term follow-up are needed to fully understand the effect of SCS on abdominal visceral pain. PMID:19763221

Kim, Jin Kyung; Hong, Seok Ho; Kim, Myung-Hwan

2009-01-01

153

Drosophila as a Model for Intractable Epilepsy: Gilgamesh Suppresses Seizures in parabss1 Heterozygote Flies  

PubMed Central

Intractable epilepsies, that is, seizure disorders that do not respond to currently available therapies, are difficult, often tragic, neurological disorders. Na+ channelopathies have been implicated in some intractable epilepsies, including Dravet syndrome (Dravet 1978), but little progress has been forthcoming in therapeutics. Here we examine a Drosophila model for intractable epilepsy, the Na+ channel gain-of-function mutant parabss1 that resembles Dravet syndrome in some aspects (parker et al. 2011a). In particular, we identify second-site mutations that interact with parabss1, seizure enhancers, and seizure suppressors. We describe one seizure-enhancer mutation named charlatan (chn). The chn gene normally encodes an Neuron-Restrictive Silencer Factor/RE1-Silencing Transcription factor transcriptional repressor of neuronal-specific genes. We identify a second-site seizure-suppressor mutation, gilgamesh (gish), that reduces the severity of several seizure-like phenotypes of parabss1/+ heterozygotes. The gish gene normally encodes the Drosophila ortholog of casein kinase CK1g3, a member of the CK1 family of serine-threonine kinases. We suggest that CK1g3 is an unexpected but promising new target for seizure therapeutics. PMID:23797108

Howlett, Iris C.; Rusan, Zeid M.; Parker, Louise; Tanouye, Mark A.

2013-01-01

154

Lumbosacral reconstruction for intractable pyogenic spondylitis using a total leg flap with a vascularized tibia graft.  

PubMed

This report describes an effective technique of using a total leg flap for treating a 57-year-old male paraplegic patient with intractable sacral pyogenic spondylitis caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Spondylitis was accompanied by severe instability of the lumbosacral area, a large lumbosacral ulcer, and a large bone and muscle defect, which made it difficult for the patient to maintain a sitting position. A total leg flap procedure, a modification of the total thigh flap procedure, was performed as a 1-stage salvage surgery. The vascularized tibia and fibula were grafted between the lumbar and sacral vertebrae, and a musculocutaneous flap was used to cover the extensive ulceration in the lumbosacral skin defect. The intractable lesion of the lumbosacral spine, which had not been cured for more than 2 years despite repeated debridement, intravenous antibiotic injections, sugar treatment, pyoktanin treatment, and hyperbaric O(2) treatment, subsided and stabilized within 1 year of surgery. The patient returned to activities of daily living using a wheelchair, and was very satisfied with the results. Use of a total leg flap with a vascularized tibia graft is an effective treatment for intractable pyogenic spondylitis accompanied by a large bone defect and large lumbosacral ulcers. PMID:18447694

Iwakiri, Kentaro; Miyauchi, Akira; Okuda, Shinya; Matsuda, Ken; Yamamoto, Tomio; Iwasaki, Motoki

2008-05-01

155

Intractable Hiccup as the Presenting Symptom of Cavernous Hemangioma in the Medulla Oblongata: A Case Report and Literature Review  

PubMed Central

A case of intractable hiccup developed by cavernous hemangioma in the medulla oblongata is reported. There have been only five previously reported cases of medullary cavernoma that triggered intractable hiccup. The patient was a 28-year-old man who was presented with intractable hiccup for 15 days. It developed suddenly, then aggravated progressively and did not respond to any types of medication. On magnetic resonance images, a well-demarcated and non-enhancing mass with hemorrhagic changes was noted in the left medulla oblongata. Intraoperative findings showed that the lesion was fully embedded within the brain stem and pathology confirmed the diagnosis of cavernous hemangioma. The hiccup resolved completely after the operation. Based on the presumption that the medullary cavernoma may trigger intractable hiccup by displacing or compression the hiccup arc of the dorsolateral medulla, surgical excision can eliminate the symptoms, even in the case totally buried in brainstem. PMID:25237438

Lee, Kyung-Hwa; Jung, Min-Young; Jung, Shin

2014-01-01

156

Mutation screening of the CDKL5 gene in cryptogenic infantile intractable epilepsy and review of clinical sensitivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposesTo perform CDKL5 mutation screening in Thai children with cryptogenic infantile intractable epilepsy and to determine the clinical sensitivity of CDKL5 screening when different inclusion criteria were applied.

Utcharee Intusoma; Fadell Hayeeduereh; Thanya Sripo; Punnee Vasiknanonte; Supachai Janjindamai; Apasri Lusawat; Sasipa Thammongkol; Anannit Visudtibhan; Pornprot Limprasert

2011-01-01

157

Coral transcriptome and bacterial community profiles reveal distinct Yellow Band Disease states in Orbicella faveolata.  

PubMed

Coral diseases impact reefs globally. Although we continue to describe diseases, little is known about the etiology or progression of even the most common cases. To examine a spectrum of coral health and determine factors of disease progression we examined Orbicella faveolata exhibiting signs of Yellow Band Disease (YBD), a widespread condition in the Caribbean. We used a novel combined approach to assess three members of the coral holobiont: the coral-host, associated Symbiodinium algae, and bacteria. We profiled three conditions: (1) healthy-appearing colonies (HH), (2) healthy-appearing tissue on diseased colonies (HD), and (3) diseased lesion (DD). Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis revealed health state-specific diversity in Symbiodinium clade associations. 16S ribosomal RNA gene microarrays (PhyloChips) and O. faveolata complimentary DNA microarrays revealed the bacterial community structure and host transcriptional response, respectively. A distinct bacterial community structure marked each health state. Diseased samples were associated with two to three times more bacterial diversity. HD samples had the highest bacterial richness, which included components associated with HH and DD, as well as additional unique families. The host transcriptome under YBD revealed a reduced cellular expression of defense- and metabolism-related processes, while the neighboring HD condition exhibited an intermediate expression profile. Although HD tissue appeared visibly healthy, the microbial communities and gene expression profiles were distinct. HD should be regarded as an additional (intermediate) state of disease, which is important for understanding the progression of YBD. PMID:24950107

Closek, Collin J; Sunagawa, Shinichi; DeSalvo, Michael K; Piceno, Yvette M; DeSantis, Todd Z; Brodie, Eoin L; Weber, Michele X; Voolstra, Christian R; Andersen, Gary L; Medina, Mónica

2014-12-01

158

Chagas disease: a proposal for testing policy for solid-organ transplant in the United States.  

PubMed

Chagas disease is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. The disease is difficult to detect because of the asymptomatic pathogenesis after infection. Chagas disease is endemic throughout much of Mexico, Central America, and South America, but human migration patterns are bringing the pathogen to the United States. The disease currently affects 16 to 18 million people with approximately 50 000 deaths annually in these countries. In the United States, national screening of the blood supply was instituted in early 2007, and more than 1000 donors with T cruzi infection have been identified within the past 3 years of testing. It was observed that out of the 58 organ procurement organizations in the United States, only 4 required mandatory testing of every donor for Chagas disease. It was estimated that as of 2009, approximately 409 000 residents are living with Chagas disease, and in a 22-year span, approximately 300 patients may have contracted Chagas disease through transplant. Proposed solutions to the current testing method include automatic testing based on the medical social history questionnaire, testing of all recipients for Chagas disease, testing all persons of Latin descent, or testing of all organ donors. PMID:23996948

Wallace, James A; Miller, Linda; Beavis, Andrew; Baptista, Carlos A C

2013-09-01

159

The adrenal gland: common disease states and suspected new applications.  

PubMed

The adrenal gland, while small in size, provides a major punch to human metabolism. The interplay between the adrenal cortex hormones aldosterone and cortisol provides needed regulation to human metabolism. Aldosterone regulates the body sodium content affecting blood pressure thru fluid-volume regulation by the kidney. Cortisol, also from the adrenal cortex, contributes to regulation of glucose and protein metabolism. Diseases like addison's disease and Cushing's syndrome that affect the normal levels of these hormones can lead to serious pathologies that need to be detected thru clinical laboratory testing. The inner core of the adrenal gland, called the medulla, houses the catecholamine epinephrine, a fast acting neuropeptide hormone that can influence body action and energy levels quickly. The pheochromocytomas pathology of the adrenal medulla adversely affects the medulla hormones and needs to be recognized by clinical laboratory testing. The overview of the adrenal gland and its potential pathologies needs to be looked at anew in relation to post-traumatic stress disorder to find any linkage that may aid in the treatment and cure of our affected military soldiers. This interrelationship between cortisol and epinephrine in PTSD should be closely evaluated to determine if the suspected linkages are significant. PMID:23772480

Gorman, Linda S

2013-01-01

160

Assessment of Climate-sensitive Infectious Diseases in the Federated States of Micronesia  

PubMed Central

Background: The health impacts of climate change are an issue of growing concern in the Pacific region. Prior to 2010, no formal, structured, evidence-based approach had been used to identify the most significant health risks posed by climate change in Pacific island countries. During 2010 and 2011, the World Health Organization supported the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM) in performing a climate change and health vulnerability and adaptation assessment. This paper summarizes the priority climate-sensitive health risks in FSM, with a focus on diarrheal disease, its link with climatic variables and the implications of climate change. Methods: The vulnerability and adaptation assessment process included a review of the literature, extensive stakeholder consultations, ranking of climate-sensitive health risks, and analysis of the available long-term data on climate and climate-sensitive infectious diseases in FSM, which involved examination of health information data from the four state hospitals in FSM between 2000 and 2010; along with each state’s rainfall, temperature and El Niño-Southern Oscillation data. Generalized linear Poisson regression models were used to demonstrate associations between monthly climate variables and cases of climate-sensitive diseases at differing temporal lags. Results: Infectious diseases were among the highest priority climate-sensitive health risks identified in FSM, particularly diarrheal diseases, vector-borne diseases and leptospirosis. Correlation with climate data demonstrated significant associations between monthly maximum temperature and monthly outpatient cases of diarrheal disease in Pohnpei and Kosrae at a lag of one month and 0 to 3 months, respectively; no such associations were observed in Chuuk or Yap. Significant correlations between disease incidence and El Niño-Southern Oscillation cycles were demonstrated in Kosrae state. Conclusions: Analysis of the available data demonstrated significant associations between climate variables and climate-sensitive infectious diseases. This information should prove useful in implementing health system and community adaptation strategies to avoid the most serious impacts of climate change on health in FSM.

McIver, Lachlan; Hashizume, Masahiro; Kim, Ho; Honda, Yasushi; Pretrick, Moses; Iddings, Steven; Pavlin, Boris

2015-01-01

161

Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders in State Mental Hospitals: Data from a Nationwide Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports data from nationwide survey of state mental hospitals, providing exploratory look at patients with Alzheimer's disease and related disorders currently residing in state hospitals. Describes admissions trends, reasons for admission, and sources of referral. Discusses civil commitment of nursing home patients with dementing illnesses and…

Moak, Gary S.; Fisher, William H.

1990-01-01

162

Environmental and Policy Approaches to Cardiovascular Disease Prevention Through Nutrition: Opportunities for State and Local Action  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews environmental and policy intervention approaches to cardiovascular disease prevention through nutrition and recommends opportunities for state and local health departments to initiate and participate in environmental and nutrition policy initiatives. By addressing these complementary aims, the authors hope to stimulate further efforts to achieve progress in nutrition promotion among state and local health-related organizations. Key categories of

Karen Glanz; Becky Lankenau; Susan Foerster; Sally Temple; Rebecca Mullis; Thomas Schmid

1995-01-01

163

Parameterizing State-space Models for Infectious Disease Dynamics by Generalized Profiling: Measles in Ontario  

E-print Network

Parameterizing State-space Models for Infectious Disease Dynamics by Generalized Profiling: Measles and for statistical inference in this framework. The methods are applied to a model for pre-vaccination measles. Keywords: differential equation model, generalized profiling, state-space model, measles 1 Introduction

Keinan, Alon

164

A Qualitative Study of State-level Zoonotic disease surveillance in New England  

PubMed Central

Summary Zoonotic diseases are infectious diseases transmittable between animals and humans and outbreaks of these diseases in animals can signify that humans are also infected (or vice-versa). Thus, communication between animal and human health agencies is critical for surveillance. Understanding how these agencies conduct surveillance and share information is important for development of successful automated zoonotic monitoring systems. Individual interviews were conducted with 13 professionals who perform animal or human zoonotic disease surveillance in one of the New England states. Questions centered on existing surveillance methods, collaborations between animal and human health agencies, and technological and data needs. The results showed that agencies routinely communicate over suspected zoonotic disease cases yet there are barriers preventing automated electronic linking of health data of animals and humans. These include technological barriers and barriers due sensitivity and confidentiality of information. Addressing these will facilitate development of electronic systems for integrating animal and human zoonotic disease surveillance data. PMID:20163575

Scotch, Matthew; Mattocks, Kristin; Rabinowitz, Peter; Brandt, Cynthia

2013-01-01

165

Altered Resting State Brain Networks in Parkinson’s Disease  

PubMed Central

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder affecting dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra leading to dysfunctional cortico-striato-thalamic-cortical loops. In addition to the characteristic motor symptoms, PD patients often show cognitive impairments, affective changes and other non-motor symptoms, suggesting system-wide effects on brain function. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging and graph-theory based analysis methods to investigate altered whole-brain intrinsic functional connectivity in PD patients (n?=?37) compared to healthy controls (n?=?20). Global network properties indicated less efficient processing in PD. Analysis of brain network modules pointed to increased connectivity within the sensorimotor network, but decreased interaction of the visual network with other brain modules. We found lower connectivity mainly between the cuneus and the ventral caudate, medial orbitofrontal cortex and the temporal lobe. To identify regions of altered connectivity, we mapped the degree of intrinsic functional connectivity both on ROI- and on voxel-level across the brain. Compared to healthy controls, PD patients showed lower connectedness in the medial and middle orbitofrontal cortex. The degree of connectivity was also decreased in the occipital lobe (cuneus and calcarine), but increased in the superior parietal cortex, posterior cingulate gyrus, supramarginal gyrus and supplementary motor area. Our results on global network and module properties indicated that PD manifests as a disconnection syndrome. This was most apparent in the visual network module. The higher connectedness within the sensorimotor module in PD patients may be related to compensation mechanism in order to overcome the functional deficit of the striato-cortical motor loops or to loss of mutual inhibition between brain networks. Abnormal connectivity in the visual network may be related to adaptation and compensation processes as a consequence of altered motor function. Our analysis approach proved sensitive for detecting disease-related localized effects as well as changes in network functions on intermediate and global scale. PMID:24204812

Göttlich, Martin; Münte, Thomas F.; Heldmann, Marcus; Kasten, Meike; Hagenah, Johann; Krämer, Ulrike M.

2013-01-01

166

Resting-state networks link invasive and noninvasive brain stimulation across diverse psychiatric and neurological diseases.  

PubMed

Brain stimulation, a therapy increasingly used for neurological and psychiatric disease, traditionally is divided into invasive approaches, such as deep brain stimulation (DBS), and noninvasive approaches, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation. The relationship between these approaches is unknown, therapeutic mechanisms remain unclear, and the ideal stimulation site for a given technique is often ambiguous, limiting optimization of the stimulation and its application in further disorders. In this article, we identify diseases treated with both types of stimulation, list the stimulation sites thought to be most effective in each disease, and test the hypothesis that these sites are different nodes within the same brain network as defined by resting-state functional-connectivity MRI. Sites where DBS was effective were functionally connected to sites where noninvasive brain stimulation was effective across diseases including depression, Parkinson's disease, obsessive-compulsive disorder, essential tremor, addiction, pain, minimally conscious states, and Alzheimer's disease. A lack of functional connectivity identified sites where stimulation was ineffective, and the sign of the correlation related to whether excitatory or inhibitory noninvasive stimulation was found clinically effective. These results suggest that resting-state functional connectivity may be useful for translating therapy between stimulation modalities, optimizing treatment, and identifying new stimulation targets. More broadly, this work supports a network perspective toward understanding and treating neuropsychiatric disease, highlighting the therapeutic potential of targeted brain network modulation. PMID:25267639

Fox, Michael D; Buckner, Randy L; Liu, Hesheng; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Lozano, Andres M; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

2014-10-14

167

Resting-state networks link invasive and noninvasive brain stimulation across diverse psychiatric and neurological diseases  

PubMed Central

Brain stimulation, a therapy increasingly used for neurological and psychiatric disease, traditionally is divided into invasive approaches, such as deep brain stimulation (DBS), and noninvasive approaches, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation. The relationship between these approaches is unknown, therapeutic mechanisms remain unclear, and the ideal stimulation site for a given technique is often ambiguous, limiting optimization of the stimulation and its application in further disorders. In this article, we identify diseases treated with both types of stimulation, list the stimulation sites thought to be most effective in each disease, and test the hypothesis that these sites are different nodes within the same brain network as defined by resting-state functional-connectivity MRI. Sites where DBS was effective were functionally connected to sites where noninvasive brain stimulation was effective across diseases including depression, Parkinson's disease, obsessive-compulsive disorder, essential tremor, addiction, pain, minimally conscious states, and Alzheimer’s disease. A lack of functional connectivity identified sites where stimulation was ineffective, and the sign of the correlation related to whether excitatory or inhibitory noninvasive stimulation was found clinically effective. These results suggest that resting-state functional connectivity may be useful for translating therapy between stimulation modalities, optimizing treatment, and identifying new stimulation targets. More broadly, this work supports a network perspective toward understanding and treating neuropsychiatric disease, highlighting the therapeutic potential of targeted brain network modulation. PMID:25267639

Fox, Michael D.; Buckner, Randy L.; Liu, Hesheng; Chakravarty, M. Mallar; Lozano, Andres M.; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

2014-01-01

168

Estimates of Disease Effects on Soybean Yields in the United States 2003 to 2005  

PubMed Central

Research must focus on management of diseases that cause extensive losses, especially when funds for research are limited. Knowledge of the losses caused by various soybean diseases is essential when prioritizing research budgets. The objective of this project was to compile estimates of soybean yields suppressed due to diseases for each soybean-producing state in the US from 2003 to 2005. The goal was to provide this information to help funding agencies and scientists prioritize research objectives and budgets. Yield suppression due to individual diseases varied among regions in the US, and the total of soybean yields suppressed due to diseases in the US varied among years. Soybean cyst nematode suppressed US soybean yield more during 2003 to 2005 than any other disease. Phytophthora root and stem rot, sudden death syndrome, and seedling diseases ranked in the top four on the list of diseases that suppressed soybean yield during these years. This is the first report of soybean yield suppression due to Asian soybean rust in the United States. PMID:19259444

Wrather, J. Allen; Koenning, Steve R.

2006-01-01

169

[State of the art in invasive diseases by filamentous fungi].  

PubMed

Invasive fungal infections have become a major cause of morbimortality in intensive care patients, persons suffering from cancer or immune deficiencies, and other diseases with impaired immunity. Candida albicans remains the most frequent fungal pathogen, but advances in the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of invasive candidiasis are leading to important etiological changes. Among the emerging invasive mycoses, are those caused by filamentous fungi, such as Aspergillus, Lomentospora/Scedosporium, Fusarium or the Mucorales. Invasive aspergillosis is difficult to diagnose, and although there are diagnostic tools available, their use is not widespread, and their effectiveness vary depending on the group of patients. Clinical suspicion in high-risk patients, radiological diagnosis and the use of biomarkers, such as 1,3-?-D-glucan and galactomannan, can be of great help. However, diagnostic resources are limited in other mycoses, but radiology, pathological studies and the microbiological diagnosis can be useful. The high mortality of these mycoses requires early empirical antifungal treatment in many cases. Voriconazole is the first choice for treatment of the majority of aspergillosis, scedosporiasis, fusariosis and other hyalohyphomycoses. The treatment of mucormycoses, Lomentospora prolificans infections or mycoses by dematiaceous fungi are more complicated. Amphotericin B is active against many mucoralean fungi, but the combination of two or more antifungal agents could be a therapeutic alternative in many amphotericin B-refractory mycoses. Current clinical challenges include improving the diagnosis and the treatment of these mycoses, along with improving the adequate prevention in patients at high risk of suffering from them. PMID:25449676

Pemán, Javier; Quindós, Guillermo

2014-01-01

170

Diversification of importin-? isoforms in cellular trafficking and disease states  

PubMed Central

The human genome encodes seven isoforms of importin ? which are grouped into three subfamilies known as ?1, ?2 and ?3. All isoforms share a fundamentally conserved architecture that consists of an N-terminal, autoinhibitory, importin-?-binding (IBB) domain and a C-terminal Arm (Armadillo)-core that associates with nuclear localization signal (NLS) cargoes. Despite striking similarity in amino acid sequence and 3D structure, importin-? isoforms display remarkable substrate specificity in vivo. In the present review, we look at key differences among importin-? isoforms and provide a comprehensive inventory of known viral and cellular cargoes that have been shown to associate preferentially with specific isoforms. We illustrate how the diversification of the adaptor importin ? into seven isoforms expands the dynamic range and regulatory control of nucleocytoplasmic transport, offering unexpected opportunities for pharmacological intervention. The emerging view of importin ? is that of a key signalling molecule, with isoforms that confer preferential nuclear entry and spatiotemporal specificity on viral and cellular cargoes directly linked to human diseases. PMID:25656054

Pumroy, Ruth A.; Cingolani, Gino

2015-01-01

171

Diversification of importin-? isoforms in cellular trafficking and disease states.  

PubMed

The human genome encodes seven isoforms of importin ? which are grouped into three subfamilies known as ?1, ?2 and ?3. All isoforms share a fundamentally conserved architecture that consists of an N-terminal, autoinhibitory, importin-?-binding (IBB) domain and a C-terminal Arm (Armadillo)-core that associates with nuclear localization signal (NLS) cargoes. Despite striking similarity in amino acid sequence and 3D structure, importin-? isoforms display remarkable substrate specificity in vivo. In the present review, we look at key differences among importin-? isoforms and provide a comprehensive inventory of known viral and cellular cargoes that have been shown to associate preferentially with specific isoforms. We illustrate how the diversification of the adaptor importin ? into seven isoforms expands the dynamic range and regulatory control of nucleocytoplasmic transport, offering unexpected opportunities for pharmacological intervention. The emerging view of importin ? is that of a key signalling molecule, with isoforms that confer preferential nuclear entry and spatiotemporal specificity on viral and cellular cargoes directly linked to human diseases. PMID:25656054

Pumroy, Ruth A; Cingolani, Gino

2015-02-15

172

AJTMH manuscript number 00-231 Title: LYME DISEASE IN NEW YORK STATE: SPATIAL PATTERN AT A REGIONAL  

E-print Network

1 COVER PAGE AJTMH manuscript number 00-231 Title: LYME DISEASE IN NEW YORK STATE: SPATIAL PATTERN-442-4343; FAX: 518-442-4767 Key Words: correlation distance, Lyme disease, New York State, spatial in Microsoft Word 2000 (9.0.2831 SR-1) #12;2 LRH: GLAVANAKOV AND OTHERS RRH: SPATIAL PATTERN IN LYME DISEASE

Maniatty, William A.

173

Treatment of intractable orbital implant exposure with a large conjunctival defect by secondary insertion of the implant after preceding dermis fat graft  

PubMed Central

AIM To report a procedure and results of a two-stage operation to manage intractable extensive orbital implant exposure with a large conjunctival defect which was difficult to treat with dermis fat grafts due to repeated graft necrosis. METHODS A retrospective chart review of four patients who had extensive orbital implant exposures with large conjunctival defects and had past histories of repeated autologous or preserved dermis graft failures was done. As a first-stage operation, the problematic pre-existing orbital implants were removed and autologous dermis fat grafts alone were performed on the defect area. Four months later, new orbital implants were secondarily inserted after confirmation of graft survival. The size of the conjunctival defects and state of the extraocular muscles were checked preoperatively. Success of the operations and complications were investigated. RESULTS The mean size of the conjuctival defects was 17.3mm×16.0mm, and the mean time from the initial diagnosis of orbital implant exposure to implant removal and autologous dermis fat graft was 20.8 months. After implant removal and autologous dermis fat graft, no graft necrosis was observed in any patients. Also, implant exposure or fornix shortening was not observed in any patients after new orbital implant insertion. CONCLUSION The secondary insertion of a new orbital implant after pre-existing implant removal and preceding dermis fat graft is thought to be an another selective management of intractable orbital implant exposure in which dermis fat grafts persistently fail. PMID:23638423

Kim, Hyun Kyung; La, Tae Yoon

2013-01-01

174

The Association of Meningococcal Disease with Influenza in the United States, 1989–2009  

PubMed Central

Importance and Objective Prior influenza infection is a risk factor for invasive meningococcal disease. Quantifying the fraction of meningococcal disease attributable to influenza could improve understanding of viral-bacterial interaction and indicate additional health benefits to influenza immunization. Design, Setting and Participants A time series analysis of the association of influenza and meningococcal disease using hospitalizations in 9 states from 1989–2009 included in the State Inpatient Databases from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and the proportion of positive influenza tests by subtype reported to the Centers for Disease Control. The model accounts for the autocorrelation of meningococcal disease and influenza between weeks, temporal trends, co-circulating respiratory syncytial virus, and seasonality. The influenza-subtype-attributable fraction was estimated using the model coefficients. We analyzed the synchrony of seasonal peaks in hospitalizations for influenza, respiratory syncytial virus, and meningococcal disease. Results and Conclusions In 19 of 20 seasons, influenza peaked?2 weeks before meningococcal disease, and peaks were highly correlated in time (??=?0.95; P <.001). H3N2 and H1N1 peaks were highly synchronized with meningococcal disease while pandemic H1N1, B, and respiratory syncytial virus were not. Over 20 years, 12.8% (95% CI, 9.1–15.0) of meningococcal disease can be attributable to influenza in the preceding weeks with H3N2 accounting for 5.2% (95% CI, 3.0–6.5), H1N1 4.3% (95% CI, 2.6–5.6), B 3.0% (95% CI, 0.8–4.9) and pH1N1 0.2% (95% CI, 0–0.4). During the height of influenza season, weekly attributable fractions reach 59%. While vaccination against meningococcal disease is the most important prevention strategy, influenza vaccination could provide further protection, particularly in young children where the meningococcal disease vaccine is not recommended or protective against the most common serogroup. PMID:25265409

Jacobs, Jessica Hartman; Viboud, Cécile; Tchetgen, Eric Tchetgen; Schwartz, Joel; Steiner, Claudia; Simonsen, Lone; Lipsitch, Marc

2014-01-01

175

The thalamostriatal system in normal and diseased states  

PubMed Central

Because of our limited knowledge of the functional role of the thalamostriatal system, this massive network is often ignored in models of the pathophysiology of brain disorders of basal ganglia origin, such as Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, over the past decade, significant advances have led to a deeper understanding of the anatomical, electrophysiological, behavioral and pathological aspects of the thalamostriatal system. The cloning of the vesicular glutamate transporters 1 and 2 (vGluT1 and vGluT2) has provided powerful tools to differentiate thalamostriatal from corticostriatal glutamatergic terminals, allowing us to carry out comparative studies of the synaptology and plasticity of these two systems in normal and pathological conditions. Findings from these studies have led to the recognition of two thalamostriatal systems, based on their differential origin from the caudal intralaminar nuclear group, the center median/parafascicular (CM/Pf) complex, or other thalamic nuclei. The recent use of optogenetic methods supports this model of the organization of the thalamostriatal systems, showing differences in functionality and glutamate receptor localization at thalamostriatal synapses from Pf and other thalamic nuclei. At the functional level, evidence largely gathered from thalamic recordings in awake monkeys strongly suggests that the thalamostriatal system from the CM/Pf is involved in regulating alertness and switching behaviors. Importantly, there is evidence that the caudal intralaminar nuclei and their axonal projections to the striatum partly degenerate in PD and that CM/Pf deep brain stimulation (DBS) may be therapeutically useful in several movement disorders. PMID:24523677

Smith, Yoland; Galvan, Adriana; Ellender, Tommas J.; Doig, Natalie; Villalba, Rosa M.; Huerta-Ocampo, Icnelia; Wichmann, Thomas; Bolam, J. Paul

2014-01-01

176

Arginine de novo and nitric oxide production in disease states  

PubMed Central

Arginine is derived from dietary protein intake, body protein breakdown, or endogenous de novo arginine production. The latter may be linked to the availability of citrulline, which is the immediate precursor of arginine and limiting factor for de novo arginine production. Arginine metabolism is highly compartmentalized due to the expression of the enzymes involved in arginine metabolism in various organs. A small fraction of arginine enters the NO synthase (NOS) pathway. Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential and rate-limiting cofactor for the production of NO. Depletion of BH4 in oxidative-stressed endothelial cells can result in so-called NOS3 “uncoupling,” resulting in production of superoxide instead of NO. Moreover, distribution of arginine between intracellular transporters and arginine-converting enzymes, as well as between the arginine-converting and arginine-synthesizing enzymes, determines the metabolic fate of arginine. Alternatively, NO can be derived from conversion of nitrite. Reduced arginine availability stemming from reduced de novo production and elevated arginase activity have been reported in various conditions of acute and chronic stress, which are often characterized by increased NOS2 and reduced NOS3 activity. Cardiovascular and pulmonary disorders such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, ischemic heart disease, and hypertension are characterized by NOS3 uncoupling. Therapeutic applications to influence (de novo) arginine and NO metabolism aim at increasing substrate availability or at influencing the metabolic fate of specific pathways related to NO bioavailability and prevention of NOS3 uncoupling. These include supplementation of arginine or citrulline, provision of NO donors including inhaled NO and nitrite (sources), NOS3 modulating agents, or the targeting of endogenous NOS inhibitors like asymmetric dimethylarginine. PMID:23011059

Luiking, Yvette C.; Ten Have, Gabriella A. M.; Wolfe, Robert R.

2012-01-01

177

Incidence of notifiable diseases among American Indians/Alaska Natives - United States, 2007-2011.  

PubMed

American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) populations experience substantial disparities in the incidence of multiple diseases compared with other racial/ethnic groups in the United States. A major goal of Healthy People 2020 is to eliminate health disparities, monitor disease trends, and identify population groups and diseases for targeted interventions. High rates of certain infectious diseases continue to be a major problem facing AI/AN populations. During 1990-2011, incidence rates for some infectious diseases declined among AI/AN populations, but disparities remain and AI/AN populations are still disproportionately affected. To describe disparities in selected notifiable diseases among AI/ANs, CDC analyzed data from the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS) for 2007-2011, the most recent 5 years for which data are available. The results of this analysis of 26 infectious diseases indicate that incidence rates of 14 diseases were higher for AI/ANs than for whites. Interventions are needed to address and reduce disparities in chlamydia, gonorrhea, West Nile virus, spotted fever rickettsiosis, and other infections among AI/ANs. PMID:25590681

Adekoya, Nelson; Truman, Benedict; Landen, Michael

2015-01-16

178

DNA Modifications: Function and Applications in Normal and Disease States  

PubMed Central

Epigenetics refers to a variety of processes that have heritable effects on gene expression programs without changes in DNA sequence. Key players in epigenetic control are chemical modifications to DNA, histone, and non-histone chromosomal proteins, which establish a complex regulatory network that controls genome function. Methylation of DNA at the fifth position of cytosine in CpG dinucleotides (5-methylcytosine, 5mC), which is carried out by DNA methyltransferases, is commonly associated with gene silencing. However, high resolution mapping of DNA methylation has revealed that 5mC is enriched in exonic nucleosomes and at intron-exon junctions, suggesting a role of DNA methylation in the relationship between elongation and RNA splicing. Recent studies have increased our knowledge of another modification of DNA, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), which is a product of the ten-eleven translocation (TET) proteins converting 5mC to 5hmC. In this review, we will highlight current studies on the role of 5mC and 5hmC in regulating gene expression (using some aspects of brain development as examples). Further the roles of these modifications in detection of pathological states (type 2 diabetes, Rett syndrome, fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and teratogen exposure) will be discussed. PMID:25340699

Liyanage, Vichithra R. B.; Jarmasz, Jessica S.; Murugeshan, Nanditha; Del Bigio, Marc R.; Rastegar, Mojgan; Davie, James R.

2014-01-01

179

DNA modifications: function and applications in normal and disease States.  

PubMed

Epigenetics refers to a variety of processes that have heritable effects on gene expression programs without changes in DNA sequence. Key players in epigenetic control are chemical modifications to DNA, histone, and non-histone chromosomal proteins, which establish a complex regulatory network that controls genome function. Methylation of DNA at the fifth position of cytosine in CpG dinucleotides (5-methylcytosine, 5mC), which is carried out by DNA methyltransferases, is commonly associated with gene silencing. However, high resolution mapping of DNA methylation has revealed that 5mC is enriched in exonic nucleosomes and at intron-exon junctions, suggesting a role of DNA methylation in the relationship between elongation and RNA splicing. Recent studies have increased our knowledge of another modification of DNA, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), which is a product of the ten-eleven translocation (TET) proteins converting 5mC to 5hmC. In this review, we will highlight current studies on the role of 5mC and 5hmC in regulating gene expression (using some aspects of brain development as examples). Further the roles of these modifications in detection of pathological states (type 2 diabetes, Rett syndrome, fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and teratogen exposure) will be discussed. PMID:25340699

Liyanage, Vichithra R B; Jarmasz, Jessica S; Murugeshan, Nanditha; Del Bigio, Marc R; Rastegar, Mojgan; Davie, James R

2014-01-01

180

Endemic, Notifiable Bioterrorism-Related Diseases, United States, 1992–1999  

PubMed Central

Little information is available in the United States regarding the incidence and distribution of diseases caused by critical microbiologic agents with the potential for use in acts of terrorism. We describe disease-specific, demographic, geographic, and seasonal distribution of selected bioterrorism-related conditions (anthrax, botulism, brucellosis, cholera, plague, tularemia, and viral encephalitides) reported to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System in 1992–1999. Tularemia and brucellosis were the most frequently reported diseases. Anthrax, plague, western equine encephalitis, and eastern equine encephalitis were rare. Higher incidence rates for cholera and plague were noted in the western United States and for tularemia in the central United States. Overall, the incidence of conditions caused by these critical agents in the United States is low. Individual case reports should be considered sentinel events. For potential bioterrorism-related conditions that are endemic and have low incidence, the use of nontraditional surveillance methods and complementary data sources may enhance our ability to rapidly detect changes in disease incidence. PMID:12737739

Glynn, M. Kathleen; Groseclose, Samuel L.

2003-01-01

181

Surveillance for Waterborne Disease Outbreaks and Other Health Events Associated with Recreational Water -United States, 2007-2008  

EPA Science Inventory

Background: Since 1978, CDC, EPA, and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists have collaborated on the Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance System (WBDOSS) to capture data on waterborne disease outbreaks associated with recreational water. WBDOSS is the prima...

182

Outcome of medical and surgical management in intractable idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia  

PubMed Central

Background: The neurovascular conflict in trigeminal neuralgia is an intractable condition; medical treatment is usually of long duration and can be annoying for both patients and clinicians. Aim: This prospective study was designed to assess the outcome of microvascular decompression (MVD) in patients with more than 3 years' history of intractable idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia (TN) and poor response to drugs. Materials and Methods: Twenty-one patients (8 females and 13 males) with intractable idiopathic TN (group 1) underwent MVD and were followed up for 2 years. Group 2 (n = 15), which included 6 females and 9 males, received pharmacotherapy. The outcome responses of pain relief were evaluated using a 10-cm visual analog scale (VAS) and the Barrow Neurological Institute (BNI) scoring system. The patients' morbidity was recorded as well. Results: All patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria were offered MVD surgery. Freedom from pain was achieved immediately after surgery in 95.2% (n = 20) of patients in group 1, and 90.5% (n = 19) had sustained relief over the follow-up period. There were no statistical significance recurrences or surgical complications in group 1 (P>0.5), while 53.3% (n = 8) of the subjects in group 2 showed poor response with pharmacotherapy over the same period of time and many patients experienced drug intolerance that had statistical significance (P<0.01). Conclusion: Early MVD in TN can help patients avoid the side effects of drugs and the adverse psychological effects of long-term pharmacotherapy and prolonged morbidity. PMID:20174498

Salama, Hassan; Ben-Khayal, Hesham; Mohamed, Mohamed Abdel Salam; El-Mitwalli, Ashraf; Zaher, Ashraf Ahmed; EzzEldin, Ashraf; Badr, Hatem; Vorkapic, Peter

2009-01-01

183

Chemotactic and mitogenic stimuli of neuronal apoptosis in patients with medically intractable temporal lobe epilepsy  

PubMed Central

To identify the upstream signals of neuronal apoptosis in patients with medically intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), we evaluated by immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy brain tissues of 13 TLE patients and 5 control patients regarding expression of chemokines and cell-cycle proteins. The chemokine RANTES (CCR5) and other CC-chemokines and apoptotic markers (caspase-3, -8, -9) were expressed in lateral temporal cortical and hippocampal neurons of TLE patients, but not in neurons of control cases. The chemokine RANTES is usually found in cytoplasmic and extracellular locations. However, in TLE neurons, RANTES was displayed in an unusual location, the neuronal nuclei. In addition, the cell-cycle regulatory transcription factor E2F1 was found in an abnormal location in neuronal cytoplasm. The pro-inflammatory enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 and cytokine interleukin-1? were expressed both in neurons of patients suffering from temporal lobe epilepsy and from cerebral trauma. The vessels showed fibrin leakage, perivascular macrophages and expression of IL-6 on endothelial cells. In conclusion, the cytoplasmic effects of E2F1 and nuclear effects of RANTES might have novel roles in neuronal apoptosis of TLE neurons and indicate a need to develop new medical and/or surgical neuroprotective strategies against apoptotic signaling by these molecules. Both RANTES and E2F1 signaling are upstream from caspase activation, thus the antagonists of RANTES and/or E2F1 blockade might be neuroprotective for patients with medically intractable temporal lobe epilepsy. The results have implications for the development of new medical and surgical therapies based on inhibition of chemotactic and mitogenic stimuli of neuronal apoptosis in patients with medically intractable temporal lobe epilepsy. PMID:22444245

Fiala, Milan; Avagyan, Hripsime; Merino, Jose Joaquin; Bernas, Michael; Valdivia, Juan; Espinosa-Jeffrey, Araceli; Witte, Marlys; Weinand, Martin

2012-01-01

184

TIPS Versus Peritoneovenous Shunt in the Treatment of Medically Intractable Ascites  

PubMed Central

Objective: We undertook a prospective randomized clinical trial comparing TIPS to peritoneovenous (PV) shunts in the treatment of medically intractable ascites to establish relative efficacy and morbidity, and thereby superiority, between these shunts. Methods: Thirty-two patients were prospectively randomized to undergo TIPS or peritoneovenous (Denver) shunts. All patients had failed medical therapy. Results: After TIPS versus peritoneovenous shunts, median (mean ± SD) duration of shunt patency was similar: 4.4 months (6 ± 6.6 months) versus 4.0 months (5 ± 4.6 months). Assisted shunt patency was longer after TIPS: 31.1 months (41 ± 25.9 months) versus 13.1 months (19 ± 17.3 months) (P < 0.01, Wilcoxon test). Ultimately, after TIPS 19% of patients had irreversible shunt occlusion versus 38% of patients after peritoneovenous shunts. Survival after TIPS was 28.7 months (41 ± 28.7 months) versus 16.1 months (28 ± 29.7 months) after peritoneovenous shunts. Control of ascites was achieved sooner after peritoneovenous shunts than after TIPS (73% vs. 46% after 1 month), but longer-term efficacy favored TIPS (eg, 85% vs. 40% at 3 years). Conclusion: TIPS and peritoneovenous shunts treat medically intractable ascites. Absence of ascites after either is uncommon. PV shunts control ascites sooner, although TIPS provides better long-term efficacy. After either shunt, numerous interventions are required to assist patency. Assisted shunt patency is better after TIPS. Treating medically refractory ascites with TIPS risks early shunt-related mortality for prospects of longer survival with ascites control. This study promotes the application of TIPS for medically intractable ascites if patients undergoing TIPS have prospects beyond short-term survival. PMID:15166968

Rosemurgy, Alexander S.; Zervos, Emmanuel E.; Clark, Whalen C.; Thometz, Donald P.; Black, Thomas J.; Zwiebel, Bruce R.; Kudryk, Bruce T.; Grundy, L Shane; Carey, Larry C.

2004-01-01

185

Does laparoscopy used in open exploration alleviate pain associated with chronic intractable abdominal wall neuralgia?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  This study aimed to assess the efficacy of diagnostic laparoscopy and open exploration of trigger points (scar revision and\\u000a neurectomy) in the treatment of intractable chronic abdominal wall pain.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  This prospective nonrandomized study enrolled 24 patients (21 women) with an average age of 59 ± 11 years. Abdominal wall\\u000a pain was diagnosed by excluding other causes of pain and using

H. Paajanen

2006-01-01

186

Hot water irrigation as treatment for intractable posterior epistaxis in an out-patient setting.  

PubMed

The management of intractable posterior epistaxis is challenging for any physician. Nasal packing, often combined with use of an endonasal balloon system, is painful for the patient, and torturous to maintain for two to three days. If conservative treatment fails, the most commonly used treatment options are currently invasive procedures such as endoscopic coagulation of bleeding arteries, external ligation and, rarely, embolisation. This paper describes a simple, non-invasive technique of treating posterior epistaxis with hot water irrigation. Technical information is presented, and the benefits of the method are discussed. PMID:21888749

Novoa, E; Schlegel-Wagner, C

2012-01-01

187

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for control of intractable cyclophosphamide-induced hemorrhagic cystitis.  

PubMed

We report a case of intractable hemorrhagic cystitis due to cyclophosphamide therapy for Wegener's granulomatosis. Conservative treatment, including bladder irrigation with physiological saline and instillation of prostaglandin F2 alpha, failed to totally control hemorrhage. We then used hyperbaric oxygen at an absolute pressure of 2 atm, 5 days a week for 8 consecutive weeks. The bleeding ceased completely by the end of treatment and the patient remained free of hematuria thereafter. No side effect was noted during the course of therapy. In future, this form of therapy can offer a safe alternative in the treatment of cyclophosphamide-induced hemorrhagic cystitis. PMID:1468485

Shameem, I A; Shimabukuro, T; Shirataki, S; Yamamoto, N; Maekawa, T; Naito, K

1992-01-01

188

Role of hyperbaric medicine for intractable leg ulcers: a case report.  

PubMed

We present a case report of intractable multifactorial leg ulcer that was treated successfully with multiple approaches including hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) to prepare for skin grafting. A 66-year-old female with a history of rheumatoid arthritis and Felty's syndrome presented with a non-healing ulcer on her left leg that was caused by a trauma. She failed multiple treatment options including debridement, different wound dressings, antibiotics, anti-inflammatories and vein closure procedure. She finally healed with skin graft following HBOT that prepared the wound bed before the procedure. PMID:25289650

Skeik, N; Kia, F; Klosterman, D

2014-10-01

189

Successful treatment of intractable hiccup with methylphenidate in a lung cancer patient.  

PubMed

In a 56-year-old man with metastatic small-cell lung cancer, a persistent hiccup was refractory to classic treatments. Hyponatremia, neoplasic mediastinal involvement and liver metastases were though to be potential causative factors. Methylphenidate (MTP), a mild central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is most commonly used for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, was started at a daily dose of 10 mg. It was rapidly efficient and well tolerated. This report suggests a potential advantage of MTP in the treatment of intractable hiccup in cancer patients. PMID:12560943

Maréchal, R; Berghmans, T; Sculier, P

2003-02-01

190

Perceived Benefits and Challenges of Coordinated Approaches to Chronic Disease Prevention in State Health Departments  

PubMed Central

Introduction Chronic disease prevention efforts have historically been funded categorically according to disease or risk factor. Federal agencies are now progressively starting to fund combined programs to address common risk. The purpose of this study was to inform transitions to coordinated chronic disease prevention by learning views on perceived benefits and challenges of a coordinated approach to funding. Methods A national survey on evidence-based public health was conducted from March through May 2013 among state health department employees working in chronic disease prevention (N = 865). Participants were asked to rank the top 3 benefits and top 3 challenges in coordinating chronic disease approaches from provided lists and could provide additional responses. Descriptive analyses, ?2 tests, and analysis of variance were conducted. Results The most common perceived benefits of coordinated approaches to chronic disease prevention were improved health outcomes, common risk factors better addressed, and reduced duplication of program efforts. The most common perceived challenges were funding restrictions, such as disease-specific performance measures; competing priorities; lack of communication across programs; funding might be reduced; agency not structured for program coordination; and loss of disease-specific partner support. Rankings of benefits and challenges were similar across states and participant roles; the perceived challenges “lack of communication across programs” (P = .02) and “funding might be reduced” differed by program area (P < .001). Conclusion Findings can be used by funding agencies and state health departments for planning, training, and technical assistance. The information on perceived challenges demonstrates the need to improve communication across programs, enhance organizational support for coordinated approaches, and create benefits for organizational partners. PMID:24809362

Sequeira, Sonia; Best, Leslie; Jones, Ellen; Baker, Elizabeth A.; Brownson, Ross C.

2014-01-01

191

Wetland cover dynamics drive hemorrhagic disease patterns in white-tailed deer in the United States.  

PubMed

While vector-borne diseases are known to be particularly influenced by environmental factors, the impact of land-cover change on vector-borne wildlife disease patterns is poorly understood, largely due to the paucity of data on disease occurrence at extensive spatial and temporal scales. Widespread and rapid anthropogenic land-cover change, especially urbanization, has transformed the US landscape during the last century. Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus and blue tongue virus, vectored by Culicoides biting midges, are two RNA viruses in the Orbivirus genus that cause severe hemorrhagic disease (HD) in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). We examine the spatial dynamics of HD affecting white-tailed deer in the contiguous United States in two periods covering 1980 to 2007 in connection with land-cover change over the same time. Using spatial statistical modeling, wetland cover emerges as a critical driver of HD morbidity, whereas the drivers of mortality patterns are more complex. Increasing wetland cover is positively associated with HD morbidity, which is consistent with the ecologic requirements of the Culicoides vector. Wetland cover is inherently dynamic due to its importance to biodiversity and water quality as well as its utility for other purposes when drained. Accordingly this analysis helps in understanding the consequences of changing wetlands on vector-borne disease patterns, to identify disease hotspots in a large landscape, and to forecast the spatial spread of HD and related diseases. PMID:23778598

Berry, Brett S; Magori, Krisztian; Perofsky, Amanda C; Stallknecht, David E; Park, Andrew W

2013-07-01

192

Potential novel risk factors for autochthonous and sylvatic transmission of human Chagas disease in the United States  

PubMed Central

Chagas disease is an emerging vector-borne disease in the United States that causes progressive dilated cardiomyopathy in a third of infected humans. While transmission studies have been performed in Latin America, little is known about the source of infection in locally acquired cases in the United States. This letter describes the underlying factors possibly leading to an increased risk of disease transmission among high-risk groups in the United States. PMID:24996479

2014-01-01

193

Potential novel risk factors for autochthonous and sylvatic transmission of human Chagas disease in the United States.  

PubMed

Chagas disease is an emerging vector-borne disease in the United States that causes progressive dilated cardiomyopathy in a third of infected humans. While transmission studies have been performed in Latin America, little is known about the source of infection in locally acquired cases in the United States. This letter describes the underlying factors possibly leading to an increased risk of disease transmission among high-risk groups in the United States. PMID:24996479

Garcia, Melissa N; Hotez, Peter J; Murray, Kristy O

2014-01-01

194

HIV-associated nephropathy and end-stage renal disease in children in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single-center studies have reported that HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) can occur in children and may have a clinical course and prognosis similar to that of adults. However, the prevalence and survival has not been reported for a national sample of children with HIVAN and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on dialysis in the United States. We utilized the United States Renal Data

Tejinder S. Ahuja; Kevin C. Abbott; Laura Pack; Yong-Fang Kuo

2004-01-01

195

Behçet’s disease: new insight into the relationship between procoagulant state, endothelial activation/damage and disease activity  

PubMed Central

Background Behçet disease (BD) is associated with a prothrombotic state of unknown origin that may lead to life-threatening events. Calibrated Automated Thrombogram (CAT) and Rotational Thromboelastometry (ROTEM) are two global haemostasis assays that may reveal new insights into the physiopathological mechanisms of the disease and its procoagulant condition. Methods 23 BD patients who had no signs or symptoms of current thrombosis and 33 age- and sex-matched controls were included in the study. We performed ROTEM and CAT tests and assessed erythrocyte count, platelet count, platelet contribution to clot formation and plasma levels of tissue-type plasminogen activator, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1), fibrinogen, C-reactive protein (CRP), thrombin-antithrombin III complex (TAT), D-dimer and E-selectin (ES). Results Both ROTEM and CAT tests showed a hypercoagulable state in the BD patients. Plasma levels of PAI-1, fibrinogen, TAT, CRP and ES were significantly increased in this group compared to controls. The disease activity (DA) was significantly correlated with levels of ES and the maximum clot firmness, and this last one, in turn, correlated with rising levels of ES, PAI-1, CRP and fibrinogen. CAT parameters did not correlate with DA or ES. Conclusions Both ROTEM and CAT tests reveal that patients with BD have a procoagulant state even in the absence of thrombosis. ROTEM test indicates that increased levels of fibrinogen and PAI-1 may be involved in the prothrombotic state of this pathology, while platelets do not significantly contribute. Moreover, CAT assay demonstrate that plasma from BD patients is able to generate more thrombin than controls in response to the same stimulus and that this effect is independent of the DA and the endothelial impairment suggesting the involvement of another factor in the hypercoagulable state observed in BD patients. This study also shows that endothelium activation/damage may be a contributing factor in both the procoagulant and clinical conditions of BD, as shown by the direct correlation between ES levels, ROTEM parameters and DA. PMID:23711081

2013-01-01

196

State of World Allergy Report 2008: Allergy and Chronic Respiratory Diseases  

PubMed Central

It is widely recognized that the incidence of allergies and allergic diseases is on the rise globally. As an international umbrella organization for regional and national allergy and clinical immunology societies, the World Allergy Organization is at the forefront of a combined united effort across nations and organizations to address this global concern by promoting the science of allergy and clinical immunology, and advancing exchange of information. The World Allergy Organization's State of World Allergy Reports will provide a biennial review of allergic diseases worldwide, consider their medical and socioeconomic contexts, and propose effective approaches to addressing these problems. In this first State of World Allergy Report 2008, experts from different regions of the world have attempted to define the extent of the global allergy problem, examine recent trends, and provide a framework for the collaboration among world medicine, science, and government agencies that is needed to address the rapidly developing issues associated with allergy and allergic diseases. PMID:23282447

2008-01-01

197

Meteorological Influences on the Seasonality of Lyme Disease in the United States  

PubMed Central

Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi infection) is the most common vector-transmitted disease in the United States. The majority of human Lyme disease (LD) cases occur in the summer months, but the timing of the peak occurrence varies geographically and from year to year. We calculated the beginning, peak, end, and duration of the main LD season in 12 highly endemic states from 1992 to 2007 and then examined the association between the timing of these seasonal variables and several meteorological variables. An earlier beginning to the LD season was positively associated with higher cumulative growing degree days through Week 20, lower cumulative precipitation, a lower saturation deficit, and proximity to the Atlantic coast. The timing of the peak and duration of the LD season were also associated with cumulative growing degree days, saturation deficit, and cumulative precipitation, but no meteorological predictors adequately explained the timing of the end of the LD season. PMID:24470565

Moore, Sean M.; Eisen, Rebecca J.; Monaghan, Andrew; Mead, Paul

2014-01-01

198

GEOGRAPHIC VARIATION IN THE ONSET OF DECLINE OF ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE MORTALITY IN THE UNITED STATES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report examines geographic variation in the onset of the decline of ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality in white males aged 35-74 during the period 1968-78. Using a quadratic regression model, State Economic Areas (SEAs) were classified as experiencing onset of the decline...

199

GENOMIC ANALYSIS OF SURROGATE TISSUES FOR ASSESSING ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES AND FUTURE DISEASE STATES  

EPA Science Inventory

Genomic Analysis of Surrogate Tissues for Assessing Environmental Exposures and Future Disease States John C. Rockett, Chad R. Blystone, Amber K. Goetz, Rachel N. Murrell, Hongzu Ren, Judith E. Schmid, Jessica Stapelfeldt, Lillian F. Strader, Kary E. Thompson, Douglas B. T...

200

Flu is a serious contagious disease. Each year in the United States, on average, more  

E-print Network

Flu is a serious contagious disease. Each year in the United States, on average, more than 200,000 people are hospitalized and 36,000 people die from seasonal flu complications. This flu season could be worse. There is a new and very different flu virus spreading worldwide among people called novel or new

Ferrara, Katherine W.

201

Patients' willingness to pay for diabetes disease state management services in Australian community pharmacies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to determine whether and how much patients would be willing to pay for diabetes disease state management (DSM) services in community pharmacies, and also to determine the relationships between willingness to pay (WTP) and different clinical\\/socio\\/demographic characteristics of patients. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A sample of 130 diabetic patients recruited from 14 pharmacies across

Andrew Hanna; Lesley White; Venkata Yanamandram

2010-01-01

202

SURVEILLANCE FOR WATERBORNE-DISEASE OUTBREAKS - UNITED STATES, 1999-2000  

EPA Science Inventory

PROBLEM/CONDITION: Since 1971, CDC, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE) have maintained a collaborative surveillance system for the occurrences and causes of waterborne-disease outbreaks (WBDOs).This surv...

203

A Monte Carlo Metropolis-Hastings algorithm for sampling from distributions with intractable normalizing constants.  

PubMed

Simulating from distributions with intractable normalizing constants has been a long-standing problem in machine learning. In this letter, we propose a new algorithm, the Monte Carlo Metropolis-Hastings (MCMH) algorithm, for tackling this problem. The MCMH algorithm is a Monte Carlo version of the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm. It replaces the unknown normalizing constant ratio by a Monte Carlo estimate in simulations, while still converges, as shown in the letter, to the desired target distribution under mild conditions. The MCMH algorithm is illustrated with spatial autologistic models and exponential random graph models. Unlike other auxiliary variable Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithms, such as the Møller and exchange algorithms, the MCMH algorithm avoids the requirement for perfect sampling, and thus can be applied to many statistical models for which perfect sampling is not available or very expensive. The MCMH algorithm can also be applied to Bayesian inference for random effect models and missing data problems that involve simulations from a distribution with intractable integrals. PMID:23607562

Liang, Faming; Jin, Ick-Hoon

2013-08-01

204

Intractable Persistent Direction-Changing Geotropic Nystagmus Improved by Lateral Semicircular Canal Plugging  

PubMed Central

Antigravitational deviation of the cupula of the lateral semicircular canal, which is also called light cupula, evokes persistent direction-changing geotropic nystagmus with a neutral point. No intractable cases of this condition have been reported. In our case, a 67-year-old man complained of positional vertigo 3 months after developing idiopathic sudden hearing loss in the right ear with vertigo. He showed a persistent direction-changing geotropic nystagmus with a leftward beating nystagmus in the supine position. The nystagmus resolved when his head was turned approximately 30° to the right. He was diagnosed with light cupula of the right lateral semicircular canal and was subsequently treated with an antivertiginous agent. However, his symptoms and positional nystagmus did not improve, so the right lateral semicircular canal was plugged by surgery. One month after surgery, his positional vertigo and nystagmus were completely resolved. We speculated that the cause of the patient's intractable light cupula was an enlarged cupula caused by his idiopathic sudden hearing loss. PMID:25685577

Saito, Kazuya; Doi, Katsumi

2015-01-01

205

Protein expression of phospho-lim kinase-1 in patients and an experimental rat model with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Lim kinase-1 (LIMK1) plays a critical role in dendritic spine morphogenesis and brain function. The protein expression pattern of phospho-LIMK1 (p-LIMK1), the active form of LIMK1, in intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), however, is unknown. Here we measured p-LIMK1 protein expression in thirty temporal neocortex tissue samples from intractable TLE patients, fifteen histologically normal temporal neocortex tissue samples from trauma patients without epilepsy, in the hippocampi of lithium chloride/pilocarpine-induced TLE rats, and in controls. We found that p-LIMK1 was expressed mainly in the cytoplasm of neurons. The protein expression of p-LIMK1 was significantly higher in the TLE patients and rats than in the control groups. Our results suggest that p-LIMK1 might be involved in the pathogenesis of intractable TLE. PMID:25785037

Huang, Hao; Wang, Heng; Yuan, Jinxian; Wu, Xuling; Huang, Yunyi; Zhou, Xin; Chen, Yangmei

2015-01-01

206

A change in the management of intractable obstetrical hemorrhage over 15 years in a tertiary care center  

PubMed Central

Context: Peripartum hysterectomy was the gold standard to save a woman with persistent obstetrical bleeding, but compromised the menstrual and reproductive functions. Bilateral internal iliac artery ligation (BIAL) is a potentially effective, fertility preserving means of controlling pelvic hemorrhage, but with surgical and anesthetic risks and low success. Angiographic embolization has the potential to arrest severe pelvic hemorrhage without removing the uterus and without hazarding general anesthesia in a hemodynamically unstable patient. Aims: The aim of this study is to discuss change in the management of intractable obstetrical hemorrhage from removing to conserving the uterus over 15 years. Settings and Design: A retrospective analysis of 122 cases of intractable obstetrical hemorrhage over a period of 15 years (January 1997 to December 2011) was done. We started uterine artery embolization (UAE) in 2007 for obstetrical hemorrhage. The patients were analyzed for maternal characteristics, indications, treatment modality, maternal morbidity, and mortality. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive. Results: We analyzed 12,055 deliveries, (6029 cesarean sections; 6026 vaginal deliveries). One hundred and twenty-two cases of intractable obstetrical hemorrhage were managed with obstetrical hysterectomies in 63, UAE in 53 cases and BIAL in six cases. During the period between 1997 and 2006 intractable obstetrical hemorrhage was managed by hysterectomy/internal iliac artery ligation. The last 5 years of the study period had 80 patients with intractable obstetrical hemorrhage, 53 patients underwent arterial embolization and 35 had a hysterectomy and two had internal artery ligation. There was no mortality and significantly less morbidity in embolization group in our study. Conclusions: Embolization should be tried in patients with intractable obstetrical hemorrhage before proceeding for surgical intervention. PMID:25298935

Juneja, Sunil K; Tandon, Pooja; Mohan, Bishav; Kaushal, Sandeep

2014-01-01

207

Necrotic arachnidism and intractable pain from recluse spider bites treated with lumbar sympathetic block: a case report and review of literature.  

PubMed

Brown recluse (Loxosceles reclusa) spider bites mainly occur in the southern and Midwestern United States. The clinical manifestation of brown recluse spider bites varies from skin irritation, a small area of tissue damage to neuropathic pain, necrotic arachnidism and severe systemic reactions such as acute renal failure and even death. Treatment is controversial and nonspecific. We describe a case of extensive right lower extremity tissue necrosis and intractable neuropathic pain treated with lumbar sympathetic block in a patient with a documented brown recluse spider bite. Both his pain and tissue necrosis improved significantly with lumbar sympathetic block with local anesthetic. After a series of lumbar sympathetic blocks, his symptoms resolved and lower extremity wound healed rapidly. We discuss the benefit of sympathetic blockade not only for neuropathic pain but also possibly as a treatment for necrotic arachnidism from a brown recluse spider bite. PMID:21317774

Yi, Xiaobin; AuBuchon, Jacob; Zeltwanger, Shawn; Kirby, John P

2011-06-01

208

Geographical distribution of milky disease bacteria in the eastern United States based on phylogeny.  

PubMed

A phylogenetic grouping of 48 different isolates of milky disease bacteria isolated in the United States was determined using genomic RFLP analysis and 16S rDNA sequence comparison. A clear distinction between Paenibacillus popilliae isolates and Paenibacillus lentimorbus isolates was evident from the results of each procedure. The P. popilliae isolates segregated into two phylogenetic groups and the P. lentimorbus isolates segregated into three phylogenetic groups. In the United States, P. popilliae group 1 was generally isolated from insects collected west of the Appalachian Mountains. P. popilliae group 2 was only isolated from insects collected east of the Appalachian Mountains. P. lentimorbus groups 1 and 2 were obtained from insects collected west and south of the Appalachians. P. lentimorbus group 3 was identified in insects collected east of the mountains. From five different locations in Connecticut, 12 milky disease bacterial isolates were classified as P. popilliae and three were classified as P. lentimorbus. Except for one isolate, all P. popilliae isolates were of phylogenetic group 2. The three P. lentimorbus strains were isolated from diseased insects that had been collected from a localized area in the state. These three strains formed a separate phylogenetic grouping (i.e., group 3) of P. lentimorbus and, based on 16S rDNA sequence comparisons, were most similar to the newly identified P. lentimorbus Semadara strain recently isolated in Japan. All milky disease bacteria that had been isolated from commercially available insecticide preparations were identified as P. popilliae group 1. PMID:17959195

Dingman, Douglas W

2008-02-01

209

Fully human anti-interleukin-8 monoclonal antibodies: potential therapeutics for the treatment of inflammatory disease states  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is a potent chemo- tactic cytokine implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of inflammatory disease states. Agents that block the binding of IL-8 to its receptor have been shown to block inflammation in animal models of disease. This suggests that drugs specifically target- ing IL-8 may prove efficacious in treating multiple human diseases. To this end, we

Xiao-Dong Yang; Jose R. F. Corvalan; Ping Wang; Catherine M.-N. Roy; C. Geoffrey Davis

1999-01-01

210

The Disease Burden Attributable to Smoking in the State Of Rio De Janeiro, Brazil in 2000  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Smoking is one of the main risk factors for morbidity and mortality. An estimated 59 million (4.4%) disability-adjusted life years were lost due to smoking throughout the world in 2000. OBJECTIVE To estimate the disease burden attributable to smoking in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, for the year 2000. METHODS Based on estimates of smoking prevalence and relative death risks, the smoking-attributable fraction was calculated for each selected cause, by age and gender. The disease burden attributable to smoking was estimated by multiplying the fractions by the corresponding disability-adjusted life years. RESULTS In the State of Rio de Janeiro, 7% of all disability-adjusted life years were due to smoking. For individuals 30 or more years old, the fraction increased to 10.6% (13.6% in males and 7.5% in females). Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and tracheal, bronchial, and lung cancer accounted for 32.2%, 15.7%, 13.2%, and 11.1% of the estimated total DALYs, respectively, amounting to 72.2% of the smoking-attributable disease burden. DISCUSSION Limitations related to parameter estimates were not unique to this study, and therefore should not compromise the comparability of our results. Outcomes were similar to those obtained in other countries, despite methodological differences. CONCLUSION Smoking is an important risk factor and places a significant disease burden on Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, showing a pattern similar to that observed in high income countries. PMID:18438576

Oliveira, Andreia Ferreira; Valente, Joaquim Gonçalves; Leite, Iuri Costa

2008-01-01

211

Impact of heart disease and quality of care on minority populations in the United States.  

PubMed Central

Heart disease is a leading cause of death across all populations in the United States. In 1985, the Secretary's Task Force on Black and Minority Health recognized the existence of widespread health disparities for heart disease and related risk factors among minorities in America. Inequalities in heart health and healthcare continue to exist. This review compares measures of heart disease and healthcare for white, African-American, Asian/Pacific Islander, American-Indian/Alaska-Native and Hispanic/Latino populations. Lack of healthcare data for minorities continues to be a barrier to understanding the nature and extent of heart disease and related risk factors for these groups. In combination with programs that address preventive measures to reduce risk factors for heart disease, the integration of quality improvement measures has developed as an important strategy for reducing cardiovascular health disparities. Improved data collection and reporting, enhanced use of information technology, and promotion of cultural competency hold potential for improving the quality of cardiac care and reducing health disease for all Americans. PMID:17052047

Graham, Garth N.; Guendelman, Mayadallia; Leong, Benjamin S.; Hogan, Sara; Dennison, Adrienne

2006-01-01

212

Bupivacaine administered intrathecally versus rectally in the management of intractable rectal cancer pain in palliative care  

PubMed Central

Background Unacceptable adverse effects, contraindications to and/or ineffectiveness of World Health Organization step III “pain ladder” drugs causes needless suffering among a population of cancer patients. Successful management of severe cancer pain may require invasive treatment. However, a patient’s refusal of an invasive procedure necessitates that clinicians consider alternative options. Objective Intrathecal bupivacaine delivery as a viable treatment of intractable pain is well documented. There are no data on rectal bupivacaine use in cancer patients or in the treatment of cancer tenesmoid pain. This study aims to demonstrate that bupivacaine administered rectally could be a step in between the current treatment options for intractable cancer pain (conventional/conservative analgesia or invasive procedures), and to evaluate the effect of the mode of administration (intrathecal versus rectal) on the bupivacaine plasma concentration. Cases We present two Caucasian, elderly inpatients admitted to hospice due to intractable rectal/tenesmoid pain. The first case is a female with vulvar cancer, and malignant infiltration of the rectum/vagina. Bupivacaine was used intrathecally (0.25–0.5%, 1–2 mL every 6 hours). The second case is a female with ovarian cancer and malignant rectal infiltration. Bupivacaine was adminstered rectally (0.05–0.1%, 100 mL every 4.5–11 hours). Methods Total bupivacaine plasma concentrations were determined using the high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet method. Results Effective pain control was achieved with intrathecal bupivacaine (0.077–0.154 mg·kg?1) and bupivacaine in enema (1.820 mg·kg?1). Intrathecal bupivacaine (0.5%, 2 mL) caused a drop in blood pressure; other side effects were absent in both cases. Total plasma bupivacaine concentrations following intrathecal and rectal bupivacaine application did not exceed 317.2 ng·mL?1 and 235.7 ng·mL?1, respectively. Bupivacaine elimination was slower after rectal than after intrathecal administration (t½= 5.50 versus 2.02 hours, respectively). Limitations This study reports two cases only, and there could be inter-patient variation. Conclusion Bupivacaine in boluses administered intrathecally (0.25%, 2 mL) provided effective, safe analgesia in advanced cancer patients. Bupivacaine enema (100 mg·100 mL?1) was shown to be a valuable option for control of end-of-life tenesmoid cancer pain. PMID:25336967

Zaporowska-Stachowiak, Iwona; Kowalski, Grzegorz; ?uczak, Jacek; Kosicka, Katarzyna; Kotlinska-Lemieszek, Aleksandra; Sopata, Maciej; G?ówka, Franciszek

2014-01-01

213

A case study examination of structure and function in a state health department chronic disease unit.  

PubMed

Objectives. I explored the structural and operational practices of the chronic disease prevention and control unit of a state health department and proposed a conceptual model of structure, function, and effectiveness for future study. Methods. My exploratory case study examined 7 elements of organizational structure and practice. My interviews with staff and external stakeholders of a single chronic disease unit yielded quantitative and qualitative data that I coded by perspective, process, relationship, and activity. I analyzed these for patterns and emerging themes. Results. Chi-square analysis revealed significant correlations among collaboration with goal ambiguity, political support, and responsiveness, and evidence-based decisions with goal ambiguity and responsiveness. Conclusions. Although my study design did not permit conclusions about causality, my findings suggested that some elements of the model might facilitate effectiveness for chronic disease units and should be studied further. My findings might have important implications for identifying levers around which capacity can be built that may strengthen effectiveness. PMID:25689211

Alongi, Jeanne

2015-04-01

214

Human Risk of Infection with Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme Disease Agent, in Eastern United States  

PubMed Central

The geographic pattern of human risk for infection with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, the tick-borne pathogen that causes Lyme disease, was mapped for the eastern United States. The map is based on standardized field sampling in 304 sites of the density of Ixodes scapularis host-seeking nymphs infected with B. burgdorferi, which is closely associated with human infection risk. Risk factors for the presence and density of infected nymphs were used to model a continuous 8 km×8 km resolution predictive surface of human risk, including confidence intervals for each pixel. Discontinuous Lyme disease risk foci were identified in the Northeast and upper Midwest, with a transitional zone including sites with uninfected I. scapularis populations. Given frequent under- and over-diagnoses of Lyme disease, this map could act as a tool to guide surveillance, control, and prevention efforts and act as a baseline for studies tracking the spread of infection. PMID:22302869

Diuk-Wasser, Maria A.; Hoen, Anne Gatewood; Cislo, Paul; Brinkerhoff, Robert; Hamer, Sarah A.; Rowland, Michelle; Cortinas, Roberto; Vourc'h, Gwenaël; Melton, Forrest; Hickling, Graham J.; Tsao, Jean I.; Bunikis, Jonas; Barbour, Alan G.; Kitron, Uriel; Piesman, Joseph; Fish, Durland

2012-01-01

215

A Case Study Examination of Structure and Function in a State Health Department Chronic Disease Unit  

PubMed Central

Objectives. I explored the structural and operational practices of the chronic disease prevention and control unit of a state health department and proposed a conceptual model of structure, function, and effectiveness for future study. Methods. My exploratory case study examined 7 elements of organizational structure and practice. My interviews with staff and external stakeholders of a single chronic disease unit yielded quantitative and qualitative data that I coded by perspective, process, relationship, and activity. I analyzed these for patterns and emerging themes. Results. Chi-square analysis revealed significant correlations among collaboration with goal ambiguity, political support, and responsiveness, and evidence-based decisions with goal ambiguity and responsiveness. Conclusions. Although my study design did not permit conclusions about causality, my findings suggested that some elements of the model might facilitate effectiveness for chronic disease units and should be studied further. My findings might have important implications for identifying levers around which capacity can be built that may strengthen effectiveness. PMID:25689211

2015-01-01

216

The relationship between coagulation state and inflammatory bowel disease: current understanding and clinical implications.  

PubMed

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is associated with a hypercoagulable state and subsequently with an increased risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE). VTE in IBD is characterized by a high recurrence rate and is associated with the disease activity. Acquired endothelial dysfunction, abnormalities of platelets, activation of coagulation system and impaired fibrinolysis are the main changes in the coagulation state in IBD. The development of VTE in IBD has been considered to be the result of multiple interactions between acquired and inherited risk factors. The treatment of VTE in IBD patients is recommended to be similar and to follow the same protocols as for non-IBD patients. In the clinical practice, the management of IBD patients and especially the hospitalized patients should include thromboprophylaxis. PMID:25719625

Koutroubakis, Ioannis E

2015-04-01

217

Perceptions of a changing world induce hope and promote peace in intractable conflicts.  

PubMed

The importance of hope in promoting conciliatory attitudes has been asserted in the field of conflict resolution. However, little is known about conditions inducing hope, especially in intractable conflicts, where reference to the outgroup may backfire. In the current research, five studies yielded convergent support for the hypothesis that hope for peace stems from a general perception of the world as changing. In Study 1, coders observed associations between belief in a changing world, hope regarding peace, and support for concessions. Study 2 revealed the hypothesized relations using self-reported measures. Studies 3 and 4 established causality by instilling a perception of the world as changing (vs. unchanging) using narrative and drawing manipulations. Study 5 compared the changing world message with a control condition during conflict escalation. Across studies, although the specific context was not referred to, the belief in a changing world increased support for concessions through hope for peace. PMID:25713171

Cohen-Chen, Smadar; Crisp, Richard J; Halperin, Eran

2015-04-01

218

Intractable Abdominal Pain in a Patient With Spinal Cord Injury: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) may experience several types of chronic pains. Abdominal pain in patients with SCI has gained limited attention and little is yet known about its characteristics and mechanisms. It often has been regarded as visceral pain associated with constipation and distention. Neuropathic pains localized in the abdomen have rarely been reported. We experience a case of intractable abdominal pain in a patient with SCI, neither of visceral pathology nor of musculoskeletal origin. The nature of pain fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for neuropathic pains. The pain was therefore regarded as neuropathic and managed accordingly. The first- and second-line oral drugs available were being performed, unfortunately, adequate pain control was not achieved. We tried an intrathecal lidocaine injection as another treatment option, and the injection had considerable effects. PMID:24236262

Park, Hye Kyung; Song, Dae Heon; Kim, Young Moon; Kim, Hong Geum; Kim, Soo Yeon

2013-01-01

219

HIPDM-SPECT in patients with medically intractable complex partial seizures. Ictal study  

SciTech Connect

Both interictal and ictal N,N,N'-trimethyl-N'-(2-hydroxy-3-methyl-5-iodobenzyl)-1,3,propanediamine -single photon emission computed tomography (HIPDM-SPECT) were performed in 16 patients with medically intractable complex partial seizures. Ictal HIPDM-SPECT localized epileptic foci in 13 of 14 patients with unilateral temporal focus and provided confirmative evidence of epileptic focus in 11 patients by demonstrating maximally increased regional cerebral perfusion (rCP) in epileptic foci that had shown decreased rCP in a previous interictal study. Ictal HIPDM-SPECT in two patients with bitemporal foci showed more complicated patterns consisting of slightly increased rCP in bilateral multifocal regions. Ictal HIPDM-SPECT was particularly useful for investigating epileptic foci, and correlation with simultaneously recorded ictal electroencephalograms provided further insight for localizing epileptic foci.

Lee, B.I.; Markand, O.N.; Wellman, H.N.; Siddiqui, A.R.; Park, H.M.; Mock, B.; Worth, R.M.; Edwards, M.K.; Krepshaw, J.

1988-04-01

220

Melanosomal sequestration of cytotoxic drugs contributes to the intractability of malignant melanomas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multidrug resistance mechanisms underlying the intractability of malignant melanomas remain largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that the development of multidrug resistance in melanomas involves subcellular sequestration of intracellular cytotoxic drugs such as cis-diaminedichloroplatinum II (cisplatin; CDDP). CDDP is initially sequestered in subcellular organelles such as melanosomes, which significantly reduces its nuclear localization when compared with nonmelanoma/KB-3-1 epidermoid carcinoma cells. The melanosomal accumulation of CDDP remarkably modulates melanogenesis through a pronounced increase in tyrosinase activity. The altered melanogenesis manifested an 8-fold increase in both intracellular pigmentation and extracellular transport of melanosomes containing CDDP. Thus, our experiments provide evidence that melanosomes contribute to the refractory properties of melanoma cells by sequestering cytotoxic drugs and increasing melanosome-mediated drug export. Preventing melanosomal sequestration of cytotoxic drugs by inhibiting the functions of melanosomes may have great potential as an approach to improving the chemosensitivity of melanoma cells. cancer | melanosomes | skin | tumor therapy | multidrug resistance

Chen, Kevin G.; Valencia, Julio C.; Lai, Barry; Zhang, Guofeng; Paterson, Jill K.; Rouzaud, François; Berens, Werner; Wincovitch, Stephen M.; Garfield, Susan H.; Leapman, Richard D.; Hearing, Vincent J.; Gottesman, Michael M.

2006-06-01

221

The prevalence of celiac disease in at-risk groups of children in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: In contrast to its prevalence in Europe, celiac disease (CD) is considered rare in the United States. We aimed to determine the prevalence of CD in children presenting with symptoms or conditions associated with CD.Study design: Individuals aged 6 months to 20 years were screened for IgG and IgA antigliadin (AGA-IgG and AGA-IgA) and antiendomysium (EMA) antibodies. Those with

Ivor Hill; Alessio Fasano; Robert Schwartz; Debra Counts; Michael Glock; Karoly Horvath

2000-01-01

222

Epidemiological studies on tick-borne diseases of cattle in Central Equatoria State, Southern Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

A herd-based study was carried out in Central Equatoria State, Southern Sudan, to study epidemiological aspects of tick-borne\\u000a diseases. Six herds of cattle situated in three different locations were selected and investigated every 3 months during the\\u000a year 2005. Blood smears for Giemsa staining and blood spots on filter paper for deoxyribonucleic acid extraction were collected\\u000a from 600 apparently healthy indigenous

D. A. Salih; A. M. El Hussein; U. Seitzer; J. S. Ahmed

2007-01-01

223

Altered functional connectivity in early Alzheimer's disease: A resting-state fMRI study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have led to the proposal that patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) may have disturbed functional connectivity between different brain regions. Furthermore, recent resting-state func- tional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have also shown that low-frequency (<0.08 Hz) fluctua- tions (LFF) of the blood oxygenation level-dependent signals were abnormal in several brain areas of AD patients. However, few studies

Kun Wang; Meng Liang; Liang Wang; Lixia Tian; Xinqing Zhang; Kuncheng Li; Tianzi Jiang

2007-01-01

224

Long-Term Outcomes of Hemispheric Disconnection in Pediatric Patients with Intractable Epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Hemispherectomy reportedly produces remarkable results in terms of seizure outcome and quality of life for medically intractable hemispheric epilepsy in children. We reviewed the neuroradiologic findings, pathologic findings, epilepsy characteristics, and clinical long-term outcomes in pediatric patients following a hemispheric disconnection. Methods We retrospectively studied 12 children (8 males) who underwent a hemispherectomy at Asan Medical Center between 1997 and 2005. Clinical, EEG, neuroradiological, and surgical data were collected. Long-term outcomes for seizure, motor functions, and cognitive functions were evaluated at a mean follow-up of 12.7 years (range, 7.6-16.2 years) after surgery. Results The mean age at epilepsy onset was 3.0 years (range, 0-7.6 years). The following epilepsy syndromes were identified in our cohort: focal symptomatic epilepsy (n=8), West syndrome (n=3), and Rasmussen's syndrome (n=1). Postoperative histopathology of our study patients revealed malformation of cortical development (n=7), encephalomalacia as a sequela of infarction or trauma (n=3), Sturge-Weber syndrome (n=1), and Rasmussen's encephalitis (n=1). The mean age at surgery was 6.5 years (range, 0.8-12.3 years). Anatomical or functional hemispherectomy was performed in 8 patients, and hemispherotomy was performed in 4 patients. Eight of our 12 children (66.7%) were seizure-free, but 3 patients with perioperative complications showed persistent seizure. Although all patients had preoperative hemiparesis and developmental delay, none had additional motor or cognitive deficits after surgery, and most achieved independent walking and improvement in daily activities. Conclusions The long-term clinical outcomes of hemispherectomy in children with intractable hemispheric epilepsy are good when careful patient selection and skilled surgical approaches are applied. PMID:24829595

Lee, Yun-Jeong; Kim, Eun-Hee; Yum, Mi-Sun; Lee, Jung Kyo; Hong, Seokho

2014-01-01

225

Why Does Fear Override Hope in Societies Engulfed by Intractable Conflict, as It Does in the Israeli Society?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The question of why fear overrides hope in societies embarked on the road of peacemaking after years of intractable conflict is answered on the basis of accumulated knowledge in the psychology and sociology of emotions. This knowledge suggests that fear is an automatic emotion, grounded in the perceived present and often based on the memorized past (also processed unconsciously), that

Daniel Bar-Tal

2001-01-01

226

Historic Evolution of Open Cingulectomy and Stereotactic Cingulotomy in the Management of Medically Intractable Psychiatric Disorders, Pain and Drug Addiction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stereotactic cingulotomy constitutes a psychosurgical procedure nowadays advocated in the treatment of medically intractable obsessive-compulsive disorder, chronic pain and drug addiction. From its theoretical conception to the first cingulectomies performed and modern stereotactic-guided cingulotomies, various target localization methods, different surgical techniques, and numerous lesioning devices have been utilized. In the current article, the authors performed a literature review related to

Alexandros G. Brotis; Eftychia Z. Kapsalaki; Konstantinos Paterakis; Joseph R. Smith; Kostas N. Fountas

2009-01-01

227

Disease properties, geography, and mitigation strategies in a simulation spread of rinderpest across the United States  

PubMed Central

For the past decade, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations has been working toward eradicating rinderpest through vaccination and intense surveillance by 2012. Because of the potential severity of a rinderpest epidemic, it is prudent to prepare for an unexpected outbreak in animal populations. There is no immunity to the disease among the livestock or wildlife in the United States (US). If rinderpest were to emerge in the US, the loss in livestock could be devastating. We predict the potential spread of rinderpest using a two-stage model for the spread of a multi-host infectious disease among agricultural animals in the US. The model incorporates large-scale interactions among US counties and the small-scale dynamics of disease spread within a county. The model epidemic was seeded in 16 locations and there was a strong dependence of the overall epidemic size on the starting location. The epidemics were classified according to overall size into small epidemics of 100 to 300 animals (failed epidemics), epidemics infecting 3 000 to 30 000 animals (medium epidemics), and the large epidemics infecting around one million beef cattle. The size of the rinderpest epidemics were directly related to the origin of the disease and whether or not the disease moved into certain key counties in high-livestock-density areas of the US. The epidemic size also depended upon response time and effectiveness of movement controls. PMID:21435236

2011-01-01

228

Comparative incidence rates of end-stage renal disease treatment by state.  

PubMed

End-stage renal disease (ESRD) treatment rates vary significantly between states in the United States. Much of this variation relates to the much higher rate of ESRD in blacks and the differences in race, age, and sex composition of various states. Even after adjusting for race, age, and sex differences utilizing data from new patients reported to Medicare with ESRD between 1980 and 1983, marked variation in treatment incidence rates per million population were still present. Overall rates varied from 45 in North Dakota to 99 in New Jersey. Regional rate patterns were demonstrated with very high rates in southwestern states (Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, and California: 87-91/million). In contrast, several south-central states had lower rates (Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and Tennessee: 66-75/million). By state the rates for blacks were consistently higher than for whites. After adjustment for sex and age differences, the rates for blacks varied from 125 in Arkansas to 242 in New Jersey. Several north-eastern states (Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New Jersey) had higher rates of ESRD in blacks (197-242 million) as compared with several south-central states (Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Tennessee, Alabama) where rates varied from 125 to 180 million. ESRD rates by primary etiologies by state showed marked variation of the major primary etiologies of ESRD: diabetic nephropathy rates were most predictive of overall ESRD rates, with much higher rates in the southwestern states (28.1-33.2) as compared with the south-central states (12.8-16.3).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2382681

Rosansky, S J; Huntsberger, T L; Jackson, K; Eggers, P

1990-01-01

229

Addition of Multimodal Therapy to Standard Management of Steady State Sickle Cell Disease  

PubMed Central

Most people on folic acid to boost erythropoiesis and prophylactic antimicrobials, the standard management of steady state sickle cell disease (SCD), have unacceptable numbers of crises. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of adding multimodal therapy with potassium thiocyanate and omega-3 fatty acids to the standard management of steady state SCD. Pre- and post-treatment numbers of crises and other disease indices were compared in 16 HbSS individuals on folic acid and paludrine after 12 months of adding eicosapentaenoic acid 15?mg/kg/day, docosahexaenoic acid 10?mg/kg/day, and potassium thiocyanate 1-2?mL/day, each milliliter of which contained 250?mg of thiocyanate and 100 micrograms of iodine to prevent hypothyroidism: a possible side-effect due to competitive inhibition of the transport of iodide into the thyroid gland by thiocyanate. Median number of crises reduced from 3/yr to 1/yr (P < 0.0001). There was no evidence of impaired thyroid function. Plasma level of tri-iodothyronine improved (P < 0.0001). Steady state full blood count and bilirubin level did not change significantly. The findings suggest that addition of potassium thiocyanate and eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids to standard management of steady state SCD reduces the number of crises. This observation needs to be evaluated in larger studies. PMID:24386573

Ikefuna, Anthony; Duru, Augustine; Chukwu, Barth; Madu, Anazoeze; Nwagha, Theresa; Ocheni, Sunday; Ibegbulam, Obike; Emodi, Ifeoma; Anike, Uche; Nonyelu, Charles; Anigbo, Chukwudi; Agu, Kingsley; Ajuba, Ifeoma; Chukwura, Awele; Ugwu, Ogechukwu; Ololo, Uche

2013-01-01

230

End-Stage Renal Disease From Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease in the United States, 2001-2010  

PubMed Central

Background Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is amenable to early detection and specialty care. Thus, while important to patients with the condition, end-stage renal disease (ESRD) from ADPKD may also be an indicator of the overall state of nephrology care. Study Design Retrospective cohort study of temporal trends in renal replacement therapy (RRT)-requiring ESRD from ADPKD and pre-RRT nephrologist care, 2001-2010 (n = 23,772). Setting & Participants US patients who initiated maintenance RRT between 2001 and 2010 (n = 1,069,343), from United States Renal Data System data. Predictor RRT-requiring ESRD from ADPKD. Outcomes Death, wait-listing for renal transplant, renal transplant. Measurements US census data were used as population denominators. The Poisson distribution was used to compute incidence rates. Incidence ratios were standardized to rates in 2001-2002 for age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Patients with and without ADPKD were matched to compare clinical outcomes. Poisson regression was used to calculate incidence rates and adjusted hazards ratios for clinical events after inception of RRT. Results General population incidence ratios in 2009-2010 were unchanged from 2001-2002 (incidence ratio 1.02). Of patients with ADPKD, 48.1% received > 12 months of nephrology care before RRT; preemptive transplant was the initial RRT in 14.3% and fistula the initial hemodialysis access in 35.8%. Over 4.9 years of follow-up, patients with ADPKD were more likely to be listed for transplant (11.7 [95% CI 11.5-12.0] per 100 person-years vs. 8.4 [8.2-8.7]) and to undergo transplant (9.8 [9.5-10.0] vs. 4.8 [4.7-5.0]), and less likely to die (5.6 [5.4-5.7] vs. 15.5 [15.3-15.8]) than matched controls without ADPKD. Limitations Retrospective, nonexperimental, registry-based study of associations; cause-and-effect relationships cannot be determined. Conclusions While outcomes on dialysis are better for ADPKD than for non-ADPKD patients, access to predialysis nephrology care and non-declining ESRD rates may be a cause for concern. PMID:25134777

Reule, Scott; Sexton, Donal J.; Solid, Craig A.; Chen, Shu-Cheng; Collins, Allan J.; Foley, Robert N.

2015-01-01

231

Screening for Common Occupational Health Diseases Among Long Distance Professional Drivers in Sagamu, Ogun State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background: Long term exposure to hazards at the work place is injurious to health and usually leads to diseased conditions. The objective of this study was to determine the occupational health problems associated with driving among the professional drivers in Sagamu, Ogun state, Nigeria. Methods: This study is a cross-sectional study. Total sample of all the consenting professional drivers in the five interstate motor parks, including the cement factory [WAPCO] in the local government area, were recruited into the study. An interviewer administered structured questionnaire was administered by trained health workers and respondents were screen for common occupational health problems. Results: A total of 400 professional drivers were interviewed, all [100%] of them were males with age range from 21 to 59 yrs and nearly half [42%] were non indigenes. Only half, 208 [52%] of them were married with majority, 232 [58.0%] working for about 12 hrs daily and 46% of them had been working for 5 yrs or more. Most, 382 [95.5%] had been educated on HIV/AIDS before and 313 [78.3%] of them had multiple sexual partners. Only 241 [60.3%] used condom at the last sexual act and 55 [13.5%] had ever been tested for HIV/AIDS. Common occupational health diseases were renal tubular acidosis (RTA) 52 [13%] in the last one year and most of them currently have myalgia 352 [88.0%], upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) 20 [5.0%], sexually transmitted diseases (STD) 15 [3.8%], short sightedness 41 [10.3%], and Hypertension 90 [22.5%]. Conclusions: The study shows that common occupational diseases among long distance professional drivers in Western Nigeria were myalgia, upper respiratory tract infection, hypertension, short sightedness, sexually transmitted diseases, and RTA. Prevention and control of these common diseases among the drivers will lead to reduction of road traffic accidents in Western Nigeria and other low income countries. PMID:24829742

Amoran, Olorunfemi Emmanuel; Salako, Albert Adekunle; Jeminusi, Olubunmi

2014-01-01

232

Characterization of the Hypercoagulable State in Patients with Sickle Cell Disease  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Background The pathophysiology of sickle cell disease (SCD) is complex, with increasing evidence of a pronounced prothrombotic state. Objective We investigated thrombin generation in SCD utilizing calibrated automated thrombography (CAT) and Ddimer, with subsequent correlation to clinical disease. Patient/Methods The study included 51 patients homozygous for hemoglobin S, either admitted for vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC) (n=34) or while in steady state and being seen in outpatient clinic (n=37). Twenty patients had blood drawn during both VOC and steady state. Mean values for CAT and D-dimer were compared between groups. Mean values for patients with and without clinical complications such as avascular necrosis and stroke were also compared. Linear regression was used to evaluate correlation to number of hospitalizations and for all pediatric patients, transcranial doppler (TCD) velocities. Results The mean D-dimer during VOC (2743 ± 3118 ng/ml) was significantly higher than during steady state (1151 ± 802, p<0.0001). Comparison of crisis and steady state by CAT also revealed a significant difference in all phases of thrombin generation, including mean endogenous thrombin potential (1381 ± 295 nM vs 923 ± 316, p<0.0001) and peak thrombin generated (284 ± 9 vs 223 ± 18, p=0.0002). There were no significant differences in mean values for the clinical outcomes examined in adults. In pediatric patients, however, increased TCD velocities correlated with steady state Ddimer (r2=0.32, p=0.02) and thrombin-antithrombin complex (r2=0.28, p=0.04. Conclusion Hypercoagulable markers distinguish between patients with SCD during and between VOC, but do not correlate with specific clinical phenotypes. PMID:22959127

Shah, Nirmish; Thornburg, Courtney; Telen, Marilyn J.; Ortel, Thomas L.

2012-01-01

233

Effects of noise on a computational model for disease states of mood disorders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nonlinear dynamics are currently proposed to explain the progressive course of recurrent mood disorders starting with isolated episodes and ending with accelerated irregular (``chaotic") mood fluctuations. Such a low-dimensional disease model is attractive because of its principal accordance with biological disease models, i.e. the kindling and biological rhythms model. However, most natural systems are nonlinear and noisy and several studies in the neuro- and physical sciences have demonstrated interesting cooperative behaviors arising from interacting random and deterministic dynamics. Here, we consider the effects of noise on a recent neurodynamical model for the timecourse of affective disorders (Huber et al.: Biological Psychiatry 1999;46:256-262). We describe noise effects on temporal patterns and mean episode frequencies of various in computo disease states. Our simulations demonstrate that noise can cause unstructured randomness or can maximize periodic order. The frequency of episode occurence can increase with noise but it can also remain unaffected or even can decrease. We show further that noise can make visible bifurcations before they would normally occur under deterministic conditions and we quantify this behavior with a recently developed statistical method. All these effects depend critically on both, the dynamic state and the noise intensity. Implications for neurobiology and course of mood disorders are discussed.

Tobias Huber, Martin; Krieg, Jürgen-Christian; Braun, Hans Albert; Moss, Frank

2000-03-01

234

Systemic complement profiling in multiple sclerosis as a biomarker of disease state  

PubMed Central

Background: There is increasing evidence of significant and dynamic systemic activation and upregulation of complement in multiple sclerosis (MS), which may contribute to disease pathogenesis. Objective: We aimed to investigate the pathological role of complement in MS and the potential role for complement profiling as a biomarker of MS disease state. Methods: Key components of the classical, alternative and terminal pathways of complement were measured in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with MS in different clinical phases of disease and in matched controls. Results: Increased plasma levels of C3 (p<0.003), C4 (p<0.001), C4a (p<0.001), C1 inhibitor (p<0.001), and factor H (p<0.001), and reduced levels of C9 (p<0.001) were observed in MS patients compared with controls. Combined profiling of these analytes produced a statistical model with a predictive value of 97% for MS and 73% for clinical relapse when combined with selected demographic data. CSF-plasma correlations suggested that source of synthesis of these components was both systemic and central. Conclusion: These data provide further evidence of alterations in both local and systemic expression and activation of complement in MS and suggest that complement profiling may be informative as a biomarker of MS disease, although further work is needed to determine its use in distinguishing MS from its differential. PMID:22354735

Ingram, G; Hakobyan, S; Hirst, CL; Harris, CL; Loveless, S; Mitchell, JP; Pickersgill, TP; Robertson, NP

2012-01-01

235

Experimental and imaging techniques for examining fibrin clot structures in normal and diseased States.  

PubMed

Fibrin is an extracellular matrix protein that is responsible for maintaining the structural integrity of blood clots. Much research has been done on fibrin in the past years to include the investigation of synthesis, structure-function, and lysis of clots. However, there is still much unknown about the morphological and structural features of clots that ensue from patients with disease. In this research study, experimental techniques are presented that allow for the examination of morphological differences of abnormal clot structures due to diseased states such as diabetes and sickle cell anemia. Our study focuses on the preparation and evaluation of fibrin clots in order to assess morphological differences using various experimental assays and confocal microscopy. In addition, a method is also described that allows for continuous, real-time calculation of lysis rates in fibrin clots. The techniques described herein are important for researchers and clinicians seeking to elucidate comorbid thrombotic pathologies such as myocardial infarctions, ischemic heart disease, and strokes in patients with diabetes or sickle cell disease. PMID:25867016

Fan, Natalie K; Keegan, Philip M; Platt, Manu O; Averett, Rodney D

2015-01-01

236

The burden of disease due to tuberculosis in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil*, **  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the burden of disease due to tuberculosis in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, in 2009. METHODS: This was an epidemiological study with an ecological design. Data on tuberculosis incidence and mortality were collected from specific Brazilian National Ministry of Health databases. The burden of disease due to tuberculosis was based on the calculation of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). The DALYs were estimated by adding the years of life lost (YLLs) and years lived with disability (YLDs). Absolute values were transformed into rates per 100,000 population. The rates were calculated by gender, age group, and health care macroregion. RESULTS: The burden of disease due to tuberculosis was 5,644.27 DALYs (92.25 DALYs/100,000 population), YLLs and YLDs respectively accounting for 78.77% and 21.23% of that total. The highest rates were found in males in the 30-44 and 45-59 year age brackets, although that was not true in every health care macroregion. Overall, the highest estimated burden was in the Planalto Norte macroregion (179.56 DALYs/100,000 population), followed by the Nordeste macroregion (167.07 DALYs/100,000 population). CONCLUSIONS: In the majority of the health care macroregions of Santa Catarina, the burden of disease due to tuberculosis was concentrated in adult males, the level of that concentration varying among the various macroregions. PMID:24626271

Ferrer, Glênio César Nunes; da Silva, Rosemeri Maurici; Ferrer, Kelian Tenfen; Traebert, Jefferson

2014-01-01

237

Feral swine brucellosis in the United States and prospective genomic techniques for disease epidemiology.  

PubMed

Brucellosis is a common infection of feral swine throughout the United States. With the recent expansion of feral swine populations across the country, this disease poses an increasing threat to agriculture and hunters. The standard approach to Brucella surveillance in feral swine has been serological testing, which gives an indication of past exposure and is a rapid method of determining populations where Brucella is present. More in-depth analyses require bacterial isolation to determine the Brucella species and biovar involved. Ultimately, for a comprehensive understanding of Brucella epizootiology in feral swine, incorporation of genotyping assays has become essential. Fortunately, the past decade has given rise to an array of genetic tools for assessing Brucella transmission and dispersal. This review aims to synthesize what is known about brucellosis in feral swine and will cover prospective genomic techniques that may be utilized to develop more complete understanding of the disease and its transmission history. PMID:23548760

Leiser, Owen P; Corn, Joseph L; Schmit, Brandon S; Keim, Paul S; Foster, Jeffrey T

2013-09-27

238

Can male vaccination reduce the burden of human papillomavirus-related disease in the United States?  

PubMed

Human papillomavirus (HPV) can cause cervical cancer, as well as a number of other diseases in both men and women. Both sexes play a role in transmission of the disease, but the cost-effectiveness of HPV vaccination differs between them. It is necessary to determine the best allocation of limited resources between these two populations to produce the most effective strategy for reducing the burden from HPV-related disease. This literature review intends to elucidate the economic and social considerations that will lead to maximum utilization of vaccination programs, which in turn will reduce the burden of HPV-related disease. Current outreach in the United States is based on vaccination against HPV as a means for combating cervical cancer in women. If we are to include males, however, new marketing strategies must focus on educating patients about the full range of the vaccine's benefits. Men who have sex with men (MSM) are also unprotected against HPV in the current system. Social considerations alone may not be enough, however, as economic prediction models suggest that the associated costs outweigh the benefits in most circumstances. Taking this into account, our review also considers alternate methods of maximizing prevention of HPV-associated disease. The most prudent programs will include physician involvement in patient education and the implementation of structured vaccination and screening programs. Unfortunately, many countries do not have the necessary resources to undertake national vaccination programs. HPV testing and cytology screening for women and MSM may be the most financially reasonable option for many countries. PMID:22691099

Low, Garren M I; Attiga, Yasser S; Garg, Gaurav; Schlegal, Richard; Gallicano, G Ian

2012-06-01

239

Pathogens and diseases of freshwater mussels in the United States: studies on bacterial transmission and depuration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Unionid mussels are recognized as important contributors to healthy aquatic ecosystems, as well as bioindicators of environmental perturbations. Because they are sedentary, filter feeding animals and require hosts (i.e., fishes) to transform embryonic glochidia, mussels are susceptible to direct adverse environmental parameters, and indirect parameters that restrict the timely presence of the host(s). Their numbers have declined in recent decades to a point that this fauna is regarded as one of the most imperiled in North America. The most significant threat to populations of native unionids in recent years has been the introduction and spread of zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha. Many federal and state agencies, and private interests are now engaged in mussel conservation efforts, including collecting selected imperiled species from impacted rivers and lakes and propagating them at refuges for future population augmentations. One essential consideration with mussel propagation and their intensive culture at refugia is the prevention of pathogen introductions and control of diseases. Currently, there are few reports of etiological agents causing diseases among freshwater mussels; however, because of increased observations of mussel die-offs in conjunction with transfers of live animals between natural waters and refugia, disease problems can be anticipated to emerge. This review summarizes research to develop bacterial isolation techniques, study pathogen transmission between fish and mussels, identify causes of seasonal mussel die-offs, and develop non-destructive methods for pathogen detection. These efforts were done to develop disease preventative techniques for use by resource managers to avoid potential large-scale disease problems in restoration and population augmentation efforts among imperiled populations.

Starliper, Clifford E.

2011-01-01

240

Clinical care of two patients with Ebola virus disease in the United States.  

PubMed

West Africa is currently experiencing the largest outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in history. Two patients with EVD were transferred from Liberia to our hospital in the United States for ongoing care. Malaria had also been diagnosed in one patient, who was treated for it early in the course of EVD. The two patients had substantial intravascular volume depletion and marked electrolyte abnormalities. We undertook aggressive supportive measures of hydration (typically, 3 to 5 liters of intravenous fluids per day early in the course of care) and electrolyte correction. As the patients' condition improved clinically, there was a concomitant decline in the amount of virus detected in plasma. PMID:25390460

Lyon, G Marshall; Mehta, Aneesh K; Varkey, Jay B; Brantly, Kent; Plyler, Lance; McElroy, Anita K; Kraft, Colleen S; Towner, Jonathan S; Spiropoulou, Christina; Ströher, Ute; Uyeki, Timothy M; Ribner, Bruce S

2014-12-18

241

Effect of latitude on the rate of change in incidence of Lyme disease in the United States  

PubMed Central

Background Tick-borne illnesses represent an important class of emerging zoonoses, with climate change projected to increase the geographic range within which tick-borne zoonoses might become endemic. We evaluated the impact of latitude on the rate of change in the incidence of Lyme disease in the United States, using publicly available data. Methods We estimated state-level year-on-year incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for Lyme disease for the period 1993 to 2007 using Poisson regression methods. We evaluated between-state heterogeneity in IRRs using a random-effects meta-analytic approach. We identified state-level characteristics associated with increasing incidence using random-effects meta-regression. Results The incidence of Lyme disease in the US increased by about 80% between 1993 and 2007 (IRR per year 1.049, 95% CI [confidence interval] 1.048 to 1.050). There was marked between-state heterogeneity in the average incidence of Lyme disease, ranging from 0.008 per 100 000 person-years in Colorado to 75 per 100 000 in Connecticut, and significant between-state heterogeneity in temporal trends (p < 0.001). In multivariable meta-regression models, increasing incidence showed a linear association with state latitude and population density. These 2 factors explained 27% of the between-state variation in IRRs. No independent association was identified for other state-level characteristics. Interpretation Lyme disease incidence increased in the US as a whole during the study period, but the changes were not uniform. Marked increases were identified in northern-most states, whereas southern states experienced stable or declining rates of Lyme disease. PMID:25077101

Tuite, Ashleigh R.; Greer, Amy L.

2013-01-01

242

SIR model on a small-world network and the endemic state of an infectious disease  

E-print Network

In this work we performed a numerical study of an epidemic model that mimics the endemic state of whooping cough in the pre-vaccine era. We considered a stochastic SIR model on two-dimensional Watts-Strogatz-type networks and analyzed the influence of the network properties on the characterization of the quasi-stationary state. We computed probability density functions (PDF) for infected fraction of individuals and found that they are well fitted by gamma functions, excepted the tails of the distributions that are q-exponentials. We also computed the fluctuation power spectra of infective time series for different networks. We found that network effects can be partially absorbed by rescaling the rate of infective contacts of the model. An explicit relation between the effective transmission rate of the disease and the correlation of susceptible individuals with their infective nearest neighbours was obtained. This relation quantifies the known screening of infective individuals observed in these networks. We ...

Dottori, Martin

2014-01-01

243

Geographic patterns of industry in the United States. An aid to the study of occupational disease.  

PubMed

The geographic location of 18 major manufacturing industries within the United States is illustrated by a series of computer-generated county maps. The metal and machinery industries, the two largest employers, an the transportation and rubber industries are concentrated in the northeastern quadrant of the United States, while most counties with textile, apparel, tobacco, and furniture manufacturing are in the South. Other industries had different patterns. The counties where industry was concentrated tended to be more urban and to have higher levels of income and education. The maps and associated demographic data on industrial counties may prove a useful adjunct to county maps illustrating mortality patterns for cancer and other diseases. Despite obvious limitations, the visual patterns and correlation analyses may help to generate and formulate hypothese concerning occupationally induced diease. PMID:671124

Stone, B J; Blot, W J; Fraumeni, J F

1978-07-01

244

Systems for rapidly detecting and treating persons with ebola virus disease - United States.  

PubMed

The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), CDC, other U.S. government agencies, the World Health Organization (WHO), and international partners are taking multiple steps to respond to the current Ebola virus disease (Ebola) outbreak in West Africa to reduce its toll there and to reduce the chances of international spread. At the same time, CDC and HHS are working to ensure that persons who have a risk factor for exposure to Ebola and who develop symptoms while in the United States are rapidly identified and isolated, and safely receive treatment. HHS and CDC have actively worked with state and local public health authorities and other partners to accelerate health care preparedness to care for persons under investigation (PUI) for Ebola or with confirmed Ebola. This report describes some of these efforts and their impact. PMID:25742383

Koonin, Lisa M; Jamieson, Denise J; Jernigan, John A; Van Beneden, Chris A; Kosmos, Christine; Harvey, Melissa Cole; Pietz, Harald; Bertolli, Jeanne; Perz, Joseph F; Whitney, Cynthia G; Halpin, Alison Sheehan-Laufer; Daley, W Randolph; Pesik, Nicki; Margolis, Gregg S; Tumpey, Abbigail; Tappero, Jordan; Damon, Inger

2015-03-01

245

The roles of vitamin B12 and vitamin D in children with intractable epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder. Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) can cause vitamin B12 or D deficiency in children with intractable epilepsy. In this study, we measured salivary superoxide dismutase (SOD) and metalloproteinsases (MMP) levels in the patients with vitamin B12 and vitamin D treatment. Cytokines and chemokines were measured using ELISA. The mean salivary value of SOD activity in the control group was 1.75 ± 0.21 U/ml. In the treatment group, the value was 1.33 ± 0.18 U/ml. The salivary MMP 2, MMP 3, and MMP 9 levels of the patients with vitamin D and vitamin B12 treatment were lower than that in the patients without vitamin D and vitamin B12 treatment. Interleukin 1? (IL-1?), IL-6, IL-8, macrophage inflammatory protein 1? (MIP-1?), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and IFN-inducible protein 10 (IP-10) were significantly decreased in the cortex of our patients with vitamin D and vitamin B12 treatment. In this study, a clear association between vitamin D and vitamin B12 treatment and epilepsy was identified. We now plan to investigate the genetic factors that underlie vitamin D and vitamin B12 treatment in patients treated with AEDs.

Li, Xiao-Hong; Hou, Xiao-Yan; Chen, Rong

2015-01-01

246

Outcome of Gamma Knife Thalamotomy in Patients with an Intractable Tremor  

PubMed Central

Objective Tremor is a common movement disorder that interferes with daily living. Since the medication for tremor has some limitations, surgical intervention is needed in many patients. In certain patients who cannot undergo aggressive surgical intervention, Gamma Knife thalamotomy (GKT) is a safe and effective alternative. Methods From June 2012 to August 2013, 7 patients with an intractable tremor underwent GKT. Four of these 7 patients had medical comorbidities, and 3 patients refused to undergo traditional surgery. Each patient was evaluated with the modified Fahn-Tolosa-Marin tremor rating scale (TRS) along with analysis of handwriting samples. All of the patients underwent GKT with a maximal dose of 130 Gy to the left ventralis intermedius (VIM) nucleus of the thalamus. Follow-up brain MRI was performed after 3 to 8 months of GKT, and evaluation with the TRS was also performed. Results Six patients showed objective improvement in the TRS score. Excluding one patient who demonstrated tremor progression, there was 28.9% improvement in the TRS score. However, five patients showed subjective improvement in their symptoms. On comparing the TRS scores between follow-up periods of more and less than 4 months, the follow-up TRS score at more than 4 months of GKT was significantly improved compared to that at less than 4 months of GKT. Follow-up MRI showed radiosurgical changes in 5 patients. Conclusion GKT with a maximal dose of 130 Gy to the VIM is a safe procedure that can replace other surgical procedures. PMID:25810859

Cho, Kyung Rae; Kim, Hong Rye; Im, Yong Seok; Youn, Jinyoung; Cho, Jin Whan

2015-01-01

247

Deep TMS add-on treatment for intractable Tourette syndrome: A feasibility study.  

PubMed

Objectives. In a considerable minority of patients who suffer from Tourette syndrome (TS) the disorder persists into adulthood and is associated with severe symptoms and limited therapeutic options. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to the supplementary motor area (SMA) has shown promising therapeutic results. Deep rTMS is a novel technology that enables deeper non-invasive cortical stimulation. This open-label pilot study is the first to examine the possible role of deep rTMS as add-on treatment for intractable TS. Methods. Twelve patients were recruited in order to examine bilateral SMA inhibition via deep TMS using the HBDL coil, as a possible treatment for adult TS treatment-resistant patients. Two patients did not complete the 20-day study protocol. Results. There were no significant side effects. While tics did not improve among the group as a whole, the subgroup of six patients with combined TS and OCD (obsessive compulsive syndrome) showed significant improvement in tic severity (P = 0.037). Conclusions. These findings support the safety of deep rTMS for treating TS. The results also highlight the importance of studying the different TS syndromes separately (e.g., with or without OCD comorbidity) when evaluating deep rTMS protocols for TS patients. PMID:25342253

Bloch, Yuval; Arad, Shira; Levkovitz, Yechiel

2014-10-24

248

Combining stereo-electroencephalography and subdural electrodes in the diagnosis and treatment of medically intractable epilepsy.  

PubMed

Stereo-electroencephalography (SEEG) has advantages for exploring deeper epileptic foci. Nevertheless, SEEG can only sample isolated cortical areas and its spatial limitation, with the inability to record contiguous cortical regions, may cause difficulties in interpretation. In light of these limitations, the authors describe the hybrid technique of SEEG and subdural strip electrode placement. The hybrid technique was used for a presurgical evaluation in four patients with intractable epilepsy. Initially, the depth electrodes were inserted with a robotic stereotactic system. Thereafter, a skin incision and a small craniectomy were performed at the entry point of the strip electrode trajectory. The dura was opened and, under live fluoroscopic guidance, strip electrodes were slid into the subdural space. In these patients, the additional subdural strip electrodes provided (1) information regarding the precise description of seizure spread in the cortical surface adjacent to the subdural space, (2) identification of epileptogenic zones located near the crown, (3) more precise definition of functional cortex and (4) a better delineation of the interface between epileptogenic zones and functional cortex. This hybrid technique provides additional data compared to either technique alone, offering superior understanding of the dynamics of the epileptic activity and its interaction with functional cortical areas. PMID:24650680

Enatsu, Rei; Bulacio, Juan; Najm, Imad; Wyllie, Elaine; So, Norman K; Nair, Dileep R; Foldvary-Schaefer, Nancy; Bingaman, William; Gonzalez-Martinez, Jorge

2014-08-01

249

Surgical Outcomes after Total Colectomy with Ileorectal Anastomosis in Patients with Medically Intractable Slow Transit Constipation  

PubMed Central

Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate outcomes of a total colectomy with ileorectal anastomosis in patients with slow transit constipation. Methods A retrospective review of 37 consecutive patients with slow transit constipation who underwent a total colectomy between 1994 and 2008 was undertaken. Preoperative and postoperative Wexner's constipation scores were collected and used to evaluate the outcomes after surgical treatment. Also patients' postoperative satisfaction scores were collected using a 4-point scale. Results The 37 patients consisted of 31 women and 6 men, with a median age of 41 years (range, 17 to 71 years). Pre- and post-operative Wexner's scores were collected from 33 patients (89.1%), and the mean preoperative Wexner's score was 19.3 (range, 11 to 24), which decreased to an average post-operative score of 2.3 (range, 0 to 8). Neither intraoperative complications nor postoperative mortalities were noted. Five patients (13.5%) had early postoperative complications, and the most common complication was postoperative ileus (10.8%). Seven patients (18.9%) had late postoperative complications, and postoperative ileus (10.8%) was also the most common. Twenty seven of 33 patients were satisfied with their surgical outcome (81.8%). Conclusion A total colectomy with ileorectal anastomosis might be an effective surgical procedure with acceptable morbidity to treat medically intractable slow transit constipation. PMID:21980588

Sohn, Guiyun; Kim, Chan Wook; Kwak, Jae Young; Jang, Tae Young; Kim, Kyung Ho; Yang, Song Soo; Yoon, Yong Sik; Lim, Seok-Byung; Kim, Jin Cheon

2011-01-01

250

[Patients with intractable epilepsy who achieved good seizure control after craniotomy instead of vagal nerve stimulation].  

PubMed

Vagal nerve stimulation(VNS)is an effective adjunctive therapy for medically intractable epilepsy. However, VNS is a palliative therapy, and craniotomy should preferably be performed when complete seizure remission can be expected after craniotomy. We report here three patients who were referred for VNS therapy, but underwent craniotomy instead of VNS based on the results of a comprehensive preoperative evaluation, and achieved good seizure control. Case 1 was a 48-year-old woman with left temporal lobe epilepsy and amygdalar enlargement. Even though no left hippocampal sclerosis was observed on magnetic resonance imaging, she underwent left anterior temporal lobectomy and hippocampectomy. Case 2 was a 36-year-old woman with multiple bilateral subependymal nodular heterotopias, who underwent resection of the left medial temporal lobe including subependymal nodular heterotopias adjacent to the left inferior horn. Case 3 was a 25-year-old man with posttraumatic epilepsy. As the right hemisphere was most affected, multiple subpial transections were performed on the left frontal convexity. These three patients were referred to us for VNS therapy because there was a dissociation between the interictal electroencephalogram and magnetic resonance imaging findings, or because they had multiple or extensive epileptogenic lesions. Comprehensive preoperative evaluation including ictal electroencephalography can help to identify patients who are suitable candidates for craniotomy. PMID:25433062

Morioka, Takato; Shimogawa, Takashi; Sayama, Tetsuro; Hashiguchi, Kimiaki; Murakami, Nobuya; Shigeto, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Satoshi O; Sakata, Ayumi; Makihara, Kosuke; Iihara, Koji

2014-12-01

251

Plasma and urinary serotonin and 5-HIAA in children treated with lamotrigine for intractable epilepsy.  

PubMed

Alteration of monoamine levels by some antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) was elucidated in this study. Lamotrigine (LTG) is a new AED, acting the sodium-channels. LTG was given as add-on therapy to 16 patients aged 4.5-18 yrs with intractable epilepsy and comedicated with carbamazepine or valproate. An equal group of epileptics with comparable clinical characteristics and treatment served as control. Plasma and urinary (24 h-samples) serotonin and 5-HIAA were determined before onset of LTG therapy and after 2-3 months. HPLC and electrochemical detection was used for the determination of serotonin (5-HT) and 5-hydroxy indoleacetic acid (5-HIAA). No significant effect of LTG on both urinary 5-HT and 5-HIAA levels was found, whereas plasma 5-HT concentrations significantly decreased in comparison with levels before LTG starting and relevant values in controls. This findings was noted in 7/16 children with favourable response to LTG. Increased serotonin catabolism may be result of LTG action. PMID:10721069

Jovi?, N J; Mirkovi?, D; Majki?-Singh, N; Milovanovi?, D D

1999-01-01

252

Amoeba-inspired nanoarchitectonic computing: solving intractable computational problems using nanoscale photoexcitation transfer dynamics.  

PubMed

Biologically inspired computing devices and architectures are expected to overcome the limitations of conventional technologies in terms of solving computationally demanding problems, adapting to complex environments, reducing energy consumption, and so on. We previously demonstrated that a primitive single-celled amoeba (a plasmodial slime mold), which exhibits complex spatiotemporal oscillatory dynamics and sophisticated computing capabilities, can be used to search for a solution to a very hard combinatorial optimization problem. We successfully extracted the essential spatiotemporal dynamics by which the amoeba solves the problem. This amoeba-inspired computing paradigm can be implemented by various physical systems that exhibit suitable spatiotemporal dynamics resembling the amoeba's problem-solving process. In this Article, we demonstrate that photoexcitation transfer phenomena in certain quantum nanostructures mediated by optical near-field interactions generate the amoebalike spatiotemporal dynamics and can be used to solve the satisfiability problem (SAT), which is the problem of judging whether a given logical proposition (a Boolean formula) is self-consistent. SAT is related to diverse application problems in artificial intelligence, information security, and bioinformatics and is a crucially important nondeterministic polynomial time (NP)-complete problem, which is believed to become intractable for conventional digital computers when the problem size increases. We show that our amoeba-inspired computing paradigm dramatically outperforms a conventional stochastic search method. These results indicate the potential for developing highly versatile nanoarchitectonic computers that realize powerful solution searching with low energy consumption. PMID:23565603

Aono, Masashi; Naruse, Makoto; Kim, Song-Ju; Wakabayashi, Masamitsu; Hori, Hirokazu; Ohtsu, Motoichi; Hara, Masahiko

2013-06-18

253

Intractable Facial Pain and Numb Chin due to Metastatic Esophageal Adenocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

The etiologies of facial pain are innumerable, thus facial pain misdiagnosis and resultant mismanagement is common. Numb chin syndrome presents with hypoesthesia and/or anesthesia in the dermatomal distribution of the inferior alveolar or the mental nerve. In this case report, we will discuss a case of intractable facial pain in a 57-year-old male with a history of esophageal adenocarcinoma who was initially misdiagnosed and treated as trigeminal neuralgia. During clinical examination, the loss of sensation in the inferior alveolar nerve distribution was identified and led to the diagnosis of mandibular metastasis. The details of the clinical presentation will be discussed in the context of accurate identification and diagnosis. Focal radiation to the metastatic location along with sphenopalatine ganglion radiofrequency ablation and medication management provided significant pain relief. This case report provides additional information to the current medical knowledge and it enhances the clinical vigilance of the clinicians when they encounter similar cases. We concluded that patients with a history of neoplasms who present with atypical symptoms of facial pain should undergo further investigation with advanced imaging. Targeted treatment based on an accurate diagnosis is the foundation of pain management. PMID:25606033

Elahi, Foad; Luke, Whitney; Elahi, Fazel

2014-01-01

254

The use of ketogenic diet in special situations: expanding use in intractable epilepsy and other neurologic disorders  

PubMed Central

The ketogenic diet has been widely used and proved to be effective for intractable epilepsy. Although the mechanisms underlying its anti-epileptic effects remain to be proven, there are increasing experimental evidences for its neuroprotective effects along with many researches about expanding use of the diet in other neurologic disorders. The first success was reported in glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome, in which the diet served as an alternative metabolic source. Many neurologic disorders share some of the common pathologic mechanisms such as mitochondrial dysfunction, altered neurotransmitter function and synaptic transmission, or abnormal regulation of reactive oxygen species, and the role of the ketogenic diet has been postulated in these mechanisms. In this article, we introduce an overview about the expanding use and emerging trials of the ketogenic diet in various neurologic disorders excluding intractable epilepsy and provide explanations of the mechanisms in that usage. PMID:23049588

2012-01-01

255

A sterile-female technique proposed for control of Striga hermonthica and other intractable weeds: advantages, shortcomings and risk management.  

PubMed

Weeds have posed intractable challenges to farmers since the dawn of agriculture. This article describes in detail a proposed control strategy based on the introduction of genes conferring female sterility into the genome of an intractable target weed. Spread of these genes through target populations via pollen would be facilitated by their incorporation within active transposable elements. Advantages (e.g. self-dissemination, self-proliferation, target specificity) and shortcomings (e.g. high cost, long project incubation period, limited range of possible targets) of this strategy are discussed in depth, as are assessment and management of its attendant biological and ecological risks, such as the risk of introduced genes spreading to non-target species. The parasitic weed Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth. is examined as a potential target. PMID:19288471

Rector, Brian G

2009-05-01

256

Trends in mortality due to invasive mycotic diseases in the United States, 1980-1997.  

PubMed

To determine national trends in mortality due to invasive mycoses, we analyzed National Center for Health Statistics multiple-cause-of-death record tapes for the years 1980 through 1997, with use of their specific codes in the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9 codes 112.4-118 and 136.3). In the United States, of deaths in which an infectious disease was the underlying cause, those due to mycoses increased from the tenth most common in 1980 to the seventh most common in 1997. From 1980 through 1997, the annual number of deaths in which an invasive mycosis was listed on the death certificate (multiple-cause [MC] mortality) increased from 1557 to 6534. In addition, rates of MC mortality for the different mycoses varied markedly according to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status but were consistently higher among males, blacks, and persons > or =65 years of age. These data highlight the public health importance of mycotic diseases and emphasize the need for continuing surveillance. PMID:11486286

McNeil, M M; Nash, S L; Hajjeh, R A; Phelan, M A; Conn, L A; Plikaytis, B D; Warnock, D W

2001-09-01

257

Optimal set of EEG features for emotional state classification and trajectory visualization in Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

In addition to classic motor signs and symptoms, individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) are characterized by emotional deficits. Ongoing brain activity can be recorded by electroencephalograph (EEG) to discover the links between emotional states and brain activity. This study utilized machine-learning algorithms to categorize emotional states in PD patients compared with healthy controls (HC) using EEG. Twenty non-demented PD patients and 20 healthy age-, gender-, and education level-matched controls viewed happiness, sadness, fear, anger, surprise, and disgust emotional stimuli while fourteen-channel EEG was being recorded. Multimodal stimulus (combination of audio and visual) was used to evoke the emotions. To classify the EEG-based emotional states and visualize the changes of emotional states over time, this paper compares four kinds of EEG features for emotional state classification and proposes an approach to track the trajectory of emotion changes with manifold learning. From the experimental results using our EEG data set, we found that (a) bispectrum feature is superior to other three kinds of features, namely power spectrum, wavelet packet and nonlinear dynamical analysis; (b) higher frequency bands (alpha, beta and gamma) play a more important role in emotion activities than lower frequency bands (delta and theta) in both groups and; (c) the trajectory of emotion changes can be visualized by reducing subject-independent features with manifold learning. This provides a promising way of implementing visualization of patient's emotional state in real time and leads to a practical system for noninvasive assessment of the emotional impairments associated with neurological disorders. PMID:25109433

Yuvaraj, R; Murugappan, M; Ibrahim, Norlinah Mohamed; Sundaraj, Kenneth; Omar, Mohd Iqbal; Mohamad, Khairiyah; Palaniappan, R

2014-12-01

258

Drosophila as a model for intractable epilepsy: gilgamesh suppresses seizures in para(bss1) heterozygote flies.  

PubMed

Intractable epilepsies, that is, seizure disorders that do not respond to currently available therapies, are difficult, often tragic, neurological disorders. Na(+) channelopathies have been implicated in some intractable epilepsies, including Dravet syndrome (Dravet 1978), but little progress has been forthcoming in therapeutics. Here we examine a Drosophila model for intractable epilepsy, the Na(+) channel gain-of-function mutant para(bss1) that resembles Dravet syndrome in some aspects (parker et al. 2011a). In particular, we identify second-site mutations that interact with para(bss1), seizure enhancers, and seizure suppressors. We describe one seizure-enhancer mutation named charlatan (chn). The chn gene normally encodes an Neuron-Restrictive Silencer Factor/RE1-Silencing Transcription factor transcriptional repressor of neuronal-specific genes. We identify a second-site seizure-suppressor mutation, gilgamesh (gish), that reduces the severity of several seizure-like phenotypes of para(bss1)/+ heterozygotes. The gish gene normally encodes the Drosophila ortholog of casein kinase CK1g3, a member of the CK1 family of serine-threonine kinases. We suggest that CK1g3 is an unexpected but promising new target for seizure therapeutics. PMID:23797108

Howlett, Iris C; Rusan, Zeid M; Parker, Louise; Tanouye, Mark A

2013-08-01

259

Treatment for intractable anemia with the traditional Chinese medicines Hominis Placenta and Cervi Cornus Colla (deer antler glue)  

PubMed Central

Objective Intractable anemia, such as aplastic anemia or that presumably associated with chronic herpes virus infections, sometimes require bone marrow transplant. We investigated the use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for the treatment of intractable anemia. Method Placenta Hominis (PH), steam boiled and roasted, and Cervi Cornus Colla (deer antler glue) has been used in China for hundreds of years to treat anemia. After consent was obtained, we prescribed these two materials for a 74-year-old female with aplastic anemia and a 26-year-old male with presumably a virus-induced anemia. Concomitant conventional therapy was continued in both patients as prescribed by their respective attending physicians. Conclusion Conventional therapy with steroid hormones, immunosuppressive drugs, platelet and erythrocyte transfusions were not effective in these patients. In addition, both patients suffered from serious side effects. In two patients, ingestion of Placenta Hominis and Cervi Cornus Colla with TCM prescriptions increased the platelet and enhanced the hemoglobin concentration in several months of therapy accompanied by a dramatic improvement in quality of life. The addition to conventional therapy of PH and Cervi Cornus Colla, the latter of which is very easy to obtain, may be one of the potentially advantageous choices in case of otherwise intractable anemia. PMID:20360892

Hijikata, Yasuyo; Kano, Takashi; Xi, Lu

2009-01-01

260

Efficacy of and Patient Compliance with a Ketogenic Diet in Adults with Intractable Epilepsy: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Despite the successful use of a ketogenic diet in pediatric epilepsy, its application in adults has been limited. The aim of this meta-analysis was to summarize the findings of relevant published studies in order to identify the efficacy of and compliance with a ketogenic diet and its main subtypes (i.e., classic ketogenic diet and modified Atkins diet) in adults with intractable epilepsy, and to provide useful information for clinical practice. Methods Electronic searches of PubMed, EMBASE, Google Scholar, and the ISI Web of Science were conducted to identify studies of the efficacy of and patient compliance with a ketogenic diet in adults with intractable epilepsy; the included studies were reviewed. Meta-analyses were performed using STATA to determine combined efficacy rates and combined rates of compliance with the ketogenic diet and its main subtypes. Results In total, 12 studies qualified for inclusion, and data from 270 patients were evaluated.The results of the meta-analysis revealed combined efficacy rates of all types of ketogenic diet, a classical ketogenic diet, and a modified Atkins diet were 42%, 52%, and 34%, respectively; the corresponding combined compliance rates were 45%, 38%, and 56%. Conclusions The results indicate that a ketogenic diet is a promising complementary therapy in adult intractable epilepsy, and that while a classical ketogenic diet may be more effective, adult patients are likely to be less compliant with it than with a modified Atkins diet. PMID:25628734

Ye, Fang; Li, Xiao-Jia; Jiang, Wan-Lin

2015-01-01

261

P-glycoprotein alters blood–brain barrier penetration of antiepileptic drugs in rats with medically intractable epilepsy  

PubMed Central

P-glycoprotein is one of the earliest known multidrug transporters and plays an important role in resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs. In this study, we detected levels of P-glycoprotein and its mRNA expression in a rat brain model of medically intractable epilepsy established by amygdala kindling and drug selection. We investigated whether inhibition of P-glycoprotein affects the concentration of antiepileptic drugs in cortical extracellular fluid. We found that levels of P-glycoprotein and its mRNA expression were upregulated in epileptic cerebral tissue compared with cerebral tissue from normal rats. The concentrations of two antiepileptic drugs, carbamazepine and phenytoin, were very low in the cortical extracellular fluid of rats with medically intractable epilepsy, and were restored after blockade of P-glycoprotein by verapamil. These results show that increased P-glycoprotein levels alter the ability of carbamazepine and phenytoin to penetrate the blood–brain barrier and reduce the concentrations of these agents in extracellular cortical fluid. High P-glycoprotein levels may be involved in resistance to antiepileptic drugs in medically intractable epilepsy. PMID:24348021

Ma, Aimei; Wang, Cuicui; Chen, Yinghui; Yuan, Weien

2013-01-01

262

Autoimmune disease and hair loss.  

PubMed

Once systemic disease is in remission, it is prudent to recognize the importance of alopecia in the patient's overall sense of well-being and quality-of-life clinical outcome. Scarring alopecia (scalp discoid lupus erythematosus) can be the presenting manifestation of lupus in more than half of affected individuals. Diffuse nonscarring alopecia in lupus is usually responsive to treatment of the systemic disease. Severe, often intractable burning pruritus of the scalp is a frequent complaint in dermatomyositis. Lichen planopilaris may mimic other autoimmune forms of scarring alopecia. Alopecia can also be caused by medications used to treat systemic autoimmune disease and fibromyalgia. PMID:23159178

Moghadam-Kia, Siamak; Franks, Andrew G

2013-01-01

263

The modified Atkins diet for intractable epilepsy may be associated with late-onset egg-induced anaphylactic reaction: A case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modified Atkins diet is a therapeutic option for children with intractable epilepsy. It is less restrictive than the traditional ketogenic diet, with ?60% of calories from fat sources. We describe a 6-y-old boy with intractable epilepsy treated with the modified Atkins diet who presented to the emergency department with first-time anaphylactic reaction to egg. Symptoms of urticaria and angioedema,

Yael Levy; Lilach Peleg-Weiss; Hadassa Goldberg-Stern

2011-01-01

264

Health Care System Collaboration to Address Chronic Diseases: A Nationwide Snapshot From State Public Health Practitioners  

PubMed Central

Introduction Until recently, health care systems in the United States often lacked a unified approach to prevent and manage chronic disease. Recent efforts have been made to close this gap through various calls for increased collaboration between public health and health care systems to better coordinate provision of services and programs. Currently, the extent to which the public health workforce has responded is relatively unknown. The objective of this study is to explore health care system collaboration efforts and activities among a population-based sample of state public health practitioners. Methods During spring 2013, a national survey was administered to state-level chronic disease public health practitioners. Respondents were asked to indicate whether or not they collaborate with health care systems. Those who reported “yes” were asked to indicate all topic areas in which they collaborate and provide qualitative examples of their collaborative work. Results A total of 759 respondents (84%) reported collaboration. Common topics of collaboration activities were tobacco, cardiovascular health, and cancer screening. More client-oriented interventions than system-wide interventions were found in the qualitative examples provided. Respondents who collaborated were also more likely to use the Community Guide, use evidence-based decision making, and work in program areas that involved secondary, rather than primary, prevention. Conclusion The study findings indicate a need for greater guidance on collaboration efforts that involve system-wide and cross-system interventions. Tools such as the Community Guide and evidence-based training courses may be useful in providing such guidance. PMID:25188277

McBride, Timothy D.; Allen, Peg; Jacob, Rebekah R.; Jones, Ellen; Kerner, Jon; Brownson, Ross C.

2014-01-01

265

Alzheimer disease in the United States (2010–2050) estimated using the 2010 census  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To provide updated estimates of Alzheimer disease (AD) dementia prevalence in the United States from 2010 through 2050. Methods: Probabilities of AD dementia incidence were calculated from a longitudinal, population-based study including substantial numbers of both black and white participants. Incidence probabilities for single year of age, race, and level of education were calculated using weighted logistic regression and AD dementia diagnosis from 2,577 detailed clinical evaluations of 1,913 people obtained from stratified random samples of previously disease-free individuals in a population of 10,800. These were combined with US mortality, education, and new US Census Bureau estimates of current and future population to estimate current and future numbers of people with AD dementia in the United States. Results: We estimated that in 2010, there were 4.7 million individuals aged 65 years or older with AD dementia (95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.0–5.5). Of these, 0.7 million (95% CI = 0.4–0.9) were between 65 and 74 years, 2.3 million were between 75 and 84 years (95% CI = 1.7–2.9), and 1.8 million were 85 years or older (95% CI = 1.4–2.2). The total number of people with AD dementia in 2050 is projected to be 13.8 million, with 7.0 million aged 85 years or older. Conclusion: The number of people in the United States with AD dementia will increase dramatically in the next 40 years unless preventive measures are developed. PMID:23390181

Weuve, Jennifer; Scherr, Paul A.; Evans, Denis A.

2013-01-01

266

Employment and activity limitations among adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - United States, 2013.  

PubMed

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a group of progressive respiratory conditions, including emphysema and chronic bronchitis, characterized by airflow obstruction and symptoms such as shortness of breath, chronic cough, and sputum production. COPD is an important contributor to mortality and disability in the United States. Healthy People 2020 has several COPD-related objectives,* including to reduce activity limitations among adults with COPD. To assess the state-level prevalence of COPD and the association of COPD with various activity limitations among U.S. adults, CDC analyzed data from the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). Among U.S. adults in all 50 states, the District of Columbia (DC), and two U.S. territories, 6.4% (an estimated 15.7 million adults) had been told by a physician or other health professional that they have COPD. Adults who reported having COPD were more likely to report being unable to work (24.3% versus 5.3%), having an activity limitation caused by health problems (49.6% versus 16.9%), having difficulty walking or climbing stairs (38.4% versus 11.3%), or using special equipment to manage health problems (22.1% versus 6.7%), compared with adults without COPD. Smokers who have been diagnosed with COPD are encouraged to quit smoking, which can slow the progression of the disease and reduce mobility impairment. In addition, COPD patients should consider participation in a pulmonary rehabilitation program that combines patient education and exercise training to address barriers to physical activity, such as respiratory symptoms and muscle wasting. PMID:25811677

Wheaton, Anne G; Cunningham, Timothy J; Ford, Earl S; Croft, Janet B

2015-03-27

267

Impact of the Metabolic Syndrome on Mortality From Coronary Heart Disease, Cardiovascular Disease, and All Causes in United States Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Mortality resulting from coronary heart disease (CHD), cardiovascular disease (CVD), and all causes in persons with diabetes and pre-existing CVD is high; however, these risks compared with those with metabolic syndrome (MetS) are unclear. We examined the impact of MetS on CHD, CVD, and overall mortality among US adults. Methods and Results—In a prospective cohort study, 6255 subjects 30 to

Shaista Malik; Nathan D. Wong; Stanley S. Franklin; Tripthi V. Kamath; Gilbert J. L'Italien; Jose R. Pio; G. Rhys Williams

2010-01-01

268

Altered functional connectivity in early Alzheimer's disease: a resting-state fMRI study.  

PubMed

Previous studies have led to the proposal that patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) may have disturbed functional connectivity between different brain regions. Furthermore, recent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have also shown that low-frequency (<0.08 Hz) fluctuations (LFF) of the blood oxygenation level-dependent signals were abnormal in several brain areas of AD patients. However, few studies have investigated disturbed LFF connectivity in AD patients. By using resting-state fMRI, this study sought to investigate the abnormal functional connectivities throughout the entire brain of early AD patients, and analyze the global distribution of these abnormalities. For this purpose, the authors divided the whole brain into 116 regions and identified abnormal connectivities by comparing the correlation coefficients of each pair. Compared with healthy controls, AD patients had decreased positive correlations between the prefrontal and parietal lobes, but increased positive correlations within the prefrontal lobe, parietal lobe, and occipital lobe. The AD patients also had decreased negative correlations (closer to zero) between two intrinsically anti-correlated networks that had previously been found in the resting brain. By using resting-state fMRI, our results supported previous studies that have reported an anterior-posterior disconnection phenomenon and increased within-lobe functional connectivity in AD patients. In addition, the results also suggest that AD may disturb the correlation/anti-correlation effect in the two intrinsically anti-correlated networks. PMID:17133390

Wang, Kun; Liang, Meng; Wang, Liang; Tian, Lixia; Zhang, Xinqing; Li, Kuncheng; Jiang, Tianzi

2007-10-01

269

Pediatric Invasive Pneumococcal Disease in the United States in the Era of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines  

PubMed Central

Summary: Invasive infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae continue to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in children under 5 years of age. In the United States, 90% of invasive pneumococcal infections in children are caused by 13 serotypes of S. pneumoniae. The licensure (in 2000) and subsequent widespread use of a heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) have had a significant impact on decreasing the incidence of serious invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in all age groups, especially in children under 2 years of age. However, the emergence of replacement non-PCV7 serotypes, especially serotype 19A, has resulted in an increase in the incidence of serious and invasive infections. In 2010, a 13-valent PCV was licensed in the United States. However, the impact that this vaccine will have on IPD remains to be seen. The objectives of this review are to discuss the epidemiology of serious and invasive pneumococcal infections in the United States in the PCV era and to review some of the pneumococcal vaccines that are in development. PMID:22763632

2012-01-01

270

9 CFR 53.2 - Determination of existence of disease; agreements with States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, PLEUROPNEUMONIA, RINDERPEST, AND CERTAIN OTHER COMMUNICABLE DISEASES OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY §...

2010-01-01

271

[Treatment of intractable postherpetic neuralgia and blepharospasm: intraneural injection of adriamycin].  

PubMed

Adriamycin, an anthracycline antineoplastic agent, can swiftly be transported to the sensory or somatic motor neurons by way of axoplasmic transport when injected into the subepineurium of the trigeminal nerve or sciatic nerve in experimental animals, and is consequently able to induce degeneration of the neurons without any systemic side effects. Intraneural injection of this agent was carried out for the treatment of a total of 22 patients presenting with intractable neural dysfunction (12 with neuralgia, including 7 with post-herpetic neuralgia and 10 with facial dystonia). The nerve which innervated the affected site was exposed under local anesthesia and approximately 10-60 microliters of 1-20% adriamycin was injected into the subepineurium. Results of the treatment after average follow-up periods of 21.5 months were as follows: Out of 12 patients with neuralgia, good results were obtained in 2 cases (16.7%), fair results in 6 cases (50.0%) (overall effective rate 67.7%). There were no changes in symptoms in 4 cases (33.3%). Out of 10 patients with facial dystonia, good results were obtained in 2 cases (20.0%), fair in 2 cases (20.0%) (overall effective rate 40.0%), and no changes in symptoms in 6 cases (60.0%). No major complications were encountered during these procedures and, once symptoms had disappeared after the treatment, no recurrence of symptoms was experienced. This method clearly differs from other various kinds of simple peripheral neurotomy, since transection of the peripheral nerve does not cause any, destructive changes in the sensory ganglion or motor nucleus and, hence, symptoms may recur.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7877732

Saiki, M; Kondo, A; Kinuta, Y; Iwasaki, K; Kobata, H; Hasegawa, K; Chin, M; Nakano, I; Yamamoto, T

1995-02-01

272

Stem cell transplantation improves aging-related diseases.  

PubMed

Aging is a complex process of damage accumulation, and has been viewed as experimentally and medically intractable. The number of patients with age-associated diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), osteoporosis, Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease, atherosclerosis, and cancer has increased recently. Aging-related diseases are related to a deficiency of the immune system, which results from an aged thymus and bone marrow cells. Intra bone marrow-bone marrow transplantation (IBM-BMT) is a useful method to treat intractable diseases. This review summarizes findings that IBM-BMT can improve and treat aging-related diseases, including T2DM, osteoporosis and AD, in animal models. PMID:25364723

Ikehara, Susumu; Li, Ming

2014-01-01

273

Stem cell transplantation improves aging-related diseases  

PubMed Central

Aging is a complex process of damage accumulation, and has been viewed as experimentally and medically intractable. The number of patients with age-associated diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), osteoporosis, Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease, atherosclerosis, and cancer has increased recently. Aging-related diseases are related to a deficiency of the immune system, which results from an aged thymus and bone marrow cells. Intra bone marrow-bone marrow transplantation (IBM-BMT) is a useful method to treat intractable diseases. This review summarizes findings that IBM-BMT can improve and treat aging-related diseases, including T2DM, osteoporosis and AD, in animal models. PMID:25364723

Ikehara, Susumu; Li, Ming

2014-01-01

274

Plasma levels of some coagulation parameters in Steady State HBSC disease patients  

PubMed Central

Introduction Sickle cell disease is a collection of autosomal recessive genetic disorders. It includes homozygous HbSS and double heterozygote combinations such as HbSC. Central and West Africa bears a significant burden of HbSC disease. Methods Prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), fibrinogen concentration (FC) and platelet count (PC) were determined in 41HbSC and HbSS patients in steady state along with 40 apparently healthy HbAA controls. One way ANOVA test was used to compare means; p values< 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results There was no significant difference in mean PT for the study groups (p = 0.192). Mean PC was highest in HbSS patients: 445.7 +/- 128.3 X 10 9/ L compared to HbSC: 330.0 +/- 97.7 X 10 9/ L andHbAA:245 +/- 77.7 X 10 9/ L (p= 0.000). Mean APTT was 28.1 +/- 3.8 seconds in controls,24.1 + /- 66 seconds in HbSS patients and 21.8 +/- 3.8 seconds in HbSC patients (p = 0.000). Mean FC in HbSS was 1.6 +/- 0.7 g/L, 3.2 +/- 0.6 g/L in HbSC and 2.9 +/- 0.4 g/L in HbAA (p =0.000). Conclusion A significant difference exists in PC, APTT and FC in HbSC patients compared to HbSS patients and HbAA controls. Elevated FC and shortened APTT may play a role in complications more characteristic of HbSC such as retinopathy and osteonecrosis. These suggestHbSC is not merely a milder form of HbSS; both diseases should be seen as different entities with regards to approaches for management.

Ajuwon, Mauryne Debola; Olayemi, Edeghonghon; Benneh, Amma Anima

2014-01-01

275

[Triatoma infestans in area under entomological surveillance for Chagas' disease in São Paulo State, Brazil].  

PubMed

In response to notification of the capture of a winged triatomine bug by local inhabitants, an epidemiological investigation was investigated in the rural area of the Municipality of Paulínia, São Paulo State (Brazil). This led to the collection of 109 specimens of Triatoma infestans from peridomiciliary breeding sites. Local conditions favored colonization by triatomine bugs: many abandoned outbuildings were inhabited by pigeons and sparrows, which meant abundant feed for these bugs. Thus, surveillance is mandatory as long as conditions for triatomine breeding persist. Nevertheless, entomological and serological indicators ruled out immediate concern over vectorial transmission of Chagas' disease in this municipality. All domiciliary units of the region were sprayed with residual-effect insecticides and the triatomine breeding sites were destroyed by the use of mechanical control of bird nests. The importance of reporting the occurrence of triatomine bugs, particularly Triatoma infestans, in this region, is emphasized. PMID:11600909

Leite, O F; Alves, M J; Souza, S S; Mayo, R C; Andrade, V R; Souza, C E; Rangel, O; Oliveira, S S; Lima, V L; Rodrigues, V L; Carvalho, M E; Casanova, C; Wanderley, D M

2001-01-01

276

State of the Art: Medical treatment of aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD).  

PubMed

Aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) is characterized as adult onset asthma, nasal polyps, chronic rhinosinusitis, and hypersensitivity to a cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) inhibitor, viz aspirin or nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). The method for diagnosing AERD is with aspirin challenge, and treatment includes aspirin desensitization followed by continued daily aspirin. Although oral challenge has been the mainstay in the United States, lysyl-aspirin has been validated as a diagnostic tool for aspirin-sensitive asthma and will be discussed further in this article. The challenges with aspirin therapy surrounding endoscopy and perioperative aspirin therapy will be discussed. Additionally, daily aspirin therapy is not for everyone. Aspirin is relatively contraindicated in those with a history of gastrointestinal bleed and an absolute contraindication in pregnancy. Aspirin desensitization and subsequent treatment has been shown to be highly effective for AERD. PMID:25590318

Ta, Von; Simon, Ronald

2015-01-01

277

Cushing's disease, pseudo-Cushing states and the dexamethasone test: a historical and critical review.  

PubMed

The dexamethasone (DXM) test has been widely used for diagnosing Cushing's disease (CD). The purpose of this paper is to review its diagnostic merit based on calculation of data extracted from earlier publications. Studies presenting individual values for patients with CD and normal subjects were identified through PubMed searches and references in pertinent studies. Calculation of the retrieved data demonstrated huge variation in the relative suppressibility, negative suppression being common. Furthermore, in almost each study retrieved, the pre and post DXM values were closely correlated. Finally, the generally accepted view that DXM causes less suppression in Cushing's disease than in euadrenal controls appears unfounded. A central issue in the definition of so-called "pseudo-Cushing's states" is failure to suppress cortisol secretion with DXM. From analysis of the literature it appears quite possible that this does not reflect a specific endocrine deficit, but a physiological "stress" reaction. The above issues question the diagnostic value of the test, in particular in clinically and biochemically borderline cases. PMID:23979450

Lindholm, J

2014-08-01

278

Mediators of the association between low socioeconomic status and chronic kidney disease in the United States.  

PubMed

Using data collected from 9,823 participants in the 2007-2008 and 2009-2010 cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we formally investigated potentially modifiable factors linking low socioeconomic status (SES) to chronic kidney disease (CKD) for their presence and magnitude of mediation. SES was defined using the poverty income ratio. The main outcome was CKD, defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/minute/1.73 m(2) (using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation) and/or urinary albumin:creatinine ratio ?30 mg/g. In mediation analyses, we tested the contributions of health-related behaviors (smoking, alcohol intake, diet, physical activity, and sedentary time), comorbid conditions (diabetes, hypertension, obesity, abdominal obesity, and hypercholesterolemia), and access to health care (health insurance and routine health-care visits) to this association. Except for sedentary time and diet, all examined health-related behaviors, comorbid conditions, and factors related to health-care access mediated the low SES-CKD association and contributed 20%, 32%, and 11%, respectively, to this association. In race/ethnicity-specific analyses, identified mediators tended to explain more of the association between low SES and CKD in non-Hispanic blacks than in other racial/ethnic groups. In conclusion, potentially modifiable factors like health-related behaviors, comorbid conditions, and health-care access contribute substantially to the association between low SES and CKD in the United States, especially among non-Hispanic blacks. PMID:25731886

Vart, Priya; Gansevoort, Ron T; Crews, Deidra C; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Bültmann, Ute

2015-03-15

279

Widespread increase of functional connectivity in Parkinson's disease with tremor: a resting-state FMRI study.  

PubMed

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a clinically heterogeneous disease in the symptomatology dominated by tremor, akinesia, or rigidity. Focusing on PD patients with tremor, this study investigated their discoordination patterns of spontaneous brain activity by combining voxel-wise centrality, seed-based functional connectivity, and network efficiency methods. Sixteen patients and 20 matched healthy controls (HCs) were recruited and underwent structural and resting-state functional MRI scan. Compared with the HCs, the patients exhibited increased centrality in the frontal, parietal, and occipital regions while decreased centrality in the cerebellum anterior lobe and thalamus. Seeded at these regions, a distributed network was further identified that encompassed cortical (default mode network, sensorimotor cortex, prefrontal and occipital areas) and subcortical (thalamus and basal ganglia) regions and the cerebellum and brainstem. Graph-based analyses of this network revealed increased information transformation efficiency in the patients. Moreover, the identified network correlated with clinical manifestations in the patients and could distinguish the patients from HCs. Morphometric analyses revealed decreased gray matter volume in multiple regions that largely accounted for the observed functional abnormalities. Together, these findings provide a comprehensive view of network disorganization in PD with tremor and have important implications for understanding neural substrates underlying this specific type of PD. PMID:25691867

Zhang, Delong; Liu, Xian; Chen, Jun; Liu, Bo; Wang, Jinhui

2015-01-01

280

Modular reorganization of brain resting state networks and its independent validation in Alzheimer's disease patients  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have demonstrated disruption in structural and functional connectivity occurring in the Alzheimer's Disease (AD). However, it is not known how these disruptions alter brain network reorganization. With the modular analysis method of graph theory, and datasets acquired by the resting-state functional connectivity MRI (R-fMRI) method, we investigated and compared the brain organization patterns between the AD group and the cognitively normal control (CN) group. Our main finding is that the largest homotopic module (defined as the insula module) in the CN group was broken down to the pieces in the AD group. Specifically, it was discovered that the eight pairs of the bilateral regions (the opercular part of inferior frontal gyrus, area triangularis, insula, putamen, globus pallidus, transverse temporal gyri, superior temporal gyrus, and superior temporal pole) of the insula module had lost symmetric functional connection properties, and the corresponding gray matter concentration (GMC) was significant lower in AD group. We further quantified the functional connectivity changes with an index (index A) and structural changes with the GMC index in the insula module to demonstrate their great potential as AD biomarkers. We further validated these results with six additional independent datasets (271 subjects in six groups). Our results demonstrated specific underlying structural and functional reorganization from young to old, and for diseased subjects. Further, it is suggested that by combining the structural GMC analysis and functional modular analysis in the insula module, a new biomarker can be developed at the single-subject level. PMID:23950743

Chen, Guangyu; Zhang, Hong-Ying; Xie, Chunming; Chen, Gang; Zhang, Zhi-Jun; Teng, Gao-Jun; Li, Shi-Jiang

2013-01-01

281

Bluetongue disease and seroprevalence in South American camelids from the northwestern region of the United States.  

PubMed

In late summer/early fall of 2013, 2 South American camelids from central Washington were diagnosed with fatal bluetongue viral disease, an event which is rarely reported. A 9-year-old intact male llama (Lama glama), with a 1-day history of anorexia, recumbency, and dyspnea before death. Abundant foam discharged from the mouth and nostrils, and the lungs were severely edematous on postmortem examination. Histologically, there was abundant intra-alveolar edema with fibrin. Hemorrhage and edema disrupted several other organs. Bluetongue viral RNA was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and serotype 11 was identified by sequencing a segment of the VP2 outer capsid gene. Approximately 1 month later, at a site 150 miles north of the index case, a 2-year-old female alpaca with similar, acutely progressive clinical signs was reported. A postmortem examination was performed, and histologic lesions from the alpaca were similar to those of the llama, and again serotype 11 was detected by PCR. The occurrence of bluetongue viral infection and disease is described in the context of seasonal Bluetongue virus activity within the northwestern United States and southwestern Canada. PMID:25680921

Allen, Andrew J; Stanton, James B; Evermann, James F; Fry, Lindsay M; Ackerman, Melissa G; Barrington, George M

2015-03-01

282

Procoagulatory State in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases Is Promoted by Impaired Intestinal Barrier Function  

PubMed Central

Inflammatory and immune mediated disorders are risk factors for arterial and venous thromboembolism. Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) confer an even greater risk of thromboembolic events than other inflammatory conditions. It has been shown that IBD patients display defective intestinal barrier functions. Thus, pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) coming from the intestinal bacterial burden might reach systemic circulation and activate innate immunity receptors on endothelial cells and platelets, promoting a procoagulative state. Aim of the study was to test this hypothesis, correlating the presence of circulating PAMPs with the activation of innate immune system and the activation of the coagulatory cascade in IBD patients. Specifically, we studied lipopolysaccharide (LPS), Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, TLR4, and markers of activated coagulation (i.e., D-Dimer and prothrombin fragment F1+2) in the serum and plasma of IBD patients. We found that LPS levels are increased in IBD and correlate with TLR4 concentrations; although a mild correlation between LPS and CRP levels was detected, clinical disease activity does not appear to influence circulating LPS. Instead, serum LPS correlates with both D-Dimer and F1+2 measurements. Taken together, our data support the role of an impairment of intestinal barrier in triggering the activation of the coagulatory cascade in IBD.

Dozio, Elena; Boscolo-Anzoletti, Massimo; Vianello, Elena; Munizio, Nadia; Spina, Luisa; Tontini, Gian Eugenio; Corsi Romanelli, Massimiliano Marco; Vecchi, Maurizio

2015-01-01

283

Utility of arthroscopic guided synovial biopsy in understanding synovial tissue pathology in health and disease states  

PubMed Central

The synovium is the soft tissue lining diarthrodial joints, tendon sheaths and bursae and is composed of intimal and subintimal layers. The intimal layer is composed of type A cells (macrophages) and type B cells (fibroblasts); in health, the subintima has few inflammatory cells. The synovium performs several homeostatic functions and is the primary target in several inflammatory arthritides. Inflammatory states are characterised by thickening of the synovial lining, macrophage recruitment and fibroblast proliferation, and an influx of inflammatory cells including lymphocytes, monocytes and plasma cells. Of the various methods employed to perform synovial biopsies arthroscopic techniques are considered the “gold standard”, and have an established safety record. Synovial biopsy has been of critical importance in understanding disease pathogenesis and has provided insight into mechanisms of action of targeted therapies by way of direct evidence about events in the synovial tissue in various arthritides. It has been very useful as a research tool for proof of concept studies to assess efficacy and mechanisms of new therapies, provide tissue for in vitro studies, proteomics and microarrays and allow evaluation for biomarkers that may help predict response to therapy and identify new targets for drug development. It also has diagnostic value in the evaluation of neoplastic or granulomatous disease or infection when synovial fluid analysis is non-contributory. PMID:25405084

Wechalekar, Mihir D; Smith, Malcolm D

2014-01-01

284

Retrosigmoid approach for vestibular neurectomy in Meniere’s disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Background. Vestibular nerve section is considered to be the most effective surgical procedure to control intractable symptoms secondary to Menière’s disease (MD). This study was developed to analyze the adequacy of retrosigmoid vestibular neurectomy in terms of vertigo control, hearing preservation and clinical complications of this procedure.

R. Perez; A. Ducati; D. Garbossa; F. Benech; M. M. Fontanella; A. Canale; R. Albera

2005-01-01

285

Progressive Neuronal Degeneration of Childhood (PNDC) with Liver Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirteen children with progressive neuronal degeneration and liver disease are reported. Clinical features included developmental delay after a normal initial period with later onset of intractable epilepsy. The EEG showed an unusual but characteristic pattern, and visual evoked responses (VER) were abnormal. Rapidly progressive cerebral atrophy was seen on computerized axial tomography (CAT). Inheritance was consistent with an autosomal recessive

J. Egger; B. N. Harding; S. G. Boyd; J. Wilson; M. Erdohazi

1987-01-01

286

Mortality impact of thoracic aortic disease in São Paulo state from 1998 to 2007  

PubMed Central

Background The epidemiological characteristics of thoracic aortic diseases (TAD) in the State of São Paulo and in Brazil, as well as their impact on the survival of these patients have yet to be analyzed. Objectives To evaluate the mortality impact of TAD and characterize it epidemiologically. Methods Retrospective analysis of data from the public health system for the TAD registry codes of hospitalizations, procedures and deaths, from the International Code of Diseases (ICD-10), registered at the Ministry of Health of São Paulo State from January 1998 to December 2007. Results They were 9.465 TAD deaths, 5.500 men (58.1%) and 3.965 women (41.9%); 6.721 dissections (71%) and 2.744. aneurysms. In 86.3% of cases the diagnosis was attained during autopsy. There were 6.109 hospitalizations, of which 67.9% were males; 21.2% of them died (69% men), with similar proportions of dissection and aneurysm between sexes, respectively 54% and 46%, but with different mortality. Men with TAD die more often than women (OR = 1.5). The age distribution for deaths and hospitalizations was similar with predominance in the 6th decade. They were 3.572 surgeries (58% of hospitalizations) with 20.3% mortality (patients kept in clinical treatment showed 22.6% mortality; p = 0.047). The number of hospitalizations, surgeries, deaths of in-patients and general deaths by TAD were progressively greater than the increase in population over time. Conclusions Specific actions for the early identification of these patients, as well as the viability of their care should be implemented to reduce the apparent progressive mortality from TAD seen among our population. PMID:24100695

Dias, Ricardo Ribeiro; Mejia, Omar Asdrubal Vilca; Fernandes, Fábio; Ramires, Félix José Alvarez; Mady, Charles; Stolf, Noedir Antonio Groppo; Jatene, Fabio Biscegli

2013-01-01

287

Evolutionary dynamics and spatial genetic structure of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus in the eastern United States.  

PubMed

Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) is a significant pathogen of wild and domestic ungulates worldwide. In North America, serotype EHDV-2 is responsible for the majority of outbreaks, which are most commonly observed in white-tailed deer. A recent study by Murphy et al. [Murphy, M.D., Howerth, E.W., MacLachlan, N.J., Stallknecht, D.E., 2005. Genetic variation among epizootic hemorrhagic disease viruses in the southeastern United States: 1978-2001. Infect. Genet. Evol. 5, 157-165] examined the genetic relationships of EHDV-2 sequences from outbreaks across the eastern United States for evidence of temporal and spatial structure but found no evidence for either. Here, I present results of further examination of the same data using additional types of analysis. Contrary to the earlier assessment, I find that for outbreaks observed within the same year, genetic and spatial distances are in fact positively correlated and that the virus is evolving at a rate similar to that seen in other vector-born RNA viruses. Estimates of demographic history further revealed that population sizes of the virus had remained relatively stable over most of its history. A noticeable exception to this trend was a recent demographic bottleneck, possibly associated with a selective sweep, that affected one of the two viral genes examined. These results demonstrate that genetic variation accumulating at selectively neutral and measurably evolving sites in the EHDV-2 genome can be employed to gain insights into the spatial and temporal dynamics of this viral pathogen. PMID:17543590

Biek, Roman

2007-09-01

288

Stem cell therapy for inflammatory bowel disease.  

PubMed

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) could be curable by "immune rest" and correction of the genetic predisposition inherent in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. However, balancing risks against benefits remains challenging. The application of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) serving as a site-regulated "drugstore" is a recent concept, which suggests the possibility of an alternative treatment for many intractable diseases such as IBD. Depending on the required function of MSC, such as a cell provider, immune moderator, and/or trophic resource, MSC therapy should be optimized to maximize its therapeutic benefit. Therapeutic effects do not always require full engraftment of MSCs. Therefore, optimization of pleiotropic gut trophic factors produced by MSCs, which favoring not only regulating immune responses but also promoting tissue repair, must directly enhance new drug discoveries for treatment of IBD. Stem cell biology holds great promise for a new era of cell-based therapy, sparking considerable interest among scientists, clinicians, and patients. However, the translational arm of stem cell science remains in a relatively primitive state. Although several clinical studies using MSCs have been initiated, early results suggest several inherent problems. In each study, optimization of MSC therapy appears to be the most urgent problem, and can be resolved only by scientifically unveiling the mechanisms of therapeutic action. In the present review, the authors outline how such information would facilitate the critical steps in the paradigm shift from basic research on stem cell biology to clinical practice of regenerative medicine for conquering IBD in the near future. PMID:25618180

Nagaishi, Kanna; Arimura, Yoshiaki; Fujimiya, Mineko

2015-03-01

289

Climate variability and change in the United States: potential impacts on vector- and rodent-borne diseases.  

PubMed Central

Diseases such as plague, typhus, malaria, yellow fever, and dengue fever, transmitted between humans by blood-feeding arthropods, were once common in the United States. Many of these diseases are no longer present, mainly because of changes in land use, agricultural methods, residential patterns, human behavior, and vector control. However, diseases that may be transmitted to humans from wild birds or mammals (zoonoses) continue to circulate in nature in many parts of the country. Most vector-borne diseases exhibit a distinct seasonal pattern, which clearly suggests that they are weather sensitive. Rainfall, temperature, and other weather variables affect in many ways both the vectors and the pathogens they transmit. For example, high temperatures can increase or reduce survival rate, depending on the vector, its behavior, ecology, and many other factors. Thus, the probability of transmission may or may not be increased by higher temperatures. The tremendous growth in international travel increases the risk of importation of vector-borne diseases, some of which can be transmitted locally under suitable circumstances at the right time of the year. But demographic and sociologic factors also play a critical role in determining disease incidence, and it is unlikely that these diseases will cause major epidemics in the United States if the public health infrastructure is maintained and improved. PMID:11359689

Gubler, D J; Reiter, P; Ebi, K L; Yap, W; Nasci, R; Patz, J A

2001-01-01

290

The Impact of Movements and Animal Density on Continental Scale Cattle Disease Outbreaks in the United States  

PubMed Central

Globalization has increased the potential for the introduction and spread of novel pathogens over large spatial scales necessitating continental-scale disease models to guide emergency preparedness. Livestock disease spread models, such as those for the 2001 foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) epidemic in the United Kingdom, represent some of the best case studies of large-scale disease spread. However, generalization of these models to explore disease outcomes in other systems, such as the United States’s cattle industry, has been hampered by differences in system size and complexity and the absence of suitable livestock movement data. Here, a unique database of US cattle shipments allows estimation of synthetic movement networks that inform a near-continental scale disease model of a potential FMD-like (i.e., rapidly spreading) epidemic in US cattle. The largest epidemics may affect over one-third of the US and 120,000 cattle premises, but cattle movement restrictions from infected counties, as opposed to national movement moratoriums, are found to effectively contain outbreaks. Slow detection or weak compliance may necessitate more severe state-level bans for similar control. Such results highlight the role of large-scale disease models in emergency preparedness, particularly for systems lacking comprehensive movement and outbreak data, and the need to rapidly implement multi-scale contingency plans during a potential US outbreak. PMID:24670977

Buhnerkempe, Michael G.; Tildesley, Michael J.; Lindström, Tom; Grear, Daniel A.; Portacci, Katie; Miller, Ryan S.; Lombard, Jason E.; Werkman, Marleen; Keeling, Matt J.; Wennergren, Uno; Webb, Colleen T.

2014-01-01

291

Occupational silica exposure and risk of various diseases: an analysis using death certificates from 27 states of the United States  

PubMed Central

Background: Although crystalline silica exposure is associated with silicosis, lung cancer, pulmonary tuberculosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), there is less support for an association with autoimmune disease, and renal disease. Methods: Using data from the US National Occupational Mortality Surveillance (NOMS) system, a matched case-control design was employed to examine each of several diseases (including silicosis, lung cancer, stomach cancer, oesophageal cancer, COPD, pulmonary tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and various types of renal disease). Cases were subjects whose death certificate mentioned the disease of interest. A separate control group for each of the diseases of interest was selected from among subjects whose death certificate did not mention the disease of interest or any of several diseases reported to be associated with crystalline silica exposure. Subjects were assigned into a qualitative crystalline silica exposure category based on the industry/occupation pairing found on their death certificate. We also investigated whether silicotics had a higher risk of disease compared to those without silicosis. Results: Those postulated to have had detectable crystalline silica exposure had a significantly increased risk for silicosis, COPD, pulmonary tuberculosis, and rheumatoid arthritis. In addition, a significant trend of increasing risk with increasing silica exposure was observed for these same conditions and for lung cancer. Those postulated to have had the greatest crystalline silica exposure had a significantly increased risk for silicosis, lung cancer, COPD, and pulmonary tuberculosis only. Finally, those with silicosis had a significantly increased risk for COPD, pulmonary tuberculosis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Conclusions: This study corroborates the association between crystalline silica exposure and silicosis, lung cancer, COPD, and pulmonary tuberculosis. In addition, support is provided for an association between crystalline silica exposure and rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:12554840

Calvert, G; Rice, F; Boiano, J; Sheehy, J; Sanderson, W

2003-01-01

292

Mad cow disease in the United States: an update on bovine spongiform encephalopathy and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Classified among the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD), are neurodegenerative conditions associated with the accumulation of an abnormal protein called PrP. Both conditions are thought to result from a novel type of infection that is mediated by a protein agent rather than a nucleic acid-containing particle. Amplified by the practice of feeding infected

Karin E Finberg

2004-01-01

293

Intradural approach to selective stimulation in the spinal cord for treatment of intractable pain: design principles and wireless protocol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce an intradural approach to spinal cord stimulation for the relief of intractable pain, and describe the biophysical rationale that underlies its design and performance requirements. The proposed device relies on wireless, inductive coupling between a pial surface implant and its epidural controller, and we present the results of benchtop experiments that demonstrate the ability to transmit and receive a frequency-modulated 1.6 MHz carrier signal between micro-coil antennae scaled to the ? 1 cm dimensions of the implant, at power levels of about 5 mW. Plans for materials selection, microfabrication, and other aspects of future development are presented and discussed.

Howard, M. A.; Utz, M.; Brennan, T. J.; Dalm, B. D.; Viljoen, S.; Jeffery, N. D.; Gillies, G. T.

2011-08-01

294

Estimating Influenza Disease Burden from Population-Based Surveillance Data in the United States  

PubMed Central

Annual estimates of the influenza disease burden provide information to evaluate programs and allocate resources. We used a multiplier method with routine population-based surveillance data on influenza hospitalization in the United States to correct for under-reporting and estimate the burden of influenza for seasons after the 2009 pandemic. Five sites of the Influenza Hospitalization Surveillance Network (FluSurv-NET) collected data on the frequency and sensitivity of influenza testing during two seasons to estimate under-detection. Population-based rates of influenza-associated hospitalization and Intensive Care Unit admission from 2010–2013 were extrapolated to the U.S. population from FluSurv-NET and corrected for under-detection. Influenza deaths were calculated using a ratio of deaths to hospitalizations. We estimated that influenza-related hospitalizations were under-detected during 2010-11 by a factor of 2.1 (95%CI 1.7–2.9) for age < 18 years, 3.1 (2.4–4.5) for ages 18-64 years, and 5.2 (95%CI 3.8–8.3) for age 65+. Results were similar in 2011-12. Extrapolated estimates for 3 seasons from 2010–2013 included: 114,192–624,435 hospitalizations, 18,491–95,390 ICU admissions, and 4,915–27,174 deaths per year; 54–70% of hospitalizations and 71–85% of deaths occurred among adults aged 65+. Influenza causes a substantial disease burden in the U.S. that varies by age and season. Periodic estimation of multipliers across multiple sites and age groups improves our understanding of influenza detection in sentinel surveillance systems. Adjusting surveillance data using a multiplier method is a relatively simple means to estimate the impact of influenza and the subsequent value of interventions to prevent influenza. PMID:25738736

Reed, Carrie; Chaves, Sandra S.; Daily Kirley, Pam; Emerson, Ruth; Aragon, Deborah; Hancock, Emily B.; Butler, Lisa; Baumbach, Joan; Hollick, Gary; Bennett, Nancy M.; Laidler, Matthew R.; Thomas, Ann; Meltzer, Martin I.; Finelli, Lyn

2015-01-01

295

Sex-specific relationships between adverse childhood experiences and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in five states  

PubMed Central

Purpose Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) before age 18 have been repeatedly associated with several chronic diseases in adulthood such as depression, heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and stroke. We examined sex-specific relationships between individual ACEs and the number of ACEs with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the general population. Materials and methods Data from 26,546 women and 19,015 men aged ?18 years in five states of the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were analyzed. We used log-linear regression to estimate prevalence ratios (PRs) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the relationship of eight ACEs with COPD after adjustment for age group, race/ethnicity, marital status, educational attainment, employment, asthma history, health insurance coverage, and smoking status. Results Some 63.8% of women and 62.2% of men reported ?1 ACE. COPD was reported by 4.9% of women and 4.0% of men. In women, but not in men, there was a higher likelihood of COPD associated with verbal abuse (PR =1.30, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.61), sexual abuse (PR =1.69, 95% CI: 1.36, 2.10), living with a substance abusing household member (PR =1.49, 95% CI: 1.23, 1.81), witnessing domestic violence (PR =1.40, 95% CI: 1.14, 1.72), and parental separation/divorce (PR =1.47, 95% CI: 1.21, 1.80) during childhood compared to those with no individual ACEs. Reporting ?5 ACEs (PR =2.08, 95% CI: 1.55, 2.80) compared to none was associated with a higher likelihood of COPD among women only. Conclusion ACEs are related to COPD, especially among women. These findings underscore the need for further research that examines sex-specific differences and the possible mechanisms linking ACEs and COPD. This work adds to a growing body of research suggesting that ACEs may contribute to health problems later in life and suggesting a need for program and policy solutions. PMID:25298732

Cunningham, Timothy J; Ford, Earl S; Croft, Janet B; Merrick, Melissa T; Rolle, Italia V; Giles, Wayne H

2014-01-01

296

Verbal Mistreatment in Older Adults: A Look at Persons with Alzheimer's Disease and Their Caregivers in the State of Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. This study examined verbal aggression in a sample of community dwelling older adults with Alzheimer's Disease (AD) using the Risk and Vulnerability model as a means for identifying factors associated with verbal mistreatment in caregiver\\/patient dyads.Design and Methods. Subjects were recruited in the State of Florida through their association with state-funded memory disorder clinics or with local chapters of

Carla Vande Weerd; Gregory J. Paveza

2006-01-01

297

Effects of alcohol taxes on alcohol-related disease mortality in New York State from 1969 to 2006  

PubMed Central

Objective The relationship of increased alcohol taxes to reductions in alcohol-related harm is well established. Few studies, however, have examined the effects of sudden decreases in alcohol tax rates or effects of narrow tax changes limited to specific beverage types. In the current study, we: (1) examine whether tax increases on spirits have similar effects in reducing alcohol-related disease mortality as increasing taxes on all types of alcoholic beverages simultaneously, and (2) evaluate effects of beer-specific tax decreases in New York State on mortality. Method We used a time-series, quasi-experimental research design, including non-alcohol deaths within New York State and other states’ rates of alcohol-related disease mortality for comparison. The dataset included 456 monthly observations of mortality in New York State over a 38-year period (1969–2006). We used a random-effects approach and included several other important covariates. Results Alcohol-related disease mortality declined by 7.0% after a 1990 tax increase for spirits and beer. A spirits-only tax increase (in 1972) was not significantly associated with mortality but a data anomaly increased error in this effect estimate. Small tax decreases on beer between 1996 and 2006 had no measurable effect on mortality. Doubling the beer tax from $0.11 to $0.22 per gallon, a return to New York State’s 1990 levels, would decrease deaths by an estimated 250 deaths per year. Conclusions Excise tax increases on beer and spirits were associated with reductions in alcohol-related disease mortality. Modifying tax rates on a single beverage type does not appear to be as effective as doing so on multiple alcoholic beverages simultaneously. In New York, small decreases in beer taxes were not significantly associated with alcohol-related disease mortality. PMID:22436591

Delcher, Chris; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.; Wagenaar, Alexander C.

2013-01-01

298

Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Chronic Diseases of Youths and Access to Health Care in the United States  

PubMed Central

Racial/ethnic minorities are 1.5 to 2.0 times more likely than whites to have most of the major chronic diseases. Chronic diseases are also more common in the poor than the nonpoor and this association is frequently mediated by race/ethnicity. Specifically, children are disproportionately affected by racial/ethnic health disparities. Between 1960 and 2005 the percentage of children with a chronic disease in the United States almost quadrupled with racial/ethnic minority youth having higher likelihood for these diseases. The most common major chronic diseases of youth in the United States are asthma, diabetes mellitus, obesity, hypertension, dental disease, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, mental illness, cancers, sickle-cell anemia, cystic fibrosis, and a variety of genetic and other birth defects. This review will focus on the psychosocial rather than biological factors that play important roles in the etiology and subsequent solutions to these health disparities because they should be avoidable and they are inherently unjust. Finally, this review examines access to health services by focusing on health insurance and dental insurance coverage and access to school health services. PMID:24175301

Price, James H.; Braun, Robert

2013-01-01

299

The adjuvant use of lansoprazole, clonazepam and dimenhydrinate for treating intractable hiccups in a patient with gastritis and reflux esophagitis complicated with myocardial infarction: a case report  

PubMed Central

Background Hiccup (Singultus) is a sudden and involuntary contraction of the diaphragm followed by a sharp closure of the epiglottis which results in the production of a specific “hic” sound. Normally, hiccups are treated without intervention. Intractable hiccups occur rarely but are a disturbing symptom underlying other health related disorders. Case presentation We report the clinical case of a 67-year-old male patient with myocardial infarction accompanied by intractable hiccups during the course of 8 months, and who was non-responsive to chlorpromazine or metoclopramide, and baclofen; drugs routinely used to treat this condition. This sustained hiccup had severely restricted the patient's ability to intake food and sleep. To explore alternative treatments, we investigated the adjuvant administration of lansoprazole, dimenhydrinate and clonazepam in this patient. We discovered that this drug combination was capable of successfully terminating his intractable hiccups, with no further evidence of recurrence. No similar treatment is previously reported for intractable hiccups. We further suggest a hypothesis concerning a potential mechanism on the anti-hiccup effect of dimenhydrinate. Conclusion We identified that the adjuvant use of lansoprazole, clonazepam and dimenhydrinate was capable of attenuating the symptoms of our patient with intractable hiccups. PMID:23954069

2013-01-01

300

Identification of lymphoproliferative disease virus in wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) in the United States  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Viral-associated lymphoproliferative neoplasia in domestic poultry is caused by infection with a herpesvirus (Marek’s disease virus) or three species of retroviruses [Reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV), Avian leukosis/sarcoma virus, lymphoproliferative disease virus (LPDV)]. Previously, retroviral n...

301

Essays on Modeling the Economic Impacts of a Foreign Animal Disease on the United States Agricultural Sector  

E-print Network

to 2001 (NAO) ............................ 10 Figure 3: FMD Events Reported in 2001 (WAHID, 2008) ........................................... 10 Figure 4: Illustration Depicting the Model States and Pathways for Progression of FMD... Page Figure 19: Basic FASOM Modeling Structure and Disease Shock Imposition .............. 58 Figure 20: International Market Regions in ASM .......................................................... 59 Figure 21: ASM Beef Cattle Flow Chart...

Hagerman, Amy Deann

2011-02-22

302

Surveillance for Waterborne Disease Outbreaks and Other Health Events Associated with Recreational Water -United States, 2007-2008*  

EPA Science Inventory

Problem/Condition: Since 1978, CDC, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists have collaborated on the Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance System (WBDOSS) for collecting and reporting data on occurrences and causes...

303

Changes in hippocampal connectivity in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease: Evidence from resting state fMRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

A selective distribution of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathological lesions in specific cortical layers isolates the hippocampus from the rest of the brain. However, functional connectivity between the hippocampus and other brain regions remains unclear in AD. Here, we employ a resting state functional MRI (fMRI) to examine changes in hippocampal connectivity comparing 13 patients with mild AD versus 13 healthy

Liang Wang; Yufeng Zang; Yong He; Meng Liang; Xinqing Zhang; Lixia Tian; Tao Wu; Tianzi Jiang; Kuncheng Li

2006-01-01

304

Virulent Newcastle disease viruses isolated from cormorant and gull species in the states of the Atlantic Flyway in 2010  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) have been the causative agent for die-offs of juvenile double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) in the northern border-states focused around the Great Lakes of the U.S. in years past. However, the most recent die-off has included not only great cormorants (P...

305

First report of zebra chip disease and Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum on potatoes in Oregon and Washington State  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In August of 2011, potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers grown in the lower Columbia Basin of southern Washington State and northern Oregon were observed with internal discolorations suggestive of the zebra chip disease (ZC). Symptoms included brown spots, streaks, and stripes in and near the vascular ...

306

HIV association with conventional STDS (sexual transmitted diseases) in Lagos State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

The study examined a possible association between HIV infection and conventional sexually transmitted diseases (STDS) in a population of 700 patients seen in some hospitals and clinics in Lagos State between November 1997 and December 1999. The patients were drawn mainly from LUTH and Jolad hospitals in Lagos State. In these hospitals, patients who presented with symptoms of STDS were screened clinically and microbiologically for agents of STDS and HIV antibodies. Screening was carried out using conventional methods. A total of 150 (21.5%) were found positive for various STDS while 550 (78.5%) were negative Also, 109 (15.8%) were sero-positive for HIV while 591 (84.4%) were sero-negative. The frequency of STDS diagnosed were, Treponema pallidum, 38(25.3%), Neisseria gonorrhoea 3(2.0%), Chlamydia trachomatis 26(17.3), Hepatitis B virus 60(40.0%) Staphylococcus aureaus, 20 (13.3%) and Candida albicans 3(2.0%). Data showed that Syphillis was the most prevalent STDS diagnosed while Calbicans and N. gonorrhoea are the least. Amongst the 150 (21.5%) patients positive with STDS, 82(54.65%) were found to be positive for HIV antibodies. The remaining 68(45.3%) patients were negative for HIV. The difference in sero-prevalence on the true group of patients rates was significant. The higher rate in the STDS patients strongly suggest some association between HIV infections andSTDS amongst the patients studied p = 0.05. It was also recorded that HIV-1 infection is four times more prevalent than HIV-2 in these patients. PMID:12403041

Otuonye, N M; Olukoya, D K; Odunukwe, N N; Idigbe, E O; Udeaja, M N; Bamidele, M; Onyewuchie, J I; Oparaugu, C T; Ayelari, O S; Oyekunle, B

2002-01-01

307

NEW YORK STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH Bureau of Communicable Disease Control  

E-print Network

or meninges (a thin lining covering the brain and spinal cord) caused by the meningococcus germ. Who gets meningococcal disease? Anyone can get meningococcal disease, but it is more common in infants and children disease. Should people who have been in contact with a diagnosed case of meningococcal meningitis

Suzuki, Masatsugu

308

Parameterizing state–space models for infectious disease dynamics by generalized profiling: measles in Ontario  

PubMed Central

Parameter estimation for infectious disease models is important for basic understanding (e.g. to identify major transmission pathways), for forecasting emerging epidemics, and for designing control measures. Differential equation models are often used, but statistical inference for differential equations suffers from numerical challenges and poor agreement between observational data and deterministic models. Accounting for these departures via stochastic model terms requires full specification of the probabilistic dynamics, and computationally demanding estimation methods. Here, we demonstrate the utility of an alternative approach, generalized profiling, which provides robustness to violations of a deterministic model without needing to specify a complete probabilistic model. We introduce novel means for estimating the robustness parameters and for statistical inference in this framework. The methods are applied to a model for pre-vaccination measles incidence in Ontario, and we demonstrate the statistical validity of our inference through extensive simulation. The results confirm that school term versus summer drives seasonality of transmission, but we find no effects of short school breaks and the estimated basic reproductive ratio ?0 greatly exceeds previous estimates. The approach applies naturally to any system for which candidate differential equations are available, and avoids many challenges that have limited Monte Carlo inference for state–space models. PMID:21084339

Hooker, Giles; Ellner, Stephen P.; Roditi, Laura De Vargas; Earn, David J. D.

2011-01-01

309

Oral immunotherapy for allergic diseases using transgenic rice seeds: current state and future prospects.  

PubMed

Allergen-specific immunotherapy (IT) has been shown to provide clinical benefit for patients with allergic diseases. At present, subcutaneous and sublingual ITs are mainly authorized for clinical treatment. Oral administration of allergens seems to be the easiest way to achieve IT, though it has yet to be translated to the clinical setting, mainly due to the requirement of a large amount of allergens. Plants, especially rice seeds, have recently been recognized as superior allergen carriers for oral administration, because of their high productivity, stability and safety. Therefore, in order to establish clinically applicable oral IT, we have been developing transgenic rice seeds (Tg rice), in which major epitopes of cedar pollen allergens or house-dust mites (HDM) are expressed. The efficacy of this orally administered Tg rice was confirmed in murine models of allergic rhinitis and bronchial asthma. In the safety study of the Tg rice, no adverse effects on cynomolgus macaques were observed. In this review, we summarized the current state and future prospects of allergen-specific IT, focusing particularly on oral IT with allergen-expressing Tg rice. PMID:23711869

Saeki, Mayumi; Nishimura, Tomoe; Kaminuma, Osamu; Mori, Akio; Hiroi, Takachika

2013-01-01

310

Total antioxidants status and some hematological values in sickle cell disease patients in steady state.  

PubMed Central

Congenital hemoglobin mutations may alter the delicate balance of free-radical generation and antioxidant defense systems in the red cell. Oxidative stress may thus play a role in the pathophysiology of the clinical manifestations of the disease. We assessed the total antioxidant status in steady-state sickle cell anemia (SCA) patients and related it to certain hematological parameters and their recent clinical history. Forty (25 males/15 females) adult SCA patients and 30 age-matched controls were studied. All patients and control subjects had total antioxidant status (TAS), hematocrit, white blood cells, platelets and reticulocyte count done. The results showed that TAS levels were about 50% lower in the SCA patients compared with the controls. Among the SCA patients, 57.1% of those with TAS levels <1.00 mmol/L had bone pain crisis >3 times in the past year, compared with 16% in those with TAS levels >1.00 mmol/L. Total leukocyte count and platelets were also significantly higher in the SCA patients than controls. Our data support the growing evidence that oxidative stress has a role to play in the pathophysiology of SCA and intervention aimed at increasing the antioxidant capacity of these patients may be beneficial. PMID:17722666

Fasola, Foluke; Adedapo, Kayode; Anetor, John; Kuti, Modupe

2007-01-01

311

Molecular characterization of penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates causing respiratory disease in the United States.  

PubMed

Three hundred twenty-eight (328) penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates collected in 39 states of the United States between October, 1996, and March, 1997, from (mostly adult) patients with respiratory disease were characterized by microbiological, serological, and molecular fingerprinting techniques, including determination of chromosomal macrorestriction pattern with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and hybridization with DNA probes specific for various antibiotic resistance genes. The overwhelming majority of the isolates were in five serogroups (23, 6, 19, 9, 14). All isolates had penicillin MIC values of at least 2 microg/ml, but the collection also included isolates with MIC values as high as 16 microg/ml. Virtually all isolates (96.6%) were resistant to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (SXT) and many isolates were also resistant to chloramphenicol (43%), tetracycline (55%), and erythromycin (65%). Resistance to levofloxacin was extremely rare. The molecular fingerprinting methods showed that a surprisingly large proportion (167 out of 328, or 50.9%) of the isolates belonged to two international epidemic clones of S. pneumoniae: clone A (127, or 38.7%) with properties indistinguishable from that of the 23F multiresistant "Spanish/USA" clone widely spread in Europe, Asia, Latin America, and South Africa, and clone B (40, or 12.2%) belonging to the "French" serogroup 9/14 clone widely spread in Europe and South America. Virtually all members of clone A were also resistant to chloramphenicol (cat+), tetracycline (tetM+), and SXT, and about 75% were also resistant to erythromycin (mefE+ or ermB+). Close to 30% (39 out of 127) of the clone A isolates expressed anomalous serotypes (primarily serotypes 19 and 14, and nontypable) and most likely represented spontaneous capsular transformants. Most of the 40 isolates (35/40) belonging to clone B expressed serotype 9, with five of the isolates expressing serotypes 14 or 19, or were nontypable. All members of this clone were resistant to penicillin and SXT with only occasional isolates showing resistance to macrolides, tetracycline, and chloramphenicol. The combination of microbiological tests and DNA hybridizations also allowed the identification of unusual strains, for instance, isolates that reacted with the tetM or mefE DNA probes without showing phenotypic antibiotic resistance, an isolate showing phenotypic macrolide resistance without hybridizing with either the ermB or mefE DNA probes, or isolates that hybridized with both of these DNA probes. In addition to clones A and B, another large portion of the S. pneumoniae isolates (112 of 328, or 34.1%) was represented by eight clusters, each with a unique PFGE type. These clusters, together with the clone A and clone B isolates, made up 85% of all the penicillin-resistant isolates identified in this survey in the United States. Both international clones and the unique clusters showed wide geographic dispersal: Clone A was present in 30 of the 39 states and clone B in 18. The data suggest that the major mode of spread of penicillin-resistant pneumococci in the United States is by clonal expansion and that the most significant components (clones A and B) have been imported into the United States from abroad. PMID:9988052

Corso, A; Severina, E P; Petruk, V F; Mauriz, Y R; Tomasz, A

1998-01-01

312

Herpes Virus and Ménière’s Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The main goal of this study was to examine the vestibular ganglia from patients with intractable classic Ménière’s disease (MD) for the presence or absence of DNA from three neurotropic viruses herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV1, HSV2) and varicella zoster virus (VZV) and to investigate the hypothesis that MD is associated with virus reactivation within Scarpa’s ganglion.

M. Gärtner; W. Bossart; T. Linder

2008-01-01

313

Primary non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma of the prostate with intractable hematuria: A case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Cases of primary non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma of the prostate are globally rare. The present study reports a case of prostatic diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) with intractable hematuria in a 75-year-old male. The patient presented with difficulties in urination and gross hematuria. A prostate biopsy was performed immediately, followed by conservative treatment for bleeding. A bilateral iliac arteriography and chemoembolization were then performed as emergency procedures under local anesthesia due to significant bleeding and a sharply decreased blood pressure, indicating the failure of the conservative treatment. Consequently, the bleeding was effectively controlled. Pathological examination of the prostate biopsy confirmed the presence of a DLBCL of non-germinal center B-cell origin. Immunohistochemical examination demonstrated cluster of differentiation (CD)20(++), CD3(+), leukocyte common antigen(+++), B-cell lymphoma-2(+) and prostate-specific antigen(?) results. Due to the poor general condition and low hemoglobin levels of the patient, a low-dose Rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone (R-CHOP) chemotherapy regimen was administered. Subsequent to three courses of chemotherapy, the patient achieved complete remission. In conclusion, combining R-CHOP and bilateral selective iliac arterial chemoembolization could be a safe and effective way to treat patients with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma of the prostate and intractable hematuria. PMID:25663879

HU, SHANBIAO; WANG, YINHUAI; YANG, LUOYAN; YI, LU; NIAN, YEQI

2015-01-01

314

Combined ultrasound and fluoroscopic guidance for radiofrequency ablation of the obturator nerve for intractable cancer-associated hip pain.  

PubMed

Management of pain from skeletal metastases is notoriously difficult. Case reports and case series have described radiofrequency ablation of the obturator nerve branches to the femoral head for treatment of intractable hip pain. Ablation of the obturator branches to the femoral head is technically difficult because of bony and vascular anatomy, including close proximity of the femoral vessels. Here we present the case of a 79-year-old woman with intractable right hip pain and inability to ambulate secondary to metastatic non-small cell lung cancer in the femoral head and acetabulum, treated with thermal radiofrequency ablation of the obturator and femoral nerve branches to the femoral head. Ablation of the obturator nerve was done via anterior placement of the radiofrequency needle under combined ultrasound and fluoroscopic guidance, passing the radiofrequency needle between the femoral artery and femoral vein. Real-time ultrasound guidance was used to avoid vascular puncture. Thermal radiofrequency ablation resulted in sustained pain relief, and resumption in the ability of the patient to ambulate. From this case we suggest that an anterior approach to the obturator nerve branches to the femoral head may be technically feasible using combined ultrasound and fluoroscopic guidance to avoid vascular puncture. PMID:24452660

Stone, Jonathan; Matchett, Gerald

2014-01-01

315

Neuroimaging and electroencephalographic changes after vagus nerve stimulation in a boy with medically intractable myoclonic astatic epilepsy.  

PubMed

Myoclonic astatic epilepsy (MAE) is characterized by multiple seizure types, which are often refractory. Although vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is an alternative treatment for medically intractable seizures, its exact mechanism of action remains unclear. Herein, we report the case of a 4-year-old boy with intractable MAE who has been in a seizure-free status for 2 years and 3 months since 6 months after the implantation of a vagus nerve stimulator (Model 103, Cyberonics, Inc., Houston, TX). Various test results 6 months after VNS were compared with those before VNS. Results of an electroencephalograph revealed disappearance of epileptiform discharges and an increased beta-gamma spectrum rhythm. The brain diffusion-tensor imaging showed an increased ratio of fraction anisotropy in the right fimbria-fornix, indicating improved diffusion of the white matter tract, and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography revealed globally improved cerebral glucose metabolism. His cognitive and social-emotional performances also improved at 2 years after VNS. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to describe the effects of VNS on fimbria-fornix and glucose metabolism in MAE. PMID:23643463

Fan, Pi-Chuan; Peng, Steven Shinn-Forng; Yen, Ruoh-Fang; Shieh, Jeng-Yi; Kuo, Meng-Fai

2014-04-01

316

Percutaneous endoscopic gastrojejunostomy for a patient with an intractable small bowel injury after repeat surgeries: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction The management of intestinal injury can be challenging, because of the intractable nature of the condition. Surgical treatment for patients with severe adhesions sometimes results in further intestinal injury. We report a conservative management strategy using percutaneous endoscopic gastrojejunostomy for an intractable small bowel surgical injury after repeated surgeries. Case presentation A 78-year-old Japanese woman had undergone several abdominal surgeries including urinary cystectomy for bladder cancer. After this operation, she developed peritonitis as a result of a small bowel perforation thought to be due to an injury sustained during the operation, with signs consistent with systemic inflammatory response syndrome: body temperature 38.5°C, heart rate 92 beats/minute, respiratory rate 23 breaths/minute, white blood cell count 11.7 × 109/L (normal range 4-11 × 109/?L). Two further surgical interventions failed to control the leak, and our patient's clinical condition and nutritional status continued to deteriorate. We then performed percutaneous endoscopic gastrojejunostomy, and continuous suction was applied as an alternative to a third surgical intervention. With this endoscopic intervention, the intestinal leak gradually closed and oral feeding became possible. Conclusion We suggest that the technique of percutaneous endoscopic gastrojejunostomy combined with a somatostatin analog is a feasible alternative to surgical treatment for small bowel leakage, and is less invasive than a nasojejunal tube. PMID:21310033

2011-01-01

317

A simplified approach for evaluating multiple test outcomes and multiple disease states in relation to the exercise thallium-201 stress test in suspected coronary artery disease  

SciTech Connect

This study describes a simplified approach for the interpretation of electrocardiographic and thallium-201 imaging data derived from the same patient during exercise. The 383 patients in this study had also undergone selective coronary arteriography within 3 months of the exercise test. This matrix approach allows for multiple test outcomes (both tests positive, both negative, 1 test positive and 1 negative) and multiple disease states (no coronary artery disease vs 1-vessel vs multivessel coronary artery disease). Because this approach analyzes the results of 2 test outcomes simultaneously rather than serially, it also negates the lack of test independence, if such an effect is present. It is also demonstrated that ST-segment depression on the electrocardiogram and defects on initial thallium-201 images provide conditionally independent information regarding the presence of coronary artery disease in patients without prior myocardial infarction. In contrast, ST-segment depression on the electrocardiogram and redistribution on the delayed thallium-201 images may not provide totally independent information regarding the presence of exercise-induced ischemia in patients with or without myocardial infarction.

Pollock, S.G.; Watson, D.D.; Gibson, R.S.; Beller, G.A.; Kaul, S. (Univ. of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville (USA))

1989-09-01

318

Exploring Very Large State Spaces Using Genetic Algorithms  

E-print Network

Exploring Very Large State Spaces Using Genetic Algorithms Patrice Godefroid1 and Sarfraz Khurshid2 this frame- work in conjunction with VeriSoft, a tool for exploring the state spaces of software applications, thereby mak- ing exhaustive state-space exploration intractable. Several approaches have been proposed

Khurshid, Sarfraz

319

2. State-space search D. Keil Artificial Intelligence 6/13 David Keil, Framingham State University  

E-print Network

2. State-space search D. Keil Artificial Intelligence 6/13 David Keil, Framingham State University CSCI 300 Artificial Intelligence 2. State-space search 1. Constraint and optimization problems 2. Goal-driven search 3. Exhaustive search and intractability 4. Heuristics 1D. Keil CSCI 300 Artificial Intelligence 2

Keil, David M.

320

Will our final years be golden? Mortality by Alzheimer's disease in the United States  

E-print Network

mortality by AD. Many demographers (Rogers et al.1987, Rogers et al. 1996, Rogers et al. 2000, Rogers et al. 2005 and Schoenborn, 1986) have addressed the effects of social demographic factors such as education, income, ethnicity, social class, medical... to 1930. During the third stage mortality declined due to medical advances in the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases. The remaining causes of mortality are the chronic degenerative diseases, heart disease, cancer and stroke. During...

Davis, Mary Ann

2007-09-17

321

An Assessment of Non-Communicable Diseases, Diabetes, and Related Risk Factors in the Federated States of Micronesia, State of Chuuk: A Systems Perspective  

PubMed Central

Non-communicable diseases (NCD) have been identified as a health emergency in the US-affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI).1 This assessment, funded by the National Institutes of Health, was conducted in the Federated States of Micronesia, State of Chuuk and describes the burdens due to selected NCDs (diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, stroke, chronic kidney disease); and assesses the system of service capacity and current activities for service delivery, data collection and reporting as well as identifying the issues that need to be addressed. There has been a 9.2% decline in the total population between 2000 and 2010. Findings of medical and health data reveal that diabetes, myocardial infarction, and septicemia are the leading causes of death and lower limb surgical procedures and amputations was a major problem that was addressed with a foot care education program to prevent amputations. No data were available on the prevalence of diabetes among the population of Chuuk. Other findings show significant gaps in the system of administrative, clinical, data, and support services to address these NCDs. There is a lack of policy and procedure manuals, coordination among providers, and common standards of care. There is no functional data system to identify and track patients with diabetes and other chronic diseases. Priority issues and problems were identified for the clinical, administrative, and data systems. PMID:23901365

Shomour, Moria; Marar, Julio; Lippwe, Kipier; Aitaoto, Nia

2013-01-01

322

Quantitative Network Measures as Biomarkers for Classifying Prostate Cancer Disease States: A Systems Approach to Diagnostic Biomarkers  

PubMed Central

Identifying diagnostic biomarkers based on genomic features for an accurate disease classification is a problem of great importance for both, basic medical research and clinical practice. In this paper, we introduce quantitative network measures as structural biomarkers and investigate their ability for classifying disease states inferred from gene expression data from prostate cancer. We demonstrate the utility of our approach by using eigenvalue and entropy-based graph invariants and compare the results with a conventional biomarker analysis of the underlying gene expression data. PMID:24236006

Dehmer, Matthias; Mueller, Laurin A. J.; Emmert-Streib, Frank

2013-01-01

323

Utility of infectious disease coding sheets for surveillance in a state medical examiner's office.  

PubMed

Medical examiners are often first to recognize unusual occurrences of fatal infectious diseases. Recognition of these deaths allows public health officials to institute appropriate public health measures. Therefore, we developed a simple method of identifying and tracking infectious disease deaths in a statewide medical examiner's office. One-page infectious disease forms were completed for 1566/1949 autopsies (80%) performed at the New Mexico Office of the Medical Investigator in 2004. In 241 cases one infectious disease was identified at autopsy and 58 cases had two infectious diseases. Fourteen of the infectious-diseases caused deaths involved diseases that are notifiable conditions in New Mexico. Pneumonia was the most commonly reported infectious process (47 deaths) followed by sepsis (25 deaths). Tracking infectious disease deaths highlighted the importance of recognizing these deaths, although hand-written entries were unstandardized. Preferably, a tracking system would be built into electronic databases at medical examiner and coroner's offices, expediting the identification of these diseases and contact of public health agencies. PMID:18544116

Lathrop, Sarah L; Paul, Ian D; Schwartz, Michael H; Nolte, Kurt B

2008-07-01

324

Cognitive impairment and resting-state network connectivity in Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

The purpose of this work was to evaluate changes in the connectivity patterns of a set of cognitively relevant, dynamically interrelated brain networks in association with cognitive deficits in Parkinson's disease (PD) using resting-state functional MRI. Sixty-five nondemented PD patients and 36 matched healthy controls were included. Thirty-four percent of PD patients were classified as having mild cognitive impairment (MCI) based on performance in attention/executive, visuospatial/visuoperceptual (VS/VP) and memory functions. A data-driven approach using independent component analysis (ICA) was used to identify the default-mode network (DMN), the dorsal attention network (DAN) and the bilateral frontoparietal networks (FPN), which were compared between groups using a dual-regression approach controlling for gray matter atrophy. Additional seed-based analyses using a priori defined regions of interest were used to characterize local changes in intranetwork and internetwork connectivity. Structural group comparisons through voxel-based morphometry and cortical thickness were additionally performed to assess associated gray matter atrophy. ICA results revealed reduced connectivity between the DAN and right frontoinsular regions in MCI patients, associated with worse performance in attention/executive functions. The DMN displayed increased connectivity with medial and lateral occipito-parietal regions in MCI patients, associated with worse VS/VP performance, and with occipital reductions in cortical thickness. In line with data-driven results, seed-based analyses mainly revealed reduced within-DAN, within-DMN and DAN-FPN connectivity, as well as loss of normal DAN-DMN anticorrelation in MCI patients. Our findings demonstrate differential connectivity changes affecting the networks evaluated, which we hypothesize to be related to the pathophysiological bases of different types of cognitive impairment in PD. PMID:25164875

Baggio, Hugo-Cesar; Segura, Bàrbara; Sala-Llonch, Roser; Marti, Maria-José; Valldeoriola, Francesc; Compta, Yaroslau; Tolosa, Eduardo; Junqué, Carme

2015-01-01

325

An Assessment of Non-Communicable Diseases, Diabetes, and Related Risk Factors in the Federated States of Micronesia, State of Kosrae: A Systems Perspective  

PubMed Central

Non-communicable diseases (NCD) have been identified as a health emergency in the US-affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI).1 This assessment, funded by the National Institutes of Health, was conducted in the Federated States of Micronesia, State of Kosrae and describes the burdens due to NCDs, including diabetes, and assesses the system of service capacity and current activities for service delivery, data collection and reporting as well as identifying the issues that need to be addressed. There has been a 13.9% decline in the population between 2000 and 2010. Findings reveal that the risk factors of poor diet, lack of physical activity, and lifestyle behaviors lead to overweight and obesity and subsequent NCD that are a significant factor in the morbidity and mortality of the population. Leading causes of death were due to nutrition and metabolic diseases followed by diseases of the circulatory system. Data from selected community programs show that the prevalence of overweight and obese participants ranged between 82% and 95% and the rate of reported diabetes ranged from 13% to 14%. Other findings show significant gaps in the system of administrative, clinical, data, and support services to address these NCD. There is no functional data system that is able to identify, register, or track patients with diabetes. Priority administrative and clinical issues were identified that need to be addressed to begin to mitigate the burdens of NCDs among the residents of Kosrae State. PMID:23900387

Tolenoa, Nena; Taulung, Livinson; Mongkeya, Maria; Lippwe, Kipier; Aitaoto, Nia

2013-01-01

326

Veterans and Risk of Heart Disease in the United States: A Cohort with 20 Years of Follow Up  

PubMed Central

Background: The aim of the current study was twofold: To investigate the effect of veteran status on risk of developing heart disease over a period of 20 years in the United States and to test if socio-economic characteristics, chronic conditions, health behaviors, body mass index (BMI) and depressive symptoms explain the association between veteran status and risk of heart disease. Methods: Data came from the Health and Retirement Study, a 20 year national cohort from 1992 to 2012. The study enrolled a representative sample of Americans over the age of 50. We included 8,375 individuals who were older than 50 years at entry, did not have heart disease at baseline and provided data on heart disease over the next 20 years. Veteran status was considered to be the independent variable. Self-reported data on physician diagnosis of heart disease, which was measured on a biannual basis, was the outcome. Baseline socio-economic data (i.e. age, gender, race, marital status and education), chronic conditions (diabetes and hypertension), health behaviors (i.e. drinking, smoking, and exercise), BMI and depressive symptoms (modified Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale) were entered into logistic regressions. Logistic regression was used for data analysis. Results: Veterans were at higher risk of having a new onset of heart disease (unadjusted relative risk [RR] = 1.996, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.694-2.351), compared with non-veterans. Logistic regression confirmed the association between veteran status and heart disease (adjusted RR = 1.483, 95% CI = 1.176-1.871) after controlling for all covariates. Conclusions: Veterans may be at higher risk for heart disease over time and this link may be independent of baseline socio-economic characteristics, chronic medical conditions, health behaviors, BMI and depressive symptoms. Veterans may require more rigorous cardiovascular prevention programs. PMID:25013689

Assari, Shervin

2014-01-01

327

Correlation between “ABO” blood group phenotypes and periodontal disease: Prevalence in south Kanara district, Karnataka state, India  

PubMed Central

Background: The correlation between certain systemic diseases and ABO blood group is a well-documented fact. The association between periodontal disease and ABO blood group is not studied in relation to a specific geographic location. Here is a study conducted on a group of patients belonging to South Kanara district of Karnataka state. Materials and Methods: A total of 750 subjects aged between 30and 38 years belonging to South Kanara district were selected on random basis. The study subjects were segregated into healthy/mild gingivitis, moderate/severe gingivitis, and periodontitis group, based on Loe and Silness index and clinical attachment loss as criteria. The study group was further categorized and graded using Ramfjord's periodontal disease index. Blood samples were collected to identify ABO blood group. Results: Prevalence of blood group O was more in South Kanara district, followed by blood groups B and A, and the least prevalent was AB. The percentage distribution of subjects with blood groups O and AB was more in healthy/mild gingivitis group (group I) and moderate/severe gingivitis group (group II), while subjects with blood groups B and A were more in periodontitis group III. There was increased prevalence of subjects with blood groups O and AB with healthy periodontium, while subjects with blood groups B and A showed inclination toward diseased periodontium. Conclusion: There is a correlation existing between periodontal disease and ABO blood group in this geographic location. This association can be due to various blood group antigens acting as receptors for infectious agents associated with periodontal disease. This broad correlation between periodontal disease and ABO blood group also points toward susceptibility ofthe subjects with certain blood groups to periodontal disease. PMID:23493096

Pai, Gurpur Prakash; Dayakar, Mundoor Manjunath; Shaila, Mulki; Dayakar, Anitha

2012-01-01

328

Identification of lymphoproliferative disease virus in wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) in the southeastern United States  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The eight cases described herein represent the first reports of lymphoproliferative disease virus (LPDV) infection in wild turkeys and the first identification of LPDV in North America. Systemic lymphoproliferative disease was presumably the cause of morbidity and mortality in five of the eight turk...

329

Phytoplasmas Diseases and Insect Vectors in Potatoes of the Pacific Northwest of the United States  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potato growers in the Columbia Basin of Washington and Oregon experienced an outbreak of the potato purple top disease in the 2002 growing season. This outbreak caused significant yield losses and reduced tuber quality. The disease was also observed during ensuing years, especially in potato fields ...

330

Software for generating liability distributions for pedigrees conditional on their observed disease states and covariates.  

PubMed

For many multifactorial diseases, aetiology is poorly understood. A major research aim is the identification of disease predictors (environmental, biological, and genetic markers). In order to achieve this, a two-stage approach is proposed. The initial or synthesis stage combines observed pedigree data with previous genetic epidemiological research findings, to produce estimates of pedigree members' disease risk and predictions of their disease liability. A further analysis stage uses the latter as inputs to look for associations with potential disease markers. The incorporation of previous research findings into an analysis should lead to power gains. It also allows separate predictions for environmental and genetic liabilities to be generated. This should increase power for detecting disease predictors that are environmental or genetic in nature. Finally, the approach brings pragmatic benefits in terms of data reduction and synthesis, improving comprehensibility, and facilitating the use of existing statistical genetics tools. In this article we present a statistical model and Gibbs sampling approach to generate liability predictions for multifactorial disease for the synthesis stage. We have implemented the approach in a software program. We apply this program to a specimen disease pedigree, and discuss the results produced, comparing its results with those generated under a more naïve model. We also detail simulation studies that validate the software's operation. PMID:19771574

Campbell, Desmond D; Sham, Pak C; Knight, Jo; Wickham, Harvey; Landau, Sabine

2010-02-01

331

Comorbid occurrence of laryngeal or pulmonary disease with esophagitis in United States military veterans  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND & AIMS: It has been speculated that gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) represents a risk factor for the occurrence of extraesophageal complications. The aim of this study was to compare the comorbid occurrence of sinus, laryngeal, and pulmonary diseases in case subjects with and control subjects without reflux esophagitis. METHODS: The case population consisted of all patients with erosive esophagitis

HB el-Serag; A Sonnenberg

1997-01-01

332

Prevention of autoimmune rheumatic disease: state of the art and future perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prevention of disease can in principle be accomplished by identification of environmental and\\/or lifestyle risk and protective factors followed by public health measures (such as for smoking and lung cancer), or by modification of the individual's reactions to disease-inducing factors (such as in vaccinations against microbes). This review discusses both options based on emerging understanding of aetiologies in inflammatory rheumatic

Lars Klareskog; Peter K Gregersen; Tom W J Huizinga

2010-01-01

333

Coronary heart disease  

MedlinePLUS

Heart disease, Coronary heart disease, Coronary artery disease; Arteriosclerotic heart disease; CHD; CAD ... Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death in the United States for men and women. Coronary ...

334

Complement regulator factor H as a serum biomarker of multiple sclerosis disease state.  

PubMed

Multiple sclerosis has a variable phenotypic presentation and subsequent disease course that, although unpredictable at disease onset, is of crucial importance in guiding interventions. Effective and accessible biomarkers are required in order to stratify patients and inform treatment. We examined whether the complement regulator factor H and its Tyr402His polymorphism, recently implicated as biomarkers in other chronic inflammatory central nervous system conditions, might identify or predict specific pathological processes and outcomes in multiple sclerosis. Employing novel assays, we measured factor H and its His402 variant in serum from 350 patients with multiple sclerosis classified according to disease course and relapse status. Serum factor H levels were significantly higher in progressive disease (P < 0.001) compared to controls and relapsing patients, after controlling for variables including disease duration, age, gender, disability and treatment. Serum factor H levels were capable of distinguishing secondary progressive from relapsing remitting disease (excluding patients in clinical relapse) with a sensitivity of 89.41%, specificity of 69.47% and a positive predictive value of 72.38%. Acute relapse was also associated with transiently increased factor H levels (P = 0.009) compared to stable relapsing disease. In clinically stable patients, factor H levels remained constant over 1 year (coefficient of variation percentage = 6.8), however, in patients in transition from relapsing to progressive disease, factor H levels significantly increased over a period of 2 years (P = 0.007). Concentration of the His402 variant in heterozytgotes was significantly higher in secondary progressive (P < 0.01) and primary progressive (P < 0.05) disease, suggesting altered expression or consumption of variants when factor H is upregulated. Serum factor H may be an effective indicator of progression and a practical and accessible biomarker and stratifying tool in determining disease course, providing objective evidence to help guide therapeutic decisions. PMID:20421219

Ingram, Gillian; Hakobyan, Svetlana; Hirst, Claire L; Harris, Claire L; Pickersgill, Trevor P; Cossburn, Mark D; Loveless, Sam; Robertson, Neil P; Morgan, Bryan Paul

2010-06-01

335

Bacterial inclusion bodies of Alzheimer's disease ?-amyloid peptides can be employed to study native-like aggregation intermediate states.  

PubMed

The structures of oligomeric intermediate states in the aggregation process of Alzheimer's disease ?-amyloid peptides have been the subject of debate for many years. Bacterial inclusion bodies contain large amounts of small heat shock proteins (sHSPs), which are highly homologous to those found in the plaques of the brains of Alzheimer's disease patients. sHSPs break down amyloid fibril structure in vitro and induce oligomeric assemblies. Prokaryotic protein overexpression thus mimics the conditions encountered in the cell under stress and allows the structures of A? aggregation intermediate states to be investigated under native-like conditions, which is not otherwise technically possible. We show that IB40/IB42 fulfil all the requirements to be classified as amyloids: they seed fibril growth, are Congo red positive and show characteristic ?-sheet-rich CD spectra. However, IB40 and IB42 are much less stable than fibrils formed in vitro and contain significant amounts of non-?-sheet regions, as seen from FTIR studies. Quantitative analyses of solution-state NMR H/D exchange rates show that the hydrophobic cores involving residues V18-F19-F20 adopt ?-sheet conformations, whereas the C termini adopt ?-helical coiled-coil structures. In the past, an ?-helical intermediate-state structure has been postulated, but could not be verified experimentally. In agreement with the current literature, in which A? oligomers are described as the most toxic state of the peptides, we find that IB42 contains SDS-resistant oligomers that are more neurotoxic than A?42 fibrils. E. coli inclusion bodies formed by the Alzheimer's disease ?-amyloid peptides A?40 and A?42 thus behave structurally like amyloid aggregation intermediate states and open the possibility of studying amyloids in a native-like, cellular environment. PMID:21290543

Dasari, Muralidhar; Espargaro, Alba; Sabate, Raimon; Lopez del Amo, Juan Miguel; Fink, Uwe; Grelle, Gerlinde; Bieschke, Jan; Ventura, Salvador; Reif, Bernd

2011-02-11

336

Socioeconomic determinants of health: community marginalisation and the diffusion of disease and disorder in the United States.  

PubMed Central

This article describes the cascading diffusion of "inner city problems" of disease and disorder in the United States--from the huge marginalised inner city communities of the largest municipalities, first along national travel routes to smaller cities, and then from central cities into surrounding more affluent suburbs-following the pattern of the daily journey to work. Public policies and economic practices which increase marginalisation act to damage the "weak ties" of the community social networks which bind central city neighbourhoods into functioning units. Spreading disease and disorder can be interpreted as indices of the resulting social disintegration, which is driven by policy. This "failure of containment" in the United States should serve as a warning for cities in Europe against reducing the municipal and other services that they provide to "unpopular" subpopulations. PMID:9158474

Wallace, R.; Wallace, D.

1997-01-01

337

A pilot psychometric study of aberrant salience state in patients with Parkinson's disease and its association with dopamine replacement therapy.  

PubMed

An overactive striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission is described in psychosis and may be associated with a state of aberrant salience attribution. This pilot psychometric study investigated if features suggestive of an aberrant salience state, a condition of psychosis proneness, are associated with dopamine replacement therapy in patients with early Parkinson's disease (PD). 77 participants (50 medicated PD patients, 12 newly diagnosed drug-naive PD patients and 15 healthy controls) were enrolled and assessed with the Aberrant Salience Inventory (ASI). Differences between groups were found for ASI scores, and ASI scores correlated with the dopaminergic therapy, in particular levodopa. These findings preliminary suggested that the presence and the degree of an aberrant salience state may be associated with features of the dopaminergic therapy; further studies are needed to investigate which neuropsychiatric complications more common in PD patients may be characterized by an underlying aberrant salience state. PMID:25012755

Poletti, Michele; Frosini, Daniela; Pagni, Cristina; Baldacci, Filippo; Lucetti, Claudio; Del Dotto, Paolo; Ceravolo, Roberto; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo

2014-10-01

338

Bilirubin conjugates in bile of man and rat in the normal state and in liver disease.  

PubMed

Conjugates of bilirubin were studied in normal bile of man and rat, and in bile of liver patients. In general human bile was obtained by duodenal intubation. In addition T-tube bile was examined in patients operated on for mechanical obstruction. The bile pigment compositions of duodenal and T-tube bile were similar in two patients where comparison was possible. Obstruction of the bile duct in rats was used as an animal model for obstructive jaundice. Diazotized ethyl anthranilate was used for determination of total conjugated bile pigment and for thin-layer chromatography (t.l.c.) analysis of the derived azopigments. The available t.l.c. procedures are versatile and allow rapid and quantitative analysis. A variety of conjugated azopigments can be distinguished. With chloroform, negligible amounts of unconjugated bilirubin are extracted from bile of man. Therefore, the percentage of monoconjugated bile pigments present in the initial bile sample can be calculated from the percentage of azodipyrrole found after diazotization. Normal bile from man and rat yields similar azopigment patterns. The dominant component is azopigment-delta (azodipyrrole beta-D-monoglucuronoside). Small amounts of azopigments with complex conjugating structures (gamma-azopigments) are present in both cases. Human bile further yields small amounts of azopigments containing xylose or glucose (called azopigments-alpha(2) and -alpha(3), respectively). Monoconjugated bilirubin (estimated from the percentage of azodipyrrole) amounts of 22% of total bile pigments in human bile and to 39% in murine bile. In both, the bulk of bile pigment is bilirubin diglucuronoside. From bile of patients with acquired liver diseases a new azopigment group (beta-azopigment) was derived. The gamma-azopigment group was increased; the delta-azopigment group (containing azodipyrrole beta-D-monoglucuronoside) was decreased. No differentiation was possible between intra- and extrahepatic cholestasis. The percentage of beta-azopigment showed a positive correlation with serum bilirubin concentration (r = 0.6). Recovery of the diseases was accompanied by normalization of the azopigment patterns. In rats, hydrostatic or mechanical obstruction induced increases in beta- and gamma-azopigments and a decrease in delta-azopigment similar to the changes observed in bile of liver patients. Complete normalization was obtained 6 hr after relieving the hydrostatic obstruction (duration 15-21 hr). In contrast, with man after surgery for extrahepatic obstruction, T-tube bile was not normalized when the T-tube was withdrawn (10 days after operation). Hydrostatic obstruction in rats provides an easy model when postobstructive bile pigment composition and parameters have to be investigated. The present investigations stress the importance of the physiopathological state when studying bilirubin conjugation. Hindrance to bile secretion induced heterogeneity of bilirubin conjugates and stimulated the formation of complex structures. PMID:4639028

Fevery, J; Van Damme, B; Michiels, R; De Groote, J; Heirwegh, K P

1972-09-01

339

Effective management of intractable neuropathic pain using an intrathecal morphine pump in a patient with acute transverse myelitis.  

PubMed

Transverse myelitis is a rare inflammatory myelopathy characterized by loss of motor and sensory function below the affected level of the spinal cord, and causes neurogenic bowel and bladder. Occasionally, it also causes neuropathic pain with spasticity. Traditional therapies for neuropathic pain are multiple, including multimodal analgesic regimens, antiepileptic or antidepressant medications, opioids, sympathetic blocks, and spinal cord stimulation. Persistent neuropathic pain can cause emotional distress by affecting sleep, work, recreation, and emotional well-being. Here we report the case of a patient suffering from intractable neuropathic pain following acute transverse myelitis that was not relieved by combinations of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory, anti-epileptic, antidepressant, and opioid medications, or by acupuncture. Implantation of an intrathecal morphine pump controlled the pain successfully without side effects, and enabled the patient to embark on intensive rehabilitation. The patient's muscle strength has improved significantly and the patient may soon be able to use a walker with minimal assistance. PMID:23935366

Wu, Wei-Ting; Huang, Yu-Hui; Chen, Der-Cherng; Huang, Yu-Hsuan; Chou, Li-Wei

2013-01-01

340

Spinal cord stimulation for intractable chronic upper abdominal pain: a case report of the first patient in New Zealand.  

PubMed

We present the first patient in New Zealand to undergo Spinal Cord Stimulation (SCS) for intractable upper abdominal pain. The patient was a 53-year-old man with a 20-year history of debilitating upper abdominal pain associated with chronic pancreatitis secondary to pancreatic divisum. Prior to the SCS, he was prescribed 680 mg of morphine sulphate equi-analgesia a day. Despite the intense analgesia, he still suffered monthly attacks of upper abdominal pain requiring hospitalisation. Nine months after implanting a Spinal Cord Stimulator, the monthly attacks ceased, his background pain was effectively controlled and the need for opioids decreased to 510 mg of morphine sulphate equi-analgesia a day. PMID:23321890

Al-Mahrouqi, Haitham; Munro, Zea; Acland, Richard H; MacFarlane, Martin R

2012-12-14

341

Successful treatment of drug-resistant atrial tachycardia and intractable congestive heart failure with permanent coupled atrial pacing.  

PubMed

Temporary coupled atrial stimulation slowed the ventricular rate by nearly 50% in an adolescent patient with intractable congestive heart failure and focal repetitive atrial tachycardia that was resistant to drug treatment. Because of the success with the temporary pacemaker, a specially designed permanent pacemaker was implanted to provide coupled atrial stimulation. The necessary electrophysiologic conditions for ventricular slowing by coupled atrial pacing are: (1) an atrial effective refractory period shorter than that of the atrioventricular junction, and (2) depolarization of the ectopic atrial pacemaker by the responses to coupled atrial stimulation. During a 4 year follow-up period the treatment resulted in elimination of the tachycardia, followed by return of the heart size to normal and complete clinical recovery. Coupled atrial stimulation can provide effective treatment in selected patients with disabling drug-resistant atrial tachycardia in whom this mode of therapy is shown to be effective by careful electrophysiologic studies. PMID:623025

Arbel, E R; Cohen, H C; Langendorf, R; Glick, G

1978-02-01

342

Botulinum toxin type-A injection to treat patients with intractable anismus unresponsive to simple biofeedback training  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of botulinum toxin type A injection to the puborectalis and external sphincter muscle in the treatment of patients with anismus unresponsive to simple biofeedback training. METHODS: This retrospective study included 31 patients suffering from anismus who were unresponsive to simple biofeedback training. Diagnosis was made by anorectal manometry, balloon expulsion test, surface electromyography of the pelvic floor muscle, and defecography. Patients were given botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) injection and pelvic floor biofeedback training. Follow-up was conducted before the paper was written. Improvement was evaluated using the chronic constipation scoring system. RESULTS: BTX-A injection combined with pelvic floor biofeedback training achieved success in 24 patients, with 23 maintaining persistent satisfaction during a mean period of 8.4 mo. CONCLUSION: BTX-A injection combined with pelvic floor biofeedback training seems to be successful for intractable anismus. PMID:25253964

Zhang, Yong; Wang, Zhen-Ning; He, Lei; Gao, Ge; Zhai, Qing; Yin, Zhi-Tao; Zeng, Xian-Dong

2014-01-01

343

The Role of Resting State Networks in Focal Neocortical Seizures  

PubMed Central

Objective The role of resting state functional networks in epilepsy is incompletely understood. While some pathologic diagnoses have been shown to have maintained but altered resting state connectivity, others have implicated resting state connectivity in disease progression. However little is known about how these resting state networks influence the behavior of a focal neocortical seizure. Methods Using data taken from invasively monitored patients with intractable focal neocortical epilepsy, we evaluated network connectivity (as determined by oscillatory covariance of the slow cortical potential (<0.5 Hz)) as it relates to neocortical seizure foci both in the interictal and ictal states. Results Similar to what has been shown in the past for sleep and anesthesia, electophysiologic resting state networks that are defined by this slow cortical potential covariance maintain their topographic correlation structure throughout an ictal event. Moreover, in the context of focal epilepsy in which the seizure has a specific site of onset, seizure propagation is not chaotic or random. Rather, the seizure (reflected by an elevation of high frequency power) preferentially propagates along the network that contains the seizure onset zone. Significance Taken together, these findings further undergird the fundamental role of resting state networks, provide novel insights into the network-influenced behavior of seizures, and potentially identify additional targets for surgical disconnection including informing the location for the completion of multiple subpial transections (MSPTs). PMID:25247680

Bandt, S. Kathleen; Bundy, David T.; Hawasli, Ammar H.; Ayoub, Kareem W.; Sharma, Mohit; Hacker, Carl D.; Pahwa, Mrinal; Leuthardt, Eric C.

2014-01-01

344

Argon Plasma Coagulation Therapy Versus Topical Formalin for Intractable Rectal Bleeding and Anorectal Dysfunction After Radiation Therapy for Prostate Carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate and compare the effect of argon plasma coagulation (APC) and topical formalin for intractable rectal bleeding and anorectal dysfunction associated with chronic radiation proctitis. Methods and Materials: Thirty men (median age, 72 years; range, 49-87 years) with intractable rectal bleeding (defined as ?1× per week and/or requiring blood transfusions) after radiation therapy for prostate carcinoma were randomized to treatment with APC (n=17) or topical formalin (n=13). Each patient underwent evaluations of (1) anorectal symptoms (validated questionnaires, including modified Late Effects in Normal Tissues–Subjective, Objective, Management, and Analytic and visual analogue scales for rectal bleeding); (2) anorectal motor and sensory function (manometry and graded rectal balloon distension); and (3) anal sphincteric morphology (endoanal ultrasound) before and after the treatment endpoint (defined as reduction in rectal bleeding to 1× per month or better, reduction in visual analogue scales to ?25 mm, and no longer needing blood transfusions). Results: The treatment endpoint was achieved in 94% of the APC group and 100% of the topical formalin group after a median (range) of 2 (1-5) sessions of either treatment. After a follow-up duration of 111 (29-170) months, only 1 patient in each group needed further treatment. Reductions in rectal compliance and volumes of sensory perception occurred after APC, but no effect on anorectal symptoms other than rectal bleeding was observed. There were no differences between APC and topical formalin for anorectal symptoms and function, nor for anal sphincteric morphology. Conclusions: Argon plasma coagulation and topical formalin had comparable efficacy in the durable control of rectal bleeding associated with chronic radiation proctitis but had no beneficial effect on anorectal dysfunction.

Yeoh, Eric, E-mail: eric.yeoh@health.sa.gov.au [Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide (Australia); School of Medicine, University of Adelaide, Adelaide (Australia); Tam, William; Schoeman, Mark [School of Medicine, University of Adelaide, Adelaide (Australia); Department of Gastroenterology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide (Australia); Moore, James; Thomas, Michelle [School of Medicine, University of Adelaide, Adelaide (Australia); Department of Colorectal Surgery, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide (Australia); Botten, Rochelle; Di Matteo, Addolorata [Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide (Australia)

2013-12-01

345

CAN RELIGION HELP? USING JOHN HOWARD YODER AND MOHANDAS GANDHI TO CONCEPTUALIZE NEW APPROACHES TO INTRACTABLE SOCIAL AND POLITICAL PROBLEMS SUCH AS VIOLENCE AND WAR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Religious Studies is making possible a scholarly study of many aspects of human religious traditions and practices, but the field has yet to articulate fully the ability of such study to affect the creation of new approaches to intractable social and political problems. Many of these problems have as their basis religious justifications, yet the rigor of academic thought has

GREGORY TODD KEETER

346

9 CFR 53.2 - Determination of existence of disease; agreements with States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Section 53.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ...animals and materials required to be destroyed because of being contaminated by or exposed to such disease: Provided, however,...

2013-01-01

347

9 CFR 53.2 - Determination of existence of disease; agreements with States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Section 53.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ...animals and materials required to be destroyed because of being contaminated by or exposed to such disease: Provided, however,...

2011-01-01

348

9 CFR 53.2 - Determination of existence of disease; agreements with States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Section 53.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ...animals and materials required to be destroyed because of being contaminated by or exposed to such disease: Provided, however,...

2014-01-01

349

9 CFR 53.2 - Determination of existence of disease; agreements with States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Section 53.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ...animals and materials required to be destroyed because of being contaminated by or exposed to such disease: Provided, however,...

2012-01-01

350

PopMod: a longitudinal population model with two interacting disease states  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides a description of the population model PopMod, which is designed to simulate the health and mortality experience of an arbitrary population subjected to two interacting disease conditions as well as all other \\

Jeremy A Lauer; Klaus Röhrich; Harald Wirth; Claude Charette; Steve Gribble; Christopher JL Murray

2003-01-01

351

Evolutionary dynamics and spatial genetic structure of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus in the eastern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) is a significant pathogen of wild and domestic ungulates worldwide. In North America, serotype EHDV-2 is responsible for the majority of outbreaks, which are most commonly observed in white-tailed deer. A recent study by Murphy et al. [Murphy, M.D., Howerth, E.W., MacLachlan, N.J., Stallknecht, D.E., 2005. Genetic variation among epizootic hemorrhagic disease viruses in the

Roman Biek

2007-01-01

352

Mortality from Diseases of the Circulatory System in Radiologic Technologists in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although increased mortality from diseases of the circulatory system has been observed in patients treated with radiotherapy, the effects of chronic low-dose radiation exposure are not clear. Among 90,284 US radiologic technologists who responded to a mailed questionnaire during 1983-1989, the authors evaluated mortality from circulatory system diseases through 1997 in relation to job history and work procedures as surrogates

Michael Hauptmann; Aparna K. Mohan; Michele M. Doody; Martha S. Linet; Kiyohiko Mabuchi

353

Parasitic Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... a bug bite, or sexual contact. Some parasitic diseases are easily treated and some are not. Parasites ... be seen with the naked eye. Some parasitic diseases occur in the United States. Contaminated water supplies ...

354

Chagas Disease  

MedlinePLUS

Chagas disease is caused by a parasite. It is common in Latin America but not in the United States. ... nose, the bite wound or a cut. The disease can also spread through contaminated food, a blood ...

355

An Asian Origin of Virulent Aeromonas hydrophila Responsible for Disease Epidemics in United States-Farmed Catfish  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Since 2009, catfish farming in the southeastern United States has been severely impacted by a highly virulent and clonal population of Aeromonas hydrophila causing motile Aeromonas septicemia (MAS) in catfish. The possible origin of this newly emerged highly virulent A. hydrophila strain is unknown. In this study, we show using whole-genome sequencing and comparative genomics that A. hydrophila isolates from diseased grass carp in China and catfish in the United States have highly similar genomes. Our phylogenomic analyses suggest that U.S. catfish isolates emerged from A. hydrophila populations of Asian origin. Furthermore, we identified an A. hydrophila strain isolated in 2004 from a diseased catfish in Mississippi, prior to the onset of the major epidemic outbreaks in Alabama starting in 2009, with genomic characteristics that are intermediate between those of the Asian and Alabama fish isolates. Investigation of A. hydrophila strain virulence demonstrated that the isolate from the U.S. catfish epidemic is significantly more virulent to both channel catfish and grass carp than is the Chinese carp isolate. This study implicates the importation of fish or fishery products into the United States as the source of highly virulent A. hydrophila that has caused severe epidemic outbreaks in United States-farmed catfish and further demonstrates the potential for invasive animal species to disseminate bacterial pathogens worldwide. PMID:24895303

Hossain, Mohammad J.; Sun, Dawei; McGarey, Donald J.; Wrenn, Shannon; Alexander, Laura M.; Martino, Maria Elena; Xing, Ye; Terhune, Jeffery S.

2014-01-01

356

An Assessment of Non-Communicable Diseases, Diabetes, and Related Risk Factors in the Federated States of Micronesia, State of Yap: A Systems Perspective  

PubMed Central

Non-communicable diseases (NCD) have been identified as a health emergency in the US-affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI).1 This assessment, funded by the National Institutes of Health, was conducted in the Federated States of Micronesia, State of Yap, and describes the burdens due to diabetes and other NCDs (heart disease, hypertension, stroke, chronic renal disease), and assesses the system of service capacity and current activities for service delivery, data collection and reporting as well as identifying the issues that need to be addressed. There has been a 1.2% increase in the population between 2000 and 2010; however, there was a significant increase in the 45–64 year old age group. Findings reveal that the risk factors of poor diet, lack of physical activity, and lifestyle behaviors lead to overweight and obesity and subsequent NCD that are a significant factor in the morbidity and mortality of the population. The leading causes of death include cancer, heart disease, and diabetes. Local household surveys show that 63% to 80% of the adults and 20.5% to 33.8% of the children were overweight or obese. The surveys also showed that 23% of the adult population had diabetes and 35% were hypertensive. Other findings show significant gaps in the system of administrative, clinical, data, and support services to address these NCD. There is a policy and procedure manual that guides the NCD staff. There is no functional data system that is able to identify, register, or track patients with diabetes and other NCDs. Priority administrative and clinical issues were identified. PMID:23900490

Yurow, Julie; Lippwe, Kipier; Aitaoto, Nia

2013-01-01

357

An assessment of non-communicable diseases, diabetes, and related risk factors in the Federated States of Micronesia, State of Yap: a systems perspective.  

PubMed

Non-communicable diseases (NCD) have been identified as a health emergency in the US-affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI).1 This assessment, funded by the National Institutes of Health, was conducted in the Federated States of Micronesia, State of Yap, and describes the burdens due to diabetes and other NCDs (heart disease, hypertension, stroke, chronic renal disease), and assesses the system of service capacity and current activities for service delivery, data collection and reporting as well as identifying the issues that need to be addressed. There has been a 1.2% increase in the population between 2000 and 2010; however, there was a significant increase in the 45-64 year old age group. Findings reveal that the risk factors of poor diet, lack of physical activity, and lifestyle behaviors lead to overweight and obesity and subsequent NCD that are a significant factor in the morbidity and mortality of the population. The leading causes of death include cancer, heart disease, and diabetes. Local household surveys show that 63% to 80% of the adults and 20.5% to 33.8% of the children were overweight or obese. The surveys also showed that 23% of the adult population had diabetes and 35% were hypertensive. Other findings show significant gaps in the system of administrative, clinical, data, and support services to address these NCD. There is a policy and procedure manual that guides the NCD staff. There is no functional data system that is able to identify, register, or track patients with diabetes and other NCDs. Priority administrative and clinical issues were identified. PMID:23900490

Ichiho, Henry M; Yurow, Julie; Lippwe, Kipier; Aitaoto, Nia

2013-05-01

358

An Assessment of Non-Communicable Diseases, Diabetes, and Related Risk Factors in the Federated States of Micronesia, State of Pohnpei: A Systems Perspective  

PubMed Central

Non-communicable diseases (NCD) have been identified as a health emergency in the US-affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI).1 This assessment, funded by the National Institutes of Health, was conducted in the Federated States of Micronesia, State of Pohnpei and describes the burden due to selected NCD (diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, stroke, chronic kidney disease); and assesses the system of service capacity and current activities for service delivery, data collection and reporting as well as identifies the issues that need to be addressed. Findings reveal that the risk factors of poor diet, lack of physical activity, and lifestyle behaviors lead to overweight and obesity and subsequent NCD that are significant factors in the morbidity and mortality of the population. Leading causes of death were due to heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and hypertension. Population survey data show that 32.1% of the adult population had diabetes with a higher rate among women (37.1%) when compared to men (26.4%). The data also showed that 73.1% of the adult population was overweight or obese. Other findings show significant gaps in the system of administrative, clinical, data, and support services to address these NCD. There is no overall planning document for the prevention and control of NCDs or diabetes. There is evidence of little communication among the medical and health care providers which leads to fragmentation of care and loss of continuity of care. Based on some of the findings, priority issues and problems that need to be addressed for the administrative and clinical systems are identified. PMID:23900565

Anson, Robina; Keller, Elizabeth; Lippwe, Kipier; Aitaoto, Nia

2013-01-01

359

Differential diagnosis in inflammatory bowel disease colitis: State of the art and future perspectives  

PubMed Central

Distinction between Crohn’s disease of the colon-rectum and ulcerative colitis or inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) type unclassified can be of pivotal importance for a tailored clinical management, as each entity often involves specific therapeutic strategies and prognosis. Nonetheless, no gold standard is available and the uncertainty of diagnosis may frequently lead to misclassification or repeated examinations. Hence, we have performed a literature search to address the problem of differential diagnosis in IBD colitis, revised current and emerging diagnostic tools and refined disease classification strategies. Nowadays, the differential diagnosis is an untangled issue, and the proper diagnosis cannot be reached in up to 10% of patients presenting with IBD colitis. This topic is receiving emerging attention, as medical therapies, surgical approaches and leading prognostic outcomes require more and more disease-specific strategies in IBD patients. The optimization of standard diagnostic approaches based on clinical features, biomarkers, radiology, endoscopy and histopathology appears to provide only marginal benefits. Conversely, emerging diagnostic techniques in the field of gastrointestinal endoscopy, molecular pathology, genetics, epigenetics, metabolomics and proteomics have already shown promising results. Novel advanced endoscopic imaging techniques and biomarkers can shed new light for the differential diagnosis of IBD, better reflecting diverse disease behaviors based on specific pathogenic pathways. PMID:25574078

Tontini, Gian Eugenio; Vecchi, Maurizio; Pastorelli, Luca; Neurath, Markus F; Neumann, Helmut

2015-01-01

360

Differential diagnosis in inflammatory bowel disease colitis: state of the art and future perspectives.  

PubMed

Distinction between Crohn's disease of the colon-rectum and ulcerative colitis or inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) type unclassified can be of pivotal importance for a tailored clinical management, as each entity often involves specific therapeutic strategies and prognosis. Nonetheless, no gold standard is available and the uncertainty of diagnosis may frequently lead to misclassification or repeated examinations. Hence, we have performed a literature search to address the problem of differential diagnosis in IBD colitis, revised current and emerging diagnostic tools and refined disease classification strategies. Nowadays, the differential diagnosis is an untangled issue, and the proper diagnosis cannot be reached in up to 10% of patients presenting with IBD colitis. This topic is receiving emerging attention, as medical therapies, surgical approaches and leading prognostic outcomes require more and more disease-specific strategies in IBD patients. The optimization of standard diagnostic approaches based on clinical features, biomarkers, radiology, endoscopy and histopathology appears to provide only marginal benefits. Conversely, emerging diagnostic techniques in the field of gastrointestinal endoscopy, molecular pathology, genetics, epigenetics, metabolomics and proteomics have already shown promising results. Novel advanced endoscopic imaging techniques and biomarkers can shed new light for the differential diagnosis of IBD, better reflecting diverse disease behaviors based on specific pathogenic pathways. PMID:25574078

Tontini, Gian Eugenio; Vecchi, Maurizio; Pastorelli, Luca; Neurath, Markus F; Neumann, Helmut

2015-01-01

361

Simulants, stimulants and diseases: the evolution of the United States biological warfare programme, 1945-60.  

PubMed

Details about the US biological programme have largely been based on information in the open literature. More revealing aspects of the programme are now available through documents released under the Freedom of Information Act. Annual reports of the activities of the US Army Chemical Corps from 1945 to 1959 have revealed significant increases in activity in biological warfare research. The Corps research activity progressed from work on anthrax in 1941, through anti-crop agents in the mid-1940s, to a wider range of animal, plant and human diseases by 1960. A number of disease organisms were investigated sufficiently to permit some standardisation and manufacture of munitions. PMID:10472189

Hay, A

1999-01-01

362

Assessment of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin rhythms and melatonin response to light in disease states: Lessons from cirrhosis.  

PubMed

Circadian rhythmicity and non-visual sensitivity to light can be assessed, in healthy subjects, by measuring the rhythm of the urinary melatonin metabolite 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) and by determining the response of plasma melatonin to nocturnal retinal light exposure, respectively. However, the validity of these techniques has not been assessed in disease states in which disruption of the circadian rhythm is known or suspected to occur. Thus, the aims of this study were as follows: (i) to assess the reliability of circadian aMT6s profile estimates derived from 36?h versus 56?h urine collections and (ii) to test different models for calculating melatonin suppression in response to light in healthy volunteers and patients with cirrhosis. Twenty patients with biopsy-proven cirrhosis and 10 matched healthy volunteers undertook: (i) separate 36?- and 56-h urine collections, under controlled conditions, for cosinor analysis of the urinary aMT6s profile; (ii) a melatonin suppression test, comprising of a baseline night, during which subjects were woken and asked to sit in front of a switched off light sphere, and an experimental night, identically executed, except that the light sphere was switched on and the subjects were exposed to white light (4.1?×?10(14) photons/cm(2)/s) for 30?min. Alternative approaches to the calculation of melatonin suppression were taken, with/without inclusion of the baseline night. Eighteen patients and eight healthy volunteers had matched analysable 36?- and 56-h urinary samples. Cosinor analysis showed a significant fit in 88% of the remaining 56?h collections, and 48% of the remaining 36-h collections. Thus, eight patients and five healthy volunteers had matched analysable samples for cosinor analysis. In the healthy volunteers, aMT6s profile indices obtained using the 36?- and the 56-h collections did not differ significantly. In contrast, considerably more variability was observed in patients [i.e. the difference in the aMT6s peak time was 0.5?±?1.7?h (limits of agreement: -3.9; +2.9?h)]. No difficulties were encountered in obtaining suppression estimates by use of the experimental night only. In contrast, suppression estimates obtained by use of both nights were considered inaccurate in one (11%) healthy volunteer and in 5 (28%) patients, primarily because: (i) melatonin concentrations at the beginning of light administration were significantly different on baseline and experimental night; (ii) the rise in melatonin was inconsistent on baseline night; and (iii) the shape of the rising phase of melatonin was different on baseline and experimental night. In conclusion, shorter urine collections lead to a higher number of profiles with no significant cosinor fit, and differences in cosinor indices obtained from the 36?- and 56-h collections were considerable, especially in patients. Thus, 56-h collections are probably advisable. Use of both baseline and experimental nights to calculate melatonin suppression often resulted in increased variation and confounding, due to point oscillations in melatonin concentration and lack of repeatability of the melatonin profiles on the two nights. Thus, use of the experimental night only is probably advisable. PMID:25264562

Montagnese, Sara; Middleton, Benita; Corrias, Michela; Mani, Ali Reza; Skene, Debra J; Morgan, Marsha Y

2015-03-01

363

Chronic kidney disease, hypovitaminosis D, and mortality in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25OHD) predicts a higher cardiovascular risk in the general population. Because patients with chronic kidney disease are more likely to have low serum 25OHD, we determined the relationship between hypovitaminosis D and death in this group. Analysis was done using a cohort composed of 3011 patients from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

Rajnish Mehrotra; Dulcie A Kermah; Isidro B Salusky; Myles S Wolf; Ravi I Thadhani; Yi-Wen Chiu; David Martins; Sharon G Adler; Keith C Norris

2009-01-01

364

Connections between single-cell biomechanics and human disease states: gastrointestinal cancer and malaria  

E-print Network

and malaria S. Suresh a,b,*, J. Spatz c , J.P. Mills a , A. Micoulet c , M. Dao a , C.T. Lim d , M. Beil e , T in the context of two distinctly different human diseases: gastrointestinal tumor and malaria. Although the cell (RBC) infected with the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. We present, for the first time

Dao, Ming

365

Chronic Cardiovascular Disease Mortality in Mountaintop Mining Areas of Central Appalachian States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To determine if chronic cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality rates are higher among residents of mountaintop mining (MTM) areas compared to mining and nonmining areas, and to examine the association between greater levels of MTM surface mining and CVD mortality. Methods: Age-adjusted chronic CVD mortality rates from 1999 to 2006 for…

Esch, Laura; Hendryx, Michael

2011-01-01

366

National Surveillance of Dialysis Associated Diseases in the United States, 1995  

Microsoft Academic Search

In December 2001, all U.S. chronic hemodialysis (HD) centers were surveyed regarding selected patient care practices and dialysis-associated diseases. The results were compared with similar surveys conducted in previous years. During 1997- 2001, the percentage of patients vaccinated against hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection increased from 47% to 60% and the percentage of staff vaccinated increased from 87% to 89%.

Jerome I. Tokars; Elaine R. Miller; Matthew J. Arduino

1998-01-01

367

TRENDS IN THE GEOGRAPHIC INEQUALITY OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE MORTALITY IN THE UNITED STATES, 1962-1982  

EPA Science Inventory

Substantial geographic variation of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality within the U.S. has been recognized for decades. nalyses reported here address the question of whether relative geographic inequality has increased or decreased during the period of rapidly declining CVD m...

368

SURVEILLANCE FOR WATERBORNE-DISEASE OUTBREAKS-UNITED STATES, 1997-1998  

EPA Science Inventory

PROBLEM/CONDITION: Since 1971, CDC and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have maintained a collaborative surveillance system for collecting and periodically reporting data relating to occurrences and causes of waterborne-disease outbreaks (WBDOs). REPORTING PERIOD CO...

369

GEOGRAPHIC VARIATION IN DECLINING ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE MORTALITY IN THE UNITED STATES, 1968-1978  

EPA Science Inventory

Despite the well-known geographic pattern for ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality, studies of the decline in IHD have not provided a comprehensive examination of its spatial component. In the study, the authors computed and mapped mean rates and percent change in IHD mortality...

370

NEW YORK STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH Bureau of Communicable Disease Control  

E-print Network

is a severe bacterial infection of the bloodstream or meninges (a thin lining covering the brain and spinal in infants and children. College students as a group are at lower risk of Meningococcal infection than young this disease, and people traveling to parts of the world where meningitis is prevalent. How

Mahon, Bradford Z.

371

A New Animal Model for Studying Lyme Disease Spirochetes in a Mammalian Host-adapted State  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is now substantial evidence that Borrelia burgdorferi , the Lyme disease spirochete, undergoes major alterations in antigenic composition as it cycles between its arthropod and mammalian hosts. In this report, we cultivated B. burgdor- feri 297 within dialysis membrane chambers implanted into the peritoneal cavities of rats to induce antigenic changes similar to those which occur during mammalian infection.

Darrin R. Akins; Kenneth W. Bourell; Melissa J. Caimano; Michael V. Norgard; Justin D. Radolf

372

Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Autoimmune Disease: Updates from Europe and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerable advances have been made in our understanding of the immunobiology of autoimmune disease and its treatment with hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). In autoimmune disorders, the reconsti- tuted immune system following lymphoablation and autologous HCTyields qualitative changes in immune defects and modifications in adaptive immune responses. Seminal experiments in animals demonstrated that allogeneic or autologous HCT could prevent progression or

Keith M. Sullivan; Paolo Muraro; Alan Tyndall

2010-01-01

373

Constitution for the Colorado State University Student Chapter of the Wildlife Disease Association  

E-print Network

and opportunities in the field of wildlife health and disease ecology through education, communication, and collaboration with local and global research and education communities. Article III ­ MEMBERSHIP Section 1, disability, sexual orientation, veteran status, or disability. To remove a member, a 2/3 majority

374

The intractable intra-abdominal hemorrhage with unknown etiology in a patient with severe hemophilia A.  

PubMed

Severe hemophilia patients are more likely to be complicated by intra-articular hemorrhage, subcutaneous hemorrhage, and intra-mascular hemorrhage. Spontaneous intra-abdominal hemorrhage is a rare fatal disease, which is an arterial bleeding of uncertain causes from vessel feeding arteries. In case the spontaneous intra-abdominal hemorrhage is complicated to severe hemophilia patients, the mortality rate increases considerably. We experienced a patient with severe hemophilia A, who made a full recovery from spontaneous intra-abdominal hemorrhagic shock by replacement therapy of coagulation factor VII, a noninvasive procedure. PMID:25088441

Morichika, Kazuho; Tomoyose, Takeaki; Nishi, Yukiko; Nakachi, Sawako; Fukushima, Takuya; Masuzaki, Hiroaki

2015-01-01

375

Population-based approaches to understanding disparities in cardiovascular disease risk in the United States  

PubMed Central

This is a comprehensive narrative review of the literature on the current science and evidence of population-level differences in risk factors for heart disease among different racial and ethnic population in the US. It begins by discussing the importance of population-level risk assessment of heart disease in light of the growth rate of specific minority populations in the US. It describes the population-level dynamics for racial and ethnic minorities: a higher overall prevalence of risk factors for coronary artery disease that are unrecognized and therefore not treated, which increases their likelihood of experiencing adverse outcomes and, therefore, potentially higher morbidity and mortality. It discusses the rate of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in minority communities. Minority patients with ACS are at greater risk of myocardial infarction, rehospitalization, and death from ACS. They also are less likely than nonminority patients to receive potentially beneficial treatments such as angiography or percutaneous coronary intervention. This paper looks at the data surrounding the increased rate of congestive heart failure in racial and ethnic minorities, where the risk is related to the prevalence of comorbidities with hypertension or diabetes mellitus, which, in combination with environmental factors, may largely explain congestive heart failure disparity. The conclusion is it is essential that health care providers understand these various communities, including nuances in disease presentation, risk factors, and treatment among different racial and ethnic groups. Awareness of these communities’ attributes as well as differences in incidence, risk factor burdens, prognosis, and treatment are necessary to mitigate racial and ethnic disparities in heart disease. PMID:25143752

Graham, Garth

2014-01-01

376

Population Structure of Geosmithia morbida, the Causal Agent of Thousand Cankers Disease of Walnut Trees in the United States  

PubMed Central

The ascomycete Geosmithia morbida and the walnut twig beetle Pityophthorus juglandis are associated with thousand cankers disease of Juglans (walnut) and Pterocarya (wingnut). The disease was first reported in the western United States (USA) on several Juglans species, but has been found more recently in the eastern USA in the native range of the highly susceptible Juglans nigra. We performed a comprehensive population genetic study of 209 G. morbida isolates collected from Juglans and Pterocarya from 17 geographic regions distributed across 12 U.S. states. The study was based on sequence typing of 27 single nucleotide polymorphisms from three genomic regions and genotyping with ten microsatellite primer pairs. Using multilocus sequence-typing data, 197 G. morbida isolates were placed into one of 57 haplotypes. In some instances, multiple haplotypes were recovered from isolates collected on the same tree. Twenty-four of the haplotypes (42%) were recovered from more than one isolate; the two most frequently occurring haplotypes (H02 and H03) represented 36% of all isolates. These two haplotypes were abundant in California, but were not recovered from Arizona or New Mexico. G. morbida population structure was best explained by four genetically distinct groups that clustered into three geographic regions. Most of the haplotypes isolated from the native range of J. major (Arizona and New Mexico) were found in those states only or present in distinct genetic clusters. There was no evidence of sexual reproduction or genetic recombination in any population. The scattered distribution of the genetic clusters indicated that G. morbida was likely disseminated to different regions at several times and from several sources. The large number of haplotypes observed and the genetic complexity of G. morbida indicate that it evolved in association with at least one Juglans spp. and the walnut twig beetle long before the first reports of the disease. PMID:25393300

Graves, Andrew D.; Hartel, Colleen; Pscheidt, Jay W.; Tonos, Jadelys; Broders, Kirk; Cranshaw, Whitney; Seybold, Steven J.; Tisserat, Ned

2014-01-01

377

Population structure of Geosmithia morbida, the causal agent of thousand cankers disease of walnut trees in the United States.  

PubMed

The ascomycete Geosmithia morbida and the walnut twig beetle Pityophthorus juglandis are associated with thousand cankers disease of Juglans (walnut) and Pterocarya (wingnut). The disease was first reported in the western United States (USA) on several Juglans species, but has been found more recently in the eastern USA in the native range of the highly susceptible Juglans nigra. We performed a comprehensive population genetic study of 209 G. morbida isolates collected from Juglans and Pterocarya from 17 geographic regions distributed across 12 U.S. states. The study was based on sequence typing of 27 single nucleotide polymorphisms from three genomic regions and genotyping with ten microsatellite primer pairs. Using multilocus sequence-typing data, 197 G. morbida isolates were placed into one of 57 haplotypes. In some instances, multiple haplotypes were recovered from isolates collected on the same tree. Twenty-four of the haplotypes (42%) were recovered from more than one isolate; the two most frequently occurring haplotypes (H02 and H03) represented 36% of all isolates. These two haplotypes were abundant in California, but were not recovered from Arizona or New Mexico. G. morbida population structure was best explained by four genetically distinct groups that clustered into three geographic regions. Most of the haplotypes isolated from the native range of J. major (Arizona and New Mexico) were found in those states only or present in distinct genetic clusters. There was no evidence of sexual reproduction or genetic recombination in any population. The scattered distribution of the genetic clusters indicated that G. morbida was likely disseminated to different regions at several times and from several sources. The large number of haplotypes observed and the genetic complexity of G. morbida indicate that it evolved in association with at least one Juglans spp. and the walnut twig beetle long before the first reports of the disease. PMID:25393300

Zerillo, Marcelo M; Ibarra Caballero, Jorge; Woeste, Keith; Graves, Andrew D; Hartel, Colleen; Pscheidt, Jay W; Tonos, Jadelys; Broders, Kirk; Cranshaw, Whitney; Seybold, Steven J; Tisserat, Ned

2014-01-01

378

The Effects of a Disease Management Program on Self-Reported Health Behaviors and Health Outcomes: Evidence from the "Florida--A Healthy State (FAHS)" Medicaid Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Premature morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases account for a major proportion of expenditures for health care cost in the United States. The purpose of this study was to measure the effects of a disease management program on physiological and behavioral health indicators for Medicaid patients in Florida. A two-year prospective study of…

Morisky, Donald E.; Kominski, Gerald F.; Afifi, Abdelmonem A.; Kotlerman, Jenny B.

2009-01-01

379

Did you know heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States? Contributing factors include smoking, obesity, diabetes, high blood pressure,  

E-print Network

the risk of stroke or heart attack. · Weight loss will improve heart health and heart function. · Reduced6:00 AM Wake up Did you know heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States history of heart disease. 7:30 AM Breakfast: Whole grain cereal, 1 medium orange and 1 cup fat-free milk

380

PHARMACOTHERAPY IN SICKLE CELL DISEASESTATE OF THE ART AND FUTURE PROSPECTS  

PubMed Central

In the last decade, the care of patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) has undergone important advances with better understanding of disease pathophysiology and improvement in standards of care, especially among paediatric patients. Although many new drugs are currently being investigated and are at different stages of development, the pace of drug discovery and utilization has been slow and suboptimal. Hydroxycarbamide (hydroxyurea) has been investigated and utilized for at least two decades. Hydroxycarbamide’s efficacy has been demonstrated, albeit with different levels of evidence, in paediatric and adult populations, and yet clinician and patient acceptance and use have been far from ideal. In this review we discuss the current usage of hydroxycarbamide and its possible future indications in SCD, as well as the use of new compounds that have very different mechanisms of action, which may prove safe and efficacious when used alone or in combination in patients with SCD. PMID:19222472

Hankins, Jane; Aygun, Banu

2011-01-01

381

The National Kidney Disease Education Program and other related efforts in the United States.  

PubMed

The National Kidney Disease Education Program (NKDEP) works to reduce the morbidity and mortality caused by chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its complications through educational efforts targeted towards at-risk communities, patients and health-care professionals. NKDEP aims to improve early detection of CKD, facilitate identification of patients at greatest risk for progression to kidney failure and promote evidence-based interventions. Barriers to achieving these goals include confusion and misunderstanding of the laboratory tests used to identify and monitor patients with CKD. Through the Laboratory Working Group, NKDEP has collaborated with the clinical chemistry community to standardize creatinine measurements, promote the routine reporting of eGFR and standardize the measurement and reporting of urine albumin. It is hoped that these efforts will improve screening, clinical care and research in CKD and facilitate the implementation of evidence-based care recommended by the National Kidney Foundation and others. PMID:18569959

Narva, Andrew S

2008-01-01

382

Disease properties, geography, and mitigation strategies in a simulation spread of rinderpest across the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the past decade, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations has been working toward eradicating rinderpest\\u000a through vaccination and intense surveillance by 2012. Because of the potential severity of a rinderpest epidemic, it is prudent\\u000a to prepare for an unexpected outbreak in animal populations. There is no immunity to the disease among the livestock or wildlife\\u000a in

Carrie Manore; Benjamin McMahon; Jeanne Fair; James M Hyman; Mac Brown; Montiago LaBute

2011-01-01

383

A cross-species analysis method to analyze animal models' similarity to human's disease state  

PubMed Central

Background Animal models are indispensable tools in studying the cause of human diseases and searching for the treatments. The scientific value of an animal model depends on the accurate mimicry of human diseases. The primary goal of the current study was to develop a cross-species method by using the animal models' expression data to evaluate the similarity to human diseases' and assess drug molecules' efficiency in drug research. Therefore, we hoped to reveal that it is feasible and useful to compare gene expression profiles across species in the studies of pathology, toxicology, drug repositioning, and drug action mechanism. Results We developed a cross-species analysis method to analyze animal models' similarity to human diseases and effectiveness in drug research by utilizing the existing animal gene expression data in the public database, and mined some meaningful information to help drug research, such as potential drug candidates, possible drug repositioning, side effects and analysis in pharmacology. New animal models could be evaluated by our method before they are used in drug discovery. We applied the method to several cases of known animal model expression profiles and obtained some useful information to help drug research. We found that trichostatin A and some other HDACs could have very similar response across cell lines and species at gene expression level. Mouse hypoxia model could accurately mimic the human hypoxia, while mouse diabetes drug model might have some limitation. The transgenic mouse of Alzheimer was a useful model and we deeply analyzed the biological mechanisms of some drugs in this case. In addition, all the cases could provide some ideas for drug discovery and drug repositioning. Conclusions We developed a new cross-species gene expression module comparison method to use animal models' expression data to analyse the effectiveness of animal models in drug research. Moreover, through data integration, our method could be applied for drug research, such as potential drug candidates, possible drug repositioning, side effects and information about pharmacology. PMID:23282076

2012-01-01

384

Suppression of the Immune Response: Reversal of the Disease State with Antigen in Allergic Encephalomyelitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

EXPERIMENTAL allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an autoimmune disease which is characterized1,2 primarily by lymphocytic inflammation and demyelination of the white matter of the central nervous system (CNS); clinical signs generally include lower limb paralysis, ataxia, tremors and death3,4. Of numerous factors proposed for EAE induction, it is now established that the A1 protein, the basic protein of CNS myelin (molecular

E. H. Eylar; J. Jackson; B. Rothenberg; S. W. Brostoff

1972-01-01

385

75 years of breeding pinto bean for resistance to diseases in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diseases are major production constraints of pinto bean despite 75 years of breeding. The objectives were to (1) assess progress\\u000a made and (2) discuss future breeding strategies. Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV), anthracnose, rust, white mold, common blight,\\u000a and halo blight and growth habit, seed weight, and seed coat darkening were evaluated for 52 cultivars released between 1944\\u000a and 2001. Sixteen

Henry Terán; Margarita Lema; David Webster; Shree P. Singh

2009-01-01

386

Protein Sets Define Disease States and Predict In Vivo Effects of Drug Treatment*  

PubMed Central

Gaining understanding of common complex diseases and their treatments are the main drivers for life sciences. As we show here, comprehensive protein set analyses offer new opportunities to decipher functional molecular networks of diseases and assess the efficacy and side-effects of treatments in vivo. Using mass spectrometry, we quantitatively detected several thousands of proteins and observed significant changes in protein pathways that were (dys-) regulated in diet-induced obesity mice. Analysis of the expression and post-translational modifications of proteins in various peripheral metabolic target tissues including adipose, heart, and liver tissue generated functional insights in the regulation of cell and tissue homeostasis during high-fat diet feeding and medication with two antidiabetic compounds. Protein set analyses singled out pathways for functional characterization, and indicated, for example, early-on potential cardiovascular complication of the diabetes drug rosiglitazone. In vivo protein set detection can provide new avenues for monitoring complex disease processes, and for evaluating preclinical drug candidates. PMID:23579186

Meierhofer, David; Weidner, Christopher; Hartmann, Ludger; Mayr, Johannes A.; Han, Chung-Ting; Schroeder, Frank C.; Sauer, Sascha

2013-01-01

387

Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases at Reference and High-Specialty Hospitals in the State of Guanajuato, Mexico  

PubMed Central

Background. In general, primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs) are underdiagnosed in most countries. The objective of this study was to describe the frequency and clinical spectrum of PID in the most important tertiary hospitals in our region. Methods. An observational, cross-sectional, with retrospective chart, review study was conducted. A total of 26 patients were included and grouped according to the updated classification of PIDs. Results. PIDs spectra were as follows: predominantly antibody deficiency diseases were the most common category (65.38%), followed by other well-defined immunodeficiency syndromes (11.55%), congenital defects of phagocyte number and/or function (7.69%), complement deficiencies (3.85%), combined T- and B-cell immunodeficiencies (3.85%), and defects in innate immunity (3.85%). The mean time elapsed from the onset of symptoms to the reference and diagnosis by a tertiary hospital was of 4.65 ± 6.95 years. Conclusions. Predominant antibody deficiency disease was the most common group of PIDs, agreeing with international reports. Awareness of underdiagnosis by physicians is crucial for a prompt diagnosis and treatment, which in turn should improve the quality of life among patients with PIDs. PMID:24073395

Guaní-Guerra, Eduardo; García-Ramírez, Ulises Noel; Jiménez-Romero, Ana Isabel; Velázquez-Ávalos, José Manuel; Gallardo-Martínez, Gabriela; Mendoza-Espinoza, Francisco-Javier

2013-01-01

388

Regulation of Translocator Protein 18 kDa (TSPO) Expression in Health and Disease States  

PubMed Central

Translocator protein (TSPO) is an 18-kDa high affinity cholesterol- and drug-binding protein found primarily in the outer mitochondrial membrane. Although TSPO is found in many tissue types, it is expressed at the highest levels under normal conditions in tissues that synthesize steroids. TSPO has been associated with cholesterol import into mitochondria, a key function in steroidogenesis, and directly or indirectly with multiple other cellular functions including apoptosis, cell proliferation, differentiation, anion transport, porphyrin transport, heme synthesis, and regulation of mitochondrial function. Aberrant expression of TSPO has been linked to multiple diseases, including cancer, brain injury, neurodegeneration, and ischemia reperfusion injury. There has been an effort during the last decade to understand the mechanisms regulating tissue- and disease-specific TSPO expression and to identify pharmacological means to control its expression. This review focuses on the current knowledge regarding the chemicals, hormones, and molecular mechanisms regulating Tspo gene expression under physiological conditions in a tissue- and disease-specific manner. The results described here provide evidence that the PKC?-ERK1/2-AP1/Stat3 signal transduction pathway is the primary regulator of Tspo gene expression in normal and pathological tissues expressing high levels of TSPO. PMID:20600583

Batarseh, Amani; Papadopoulos, Vassilios

2010-01-01

389

Fasting therapy for treating and preventing disease - current state of evidence.  

PubMed

Periods of deliberate fasting with restriction of solid food intake are practiced worldwide, mostly based on traditional, cultural or religious reasons. There is large empirical and observational evidence that medically supervised modified fasting (fasting cure, 200-500 kcal nutritional intake per day) with periods of 7-21 days is efficacious in the treatment of rheumatic diseases, chronic pain syndromes, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome. The beneficial effects of fasting followed by vegetarian diet in rheumatoid arthritis are confirmed by randomized controlled trials. Further beneficial effects of fasting are supported by observational data and abundant evidence from experimental research which found caloric restriction and intermittent fasting being associated with deceleration or prevention of most chronic degenerative and chronic inflammatory diseases. Intermittent fasting may also be useful as an accompanying treatment during chemotherapy of cancer. A further beneficial effect of fasting relates to improvements in sustainable lifestyle modification and adoption of a healthy diet, possibly mediated by fasting-induced mood enhancement. Various identified mechanisms of fasting point to its potential health-promoting effects, e.g., fasting-induced neuroendocrine activation and hormetic stress response, increased production of neurotrophic factors, reduced mitochondrial oxidative stress, general decrease of signals associated with aging, and promotion of autophagy. Fasting therapy might contribute to the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases and should be further evaluated in controlled clinical trials and observational studies. PMID:24434759

Michalsen, Andreas; Li, Chenying

2013-01-01

390

76 FR 31499 - Lists of Regions Classified With Respect to Certain Animal Diseases and States Approved To...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...PART 94--RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE...1 Regions where rinderpest or foot-and-mouth disease exists; importations...APHIS considers rinderpest or foot-and-mouth disease to exist in all...

2011-06-01

391

77 FR 1388 - Lists of Regions Classified With Respect to Certain Animal Diseases and States Approved To...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...PART 94--RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE...1 Regions where rinderpest or foot-and-mouth disease exists; importations...APHIS considers rinderpest or foot-and-mouth disease to exist in all...

2012-01-10

392

Increasing habitat suitability in the United States for the tick that transmits Lyme disease: a remote sensing approach.  

PubMed Central

The warnings about the spread of (italic)Ixodes scapularis(/italic), one of the vectors of Lyme disease, into the United States are based on reports about regional distribution and increasing local abundance. In a modeling approach, I used the recorded, current distribution of this tick and remotely sensed bioclimatic factors over the United States to establish the changes of habitat for this tick since 1982 and to detect the areas with factors adequate to support tick colonization. Results indicate the geographic expansion of areas with adequate habitat suitability in the period 1982-2000. A discriminant analysis of counties with different degrees of habitat suitability shows that the increase in winter temperatures and in vegetation vitality (as a direct consequence of higher rainfall) is key to habitat switch from unsuitable to suitable. PMID:12117639

Estrada-Peña, Agustín

2002-01-01

393

Detection of infectious disease outbreaks in twenty-two fragile states, 2000-2010: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Fragile states are home to a sixth of the world's population, and their populations are particularly vulnerable to infectious disease outbreaks. Timely surveillance and control are essential to minimise the impact of these outbreaks, but little evidence is published about the effectiveness of existing surveillance systems. We did a systematic review of the circumstances (mode) of detection of outbreaks occurring in 22 fragile states in the decade 2000-2010 (i.e. all states consistently meeting fragility criteria during the timeframe of the review), as well as time lags from onset to detection of these outbreaks, and from detection to further events in their timeline. The aim of this review was to enhance the evidence base for implementing infectious disease surveillance in these complex, resource-constrained settings, and to assess the relative importance of different routes whereby outbreak detection occurs. We identified 61 reports concerning 38 outbreaks. Twenty of these were detected by existing surveillance systems, but 10 detections occurred following formal notifications by participating health facilities rather than data analysis. A further 15 outbreaks were detected by informal notifications, including rumours. There were long delays from onset to detection (median 29 days) and from detection to further events (investigation, confirmation, declaration, control). Existing surveillance systems yielded the shortest detection delays when linked to reduced barriers to health care and frequent analysis and reporting of incidence data. Epidemic surveillance and control appear to be insufficiently timely in fragile states, and need to be strengthened. Greater reliance on formal and informal notifications is warranted. Outbreak reports should be more standardised and enable monitoring of surveillance systems' effectiveness. PMID:21861869

2011-01-01

394

Use of dietary supplements among United States adults with coronary artery disease and atherosclerotic risks.  

PubMed

The study seeks to describe the use of dietary supplements promoted for cardiovascular health and the relation between supplement use and coronary artery disease (CAD) and the presence of major CAD risk factors. The aim is also to explore whether use of medications for the treatment of cardiovascular disease or diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with supplement use. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of the 1999 to 2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) of 6,671 adults (representing 119.3 million US adults) aged > or =40 years. We categorized adults into 4 nonoverlapping groups as (1) having reported CAD or stroke (CAD/stroke), (2) DM without CAD/stroke, (3) hypertension (HTN) or hypercholesterolemia (HC) without CAD/stroke or DM (HTN/HC), or (4) none of these conditions (no reported CAD/CAD risk) and performed weighted (NHANES) multiple logistic regression to determine the odds of using supplements (reference group, no reported CAD/CAD risk). After controlling for sociodemographics, health, and lifestyle factors, we found that persons with CAD/Stroke used more supplements (any), vitamin E, folic acid, and niacin, and less fish oil. Those with DM used less coenzyme Q10, and adults with HTN/HC used more supplements (any), herbs (any), and ginseng. Adults with CAD/stroke who used medications for the treatment of cardiovascular disease or DM were more likely to use folic acid compared with those who did not use medications for these conditions. In adults with CAD/stroke, DM, or HTN/HC, those who did not use medications for these conditions were more likely to use herbs and other select supplements. In conclusion, use of dietary supplements is common in those with CAD or CAD risks. PMID:17317368

Buettner, Catherine; Phillips, Russell S; Davis, Roger B; Gardiner, Paula; Mittleman, Murray A

2007-03-01

395

The Epidemiology of Weil's Disease: (Section of Epidemiology and State Medicine).  

PubMed

Adolf Weil defined the disease as a clinical entity in 1886, and Leptospira ictero-haemorrhagiae was found to be the causative organism in 1915 by Inada et al. in Japan, and confirmed by Hübener and Reiter in Germany. The infection has been found in most countries, and recently there has been a great increase in the number of instances reported.In most parts of the world rats and other small rodents harbour the organism and excrete it in the urine. This is almost always the direct or indirect source of infection of man, but natural infection of dogs and foxes takes place, and is at least a potential danger to human beings. Infection is usually related to occupation in coal-mines, field work of all sorts, sewers, fish-cleaning, and to bathing in fresh water.The organism quickly dies in an acid medium, in strong sunlight and in salt water. These facts accord with the presence of the disease in certain situations.The route of infection of man is usually by contact of the abraded or sodden skin with infected mud or water, but it may be by inhalation of water and by bites of rats, dogs, and ferrets.Men are much more exposed to infection than women, but in fish-cleaners the incidence is equal in the sexes. Children are sometimes infected by bathing and in houses.The incubation time may be four to nineteen days, and is usually seven to thirteen days.By serological methods many unjaundiced and subclinical infections can be detected among people who are often at risk, and these correct the rather high fatality rates which are derived from jaundiced cases only.During the last three and a half years 142 authenticated instances of the disease in an obvious clinical form have been reported in the British Isles. Twenty-one occupations or circumstances were involved, and the case fatality rate was 15 per cent. PMID:19991094

Alston, J M; Brown, H C

1937-04-01

396

Upregulation of D site of albumin promoter binding protein in the brain of patients with intractable epilepsy  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms that underlie the pathogenesis of intractable epilepsy (IE) remain to be elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the expression of D site of albumin promoter binding protein (DBP) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in the temporal lobes of patients with IE, in order to examine the possible roles of DBP in the pathogenesis of IE. The expression of DBP and MAPK was detected by immunohistochemistry and double-label immunofluorescence staining against DBP/MAPK in 35 patients with IE, and the data were compared with those of the 15 controls. The results demonstrated that DBP expression in IE group (0.31±0.03) was significantly higher compared with that in the controls (0.18±0.02; P<0.05) and MAPK expression in the IE group (0.19±0.03) was also higher compared with that in the controls (0.12±0.02; P<0.05). DBP and MAPK were mainly expressed in the cytoplasm of neurons and the double-label immunofluorescence staining demonstrated that DBP and MAPK expression occurred in the same neurons. Therefore, the expression of DBP and MAPK in epilepsy patients was upregulated, suggesting a possible pathogenetic role in IE. PMID:25503293

YUAN, JINXIAN; GUO, JING; ZHANG, MELIN; WANG, QIAN; HUANG, HAO; CHEN, YANGMEI

2015-01-01

397

[Thalamic relay nucleus stimulation for relief of intractable pain. Clinical results and beta-endorphin immunoreactivity in cerebrospinal fluid].  

PubMed

Chronic implantation of a stimulating electrode in the thalamic relay nucleus (11 cases), in the periaqueductal gray (1 case) and in the internal capsule (2 cases) was performed in fourteen cases which suffered from intractable pain. All these cases could get pain relief at least initial two months. Ventricular fluids were collected before and after stimulation with optimal combination of parameters, and measurements of beta-endorphin were performed by radio-immunoassay. Intrathecal morphine (1mg) injection was performed in eight cases. Cerebrospinal fluids were collected by lumbar tap before and 24 hours after morphine injection. beta-endorphin immunoreactivity was measured by the same method. Pain relief was judged to be excellent if the patient so claimed, and if he discontinued analgesics. Pain relief was thought to be good when it was not completely controllable by stimulation but was sufficiently improved that the patient could do without analgesics. It was thought to be fair when patient could not discontinue analgesics, and poor when patient could not get pain relief. We usually attempt to prevent the stimulation-tolerance by administration of the monoamine precursors , i.e., 1-dopa and 1-tryptophan, on the basis of the experimental observation reported previously. In somatogenic pain patients, the thalamic relay nucleus stimulation was performed in 7 cases (excellent; 3, good; 1, fair; 3) and the periaqueductal gray stimulation in one case (good).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6330600

Tsubokawa, T; Yamamoto, T; Katayama, Y; Nishimoto, H; Hirayama, A; Shibuya, H

1984-03-01

398

Penile traction therapy and Peyronie's disease: a state of art review of the current literature.  

PubMed

In recent years, penile traction therapy (PTT) has gained considerable interest as a novel nonsurgical treatment option for men with Peyronie's disease (PD) and short penises. The current published literature suggests that selected cases of PD may benefit from a conservative approach with PTT, resulting in increased penile length and reduction of penile deformity. It appears to be safe and well tolerated but requires a great deal of patient compliance and determination. This article reviews the current literature pertaining to the use of PTT in men with PD, short penises and in the setting of pre- and postprosthesis corporal fibrosis. PMID:23372611

Chung, Eric; Brock, Gerald

2013-02-01

399

Clinical effects of surgical and Gamma Knife treatments on hippocampal sclerosis-induced intractable epilepsy of children below age 10 years  

PubMed Central

Objective: To discuss the treatment effects and costs of surgery and Gamma Knife on hippocampal sclerosis (HS)-induced intractable epilepsy of children below age 10 years. Methods: The children below age 10 years who suffered from HS-induced intractable epilepsy from June 2010 to June 2012 were subjected to surgical and Gamma Knife treatments respectively according to their preference. Results: The short-term curative rates of the surgical group and the Gamma Knife group were 93.51% and 54.87%, respectively. The average expenses of the two groups were 10,000 CNY (Chinese Yuan) and 22,000 CNY, respectively. Conclusion: The two groups were treated safely and effectively, but the surgical treatment led to better results at a reduced cost. PMID:24353664

Xiao, Aiju; Wang, Tuanjie; Tian, Yunjiao; Xu, Li; Li, Shujun; Zhu, Fenglian

2013-01-01

400

Estimating the United States demand for influenza antivirals and the effect on severe influenza disease during a potential pandemic.  

PubMed

Following the detection of a novel influenza strain A(H7N9), we modeled the use of antiviral treatment in the United States to mitigate severe disease across a range of hypothetical pandemic scenarios. Our outcomes were total demand for antiviral (neuraminidase inhibitor) treatment and the number of hospitalizations and deaths averted. The model included estimates of attack rate, healthcare-seeking behavior, prescription rates, adherence, disease severity, and the potential effect of antivirals on the risks of hospitalization and death. Based on these inputs, the total antiviral regimens estimated to be available in the United States (as of April 2013) were sufficient to meet treatment needs for the scenarios considered. However, distribution logistics were not examined and should be addressed in future work. Treatment was estimated to avert many severe outcomes (5200-248 000 deaths; 4800-504 000 hospitalizations); however, large numbers remained (25 000-425 000 deaths; 580 000-3 700 000 hospitalizations), suggesting that the impact of combinations of interventions should be examined. PMID:25878299

O'Hagan, Justin J; Wong, Karen K; Campbell, Angela P; Patel, Anita; Swerdlow, David L; Fry, Alicia M; Koonin, Lisa M; Meltzer, Martin I

2015-05-01

401

Reduced Topological Efficiency in Cortical-Basal Ganglia Motor Network of Parkinson's Disease: A Resting State fMRI Study  

PubMed Central

Parkinson's disease (PD) is mainly characterized by dopamine depletion of the cortico-basal ganglia (CBG) motor circuit. Given that dopamine dysfunction could affect functional brain network efficiency, the present study utilized resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) and graph theoretical approach to investigate the topological efficiency changes of the CBG motor network in patients with PD during a relatively hypodopaminergic state (12 hours after a last dose of dopamimetic treatment). We found that PD compared with controls had remarkable decreased efficiency in the CBG motor network, with the most pronounced changes observed in rostral supplementary motor area (pre-SMA), caudal SMA (SMA-proper), primary motor cortex (M1), primary somatosensory cortex (S1), thalamus (THA), globus pallidus (GP), and putamen (PUT). Furthermore, reduced efficiency in pre-SMA, M1, THA and GP was significantly correlated with Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) motor scores in PD patients. Together, our results demonstrate that individuals with PD appear to be less effective at information transfer within the CBG motor pathway, which provides a novel perspective on neurobiological explanation for the motor symptoms in patients. These findings are in line with the pathophysiology of PD, suggesting that network efficiency metrics may be used to identify and track the pathology of PD. PMID:25279557

Long, Zhiliang; Wu, Guo-Rong; Hu, Xiaofei; Zhang, Yanling; Wang, Jian

2014-01-01

402

Spatial clustering by disease severity among reported Rocky Mountain spotted fever cases in the United States, 2001-2005.  

PubMed

Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) occurs throughout much of the United States, ranging in clinical severity from moderate to fatal infection. Yet, little is known about possible differences among severity levels across geographic locations. To identify significant spatial clusters of severe and non-severe disease, RMSF cases reported to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) were geocoded by county and classified by severity level. The statistical software program SaTScan was used to detect significant spatial clusters. Of 4,533 RMSF cases reported, 1,089 hospitalizations (168 with complications) and 23 deaths occurred. Significant clusters of 6 deaths (P = 0.05, RR = 11.4) and 19 hospitalizations with complications (P = 0.02, RR = 3.45) were detected in southwestern Tennessee. Two geographic areas were identified in north-central North Carolina with unusually low rates of severity (P = 0.001, RR = 0.62 and P = 0.001, RR = 0.45, respectively). Of all hospitalizations, 20% were clustered in central Oklahoma (P = 0.02, RR = 1.43). Significant geographic differences in severity were observed, suggesting that biologic and/or anthropogenic factors may be impacting RMSF epidemiology in the United States. PMID:19141843

Adjemian, Jennifer Zipser; Krebs, John; Mandel, Eric; McQuiston, Jennifer

2009-01-01

403

Unilaterally and rapidly progressing white matter lesion and elevated cytokines in a patient with Tay–Sachs disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the case of a girl with Tay–Sachs disease who had convulsions and deteriorated rapidly after an upper respiratory infection at the age of 11 months. At the age of 16 months, her seizures became intractable and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed high signal intensity on T2-weighted images and marked swelling in the white matter and basal

Tomomi Hayase; Jun Shimizu; Tamako Goto; Yasuyuki Nozaki; Masato Mori; Naoto Takahashi; Eiji Namba; Takanori Yamagata; Mariko Y. Momoi

2010-01-01

404

Towards evidence-based emergency medicine: Best BETs from the Manchester Royal Infirmary. BET 2: Steroid therapy in the treatment of intractable hyperemesis gravidarum.  

PubMed

A short-cut review was performed to evaluate whether steroids could be an effective therapy in hyper-emesis gravidarum. A database search revealed 9 papers relevant to this question and the details of each study methods and results were displayed in a table. The quality of these studies was generally low. There is only weak evidence that steroids could be an effective treatment for intractable hyper-emesis gravidarum. PMID:21918097

Poon, Siu Ling

2011-10-01

405

Chromatin stretch enhancer states drive cell-specific gene regulation and harbor human disease risk variants  

PubMed Central

Chromatin-based functional genomic analyses and genomewide association studies (GWASs) together implicate enhancers as critical elements influencing gene expression and risk for common diseases. Here, we performed systematic chromatin and transcriptome profiling in human pancreatic islets. Integrated analysis of islet data with those from nine cell types identified specific and significant enrichment of type 2 diabetes and related quantitative trait GWAS variants in islet enhancers. Our integrated chromatin maps reveal that most enhancers are short (median = 0.8 kb). Each cell type also contains a substantial number of more extended (?3 kb) enhancers. Interestingly, these stretch enhancers are often tissue-specific and overlap locus control regions, suggesting that they are important chromatin regulatory beacons. Indeed, we show that (i) tissue specificity of enhancers and nearby gene expression increase with enhancer length; (ii) neighborhoods containing stretch enhancers are enriched for important cell type–specific genes; and (iii) GWAS variants associated with traits relevant to a particular cell type are more enriched in stretch enhancers compared with short enhancers. Reporter constructs containing stretch enhancer sequences exhibited tissue-specific activity in cell culture experiments and in transgenic mice. These results suggest that stretch enhancers are critical chromatin elements for coordinating cell type–specific regulatory programs and that sequence variation in stretch enhancers affects risk of major common human diseases. PMID:24127591

Parker, Stephen C. J.; Stitzel, Michael L.; Taylor, D. Leland; Orozco, Jose Miguel; Erdos, Michael R.; Akiyama, Jennifer A.; van Bueren, Kelly Lammerts; Chines, Peter S.; Narisu, Narisu; Black, Brian L.; Visel, Axel; Pennacchio, Len A.; Collins, Francis S.; Becker, Jesse; Benjamin, Betty; Blakesley, Robert; Bouffard, Gerry; Brooks, Shelise; Coleman, Holly; Dekhtyar, Mila; Gregory, Michael; Guan, Xiaobin; Gupta, Jyoti; Han, Joel; Hargrove, April; Johnson, Taccara; Legaspi, Richelle; Lovett, Sean; Maduro, Quino; Masiello, Cathy; Maskeri, Baishali; McDowell, Jenny; Montemayor, Casandra; Mullikin, James; Park, Morgan; Riebow, Nancy; Schandler, Karen; Schmidt, Brian; Sison, Christina; Stantripop, Mal; Thomas, James; Thomas, Pam; Vemulapalli, Meg; Young, Alice

2013-01-01

406

Drug Delivery for Treatment of Inner Ear Disease: Current State of Knowledge  

PubMed Central

Delivery of medications to the inner ear has been an area of considerable growth in both the research and clinical realms over the past several decades. Systemic delivery of medication destined for treatment of the inner ear is the foundation upon which newer delivery techniques have been developed. Due to systemic side effects, investigators and clinicians have begun developing and utilizing techniques to deliver therapeutic agents locally. Alongside the now commonplace use of intratympanic gentamicin for Meniere's disease and the emerging use of intratympanic steroids for sudden sensorineural hearing loss, novel technologies, such as hydrogels and nanoparticles, are being explored. At the horizon of inner ear drug delivery techniques, intracochlear devices that leverage recent advances in microsystems technology are being developed to apply medications directly into the inner ear. Potential uses for such devices include neurotrophic factor and steroid delivery with cochlear implantation, RNA interference technologies, and stem cell therapy. The historical, current, and future delivery techniques and uses of drug delivery for treatment of inner ear disease serve as the basis for this review. PMID:19952751

McCall, Andrew A.; Leary Swan, Erin E.; Borenstein, Jeffrey T.; Sewell, William F.; Kujawa, Sharon G.; McKenna, Michael J.

2009-01-01

407

Design and operation of state and local infectious disease surveillance systems.  

PubMed

Since 2001, increased attention has been focused on improving acute infectious disease surveillance systems. This article describes options for their design and operation. Systems designed primarily to detect individual cases of reportable diseases may differ from those designed to detect outbreaks or support design or evaluation of control programs. Timeliness, sensitivity, and predictive value of surveillance systems cannot all be maximized at the same time. Core activities of surveillance systems include collection, analysis, and dissemination of information about health events under surveillance. Doing these well requires attention to the mechanics of surveillance, such as making the health department accessible at all times to receive reports and provide consultation, and maintaining current directories of persons for dissemination of surveillance data, alerts, and recommendations. Rapid access to electronic representations of health events (eg, laboratory reports, patient records, or health care claims) provides great opportunities for more timely and complete surveillance. Some important information (eg, exposures, contacts) will still need to be collected directly from affected persons. One productive strategy is to collect core demographic and onset data on all cases and detailed clinical, exposure, and outcome data on a subset. PMID:15829830

Hopkins, Richard S

2005-01-01

408

Obesity as a disease state: a new paradigm for diagnosis and treatment.  

PubMed

While global prevalence of obesity continues to increase dramatically, treatment options remain less than optimal. The etiology of obesity is multifactorial, ranging from lifestyle choices such as excess food intake and insufficient physical activity, to use of medications that have weight gain as an undesirable side effect. Economic and political determinants of available foodstuffs and even social networks may also contribute to obesity. Successful management of obesity requires the understanding and acceptance of a new paradigm that identifies obesity as a disease--one defined by waist circumference--that requires treatment. Obesity meets all accepted criteria of a medical disease, including a known etiology, recognized signs and symptoms, and a range of structural and functional changes that culminate in pathologic consequences. Excess adipose tissue acts as an endocrine organ to produce excess free fatty acids, as well as tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, leptin, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. These bioactive molecules are associated with hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, development of diabetes, endothelial damage, and the onset and progression of atherosclerotic lesions. Options for treating obesity include lifestyle modifications (dietary changes, increased physical activity, behavior modification) and, for the morbidly obese, surgery. Lifestyle modification is rarely successful over the long term; therefore, addition of pharmacotherapy should be considered for obese individuals who have difficulty achieving and maintaining weight goals with lifestyle modifications alone. Several weight loss drugs are available for long-term use, with others in various stages of clinical development. PMID:19789061

Aronne, Louis J; Nelinson, Donald S; Lillo, Joseph L

2009-01-01

409

Differential Epidemiology: IQ, Neuroticism, and Chronic Disease by the 50 U.S. States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current research shows that geo-political units (e.g., the 50 U.S. states) vary meaningfully on psychological dimensions like intelligence (IQ) and neuroticism (N). A new scientific discipline has also emerged, differential epidemiology, focused on how psychological variables affect health. We integrate these areas by reporting large correlations…

Pesta, Bryan J.; Bertsch, Sharon; McDaniel, Michael A.; Mahoney, Christine B.; Poznanski, Peter J.

2012-01-01

410

DISEASES DIAGNOSED IN WILD TURKEYS (MELEAGRIS GALLOPAVO) OF THE SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diagnostic findings are presented on 139 sick or dead wild turkeys examined during the period 1972 through 1984. Turkeys originated from eight southeastern states (Alabama, Ar- kansas, Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, West Virginia) and included 31 turkeys categorized as capture-related mortalities and 108 turkeys categorized as natural mortal- ities. Frequent diagnoses (? 10% of case accessions) in the

William R. Davidson; Victor F. Nettles; C. Edward Couvillion; Elizabeth W. Howerth

411

Lumbar paravertebral blockade as intractable pain management method in palliative care  

PubMed Central

Optimal symptoms control in advanced cancer disease, with refractory to conventional pain treatment, needs an interventional procedure. This paper presents coadministration of local anesthetic (LA) via paravertebral blockade (PVB) as the alternative to an unsuccessful subcutaneous fentanyl pain control in a 71-year old cancer patient with pathological fracture of femoral neck, bone metastases, and contraindications to morphine. Bupivacaine in continuous infusion (0.25%, 5 mL · hour?1) or in boluses (10 mL of 0.125%–0.5% solution), used for lumbar PVB, resulted in pain relief, decreased demand for opioids, and led to better social interactions. The factors contributing to an increased risk of systemic toxicity from LA in the patient were: renal impairment; heart failure; hypoalbuminemia; hypocalcemia; and a complex therapy with possible drug-drug interactions. These factors were taken into consideration during treatment. Bupivacaine’s side effects were absent. Coadministered drugs could mask LA’s toxicity. Elevated plasma ?1-acid glycoprotein levels were a protective factor. To evaluate the benefit-risk ratio of the PVB treatment in boluses and in constant infusion, bupivacaine serum levels were determined and the drug plasma half-lives were calculated. Bupivacaine’s elimination was slower when administered in constant infusion than in boluses (t½ = 7.80 hours versus 2.64 hours). Total drug serum concentrations remained within the safe ranges during the whole treatment course (22.9–927.4 ng mL?1). In the case presented, lumbar PVB with bupivacaine in boluses (? 137.5 mg · 24 hours?1) was an easy to perform, safe, effective method for pain control. Bupivacaine in continuous infusion (?150 mg · 12 hours?1) had an acceptable risk-benefits ratio, but was ineffective. PMID:24043944

Zaporowska-Stachowiak, Iwona; Kotlinska-Lemieszek, Aleksandra; Kowalski, Grzegorz; Kosicka, Katarzyna; Hoffmann, Karolina; G?ówka, Franciszek; ?uczak, Jacek

2013-01-01

412

Promoting state health department evidence-based cancer and chronic disease prevention: a multi-phase dissemination study with a cluster randomized trial component  

PubMed Central

Background Cancer and other chronic diseases reduce quality and length of life and productivity, and represent a significant financial burden to society. Evidence-based public health approaches to prevent cancer and other chronic diseases have been identified in recent decades and have the potential for high impact. Yet, barriers to implement prevention approaches persist as a result of multiple factors including lack of organizational support, limited resources, competing emerging priorities and crises, and limited skill among the public health workforce. The purpose of this study is to learn how best to promote the adoption of evidence based public health practice related to chronic disease prevention. Methods/design This paper describes the methods for a multi-phase dissemination study with a cluster randomized trial component that will evaluate the dissemination of public health knowledge about evidence-based prevention of cancer and other chronic diseases. Phase one involves development of measures of practitioner views on and organizational supports for evidence-based public health and data collection using a national online survey involving state health department chronic disease practitioners. In phase two, a cluster randomized trial design will be conducted to test receptivity and usefulness of dissemination strategies directed toward state health department chronic disease practitioners to enhance capacity and organizational support for evidence-based chronic disease prevention. Twelve state health department chronic disease units will be randomly selected and assigned to intervention or control. State health department staff and the university-based study team will jointly identify, refine, and select dissemination strategies within intervention units. Intervention (dissemination) strategies may include multi-day in-person training workshops, electronic information exchange modalities, and remote technical assistance. Evaluation methods include pre-post surveys, structured qualitative phone interviews, and abstraction of state-level chronic disease prevention program plans and progress reports. Trial registration clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01978054. PMID:24330729

2013-01-01

413

A Differential Item Functioning (DIF) Analysis of the Communicative Participation Item Bank (CPIB): Comparing Individuals with Parkinson's Disease from the United States and New Zealand  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To examine the cross-cultural applicability of the Communicative Participation Item Bank (CPIB) through a comparison of respondents with Parkinson's disease (PD) from the United States and New Zealand. Method: A total of 428 respondents--218 from the United States and 210 from New Zealand-completed the self-report CPIB and a series…

Baylor, Carolyn; McAuliffe, Megan J.; Hughes, Louise E.; Yorkston, Kathryn; Anderson, Tim; Jiseon, Kim; Amtmann, Dagmar

2014-01-01

414

Endothelial dysfunction and coronary artery disease: a state of the art review.  

PubMed

Atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (CAD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the developed world. Endothelial dysfunction plays an important role in the development of atherosclerosis and predicts cardiovascular (CV) outcomes independent of conventional CV risk factors. In recent years, there have been tremendous improvements in the pharmacological prevention and management of CAD. In this review, the pathophysiology of endothelial dysfunction in relation to CAD is discussed and various techniques of invasive and noninvasive assessments of peripheral and coronary endothelial function described. In addition, evidence for the association of endothelial dysfunction and CV outcomes has been examined and finally the role of therapeutic interventions in endothelial dysfunction has been discussed. PMID:25420051

Veerasamy, Murugapathy; Bagnall, Alan; Neely, Dermot; Allen, John; Sinclair, Hannah; Kunadian, Vijay

2015-01-01

415

FastStats: Kidney Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Diseases and Conditions Anemia or Iron Deficiency Cancer Cancer Prostate Disease Cardiovascular Cerebrovascular Disease or Stroke Cholesterol Heart ... States, 2013, table 97 [PDF - 9.8 MB] > Incidence and prevalence of end-stage renal disease Health, United States, ...

416

Fingolimod for the treatment of neurological diseases—state of play and future perspectives  

PubMed Central

Sphingolipids are a fascinating class of signaling molecules derived from the membrane lipid sphingomyelin. They show abundant expression in the brain. Complex sphingolipids such as glycosphingolipids (gangliosides and cerebrosides) regulate vesicular transport and lysosomal degradation and their dysregulation can lead to storage diseases with a neurological phenotype. More recently, simple sphingolipids such ceramide, sphingosine and sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) were discovered to signal in response to many extracellular stimuli. Forming an intricate signaling network, the balance of these readily interchangeable mediators is decisive for cell fate under stressful conditions. The immunomodulator fingolimod is the prodrug of an S1P receptor agonist. Following receptor activation, the drug leads to downregulation of the S1P1 receptor inducing functional antagonism. As the first drug to modulate the sphingolipid signaling pathway, it was marketed in 2010 for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). At that time, immunomodulation was widely accepted as the key mechanism of fingolimod’s efficacy in MS. But given the excellent passage of this lipophilic compound into the brain and its massive brain accumulation as well as the abundant expression of S1P receptors on brain cells, it is conceivable that fingolimod also affects brain cells directly. Indeed, a seminal study showed that the protective effect of fingolimod in experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE), a murine MS model, is lost in mice lacking the S1P1 receptor on astrocytes, arguing for a specific role of astrocytic S1P signaling in MS. In this review, we discuss the role of sphingolipid mediators and their metabolizing enzymes in neurologic diseases and putative therapeutic strategies arising thereof. PMID:25309325

Brunkhorst, Robert; Vutukuri, Rajkumar; Pfeilschifter, Waltraud

2014-01-01

417

Oncohematological diseases in the Vale do Paraíba, State of São Paulo: demographic aspects, prevalences and incidences  

PubMed Central

Background Based on the necessity of detailed information that supports effective strategies to improve cancer outcomes in the different regions of Brazil, the aims of this study were to report demographic aspects and to calculate the prevalence and incidence rates of oncohematological diseases in the region of Vale do Paraíba. Methods This is a multicentric prospective study carried out from October 2009 to March 2010. A total of 500 over 19-year-old patients were enrolled. Data such as type of healthcare insurance, gender, age, ethnic classification, place of residence, schooling, income, body mass index, new cases and the period between the first symptoms and a definite diagnosis were collected. The prevalence and incidence rates were calculated according to an estimated number of 1,319,800 inhabitants. Results The prevalence and incidence rates per 100,000 inhabitants in the period of six months were, respectively: acute myeloid leukemia 1.5 and 0.7; acute lymphoblastic leukemia 0.5 and 0.1; chronic lymphocytic leukemia 2.4 and 0.4; chronic myeloid leukemia 6.2 and 0.8; Hodgkin's lymphoma 2.9 and 0.9; non-Hodgkin lymphoma 9.8 and 4.3; multiple myeloma 5.7 and 0.7; myelodysplastic syndromes 2.1 and 0.2 and myeloproliferative syndromes 5.1 and 0.3. Conclusion Giving the paucity of data in this field of investigation, our data may be useful for comparisons with those of other regions of Brazil and will assist in the implementation of treatment programs of oncohematological diseases in this region. PMID:23284259

Callera, Fernando; Brasil, Alvaro Azevedo Vital; Casali, Anna Raquel de Lima; Mulin, Carla Cecília; Rosa, Evandro Secchi; Barbosa, Maira de Assis; Vieira, Thais Domitila Freire

2011-01-01

418

Prevalence of chronic disease and insurance coverage among refugees in the United States.  

PubMed

Little is known about the health status of refugees beyond the immediate post-arrival period in the US. Using data from the 2003 New Immigrant Survey, a nationally representative survey of immigrants who had recently become legal permanent residents, we determined the prevalence of chronic conditions and health insurance coverage among adult refugees who had lived in the US for at least 1 year (n = 490). We compared their health status with that of other immigrants (n = 3,715) using multivariable logistic regression. The median duration of US residency was 5.6 and 8.0 years among refugees and other immigrants, respectively. Refugees were more likely than other immigrants to report at least one chronic condition (24.7 vs. 15.6 %, P < 0.001). After adjusting for sociodemographic differences, the odds of the following conditions remained significantly higher among refugees: arthritis (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.67, 95 % confidence interval [CI] = 1.07, 2.61), heart disease (AOR = 2.49, 95 % CI = 1.30, 4.74), stroke (AOR = 5.87, 95 % CI = 1.27, 27.25), activity-limitation due to pain (AOR = 1.96, 95 % CI = 1.31, 2.93), and any chronic condition (AOR = 1.37, 95 % CI = 1.03, 1.81). Although similar percentages of refugees (49.0 %) and other immigrants (47.4 %) were uninsured, 46.5 % of refugees with chronic conditions lacked health insurance. Refugees have a high burden of chronic disease and would benefit from expanded insurance coverage for adults with preexisting conditions. PMID:22527741

Yun, Katherine; Fuentes-Afflick, Elena; Desai, Mayur M

2012-12-01

419

Regression methods for investigating risk factors of chronic kidney disease outcomes: the state of the art  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a progressive and usually irreversible disease. Different types of outcomes are of interest in the course of CKD such as time-to-dialysis, transplantation or decline of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Statistical analyses aiming at investigating the association between these outcomes and risk factors raise a number of methodological issues. The objective of this study was to give an overview of these issues and to highlight some statistical methods that can address these topics. Methods A literature review of statistical methods published between 2002 and 2012 to investigate risk factors of CKD outcomes was conducted within the Scopus database. The results of the review were used to identify important methodological issues as well as to discuss solutions for each type of CKD outcome. Results Three hundred and four papers were selected. Time-to-event outcomes were more often investigated than quantitative outcome variables measuring kidney function over time. The most frequently investigated events in survival analyses were all-cause death, initiation of kidney replacement therapy, and progression to a specific value of GFR. While competing risks were commonly accounted for, interval censoring was rarely acknowledged when appropriate despite existing methods. When the outcome of interest was the quantitative decline of kidney function over time, standard linear models focussing on the slope of GFR over time were almost as often used as linear mixed models which allow various numbers of repeated measurements of kidney function per patient. Informative dropout was accounted for in some of these longitudinal analyses. Conclusions This study provides a broad overview of the statistical methods used in the last ten years for investigating risk factors of CKD progression, as well as a discussion of their limitations. Some existing potential alternatives that have been proposed in the context of CKD or in other contexts are also highlighted. PMID:24628838

2014-01-01

420

Impaired development of intrinsic connectivity networks in children with medically intractable localization-related epilepsy.  

PubMed

Typical childhood development is characterized by the emergence of intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) by way of internetwork segregation and intranetwork integration. The impact of childhood epilepsy on the maturation of ICNs is, however, poorly understood. The developmental trajectory of ICNs in 26 children (8-17 years) with localization-related epilepsy and 28 propensity-score matched controls was evaluated using graph theoretical analysis of whole brain connectomes from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. Children with epilepsy demonstrated impaired development of regional hubs in nodes of the salience and default mode networks (DMN). Seed-based connectivity and hierarchical clustering analysis revealed significantly decreased intranetwork connections, and greater internetwork connectivity in children with epilepsy compared to controls. Significant interactions were identified between epilepsy duration and the expected developmental trajectory of ICNs, indicating that prolonged epilepsy may cause progressive alternations in large-scale networks throughout childhood. DMN integration was also associated with better working memory, whereas internetwork segregation was associated with higher full-scale intelligence quotient scores. Furthermore, subgroup analyses revealed the thalamus, hippocampus, and caudate were weaker hubs in children with secondarily generalized seizures, relative to other patient subgroups. Our findings underscore that epilepsy interferes with the developmental trajectory of brain networks underlying cognition, providing evidence supporting the early treatment of affected children. PMID:24976288

Ibrahim, George M; Morgan, Benjamin R; Lee, Wayne; Smith, Mary Lou; Donner, Elizabeth J; Wang, Frank; Beers, Craig A; Federico, Paolo; Taylor, Margot J; Doesburg, Sam M; Rutka, James T; Snead, O Carter

2014-11-01

421

Clobazam: a newly approved but well-established drug for the treatment of intractable epilepsy syndromes.  

PubMed

Clobazam, a 1,5-benzodiazepine, was introduced in the 1970s as an anxiolytic and antiepileptic drug. Despite worldwide usage, it was only recently approved in the United States (seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome). This article reviews historical and recent data to help practitioners better understand clobazam's clinical properties and usage. In many clinical trials, open-label studies, and retrospective reviews, clobazam was generally associated with ?50% seizure reduction for more than half of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome patients, with approximately 10% achieving freedom from drop attacks. Efficacy is persistent, with little evidence for development of tolerance. Clobazam's safety profile appears to be similar to that of other benzodiazepines, but with substantially decreased sedation and increased psychomotor performance. Studies suggest clobazam acts through potentiation of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors in a manner similar to other benzodiazepines. However, clobazam appears to display greater selectivity for receptors responsible for anticonvulsant activity than for those involved in sedation. PMID:23112237

Wheless, James W; Phelps, Stephanie J

2013-02-01

422

Comparison of the effect of decompressive craniectomy on different neurosurgical diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Many previous studies have reported that decompressive craniectomy has improved clinical outcomes in patients with intractable\\u000a increased intracranial pressure (ICP) caused by various neurosurgical diseases. However there is no report that compares the\\u000a effectiveness of the procedure in the different conditions. The authors performed decompressive craniectomy following a constant\\u000a surgical indication and compared the clinical outcomes in different neurosurgical diseases.

Ki-Tae Kim; Jin-Kyu Park; Seok-Gu Kang; Kyung-Suck Cho; Do-Sung Yoo; Dong-Kyu Jang; Pil-Woo Huh; Dal-Soo Kim

2009-01-01

423

Coverage of the Ebola Virus Disease Epidemic in Three Widely Circulated United States Newspapers: Implications for Preparedness and Prevention  

PubMed Central

Background:Widespread media attention about Ebola influences public awareness and interest, yet there is limited research on what aspects of Ebola have and have not been communicated through the media. Methods:We examined the nature and extent of coverage about Ebola in the three most widely circulated United States (U.S.) daily newspapers. Between September 17, 2014 and October 17, 2014, 301 articles about Ebola in The New York Times, USA Today, and The Wall Street Journal were identified and coded. Results:The most common topic was coverage of cases in the United States (39%), followed by the outbreak in Africa (33.6%). Conclusion:This is the first study to describe coverage of the Ebola epidemic in widely circulated U.S. newspapers. A substantial portion of the American public is concerned about being infected with Ebola virus disease (EVD). In this study, a large emphasis was placed on death tolls and the cases in the United States. Much more can be done to educate readers about relevant aspects of the Ebola epidemic, including how Ebola is and is not transmitted. PMID:25649411

Basch, Corey H; Basch, Charles E; Redlener, Irwin

2014-01-01

424

Trends in the prevalence of hospitalization attributable to hypertensive diseases among United States adults aged 35 and older from 1980 to 2007.  

PubMed

We aimed to examine the trend in the prevalence of hospitalization attributable to hypertensive disease and its subtypes among United States adults aged ?35 years from 1980 to 2007. Data (n = 4,598,488,000 hospitalized cases) from the National Hospital Discharge Surveys were used to examine the trends of hospitalized patients with first (the reason for admission) and patients with any second to seventh (a co-morbid condition when admission) diagnosis of hypertensive disease (International Classification of Disease, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification: 401 to 405) by gender and geographic region. Age-adjusted rates of disease were calculated using the United States 2000 standard population. The results show that age-adjusted hospitalization rates due to first diagnosis of hypertensive disease increased from 1.74% to 2.06% in men (p <0.01), and from 2.0% to 2.09% in women (p = 0.06) from 1980 to 1981 to 2006 to 2007. Age-adjusted rates due to any second to seventh diagnosis of hypertensive disease significantly increased from 7.06% to 35.09% in men (p <0.001), and from 7.88% to 31.98% (p <0.001) in women from 1980 to 1981 to 2006 to 2007. Patients with second to seventh diagnosis of essential hypertension and hypertensive chronic kidney disease had the highest and the second highest annual percent increases. Subjects living in the Southern region of the United States had the highest prevalence of hospitalization due to any second to seventh diagnosis of hypertensive disease compared with all other regions in 2006 to 2007. In conclusion, the prevalence of hospitalization due to hypertensive disease significantly increased in the United States from 1980 to 2007. PMID:23726180

Liu, Longjian; An, Yuan; Chen, Ming; Liu, Zuolu; Hu, Xiaohua; Chou, Edgar; Eisen, Howard J

2013-09-01

425

Treatment patterns of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in employed adults in the United States  

PubMed Central

Background This study evaluated patterns of pharmacotherapy in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as they relate to recommended guidelines in a prevalent COPD patient population with employer-sponsored health insurance in the US. Methods Health care claims data from 2007 and 2008 were retrospectively analyzed for the study population defined as patients aged 40 years and older, continuously enrolled during the study period, and having at least one inpatient or one emergency department (ED) visit, or at least two outpatient claims coded with COPD (International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification code 491.xx, 492.xx, 496.xx). Rates of any pharmacotherapy (both maintenance and reliever), long-acting maintenance pharmacotherapy in patients with an exacerbation history, and short-term treatment of acute exacerbations of COPD were evaluated in the overall population, newly diagnosed, and previously diagnosed patients (including maintenance-naïve and maintenance-experienced). Stratified analyses were also conducted by age group (40–64 years, ?65 years) and physician specialty. Results A total of 55,361 patients met study criteria of whom 39% were newly diagnosed. The mean age was 66 years, and 46% were male. Three-fourths (74%) of all COPD patients had some pharmacotherapy (maintenance or reliever) with less than half (45%) being treated with maintenance medications. The combination of an inhaled corticosteroid and a long-acting beta-agonist was the most prevalent drug class for maintenance treatment followed by tiotropium. Only 64% of patients with an exacerbation history had a prescription for a long-acting maintenance medication, and short-term treatment with oral corticosteroids or antibiotics was higher for hospitalization exacerbations compared to ED visit exacerbations (68% vs 44%). In general, the rates of pharmacotherapy were highest in patients who were maintenance-experienced followed by newly diagnosed and maintenance-naïve. Conclusion The majority of COPD patients received maintenance or reliever COPD medications, but less than half received guideline-recommended care, especially those with an exacerbation history or receiving short-term treatment for acute exacerbations. PMID:25759574

Diette, Gregory B; Dalal, Anand A; D’Souza, Anna O; Lunacsek, Orsolya E; Nagar, Saurabh P

2015-01-01