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Intractable and rare diseases are an important public health issue and a challenge to medical care. In recent years, much progress has been made in the United States (US), the European Union (EU), and some parts of Asia including Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan, involving specific legislation to encourage discovery and development of orphan drugs, patients' advocacy organizations to provide vast information on intractable and rare diseases and improve patients' access to healthcare, special research programs to strengthen basic and applied research on intractable and rare diseases, and so on. While China is also actively promoting regulation of intractable and rare diseases, but still lags far behind the US, EU, Japan, and other countries and regions with orphan drug legislation. Based on systematic analysis of the current status and future perspectives for intractable and rare diseases in Asia, we recommend that three important aspects of support from government, patients' advocacy organizations and rare disease registry networks, special research programs and global information exchange platform, should be given great attention in promoting the development of intractable and rare diseases research in Asian countries. PMID:22621985
Intractable, therapy-resistant priapism in a patient with sickle cell disease is presented. The patient was managed with insertion of an inflatable penile prosthesis. He consequently maintained potency and remains free of priapitic episodes. To our knowledge, immediate penile prosthesis insertion for management of priapism has not been reported. We discuss the indications and advantages of this approach and review the
The current situation for patients with nervous intractablediseases is that there are few places where they can be hospitalized for a long term,and their family members bear a heavy burden for caring for them. In order to support home care,our hospital is formulating a system in which regular respite hospitalization is possible,and we are supporting home care of many patients with nervous intractablediseases. PMID:23268923
A 65-year-old man with adult polycystic kidney disease (APKD) and chronic renal failure suffered from intractable abdominal pain and distension for 2 weeks. Meperidine infusion did not alleviate his pain. However, pain and abdominal distension were successfully controlled by embolization of both renal arteries.
Hahn, Seong Tai; Park, Seog Hee; Lee, Jae Mun; Kim, Choon-Yul [Department of Radiology, St. Mary's Hospital, Catholic Medical Center, Catholic University of Korea, 62, Youido-dong, Yongdungpo-gu, Seoul, 150-010 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Yoon Sik [Department of Internal Medicine, St. Mary's Hospital, Catholic Medical Center, Catholic University of Korea, 62, Youido-dong, Yongdungpo-gu, Seoul, 150-010, Korea (Korea, Republic of)
Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 3 (PFIC3) is a rare cholestatic liver disease. Such liver disease can get worse by female hormone disorder. Albumin dialysis or Molecular Adsorbent Recirculating System (MARS) has been reported to reverse severe cholestasis-linked pruritus. Here, we report the first use of MARS during a spontaneous pregnancy and its successful outcome in a patient with PFIC3 and intractable pruritus. Albumin dialysis could be considered as a pregnancy-saving procedure in pregnant women with severe cholestasis and refractory pruritus. PMID:19030215
Objective: To study the effects of unilateral stereotactic pallidotomy performed without microelectrode recording for advanced Parkinson's disease.Methods: Stereotactic coordinates were calculated by comparing preoperative inversion recovery MRI sequences with intraoperative CT scans. Conventional stereotactic stimulation techniques were employed to confirm correct probe placement. Patients were assessed using a modified CAPIT protocol with the off-state UPDRS motor score as the primary
R. B Dewey; C. A Giller; S. K Broline; D. B Mendelsohn; L. H Lacritz; C. M Cullum
Calciphylaxis is a rare but potentially fatal condition occurring in patients with end stage renal disease on dialysis. Due to interplay of various factors, disturbances occur in the metabolism of calcium and phosphate leading to calcification within the vessel walls. The net result is tissue ischemia and necrosis. Clinically this presents as painful non-healing skin ulcers, which contribute to significant morbidity and mortality due to septic progression of the lesion. In this case report, we highlight the rapidly progressive nature of this disease, its etiopathogenesis and the role of early diagnosis in preventing life-threatening complications.
Intractable autoimmune diseases in chi- meric resistant MRL\\/lpr mice were treated by a new bone marrow transplantation (BMT) method consisting of fractionated irradiation, 5.5 Gy 3 2, followed by intra- bone marrow (IBM) injection of whole bone marrow cells (BMCs) from alloge- neic normal C57BL\\/6 (B6) mice (5.5 Gy 3 2 1 IBM). In MRL\\/lpr mice treated with this method,
: The major operative indication for ulcerative colitis is intractability. Although steroid side effects appear to be closely\\u000a associated with surgical indications for intractable ulcerative colitis, this relationship has yet to be analyzed in detail.\\u000a To elucidate this relationship, we investigated 39 surgical patients with intractable ulcerative colitis, as defined by the\\u000a Research Committee for IntractableDiseases of the Ministry
Intractable conflict involves reoccurring patterns of ineffective communication in which issues are not resolved and build over time. These situations can lead to bad feelings, damaged relationships, depression, aggression, anxiety and substance abuse. Grounded theory methods were used to study the processes involved in intractable conflicts and to identify ways of responding that promote growth and/or resolution. Results indicate that developing mindfulness over mindlessness is the basic social process that threads through three phases of working through intractable conflict. Phases include: growing awareness, self-realization, and regaining equilibrium. Mental health professionals can use this knowledge to support mindful practices as a means to protect against destructive conflict and mental health woes. PMID:14508774
Though polycystic liver disease (PCLD) has historically been considered a contraindication to TIPS, we present a case where technically successful shunt creation was achieved without the need for modification of the standard TIPS procedure, as was required in a previous report.
Bahramipour, Phillip F.; Festa, Steven; Biswal, Rajiv; Wachsberg, Ronald H. [Department of Radiology, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, University Hospital, 150 Bergen Street, UH C-320 Newark, NJ 07103 (United States)
Our study sought to identify early predictive factors of medically intractable childhood epilepsy. A cohort of epileptic children from the city of Mersin was retrospectively investigated. All patients received care from the same Department of Pediatric Neurology. The epileptic cohort was divided into a drug-responsive epilepsy group and an intractable epilepsy group. Intractable epilepsy is defined as continued seizures in children despite adequate therapy with two or more antiepileptic drugs for more than 18 months. Strong univariate association was observed between intractability and several factors: age of onset, high initial seizure frequency, symptomatic etiology, mixed seizure types, previous history of status epilepticus, febrile and neonatal seizures, mental and motor developmental delay, multiple seizures in 1 day, electroencephalogram abnormalities, magnetic resonance imaging findings, and specific epileptic syndromes. Logistic regression analysis revealed that a previous history of epilepticus status, abnormal electroencephalogram results, and multiple seizures in 1 day comprise independent predictors of medically intractable childhood epilepsy. We suggest that medical intractability in childhood epilepsy can be predicted by monitoring these factors. Along with early prediction, alternative therapies may be designed to provide patients better seizure control and quality of life. PMID:23290021
Seker Yilmaz, Berna; Okuyaz, Cetin; Komur, Mustafa
Bilateral anterior cingulectomies were performed on 23 patients for the relief of intractable pain. 19 patients suffered from pain due to metastatic disease, 3 from arachnoiditis and 1 from a phantom limb syndrome. Of those patients suffering from pain due to metastatic disease, 10 (52.1%) obtained pain relief. Among the patients suffering from arachnoiditis, 1 obtained pain relief. The case
Cortical resective surgery (including amygdalohippocampectomy) and corpus callosotomy are the most widely accepted modes of surgical treatment for intractable epilepsy. Between July 1989 and May 1996, 146 surgeries for epilepsy were done at Severance Hospital, Yonsei University. Resective surgery was performed in 126 patients and corpus callosotomy in 20 patients. Of the 126 patients who underwent resective surgery, surgery for
When a child on anticonvulsant medications continues to have seizures, what other options should be considered? Over the past 100 years, dietary therapies for the treatment of intractable epilepsy have become more widely recognized, and their use has continued to expand throughout the world. An increasing number of studies has shown efficacy of these metabolic treatments in improving seizure control. Currently, 4 types of dietary therapy are available in the clinic: the classic long chain fatty acid "ketogenic" diet, the medium chain triglyceride diet, the modified Atkins diet, and the low glycemic index treatment. These therapies should be considered earlier in the treatment of intractable epilepsy because they offer a different approach to treatment that has proven efficacious, tolerable, and cost-effective. PMID:22062942
Purpose: To investigate the seizure precipitants in children with intractable epilepsy, and to determine any distinctive clinical features contributing to seizures in these patients. Methods: A questionnaire and seizure diary prepared by the parents of the patients. Demographic and seizure data were reviewed. Results: Of 120 patients with intractable epilepsy, 74 (62%) had one (n=43), two (n=23), or three seizure
In applications such as gene therapy and drug design, a key goal is to convert the diseasestate of diseased objects from an undesirable state into a desirable one. Such conversions may be achieved by changing the values of some attributes of the objects. For example, in gene therapy one may convert cancerous cells to normal ones by changing some genes' expression level from low to high or from high to low. In this paper, we define the diseasestate conversion problem as the discovery of diseasestate converters; a diseasestate converter is a small set of attribute value changes that may change an object's diseasestate from undesirable into desirable. We consider two variants of this problem: personalized diseasestate converter mining mines diseasestate converters for a given individual patient with a given disease, and universal diseasestate converter mining mines diseasestate converters for all samples with a given disease. We propose a DSCMiner algorithm to discover small and highly effective diseasestate converters. Since real-life medical experiments on living diseased instances are expensive and time consuming, we use classifiers trained from the datasets of given diseases to evaluate the quality of discovered converter sets. The effectiveness of a diseasestate converter is measured by the percentage of objects that are successfully converted from undesirable state into desirable state as deemed by state-of-the-art classifiers. We use experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of our algorithm and to show its effectiveness. We also discuss possible research directions for extensions and improvements. We note that the diseasestate conversion problem also has applications in customer retention, criminal rehabilitation, and company turn-around, where the goal is to convert class membership of objects whose class is an undesirable class. PMID:20183875
Hitherto we examined twice intractable recurrent gastric ulcer from the viewpoint of pancreatic function. Pancreatic function test (similar to the previous one) performed on the patients with so-called \\
M. Abe; S. Oshita; T. Nose; S. Yamaoka; S. Omata; Y. Watanabe
Sneezing has been commonly recognized as part of the nasal allergic reaction in response to pollen and inhalant allergens; isolated intractable sneezing is an unusual presentation in allergic patients. An 8-yr-old white girl developed intractable sneezing in the fall while walking past an area where fresh roofing tar was being prepared. Her personal and family histories were negative for allergic disease or symptoms. Positive physical findings were boggy nasal mucosa; pollen and inhalant skin tests were negative. Response to topical cromolyn and beclomethasone administered intranasally was only partial; antihistamines were little help. Upon careful review of history, exposure to clothes washed in Miracle White Laundry Soil and Stain Remover correlated to symptoms; removal from clothing by extensive washing relieved the sneezing, which recurred upon exposure. Prick test was positive to triethanolamine at 10(7)M to 10(-4)M and not to other ingredients of this product. Investigation demonstrated dose-dependent leukocyte histamine release (25% to 27% specific release) to triethanolamine (10(-4)M to 10(-7)M); this release (50% at 10(-5)M) was inhibited by preincubation with cromolyn sodium (5 X 10(-6)M). Passive cutaneous anaphylaxis was demonstrated to triethanolamine (10(-7)M to 10(-4)M); specific IgE to triethanolamine was demonstrated by polystyrene tube radioimmunoassay. Controls had no histamine release or specific IgE. Thus exposure to triethanolamine caused IgE-mediated intractable sneezing. PMID:6186715
Objectives: The management of intractable leg ulcers requires a team approach which includes vascular surgeons and plastic surgeons. We retrospectively reviewed the results of the management of intractable leg ulcers by plastic surgeons. Patients and Methods: A total of 73 patients with intractable leg ulcers, (79 limbs) were treated at the Department of Plastic Surgery at our institution. Skin perfusion pressure (SPP) around the ulcer on the limb was measured before and after arterial reconstructive procedures. Local ulcer management involved intra-wound continuous negative pressure and irrigation therapy or negative pressure wound therapy. We examined the rates of wound healing and associated prognostic factors. Results: There were 21 limbs without ischemia (non-peripheral arterial disease [Non-PAD] group) and 58 limbs with ischemia (PAD group). The healing rates were 66% in the PAD group and 81% in the Non-PAD group, but the difference between the groups was not significant. A total of 41 limbs in the PAD group underwent revascularization, which involved bypass surgery in 18 limbs and endovascular therapy in 23 limbs. The salvage rate of the revascularized limbs was 83% at 1 year. The primary patency rates at 1 year were 87% for bypass surgery and 58% for endovascular therapy. The healing rate of the revascularized limbs was 66%, and the presence of concomitant hemodialysis, infected ulcers, and limbs without improved SPP were shown to be poor prognostic factors. Limbs treated with bypass surgery had a better healing rate than limbs treated with endovascular therapy, but the difference was not significant. Conclusion: Good ulcer-healing rates were achieved by effective revascularization and aggressive local management. These results suggest that a team approach is useful for the management of intractable leg ulcers. (English translation of Jpn J Vasc Surg 2011; 20: 913-920)
Presents 1995 death rates for the following diseases: Total cardiovascular diseases; Ischemic heart diseases; Stroke; All cancers; Lung cancer; Colorectal cancer; Breast cancer; Diabetes; Cigarette smoking; No leisure time physical activity among adults; ...
Advancement in high throughput DNA sequencing technologies has supported a rapid proliferation of microbial genome sequencing projects, providing the genetic blueprint for for in-depth studies. Oftentimes, difficult to sequence regions in microbial genomes are ruled intractable resulting in a growing number of genomes with sequence gaps deposited in databases. A procedure was developed to sequence such difficult regions in the non-contiguous finished Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132 genome (6 intractable gaps) and the Desulfovibrio africanus genome (1 intractable gap). The polynucleotides surrounding each gap formed GC rich secondary structures making the regions refractory to amplification and sequencing. Strand-displacing DNA polymerases used in concert with a novel ramped PCR extension cycle supported amplification and closure of all gap regions in both genomes. These developed procedures support accurate gene annotation, and provide a step-wise method that reduces the effort required for genome finishing.
Hurt, Jr., Richard Ashley [ORNL; Brown, Steven D [ORNL; Podar, Mircea [ORNL; Palumbo, Anthony Vito [ORNL; Elias, Dwayne A [ORNL
Purpose To report the early results of suprachoroidal silicone implant surgery in intractable glaucoma.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods A modified silicone implant with no valve was implanted into the suprachoroidal space of 15 eyes with intractable glaucoma.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results The mean age of the patients was 53.0 ± 24.5 (range 7–85) years, the mean follow-up time was 17.1 ± 4.8 (range 10–28) months,\\u000a and the mean preoperative intraocular pressure
Melis Palamar; Halil Ates; Zafer Oztas; Emil Yusifov
Background: Intractable diarrhoea of infancy represents a severe problem with a high degree of morbidity and mortality. These cases demand dedicated care from both parents and medical staff as there are no easy remedies. The rarity of patients indicates that progress in understanding these disorders requires concerted international efforts to pool resources and patients. Regular reviews of publications in the
Introduction : Intractable epilepsies (IE) contribute to a small but significant component of all epilepsies in childhood. There is paucity of data regarding early predictors and magnitude of IE in Indian children. Early identification and intervention will go a long way in improving their outcome. Objectives : (1) To study the clinical profile, aetiopathogenesis and outcome of IE (2) To
The ketogenic diet is effective for treating seizures in children with epilepsy. The Atkins diet can also induce a ketotic state, but has fewer protein and caloric restrictions, and has been used safely by millions of people worldwide for weight reduction. Six patients, aged 7 to 52 years, were started on the Atkins diet for the treatment of intractable focal and multifocal epilepsy. Five patients maintained moderate to large ketosis for periods of 6 weeks to 24 months; three patients had seizure reduction and were able to reduce antiepileptic medications. This provides preliminary evidence that the Atkins diet may have a role as therapy for patients with medically resistant epilepsy. PMID:14694049
Kossoff, Eric H; Krauss, Gregory L; McGrogan, Jane R; Freeman, John M
The Summary of Notifiable Diseases - United States, 2011 contains the official statistics, in tabular and graphic form, for the reported occurrence of nationally notifiable infectious diseases in the United States for 2011. Unless otherwise noted, the data are final totals for 2011 reported as of June 30, 2012. These statistics are collected and compiled from reports sent by state health departments and territories to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS), which is operated by CDC in collaboration with the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE). PMID:23820934
Adams, Deborah A; Gallagher, Kathleen M; Jajosky, Ruth Ann; Kriseman, Jeffrey; Sharp, Pearl; Anderson, Willie J; Aranas, Aaron E; Mayes, Michelle; Wodajo, Michael S; Onweh, Diana H; Abellera, John P
Background: Catamenial epilepsy is a kind of epilepsy, known in this name, when the periodicity of the exacerbation of the seizure is in association with menstural cycle. The present study examined the progesterone effectiveness as a complementary treatment in women with intractable catamenial epilepsy. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted as a double-blind randomized controlled trial on 38 women with intractable catamenial epilepsy. Patients were assessed in two groups: The case group received in addition to AEDs, two (Mejestrol) 40 mg progesterone tablets in the second half of the cycle from 15th to 25th day. And the control group received in addition to AEDs, two placebo tablets daily. Age, BMI, epilepsy duration, types of the drugs used, progesterone level, and the number of the seizures in 3 months before and after the study were compared. Results: Based on the results of which there was no statistically significant difference in regard to age, BMI, epilepsy duration, types of the drugs used, progesterone level between the case and the control groups (P-value > 0.05). The number of the seizures after treatment has significantly decreased compared to before-treatment state. The degree of decreasing in the case group receiving the progesterone was higher than in the control group receiving the placebo. The difference, thus, is significant, based on statistical tests (P-value = 0.024). Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study using progesterone in women with intractable catamenial epilepsy has a significant effect on the degree of decreasing in the number of the seizures.
This study aims at estimating the efficacy of reflexology in managing pain under 4 diseased conditions viz., mastalgia, osteoarthritis, neuropathy with type-II diabetic mellitus and lower limb pain involving intractable epilepsy. The efficiency of reflexology was determined in terms of improvement of pain score, quality of life and the other associated symptoms. The sample size of the randomized clinical trials
K. Dalal; V. B. Maran; D. Elanchezhiyan; A. Srivastava; A. B. Dey; M. Tripathi
Background: This report describes a young woman with incomplete traumatic cervical spinal cord injury and intractable pruritus involving her dorsal forearm. Method: Case report. Findings: Anatomic distribution of the pruritus corresponded to the dermatomal distribution of her level of spinal cord injury and vertebral fusion. Symptoms were attributed to the spinal cord injury and possible cervical root injury. Pruritus was refractory to all treatments, including topical lidocaine, gabapentin, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, intravenous Bier block, stellate ganglion block, and acupuncture. Conclusions: Further understanding of neuropathic pruritus is needed. Diagnostic workup of intractable pruritus should include advanced imaging to detect ongoing nerve root compression. If diagnostic studies suggest radiculopathy, epidural steroid injection should be considered. Because the autonomic nervous system may be involved in complex chronic pain or pruritic syndromes, sympatholysis via such techniques as stellate ganglion block might be effective.
Crane, Deborah A; Jaffee, Kenneth M; Kundu, Anjana
Background: The treatment of gastroparesis remains unsatisfactory despite prokinetic and anti-emetic drugs. Gastric electrical stimulation has been proposed as a therapeutic option. We have assessed the effect of gastric electrical stimulation on symptoms, medical treatment, body weight and gastric emptying in patients with intractable symptomatic gastroparesis in a non-placebo-controlled study. Methods: In this multicenter study, 38 highly symptomatic patients with
Thomas L. Abell; Eric Van Cutsem; Hasse Abrahamsson; Jan D. Huizinga; J. W. Konturek; Jean Paul Galmiche; Guy VoelIer; Ludo Filez; Bernt Everts; William E. Waterfall; W. Domschke; Stanislas Bruley des Varannes; Babajide O. Familoni; Ivan M. Bourgeois; Jozef Janssens; Gervais Tougas
\\u000a Intractable conflict is severely escalated, long-lasting conflict. The hostility that occurs in such conflict tends to block\\u000a association between adversaries and interfere with their communication (Coleman 1957; Sherif and Sherif 1969). For example,\\u000a for years before the Oslo negotiations that established the Palestinian Authority, communication with the Palestinian Liberation\\u000a Organization (PLO) was illegal in Israel and PLO members who made
We assessed whether duration (time since diagnosis) of intractable epilepsy is associated with progressive memory loss in 250 individuals with left or right temporal lobe epilepsy and those diagnosed with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures. Verbal and nonverbal memory function was assessed using several memory assessment measures administered to all individuals as part of a larger neuropsychological assessment. Multivariate multiple regression analyses demonstrated that duration of temporal lobe epilepsy and age of seizure onset are significantly related to verbal memory deficits in patients with epilepsy. The interaction between duration of epilepsy and diagnostic group was nonsignificant, as was the interaction between age at spell onset and diagnostic group. As measured by several neuropsychological memory tests, duration of disease adversely affects verbal memory performance in patients diagnosed with temporal lobe epilepsy. Our study also supports the notion that age at seizure onset significantly affects verbal memory performance in this population. These results have implications for the strategy of treatment and counseling of patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy. PMID:16931163
Kent, Glenn P; Schefft, Bruce K; Howe, Steven R; Szaflarski, Jerzy P; Yeh, Hwa-Shain; Privitera, Michael D
Secondary pneumothorax occurring in interstitial lung disease cases is a refractory and life-threatening condition, because of compromised lung function. A 70-year-old woman with interstitial pneumonia was referred to our hospital after treatment failure for pneumothorax associated with empyema. An open window thoracostomy was created, and mechanical irrigation and dressing changes of the pleural cavity were performed. Then, the lung was widely covered with the latissimus dorsi and serratus anterior muscles because there were multiple fistulae on the lung surface. After the covering muscles were completely adhered to the lung surface and stopped air leaking, the chest was successfully closed. The wide covering technique of the lung with chest wall muscles is effective for intractable pneumothorax with multiple fistulae. PMID:23054619
Objectives: Firstly, to study the pathology at surgery in children undergoing temporal lobectomy for intractable partial epilepsy. Secondly, to compare neuroimaging techniques (CT, MRI) in the preoperative detection of pathology. Lastly, to examine the surgical outcome in children. Methods: Forty-two pediatric patients undergoing temporal lobectomy for intractable epilepsy at the Comprehensive Epilepsy Program at the University of Alberta Hospital between
D. B. Sinclair; M. Wheatley; K. Aronyk; C. Hao; T. Snyder; W. Colmers; J. D. S. McKean
Intractable conflicts are demoralizing. Beyond destabilizing the families, communities, or international regions in which they occur, they tend to perpetuate the very conditions of misery and hate that contributed to them in the first place. Although the common factors and processes associated with intractable conflicts have been identified through research, they represent an embarrassment of riches for theory construction. Thus,
Robin R. Vallacher; Peter T. Coleman; Andrzej Nowak; Lan Bui-Wrzosinska
Aims: To evaluate the effectiveness of a nurse led clinic (NLC) compared with a consultant led paediatric gastroenterology clinic (PGC) in the management of chronic constipation. Methods: Children (age 1–15 years) with functional constipation were randomised following a detailed medical assessment to follow up in either the NLC or PGC. An escalating algorithm of treatment was used as the basis of management in both the NLC and PGC. Main outcome measures were: time to cure at last visit or later confirmed by telephone; time to cure at last visit; and time to prematurely leaving the study. Results: A total of 102 children were recruited, of whom 52 were randomly assigned to NLC and 50 to PGC. Outcome assessment showed that 34 children in the NLC and 25 children in the PGC were confirmed cured at their last visit or later confirmed by telephone. The median time to cure was 18.0 months in the NLC and 23.2 months in the PGC. The probability of being cured was estimated as 33% higher in the NLC compared to PGC (hazard ratio 1.33). Attending the NLC hastened time to cure by an estimated 18.4%. Conclusion: Children who attend an NLC are equally as, if not more likely to be cured of intractable constipation, than those attending a PGC and on average their cure will occur sooner. Results suggest that an NLC can significantly improve follow up for children with intractable constipation and highlight the important role for clinic nurse specialists in management of children with gastrointestinal disease.
Purpose: To assess the efficacy and safety of microcatheter embolization in the treatment of intractable idiopathic epistaxis. Methods: Thirty-seven patients underwent microcatheter embolization in 1991-1998. We evaluated retrospectively the technical and clinical outcome, the number of complications, the duration of embolization in each case, and the number of blood transfusions needed. All embolizations were done with biplane digital subtraction angiography (DSA) equipment. The procedure was carried out under local anesthesia using transfemoral catheterization, except in one case where the translumbar route was used. Tracker 18 or 10 microcatheters were advanced as far as possible to the distal branches of the sphenopalatine artery. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) particles were used for embolization in most cases, while platinum coils or a combination of these two materials were occasionally used. The primary outcome was always assessed immediately by angiography. Follow-up data were obtained from patient records, by interviewing patients on the telephone or by postal questionnaires when necessary. The mean follow-up time was 21 months. Results: The embolization was technically successful in all 37 cases. A curative outcome was achieved in 33 cases (89%). The mean duration of the procedure was 110 min. Four patients (8%) had mild transient complications, but no severe or persistent complications were encountered. Twenty-three patients needed a blood transfusion. Slight rebleeding occurred in three patients during the follow-up; all responded to conservative treatment. One patient suffered two episodes of rebleeding within 2 months after primary embolization. Re-embolizations successfully stopped the bleeding. Conclusion: Embolization is the primary invasive modality for treating intractable idiopathic epistaxis. It proved both safe and effective over a relatively long follow-up.
Leppaenen, Martti; Seppaenen, Seppo [Department of Radiology, Tampere University Hospital, P.O. Box 2000, FIN-33521 Tampere (Finland); Laranne, Jussi [Department of Otolaryngology, Tampere University Hospital, P.O. Box 2000, FIN-33521 Tampere (Finland); Kuoppala, Katriina [Department of Neurology, Seinaejoki Central Hospital, Hanneksenrinne 7, FIN-60220 Seinaejoki (Finland)
Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) was administered to 11 patients who had intractable rheumatoid arthritis that was unresponsive to conventional medical therapy, including aspirin, multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, gold salts, and D-penicillamine. Total lymphoid irradiation was given as an alternative to cytotoxic drugs such as azathioprine and cyclophosphamide. After radiotherapy, 9 of the 11 patients showed a marked improvement in clinical disease activity as measured by morning stiffness, joint tenderness, joint swelling, and overall functional abilities. The mean improvement of disease activity in all patients ranged from 40-70 percent and has persisted throughout a 13-28 month followup period. This improvement permitted the mean daily steroid dose to be reduced by 54%. Complications included severe fatigue and other constitutional symptoms during radiotherapy, development of Felty's syndrome in 1 patient, and an exacerbation of rheumatoid lung disease in another. After therapy, all patients exhibited a profound T lymphocytopenia, and a reversal in their T suppressor/cytotoxic cell to helper cell ratio. The proliferative responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to phytohemagglutinin, concanavalin A, and allogeneic leukocytes (mixed leukocyte reaction) were markedly reduced, as was in vitro immunoglobulin synthesis after stimulation with pokeweed mitogen. Alterations in T cell numbers and function persisted during the entire followup period, except that the mixed leukocyte reaction showed a tendency to return to normal values.
A female heterozygous for a novel, disease causing, missense mutation in the X-linked cerebral creatine transporter (SLC6A8) gene (c.1067G>T, p.Gly356Val) presented with intractable epilepsy, mild intellectual disability and moderately reduced cerebral creatine levels. Treatment with creatine monohydrate, to enhance cerebral creatine transport, combined with l-arginine and l-glycine, to enhance cerebral creatine synthesis, resulted in complete resolution of seizures. Heterozygous SLC6A8
Saadet Mercimek-Mahmutoglu; Mary B. Connolly; Kenneth J. Poskitt; Gabriella A. Horvath; Noel Lowry; Gajja S. Salomons; Brett Casey; Graham Sinclair; Cynthia Davis; Cornelis Jakobs; Sylvia Stockler-Ipsiroglu
This presentation will provide summary of our very recent studies exploring the effects of biochemical factors, influenced by foreign organisms or in vivo processes, on intracellular structural reorganization, single-cell mechanical response and motility of a population of cells in the context of two human diseases: malaria induced by Plasmodium falciparum merozoites that invade red blood cells, and gastrointestinal cancer metastasis involving epithelial cells. In both cases, particular attention will be devoted to systematic changes induced in specific molecular species in response to controlled alterations in diseasestate. The role of critical proteins in influencing the mechanical response of human red bloods during the intra-erythrocytic development of P. falciparum merozoites has also been assessed quantitatively using specific protein knock-out experiments by recourse to gene inactivation methods. Single-cell mechanical response characterization entails such tools as optical tweezers and mechanical plate stretchers whereas cell motility assays and cell-population biorheology characterization involves microfluidic channels. The experimental studies are accompanied by three-dimensional computational simulations at the continuum and mesoscopic scales of cell deformation. An outcome of such combined experimental and computational biophysical studies is the realization of how chemical factors influence single-cell mechanical response, cytoadherence, the biorheology of a large population of cells through microchannels representative of in vivo conditions, and the onset and progression of diseasestates.
This review focuses on the use of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data to assess functional connectivity in the human brain and its application in intractable epilepsy. This approach has the potential to predict outcomes for a given surgical procedure based on the pre-surgical functional organization of the brain. Functional connectivity can also identify cortical regions that are organized differently in epilepsy patients either as a direct function of the disease or through indirect compensatory responses. Functional connectivity mapping may help identify epileptogenic tissue, whether this is a single focal location or a network of seizure-generating tissues. This review covers the basics of connectivity analysis and discusses particular issues associated with analyzing such data. These issues include how to define nodes, as well as differences between connectivity analyses of individual nodes, groups of nodes, and whole-brain assessment at the voxel level. The need for arbitrary thresholds in some connectivity analyses is discussed and a solution to this problem is reviewed. Overall, functional connectivity analysis is becoming an important tool for assessing functional brain organization in epilepsy.
Constable, Robert Todd; Scheinost, Dustin; Finn, Emily S.; Shen, Xilin; Hampson, Michelle; Winstanley, F. Scott; Spencer, Dennis D.; Papademetris, Xenophon
This review focuses on the use of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data to assess functional connectivity in the human brain and its application in intractable epilepsy. This approach has the potential to predict outcomes for a given surgical procedure based on the pre-surgical functional organization of the brain. Functional connectivity can also identify cortical regions that are organized differently in epilepsy patients either as a direct function of the disease or through indirect compensatory responses. Functional connectivity mapping may help identify epileptogenic tissue, whether this is a single focal location or a network of seizure-generating tissues. This review covers the basics of connectivity analysis and discusses particular issues associated with analyzing such data. These issues include how to define nodes, as well as differences between connectivity analyses of individual nodes, groups of nodes, and whole-brain assessment at the voxel level. The need for arbitrary thresholds in some connectivity analyses is discussed and a solution to this problem is reviewed. Overall, functional connectivity analysis is becoming an important tool for assessing functional brain organization in epilepsy. PMID:23734143
Constable, Robert Todd; Scheinost, Dustin; Finn, Emily S; Shen, Xilin; Hampson, Michelle; Winstanley, F Scott; Spencer, Dennis D; Papademetris, Xenophon
Neuromyelitis optica, also known as Devic's disease, is a rare autoimmune disorder in which a patient's immune system affects the optic nerves and the spinal cord, leading to loss of vision and spinal cord dysfunction. We present our experience with a 38-year-old female who presented to our facility with complaints of intractable nausea and vomiting. After extensive evaluation, she was found to have neuromyelitis optica. Her symptoms completely resolved following institution of appropriate therapy. She made a significant recovery and has since been placed on chronic immunosuppressive therapy. Through this article we hope to bring attention to a significant cause of intractable nausea and vomiting that may often be forgotten in general medicine or gastroenterology services.
Neuromyelitis optica, also known as Devic's disease, is a rare autoimmune disorder in which a patient's immune system affects the optic nerves and the spinal cord, leading to loss of vision and spinal cord dysfunction. We present our experience with a 38-year-old female who presented to our facility with complaints of intractable nausea and vomiting. After extensive evaluation, she was found to have neuromyelitis optica. Her symptoms completely resolved following institution of appropriate therapy. She made a significant recovery and has since been placed on chronic immunosuppressive therapy. Through this article we hope to bring attention to a significant cause of intractable nausea and vomiting that may often be forgotten in general medicine or gastroenterology services. PMID:23904838
Recently, new drugs for intractable chronic pain are available in Japan. The following articles describe topics of new drugs for intractable chronic pain including transdermal fentanyl, tramadol/acetaminophen combination tablets, buprenorphine transdermal patch, pregabalin, and duloxetine. Treatment of constipation in chronic pain patients and management of opioid induced nausea and vomiting are also described to prevent complication of pain-relief drug therapy. PMID:23905399
Aim: To report long term efficacy and complications of retinectomy as an intraocular pressure lowering procedure for intractable glaucoma. Methods: This was a consecutive interventional case series. In 44 consecutive eyes (39 patients, 22 men and 17 women) retinectomy was performed to lower the intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with uncontrolled IOP (>35 mm Hg for more than 4 months) despite conventional filtering surgery and drug treatment. Pars plana vitrectomy was performed and the peripheral retina was surgically excised to various degrees. The procedure was concluded by an intraocular gas tamponade of 20% C3F8. Included were patients with neovascular glaucoma (12 eyes), infantile and juvenile glaucoma (three eyes), secondary glaucoma due to aphakia (13 eyes), severe ocular trauma (seven eyes), uveitis (seven eyes), and glaucoma in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (two). Results: All patients underwent successful surgical retinectomy. All patients were followed for 5 years. Mean postoperative IOP after 4 years was 15.7 (SD 9.4) mm Hg, representing a decrease of IOP by 61% compared to the preoperative level (41.2 (9.4) mm Hg). In 52.3% of eyes long term regulation of IOP could be achieved without complications. Retinectomy was least effective in neovascular glaucoma because of central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). Eyes with glaucoma secondary to uveitis showed a tendency towards low IOP levels with subsequent phthisis bulbi. The initial visual acuity of all patients was lower than 20/50 (mean 1.8 (0.8) logMAR) in the treated eye. Final visual acuity was 2.3 (0.6) logMAR. 21 out of 44 cases developed retinal complications (retinal detachment or proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR)) after surgery, requiring silicone tamponade in 11 eyes (52%) either for persistent low IOP or for PVR. Nine eyes developed phthisis, seven of which were enucleated during the follow up. Conclusions: Long term results after retinectomy demonstrate its efficacy in otherwise intractable glaucoma. Efficacy and safety of retinectomy are dependent on the underlying disease.
Joussen, A M; Walter, P; Jonescu-Cuypers, C P; Koizumi, K; Poulaki, V; Bartz-Schmidt, K U; Krieglstein, G K; Kirchhof, B
Vasculitis may be defined as an inflammatory process, primarily affecting the vascular wall which possesses an architecture, such as organ or tissue, and accordingly may not include the capillary. Since the walls are destroyed, secondary circulatory disturbances may be associated and produce vasculitic symptoms, which are nonspecific in most instances. Although the pathogenesis of most vasculitides is well understood, the lack of knowledge of the etiology makes it difficult to establish a satisfactory classification of vasculitis. The inflammatory lesions tend to be distributed along the course of the vessels throughout the body in most systemic vasculitic syndromes but long segments are frequently affected in the arteritides of large arteries. In recent years, a classification, useful for understanding the clinical manifestations of these vasculitic disorders, is based on the predominant size of the involved vessels, which may be categorized into large arteries (aorta and its primary branches), medium-sized to small muscular arteries and small vessels (arterioles and venules). Certain vasculitides may occur as a primary disease process, whereas others may be associated with other primary disorders. In general, idiopathic primary vasculitides have an extremely poor prognosis and are intractable. However, recent advances of drug therapies in the early stage of the systemic necrotizing vasculitides, such as Wegener's granulomatosis, has bettered prognosis. In the patients with Takayasu's arteritis, life has been prolonged over more than ten years. As a result, additional problems, such as luminal stenosis or dilatation of the involved vessels, have occurred. PMID:7933570
Background: Prion diseases are a family of rare, progressive, neurodegenerative disorders that affect humans and animals. The most common form of human prion disease, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), occurs worldwide. Variant CJD (vCJD), a recently emerged human prion disease, is a zoonotic foodborne disorder that occurs almost exclusively in countries with outbreaks of bovine spongiform encephalopathy. This study describes the occurrence
Robert C. Holman; Ermias D. Belay; Krista Y. Christensen; Ryan A. Maddox; Arialdi M. Minino; Arianne M. Folkema; Dana L. Haberling; Teresa A. Hammett; Kenneth D. Kochanek; James J. Sejvar; Lawrence B. Schonberger
The number of patients with intractable epilepsy undergoing surgical management in China is increasing rapidly. We retrospectively reviewed 435 consecutive cases of intractable epilepsy receiving surgical resection from 2005 to 2008 in our hospital, looking specifically at the neuropathological findings. The three most common causes of intractable epilepsy were focal cortical dysplasia (FCD; 52.9%), scar lesions (22.8%) and brain tumors (11.7%). Hippocampal sclerosis was identified in 74 cases (17.0%), although most of these were accompanied by dual pathology with FCD (especially Palmini type IB), scar lesions or tumors. Among FCD cases, Palmini type I lesions are the most frequently observed abnormality, with a preferred location in the temporal lobe (60.1%) and often accompanied by dual pathology. In contrast, Palmini type II FCD lesions occurred predominantly in the frontal regions and with a lower age of onset. Most tumors were mixed neuronal-glial tumors, mainly ganglioglioma (19 cases) and dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (10 cases), with a trend toward a temporal location and usually accompanied by cortical dysplasia in the peritumor area. Our data on the neuropathology of intractable epilepsy in China show that glioneuronal lesions are the most prominent cause of intractable epilepsy, and this is consistent with reports from other countries. PMID:20331616
Patients with Fabry disease on dialysis in the United States.BackgroundFabry disease results from an X-linked deficiency of lysosomal alpha-galactosidase A and is a rare cause of end-stage renal disease. Little is known about the characteristics of patients with Fabry disease that initiate dialysis in the United States, although data from Europe suggests these individuals have a poor survival.MethodsUsing the United
Ravi Thadhani; Myles Wolf; Michael L. West; Marcello Tonelli; Robin Ruthazer; Gregory M. Pastores; Gregorio T. Obrador
Managing intractable haematuria is a daunting task. One cause of this condition is radiationinduced haemorrhagic cystitis. Several treatments for the condition have been proposed and one non-invasive option is alum irrigation. Here, we report on a 65-year-old woman with intractable haematuria secondary to radiation cystitis who was successfully treated with alum irrigation. Alum irrigation is safe, well tolerated and relatively cheap. A review of the literature and a comprehensive discussion on alum irrigation as treatment for haematuria is discussed here to create an awareness regarding this treatment option.
This article offers a general overview of Hansen's Disease (leprosy) and examines in some detail the spatial characteristics and demographic profiles of known sufferers. Over the years the pejorative labels attached to the disease and the societal and psychological attitudes which produce and accompany them have stigmatized leprosy sufferers. Unfortunately this stigma has often pre-empted rational understanding and treatment. Contrary
Background: Patients with chronic atopic dermatitis can become unresponsive to standard immunosuppressive therapy and thus pose a serious therapeutic problem. Objective: Our purpose was to evaluate the therapeutic effectiveness of photopheresis in the management of patients with severe and intractable atopic dermatitis. Methods: Photopheresis was used as monotherapy in patients (n = 3) who previously did not respond to treatment
Heike I. Richter; Claudia Billmann-Eberwein; Markus Grewe; Helger Stege; Mark Berneburg; Thomas Ruzicka; Jean Krutmann
Sixty patients with spinal cord stimulators implanted for intractable pain lasting up to 50 years were followed for up to nine years. Forty seven per cent derived significant benefit, 23% modest benefit, 20% experienced no effect and 6.7% were made worse. Two were made worse after initial benefit. Complications, indications and factors relevant to the mode of action are discussed.
Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is gaining increasing popularity and credibility as a treatment option for children with intractable epilepsy. VNS offers several advantages over extant treatments. Its efficacy is maintained during prolonged stimulation, and seizure control actually improves with time. There is no associated cognitive impairment and no adverse drug interactions. Unlike cerebral surgery, VNS is a potentially reversible form
Arun Paul Amar; Michael L. Levy; J. Gordon McComb; Michael L. J. Apuzzo
The clinical, pathological, and at least one year follow-up of 48 patients with intractable frontal lobe partial epilepsy who underwent surgical treatment for their seizure disorder were reviewed. The group consisted of 27 males and 21 females. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was normal (26 patients), demonstrated focal frontal lobe (16 patients) or multilobar signal abnormalities (6 patients). Postoperatively patients
Nicholas Y. Lorenzo; Joseph E. Parisi; Gregory D. Cascino; Clifford R. Jack; W. Richard Marsh; Kathryn A. Hirschorn
Intractable intergroup conflicts require the formation of a conflictive ethos that enables a society to adapt to the conflict situation, survive the stressful period, and struggle successfully with the adversary. The formal termination of such a conflict begins with the elimination of the perceived incompatibility between the opposing parties through negotiation by their representatives—that is, a conflict resolution process. But
In order to obtain information on the current magnitude of occupational disease in New York State, four data sources were reviewed: Workers' Compensation records, disease registries maintained by the state department of health, data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), and data from the California's physician reporting system. A proportionate attributable risk approach is used to develop estimates of
Steven B. Markowitz; Ellen Fischer; Marianne C. Fahs; Judy Shapiro; Philip J. Landrigan
SUMMARY The Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) is widely used to measure dementia severity in Alzheimer's disease patients. While changes over time in the MMSE due to dementia have been studied, the relationship between MMSE scores and the duration of disease course is less well understood. Using the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) data, we modelled
Marta S. Mendiondo; J. Wesson Ashford; Richard J. Kryscio; Frederick A. Schmitt
Five hemiplegic patients with intractable epilepsy were studied with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) before and after various surgical treatments. These patients had unilateral widespread cerebral lesions acquired at various times, including congenital, infantile and childhood injury. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) of the abductor pollicis brevis (APB) muscles were simultaneously recorded on both sides following TMS of the motor cortex in the respective hemisphere using a figure-8 or circular coil. In all patients with congenital disease, the abolition of motor function in the affected hemisphere was estimated by magnetic MEPs, and the hemiplegia did not deteriorate after functional hemispherectomy (HS) was performed in two of them. In two patients with acquired disease, HS was not performed because it was shown by magnetic maps that the motor function in the affected hemisphere remained. Furthermore, it was shown by electric MEPs using subdural electrodes that a patient who had had encephalitis in early childhood had a reorganised motor area in the parietal cortex of the affected hemisphere. The present findings indicate that magnetic MEPs are a very useful non-invasive method of assessing whether the motor area in the affected hemisphere can be resected in hemiplegic patients with intractable epilepsy. PMID:12915083
The durable effectiveness of intrathecal morphine administration is well established for the management of intractable cancer pain, after failure of systemic opioids, secondary to the persistence of non-reversible undesirable side effects. Many patients are referred to late in the disease course. This conservative method to control pain of malignant origin must not be reserved for last resort treatment for terminal patients. Intra-cerebro-ventricular morphine administration is a very effective and generally safe method for controlling intractable cancer pain. Because of the chronic implantation of an intra-ventricular catheter this method is somewhat invasive. Its indications remain a simple and effective alternative when the topography of nociceptive pain is diffuse or cephalic. In clinical practice, intrathecal and/or intra-cerebro-ventricular administration of opioids is limited by cost, the need for specialized maintenance and mechanical malfunctions if implantable drug delivery systems, or by the risk of bacterial contamination and ambulatory constraints when repeated daily injections via an intrathecal access port are used. To answer these limitations, cell therapy using intrathecal chromaffin cell allograft is a promising approach for the management of cancer pain refractory to traditional drug therapy and pain lesion surgery. The basic rationale and preclinical studies on experimental pain models have enabled starting prospective clinical trials. Prior to transplantation, handling and preparation of the chromaffin tissue is critical for allograft viability. The initial results of clinical trials with human chromaffin cell grafts from intractable cancer pain have reported long-lasting pain relief, in correlation with met-enkephalin release into the CSF. Convincing evidence will require controlled studies. The limitations of this innovative cell therapy and especially the lack of human adrenal gland availability point to the need for new sources of cells. Perspectives include xenogenic or engineered cell lines. PMID:11084478
Wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) are susceptible to a wide range of viruses. Among them, grapevine degeneration caused by Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) is considered as one of the most economically important virus diseases affecting grapevines worldwide. Infected grapevines show a range of foliar sy...
Context: Patients with persistent primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) after parathyroidectomy or with contraindications to parathyroidectomy often require chronic treatment for hypercalcemia. Objective: The objective of the study was to assess the ability of the calcimimetic, cinacalcet, to reduce serum calcium in patients with intractable PHPT. Design: This was an open-label, single-arm study comprising a titration phase of variable duration (2–16 wk) and a maintenance phase of up to 136 wk. Setting: The study was conducted at 23 centers in Europe, the United States, and Canada. Patients: The study included 17 patients with intractable PHPT and serum calcium greater than 12.5 mg/dl (3.1 mmol/liter). Intervention: During the titration phase, cinacalcet dosages were titrated every 2 wk (30 mg twice daily to 90 mg four times daily) for 16 wk until serum calcium was 10 mg/dl or less (2.5 mmol/liter). If serum calcium increased during the maintenance phase, additional increases in the cinacalcet dose were permitted. Main Outcome Measure: The primary end point was the proportion of patients experiencing a reduction in serum calcium of 1 mg/dl or greater (0.25 mmol/liter) at the end of the titration phase. Results: Mean ± sd baseline serum calcium was 12.7 ± 0.8 mg/dl (3.2 ± 0.2 mmol/liter). At the end of titration, a 1 mg/dl or greater reduction in serum calcium was achieved in 15 patients (88%). Fifteen patients (88%) experienced treatment-related adverse events, none of which were serious. The most common adverse events were nausea, vomiting, and paresthesias. Conclusions: In patients with intractable PHPT, cinacalcet reduces serum calcium, is generally well tolerated, and has the potential to fulfill an unmet medical need.
Hemimegalencephaly is a rare brain malformation consisting of the enlargement of 1 hemisphere, often associated with abnormal cortical gyration, thick cortex, large neurons, and increased astrocytes. Cranial asymmetry is the first clinical sign usually present at birth; in the most severe cases, hemimegalencephaly may be evident during pregnancy. Hemiparesis, intractable epilepsy, and developmental delay are the typical clinical manifestations. Tuberous Sclerosis Complex is an autosomal dominant disorder affecting about 1 in 6000 live births; the number of spontaneous mutations is remarkable. It is characterized by the development of hamartias, or nongrowing lesions, and hamartomas, which grow as benign tumors and rarely progress to malignancy. These lesions most frequently involve the brain, skin, kidneys, eyes, and heart. The rare association of hemimegalencephaly and tuberous sclerosis complex has been reported in a few cases. The authors report the case of a 4-year-old boy with left hemimegalencephaly, tuberous sclerosis complex genetically confirmed, and intractable epilepsy originating from the nonhemimegalencephalic hemisphere. PMID:17608312
Guerra, Maria P; Cavalleri, Francesca; Migone, Nicola; Lugli, Licia; Delalande, Olivier; Cavazzuti, Giovanni B; Ferrari, Fabrizio
The nonverbal communication skills of 10 children (mean age = 44.2 months) who underwent hemispherectomy for early onset intractable seizures were tested before and after surgery. A within-group analysis suggests that the 10 seizure-free children used more nonverbal communication after a mean follow-up period of 11.2 months than before surgery. Young normal language age matches were available for the 4 older and higher functioning subjects in the sample. Before surgery, the surgical subjects used less requesting gestures than did the normal children. After surgery, these differences were no longer apparent. The patients also employed more gestures to focus an adult's attention on objects and events than language-age-matched normal children. The children who underwent left or right hemispherectomy used similar nonverbal communication behaviors. The study's findings suggest that children with early onset intractable seizures have impaired early social communication that improves to some extent after hemispherectomy. PMID:1401119
Caplan, R; Guthrie, D; Shields, W D; Sigman, M; Mundy, P; Sherman, T; Vinters, H V
The stimulation of the primary motor cortex (M1) has proved to be an effective treatment for intractable deafferentation pain.\\u000a This treatment started in 1990, and twenty-eight studies involving 271 patients have been reported so far. The patients who\\u000a have been operated on were suffering from post-stroke pain (59%), trigeminal neuropathic pain, brachial plexus injury, spinal\\u000a cord injury, peripheral nerve injury
The intractable partial epilepsy outcome information is important in determining not only when epilepsy surgery evaluation should begin but also in deciding who would benefit and what is the likelihood of any benefit from surgery. Medical records of 50 children diagnosed with nontumor-related partial seizures, confirmed by video-electroencephalography (video-EEG), had at least one seizure per week and were followed for
We report the successful use of prostaglandin F2 alpha continous bladder irrigation in two patients for the treatment of intractable cyclophosphamide-induced hemorrhagic cystitis which was resistant to conventional therapy in two patients. A 0.7 mg% solution of prostaglandin F2 alpha was used for continuous bladder irrigation at a rate of 150 to 200 cc/hr for four days. The response was complete in both patients and no side effects were noted. PMID:17589053
Invasive monitoring for intractable epilepsy is useful when the epileptogenic focus is in question even after an extensive noninvasive presurgical evaluation, or when the epileptogenic focus is located in or near eloquent cortex. From June 1989 to June 2001 at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, 64 children with intractable epilepsy underwent 67 invasive monitoring procedures as part of their presurgical evaluation. The average age at implantation was 10 years. In all but two cases, subdural strips and grids were used. Depth electrodes, when used, were placed stereotactically or under direct vision. The average duration of the monitoring period was 5.87 days. Every patient had intradural cultures sent during removal of the electrodes, and lumbar punctures were performed in 15 patients. Twenty-one patients had at least one episode of a CSF leak. Of the 67 patients, 10 had positive intradural cultures, only 1 of whom had a positive lumbar puncture and none of whom developed clinically significant meningitis. No clinically relevant hemorrhages occurred as a result of the invasive monitoring. One patient did have a transient visual field loss after placement of an occipital grid. While CSF leaks are common after invasive monitoring despite precautions, clinically significant CSF infections are uncommon and appear to be unrelated to the duration of monitoring, the occurrence of a CSF leak or the length of time the patient is on perioperative antibiotics. We conclude that invasive monitoring for intractable epilepsy is generally safe. PMID:12476027
Simon, Scott L; Telfeian, Albert; Duhaime, Ann-Christine
OBJECTIVES: The study was designed to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of the ketogenic diet (KD) whether classic 4:1 formula or the modified Atkins diet (MAD) in intractable childhood epilepsy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Anthropometric measurements and serum lipid profile were measured upon enrollment and after 3 and 6 months in 40 patients with symptomatic intractable epilepsy. Fifteen were given MAD diet, ten were kept on classic 4:1 ketogenic liquid formula, and the rest were allowed to eat as desired. RESULTS: The liquid ketogenic formula group showed significantly higher body mass index compared with those who did not receive KD after 6 months. The lipid profile of KD patients was within normal limits for age and sex during the study period. The rate of change of frequency and severity of seizures showed best improvement in ketogenic liquid formula patients followed by the MAD group than the patients on anti-epileptic medications alone. CONCLUSION: The KD whether classic 4:1 or MAD is a tolerable, safe, and effective adjuvant therapy for intractable symptomatic childhood epilepsy with limited adverse effects on the growth parameters and accepted changes in the lipid profile. The liquid ketogenic formula patients showed better growth pattern and significantly more seizure control. PMID:23679058
El-Rashidy, O F; Nassar, M F; Abdel-Hamid, I A; Shatla, R H; Abdel-Hamid, M H; Gabr, S S; Mohamed, S G; El-Sayed, W S; Shaaban, S Y
The distribution of the biting midge, Culicoides sonorensis, the major vector (carrier) of bluetongue viruses, was determined across the multi-state region of Nebraska, South, and North Dakota. This study was part of a larger study of bluetongue disease in cattle. Bluetongue disease is important b...
The continued growth of the population with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is partially related to the underrecognition of earlier stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and risk factors for the development of CKD. There are several published estimates of the prevalence of CKD in the United States. From Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data it has been estimated
Gregorio T. Obrador; Brian J. G. Pereira; Annamaria T. Kausz
Objectives: To study the outcome of disconnective epilepsy surgery for intractable hemispheric and sub-hemispheric pediatric epilepsy. Methods: A retrospective analysis of the epilepsy surgery database was done in all children (age <18 years) who underwent a peri-insular hemispherotomy (PIH) or a peri-insular posterior quadrantectomy (PIPQ) from April 2000 to March 2011. All patients underwent a detailed pre surgical evaluation. Seizure outcome was assessed by the Engel's classification and cognitive skills by appropriate measures of intelligence that were repeated annually. Results: There were 34 patients in all. Epilepsy was due to Rasmussen's encephalitis (RE), Infantile hemiplegia seizure syndrome (IHSS), Hemimegalencephaly (HM), Sturge Weber syndrome (SWS) and due to post encephalitic sequelae (PES). Twenty seven (79.4%) patients underwent PIH and seven (20.6%) underwent PIPQ. The mean follow up was 30.5 months. At the last follow up, 31 (91.1%) were seizure free. The age of seizure onset and etiology of the disease causing epilepsy were predictors of a Class I seizure outcome. Conclusions: There is an excellent seizure outcome following disconnective epilepsy surgery for intractable hemispheric and subhemispheric pediatric epilepsy. An older age of seizure onset, RE, SWS and PES were good predictors of a Class I seizure outcome.
Thomas, Santhosh George; Chacko, Ari George; Thomas, Maya Mary; Babu, K. Srinivasa; Russell, Paul Swamidhas Sudhakar; Daniel, Roy Thomas
In the United States, more individuals suffer disability from stroke than from any other disease, and as many as 11 of the 43 presidents have been affected. In this article, the authors review the cases of the United States presidents who have had strokes, some of which have occurred while the president was in office, having a direct effect on the country. PMID:16946692
To allow public health officials to uniformly define, collect, and report chronic disease data, Indicators for Chronic Disease Surveillance was released by the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists in 1999. This publication provided standard definitions for 73 indicators developed by epidemiologists and chronic disease program directors at the state and federal levels. The indicators were selected because of their importance to public health and the availability of state-level data. This report describes the latest revisions to the chronic disease indicators published in 2004. The revised set of 92 indicators includes 24 for cancer; 15 for cardiovascular disease; 11 for diabetes; 7 for alcohol; 5 each for nutrition and tobacco; 3 each for oral health, physical activity, and renal disease; and 2 each for asthma, osteoporosis, and immunizations. The remaining 10 indicators cover such overarching conditions as poverty, education, and life expectancy. Although multiple states have used the indicators, wider adoption depends on increased epidemiology capacity at the state level and improved access to surveillance data. PMID:15963317
Pelletier, Andrew R; Siegel, Paul Z; Baptiste, Mark S; Maylahn, Christopher
Summary: Chagas' disease is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi and causes potentially life-threatening disease of the heart and gastrointestinal tract. The southern half of the United States contains enzootic cycles of T. cruzi, involving 11 recognized triatomine vector species. The greatest vector diversity and density occur in the western United States, where woodrats are the most common reservoir; other rodents, raccoons, skunks, and coyotes are also infected with T. cruzi. In the eastern United States, the prevalence of T. cruzi is highest in raccoons, opossums, armadillos, and skunks. A total of 7 autochthonous vector-borne human infections have been reported in Texas, California, Tennessee, and Louisiana; many others are thought to go unrecognized. Nevertheless, most T. cruzi-infected individuals in the United States are immigrants from areas of endemicity in Latin America. Seven transfusion-associated and 6 organ donor-derived T. cruzi infections have been documented in the United States and Canada. As improved control of vector- and blood-borne T. cruzi transmission decreases the burden in countries where the disease is historically endemic and imported Chagas' disease is increasingly recognized outside Latin America, the United States can play an important role in addressing the altered epidemiology of Chagas' disease in the 21st century.
Bern, Caryn; Kjos, Sonia; Yabsley, Michael J.; Montgomery, Susan P.
Rumination syndrome is known to exist in infants and mentally retarded adults since long time. In past few years, some reports appeared that showed its existence in adult patients also. It is frequently confused with the intractable vomiting in adults and misdiagnosis leads to delay in appropriate management. We are here describing the case of a female patient with rumination syndrome where specific points in the history delineated the presence of this illness and helped in appropriate management. The patient became symptom free soon after the diagnosis was reached.
Postoperative intravascular hemolysis occurring in 2 patients was alleviated by propranolol. One patient underwent mitral valve replacement and had development of intractable hemolysis due to a paravalvular leak. The other patient underwent ventricular septal defect closure and had hemolysis caused by the Dacron patch. Both patients were given oral propranolol, and the degree of hemolysis decreased substantially. Although the exact mechanism of the propranolol effect on mechanical intravascular hemolysis is unclear, propranolol is thought to reduce the shearing stress between erythrocytes and the foreign material by slowing the velocity of the circulation. PMID:1953141
The use of hydromorphone and clonidine, delivered intrathecally by an implanted infusion pump, is described in a patient with intractable cancer pain. The patient was a 48-year-old woman with uterine cervical cancer-related pain that was poorly responsive to conventional oral narcotics. Hydromorphone was used because of the patient's history of morphine intolerance. When progressive intrathecal hydromorphone dosages were required, intrathecal clonidine (an alpha 2 adrenergic agonist) was infused concomitantly. Intrathecal hydromorphone and clonidine successfully controlled this patient's pain without the necessity to resort to destructive neurosurgery. PMID:2422332
Coombs, D W; Saunders, R L; Fratkin, J D; Jensen, L E; Murphy, C A
Classical accounts of the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease have emphasized degeneration of dopaminergic nigrostriatal neurons with consequent dysfunction of cortico-striatal-thalamic loops. In contrast, post-mortem studies indicate that pathological changes in Parkinson's disease (Lewy neurites and Lewy bodies) first appear primarily in the lower brainstem with subsequent progression to more rostral parts of the neuraxis. The nigrostriatal and histological perspectives are not incompatible, but they do emphasize different anatomical structures. To address the question of which brain structures are functionally most affected by Parkinson's disease, we performed a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study focused on striatal functional connectivity. We contrasted 13 patients with advanced Parkinson's disease versus 19 age-matched control subjects, using methodology incorporating scrupulous attention to minimizing the effects of head motion during scanning. The principal finding in the Parkinson's disease group was markedly lower striatal correlations with thalamus, midbrain, pons and cerebellum. This result reinforces the importance of the brainstem in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease. Focally altered functional connectivity also was observed in sensori-motor and visual areas of the cerebral cortex, as well the supramarginal gyrus. Striatal functional connectivity with the brainstem was graded (posterior putamen > anterior putamen > caudate), in both patients with Parkinson's disease and control subjects, in a manner that corresponds to well-documented gradient of striatal dopaminergic function loss in Parkinson's disease. We hypothesize that this gradient provides a clue to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. PMID:23195207
Hacker, Carl D; Perlmutter, Joel S; Criswell, Susan R; Ances, Beau M; Snyder, Abraham Z
Objective: The immune response in sepsis shows a bimodal pattern consisting of an early, frequently exaggerated inflammatory response\\u000a followed by a state of hyporesponsiveness often referred to as the compensatory anti-inflammatory response syndrome (CARS).\\u000a Insight into the diseasestate may be helpful in deciding whether to choose immune stimulatory or anti-inflammatory therapy\\u000a in these patients and may determine clinical outcome.
A. C. Muller Kobold; J. E. Tulleken; J. G. Zijlstra; W. Sluiter; J. Hermans; C. G. M. Kallenberg; J. W. Cohen Tervaert
Asian Indians (people originating from the Indian subcontinent) are the largest Asian subgroup in the United States and one\\u000a of the fastest growing ethnic groups as well, with the population projected to increase to 41 million by 2050. Prevalence\\u000a of cardiovascular disease is significantly higher in Asian Indians compared to whites living in the United States. Asian Indians\\u000a have a
Intractable hematuria is a common and severe complication in patients with inoperable bladder carcinoma. The aim was to provide an overview of therapeutic options for such cases, and analyze their effectiveness and risk profile, so a systematic literature search of peer-reviewed papers published up to September 2012 was carried out. Various options are available to treat hematuria in patients with inoperable bladder cancer; these include orally administered epsilon-aminocaproic acid, intravesical formalin, alum or prostaglandin irrigation, hydrostatic pressure, urinary diversion, radiotherapy, embolization and intraarterial mitoxantrone perfusion. These treatment options are associated with different prospects of success, risks and side-effects. Well-designed and large studies comparing options are completely lacking. Despite various treatment options, management of intractable hematuria in patients with inoperable bladder cancer remains a challenge, and most of the reported methods should be seen as experimental. Interventional radiology and alum instillation seem to be suitable alternative options for patients who, after critical consideration, cannot be treated by irrigation, transurethral resection or palliative cystectomy. PMID:23387805
Abt, Dominik; Bywater, Mirjam; Engeler, Daniel Stephan; Schmid, Hans-Peter
|Statistical data presented on periodontal disease and oral hygiene among noninstitutionalized children, aged 6-11, in the United States are based on a probability sample of approximately 7,400 children involved in a national health survey during 1963-65. The report contains estimates of the Periodontal Index (PI) and the Simplified Oral Hygiene…
National Center for Health Statistics (DHEW/PHS), Hyattsville, MD.
|Determines the incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) among Native Americans and Whites in the United States from 1983-86. Findings indicate 1,075 Native American cases represented an annual incidence 2.8 times the rate for Whites. Fifty-six percent of Native American cases and 27 percent of White cases were attributed to diabetes. (JS)|
OBJECTIVE:To assess compliance with practice guidelines and to determine the extent of missed opportunities for sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention by describing screening practices of a national sample of obstetricians and gynecologists and comparing them to the practices of other specialists.METHODS:Physicians (n = 7300) in five specialties that diagnose 85% of STDs in the United States were surveyed. Obstetrics and
Matthew Hogben; Janet S St. Lawrence; Danuta Kasprzyk; Daniel E Montano; George W Counts; Donna H McCree; William Phillips; Marianne Scharbo-DeHaan
A high proportion of triatomine insects, vectors for Trypanosoma cruzi trypanosomes, collected in Arizona and California and examined using a novel assay had fed on humans. Other triatomine insects were positive for T. cruzi parasite infection, which indicates that the potential exists for vector transmission of Chagas disease in the United States.
Dorn, Patricia L.; Hobson, Julia; de la Rua, Nicholas M.; Lucero, David E.; Klotz, John H.; Schmidt, Justin O.; Klotz, Stephen A.
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a hereditary hemoglobinopathy characterized by microvascular vaso-occlusion with erythrocytes containing polymerized sickle (S) hemoglobin, erythrocyte hemolysis, vasculopathy, and both acute and chronic multiorgan injury. It is associated with steady state increases in plasma cell-free hemoglobin and overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Hereditary and acquired hemolytic conditions release into plasma hemoglobin and other erythrocyte components
For a two-year period, the states of Colorado, Vermont and Washington tested the effectiveness of seven surveillance methods for identifying waterborne disease outbreaks. Six of the methods were termed active and utilized procedures soliciting reports of illness. The seventh meth...
Summary The annual NSA-coordinated fall yield survey was enlarged in 2001 to include enumeration of weeds, insects and diseases in the northern Plains sunflower production area (North Dakota, South Dakota), and in 2002 the survey was expanded to include Minnesota and five states of the central High Plains area (Colorado, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska, and Texas). A total of 477 fields
...Number 766] Development of State Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention...program for development of State health promotion and chronic disease prevention...bibliographies, literature, and health promotion and chronic disease...
The present article deals with the crucial question: Can peace education facilitate change in the sociopsychological infrastructure that feeds continued intractable conflict and then how the change can be carried? Intractable conflicts still rage in various parts of the globe, and they not only cause local misery and suffering but also threaten…
In this article, the authors use the Israeli–Palestinian conflict as an example of ostensibly intractable ethnonational conflict and examine the psychological dynamics that contribute to its intractability. They review the unique characteristics of this conflict and the clash of narratives. They argue that some ethnonational conflicts have characteristics that increase their resistance to change and that societies in such conflicts
Purpose: We reviewed retrospectively our experiences with children with intractable epilepsy who were indicated for a modified Atkins diet (MAD). Methods: Twenty children (8 female, 12 male) who were aged 2–17years with intractable epilepsy and tried the MAD between September 2008 and December 2010 were enrolled. Outcome measures included seizure frequency, adverse reactions and tolerability of the diet. Results: Finally
Yoon Mi Kim; Varsha Viranchi Vaidya; Timur Khusainov; Heung Dong Kim; Shin-Hye Kim; Eun Joo Lee; Young Mock Lee; Joon Soo Lee; Hoon-Chul Kang
Innovative treatments of epileptic seizures are needed to improve the outcome of epilepsy. We studied the effect of pranlukast on seizure outcome in patients with intractable partial epilepsy. An open study was conducted to evaluate the clinical efficacy of 24-week pranlukast add-on therapy in 50 patients with intractable partial seizures. Serum concentrations of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 were determined using Biotrak Activity Assay System. Cytokines in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were measured by the BioPlex (BioRad) system and soluble TNF receptor1 (sTNFR1) in CSF was measured by the ELISA. Surface markers of lymphocytes in CSF were examined by cell-sorter. Seizure-free rate (SFR) was 13.6%, responder rate (RR) was 47.7%, and aggravation rate (AR) was 18.2% at the 13-24 week period after starting pranlukast. In patients with increased serum MMP-9 before pranlukast therapy (baseline), comparison of paired serum levels showed a significant decrease after pranlukast therapy. Baseline CSF levels of IL-1? and IL-6 were elevated in patients compared with disease controls. Of four patients with paired data, three (including a responder to pranlukast) showed decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1?, IL-6, and TNF?), and four showed decreased sTNFR1, after pranlukast treatment, and only a responder had markedly decreased frequency of CD8+ T cells in CSF. Pranlukast reduces seizure frequencies probably by pleiotropic effects including normalization of MMP-9 in sera, reduced leakage of pro-inflammatory cytokines into CNS, and inhibition of extravasation of leucocytes from brain capillaries. Further investigations by double-blind control study and animal models are warranted. PMID:22571867
Psychological ownership is rarely considered in health discourse related to chronic illness or diseasestate. Construction of identity is an important consideration within this framework. This autoethnographic study explores psychological ownership and identity related to prostate cancer and chronic illness. Conclusions about the nature of psychological ownership and identity were gathered from the relevant literature and personal experience. Themes include the patient–healthcare professional relationship and that psychological ownership is personal and grounded in an individual's sense of identity, control and perceived capacity to control illness or disease. Personal reflection through autoethnography guides discussion of psychological ownership and identity.
Intractable conflicts are omnipresent in environmental management. These conflicts do not necessarily resist resolution but need to be fundamentally transformed in order to reach agreement. Reframing, a process that allows disputants to create new alternative understandings of the problem, is one way of transforming these conflicts. Cognitive and interactional reframing are the two major approaches to conflict transformation. These approaches have some drawbacks. Cognitive reframing does not guarantee commensurate consideration of all disputants' views about the problem. Interactional reframing is prone to inter-disputant influences that interfere with presenting the problems as accurately as they exist in disputants' minds. Inadequate consideration of other disputants' views and inter-disputant influences often lead to inaccurate problem identification and definition. This in turn leads to solving the wrong problem, enabling intractability to persist. Proper problem identification and definition requires commensurate consideration of all sides of the conflict while minimizing inter-disputant influences. From a problem diagnosis perspective, we show how Q methodology is used to reframe environmental problems, rendering them more tractable to analysis while minimizing the influence of who disputants are talking with, and without ignoring the perspectives of other disputants. Using a case of contentious All-Terrain Vehicle (ATV) use in a state-administered public land, conflicting parties reframed the problem by prioritizing issues, outlining areas and levels of consensus and disagreement, and revealing inherent unrecognized and/or unspoken agendas. The reframing process surprisingly revealed several areas of common ground in disputants' diagnosis of the problem, including lack of emphasis on environmental protection and uncoordinated management factions. Emergent frames were misaligned on some issues, such as the behaviors of ATV riders and the role of management, including political and economic influences on decision making. We discuss how the reframing process enhances tractability of multiparty environmental problems. We point to some limitations of Q methodology as a tool for the diagnostic reframing of such problems. PMID:22705762
Asah, Stanley T; Bengston, David N; Wendt, Keith; Nelson, Kristen C
The ability of postoperative total lymphoid irradiation to reverse otherwise intractable cardiac allograft rejection was examined in a group of 10 patients in whom conventional rejection therapy (including pulsed steroids and monoclonal or polyclonal anti-T-cell antibody therapy) had failed to provide sustained freedom from rejection. Follow-up periods range from 73 to 1119 days since the start of total lymphoid irradiation. No patient died or sustained serious morbidity because of the irradiation. Three patients have had no further rejection (follow-up periods, 105 to 365 days). Two patients died--one in cardiogenic shock during the course of total lymphoid irradiation, the other with recurrent rejection caused by noncompliance with his medical regimen. Total lymphoid irradiation appears to be a safe and a moderately effective immunosuppressive modality for 'salvage' therapy of cardiac allograft rejection unresponsive to conventional therapy.
Hunt, S.A.; Strober, S.; Hoppe, R.T.; Stinson, E.B. (Stanford Univ.Medical Center, CA (USA))
This report describes a rare case of postoperative hyperventilation attack after an endoscopic third ventriculostomy in a 46-year-old woman. About 60 min after the termination of the operation, an intractable hyperventilation started with respiratory rate of 65 breaths/min and EtCO(2), 16.3 mm Hg. Sedation with benzodiazepine, thiopental sodium, fentanyl, and propofol/remifentanil infusion was tried under a rebreathing mask at a 4 L/min of oxygen. With aggressive sedative challenges, ventilation pattern was gradually returned to normal during the 22 hrs of time after the surgery. A central neurogenic hyperventilation was suspected due to the stimulating central respiratory center by cold acidic irrigation solution during the neuroendoscopic procedure. PMID:22639718
Lee, Hae Mi; Shin, Kyung Bae; Kim, Seong Ho; Jee, Dae Lim
Epileptic spasms, or seizures marked by flexor, extensor, or flexor-extensor spasms, are not always responsive to medical management. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the outcome of epilepsy surgery in children with medically intractable epileptic spasms. We identified 11 children with epileptic spasms who underwent lesionectomy (36%), lobectomy (27%), multi-lobectomy (9%), hemispherectomy (18%), or corpus callosotomy (9%). At the time of surgery, 6 children had developed other concurrent seizure type(s), including simple partial (9%), complex partial (27%), partial undifferentiated (9%), primary generalized tonic clonic (9%), tonic (9%), atonic (27%), and myoclonic (9%) seizures. Six children (55%) were seizure free at last follow-up from initial surgery. Predictors of favorable outcome included lack of focal slowing and the presence of less than 2 interictal epileptiform abnormalities on postoperative electroencephalogram (P = .035 and .035, respectively). Favorable outcome was significantly associated with parent/caregiver report of improved postoperative developmental outcomes (P = .026). PMID:22123426
Moseley, Brian D; Nickels, Katherine; Wirrell, Elaine C
This report describes a rare case of postoperative hyperventilation attack after an endoscopic third ventriculostomy in a 46-year-old woman. About 60 min after the termination of the operation, an intractable hyperventilation started with respiratory rate of 65 breaths/min and EtCO2, 16.3 mm Hg. Sedation with benzodiazepine, thiopental sodium, fentanyl, and propofol/remifentanil infusion was tried under a rebreathing mask at a 4 L/min of oxygen. With aggressive sedative challenges, ventilation pattern was gradually returned to normal during the 22 hrs of time after the surgery. A central neurogenic hyperventilation was suspected due to the stimulating central respiratory center by cold acidic irrigation solution during the neuroendoscopic procedure.
Partial Contents: What is Alzheimer's Disease (What is Dementia, The course of Alzheimer's Disease); Overview of Dementia In NYS (Alzheimer's Disease: Increasingly a Disease Affecting Families, Research and Information Services in New York State); Lead Ag...
The selection of mechanical ventilator settings that ensure adequate oxygenation and carbon dioxide clearance while minimizing the risk of ventilator-associated lung injury (VALI) is a significant challenge for intensive-care clinicians. Current guidelines are largely based on previous experience combined with recommendations from a limited number of in vivo studies whose data are typically more applicable to populations than to individuals suffering from particular diseases of the lung. By combining validated computational models of pulmonary pathophysiology with global optimization algorithms, we generate in silico experiments to examine current practice and uncover optimal combinations of ventilator settings for individual patient and diseasestates. Formulating the problem as a multiobjective, multivariable constrained optimization problem, we compute settings of tidal volume, ventilation rate, inspiratory/expiratory ratio, positive end-expiratory pressure and inspired fraction of oxygen that optimally manage the tradeoffs between ensuring adequate oxygenation and carbon dioxide clearance and minimizing the risk of VALI for different pulmonary disease scenarios. PMID:23322759
Das, Anup; Menon, Prathyush P; Hardman, Jonathan G; Bates, Declan G
Improvements in diagnosis and treatment have prolonged cancer survival, with a consequent increase in the incidence of spinal metastases and vertebral compression fractures with associated axial pain, progressive radiculomyelopathy, and mechanical instability. Pain relief in malignant vertebral compression fractures is key to achieving a better quality of life in patients under palliative care. The gold standard for pain relief is nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and opioids. Nonresponsive cases are then treated with radiotherapy, which may require 2-4 weeks to take effect and in most cases does not provide complete pain relief. Percutaneous vertebroplasty and percutaneous kyphoplasty can in particular give relief in patients with vertebral body compression fractures that do not cause neurological deficits but severely compromise quality of life because of intractable pain. PMID:21465731
Instances in which we cannot retrieve information immediately but know that the information might be retrieved later are subjective states that accompany retrieval failure. These are expressed in feeling-of-knowing (FOK) and Tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) experiences. In Experiment 1, participants with Parkinson's disease (PD) and older adult controls were given general questions and asked to report when they experienced a TOT state and to give related information about the missing word. The PD group experienced similar levels of TOTs but provided less correct peripheral information related to the target when in a TOT state. In Experiment 2, participants were given a Semantic (general knowledge questions) and an Episodic (word pairs) FOK task. PD patients failed to accurately predict their future memory performance (FOK) in response to both episodic and semantic cues. Results are interpreted in the context of recent frameworks of memory and metacognition. PMID:23727890
Investigations of disease dynamics in wild animal populations often use estimated prevalence or incidence as a measure of true disease frequency. Such indices, almost always based solely on raw counts of infected and uninfected individuals, are often used as the basis for analysis of temporal and spatial dynamics of diseases. Generally, such studies do not account for potential differences in observer detection probabilities of host individuals stratified by biotic and/or abiotic factors. We demonstrate the potential effects of heterogeneity in state-specific detection probabilities on estimated disease prevalence using mark-recapture data from previous work in a House Finch (Carpodacus mexicanus) and Mycoplasma gallisepticum system. In this system, detection probabilities of uninfected finches were generally higher than infected individuals. We show that the magnitude and seasonal pattern of variation in estimated prevalence, corrected for differences in detection probabilities, differed markedly from uncorrected (apparent) prevalence. When the detection probability of uninfected individuals is higher than infected individuals (as in our study), apparent prevalence is negatively biased, and vice versa. In situations where state-specific detection probabilities strongly interact over time, we show that the magnitude and pattern of apparent prevalence can change dramatically; in such cases, observed variations in prevalence may be completely spurious artifacts of variation in detection probability, rather than changes in underlying disease dynamics. Accounting for differential detection probabilities in estimates of disease frequency removes a potentially confounding factor in studies seeking to identify biotic and/or abiotic drivers of disease dynamics. Given that detection probabilities of different groups of individuals are likely to change temporally and spatially in most field studies, our results underscore the importance of estimating and incorporating detection probabilities in estimated disease prevalence (specifically), and more generally, any ecological index used to estimate some parameter of interest. While a mark-recapture approach makes it possible to estimate detection probabilities, it is not always practical, especially at large scales. We discuss several alternative approaches and categorize the assumptions under which analysis of uncorrected prevalence may be acceptable. PMID:17479842
Jennelle, Christopher S; Cooch, Evan G; Conroy, Michael J; Senar, Juan Carlos
Neisseria meningitidis is a leading cause of bacterial meningitis and sepsis among older children and young adults in the United States. N. meningitidis usually is transmitted through close contact with aerosols or secretions from the human nasopharynx. Although N. meningitidis is regularly isolated in clinical laboratories, it has infrequently been reported as a cause of laboratory-acquired infection. This report describes two probable cases of fatal laboratory-acquired meningococcal disease and the results of an inquiry to identify previously unreported cases. The findings indicate that N. meningitidis isolates pose a risk for microbiologists and should be handled in a manner that minimizes risk for exposure to aerosols or droplets. PMID:11905480
Twenty patients with intractable rheumatoid arthritis were treated with 750-rad or 2,000-rad lymphoid irradiation in a randomized double-blind comparative study. Over a 12-month followup period, there was a significant improvement in 4 of 7 and 6 of 7 standard parameters of disease activity following treatment with 750 rads and 2,000 rads, respectively. Transient, short-term toxicity was less frequent with the lower dose. In both groups, there was a sustained peripheral blood lymphopenia, a selective depletion of T helper (Leu-3a+) lymphocytes, and reduced in vitro mitogen responses. These changes did not occur, however, in synovial fluid. These results suggest that 750-rad lymphoid irradiation is as effective as, but less toxic than, that with 2,000 rads in the management of patients with intractable rheumatoid arthritis.
Hanly, J.G.; Hassan, J.; Moriarty, M.; Barry, C.; Molony, J.; Casey, E.; Whelan, A.; Feighery, C.; Bresnihan, B.
With an annual incidence of 50/100,000 people, nearly 1% of the population suffers from epilepsy. Treatment with antiepileptic medication fails to achieve seizure remission in 20-30% of patients. One treatment option for refractory epilepsy patients who would not otherwise be surgical candidates is electrical stimulation of the brain, which is a rapidly evolving and reversible adjunctive therapy. Therapeutic stimulation can involve direct stimulation of the brain nuclei or indirect stimulation of peripheral nerves. There are three stimulation modalities that have class I evidence supporting their uses: vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), stimulation of the anterior nuclei of the thalamus (ANT), and, the most recently developed, responsive neurostimulation (RNS). While the other treatment modalities outlined deliver stimulation regardless of neuronal activity, the RNS administers stimulation only if triggered by seizure activity. The lower doses of stimulation provided by such responsive devices can not only reduce power consumption, but also prevent adverse reactions caused by continuous stimulation, which include the possibility of habituation to long-term stimulation. RNS, as an investigational treatment for medically refractory epilepsy, is currently under review by the FDA. Eventually systems may be developed to enable activation by neurochemical triggers or to wirelessly transmit any information gathered. We review the mechanisms, the current status, the target options, and the prospects of RNS for the treatment of medically intractable epilepsy. PMID:23735806
Eleven patients with intractable rheumatoid arthritis were treated with total lymphoid irradiation (total dose, 2000 rad) in an uncontrolled feasibility study, as an alternative to long-term therapy with cytotoxic drugs such as cyclophosphamide and azathioprine. During a follow-up period of five to 18 months after total lymphoid irradiation, there was a profound and sustained suppression of the absolute lymphocyte count and in vitro lymphocyte function, as well as an increase in the ratio of Leu-2 (suppressor/cytotoxic) to Leu-3 (helper) T cells in the blood. Persistent circulating suppressor cells of the mixed leukocyte response and of pokeweed mitogen-induced immunoglobulin secretion developed in most patients. In nine of the 11 patients, these changes in immune status were associated with relief of joint tenderness and swelling and with improvement in function scores. Maximum improvement occurred approximately six months after irradiation and continued for the remainder of the observation period. Few severe or chronic side effects were associated with the radiotherapy.
Eleven patients with intractable rheumatoid arthritis were treated with total lymphoid irradiation (total dose, 2000 rad) in an uncontrolled feasibility study, as an alternative to long-term therapy with cytotoxic drugs such as cyclophosphamide and azathioprine. During a follow-up period of five to 18 months after total lymphoid irradiation, there was a profound and sustained suppression of the absolute lymphocyte count and in vitro lymphocyte function, as well as an increase in the ratio of Leu-2 (suppressor/cytotoxic) to Leu-3 (helper) T cells in the blood. Persistent circulating suppressor cells of the mixed leukocyte response and of pokeweek mitogen-induced immunoglobulin secretion developed in most patients. In nine of the 11 patients, these changes in immune status were associated with relief of joint tenderness and swelling and with improvement in function scores. Maximum improvement occurred approximately six months after irradiation and continued for the remainder of the observation period. Few severe or chronic side effects were associated with the radiotherapy.
The report discusses two groups of epileptic patients. One treated surgically (37 cases) and one treated medically (31 cases), were studied to ascertain factors of importance to their rehabilitation. Patients with chronic intractable epilepsy can be consi...
Surgical experience with long-term follow-up is limited in childhood intractable epilepsy, compared with adult epilepsy. To\\u000a assess the role of each presurgical evaluation modality and to identify prognostic factors for favorable seizure control after\\u000a epilepsy surgery, 38 children with intractable epilepsy who underwent surgery were retrospectively reviewed. Among the available\\u000a preoperative evaluation modalities, PET and neuropsychological testing showed the highest
Seung-Ki Kim; Kyu-Chang Wang; Yong-Seung Hwang; Ki Joong Kim; Dong Soo Lee; Yungnahn Yi; Byung-Kyu Cho
Twenty-six patients participated in a randomized, double-blind study of the efficacy of total lymphoid irradiation in the treatment of intractable rheumatoid arthritis. All 26 patients, for whom therapy with gold compounds and penicillamine had failed, would ordinarily have been considered candidates for cytotoxic or antimetabolite drug therapy. Thirteen patients randomly assigned to receive full-dose total lymphoid irradiation (2000 rad) and 11 patients assigned to receive control low-dose total lymphoid irradiation (200 rad) completed radiotherapy. Alleviation of joint disease activity was significantly greater in the high-dose group as judged by morning stiffness, joint tenderness, and functional assessment (global composite score) at 3 and 6 months after radiotherapy. The high-dose group had a marked reduction in both T-lymphocyte function and numbers, but this finding was not observed in the low-dose group. Complications seen in the high-dose but not low-dose group included transient neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, pericarditis, and pleurisy.
Current treatments for hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) include prolonged courses of antibiotics, retinoids, immunosuppressants, and biologics. Severe cases that are resistant to prolonged medical treatment pose a therapeutic challenge. We propose radical excision and lateral thoracic flap reconstruction as a treatment option for such cases. In our experience with two patients, good aesthetic and functional outcomes were achieved, with a high level of patient satisfaction. The availability of suitable flap coverage allows for wide resection of all of the hair-bearing skin, leading to a low incidence of residual disease and subsequent recurrence. Following excision of the affected tissue, the ideal reconstructive method in the axilla provides suitable coverage without unacceptable donor site morbidity and also avoids axillary contractures. A long lateral thoracic flap with delay has excellent coverage with minimal donor tissue sacrifice. With a suitable flap coverage option, the management paradigm of intractable HS should shift from prolonged medical treatment to allow decisive radical excision, which will improve the quality of life for patients.
Current treatments for hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) include prolonged courses of antibiotics, retinoids, immunosuppressants, and biologics. Severe cases that are resistant to prolonged medical treatment pose a therapeutic challenge. We propose radical excision and lateral thoracic flap reconstruction as a treatment option for such cases. In our experience with two patients, good aesthetic and functional outcomes were achieved, with a high level of patient satisfaction. The availability of suitable flap coverage allows for wide resection of all of the hair-bearing skin, leading to a low incidence of residual disease and subsequent recurrence. Following excision of the affected tissue, the ideal reconstructive method in the axilla provides suitable coverage without unacceptable donor site morbidity and also avoids axillary contractures. A long lateral thoracic flap with delay has excellent coverage with minimal donor tissue sacrifice. With a suitable flap coverage option, the management paradigm of intractable HS should shift from prolonged medical treatment to allow decisive radical excision, which will improve the quality of life for patients. PMID:23233895
The purpose of the present study is to introduce a novel methodology for adapting and upgrading decision-making strategies concerning mechanical ventilation with respect to different diseasestates into our fuzzy-based expert system, AUTOPILOT-BT. The special features are: (1) Extraction of clinical knowledge in analogy to the daily routine. (2) An automated process to obtain the required information and to create fuzzy sets. (3) The controller employs the derived fuzzy rules to achieve the desired ventilation status. For demonstration this study focuses exclusively on the control of arterial CO(2) partial pressure (p(a)CO(2)). Clinical knowledge from 61 anesthesiologists was acquired using a questionnaire from which different disease-specific fuzzy sets were generated to control p(a)CO(2). For both, patients with healthy lung and with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) the fuzzy sets show different shapes. The fuzzy set "normal", i.e., "target p(a)CO(2) area", ranges from 35 to 39 mmHg for healthy lungs and from 39 to 43 mmHg for ARDS lungs. With the new fuzzy sets our AUTOPILOT-BT reaches the target p(a)CO(2) within maximal three consecutive changes of ventilator settings. Thus, clinical knowledge can be extended, updated, and the resulting mechanical ventilation therapies can be individually adapted, analyzed, and evaluated. PMID:21069471
Lozano-Zahonero, S; Gottlieb, D; Haberthür, C; Guttmann, J; Möller, K
Objective Offspring whose parents have Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are at increased risk for developing dementia. Patients with AD typically exhibit disruptions in the default mode network (DMN). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a family history of late-onset AD on DMN integrity in cognitively normal individuals. In particular, we determined whether a family history effect is detectable in apolipoprotein E (APOE) ?4 allele non-carriers. Method We studied a cohort of 348 cognitively normal participants with or without family history of late-onset AD. DMN integrity was assessed by resting state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging. Results A family history of late-onset AD was associated with reduced resting state functional connectivity between particular nodes of the DMN, namely the posterior cingulate and medial temporal cortex. The observed functional connectivity reduction was not attributable to medial temporal structural atrophy. Importantly, we detected a family history effect on DMN functional connectivity in APOE ?4 allele non-carriers. Interpretation Unknown genetic factors, embodied in a family history of late-onset AD, may affect DMN integrity prior to cognitive impairment.
Wang, Liang; Roe, Catherine M.; Snyder, Abraham Z.; Brier, Matthew R.; Thomas, Jewell B.; Xiong, Chengjie; Benzinger, Tammie L.; Morris, John C.; Ances, Beau M.
Contents: Section I The Burden of Chronic Diseases as Causes of Death, United States; Section II The Burden of Heart Disease, Stroke, Cancer, and Diabetes, United States; Section III Risk Factors and Use of Preventive Services, United States; Section IV C...
Autoimmune diseases cause significant and chronic morbidity and disability. The actual number of persons in the United States that are affected by autoimmune diseases and the resultant magnitude of their impact on the public's health are limited to a few specific diseases. In order to understand the clinical, public health and economic importance of these diseases it is necessary to
Denise L. Jacobson; Stephen J. Gange; Noel R. Rose; Neil M. H. Graham
Relaxin was discovered more than 75 years prior to the identification of the receptors that mediate its actions. There has been a slow emergence in understanding the role of relaxin, with it being denoted initially as a hormone of pregnancy due to its observed effects to relax pubic ligaments and soften the cervix of guinea pigs to facilitate parturition. However, many other physiological roles have been identified for relaxin, including cardiovascular and neuropeptide functions and an ability to induce the matrix metalloproteinases, so it is clear that relaxin is not exclusively a hormone of pregnancy but has a much wider role in vivo. The recent de-orphanisation of four receptors LGR7, LGR8, GPCR135 (SALPR) and GPCR142 (GPR100) that respond to and bind at least one of the three forms of relaxin identified to date, allows dissection of this system to determine the precise role of each receptor and enable the identification of new targets for treatment of numerous diseasestates. Relaxin has the potential to be useful for the treatment of scleroderma, fibrosis, in orthodontics and to facilitate embryo implantation in humans. Relaxin antagonists may act as contraceptives or prevent the development of breast cancer metastases. Recent research has added considerable knowledge to the signalling pathways activated by relaxin, which will aid our understanding of how relaxin produces its effects. The focus of this review is to bring together recent developments in the relaxin receptor field and to highlight their potential as drug targets. PMID:17266534
Van Der Westhuizen, E T; Summers, R J; Halls, M L; Bathgate, R A D; Sexton, P M
Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States. High blood pressure, high cholesterol, and smoking are all risk factors that could lead to cardiovascular disease (CVD) and stroke. The recently announced Million Hearts Initiative is aimed...
A drug-use and disease-state management (DUDSM) program was insti- tuted in 1996 at a teaching hospital associ- ated with a large nonprofit health care system. The program's goals are to optimize pharmacotherapeutic regimens, evaluate health outcomes of identified diseasestates, and evaluate the economic impact of pharmacotherapeutic options for given diseasestates by developing practice guidelines. Through a re-engineering process,
OBJECTIVESTo evaluate the influence of clinical, investigative, and pathological factors on seizure remission after temporal lobectomy for medically intractable epilepsy associated with focal lesions other than hippocampal sclerosis.METHODSFrom a series of 234 consecutive “en bloc” temporal resections for medically intractable epilepsy performed between 1976 and 1995, neuropathological examination disclosed a focal lesion in 80. The preoperative clinical, neuropsychological, interictal EEG,
M J Hennessy; R D C Elwes; M Honavar; S Rabe-Hesketh; C D Binnie; C E Polkey
There are not a few words of disease in the unearthed chu jian (bamboo slips of Chu State) of the Warring States Period. The morphology, pronunciation and meaning among these characters are completed. By collecting the diseases in the equivocally deciphered words, this article comprehensively discusses the words among them. It is claimed that in Geling jian (Geling slips), "Xie" is pronounced as xie, and "Xie disease" refers to the pain below the oxter and above the waist; "Bei", pronounced as jian, and "Bei Pi disease" refers to the pain of the shoulder and back;"Jie" reads as jie and refers to scabies; "Du" pronounced as fu, and "Du disease" refers to distending pain of the skin. In Wangshan jian (Wangshan slips), "Du" is equal to "Du", and is the same as "Du" in baoshan jian (baoshan bamboo slips), pronounced as du, refers to exacerbation of disease. PMID:24135471
Introduction The death rate of people who have a chronic disease is lower among former smokers than current smokers. State tobacco cessation quitlines are available for free in every state. The objective of our study was to compare demographic characteristics, use of quitline services, and quit rates among a sample of quitline callers. Methods We used data from 15 states on tobacco users aged 18 or older who enrolled with a quitline between October 1, 2005, and May 31, 2008; 9 states also provided data from 7-month follow-up surveys. We used descriptive statistics and logistic regression to compare callers by disease status. Results Among 195,057 callers, 32.3% reported having 1 or more of the following chronic diseases: 17.7%, asthma; 5.9%, coronary artery disease; 11.1%, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; and 9.3%, diabetes; 9.0% had 2 or more chronic diseases. Callers who had a chronic disease were older and better educated; more likely to be female, have Medicaid or other health insurance, and have used tobacco for 20 years or more; and less likely to quit smoking (22.3%) at 7 months than callers who had none of these chronic diseases (29.7%). Conclusion About one-third of tobacco users who call state quitlines have a chronic disease, and those who have a chronic disease are less likely to quit using tobacco. Continued efforts are needed to ensure cessation treatments are reaching tobacco users who have a chronic disease and to develop and test ways to increase quit rates among them.
Zbikowski, Susan M.; Mahoney, Lisa; Deprey, Mona; Mowery, Paul; Cerutti, Barbara
Background: Skin diseases and their complications are a significant burden on the nation, both in terms of acute and chronic morbidities and their related expenditures for care. Because accurately calculating the cost of skin disease has proven difficult in the past, we present here multiple comparative techniques allowing a more expanded approach to estimating the overall economic burden. Objectives: Our
Seena Dehkharghani; Jason Bible; John G. Chen; Steven R. Feldman; Alan B. Fleischer
Between 1992 and 2040, the United States nonwhite elderly population is expected to grow from 3.3 to 14.1 million. In order to assess the implications of this increase on the mortality from neurodegenerative diseases in the United States, we used Census Bureau population estimates to formulate projections of the annual number of deaths from neurodegenerative diseases and from six comparison
Between 1990 and 2040, the United States elderly population is expected to grow from 31.6 to 68.1 million. In order to assess the implications of this increase on the mortality from neurodegenerative diseases in the United States, we used Census Bureau population estimates to formulate projections of the annual number of deaths from neurodegenerative diseases and from six comparison conditions
This article examines: (a) the extent to which chronic wasting disease (CWD) may influence individuals to hunt in other states or quit hunting permanently; (b) hunters' acceptance of strategies for managing the disease; and (c) whether hunters' responses differ by residency, species hunted, and state where they hunted. Data were obtained from mail surveys (n = 9,567) of resident and
Mark D. Needham; Jerry J. Vaske; Michael J. Manfredo
In a Dutch national study, we recently established the effectiveness and safety of continuous intrathecal baclofen infusion (CITB) in children with intractable spastic cerebral palsy (CP). Because prospective studies on the cost-effectiveness of CITB in children with spastic CP are lacking, we conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis alongside our prospective national study. We compared the costs and health effects of CITB
M. A. Hoving; S M A A Evers; A J H A Ament; E P M van Raak; J. S. H. Vles; J. G. Becher; R. Vermeulen; O. F. Brouwer; C. G. Maathuis; C. E. Catsman-Berrevoets; J. Gerritsen; M. J. Geerts; P. H. Jongerius; O. F. Nieuwenhuizen; J. J. Rotteveel; L. A. Speth; H. Stroink; E. G. van der Ziel
Conflicts that endure despite repeated good faith attempts to resolve them are considered intractable. Such conflicts can exist at the family, organizational, community, and international levels and present conflict resolution practitioners with extraordinarily difficult challenges. Over time, they can become highly complex, mercurial, and malignant, and render standard methods of conflict resolution such as negotiation and mediation less effective. This
This paper discusses the presence of "peacebuilding islands" within civil society as potential agents of transformation in the midst of intractable conflict. Focusing on the particular case of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, the argument stems from a deconstruction of the legacy of national myopia perpetuated through social and political…
The effect of sedation for intractable distress on survival in terminally ill patients is a debated question. For certain people, this would limit the physician's intervention to the detriment of symptom alleviation for patients. The principle of double effect is traditionally used to overcome this ethical conflict. Studies conducted between 1990 and 2009 fail to show that the death of patients undergoing sedation for intractable distress is hastened. Some authors conclude that sedation does not hasten death and claim that principle of double effect is unnecessary in this debate. In our view, caution is required in the interpretation of studies results and absence of evidence of sedation effects on survival cannot be considered as an evidence of absence of sedation effects on survival. Furthermore, we consider obtaining a definitive answer as impossible in the future, as the required cannot be conducted for ethical reasons. Caution, we think, is necessary, especially as sedation is sometimes used with explicit intention of hastening the end of life. Physician's intention, key point of the principle of double effect, comes back into the foreground of ethical debate on sedation for intractable distress. Far from limiting the physician's action, the principle of double effect, which requires us to clarify our intentions, should allow us to make the distinction between sedation for intractable distress and euthanasia. PMID:22341946
Leheup, Benoît F; Piot, Elise; Ducrocq, Xavier; Wary, Bernard
PURPOSE: Some patients bedridden from various causes such as stroke or spinal cord injury experience poor control of bowel movement. This causes fecal leakage and diarrhea, increases the risk of perianal excoriation and bed sores, and is a burden on caregivers. To evaluate the efficacy of fecal evacuation and the prevention and treatment of skin complications in intractable diarrhea patients
|This paper discusses a case study of therapeutic intervention with a 2-year-old boy. The child's major presenting symptom is intractable insomnia caused by nightmares, but his problems are linked to general patterns resulting from early paternal loss. The report analyzes the first 30 sessions of treatment. Discussion focuses on the unusual…
To report clinical manifestations, bleeding point localization, and outcomes of management in 16 patients with 16 instances of intractable epistaxis after radiation therapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Retrospective chart review of 16 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (mean age 52.06 ± 14.37 years) with 16 instances of intractable epistaxis during the past 5 years, whose diagnosis was confirmed by angiography (n = 10) or MRI/CT imaging studies and clinical manifestations (n = 6). The mean radiation dose to the affected carotid artery was 101.37 ± 34.85 Gy. Bleeding points were detected in the internal carotid artery (n = 8) or external carotid artery (n = 8). Detachable balloons were used in one affected artery for vascular occlusion; six were treated using an absorbable gelatin sponge (n = 4) or microcoils (diameter 1 mm) (n = 2). Endovascular embolization was successful in seven radiation carotid blowout syndromes with cessation of hemorrhage. One patient underwent external carotid artery ligation and one patient recovered without treatment. The clinical follow-up was 3 months. Therapeutic endovascular embolization of intractable epistaxis is both efficient and safe. It should be considered as the primary treatment modality in intractable epistaxis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. PMID:23846664
He, Cheng-Cheng; Si, Yong-Feng; Xie, Yu-An; Yu, Lei
Purpose – The paper seeks to investigate the characteristics of irresolvable interpersonal conflicts by comparing irresolvable conflicts to resolvable and resolved conflicts on each of Coleman's common social psychological factors associated with intractable conflicts. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Undergraduate students were randomly assigned to complete questionnaires about an irresolvable conflict, a resolvable conflict, or a resolved conflict. Participants reported on conflicts in
Sacral nerve stimulation (SNS) is an effective treatment for bladder and bowel dysfunction, and also has a role in the treatment of chronic pelvic pain. We report two cases of intractable pain associated with cauda equina syndrome (CES) that were treated successfully by SNS. The first patient suffered from intractable pelvic pain with urinary incontinence and fecal incontinence after surgery for a herniated lumbar disc. The second patient underwent surgery for treatment of a burst fracture and developed intractable pelvic area pain, right leg pain, excessive urinary frequency, urinary incontinence, voiding difficulty and constipation one year after surgery. A SNS trial was performed on both patients. Both patients' pain was significantly improved and urinary symptoms were much relieved. Neuromodulation of the sacral nerves is an effective treatment for idiopathic urinary frequency, urgency, and urge incontinence. Sacral neuromodulation has also been used to control various forms of pelvic pain. Although the mechanism of action of neuromodulation remains unexplained, numerous clinical success reports suggest that it is a therapy with efficacy and durability. From the results of our research, we believe that SNS can be a safe and effective option for the treatment of intractable pelvic pain with incomplete CES.
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the tolerability and efficacy of the modified Atkins diet given to children and adolescents with antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment resistant epilepsy.15 children with medically intractable epilepsy were enrolled in the study. Inclusion criteria were at least one seizure a week and a trial of at least two AEDs without obtaining seizure
Susanne Weber; Christian Mølgaard; KarenTaudorf; Peter Uldall
Summary: Purpose: The Atkins diet may induce ketosis as does the ketogenic diet, without restrictions on calories, fluids, protein, or need for an inpatient fast and admission. Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of a modified Atkins diet for intractable childhood epilepsy. Methods: Twenty children were treated prospectively in a hospital-based ambulatory clinic from September 2003 to
Eric H. Kossoff; Jane R. McGrogan; Renee M. Bluml; Diana J. Pillas; James E. Rubenstein; Eileen P. Vining
Despitè the use of hemispherectomy in the treatment of medically refractory seizures since the early 1950's, few studies published have documented neuropathologic findings in the resected specimens. This report describes the neuropathologic findings in 38 children who underwent either hemispherectomy or multilobar cortical resection as treatment for medically intractable epilepsy between 1986 and 1990. Examination of the resected specimens revealed
M. A. Farrell; M. J. DeRosa; J. G. Curran; D. Lenard Secor; M. E. Cornford; Y. G. Comair; W. J. Peacock; W. D. Shields; H. V. Vinters
BACKGROUND: Recently, there has been an increased use of recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) to promote hemostasis in various hemorrhagic conditions. The objective of this study was to determine the outcome of patients treated with rFVIIa who had intractable bleeding associated with cardiac surgery (CSP) or as a result of other causes (OBP). METHODS: The medical records of 40 consecutive
Anita Aggarwal; Vera Malkovska; Joseph P Catlett; Kirsten Alcorn
An infarctus of medulla oblongata was discovered in a 44-year old man with an intractable hiccup and 10, 11th and 12th right cranial nerves palsies. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with antiphospholipid syndrome was subsequently diagnosed. Hiccup has withdrew with corticosteroid therapy and low-dose aspirin. The other cases of literature and pathophysiologic hypotheses are briefly reported. PMID:15934443
Delèvaux, I; André, M; Marroun, I; Lamaison, D; Piette, J C; Aumaître, O
Summary: Purpose: To compare neuropsychological perfor- mance of two groups of children with intractable epilepsy: those who are surgical candidates, and those who are not. Methods: Intelligence, verbal memory, visual memory, aca- demic skills, and sustained attention were measured in children aged 6-18 years. The effects of number of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), seizure frequency, age at seizure onset, and duration
|The aim of this study was to evaluate the resting energy expenditure (REE) of children with intractable epilepsy (IE) compared with healthy children, and to determine factors that contribute to the pattern of REE. REE, growth status, and body composition were assessed in 25 prepubertal children with IE (15 males, 10 females; mean age 5y 5mo [SD…
Bergqvist, A. G. Christina; Trabulsi, Jillian; Schall, Joan I.; Stallings, Virginia A.
This paper proposes a new versatile strategy for sampling posterior distributions for analytically intractable models. Building such samplers using Markov Chain Monte Carlo methodology usually leads to algorithms which are rather expensive from a computational point of view, hence hav- ing very few chances to be used for practical applications. The strategy we propose overcomes this drawback and is easy
R. S. Stoica; Villeneuve d'Ascq; P. Gregori; J. Mateu
A peritoneovenous shunt has become one of the most efficient procedures for intractable ascites due to liver cirrhosis. A case of intractable ascites due to hepatic lymphorrhea after hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma that was successfully treated by the placement of a peritoneovenous shunt is presented. A 72-year-old Japanese man underwent partial resection of the liver for hepatocellular carcinoma associated with hepatitis C viral infection. After hepatectomy, a considerable amount of ascites ranging from 800-4600 mL per day persisted despite conservative therapy, including numerous infusions of albumin and plasma protein fraction and administration of diuretics. Since the patient’s general condition deteriorated, based on the diagnosis of intractable hepatic lymphorrhea, a subcutaneous peritoneovenous shunt was inserted. The patient’s postoperative course was uneventful and the ascites decreased rapidly, with serum total protein and albumin levels and hepatic function improving accordingly. For intractable ascites due to hepatic lymphorrhea after hepatectomy, we recommend the placement of a peritoneovenous shunt as a procedure that can provide immediate effectiveness without increased surgical risk.
Protracted, intractable conflicts are a form of human interaction that may very well determine our capacity to survive as a species. Their high degree of malignancy, complexity, and mercurial natures present severe challenges to our human abilities to perceive, comprehend, and intervene accurately and effectively. The applied literature in this area presents a wide variety of approaches for intervention. Each
Background Spinal cord stimulation is known to be a successful treatment for chronic intractable angina pectoris. Its effect may be anti-ischemic. It is uncertain if the clinical effect is partly caused by a placebo effect of surgery for implantation of a stimulator. In this study, clinical efficacy is investigated, together with a possible placebo effect. Methods and Results Efficacy of
Raymond W. M. Hautvast; Mike J. L. DeJongste; Michiel J. Staal; Wiek H. van Gilst; K. I. Lie
Surveillance of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) monitors trends and ensures timely identification of variant CJD and other emergent prion diseases. Brain tissue is needed to definitively diagnose these diseases. A survey of neurologists and pathologists in New York State was conducted to understand neurologists’ and pathologists’ views on autopsy and CJD. Neurologists reported using autopsy rarely or never. Over half of
Patricia P. Lillquist; Nadia Thomas; Ermias D. Belay; Lawrence B. Schonberger; Dale Morse
Leprosy is an infectious contagious disease known since Biblical times. Global effort for disease control reveals intricate convergences of national history and of medical, governmental, and international policies. The study describes the history of Hansen's disease and control actions undertaken in the state of São Paulo starting in the 19th century and its connection with the development of public health in that state, by means of a bibliographic and documental analysis. PMID:21181057
... Medicare card Report fraud & abuse File a complaint Identity theft: protect yourself Phone numbers & websites Privacy practices ... m outside the U.S. I'm a caregiver Children & End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Your child is ...
Significant advances have occurred in the symptomatic management of osteoarthritis over the past several decades. However,\\u000a the development of so called disease-modifying osteoarthritis drugs is in a more formative stage. Although increased knowledge\\u000a of osteoarthritis pathophysiologic pathways provides more rational opportunity for targeting specific elements of the degenerative\\u000a process, limitations in our ability to measure disease progression\\/regression hamper assessment. Development
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the general population; traditional risk factors seem inadequate to explain completely the remarkable prevalence of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity observed in the uremic population. A role for chronic inflammation has been well established in the development of atherosclerotic disease, and, on the basis of these observations, atherosclerosis might be considered an inflammatory disease. Inflammation has been implicated in the etiology of coronary artery disease in the general population, and traditional inflammatory biomarkers such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) have been shown to predict cardiovascular events in both symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals as well as those in the uremic population. Later on, new nontraditional markers were related to the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in general and in uremic population. As a consequence of the expanding research base and availability of assays, the number of inflammatory marker tests ordered by clinicians for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk prediction has grown rapidly and several commercial assays have become available. So, up to now we can consider that several new nontraditional markers as CD40-CD40 ligand system and pentraxin-3 seem to be significant features of cardiovascular disease in general and in ESRD population.
BACKGROUND: We sought to elicit preference weights from parents for health states corresponding to children with various levels of severity of atopic dermatitis. We also evaluated the hypothesis that parents with children who had been diagnosed with atopic dermatitis would assign different preferences to the health state scenarios compared with parents who did not have a child with atopic dermatitis.
Joëlle Y Friedman; Shelby D Reed; Kevin P Weinfurt; Kristijan H Kahler; Emmanuel B Walter; Kevin A Schulman
Research has shown that disease-specific health related quality of life (HRQoL) instruments are more responsive than generic instruments to particular disease conditions. However, only a few studies have used disease-specific instruments to measure HRQoL in hemophilia. The goal of this project was to develop a disease-specific utility instrument that measures patient preferences for various hemophilia health states. The visual analog
Background\\/Objectives: A large number of patients with coronary artery disease experience angina that is not suitable for revascularization and is refractory to conventional medical therapy. Laboratory and preclinical studies have provided evidence for the safety and potential efficacy of autologous CD34+ stem cell therapies as treatment for angina. Clinical studies investigating intramyocardial transplantation of autologous CD34+ stem cells by catheter
End-stage renal disease (ESRD) treatment rates vary significantly between states in the United States. Much of this variation relates to the much higher rate of ESRD in blacks and the differences in race, age, and sex composition of various states. Even after adjusting for race, age, and sex differences utilizing data from new patients reported to Medicare with ESRD between
Steven J. Rosansky; Terrance L. Huntsberger; Kirby Jackson; Paul Eggers
Latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and active tuberculosis (TB) are 2 ends of a spectrum of states ranging from asymptomatic infection to overt disease. While progressing from LTBI to TB, patients often undergo asymptomatic states with detectable manifestations indicative of disease. Such asymptomatic diseasestates frequently remain undiagnosed, and their manifestations and duration are mostly dependent on host immune response. Various terms referring to such states are used in the literature, often interchangeably and without explicit definitions. Defining these intermediate states in concrete terms is important for pragmatic reasons, as they might impact upon the diagnostic performance of TB biomarkers and could also present targets for therapeutic interventions. We here propose definitions for 2 commonly used terms, “incipient” and “subclinical” TB, to describe asymptomatic diseasestates occurring at opposite ends of the host response spectrum. We propose using the term “incipient TB” when referring to early, contained disease in asymptomatic, relatively immunocompetent persons. In contrast, we propose using the term “subclinical TB” to refer to disease in asymptomatic, immunocompromised individuals in whom it is largely associated with loss of effective containment. The rationale for this article is to facilitate the discussion of such early diseasestates, especially in relation to their impact on TB biomarker discovery and assessment of new diagnostics, and with regard to treatment decisions and ultimately outcome.
The Exotic Newcastle disease (END) free status of the U.S was lost with the diagnosis of END in game fowl during early October 2002 and in commercial laying chickens during December 2002 and resulted in several countries banning importation of U.S. poultry and poultry products. The Southern Californ...
Tryptophan is an essential amino acid that can be metabolised through different pathways, a major route being the kynurenine pathway. The first enzyme of the pathway, indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase, is strongly stimulated by inflammatory molecules, particularly interferon gamma. Thus, the kynurenine pathway is often systematically up-regulated when the immune response is activated. The biological significance is that 1) the depletion of tryptophan and generation of kynurenines play a key modulatory role in the immune response; and 2) some of the kynurenines, such as quinolinic acid, 3-hydroxykynurenine and kynurenic acid, are neuroactive. The kynurenine pathway has been demonstrated to be involved in many diseases and disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntington’s disease, AIDS dementia complex, malaria, cancer, depression and schizophrenia, where imbalances in tryptophan and kynurenines have been found. This review compiles most of these studies and provides an overview of how the kynurenine pathway might be contributing to disease development, and the concentrations of tryptophan and kynurenines in the serum, cerebrospinal fluid and brain tissues in control and patient subjects.
Transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is a multi-domain, multi-functional enzyme that post-translationally modifies proteins by catalyzing the formation of intermolecular isopeptide bonds between glutamine and lysine side-chains. It plays a role in diverse biological functions, including extracellular matrix formation, integrin-mediated signaling, and signal transduction involving 7-transmembrane receptors. While some of the roles of TG2 under normal physiological conditions remain obscure, the protein is believed to participate in the pathogenesis of several unrelated diseases, including celiac sprue, neurodegenerative diseases, and certain types of cancer. A variety of small molecule and peptidomimetic inhibitors of the TG2 active site have been identified. Here, we summarize the biochemistry, biology, pharmacology and medicinal chemistry of human TG2. PMID:17582505
Crohn’s disease is a chronic inflammatory disorder primarily affecting the gastrointestinal tract. Its clinical manifestations\\u000a arise from a substantial infiltration of the intestinal mucosa by activated leukocytes and the downstream consequences of\\u000a chronic inflammation. The underlying cause driving this immunological reaction remains poorly understood. A number of hypotheses\\u000a have been proposed, most of which postulate a primary over-activation of the
Daniel J. B. Marks; Farooq Z. Rahman; Gavin W. Sewell; Anthony W. Segal
Efforts to prevent foodborne illness target bacterial pathogens, yet noroviruses (NoV) are suspected to be the most common cause of gastroenteritis. New molecular assays allow for better estimation of the role of NoV in food- borne illness. We analyzed 8,271 foodborne outbreaks reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 1991 to 2000 and additional data from 6
Marc-Alain Widdowson; Alana Sulka; Sandra N. Bulens; R. Suzanne Beard; Sandra S. Chaves; Roberta Hammond; Ellen D. P. Salehi; Ellen Swanson; Jessica Totaro; Ray Woron; Paul S. Mead; Joseph S. Bresee; Stephan S. Monroe; Roger I. Glass
Despite advances in surgical and percutaneous revascularization techniques, nearly one-third of patients with ischemic coronary\\u000a artery disease are not candidates for revascularization due to suboptimal anatomy or receive suboptimal revascularization\\u000a from these standard procedures. Neovascularization of the myocardium is not only a physiologic response to ischemia, but also\\u000a potentially the target of new therapeutic strategies. Induced angiogenesis via protein, gene,
Antonio D. Lassaletta; Louis M. Chu; Frank W. Sellke
Objective and early detection of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a demanding problem requiring consideration of manymodal observations. Potentially, many features could be used to discern between people without AD and those at different stages of the disease. Such features include results from cognitive and memory tests, imaging (MRI, PET) results, cerebral spine fluid data, blood markers etc. However, in order
Mark van Gils; Juha Koikkalainen; Jussi Mattila; S. Herukka; Jyrki Lötjönen; Hilkka Soininen
Contents: Preface; Background; Data sources; Interpreting data; Highlights for 1998; Part 1: Summaries of Notifiable Diseases in the United States, 1998; Part 2: Graphs and Maps for Selected Notifiable Diseases in the United States; Part 3: Historical Sum...
Idiopathic cervical dystonia (ICD) is a movement disorder often resulting in profound disability and pain. Treatment options include oral medications or other invasive procedures, whereas intractable ICD has been shown to respond to invasive (deep) brain stimulation. In the present blinded, placebo-controlled case study, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) has been applied to a 54-year old patient with intractable ICD. Results showed that 15 Hz tACS had both immediate and cumulative effects in dystonic symptom reduction, with a 54% reduction in the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (TWSTRS) total score, and a 75% in the TWSTRS Pain Scale. These effects were persistent at 30-days follow-up. This is the first report to demonstrate a significant and lasting therapeutic effect of non-invasive electrical brain stimulation in dystonia. PMID:23149130
Angelakis, E; Liouta, E; Andreadis, N; Leonardos, A; Ktonas, P; Stavrinou, L C; Miranda, P C; Mekonnen, A; Sakas, D E
Mirror movements may be congenital or acquired. There are few reports of acquired mirror movements in pediatric patients. Further, mirror movements in children with epilepsy have rarely been reported. A 9-year old male, with intractable partial epilepsy resulting from polymicrogyria of the right hemisphere, underwent cortical resection of the right frontotemporoparietal region for a malformation of cortical development. He developed left hemiplegia and mirror movements in the left hand in the postoperative period. Four months after surgery, he remained seizure-free with mild residual left-sided hemiplegia and persistent mirror movements. Mechanisms postulated for mirror movements include aberrant pyramidal tract development and transcallosal inhibitory pathways. The latter mechanism might have contributed to the mirror movements observed in this child. This study is the first report of mirror movements following focal cortical resection for intractable epilepsy due to polymicrogyria. PMID:16458827
The management of high-operative-risk patients with a pneumothorax is complicated. The case of a 79-year old man with an intractable secondary pneumothorax, who had taken oral steroids to control asthma, is presented. Since the patient could not tolerate general anaesthesia because of poor cardiac function, thoracoscopic surgery was performed under local anaesthesia. A successful lung fistula closure was achieved and the continuous air leakage disappeared immediately after the surgery.
Summary We report our series of twenty consecutive patients who underwent corpus callosotomy for medically intractable epilepsy. The follow-up is 6.7±0.5 years. Sixteen of 20 patients (80%) had a favourable outcome. Six patients have remained free of major generalized motor seizures, and ten further patients experienced significant sustained reduction in the severity and frequency of the seizures. The type of
Cordotomy for palliation of intractable pain was simplified by the use of a stereotactic percutaneous technique. The procedure is performed at the high cervical level and has been found to give good results for pain in the upper as well as the lower extremity and the trunk. Respiratory complications are the major hazard, but they may be reduced by careful selection and evaluation of patients. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.
Although hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection is usually self-limited, it may induce fulminant hepatitis. We present an unusual case of a 40-year-old, otherwise healthy man with intractable recurrent HAV infection requiring retransplantation after primary liver transplantation for HAV-associated fulminant liver failure. After the first living-donor liver transplantation, allograft function recovered uneventfully; however, beginning at 35 days, his serum total bilirubin
G. C. Park; S. Hwang; Y. D. Yu; P. J. Park; Y. I. Choi; G. W. Song; D. H. Jung; C. S. Ahn; K. H. Kim; D. B. Moon; T. Y. Ha; S. G. Lee
Fifty-eight children who underwent anatomical, functional, or modified anatomical hemispherectomy for intractable seizures from 1986 to 1995 were evaluated for seizure control, motor function, and complications. Age at surgery ranged from 0.3 to 17.3 years (median 2.8 years). Twenty-seven anatomical, 27 functional, and 4 modified anatomical hemispherectomies were performed. Seizure control and motor function in the 50 patients with more
Warwick J. Peacock; Monica C. Wehby-Grant; W. Donald Shields; D. Alan Shewmon; Harry T. Chugani; Raman Sankar; Harry V. Vinters
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients in the United States of America (USA) and Czechoslovakia (CSSR) were categorized by clinical, pathological, and radiological criteria as having Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC) and were tested with five skin test antigens [Candida, mumps, purified protein derivative (PPD), streptokinase-streptodornase (SK-SD), and trichophytin] at two different dilutions in an attempt to elicit some
W. R. Thayer; B. Fixa; O. Komarkova; C. Charland; C. E. Field
Numbers of reported Lyme disease cases have increased dramatically over the past decade in the northeastern United States, but the year-to-year variability is sizable (average standard deviation ~30% of the mean). An improved understanding of the causes of such variability would aid in prevention and control of the disease, which is transmitted by a spirochete carried in the \\
Hepatitis A can be a serious disease and represents a substantial health and economic burden. In recent years, a decline in the number of cases of hepatitis A has been observed, which has been attributed in part to the implementation of vaccination policies in states with high disease incidence. In May 2006, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices published updated
Mary Beth Koslap-Petraco; Mitchell Shub; Richard Judelsohn
BACKGROUND: Burden of disease studies have been implemented in many countries using the Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY) to assess major health problems. Important objectives of the study were to quantify intra-country differentials in health outcomes and to place the United States situation in the international context. METHODS: We applied methods developed for the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) to data
Catherine M Michaud; Matthew T McKenna; Stephen Begg; Niels Tomijima; Meghna Majmudar; Maria T Bulzacchelli; Shahul Ebrahim; Majid Ezzati; Joshua A Salomon; Jessica Gaber Kreiser; Mollie Hogan; Christopher JL Murray
Background: Valvular heart disease has not been studied in a national population of end stage renal disease patients. Methods: 327,993 dialysis patients in the United States Renal Data System initiated from 1 January 1992 to 30 June 1997 were analyzed in a historical cohort study of patients hospitalized for valvular heart disease (ICD9 Code 424.x, excluding endocarditis, and 394.x-397.x). Results:
\\u000a Farmworkers in the United States (US) have been disproportionately affected by the intersecting epidemics of tuberculosis\\u000a (TB), sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and HIV. Furthermore, farmworkers tend to be politically, socially, and economically\\u000a disenfranchised, which contributes to their increased vulnerability to infectious diseases. This chapter examines the epidemiology\\u000a of infectious diseases, specifically TB, STDs, and HIV, among farmworkers; explores the risks
Lyme disease occurs commonly in New York State, but its geographic distribution is heterogeneous. Over each of nine consecutive years, incidence rates from 57 New York State counties were subjected to spatial autocorrelation analysis. Although the epidemic advanced during the study period, the analyses reveal a consistent pattern of spatial dependence. The correlation distance, the distance over which incidence rates
STEPHAN GLAVANAKOV; DENNIS J. WHITE; THOMAS CARACO; ANDREI LAPENIS; GEORGE R. ROBINSON; BOLESLAW K. SZYMANSKI; WILLIAM A. MANIATTY
The objective of this research was to identify the main factors that lead to the concentration of Hansen's disease (HD) treatment in certain health centers in Ceará state public health network. This was an operational study of descriptive\\/comparative nature, conducted in three municipalities of the State over the period of 2004-05. 1
Clara Maria Nantua Evangelista; Clodis Maria Tavares; Lindélia Sobreira; Sheila Maria Santiago Borges; Duane Hinders; Márcia Gomide
The impacts of chronic wasting disease (CWD) on hunters’ behavior and beliefs about acceptable management actions are not clearly understood. This article presents findings from an initial phase of a multi-stage, multi-state effort to address these knowledge gaps. Data were obtained from mail surveys (n = 659) of resident and nonresident deer hunters in eight states and elk hunters in
MARK D. NEEDHAM; JERRY J. VASKE; MICHAEL J. MANFREDO
Background: The goal of the current study was to determine the association between personality factors and peptic ulcer disease (PUD) among adults in the general population. Method: Data were drawn from the Midlife Development in the United States Survey (MIDUS), a representative household survey of the adult population (ages 25–74; n = 3,032) of the United States. Multiple logistic regression
Techniques based on geographic information systems (GIS) have been widely adopted and applied in the fields of infectious disease and environmental epidemiology; their use in chronic disease programs is relatively new. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention is collaborating with the National Association of Chronic Disease Directors and the University of Michigan to provide health departments with capacity to integrate GIS into daily operations, which support priorities for surveillance and prevention of chronic diseases. So far, 19 state and 7 local health departments participated in this project. On the basis of these participants' experiences, we describe our training strategy and identify high-impact GIS skills that can be mastered and applied over a short time in support of chronic disease surveillance. We also describe the web-based resources in the Chronic Disease GIS Exchange that were produced on the basis of this training and are available to anyone interested in GIS and chronic disease (www.cdc.gov/DHDSP/maps/GISX). GIS offers diverse sets of tools that promise increased productivity for chronic disease staff of state and local health departments. PMID:23786907
Miranda, Marie Lynn; Casper, Michele; Tootoo, Joshua; Schieb, Linda
An increasing proportion of Hansen disease cases in the United States occurs among migrants from the Micronesian region, where leprosy prevalence is high. We abstracted surveillance and clinical records of the National Hansen's Disease Program to determine geographic, demographic, and clinical patterns. Since 2004, 13% of US cases have occurred in this migrant population. Although Hawaii reported the most cases, reports have increased in the central and southern states. Multibacillary disease in men predominates on the US mainland. Of 49 patients for whom clinical data were available, 37 (75%) had leprosy reaction, neuropathy, or other complications; 17 (37%) of 46 completed treatment. Comparison of data from the US mainland with Hawaii and country-of-origin suggests under-detection of cases in pediatric and female patients and with paucibacillary disease in the United States. Increased case finding and management, and avoidance of leprosy-labeled stigma, is needed for this population. PMID:21762573
The calcium ion (Ca2+) plays fundamental roles in orchestrating dynamic changes in the function and structure of nerve cell circuits in the brain. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER), an organelle that actively removes Ca2+ from the cytoplasm, can release stored Ca2+ through ER membrane receptor channels responsive either to the lipid messenger inositol trisphosphate(IP3) or to cytosolic Ca2+. Emerging findings suggest that perturbed ER Ca2+ homeostasis contributes to the dysfunction and degeneration of neurons that occurs in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Presenilin-1 (PS1) is an integral membrane protein in the ER; mutations in PS1 that cause early-onset inherited AD increase the pool of ER Ca2+ available for release and also enhance Ca2+ release through ER IP3- and ryanodine-sensitive channels. By enhancing Ca2+ flux across the ER membrane, PS1 mutations may exaggerate Ca2+ signaling in synaptic terminals and thereby render them vulnerable to dysfunction and degeneration in the settings of aging and amyloid accumulation in AD.
Mark P. Mattson (Baltimore;National Institute on Aging Intramural Research Program REV)
MicroRNA (miRNA) is a major family of small RNAs that posttranscriptionally regulate gene expression. Small RNA profiling studies have revealed that some viruses, particularly large DNA viruses, such as Marek's disease virus (MDV), encode their own set of miRNAs. There are currently 406 viral miRNAs in miRBase, of which 392 are encoded by herpesviruses. To date, 26 MDV-1 miRNAs, 36 MDV-2 miRNAs, and 28 herpesvirus of turkeys miRNAs have been identified. Interestingly, herpesvirus miRNAs appear to have spatial conservation, located in clusters within repeat regions, but lack sequence conservation. Two clusters of MDV-1 miRNA have been identified, one located near the MEQ gene and one within the latency-associated transcript (LAT). miRNA profiling studies have shown that MDV miRNA are differentially expressed between strains and stages of infection. For example, mdv1-miR-M4 and mdv1-miR-M2-3p are three- and sixfold higher, expressed, respectively, in vv+ strains compared to vv strains. A recent study found that deletion or seed region mutation of mdv1-miR-M4 reduces viral oncogenicity, suggesting a link between mdv1-mir-M4 and lymphoma development in MDV-infected birds. Taken together, current research suggests that viral miRNAs are a key component of MDV pathogenesis. PMID:23901744
The calcium ion (Ca2+) plays fundamental roles in orchestrating dynamic changes in the function and structure of nerve cell circuits in the brain. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a particularly intriguing organelle that actively removes Ca2+ from the cytoplasm, and can release stored Ca2+ through ER membrane receptor channels responsive to either the lipid messenger IP3 or to cytosolic Ca2+. Emerging findings suggest that perturbed ER Ca2+ homeostasis contributes to the dysfunction and degeneration of neurons that occurs in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Interestingly, mutations in presenilin-1 (PS1) (an integral membrane protein in the ER of neurons) that cause early-onset inherited AD increase the pool of ER Ca2+ available for release, and enhance Ca2+ release through ER IP3- and ryanodine-sensitive channels. By enhancing Ca2+ flux across the ER membrane, PS1 mutations may exaggerate Ca2+ signaling in synaptic terminals and thereby render them vulnerable to dysfunction and degeneration in the settings of aging and amyloid accumulation in AD.
Chagas disease is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. The disease is difficult to detect because of the asymptomatic pathogenesis after infection. Chagas disease is endemic throughout much of Mexico, Central America, and South America, but human migration patterns are bringing the pathogen to the United States. The disease currently affects 16 to 18 million people with approximately 50 000 deaths annually in these countries. In the United States, national screening of the blood supply was instituted in early 2007, and more than 1000 donors with T cruzi infection have been identified within the past 3 years of testing. It was observed that out of the 58 organ procurement organizations in the United States, only 4 required mandatory testing of every donor for Chagas disease. It was estimated that as of 2009, approximately 409 000 residents are living with Chagas disease, and in a 22-year span, approximately 300 patients may have contracted Chagas disease through transplant. Proposed solutions to the current testing method include automatic testing based on the medical social history questionnaire, testing of all recipients for Chagas disease, testing all persons of Latin descent, or testing of all organ donors. PMID:23996948
Wallace, James A; Miller, Linda; Beavis, Andrew; Baptista, Carlos A C
AIM To report a procedure and results of a two-stage operation to manage intractable extensive orbital implant exposure with a large conjunctival defect which was difficult to treat with dermis fat grafts due to repeated graft necrosis. METHODS A retrospective chart review of four patients who had extensive orbital implant exposures with large conjunctival defects and had past histories of repeated autologous or preserved dermis graft failures was done. As a first-stage operation, the problematic pre-existing orbital implants were removed and autologous dermis fat grafts alone were performed on the defect area. Four months later, new orbital implants were secondarily inserted after confirmation of graft survival. The size of the conjunctival defects and state of the extraocular muscles were checked preoperatively. Success of the operations and complications were investigated. RESULTS The mean size of the conjuctival defects was 17.3mm×16.0mm, and the mean time from the initial diagnosis of orbital implant exposure to implant removal and autologous dermis fat graft was 20.8 months. After implant removal and autologous dermis fat graft, no graft necrosis was observed in any patients. Also, implant exposure or fornix shortening was not observed in any patients after new orbital implant insertion. CONCLUSION The secondary insertion of a new orbital implant after pre-existing implant removal and preceding dermis fat graft is thought to be an another selective management of intractable orbital implant exposure in which dermis fat grafts persistently fail.
Background Brain state classification has been accomplished using features such as voxel intensities, derived from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data, as inputs to efficient classifiers such as support vector machines (SVM) and is based on the spatial localization model of brain function. With the advent of the connectionist model of brain function, features from brain networks may provide increased discriminatory power for brain state classification. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we introduce a novel framework where in both functional connectivity (FC) based on instantaneous temporal correlation and effective connectivity (EC) based on causal influence in brain networks are used as features in an SVM classifier. In order to derive those features, we adopt a novel approach recently introduced by us called correlation-purged Granger causality (CPGC) in order to obtain both FC and EC from fMRI data simultaneously without the instantaneous correlation contaminating Granger causality. In addition, statistical learning is accelerated and performance accuracy is enhanced by combining recursive cluster elimination (RCE) algorithm with the SVM classifier. We demonstrate the efficacy of the CPGC-based RCE-SVM approach using a specific instance of brain state classification exemplified by diseasestate prediction. Accordingly, we show that this approach is capable of predicting with 90.3% accuracy whether any given human subject was prenatally exposed to cocaine or not, even when no significant behavioral differences were found between exposed and healthy subjects. Conclusions/Significance The framework adopted in this work is quite general in nature with prenatal cocaine exposure being only an illustrative example of the power of this approach. In any brain state classification approach using neuroimaging data, including the directional connectivity information may prove to be a performance enhancer. When brain state classification is used for diseasestate prediction, our approach may aid the clinicians in performing more accurate diagnosis of diseases in situations where in non-neuroimaging biomarkers may be unable to perform differential diagnosis with certainty.
A workshop was held September 27 through 29, 1999, to address issues relating to national trends in mortality and morbidity from cardiovascular diseases; the apparent slowing of declines in mortality from cardiovascular diseases; levels and trends in risk factors for cardiovascular diseases; disparities in cardiovascular diseases by race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and geography; trends in cardiovascular disease preventive and treatment services; and strategies for efforts to reduce cardiovascular diseases overall and to reduce disparities among subpopulations. The conference concluded that coronary heart disease mortality is still declining in the United States as a whole, although perhaps at a slower rate than in the 1980s; that stroke mortality rates have declined little, if at all, since 1990; and that there are striking differences in cardiovascular death rates by race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and geography. Trends in risk factors are consistent with a slowing of the decline in mortality; there has been little recent progress in risk factors such as smoking, physical inactivity, and hypertension control. There are increasing levels of obesity and type 2 diabetes, with major differences among subpopulations. There is considerable activity in population-wide prevention, primary prevention for higher risk people, and secondary prevention, but wide disparities exist among groups on the basis of socioeconomic status and geography, pointing to major gaps in efforts to use available, proven approaches to control cardiovascular diseases. Recommendations for strategies to attain the year 2010 health objectives were made. PMID:11120707
Managers of state-based occupational disease surveillance programs were interviewed for information on their program's characteristics and factors that contributed to their success. There were 68 programs in 52 jurisdictions (50 states, the District of Columbia and New York City). Reportable conditions ranged from a specific disease to "all occupational diseases". Of these programs, 56% met at least one of their objectives. Conditions associated with successful programs usually had short latency periods, were easily diagnosed, and were related to a workplace hazard. They included agricultural injuries, burns, respiratory diseases, cumulative trauma disorders, and poisonings due to lead, pesticides, or carbon monoxide. Successful programs had larger budgets and more staff than did unsuccessful programs, and also took actions after notification of a condition. PMID:9729755
Henderson, A K; Payne, M M; Ossiander, E; Evans, C G; Kaufman, J D
Differences in perceptions and knowledge of crop diseases constitute a major obstacle in farmer–researcher cooperation, which\\u000a is necessary for sustainable disease management. Farmers’ perceptions and management of crop diseases in the northern Ethiopian\\u000a Regional State of Tigrai were investigated in order to harness their knowledge in the participatory development of integrated\\u000a disease management (IDM) strategies. Knowledge of disease etiology and
Knowledge of a little known New York State regulation and its insurance implications can be used to provide dental benefits to people who have congenital diseases or anomalies. An explanation of the regulation is provided, and some of the more common congenital diseases that may affect the dentition, such as amelogenesis imperfecta, dentinogenesis imperfecta, ectodermal dysplasia, cleft lip/palate and trisomy 21, are reviewed. PMID:17891877
The amygdala is thought to be an important neural structure underlying the "fight-or-flight" response, but information on its role in humans is scarce. The clinical and psychophysiological effects of amygdalar destruction were studied in 2 patients who underwent bilateral amygdalotomy for intractable aggression. After surgery, both patients showed a reduction in autonomic arousal levels to stressful stimuli and in the number of aggressive outbursts, although both patients continued to have difficulty controlling aggression. The "taming effect" reported after bilateral amygdalar destruction may be due to the amygdala's inadequate processing of perceived threat stimuli that would normally produce a fight-or-flight response. PMID:9813786
Lee, G P; Bechara, A; Adolphs, R; Arena, J; Meador, K J; Loring, D W; Smith, J R
Bleeding is still the most common complication during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for temporary cardio-circulatory support. We present a case of a young man suffering from intractable hemorrhage during ECMO support, who was pre-treated with glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor antagonist Tirofiban due to a suspicion of myocardial ischemia. After failure of conventional hemostatic means, hemostasis was achieved by the donation of recombinant Factor VIIa (rFVIIa). Aspects of bleeding control during extracorporeal circulatory support, the use of Tirofiban and rFVIIa are discussed. PMID:16311981
Brose, S; Sirbu, H; Engel, M; Kuhlen, R; Autschbach, R
Traumatic intractable epistaxis following fractures of the facial and base of skull rarely may be life-threatening. Common sites of injury are the internal carotid and maxillary artery. When conventional methods of arresting haemorrhage fail, the choices are then an open arterial ligation or superselective embolisation. This paper presents a patient with life-threatening epistaxis from a Le Fort type II fracture. Angiography revealed a maxillary artery injury in which superselective embolisation was performed and the haemorrhage was successfully arrested. A literature review of this technique is discussed, including its advantages and the relationship of the internal maxillary artery to facial fractures.
The endothelial layer of cells lining the intimal surface of blood vessels is essential for vascular function. The endothelium releases multiple vasodilator and protective factors, including nitric oxide, prostacyclin and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor; an imbalance in these factors predisposes individuals to vascular diseases such as stroke. These factors are differentially regulated by vessel size, sex hormones and diseasestate, therefore playing differential roles in different tissues following vascular injury. In particular, the endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor candidate termed epoxyeicosatrienoic acid, plays a prominent role in microvessel function, especially after ischemia, thereby making this signaling pathway an attractive target for therapy in vascular disease, including stroke. PMID:21612351
Davis, Catherine M; Siler, Dominic A; Alkayed, Nabil J
Single-center studies have reported that HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) can occur in children and may have a clinical course and prognosis similar to that of adults. However, the prevalence and survival has not been reported for a national sample of children with HIVAN and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on dialysis in the United States. We utilized the United States Renal Data
Tejinder S. Ahuja; Kevin C. Abbott; Laura Pack; Yong-Fang Kuo
Statistical interdependencies between magnetoencephalographic signals recorded over different brain regions may reflect the functional connectivity of the resting-state networks. We investigated topographic characteristics of disturbed resting-state networks in Alzheimer's disease patients in different frequency bands. Whole-head 151-channel MEG was recorded in 18 Alzheimer patients (mean age 72.1 years, SD 5.6; 11 males) and 18 healthy controls (mean age 69.1 years, SD 6.8;
C. J. Stam; B. F. Jones; I. Manshanden; T. Montez; J. P. A. Verbunt; J. C. de Munck; B. W. van Dijk; H. W. Berendse; P. Scheltens
Purpose. Occlusive intraocular lens (IOL) implantation is an effective therapeutic option in patients with intractable diplopia, visual confusion, and unsightly leukocoria. However, their use has been restricted by concerns that inability to visualize the retina may prevent the diagnosis of important posterior pole diseases. In this study, transmission spectra of occlusive IOLs were defined as a basis for acquiring scanning laser ophthalmoscopy/optical coherence tomography (SLO/OCT) images. Methods. Fifteen IOLs of three designs were examined: black small and large PMMA and black Lotus (Morcher GmbH, Stuttgart, Germany). Each IOL was placed between a broad-spectrum white light source and a spectroradiometer, to generate transmission spectra for each lens and determine the cutoff wavelength. Transmission in the near-infrared (NIR) range was confirmed with an 850-nm LED. A model eye was implanted with occlusive IOLs, and SLO/OCT scans were acquired with seven clinical SLO/OCT imaging systems. Results. Occlusive IOLs demonstrated high levels of transmission of NIR light. It was determined that most SLO/OCT scanners would achieve 99% to 100% transmission at their operational wavelengths of NIR light. Furthermore, all clinical SLO/OCT imaging systems were capable of imaging fine retinal features without attenuation through occlusive IOLs in a model eye. Conclusions. In this study, a novel NIR window of high-level transmission was identified across the occlusive IOLs with applications to SLO/OCT imaging and NIR-based clinical assessment. The ability to acquire high-quality SLO/OCT scans to detect posterior pole disease may fundamentally change the current view on occlusive IOLs and encourage their use in patients with intractable diplopia.
In presence of interval-censored data, we propose a general three-statedisease model with covariates. Such data can arise, for example, in epidemiologic studies of infectious disease where both the times of infection and disease onset are not directly observed, or in cancer studies where the time of disease metastasis is known up to a specified interval. The proposed model allows
A number of food- and waterborne parasitic diseases that are common in the United States can adversely impact women during pregnancy. Therapeutic considerations during pregnancy for these diseases are reviewed. Also, the level of knowledge of obstetrician-gynecologists about diagnosis and treatment of these diseases (toxoplasmosis, cryptosporidiosis, giardiasis, amebiasis, cyclosporiasis, trichinellosis, ascariasis, and taeniasis) was estimated by means of a questionnaire
Background: Since 1978, CDC, EPA, and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists have collaborated on the Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance System (WBDOSS) to capture data on waterborne disease outbreaks associated with recreational water. WBDOSS is the prima...
Liver resection can result in various types of bile duct injuries but their treatment is usually difficult and often leads to intractable clinical course. We present an unusual case of hepatic segment III duct (B3) injury, which occurred after left medial sectionectomy for large hepatocellular carcinoma and was incidentally detected 1 week later due to bile leak. Since the pattern of this B3 injury was not adequate for operative biliary reconstruction, atrophy induction of the involved hepatic parenchyma was attempted. This treatment consisted of embolization of the segment III portal branch to inhibit bile production, induction of heavy adhesion at the bile leak site and clamping of the percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) tube to accelerate segment III atrophy. This entire procedure, from liver resection to PTBD tube removal took 4 months. This patient has shown no other complication or tumor recurrence for 4 years to date. These findings suggest that percutaneous segmental portal vein embolization, followed by intentional clamping of external biliary drainage, can effectively control intractable bile leak from segmental bile duct injury. PMID:22469733
Hwang, Shin; Park, Gil-Chun; Ha, Tae-Yong; Ko, Gi-Young; Gwon, Dong-Il; Choi, Young-Il; Song, Gi-Won; Lee, Sung-Gyu
The efficacy and safety of topiramate in patients with intractable mixed seizures, mental retardation (MR), and developmental disabilities (DD) were investigated. Twenty patients (eight females and 12 males) aged 21-57 years old with intractable epilepsy with mixed seizures, MR [profound (five), severe (three), moderate (two), mild (eight) and borderline (two)], and DD were treated with adjunctive topiramate 25 mg per day for 1 week followed by titration to clinical response (range 50-350 mg per day). Other antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) were decreased simultaneously. Topiramate therapy was discontinued in four patients for adverse events consisting of disorientation, unsteadiness, and pneumonia (one patient); anaphylactic shock from a tuna fish allergy (one); patient choice (one); and loss to follow-up (one). Seizures improved by gt-or-equal, slanted 50% in 11 of 16 patients (69%). Two patients (13%) were seizure free, including one patient who prior to topiramate therapy was seizure free but experiencing an intolerable adverse effect during therapy with another AED. Seizure duration and/or severity decreased in seven patients (44%). An increase in alertness was observed in 11 patients (59%). Topiramate was associated with improvement in seizure severity and alertness in this series and may be useful as adjunctive therapy in patients with mixed seizures, MR, and DD. PMID:11888260
A 61-year-old female, having intractable hiccups, nausea, and syncope. Her systolic blood presure decreased by 30 mmHg on sitting position from supine position. Sinus arrest lasting more than three seconds were detected 52 times per day by 24 hour Holter electrocardiography. Brain MRI disclosed a small hyperintense lesion in the medullary tegmentum on T2-weighted images. She was diagnosed as having a relapse of multiple screlosis and her symptoms were improved by administration of high dose methylprednisolone (1,000 mg per day x 3 days) intravenously. In a patients, a stimulative lesion in the medullary tegmentum was suspected where the reflex centers of hiccups, nausea and blood pressure to exist. We are able to confirm a small hyperintense lesion in such a particular region by brain MRI. In case of syncope accompanied with intractable hiccups and nausea, we should consider a stimulative lesion in the medullary tegmentum. Moreover, sinus arrest other than orthostatic hypotension may be involved in the pathophysiology of syncope in correlation with the medullary tegmentum lesion. PMID:16886802
Since the 1920s, a ketogenic diet, of low-carbohydrate, adequate-protein and high-fat content, has been used for the treatment of intractable childhood epilepsy. A decade ago this diet was tried as a last resort in the treatment of intractable epilepsy. However, recent advances in ketogenic diet have enabled it to become more commonly used worldwide even early in the course of epilepsy. Two less-restrictive ketogenic diets, namely, the modified Atkins diet and low-glycemic-index treatment, have been developed. These diets allow the patients and their families to choose a more liberal menu. Furthermore, a randomized controlled trial found that the ketogenic diet has a significant benefit, which strengthens the supportive evidence. Recently, an international consensus statement guiding optimal clinical management has been published, allowing clinicians to provide standardized treatment. There has also been increased interest in investigating the mechanisms of action of ketogenic diet using various experimental models. The authors review the history, efficacy, side effects, and possible mechanisms underlying the ketogenic diet, as well as the experience with the ketogenic diet at Tokyo Women's Medical University. PMID:21441643
The objective of this study is to determine the clinical characteristics and to evaluate the treatment options of intractable neck involvement in tularemia. The medical records of 19 tularemia patients with neck involvement were reviewed retrospectively. On physical examination, fluctuation indicating an abscess formation was detected in 78.9% of the patients. Bilateral involvement was seen in 15.8% of the patients. The most common clinical form was glandular form (63.1%). The most commonly involved lymph node group was upper jugular nodes (78.6%). Six patients underwent incision and drainage procedure, five patients underwent superselective neck dissection and eight patients had only medical treatment. Complete and immediate cure, and better tissue healing with less scarring could be achieved in all patients who underwent superselective neck dissections. In conclusion, intractable neck masses and an abscess can be the initial finding in tularemia, and a high index of suspicion is needed in the differential diagnosis. Superselective neck dissection is a safe and effective option in the treatment of long lasting cervical tularemia unless it responds to medical treatment. PMID:22068840
|MAJOR CAUSES OF DEATH AND DISABILITY, RESULTS OF MEDICAL RESEARCH, LIFE EXPECTANCY FIGURES, COST OF ILLNESS TO THE UNITED STATES, AND GOVERNMENT EXPENDITURES IN MEDICINE AND HEALTH ARE PRESENTED TABULARLY AND GRAPHICALLY IN QUESTION AND ANSWER FORM. FOR EACH OF 14 MAJOR DISEASES, PERTINENT FACTS ARE LISTED ABOUT INCIDENCE, COST, DEATH RATE,…
National Health Education Committee, Inc., New York, NY.
The Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE) is a brief cognitive screening instrument frequently used to track Alzheimer disease (AD) progression. We investigated the structural neuroimaging correlates of MMSE performance in patients with clinical and preclinical AD. We analyzed structural magnetic resonance imaging data from 29 probable AD and 5 MCI patients who later converted to probable AD using an advanced 3D
Liana G. Apostolova; Po H. Lu; Steve Rogers; Rebecca A. Dutton; Kiralee M. Hayashi; Arthur W. Toga; Jeffrey L. Cummings; Paul M. Thompson
BackgroundDiseasestate management (DSM) programs for chronic conditions such as type 2 diabetes delivered by community pharmacists are a developing trend in health care service delivery. Although patient satisfaction with DSM services is an important indicator of service quality from the consumers' perspective, to date there is no valid and reliable instrument to enable its measurement in the context of
Ines Krass; Clare Delaney; Susan Glaubitz; Tipaporn Kanjanarach
Although cirrhosis is a known risk factor for gallstones, little is known about gallbladder disease (GBD) in individuals with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We determined the association between chronic HCV infection and GBD in a representative sample of adults in the United States. Data on HCV infection and GBD were available for 13,465 persons 20 to 74 years of
Brown recluse (Loxosceles reclusa) spider bites mainly occur in the southern and Midwestern United States. The clinical manifestation of brown recluse spider bites varies from skin irritation, a small area of tissue damage to neuropathic pain, necrotic arachnidism and severe systemic reactions such as acute renal failure and even death. Treatment is controversial and nonspecific. We describe a case of extensive right lower extremity tissue necrosis and intractable neuropathic pain treated with lumbar sympathetic block in a patient with a documented brown recluse spider bite. Both his pain and tissue necrosis improved significantly with lumbar sympathetic block with local anesthetic. After a series of lumbar sympathetic blocks, his symptoms resolved and lower extremity wound healed rapidly. We discuss the benefit of sympathetic blockade not only for neuropathic pain but also possibly as a treatment for necrotic arachnidism from a brown recluse spider bite. PMID:21317774
Yi, Xiaobin; AuBuchon, Jacob; Zeltwanger, Shawn; Kirby, John P
It is widely recognized that the incidence of allergies and allergic diseases is on the rise globally. As an international umbrella organization for regional and national allergy and clinical immunology societies, the World Allergy Organization is at the forefront of a combined united effort across nations and organizations to address this global concern by promoting the science of allergy and clinical immunology, and advancing exchange of information.The World Allergy Organization's State of World Allergy Reports will provide a biennial review of allergic diseases worldwide, consider their medical and socioeconomic contexts, and propose effective approaches to addressing these problems.In this first State of World Allergy Report 2008, experts from different regions of the world have attempted to define the extent of the global allergy problem, examine recent trends, and provide a framework for the collaboration among world medicine, science, and government agencies that is needed to address the rapidly developing issues associated with allergy and allergic diseases. PMID:23282447
Pawankar, Ruby; Baena-Cagnani, Carlos E; Bousquet, Jean; Canonica, G Walter; Cruz, Alvaro A; Kaliner, Michael A; Lanier, Bobby Q
It is widely recognized that the incidence of allergies and allergic diseases is on the rise globally. As an international umbrella organization for regional and national allergy and clinical immunology societies, the World Allergy Organization is at the forefront of a combined united effort across nations and organizations to address this global concern by promoting the science of allergy and clinical immunology, and advancing exchange of information. The World Allergy Organization's State of World Allergy Reports will provide a biennial review of allergic diseases worldwide, consider their medical and socioeconomic contexts, and propose effective approaches to addressing these problems. In this first State of World Allergy Report 2008, experts from different regions of the world have attempted to define the extent of the global allergy problem, examine recent trends, and provide a framework for the collaboration among world medicine, science, and government agencies that is needed to address the rapidly developing issues associated with allergy and allergic diseases.
This article provides a description of the population model PopMod, which is designed to simulate the health and mortality experience of an arbitrary population subjected to two interacting disease conditions as well as all other "background" causes of death and disability. Among population models with a longitudinal dimension, PopMod is unique in modelling two interacting disease conditions; among the life-table family of population models, PopMod is unique in not assuming statistical independence of the diseases of interest, as well as in modelling age and time independently. Like other multi-state models, however, PopMod takes account of "competing risk" among diseases and causes of death. PopMod represents a new level of complexity among both generic population models and the family of multi-state life tables. While one of its intended uses is to describe the time evolution of population health for standard demographic purposes (e.g. estimates of healthy life expectancy), another prominent aim is to provide a standard measure of effectiveness for intervention and cost-effectiveness analysis. PopMod, and a set of related standard approaches to disease modelling and cost-effectiveness analysis, will facilitate disease modelling and cost-effectiveness analysis in diverse settings and help make results more comparable.
Lauer, Jeremy A; Rohrich, Klaus; Wirth, Harald; Charette, Claude; Gribble, Steve; Murray, Christopher JL
Objectives. Rainfall and runoff have been implicated in site-specific waterborne disease outbreaks. Because upward trends in heavy precipitation in the United States are projected to increase with climate change, this study sought to quantify the relationship between precipitation and disease outbreaks. Methods. The US Environmental Protection Agency waterborne disease database, totaling 548 reported outbreaks from 1948 through 1994, and precipitation data of the National Climatic Data Center were used to analyze the relationship between precipitation and waterborne diseases. Analyses were at the watershed level, stratified by groundwater and surface water contamination and controlled for effects due to season and hydrologic region. A Monte Carlo version of the Fisher exact test was used to test for statistical significance. Results. Fifty-one percent of waterborne disease outbreaks were preceded by precipitation events above the 90th percentile (P = .002), and 68% by events above the 80th percentile (P = .001). Outbreaks due to surface water contamination showed the strongest association with extreme precipitation during the month of the outbreak; a 2-month lag applied to groundwater contamination events. Conclusions. The statistically significant association found between rainfall and disease in the United States is important for water managers, public health officials, and risk assessors of future climate change.
Curriero, Frank C.; Patz, Jonathan A.; Rose, Joan B.; Lele, Subhash
Background Behçet disease (BD) is associated with a prothrombotic state of unknown origin that may lead to life-threatening events. Calibrated Automated Thrombogram (CAT) and Rotational Thromboelastometry (ROTEM) are two global haemostasis assays that may reveal new insights into the physiopathological mechanisms of the disease and its procoagulant condition. Methods 23 BD patients who had no signs or symptoms of current thrombosis and 33 age- and sex-matched controls were included in the study. We performed ROTEM and CAT tests and assessed erythrocyte count, platelet count, platelet contribution to clot formation and plasma levels of tissue-type plasminogen activator, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1), fibrinogen, C-reactive protein (CRP), thrombin-antithrombin III complex (TAT), D-dimer and E-selectin (ES). Results Both ROTEM and CAT tests showed a hypercoagulable state in the BD patients. Plasma levels of PAI-1, fibrinogen, TAT, CRP and ES were significantly increased in this group compared to controls. The disease activity (DA) was significantly correlated with levels of ES and the maximum clot firmness, and this last one, in turn, correlated with rising levels of ES, PAI-1, CRP and fibrinogen. CAT parameters did not correlate with DA or ES. Conclusions Both ROTEM and CAT tests reveal that patients with BD have a procoagulant state even in the absence of thrombosis. ROTEM test indicates that increased levels of fibrinogen and PAI-1 may be involved in the prothrombotic state of this pathology, while platelets do not significantly contribute. Moreover, CAT assay demonstrate that plasma from BD patients is able to generate more thrombin than controls in response to the same stimulus and that this effect is independent of the DA and the endothelial impairment suggesting the involvement of another factor in the hypercoagulable state observed in BD patients. This study also shows that endothelium activation/damage may be a contributing factor in both the procoagulant and clinical conditions of BD, as shown by the direct correlation between ES levels, ROTEM parameters and DA.
CT is increasingly being used for evaluating the cardiovascular structures and airways in the patients with congenital heart disease. Multi-slice CT has traditionally been used for the evaluation of the extracardiac vascular and airway abnormalities because of its inherent high spatial resolution and excellent air-tissue contrast. Recent developments in CT technology primarily by reducing the cardiac motion and the radiation dose usage in congenital heart disease evaluation have helped expand the indications for CT usage. Tracheobronchomalacia associated with congenital heart disease can be evaluated with cine CT. Intravenous contrast injection should be tailored to unequivocally demonstrate cardiovascular abnormalities. Knowledge of the state-of-the-art CT imaging techniques that are used for evaluating congenital heart disease is helpful not only for planning and performing CT examinations, but also for interpreting and presenting the CT image findings that consequently guide the proper medical and surgical management.
Both sheep and goat pox are contagious viral diseases and affect small ruminants and are caused by sheep pox virus and goat pox virus respectively that belong to genus Capripoxvirus of Poxviridae family. Huge economic losses emanating from the disease outbreaks are the results of the wool and hide damage, subsequent production losses and also the morbidities and mortalities associated with the disease. This communication highlights clinico-epidemiological observations from the two sheep pox and one goat pox outbreaks. Grossly, multisystemic nodular lesions, mucopurulent nasal discharges and respiratory symptoms were observed in the affected animals. The morbidity, mortality and case fatality rates were 5.18%, 2.45% and 32.37%, respectively. Histopathological, haematological, molecular and serological techniques and also isolation of virus in embryonated chicken eggs were used for the diagnosis of the diseases. The spatial distribution of the disease signifies the role of common pasturelands used for grazing the animals while temporally all three outbreaks occurred in winters and were probably associated with cold stress and fodder scarcity. This is the first recorded report of Capripoxvirus infection in recent times and it highlights the disease as one of the emerging diseases in the northern state of Himachal Pradesh in India. PMID:21214867
Verma, S; Verma, L K; Gupta, V K; Katoch, V C; Dogra, V; Pal, B; Sharma, M
A large number of Bhutanese are currently being resettled to the United States. A high prevalence of noninfectious diseases has been noted in some refugee groups, but data on the Bhutanese refugee population are lacking. A retrospective, chart review study was conducted to determine proportion of noninfectious disease among ethnically Nepali Bhutanese refugees (n = 66) seen at the Grady Refugee Clinic (GRC). GRC disease proportions included the following: 52 % of the patients were overweight/obese (n = 34), 23 % were hypertensive (n = 15), 12 % had vitamin B12 deficiency (n = 8), 15 % had depression (n = 10), and 14 % had diabetes (n = 9). Nine (90 %) patients with depression had chronic disease compared to 30 (54 %) of the patients without depression. The study found a substantial burden of chronic disease, micronutrient deficiency, and depression in the GRC. Further research is needed to accurately describe the disease burden in refugee populations and to evaluate pre-resettlement disease prevention strategies to provide a framework for future public health interventions. PMID:23456726
Kumar, Gayathri S; Varma, Selina; Saenger, Michael S; Burleson, Molly; Kohrt, Brandon A; Cantey, Paul
The phenotypic and strain-related properties of human prion diseases are, according to the prion hypothesis, proposed to reside in the physicochemical properties of the conformationally altered, disease-associated isoform of the prion protein (PrPSc), which accumulates in the brains of patients suffering from Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and related conditions, such as Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker disease. Molecular strain typing of human prion diseases has focused extensively on differences in the fragment size and glycosylation site occupancy of the protease-resistant prion protein (PrPres) in conjunction with the presence of mutations and polymorphisms in the prion protein gene (PRNP). Here we report the results of employing an alternative strategy that specifically addresses the conformational stability of PrPSc and that has been used previously to characterize animal prion strains transmitted to rodents. The results show that there are at least two distinct conformation stability states in human prion diseases, neither of which appears to correlate fully with the PrPres type, as judged by fragment size or glycosylation, the PRNP codon 129 status, or the presence or absence of mutations in PRNP. These results suggest that conformational stability represents a further dimension to a complete description of potentially phenotype-related properties of PrPSc in human prion diseases.
Choi, Young Pyo; Peden, Alexander H.; Groner, Albrecht; Ironside, James W.; Head, Mark W.
A comprehensive revision of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study is expected to be completed in 2012. This study utilizes a broad range of improved methods for assessing burden, including closer attention to empirically derived estimates of disability. The aim of this paper is to describe how GBD health states were derived for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. These will be used in deriving health state-specific disability estimates. A literature review was first conducted to settle on a parsimonious set of health states for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. A second review was conducted to investigate the proportion of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder cases experiencing these health states. These were pooled using a quality-effects model to estimate the overall proportion of cases in each state. The two schizophrenia health states were acute (predominantly positive symptoms) and residual (predominantly negative symptoms). The three bipolar disorder health states were depressive, manic, and residual. Based on estimates from six studies, 63% (38%-82%) of schizophrenia cases were in an acute state and 37% (18%-62%) were in a residual state. Another six studies were identified from which 23% (10%-39%) of bipolar disorder cases were in a manic state, 27% (11%-47%) were in a depressive state, and 50% (30%-70%) were in a residual state. This literature review revealed salient gaps in the literature that need to be addressed in future research. The pooled estimates are indicative only and more data are required to generate more definitive estimates. That said, rather than deriving burden estimates that fail to capture the changes in disability within schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, the derived proportions and their wide uncertainty intervals will be used in deriving disability estimates.
Humans need to solve computationally intractable problems such as visual search, categorization, and simultaneous learning and acting, yet an increasing body of evidence suggests that their solutions to instantiations of these problems are near optimal. Computational complexity advances an explanation to this apparent paradox: (1) only a small portion of instances of such problems are actually hard, and (2) successful heuristics exploit structural properties of the typical instance to selectively improve parts that are likely to be sub-optimal. We hypothesize that these two ideas largely account for the good performance of humans on computationally hard problems. We tested part of this hypothesis by studying the solutions of 28 participants to 28 instances of the Euclidean Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP). Participants were provided feedback on the cost of their solutions and were allowed unlimited solution attempts (trials). We found a significant improvement between the first and last trials and that solutions are significantly different from random tours that follow the convex hull and do not have self-crossings. More importantly, we found that participants modified their current better solutions in such a way that edges belonging to the optimal solution (“good” edges) were significantly more likely to stay than other edges (“bad” edges), a hallmark of structural exploitation. We found, however, that more trials harmed the participants' ability to tell good from bad edges, suggesting that after too many trials the participants “ran out of ideas.” In sum, we provide the first demonstration of significant performance improvement on the TSP under repetition and feedback and evidence that human problem-solving may exploit the structure of hard problems paralleling behavior of state-of-the-art heuristics.
A model describing the primary relations between the cardiac muscle and coronary circulation might be useful for interpreting coronary hemodynamics in case multiple types of coronary circulatory disease are present. The main contribution of the present study is the coupling of a microstructure-based heart contraction model with a 1D wave propagation model. The 1D representation of the vessels enables patient-specific modeling of the arteries and/or can serve as boundary conditions for detailed 3D models, while the heart model enables the simulation of cardiac disease, with physiology-based parameter changes. Here, the different components of the model are explained and the ability of the model to describe coronary hemodynamics in health and disease is evaluated. Two disease types are modeled: coronary epicardial stenoses and left ventricular hypertrophy with an aortic valve stenosis. In all simulations (healthy and diseased), the dynamics of pressure and flow qualitatively agreed with observations described in literature. We conclude that the model adequately can predict coronary hemodynamics in both normal and diseasedstate based on patient-specific clinical data.
van der Horst, Arjen; Boogaard, Frits L.; van't Veer, Marcel; Rutten, Marcel C. M.; Pijls, Nico H. J.; van de Vosse, Frans N.
Jorge Lobo's disease is a cutaneous and subcutaneous mycosis that affects patients in the Amazon region. The number of patients is relatively small, but the real situation of the disease as public health problem is not known, because Jorge Lobo's disease is not a notifiable disease. This study aims to report the clinical evolution in patients affected and to determine the prevalence and areas of occurrence of the disease. A retrospective study was carried out based on the analysis of the clinical records, which included a collection of photographs of patients in the Department of Sanitary Dermatology, in Rio Branco, and patients seen in the interior of the state. In a decade, in Rio Branco, 249 cases of the disease were reported, 30 were females and 219 males. Of these patients, 153 had localized lesions, 94 of them were on one ear, 55 had multifocal lesions and 41 had disseminated lesions. The average time between the onset of symptoms and diagnosis was 19 years. The average age at the time of diagnosis was 53 years, and ages ranged from 14 to 96 years. PMID:21049233
Woods, William John; Belone, Andréa de Faria Fernandes; Carneiro, Léia Borges; Rosa, Patrícia Sammarco
BACKGROUND: West Nile virus (WNV) emerged as a threat to public and veterinary health in the Midwest United States in 2001 and continues to cause significant morbidity and mortality annually. To investigate biotic and abiotic factors associated with disease incidence, cases of reported human disease caused by West Nile virus (WNV) in the state of Iowa were aggregated by census
John P DeGroote; Ramanathan Sugumaran; Sarah M Brend; Brad J Tucker; Lyric C Bartholomay
Dynamic Nuclear Polarization solid-state NMR holds the potential to enable a dramatic increase in sensitivity by exploiting the large magnetic moment of the electron. However, applications to biological solids are hampered in uniformly isotopically enriched biomacromolecules due to line broadening which yields a limited spectral resolution at cryogenic temperatures. We show here that high magnetic fields allow to overcome the broadening of resonance lines often experienced at liquid nitrogen temperatures. For a fibril sample of the Alzheimer's disease ?-amyloid peptide, we find similar line widths at low temperature and at room temperature. The presented results open new perspectives for structural investigations in the solid-state. PMID:23793606
Objective To show that traumatic neuroma of the tympanic (Jacobson’s) nerve may be a cause of recurrent intractable otalgia in patients following radical mastoidectomies Study Design Histologic evaluation of four temporal bones from three patients with a history of recurrent otalgia following radical mastoidectomy. Subjects and Methods The medical records of three patients with multiple middle ear surgeries in four ears because of recurrent otalgia were reviewed. Histopathologic studies of the four temporal bones were performed. Results All four of the temporal bones that underwent multiple surgeries were found to have traumatic neuromas of the tympanic (Jacobson’s) nerve. Conclusion Recurrent otalgia in patients after radical middle ear surgery may be caused by a traumatic neuroma of the tympanic (Jacobson’s) nerve.
The authors report on the case of a 6-week-old boy who presented with infantile spasms. At 2.5 months of age, the patient underwent a right hemispherectomy. Approximately 3 months postoperatively, the patient presented with left coronal craniosynostosis. Subsequent cranial vault remodeling resulted in satisfactory cosmesis. Four years after surgery, the patient remains seizure free without the need for anticonvulsant medications. The authors believe this to be the first reported case of iatrogenic craniosynostosis due to hemispherectomy, and they describe 2 potential mechanisms for its development. This case suggests that, in the surgical treatment of infants with intractable epilepsy, minimization of brain volume loss through disconnection techniques should be considered, among other factors, when determining the best course of action. PMID:22044367
Jazayeri, Mohammad-Ali; Jensen, John N; Lew, Sean M
Stereotactic cingulotomy constitutes a psychosurgical procedure nowadays advocated in the treatment of medically intractable obsessive-compulsive disorder, chronic pain and drug addiction. From its theoretical conception to the first cingulectomies performed and modern stereotactic-guided cingulotomies, various target localization methods, different surgical techniques, and numerous lesioning devices have been utilized. In the current article, the authors performed a literature review related to
Alexandros G. Brotis; Eftychia Z. Kapsalaki; Konstantinos Paterakis; Joseph R. Smith; Kostas N. Fountas
Humans need to solve computationally intractable problems such as visual search, categorization, and simultaneous learning and acting, yet an increasing body of evidence suggests that their solutions to instantiations of these problems are near optimal. Computational complexity advances an explanation to this apparent paradox: (1) only a small portion of instances of such problems are actually hard, and (2) successful
This paper explores the contrast between the longstanding, intractable conflict between two anesthesia providers and the cooperation of many individual nurse anesthetists and anesthesiologists working side-by-side to provide safe, effective anesthesia. Analysis of interview transcripts reveals that communication among anesthesia nurses and anesthesiologists may enact or transcend the conflict. This article proposes recommendations for improving communication between anesthesiologists and certified
Gelastic seizures comprise a very rare form of epilepsy. They present with recurrent bursts of laughter voices without mirth and are most commonly associated with the evolution of a hypothalamic hamartoma. The purpose of this article is to describe the second reported ictal fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography study in a unique case of an infant with intractable gelastic seizures since the
Eli Shahar; Dorit Goldsher; Jacob Genizi; Sarit Ravid; Zohar Keidar
Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is a potent chemo- tactic cytokine implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of inflammatory diseasestates. Agents that block the binding of IL-8 to its receptor have been shown to block inflammation in animal models of disease. This suggests that drugs specifically target- ing IL-8 may prove efficacious in treating multiple human diseases. To this end, we
Xiao-Dong Yang; Jose R. F. Corvalan; Ping Wang; Catherine M.-N. Roy; C. Geoffrey Davis
In this paper the treatment of patients with chronic, intractable trigeminal neuralgia by invasive electrical stimulation of the Gasserion ganglion is reviewed. Two different surgical techniques are employed in this treatment. Most frequently, a method similar to the traditional technique for percutaneous glycerol and radiofrequency trigeminal rhizolysis is used: a small percutaneous stimulation electrode is advanced under fluoroscopic control through a thin needle via the foramen ovale to the Gasserian cistern. Some neurosurgeons use an open surgical technique by which the Gasserian ganglion is approached subtemporally and extradurally, and the bipolar pad electrode is sutured to the dura. When percutaneous test stimulation is successful (at least 50% pain relief) the electrode is internalized and connected to a subcutaneous pulse generator or RF-receiver. Data from 8 clinical studies, including 267 patients have been reviewed. Of all 233 patients with medication-resistant atypical trigeminal neuralgia 48% had at least 50% long term pain relief. The result of test stimulation is a good predictor of the long term effect, because 83% of all patients with successful test stimulation had at least 50% long term relief, and 70% had at least 75% long term relief. Patients generally preferred this invasive method over TENS. The success rate in patients with postherpetic trigeminal neuralgia was very low (less than 10%). It is suggested that the likelihood of pain relief by electrical stimulation is inversely related to the degree of sensory loss. It is concluded that invasive stimulation of the Gasserian ganglion is a promising treatment modality for patients with chronic, intractable, atypical trigeminal neuralgia. PMID:11935364
Summary. ?Glutamate is the most widely distributed excitatory transmitter in the central nervous system (CNS). It is acting via large\\u000a – and still growing – families of receptors: NMDA-, AMPA-, kainate-, and metabotropic receptors. Glutamate has been implicated\\u000a in a large number of CNS disorders, and it is hoped that novel glutamate receptor ligands offer new therapeutic possibilites\\u000a in diseasestates
Background Increasingly studies have identified socioeconomic factors adversely affecting healthcare outcomes for a multitude of diseases. To date, however, there has not been a study correlating socioeconomic details from nationwide databases on the prevalence of advanced coronary artery disease. We seek to identify whether socioeconomic factors contribute to advanced coronary artery disease prevalence in the United States. Methods and Findings State specific prevalence data was queried form the United States Nationwide Inpatient Sample for 2009. Patients undergoing percutaneous coronary angioplasty and coronary artery bypass graft were identified as principal procedures. Non-cardiac related procedures, lung lobectomy and hip replacement (partial and total) were identified and used as control groups. Information regarding prevalence was then merged with data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, the largest, on-going telephone health survey system tracking health conditions and risk behaviors in the United States. Pearson's correlation coefficient was calculated for individual socioeconomic variables including employment status, level of education, and household income. Household income and education level were inversely correlated with the prevalence of percutaneous coronary angioplasty (?0.717; ?0.787) and coronary artery bypass graft surgery (?0.541; ?0.618). This phenomenon was not seen in the non-cardiac procedure control groups. In multiple linear regression analysis, socioeconomic factors were significant predictors of coronary artery bypass graft and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (p<0.001 and p?=?0.005, respectively). Conclusions Socioeconomic status is related to the prevalence of advanced coronary artery disease as measured by the prevalence of percutaneous coronary angioplasty and coronary artery bypass graft surgery.
Bashinskaya, Bronislava; Nahed, Brian V.; Walcott, Brian P.; Coumans, Jean-Valery C. E.; Onuma, Oyere K.
A herd-based study was carried out in Central Equatoria State, Southern Sudan, to study epidemiological aspects of tick-borne\\u000a diseases. Six herds of cattle situated in three different locations were selected and investigated every 3 months during the\\u000a year 2005. Blood smears for Giemsa staining and blood spots on filter paper for deoxyribonucleic acid extraction were collected\\u000a from 600 apparently healthy indigenous
D. A. Salih; A. M. El Hussein; U. Seitzer; J. S. Ahmed
Objective: In contrast to its prevalence in Europe, celiac disease (CD) is considered rare in the United States. We aimed to determine the prevalence of CD in children presenting with symptoms or conditions associated with CD.Study design: Individuals aged 6 months to 20 years were screened for IgG and IgA antigliadin (AGA-IgG and AGA-IgA) and antiendomysium (EMA) antibodies. Those with
Ivor Hill; Alessio Fasano; Robert Schwartz; Debra Counts; Michael Glock; Karoly Horvath
Ingestion of antioxidant supplements by the United States (US) population has increased steadily since the mid-1950’s. This\\u000a review tried to determine if the supplements have contributed significantly to beneficial changes in the US during this period.\\u000a Experimental animal studies have demonstrated that anti-oxidant supplements lower the incidence of a wide variety of diseases\\u000a and increase life span. Anti-oxidants are associated
Hispanics are the fastest growing minority group in the United States. The incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in Hispanics is higher than non-Hispanic Whites and Hispanics with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at increased risk for kidney failure. Likely contributing factors to this burden of disease include diabetes and metabolic syndrome, both are common among Hispanics. Access to health care, quality of care, and barriers due to language, health literacy and acculturation may also play a role. Despite the importance of this public health problem, only limited data exist about Hispanics with CKD. We review the epidemiology of CKD in US Hispanics, identify the factors that may be responsible for this growing health problem, and suggest gaps in our understanding which are suitable for future investigation. PMID:20073150
Lora, Claudia M; Daviglus, Martha L; Kusek, John W; Porter, Anna; Ricardo, Ana C; Go, Alan S; Lash, James P
Hispanics are the fastest growing minority group in the United States. The incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in Hispanics is higher than non-Hispanic Whites and Hispanics with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at increased risk for kidney failure. Likely contributing factors to this burden of disease include diabetes and metabolic syndrome, both are common among Hispanics. Access to health care, quality of care, and barriers due to language, health literacy and acculturation may also play a role. Despite the importance of this public health problem, only limited data exist about Hispanics with CKD. We review the epidemiology of CKD in US Hispanics, identify the factors that may be responsible for this growing health problem, and suggest gaps in our understanding which are suitable for future investigation.
Lora, Claudia M.; Daviglus, Martha L.; Kusek, John W.; Porter, Anna; Ricardo, Ana C.; Go, Alan S.; Lash, James P.
The Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention (HDSP) Program Evaluation Guides are a series of evaluation technical assistance tools developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention, to assist i...
A participatory epidemiological (PE) study was conducted in Kajo Keji and Yei Counties, Central Equatoria State, southern Sudan to assess the impact of livestock diseases on livelihoods. A serological survey of tick-borne diseases was conducted to supplement the PE study. PE data collection tools consisted primarily of focus group interviews and key informant interviews supplemented by observation. Information was collected on the social context, history and species of livestock kept. Constraints in livestock keeping were explored through description and probing. Proportional piling on the importance of different diseases and relative incidence scoring were also conducted. 243 sera were collected from cattle and tested for antibodies to Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina, B. bovis, Theileria mutans and T. parva by ELISA. Additionally, 173 blood samples were collected for a PCR assay of T. parva. Livestock diseases were ranked as the most important constraint to livestock keeping. While East Coast fever was ranked as the most important disease in Kajo Keji, diarrhoea in small ruminants was reported as the most important disease in Yei. Serological analyses of the sera indicated that A. marginale, B. bigemina, T. mutans and T. parva were most prevalent. Prevalence of B. bovis was found to be low (4.0% and 7.4% in Kajo Keji and Yei, respectively). 35% of the samples screened with the T. parva p104 gene nested PCR assay were positive. The study concludes that while ECF is the most important disease in Kajo Keji, it was not the case in Yei. Additional epidemiological studies are proposed before control strategies are recommended. PMID:22244519
Malak, A K; Mpoke, L; Banak, J; Muriuki, S; Skilton, R A; Odongo, D; Sunter, J; Kiara, H
Parkinson's disease (PD), following Alzheimer's disease, is the second-most common neurodegenerative disorder in the United States. A lack of treatment options for changing the trajectory of disease progression, in combination with an increasing elderly population, portends a rising economic burden on patients and payers. This study combined information from nationally representative surveys to create a burden of PD model. The model estimates disease prevalence, excess healthcare use and medical costs, and nonmedical costs for each demographic group defined by age and sex. Estimated prevalence rates and costs were applied to the U.S. Census Bureau's 2010 to 2050 population data to estimate current and projected burden based on changing demographics. We estimate that approximately 630,000 people in the United States had diagnosed PD in 2010, with diagnosed prevalence likely to double by 2040. The national economic burden of PD exceeds $14.4 billion in 2010 (approximately $22,800 per patient). The population with PD incurred medical expenses of approximately $14 billion in 2010, $8.1 billion higher ($12,800 per capita) than expected for a similar population without PD. Indirect costs (e.g., reduced employment) are conservatively estimated at $6.3 billion (or close to $10,000 per person with PD). The burden of chronic conditions such as PD is projected to grow substantially over the next few decades as the size of the elderly population grows. Such projections give impetus to the need for innovative new treatments to prevent, delay onset, or alleviate symptoms of PD and other similar diseases. PMID:23436720
Kowal, Stacey L; Dall, Timothy M; Chakrabarti, Ritashree; Storm, Michael V; Jain, Anjali
Nonlinear dynamics are currently proposed to explain the progressive course of recurrent mood disorders starting with isolated episodes and ending with accelerated irregular (``chaotic") mood fluctuations. Such a low-dimensional disease model is attractive because of its principal accordance with biological disease models, i.e. the kindling and biological rhythms model. However, most natural systems are nonlinear and noisy and several studies in the neuro- and physical sciences have demonstrated interesting cooperative behaviors arising from interacting random and deterministic dynamics. Here, we consider the effects of noise on a recent neurodynamical model for the timecourse of affective disorders (Huber et al.: Biological Psychiatry 1999;46:256-262). We describe noise effects on temporal patterns and mean episode frequencies of various in computo diseasestates. Our simulations demonstrate that noise can cause unstructured randomness or can maximize periodic order. The frequency of episode occurence can increase with noise but it can also remain unaffected or even can decrease. We show further that noise can make visible bifurcations before they would normally occur under deterministic conditions and we quantify this behavior with a recently developed statistical method. All these effects depend critically on both, the dynamic state and the noise intensity. Implications for neurobiology and course of mood disorders are discussed.
Tobias Huber, Martin; Krieg, Jürgen-Christian; Braun, Hans Albert; Moss, Frank
The pharmacokinetics of ximoprofen, a potent new non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent, has been investigated in normal healthy subjects and in patients with hepatic or renal disease. After intravenous infusion of 22.8 mg to healthy subjects, plasma ximoprofen concentrations declined in a polyexponential manner with a terminal phase half-life of 1.9 h. The systemic clearance of ximoprofen was 115 ml.min-1 and the volumes of distribution were 18.01 Vz and 13.81 Vss. Ximoprofen was 80-90% bound to plasma proteins. The systemic availabilities (f) of orally and rectally administered doses of 30 mg of ximoprofen were 98% and 56% respectively and, in the case of the rectal dose, absorption appeared to be prolonged leading to "flip-flop" kinetics. After single oral doses of 30 mg of ximoprofen to patients with hepatic disease, half-life (2.2 h), peak plasma concentrations (1.55 micrograms.ml-1 cf 1.04 micrograms.ml-1 in healthy subjects) and areas under the curve (6.12 micrograms.h.ml-1 cf 3.54 micrograms.h.ml-1 in healthy subjects) were significantly different from those in healthy subjects. After single oral doses of 30 mg of ximoprofen to patients with renal disease, pharmacokinetic parameters of half-life (4.0 h), mean residence time (6.0 h) and area under the curve (9.2 micrograms.h.ml-1) were significantly different from those in healthy subjects. There were no significant differences in pharmacokinetic parameters between patients having differing degrees of renal disease. These data nevertheless suggest that accumulation of ximoprofen in hepatic or renal disease would be of slight or negligible clinical relevance and that no alteration of the dose regimen (up to 15 mg twice daily) may be required when ximoprofen is administered in these diseasestates. PMID:2060536
Taylor, I W; Taylor, T; James, I; Doyle, G; Dorf, G; Darragh, A; Chasseaud, L F
We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure functional connectivity of the dentate nucleus (DN) between patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and normal controls who were studied in a resting state. Images were acquired in 18 PD patients and in age- and sex-matched normal controls. Connectivity of the bilateral DN was calculated and compared between patients and controls, connectivity of the bilateral DN within the cerebellum was compared between rigidity and bradykinesia-dominant patients (PD(AR)) and tremor-dominant patients (PD(T)), and correlation analysis was performed between the connectivity strength and behavioral measures within the cerebellum. Some regions in the cerebellum showed enhanced connectivity with the bilateral DN in PD patients, and decreased connectivity of the DN with the bilateral cerebellar posterior lobe was observed in PD(T) as compared to PD(AR). A set of regions consistent with the default mode network showed disrupted connectivity with the DN. Decreased connectivity between the inferior parietal lobule and the DN was also observed in PD patients. Additional analyses did not show any significant correlations between functional connectivity within the cerebellum and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale-III scores. Our findings suggest that connectivity of the DN in the resting state is disrupted in PD, and there may be a compensatory cerebellar connectivity mechanism in the resting state in PD. Further study of the cerebellum may clarify the pathophysiology of PD. PMID:23352277
An elicitor of plant disease resistance, pectinase, was produced by solid state fermentation with Aspergillus niger. Sugar beet pulp was used as carbon source and the wastewater from monosodium glutamate production was used as nitrogen and water source. The composition of the fermentation medium was: 11 ml concentrated wastewater (containing NH3-N 38.2 mg/ml), sugar beet pulp 10 g, Na2HPO4.12H2O 0.2 g, KH2PO4 0.04 g in a 500 ml Erlenmeyer flask. The fermentation temperature was 30 degrees C and the relative humidity of the air was 75-90%. The maximum production of pectinase was reached after 96 h cultivation. The crude pectinase extracted from the fermented materials could elicit disease resistance in cucumber and tomato seedlings. PMID:15207294
Reliable surveillance models are an important tool in public health because they aid in mitigating disease outbreaks, identify where and when disease outbreaks occur, and predict future occurrences. Although many statistical models have been devised for surveillance purposes, none are able to simultaneously achieve the important practical goals of good sensitivity and specificity, proper use of covariate information, inclusion of spatio-temporal dynamics, and transparent support to decision-makers. In an effort to achieve these goals, this paper proposes a spatio-temporal conditional autoregressive hidden Markov model with an absorbing state. The model performs well in both a large simulation study and in an application to influenza/pneumonia fatality data. PMID:22388709
Heaton, Matthew J; Banks, David L; Zou, Jian; Karr, Alan F; Datta, Gauri; Lynch, James; Vera, Francisco
Background To examine concurrent prevalence trends of chronic disease, impairment and disability among older adults. Methods We analyzed the 1998, 2004 and 2008 waves of the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative survey of older adults in the United States, and included 31,568 community dwelling adults aged 65 and over. Measurements include: prevalence of chronic diseases including hypertension, heart disease, stroke, diabetes, cancer, chronic lung disease and arthritis; prevalence of impairments, including impairments of cognition, vision, hearing, mobility, and urinary incontinence; prevalence of disability, including activities of daily living (ADLs) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs). Results The proportion of older adults reporting no chronic disease decreased from 13.1% (95% Confidence Interval [CI], 12.4%-13.8%) in 1998 to 7.8% (95% CI, 7.2%-8.4%) in 2008, whereas the proportion reporting 1 or more chronic diseases increased from 86.9% (95% CI, 86.2%-89.6%) in 1998 to 92.2% (95% CI, 91.6%-92.8%) in 2008. In addition, the proportion reporting 4 or more diseases increased from 11.7% (95% CI, 11.0%-12.4%) in 1998 to 17.4% (95% CI, 16.6%-18.2%) in 2008. The proportion of older adults reporting no impairments was 47.3% (95% CI, 46.3%-48.4%) in 1998 and 44.4% (95% CI, 43.3%-45.5%) in 2008, whereas the proportion of respondents reporting 3 or more was 7.2% (95% CI, 6.7%-7.7%) in 1998 and 7.3% (95% CI, 6.8%-7.9%) in 2008. The proportion of older adults reporting any ADL or IADL disability was 26.3% (95% CI, 25.4%-27.2%) in 1998 and 25.4% (95% CI, 24.5%-26.3%) in 2008. Conclusions Multiple chronic disease is increasingly prevalent among older U.S. adults, whereas the prevalence of impairment and disability, while substantial, remain stable.
The Disabilities Prevention Program builds on traditional Centers for Disease Control (CDC) strengths in public health surveillance, epidemiology, and technology transfer to State and local governments in translating the findings of research into prevention programs. The objectives of the CDC program are to provide a national focus for the prevention of primary and secondary disabilities, build capacity at the State and community levels to maintain programs to prevent disabilities, and increase the knowledge base necessary for developing and evaluating effective preventive interventions. During 1989, CDC, in consultation with the National Council on Disabilities and members of the disability community, has elected to focus its effort in three areas: developmental disabilities, injuries to the head and spinal cord, and secondary complications among persons with physical disabilities.
Unionid mussels are recognized as important contributors to healthy aquatic ecosystems, as well as bioindicators of environmental perturbations. Because they are sedentary, filter feeding animals and require hosts (i.e., fishes) to transform embryonic glochidia, mussels are susceptible to direct adverse environmental parameters, and indirect parameters that restrict the timely presence of the host(s). Their numbers have declined in recent decades to a point that this fauna is regarded as one of the most imperiled in North America. The most significant threat to populations of native unionids in recent years has been the introduction and spread of zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha. Many federal and state agencies, and private interests are now engaged in mussel conservation efforts, including collecting selected imperiled species from impacted rivers and lakes and propagating them at refuges for future population augmentations. One essential consideration with mussel propagation and their intensive culture at refugia is the prevention of pathogen introductions and control of diseases. Currently, there are few reports of etiological agents causing diseases among freshwater mussels; however, because of increased observations of mussel die-offs in conjunction with transfers of live animals between natural waters and refugia, disease problems can be anticipated to emerge. This review summarizes research to develop bacterial isolation techniques, study pathogen transmission between fish and mussels, identify causes of seasonal mussel die-offs, and develop non-destructive methods for pathogen detection. These efforts were done to develop disease preventative techniques for use by resource managers to avoid potential large-scale disease problems in restoration and population augmentation efforts among imperiled populations.
...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...Classified With Respect to Certain Animal Diseases and States Approved To Receive Certain Imported Horses AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection...
...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...Classified With Respect to Certain Animal Diseases and States Approved To Receive Certain Imported Horses AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection...
This publication contains summary tables of the official statistics for the occurrence of nationally notifiable diseases in the United States for calendar year 1993. This information is collected and compiled from reports to the National Notifiable Diseas...
A clinically valuable method is provided for evaluating the onset or progression of Alzheimer's disease using a non-invasive biomarker obtained from an independent component analysis (ICA) of an individual's resting state functional MRI. The method is rel...
In this paper we extend the Celada-Seiden (CS) model of the humoral immune response to include infectious virus and killer T cells (cellular response). The model represents molecules and cells with bitstrings. The response of the system to virus involves a competition between the ability of the virus to kill the host cells and the host's ability to eliminate the virus. We find two basins of attraction in the dynamics of this system, one is identified with disease and the other with the immune state. There is also an oscillating state that exists on the border of these two stable states. Fluctuations in the population of virus or antibody can end the oscillation and drive the system into one of the stable states. The introduction of mechanisms of cross-regulation between the two responses can bias the system towards one of them. We also study a mean field model, based on coupled maps, to investigate virus-like infections. This simple model reproduces the attractors for average populations observed in the cellular automaton. All the dynamical behavior connected to spatial extension is lost, as is the oscillating feature. Thus the mean field approximation introduced with coupled maps destroys oscillations.
Bezzi, Michele; Celada, Franco; Ruffo, Stefano; Seiden, Philip E.
Oluyole, K. A. and Lawal, J. O. 2008. Determinants of the Occurrence of Black Pod Disease of Cocoa in Edo State, Nigeria: A Multivariate Probit Analysis Approach. j. innov.dev.strategy 2(2): 1-4 This study was conducted at Edo state of Nigeria during July 2007 to determine factors that favor the infestation of black pod disease of cocoa in the study area.
A full-term male neonate presented with cyanosis upon delivery and was subsequently diagnosed with d-transposition of the great arteries, ventricular septal defect, and restrictive atrial septal defect. Following initiation of intravenous prostaglandins and balloon atrial septostomy, an arterial switch operation was performed on day 3 of life. The postoperative course was complicated by intractable ventricular tachycardia that was refractory to lidocaine, amiodarone, esmolol, fosphenytoin, and mexiletine drug therapy. Ventricular tachycardia was suppressed with overdrive atrial pacing but recurred upon discontinuation. Seven weeks postoperatively, radiofrequency catheter ablation was performed due to hemodynamically compromising persistent ventricular tachycardia refractory to medical therapy. The ventricular tachycardia was localized to the inferior-lateral right ventricular outlet septum. The procedure was successful without complications or recurrence. Antiarrhythmics were discontinued after the ablation procedure. Seven days after the ablation, a different, slower fascicular rhythm was noted to compete with the infant's sinus rhythm. This was consistent with the preablation amiodarone having reached subtherapeutic levels given its very long half-life. The patient was restarted on oral beta blockers and amiodarone. The patient was subsequently discharged home in predominantly sinus rhythm with intermittent fascicular rhythm. PMID:23647934
Costello, John P; He, Dingchao; Greene, Elizabeth A; Berul, Charles I; Moak, Jeffrey P; Nath, Dilip S
Background: Medically intractable chronic migraine (CM) is a disabling illness characterized by headache ?15 days per month. Methods: A multicenter, randomized, blinded, controlled feasibility study was conducted to obtain preliminary safety and efficacy data on occipital nerve stimulation (ONS) in CM. Eligible subjects received an occipital nerve block, and responders were randomized to adjustable stimulation (AS), preset stimulation (PS) or medical management (MM) groups. Results: Seventy-five of 110 subjects were assigned to a treatment group; complete diary data were available for 66. A responder was defined as a subject who achieved a 50% or greater reduction in number of headache days per month or a three-point or greater reduction in average overall pain intensity compared with baseline. Three-month responder rates were 39% for AS, 6% for PS and 0% for MM. No unanticipated adverse device events occurred. Lead migration occurred in 12 of 51 (24%) subjects. Conclusion: The results of this feasibility study offer promise and should prompt further controlled studies of ONS in CM.
Saper, Joel R; Dodick, David W; Silberstein, Stephen D; McCarville, Sally; Sun, Mark; Goadsby, Peter J
A multimodal stepped care approach has been successfully applied to a patient with complex regional pain syndrome type 1 and severe intractable pain, not responding to regular neuropathic pain medication. The choice to administer drugs in creams was made because of the intolerable adverse effects to oral medication. With this method, peak-dose adverse effects did not occur. The multimodal stepped care approach resulted in considerable and clinically relevant decrease in pain after every step, using topical amitriptyline, ketamine, and dimethylsulphoxide.
The use of electro-convulsive therapy (ECT) in adolescents is controversial, and few studies have been conducted to assess\\u000a its efficacy and safety in this population. We report the case of a 19-year-old boy who received two series of ECT, one at\\u000a 15 and another at 16, for intractable catatonic schizophrenia. Since the age of 17, he has required treatment combining
Angèle Consoli; Valérie Boulicot; Françoise Cornic; Philippe Fossati; Martine Barbeau; David Cohen
Objective: To examine the use of a new silver needle therapy for treating tender points involved in intractable low-back pain after removal of nucleus pulposus.Subjects: The study involved 24 patients (17 men and 7 women) aged 26 to 67 years with a mean age of 54.5 ± 5 years.Settings: The Department of Orthopedics at the First Military Medical University, the
Aim. To evaluate the effect of black seed oil, as add-on treatment to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), on seizure frequency and severity as well as oxidative stress in intractable epilepsy patients. Methods. A prospective, randomised, single-blinded, controlled, crossover pilot study. Five healthy children were included as controls. Thirty intractable epileptic children were randomly assigned to either Group I or II. Group I received placebo for four weeks, followed by a two-week washout period, and subsequently black seed oil for four weeks. Group II received the same intervention but in the reverse order. All patients received AEDs throughout the study period. Prior to allocation, all patients underwent a neurological assessment and evaluation of oxidative stress markers; total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and malondialehyde (MDA). Patients were assessed at Weeks 4 and 10 for oxidative stress markers and seizure frequency and severity. Results. At baseline, both groups (I, II) had significantly lower serum TAC levels relative to healthy controls (p=0.007), while MDA levels were unchanged. After the 4-week period of black seed oil administration, there was no significant difference between the two groups with regards to seizure frequency, severity, or oxidative stress markers (TAC and MDA; p>0.05). Eight patients had >50% reduction in seizure frequency/severity after black seed oil versus placebo. Conclusion. Children with intractable epilepsy show evidence of oxidative stress. Administration of 40-80 mg/kg/day of black seed oil as add-on therapy did not alter either oxidative stress markers or seizure frequency or severity in intractable epileptic patients. PMID:23981722
Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is estimated to affect up to 11% of those aged?65 years in the United States, and the number of patients with AD is predicted to increase over the next few decades as the population ages. The substantial social and economic burden associated with AD is well established, with the cost of management increasing as the disease
Kristen Migliaccio-Walle; Denis Getsios; J. Jaime Caro; Khajak J Ishak; Judith A O'Brien; George Papadopoulos
Institutional risk factors associated with the occurrence of nosocomial respiratory or gastrointestinal disease outbreaks in 1992 were examined in a case-cohort study of New York State nursing homes conducted in 1993. Facility size, staffing patterns, and employee sick leave policies were the principal effects found in an unconditional logistic regression model. The risk of having respiratory or gastrointestinal disease outbreaks
Jiehui Li; Guthrie S. Birkhead; David S. Strogatz; F. Bruce Coles
Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is highly contagious and has high agro-terrorism potential because it can be easily turned into a weapon. An outbreak of FMD in developed countries results in massive slaughtering (for disease control) and disruptions in meat supply chains and trade, with potentially large economic losses. Although the United States has been FMD-free since 1929, the potential
Chagas disease is an emerging infectious disease in North America due to the immigration of individuals from endemic areas. The parasite has been transmitted to patients in non-endemic areas by blood transfusion and organ donation. Only six autochthonous cases have been described in humans in the United States yet the parasite is widespread among native mammals and resident triatomines are
Stephen A. Klotz; Patricia L. Dorn; John H. Klotz; Jacob L. Pinnas; Christiane Weirauch; Jonathan R. Kurtz; Justin Schmidt
The objective of this study was to analyze the surveillance of Chagas' disease in São Paulo State through notifications registered from 1990 to 1999. The information originated when notification of triatomines was announced by inhabitants and the established control program was followed. 20,563 triatomine notifications were received, showing a decrease over the years, with more accentuated decreases in the area of greatest frequency of Panstrongylus megistus. Each notification corresponded to an average of 1.3 examples of captured triatomines (median = 1), predominantly in the intradomicile area, while during attendance, the mean number of collected insects was 3.6 (median = 2), mostly present in the peridomicile area. The notification distribution permitted the demarcation of three different areas in the state: area 1, comprising the areas of São José do Rio Preto, Araçatuba and part of Presidente Prudente; area 2, São Vicente and Sorocaba; area 3, municipalities located to the northeast of the Campinas region. Analysis showed that entomological surveillance through triatomine notification, despite the fall in the same, has not detected intradomiciliary colonies associated with Trypanosoma cruzi which could give rise to vectorial transmission of Chagas' disease. PMID:17160329
da Silva, Rubens Antonio; Wanderley, Dalva Marli Valério; Domingos, Maria de Fátima; Yasumaro, Sueli; Scandar, Sirle Abdo Salloun; Pauliquévis-Júnior, Clóvis; Sampaio, Susy Mary Perpétuo; Takaku, Luiz; Rodrigues, Vera Lúcia Cortiço Corrêa
Objective Intractable anemia, such as aplastic anemia or that presumably associated with chronic herpes virus infections, sometimes require bone marrow transplant. We investigated the use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for the treatment of intractable anemia. Method Placenta Hominis (PH), steam boiled and roasted, and Cervi Cornus Colla (deer antler glue) has been used in China for hundreds of years to treat anemia. After consent was obtained, we prescribed these two materials for a 74-year-old female with aplastic anemia and a 26-year-old male with presumably a virus-induced anemia. Concomitant conventional therapy was continued in both patients as prescribed by their respective attending physicians. Conclusion Conventional therapy with steroid hormones, immunosuppressive drugs, platelet and erythrocyte transfusions were not effective in these patients. In addition, both patients suffered from serious side effects. In two patients, ingestion of Placenta Hominis and Cervi Cornus Colla with TCM prescriptions increased the platelet and enhanced the hemoglobin concentration in several months of therapy accompanied by a dramatic improvement in quality of life. The addition to conventional therapy of PH and Cervi Cornus Colla, the latter of which is very easy to obtain, may be one of the potentially advantageous choices in case of otherwise intractable anemia.
BACKGROUND: About 10% of cluster headache patients have the chronic form. At least 10% of this chronic group is intractable to or cannot tolerate medical treatment. Open pilot studies suggest that occipital nerve stimulation (ONS) might offer effective prevention in these patients. Controlled neuromodulation studies in treatments inducing paraesthesias have a general problem in blinding. We have introduced a new design in pain neuromodulation by which we think we can overcome this problem. METHODS/DESIGN: We propose a prospective, randomised, double-blind, parallel-group international clinical study in medically intractable, chronic cluster headache patients of high- versus low-amplitude ONS. Primary outcome measure is the mean number of attacks over the last four weeks. After a study period of six months there is an open extension phase of six months. Alongside the randomised trial an economic evaluation study is performed. DISCUSSION: The ICON study will show if ONS is an effective preventive therapy for patients suffering medically intractable chronic cluster headache and if there is a difference between high- and low-amplitude stimulation. The innovative design of the study will, for the first time, assess efficacy of ONS in a blinded way. PMID:23720502
Wilbrink, Leopoldine A; Teernstra, Onno Pm; Haan, Joost; van Zwet, Erik W; Evers, Silvia Maa; Spincemaille, Geert H; Veltink, Peter H; Mulleners, Wim; Brand, Ronald; Huygen, Frank Jpm; Jensen, Rigmor H; Paemeleire, Koen; Goadsby, Peter J; Visser-Vandewalle, Veerle; Ferrari, Michel D
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia. Much is known concerning AD pathophysiology but our understanding of the disease at the systems level remains incomplete. Previous AD research has used resting state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fcMRI) to assess the integrity of functional networks within the brain. Most studies have focused on the default-mode network (DMN), a primary locus of AD pathology. However, other brain regions are inevitably affected with disease progression. We studied rs-fcMRI in five functionally defined brain networks within a large cohort of human participants of either gender (n=510) that ranged in AD severity from unaffected (clinical dementia rating, CDR 0) to very mild (CDR 0.5) to mild AD (CDR 1). We observed loss of correlations within not only the DMN but other networks at CDR 0.5. Within the salience network (SAL), increases were seen between CDR 0 and CDR 0.5. However, at CDR 1, all networks, including SAL, exhibited reduced correlations. Specific networks were preferentially affected at certain CDR stages. In addition, cross-network relations were consistently lost with increasing AD severity. Our results demonstrate that AD is associated with widespread loss of both intra- and inter-network correlations. These results provide insight into AD pathophysiology and reinforce an integrative view of the brain’s functional organization.
Brier, Mathew; Thomas, Jewell B.; Snyder, Abraham Z.; Benzinger, Tammie L.; Zhang, Dongyang; Raichle, Marcus E.; Holtzman, David M.; Morris, John C.; Ances, Beau M.
Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is the most common atypical parkinsonian disorder. Abnormal tau inclusions, in selected regions of the brain, are a hallmark of the disease and the H1 haplotype of MAPT, the gene encoding tau, is the major risk factor in PSP. A 3-repeat and 4-repeat (4R) tau isoform ratio imbalance has been strongly implicated as a cause of disease. Thus, understanding tau isoform regional expression in disease and pathology-free states is crucial to elucidating the mechanisms involved in PSP and other tauopathies. We used a tau isoform-specific fluorescent assay to investigate relative 4R-tau expression in 6 different brain regions in PSP cases and healthy control samples. We identified a marked difference in 4R-tau relative expression, across brain regions and between MAPT haplotypes. Highest 4R-tau expression levels were identified in the globus pallidus compared with pons, cerebellum, and frontal cortex. 4R-tau expression levels were related to the MAPT H1 and H1c haplotypes. Similar regional variation was seen in PSP case and in control samples. PMID:23428180
Majounie, Elisa; Cross, William; Newsway, Victoria; Dillman, Allissa; Vandrovcova, Jana; Morris, Christopher M; Nalls, Michael A; Ferrucci, Luigi; Owen, Michael J; O'Donovan, Michael C; Cookson, Mark R; Singleton, Andrew B; de Silva, Rohan; Morris, Huw R
The modified Atkins diet is a therapeutic option for children with intractable epilepsy. It is less restrictive than the traditional ketogenic diet, with ?60% of calories from fat sources. We describe a 6-y-old boy with intractable epilepsy treated with the modified Atkins diet who presented to the emergency department with first-time anaphylactic reaction to egg. Symptoms of urticaria and angioedema,
Purpose To determine the prevalence and identify predictors of medical intractability in children presenting with epilepsy prior to 36 months of age, and to assess the impact of medical intractability on long-term mortality and intellectual function. Methods Children with newly-diagnosed epilepsy prior to 36 months between 1980–2009 while resident in Olmsted County, MN were identified. Medical records were reviewed to collect epilepsy specific variables and long-term outcome data. Medically intractable epilepsy was defined as either (1) seizures greater than every 6 months at final follow-up and failure of two or more antiepileptic drugs for lack of efficacy, or (2) having undergone epilepsy surgery after failure of two or more antiepileptic drugs. Key Findings One hundred and twenty seven children with new-onset epilepsy were identified and followed for a median of 78 months. Medically intractable seizures occurred in 35%, and significant predictors on multivariate analysis were age ?12 months at diagnosis (odds ratio [OR] 6.76, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.00, 22.84, p=0.002), developmental delay at initial diagnosis of epilepsy (OR 20.03, 95% CI 3.49, 114.83, p=0.0008 ), neuroimaging abnormality (OR 6.48, 95% CI 1.96, 21.40, p=0.002) and focal slowing on initial EEG (OR 5.33, 95% CI 1.14, 24.88, p=0.03). Medical intractability occurred early in the course in most children, being seen in 61% by one year, and 93% by five years after initial diagnosis. Mortality was higher (20% vs 0%, p<0.001) and intellectual outcome poorer (p<0.001) if epilepsy was medically intractable. Significance One third of children presenting with epilepsy before 36 months will be medically intractable and significant predictors are identified. Medically intractable epilepsy is associated with increased mortality risk and significant intellectual disability.
Background The burden of global injury-related deaths predominantly affects developing countries, which have little infrastructure to evaluate these disparities. We describe injury-related mortality patterns in Kampala, Uganda and compare them with data from the United States and San Francisco (SF), California. Methods We created a database in Kampala of deaths recorded by the City Mortuary, the Mulago Hospital Mortuary, and the Uganda Ministry of Health from July to December 2007. We analyzed the rate and odds ratios and compared them to data from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the California Department of Public Health. Results In Kampala, 25% of all deaths were due to injuries (812/3303) versus 6% in SF and 7% in the United States. The odds of dying of injury in Kampala were 5.0 times higher than in SF and 4.2 times higher than in the United States. Age-standardized death rates indicate a 93% greater risk of dying from injury in Kampala than in SF. The mean age was lower in Kampala than in SF (29 vs. 44 years). The adult injury death rate (rate ratio, or RR) was higher in Kampala than in SF (2.3) or the United States (1.5). Head/neck injury was reported in 65% of injury deaths in Kampala compared to 34% in SF [odds ratio (OR) 3.7] and 28% in the US (OR 4.8). Conclusions Urban injury-related mortality is significantly higher in Uganda than in the United States. Injury preferentially affects adults in the prime of their economically productive years. These findings serve as a call for stronger injury prevention and control policies in Uganda.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with deficits in a number of cognitive processes and executive functions. Moreover, abnormalities in the electroencephalogram (EEG) power spectrum develop with the progression of AD. These features have been traditionally characterized with montage recordings and conventional spectral analysis during resting eyes-closed and resting eyes-open (EO) conditions. In this study, we introduce a single lead dry electrode EEG device which was employed on AD and control subjects during resting and activated battery of cognitive and sensory tasks such as Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) and auditory stimulations. EEG signals were recorded over the left prefrontal cortex (Fp1) from each subject. EEG signals were decomposed into sub-bands approximately corresponding to the major brain frequency bands using several different discrete wavelet transforms and developed statistical features for each band. Decision tree algorithms along with univariate and multivariate statistical analysis were used to identify the most predictive features across resting and active states, separately and collectively. During resting state recordings, we found that the AD patients exhibited elevated D4 (~4-8 Hz) mean power in EO state as their most distinctive feature. During the active states, however, the majority of AD patients exhibited larger minimum D3 (~8-12 Hz) values during auditory stimulation (18 Hz) combined with increased kurtosis of D5 (~2-4 Hz) during PASAT with 2 s interval. When analyzed using EEG recording data across all tasks, the most predictive AD patient features were a combination of the first two feature sets. However, the dominant discriminating feature for the majority of AD patients were still the same features as the active state analysis. The results from this small sample size pilot study indicate that although EEG recordings during resting conditions are able to differentiate AD from control subjects, EEG activity recorded during active engagement in cognitive and auditory tasks provide important distinct features, some of which may be among the most predictive discriminating features. PMID:23536113
Ghorbanian, Parham; Devilbiss, David M; Verma, Ajay; Bernstein, Allan; Hess, Terry; Simon, Adam J; Ashrafiuon, Hashem
The human brain contains an intricate network of about 100 billion neurons. Aging of the brain is characterized by a combination of synaptic pruning, loss of cortico-cortical connections, and neuronal apoptosis that provoke an age-dependent decline of cognitive functions. Neural/synaptic redundancy and plastic remodeling of brain networking, also secondary to mental and physical training, promote maintenance of brain activity and cognitive status in healthy elderly subjects for everyday life. However, age is the main risk factor for neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) that impact on cognition. Growing evidence supports the idea that AD targets specific and functionally connected neuronal networks and that oscillatory electromagnetic brain activity might be a hallmark of the disease. In this line, digital electroencephalography (EEG) allows noninvasive analysis of cortical neuronal synchronization, as revealed by resting state brain rhythms. This review provides an overview of the studies on resting state eyes-closed EEG rhythms recorded in amnesic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD subjects. Several studies support the idea that spectral markers of these EEG rhythms, such as power density, spectral coherence, and other quantitative features, differ among normal elderly, MCI, and AD subjects, at least at group level. Regarding the classification of these subjects at individual level, the most previous studies showed a moderate accuracy (70-80%) in the classification of EEG markers relative to normal and AD subjects. In conclusion, resting state EEG makers are promising for large-scale, low-cost, fully noninvasive screening of elderly subjects at risk of AD. PMID:24053043
Vecchio, Fabrizio; Babiloni, Claudio; Lizio, Roberta; Fallani, Fabrizio De Vico; Blinowska, Katarzyna; Verrienti, Giulio; Frisoni, Giovanni; Rossini, Paolo M
Conclusion HSCT in autoimmune diseases has now become one of the potential therapeutic options for physicians looking after patients\\u000a with severe intractable autoimmune diseases. It has now progressed beyond theory based on animal and human case reports, but\\u000a at this stage it has been appropriately reserved for patients with resistant disease in a clinical trial setting. Ongoing\\u000a analysis of the safety
Objective To determine how the cholera and other diarrheal disease surveillance system in Niger state is meeting its surveillance objectives, to evaluate its performance and attributes and to describe its operation to make recommendations for improvement. Introduction Cholera causes frequent outbreaks in Nigeria, resulting in mortality. In 2010 and 2011, 41,936 cases (case fatality rate [CFR]-4.1%) and 23,366 cases (CFR-3.2%) were reported (1). Reported cases in Nigeria by week 26, 2012 was 309 (CFR-1.29%) involving 20 Local Government Areas in 6 States. In Nigeria, there are currently eleven (11) States including Niger state at high risk for cholera/bloodless diarrhea outbreaks. In 2011, Niger state had 2472 cholera cases (CFR-2%) and 45,111 other diarrhea diseases cases, recorded in more than half of state Purpose of surveillance system is to ensure early detection of cholera and other diarrheal cases and to monitor trends towards evidence-based decision for management, prevention and control. Methods We conducted evaluation in July, 2012. We used CDC guideline on surveillance system evaluation (2001) as guide to assess operation, performance and attributes (2). We conducted key informant/in-depth interviews with stakeholders. We examined cholera action plans for preparedness and response, conducted laboratory assessment, extracted and analyzed cholera surveillance (2005–2012) for frequencies/proportions using Microsoft Excel. Thematic analysis was done for qualitative data. We shared findings with stakeholders at all levels. Results Surveillance system was setup for early detection and monitoring towards evidence-based decision. State government funds system. Case definition used is highly sensitive and is any patient aged 5 years or more who develops acute watery diarrhea, with/without vomiting. Though simple case definition, laboratory confirmation makes surveillance complex. A passive system, active during outbreaks; has formal and informal sources of information and part of Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) system and flow(fig.1). It takes 24–48 hours between outbreaks onset, confirmation and response. Line list showed undefined/poorly labeled outcomes. Of 2472 cases in 2011 1320 (49%) were found in line list. 2011 monthly data completeness was 75%. So far in 2012, 5(0.02%) of all diarrhea cases were cholera. System captures only age as sociodemographics. Of 11 suspected cholera cases tested during 2011 epidemic, 7 confirmed as cholera (PPV-63%). Of 3 rumours of cholera outbreaks (January 2011-July 2012), one (PPV-33%) was true. Acceptability of system is high among all stakeholders interviewed. Timeliness of monthly reporting was 68.7% (Table 1). Laboratory can isolate Vibro cholerae isolation but has no Cary Blair transport medium and cholera rapid test kits. Conclusions Evaluation revealed that surveillance system is meeting its objectives by early detection and response to cholera outbreaks. System is simple, stable, flexible, sensitive with poor data quality, low PPV, fair laboratory capacity and moderate timeliness. We recommended electronic and internet-based reporting for timeliness and data quality improvement; and provision of laboratory consumables.
The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the United States is increasing, but the clinical characteristics of American patients with HCC have not been well described. The aims of this study were to determine the etiology of liver disease and short-term outcome among HCC patients presenting to a single center in the United States. One hundred five consecutive patients with
Jorge A. Marrero; Robert J. Fontana; Grace L. Su; Hari S. Conjeevaram; Dawn M. Emick; Anna S. Lok
To quantify the effects of changes in risk factors for chronic diseases on morbidity and mortality, Markov-type multi-state models are used. However, with multiple risk factors and many diseases relating to these risk factors, these models contain a large number of states. In this paper, we present an alternative modelling methodology implemented in the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment chronic disease model. This model includes multiple states based on risk factor levels and disease stages but only keeps track of the marginal probability values. Starting from the multi-state model, differential equations are derived that describe the change of the marginal distribution for each risk factor class and disease stage, taking into account population heterogeneity and competing mortality risks. The model is illustrated by presenting results of a scenario affecting disease incidence by altering the risk factor distribution of the population. To show the strength of the approximating model, we compare its results to those of the multi-state Markov model. PMID:19516046
Hoogenveen, Rudolf T; van Baal, Pieter H M; Boshuizen, Hendriek C
Several studies report that vascular lesions contribute to depression in late life, but whether vascular lesions contribute to depression or indeed result from depression is debatable. To address this question, we segregated mood disorder patients into late- and early-onset mood disorder groups (LOM and EOM, respectively) and compared the areas of high intensity on the subcortical MRI scans of the 2 groups. We found that the LOM group exhibited higher ratings than the EOM group; significant between-group differences were detected in the bilateral frontal areas and in the left parieto-occipital area. Our results suggest that vascular lesions in these areas are crucial for the development of late-onset mood disorders. Furthermore, treatment is often difficult in depressed patients with cerebrovascular lesions. Therefore, a new therapeutic approach that takes into account cerebrovascular factors is necessary. We concomitantly administered cilostazol with conventional antidepressants to patients with intractable geriatric major depressive disorder; of these patients, 2 showed improvements of their depressive symptoms. These findings suggest a potential efficacy of cilostazol as a novel drug for use in augmentation therapy for depressed patients with silent cerebrovascular disorder. Evidence that vascular disease is the underlying link between depression and dementia is strong. Therefore, further studies that include follow-up of such cases are necessary. PMID:22568064
An estimated 8,000-18,000 persons are hospitalized with Legionnaires disease (LD) each year in the United States, and approximately 20% of reported LD cases are associated with travel. Outbreaks of travel-associated LD can be difficult to detect because travelers disperse and Legionella-specific diagnostic tests are underutilized. Consequently, clinicians and health departments often are unaware when more than one LD case is associated with a common travel destination. In 2005, the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE) adopted a position statement recommending enhanced surveillance measures for LD, with emphasis on diagnosis and reporting of confirmed travel-associated LD cases within 7 days. The rationale for enhanced surveillance was that earlier detection might lead to more rapid identification of a source (e.g., cooling tower) and expedite prevention measures (e.g., cleaning and chlorination). To 1) assess data from 32 states that used a supplementary reporting system for LD, 2) describe the epidemiology of travel-associated LD, and 3) compare characteristics of travel-associated cases with those of cases not associated with travel, CDC analyzed LD cases reported via the supplementary system during 2005-2006. The results of that analysis indicated that the proportion of LD cases that were travel associated remained stable from 2005 (23%) to 2006 (25%), the proportion of travel-associated cases reported via a dedicated CDC e-mail address increased from 11% to 24%, and the number of reported clusters of travel-associated LD increased from two in 2005 to eight in 2006. These results suggest that, to fully assess the benefits of enhanced LD surveillance, more states will need to adopt the CSTE recommendations. PMID:18059257
Background We present a fundamental theoretical framework for analysis of energy dissipation in any component of the circulatory system and formulate the full energy budget for both venous and arterial circulations. New indices allowing disease-specific subject-to-subject comparisons and disease-to-disease hemodynamic evaluation (quantifying the hemodynamic severity of one vascular disease type to the other) are presented based on this formalism. Methods and Results Dimensional analysis of energy dissipation rate with respect to the human circulation shows that the rate of energy dissipation is inversely proportional to the square of the patient body surface area and directly proportional to the cube of cardiac output. This result verified the established formulae for energy loss in aortic stenosis that was solely derived through empirical clinical experience. Three new indices are introduced to evaluate more complex diseasestates: (1) circulation energy dissipation index (CEDI), (2) aortic valve energy dissipation index (AV-EDI), and (3) total cavopulmonary connection energy dissipation index (TCPCEDI). CEDI is based on the full energy budget of the circulation and is the proper measure of the work performed by the ventricle relative to the net energy spent in overcoming frictional forces. It is shown to be 4.01 ± 0.16 for healthy individuals and above 7.0 for patients with severe aortic stenosis. Application of CEDI index on single-ventricle venous physiology reveals that the surgically created Fontan circulation, which is indeed palliative, progressively degrades in hemodynamic efficiency with growth (p <0.001), with the net dissipation in a typical Fontan patient (Body surface area = 1.0 m2) being equivalent to that of an average case of severe aortic stenosis. AV-EDI is shown to be the proper index to gauge the hemodynamic severity of stenosed aortic valves as it accurately reflects energy loss. It is about 0.28 ± 0.12 for healthy human valves. Moderate aortic stenosis has an AV-EDI one order of magnitude higher while clinically severe aortic stenosis cases always had magnitudes above 3.0. TCPC-EDI represents the efficiency of the TCPC connection and is shown to be negatively correlated to the size of a typical “bottle-neck” region (pulmonary artery) in the surgical TCPC pathway (p <0.05). Conclusions Energy dissipation in the human circulation has been analyzed theoretically to derive the proper scaling (indexing) factor. CEDI, AV-EDI, and TCPC-EDI are proper measures of the dissipative characteristics of the circulatory system, aortic valve, and the Fontan connection, respectively.
Dasi, Lakshmi P.; Pekkan, Kerem; de Zelicourt, Diane; Sundareswaran, Kartik S.; Krishnankutty, Resmi; Delnido, Pedro J.; Yoganathan, Ajit P.
The isolation of the Lyme disease spirochete (Borrelia burgdorferi) from the southeastern United States is reported. Three isolates, two from cotton mice (Peromyscus gossypinus) and one from the black-legged tick (Ixodes scapularis), were recovered from Sapelo Island, Georgia, in July and September 1991. The spirochetes were characterized by indirect fluorescent antibody assay using a battery of five monoclonal antibodies, by sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS/PAGE) of whole cell lysates, and by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay using primers for three DNA target sequences found in B. burgdorferi reference strain B-31. Transmission experiments indicate that the three Georgia isolates can infect experimentally inoculated hamsters and mice. Tick transmission of one of the isolates has been attempted so far; I. scapularis transmitted isolate SI-1 from hamsters to mice, but the lone-star tick, Amblyomma americanum, did not. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4
Oliver, J H; Chandler, F W; Luttrell, M P; James, A M; Stallknecht, D E; McGuire, B S; Hutcheson, H J; Cummins, G A; Lane, R S
This article describes historical notes about leprosy, from the discovery of the bacillus to the treatment done today. In this text we try to analyze the perception of some women, former leprosy patients, residents of Santa Teresa Hospital, located in the city of São Pedro de Alcântara, Santa Catarina State, on the stigma, prejudice and exclusion they suffered and still suffer today. We used the oral history of three women for research purposes and we found as a result of this "excluding" treatment over the years, that it built some kind of rejection about the disease. The search and affirmation of the identity of the stigmatized subject has become a constant. The model of social acceptance and the fact of being recognized as different and not discriminated is the main issue. PMID:20640261
Many scholars have studied and disputed over the names of diseases recorded in Rongchengshi, bamboo slips of the Chu kingdon in the Warring States collected in the Shanghai Museum. According to comments of scholars and other literature it could be concluded: JinLong in slip 2 and AnLong in slip 36 means deaf-mutism; MaoFa in slip 2 means blindness; PiBi in slip 2 means lameness; ZhangZhe in slip 2 means persons who are strong and tall; An in slip 3 that it is the variant form of Ying, which means thyroid enlargement; Lou in slip 2 it means kyphosis of the spine; Xia in slip 3 it means pruritus and scabies; ? in slip 36 means blindness; and Shang in slip 37 means bald head. PMID:21569693
The large content of mitochondria in metabolizing cells, coupled with intrinsic NADH and flavoprotein signals makes these signals ideal for characterizing tissue metabolic states in health and disease. The first few millimeters of tissue are reached by the fluorescence excitation in the exposed surfaces of the cervix, bladder, rectum and esophagus, etc. Thus, extensive use has been made of fluorescent signals by a large number of investigators for tumor diagnosis from an empirical standpoint where the fluorescent signals are generally diminished in precancerous and cancerous tissue. This article reviews the biochemical basis for the fluorescent signals and points to a 'gold standard' for fluorescent signal examination involving freeze trapping and low temperature two- or three-dimensional high resolution fluorescence spectroscopy.
Clostridium perfringens is estimated to be the second most common bacterial cause of foodborne illness in the United States, causing one million illnesses each year. Local, state, and territorial health departments voluntarily report C. perfringens outbreaks to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention through the Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System. Our analysis included outbreaks confirmed by laboratory evidence during 1998-2010. A food item was implicated if C. perfringens was isolated from food or based on epidemiologic evidence. Implicated foods were classified into one of 17 standard food commodities when possible. From 1998 to 2010, 289 confirmed outbreaks of C. perfringens illness were reported with 15,208 illnesses, 83 hospitalizations, and eight deaths. The number of outbreaks reported each year ranged from 16 to 31 with no apparent trend over time. The annual number of outbreak-associated illnesses ranged from 359 to 2,173, and the median outbreak size was 24 illnesses. Outbreaks occurred year round, with the largest number in November and December. Restaurants (43%) were the most common setting of food preparation. Other settings included catering facility (19%), private home (16%), prison or jail (11%), and other (10%). Among the 144 (50%) outbreaks attributed to a single food commodity, beef was the most common commodity (66 outbreaks, 46%), followed by poultry (43 outbreaks, 30%), and pork (23 outbreaks, 16%). Meat and poultry outbreaks accounted for 92% of outbreaks with an identified single food commodity. Outbreaks caused by C. perfringens occur regularly, are often large, and can cause substantial morbidity yet are preventable if contamination of raw meat and poultry products is prevented at the farm or slaughterhouse or, after contamination, if these products are properly handled and prepared, particularly in restaurants and catering facilities. PMID:23379281
Grass, Julian E; Gould, L Hannah; Mahon, Barbara E
Background The apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 (APOE-4) is associated with a genetic vulnerability to Alzheimer's disease (AD) and with AD-related abnormalities in cortical rhythms. However, it is unclear whether APOE-4 is linked to a specific pattern of intrinsic functional disintegration of the brain after the development of the disease or during its different stages. This study aimed at identifying spatial patterns and effects of APOE genotype on resting-state oscillations and functional connectivity in patients with AD, using a physiological connectivity index called “lagged phase synchronization”. Methodology/Principal Findings Resting EEG was recorded during awake, eyes-closed state in 125 patients with AD and 60 elderly controls. Source current density and functional connectivity were determined using eLORETA. Patients with AD exhibited reduced parieto-occipital alpha oscillations compared with controls, and those carrying the APOE-4 allele had reduced alpha activity in the left inferior parietal and temporo-occipital cortex relative to noncarriers. There was a decreased alpha2 connectivity pattern in AD, involving the left temporal and bilateral parietal cortex. Several brain regions exhibited increased lagged phase synchronization in low frequencies, specifically in the theta band, across and within hemispheres, where temporal lobe connections were particularly compromised. Areas with abnormal theta connectivity correlated with cognitive scores. In patients with early AD, we found an APOE-4-related decrease in interhemispheric alpha connectivity in frontal and parieto-temporal regions. Conclusions/Significance In addition to regional cortical dysfunction, as indicated by abnormal alpha oscillations, there are patterns of functional network disruption affecting theta and alpha bands in AD that associate with the level of cognitive disturbance or with the APOE genotype. These functional patterns of nonlinear connectivity may potentially represent neurophysiological or phenotypic markers of AD, and aid in early detection of the disorder.
PURPOSE Because avoidance of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is recommended for most individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD), we sought to characterize patterns of NSAID use among persons with CKD in the United States. METHODS A total of 12,065 adult (aged 20 years or older) participants in the cross-sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2004) responded to a questionnaire regarding their use of over-the-counter and prescription NSAIDs. NSAIDs (excluding aspirin and acetaminophen) were defined by self-report. CKD was categorized as no CKD, mild CKD (stages 1 and 2; urinary albumin-creatinine ratio of ?30 mg/g) and moderate to severe CKD (stages 3 and 4; estimated glomerular filtration rate of 15–59 mL/min/1.73 m2). Adjusted prevalence was calculated using multivariable logistic regression with appropriate population-based weighting. RESULTS Current use (nearly every day for 30 days or longer) of any NSAID was reported by 2.5%, 2.5%, and 5.0% of the US population with no, mild, and moderate to severe CKD, respectively; nearly all of the NSAIDs used were available over-the-counter. Among those with moderate to severe CKD who were currently using NSAIDs, 10.2% had a current NSAID prescription and 66.1% had used NSAIDs for 1 year or longer. Among those with CKD, disease awareness was not associated with reduced current NSAID use: (3.8% vs 3.9%, aware vs unaware; P=.979). CONCLUSIONS Physicians and other health care clinicians should be aware of use of NSAIDs among those with CKD in the United States and evaluate NSAID use in their CKD patients.
Behqet's disease is an intractabledisease with unknown causes which involves the mucosal membrane and skin of the eyes, the oral cavity and genital area. In Japan an estimated 10,000 patients suffer from this disease. Almost half of these patients are annoyed with articular symptoms. Occasionally, these articular symptoms may be protracted, making the treatment more difficult (1). The drug
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the fourth leading cause of death in the United States. The precise role of bacterial infection in the course and pathogenesis of COPD has been a source of controversy for decades. Chronic bacterial colonization of the lower airways contributes to airway inflammation; more research is needed to test the hypothesis that this bacterial colonization accelerates the progressive decline in lung function seen in COPD (the vicious circle hypothesis). The course of COPD is characterized by intermittent exacerbations of the disease. Studies of samples obtained by bronchoscopy with the protected specimen brush, analysis of the human immune response with appropriate immunoassays, and antibiotic trials reveal that approximately half of exacerbations are caused by bacteria. Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae are the most common causes of exacerbations, while Chlamydia pneumoniae causes a small proportion. The role of Haemophilus parainfluenzae and gram-negative bacilli remains to be established. Recent progress in studies of the molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis of infection in the human respiratory tract and in vaccine development guided by such studies promises to lead to novel ways to treat and prevent bacterial infections in COPD.
The city of Itabira, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, is located in the Espinhaço Mountain Range, an area that features large-scale mechanized iron ore pit mines. The current study evaluates the acute effects of inhalable particulate matter (PM10) in terms of emergency room visits due to respiratory and cardiovascular diseases in Itabira. Generalized additive Poisson regression models were adopted, controlling for temperature, humidity, and both short and long-term seasonality. Increases of 10mg/m(3) in PM10 were associated with increases in respiratory emergency room visits of 4% (95%CI: 2.2-5.8), at lags 0 and 1 for children and adolescents younger than 13 years of age, and of 12% (95%CI: 8.5-15.5) on the three subsequent days for adolescents (13 to 19 years of age). For cardiovascular diseases, the effect was acute (4%; 95%CI: 0.8-8.5) and mainly for the 45 to 64 age group. These results show that PM10 generated by open pit mining can lead to health problems in the exposed population. PMID:18038038
Braga, Alfésio Luís Ferreira; Pereira, Luiz Alberto Amador; Procópio, Marly; André, Paulo Afonso de; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário do Nascimento
A questionnaire was widely distributed in 2011 to estimate the global prevalence of Marek's disease (MD) and gain a better understanding of current control strategies and future concerns. A total of 112 questionnaires were returned representing 116 countries from sources including national branch secretaries of the World Veterinary Poultry Association, vaccine, breeder, and production companies, as well as MD researchers from various backgrounds. Each country listed on a questionnaire was recorded as an individual entry, and on average there were 2.0 entries per country (median 1; range 1-13). All flock types were listed as having increased MD incidence during the last 10 yr in close to 50% of countries by at least one respondent, with the majority of these countries located within French-speaking Africa, Eastern Europe, East Asia, and South America. Only 18 countries (16%) indicated increasing MD incidence was likely due to higher virulent strains, while the presence of other immunosuppressive diseases was a more common explanation. Increased use of CVI988/Rispens was cited as the most likely reason for decreasing MD incidence in 49 countries (42%). In the United States, MD incidence has continued to decrease during the last 10 yr, reaching a record low in 2007 (0.0008%) as measured by leukosis condemnation rates in broilers at slaughter. However, a recent increase of leukosis condemnations in North Carolina and Pennsylvania needs to be closely monitored. PMID:23901765
Protein C is a natural vitamin K-dependent plasma anticoagulant, deficiencies of which have been found in patients with recurrent thrombosis and warfarin-induced skin necrosis. To appreciate more fully the role of protein C in diseasestates and during oral anticoagulation, a new functional assay for protein C involving adsorption of plasma protein C on a Ca+2-dependent monoclonal antibody, elution, quantitative activation, and assessment of plasma anticoagulant activity, has been developed. When oral anticoagulation is initiated, the anticoagulant activity of protein C decreases to a greater extent than either the amidolytic or immunologic levels. During stabilized warfarin treatment, there is no correlation between either amidolytic or antigenic levels and the functional protein C activity, suggesting that measurement of protein C anticoagulant activity may be necessary to reflect adequately the anticoagulant protection afforded by this protein. In contrast, there was a strong correlation between anticoagulant and amidolytic and immunologic levels in liver failure and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Two patients with thromboembolic disease have been identified who exhibit a marked decrease in anticoagulant activity, but who have normal immunologic and amidolytic levels. Thus, this assay permits assessment of protein C in individuals who have received anticoagulant treatment and identification of a new class of protein C-deficient individuals.
Vigano D'Angelo, S; Comp, P C; Esmon, C T; D'Angelo, A
Background: Although crystalline silica exposure is associated with silicosis, lung cancer, pulmonary tuberculosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), there is less support for an association with autoimmune disease, and renal disease. Methods: Using data from the US National Occupational Mortality Surveillance (NOMS) system, a matched case-control design was employed to examine each of several diseases (including silicosis, lung cancer, stomach cancer, oesophageal cancer, COPD, pulmonary tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and various types of renal disease). Cases were subjects whose death certificate mentioned the disease of interest. A separate control group for each of the diseases of interest was selected from among subjects whose death certificate did not mention the disease of interest or any of several diseases reported to be associated with crystalline silica exposure. Subjects were assigned into a qualitative crystalline silica exposure category based on the industry/occupation pairing found on their death certificate. We also investigated whether silicotics had a higher risk of disease compared to those without silicosis. Results: Those postulated to have had detectable crystalline silica exposure had a significantly increased risk for silicosis, COPD, pulmonary tuberculosis, and rheumatoid arthritis. In addition, a significant trend of increasing risk with increasing silica exposure was observed for these same conditions and for lung cancer. Those postulated to have had the greatest crystalline silica exposure had a significantly increased risk for silicosis, lung cancer, COPD, and pulmonary tuberculosis only. Finally, those with silicosis had a significantly increased risk for COPD, pulmonary tuberculosis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Conclusions: This study corroborates the association between crystalline silica exposure and silicosis, lung cancer, COPD, and pulmonary tuberculosis. In addition, support is provided for an association between crystalline silica exposure and rheumatoid arthritis.
Calvert, G; Rice, F; Boiano, J; Sheehy, J; Sanderson, W
Infectious diseases are a long-standing and continuing threat to health and welfare, with their containment dependent on national disease surveillance and response capacities. This article discusses infectious disease surveillance in the United States and the United Kingdom, examining historical national traditions for identifying and controlling infectious disease risks and how globalization and technical advances have influenced the evolution of their respective approaches. The two systems developed in different but parallel ways. In the United States, surveillance remained quite localized at the state level until the early twentieth century and still retains many of those features. The U.K. approach became centralized from the latter part of the nineteenth century and has principally remained so. In both cases, disease surveillance was traditionally conceived as a public good, where national or local authorities held sovereign rights and power to protect public health. With the increasing globalized nature of infectious disease, such notions shifted toward surveillance as a global public good, with countries responding in turn by creating new global health governance arrangements and regulations. However, the limitations of current surveillance systems and the strong hold of national interests place into question the provision of surveillance as a global public good. These issues are further highlighted with the introduction of new surveillance technologies, which offer opportunities for improved disease detection and identification but also create potential tensions between individual rights, corporate profit, equitable access to technology, and national and global public goods. PMID:21498799
Quantitative platelet disorders (i.e., thrombocytosis or thrombocytopenia) may also be associated with qualitative platelet alterations. Clonal thrombocythemia (CT), reactive thrombocytosis (RT), immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), and thrombocytopenia of aplastic pancytopenia (AA) or infiltrative bone marrow disorders represent the major classes of pathological thrombopoiesis. Glycoprotein V may serve as an in vivo marker of platelet activation in thrombotic and hemorrhagic states. The aim of this study was to assess circulating plasma soluble platelet glycoprotein V (sGPV) concentrations in distinct diseasestates of pathological thrombopoiesis. The whole study group comprised 20 patients with thrombocytopenia, 32 patients with thrombocytosis and 14 healthy adults as the control group. sGPV was significantly increased in the group of thrombocytosis patients in comparison to the thrombocytopenic group and the healthy control groups. When sGPV levels were corrected according to platelet number (sGPV/tr), this ratio was very high in patients with thrombocytopenia compared to patients with thrombocytosis and the control group. Our results suggest that there is an ongoing platelet activation associated with thrombocytosis regardless of its origin is either CT or RT. Therefore, glycoprotein V system may serve to activate residual platelets in thrombocytopenia regardless of its origin is either ITP or AA. PMID:18277814
Acar, Kadir; Aksu, Salih; Beyazit, Yavuz; Haznedaroglu, Ibrahim C; Koca, Ebru; Cetiner, Deniz; Sayinalp, Nilgün; Buyukasik, Yahya; Goker, Hakan; Kirazli, Serafettin; Ozcebe, Osman I
We report two cases of Grave's disease (GD) caracterized by the succession of hypothyroid and hyperthyroid states. Case 1: A 32 years old woman, has presented initially a typical GD with hyperthyroidism. Grave's ophtalmopathy and homogenous goiter. Four months later, she presented a spontaneous hypothyroidism necessiting treatment with thyroxine and a severe myasthenia gravis. More later (6 months), she experienced symptoms of hyperthyroidism after thymectomy. The level of anti-thyrotropin-receptor antibodies (TSab) was very high (141 UI/I, NV < 10). Case 2: A 29 years old woman has been treated by thyroxine (150 microg/day) for a primary hypothyroidism. Ten months later, she presented symptoms of hyperthyroidism even after stoppage of thyroxine. TSH value was decreased (TSH < 0.05 microU/ml) and FT4 level was raised (FT4 = 25.5 pmol/l). The thyroid antibodies were positive. We discuss, after review of the litterature, the physiopathological mecanisms of these changes in the thyroid state, particularly the role of the blocking and stimulating anti-thyrotropin-receptor antibodies. PMID:17722789
Cherif, Lotfi; Ben Abdallah, Néjib; Khairi, Karima; Hadj Ali, Inçaf; Turki, Sami; Ben Maïz, Hédi
Gastroesophageal reflux disease is the most common esophageal disorder encountered in the United States. Gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms are associated with a negative quality of life and increased healthcare costs and therefore require an effective management strategy. Although proton pump inhibitors remain the primary treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease, they do not cure the disorder and can leave patients with persistent symptoms despite treatment. Moreover, patients are still at risk of developing such complications as peptic strictures, Barrett's metaplasia, and esophageal cancer. Although laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication has been the conventional alternative treatment for those patients who develop complications of gastroesophageal reflux disease, have intractable symptoms, or wish to discontinue taking proton pump inhibitors, investigators have persisted in developing a number of endoscopic approaches to the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease. The present report reviews the history of endoscopic treatments devised for the management of gastroesophageal reflux disease and explores the published data and outcomes associated with the latest approach-endoscopic fundoplication using the EsophyX2 device. PMID:22513318
Parkinson disease (PD) is characterized by a number of motor and behavioral abnormalities that could be considered deficits of a "no task" or "resting" state, including resting motor findings and defects in emerging from a resting state (e.g., resting tremor, elevated resting tone, abulia, akinesia, apathy). PET imaging, and recently, the MRI technique of continuous arterial spin labeling (CASL) have shown evidence of changes in metabolic patterns in individuals with PD. The purpose of this study was to learn if the presence of PD could be "predicted" based on resting fluctuations of the BOLD signal. Participants were 15 healthy controls, 14 subjects with PD, and 1 subject who presented as a control but later developed PD. The amplitude of the low frequency fluctuation (ALFF) was used as an index of brain activity level in the resting state. Participants with PD using this index showed a reliable decrease in activity in a number of regions, including the supplementary motor cortex, the mesial prefrontal cortex, the right middle frontal gyrus, and the left cerebellum (lobule VII/VIII) as well as increased activity in the right cerebellum (lobule IV/V). Using a cross validation approach we term "Reliability Mapping of Regional Differences" (RMRD) to analyze our sample, we were able to reliably distinguish participants with PD from controls with 92% sensitivity and 87% specificity. Our "pre-diagnostic" subject segregated in our analysis with the PD group. These results suggest that resting fMRI should be considered for development as a biomarker and analytical tool for evaluation of PD. PMID:21924367
Skidmore, F M; Yang, M; Baxter, L; von Deneen, K M; Collingwood, J; He, G; White, K; Korenkevych, D; Savenkov, A; Heilman, K M; Gold, M; Liu, Y
There is a lack of a neuroimaging biomarker for HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorder. We report magnetoencephalography (MEG) data from patients with HIV disease and risk-group appropriate controls that were collected to determine the MEG frequency profile during the resting state, and the stability of the profile over 24 weeks. 17 individuals (10 HIV+, 7 HIV?) completed detailed neurobehavioral evaluations and 10 minutes of resting-state MEG acquisition with a 306-channel whole-head system. The entire evaluation and MEG measurement were repeated 24 weeks later. Relative MEG power in the delta (0–4 Hz), theta (4–7 Hz), alpha (8–12 Hz), beta (12–30 Hz) and low gamma (30–50 Hz) bands was computed for 8 predefined sensor groups. The median stability of resting-state relative power over 24 weeks of follow-up was 0.80 with eyes closed, and 0.72 with eyes open. The relative gamma power in the right occipital (t(15) = 1.99, p < .06, r = ?.46) and right frontal (t(15t) = 2.15, p < .05, r = ?.48) regions was associated with serostatus. The effect of age on delta power was greater in the seropositive subjects (r2 = .51) than in the seronegative subjects (r2 = .11). Individuals with high theta-to-gamma ratios tended to have lower cognitive test performance, regardless of serostatus. The stability of the wide-band MEG frequency profiles over 24 weeks supports the utility of MEG as a biomarker. The links between the MEG profile, serostatus, and cognition suggest further research on its potential in HAND is needed.
Becker, James T.; Fabrizio, Melissa; Sudre, Gustavo; Haridis, Anna; Ambrose, Timothy; Aizenstein, Howard J.; Eddy, William; Lopez, Oscar L.; Wolk, David; Parkkonen, Lauri; Bagic, Anto
The relationship between periodontal disease and systemic disease has gained much attention in recent years in the den- tal profession and from national health care agencies. Two third-party providers are now modifying their dental reimbursements for patients who have periodontal disease and are pregnant or have cardiovascular disease. However, there are few reports in the dental or dental hygiene literature
Rebecca S. Wilder; Katherine M. Thomas; Heather Jared
We introduce an intradural approach to spinal cord stimulation for the relief of intractable pain, and describe the biophysical rationale that underlies its design and performance requirements. The proposed device relies on wireless, inductive coupling between a pial surface implant and its epidural controller, and we present the results of benchtop experiments that demonstrate the ability to transmit and receive a frequency-modulated 1.6 MHz carrier signal between micro-coil antennae scaled to the ~ 1 cm dimensions of the implant, at power levels of about 5 mW. Plans for materials selection, microfabrication, and other aspects of future development are presented and discussed.
Howard, M. A.; Utz, M.; Brennan, T. J.; Dalm, B. D.; Viljoen, S.; Jeffery, N. D.; Gillies, G. T.
There is now substantial evidence that Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease spirochete, undergoes major alterations in antigenic composition as it cycles between its arthropod and mammalian hosts. In this report, we cultivated B. burgdorferi 297 within dialysis membrane chambers implanted into the peritoneal cavities of rats to induce antigenic changes similar to those which occur during mammalian infection. Chamber-grown spirochetes, which remained fully virulent, did not express either outer surface protein A or Lp6.6, lipoproteins known to be downregulated after mammalian infection. However, they did, express p21, a well characterized outer surface protein E homologue, which is selectively expressed during infection. SDS-PAGE, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and immunoblot analysis revealed that chamber-grown borreliae also expressed uncharacterized proteins not expressed by in vitro-cultivated spirochetes; reactivity with sera from mice chronically infected with B. burgdorferi 297 confirmed that many of these novel proteins are selectively expressed during experimental murine infection. Finally, we used differential display RT-PCR to identify transcripts of other differentially expressed B. burgdorferi genes. One gene (2.9-7lpB) identified with this technique belongs to a family of genes located on homologous 32- and 18-kb circular plasmids. The lipoprotein encoded by 2.9-7lpB was shown to be selectively expressed by chamber-grown spirochetes and by spirochetes during experimental infection. Cultivation of B. burgdorferi in rat peritoneal implants represents a novel system for studying Lyme disease spirochetes in a mammalian host-adapted state.
Akins, D R; Bourell, K W; Caimano, M J; Norgard, M V; Radolf, J D
Impairments in mitochondria and transcription are important factors in the pathogenesis of Huntington disease (HD), a neurodegenerative disease caused by a polyglutamine expansion in the huntingtin protein. This study investigated the effect of different metabolic states and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) activation on sensitivity to cellular stressors such as H(2)O(2) or thapsigargin in HD. Striatal precursor cells expressing wild type (STHdh(Q7)) or mutant huntingtin (STHdh(Q111)) were prepared in different metabolic conditions (glucose vs. pyruvate). Due to the fact that STHdh(Q111) cells exhibit mitochondrial deficits, we expected that in the pyruvate condition, where ATP is generated primarily by the mitochondria, there would be greater differences in cell death between the two cell types compared to the glucose condition. Intriguingly, it was the glucose condition that gave rise to greater differences in cell death. In the glucose condition, thapsigargin treatment resulted in a more rapid loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (??m), a greater activation of caspases (3, 8, and 9), and a significant increase in superoxide/reactive oxygen species (ROS) in STHdh(Q111) compared to STHdh(Q7), while both cell types showed similar kinetics of ??m-loss and similar levels of superoxide/ROS in the pyruvate condition. This suggests that bioenergetic deficiencies are not the primary contributor to the enhanced sensitivity of STHdh(Q111) cells to stressors compared to the STHdh(Q7) cells. PPAR? activation significantly attenuated thapsigargin-induced cell death, concomitant with an inhibition of caspase activation, a delay in ??m loss, and a reduction of superoxide/ROS generation in STHdh(Q111) cells. Expression of mutant huntingtin in primary neurons induced superoxide/ROS, an effect that was significantly reduced by constitutively active PPAR?. These results provide significant insight into the bioenergetic disturbances in HD with PPAR? being a potential therapeutic target for HD. PMID:22276192
Jin, Youngnam N; Hwang, Woong Y; Jo, Chulman; Johnson, Gail V W
The presence of hepatic steatosis in individuals without a known cause of chronic liver disease, including excessive alcohol consumption, is the hallmark of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Although NAFLD is usually associated with obesity, nonobese patients can also present with NAFLD ("lean NAFLD"). Our objective was to determine factors independently associated with lean NAFLD in the United States population. For this purpose, we used data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES III) conducted between 1988 and 1994 with available hepatic ultrasound, clinico-demographic, and laboratory data. NAFLD was defined as the presence of moderate-severe hepatic steatosis (by ultrasound), the absence of excessive alcohol use (>20 g/d in men and 10 g/d in women), hepatitis B surface antigen(-), and hepatitis C antibody(-). Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) was defined as having moderate-severe steatosis and elevated aminotransferases in the presence of type 2 diabetes or insulin resistance (IR). Logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors of lean NAFLD. As a result, of the 11,613 participants included in the study, 2185 (18.77% ± 0.76%) had NAFLD; of these, 307 (11.78% ± 1.03%) had NASH. Multivariate analysis showed that lean NAFLD was independently associated with younger age, female sex, and a decreased likelihood of having IR and hypercholesterolemia (p values < 0.05). Additionally, multivariate analysis showed that NASH was independently associated with being Hispanic, having a younger age, and having components of metabolic syndrome such as hypertension (p values < 0.05). Therefore, we conclude that lean individuals with NAFLD have a different clinical profile than overweight-obese individuals with NAFLD. Furthermore, patients with NASH are commonly Hispanic and have components of metabolic syndrome. PMID:23117851
Summary A number of inflammatory diseasestates occur with greatly increased frequency in individuals inheriting the human major histocompatibility complex class I allele HLA-B2Z In a minority of cases, namely those with B27-associated reactive arthritis, there is good evidence that the dis- ease state is triggered by infection with an enteric or genitourinary bacterial pathogen. For the majority of B27-associated
Joel D. Tautog; James A. Richardson; JoAnne T. Croft; William A. Simmons; S Ming Zhou
Aims To compare the disease-specific mortality rates of the indigenous populations of New Zealand, Australia, Canada, and the United States with the non-indigenous populations in each country. Methods For New Zealand, Australia, Canada, and the United States, we compiled and calculated (from crude data) ethnic-specific mortality rates by primary cause of death in 1999 for the indigenous and non-indigenous populations
Dale Bramley; Paul Hebert; Rod Jackson; Mark Chassin
The study examined a possible association between HIV infection and conventional sexually transmitted diseases (STDS) in a population of 700 patients seen in some hospitals and clinics in Lagos State between November 1997 and December 1999. The patients were drawn mainly from LUTH and Jolad hospitals in Lagos State. In these hospitals, patients who presented with symptoms of STDS were screened clinically and microbiologically for agents of STDS and HIV antibodies. Screening was carried out using conventional methods. A total of 150 (21.5%) were found positive for various STDS while 550 (78.5%) were negative Also, 109 (15.8%) were sero-positive for HIV while 591 (84.4%) were sero-negative. The frequency of STDS diagnosed were, Treponema pallidum, 38(25.3%), Neisseria gonorrhoea 3(2.0%), Chlamydia trachomatis 26(17.3), Hepatitis B virus 60(40.0%) Staphylococcus aureaus, 20 (13.3%) and Candida albicans 3(2.0%). Data showed that Syphillis was the most prevalent STDS diagnosed while Calbicans and N. gonorrhoea are the least. Amongst the 150 (21.5%) patients positive with STDS, 82(54.65%) were found to be positive for HIV antibodies. The remaining 68(45.3%) patients were negative for HIV. The difference in sero-prevalence on the true group of patients rates was significant. The higher rate in the STDS patients strongly suggest some association between HIV infections andSTDS amongst the patients studied p = 0.05. It was also recorded that HIV-1 infection is four times more prevalent than HIV-2 in these patients. PMID:12403041
Otuonye, N M; Olukoya, D K; Odunukwe, N N; Idigbe, E O; Udeaja, M N; Bamidele, M; Onyewuchie, J I; Oparaugu, C T; Ayelari, O S; Oyekunle, B
Objective The relationship of increased alcohol taxes to reductions in alcohol-related harm is well established. Few studies, however, have examined the effects of sudden decreases in alcohol tax rates or effects of narrow tax changes limited to specific beverage types. In the current study, we: (1) examine whether tax increases on spirits have similar effects in reducing alcohol-related disease mortality as increasing taxes on all types of alcoholic beverages simultaneously, and (2) evaluate effects of beer-specific tax decreases in New York State on mortality. Method We used a time-series, quasi-experimental research design, including non-alcohol deaths within New York State and other states’ rates of alcohol-related disease mortality for comparison. The dataset included 456 monthly observations of mortality in New York State over a 38-year period (1969–2006). We used a random-effects approach and included several other important covariates. Results Alcohol-related disease mortality declined by 7.0% after a 1990 tax increase for spirits and beer. A spirits-only tax increase (in 1972) was not significantly associated with mortality but a data anomaly increased error in this effect estimate. Small tax decreases on beer between 1996 and 2006 had no measurable effect on mortality. Doubling the beer tax from $0.11 to $0.22 per gallon, a return to New York State’s 1990 levels, would decrease deaths by an estimated 250 deaths per year. Conclusions Excise tax increases on beer and spirits were associated with reductions in alcohol-related disease mortality. Modifying tax rates on a single beverage type does not appear to be as effective as doing so on multiple alcoholic beverages simultaneously. In New York, small decreases in beer taxes were not significantly associated with alcohol-related disease mortality.
Delcher, Chris; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.; Wagenaar, Alexander C.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain could be a powerful tool for discovering early biomarkers in clinically presymptomatic carriers of the Huntington's disease gene mutation (preHD). The aim of this study was to investigate the sensitivity of resting-state perfusion MRI in preHD and to identify neural changes, which could serve as biomarkers for future clinical trials. Differences in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in 18 preHD and 18 controls were assessed with a novel MRI method based on perfusion images obtained with continuous arterial spin labeling. High-resolution structural data were collected to test for changes of brain volume. Compared with controls, preHD individuals showed decreased rCBF in medial and lateral prefrontal regions and increased rCBF in the precuneus. PreHD near to symptom onset additionally showed decreased rCBF in the putamen and increased rCBF in the hippocampus. Network analyses revealed an abnormal lateral prefrontal pattern in preHD far and near to motor onset. These data suggest early changes of frontostriatal baseline perfusion in preHD independent of substantial reductions of gray matter volume. This study also shows the feasibility of detecting neural changes in preHD with a robust MRI technique that would be suitable for longitudinal multisite application. PMID:21559028
Wolf, Robert C; Grön, Georg; Sambataro, Fabio; Vasic, Nenad; Wolf, Nadine D; Thomann, Philipp A; Saft, Carsten; Landwehrmeyer, G Bernhard; Orth, Michael
Background Cholesterol deposition in arterial wall drives atherosclerosis. The key goal of this study was to examine the relationship between plaque cholesterol content and patient characteristics that typically associate with diseasestate and lesion vulnerability. Quantitative assays for free cholesterol, cholesteryl ester, triglyceride, and protein markers in atherosclerotic plaque were established and applied to plaque samples from multiple patients and arterial beds (Carotid and peripheral arteries; 98 lesions in total). Results We observed a lower cholesterol level in restenotic than primary peripheral plaque. We observed a trend toward a higher level in symptomatic than asymptomatic carotid plaque. Peripheral plaque from a group of well-managed diabetic patients displayed a weak trend of more free cholesterol deposition than plaque from non-diabetic patients. Plaque triglyceride content exhibited less difference in the same comparisons. We also measured cholesterol in multiple segments within one carotid plaque sample, and found that cholesterol content positively correlated with markers of plaque vulnerability, and negatively correlated with stability markers. Conclusions Our results offer important biological validation of cholesterol as a key lipid marker for plaque severity. Results also suggest cholesterol is a more sensitive plaque marker than routine histological staining for neutral lipids.
The formation of intracellular aggregates is a common etiology of several neurodegenerative diseases. Mitochondrial defects and oxidative stress has been pointed as the major mechanistic links between the accumulation of intracellular aggregates and cell death. In this work we propose a "metabolic cell death by overcrowding" as an alternative hypothesis. Using a model of neuron metabolism, we predict that as the concentration of protein aggregates increases the neurons transit through three different metabolic phases. The first phase (0-6 mM) corresponds with the normal neuron state, where the neuronal activity is sustained by the oxidative phosphorylation of lactate. The second phase (6-8.6 mM) is characterized by a mixed utilization of lactate and glucose as energy substrates and a switch from ammonia uptake to ammonia release by neurons. In the third phase (8.6-9.3 mM) neurons are predicted to support their energy demands from glycolysis and an alternative pathway for energy generation, involving reactions from serine synthesis, one carbon metabolism and the glycine cleavage system. The model also predicts a decrease in the maximum neuronal capacity for energy generation with increasing the concentration of protein aggregates. Ultimately this maximum capacity becomes zero when the protein aggregates reach a concentration of about 9.3 mM, predicting the cessation of neuronal activity. PMID:23667676
The potential applications of stem cell therapies for treating neurological disorders are enormous. Many laboratories are focusing on stem cell treatments for CNS diseases, including spinal cord injury, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, multiple sclerosis, stroke, traumatic brain injury, and epilepsy. Among the many stem cell types under testing for neurological treatments, the most common are fetal and
Janice R. Naegele; Xu Maisano; Jia Yang; Sara Royston; Efrain Ribeiro
The pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease is highly complex. While several pathologies characterize this disease, amyloid plaques, composed of the ?-amyloid peptide are hallmark neuropathological lesions in Alzheimer's disease brain. Indeed, a wealth of evidence suggests that ?-amyloid is central to the pathophysiology of AD and is likely to play an early role in this intractable neurodegenerative disorder. The BACE1 enzyme is essential for the generation of ?-amyloid. BACE1 knockout mice do not produce ?-amyloid and are free from Alzheimer's associated pathologies including neuronal loss and certain memory deficits. The fact that BACE1 initiates the formation of ?-amyloid, and the observation that BACE1 levels are elevated in this disease provide direct and compelling reasons to develop therapies directed at BACE1 inhibition thus reducing ?-amyloid and its associated toxicities. However, new data indicates that complete abolishment of BACE1 may be associated with specific behavioral and physiological alterations. Recently a number of non-APP BACE1 substrates have been identified. It is plausible that failure to process certain BACE1 substrates may underlie some of the reported abnormalities in the BACE1-deficient mice. Here we review BACE1 biology, covering aspects ranging from the initial identification and characterization of this enzyme to recent data detailing the apparent dysregulation of BACE1 in Alzheimer's disease. We pay special attention to the putative function of BACE1 during healthy conditions and discuss in detail the relationship that exists between key risk factors for AD, such as vascular disease (and downstream cellular consequences), and the pathogenic alterations in BACE1 that are observed in the diseasedstate.
Court-ordered access to high-cost drugs for rare genetic diseases, such as Fabry Disease (alpha-galactosidase-A deficiency), is a growing phenomenon as yet lacking systematic study. An observational, cross-sectional and retrospective study was conducted to characterize the lawsuits related to access to treatment for Fabry Disease by Enzyme Replacement Therapy in the State of Rio Grande do Sul prior to 2007. The study identified 13 lawsuits and 17 plaintiffs, 11 requesting alfa and 6 betagalsidase. The State of RS, the Federal Government, and 5 municipalities figured as defendants, in the form of joinder of parties or otherwise. There were 13 requests for interlocutory relief of which 12 were granted, and 2 sentences were handed down, both favorable. "Risk of death" was alleged by doctors in 4 prescriptions and by lawyers in the 13 lawsuits. The data suggest the lack of discussions combining aspects of medical efficacy and safety, cost-effectiveness, economic impact, and legal and constitutional arguments, which requires a specific policy for rare genetic diseases to standardize access to treatment. PMID:23099758
Sartori Junior, Dailor; Leivas, Paulo Gilberto Cogo; Souza, Mônica Vinhas de; Krug, Bárbara Corrêa; Balbinotto, Giacomo; Schwartz, Ida Vanessa Doederlein
A number of inflammatory diseasestates occur with greatly increased frequency in individuals inheriting the human major histocompatibility complex class I allele HLA-B27. In a minority of cases, namely those with B27-associated reactive arthritis, there is good evidence that the diseasestate is triggered by infection with an enteric or genitourinary bacterial pathogen. For the majority of B27-associated disease, no definite pathogenetic role for bacteria has been established. However, in these latter cases intestinal inflammation can often be demonstrated, and it sometimes occupies a major part of the clinical picture. Rats transgenic for B27 are known to develop a disorder resembling B27-associated human disease, with prominent intestinal, joint, skin, and male genital inflammatory lesions. We report here that B27 transgenic rats raised in a germfree environment do not develop inflammatory intestinal or peripheral joint disease, whereas the skin and genital inflammatory lesions are unaffected by the germfree state. These findings support the concept that gut and joint inflammation are pathogenetically closely related, and they provide direct evidence that the commensal gut flora play an important role in the pathogenesis of B27-associated gut and joint inflammation.
The present invention relates to methods and compositions for the detection, diagnosis, prevention and treatment of a disease, specifically cardiac, kidney or inflammatory disease, and related disorders. The present invention also relates to compositions and methods useful in the diagnosis, prevention and therapeutic treatment of a disease, specifically cardiac, kidney or inflammatory disease. Specifically, methods and compositions are provided for the diagnostic evaluation and prognosis of conditions involving a disease, specifically cardiac, kidney or inflammatory disease, for the identification of subjects exhibiting a predisposition to such conditions, for modulating the effect of these differentially expressed genes, for monitoring patients undergoing clinical evaluation for the prevention and treatment of a disease, specifically cardiac, kidney or inflammatory disease, and its disorders, and for monitoring the efficacy of compounds used in clinical trials.
Stanton; Lawrence W. (Redwood City, CA); White; R. Tyler (Fremont, CA); Damm; Deborah L. (Redwood City, CA); Lewicki; John A. (Los Gatos, CA); Joly; Alison (San Mateo, CA); Schreiner; George F. (Los Altos Hills, CA)
In this case report, we describe the effect of ketamine infusion in a case of severe refractory complex regional pain syndrome I (CRPS I). The patient was initially diagnosed with CRPS I in her right upper extremity. Over the next 6 years, CRPS was consecutively diagnosed in her thoracic region, left upper extremity, and both lower extremities. The severity of her pain, combined with the extensive areas afflicted by CRPS, caused traumatic emotional problems for this patient. Conventional treatments, including anticonvulsants, bisphosphonates, oral steroids and opioids, topical creams, dorsal column spinal cord stimulation, spinal morphine infusion, sympathetic ganglion block, and sympathectomy, failed to provide long-term relief from pain. An N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist inhibitor, ketamine, was recently suggested to be effective at resolving intractable pain. The patient was then given several infusions of intravenous ketamine. After the third infusion, the edema, discoloration, and temperature of the affected areas normalized. The patient became completely pain-free. At one-year of follow-up, the patient reported that she has not experienced any pain since the last ketamine infusion. Treatment with intravenous ketamine appeared to be effective in completely resolving intractable pain caused by severe refractory CRPS I. Future research on this treatment is needed. PMID:18523505
Shirani, Peyman; Salamone, Alicia R; Schulz, Paul E; Edmondson, Everton A
Optic neuropathy and transverse myelitis (TM) are common symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS) but may also be seen in association with the antibody-mediated autoimmune disorder, neuromyelitis optica (NMO). We report a female patient presenting with intractable vomiting and hiccups and TM shortly followed by an acute encephalopathy, most likely due to NMO spectrum disorder. Serum and cerebrospinal fluid NMO antibodies were negative. Serial MRI abnormalities included longitudinally extensive TM of the cervical cord, focal T2-weighted hyperintensity of the area postrema and lesions in both thalami and the hypothalamus. Clinical and MRI involvement of these brain regions, which have high aquaporin expression, in conjunction with a spinal lesion extending over three vertebral segments strongly favoured a diagnosis of NMO. She required several courses of intravenous methylprednisolone and plasmapheresis before receiving intravenous rituximab therapy. NMO spectrum disorder should be considered in the differential diagnosis of atypical central nervous system presentations such as intractable vomiting and hiccups and acute encephalopathy. Recognition of this syndrome has significant implications as its treatment and prognosis differs from MS. PMID:22925418
Patel, Vishal; Griffith, Neil C; Blackwood, Emma; Dias, Manu; Cordato, Dennis J
Introduction The management of intestinal injury can be challenging, because of the intractable nature of the condition. Surgical treatment for patients with severe adhesions sometimes results in further intestinal injury. We report a conservative management strategy using percutaneous endoscopic gastrojejunostomy for an intractable small bowel surgical injury after repeated surgeries. Case presentation A 78-year-old Japanese woman had undergone several abdominal surgeries including urinary cystectomy for bladder cancer. After this operation, she developed peritonitis as a result of a small bowel perforation thought to be due to an injury sustained during the operation, with signs consistent with systemic inflammatory response syndrome: body temperature 38.5°C, heart rate 92 beats/minute, respiratory rate 23 breaths/minute, white blood cell count 11.7 × 109/L (normal range 4-11 × 109/?L). Two further surgical interventions failed to control the leak, and our patient's clinical condition and nutritional status continued to deteriorate. We then performed percutaneous endoscopic gastrojejunostomy, and continuous suction was applied as an alternative to a third surgical intervention. With this endoscopic intervention, the intestinal leak gradually closed and oral feeding became possible. Conclusion We suggest that the technique of percutaneous endoscopic gastrojejunostomy combined with a somatostatin analog is a feasible alternative to surgical treatment for small bowel leakage, and is less invasive than a nasojejunal tube.
Symptoms of huanglongbing (HLB), one of the most serious diseases of citrus in Asia and Africa, have been noticed in March 2004 in the Araraquara region of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. HLB has not been reported previously from America. The causal HLB bacteria, Candidatus Liberibacter africanus in Africa and Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus in Asia, can be detected in symptomatic citrus
Jean Luc Danet; Pedro Takao Yamamoto; Joseph Marie Bove; Adhemar Pereira de Barros
In August of 2011, potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers grown in the lower Columbia Basin of southern Washington State and northern Oregon were observed with internal discolorations suggestive of the zebra chip disease (ZC). Symptoms included brown spots, streaks, and stripes in and near the vascular ...
Symptoms of huanglongbing (HLB), one of the most serious diseases of citrus in Asia and Africa, have been noticed in March 2004 in the Araraquara region of São Paulo State, Brazil. HLB has not been reported previously from America. The causal HLB bacteria, Candidatus Liberibacter africanus in Africa and Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus in Asia, can be detected in symptomatic citrus
Diva do Carmo Teixeira; Jean Luc Danet; Sandrine Eveillard; Elaine Cristina Martins; Waldir Cintra de Jesus Junior; Pedro Takao Yamamoto; Silvio Aparecido Lopes; Renato Beozzo Bassanezi; Antonio Juliano Ayres; Colette Saillard; Joseph Marie Bové
A selective distribution of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathological lesions in specific cortical layers isolates the hippocampus from the rest of the brain. However, functional connectivity between the hippocampus and other brain regions remains unclear in AD. Here, we employ a resting state functional MRI (fMRI) to examine changes in hippocampal connectivity comparing 13 patients with mild AD versus 13 healthy
Liang Wang; Yufeng Zang; Yong He; Meng Liang; Xinqing Zhang; Lixia Tian; Tao Wu; Tianzi Jiang; Kuncheng Li
Objectives: The aims of this study were to estimate the proportion of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) in the United States with different stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and to describe glycemic control and antidiabetic drug use among them.Methods: Using data from the Fourth National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES IV) for the years 1999 through
Problem/Condition: Since 1978, CDC, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists have collaborated on the Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance System (WBDOSS) for collecting and reporting data on occurrences and causes...
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) remain a major public health challenge in the United States. CDC estimates that approximately 19 million new infections occur each year almost half of them among young people 15 to 24 years of age. In addition to the b...
The objective of this study is to determine how patient age, sex, creatinine level, and comorbidity affect referral decisions for the treatment of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and whether these decisions are affected by physician characteristics in three countries: Canada, the United States, and Britain. A vignette-based questionnaire was mailed to a random sample of family physicians in Ontario, Canada
Ruth Wilson; Marshall Godwin; Rachelle Seguin; Peter Burrows; Patrick Caulfield; Edwin Toffelmire; Ross Morton; Peter White; Mary Rogerson; George Eisele; Gene Bont
On August 29, 2005, Hurricane Katrina struck states along the Gulf Coast of the United States. In the days after the hurricane struck, approximately 750 evacuation centers were established in at least 18 states to accommodate more than 200,000 evacuees. State and local health departments, with assistance from CDC, initiated enhanced infectious disease surveillance and outbreak response activities, implemented by teams of public health and rescue workers, including military personnel. Outbreak monitoring included direct reporting of conditions of public health significance to public health agencies; daily contact between CDC and local public health officials; canvassing of reports from CDC, public health departments, and news media for potential infectious disease outbreaks; and investigation of reports of infectious disease with outbreak potential. This report summarizes infectious disease and dermatologic conditions reported during the first 3 weeks after the hurricane, before effective local surveillance was fully implemented. One outbreak of norovirus was reported among evacuees in Texas; no other outbreaks requiring unusual mobilization of public health resources were reported among evacuees or rescue workers. PMID:16195696
The peripheral type of Buerger's disease is unresponsive to conservative therapy when accompanied by multisegmental occlusion at the level of the ankle. Between November 1983 and April 1993, we performed 15 bypasses below the ankle for this type of thromboangiitis obliterans in 13 patients (mean age 45.7 years), including four females. Ten patients had intractable toe ulcers with severe pain,
Abstract. 120 patients attending a Hansen's disease public health satellite clinic were evaluated for selected latent co-morbidities, consisting of strongyloidiasis, Chagas disease, hepatitis B, HIV, and tuberculosis, and potential exacerbation by immunosuppressive therapy. Implications for treatment of Hansen's disease are discussed. PMID:23980128
Racial/ethnic minorities are 1.5 to 2.0 times more likely than whites to have most of the major chronic diseases. Chronic diseases are also more common in the poor than the nonpoor and this association is frequently mediated by race/ethnicity. Specifically, children are disproportionately affected by racial/ethnic health disparities. Between 1960 and 2005 the percentage of children with a chronic disease in the United States almost quadrupled with racial/ethnic minority youth having higher likelihood for these diseases. The most common major chronic diseases of youth in the United States are asthma, diabetes mellitus, obesity, hypertension, dental disease, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, mental illness, cancers, sickle-cell anemia, cystic fibrosis, and a variety of genetic and other birth defects. This review will focus on the psychosocial rather than biological factors that play important roles in the etiology and subsequent solutions to these health disparities because they should be avoidable and they are inherently unjust. Finally, this review examines access to health services by focusing on health insurance and dental insurance coverage and access to school health services.
Non-communicable diseases (NCD) have been identified as a health emergency in the US-affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI).1 This assessment, funded by the National Institutes of Health, was conducted in the Federated States of Micronesia, State of Chuuk and describes the burdens due to selected NCDs (diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, stroke, chronic kidney disease); and assesses the system of service capacity and current activities for service delivery, data collection and reporting as well as identifying the issues that need to be addressed. There has been a 9.2% decline in the total population between 2000 and 2010. Findings of medical and health data reveal that diabetes, myocardial infarction, and septicemia are the leading causes of death and lower limb surgical procedures and amputations was a major problem that was addressed with a foot care education program to prevent amputations. No data were available on the prevalence of diabetes among the population of Chuuk. Other findings show significant gaps in the system of administrative, clinical, data, and support services to address these NCDs. There is a lack of policy and procedure manuals, coordination among providers, and common standards of care. There is no functional data system to identify and track patients with diabetes and other chronic diseases. Priority issues and problems were identified for the clinical, administrative, and data systems.
The Centers for Disease Control surveyed 1,630 chronic hemodialysis centers in the United States in 1987 in conjunction with the annual facility survey done by the Health Care Financing Administration. Information was obtained on the following diseases and practices: 1) hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in patients and staff members; 2) infection control procedures for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive patients; 3) frequency of HBsAg serologic screening; 4) use of hepatitis B vaccine; 5) non-A, non-B hepatitis in patients and staff members; 6) pyrogenic reactions and septicemia; 7) dialysis dementia; 8) new dialyzer syndrome; 9) high flux dialysis; 10) reuse of dialyzers, dialyzer caps, bloodlines, transducer filters; 11) cleaning and disinfection procedures; and 12) human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The response rate to a mailed questionnaire was 91%. These 1,486 centers represented 97,225 patients and 27,123 staff members. During the last 12 years, the incidence of HBV infection decreased from 3.0% to 0.2% among patients and from 2.6% to 0.1% among staff members. Over the same time, the prevalence of HBsAg-positivity declined from 7.8% to 1.7% among patients and from 0.9% to 0.4% among staff members. Hepatitis B vaccine was given by 88% of the centers. By the end of 1987, 14% of susceptible patients and 49% of susceptible staff members had received all three doses of hepatitis B vaccine. From 1982 to 1987, as a result of receiving vaccine, the prevalence of antibody to HBsAg (anti-HBs) increased from 12% to 18% among patients and from 18% to 50% among staff. The incidence of non-A, non-B hepatitis in 1987 was reported to be 1.2% among patients and 0.2% among staff members. Fourteen percent of the centers reported pyrogenic reactions among their patients, and 46% reported septicemia in the absence of pyrogenic reactions. Pyrogenic reactions were significantly more likely to be reported by centers that practiced high flux dialysis. The reported incidence of dialysis dementia among hemodialysis patients was 0.2%, with a case fatality rate of 29%. Among patients developing dialysis dementia, the case fatality rate was higher in those centers that used deionization (DI) without reverse osmosis (RO) (47%) compared with centers that used RO (28%) (not significant, p greater than 0.05). In 1987, 64% of centers reported that they reused disposable dialyzers. These centers treated 70% of the dialysis patient population.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2558696
Alter, M J; Favero, M S; Miller, J K; Moyer, L A; Bland, L A
BackgroundBrain state classification has been accomplished using features such as voxel intensities, derived from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data, as inputs to efficient classifiers such as support vector machines (SVM) and is based on the spatial localization model of brain function. With the advent of the connectionist model of brain function, features from brain networks may provide increased discriminatory
Gopikrishna Deshpande; Zhihao Li; Priya Santhanam; Claire D. Coles; Mary Ellen Lynch; Stephan Hamann; Xiaoping Hu; Olaf Sporns
Objective Numerous population-based studies have found an association between major depression and CVD, though these studies did not assess anxiety disorders. Patient samples have shown associations between anxiety disorders and cardiovascular disease (CVD), but without consideration of depressive disorders. Therefore, it remains unclear whether: a) both anxiety and depressive disorder are associated with CVD; b) these associations are generalizable to adults in the community. Materials & Methods Data were drawn from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), a nationally representative sample of 43,093 civilian non-institutionalized participants aged 18 and older. Results CVD (total prevalence 3.3%) was associated with increased likelihood of any anxiety disorder (OR=1.43, (1.20, 1.71)), after adjusting for depressive disorders, as well as Generalized Anxiety Disorder (OR=1.48 (1.09, 2.01)), Panic disorder (OR=1.46 (1.12, 1.91)), and specific phobia (OR=1.29 (1.04, 1.59). CVD was significantly associated with any mood disorder (OR=34 (1.13, 1.58)) after adjusting for anxiety disorders, though neither the link with major depression, nor other specific mood disorders remained significant after adjustment. Conclusions Our findings suggest that anxiety disorders, mood disorders, and CVD are highly comorbid among adults in the United States, and demonstrate the importance of including anxiety disorder assessment in studies of mental and physical comorbidity. These results reveal how the lack of investigation into specific relationships between CVD and the range of mental disorders in population-based studies of risk factors for CVD may obscure important relationships.
This retrospective study of impairments in a decentralized and integrated, routine Hansen's disease (HD) programme was done on a cohort of all new patients detected in Rondônia state from 1996 to 1999. It shows that the dynamics of impairments during treatment in Rondônia are similar to what has been published in other recent studies from Africa and Asia. Data about impairments at detection and at release from treatment (cure), the prescription of steroids, and epidemiological information are provided. Of the original 5350 new patients, 4230 patients (80%) completed multidrug therapy (MDT) and had complete data about their impairment status. At the start of treatment, 9% of the paucibacillary (PB) and 26% of the multibacillary (MB) patients had WHO grade 1 impairment. Three percent of the PB and 11% of the MB patients had visible deformities (WHO grade 2 impairment). Of the patients without impairments (grade 0) at the start of treatment, 5% of the PB and 20% of the MB patients developed impairments during treatment. Of the PB patients with a WHO impairment grade 1 at start of treatment, 34% improved and 6% got worse. Of the MB patients 34% improved and 12% became worse. In a separate study of patients from the 1997 intake, 17% of the PB and 58% of the MB patients were treated at least once with a course of steroids or thalidomide during MDT treatment. It is noted in the literature that the percentage of persons with recent nerve function impairment (NFI), nerve pain or tenderness and/or reaction reactions differs between projects. This may reflect real differences or may be caused by differences in routine monitoring and/or criteria and methods of treatment. The use of the WHO maximum score, particularly for the patients with grade 2, is not as sensitive to change as utilizing the summary of Eye, Hand and Foot (EHF) scores. If overall impairment figures are given, the proportions of MB patients may define the differences between projects, therefore it is important to analysis and present the results of PB and MB patients separately. The most simple (outcome) indicator to estimate the effectiveness of patient management would be the proportions of patients with impairment grade 0 at start of treatment who develop either grade 1 or 2 impairments during treatment. An additional (outcome) indicator could be the proportion of patients with impairment grade 1 at start of treatment who develop grade 2 impairments during treatment. Currently, no operational targets or acceptable level of performance for patient management have been set. This would be important to enable programme managers to determine if adequate patient education, treatment and follow up have been provided after the disease detection to prevent and/or minimize problems associated with the disease. The available evidence strongly suggests that reactions and impairments related to HD will continue to occur in large numbers, requiring the development of adequate infrastructures and sustainable services to detect and to manage problems associated with HD during and after MDT treatment. PMID:14750579
De Oliveira, Carmelita Ribeira; De Alencar, Maria De Jesus Freitas; De Sena Neto, Sebastiao Alves; Lehman, Linda F; Schreuder, Pieter A M
This study evaluated the association between air pollution and hospital admissions due to respiratory and cardiovascular diseases in Cubatão, São Paulo State, Brazil. Generalized additive Poisson regression models were used to model daily concentrations of particulate matter (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and ozone (O3) and daily hospital admissions counts. Explanatory variables were temperature, relative humidity, day of the week, and holidays. For each increment of 10µg/m³ in PM10, we found an excess of 4.25 % (95%CI: 2.82; 71), 5.74% (95%CI: 3.80; 7.71), and 2.29% (95%CI: 0.86; 3.73) in admissions due to respiratory diseases for all ages, respiratory diseases in children under 5 years old, and cardiovascular diseases in adults over 39 years of age, respectively. For SO2, the increase was 3.51% (IC95%: 1.24; 5.83) for cardiovascular diseases in adults more than 39 years. For O3, the increase was 2.85% (IC95%: 0.77; 4.98) for cardiovascular diseases in adults more than 39 years of age and 3.91% (IC95%: 1.37; 6.51) for respiratory diseases in children under 5 years old. Air pollution has serious impacts on health in Cubatão, thus emphasizing the need for air quality control policies. PMID:24068231
Nardocci, Adelaide Cassia; Freitas, Clarice Umbelino de; Ponce de Leon, Antonio Carlos Monteiro; Junger, Washington Leite; Gouveia, Nelson da Cruz
Pregnancy results in dramatic changes in the cardiovascular system. Maternal heart disease complicates 0.2%–3% of pregnancies.\\u000a Valvular heart disease in women of reproductive age is most commonly due to rheumatic heart disease, endocarditis, or congenital\\u000a abnormalities. In general, regurgitant lesions are well tolerated during pregnancy because the increased plasma volume and\\u000a lowered systemic vascular resistance result in increased cardiac output.
Background The purpose of this study was to compare the safety and efficacy of combined vitrectomy, intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (IVTA), and bevacizumab injection with that of IVTA and bevacizumab injection and subsequent macular grid laser photocoagulation for the treatment of intractable diffuse diabetic macular edema. Methods This randomized controlled clinical trial was performed at Benha University Hospital, Benha, Egypt, and included 34 eyes from 34 diabetic patients diagnosed with intractable diffuse diabetic macular edema without vitreomacular traction. The patients were divided into two groups. In group 1, pars plana vitrectomy with removal of the posterior hyaloid was performed, and at the end of the procedure, IVTA 0.1 mL (40 mg/mL) and bevacizumab 1.25 mg were injected. In group 2, macular grid laser photocoagulation was performed 2 weeks after the same intravitreal injection combination as used in group 1. The main outcome measures were best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and central foveal thickness, which were measured using optical coherence tomography at 3, 6, and 12 months. Results Changes in BCVA and central foveal thickness at 3, 6, and 12 months from baseline were highly statistically significant (P < 0.01). Mean BCVA was better in group 1 at 3 months, nearly equal at 6 months, and less at 12 months. Mean central foveal thickness was more improved in group 1 than in group 2 at 3 months, and was better in group 2 at subsequent measurement points. The major adverse events were development of cataract (more common in group 1) and elevation of intraocular pressure (more common in group 2). Conclusion The combined therapy described here could represent a solution for the treatment of intractable diabetic macular edema, and could have a favorable long-term outcome. Combined treatment of IVTA and bevacizumab plus grid laser resulted in a more favorable reduction in central foveal thickness and improvement in BCVA at 12 months than vitrectomy combined with the same injections. This small study favors the safer, cheaper, and more available line of treatment.
OBJECTIVES: This study describes the epidemiology of raw milk-associated outbreaks reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 1973 through 1992. METHODS: Surveillance data for each reported raw milk-associated outbreak were reviewed. A national survey was conducted to determine the legal status of intrastate raw milk sales for the period 1973 through 1995. RESULTS: Forty-six raw milk-associated outbreaks were reported during the study period; 40 outbreaks (87%) occurred in states where the intrastate sale of raw milk was legal. CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of raw milk remains a preventable cause of foodborne disease outbreaks.
Headrick, M L; Korangy, S; Bean, N H; Angulo, F J; Altekruse, S F; Potter, M E; Klontz, K C
A critical element of tuberculosis control is early and sensitive diagnosis of infection and disease. Our labora- tories recently showed that different stages of disease were distinguishable via two-dimensional Western blot analyses of Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture filtrate proteins. However, this methodology is not suitable for high throughput testing. Advances in protein microarray technology provide a realistic mechanism to screen a
Mark J. Sartain; Richard A. Slayden; Krishna K. Singh; Suman Laal; John T. Belisle
The eight cases described herein represent the first reports of lymphoproliferative disease virus (LPDV) infection in wild turkeys and the first identification of LPDV in North America. Systemic lymphoproliferative disease was presumably the cause of morbidity and mortality in five of the eight turk...
Congenital heart disease (CHD) is common in patients with Down syndrome (DS), and these patients are living longer lives. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology of hospitalizations in adults with DS and CHD in the United States. Hospitalizations from 1998 to 2009 for adults aged 18 to 64 years with and without DS with CHD diagnoses associated with DS (atrioventricular canal defect, ventricular septal defect, tetralogy of Fallot, and patent ductus arteriosus) were analyzed using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Outcomes of interest were (1) in-hospital mortality, (2) common co-morbidities, (3) cardiac procedures, (4) hospital charges, and (5) length of stay. Multivariate modeling adjusted for age, gender, CHD diagnosis, and co-morbidities. There were 78,793 ± 2,653 CHD admissions, 9,088 ± 351 (11.5%) of which were associated with diagnoses of DS. The proportion of admissions associated with DS (DS/CHD) decreased from 15.2 ± 1.3% to 8.5 ± 0.9%. DS was associated with higher in-hospital mortality (odds ratio [OR] 1.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4 to 2.4), especially in women (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.7 to 3.4). DS/CHD admissions were more commonly associated with hypothyroidism (OR 7.7, 95% CI 6.6 to 9.0), dementia (OR 82.0, 95% CI 32 to 213), heart failure (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.9 to 2.5), pulmonary hypertension (OR 2.5, 95% CI 2.2 to 2.9), and cyanosis or secondary polycythemia (OR 4.6, 95% CI 3.8 to 5.6). Conversely, DS/CHD hospitalizations were less likely to include cardiac procedures or surgery (OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.2 to 0.4) and were associated with lower charges ($23,789 ± $1,177 vs $39,464 ± $1,371, p <0.0001) compared to non-DS/CHD admissions. In conclusion, DS/CHD hospitalizations represent a decreasing proportion of admissions for adults with CHD typical of DS; patients with DS/CHD are more likely to die during hospitalization but less likely to undergo a cardiac procedure. PMID:23332593
Baraona, Fernando; Gurvitz, Michelle; Landzberg, Michael J; Opotowsky, Alexander R
A nine-year-old girl with spastic quadriplegia, mental retardation, poor vision, a gastrostomy, and intractable epilepsy was referred by her pediatrician for a dental assessment with a view to extracting her anterior teeth as a means of preventing repeated damage to the skin over the proximal phalanx of her left thumb, which she sucked at night. This was the time of day when the frequency of her epileptic seizures was highest. A simple solution to the problem was developed by a dentist and an occupational therapist in which nylon-coated 3-mm neoprene sheeting (wet-suit material) was formed into a "thumb-sock" with a simple Velcro fastening around the wrist. No trauma to the thumb from epileptic seizures has occurred since the "thumb-sock" was fitted 24 months ago. PMID:11833113
The efficacy of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) for treatment of various chronic painful conditions is well established. Very few reports have documented the use of SCS for treatment of chronic pain after spinal cord injury. We present a case showing a good outcome after such treatment, and suggest that high cervical stimulation may be efficacious. A 53-year-old male underwent SCS on the C1-3 level for treatment of intractable neuropathic pain below the T3 level, and in the upper extremities, arising from spinal cord injury resulting from transverse myelitis caused by schistosomiasis. High cervical SCS significantly improved the pain in the upper extremities and at the T3-T10 dermatome level. The patient continues to report excellent pain relief 9 months later. The present case suggests that high cervical stimulation may improve chronic pain in the upper extremities and the T3-T10 dermatome level arising from spinal cord injury.
Transverse myelitis is a rare inflammatory myelopathy characterized by loss of motor and sensory function below the affected level of the spinal cord, and causes neurogenic bowel and bladder. Occasionally, it also causes neuropathic pain with spasticity. Traditional therapies for neuropathic pain are multiple, including multimodal analgesic regimens, antiepileptic or antidepressant medications, opioids, sympathetic blocks, and spinal cord stimulation. Persistent neuropathic pain can cause emotional distress by affecting sleep, work, recreation, and emotional well-being. Here we report the case of a patient suffering from intractable neuropathic pain following acute transverse myelitis that was not relieved by combinations of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory, anti-epileptic, antidepressant, and opioid medications, or by acupuncture. Implantation of an intrathecal morphine pump controlled the pain successfully without side effects, and enabled the patient to embark on intensive rehabilitation. The patient's muscle strength has improved significantly and the patient may soon be able to use a walker with minimal assistance. PMID:23935366
In September 1994, in response to a reported epidemic of plague in India, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) enhanced surveillance in the United States for imported pneumonic plague. Plague information materials were rapidly developed and distributed to U.S. public health officials by electronic mail, facsimile, and expedited publication. Information was also provided to medical practitioners and the public by recorded telephone messages and facsimile transmission. Existing quarantine protocols were modified to effect active surveillance for imported plague cases at U.S. airports. Private physicians and state and local health departments were relied on in a passive surveillance system to identify travelers with suspected plague not detected at airports. From September 27 to October 27, the surveillance system identified 13 persons with suspected plague; no case was confirmed. This coordinated response to an international health emergency may serve as a model for detecting other emerging diseases and preventing their importation. PMID:8964057
Fritz, C L; Dennis, D T; Tipple, M A; Campbell, G L; McCance, C R; Gubler, D J
In September 1994, in response to a reported epidemic of plague in India, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) enhanced surveillance in the United States for imported pneumonic plague. Plague information materials were rapidly developed and distributed to U.S. public health officials by electronic mail, facsimile, and expedited publication. Information was also provided to medical practitioners and the public by recorded telephone messages and facsimile transmission. Existing quarantine protocols were modified to effect active surveillance for imported plague cases at U.S. airports. Private physicians and state and local health departments were relied on in a passive surveillance system to identify travelers with suspected plague not detected at airports. From September 27 to October 27, the surveillance system identified 13 persons with suspected plague; no case was confirmed. This coordinated response to an international health emergency may serve as a model for detecting other emerging diseases and preventing their importation.
Fritz, C. L.; Dennis, D. T.; Tipple, M. A.; Campbell, G. L.; McCance, C. R.; Gubler, D. J.
Objectives: The study aimed to describe French off-label use of rFVIIa for intractable bleeding in major cardiovascular surgery. Methods: Retrospective observational analysis of data from 2005 to October 2007 (no formal guidelines were available) was employed. The collect request form was elaborated by a multidisciplinary committee. Results: Data on 109 patients – 37 mechanical cardiac assist devices – were collected,
Marie Hacquard; Marion Durand; Thomas Lecompte; Stéphanie Boini; Serge Briançon; Jean-Pierre Carteaux
We have been trying the effect of aromatherapy (with or without hypnosis) in patients with intractable epilepsy who ask for it. This is a report of the first 100 patients to try the treatment, followed up for at least two years after the treatment ended.It is important to remember that this was a treatment for people who had asked for
With the advent of computed tomography (CT) scan, much information has been obtained about the pathophysiology of hydrocephalus.\\u000a It is now clear that hydrocephalus is not a disease entity but rather a syndrome or sign resulting from disturbances in the\\u000a dynamics of cerebralspinal fluid (CSF) caused by various diseases. Consequently, it has become necessary to revise its definition\\u000a and classification.
OBJECTIVES—To evaluate the influence of clinical, investigative, and pathological factors on seizure remission after temporal lobectomy for medically intractable epilepsy associated with focal lesions other than hippocampal sclerosis.?METHODS—From a series of 234 consecutive "en bloc" temporal resections for medically intractable epilepsy performed between 1976 and 1995, neuropathological examination disclosed a focal lesion in 80. The preoperative clinical, neuropsychological, interictal EEG, and neuroimaging characteristics of these patients were assembled in a computerised database. The original neuropathological material was re-examined for lesion classification and completeness of removal. The presence of additional cortical dysplasia and mesial temporal sclerosis was also noted. Survival analysis was performed using Kaplein-Meier curves and actuarial statistics. Logistic regression analysis was used to establish the independent significance of the clinical variables.?RESULTS—The probability of achieving a 1 year seizure remission was 71% by 5 years of follow up. Factors predicting a poor outcome on multivariate analysis included the need for special schooling and a long duration of epilepsy. Generalised tonic-clonic seizures, interictal EEG discharges confined to the resected lobe, demonstration of the lesion preoperatively on CT, and complete histological resection of the lesion were not predictive of outcome. Neuropsychological tests correctly predicted outcome in left sided cases but apparently congruent findings in right sided resections were associated with a poor outcome. Pathological reclassification established the dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour as the commonest neoplasm (87%) in this series, with a significantly better seizure outcome than for developmental lesions, such as focal cortical dysplasia.?CONCLUSIONS—The findings highlight the importance of dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour in the pathogenesis of medically refractory lesional temporal lobe epilepsy and the prognostic significance of preoperative duration of epilepsy emphasises the need for early recognition and surgical treatment. Cognitive and behavioural dysfunction, however, is associated with a lower seizure remission rate, independent of duration of epilepsy.??
Hennessy, M; Elwes, R; Honavar, M; Rabe-Hesketh, S; Binnie, C; Polkey, C
Purpose Acute internal hemorrhage is an occasionally life-threatening complication in pediatric cancer patients. Many therapeutic approaches have been used to control bleeding with various degrees of success. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of selective internal iliac artery embolization for controlling acute intractable bleeding in children with malignancies. Methods We retrospectively evaluated the cases of 6 children with various malignancies (acute lymphoblastic leukemia, acute myelogenous leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, and rhabdomyosarcoma), who had undergone selective arterial embolization (SAE) of the internal iliac artery at the Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital between January 2004 and December 2009. SAE was performed by an interventional radiologist using Gelfoam® and/or Tornado® coils. Results The patients were 5 boys and 1 girl with median age of 6.9 years (range, 0.7-14.8 years) at the time of SAE. SAE was performed once in 4 patients and twice in 2, and the procedure was unilateral in 2 and bilateral in 4. The causes of hemorrhage were as follows: hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) in 3 patients, procedure-related internal iliac artery injuries in 2 patients, and tumor rupture in 1 patient. Initial attempt at conservative management was unsuccessful. Of the 6 patients, 5 (83.3%) showed improvement after SAE without complications. Conclusion SAE may be a safe and effective procedure for controlling acute intractable hemorrhage in pediatric malignancy patients. This procedure may obviate the need for surgery, which carries an attendant risk of morbidity and mortality in cancer patients with critical conditions.
Bae, Sul Hee; Han, Dong Kyun; Baek, Hee Jo; Park, Sun Ju; Chang, Nam Kyu; Hwang, Tai Ju
Gelastic seizures comprise a very rare form of epilepsy. They present with recurrent bursts of laughter voices without mirth and are most commonly associated with the evolution of a hypothalamic hamartoma. The purpose of this article is to describe the second reported ictal fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography study in a unique case of an infant with intractable gelastic seizures since the neonatal period associated with a hypothalamic hamartoma. The patient presented at 4 months old with recurrent, almost persistent, gelastic seizures consisting of laughter bouts without mirth. The seizures were noticeable at the first week of life and increased in frequency to last up to 12 hours, namely status gelasticus. These gelastic fits were accompanied with focal motor seizures, including unilateral right-eye blinking and mouth twitching. Developmental mile-stones were intact for age. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cortex demonstrated a large hypothalamic hamartoma within the third ventricle, hampering cerebrovascular fluid drainage of the lateral ventricles. An electroencephalography was nondiagnostic. Ictal fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography demonstrated a large circumscribed hypermetabolic region within the location of the hypothalamic hamartoma, representing localized intense epileptiform activity. The infant became instantly free of all seizure types given minute doses of oral benzodiazepine (clonazepam) and remains completely controlled after 12 months. Her overall development remains intact. This ictal fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography is the second reported study verifying that the main source of the epileptic activity inducing gelastic seizures originates from the hypothalamic hamartoma itself; therefore, a complementary fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography study should be considered in any patient presenting with intractable gelastic seizures, especially in those associated with hypothalamic hamartoma, in order to localize the region of epileptiform activity amenable to surgical resection if intensive drug therapy fails. PMID:18160558
Shahar, Eli; Goldsher, Dorit; Genizi, Jacob; Ravid, Sarit; Keidar, Zohar
Background: There are few detailed data on the geographic distribution of most neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) in post- conflict Southern Sudan. To guide intervention by the recently established national programme for integrated NTD control, we conducted an integrated prevalence survey for schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection, lymphatic filariasis (LF), and loiasis in Northern Bahr-el-Ghazal State. Our aim was to establish
Hugh J. W. Sturrock; Diana Picon; Anthony Sabasio; David Oguttu; Emily Robinson; Mounir Lado; John Rumunu; Simon Brooker; Jan H. Kolaczinski
BackgroundThere are few detailed data on the geographic distribution of most neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) in post-conflict Southern Sudan. To guide intervention by the recently established national programme for integrated NTD control, we conducted an integrated prevalence survey for schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection, lymphatic filariasis (LF), and loiasis in Northern Bahr-el-Ghazal State. Our aim was to establish which communities
Hugh J. W. Sturrock; Diana Picon; Anthony Sabasio; David Oguttu; Emily Robinson; Mounir Lado; John Rumunu; Simon Brooker; Jan H. Kolaczinski
With improvements in care, there has been exponential growth in the population of adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) patients.\\u000a We sought to assess the availability of specialized ACHD care in the United States. We analyzed the Adult Congenital Heart\\u000a Association’s ACHD clinic directory for information on patient volume, provider training, and other characteristics. The information\\u000a is self-reported and unverified. The
Antibodies have been raised against synthetic peptides corresponding to different parts of the beta-amyloid sequence. These antibodies stain different kinds of amyloid distributions in the hippocampal formation in Alzheimer disease, suggesting the existence of different states of aggregation and\\/or folding of beta-amyloid molecules. An antibody directed against the middle region of beta-amyloid stained mostly amyloid plaques without cores, whereas an
To determine objectively the causes of malpractice litigation involving colon and rectal disease, a retrospective review was undertaken of all cases tried in the U.S. federal and state civil court system over a 21-year period from 1971 through 1991. Ninety-eight malpractice cases were identified from a computerized legal data base, involving 103 allegations of negligence. Allegations fell into five major
Background: Understanding anemia treatment patterns in national outpatient settings may assist evidence-based policy making by identifying the variations in physician prescriptions for chronic kidney disease (CKD) and reasons for such variations.Objective: The aim of this study was to examine anemia management patterns of CKD in outpatient settings in the United States.Methods: This cross-sectional study used data from the US National
Rafia S. Rasu; Harold J. Manley; Tonya Crawford; Rajesh Balkrishnan
The objective of this study was to assess the associations and population attributable risks (PAR) of risk factor combinations and ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality in the United States. We used logistic regression models to assess the association of risk factors with IHD in the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1971–1974) and Epidemiologic Follow-up Study (1982–1992) among white
Man-huei Chang; Robert A Hahn; Steven M Teutsch; Lori C Hutwagner
Non-communicable diseases (NCD) have been identified as a health emergency in the US-affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI).1 This assessment, funded by the National Institutes of Health, was conducted in the Federated States of Micronesia, State of Pohnpei and describes the burden due to selected NCD (diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, stroke, chronic kidney disease); and assesses the system of service capacity and current activities for service delivery, data collection and reporting as well as identifies the issues that need to be addressed. Findings reveal that the risk factors of poor diet, lack of physical activity, and lifestyle behaviors lead to overweight and obesity and subsequent NCD that are significant factors in the morbidity and mortality of the population. Leading causes of death were due to heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and hypertension. Population survey data show that 32.1% of the adult population had diabetes with a higher rate among women (37.1%) when compared to men (26.4%). The data also showed that 73.1% of the adult population was overweight or obese. Other findings show significant gaps in the system of administrative, clinical, data, and support services to address these NCD. There is no overall planning document for the prevention and control of NCDs or diabetes. There is evidence of little communication among the medical and health care providers which leads to fragmentation of care and loss of continuity of care. Based on some of the findings, priority issues and problems that need to be addressed for the administrative and clinical systems are identified.
The normal aging heart undergoes pathophysiologic changes that over time undermine cardiac structure and function. In older persons, declining cardiac function can be accelerated or exacerbated by chronic diseases such as hypertension or heart failure. The convergence of normal alterations and distinct cardiovascular conditions--disorders of rhythm, disorders of the organ itself, and vascular disease--compound the challenge of clinical management. This task is becoming somewhat less complex as new information emerges from clinical studies seeking more effective approaches to preventing and managing myocardial infarction, coronary artery disease, chronic heart failure, and systolic and diastolic dysfunction. PMID:11417374
Despite advances in water management and sanitation, waterborne disease outbreaks continue to occur in the United States. CDC collects data on waterborne disease outbreaks submitted from all states and territories* through the Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance System.† During 2009-2010, the most recent years for which finalized data are available, 33 drinking water-associated outbreaks were reported, comprising 1,040 cases of illness, 85 hospitalizations, and nine deaths. Legionella accounted for 58% of outbreaks and 7% of illnesses, and Campylobacter accounted for 12% of outbreaks and 78% of illnesses. The most commonly identified outbreak deficiencies§ in drinking water-associated outbreaks were Legionella in plumbing¶ systems (57.6%), untreated ground water (24.2%), and distribution system deficiencies (12.1%), suggesting that efforts to identify and correct these deficiencies could prevent many outbreaks and illnesses associated with drinking water. In addition to the drinking water outbreaks, 12 outbreaks associated with other nonrecreational water** were reported, comprising 234 cases of illness, 51 hospitalizations, and six deaths. Legionella accounted for 58% of these outbreaks, 42% of illnesses, 96% of hospitalizations, and all deaths. Public health, regulatory, and industry professionals can use this information to target prevention efforts against pathogens, infrastructure problems, and water sources associated with waterborne disease outbreaks. PMID:24005226
The prion protein can exist both in a normal cellular isoform and in a pathogenic conformational isoform. The latter is responsible for the development of different neurodegenerative diseases, for example Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease or fatal familial insomnia. To convert the native benign state of the protein into a highly ordered fibrillar aggregate, large-scale rearrangements of the tertiary structure are necessary during the conversion process and intermediates that are at least partially unfolded are present during fibril formation. In addition to the sporadic conversion into the pathogenic isoform, more than 20 familial diseases are known that are caused by single point mutations increasing the probability of aggregation and neurodegeneration. Here, we demonstrate that the chemically denatured states of the mouse and human prion proteins have very similar structural and dynamic characteristics. Initial studies on the single point mutants E196K, F198S, V203I and R208H of the oxidized mouse construct, which are related to human prion diseases, reveal significant differences in the rate of aggregation. Aggregation for mutants V203I and R208H is slower than it is for the wild type, and the constructs E196K and F198S show accelerated aggregation. These differences in aggregation behaviour are not correlated with the thermal stability of the mutants, indicating different mechanisms promoting the conformational conversion process. PMID:20541558
Gerum, Christian; Schlepckow, Kai; Schwalbe, Harald
No vector transmitted cases of Chagas disease had been notified in the state of São Paulo since the 1970s. However, in March, 2006, the death of a six-year-old boy from the municipality of Itaporanga was notified to the Center for Epidemiological Survey of the São Paulo State Health Secretariat: an autochthonous case of acute Chagas disease. The postmortem histopathological examination performed in the Hospital das Clínicas of the Botucatu School of Medicine confirmed the diagnosis. Reference to hospital records, consultation with the health professionals involved in the case and interviews with members of the patient's family supplied the basis for this study. We investigated parasite route of transmission, probable local reservoirs and vectors. No further human cases of acute Chagas disease were diagnosed. No locally captured vectors or reservoirs were found infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. Alternative transmission hypotheses - such as the possible ingestion of foods contaminated with vector excreta - are discussed, as well as the need to keep previously endemic regions and infested houses under close surveillance. Clinicians should give due attention to such signs as uni- or bilateral palpebral edema, cardiac failure, myocarditis, pericarditis, anasarca and atypical signs of nephrotic syndrome or nephritis and consider the diagnostic hypothesis of Chagas disease. PMID:20602025
Wanderley, Dalva M V; Rodrigues, Vera L C C; Leite, Ruth Moreira; Diaz, Sueli Yasumaro; de Carvalho, Maria Esther; Santos, Soraya O; Tatto, Erica; Carli, Maria Salete; Coelho, Kunie I R; da Silva, Paulo Ribeiro; Túlio, Sandra Aparecida; da Silva, Isaias Ribeiro; Shikanai-Yasuda, Maria A
The report describes and analyzes disability compensation experiences resulting from occupational disease caused by asbestos exposure. Six major issues are stressed: (1) Clinical and epidemiological information reviewing the relation of asbestos exposure ...
The majority of patients diagnosed with Crohn’s disease eventually require surgical intervention. Unfortunately, postsurgical remission tends to be short lived; a significant number of patients experience clinical relapse and many require additional operations. The pathogenesis of this postoperative recurrence is poorly understood and, currently, there are no reliable tools to predict when and in whom the disease will recur. Furthermore, the postoperative prophylaxis profiles of available Crohn’s disease therapeutic agents such as 5-aminosalicylates, immunomodulators, steroids and probiotics have been disappointing. Recently, the combination of antibiotics and azathioprine in selected high-risk patients has demonstrated some potential for benefit. The goal of the present article is to provide a coherent summary of previous and new research to guide clinicians in managing the challenging and complex problem of postoperative Crohn’s disease recurrence.
Multiple sclerosis, an autoimmune disorder causing the destruction of the impulse carrying myelin sheath of neurons, can be a debilitating and disabling disease. Symptomatic treatment has provided patients with relief through the use of antispasmodics, anticholinergics, and antidepressants, just to name a few, as well as disease treatment by decreasing progression of the illness by treating acute episodes through the use of corticosteroids, interferons, plasmapheresis, and other immunomodulators like glatiramer, mitoxantrone, and natalizumab. With medical advancements and the development of new treatments such as laquinimod, fampridine-SR, and several others, the future looks promising for those living with this illness. PMID:21507801
Mahdavian, Soheyla; Dike, Ukamaka; Bryant, Alsean; Davison, Carina; Ghazvini, Patty; Hill, Angela
A survey was performed in southeastern Brazil and in the southeastern United States to: 1) compare coronary risk factors in adult children (>18 years old) of parents with coronary heart disease enrolled in cardiac rehabilitation programs in countries with different geographic, social, and economic factors; and 2) to assess the influence of coronary heart disease of parents on alteration of lifestyle in these adult children. There were 286 biological children available for the survey (135 Brazil, 151 United States). Of those, 142 completed the survey (78 Brazil, 64 United States) for an overall compliance rate of 50% (58% Brazil, 42% United States). The following differences were noted: blood pressure > 159/90 mm Hg (23% Brazil, 15% United States [nonsignificant]); total cholesterol > 181 mg/dL (5% Brazil, 30% United States [p < 0.001]); HDL-C < 35 mg/dL (95% Brazil, 21% United States [p < 0.001]); low-fat diet (29% Brazil, 64% United States [p < 0.001]); smoke/ever (41% Brazil, 34% United States [nonsignificant]); currently smoke (72% Brazil, 18% United States [p < 0.001]); any exercise [44% Brazil, 82% United States [p < 0.001]); exercise > 90 minute/week (18% Brazil, 20% United States [nonsignificant]); improved lifestyle habits (39% Brazil, 79% United States [p < 0.001]); improved lifestyle habits related to parent's coronary heart disease (66% Brazil, 35% United States [p < 0.05]). Such differences may reflect geographic, social, and/or economic factors. PMID:16034217
Bueno, Nelia; Fletcher, Barbara J; Fletcher, Gerald F; Serra, Salvador; Cruz, Pedro di Marco da; Kelly, Deborah; Meirelles, Luisa; Atkinson, Elizabeth; Tabor, Leigh Ann; Ramos, Adriana; Castro, Iran
Mixed-State conditionally heteroscedastic latent factor models attempt to describe a complex nonlinear dynamic system with a succession of linear latent factor models indexed by a switching variable. Unfortunately, despite the framework's simplicity ex- act state and parameter estimation are still intractable because of the interdependency across the latent factor volatility processes. Recently, a broad class of learning and inference algorithms
High and neurotoxic blood levels of leucine and its ketoanalogue develop in catabolic patients with maple syrup urine disease. The use of relatively high doses of insulin and additional glucose had a more pronounced effect on lowering leucine (and a-ketoisocaproate) blood levels than dietary elimination of leucine alone. This is demonstrated in 2 neonates after blood exchange transfusion and in
U. Wendel; U. Langenbeck; Ingrid Lombeck; H. J. Bremer
Double balloon enteroscopy has been available since 2004 and is slowly emerging as a valuable procedure that has the potential to reach all parts of the small intestine, allowing biopsy and therapeutic intervention. This paper describes the background to its development, the mechanics of the procedure and the current and potential roles it has in relation to small bowel Crohn's disease. PMID:22702633
Purpose: To determine if chronic cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality rates are higher among residents of mountaintop mining (MTM) areas compared to mining and nonmining areas, and to examine the association between greater levels of MTM surface mining and CVD mortality. Methods: Age-adjusted chronic CVD mortality rates from 1999 to 2006 for…
Behcet’s disease is a rare systemic disorder which is associated with an underlying vasculitis. Most cases of BD occur in Asia and North American cases are rare. Patients often present with aphthous ulcers and have a number of other clinical findings including genital lesions, skin lesions (folliculitis, erythema nodosum, and acne), and uveitis. Hemoptysis and cough in BD may be
...case of exotic Newcastle disease or highly pathogenic avian influenza, up to 100 percent, and in the case of infectious salmon anemia, up to 60 percent) of the expenses of purchase, destruction and disposition of animals and materials required to be...
Synthetic fungicides are the primary means to control postharvest diseases of fruits. Biological control has emerged as one of the most promising alternatives to chemicals. During the last 20 years, several biological control agents have been widely investigated for use on different pathogens and fruit crops. Many biological control mechanisms have been suggested for use on fruit including antibiosis, parasitism,
Substantial geographic variation of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality within the U.S. has been recognized for decades. nalyses reported here address the question of whether relative geographic inequality has increased or decreased during the period of rapidly declining CVD m...
Objective. The risk of complications and deaths related to pneumococcal infections is high among high risk population (i.e. those with chronic diseases such as diabetes or asthma), despite current immunization recommendations. The aim of this study is to evaluate the use of pneumonia vaccine in adults with and without diabetes or asthma by year of age and whether immunization practices
This article examines how factors related and unrelated to chronic wasting disease (CWD) influenced hunters to stop hunting deer. Data were obtained from a survey of resident and nonresident deer hunters in Arizona, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wisconsin (n = 3,519). Hunters were presented with six hypothetical scenarios depicting increasing CWD prevalence levels and human impact (e.g., human death),
Low serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25OHD) predicts a higher cardiovascular risk in the general population. Because patients with chronic kidney disease are more likely to have low serum 25OHD, we determined the relationship between hypovitaminosis D and death in this group. Analysis was done using a cohort composed of 3011 patients from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey who had chronic kidney disease but were not on dialysis and who had a mean follow-up of 9 years. In analyses adjusted for demographics, cardiovascular risk factors, serum phosphorus, albumin, hemoglobin, stage of chronic kidney disease, albuminuria, and socioeconomic status, individuals with serum 25OHD levels less than 15 ng/ml had an increased risk for all-cause mortality when compared to those with levels over 30 ng/ml. This significantly higher risk for death with low serum 25OHD was evident in 15 of the 23 subgroups. The higher risk for cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular mortality became statistically nonsignificant on multivariable adjustment. The trend for higher mortality in patients with 25OHD levels 15–30 ng/ml was not statistically significant. Our results indicate there is a graded relationship between serum 25OHD and the risk for death among subjects with chronic kidney disease who are not undergoing dialysis. Randomized, controlled trials are needed to conclusively determine whether vitamin D supplementation reduces mortality.
Mehrotra, Rajnish; Kermah, Dulcie A.; Salusky, Isidro B.; Wolf, Myles S.; Thadhani, Ravi I.; Chiu, Yi-Wen; Martins, David; Adler, Sharon G.; Norris, Keith C.
|Purpose: To determine if chronic cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality rates are higher among residents of mountaintop mining (MTM) areas compared to mining and nonmining areas, and to examine the association between greater levels of MTM surface mining and CVD mortality. Methods: Age-adjusted chronic CVD mortality rates from 1999 to 2006 for…
We report the integrated use of 3D second harmonic generation (SHG) imaging microscopy and Monte Carlo simulation as a combined metric to quantifiably differentiate normal and diseased tissues based on the physical properties of the respective extracellular matrix. To achieve this, we have identified a set of parameters comprised of the SHG creation attributes and the bulk optical parameters, which
Ronald LaComb; Oleg Nadiarnykh; Paul J. Campagnola
Peripheral vascular disease is a term often used to describe the manifestation of atherosclerosis below the bifurcation of the abdominal aorta. Peripheral atherosclerosis is a major cause of morbidity in the developed countries and 2% of adults in late middle age have intermittent claudication, which is severe enough in some patients to warrant hospital admission. The disease produces problems either by reducing blood flow or by the release of emboli from ulcerated plaques. The morphology and composition of arterial segments containing atheroma is of considerable importance. Plaques of different morphology have different effects on the arterial wall, such as the potential for thrombosis and the effect of arterial spasm. The lipid content may also affect the propensity for fissuring, ulceration, and thrombosis. In addition to discrete atherotic lesions, a localized and generalized sclerosis occurs. Sclerosis, or stiffness, can be demonstrated in experimental disease in animals and in man, and regression leads to reduced stiffness. Magnetic resonance imaging promises a comprehensive assessment of peripheral atherosclerosis noninvasively and without the use of ionizing radiation. Atheroma can be imaged directly, its size can be measured, its shape can be described, its lipid content can be assessed, and its effects upon vascular hemodynamics can be studied. In addition, arterial compliance, pulse wave velocity, and the pattern of flow within the vessel can be studied. It is thus a potential tool not only for the detection of disease but also for studying its natural history, risk factors, and the effects of pharmacological or surgical interventions. PMID:10147795
Desorption electrospray ionization (DESI), a relatively new ambient ionization technique used in mass spectrometry (MS), allows for the direct analysis of samples in their native ambient environment and often without sample preparation. DESI-MS has been employed to analyze and image thin tissue sections of cancerous and normal tissue or tissues at different stages of disease. MS tissue molecular imaging has
It is widely recognized that the incidence of allergies and allergic diseases is on the rise globally. As an international umbrella organization for regional and national allergy and clinical immunol- ogy societies, the World Allergy Organization is at the forefront of a combined united effort across nations and organizations to address this global concern by promoting the science of allergy
Ruby Pawankar; Carlos E. Baena-Cagnani; Jean Bousquet; G. Walter Canonica; Alvaro A. Cruz; Michael A. Kaliner; Bobby Q. LanierL
A questionnaire was widely distributed in 2011 to estimate the global prevalence of Marek’s disease and gain a better understanding of current control strategies and future concerns. A total of 104 questionnaires were returned representing 108 countries from sources including national branch secret...
Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) is a common arrhythmia in the parturient and can occur with or without an underlying organic heart disease. A woman of 35 weeks' gestation, who had a paroxysmal SVT that was resistant to antiarrhythmic drugs and electric cardioversion, required emergency Cesarean delivery. The Cesarean delivery was performed under spinal anesthesia and a healthy baby was delivered uneventfully. SVT spontaneously converted to normal sinus rhythm right after delivery of the baby. PMID:23115691
Kim, Kyoung Ok; Chang, Eun-Jung; Han, Jin; Cho, Hun
Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) is a common arrhythmia in the parturient and can occur with or without an underlying organic heart disease. A woman of 35 weeks' gestation, who had a paroxysmal SVT that was resistant to antiarrhythmic drugs and electric cardioversion, required emergency Cesarean delivery. The Cesarean delivery was performed under spinal anesthesia and a healthy baby was delivered uneventfully. SVT spontaneously converted to normal sinus rhythm right after delivery of the baby.
The Center for Law and the Public's Health at Georgetown and Johns Hopkins Universities drafted the Model State Emergency Health Powers Act (MSEHPA or Model Act) at the request of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The Model Act provides state actors with the powers they need to detect and contain bioterrorism or a naturally occurring disease outbreak. Legislative bills based on the MSEHPA have been introduced in 34 states. Problems of obsolescence, inconsistency, and inadequacy may render current state laws ineffective or even counterproductive. State laws often date back to the early 20th century and have been built up in layers over the years. They frequently predate the vast changes in the public health sciences and constitutional law. The Model Act is structured to reflect 5 basic public health functions to be facilitated by law: (1) preparedness, comprehensive planning for a public health emergency; (2) surveillance, measures to detect and track public health emergencies; (3) management of property, ensuring adequate availability of vaccines, pharmaceuticals, and hospitals, as well as providing power to abate hazards to the public's health; (4) protection of persons, powers to compel vaccination, testing, treatment, isolation, and quarantine when clearly necessary; and (5) communication, providing clear and authoritative information to the public. The Model Act also contains a modernized, extensive set of principles and requirements to safeguard personal rights. Law can be a tool to improve public health preparedness. A constitutional democracy must balance the common good with respect for personal dignity, toleration of groups, and adherence to principles of justice. PMID:12150674
Gostin, Lawrence O; Sapsin, Jason W; Teret, Stephen P; Burris, Scott; Mair, Julie Samia; Hodge, James G; Vernick, Jon S
Purpose To use International Classification of Disease Codes (ICD-9) codes to investigate primary immune deficiency (PID) in New York State. Methods We investigated the diagnosis of Primary Immune Deficiency (PID) in New York State (NYS) using the Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System (SPARCS) database, a comprehensive data reporting system that collects ICD-9 codes for each patient hospitalized in NYS. Results From 2000–2004 there were 13,539,358 hospitalizations for 4,777,295 patients; of these, 2,361 patients (0.05 %) were diagnosed with one or more of the ICD-9 codes for PID. Antibody defects were the most common diagnoses made. The PID population had significantly more Caucasians, and fewer African American or Hispanic subjects compared to the general population. Subjects with PID codes were younger, had longer hospitalizations, were less likely to have Medicare and more likely to have Medicaid or Blue Cross insurance. Most hospitalizations were due to respiratory and infectious diseases. Most patients resided in the most populous counties, Kings, New York and Queens, but the distribution of home zip codes was not proportional to county populations. Conclusions These data provide useful information on incidence and complications of selected PID diagnoses in one large state.
Resnick, Elena S.; Bhatt, Priyanka; Sidi, Peter; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte
Anorexia nervosa is best construed as a phobic avoidance response to the psychosocial maturational implications of adolescent weight. Within this state, surrender to the impulse to eat and consequent weight gain is associated with panic, depression and sometimes specific intense fear of loss of control. So long as the avoidance posture can be maintained the experience of such turmoil is
This paper discusses survival analysis based on updated covariates with focus on proportional hazard regression in situations where some diseasestates may be vaguely defined. Analyses of a trial in liver cirrhosis are used to motivate the discussion. We use problems caused by inclusion of recordings from unscheduled follow-ups to illustrate the importance of appropriate coding of covariates and describe how such problems may be approached using appropriately 'lagged' covariates. The choice of time origin is discussed with emphasis on situations where disease initiation is difficult to define. Simulations are used to assess the effect of an erroneously specified time origin. It is argued that age or calendar time may frequently be sensible time variables. PMID:12436465
In the last decade, the care of patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) has undergone important advances with better understanding of disease pathophysiology and improvement in standards of care, especially among paediatric patients. Although many new drugs are currently being investigated and are at different stages of development, the pace of drug discovery and utilization has been slow and suboptimal. Hydroxycarbamide (hydroxyurea) has been investigated and utilized for at least two decades. Hydroxycarbamide’s efficacy has been demonstrated, albeit with different levels of evidence, in paediatric and adult populations, and yet clinician and patient acceptance and use have been far from ideal. In this review we discuss the current usage of hydroxycarbamide and its possible future indications in SCD, as well as the use of new compounds that have very different mechanisms of action, which may prove safe and efficacious when used alone or in combination in patients with SCD.
In the last decade, the care of patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) has undergone important advances with better understanding of disease pathophysiology and improvement in standards of care, especially among paediatric patients. Although many new drugs are currently being investigated and are at different stages of development, the pace of drug discovery and utilization has been slow and suboptimal. Hydroxycarbamide (hydroxyurea) has been investigated and utilized for at least two decades. Hydroxycarbamide's efficacy has been demonstrated, albeit with different levels of evidence, in paediatric and adult populations, and yet clinician and patient acceptance and use have been far from ideal. In this review we discuss the current usage of hydroxycarbamide and its possible future indications in SCD, as well as the use of new compounds that have very different mechanisms of action, which may prove safe and efficacious when used alone or in combination in patients with SCD. PMID:19222472
We report analysis of N-glycans derived from disease-free individuals and patients with Barrett's esophagus, high-grade dysplasia, and esophageal adenocarcinoma by microchip electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection. Serum samples in 10-?L aliquots are enzymatically treated to cleave the N-glycans that are subsequently reacted with 8-aminopyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid to add charge and a fluorescent label. Separations at 1250 V/cm and over 22 cm yielded efficiencies up to 700,000 plates for the N-glycans and analysis times under 100 s. Principal component analysis (PCA) and analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests of the peak areas and migration times are used to evaluate N-glycan profiles from native and desialylated samples and to determine differences among the four sample groups. With microchip electrophoresis, we are able to distinguish the three patient groups from each other and from disease-free individuals.
Mitra, Indranil; Zhuang, Zexi; Zhang, Yuening; Yu, Chuan-Yih; Hammoud, Zane T.; Tang, Haixu; Mechref, Yehia; Jacobson, Stephen C.
Cortical gray matter volume and resting state cortical electroencephalographic rhythms are typically abnormal in subjects with amnesic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we tested the hypothesis that in amnesic MCI and AD subjects, abnormalities of EEG rhythms are a functional reflection of cortical atrophy across the disease. Eyes-closed resting state EEG data were recorded in 57 healthy elderly (Nold), 102 amnesic MCI, and 108 AD patients. Cortical gray matter volume was indexed by magnetic resonance imaging recorded in the MCI and AD subjects according to Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative project (http://www.adni-info.org/). EEG rhythms of interest were delta (2-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha1 (8-10.5 Hz), alpha2 (10.5-13 Hz), beta1 (13-20 Hz), beta2 (20-30 Hz), and gamma (30-40 Hz). These rhythms were indexed by LORETA. Compared with the Nold, the MCI showed a decrease in amplitude of alpha 1 sources. With respect to the Nold and MCI, the AD showed an amplitude increase of delta sources, along with a strong amplitude reduction of alpha 1 sources. In the MCI and AD subjects as a whole group, the lower the cortical gray matter volume, the higher the delta sources, the lower the alpha 1 sources. The better the score to cognitive tests the higher the gray matter volume, the lower the pathological delta sources, and the higher the alpha sources. These results suggest that in amnesic MCI and AD subjects, abnormalities of resting state cortical EEG rhythms are not epiphenomena but are strictly related to neurodegeneration (atrophy of cortical gray matter) and cognition. PMID:22331654
Previous studies in our laboratory examining pointing and reach-to-grasp movements of Parkinson’s disease patients (PDPs)\\u000a have found that PDPs exhibit specific deficits in movement coordination and in the sensorimotor transformations required to\\u000a accurately guide movements. We have identified a particular difficulty in matching unseen limb position, sensed by proprioception,\\u000a with a visible target. In the present work, we further explored
Luis F. Schettino; Sergei V. Adamovich; Wayne Hening; Eugene Tunik; Jacob Sage; Howard Poizner
The causative agent of cucumber wilt was isolated from a diseased cucumber plant, grown under green house conditions and identified as Fusarium oxysporum.Forty isolates of exospore-forming actinomycetes and endospore-forming bacteria (twenty isolates each) were randomly isolated from the rhizosphere soil of a healthy cucumber plant. Among these isolates, 8 actinomycetes and 6 spore-forming bacterial isolates exhibited antagonistic activities against Fusarium
Since its emergence 25 years ago, group B streptococcus has become recognized as a cause of serious illness in newborns, pregnant women, and adults with chronic medical conditions. Heavy colonization of the genital tract with group B streptococcus also increases the risk that a woman will deliver a preterm low-birthweight infant. Early-onset infections (occurring at <7 days of age) are associated with much lower fatality than when they were first described, and their incidence is finally decreasing as the use of preventive antibiotics during childbirth increases among women at risk. New serotypes of group B streptococcus have emerged as important pathogens in adults and newborns. Clinical and laboratory practices—in obstetrics, pediatrics, and clinical microbiology—have an impact on disease and/or its prevention, and protocols established at the institutional level appear to be critical tools for the reduction of perinatal disease due to group B streptococcus. Since intrapartum antibiotics will prevent at best only a portion of the full burden of group B streptococcal disease, critical developments in vaccine evaluation, including study of polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines, offer the potential for enhanced prevention in the relatively near future.
Gaining understanding of common complex diseases and their treatments are the main drivers for life sciences. As we show here, comprehensive protein set analyses offer new opportunities to decipher functional molecular networks of diseases and assess the efficacy and side-effects of treatments in vivo. Using mass spectrometry, we quantitatively detected several thousands of proteins and observed significant changes in protein pathways that were (dys-) regulated in diet-induced obesity mice. Analysis of the expression and post-translational modifications of proteins in various peripheral metabolic target tissues including adipose, heart, and liver tissue generated functional insights in the regulation of cell and tissue homeostasis during high-fat diet feeding and medication with two antidiabetic compounds. Protein set analyses singled out pathways for functional characterization, and indicated, for example, early-on potential cardiovascular complication of the diabetes drug rosiglitazone. In vivo protein set detection can provide new avenues for monitoring complex disease processes, and for evaluating preclinical drug candidates. PMID:23579186
Meierhofer, David; Weidner, Christopher; Hartmann, Ludger; Mayr, Johannes A; Han, Chung-Ting; Schroeder, Frank C; Sauer, Sascha
Cognitive impairment (CI) in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) may present a serious barrier to a patient's wellbeing and significantly decrease quality of life. Although reports of CI in ALS without frank dementia are becoming quite common, questions remain regarding the specific cognitive domains affected, as well as how other psychological and medical factors may impact cognitive functioning in these patients. Additionally, the influence of depressive symptoms on disease processes is not known. We aimed to address these questions by completing extensive neuropsychological tests with 22 patients with ALS and 17 healthy volunteers. A subgroup of these patients also completed questionnaires to measure depressive and vegetative symptoms. We tested for overall cognitive differences between groups, the influence of physical (e.g., bulbar and limb), vegetative (e.g., fatigue), and depressive symptoms on cognitive performance, and the relationship between depressive symptoms and disease severity in ALS. Overall, patients performed more poorly than healthy controls (HCs), most notably on tests of executive functioning and learning and memory. Results suggest that true cognitive performance differences exist between patients with ALS and HCs, as these differences were not changed by the presence of vegetative or depressive symptoms. There was no effect of limb or bulbar symptoms on cognitive functioning. Also, patients were not any more depressed than HCs, however increased depressive scores correlated with faster disease progression and decreased limb function. Collectively, it is suggested that translational advances in psychological intervention for those with CI and depression become emphasized in future research. PMID:23411492
Jelsone-Swain, Laura; Persad, Carol; Votruba, Kristen L; Weisenbach, Sara L; Johnson, Timothy; Gruis, Kirsten L; Welsh, Robert C
Cognitive impairment (CI) in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) may present a serious barrier to a patient’s wellbeing and significantly decrease quality of life. Although reports of CI in ALS without frank dementia are becoming quite common, questions remain regarding the specific cognitive domains affected, as well as how other psychological and medical factors may impact cognitive functioning in these patients. Additionally, the influence of depressive symptoms on disease processes is not known. We aimed to address these questions by completing extensive neuropsychological tests with 22 patients with ALS and 17 healthy volunteers. A subgroup of these patients also completed questionnaires to measure depressive and vegetative symptoms. We tested for overall cognitive differences between groups, the influence of physical (e.g., bulbar and limb), vegetative (e.g., fatigue), and depressive symptoms on cognitive performance, and the relationship between depressive symptoms and disease severity in ALS. Overall, patients performed more poorly than healthy controls (HCs), most notably on tests of executive functioning and learning and memory. Results suggest that true cognitive performance differences exist between patients with ALS and HCs, as these differences were not changed by the presence of vegetative or depressive symptoms. There was no effect of limb or bulbar symptoms on cognitive functioning. Also, patients were not any more depressed than HCs, however increased depressive scores correlated with faster disease progression and decreased limb function. Collectively, it is suggested that translational advances in psychological intervention for those with CI and depression become emphasized in future research.
Jelsone-Swain, Laura; Persad, Carol; Votruba, Kristen L.; Weisenbach, Sara L.; Johnson, Timothy; Gruis, Kirsten L.; Welsh, Robert C.
Translocator protein (TSPO) is an 18-kDa high affinity cholesterol- and drug-binding protein found primarily in the outer mitochondrial membrane. Although TSPO is found in many tissue types, it is expressed at the highest levels under normal conditions in tissues that synthesize steroids. TSPO has been associated with cholesterol import into mitochondria, a key function in steroidogenesis, and directly or indirectly with multiple other cellular functions including apoptosis, cell proliferation, differentiation, anion transport, porphyrin transport, heme synthesis, and regulation of mitochondrial function. Aberrant expression of TSPO has been linked to multiple diseases, including cancer, brain injury, neurodegeneration, and ischemia reperfusion injury. There has been an effort during the last decade to understand the mechanisms regulating tissue- and disease-specific TSPO expression and to identify pharmacological means to control its expression. This review focuses on the current knowledge regarding the chemicals, hormones, and molecular mechanisms regulating Tspo gene expression under physiological conditions in a tissue- and disease-specific manner. The results described here provide evidence that the PKC?-ERK1/2-AP1/Stat3 signal transduction pathway is the primary regulator of Tspo gene expression in normal and pathological tissues expressing high levels of TSPO.
This article examines in a broad perspective entropy and some examples of its relationship to evolution, genetic instructions and how we view diseases. Living organisms are programmed by functional genetic instructions (FGI), through cellular communication pathways, to grow and reproduce by maintaining a variety of hemistable, ordered structures (low entropy). Living organisms are far from equilibrium with their surrounding environmental systems, which tends towards increasing disorder (increasing entropy). Organisms free themselves from high entropy (high disorder) to maintain their cellular structures for a period of time sufficient to allow reproduction and the resultant offspring to reach reproductive ages. This time interval varies for different species. Bacteria, for example need no sexual parents; dividing cells are nearly identical to the previous generation of cells, and can begin a new cell cycle without delay under appropriate conditions. By contrast, human infants require years of care before they can reproduce. Living organisms maintain order in spite of their changing surrounding environment that decreases order according to the second law of thermodynamics. These events actually work together since living organisms create ordered biological structures by increasing local entropy. From a disease perspective, viruses and other disease agents interrupt the normal functioning of cells. The pressure for survival may result in mechanisms that allow organisms to resist attacks by viruses, other pathogens, destructive chemicals and physical agents such as radiation. However, when the attack is successful, the organism can be damaged until the cell, tissue, organ or entire organism is no longer functional and entropy increases. PMID:21262480
Background. In general, primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs) are underdiagnosed in most countries. The objective of this study was to describe the frequency and clinical spectrum of PID in the most important tertiary hospitals in our region. Methods. An observational, cross-sectional, with retrospective chart, review study was conducted. A total of 26 patients were included and grouped according to the updated classification of PIDs. Results. PIDs spectra were as follows: predominantly antibody deficiency diseases were the most common category (65.38%), followed by other well-defined immunodeficiency syndromes (11.55%), congenital defects of phagocyte number and/or function (7.69%), complement deficiencies (3.85%), combined T- and B-cell immunodeficiencies (3.85%), and defects in innate immunity (3.85%). The mean time elapsed from the onset of symptoms to the reference and diagnosis by a tertiary hospital was of 4.65 ± 6.95 years. Conclusions. Predominant antibody deficiency disease was the most common group of PIDs, agreeing with international reports. Awareness of underdiagnosis by physicians is crucial for a prompt diagnosis and treatment, which in turn should improve the quality of life among patients with PIDs.
Guani-Guerra, Eduardo; Garcia-Ramirez, Ulises Noel; Jimenez-Romero, Ana Isabel; Velazquez-Avalos, Jose Manuel; Gallardo-Martinez, Gabriela; Mendoza-Espinoza, Francisco-Javier
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of song rendition on the behavioral states and participation levels of older adults with dementia of the Alzheimer’s type. A within-subject design was used with participants receiving individual sessions under three experimental song conditions: live music, therapists’ recordings, and original artists’ recordings. All sessions were videotaped for analysis and coded
This paper presents the use of Semi-Markov model in discrete state and discrete time to study the condition of leprosy patients. Leprosy is considered to be controlled if is possible to maximize recovery and consequently minimize relapse and death. The model takes into account the concept of effectiveness of the treatment. The result shows that it is possible to attain
|Current research shows that geo-political units (e.g., the 50 U.S. states) vary meaningfully on psychological dimensions like intelligence (IQ) and neuroticism (N). A new scientific discipline has also emerged, differential epidemiology, focused on how psychological variables affect health. We integrate these areas by reporting large correlations…
Pesta, Bryan J.; Bertsch, Sharon; McDaniel, Michael A.; Mahoney, Christine B.; Poznanski, Peter J.
The warnings about the spread of (italic)Ixodes scapularis(/italic), one of the vectors of Lyme disease, into the United States are based on reports about regional distribution and increasing local abundance. In a modeling approach, I used the recorded, current distribution of this tick and remotely sensed bioclimatic factors over the United States to establish the changes of habitat for this tick since 1982 and to detect the areas with factors adequate to support tick colonization. Results indicate the geographic expansion of areas with adequate habitat suitability in the period 1982-2000. A discriminant analysis of counties with different degrees of habitat suitability shows that the increase in winter temperatures and in vegetation vitality (as a direct consequence of higher rainfall) is key to habitat switch from unsuitable to suitable.
Background: The objective of this study was to compare the performance of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) total score as well as item scores in separating 4 groups of elderly (55–85 years of age) subjects—normal controls, subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), subjects with mild Alzheimer's disease, and subjects with depression. Method: The MMSE scores of 86 subjects (25 normal elderly controls, 26 subjects with MCI, 10 subjects with mild Alzheimer's disease, and 25 subjects with depression) were analyzed. Statistically significant differences between groups in both overall MMSE score and individual item scores were documented. Receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to yield further data. Results: The overall MMSE scores of the mild Alzheimer's disease group were significantly below those of subjects in the control, MCI, and depression groups (p < .001). The overall MMSE scores of MCI subjects were significantly lower than those of control subjects (p = .005) but not different from those of subjects with depression. Furthermore, individual item responses were not significantly different between MCI subjects and controls. The delayed recall item scores were statistically lower in the mild Alzheimer's disease group versus the other 3 groups but did not separate the control, MCI, and depression groups from each other. Conclusion: The MMSE effectively separates those with mild Alzheimer's disease from the other 3 groups and MCI from normal aging, but it is relatively ineffective in separating normal elderly individuals from those with depression and individuals with MCI from those with depression. Measures other than the MMSE may need to be implemented to evaluate mental status to more effectively separate MCI from depression and depression from normal aging.
The Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System reviews data on FBDOs, defined as the occurrence of two or more cases of a similar illness resulting from the ingestion of a common food. State and local public health departments have primary responsibil...
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a leading cause of cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and liver transplantation. A better understanding of HCV disease progression and the associated cost can help the medical community manage HCV and develop treatment strategies in light of the emergence of several potent anti-HCV therapies. A system dynamic model with 36 cohorts was used to provide maximum flexibility and improved forecasting. New infections incidence of 16,020 (95% confidence interval, 13,510-19,510) was estimated in 2010. HCV viremic prevalence peaked in 1994 at 3.3 (2.8-4.0) million, but it is expected to decline by two-thirds by 2030. The prevalence of more advanced liver disease, however, is expected to increase, as well as the total cost associated with chronic HCV infection. Today, the total cost is estimated at $6.5 ($4.3-$8.4) billion and it will peak in 2024 at $9.1 ($6.4-$13.3) billion. The lifetime cost of an individual infected with HCV in 2011 was estimated at $64,490. However, this cost is significantly higher among individuals with a longer life expectancy. Conclusion This analysis demonstrates that US HCV prevalence is in decline due to a lower incidence of infections. However, the prevalence of advanced liver disease will continue to increase as well as the corresponding healthcare costs. Lifetime healthcare costs for an HCV-infected person are significantly higher than for noninfected persons. In addition, it is possible to substantially reduce HCV infection through active management.
In recent years, penile traction therapy (PTT) has gained considerable interest as a novel nonsurgical treatment option for men with Peyronie’s disease (PD) and short penises. The current published literature suggests that selected cases of PD may benefit from a conservative approach with PTT, resulting in increased penile length and reduction of penile deformity. It appears to be safe and well tolerated but requires a great deal of patient compliance and determination. This article reviews the current literature pertaining to the use of PTT in men with PD, short penises and in the setting of pre- and postprosthesis corporal fibrosis.
Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) makes the clinical course of acute otitis media (AOM) intractable by forming a biofilm that may hamper the clearance of the bacteria from middle ear cavity. In this study, we evaluated the minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) of antimicrobial agents against biofilm-forming NTHi strains. Twelve NTHi strains isolated from middle ear fluids of Japanese children with intractable AOM before antimicrobial treatment were evaluated for MBEC of fluoroquinolones in comparison with those of ?-lactams and macrolides. AMPC and CDTR required much higher concentration, i.e., high MBECs, to suppress the biofilm formation of NTHi. In contrast, fluoroquinolones followed by macrolides showed lower MBECs. MBEC would be a good parameter to infer the efficacies of antimicrobials against NTHi in biofilm. PMID:23549738
Human prion diseases are classified into 3 categories according to etiologies: idiopathic of unknown cause, acquired of infectious origin, and genetic by PRNP mutation. The surveillance committee have analyzed 2,494 cases and identified 1,402 as prion diseases. Most of them are idiopathic, namely sporadic CJD (77%) with less genetic and acquired prion diseases (17% and 5%, respectively). The number of patients identified by the surveillance committee in these years is about 120 which are less than the number of annual death of prion disease. The difference might be due to partly the fact our surveillance need the consent from patients' family and is not complete. The mean age at onset of prion disease is late 60s while the range is fairly wide. Brain MRIs and increase of CSF 14-3-3 and tau protein levels are very characteristic. Classical sporadic CJD could show completely normal T1WI with patchy high signals in the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia on DWI. In Japan, classical sporadic CJD (MM1) is most popular but there are some rare atypical subtypes. Among them, MM2-thalamic CJD is hardest to diagnose because it shows no high intensity signals on DWI, in addition to frequent absence of CSF and EEG characteristics. In this case, CBF decrease in the thalamus on SPECT is very helpful. Genetic prion diseases in Japan are quite distinct from those in Europe. V180I and M232R mutations are unique to Japan and show sporadic CJD phenotype. Dura graft-associated CJD (dCJD) are composed of 67% of classical sporadic CJD phenotype and 33% of atypical phenotype showing slower progression with amyloid plaques. Trace-back experiments suggested the PrP(sc) of the atypical dCJD was likely to be modified from infection of abnormal VV2 protein. Although there are some atypical forms of prion diseases as mentioned above, almost all prion cases could be diagnosed with EEG, MRI, genetic test, CSF test and SPECT. We also have some incidents in which brain surgery was done before the diagnosis of prion disease and many other patients were operated using the same operating instruments before their sterilization against prion disease had been done. The explanation of possibility of prion disease infection to the patients and their follow-up was started by the incident committee. It is very important for all the nations to cooperate with each other in order to overcome this intractabledisease. PMID:21921445
A 40-year-old man (168 cm tall and weighing 71 kg) with intractable pneumothorax was operated for resection of a bulla in the left lung. After insertion of epidural catheter via T 5-6 interspace, general anesthesia was induced and maintained with propofol, remifentanil and rocuronium. The duration of surgery was 1h 48 min and rocuronium given during surgery was 110 mg. After completion of surgery, the double-lumen tube was replaced with laryngeal mask airway to prevent cough reflex. However, infusion of sugammadex 200 mg induced mild cough reflex, resulting in air leakage from thoracic drainage. Because air leakage still continued after extubation, reoperation must be done and re-intubation was required. Since rocuronium 50 mg did not provide satisfactory muscle relaxation measured by train of four, additional dose of rocuronium 40 mg was administered and re-intubation was successfully performed without cough reflex. Reoperation lasted for 43 minutes and rocuronium infused was 100 mg. Nasal airway was inserted to prevent airway obstruction by the tongue and extubation was performed under muscle relaxation with infusion of rocuronium 10 mg. And then, immediate administration of sugammadex 400 mg could elicit spontaneous respiration without cough reflex. PMID:23984577
In this study, electroencephalogram (EEG) signals obtained by a single-electrode device from 24 subjects - 10 with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 14 age-matched Controls (CN) - were analyzed using Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT). The focus of the study is to determine the discriminating EEG features of AD patients while subjected to cognitive and auditory tasks, since AD is characterized by progressive impairments in cognition and memory. At each recording block, DWT extracts EEG features corresponding to major brain frequency bands. T-test and Kruskal-Wallis methods were used to determine the statistically significant features of EEG signals from AD patients compared to Controls. A decision tree algorithm was then used to identify the dominant features for AD patients. It was determined that the mean value of the low-? (1 - 2 Hz) frequency band during the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test with 2.0 (s) interval and the mean value of the ? frequency band (12 - 30 Hz) during 6 Hz auditory stimulation have higher mean values in AD patients than Controls. Due to artifacts, the less reliable low-? features were removed and it was determined that the mean value of ? frequency band during 6 Hz auditory stimulation followed by the standard deviation of ? (4 - 8 Hz) frequency band of one card learning cognitive task are higher for AD patients compared to Controls and thus the most dominant discriminating features of the disease. PMID:23366540
Ghorbanian, P; Devilbiss, D M; Simon, A J; Bernstein, A; Hess, T; Ashrafiuon, H
Passive surveillance for disease is a public health approach that relies on documentation available within existing health records for the region or communities being studied. Its 2 primary advantages over active case-finding are the lower cost of research and the lower burden on the population studied. The effectiveness of passive case-finding depends on the comprehensiveness of the healthcare coverage in a given community and the adequacy of the available medical records. The Rochester Epidemiology Project has permitted dementia case detection for Olmsted County, Minnesota, using a medical records-linkage system. These data were compared with case ascertainment using direct assessment of individuals in an epidemiologic study of the same community. At Group Health Research Institute, investigators compared dementia and Alzheimer’s disease cases detected using an electronic medical record database search with those identified by a parallel active case-finding study. The advantages and disadvantages of passive case-finding are discussed, concluding that the purpose of the study should determine the case-finding approach that is employed.
Knopman, David S.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Rocca, Walter A.; Larson, Eric B.; Ganguli, Mary
Children harboring hemispheric tumors associated with intractable epilepsy were retrospectively reviewed to assess seizure outcome following tumor resection and electrocorticography-guided seizure foci removal. Thirteen (93%) of our patients have remained seizure-free, off anticonvulsants or on tapering doses, following surgery with a mean follow-up of 33 months. Fifteen of 16 (93%) seizure foci examined histologically were void of tumor infiltration. A
M. S. Berger; S. Ghatan; J. R. Geyer; G. E. Keles; G. A. Ojemann