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Sample records for intrauterine head stab

  1. Management of embedded foreign body: penetrating stab wound to the head.

    PubMed

    Martin, Sharolyn; Raup, Glenn H; Cravens, George; Arena-Marshall, Carrie

    2009-01-01

    Penetrating craniocerebral trauma is an injury in which a projectile violates the skull but does not exit. The significance of penetrating injuries to the head depends largely on the circumstances of the injury, the velocity of impact, and attributes of the projectile. While most penetrating head injuries are caused by firearms, lower-velocity mechanisms of penetrating brain injury present unique challenges for the multidisciplinary team involved with the delivery of care. Appropriate management can lead to optimal outcomes and limit secondary brain injury. PMID:19543016

  2. Intrauterine growth restricted piglets defined by their head shape ingest insufficient amounts of colostrum.

    PubMed

    Amdi, C; Krogh, U; Flummer, C; Oksbjerg, N; Hansen, C F; Theil, P K

    2013-12-01

    The increasing litter sizes of modern pig breeds have led to a significant number of piglets that are born undersized ("small" piglets) and some have been exposed to different degrees of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). The aim of this study was to investigate the physiology and capability to ingest colostrum of these small piglets, suffering from various degrees of IUGR, to see if their IUGR score could be a useful tool for easy identification of piglets in need of intervention in the colostrum period. Piglets were classified at birth based on head morphology. Piglets were classified either "normal," "mildly IUGR" (m-IUGR), or "severe IUGR" (s-IUGR), based on head morphology. Blood samples were collected at birth and at 24 h, and colostrum intake during two 12-h periods and blood metabolites at 0 and 24 h were measured. At 24 h, piglets weighing <900 g at birth and the median piglet in birth order were sacrificed, and organ weights and hepatic glycogen were measured. Overall, there was an influence of the piglets' classification on most characteristics, with normal piglets having a greater colostrum intake between 0 and 12 h (P < 0.001) and between 12 and 24 h (P < 0.05), and higher birth weight, crown rump length, body mass index, and ponderal index (P < 0.001), and a tendency toward a higher vitality score (P < 0.069) than s-IUGR piglets. There was a time × IUGR interaction, with plasma glucose levels being lowered (P < 0.001) and lactate levels elevated (P < 0.001) in s-IUGR piglets at 24 h compared with normal and m-IUGR piglets. Some differences were found in electrolytes; sodium plasma concentrations were greatest for normal piglets (P < 0.05) and highest at 0 h (P < 0.05). At 24 h of age, s-IUGR piglets had a higher heart (P < 0.001) and brain percentage (P < 0.001), and a lower liver percentage (P < 0.001) relative to body weight, compared with normal piglets. In addition, s-IUGR piglets had less hepatic glycogen than m-IUGR piglets and normal

  3. Environmentally Benign Stab Detonators

    SciTech Connect

    Gash, A

    2005-12-21

    Many energetic systems can be activated via mechanical means. Percussion primers in small caliber ammunition and stab detonators used in medium caliber ammunition are just two examples. Current medium caliber (20-60mm) munitions are detonated through the use of impact sensitive stab detonators. Stab detonators are very sensitive and must be small, as to meet weight and size limitations. A mix of energetic powders, sensitive to mechanical stimulus, is typically used to ignite such devices. Stab detonators are mechanically activated by forcing a firing pin through the closure disc of the device and into the stab initiating mix. Rapid heating caused by mechanically driven compression and friction of the mixture results in its ignition. The rapid decomposition of these materials generates a pressure/temperature pulse that is sufficient to initiate a transfer charge, which has enough output energy to detonate the main charge. This general type of ignition mix is used in a large variety of primers, igniters, and detonators.[1] Common primer mixes, such as NOL-130, are made up of lead styphnate (basic) 40%, lead azide (dextrinated) 20%, barium nitrate 20%, antimony sulfide 15%, and tetrazene 5%.[1] These materials pose acute and chronic toxicity hazards during mixing of the composition and later in the item life cycle after the item has been field functioned. There is an established need to replace these mixes on toxicity, health, and environmental hazard grounds. This effort attempts to demonstrate that environmentally acceptable energetic solgel coated flash metal multilayer nanocomposites can be used to replace current impact initiated devices (IIDs), which have hazardous and toxic components. Successful completion of this project will result in IIDs that include innocuous compounds, have sufficient output energy for initiation, meet current military specifications, are small, cost competitive, and perform as well as or better than current devices. We expect flash

  4. Retained garden fork following cranial stab injury

    PubMed Central

    Gonya, Sonwabile; Mbatha, Andile; Moyeni, Nondabula; Enicker, Basil

    2016-01-01

    Retained garden fork is a rare complication of penetrating cranial trauma. Retained knife blade is the most commonly reported presentation. We report an unusual case of a 30-year-old male patient treated at our institution, who presented with a retained garden fork following a stab to the head, with no associated neurological deficits. Computerized tomographic scan of the brain was performed preoperatively to assess the trajectory of the weapon and parenchymal injury. A craniectomy was performed to facilitate removal of the weapon in the operating theatre under general anaesthesia. Intravenous prophylactic antibiotics were administered pre- and postoperatively to prevent septic complications. The patient recovered well and was discharged home. PMID:26747398

  5. Environmentally Benign Stab Detonators

    SciTech Connect

    Gash, A E

    2006-07-07

    The coupling of energetic metallic multilayers (a.k.a. flash metal) with energetic sol-gel synthesis and processing is an entirely new approach to forming energetic devices for several DoD and DOE needs. They are also practical and commercially viable manufacturing techniques. Improved occupational safety and health, performance, reliability, reproducibility, and environmentally acceptable processing can be achieved using these methodologies and materials. The development and fielding of this technology will enhance mission readiness and reduce the costs, environmental risks and the necessity of resolving environmental concerns related to maintaining military readiness while simultaneously enhancing safety and health. Without sacrificing current performance, we will formulate new impact initiated device (IID) compositions to replace materials from the current composition that pose significant environmental, health, and safety problems associated with functions such as synthesis, material receipt, storage, handling, processing into the composition, reaction products from testing, and safe disposal. To do this, we will advance the use of nanocomposite preparation via the use of multilayer flash metal and sol-gel technologies and apply it to new small IIDs. This work will also serve to demonstrate that these technologies and resultant materials are relevant and practical to a variety of energetic needs of DoD and DOE. The goal will be to produce an IID whose composition is acceptable by OSHA, EPA, the Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act, Resource Recovery Act, etc. standards, without sacrificing current performance. The development of environmentally benign stab detonators and igniters will result in the removal of hazardous and toxic components associated with their manufacturing, handling, and use. This will lead to improved worker safety during manufacturing as well as reduced exposure of Service personnel during their storage and or use in operations. The

  6. Stab Sensitivity of Energetic Nanolaminates

    SciTech Connect

    Gash, A; Barbee, T; Cervantes, O

    2006-05-22

    This work details the stab ignition, small-scale safety, and energy release characteristics of bimetallic Al/Ni(V) and Al/Monel energetic nanolaminate freestanding thin films. The influence of the engineered nanostructural features of the energetic multilayers is correlated with both stab initiation and small-scale energetic materials testing results. Structural parameters of the energetic thin films found to be important include the bi-layer period, total thickness of the film, and presence or absence of aluminum coating layers. In general the most sensitive nanolaminates were those that were relatively thick, possessed fine bi-layer periods, and were not coated. Energetic nanolaminates were tested for their stab sensitivity as freestanding continuous parts and as coarse powders. The stab sensitivity of mock M55 detonators loaded with energetic nanolaminate was found to depend strongly upon both the particle size of the material and the configuration of nanolaminate material, in the detonator cup. In these instances stab ignition was observed with input energies as low as 5 mJ for a coarse powder with an average particle dimension of 400 {micro}m. Selected experiments indicate that the reacting nanolaminate can be used to ignite other energetic materials such as sol-gel nanostructured thermite, and conventional thermite that was either coated onto the multilayer substrate or pressed on it. These results demonstrate that energetic nanolaminates can be tuned to have precise and controlled ignition thresholds and can initiate other energetic materials and therefore are viable candidates as lead-free impact initiated igniters or detonators.

  7. Intrauterine Contraception.

    PubMed

    Hsia, Jennifer K; Creinin, Mitchell D

    2016-05-01

    Currently, there are only two basic types of intrauterine devices (IUDs): copper and hormonal. However, other types of IUDs are under development, some of which are in clinical trials around the world. Continued development has focused on increasing efficacy, longer duration of use, and noncontraceptive benefits. This review discusses currently available intrauterine contraceptives, such as the Cu380A IUD and levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine systems; novel intrauterine contraceptives that are available in select parts of the world including the intrauterine ball, low-dose copper products, frameless devices, and intrauterine delivery systems impregnated with noncontraceptive medication; and novel products currently in development. PMID:26947701

  8. [Stab wounds in emergency department].

    PubMed

    Bège, T; Berdah, S V; Brunet, C

    2013-12-01

    Stab wounds represent the most common cause of penetrating wounds, occurring mainly in case of aggression or suicide attempt. Clinical severity depends on the superficial or penetrating aspect of the wound, its location and damaged organs. Medical management must be known because the vital risk is involved in penetrating wounds. Hemodynamically unstable patients should be operated without delay after performing a chest X-ray and ultrasound Focus assisted sonography for trauma (FAST) to guide the surgery. In the stable patients, the general clinical examination, exploration of the wound and medical imaging detect injuries requiring surgical management. Stab penetrating wounds require close and rapid collaboration between medical teams, tailored to the institution's resources. PMID:24176734

  9. Multiple stabbing in sex-related homicides.

    PubMed

    Radojević, Nemanja; Radnić, Bojana; Petković, Stojan; Miljen, Maletin; Curović, Ivana; Cukić, Dragana; Soć, Miodrag; Savić, Slobodan

    2013-07-01

    It is possible that sexually driven homicides are the consequence of sexual deviation, but more often than not the main cause of such homicides stems from a non-paraphilic person's emotional component. It is known that homicides which involve multiple stabbing are very often the result of the assailant's highly expressed affect. This study tries to establish whether such homicides are essentially related to the sexual motives of the murderer. This paper is conducted through a retrospective autopsy study that includes 766 cases of homicides. These were reviewed and analysed according to the motive of the homicide, as well as by method, age, and gender of the victim, and the relationship between the victim and the assailant. The motives of homicides are classified as non-sexual and sexual, including homicides related to rape, jealousy, amorous affairs outside of an established relationship, deviant sexual behaviour of psychiatric patients, paraphilia, and disturbed emotional relationships between the victim and the assailant. Cases include both hetero- and homosexual relationships. Multiple stabbing occurs significantly more frequently in sex-related homicides (≥ 3 stab wounds) than in other homicide types. When the criteria for multiple stabbing are changed (≥ 4, 5, or 25 stab wounds), the percentage of sex-related homicides rises in every group in relation to the increased number of wounds. Sensitivity and specificity are represented by ROC curves for 3, 5 and 7 stab wounds. The correlation coefficients between multiple stabbing and sex-related homicides regarding gender are all near 0.9. For female victims, all homicides committed by 25 and more stab wounds were found to be sex-related. Statistically, jealousy was the most frequent motive for sex-related multiple stabbing homicides. Regardless of age, homicides involving multiple stabbings should be considered sex-related, especially when the victim is female. PMID:23756522

  10. Intracranial complications of transorbital stab wounds.

    PubMed Central

    De Villiers, J C; Sevel, D

    1975-01-01

    Oscular and orbital injuries due to stab wounds may mask underlying serious intracranial damage. The correct clinical assessment and treatment of such cases require the attention of a team comprising a neurosurgeon, ophthalmologist, otolaryngologist, and plastic surgeon. Images PMID:1125159

  11. [Intrauterine mycoplasmosis].

    PubMed

    Tsinzerling, A V; Mitrofanov, P M; Shastina, G V

    1977-01-01

    Comparative studies of pathological anatomy of intrauterine mycoplasmosis of man and cattle were carried out. On the basis of investigations of 22 deceased newborns and of 3 stillborns with uterine infection caused by Mycoplasma pneumonia descriptions of lesions of various organs are presented. They most regularly were defected in the liver. In the respiratory organs in this infection, in contrast to respiratory mycoplasmosis, lesions of respiratory departments, not of the respiratory tract, were predominantly observed. The investigation of 18 liveborn and 5 stillborn calfs with intrauterine infection caused by Mycoplasma bovirhinis revealed the same regularities of the pathological process. The localisation of lesions and the presence of changes in the placenta justify the conclusion that the disease developed, as a rule, as a result of hematogenic transplacental infection. PMID:558745

  12. Intrauterine programming

    PubMed Central

    Sedaghat, Katayoun; Zahediasl, Saleh; Ghasemi, Asghar

    2015-01-01

    In mammals, the intrauterine condition has an important role in the development of fetal physiological systems in later life. Suboptimal maternal environment can alter the regulatory pathways that determine the normal development of the fetus in utero, which in post-natal life may render the individual more susceptible to cardiovascular or metabolic adult-life diseases. Changes in the intrauterine availability of nutrients, oxygen and hormones can change the fetal tissue developmental regulatory planning, which occurs genomically and non-genomically and can cause permanent structural and functional changes in the systems, leading to diseases in early years of life and those that particularly become overt in adulthood. In this review we take a brief look at the main elements which program the fetal system development and consequently induce a crucial impact on the cardiovascular, nervous and hormonal systems in adulthood. PMID:25945232

  13. Intrauterine devices.

    PubMed

    Burkman, R T

    1991-08-01

    Approximately 60 million women use the intrauterine device (IUD) worldwide; however, owing primarily to nonmedical reasons, the IUD is far less popular in the United States. Although the contraceptive mechanism of action is unknown, it appears that spermicidal activity may be important. Overall, the efficacy of the copper devices is quite good, such that the overall lifespan can probably be extended. Possible pelvic infection remains the greatest potential risk, although in properly selected women the risk is quite low. Use of prophylactic antibiotics at the time of insertion may offer additional protection against this risk. Although IUD users may have more nonspecific vaginal inflammation than do other women, the clinical significance is probably limited. Further, users do not appear to have elevated risks for cervical infections. Although menometrorrhagia persists as a potential problem, the mechanism for such bleeding is not well understood. Finally, the retroflexed uterine position does not appear to increase the risk of abnormal outcomes. PMID:1878504

  14. Intrauterine contraception.

    PubMed

    Reinprayoon, D

    1992-08-01

    Currently 85 million women use an intrauterine device (IUD), making it the most widely used, reliable, reversible contraceptive method worldwide. Although the exact mechanisms by which copper-bearing IUDs produce contraceptive action are not completely defined, recent evidence indicates that they act primarily to prevent sperm from fertilizing ova. The future of the IUD is brighter than it has been for the past 20 years. The latest generation of IUDs, such as the TCu 380A (Paragard, GynoPharma, Somerville, NJ), are safer and more effective than ever. In World Health Organization large, multicenter trials, pregnancy rates for the TCu 380A are 1.0, 1.4, 1.6, and 1.8 at 3, 5, 7, and 9 years of use, respectively. The ectopic pregnancy rates and removal for pelvic inflammatory disease are very low. The device may soon be the major IUD available in most countries. The acceptability of IUD use can be increased by good clinical management, sympathetic counseling, careful client selection, proper device selection, careful insertion, timing of insertion, and regular follow-up with quick access to medical care. PMID:1324024

  15. Toward a Predictive Assessment of Stab-Penetration Forces.

    PubMed

    Ní Annaidh, Aisling; Cassidy, Marie; Curtis, Michael; Destrade, Michel; Gilchrist, Michael D

    2015-09-01

    Collaborative research between the disciplines of forensic pathology and biomechanics was undertaken to investigate the hyperelastic properties of human skin, to determine the force required for sharp instrument penetration of skin, and to develop a finite element model, which reflects the mechanisms of sharp instrument penetration. These studies have led to the development of a "stab metric," based on simulations, to describe the force magnitudes in stabbing incidents. Such a metric should, in time, replace the crudely quantitative descriptors of stabbing forces currently used by forensic pathologists. PMID:24781391

  16. Characteristics and rehabilitation for patients with spinal cord stab injury

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fangyong; Zhang, Junwei; Tang, Hehu; Li, Xiang; Jiang, Shudong; Lv, Zhen; Liu, Shujia; Chen, Shizheng; Liu, Jiesheng; Hong, Yi

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The objective of the study was to compare the incidence, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of patients with spinal cord stab injury to those with the more common spinal cord contusion injury. [Subjects] Of patients hospitalized in China Rehabilitation Research Center from 1994 to 2014, 40 of those having a spinal cord stab injury and 50 with spinal cord contusion were selected. [Methods] The data of all patients were analyzed retrospectively. The cases were evaluated by collecting admission and discharge ASIA (American Spinal Injury Association) and ADL (activity of daily living) scores. [Results] After a comprehensive rehabilitation program, ASIA and ADL scores of patients having both spinal cord stab injury and spinal cord contusion significantly increase. However, the increases were noted to be higher in patients having a spinal cord stab injury than those having spinal cord contusion. [Conclusion] Comprehensive rehabilitation is effective both for patients having spinal cord stab injury and those with spinal cord contusion injury. However, the prognosis of patients having spinal cord stab injury is better than that of patients with spinal cord contusion. PMID:26834329

  17. Socioeconomic aspects of stab and gunshot wounds.

    PubMed

    Wase, R E; Hamit, H F

    1979-09-01

    Records of 294 patients with gunshot, stab, or shotgun wounds admitted to Charlotte Memorial Hospital and Medical Center between July 1, 1976 and June 30, 1977 were reviewed. Data were gathered on 24 clinical, social, and economic aspects to discover any patterns in these areas. Eighty-three percent of the patients were male; 71%, black; 70%, unmarried; and 56%, between 16 and 30 years of age. Fifty-five percent came to the hospital between 10 pm and 3 am; 57% on Friday, Saturday, or Sunday; 31% came in June, July, or August. Sixty-four percent were gunshot wounds, 80% of which were by small caliber weapons. Ninety-four percent of all patients survived. The patients "consumed" 3,260 hosptial days, 526 intensive care unit days, 533 units of blood, and 261 operations, totaling 595 hours of operating room time. Hospital charges totaled $668,000, of which 1.1% was paid from private funds and nearly 65% from the taxpayers and other private paying patients. PMID:470276

  18. [Survived stab to the heart in a schizophrenic man].

    PubMed

    Fieseler, Sybille; Zinka, Bettina; Kunz, Sebastian N

    2011-01-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with a significant risk of suicide. According to recent research, 10-15 % of all schizophrenic patients die by suicide. It is not uncommon that the victims show sharp force injuries, so that the forensic pathologist first has to differentiate between self-infliction and involvement of another person. The authors' case report presents a 68-year-old schizophrenic patient who committed suicide by jumping out of a window of his apartment located on the second floor after inflicting multiple stab wounds to his thoracic region. At autopsy, an older stab wound to the apex of the heart was detected. In the criminal investigation, a suicide attempt made 13 days before could be ascertained. As the patient did not want to be taken to a hospital at that time, the injury had never been examined or documented. Since there was no evidence suggesting homicide, the older stab to the heart was interpreted as a tentative injury. PMID:22039699

  19. Quantification of forces required for stabbing with screwdrivers and other blunter instruments.

    PubMed

    Parmar, Kiran; Hainsworth, Sarah Victoria; Rutty, Guy Nathan

    2012-01-01

    In the UK, stabbing is the most common cause of homicide. The weapons used include knives, swords, screwdrivers and glass shards. Quantifying the exact force used in a stabbing incident is considered to be a difficult area due to the large number of variables present, such as sharpness of weapon, angle of attack and relative movements of the people involved. Having quantifiable data would allow a forensic pathologist to make a more informed decision when it comes to answering the commonly posed question in court "what was the degree of force involved in the stabbing incident?" The answer to this question is considered significant in determining an alleged assailant's intent to cause harm. This paper presents results of the first detailed study relating geometry of screwdrivers to the forces required for penetration. Additionally, a range of other blunt weapons such as pens and chisels have also been studied. A silicone rubber-foam analogue has been used as the main skin simulant owing to it having similar mechanical properties to that of human skin and giving highly repeatable results. Different screwdrivers of varying shape and size have been tested (i.e. slotted, Phillips, posidriv and Torx), along with other implements including chisels and pens. The weapon geometry was characterised and related to the peak force required for penetration. Our results show that there is a direct correlation between the cross-sectional area of a screwdriver head and the amount of force required for penetration. Screwdrivers with larger cross-sectional areas require a significantly greater force to penetrate (forces in the region of 100-120 N) but "sharper" slotted screwdrivers penetrate with much lower forces (~30 N). The forces required for penetrating the rubber-foam analogue with screwdrivers are higher than for "sharp" knives, but in some cases similar to the forces required for stabbing with "blunt" knives. For the other weapons such as chisels and biros, the force required

  20. Levonorgestrel Intrauterine System

    MedlinePlus

    ... new system inserted at any time during your menstrual cycle. If you have chosen to use a different ... of your intrauterine system and you have regular menstrual cycles, you should have the system removed during the ...

  1. Levonorgestrel Intrauterine System

    MedlinePlus

    ... period begins, or immediately after a first-trimester abortion. If you have given birth, had a miscarriage, or had a second-trimester abortion, your intrauterine system should not be inserted until ...

  2. New operational technology of intrauterine ventilation the fetus lungs by breathing gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urakov, A. L.; Nikityuk, D. B.; Urakova, N. A.; Kasankin, A. A.; Chernova, L. V.; Dementiev, V. B.

    2015-11-01

    New operational technology for elimination intrauterine hypoxia and asphyxia of the fetus using endoscopic artificial ventilation lungs by respiratory gas was developed. For intrauterine ventilation of fetal lung it is proposed to enter into the uterus a special breathing mask and wear it on the head of the fetus using the original endoscopic technology. The breathing mask, developed by us is connected with external breathing apparatus with a hose. The device is called "intrauterine aqualung". Intrauterine aqualung includes a ventilator and breathing circuit with a special fold-out breathing mask that is put on inside the uterus on the head of fetus like a mesh hat. Controlled by ultrasound the technology of the introduction of the mask inside of the uterus through the natural opening in the cervix and technology of putting on the respiratory mask on the head of the fetus with its head previa were developed. The technology intrauterine ventilation of the fetus lungs by respiratory gas was developed.

  3. 76 FR 69764 - Stab-Resistant Body Armor Standard Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-09

    ...The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) are jointly hosting a workshop focused on the NIJ Stab-resistant Body Armor Standard, and the discussion is directed toward manufacturers, certification bodies, and test laboratories. This workshop is being held specifically to discuss with interested parties recent progress made toward the......

  4. Class characteristics of serrated knife stabs to cartilage.

    PubMed

    Pounder, Derrick J; Cormack, Lesley; Broadbent, Elizabeth; Millar, John

    2011-06-01

    A total of 136 stab wounds were made in cartilage with 8 serrated knives and 72 stabs with 4 nonserrated knives. The walls of the stab track were documented by photography, cast with dental impression material, and the casts photographed. Staining the translucent cartilage surface with blue or green food dye improved photography. Serrated blades produced striations on cartilage in all stabbings. Patterns of blade serration beyond the broad categories of coarse and fine were recognizable. The overall pattern of striations was "irregularly regular." The distance between the blade-spine wound end and the first serration striation is a class characteristic of the knife which produced the defect, as are distances to the subsequent serration striations, which become ever close together and eventually merge near the blade-edge wound end. Serrated knives may be ground (scalloped) on either the left side or the right side of the blade and this class characteristic is identifiable from the walls of the wound track, on which the scalloped blade surface produces broad ridges and narrow striation valleys, with a reverse image on the opposing wound wall. A drop point serrated blade consistently produced an additional oblique mark angled from the blade-spine wound end, accurately reflecting the shape of the blade tip, and representing a chatter mark. PMID:20407362

  5. Carotid artery dissection due to elongated styloid process: a self-stabbing phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Razak, Anmar; Short, Jody L; Hussain, Syed I

    2014-01-01

    Elongated styloid process (ESP) is an anatomical variant that has been described as the cause of Eagle syndrome. Until recently, the styloid process has not been appreciated as a significant contributor to carotid artery dissection (CAD), which is not part of Eagle syndrome. We present a case of a 41-year-old male who presented with acute right middle cerebral artery occlusion and was found to have ESP projecting to and abutting the lateral wall of a dissected right internal carotid artery (ICA). Forced sustained head turning with maximal muscle contraction was the initiating event driving the styloid process into the wall of the ICA in a manner that can be likened to being stabbed with a pointed object. Knowing the association between ESP, Eagle syndrome, and CAD shall lead to increased awareness and appropriate diagnosis and treatment. PMID:23163559

  6. Forensic evidence in apparel fabrics due to stab events.

    PubMed

    Kemp, S E; Carr, D J; Kieser, J; Niven, B E; Taylor, M C

    2009-10-30

    Stab injuries and fatalities have been reported to be the most common crimes of violence in several countries, particularly in those where access to firearms is restricted [J.M. Taupin, F.-P. Adolf, J. Robertson, Examination of damage to textiles, in: J. Robertson, M. Grieve (Eds.), Forensic Examination of Fibres, CRC Press, United States of America, 1999, pp. 65-87; A.C. Hunt, R.J. Cowling, Murder by stabbing, Forensic Sci. Int. 52 (1991) 107-112; D.A. Rouse, Patterns of stab wounds: a six year study, Med. Sci. Law 34 (1994) 67-71]. Analysis of damaged apparel may provide important information about the cause of death and the events leading up to and after the victim's final moments [M.T. Pailthorpe, N.A.G. Johnson, The private forensic scientist and the criminal justice system, in: D. Biles, J. Vernon (Eds.), Private Sector and Community Involvement in the Criminal Justice System: Conference Proceedings, vol. 23, Australian Institute of Criminology, Wellington, 1994, 231-240]. A high proportion of stab wounds occur in the chest and as this area is generally clothed many sharp force cases involve damage to fabrics [J.M. Taupin, F.-P. Adolf, J. Robertson, Examination of damage to textiles, in: J. Robertson, M. Grieve (Eds.), Forensic Examination of Fibres, CRC Press, United States of America, 1999, pp. 65-87; A.C. Hunt, R.J. Cowling, Murder by stabbing, Forensic Sci. Int. 52 (1991) 107-112; D.A. Rouse, Patterns of stab wounds: a six year study, Med. Sci. Law 34 (1994) 67-71]. The structural stabilisation and degradation of fabric due to laundering significantly alters fabric properties [S.E. Gore, R.M. Laing, C.A. Wilson, D.J. Carr, B.E. Niven, Standardizing a pre-treatment cleaning procedure and effects of application on apparel fabrics, Text. Res. J. 76 (2006) 455-464], yet the effect of such on severance morphology does not appear to have been investigated. In this work the effect of blade type (hunting knife, kitchen knife, screwdriver) on new and laundered

  7. 76 FR 22920 - Stab Resistance of Personal Body Armor (2000) Standard Special Technical Committee Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ... of Justice Programs Stab Resistance of Personal Body Armor (2000) Standard Special Technical... Institute of Justice (NIJ) is in the process of revising its Stab Resistance of Personal Body Armor (2000... bodies and (2) test laboratories with experience in programs for similar types of personal...

  8. [Forensic medical evaluation of stab-incised wounds caused by knives with point defects].

    PubMed

    Krupin, K N; Leonov, S V

    2011-01-01

    The present experimental study allowed to characterize specific signs of stab-incised wounds caused by knives with operational point defects. Diagnostic coefficients calculated for these macro- and microscopic features facilitate differential diagnostics of the injuries and make it possible to identify a concrete stabbing/cutting weapon with which the wound was inflicted.. PMID:21866847

  9. Variability of simulants used in recreating stab events.

    PubMed

    Carr, D J; Wainwright, A

    2011-07-15

    Forensic investigators commonly use simulants/backing materials to mount fabrics and/or garments on when recreating damage due to stab events. Such work may be conducted in support of an investigation to connect a particular knife to a stabbing event by comparing the severance morphology obtained in the laboratory to that observed in the incident. There does not appear to have been a comparison of the effect of simulant type on the morphology of severances in fabrics and simulants, nor on the variability of simulants. This work investigates three simulants (pork, gelatine, expanded polystyrene), two knife blades (carving, bread), and how severances in the simulants and an apparel fabric typically used to manufacture T-shirts (single jersey) were affected by (i) simulant type and (ii) blade type. Severances were formed using a laboratory impact apparatus to ensure a consistent impact velocity and hence impact energy independently of the other variables. The impact velocity was chosen so that the force measured was similar to that measured in human performance trials. Force-time and energy-time curves were analysed and severance morphology (y, z directions) investigated. Simulant type and knife type significantly affected the critical forensic measurements of severance length (y direction) in the fabric and 'skin' (Tuftane). The use of EPS resulted in the lowest variability in data, further the severances recorded in both the fabric and Tuftane more accurately reflected the dimensions of the impacting knives. PMID:21371835

  10. Analytical assessment of woven fabrics under vertical stabbing - The role of protective clothing.

    PubMed

    Hejazi, Sayyed Mahdi; Kadivar, Nastaran; Sajjadi, Ali

    2016-02-01

    Knives are being used more commonly in street fights and muggings. Therefore, this work presents an analytical model for woven fabrics under vertical stabbing loads. The model is based on energy method and the fabric is assumed to be unidirectional comprised of N layers. Thus, the ultimate stab resistance of fabric was determined based on structural parameters of fabric and geometrical characteristics of blade. Moreover, protective clothing is nowadays considered as a strategic branch in technical textile industry. The main idea of the present work is improving the stab resistance of woven textiles by using metal coating method. In the final, a series of vertical stabbing tests were conducted on cotton, polyester and polyamide fabrics. Consequently, it was found that the model predicts with a good accuracy the ultimate stab resistance of the sample fabrics. PMID:26774251

  11. Do Patients with Penetrating Abdominal Stab Wounds Require Laparotomy?

    PubMed Central

    Sanei, Behnam; Mahmoudieh, Mohsen; Talebzadeh, Hamid; Shahabi Shahmiri, Shahab; Aghaei, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Background The optimal management of hemodynamically stable asymptomatic patients with anterior abdominal stab wounds (AASWs) remains controversial. The goal is to identify and treat injuries in a safe cost-effective manner. Common evaluation strategies are local wound exploration (LWE), diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL), serial clinical assessment (SCAs) and computed tomography (CT) imaging. Making a decision about the right time to operate on a patient with a penetrating abdominal stab wound, especially those who have visceral evisceration, is a continuing challenge. Objectives Until the year 2010, our strategy was emergency laparotomy in patients with penetrating anterior fascia and those with visceral evisceration. This survey was conducted towards evaluating the results of emergency laparotomy. So, better management can be done in patients with penetrating abdominal stab wounds. Patients and Methods This retrospective cross-sectional study was performed on patients with abdominal penetrating trauma who referred to Al- Zahra hospital in Isfahan, Iran from October 2000 to October 2010. It should be noted that patients with abdominal blunt trauma, patients under 14 years old, those with lateral abdomen penetrating trauma and patients who had unstable hemodynamic status were excluded from the study. Medical records of patients were reviewed and demographic and clinical data were collected for all patients including: age, sex, mechanism of trauma and the results of LWE and laparotomy. Data were analyzed with PASW v.20 software. All data were expressed as mean ± SD. The distribution of nominal variables was compared using the Chi-squared test. Also, diagnostic index for LWE were calculated. A two-sided P value less than 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results During the 10 year period of the study, 1100 consecutive patients with stab wounds were admitted to Al-Zahra hospital Isfahan, Iran. In total, about 150 cases had penetrating traumas in

  12. [Current management of stab wounds to the colon].

    PubMed

    Peycru, T; Avaro, J P; Biance, N; Tardat, E; Balandraud, P

    2006-06-01

    Stab wounds to the colon are a frequent surgical emergency. Local wound exploration under local anaesthesia is not required systematically. We recommend surveillance based on clinical observation and laboratory testing to detect peritoneal signs. If progression of symptoms is suspected, diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) should be performed. Immediate surgical exploration is indicated in two cases, i.e., generalized peritonitis and haemodynamic instability due to internal bleeding. The preferred repair technique is direct suture or resection followed by a handsewn or mechanical anastomosis. The morbidity, cost and social consequences of colostomy must be taken into account. It should be considered as a salvage procedure for patients in critical condition or extensive colonic injury. PMID:16924827

  13. Ultrasonography of intrauterine devices

    PubMed Central

    Nowitzki, Kristina M.; Hoimes, Matthew L.; Chen, Byron; Zheng, Larry Z.; Kim, Young H.

    2015-01-01

    The intrauterine device (IUD) is gaining popularity as a reversible form of contraception. Ultrasonography serves as first-line imaging for the evaluation of IUD position in patients with pelvic pain, abnormal bleeding, or absent retrieval strings. This review highlights the imaging of both properly positioned and malpositioned IUDs. The problems associated with malpositioned IUDs include expulsion, displacement, embedment, and perforation. Management considerations depend on the severity of the malposition and the presence or absence of symptoms. Three-dimensional ultrasonography has proven to be more sensitive in the evaluation of more subtle findings of malposition, particularly side-arm embedment. Familiarity with the ultrasonographic features of properly positioned and malpositioned IUDs is essential. PMID:25985959

  14. [Intrauterine hypotrophy and programming the health status. Late problems in newborns with intrauterine hypotrophy].

    PubMed

    Mumdzhiev, Hr; Slancheva, B

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, accumulating more and more evidence demonstrating the programming effects of intrauterine development on the subsequent health of the individual. Intrauterine fetal hypotrophy is a consequence of the wide range of pathological processes in different periods of pregnancy. It is the second leading cause of perinatal death after prematurity. Newborns from similar pathological pregnancies are often leaked premature baby and/or small for gestational age (SGA). Premature baby children have not only complicated and postnatal adaptation problems in the neonatal period, but many diseases occurring in later life: 1. Disorders in postnatal growth. 2. Neurological and intellectual consequences of IUH in term children (hyperactivity disorders attention, impaired fine motor skills, speech problems, risk of cerebral palsy). 3. Neurological and intellectual consequences of prematurity IUH (cognitive impairment in children with low birth weight, short stature at birth, and small head circumference for gestational age). 4. Metabolic syndrome (dyslipidemia, abdominal obesity, hypertension and high blood sugar). 5. Abnormal sexual development (hyperandrogenism, polycystic ovary syndrome in girls, reduced testicular size and lower testosterone levels in boys. 6. Other complications associated with intrauterine hypotrophy cardiovascular renal, pulmonary complications (BPD) disorders in vision, sensory neural hearing loss. PMID:23807979

  15. Changing trends in the pattern and outcome of stab injuries at a North London hospital

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Manojkumar S; Uzzaman, Mohammed M; Al-Zuhir, Naail; Jadeja, Ashok; Navaratnam, Romi

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the incidence, pattern and outcome of stab injuries attending a North London Teaching Hospital over a 3-year (2006-2008) period. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of collected data from the Hospital database was conducted. The database contains comprehensive medical records for all patients attended by the trauma team for deliberate stab injuries. It is updated by the surgical team after each admission. All patients with deliberate penetrating injury who were attended by the service between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2008 were identified. Patients who died in the prehospital phase, those managed exclusively by the emergency department and limb injuries without vascular compromise were excluded from the study. Results: Six hundred and nineteen patients with stab injuries (following knife crime) from North London attended the Hospital in the above period. One hundred and thirty-seven paients required surgical admission. Two were cases of self-inflicted knife injuries. Over the 3-year period the percentage of victims below 20 years of age is increasing. Ninety-three percent of knife crime occured between 6 pm and 6 am; recently moving toward week days from weekend period. Conclusions: The overall rate of penetrating injuries (stab injuries) is slowly declining. Timely cardiothoracic support facility is vital in saving lives with major cardiac stab injuries. Although alcohol drinking restriction has been lifted, most cases of stabbings are still occurring out-of-hours when surgical personnel are limited. PMID:22090737

  16. Intrauterine steroid contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Scholten, P C; Christaens, G C; Haspels, A A

    1987-11-15

    Progestagen releasing IUDs were specially developed to diminish the problems of bleeding and pain with inert and copper containing IUDs. The intrauterine release of the progestagen causes endometrial atrophy, resulting in impairment of nidation, and interferes with transport of the ovum and the spermatozoa. Two available types, Progestasert, Biograviplan (Alza Corporation, California; Grünenthal) and Levonorgestrel Nova-T (Leiras Pharmaceuticals, Finland), have been sufficiently tested in multinational trials. Compared with Progestasert, LNG Nova-T showed lower pregnancy rates (Pearl Index 0.30), less risk for ectopic pregnancy and a longer effective lifetime (7 years). With both IUDs the amount and duration of menstrual blood loss is decreased. Amenorrhea is a frequent occurring side effect of LNG Nova-T, caused by endometrial atrophy. Intermenstrual blood loss and spotting incidences are not uniformly reduced and are still a frequent reason for removal. Preinsertion counselling may improve the acceptance of these non-health-threatening side effects. With both IUDs a decrease of menstrual cramps during periods is percepted and a low incidence of PID is found. Basically, the progestagen releasing IUD can be recommended to all women who wish an IUD for contraception and to women with contraindications for oral contraceptives, especially to those with menorrhagia, anaemia or risk for anaemia. PMID:3131966

  17. Abdominal stab wounds: self-inflicted wounds versus assault wounds.

    PubMed

    Venara, Aurélien; Jousset, Nathalie; Airagnes, Guillaume; Arnaud, Jean-Pierre; Rougé-Maillart, Clotilde

    2013-05-01

    Intentional penetrating wounds, self inflicted or inflicted by others, are increasingly common. As a result, it can be difficult for the forensic examiner to determine whether the cause is self-inflicted or not. This type of trauma has been studied from a psychological perspective and from a surgical perspective but the literature concerning the forensic perspective is poorer. The objective of this study was to compare the epidemiology of abdominal stab wounds so as to distinguish specific features of each type. This could help the forensic scientist to determine the manner of infliction of the wound. We proposed a retrospective monocentric study that included all patients with an abdominal wound who were managed by the visceral surgery department at Angers University Hospital. Demographic criteria, patient history, circumstances and location of the wound were noted and compared. A comparison was drawn between group 1 (self inflicted wound) and group 2 (assault). This study showed that the only significant differences are represented by the patient's prior history and the circumstances surrounding the wound, i.e. the scene and time of day. In our study, neither the site, nor the injuries sustained reveal significant clues as to the origin of the wound. According to our findings, in order to determine the cause, the forensic examiner should thus carefully study the circumstances and any associated injuries. PMID:23622473

  18. Intrauterine radiation exposures and mental retardation

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.W.

    1988-08-01

    Small head size and mental retardation have been known as effects of intrauterine exposure to ionizing radiation since the 1920s. In the 1950s, studies of Japanese atomic-bomb survivors revealed that at 4-17 wk of gestation, the greater the dose, the smaller the brain (and head size), and that beginning at 0.5 Gy (50 rad) in Hiroshima, mental retardation increased in frequency with increasing dose. No other excess of birth defects was observed. Otake and Schull (1984) pointed out that the period of susceptibility to mental retardation coincided with that for proliferation and migration of neuronal elements from near the cerebral ventricles to the cortex. Mental retardation could be the result of interference with this process. Their analysis indicated that exposures at 8-15 wk to 0.01-0.02 Gy (1-2 rad) doubled the frequency of severe mental retardation. This estimate was based on small numbers of mentally retarded atomic-bomb survivors. Although nuclear accidents have occurred recently, new cases will hopefully be too rare to provide further information about the risk of mental retardation. It may be possible, however, to learn about lesser impairment. New psychometric tests may be helpful in detecting subtle deficits in intelligence or neurodevelopmental function. One such test is PEERAMID, which is being used in schools to identify learning disabilities due, for example, to deficits in attention, short- or long-term memory, or in sequencing information. This and other tests could be applied in evaluating survivors of intrauterine exposure to various doses of ionizing radiation. The results could change our understanding of the safety of low-dose exposures.

  19. Intrauterine growth restriction

    MedlinePlus

    ... may contribute to IUGR include: Alcohol abuse Smoking Drug addiction Clotting disorders High blood pressure or heart disease Kidney disease Poor nutrition If the mother is small, it may be ... head may be normal size while the rest of the body is small.

  20. Costs of gunshot and cut/stab wounds in the United States, with some Canadian comparisons.

    PubMed

    Miller, T R; Cohen, M A

    1997-05-01

    This article estimates the costs of U.S. gunshot and cut/stab wound by intent. It also compares U.S. to Canadian gunshot experience. Incidence data are from published sources, the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS), and cause-coded emergency department discharge and hospital discharge data systems. Medical care payments and lost earnings per case come from National Crime Survey data, a literature review, and weighting of costs by diagnosis from Databook on Nonfatal Injury-Incidence. Costs, and Consequences by Miller et al. (The Urban Institute Press, Washington, DC. 1995) with the diagnosis distribution of penetrating injuries from the discharge data systems. Quality of life losses are estimated primarily from jury awards to penetrating injury victims. In 1992, gunshots killed 37,776 Americans; cut/stab wounds killed 4095. Another 134,000 gunshot survivors and 3,100,000 cut/stab wound survivors received medical treatment. Annually, gunshot wounds cost an estimated U.S. $126 billion. Cut/stab wounds cost another U.S. $51 billion. The gunshot and cut/stab totals include U.S. $40 billion and U.S. $13 billion respectively in medical, public services, and work-loss costs. Across medically treated cases, costs average U.S. $154,000 per gunshot survivor and U.S. $12,000 per cut/stab survivor. Gunshot wounds are more than three times as common in the U.S. than in Canada, which has strict handgun control. With the same quality of life loss per victim, gunshot costs per capita are an estimated U.S. $495 in the U.S. vs U.S. $180 in Canada. Per gun, however, the costs are higher in Canada, Gunshot wound rates rise linearly with gun ownership. PMID:9183471

  1. Stabbing headache in an 8-year-old girl: primary or drug induced headache?

    PubMed

    Biedroł, Agnieszka; Kaciłski, Marek; Skowronek-Bała, Barbara

    2014-04-01

    The occurrence of stabbing headaches in children requires a thorough diagnostic approach that excludes secondary headaches. The organic background should be taken into consideration when alarming symptoms occur, such as a purely 1-sided location, a change in the character of the headache, or possibly a link to physical activity. The current study describes the case of an 8-year-old girl who suffered short-lasting stabbing headache attacks. The headaches with increasing intensity and frequency started 1 month before her hospitalization and were usually preceded by physical activity (dancing, running). The pain, which was located in the right supraorbital region, lasted 1 second and occurred several times during the day. No associated symptoms were observed. In addition, the girl suffered from allergic rhinitis and was on antiallergic treatment (levocetirizine, fluticasone nasal spray). On admission she was in good general condition, and a pediatric and neurologic examination revealed no abnormalities. Her brain MRI was normal. The initial diagnosis was that the patient was suffering from primary stabbing headaches. However, during a follow-up visit 4 months later, a relationship was observed between the cessation of the headache attacks and the discontinuation of an antihistaminic drug. Six months later, the girl remained headache free. In cases involving differential diagnoses of stabbing headaches, it is important to consider the adverse reactions of the drugs used. PMID:24664098

  2. A stab in the back with a screwdriver: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Bhutta, Mohammed A; Dunkow, Paul D; Lang, Derick M

    2008-01-01

    Background Stabbings infrequently produce spinal injury. However, the use weapons other than blades can overcome this natural defence barrier. Case Presentation We present a spinal injury produced by a screwdriver, its management and a review of the literature. Conclusion This case highlights the need for clinical vigilance, including in those who appear stable and a senior multidisciplinary approach to each individual case. PMID:19014454

  3. 76 FR 35024 - National Institute of Justice Stab-Resistant Body Armor Standard Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ...The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) are jointly hosting workshop focused on the NIJ Stab-Resistant Body Armor Standard. It is anticipated that the discussion at the workshop will be directed primarily toward manufacturers, certification bodies, and test laboratories. NIJ and NIST are hosting this workshop specifically to discuss......

  4. A Method for Cell Culture and Maintenance of Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea in Agar Stab.

    PubMed

    Chu, Yeon-Jin; Lee, Jin-Young; Shin, So-Ra; Kim, Geun-Joong

    2015-12-01

    Ammonia oxidizing archaea (AOA) are predominantly found and closely linked with geochemical cycling of nitrogen in non-extreme habitats. However, these strains have mainly been investigated using liquid cultures of enriched cells. Here, we provide an agar stab as a simple and reliable means of cultivating and maintaining AOA. PMID:26543273

  5. Efficacy of Intrauterine Device in the Treatment of Intrauterine Adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Salma, Umme; Xue, Min; Md Sayed, Ali Sheikh; Xu, Dabao

    2014-01-01

    The primary purpose of this paper is to assess the efficacy of the use of the intrauterine device (IUD) as an adjunctive treatment modality, for intrauterine adhesions (IUAs). All eligible literatures were identified by electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science. Additional relevant articles were identified from citations in these publications. There were 28 studies included for a systematic review. Of these, 5 studies were eligible for meta-analysis and 23 for qualitative assessment only. Twenty-eight studies related to the use of IUDs as ancillary treatment following adhesiolysis were identified. Of these studies, 25 studies at least one of the following methods were carried out as ancillary treatment: Foley catheter, hyaluronic acid gel, hormonal therapy, or amnion graft in addition to the IUD. There was one study that used IUD therapy as a single ancillary treatment. In 2 studies, no adjunctive therapy was used after adhesiolysis. There was a wide range of reported menstrual and fertility outcomes which were associated with the use of IUD combined with other ancillary treatments. At present, the IUD is beneficial in patients with IUA, regardless of stage of adhesions. However, IUD needs to be combined with other ancillary treatments to obtain maximal outcomes, in particular in patients with moderate to severe IUA. PMID:25254212

  6. Glucocorticoid programming of intrauterine development.

    PubMed

    Fowden, A L; Valenzuela, O A; Vaughan, O R; Jellyman, J K; Forhead, A J

    2016-07-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are important environmental and maturational signals during intrauterine development. Toward term, the maturational rise in fetal glucocorticoid receptor concentrations decreases fetal growth and induces differentiation of key tissues essential for neonatal survival. When cortisol levels rise earlier in gestation as a result of suboptimal conditions for fetal growth, the switch from tissue accretion to differentiation is initiated prematurely, which alters the phenotype that develops from the genotype inherited at conception. Although this improves the chances of survival should delivery occur, it also has functional consequences for the offspring long after birth. Glucocorticoids are, therefore, also programming signals that permanently alter tissue structure and function during intrauterine development to optimize offspring fitness. However, if the postnatal environmental conditions differ from those signaled in utero, the phenotypical outcome of early-life glucocorticoid receptor overexposure may become maladaptive and lead to physiological dysfunction in the adult. This review focuses on the role of GCs in developmental programming, primarily in farm species. It examines the factors influencing GC bioavailability in utero and the effects that GCs have on the development of fetal tissues and organ systems, both at term and earlier in gestation. It also discusses the windows of susceptibility to GC overexposure in early life together with the molecular mechanisms and long-term consequences of GC programming with particular emphasis on the cardiovascular, metabolic, and endocrine phenotype of the offspring. PMID:27345310

  7. Comanche Helmet-Mounted Display Heading-Tape Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turpin, Terry; Dowell, Susan; Atencio, Adolph

    2006-01-01

    The Aeroflightdynamics Directorate (AMRDEC) conducted a simulation to assess the performance associated with a Contact Analog, world-referenced heading tape as implemented on the Comanche Helmet Integrated Display Sight System (HIDSS) when compared with a Compressed heading tape similar to that specified by the former Military Standard (MIL-STD) 1295. Six experienced pilots flew three modified Aeronautical Design Standards (ADS)-33 maneuvers (Hover Turn, Bob-up, Transient Turn) and a precision traffic pattern in the NASA Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS). Analysis of the pilot objective performance data and subjective handling qualities ratings (HQRs) showed the following: Compressed symbology in the Velocity Stabilization (VelStab) flight mode generally produced the most precise performances over Contact Analog symbology with respect to the heading, altitude, position, and time criteria specified for the maneuvers tested. VelStab outperformed the Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS) on all maneuvers achieving desired performance on most maneuvers for both symbol sets. Performance in the AFCS mode was generally desirable to adequate for heading and altitude and did not meet adequate standards for hover position and time for the Hover Turn and Bob-up maneuvers. VelStab and AFCS performance were nearly the same for the Transient Turn. Pilot comments concerning the Contact Analog heading-tape implementation were generally unfavorable in spite of the achieved levels of performance. HQRs showed Compressed symbology in the VelStab flight mode produced the lowest mean HQR, encompassing mixed ratings of satisfactory handling and needing improvement. All other symbology/flight-mode combinations yielded higher HQRs, which characterized opinions that deficiencies in aircraft handling due to HMD symbology would need improvement. Contact Analog heading tape and other symbology require improvement, especially when operating in the AFCS mode. NASA-TLX rated Compressed symbology

  8. [Recurrent ventricular tachycardia as a late complication of a cardiac stab wound].

    PubMed

    Niedziela, Justyna; Wozakowska-Kapłon, Beata; Dziubek, Katarzyna; Jaskulska-Niedziela, Elzbieta; Włosowicz, Monika

    2010-01-01

    We present a case of a 55-year-old male who suffered from a cardiac stab wound in his youth and 38 years later developed unstable sustained ventricular tachycardia. Imaging showed presence of a scarf of myocardium which probably caused the arrhythmia. Arrhythmia was successfully controlled using combined treatment with pharmacotherapy and cardioverter-defibrillator implantation. Relapses of ventricular tachycardia treated by appropriate interventions of cardioverter-defibrillator occurred when the patient stopped pharmacotherapy and experienced great psychic stress. PMID:20131201

  9. A rare suicidal case of a ten-year-old child stabbing himself in the throat.

    PubMed

    Hasekura, H; Fukushima, H; Yonemura, I; Ota, M

    1985-10-01

    A rare case is reported of a ten-year-old boy who committed suicide by stabbing himself in the throat with a pointed knife. Possibility of an accidental injury was excluded by the autopsy findings; suspicion of a homicide by his father was cleared through the deposition of his sister. The reason of suicide was attributed directly to his father's severe scolding and indirectly to his mother's death two years before. PMID:4067552

  10. 21 CFR 884.2700 - Intrauterine pressure monitor and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Intrauterine pressure monitor and accessories. 884... Monitoring Devices § 884.2700 Intrauterine pressure monitor and accessories. (a) Identification. An intrauterine pressure monitor is a device designed to detect and measure intrauterine and amniotic...

  11. [Prevention of intrauterine adhesions after hysteroscopic surgery].

    PubMed

    Revaux, A; Ducarme, G; Luton, D

    2008-03-01

    Intrauterine adhesions are the most frequent complications after hysteroscopic surgery in women of reproductive age. The prevalence of intrauterine adhesions after hysteroscopic surgery is correlated to intrauterine pathology (myoma, polyp, or adhesions). Few clinical trials have demonstrated the efficiency of barrier agents developed in order to prevent adhesions after operative hysteroscopy. Adhesion barriers are mechanic agent (intrauterine device), fluid agents (Seprafilm, Hyalobarrier) and postoperative systemic treatment (estroprogestative treatment). In this article, we evaluate the efficiency of these barrier agents for adhesion prevention in hysteroscopic surgery, undertaking a review of clinical trials published. The most frequent published studies evaluate the anatomic efficiency of antiadhesion agents after hysteroscopic surgery in order to evaluate the fertility. Data are still insufficient to evaluate them for clinical use. There is a need for other randomised controlled trials. PMID:18308609

  12. Preterm Birth, Intrauterine Infection, and Fetal Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, Matthew W.

    2014-01-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) (delivery before 37 weeks’ gestation) is a leading cause of neonatal death and disease in industrialized and developing countries alike. Infection (most notably in high-risk deliveries occurring before 28 weeks’ gestation) is hypothesized to initiate an intrauterine inflammatory response that plays a key role in the premature initiation of labor as well as a host of the pathologies associated with prematurity. As such, a better understanding of intrauterine inflammation in pregnancy is critical to our understanding of preterm labor and fetal injury, as well as on-going efforts to prevent PTB. Focusing on the fetal innate immune system responses to intrauterine infection, the present paper will review clinical and experimental studies to discuss the capacity for a fetal contribution to the intrauterine inflammation associated with PTB. Evidence from experimental studies to suggest that the fetus has the capacity to elicit a pro-inflammatory response to intrauterine infection is highlighted, with reference to the contribution of the lung, skin, and gastrointestinal tract. The paper will conclude that pathological intrauterine inflammation is a complex process that is modified by multiple factors including time, type of agonist, host genetics, and tissue. PMID:25520716

  13. Extrinsic Factors Influencing Fetal Deformations and Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Moh, Wendy; Graham, John M.; Wadhawan, Isha; Sanchez-Lara, Pedro A.

    2012-01-01

    The causes of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are multifactorial with both intrinsic and extrinsic influences. While many studies focus on the intrinsic pathological causes, the possible long-term consequences resulting from extrinsic intrauterine physiological constraints merit additional consideration and further investigation. Infants with IUGR can exhibit early symmetric or late asymmetric growth abnormality patterns depending on the fetal stage of development, of which the latter is most common occurring in 70–80% of growth-restricted infants. Deformation is the consequence of extrinsic biomechanical factors interfering with normal growth, functioning, or positioning of the fetus in utero, typically arising during late gestation. Biomechanical forces play a critical role in the normal morphogenesis of most tissues. The magnitude and direction of force impact the form of the developing fetus, with a specific tissue response depending on its pliability and stage of development. Major uterine constraining factors include primigravida, small maternal size, uterine malformation, uterine fibromata, early pelvic engagement of the fetal head, aberrant fetal position, oligohydramnios, and multifetal gestation. Corrective mechanical forces similar to those that gave rise to the deformation to reshape the deformed structures are often used and should take advantage of the rapid postnatal growth to correct form. PMID:22888434

  14. The effects of intrauterine cocaine exposure in newborns.

    PubMed Central

    Bateman, D A; Ng, S K; Hansen, C A; Heagarty, M C

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. We sought to determine the effects of intrauterine cocaine exposure in newborns, in an inner-city population in which cocaine use during pregnancy was common. METHODS. During a 1-year period, 12.8% (361 of 2810) of all live singleton infants at Harlem Hospital in New York were identified as cocaine exposed, either by universal urine toxicologic screening or by maternal history. Cocaine-exposed infants were compared with a control group of 387 infants not known to be exposed to cocaine or other illicit drugs. RESULTS. Low birthweight (< 2500 g) was more common among cocaine-exposed infants (31% vs 10%), as was preterm birth (< 37 completed weeks of gestation) (32% vs 14%). In multivariate analyses controlled for demographic and life-style factors and duration of gestation, cocaine was associated with decreased birthweight (154 g), length (1.02 cm), head circumference (0.69 cm), and duration of gestation (0.74 weeks). The birthweight deficits were larger for infants born to mothers who used cocaine in combination with other drugs (195 g) and for infants born to mothers who specifically admitted using crack (200 g). CONCLUSIONS. Intrauterine cocaine exposure is linked with fetal growth retardation and shortened gestation in this population. PMID:8427321

  15. A Rare Case of Jejunal Atresia Due to Intrauterine Intussusception.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Sanjeev B; Kinhal, Vidyadhar; Desai, Mahesh; Tilak; Choudhari, Fazal Ur Rehman

    2015-09-01

    Intestinal atresia is generally caused by intrauterine vascular obstructions involving mesenteric vessels. Intrauterine intussusceptions (IUI) are one of these disruptive events. Intestinal intussusceptions affects children commonly between 3 months and 3 years of age, but it rarely affects in intrauterine life. The relationship between intrauterine intussusception and intestinal atresia has been demonstrated by few cases in literature, suggesting intrauterine intussusception as a rare cause of intestinal atresia. We report a 7-day-old full term neonate presenting with intrauterine intussusceptions (jejuno-jejunal) resulting in jejunal atresia. PMID:26500958

  16. Stab injury and device implantation within the brain results in inversely multiphasic neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, Kelsey A.; Buck, Amy C.; Self, Wade K.; Capadona, Jeffrey R.

    2012-08-01

    An estimated 25 million people in the US alone rely on implanted medical devices, ˜2.5 million implanted within the nervous system. Even though many devices perform adequately for years, the host response to medical devices often severely limits tissue integration and long-term performance. This host response is believed to be particularly limiting in the case of intracortical microelectrodes, where it has been shown that glial cell encapsulation and localized neuronal cell loss accompany intracortical microelectrode implantation. Since neuronal ensembles must be within ˜50 µm of the electrode to obtain neuronal spikes and local field potentials, developing a better understanding of the molecular and cellular environment at the device-tissue interface has been the subject of significant research. Unfortunately, immunohistochemical studies of scar maturation in correlation to device function have been inconclusive. Therefore, here we present a detailed quantitative study of the cellular events and the stability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) following intracortical microelectrode implantation and cortical stab injury in a chronic survival model. We found two distinctly inverse multiphasic profiles for neuronal survival in device-implanted tissue compared to stab-injured animals. For chronically implanted animals, we observed a biphasic paradigm between blood-derived/trauma-induced and CNS-derived inflammatory markers driving neurodegeneration at the interface. In contrast, stab injured animals demonstrated a CNS-mediated neurodegenerative environment. Collectively these data provide valuable insight to the possibility of multiple roles of chronic neuroinflammatory events on BBB disruption and localized neurodegeneration, while also suggesting the importance to consider multiphasic neuroinflammatory kinetics in the design of therapeutic strategies for stabilizing neural interfaces.

  17. Stabbing and safeguarding in children and young people: a Pan-London service evaluation and audit

    PubMed Central

    Apps, John R; Williams, Carrie; McGuinness, Anne; Gabbie, Susie; Sutcliffe, Alastair G

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To characterize paediatric presentations of stabbing to emergency departments across London and to audit existing referral rates to the police and social services against the new standard set by the General Medical Council. Design Retrospective multi-centre service evaluation/audit. Setting All emergency departments within London. Participants Patients under 18 years of age presenting to emergency departments with non-accidental stabbing between 1 April 2007 and 30 April 2009. Main outcome measures Patient age, nature of assault, assailant, injuries and management. Rates of documented referral to police and social services, as mandated by GMC guidance. Results A total of 381 presentations were identified from 20 out of the 32 hospitals in London, 160 of whom were less than 16 years old. The majority were seen only by emergency department staff and only a minority (28%) were admitted. Three died in the departments. A knife was the commonest weapon and the limbs the most common site of injury. Referrals to police were documented in only 30% of patients (43% if <16 years old) and to social services in 16% (31% if <16 years old) of those discharged. In the majority, there was no documentation (police 64%, social services 79%). Conclusions A significant number of paediatric stabbings present to emergency departments across London. The majority of these are discharged directly from departments. Of those discharged, documentation regarding referral rates to Police and Social Services was poor, and documented referral rates low. This study covered a period prior to the introduction of new General Medical Council guidance and a repeat audit to assess subsequent documented referrals is required. PMID:23885300

  18. Stab injury and device implantation within the brain results in inversely multiphasic neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative responses.

    PubMed

    Potter, Kelsey A; Buck, Amy C; Self, Wade K; Capadona, Jeffrey R

    2012-08-01

    An estimated 25 million people in the US alone rely on implanted medical devices, ∼2.5 million implanted within the nervous system. Even though many devices perform adequately for years, the host response to medical devices often severely limits tissue integration and long-term performance. This host response is believed to be particularly limiting in the case of intracortical microelectrodes, where it has been shown that glial cell encapsulation and localized neuronal cell loss accompany intracortical microelectrode implantation. Since neuronal ensembles must be within ∼50 µm of the electrode to obtain neuronal spikes and local field potentials, developing a better understanding of the molecular and cellular environment at the device-tissue interface has been the subject of significant research. Unfortunately, immunohistochemical studies of scar maturation in correlation to device function have been inconclusive. Therefore, here we present a detailed quantitative study of the cellular events and the stability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) following intracortical microelectrode implantation and cortical stab injury in a chronic survival model. We found two distinctly inverse multiphasic profiles for neuronal survival in device-implanted tissue compared to stab-injured animals. For chronically implanted animals, we observed a biphasic paradigm between blood-derived/trauma-induced and CNS-derived inflammatory markers driving neurodegeneration at the interface. In contrast, stab injured animals demonstrated a CNS-mediated neurodegenerative environment. Collectively these data provide valuable insight to the possibility of multiple roles of chronic neuroinflammatory events on BBB disruption and localized neurodegeneration, while also suggesting the importance to consider multiphasic neuroinflammatory kinetics in the design of therapeutic strategies for stabilizing neural interfaces. PMID:22832283

  19. Prehospital ultrasound detects pericardial tamponade in a pregnant victim of stabbing assault.

    PubMed

    Byhahn, Christian; Bingold, Tobias M; Zwissler, Bernhard; Maier, Marcus; Walcher, Felix

    2008-01-01

    The development of handheld, portable ultrasound devices has enabled the use of this diagnostic tool also in the out-of-hospital environment. We report on a pregnant teenager who was found haemodynamically unstable after a stab assault. When she suffered cardiac arrest shortly thereafter, diagnosis of cardiac tamponade was made by portable ultrasound, and immediate pericardiocentesis was performed by the emergency physician. While her baby died after emergency Caesarean section, the teenager survived after thoracotomy and prolonged resuscitation without neurological sequelae. PMID:17716805

  20. Delayed myelopathy secondary to stab wound with a retained blade tip within the laminae: case report

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Ma, Lei; Ding, Wen-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Delayed neurologic deficit after a stab wound with a retained foreign body near the spinal canal is unusual, adequate radiological examination is fundamental in detecting retained foreign bodies, especially the CT scan, surgical extraction of the foreign body is the primary task and the surgical outcome is satisfactory. Here, we report a rare case of delayed myelopathy caused by spinal stenosis secondary to broken blade tip within thoracic laminae in an old man, who was injured in a knife attack 39 years ago. The incidence, clinical presentation, diagnosis and prognosis are discussed. PMID:26629221

  1. A review of stab wound injuries at a tertiary trauma centre in Singapore: are self-inflicted ones less severe?

    PubMed Central

    Leow, Jeffrey J; Lingam, Pravin; Lim, Vanessa W; Go, Karen TS; Chiu, Ming Terk; Teo, Li Tserng

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION In Singapore, as strict laws are a strong deterrent against armed violence, little is known about the epidemiology of penetrating stab wound injuries. Our study aimed to investigate the epidemiology of stab wound injuries at a major trauma centre in Singapore and determine if there was a difference in severity between self-inflicted stab wound (SI) injuries and those inflicted by others (IO). METHODS We retrospectively reviewed all penetrating injuries at Tan Tock Seng Hospital, and identified and categorised all stab wound injuries as SI or IO. Basic demographic information, injury severity characteristics and outcome data were compared between these two groups. A review of all mortalities was performed, including recording the causes of death. RESULTS Between 2005 and 2010, there were a total of 149 stab wound injuries, of which 24 (16.1%) were SI and 125 (83.9%) were IO injuries. Patients tended to be young (mean age 34.1 ± 14.2 years). The mean Injury Severity Score was significantly different between the SI and IO groups (8.8 ± 6.5 vs. 12.3 ± 8.1; p = 0.03). In both groups, the majority underwent an operative procedure (83.3% vs. 85.6%) and had an average hospital stay of four days. CONCLUSION The study confirms our hypothesis that SI injuries tend to be less severe than IO injuries and are more likely to occur at home rather than at a public area. This finding may be useful in the triage of patients with stab wound injuries. PMID:26831311

  2. The case for intrauterine stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Mattar, Citra N; Biswas, Arijit; Choolani, Mahesh; Chan, Jerry K Y

    2012-10-01

    The clinical burden imposed by the collective group of monogenic disorders demands novel therapies that are effective at achieving phenotypic cure early in the disease process before the development of permanent organ damage. This is important for lethal diseases and also for non-perinatally lethal conditions that are characterised by severe disability with little prospect of postnatal cure. Where postnatal treatments are limited to palliative options, intrauterine stem-cell therapies may offer the potential to arrest pathogenesis in the early undamaged fetus. Intrauterine stem-cell transplantation has been attempted for a variety of diseases, but has only been successful in immune deficiency states in the presence of a competitive advantage for donor cells. This disappointing clinical record requires preclinical investigations into strategies that improve donor cell engraftment, including optimising the donor cell source and manipulating the microenvironment to facilitate homing. This chapter aims to outline the current challenges of intrauterine stem-cell therapy. PMID:22809469

  3. Laparoscopic treatment of intrauterine fallopian tube incarceration.

    PubMed

    Kondo, William; Bruns, Rafael Frederico; Nicola, Marcelo Chemin; Ribeiro, Reitan; Trippia, Carlos Henrique; Zomer, Monica Tessmann

    2013-01-01

    Herniation of the pelvic structures into the uterine cavity (appendix vermiformis, small bowel, omentum, or fallopian tube) may occur after uterine perforation. In this paper, we describe one case of intrauterine fallopian tube incarceration treated by means of laparoscopic surgery. PMID:23738168

  4. Laparoscopic Treatment of Intrauterine Fallopian Tube Incarceration

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, William; Bruns, Rafael Frederico; Nicola, Marcelo Chemin; Ribeiro, Reitan; Trippia, Carlos Henrique; Zomer, Monica Tessmann

    2013-01-01

    Herniation of the pelvic structures into the uterine cavity (appendix vermiformis, small bowel, omentum, or fallopian tube) may occur after uterine perforation. In this paper, we describe one case of intrauterine fallopian tube incarceration treated by means of laparoscopic surgery. PMID:23738168

  5. [Intrauterine growth restriction--diagnosis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Radoń-Pokracka, Małgorzata; Huras, Hubert; Jach, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of low birth weight affects approximately 3-10% of live-born newborns in developed countries and in developing countries it affects 15-20% of newborns. The most common cause of low birth weight is considered to intrauterine fetal growth resctriction. Low birth weight is responsible for 69.6% of stillbirths and for 66.4% of neonatal deaths. The purpose of this paper is to review reliable scientific data in order to summarize the current guidelines on intrauterine fetal growth restriction, addressed to obstetricians. The present review is based on guidelines of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG), the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada (SOGC), the results of DIGITAT- (ang. The Disproportionate Growth intrauterine Intervention Trial At Term) PORTO Study- (ang. Prospective Observational Trial is the Opitimize Pedriatric Health in intrauterine Growth Restriction), TRUFFLE- (ang. Randomized Trial of Fetal and Umbilical Flow in Europe), and the available literature. PMID:26817352

  6. Complex suicide by self-stabbing with subsequent drowning in the sea.

    PubMed

    Kaliszan, Michał; Karnecki, Karol; Tomczak, Ewa; Gos, Tomasz; Jankowski, Zbigniew

    2013-09-01

    The paper presents a unique case of a complex suicide committed by a young man, mostly probably triggered by a disappointment in love. The uniqueness of the suicide lies in the fact that the victim inflicted several deep stab wounds on himself, in the chest and abdomen, while standing partly submerged in the sea and, having done so, he dropped and disappeared in the water. The postmortem examination showed, apart from deep wounds in the trunk, characteristics of drowning that manifested itself in the form of aqueous emphysema of the lungs. Suicide was clearly determined on the basis of the circumstances preceding death, the location, and arrangement of the trunk wounds and the testimony given by a witness of the incident. The circumstances preceding the suicidal act clearly suggest an underlying undiagnosed mental disorder. PMID:23866029

  7. Differences between postmortem computed tomography and conventional autopsy in a stabbing murder case

    PubMed Central

    Zerbini, Talita; da Silva, Luiz Fernando Ferraz; Ferro, Antonio Carlos Gonçalves; Kay, Fernando Uliana; Junior, Edson Amaro; Pasqualucci, Carlos Augusto Gonçalves; do Nascimento Saldiva, Paulo Hilario

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present work is to analyze the differences and similarities between the elements of a conventional autopsy and images obtained from postmortem computed tomography in a case of a homicide stab wound. METHOD: Comparison between the findings of different methods: autopsy and postmortem computed tomography. RESULTS: In some aspects, autopsy is still superior to imaging, especially in relation to external examination and the description of lesion vitality. However, the findings of gas embolism, pneumothorax and pulmonary emphysema and the relationship between the internal path of the instrument of aggression and the entry wound are better demonstrated by postmortem computed tomography. CONCLUSIONS: Although multislice computed tomography has greater accuracy than autopsy, we believe that the conventional autopsy method is fundamental for providing evidence in criminal investigations. PMID:25518020

  8. Lethal penetrating stab injury to the vertebral artery: A case report with review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Sarkari, Avijit; Singh, Pankaj K.; Mahapatra, Ashok K.

    2016-01-01

    The vertebral arteries are rarely injured in penetrating neck trauma due to their deep location in the foramen transversarium. These injuries in isolation are not associated with neurological deficits or ischemic changes on radiology as the collaterals are usually sufficient. We report a case of fatal unilateral vertebral artery stab injury leading to bilateral cerebellar and brainstem infarction. The carotid Doppler ruled out the presence of any carotid artery injury. Life-threatening injuries are possible in the presence of hypoplastic contralateral vertebral artery or inadequate flow from the anterior circulation not making up for the deficit. This emphasizes that thorough evaluation and timely management of suspected injuries to even a single vertebral artery should be undertaken. PMID:27366277

  9. Lethal penetrating stab injury to the vertebral artery: A case report with review of literature.

    PubMed

    Sarkari, Avijit; Singh, Pankaj K; Mahapatra, Ashok K

    2016-01-01

    The vertebral arteries are rarely injured in penetrating neck trauma due to their deep location in the foramen transversarium. These injuries in isolation are not associated with neurological deficits or ischemic changes on radiology as the collaterals are usually sufficient. We report a case of fatal unilateral vertebral artery stab injury leading to bilateral cerebellar and brainstem infarction. The carotid Doppler ruled out the presence of any carotid artery injury. Life-threatening injuries are possible in the presence of hypoplastic contralateral vertebral artery or inadequate flow from the anterior circulation not making up for the deficit. This emphasizes that thorough evaluation and timely management of suspected injuries to even a single vertebral artery should be undertaken. PMID:27366277

  10. Spinal Cord Injury Caused by Stab Wounds: Incidence, Natural History, and Relevance for Future Research.

    PubMed

    McCaughey, Euan J; Purcell, Mariel; Barnett, Susan C; Allan, David B

    2016-08-01

    Spinal cord injury caused by stab wounds (SCISW) results from a partial or complete transection of the cord, and presents opportunities for interventional research. It is recognized that there is low incidence, but little is known about the natural history or the patient's suitability for long-term clinical outcome studies. This study aims to provide population-based evidence of the demographics of SCISW, and highlight the issues regarding the potential for future research. The database of the Queen Elizabeth National Spinal Injuries Unit (QENSIU), the sole center for treating SCI in Scotland, was reviewed between 1994 and 2013 to ascertain the incidence, demographics, functional recovery, and mortality rates for new SCISW. During this 20 year period, 35 patients with SCISW were admitted (97.1% male, mean age 30.0 years); 31.4% had a cervical injury, 60.0% had a thoracic injury, and 8.6% had a lumbar injury. All had a neurological examination, with 42.9% diagnosed as motor complete on admission and 77.1% discharged as motor incomplete. A total of 70.4% of patients with an American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale (AIS) level of A to C on admission had an improved AIS level on discharge. Nine (25.7%) patients have died since discharge, with mean life expectancy for these patients being 9.1 years after injury (20-65 years of age). Patients had higher levels of comorbidities, substance abuse, secondary events, and poor compliance compared with the general SCI population, which may have contributed to the high mortality rate observed post-discharge. The low incidence, heterogeneous nature, spontaneous recovery rate, and problematic follow-up makes those with penetrating stab injuries of the spinal cord a challenging patient group for SCI research. PMID:26825180

  11. Trophoblastic markers in women using intrauterine contraception.

    PubMed

    Ylikorkala, O; Siljander, M; Huhtaniemi, I; Kauppila, A; Seppälä, M

    1980-03-01

    Serum levels of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and pregnancy-specific beta 1-glycoprotein (PSBG) were measured in 214 women using Copper-T200 intrauterine devices (CIUDs). In a cross-sectional study the samples were taken between the 25th and 35th cycle days, 1 sample per cycle. Either trophoblastic marker was detectable in 8 women (3.7%), hCG in 3 (1.4%), PSBG in 7 (3.3%), and both markers together in (0.9%). Normal menstruation-like bleeding ensued in all but 1 woman whose bleeding was delayed by 5 days. Our results suggest that the intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD) prevents pregnancy mainly before significant amounts of trophoblastic products are secreted. Still, the incidence of subclinical abortion based on the demonstration of trophoblastic markers in serum was 7 to 10 times higher than that of established pregnancy in women using a CIUD. PMID:6965779

  12. Predictive factors for intrauterine growth restriction

    PubMed Central

    Albu, AR; Anca, AF; Horhoianu, VV; Horhoianu, IA

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Reduced fetal growth is seen in about 10% of the pregnancies but only a minority has a pathological background and is known as intrauterine growth restriction or fetal growth restriction (IUGR / FGR). Increased fetal and neonatal mortality and morbidity as well as adult pathologic conditions are often associated to IUGR. Risk factors for IUGR are easy to assess but have poor predictive value. For the diagnostic purpose, biochemical serum markers, ultrasound and Doppler study of uterine and spiral arteries, placental volume and vascularization, first trimester growth pattern are object of assessment today. Modern evaluations propose combined algorithms using these strategies, all with the goal of a better prediction of risk pregnancies. Abbreviations: SGA = small for gestational age; IUGR = intrauterine growth restriction; FGR = fetal growth restriction; IUFD = intrauterine fetal demise; HIV = human immunodeficiency virus; PAPP-A = pregnancy associated plasmatic protein A; β-hCG = beta human chorionic gonadotropin; MoM = multiple of median; ADAM-12 = A-disintegrin and metalloprotease 12; PP-13 = placental protein 13; VEGF = vascular endothelial growth factor; PlGF = placental growth factor; sFlt-1 = soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1; UAD = uterine arteries Doppler ultrasound; RI = resistence index; PI = pulsatility index; VOCAL = Virtual Organ Computer–Aided Analysis software; VI = vascularization index; FI = flow index; VFI = vascularization flow index; PQ = placental quotient PMID:25408721

  13. Placental Nutrient Transport and Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Gaccioli, Francesca; Lager, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction refers to the inability of the fetus to reach its genetically determined potential size. Fetal growth restriction affects approximately 5–15% of all pregnancies in the United States and Europe. In developing countries the occurrence varies widely between 10 and 55%, impacting about 30 million newborns per year. Besides having high perinatal mortality rates these infants are at greater risk for severe adverse outcomes, such as hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy and cerebral palsy. Moreover, reduced fetal growth has lifelong health consequences, including higher risks of developing metabolic and cardiovascular diseases in adulthood. Numerous reports indicate placental insufficiency as one of the underlying causes leading to altered fetal growth and impaired placental capacity of delivering nutrients to the fetus has been shown to contribute to the etiology of intrauterine growth restriction. Indeed, reduced expression and/or activity of placental nutrient transporters have been demonstrated in several conditions associated with an increased risk of delivering a small or growth restricted infant. This review focuses on human pregnancies and summarizes the changes in placental amino acid, fatty acid, and glucose transport reported in conditions associated with intrauterine growth restriction, such as maternal undernutrition, pre-eclampsia, young maternal age, high altitude and infection. PMID:26909042

  14. Consequences in Infants That Were Intrauterine Growth Restricted

    PubMed Central

    Cosmi, Erich; Fanelli, Tiziana; Visentin, Silvia; Trevisanuto, Daniele; Zanardo, Vincenzo

    2011-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction is a condition fetus does not reach its growth potential and associated with perinatal mobility and mortality. Intrauterine growth restriction is caused by placental insufficiency, which determines cardiovascular abnormalities in the fetus. This condition, moreover, should prompt intensive antenatal surveillance of the fetus as well as follow-up of infants that had intrauterine growth restriction as short and long-term sequele should be considered. PMID:21547088

  15. Heads Up

    MedlinePlus

    ... Juvenil HEADS UP to School Sports Online Concussion Training Coaches Parents Athletes Sports Officials HEADS UP to Schools School Nurses Teachers, Counselors, and School Professionals Parents HEADS UP ...

  16. Spontaneous intrauterine umbilical artery thrombosis leading to severe fetal growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Klaritsch, P; Haeusler, M; Karpf, E; Schlembach, D; Lang, U

    2008-04-01

    Intrauterine thrombosis of umbilical cord vessels is a rare event (2.5-4.5/10,000) and usually followed by poor fetal outcome. We present the rare case of spontaneous intrauterine thrombosis of an umbilical artery leading to severe intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and provide clinical and pathological findings. A 28-year-old nulliparous third gravida was referred to our institution because of IUGR at 32+4 weeks of gestation. Fetal growth had been appropriate until the 31st week of gestation and had stopped thereafter. There were no signs of abruption of the placenta and no structural abnormalities except an absent paravesical colour Doppler flow in the region of the right umbilical artery. Other Doppler measurements, karyotype and TORCH serology were normal. Intermittent non-reassuring fetal heart rate led to cesarean section at 34+3 weeks of gestation. A healthy girl with measurements on the 3rd centile was born (weight of 1,590 g, length of 41 cm and head circumference of 29 cm). Gross examination displayed an elongated, highly twisted umbilical cord with a length of 70 cm, central insertion and three umbilical vessels. Microscopic examination confirmed the diagnosis of umbilical artery thrombosis along the entire length of the umbilical cord. Calcification within the thrombus and microcalcification in occluded chorionic vessels were observed as well as hemorrhagic endovasculitis and endangiopathia obliterans in the stem villi arteries. This fetal thrombotic vasculopathy (FTV) comprised about 40% of the parenchyma. The coagulation parameters and blood counts of the mother and the infant were normal apart from transient neonatal thrombocytopenia. The reason for thrombosis remained unclear but could be attributed to the elongated and highly twisted umbilical cord. Intrauterine arterial thrombosis may cause severe IUGR. This condition might be detectable by ultrasound in the course of an IUGR workup, especially when no other reasons can be found. PMID:18289672

  17. Stabbing Yourself in the Heart: A Case of Autoimmunity Gone Awry

    PubMed Central

    Vigneswaran, Hari; Parikh, Leslie; Poppas, Athena

    2015-01-01

    Within internal medicine, cardiac and neurologic pathology comprises a vast majority of patient complaints. Physicians and advanced-care practitioners must be highly educated and comfortable in the evaluation, diagnosis, and management of these entities. Chest pain accounts for millions of annual visits to the emergency room with pericarditis diagnosed in approximately four percent of patients with nonischemic chest pain. Guillain-Barre Syndrome is autoimmune polyneuropathy that often results in transient paralysis. Simultaneous diagnosis of both entities is a rare but described phenomenon. Here, we present a clinical case of GBS associated pericarditis. A fifty-five-year-old man with history of renal transplant presented with lower extremity weakness and urinary incontinence. Physical exam and diagnostic studies confirmed Guillain-Barre Syndrome. Patient subsequently developed stabbing chest pain with clinical presentation and electrocardiogram consistent with pericarditis. The patient was successfully treated for both diseases. This case highlights that although infrequent, internal medicine care providers must be cognizant of this correlation to ensure timely diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26664359

  18. Penetration of a piece of World War II rifle grenade initially suspected as a stab wound.

    PubMed

    Raul, Jean-Sébastien; Berthelon, Laurent; Tracqui, Antoine; Ludes, Bertrand

    2002-09-01

    The authors report the case of a 58-year-old man found dead by his son in the forest where he had gone to cut wood for winter. Initial examination showed an upper left laterocervical wound compatible with a stab wound. Radiography and autopsy performed the next day showed a piece of metal located in the left part of the occipital bone, associated with a half-ring fracture of the occipital bone and consequent diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage. Death was attributed to a spinal shock after impact at the cervicocephalic junction. Investigators returned to the scene and found a few more metal elements and also a 20-cm deep and 40-cm wide crater underneath a fire the deceased had set. Army experts concluded that the metal pieces belonged to an ATM 9 antitank rifle grenade used by the U.S. Army during World War II. Death was considered accidental, the deceased having unfortunately set a fire over the grenade. PMID:12198357

  19. The spectrum of injuries resulting from posterior abdominal stab wounds: a South African experience

    PubMed Central

    Oosthuizen, GV; Clarke, DL

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The spectrum of injury associated with anterior abdominal stab wounds (SWs) is well established. The literature on the spectrum of organ injury associated with SWs to the posterior abdomen, however, is limited. Methods We reviewed our experience of 105 consecutive patients who had established indications for laparotomy managed over a 4-year period in a high volume trauma service in South Africa. Results Of the 105 patients, 97 (92%) were male and the overall mean age was 24 years. Fifty-seven patients (54%) had immediate indications for laparotomy. The remaining 48 patients (46%) initially underwent active clinical observation and the indications for laparotomy became apparent during the observation period. Of the 105 laparotomies performed, 94 (90%) were positive and 11 (10%) were negative. Of the 94 positive laparotomies, 92 were therapeutic and 2 were non-therapeutic. A total of 176 organ injuries were identified: 50 (53%) of the 94 patients sustained a single organ injury while the remaining 44 (47%) sustained multiple organ injuries. The most commonly injured organs were the colon (n=63), spleen (n=21) and kidney (n=19). Conclusions The pattern of intra-abdominal injuries secondary to SWs to the posterior abdomen is different to that seen with the anterior abdomen. Colonic injury is most commonly encountered, followed by injuries to the spleen and kidney. Clinicians must remain vigilant because of the potential for occult injuries. PMID:26263933

  20. Does cone beam CT actually ameliorate stab wound analysis in bone?

    PubMed

    Gaudio, D; Di Giancamillo, M; Gibelli, D; Galassi, A; Cerutti, E; Cattaneo, C

    2014-01-01

    This study aims at verifying the potential of a recent radiological technology, cone beam CT (CBCT), for the reproduction of digital 3D models which may allow the user to verify the inner morphology of sharp force wounds within the bone tissue. Several sharp force wounds were produced by both single and double cutting edge weapons on cancellous and cortical bone, and then acquired by cone beam CT scan. The lesions were analysed by different software (a DICOM file viewer and reverse engineering software). Results verified the limited performances of such technology for lesions made on cortical bone, whereas on cancellous bone reliable models were obtained, and the precise morphology within the bone tissues was visible. On the basis of such results, a method for differential diagnosis between cutmarks by sharp tools with a single and two cutting edges can be proposed. On the other hand, the metrical computerised analysis of lesions highlights a clear increase of error range for measurements under 3 mm. Metric data taken by different operators shows a strong dispersion (% relative standard deviation). This pilot study shows that the use of CBCT technology can improve the investigation of morphological stab wounds on cancellous bone. Conversely metric analysis of the lesions as well as morphological analysis of wound dimension under 3 mm do not seem to be reliable. PMID:23392761

  1. [Forensic medical expertise of the stab wounds: the current state-of-the art].

    PubMed

    Sarkisian, B A; Karpov, D A

    2014-01-01

    This review of special literature encompasses the publications on the injuries inflicted by piercing objects. The results of analysis of these materials indicate that both the mechanisms of formation and the morphological features of stab wounds and damages to the clothes are studied perfectly well. Their shape and morphological patterns are shown to be dependent on the size, shape, and cross-section area of the great variety of the piercing objects. However, investigations carried out thus far did not take into consideration the formation of the signs of skin plastic deformation, such as edge portions of borderline thickening, stretching of epidermis over the walls, transformation of the epidermal network pattern into longitudinal folding, etc. It is concluded that further studies are necessary to better characterize injuries inflicted by piercing objects differing in the sharpness and the shape of cross section and thereby to obtain a deeper insight in the morphological features. It can be expected that such studies will provide a basis for the development of criteria for the individual and intra-group expert identification of the traumatic agents. PMID:25269165

  2. Endovascular Repair of an Actively Hemorrhaging Stab Wound Injury to the Abdominal Aorta

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, Qasim; Maleux, Geert Heye, Sam; Fourneau, Inge

    2008-09-15

    Traumatic injury of the abdominal aorta is rare and potentially lethal (Yeh et al., J Vasc Surg 42(5):1007-1009, 2005; Chicos et al., Chirurgia (Bucur) 102(2):237-240, 2007) as it can result in major retroperitoneal hemorrhage, requiring an urgent open surgery. In case of concomitant bowel injury or other conditions of hostile abdomen, endovascular repair can be an alternative treatment. This case report deals with a 50-year-old man presenting at the emergency ward with three stab wounds: two in the abdomen and one in the chest. During explorative laparotomy, liver laceration and bowel perforation were repaired. One day later, abdominal CT-scan revealed an additional retroperitoneal hematoma associated with an aortic pseudoaneurysm, located anteriorly 3 cm above the aortic bifurcation. Because of the risk of graft infection, an endovascular repair of the aortic injury using a Gore excluder stent-graft was performed. Radiological and clinical follow-up revealed a gradual shrinkage of the pseudo-aneurysm and no sign of graft infection at two years' follow-up.

  3. Multiple severe stab wounds to chest with cuts to the ribs. Suicide or homicide?

    PubMed

    Kaliszan, Michał

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the case of a 36-year-old man found dead in a forest near his home with multiple stab wounds on the chest and abdomen, while the chest wounds penetrated deep into the left pleural cavity and the lung parenchyma, completely cutting through the bone sections of four ribs along the channels of the wounds. In addition, a kitchen knife dug into the ground was found in the immediate vicinity of the corpse. The deceased was wearing a T-shirt with numerous clearly visible holes in places corresponding to the wounds and quite a large tear at the bottom. The post-mortem revealed 19 distinct wounds of the chest as well as a dozen or so superficial marks of cuts or pricks with a pointed tool on the torso. The findings of the police investigation suggested that shortly before death the man was in a bad mood and he had been telling his friends to prepare for his funeral, which was supposed to point to suicidal tendencies. Could, however, such numerous and heavy bodily injuries have been self-inflicted and would such a wounded person still be able to dig a knife into hard forest bed? If yes, in this case we are most probably dealing with aggressive self-destruction, a type of behavior sometimes observed in people suffering from serious mental disorders. PMID:21216377

  4. [Intrauterine extraction of intrauterine devices using the BMK-2 extractor of our design].

    PubMed

    Berić, B; Vukelić, J; Marjanović, M; Bujas, M; Tomcova, A

    1989-01-01

    The so-called "lost" IUD's cannot be removed by common vaginocervical traction. The author extracts them by the intrauterine BMK-extractor (Instrumntalia, Zagreb) of his own construction. There were 150 extractions with no complication, performed by the use of the BMK-2 extractor in period from August 1, 1985 to December 31, 1988. PMID:2640268

  5. 21 CFR 529.1044a - Gentamicin sulfate intrauterine solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate intrauterine solution. 529... § 529.1044a Gentamicin sulfate intrauterine solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 50 or 100 milligrams gentamicin sulfate. (b) Sponsors. See Nos. 000010, 000061, 000856,...

  6. 21 CFR 529.1044a - Gentamicin sulfate intrauterine solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate intrauterine solution. 529... § 529.1044a Gentamicin sulfate intrauterine solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 50 or 100 milligrams gentamicin sulfate. (b) Sponsors. See Nos. 000010, 000061, 000856,...

  7. 21 CFR 529.1044a - Gentamicin sulfate intrauterine solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate intrauterine solution. 529... § 529.1044a Gentamicin sulfate intrauterine solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 50 or 100 milligrams gentamicin sulfate. (b) Sponsors. See Nos. 000010, 000061, 000856,...

  8. 21 CFR 529.1044a - Gentamicin sulfate intrauterine solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate intrauterine solution. 529... § 529.1044a Gentamicin sulfate intrauterine solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 50 or 100 milligrams gentamicin sulfate. (b) Sponsors. See Nos. 000010, 000061, 000856,...

  9. 21 CFR 529.50 - Amikacin sulfate intrauterine solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amikacin sulfate intrauterine solution. 529.50... Amikacin sulfate intrauterine solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains 250 milligrams of amikacin (as the sulfate). (b) Sponsor. See No. 000856 and 059130 in §...

  10. Intrauterine Growth and Infant Temperamental Difficulties: The Generation R Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roza, Sabine J.; Van Lier, Pol A. C.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Moll, Henriette A.; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tiemeier, Henning

    2008-01-01

    The Generation R Study a population-based prospective cohort study from fetal life to young adulthood is conducted to explore the possibility of an association between infant temperament and intrauterine growth trajectories. Results concluded little indication of any association between infant temperament and intrauterine growth trajectories.

  11. Intra-uterine hematoma in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Glavind, K; Nøhr, S; Nielsen, P H; Ipsen, L

    1991-06-01

    In 60 patients with a live fetus and an intra-uterine hematoma (IUH) proven by ultrasonic scanning the outcome of pregnancy was spontaneous abortion in 12% and premature delivery in 10%. No correlation between the outcome of the pregnancy and the maximum size of the hematoma or the week of detection was found. A subplacentar localization of the hematoma was associated with a higher, but not statistically significant, incidence of spontaneous abortion than a subchorionic localization. Spontaneous abortion most often occurred in the first weeks after the formation of the hematoma. PMID:1855608

  12. Excretion of biliary compounds during intrauterine life

    PubMed Central

    Macias, Rocio IR; Marin, Jose JG; Serrano, Maria A

    2009-01-01

    In adults, the hepatobiliary system, together with the kidney, constitute the main routes for the elimination of several endogenous and xenobiotic compounds into bile and urine, respectively. However, during intrauterine life the biliary route of excretion for cholephilic compounds, such as bile acids and biliary pigments, is very poor. Although very early in pregnancy the fetal liver produces bile acids, bilirubin and biliverdin, these compounds cannot be efficiently eliminated by the fetal hepatobiliary system, owing to the immaturity of the excretory machinery in the fetal liver. Therefore, the potentially harmful accumulation of cholephilic compounds in the fetus is prevented by their elimination across the placenta. Owing to the presence of detoxifying enzymes and specific transport systems at different locations of the placental barrier, such as the endothelial cells of chorionic vessels and trophoblast cells, this organ plays an important role in the hepatobiliary-like function during intrauterine life. The relevance of this excretory function in normal fetal physiology is evident in situations where high concentrations of biliary compounds are accumulated in the mother. This may result in oxidative stress and apoptosis, mainly in the placenta and fetal liver, which might affect normal fetal development and challenge the fate of the pregnancy. The present article reviews current knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the hepatobiliary function of the fetal-placental unit and the repercussions of several pathological conditions on this tandem. PMID:19230042

  13. Intrauterine resuscitation: active management of fetal distress.

    PubMed

    Thurlow, J A; Kinsella, S M

    2002-04-01

    Acute fetal distress in labour is a condition of progressive fetal asphyxia with hypoxia and acidosis. It is usually diagnosed by finding characteristic features in the fetal heart rate pattern, wherever possible supported by fetal scalp pH measurement. Intrauterine resuscitation consists of applying specific measures with the aim of increasing oxygen delivery to the placenta and umbilical blood flow, in order to reverse hypoxia and acidosis. These measures include initial left lateral recumbent positioning followed by right lateral or knee-elbow if necessary, rapid intravenous infusion of a litre of non-glucose crystalloid, maternal oxygen administration at the highest practical inspired percentage, inhibition of uterine contractions usually with subcutaneous or intravenous terbutaline 250 microg, and intra-amniotic infusion of warmed crystalloid solution. Specific manoeuvres for umbilical cord prolapse are also described. Intrauterine resuscitation may be used as part of the obstetric management of labour, while preparing for caesarean delivery for fetal distress, or at the time of establishment of regional analgesia during labour in the compromised fetus. The principles may also be applied during inter-hospital transfers of sick or labouring parturients. PMID:15321562

  14. Obstetric management of intrauterine growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Marsál, Karel

    2009-12-01

    The aim of obstetric management is to identify growth-restricted foetuses at risk of severe intrauterine hypoxia, to monitor their health and to deliver when the adverse outcome is imminent. After 30-32 gestational weeks, a Doppler finding of absent or reverse end-diastolic flow in the umbilical artery of a small-for-gestational age foetus is in itself an indication for delivery. In very preterm foetuses, the intrauterine risks have to be balanced against the risk of prematurity. All available diagnostic information (e.g., Doppler velocimetry of umbilical artery, foetal central arteries and veins and of maternal uterine arteries; foetal heart rate with computerised analysis of short-term variability; amniotic fluid amount; and foetal gestational age-related weight) should be collected to support the timing of delivery. If possible, the delivery should optimally take place before the onset of late signs of foetal hypoxia (pathological foetal heart rate pattern, severely abnormal ductus venosus blood velocity waveform, pulsations in the umbilical vein). PMID:19854682

  15. Amniotic fluid embolism after intrauterine fetal demise.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Karl; Langdana, Fali; Clentworth, Howard; Hansby, Chu; Dalley, Paul

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of the successful treatment of severe amniotic fluid embolism in a 41-year-old woman undergoing emergency caesarean section at 36 weeks of gestation for placental abruption and intrauterine fetal demise. The treatment included prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation, emergency hysterectomy, re-operation with intra-abdominal packing and intra-aortic balloon pump insertion. The patient made a remarkable recovery and to date has minimal residual morbidity. Amniotic fluid embolism syndrome (AFES) is a rare and often fatal obstetric condition that remains one of the main causes of maternal mortality in developed countries. The incidence varies from 2 to 6 per 100,000 and suggested mortality rates exceed 60%.1-2 The classic triad of sudden hypoxia, hypotension and coagulopathy with acute onset during labour or immediately after delivery forms the hallmark of the AFES diagnosis, however AFES is primarily a clinical diagnosis of exclusion. We present a case of successful maternal outcome following severe amniotic fluid embolism after placental abruption and intrauterine fetal demise. PMID:27607089

  16. Stab Incision Glaucoma Surgery: A Modified Guarded Filtration Procedure for Primary Open Angle Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Soosan; Figus, Michele; Ashok Kumar, Dhivya; Areeckal Incy, Saijimol

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To describe a modified guarded filtration surgery, stab incision glaucoma surgery (SIGS), for primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). Methods. This prospective, interventional case series included patients with POAG (IOP ≥21 mmHg with glaucomatous visual field defects). After sliding superior conjunctiva down over limbus, 2.8 mm bevel-up keratome was used to create conjunctival entry and superficial corneoscleral tunnel in a single step starting 1.5 mm behind limbus. Lamellar corneoscleral tunnel was carefully dissected 0.5–1 mm into cornea and anterior chamber (AC) was entered. Kelly Descemet's punch (1 mm) was slid along the tunnel into AC to punch internal lip of the tunnel, thereby compromising it. Patency of ostium was assessed by injecting fluid in AC and visualizing leakage from tunnel. Conjunctival incision alone was sutured. Results. Mean preoperative IOP was 27.41 ± 5.54 mmHg and mean postoperative IOP was 16.47 ± 4.81 mmHg (n = 17). Mean reduction in IOP was 38.81 ± 16.55%. There was significant reduction of IOP (p < 0.000). 64.7% had IOP at final follow-up of <18 mmHg without medication and 82.35% had IOP <18 mmHg with ≤2 medications. No sight threatening complications were encountered. Conclusion. Satisfactory IOP control was noted after SIGS in interim follow-up (14.18 ± 1.88 months). PMID:27144015

  17. Assessment of Reporting, Attitudes and Knowledge About the Stab Incidents and Professional Risk of Viral Infection among Health Care Professionals in Primary Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Becirovic, Sabina; Pranjic, Nurka; Sarajlic-Spahic, Selvedina; Ahmetagic, Sead; Huseinagic, Senad

    2013-01-01

    Conflict of interest: none declared. Goal The goal of the research is to determine the relationship between frequency and reporting of stab incidents, attitudes and knowledge about stab incidents and occupational risk for transmission of viral infection with HBV, HCV or HIV among health care professionals employed in primary health care. Material and methods Conducted is prospective, cross-section study by questionnaires in 2012. The survey included health professionals in Primary Health Care Center in Tuzla. The final sample has 131 respondents (85% women). Statistical analysis was performed using the statistical package SPSS version 20.0. Results The prevalence rate of stab incidents throughout their career in our study was 66%; while the rate of reported incidents was 4.83 ˜ 5 times lower than the actual prevalence. In 49 out of 87 cases this was a case of hollow needle prick. The most common causes of stab incidents are the time pressure, unforeseen reactions of patients and lack of concentration. Conclusion Stab incidents are often not reported in in developing countries. Training in order to raise awareness and knowledge about the problem, proper procedures, good organization of work and anti-stress program, safer disposal, conducting prophylaxis before and after exposure monitored by the relevant institutions of occupational medicine should contribute to solving this problem. PMID:24082835

  18. Head Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... of head injuries include bicycle or motorcycle wrecks, sports injuries, falls from windows (especially among children who live ... to watch for? When can I start playing sports again after a head injury? How can brain damage from a head injury ...

  19. Head Lice

    MedlinePlus

    Head lice are parasitic wingless insects. They live on people's heads and feed on their blood. An adult louse ... Children ages 3-11 and their families get head lice most often. Personal hygiene has nothing to ...

  20. Head circumference

    MedlinePlus

    ... a child's head circumference Normal ranges for a child's sex and age (weeks, months), based on values that experts have obtained for normal growth rates of infants' and children's heads Measurement of the head circumference is an ...

  1. Head Lice

    MedlinePlus

    Head lice are parasitic wingless insects. They live on people's heads and feed on their blood. An adult ... Children ages 3-11 and their families get head lice most often. Personal hygiene has nothing to do ...

  2. The Perforated Intrauterine Device: Endoscopic Retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Heinberg, Eric M.; McCoy, Travis W.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Uterine perforation is the most serious complication associated with an intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD). Minimally invasive techniques, such as hysteroscopy and advanced laparoscopy, are ideally suited to the diagnosis and surgical management of the perforated IUD. Case Reports: Three cases of uterine perforation caused by an IUD and treated with endoscopic surgery are presented. In all 3 cases, the IUD was located by using x-rays, ultrasonography, or pelvic magnetic resonance imaging. Diagnostic laparoscopy was performed to identify the specific location of the IUD and to remove it. All patients recovered without incident. Conclusion: The gynecologic surgeon should acquire familiarity with the complications of, and proficiency in managing, perforated and ectopic IUDs by using modern surgical techniques that permit the patient's rapid return to health. PMID:18402749

  3. The intrauterine device: dispelling the myths.

    PubMed

    Kimble-Haas, S L

    1998-11-01

    The worldwide popularity and usage of intrauterine devices (IUDs) plummeted in the 1970s, when grim reports of septic abortions and pelvic inflammatory disease were published. Although the Dalkon Shield ultimately was determined to be the culprit for these problems, the reputation of all IUDs was damaged, and their popularity spiraled downward. The stigma continues, despite the proven safety and efficacy of newer IUDs, particularly the ParaGard T 380A and the Progestasert, which are now the only two IUDs approved for use in the United States. This article will review how the IUD works and will focus on dispelling the misconceptions surrounding its use. Rigid patient-selection guidelines and strict aseptic insertion techniques can provide safe, long-term, cost-effective, and highly efficacious contraception for monogamous women. Practitioners who follow these guidelines should not fear prescribing IUDs as a contraceptive device in the appropriate female population. PMID:9834505

  4. Intrauterine insemination for treatment of male infertility.

    PubMed

    Keck, C; Gerber-Schäfer, C; Wilhelm, C; Vogelgesang, D; Breckwoldt, M

    1997-01-01

    Intrauterine inseminations (IUI) have been performed since the beginning of this century for treatment of infertility. Despite its widespread use the clinical value of this technique remains unclear. Today, indications for IUI include male factor, cervical factor, immunological and unexplained infertility and infertility due to ejaculatory disorders. IUI is superior to intravaginal (IVI) or intracervical insemination (ICI). Before insemination, semen has to be processed using one of the established sperm preparation techniques. Different techniques seem to be equally effective in preparing a highly concentrated sperm fraction with progressively motile, morphologically normal sperm. Ovarian stimulation further improves pregnancy rates achieved by insemination. Human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG) stimulation seems to be superior to clomiphene citrate stimulation. Among other factors, timing and number of inseminations are crucial when influencing the outcome of IUI treatment. PMID:9466187

  5. Early Adolescent Executive Functioning, Intrauterine Exposures and Own Drug Use

    PubMed Central

    Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Soenksen, Shayna; Appugliese, Danielle P.; Cabral, Howard J.; Richardson, Mark A.; Beeghly, Marjorie; Heeren, Timothy C.; Frank, Deborah A.

    2011-01-01

    Individual differences in adolescents' executive functioning are often attributed either to intrauterine substance exposure or to adolescents' own substance use, but both predictors typically have not been evaluated simultaneously in the same study. This prospective study evaluated whether intrauterine drug exposures, the adolescents' own substance use, and/or their potential interactions are related to poorer executive functioning after controlling for important contextual variables. Analyses were based on data collected on a sample of 137 predominantly African-American/ African Caribbean adolescents from low-income urban backgrounds who were followed since their term birth. Intrauterine substance exposures (cocaine, marijuana, alcohol, cigarettes) and adolescents' substance use were documented using a combination of biological assays and maternal and adolescent self-report. At 12-14 years of age, examiners masked to intrauterine exposures and current substance use assessed the adolescents using the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS), an age-referenced instrument evaluating multiple dimensions of executive functioning (EF). Results of covariate-controlled analyses in this study suggest that when intrauterine substance exposures and young adolescents' substance use variables were in the same analysis models, subtle differences in specific EF outcomes were identifiable in this non-referred sample. While further study with larger samples is indicated, these findings suggest that 1) research on adolescent substance use and intrauterine exposure research should evaluate both predictors simultaneously; 2) subtle neurocognitive effects associated with specific intrauterine drug exposures can be identified during early adolescence; and 3) intrauterine substance exposure effects may differ from those associated with adolescents' own drug use. PMID:21371553

  6. New technique for managing second trimester intrauterine fetal death.

    PubMed

    Malpani, A; Malpani, A; Krishna, U

    1989-03-01

    In this study, a new method for terminating second trimester pregnancies complicated by intrauterine fetal death is analysed. The technique consisted of a combination of extraamniotic ethacridine lactate with intramuscular sulprostone (16-phenoxy-omega-17,18,19,20 tetranor PGE2 methyl sulfonylamide). Objective documentation of the efficacy of this method was obtained by continuous monitoring of intrauterine pressure in two patients. The method was found to be simple, safe, cheap and effective and deserves increased acceptance. PMID:2564363

  7. Intrauterine Growth Restriction Associated with Excessively Long Umbilical Cord

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Ann; Jacquemyn, Yves; Loor, Jeannette De

    2013-01-01

    We present a 37-week female baby, known with intrauterine growth restriction since 25 weeks of pregnancy, born with a placenta with an excessive long umbilical cord (ELUC), without any other abnormalities. ELUC is mostly an incidental finding after delivery, but represents a potentially detectable intrauterine cause of growth restriction. A system that allows ultrasound measurement of the length of the umbilical cord could highly increase antenatal diagnosis of ELUC. PMID:24765511

  8. Small Size at Birth or Abnormal Intrauterine Growth Trajectory: Which Matters More for Child Growth?

    PubMed

    Hutcheon, Jennifer A; Jacobsen, Geir W; Kramer, Michael S; Martinussen, Marit; Platt, Robert W

    2016-06-15

    Small size at birth is linked with lifelong adverse health implications. However, small size is only a proxy for the pathological process of interest, intrauterine growth restriction. We examined the extent to which information on intrauterine growth patterns improved prediction of childhood anthropometry, above and beyond birth weight alone. We obtained fetal weights estimated via serial ultrasound for 478 children in the Scandinavian Successive Small-for-Gestational-Age Births Study (1986-1988). Size at birth was classified using birth weight-for-gestational-age z scores and conditional fetal growth z scores (reflecting growth between 25 weeks' gestation and birth) using internal references. Conditional z scores were also expressed as residuals of birth weight z scores. Growth measures were linked with age-5-years anthropometric characteristics using linear regression. In univariable analyses, conditional fetal growth z scores were positively associated with z scores for child height, body mass index, total skinfold thickness, and head circumference (β = 0.24 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.18, 0.31), β = 0.16 (95% CI: 0.09, 0.23), β = 0.08 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.16), and β = 0.37 (95% CI: 0.22, 0.52), respectively). However, conditional z scores were highly correlated with birth weight z scores (r = 0.9), and residuals explained minimal additional variation in anthropometric factors (null coefficients; adjusted R(2) increases < 0.01). Information on the intrauterine trajectory through which birth weight was attained provided little additional insight into child growth beyond that obtained from absolute size at birth. PMID:27257112

  9. Recent intrauterine growth parameters of term Sudanese neonates in Khartoum compared to the findings three decades earlier

    PubMed Central

    Abdel Rahman, Sirag Eldin M. Kheir; Ibrahim, Ghada O.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to present anthropometric measurements of term Sudanese neonates which will reflect intrauterine growth. Secondly, to compare such parameters with that of a previous study done about three decades ago to show if there is any secular changes. Normal term neonates born to healthy mothers between the period of October 2010 to January 2011 at Khartoum Teaching Hospital were included in the study. There were certain criteria for inclusion and exclusion of the newborns and their mothers. Measurements of birth weight, crown-heel length and head circumferences were done in the first twenty four hours after birth. Statistical test of the difference between the means was used to show any significant difference. The means of birth weight, crown-heel length and head circumference for both sexes against gestational age were obtained. Comparing this study with the previous one showed no statistical significant difference for both sexes regarding the birth weight, crown-heel length but there is some difference between males head circumference. There is no evidence of upward secular trend regarding the intrauterine parameters.

  10. [The morphological features of stab-and-slash skin wounds inflicted by the blades with differently shaped tips through the multilayer barrier].

    PubMed

    Sarkisian, B A; Fedorov, S Iu

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to study the shape, size, and morphological features of stab-and-slash skin wounds inflicted by the blades with differently shaped tips taking into consideration the direction of stab through multiple garments (1, 2, and 3 layers). The injuries were inflicted by kitchen knives having the blades of practically identical length and width but differently shaped tips. A total of 480 skin wounds and 720 damaged cloth specimens were available for the examination. The analysis of the data obtained revealed differences between morphological features of the skin wounds. Injuries to the skin unprotected by the cloths had different shape and length of the edge and end portions depending on the shape of the blade tip and the direction of the stab. The length of all wound inflicted through the barrier decreased as the number of layers increased. The wounds had the linear shape, their contusion collar and flattened area became narrower; the shape of the back edges of the wounds inflicted through a three-layer barrier altered. It is concluded that the result of the present study may be useful for the improvement of diagnostics of stab-and-slash skin wounds. PMID:25269167

  11. Intrauterine transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi in dogs.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, J M; Burgess, E C; Wachal, M D; Steinberg, H

    1993-06-01

    To determine whether intrauterine transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi could exist in dogs, 10 female Beagles were inoculated intradermally with approximately 1,000 B burgdorferi on day 1 of proestrus; inoculation was repeated every 2 weeks during the gestation period. Ten female control Beagles were similarly inoculated with phosphate-buffered saline solution. Prior to the start of the study, all females and 3 males used for breeding were seronegative for B burgdorferi on the basis of results of the indirect fluorescent antibody test and immunoblot (western analysis. Similarly, results of culture of blood for B burgdorferi were negative. All 20 of the females were bred naturally. Blood samples were collected weekly for serologic testing and culture. Blood samples were obtained from live pups on day 1 of life, then weekly until pups were 6 weeks old when they were euthanatized. Tissues were obtained for culture and testing by use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Of 10 spirochete-inoculated (SI) females, 8 became infected with B burgdorferi as evidenced by spirochete culture results and/or PCR-detected B burgdorferi DNA in the tissues of females or their pups. Of the 10 SI females, 8 delivered litters (3 to 7 pups) that had at least 1 neonatal or 6-week-old pup with B burgdorferi DNA-positive tissues (by PCR), and spirochetes were cultured from tissues from pups of 2 litters.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8323057

  12. [Intrauterine growth retardation and adult outcome].

    PubMed

    Lapillonne, Alexandre

    2011-03-01

    The epidemiologist David Barker was among the first to develop the concept that some adult diseases might have their origins during fetal life, based notably on a strong association between low birth weight and the risk of chronic diseases in adulthood (coronary artery disease, hypertension and stroke, type 2 diabetes, and osteoporosis). Several other groups replicated these results in other populations, thus confirming that birth weight is a determining factor of adult health. Intra-uterine growth retardation (IUGR) has been widely used as a marker of poor fetal nutrition and health, but some antenatal nutritional disturbances can increase the risk of diseases later in life without affecting fetal growth. The risk of diseases in adulthood appears to be further increased when IUGR is associated with rapid postnatal catch-up growth. This suggests that fetal malnutrition induces adaptations necessary for fetal survival and health, but that it also undermines future health if the postnatal environment is unfavorable. The fetal origins of adult diseases has major public health implications and calls for reinforced pre- and post-natal prevention strategies. PMID:22292298

  13. Intrauterine Growth Restriction: Antenatal and Postnatal Aspects.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Deepak; Shastri, Sweta; Sharma, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), a condition that occurs due to various reasons, is an important cause of fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. It has been defined as a rate of fetal growth that is less than normal in light of the growth potential of that specific infant. Usually, IUGR and small for gestational age (SGA) are used interchangeably in literature, even though there exist minute differences between them. SGA has been defined as having birth weight less than two standard deviations below the mean or less than the 10th percentile of a population-specific birth weight for specific gestational age. These infants have many acute neonatal problems that include perinatal asphyxia, hypothermia, hypoglycemia, and polycythemia. The likely long-term complications that are prone to develop when IUGR infants grow up includes growth retardation, major and subtle neurodevelopmental handicaps, and developmental origin of health and disease. In this review, we have covered various antenatal and postnatal aspects of IUGR. PMID:27441006

  14. Intrauterine Growth Restriction: Antenatal and Postnatal Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Deepak; Shastri, Sweta; Sharma, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), a condition that occurs due to various reasons, is an important cause of fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. It has been defined as a rate of fetal growth that is less than normal in light of the growth potential of that specific infant. Usually, IUGR and small for gestational age (SGA) are used interchangeably in literature, even though there exist minute differences between them. SGA has been defined as having birth weight less than two standard deviations below the mean or less than the 10th percentile of a population-specific birth weight for specific gestational age. These infants have many acute neonatal problems that include perinatal asphyxia, hypothermia, hypoglycemia, and polycythemia. The likely long-term complications that are prone to develop when IUGR infants grow up includes growth retardation, major and subtle neurodevelopmental handicaps, and developmental origin of health and disease. In this review, we have covered various antenatal and postnatal aspects of IUGR. PMID:27441006

  15. Intrauterine Growth Restriction and Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Kurjak, Asim; Predojevic, Maja; Stanojevic, Milan; Kadic, Aida Salihagic-; Miskovic, Berivoj; Badreldeen, Ahmed; Talic, Amira; Zaputovic, Sanja; Honemeyer, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) can be described as condition in which fetus fails to reach his potential growth. It is common diagnosis in obstetrics, and carries an increased risk of perinatal mortality and morbidity. Moreover, IUGR has lifelong implications on health, especially on neurological outcome. There is a need for additional neurological assessment during monitoring of fetal well-being, in order to better predict antenatally which fetuses are at risk for adverse neurological outcome. Studies have revealed that the behavior of the fetus reflects the maturational processes of the central nervous system (CNS). Hence, ultrasound investigation of the fetal behavior can give us insight into the integrity and functioning of the fetal CNS. Furthermore, investigations carried out using modern method, four-dimensional (4D) sonography, have produced invaluable details of fetal behavior and its development, opening the door to a better understanding of the prenatal functional development of the CNS. Based on previous observations and several years of investigation, our reaserch group has proposed a new scoring system for the assessment of fetal neurological status by 4D sonography named Kurjak antenatal neurodevelopmental test (KANET). The value of KANET in distinguishing fetal brain and neurodevelopmental alterations due to the early brain impairment in utero is yet to be assessed in large population studies. However, preliminary results are very encouraging. PMID:25473145

  16. Invasive hyphal growth in Wangiella dermatitidis is induced by stab inoculation and shows dependence upon melanin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Brush, L; Money, N P

    1999-12-01

    Stab inoculation of agar medium with yeasts of the human pathogen Wangiella dermatitidis resulted in induction of invasive hyphae. Mechanical penetration of agar was indicated by the observation that an increase in medium gel strength slowed the rate of substrate invasion. A melanized wild-type strain (8656) exhibited much faster invasive growth through 2-8% agar than three melanin-deficient mutants. Inhibition of melanin synthesis in strain 8656 using tricyclazole resulted in a decrease in its rate of invasive growth, while scytalone restored melanin synthesis in the albino mel3 strain and boosted its rate of invasive growth. Earlier research established that cellular melanization is also associated with invasive hyphal growth in the mouse brain, and infections with strain 8656 are invariably lethal. Together, these in vitro and in vivo data indicate that biomechanical characteristics of fungi may be important determinants of virulence and disease progression in human and animal mycoses. PMID:10669584

  17. Head MRI

    MedlinePlus

    ... the head; MRI - cranial; NMR - cranial; Cranial MRI; Brain MRI; MRI - brain; MRI - head ... tell your health care provider if you have: Brain aneurysm clips Certain types of artificial heart valves ...

  18. Head Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... injuries internal head injuries, which may involve the skull, the blood vessels within the skull, or the brain Fortunately, most childhood falls or ... knock the brain into the side of the skull or tear blood vessels. Some internal head injuries ...

  19. Head Lice

    MedlinePlus

    ... or prescription products. Over-the-counter shampoos and lotions containing pyrethrin (one brand name: Rid) or permethrin ( ... commonly used to treat head lice. Shampoos and lotions that kill head lice contain pesticides and other ...

  20. Head lice.

    PubMed

    Devore, Cynthia D; Schutze, Gordon E

    2015-05-01

    Head lice infestation is associated with limited morbidity but causes a high level of anxiety among parents of school-aged children. Since the 2010 clinical report on head lice was published by the American Academy of Pediatrics, newer medications have been approved for the treatment of head lice. This revised clinical report clarifies current diagnosis and treatment protocols and provides guidance for the management of children with head lice in the school setting. PMID:25917986

  1. Risk of intracranial hypertension with intrauterine levonorgestrel

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Hao; Gustafson, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to quantify the risk of intracranial hypertension (ICH) with the intrauterine levonorgestrel (IUL) device Mirena®. Methods: We used the United States Food and Drug Administration’s Adverse Events Reporting System (FAERS) database to quantify a reporting odds ratio (ROR) for ICH and Mirena®. We also conducted a retrospective cohort study using the IMS LifeLink® database, comparing the risk of two oral contraceptives ethinyl estradiol (EE) with Mirena®. A Bayesian sensitivity analysis was performed to account for the effect of body mass index (BMI). Results: The reported odds ratios (ORs) for ICH and papilledema with Mirena® were 1.78 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.41–2.25) and 1.50 (95% CI 1.10–2.05), respectively. In the cohort study, the OR for ICH and EE-norgestimate and EE-norethindrone compared with Mirena® were 1.29 (95% CI 0.83–2.00) and 0.31 (95% CI 0.04–2.29), respectively. The presence of a strong confounder BMI did not affect the estimated OR (OR = 1.31, 95% CI 0.73–2.41 for EE-norgestimate; OR = 0.18, 95% CI 0.01–1.27 for EE-norethindrone). Conclusion: We found a higher than expected number of reports of ICH with Mirena® in the FAERS database. We also found a similar risk of ICH with Mirena® compared with the oral contraceptive EE-norgestimate. The higher risk of ICH with EE-norethindrone, another oral contraceptive should be further investigated. PMID:26240745

  2. A Lower-Cost Option for Intrauterine Contraception.

    PubMed

    Angelini, Kim

    2016-01-01

    In March 2015, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved Liletta (Actavis, Dublin, Ireland), a new intrauterine device for contraception. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend use of long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) as first-line pregnancy prevention. LARC efficacy rates are similar to those of sterilization, with the possibility for quick return of fertility upon removal of the device. Despite benefits and recommendations for this form of contraception, access and high cost remain barriers to use. Liletta is the first lower-cost option for intrauterine contraception. Available to qualified clinics and health centers at a reduced rate, this device may increase availability and decrease the overall cost to women who desire intrauterine contraception. PMID:27067935

  3. Hysteroscopic sterilization of patient with intrauterine device Mirena®

    PubMed Central

    Depes, Daniella De Batista; Pereira, Ana Maria Gomes; Yatabe, Salete; Lopes, Reginaldo Guedes Coelho

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tubal sterilization is the definitive procedure most often used worldwide to control fecundity. Laparoscopic ligature is safe, but invasive and with possible surgical and anesthetic risks. The hysteroscopic approach enables tubal occlusion at outpatient's setting without the need of incisions or anesthesia. A microdevice (Essure®) is inserted directly into the tubes and its polyethelene fibers cause obstruction of tubes in about three months. During this period, it is recommended that patients continue the use of a temporary birth control method. Several women use the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system, which is called in the market as Mirena®. This report evaluated the possibility of inserting Essure® without remove the intrauterine device; patient tolerance to the procedure was also assessed. The tubal device was successfully placed in the patient without the need to remove Mirena®. After three months the intrauterine device was removed with no intercurrent events. PMID:23579753

  4. Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR): epidemiology and etiology.

    PubMed

    Romo, Agustín; Carceller, Raquel; Tobajas, Javier

    2009-02-01

    Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is mainly due to a pathologic slow-down in the fetal growth pace, resulting in a fetus that is unable to reach its growth potential. IUGR frequency will vary depending on the discrimination criteria adopted. It is extremely important to use local or national fetal growth graphs in order to avoid some confounding factors. IUGR incidence in newborns would be between 3% and 7% of the total population. In our experience it is 5.13% a figure similar to the one obtained by other authors but with a progressively higher incidence during the last decade. There are multiple maternal factors that can generally be grouped into constitutional and general factors given that they affect age, weight, race, maternal cardiac volume, etc, socioeconomic factors with key incidence in the mother's nutrition level, where a poor maternal nutrition level would be the key factor in this group. We have evaluated multiple factors as possible contributors to the IUGR risk: race, parents' age, mother's height (cm), mother's birth weight and before pregnancy (kg), ponderal gain and blood pressure during pregnancy, and previous SGA newborns. Socioeconomic factors like social class, parents' profession, habitual residence, salary, immigration, and diet were also evaluated. We also included variables such as total daily working time and time mothers spent standing up, daily sleeping time (hrs), stress self-perception test at work and primiparity age. Toxic factors during pregnancy: tobacco (active and passive), alcohol, drugs and coffee consumption. Fetal or utero-placental factors were considered. In our study, the most significant etiologic factors were: Active and passive tobacco consuming, mother's stress level, increase of total months worked during pregnancy, total daily working hours and time mothers spent standing up and finally, the parent's height. Our data support the main objective of reducing the incidence of SGA newborns after IUGR by fighting

  5. Immediate postabortal insertion of intrauterine devices.

    PubMed

    Okusanya, Babasola O; Oduwole, Olabisi; Effa, Emmanuel E

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of an effective contraceptive may be necessary after an abortion. Insertion of an intrauterine device (IUD) may be done the same day or later. Immediate IUD insertion is an option since the woman is not pregnant, pain of insertion is less because the cervical os is open, and her motivation to use contraception may be high. However, insertion of an IUD immediately after a pregnancy ends carries risks, such as spontaneous expulsion.Objectives To assess the safety and efficacy of IUD insertion immediately after spontaneous or induced abortion.Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, POPLINE, ClinicalTrials.gov,and ICTRP in January 27, 2014. We also contacted investigators to identify other trials.Selection criteria We sought all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with at least one treatment arm that involved IUD insertion immediately after an induced abortion or after curettage for spontaneous abortion.Data collection and analysis We evaluated the methodological quality of each report and abstracted the data. We focused on discontinuation rates for accidental pregnancy, perforation, expulsion, and pelvic inflammatory disease.We computed the weighted average of the rate ratios.We compute drisk ratios (RRs) with 95% Confidence Intervals (CIs).We performed an intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis by including all randomised participants in the analysis according to the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions.Main results We identified 12 trials most of which are of moderate risk of bias involving 7,119 participants which described random assignment.Five trials randomised to either immediate or delayed insertion of IUD. One of them randomised to immediate versus delayed insertion of Copper 7 showed immediate insertion of the Copper 7 was associated with a higher risk of expulsion than was delayed insertion(RR 11.98, 95% CI 1.61 to 89.35,1 study, 259 participants); the

  6. Undetected Aorto-RV Fistula With Aortic Valve Injury and Delayed Cardiac Tamponade following a Chest Stab Wound: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Esfahanizadeh, Jamil; Abbasi Tashnizi, Mohammad; Moeinipour, Ali Asghar; Sepehri Shamloo, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Although a few patients will survive after penetrating cardiac injuries, some of them may have unnoticeable intracardiac injuries. The combination of aorto-right ventricular fistula with aortic valve injury is rare. Case Presentation A 19 year-old man referred with an aorto-right ventricular fistula accompanied with aortic regurgitation and delayed tamponade following a stab in the chest. The patient was scheduled for fistula repair, aortic valve replacement and pericardectomy two months after trauma. Conclusions To prevent missing intracardiac injury and also late cardiac injury complications, in all pericordial stab wounds, serial clinical examinations and serial echocardiography should be performed. In addition, cardiac injuries should be repaired during the same hospital stay. PMID:24350161

  7. Head lice.

    PubMed

    Frankowski, Barbara L; Bocchini, Joseph A

    2010-08-01

    Head lice infestation is associated with limited morbidity but causes a high level of anxiety among parents of school-aged children. Since the 2002 clinical report on head lice was published by the American Academy of Pediatrics, patterns of resistance to products available over-the-counter and by prescription have changed, and additional mechanical means of removing head lice have been explored. This revised clinical report clarifies current diagnosis and treatment protocols and provides guidance for the management of children with head lice in the school setting. PMID:20660553

  8. Maternal HCV infection is associated with intrauterine fetal growth disturbance

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Qi-tao; Hang, Li-lin; Zhong, Mei; Gao, Yun-fei; Luo, Man-ling; Yu, Yan-hong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Since the evidence regarding the association between maternal hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and impaired intrauterine fetal growth had not been conclusive, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the risk of maternal HCV infection in association with intrauterine fetal growth restriction (IUGR) and/or low birth weight infants (LBW). We performed an extensive literature search of PubMed, MEDLINE, and EMBASE through December 1, 2015. The odds ratios (ORs) of HCV infection and IUGR/LBW were calculated and reported with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Statistical analysis was performed using RevMen 5.3 and Stata 10.0. Seven studies involving 4,185,414 participants and 5094 HCV infection cases were included. Significant associations between HCV infection and IUGR (OR = 1.53, 95% CI: 1.40–1.68, fixed effect model) as well as LBW were observed (OR = 1.97, 95% CI: 1.43–2.71, random effect model). The results still indicated consistencies after adjusting for multiple risk factors which could affect fetal growth, including maternal age, parity, maternal smoking, alcohol abuse, drugs abuse, coinfected with HBV/HIV and preeclampsia. Our findings suggested that maternal HCV infection was significantly associated with an increased risk of impaired intrauterine fetal growth. In clinical practice, a closer monitoring of intrauterine fetal growth by a series of ultrasound might be necessary for HCV-infected pregnant population. PMID:27583932

  9. EFFECT OF INTRAUTERINE PCB EXPOSURE ON VISUAL RECOGNITION MEMORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adverse neonatal outcomes have been associated with intrauterine exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In a follow-up study of exposed and nonexposed infants, 123 infants tested at birth were administered Fagan's test of visual recognition memory at 7 months. 2 measures o...

  10. 21 CFR 884.2700 - Intrauterine pressure monitor and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Intrauterine pressure monitor and accessories. 884.2700 Section 884.2700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... intensity, duration, and frequency of uterine contractions during labor. This generic type of device...

  11. Relationship between Intrauterine Bacterial Infection and Early Embryonic Developmental Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Shao-Fei; Liu, Xin-Yan; Cheng, Yun-Fei; Li, Zhi-Yi; Ou, Jie; Wang, Wei; Li, Feng-Qin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Early embryonic developmental arrest is the most commonly understudied adverse outcome of pregnancy. The relevance of intrauterine infection to spontaneous embryonic death is rarely studied and remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between intrauterine bacterial infection and early embryonic developmental arrest. Methods: Embryonic chorion tissue and uterine swabs for bacterial detection were obtained from 33 patients who underwent artificial abortion (control group) and from 45 patients who displayed early embryonic developmental arrest (trial group). Results: Intrauterine bacterial infection was discovered in both groups. The infection rate was 24.44% (11/45) in the early embryonic developmental arrest group and 9.09% (3/33) in the artificial abortion group. Classification analysis revealed that the highest detection rate for Micrococcus luteus in the early embryonic developmental arrest group was 13.33% (6/45), and none was detected in the artificial abortion group. M. luteus infection was significantly different between the groups (P < 0.05 as shown by Fisher's exact test). In addition, no correlation was found between intrauterine bacterial infection and history of early embryonic developmental arrest. Conclusions: M. luteus infection is related to early embryonic developmental arrest and might be one of its causative factors. PMID:27270541

  12. Optimization of Cry3A Yields in Bacillus thuringiensis by Use of Sporulation-Dependent Promoters in Combination with the STAB-SD mRNA Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyun-Woo; Ge, Baoxue; Bauer, Leah S.; Federici, Brian A.

    1998-01-01

    The insecticidal activity of Bacillus thuringiensis strains toxic to coleopterous insects is due to Cry3 proteins assembled into small rectangular crystals. Toxin synthesis in these strains is dependent primarily upon a promoter that is active in the stationary phase and a STAB-SD sequence that stabilizes the cry3 transcript-ribosome complex. Here we show that significantly higher yields of Cry3A can be obtained by using dual sporulation-dependent cyt1Aa promoters to drive the expression of cry3Aa when the STAB-SD sequence is included in the construct. The Cry3A yield per unit of culture medium obtained with this expression system was 12.7-fold greater than that produced by DSM 2803, the wild-type strain of B. thuringiensis from which Cry3Aa was originally described, and 1.4-fold greater than that produced by NB176, a mutant of the same strain containing two or three copies of cry3Aa, which is the active ingredient of the commercial product Novodor, used for control of beetle pests. The toxicities of Cry3A produced with this construct or the wild-type strain were similar when assayed against larvae of the cottonwood leaf beetle, Chrysomela scripta. The volume of Cry3A crystals produced with cyt1Aa promoters and the STAB-SD sequence was 1.3-fold that of typical bipyramidal Cry1 crystals toxic to lepidopterous insects. The dual-promoter/STAB-SD system offers an additional method for potentially improving the efficacy of insecticides based on B. thuringiensis. PMID:9758822

  13. Comparison Of Flat-Knitted Structures Made Of Poly(P-Phenylene-2,6-Benzobisoxazole) And Para-Aramid Referring To Their Stab Resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obermann, M.; Aumann, S.; Heimlich, F.; Weber, M. O.; Schwarz-Pfeiffer, A.

    2016-07-01

    In the field of protective gear, developers always aim for lighter and more flexible material in order to increase the wearing comfort. Suppliers now work on knitted garments in the sports-sector as well as in workwear and protective gear for policemen or security-agents. In a recent project different knitted structures made of a poly(p-phenylene-2,6-benzobisoxazole) (PBO)-multifilament were compared to their counterparts made of para-aramid. In focus of the comparison stood the stab-resistance linked to either the mass per unit area or the stitch density. The tested fabrics were produced on hand flat knitting machines as well as on electronical flat knitting machines of the type Stoll CMS 330TC4, in order to analyse fabrics with different tightness factor and machine gauges. The stab resistance of the different knitted fabrics was examined according to the standard of the Association of Test Laboratories for Bullet, Stab or Pike Resistant Materials and Construction Standards. The presentation includes the depiction of the results of the test series and their interpretation. Furthermore it will give an outlook on most suitable combinations of materials and structures to be used in protective gear.

  14. The direct cost of traumatic secretion transfer in hermaphroditic land snails: individuals stabbed with a love dart decrease lifetime fecundity

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Kazuki; Chiba, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Several taxa of simultaneously hermaphroditic land snails exhibit a conspicuous mating behaviour, the so-called shooting of love darts. During mating, such land snail species transfer a specific secretion by stabbing a mating partner's body with the love dart. It has been shown that sperm donors benefit from this traumatic secretion transfer, because the secretions manipulate the physiology of a sperm recipient and increase the donors' fertilization success. However, it is unclear whether reception of dart shooting is costly to the recipients. Therefore, the effect of sexual conflict and antagonistic arms races on the evolution of traumatic secretion transfer in land snails is still controversial. To examine this effect, we compared lifetime fecundity and longevity between the individuals that received and did not receive dart shooting from mating partners in Bradybaena pellucida. Our experiments showed that the dart-receiving snails suffered reduction in lifetime fecundity and longevity. These results suggest that the costly mating behaviour, dart shooting, generates conflict between sperm donors and recipients and that sexually antagonistic arms races have contributed to the diversification of the morphological and behavioural traits relevant to dart shooting. Our findings also support theories suggesting a violent escalation of sexual conflict in hermaphroditic animals. PMID:25761713

  15. The direct cost of traumatic secretion transfer in hermaphroditic land snails: individuals stabbed with a love dart decrease lifetime fecundity.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Kazuki; Chiba, Satoshi

    2015-04-01

    Several taxa of simultaneously hermaphroditic land snails exhibit a conspicuous mating behaviour, the so-called shooting of love darts. During mating, such land snail species transfer a specific secretion by stabbing a mating partner's body with the love dart. It has been shown that sperm donors benefit from this traumatic secretion transfer, because the secretions manipulate the physiology of a sperm recipient and increase the donors' fertilization success. However, it is unclear whether reception of dart shooting is costly to the recipients. Therefore, the effect of sexual conflict and antagonistic arms races on the evolution of traumatic secretion transfer in land snails is still controversial. To examine this effect, we compared lifetime fecundity and longevity between the individuals that received and did not receive dart shooting from mating partners in Bradybaena pellucida. Our experiments showed that the dart-receiving snails suffered reduction in lifetime fecundity and longevity. These results suggest that the costly mating behaviour, dart shooting, generates conflict between sperm donors and recipients and that sexually antagonistic arms races have contributed to the diversification of the morphological and behavioural traits relevant to dart shooting. Our findings also support theories suggesting a violent escalation of sexual conflict in hermaphroditic animals. PMID:25761713

  16. Head injury.

    PubMed

    Hureibi, K A; McLatchie, G R

    2010-05-01

    Head injury is one of the commonest injuries in sport. Most are mild but some can have serious outcomes. Sports medicine doctors should be able to recognise the clinical features and evaluate athletes with head injury. It is necessary during field assessment to recognise signs and symptoms that help in assessing the severity of injury and making a decision to return-to-play. Prevention of primary head injury should be the aim. This includes protective equipment like helmets and possible rule changes. PMID:20533694

  17. Head Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... before. Often, the injury is minor because your skull is hard and it protects your brain. But ... injuries can be more severe, such as a skull fracture, concussion, or traumatic brain injury. Head injuries ...

  18. Head Noises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senior, Tom

    2000-01-01

    Explains how a toy called "Sound Bites" can be modified to demonstrate the transmission of sound waves. Students can hear music from the toy when they press it against any bone in their heads or shoulders. (WRM)

  19. Head Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... before. Usually, the injury is minor because your skull is hard and it protects your brain. But ... injuries can be more severe, such as a skull fracture, concussion, or traumatic brain injury. Head injuries ...

  20. Intrauterine trophoblast migration: A comparative view of humans and rodents.

    PubMed

    Silva, Juneo F; Serakides, Rogéria

    2016-03-01

    Trophoblast migration and invasion through the decidua and maternal uterine spiral arteries are crucial events in placentation. During this process, invasive trophoblast replace vascular endothelial cells as the uterine arteries are remodeled to form more permissive vessels that facilitate adequate blood flow to the growing fetus. Placentation failures resulting from either extensive or shallow trophoblastic invasion can cause pregnancy complications such as preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, placenta creta, gestational trophoblastic disease and even maternal or fetal death. Consequently, the use of experimental animal models such as rats and mice has led to great progress in recent years with regards to the identification of mechanisms and factors that control trophoblast migration kinetics. This review aims to perform a comparative analysis of placentation and the mechanisms and factors that coordinate intrauterine trophoblast migration in humans, rats and mice under physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:26743330

  1. Threatened miscarriage and intrauterine hematomas. Sonographic and biochemical studies.

    PubMed

    Stabile, I; Campbell, S; Grudzinskas, J G

    1989-06-01

    In a prospective study of 406 women with threatened miscarriage (TMC), 22 (5.4%) had an intrauterine hematoma (less than 16 mL) noted ultrasonically, decreasing in size as the patients experienced repeated episodes of bleeding. Twenty (91%) of the hematomas visualized were subchorionic and two (9%) were retroplacental. None of these women subsequently miscarried. Human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG), Schwangerschafts protein 1 (SP1), and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) levels measured in these patients were not significantly different in women with or without hematomas. We conclude that the presence of small intrauterine hematomas in women with TMC does not increase the risk of miscarriage. PMID:2472492

  2. Evaluation of intrauterine adhesion treatment by laser hysteroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutrynowski, Andrzej; Zabielska, Renata

    1996-03-01

    Hysteroscopy, which is a kind of endoscopy, makes it possible to evaluate macroscopically the cervical canal, uterine cavity, and the uterine opening of the oviducts. Laser hysteroscopy is used for removing septa and intrauterine adhesions, polyps, small submucosus myomas, and for endometrium ablation in abnormal metrorrhagias. The paper aims at the initial evaluation of laser hysteroscopy in removing intrauterine adhesions in the cases of 41 infertile women. Among all infertile patients 16 women (39%) conceived. Among others 1 woman (2.5%) did not want to conceive and 19 had other causes of infertility. Thirteen (93%) out of 14 patients with hypomenorrhea before surgery reported improvement of the menstruation cycle after the treatment. Five patients (12%) had adhesions for the second time. The patients had the second laser hysteroscopy. The control diagnostic hysteroscopy showed no adhesions in those cases.

  3. Factors affecting intrauterine contraceptive device performance. I. Endometrial cavity length.

    PubMed

    Hasson, H M; Berger, G S; Edelman, D A

    1976-12-15

    The relationship of endometrial cavity length to intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD) performance was evaluated in 319 patients wearing three types of devices. The rate of events, defined as pregnancy, expulsion, or medical removal, increased significantly when the length of the IUD was equal to, exceeded, or was shorter by two or more centimeters than the length of the endometrial cavity. Total uterine length was found to be a less accurate prognostic indicator of IUD performance than endometrial cavity length alone. PMID:998687

  4. Intrauterine nutrition: long-term consequences for vascular health

    PubMed Central

    Szostak-Wegierek, Dorota

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence that improper intrauterine nutrition may negatively influence vascular health in later life. Maternal malnutrition may result in intrauterine growth retardation and, in turn, metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance, diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, and also enhanced risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular death in the offspring. Energy and/or protein restriction is the most critical determinant for fetal programming. However, it has also been proposed that intrauterine n-3 fatty acid deficiency may be linked to later higher blood pressure levels and reduced insulin sensitivity. Moreover, it has been shown that inadequate supply of micronutrients such as folate, vitamin B12, vitamin A, iron, magnesium, zinc, and calcium may contribute to impaired vascular health in the progeny. In addition, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy that are linked to impaired placental blood flow and suboptimal fetal nutrition may also contribute to intrauterine growth retardation and aggravated cardiovascular risk in the offspring. On the other hand, maternal overnutrition, which often contributes to obesity and/or diabetes, may result in macrosomia and enhanced cardiometabolic risk in the offspring. Progeny of obese and/or diabetic mothers are relatively more prone to develop obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes, and hypertension. It was demonstrated that they may have permanently enhanced appetites. Their atheromatous lesions are usually more pronounced. It seems that, particularly, a maternal high-fat/junk food diet may be detrimental for vascular health in the offspring. Fetal exposure to excessive levels of saturated fatty and/or n-6 fatty acids, sucrose, fructose and salt, as well as a maternal high glycemic index diet, may also contribute to later enhanced cardiometabolic risk. PMID:25050077

  5. Magnesium sulfate protects fetal skin from intrauterine ischemia reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Kaptanoglu, Asli F; Arca, Turkan; Kilinc, Kamer

    2012-09-01

    Intrauterine ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in fetus occurs with multifactorial pathogenesis and results with multiorgan injury including skin. Magnesium has widespread use in obstetric practice. Inn addition to magnesium's tocolytic and neuroprotective properties, it also has free radical reducing effects. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate whether magnesium sulfate could have protective effect on fetal rat skin in intrauterine ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Fetal skin ischemia was induced by clamping the utero-ovarian arteries bilaterally for 30 min, and reperfusion was achieved by removing the clamps for 60 min in 19-day pregnant rats. Magnesium Sulfate (MgSO(4)) was given to pregnant rats 20 min before I/R injury at the dose of 600 mg/kg in magnesium treatment group. No ischemia reperfusion was applied to control and sham-operated groups. Lipid peroxidation from the skin tissues was determined as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity was determined for neutrophil activation. The results showed that the levels of TBARS and MPO increased significantly in the fetal rat skin after I/R injury compared to control group. Levels of TBARS and MPO were significantly lower than those of I/R group in Magnesium-treated group. In conclusion, intrauterine ischemia-reperfusion may produce considerable fetal skin injury. Increased TBARS and MPO activity can be inhibited by magnesium treatment. This suggests that magnesium treatment may have protective effect on fetal rat skin in intrauterine I/R injury. PMID:22310734

  6. Intrauterine contraception in nulliparous women: a prospective survey

    PubMed Central

    Kutler, Beth A

    2016-01-01

    Background Intrauterine contraception is a first-line option for young women, yet relatively few prospective studies have been performed in nulliparous women using currently available devices, and many providers are still reluctant to provide this option. Methods Between January 2012 and June 2014, 109 nulliparous women, aged 18–30 years, who had an intrauterine device (IUD) placed at a student health clinic [88 levonorgestrel-intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) users and 21 Cu T 380A (IUD) users] were surveyed at 1, 6, 12 and 18 months after insertion. Results Overall satisfaction was high; at follow-up survey 83% of 100 women (mean use 13.4 months) were ‘happy’ or ‘very happy’ with their IUD, and there were no differences in satisfaction between the two IUD types. Some 75% of participants stated that the insertion procedure went ‘very well’, despite 78% rating insertion pain as moderate to severe, and 46% experiencing vasovagal symptoms. The 12-month continuation rate was 89%, with discontinuations for expulsion (3%), side effects (6%), lack of anticipated benefit (1%) and pregnancy (1%). Users of the Cu T 380A were more likely to have heavy menses (74% vs 2%; p<0.0001) or moderate to severe cramping (68% vs 20%; p=0.0002) compared with LNG-IUS users. There were no uterine perforations or diagnoses of pelvic inflammatory disease. The rate of failed insertions during the study period was 6.2%. Conclusions Despite significant symptoms with insertion, intrauterine contraception is safe, effective and ultimately well tolerated in nulliparous women and should be provided to this population in both university and community health settings. PMID:25854550

  7. Intrauterine nutrition: long-term consequences for vascular health.

    PubMed

    Szostak-Wegierek, Dorota

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence that improper intrauterine nutrition may negatively influence vascular health in later life. Maternal malnutrition may result in intrauterine growth retardation and, in turn, metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance, diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, and also enhanced risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular death in the offspring. Energy and/or protein restriction is the most critical determinant for fetal programming. However, it has also been proposed that intrauterine n-3 fatty acid deficiency may be linked to later higher blood pressure levels and reduced insulin sensitivity. Moreover, it has been shown that inadequate supply of micronutrients such as folate, vitamin B12, vitamin A, iron, magnesium, zinc, and calcium may contribute to impaired vascular health in the progeny. In addition, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy that are linked to impaired placental blood flow and suboptimal fetal nutrition may also contribute to intrauterine growth retardation and aggravated cardiovascular risk in the offspring. On the other hand, maternal overnutrition, which often contributes to obesity and/or diabetes, may result in macrosomia and enhanced cardiometabolic risk in the offspring. Progeny of obese and/or diabetic mothers are relatively more prone to develop obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes, and hypertension. It was demonstrated that they may have permanently enhanced appetites. Their atheromatous lesions are usually more pronounced. It seems that, particularly, a maternal high-fat/junk food diet may be detrimental for vascular health in the offspring. Fetal exposure to excessive levels of saturated fatty and/or n-6 fatty acids, sucrose, fructose and salt, as well as a maternal high glycemic index diet, may also contribute to later enhanced cardiometabolic risk. PMID:25050077

  8. [Heterotopic pregnancy in intrauterine insemination. Presentation of a case].

    PubMed

    Kably Ambe, A; Garza Rios, P; Serviere Zaragoza, C; Delgado Urdapilleta, J

    1992-04-01

    The heterotopic (ectopic and orthotopic simultaneous) pregnancy shows a frequency of 1 to 15,000 to 1 to 30,000 gestations. The clinical diagnosis is difficult due to the lack of precise indicators, as to diagnose an intrauterine pregnancy eliminates the possibility of ectopic pregnancy. The methods of Assisted Reproduction seem to be factors that have influenced on the increment of this type of gestations. A case of a 32 year patient with primary sterility by pelvic adhesions process, that was surgically treated, as there was no pregnancy after surgery, she was given intrauterine insemination with her husband's semen (IU) pregnancy was obtained, determined at 15 days of menstrual lack by presence of subunit B of HCG in serum and vaginal ultrasound that confirmed gestational sac. One month after she presented at Urgencies with an acute abdominal condition; laparotomy was done and salpingectomy was carried out for ruptured tubal pregnancy confirmed by histopathology. The evolution on intrauterine pregnancy was normal culminating with cesarean section at week 35 by inminence of eclampsia/Mother and child in good conditions. PMID:1601314

  9. Cone Heads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coy, Mary

    2005-01-01

    The author, a middle school art teacher, describes a sculpture project lesson involving Cone Heads (sculptures made from cardboard cones). Discussion of caricatures with exaggerated facial features and interesting profiles helped students understand that the more expressive the face, the better. This project took approximately four to five…

  10. Intrauterine Cannabis Exposure Affects Fetal Growth Trajectories: The Generation R Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Marroun, Hanan; Tiemeier, Henning; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C.; van den Brink, Wim; Huizink, Anja C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Cannabis is the most commonly consumed illicit drug among pregnant women. Intrauterine exposure to cannabis may result in risks for the developing fetus. The importance of intrauterine growth on subsequent psychological and behavioral child development has been demonstrated. This study examined the relation between maternal cannabis use…

  11. The expression of marker for endometrial stem cell and fibrosis was increased in intrauterine adhesious

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jianguo; Zeng, Biao; Jiang, Xingwei; Hu, lina; Meng, Ying; Zhu, Yi; Mao, Min

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether fibrotic markers and endometrial stem cell markers were abnormal expressed in endometrium of intrauterine adhesions and a female mouse model for intrauterine adhesions. Methods: We revaluated endometrial fibrosis using Masson’s stain. We detected the expression of endometrium stem cell markers (CD146 and CD140b) and fibrosis markers (TGF-Beta, CTGF, collagen protein I and collagen protein III) in endometrial tissue with intrauterine adhesions using real-time PCR and S-P (Streptavidin-Peroxidase) immunohistochemistry. We create a female mouse model for intrauterine adhesions using mechanical injury, and then revalue the expression of endometrial stem cell markers and fibrosis markers in endometrial tissue of mouse model for intrauterine adhesions. Results: The ratio of the area with endometrial fibrosis to total endometrial area in intrauterine adhesious significantly increased compared with the normal endometrial tissue (P < 0.05); The expression levels of fibrotic markers and endometrial stem cell markers were higher in the endometrial tissue with intrauterine adhesious compared to normal endometrial tissue (P < 0.05). The animal experiments showed that the ratio of the area with endometrial fibrosis to total endometrial area significantly increased compared with the control group (P < 0.05); The expression levels of fibrotic markers and endometrial stem cell markers were higher in the endometrial tissue compared to the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Aberrant activation of fibrosis may be involved in the pathology of intrauterine adhesious. PMID:25973037

  12. Intra-uterine devices, A SEM study on the Dalkon Shield.

    PubMed

    Guidoin, R; Courtney, J M; Brault, R; Domurado, D; Haggis, G H

    1976-01-01

    A SEM study carried on intra-uterine devices (Dalkon Shield) is reported. The poor manufacturing of the devices is stressed, which could increase their efficiency but also the risks of penetration, or worse, perforation. The solution for the future could be copper bearing intra-uterine devices coated by hydrogels. This should maintain efficiency and improve security. PMID:1276332

  13. Aspirin for the Prevention of Preeclampsia and Intrauterine Growth Restriction.

    PubMed

    Roberge, Stephanie; Odibo, Anthony O; Bujold, Emmanuel

    2016-06-01

    Low-dose aspirin (LDA) has been used for several years for the prevention of preeclampsia (PE). LDA started in early pregnancy is associated with improvement of placental implantation. The best evidence suggest that LDA can prevent more than half of PE cases in high-risk women when started before 16 weeks of gestation. Moreover, LDA started in early pregnancy reduces the risk of other placenta-mediated complications such as intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and perinatal death. The efficacy of LDA has been demonstrated in women with abnormal first-trimester uterine artery Doppler or with prior history of chronic hypertension or preeclampsia. PMID:27235915

  14. Vesical Calculus 10 Years Post Missing Intrauterine Contraceptive Device

    PubMed Central

    Abdulwahab-Ahmed, Abdullahi; Ogunleye, Oluwagbemiga Olabisi

    2013-01-01

    Intravesical migration of intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) is rare. Early diagnosis of this rare entity is difficult because of its non-specific manifestations and very low index of suspicion. We present this case of bladder stone following intravesical migration of IUCD found to have been missing since insertion 10 years earlier. Lower abdominal discomfort and a missing vaginal string may be the only pointer to this unfortunate event in the immediate post insertion period. It is pertinent to consider the possibility of an intravesical migration of a missing IUCD in a patient presenting with lower abdominal discomfort, urinary frequency, and missing IUCD string on vaginal examination. PMID:24470853

  15. Environmentally Benign Stab Detonators

    SciTech Connect

    Gash, A; Barbee, T; Simpson, R; Satcher, J; Walton, C

    2003-12-15

    This effort attempts to demonstrate that environmentally acceptable energetic sol-gel coated flash metal multilayer nanocomposites can be used to replace current impact initiated devices (IIDs) which have hazardous and toxic components. Successful completion of this project will result in IIDs that include innocuous compounds, have sufficient output energy for initiation, meet current military specifications, are small, cost competitive, and perform as well as or better than current devices. We expect flash metal multilayer and sol-gel to be generic technologies applicable to a wide range of devices, especially in small caliber ammunition and sub-munitions. We will replace the NOL-130 mixture with a nanocomposite that consists of a mechanically robust energetic multilayer foil that has been coated with a sol-gel energetic material. The exothermic reactions are activated in this nanocomposite are the transformation of the multilayer material to its respective intermetallic alloy and the thermite reaction, which is characterized by very high temperatures, a small pressure pulse, and hot particle ejection. The proposed materials and their reaction products consist of, but are not limited to aluminum, nickel, iron, aluminum oxide, titanium, iron oxide and boron. These materials have much more desirable environmental and health characteristics than the NOL-130 composition.

  16. Intrauterine contraceptives: a review of uses, side effects, and candidates.

    PubMed

    Shimoni, Noa'a

    2010-03-01

    This article reviews the two intrauterine devices (IUDs) available in the United States: the TCu380A, marketed as ParaGard (Duramed Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Pomona, NY), and the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS), marketed as Mirena (Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Wayne, NJ). The properties of the two devices are detailed, as well as noncontraceptive indications and appropriate candidates for use. Studies consistently demonstrate that the devices are safe, effective, and provide cost savings when compared with other reversible methods. The TCu380A may be used as postcoital contraception with close to 100% effectiveness. Menstrual blood loss is likely to increase with the TCu380A and decrease with the LNG-IUS. Reduction in menstrual blood loss and endometrial suppression make the LNG-IUS an increasingly popular treatment for menorrhagia, endometriosis, adenomyosis, and as an adjunct to estrogen therapy. IUDs may be inserted immediately after a first- or second-trimester abortion, immediately postpartum, and >or=4 weeks postpartum. Candidacy for IUDs has expanded, and includes nulliparous women, adolescents, and women with immunocompromised conditions including HIV. PMID:20352561

  17. Nd-YAG laser with a fibertom system in the treatment of intrauterine lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilczak, Maciej; Wozniak, Jakub; Sajdak, Stefan; Dydowicz, Piotr; Opala, Tomasz; Cwojdzinski, Marek; Pisarski, Tadeusz

    1997-10-01

    The results of 31 Nd:YAG hysteroscopic laser surgeries done in the Department of Reproduction, Institute of Gynecology and obstetrics, Karon Marcinkowski School of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland were describe. In nine patients the uterine septa and in 22 women the intrauterine adhesion were recognized. Hysteroscopy is a very useful and reliable method in diagnosis and treatment of intrauterine lesions reducing fertility. The laser resection of intrauterine lesions in women with malreproduction is an efficient and safe method. The fertility and parity after laser surgery are highly improved.

  18. Ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulfate in meconium and hair-potential biomarkers of intrauterine exposure to ethanol.

    PubMed

    Morini, L; Marchei, E; Vagnarelli, F; Garcia Algar, O; Groppi, A; Mastrobattista, L; Pichini, S

    2010-03-20

    This study investigated ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulfate (EtS) concentration in meconium and in maternal and neonatal hair (HEtG and HFAEEs, respectively) as potential markers of intrauterine exposure to ethanol together with meconium fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in a cohort of 99 mother-infant dyads, 49 coming from the Arcispedale of Reggio Emilia (Italy) and 50 from the Hospital del Mar of Barcelona (Spain). FAEEs, EtG and EtS were measured in meconium samples using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A head space-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to test HEtG and HFAEEs in hair samples from mothers and their newborns. Eighty-two meconium samples (82.8%) tested positive for EtG, 19 (19.2%) for EtS while 22 (22.2%) showed FAEEs levels higher than 2 nmol/g, the cut-off used to differentiate daily maternal ethanol consumption during pregnancy from occasional or no use. Although EtG and EtS in meconium did not correlate with total FAEEs concentration, a good correlation between EtG, EtS and ethyl stearate was observed. Moreover, EtG correlated well with ethyl palmitoleate, while EtS with ethyl laurate, myristate and linolenate. Neither maternal nor neonatal hair appears as good predictors of gestational ethanol consumption and subsequent fetal exposure in these mother-infant dyads. In conclusion, these data show that meconium is so far the best matrix in evaluating intrauterine exposure to ethanol, with EtG and EtS being potentially good alternative biomarkers to FAEEs. PMID:20060246

  19. Intrauterine Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Congenital Heart Defects.

    PubMed

    Forest, Sharron; Priest, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco use and second-hand smoke exposure during pregnancy are linked to a host of deleterious effects on the pregnancy, fetus, and infant. Health outcomes improve when women quit smoking at any time during the pregnancy. However, the developing heart is vulnerable to noxious stimuli in the early weeks of fetal development, a time when many women are not aware of being pregnant. Congenital heart defects are the most common birth defects. Research shows an association between maternal tobacco exposure, both active and passive, and congenital heart defects. This article presents recent evidence supporting the association between intrauterine cigarette smoke exposure in the periconceptional period and congenital heart defects and discusses clinical implications for practice for perinatal and neonatal nurses. PMID:26813392

  20. [Long-term clinical observation on VCu200 intrauterine devices].

    PubMed

    Wu, X Z; Lu, J; Li, H Q

    1994-09-01

    A comparative study was carried out in 350 women using VCu200 intrauterine devices (IUD) and 350 women using stainless steel ring (SSR) IUD for 5-18 years. The endometrial changes and shapes of IUD were studied. The results showed that the pregnancy rate was significantly lower in VCu200 group after 5 years of insertion. In spite of the oxidation, erosion or breakage of the copper wire, calcium deposit of even deformation of the IUD, they were not associated with an increased incidence of endometrial carcinoma and pelvic inflammatory disease. It is suggested that VCu200 IUD need not to be removed if the IUD keeps normal shape and the copper wire remains intact by X ray examination. PMID:7835133

  1. Successful intrauterine treatment of a patient with cobalamin C defect.

    PubMed

    Trefz, Friedrich K; Scheible, Dagmar; Frauendienst-Egger, Georg; Huemer, Martina; Suomala, Terttu; Fowler, Brian; Haas, Dorothea; Baumgartner, Matthias R

    2016-03-01

    Cobalamin C (cblC) defect is an inherited autosomal recessive disorder that affects cobalamin metabolism. Patients are treated with hydroxycobalamin to ameliorate the clinical features of early-onset disease and prevent clinical symptoms in late-onset disease. Here we describe a patient in whom prenatal maternal treatment with 30 mg/week hydroxycobalamin and 5 mg/day folic acid from week 15 of pregnancy prevented disease manifestation in a girl who is now 11 years old with normal IQ and only mild ophthalmic findings. The affected older sister received postnatal treatment only and is severely intellectually disabled with severe ophthalmic symptoms. This case highlights the potential of early, high-dose intrauterine treatment in a fetus affected by the cblC defect. PMID:27014578

  2. Intrauterine responses to nipple stimulation in late pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Viegas, O A; Adaikan, P G; Singh, K; Arulkumaran, S; Kottegoda, S R; Ratnam, S S

    1986-01-01

    Characteristics of intrauterine activity in response to nipple stimulation were studied in 9 healthy pregnant subjects at term. All patients showed an increase in uterine activity varying from 10 to 730%. In 1 subject, marked uterine hypertonus was noted which resulted in profound fetal bradycardia. This response was transient, lasting 5.5 min, and fetal outcome unaffected. We believe that nipple stimulation is associated with a higher incidence of increased uterine activity in terms of frequency, intensity and basal tone, than has been previously recognized. This uterine hypertonus may affect the fetal heart rate adversely indicating the need to exercise caution when adopting this manoeuvre in late pregnancy, particularly when there is already evidence of fetal compromise. PMID:3781343

  3. Successful intrauterine treatment of a patient with cobalamin C defect

    PubMed Central

    Trefz, Friedrich K.; Scheible, Dagmar; Frauendienst-Egger, Georg; Huemer, Martina; Suomala, Terttu; Fowler, Brian; Haas, Dorothea; Baumgartner, Matthias R.

    2016-01-01

    Cobalamin C (cblC) defect is an inherited autosomal recessive disorder that affects cobalamin metabolism. Patients are treated with hydroxycobalamin to ameliorate the clinical features of early-onset disease and prevent clinical symptoms in late-onset disease. Here we describe a patient in whom prenatal maternal treatment with 30 mg/week hydroxycobalamin and 5 mg/day folic acid from week 15 of pregnancy prevented disease manifestation in a girl who is now 11 years old with normal IQ and only mild ophthalmic findings. The affected older sister received postnatal treatment only and is severely intellectually disabled with severe ophthalmic symptoms. This case highlights the potential of early, high-dose intrauterine treatment in a fetus affected by the cblC defect. PMID:27014578

  4. Reappearance of the intrauterine device: a 'user-friendly' contraceptive.

    PubMed

    Kaunitz, A M

    1997-01-01

    Women in the United States, and their physicians, are "rediscovering" intrauterine devices (IUDs). Two IUDs, the 10-year Copper T 380A (Paragard) and 1-year progesterone-releasing T (Progestasert) are currently marketed in this country. In contrast to previous perceptions, recent studies have provided reassurance regarding the safety of these effective and convenient contraceptives. We now recognize that IUDs do not increase salpingitis or infertility risks in long-term users. Likewise, we now better understand the mechanism of action of copper IUDs: both the inert plastic device as well as the copper contribute to a spermicidal effect, preventing fertilization. Finally, we now recognize that copper IUDs reduce a user's overall risk of ectopic pregnancy. For appropriately informed and selected candidates, IUDs represent a safe, effective, convenient, and low-cost contraceptive option. PMID:9160223

  5. Morbidity of low-birthweight infants with intrauterine cocaine exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Sehgal, S.; Ewing, C.; Waring, P.; Findlay, R.; Bean, X.; Taeusch, H. W.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of intrauterine cocaine exposure on 158 low-birthweight infants (500 g to 2500 g) were compared with 536 low-birthweight infants not known to be exposed to cocaine who were admitted to our neonatal intensive care unit. Univariate analyses indicated that drug-exposed infants had lower birthweights when compared with control infants. Frequency of necrotizing enterocolitis differed between the drug-exposed infants and controls (11% versus 6%). Frequency of severe respiratory distress syndrome, severe intraventricular hemorrhage, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia did not differ between groups of similar birthweight. We conclude that the most evident risks of prenatal cocaine exposure are low birthweight and increased incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis. PMID:8426379

  6. Levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system and iron overload syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vieira da Motta, Marcia; Vieira da Motta, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Severe fatigue is a common complaint among patients. This report presents a clinical case of a woman complaining of fatigue associated with diarrhea and myalgia that were first attributed to emotional stress and depression. Initially, the patient was diagnosed with chronic fatigue and irritable bowel syndrome. The patient followed nutritional and physical exercise programs without any improvement. Other clinical conditions, such as nutritional deficiencies, endocrine dysfunctions, autoimmune diseases and neoplasias, were then assessed. During clinical investigation, serum ferritin and iron levels were abnormally elevated despite normal hemoglobin levels, which pointed to an iron overload syndrome later diagnosed as hemochromatosis. It is possible that the symptoms were triggered by the amenorrhea caused by the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system used for contraception. PMID:23843714

  7. Massive subchorionic hematoma (Breus' mole) complicated by intrauterine growth retardation.

    PubMed

    Nishida, N; Suzuki, S; Hamamura, Y; Igarashi, K; Hayashi, Z; Sawa, R; Yoneyama, Y; Asakura, H; Kawabata, K; Shima, Y; Shin, S; Araki, T

    2001-02-01

    We present here a case of massive subchorionic hematoma complicated by intrauterine growth retardation and oligohydramnios diagnosed at 22 weeks' gestation. The patient was managed with the following medications: (1) tocolysis with ritodrine infusion, (2) 10%maltose infusion therapy (1500mL/day), (3) antibiotic infusion (cefotaxim sodium, 2 g/dayx7) and (4) kampo therapy with Sairei-to until delivery. At 33 weeks and 0 days' gestation, a female baby weighing 1,342 g was delivered without complication by caesarean section. During surgery, an escape of about 500~600 g of dark brown blood with no clots was noted from the subchorionic space of the placenta. Examination of the placenta showed a large fibrosis with well-defined margins on the fetal surface. PMID:11180702

  8. Cost effectiveness in obstetrics and gynecology: The levonorgestrel intrauterine system.

    PubMed

    Mattson, Lisa

    2012-03-01

    Use of evidence-based practices that are both cost-effective and acceptable to patients is now a focus in health care. Considerable cost savings can be realized by reducing unintended pregnancies and improving control of menstrual-related morbidity. The levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS), often referred to by its brand name Mirena, has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration both for contraception and fortreating abnormal uterine bleeding. The device has been available in the United States since 2000 and has been used in Europe since 1990. Despite the fact that several evidence-based guidelines include use of the LNG-IUS, it remains underutilized in this country. This article reviews the benefits of the LNG-IUS as they pertain to women's health and to the cost of health care. PMID:22611822

  9. Neurological and neurocognitive functions from intrauterine methylmercury exposure.

    PubMed

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Kado, Yoko; Diez, Midory Higa; Kishikawa, Toshihiro; Sanada, Satoshi

    2016-05-01

    In the 1950s, large-scale food poisoning caused by methylmercury was identified in Minamata, Japan. Although severe intrauterine exposure cases (ie, congenital Minamata disease patients) are well known, possible impacts of methylmercury exposure in utero among residents, which is likely at lower levels than in congenital Minamata disease patients, are rarely explored. In 2014, the authors examined neurological and neurocognitive functions among 18 exposed participants in Minamata, focusing on fine motor, visuospatial construction, and executive functions. More than half of the participants had some fine motor and coordination difficulties. In addition, several participants had lower performance for neurocognitive function tests (the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure test and Keio version of the Wisconsin card sorting test). These deficits imply diffuse brain damage. This study suggests possible neurological and neurocognitive impacts of prenatal exposure to methylmercury among exposed residents of Minamata. PMID:26267674

  10. Intrauterine Growth Restriction Associated with Hematologic Abnormalities: Probable Manifestations of Placental Mesenchymal Dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Payo, Cristina; Bernabeu, Rocio Alvarez; Villar, Isabel Salas; Goy, Enrique Iglesias

    2015-10-01

    Introduction Placental mesenchymal dysplasia is a rare vascular disease associated with intrauterine growth restriction, fetal demise as well as Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. Some neonates present hematologic abnormalities possibly related to consumptive coagulopathy and hemolytic anemia in the placental circulation. Case report We present a case of placental mesenchymal dysplasia in a fetus with intrauterine growth restriction and cerebellar hemorrhagic injury diagnosed in the 20th week of pregnancy. During 26th week, our patient had an intrauterine fetal demise in the context of gestational hypertension. We have detailed the ultrasound findings that made us suspect the presence of hematologic disorders during 20th week. Discussion We believe that the cerebellar hematoma could be the consequence of thrombocytopenia accompanied by anemia. If hemorrhagic damage during fetal life is found, above all associates with an anomalous placental appearance and with intrauterine growth restriction, PMD should be suspected along other etiologies. PMID:26495159

  11. Role of angiogenesis in endometrial repair of patients with severe intrauterine adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuqing; Chang, Yajie; Yao, Shuzhong

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To detect vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and micro-vessel density (MVD) in patients with severe intrauterine adhesion before and after therapy, and to preliminarily explore the role of angiogenesis in the therapy of severe intrauterine adhesion. Methods: A total of 36 patients with severe intrauterine adhesion were prospectively recruited into the treatment group. In the control group, 20 patients with normal uterine were recruited. Patients with severe intrauterine adhesion received transcervical resection of adhesions under hysteroscope and then received artificial hormone therapy for 3 months. Methods: The changes in the organelles of endometrial cells were evaluated under an electric microscope; Immunohistochemistry was done to detect the VEGF expression and MVD in patients with severe intrauterine adhesion, which was compared with that in the control group; VEGF expression and MVD were compared among patients with different prognoses. Results: Electric microscopy showed vascular closure and hypoxic changes in the endometrial tissues of patients with intrauterine adhesion. After treatment, angiogenesis was observed, and the hypoxic changes in the endometrial glands and interstitium were also improved. Moreover, the VEGF expression and score of MVD also increased significantly when compared with those before treatment and in the control group. The VEGF expression and MVD score in intrauterine adhesion patients recovering from treatment were significantly higher than those in patients non-responding to treatment. Conclusion: In patients with intrauterine adhesion, the endometrial tissues present with vascular closure, and angiogenesis will be present in the endometrial tissues after treatment. The angiogenesis in the endometrial tissues may affect the endometrial repair. PMID:23826415

  12. Distinction between early normal intrauterine pregnancies and pathological pregnancies by means of a logistic model.

    PubMed

    Thorburn, J; Bryman, I; Hahlin, M

    1992-01-01

    The probability of an unclear very early pregnancy being a normal intrauterine pregnancy was estimated using a logistic model. Five diagnostic measures of prognostic value were identified in the model: (i) daily change in human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG), (ii) results of transvaginal ultrasound, (iii) vaginal bleeding, (iv) serum progesterone level and (v) risk score for ectopic pregnancy. With the use of this model, the probability of a normal intrauterine pregnancy has been estimated as 96.7%. PMID:1551947

  13. Head and face reconstruction

    MedlinePlus

    Head and face reconstruction is surgery to repair or reshape deformities of the head and face (craniofacial). ... How surgery for head and face deformities (craniofacial reconstruction) ... and the person's condition. Surgical repairs involve the ...

  14. Head circumference (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Head circumference is a measurement of the circumference of the child's head at its largest area (above the eyebrows and ears and around the back of the head). During routine check-ups, the distance is measured ...

  15. Head Injury Prevention Tips

    MedlinePlus

    Head Injury Prevention Tips American Association of Neurological Surgeons 5550 Meadowbrook Drive, Rolling Meadows, IL 60008-3852 ... defined as a blow or jolt to the head or a penetrating head injury that disrupts the ...

  16. Abnormal Head Position

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause. Can a longstanding head turn lead to any permanent problems? Yes, a significant abnormal head posture could cause permanent ... occipitocervical synostosis and unilateral hearing loss. Are there any ... postures? Yes. Abnormal head postures can usually be improved depending ...

  17. High sodium intake increases blood pressure and alters renal function in intrauterine growth-retarded rats.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Marijke W; Fazzi, Gregorio E; Janssen, Ger M J; Blanco, Carlos E; De Mey, Jo G R

    2005-07-01

    A suboptimal fetal environment increases the risk to develop cardiovascular disease in the adult. We reported previously that intrauterine stress in response to reduced uteroplacental blood flow in the pregnant rat limits fetal growth and compromises renal development, leading to an altered renal function in the adult offspring. Here we tested the hypothesis that high dietary sodium intake in rats with impaired renal development attributable to intrauterine stress, results in increased blood pressure, altered renal function, and organ damage. In rats, intrauterine stress was induced by bilateral ligation of the uterine arteries at day 17 of pregnancy. At the age of 12 weeks, the offspring was given high-sodium drinking water (2% sodium chloride). At the age of 16 weeks, rats were instrumented for monitoring of blood pressure and renal function. After intrauterine stress, litter size and birth weight were reduced, whereas hematocrit at birth was increased. Renal blood flow, glomerular filtration rate, and the glomerular filtration fraction were increased significantly after intrauterine stress. High sodium intake did not change renal function and blood pressure in control animals. However, during high sodium intake in intrauterine stress offspring, renal blood flow, glomerular filtration rate, and the filtration fraction were decreased, and blood pressure was increased. In addition, these animals developed severe albuminuria, an important sign of renal dysfunction. Thus, a suboptimal fetal microenvironment, which impairs renal development, results in sodium-dependent hypertension and albuminuria. PMID:15956110

  18. Intrauterine contraception in Saint Louis: A Survey of Obstetrician and Gynecologists’ knowledge and attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Madden, Tessa; Allsworth, Jenifer E.; Hladky, Katherine J.; Secura, Gina M.; Peipert, Jeffrey F.

    2009-01-01

    Background Many obstacles to intrauterine contraception use exist, including provider and patient misinformation, high upfront cost, and clinician practice patterns. The aim of our study was to investigate knowledge and attitudes about intrauterine contraception among obstetricians and gynecologists in the area of Saint Louis. Study Design We mailed a self-administered, anonymous survey to 250 clinicians who provide obstetric and gynecologic care in Saint Louis City and County which included questions about demographics, training, family planning visits, and intrauterine contraceptive knowledge and use. Results The overall survey response rate among eligible clinicians was 73.7%. Clinicians who had recently finished training or saw higher numbers of contraceptive patients per week were more likely to insert intrauterine contraception than clinicians who completed training prior to 1989 or saw fewer contraceptive patients. Several misconceptions among clinicians were identified, including an association between intrauterine contraceptives and an elevated risk of pelvic inflammatory disease. Conclusions Physician misconceptions about the risks of intrauterine contraception continue to occur. Improved clinician education is greatly needed to facilitate the use of these highly effective, long-acting, reversible methods of contraception. PMID:20103447

  19. Genetic heterogeneity of prematurity and intrauterine growth retardation: clues from the Old Order Amish.

    PubMed

    Khoury, M J; Cohen, B H

    1987-08-01

    We studied differences in the role of genetic factors in prematurity and intrauterine growth retardation with the use of data on 312 Amish singleton live children ascertained from Amish records in Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, between 1969 and 1980. Birth and death certificates were obtained on all children, and inbreeding coefficients of child, mother, and father were computed by use of the path method of tracing common ancestors in a unique genealogic registry of Amish ancestors dating back to the 1700s. Multivariate analysis with linear and log linear models showed that a lower mean gestational age and a higher risk of prematurity (less than 37 weeks) and borderline maturity (37 to 38 weeks) were significantly associated with increased maternal inbreeding but not child or paternal inbreeding. On the other hand, a higher risk of intrauterine growth retardation (less than the tenth percentile in birth weight for gestational age) and mild intrauterine growth delay (tenth to twenty-fifth percentile) were associated with increased child inbreeding but not maternal or paternal inbreeding. The analysis suggests the presence of genetic heterogeneity in the etiology of prematurity and intrauterine growth retardation; while prematurity is mostly related to the maternal genotype, intrauterine growth retardation is related to the fetal genotype. The study reemphasizes the need for separating low birth weight into prematurity and intrauterine growth retardation in genetic and epidemiologic studies. PMID:3618690

  20. The effect of intrauterine HCG injection on IVF outcome: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Osman, A; Pundir, J; Elsherbini, M; Dave, S; El-Toukhy, T; Khalaf, Y

    2016-09-01

    In this systematic review and meta-analysis, the effect of intrauterine HCG infusion before embryo transfer on IVF outcomes (live birth rate, clinical pregnancy rate and spontaneous aboretion rate) was investigated. Searches were conducted on MEDLINE, EMBASE and The Cochrane Library. Randomized studies in women undergoing IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection comparing intrauterine HCG administration at embryo transfer compared with no intrauterine HCG were eligible for inclusion. Eight randomized controlled trials were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis. A total of 3087 women undergoing IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles were enrolled (intrauterine HCG group: n = 1614; control group: n = 1473). No significant difference was found in the live birth rate (RR 1.13; 95% CI 0.84 to 1.53) and spontaneous abortion rate (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.74 to 1.34) between women who received intrauterine HCG and those who did not receive HCG. Although this review was extensive and included randomized controlled trials, no significant heterogeneity was found, and the overall included numbers are relatively small. In conclusion the current evidence does not support the use of intrauterine HCG administration before embryo transfer. Well-designed multicentre trials are needed to provide robust evidence. PMID:27317131

  1. A Report of Three Cases and Review of Intrauterine Herpes Simplex Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Marquez, Lucila; Levy, Moise L.; Munoz, Flor M.; Palazzi, Debra L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Intrauterine herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection often is omitted from descriptions of neonatal HSV disease. Previous characterizations of intrauterine HSV infection limit manifestations to the triad of cutaneous, central nervous system (CNS), and ophthalmologic findings. We report 3 cases of intrauterine HSV infection and provide a contemporary literature review of this disease. Methods Cases published between 1963 and January 2009 were identified. Selected cases fit the clinical description of intrauterine HSV infection, had manifestations present at birth, and had virologic confirmation of infection. Results This review yielded 64 cases, 3 of which were our own, of intrauterine HSV infection. Less than one-third fit the typical triad. Of the patients with cutaneous findings at birth, 24 (44%) had manifestations other than vesicles or bullae. Confirmation of HSV infection by culture of cutaneous lesions present at birth was delayed beyond 72 hours after birth in 15 patients and occurred at a median of 10 days of age. Nine of these patients had lesions at birth that were neither vesicles nor bullae, and 14 cases were confirmed by culture of new vesicles. Conclusions More than two-thirds of reported cases do not present with the typical triad. Cutaneous findings are not limited to vesicles or bullae. A high index of suspicion and recognition of varied cutaneous manifestations is necessary to diagnose infants with intrauterine HSV infection. PMID:20811312

  2. Mechanisms behind intrauterine device-induced luteal persistence in mares.

    PubMed

    Rivera Del Alamo, M M; Reilas, T; Kindahl, H; Katila, T

    2008-08-01

    Intrauterine glass balls are used to prevent oestrous signs in sports mares, but the mechanism of action is unknown. It has been suggested that the glass ball can mimic an embryo or act via an induced chronic uterine inflammation and absent or continuous low-grade prostaglandin (PG) release. The purpose of this study was to induce prolonged luteal function in mares using a small intrauterine device (IUD) and to study the mechanisms behind prolonged IUD-induced luteal function. A uterine swab and a biopsy specimen were obtained in early oestrus. A water-filled plastic ball, diameter 20mm and weight 3.6g, was inserted into the uterus 2-4 days after ovulation; the control mares underwent similar cervical manipulation without ball insertion. The mares were examined three times per week until day 23 and twice weekly thereafter until they returned to oestrus (transrectal palpation, ultrasonography and progesterone determination). The location of the IUD was recorded and ultrasound scans were video-recorded to assess the frequency of uterine contractions. When the mare returned to oestrus, a uterine swab and biopsy specimen were obtained and the bacteriological, cytological and histological (inflammation and glandular dilation) results compared with the samples obtained before the IUD insertion. The PG F(2alpha) metabolite levels were measured in the plasma of four control mares and eight IUD mares on days 11-16. The IUD induced a prolonged luteal phase in 75% of the mares (9/12; IUD-P); the mean dioestrous length was 57.0 days. The three mares that did not respond to the IUD (IUD-N) showed a mean dioestrous length of 15.7 days and the 12 control mares 16.1 days. The inflammation and glandular dilation scores were not significantly different in pre- and post-manipulation biopsy specimens. Although locational changes of the IUD were observed, they occurred over very small distances and were mostly limited within the body-bifurcation area. The IUD-N and control mares showed

  3. Heading and head injuries in soccer.

    PubMed

    Kirkendall, D T; Jordan, S E; Garrett, W E

    2001-01-01

    In the world of sports, soccer is unique because of the purposeful use of the unprotected head for controlling and advancing the ball. This skill obviously places the player at risk of head injury and the game does carry some risk. Head injury can be a result of contact of the head with another head (or other body parts), ground, goal post, other unknown objects or even the ball. Such impacts can lead to contusions, fractures, eye injuries, concussions or even, in rare cases, death. Coaches, players, parents and physicians are rightly concerned about the risk of head injury in soccer. Current research shows that selected soccer players have some degree of cognitive dysfunction. It is important to determine the reasons behind such deficits. Purposeful heading has been blamed, but a closer look at the studies that focus on heading has revealed methodological concerns that question the validity of blaming purposeful heading of the ball. The player's history and age (did they play when the ball was leather and could absorb significant amounts of water), alcohol intake, drug intake, learning disabilities, concussion definition and control group use/composition are all factors that cloud the ability to blame purposeful heading. What does seem clear is that a player's history of concussive episodes is a more likely explanation for cognitive deficits. While it is likely that the subconcussive impact of purposeful heading is a doubtful factor in the noted deficits, it is unknown whether multiple subconcussive impacts might have some lingering effects. In addition, it is unknown whether the noted deficits have any affect on daily life. Proper instruction in the technique is critical because if the ball contacts an unprepared head (as in accidental head-ball contacts), the potential for serious injury is possible. To further our understanding of the relationship of heading, head injury and cognitive deficits, we need to: learn more about the actual impact of a ball on the

  4. [Case of intrauterine retardation and fetal death during labor].

    PubMed

    Frundeva, B; Dimitrova, V; Museva, A; Dimitrov, A; Zlatkov, V

    2014-01-01

    The case concerns to a 37 years old pregnant woman with a history of three miscarriages. Ultrasound biometry in early pregnancy corresponds to the term calculated according the last menstrual period (LMP). At 37 week of gestation was determined retardation of 5 weeks. Doppler velocimetry and quantity of amniotic fluid were in normal ranges and the pregnant refused hospitalization. She was admitted to the hospital three days after the appointed term without uterine contractions. The fetal ultrasound biometry meets 33 weeks and the Doppler examination of a. umbilicalis found resistance index (RI) of the upper limit of normal. The cardiotocography record shows: baseline fetal heart rate--143 beats/min, good variability and reactivity. There was one deceleration for 3 minutes, and then the recording returns to normal. Re-monitoring after 30 minutes establishes of a periodic decelerations and a tendency to bradycardia with reserved variability. At the start of the emergency Cesarean Section fetal heart beats are single. The delivered babe was with Apgar O. The reanimation was not successful and the fetus died. From the autopsy signs of severe asphyxia. In conclusion, it can be assumed that in strongly retarded fetuses, cardiotocography recording and Doppler velosimetry are not sufficiently reliable methods for continued monitoring. In late-onset and severe intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) desirable delivery time is after reaching biological maturity at 36-37 week. PMID:25558672

  5. G-CSF Intrauterine for Thin Endometrium, and Pregnancy Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Tehraninejad, Ensieh; Davari Tanha, Fateme; Asadi, Ebrahim; Kamali, Koorosh; Aziminikoo, Elham; Rezayof, Elahe

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate effects of G-CSF on a cancelled ART cycle due to thin endometrium. Materials and methods: In a nonrandomized clinical trial from January 2011 to January 2013 in two tertiary university based hospitals fifteen patients undergoing embryo transfer and with the history of cycle cancellation due to thin endometrium were studied. Intrauterine infusion of G-CSF was done on the day of oocyte pick-up or 5 days before embryo transfer. The primary outcome to be measured was an endometrium thickened to at least 6 mm and the secondary outcome was clinical pregnancy rate and consequently take-home baby. All previous cycles were considered as control for each patient. Results: The G-CSF was infused at the day of oocyte retrieval or 5 days before embryo transfer. The endometrial thickness reached from 3.593±0.251 mm to 7.120 ± 0.84 mm. The mean age, gravidity, parity, and FSH were 35.13± 9.531 years, 3, 1 and 32.78 ± 31.10 mIU/ml, respectively. The clinical pregnancy rate was 20%, and there was one missed abortion, a mother death at 34 weeks, and a preterm labor at 30 weeks due to PROM. Conclusion: G-CSF may increase endometrial thickness in the small group of patients who had no choice except cycle cancellation or surrogacy. PMID:26622308

  6. Immediate Postabortion Intrauterine Device Insertion: Continuation and Satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    McNicholas, Colleen; Hotchkiss, Taylor; Madden, Tessa; Zhao, Qiuhong; Allsworth, Jenifer; Peipert, Jeffrey F.

    2013-01-01

    Background The provision of intrauterine devices (IUDs) immediately postabortion has the potential to decrease unintended pregnancy in the United States. Studies have demonstrated safety and efficacy; however, there are limited data about continuation, satisfaction, and bleeding patterns among women receiving immediate postabortion IUDs. Study Design We performed a retrospective cohort study of women undergoing immediate postabortion IUD insertion. Demographics and clinical data were collected from intake forms and procedure notes. We attempted to contact women by telephone to administer a short questionnaire to assess continuation, satisfaction, and bleeding patterns. Results We were able to contact 77 of 225 (34%). Women lost to follow-up were more likely to have higher parity or a pregnancy of greater gestational age at the time of abortion compared with women who were successfully contacted. Continuation and satisfaction rates were high (80.5% and 80.6%, respectively). Reported bleeding patterns with IUD use were similar to previously reported patterns. Conclusion Follow-up of women undergoing immediate postabortion IUD insertion is challenging. However, we found that women choosing immediate postabortion IUD had high rates of continuation and satisfaction. PMID:22749197

  7. Prospective risk of intrauterine fetal death in monoamniotic twin pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Morikawa, Mamoru; Yamada, Takashi; Yamada, Takahiro; Sato, Shoji; Minakami, Hisanori

    2012-08-01

    This study was conducted to review the overall short-term outcome of monoamniotic twins in Japan and to determine the prospective risk of fetal death so as to adequately counsel parents with monoamniotic twins. Study subjects were 101 women with monoamniotic twins who were registered with the Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology Successive Pregnancy Birth Registry System and who had given birth at ≥22 weeks of gestation during 2002-2009. The gestational week at delivery (mean±SD) was 31.8±3.7. Fourteen women experienced intrauterine fetal death (IUFD). Short-term outcomes of co-twins born to the 14 women included 8 IUFDs, one early neonatal death within 7 days of life (END), and 5 survivors. Four other women experienced 5 ENDs. Thus, 13.9% (28/202) of infants died perinatally (22 IUFDs and 6 ENDs), 13.9% (14/101) of women experienced IUFD, and 82.2% (83/101) of women experienced neither IUFD nor END. Structural anomalies and twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome explained 17.9% (five infants) and 10.7% (three infants) of the 28 perinatal deaths, respectively. The prospective risk of IUFD was 13.9% (14/101) for women who reached gestational week 22(-0/7), gradually decreasing thereafter but remaining at between 4.5% and 8.0% between gestational week 30(-0/7) and 36(-0/7). PMID:22853819

  8. [Placental epigenetic programming in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR)].

    PubMed

    Casanello, Paola; Castro-Rodríguez, José A; Uauy, Ricardo; Krause, Bernardo J

    2016-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a perinatal condition affecting foetal growth, with under the 10th percentile of the weight curve expected for gestational age. This condition has been associated with higher cardiovascular and metabolic risk and post-natal obesity. There are also major changes in placental function, and particularly in a key molecule in this regulation, nitric oxide. The synthesis of nitric oxide has numerous control mechanisms and competition with arginase for their common substrate, the amino acid L-arginine. This competition is reflected in various vascular diseases and particularly in the endothelium of the umbilical vessels of babies with IUGR. Along with this, there is regulation at the epigenetic level, where methylation in specific regions of some gene promoters, such as the nitric oxide synthase, regulating their expression. It is currently of great interest to understand the mechanisms by which diseases such as IUGR may be conditioned, particularly by maternal nutritional and metabolic conditions, and epigenetic mechanisms that could eventually be modifiable, and thus a focus of interest for health interventions. PMID:27209119

  9. Role of the levonorgestrel intrauterine system in effective contraception

    PubMed Central

    Attia, Abdelhamid M; Ibrahim, Magdy M; Abou-Setta, Ahmed M

    2013-01-01

    Norgestrel, a synthetic progestin chemically derived from 19-nortestosterone, is six times more potent than progesterone, with variable binding affinity to various steroid receptors. The levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG IUS) provides a long-acting, highly effective, and reversible form of contraception, with a pearl index of 0.18 per 100 women-years. The locally released hormone leads to endometrial concentrations that are 200–800 times those found after daily oral use and a plasma level that is lower than that with other forms of levonorgestrel-containing contraception. The contraceptive effect of the LNG IUS is achieved mainly through its local suppressive effect on the endometrium, leading to endometrial thinning, glandular atrophy, and stromal decidualization without affecting ovulation. The LNG IUS is generally well tolerated. The main side effects are related to its androgenic activity, which is usually mild and transient, resolving after the first few months. Menstrual abnormalities are also common but well tolerated, and even become desirable (eg, amenorrhea, hypomenorrhea, and oligomenorrhea) with proper counseling of the patient during the choice of the method of contraception. The satisfaction rates after 3 years of insertion are high, reaching between 77% and 94%. The local effect of the LNG IUS on the endometrium and low rates of systemic adverse effects have led to its use in other conditions rather than contraception, as for the treatment of endometrial hyperplasia, benign menorrhagia, endometriosis, adenomyosis, and uterine fibroids. PMID:23990713

  10. Variation in guideline adherence in intrauterine insemination care.

    PubMed

    Haagen, Esther C; Nelen, Willianne L D M; Grol, Richard P T M; Braat, Didi D M; Hermens, Rosella P M G; Kremer, Jan A M

    2010-04-01

    Health-care delivery according to clinical practice guidelines is thought to be critical in achieving optimal outcomes. This study aimed to assess the extent to which practice performance in intrauterine insemination (IUI) care is consistent with guideline recommendations and to evaluate the association between guideline adherence and outcome of IUI care. In a retrospective cohort study, 1100 infertile couples who underwent IUI treatment at 10 Dutch hospitals were asked to grant access to their medical record for assessment of guideline adherence using 25 systematically developed guideline-based performance indicators. A total of 558 couples who started 2334 IUI cycles participated. Guideline adherence regarding 20 process and five structure aspects of IUI care was often substandard and varied considerably between hospitals. Out of 10 possible associations investigated, guideline adherence regarding sperm quality and guideline adherence regarding the total number of IUI cycles were associated with improved ongoing pregnancy rates after IUI. Thus, guideline adherence in IUI care is far from optimal and varies substantially between hospitals. As associations between guideline adherence and ongoing pregnancy after IUI were mainly non-significant, further research is needed to evaluate associations between guideline adherence and other outcomes of IUI care besides ongoing pregnancy, such as patient safety and cost effectiveness. PMID:20129823

  11. Levonorgestrel Intrauterine Device Use in Overweight and Obese Women

    PubMed Central

    Soon, Reni A; Harris, Sara C; Salcedo, Jennifer; Kaneshiro, Bliss E

    2015-01-01

    The levonorgestrel intrauterine device (LNG-IUD) is a safe, effective, long-acting, reversible contraceptive that reduces unintended pregnancy and decreases heavy menstrual bleeding. Many procedures such as IUD insertion are more challenging in overweight and obese women. The objective of this study was to describe LNG-IUD insertion, continuation, and complications in overweight and obese women in an ethnically diverse population in Hawai‘i. A retrospective cohort study of women who had a LNG-IUD inserted at the University of Hawai‘i, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Resident and Faculty practice sites between January 2009 and December 2010 was performed. A total of 149 women were followed. The most commonly reported races were Asian (32%), Native Hawaiian (26%), and non-Hawaiian Pacific Islander (20%). The mean BMI of the study population was 28.4 (standard deviation 7.2) with 37% classified as normal weight, 30% as overweight, and 33% as obese. Overall, 76% of women continued the LNG-IUD 12 months after insertion. No statistically significant difference emerged in 12-month IUD continuation between the BMI groups. Difficult (5%) and failed (3%) IUD insertions were rare for all BMI groups. IUD complications occurred in 9% of women and included expulsion and self-removal. In this diverse population, the majority of women continued to use the LNG-IUD one year after insertion with low rates of difficult insertions and complications. PMID:26568900

  12. Morphofunctional renal alterations in rats induced by intrauterine hyperglycemic environment

    PubMed Central

    França-Silva, Nathane; Oliveira, Natácia Dreyce Gonçalves

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The renal development of rats begins in intrauterine life, finishing by 15 days after birth. Diabetes and other diseases during pregnancy can cause systemic changes in the offspring. We evaluated the structural and functional renal alterations of the offspring from diabetic mothers. Material and methods Pregnant rats were separated and 1, 7, 30 and 90 days-old (DO) pups were divided into groups according to the treatment that the mothers received: G1: control, G2: untreated diabetic and G3: insulin-treated diabetic. The kidneys from offspring at 1, 7 and 30 DO were removed for immunohistochemical and histological studies. Furthermore, blood and urine samples were collected from animals at 30 DO to determine the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) by creatinine clearance, and the animals at 90 DO were subjected to blood pressure measurement by plethysmography. Results Our results show an increase of PCNA+ glomerular cells at 7 DO and a reduction in 30 DO animals as well as increased α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) tubulointerstitial expression at 1 and 7 DO in animals from G2, when compared with controls. The adult offspring from G2 showed reduced GFR and increased blood pressure. Conclusions Maternal diabetes may have induced programming of renal damage in offspring of hyperglycemic mothers, which may have contributed to the impairment of renal function. PMID:27186167

  13. Ultrastructural study on human placenta from intrauterine growth retardation cases.

    PubMed

    Battistelli, Michela; Burattini, Sabrina; Pomini, Francesco; Scavo, Maria; Caruso, Alessandro; Falcieri, Elisabetta

    2004-10-01

    A morphological study was performed on 27 human placentas from normal gestations (Group 1) and compared with those from eight cases of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) (Group 2). Semithin section light microscopy, transmission, and scanning electron microscopy were carried out on trophoblastic terminal villi, carefully identified under the stereomicroscope. In growth retardation cases, villi appear longer, thinner, and less vascularized, compared to the normal condition. Fibrinoid, an extracellular material of hematic origin, frequently fills villar stroma. The density of apical microvilli appears considerably reduced and occasional microvilli-free areas are observed in growth retardation cases. Moreover, the underlying basal membrane appears significantly thicker than that of normal syncytiotrophoblast. Recently, particular attention has been paid to apoptosis as a possible cell deletion mechanism in growth restriction. In our study, a majority of typical apoptotic features appear indifferently in both IUGR and normal pregnancy. Our data hints that growth retardation might be correlated with a complex of structural changes, suggestive of maternofetal traffic downregulation, but further studies are required to understand the underlying functional mechanisms. PMID:15605416

  14. Intrauterine contraceptive device embedded in the omentum - case report.

    PubMed

    Zolnierczyk, Piotr; Cendrowski, Krzysztof; Sawicki, Wlodzimierz

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the case of a 29-year-old patient, female (nulliparous) who had an intrauterine device (IUD) inserted in 2010 and who has had no gynecological control since then (for 4 years). After this time, the asymptomatic patient had a gynecological appointment, during which a doctor did not find the strings of IUD in the speculum. Ultrasound examination did not reveal the presence of the IUD in the uterine cavity, which led to the suspicion of its presence outside the uterus. The patient was referred to a hospital, where she underwent ultrasound and X-ray examination of the pelvis that confirmed the presence of the IUD outside the uterus. Laparoscopy was performed during which the IUD was localized as being embedded in the omentum. It was removed by performing a resection of a part of the omentum with inflammatory infiltration. The patient was discharged home on the second postoperative day in a good condition. This case confirms the need for gynecological control and ultrasound examination shortly after insertion. An ultrasound or/and X-ray is mandatory in any case of absence of IUD strings previously visible in the vagina, if the patient did not observe its expulsion. PMID:26664227

  15. Unruptured rudimentary horn pregnancy presenting with acute haemoperitoneum with combined intrauterine pregnancy: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Lallar, Meenakshi; Nandal, Rajesh; Sharma, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    Background: The incidence of rudimentary heterotopic uterine horn pregnancy varies from 1:76,000 to 1:140,000. However the incidence of twin pregnancy i.e. intrauterine pregnancy in unicornuate uterus and its associated rudimentary horn pregnancy is estimated to be around 1 in 10 million gestations. Case: Here, we present 19 year old pramigravida women with acute haemoperitoneum with diagnosis of unruptured rudimentary horn pregnancy combined by intrauterine pregnancy. The patient was managed with emergency laparatomy and resuscitation. Rudimentary horn containing foetus was excised and intrauterine pregnancy was left untouched. The intrauterine pregnancy was supported with progesterone and tocolytics and the patient delivered a newborn of 2.8 kg through spontaneous labor at 37 weeks of gestation. Conclusion: Heterotopic pregnancies incidence have increased in comparison to past and there should be high level of suspicion for this rare event as this is often associated with high maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality where diagnosis is difficult and challenging and easily missed. . Timely intervention provides survival of intrauterine pregnancy in case of twin pregnancy, even in low resource settings where usually the diagnosis is missed before acute event. PMID:25653676

  16. Analytical study of intrauterine fetal death cases and associated maternal conditions

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Susmita; Sidhu, Harpreet; Kaur, Sukhbir

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Intrauterine fetal death is an important indicator of maternal and perinatal health of a given population. This study was undertaken to study the maternal and fetal factors associated with intrauterine fetal death. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective single center study. The details were entered in a preformed proforma. The details of complaints at admission, obstetrics history, menstrual history, examination findings, per vaginal examination findings, mode of delivery and fetal outcomes, placental examination, condition of cord and investigation reports were recorded. Results: A total of 250 intrauterine fetal deaths were reported amongst 6942 deliveries conducted during the study period. The incidence rate of intrauterine fetal death was 36/1000 live births. Two hundred and twenty-two deliveries were unbooked and unsupervised. The other observations were rural population (58%), low socioeconomic group (71.2%), previous stillbirth (9.2%), gestational hypertension (32.8%), anemia (74.4%), antepartum hemorrhage (18.8%), and congenital malformations (CMFs) (8.8%). Conclusions: The incidence of intrauterine fetal deaths in our population is higher than that reported from developed countries. This is associated with anemia, pregnancy-induced hypertension, illiteracy, low socioeconomic status, and higher incidence of undiagnosed CMFs. PMID:26958515

  17. Open randomised study of use of levonorgestrel releasing intrauterine system as alternative to hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Lähteenmäki, Pekka; Haukkamaa, Maija; Puolakka, Jukka; Riikonen, Ulla; Sainio, Susanna; Suvisaari, Janne; Nilsson, Carl Gustaf

    1998-01-01

    Objectives: To assess whether the levonorgestrel intrauterine system could provide a conservative alternative to hysterectomy in the treatment of excessive uterine bleeding. Design: Open randomised multicentre study with two parallel groups: a levonorgestrel intrauterine system group and a control group. Setting: Gynaecology departments of three hospitals in Finland. Subjects: Fifty six women aged 33-49 years scheduled to undergo hysterectomy for treatment of excessive uterine bleeding. Interventions: Women were randomised either to continue with their current medical treatment or to have a levonorgestrel intrauterine system inserted. Main outcome measure: Proportion of women cancelling their decision to undergo hysterectomy. Results: At 6 months, 64.3% (95% confidence interval 44.1 to 81.4%) of the women in the levonorgestrel intrauterine system group and 14.3% (4.0 to 32.7%) in the control group had cancelled their decision to undergo hysterectomy (P<0.001). Conclusions: The use of the levonorgestrel intrauterine system is a good conservative alternative to hysterectomy in the treatment of menorrhagia and should be considered before hysterectomy or other invasive treatments. PMID:9552948

  18. [Prevention and treatment of intra-uterine synechiae: Review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Warembourg, S; Huberlant, S; Garric, X; Leprince, S; de Tayrac, R; Letouzey, V

    2015-04-01

    Intra-uterine adhesions are a major cause of secondary infertility. The prevalence of adhesions is probably underestimated due to the heterogeneity of the symptoms. An exhaustive literature search using search engines MEDLINE, Pubmed, Cochrane library and Web of Science was performed to make a focus on the origins, consequences and methods of prevention of intra-uterine adhesions. Intra-uterine adhesions are likely to occur after any endo-uterine surgery via dysregulated activation of coagulation chain linked to the inflammatory process. Early and late obstetric complications are also recognized as caused by adhesions. The diagnosis is currently performed by hysteroscopy but it remains an invasive procedure even if it can be done with an ambulatory management. Several research approaches inspired by intra-abdominal surgery for the prevention of pelvic adhesions have been developed. However, no current method of prevention has proven its effectiveness in terms of improving spontaneous fertility. The improvement in surgical practices, the design of new intra-uterine medical devices and new research especially in the field of endometrial stem cells can maybe reduce the rate of adhesions end their complications after intra-uterine surgery. PMID:25479692

  19. Unilateral intrauterine horn insemination of frozen semen in cats.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, T; Tanaka, A; Takagi, Y; Nakagawa, K; Fujimoto, Y; Murai, M; Anzai, M; Hori, T

    2000-12-01

    Frozen feline semen was prepared using two types of extenders, egg yolk Tris-fructose citric acid (EYT-FC) and egg yolk sodium citrate solution (EYC), and the semen qualities after thawing and the conception rates obtained by unilateral intrauterine horn insemination (UIUI) were investigated. Cats used in the experiment were six males and 11 females aged 2-12 years (the number of experimental cases was 17). For preparation of frozen semen, semen collected by the artificial vagina method was adjusted to I x 10(8) sperm/m/ and 7% glycerol, put in 250 microl straws, and then frozen using a cell freezer. The mean sperm motility after thawing was 30.0+/-9.7 (SE) % in the semen prepared with EYT-FC and 30.0+/-3.3% in the semen prepared with EYC. Four of seven animals were fertilized by UIUI using two straws in both extenders, and the conception rate was 57.1%. The mean ratios of number of kits to the number of ovulations in the inseminated side were 61.1+/-24.5% and 30.5+/-3.4% for EYT-FC and EYC, respectively, showing that the ratio tended to be higher in the semen prepared with EYT-FC. The above findings, comparing the two extenders for preparation of frozen feline semen, showed that EYT-FC is slightly superior to EYC. To increase conception and fertility rates, it may be important to increase the sperm count for insemination and to inseminate both uterine horns. PMID:11193339

  20. Intrauterine Growth Restriction Alters Mouse Intestinal Architecture during Development.

    PubMed

    Fung, Camille M; White, Jessica R; Brown, Ashley S; Gong, Huiyu; Weitkamp, Jörn-Hendrik; Frey, Mark R; McElroy, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    Infants with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are at increased risk for neonatal and lifelong morbidities affecting multiple organ systems including the intestinal tract. The underlying mechanisms for the risk to the intestine remain poorly understood. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that IUGR affects the development of goblet and Paneth cell lineages, thus compromising the innate immunity and barrier functions of the epithelium. Using a mouse model of maternal thromboxane A2-analog infusion to elicit maternal hypertension and resultant IUGR, we tested whether IUGR alters ileal maturation and specifically disrupts mucus-producing goblet and antimicrobial-secreting Paneth cell development. We measured body weights, ileal weights and ileal lengths from birth to postnatal day (P) 56. We also determined the abundance of goblet and Paneth cells and their mRNA products, localization of cellular tight junctions, cell proliferation, and apoptosis to interrogate cellular homeostasis. Comparison of the murine findings with human IUGR ileum allowed us to verify observed changes in the mouse were relevant to clinical IUGR. At P14 IUGR mice had decreased ileal lengths, fewer goblet and Paneth cells, reductions in Paneth cell specific mRNAs, and decreased cell proliferation. These findings positively correlated with severity of IUGR. Furthermore, the decrease in murine Paneth cells was also seen in human IUGR ileum. IUGR disrupts the normal trajectory of ileal development, particularly affecting the composition and secretory products of the epithelial surface of the intestine. We speculate that this abnormal intestinal development may constitute an inherent "first hit", rendering IUGR intestine susceptible to further injury, infection, or inflammation. PMID:26745886

  1. Intrauterine Growth Restriction Alters Mouse Intestinal Architecture during Development

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Ashley S.; Gong, Huiyu; Weitkamp, Jörn-Hendrik; Frey, Mark R.; McElroy, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Infants with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are at increased risk for neonatal and lifelong morbidities affecting multiple organ systems including the intestinal tract. The underlying mechanisms for the risk to the intestine remain poorly understood. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that IUGR affects the development of goblet and Paneth cell lineages, thus compromising the innate immunity and barrier functions of the epithelium. Using a mouse model of maternal thromboxane A2-analog infusion to elicit maternal hypertension and resultant IUGR, we tested whether IUGR alters ileal maturation and specifically disrupts mucus-producing goblet and antimicrobial-secreting Paneth cell development. We measured body weights, ileal weights and ileal lengths from birth to postnatal day (P) 56. We also determined the abundance of goblet and Paneth cells and their mRNA products, localization of cellular tight junctions, cell proliferation, and apoptosis to interrogate cellular homeostasis. Comparison of the murine findings with human IUGR ileum allowed us to verify observed changes in the mouse were relevant to clinical IUGR. At P14 IUGR mice had decreased ileal lengths, fewer goblet and Paneth cells, reductions in Paneth cell specific mRNAs, and decreased cell proliferation. These findings positively correlated with severity of IUGR. Furthermore, the decrease in murine Paneth cells was also seen in human IUGR ileum. IUGR disrupts the normal trajectory of ileal development, particularly affecting the composition and secretory products of the epithelial surface of the intestine. We speculate that this abnormal intestinal development may constitute an inherent “first hit”, rendering IUGR intestine susceptible to further injury, infection, or inflammation. PMID:26745886

  2. Barriers to prescribing the Copper T 380A intrauterine device by physicians.

    PubMed Central

    Kooiker, C. H.; Scutchfield, F. D.

    1990-01-01

    From a questionnaire sent to all obstetricians and gynecologists and all family and general practitioners in San Diego County, California, regarding the Copper T 380A intrauterine device, substantial barriers to prescribing it were identified. Of all physicians responding, 40% reported that they were not recommending the Copper T 380A to anyone, the single most common reason given being concern about medical liability. A lack of knowledge about the new device, a lack of intrauterine device insertion skills, and certain medical practice settings were also important barriers to prescribing it. The new intrauterine device is considered in the context of innovation-diffusion theory. Substantial amounts of education and training and improvement in the medical-legal climate are needed before current barriers to prescribing the new device are removed. Images PMID:2219892

  3. Long-term prognosis of pregnancies in women with intrauterine hematomas.

    PubMed

    Børlum, K G; Thomsen, A; Clausen, I; Eriksen, G

    1989-08-01

    To evaluate the long-term significance of intrauterine hematomas in patients with threatened abortion, 380 women with a living fetus of more than 8 weeks were studied. On ultrasound, intrauterine hematomas, defined as an echo-poor subchorionic collection, were found in 86 women. Two hundred ninety-four patients without hematomas served as controls. The rate of miscarriage was significantly increased in the study group (22.1 versus 8.2%; P less than .05). Patients discharged from the initial hospitalization without aborting still had a higher abortion risk than controls (16.3 versus 5.6%; P less than .05). Second-trimester debut of symptoms was followed more often by preterm delivery. Thus, patients with intrauterine hematomas continue to be a high-risk group for the remainder of their pregnancies. PMID:2664611

  4. Comparison between scissor and laser resections of intrauterine septa in hysteroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilczak, Maciej; Wozniak, Jakub; Cwojdzinski, Marek; Sajdak, Stefan; Opala, Tomasz; Pisarski, Tadeusz

    1996-03-01

    The comparison between results of scissors- and Nd-YAG laser-resection of intrauterine septa in hysteroscopy was shown. In 12 patients the scissors-resection and in 11 women the laser- resection was done. In the group of patients after laser procedure 10 of them were pregnant and 9 delivered healthy children. One missed abortion was diagnosed in the twenty-first week of gestation. After scissors-resection 7 women became pregnant and 5 of them bore mature children. Two of those seven lost their gestation (spontaneous abortions in the nineteenth and twentieth weeks of pregnancy). In the authors' opinion hysteroscopy is a very useful method of diagnostics and therapy of intrauterine septa. The Nd-YAG laser-resection of intrauterine septa seems to be the method with the lowest number of complications. Fertility and parity highly improves after removal of the septa localized in the uterine cavity.

  5. Epidemiological Aspects of Neonatal Mortality Due To Intrauterine Infection in Kazakhstan

    PubMed Central

    MAMYRBAYEVA, Marzya; IGISSINOV, Nurbek; ZHUMAGALIYEVA, Galina; SHILMANOVA, Akmanat

    2015-01-01

    Background: In this study, we examined the epidemiological aspects of neonatal mortality due to intrauterine infections with regard to regional characteristics. Methods: Consolidated report of the Ministry of Health and Social Development of the Republic of Kazakhstan on children deceased during their first 28 days of life due to intrauterine infections (P23 – congenital pneumonia, P35–39 – infectious diseases specific to the perinatal period) in the country and its regions for 2010 – 2014 was used in this investigation. Descriptive and analytical methods of medical statistics and epidemiology were used as the main method of this 5-year (2010–2014) retrospective study. Results: Overall, 3,298 neonatal deaths from intrauterine infections were recorded in Kazakhstan during the period of 2010–2014, 1,925 of which were early and 1,373 were late neonatal deaths. The average annual rate of neonatal mortality rate from intrauterine infection in the country amounted to 1.73±0.23‰ (95% CI=1.27–2.19‰), whereas trends during the study period decreased (T=−15.3%). Regional characteristics of neonatal mortality were established. Different levels for cartograms of neonatal mortality from intrauterine infections were defined: low (up to 1.28‰), average (from 1.28‰ to 2.12‰) and high (by 2.12‰ and above). Neonatal mortality in the early and late periods was also analyzed. Conclusion: This is the first epidemiological study of neonatal mortality from intrauterine infection, which contains a detailed space-time evaluation. The results of this investigation can be used to improve the state program to combat infant mortality. PMID:26576344

  6. Offspring birth weights after maternal intrauterine undernutrition: a comparison within sibships.

    PubMed

    Lumey, L H; Stein, A D

    1997-11-15

    The authors examined the effects of maternal intrauterine undernutrition on offspring birth weights in a cohort of women born between August 1944 and April 1946 in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. This period included the Dutch Hunger Winter, a war-induced famine. Undernutrition was defined separately for each trimester of pregnancy as an average supply of less than 1,000 calories per day from government food rations. For maximum control of potential maternal confounding factors related to offspring birth weight, the authors performed a within-family analysis, including 437 families with two siblings and 107 families with three siblings born between 1960 and 1985. As in other studies of the famine, maternal birth weight itself was decreased after third trimester intrauterine exposure but not after first trimester exposure. The expected increase in offspring birth weights with increasing birth order was not seen after maternal intrauterine exposure in the first trimester of pregnancy. In this group, second born infants weighed, on average, 252 g less at birth than their firstborn siblings (95% confidence interval (CI) -419 to -85), and thirdborn infants weighed 419 g less (95% CI -926 to 87), even after adjustment for trimester of maternal intrauterine exposure, maternal birth weight, smoking during pregnancy, and sex of infants in the sibling pairs. Additional adjustment for the birth weight of the elder sibling did not materially change this abnormal pattern. There were no abnormal patterns in offspring birth weights after maternal intrauterine exposure in the second or third trimester of pregnancy. The study outcomes could not be explained by other selected determinants of birth weight, by lack of control for socioeconomic status, or by loss to follow-up of the 1944-1946 birth cohort. This study suggests that there may be long-term biologic effects, even into the next generation, of maternal intrauterine undernutrition which do not correspond to the effects on the

  7. Clinical findings in children with congenital anomalies and misoprostol intrauterine exposure: a study of 38 cases

    PubMed Central

    Vendramini-Pittoli, Siulan; Guion-Almeida, Maria L.; Richieri-Costa, Antonio; Santos, Juliana M.; Kokitsu-Nakata, Nancy M.

    2013-01-01

    The authors describe the clinical findings of 38 children with congenital anomalies and misoprostol intrauterine exposure. This study included 38 cases, ascertained from case series of the Hospital of Rehabilitation of Craniofacial Anomalies from University of São Paulo, with evidence of intrauterine exposure to misoprostol in the first trimester of the pregnancy. Information about misoprostol intake and drug administration route was obtained through interviews with mothers. Clinical evaluation showed 18 individuals with facial phenotype compatible with Moebius syndrome; 11 individuals with multiple congenital anomalies; and nine individuals with nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or cleft palate. This study showed a widening of the phenotypic spectrum associated with misoprostol embryotoxicity.

  8. Head and Neck Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Head and neck cancer includes cancers of the mouth, nose, sinuses, salivary glands, throat, and lymph nodes in the ... increases your risk. In fact, 85 percent of head and neck cancers are linked to tobacco use, including smoking ...

  9. Radial head fracture - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    Elbow fracture - radial head - aftercare ... the radius bone, just below your elbow. A fracture is a break in your bone. The most common cause of a radial head fracture is falling with an outstretched arm.

  10. Head injury - first aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000028.htm Head injury - first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... a concussion can range from mild to severe. First Aid Learning to recognize a serious head injury and ...

  11. Increased head circumference

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003305.htm Increased head circumference To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Increased head circumference is when the measured distance around the ...

  12. Head injury. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, P.R.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 22 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Radiographic Evaluation; Epidemiology of Head Injury; Emergency Care and Initial Evaluation; Skull Fracture and Traumatic Cerebrospinal Fluid Fistulas; Mild Head Injury; and Injuries of the Cranial Nerves.

  13. Head injury - first aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... is shaken, is the most common type of traumatic brain injury. Scalp wounds. Skull fractures. Head injuries may cause ... of people who suffer head injuries are children. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) accounts for over 1 in 6 injury- ...

  14. Head and Neck Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Head and neck cancer includes cancers of the mouth, nose, sinuses, salivary glands, throat, and lymph nodes in the ... swallowing A change or hoarseness in the voice Head and neck cancers are twice as common in men. Using ...

  15. Metabolomic Research on Newborn Infants With Intrauterine Growth Restriction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Chen, Xin-Xin; Li, Xiang-Wen; Fu, Wei; Zhang, Wan-Qiao

    2016-04-01

    To compare differences in metabolites between newborns with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and those who are appropriate for gestational age (AGA) in order to understand the changes in metabolites of newborns with IUGR and to explore the possible metabolic mechanism of tissue and organ damages in patients with IUGR, with the ultimate goal of providing the basis for clinical intervention.A total of 60 newborns with IUGR and 60 AGA newborns who were hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit of our hospital between January 2011 and December 2015 and who underwent metabolic disease screening were enrolled in this study. The differences in 21 amino acids and 55 carnitines in peripheral blood, as well as changes in the ratios of free carnitine and acylcarnitine to total carnitine, were compared.Metabolites, particularly alanine, homocysteine, leucine, methionine, ornithine, serine, tyrosine, isovaleryl carnitine, and eicosenoyl carnitine, differed according to newborns' birth weight (<3rd percentile, 3rd-5th percentiles, 5th-10th percentiles, and 10th-90th percentiles), with those with lower birth weight showing the greater difference (P < 0.05). Metabolites also differed by gestational age, and the differences observed were mainly as follows: preterm and full-term newborns showed differences in metabolites, mainly in alanine, proline, cerotoyl carnitine, and tetradecanedioyl carnitine (P < 0.05); preterm and full-term AGA newborns showed differences in metabolites, mainly in alanine, glutamine, homocysteine, pipecolic acid, proline, heptanoyl carnitine, and sebacoyl carnitine (P < 0.05); and preterm and full-term newborns with IUGR showed differences in metabolites, mainly in arginine, glutamic acid, homocysteine, histidine, leucine, isoleucine, ornithine, serine, threonine, tryptophan, valine, heptanoyl carnitine, decanoyl carnitine, linoleyl carnitine, methylmalonyl carnitine, glutarylcarnitine, sebacoyl carnitine, hydroxyacetyl carnitine

  16. Unilateral intrauterine horn insemination of fresh semen in cats.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, T; Tanaka, A; Takagi, Y; Nakagawa, K; Fujimoto, Y; Murai, M; Anzai, M; Hori, T

    2000-12-01

    The sperm count required were investigated to obtain a conception rate of 80% by unilateral intrauterine insemination (UIUI) of fresh semen in cats. The conception rates obtained by insemination before and after ovulation were also examined. Thirty-six female cats aged 1-7 years were used in the experiments, and the number of experimental cases was 44. Seven male cats aged 2-12 years from which semen could be collected by the artificial vagina method were used. In artificial insemination, 100 iu x 2 or 250 iu of hCG was administered on days 2-4 of estrus, and sperm were introduced into the uterine horn with a greater number of ovulations (or mature follicles) 15, 20 and 30 hr after hCG administration by laparotomy. The inseminated sperm counts were 2 x 10(6) (Exp. 1). 4 x 10(6) (Exp. 2), and 8 x 10(6) (Exp. 3). As a result, ovulation was induced in 42 of 44 cases (induction rate: 95.5%) regardless of the dosage of hCG. Conception was obtained by UIUI in two of 16 animals (conception rate: 12.5%) in the Exp. 1, five of 16 animals (31.3%) in Exp. 2, and eight of 10 animals (80.0%) in Exp. 3. Regarding the relationship between the ovulation state at insemination and conception, the conception rate obtained by insemination before ovulation was clearly higher than that obtained by insemination after ovulation (p<0.05). Regarding the number of kits compared to the number of ovulations on the inseminated side, the percentages of cases in which the number of kits exceeded the number of ovulations on the inseminated side were similar in all groups inseminated with a different number of sperm. It is therefore necessary to investigate conception rates obtained by bilateral insemination to increase the fertility rate. Based on the above findings, it was shown that the sperm count required for fertilization by UIUI is 8 x 10(6). PMID:11193338

  17. Present status of amniocentesis in intrauterine diagnosis of genetic defects.

    PubMed

    Nadler, H L; Gerbie, A

    1971-11-01

    Practical and scientific aspects of prenatal detection of genetic disorders is discussed. The indications for intrauterine detection of familial biochemical and particular chromosomal disorders require assessment of the risks of transabdominal amniocentesis and of the reliability of diagnosis. A high degree of experience in cultivating amniotic fluid cells and in performing diagnostic tests is required. The obstetrician performing the amniocentesis should be responsible for referring the family to a physician who will perform the abortion. A high-risk group for which amniocentesis may be especially important includes families in which 1 parent is a carrier of a chromosomal rearrangement and in which the woman is a known carrier of an X-linked recessive disorder so that sex determination is important. A moderate-risk group includes women who become pregnant after age 40 in which the risk of having a child with a chromosomal aberration is greater than 1%. A low-risk group includes women over 35 and women who have previously borne a child with trisomic Down's syndrome. The experience gained in over 300 patients suggests that transabdominal aminocentesis carries minimal risks to mother and fetus. Analyses of amniotic fluid obtained by amniocentesis have resulted in antenatal diagnoses of Pompe's disease (deficient alpha-1, 4-glucosidase), Tay-Sachs disease (deficient hexosaminidase A), mucopolysaccharidosis (quantitative and qualitative changes in mucopolysaccharides), methylmalonic aciduria (increased methylamlonate), and adrenogenital syndrome (increase 17-ketosteroids and pregnanetriol). There is a lack of consensus on the reliability of several of these diagnoses resulting from the direct analysis of amniotic fluid. Analyses of uncultured amniotic fluid cells have resulted in diagnoses of Pompe's disease (ultrastructural changes) and Tay-Sachs disease. Analyses of cultivated amniotic fluid cells have enabled diagnoses of galactosemia (deficient galactose-1

  18. Metabolomic Research on Newborn Infants With Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jing; Chen, Xin-Xin; Li, Xiang-Wen; Fu, Wei; Zhang, Wan-Qiao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To compare differences in metabolites between newborns with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and those who are appropriate for gestational age (AGA) in order to understand the changes in metabolites of newborns with IUGR and to explore the possible metabolic mechanism of tissue and organ damages in patients with IUGR, with the ultimate goal of providing the basis for clinical intervention. A total of 60 newborns with IUGR and 60 AGA newborns who were hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit of our hospital between January 2011 and December 2015 and who underwent metabolic disease screening were enrolled in this study. The differences in 21 amino acids and 55 carnitines in peripheral blood, as well as changes in the ratios of free carnitine and acylcarnitine to total carnitine, were compared. Metabolites, particularly alanine, homocysteine, leucine, methionine, ornithine, serine, tyrosine, isovaleryl carnitine, and eicosenoyl carnitine, differed according to newborns’ birth weight (<3rd percentile, 3rd–5th percentiles, 5th–10th percentiles, and 10th–90th percentiles), with those with lower birth weight showing the greater difference (P < 0.05). Metabolites also differed by gestational age, and the differences observed were mainly as follows: preterm and full-term newborns showed differences in metabolites, mainly in alanine, proline, cerotoyl carnitine, and tetradecanedioyl carnitine (P < 0.05); preterm and full-term AGA newborns showed differences in metabolites, mainly in alanine, glutamine, homocysteine, pipecolic acid, proline, heptanoyl carnitine, and sebacoyl carnitine (P < 0.05); and preterm and full-term newborns with IUGR showed differences in metabolites, mainly in arginine, glutamic acid, homocysteine, histidine, leucine, isoleucine, ornithine, serine, threonine, tryptophan, valine, heptanoyl carnitine, decanoyl carnitine, linoleyl carnitine, methylmalonyl carnitine, glutarylcarnitine, sebacoyl carnitine

  19. Head Start Facilities Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research Assessment Management, Inc., Silver Spring, MD.

    A quality Head Start facility should provide a physical environment responsive both to the needs of the children and families served and to the needs of staff, volunteers, and community agencies that share space with Head Start. This manual is a tool for Head Start grantees and delegate agencies for assessing existing facilities, making…

  20. Pediatric head trauma

    PubMed Central

    Alexiou, George A; Sfakianos, George; Prodromou, Neofytos

    2011-01-01

    Head injury in children accounts for a large number of emergency department visits and hospital admissions. Falls are the most common type of injury, followed by motor-vehicle-related accidents. In the present study, we discuss the evaluation, neuroimaging and management of children with head trauma. Furthermore, we present the specific characteristics of each type of pediatric head injury. PMID:21887034

  1. The Head Start Debates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zigler, Edward, Ed.; Styfco, Sally J., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    The future of Head Start depends on how well people learn from and apply the lessons from its past. That's why everyone involved in early education needs this timely, forward-thinking book from the leader of Head Start. The first book to capture the Head Start debates in all their complexity and diversity, this landmark volume brings together the…

  2. Did Emperor Moctezuma II's head injury and subsequent death hasten the fall of the Aztec nation?

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Gonzalo M

    2015-07-01

    This article analyzes the head injury of Emperor Moctezuma as one of those injuries that affected the course of history. The Emperor's death arguably changed the fate of an entire nation and led to the destruction of the Aztec civilization. Moctezuma died in the evening hours of June 30, 1520, in his palace in the Aztec capital, Tenochtitlan, while a prisoner of the Spanish conquistadors. The Emperor had been speaking to his people in an effort to persuade them to cease hostilities against Hernán Cortés, his Spanish soldiers, and Indian allies. Both Spanish and Indian contemporary sources document that he sustained a severe head injury when one of his own warriors hit him with a rock thrown from a sling. However, after the Conquest of Mexico some of the information collected by Spanish friars from Indian stories, songs, and pictorial representations raised the possibility that Moctezuma died of strangulation or stabbing at the hands of the Spaniards. There is even a suggestion of suicide. This issue remains unresolved and emotionally charged. The historical and clinical analysis of the events surrounding Moctezuma's death indicates that the Emperor most likely died as a consequence of head injury. The author has attempted to present a neutral analysis but agrees with Benjamin Keen that neutrality may be unattainable, no matter how remote the subject of historical inquiry is from the present. PMID:26126401

  3. [Stab wounds of the hand and forearm due to Kuluna in Kinshasa (Democratic Republic of Congo): types of injuries and treatment].

    PubMed

    Kibadi, K; Portaels, F; Pichot, Y; Kapinga, M; Moutet, F

    2015-01-01

    Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), a particular form of juvenile delinquency and insecurity intensifies in the city of Kinshasa. This is the phenomenon Kuluna. It is organized gangs equipped with machetes and other weapons. The main objective of this study is to know the phenomenon Kuluna and describe the upper limb injuries caused by machetes, while insisting on the specifics of the management of these lesions in our communities. This retrospective descriptive study examines 14 cases of wounds of the hand and forearm due to stab phenomenon Kuluna, in Kinshasa. It covers the period from 1 November 2010 to 1 November 2013. Among the 14 patients with lesions in the hand and forearm admitted and treated at the Unit of Plastic Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, Hand Surgery and Burns, University Clinics of Kinshasa to attacks due to the phenomenon Kuluna. We have 11 men and 3 women. The average age was 33, 5 years (extremes of 21 and 56 years). The right upper limb is reached that the left upper limb, respectively 12 patients and 2 patients. The lesions are localized to the wrist in the majority of cases (10 patients) in the palm of hand and in 3 patients in the fingers in 1 patient. The palmar surface is reached (10 cases) and the dorsal (4 cases). Zone 5 of the International Classification of flexor and Zone 8 topographic classification extensors at hand are the predilection sites of lesions respectively the palmar surface (6 out of 10) and the dorsal (2 case 4). The median nerve at the wrist is cut in half the cases. On bone lesions localized to the forearm, we observed a high incidence of fracture of the ulna (62.5%). The treatment begins with the stabilization of bone pieces, gestures revascularization and nerve sutures and suture tendon and finally skin coverage. Rehabilitation was mandatory, she supervises the actions of repair and it continues until the recovery of function. PMID:26837110

  4. Cesarean Scar Dehiscence Associated with Intrauterine Balloon Tamponade Placement After a Second Trimester Dilation and Evacuation

    PubMed Central

    Aeby, Tod; Kaneshiro, Bliss

    2011-01-01

    While surgical abortion is a safe procedure, the most common complication is excessive bleeding. Methods to conservatively manage hemorrhage are gaining popularity. The authors present a case of a Cesarean scar rupture that occurred after an intrauterine balloon tamponade was placed to treat postabortion bleeding. PMID:21886300

  5. Exploring Trends in Intrauterine Device (IUD) Usage among Women in the United States: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nobiling, Brandye; Drolet, Judy C.

    2012-01-01

    Intrauterine devices (IUDs) have not been popular contraceptives in the US for the past 40 years. Recent evidence, however, has shown a slight rebirth in use, from a rate of approximately 2% in 2002 to over 5% in 2008 (Guttmacher Institute, 2010). Empirical evidence is favorable of IUD use in most women, but the still-low usage rate suggests…

  6. Intrauterine bacterial inoculation and level of dietary methionine alter amino acid metabolism in nulliparous yearling ewes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using an intrauterine bacterial inoculation method, our objective was to determine the effects of acute sepsis and level of dietary metabolizable-methionine on splanchnic metabolism of amino acids in ewes. Twenty-five nulliparous yearling Rambouillet-cross ewes (initial BW = 65.1 ± 0.6 kg), surgical...

  7. Intrauterine growth retardation and premature delivery: the influence of maternal smoking and psychosocial factors.

    PubMed Central

    Nordentoft, M; Lou, H C; Hansen, D; Nim, J; Pryds, O; Rubin, P; Hemmingsen, R

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This study investigated the influence of psychosocial stress, maternal schooling, social support, psychological well-being, alcohol, and smoking on intrauterine growth retardation and premature delivery. METHODS. At a Copenhagen university hospital, 2432 pregnant women completed a questionnaire on general health, psychosocial stressors, and sociodemographic characteristics. RESULTS. In 212 cases (8.7%) the women delivered prematurely. Preterm delivery as associated with psychosocial stress (adjusted odds ratio [OR]=1.14 for each 1-point increase on the psychosocial stressor 5-point scale and 1.92 for the whole scale) and poor school education (adjusted OR=2.62 for 7-9 years of schooling, 1.91 for 10 years, and 1.0 for 11-13 years). In 152 cases (6.3%), infants had a birthweight below the 10th percentile. Intrauterine growth retardation was associated with smoking, daily drinking, school education, and social network variables. In a multiple logistic regression model, intrauterine growth retardation was associated with smoking habits (adjusted OR=2.40 for 0-9 cigarettes daily, 2.68 for 10-15 daily, and 2.88 for more than 15 daily). CONCLUSIONS. Psychosocial stressors and limited duration of schooling appeared to influence preterm delivery. Smoking habits influenced intrauterine growth retardation. PMID:8604759

  8. The hepatic transcriptome of young suckling and aging intrauterine growth restricted male rats.

    PubMed

    Freije, William A; Thamotharan, Shanthie; Lee, Regina; Shin, Bo-Chul; Devaskar, Sherin U

    2015-04-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction leads to the development of adult onset obesity/metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, stroke, dyslipidemia, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease/steatohepatitis. Continued postnatal growth restriction has been shown to ameliorate many of these sequelae. To further our understanding of the mechanism of how intrauterine and early postnatal growth affects adult health we have employed Affymetrix microarray-based expression profiling to characterize hepatic gene expression of male offspring in a rat model of maternal nutrient restriction in early and late life. At day 21 of life (p21) combined intrauterine and postnatal calorie restriction treatment led to expression changes in circadian, metabolic, and insulin-like growth factor genes as part of a larger transcriptional response that encompasses 144 genes. Independent and controlled experiments at p21 confirm the early life circadian, metabolic, and growth factor perturbations. In contrast to the p21 transcriptional response, at day 450 of life (d450) only seven genes, largely uncharacterized, were differentially expressed. This lack of a transcriptional response identifies non-transcriptional mechanisms mediating the adult sequelae of intrauterine growth restriction. Independent experiments at d450 identify a circadian defect as well as validate expression changes to four of the genes identified by the microarray screen which have a novel association with growth restriction. Emerging from this rich dataset is a portrait of how the liver responds to growth restriction through circadian dysregulation, energy/substrate management, and growth factor modulation. PMID:25371150

  9. The levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system: Safety, efficacy, and patient acceptability

    PubMed Central

    Beatty, Megan N; Blumenthal, Paul D

    2009-01-01

    The levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) is a safe, effective and acceptable form of contraception used by over 150 million women worldwide. It also has a variety of noncontraceptive benefits including treatment for menorrhagia, endometriosis, and endometrial hyperplasia. The LNG-IUS has also been used in combination with estrogen for hormone replacement therapy and as an alternative to hysterectomy. Overall, the system is very well tolerated and patient satisfaction is quite high when proper education regarding possible side effects is provided. However, despite all of the obvious benefits of the LNG-IUS, utilization rates remain quite low in the developed countries, especially in the United States. This is thought to be largely secondary to the persistent negative impressions from the Dalkon Shield intrauterine experience in the 1970s. This history continues to negatively influence the opinions of both patients and health care providers with regards to intrauterine devices. Providers should resolve to educate themselves and their patients on the current indications and uses for this device, as it, and intrauterine contraception in general, remains a largely underutilized approach to a variety of women’s health issues. PMID:19707273

  10. Cytologic atypias in the uterine fluid of intrauterine contraceptive device users.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, T K; Casslén, B; Stormby, N

    1983-01-01

    A peculiar cell pattern, characterized as an atypical glandular cell cluster (AGCC), was found in the uterine fluid from women using intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUDs). This atypia can mimic adenocarcinoma. Since the atypical cells were present in much higher frequency in the uterine fluid than in the cervical mucus, it is suggested that they originated in the endometrium. PMID:6573085

  11. Excitotoxicity as a Common Mechanism for Fetal Neuronal Injury with Hypoxia and Intrauterine Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Burd, I; Welling, J; Kannan, G; Johnston, M V

    2016-01-01

    Excitotoxicity is a mechanism of neuronal injury, implicated in the pathogenesis of many acute and chronic neurologic disorders, including perinatal brain injury associated with hypoxia-ischemia and exposure to intrauterine inflammation. Glutamate, the primary excitatory neurotransmitter, signals through N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA)/α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate (AMPA) receptors. Proper functioning of both of these receptors, in conjunction with glutamate signaling, is crucial for normal development. However, even a small imbalance can result in perinatal neuronal injury. Therefore, a mechanistic understanding of the role of excitotoxicity and the NMDA/AMPA receptor functions is critical to establishing the pathogenesis of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) and perinatal brain injury due to exposure to intrauterine inflammation. Evidence from experimental animal models and clinical studies indicates that both oxygen and glucose deficiencies play a major role in fetal neuronal injury. However, the connection between these deficiencies, excitotoxicity, and HIE is not well established. The excitotoxic mechanisms in animal models and humans have many parallels, suggesting that detailed animal studies can elicit clinically relevant discoveries. While current therapies for HIE include hypothermia and other neuroprotective measures, emphasizing prevention of acute injuries, increase of therapeutic time window, and increased neural repair, there are no effective widely used treatment modalities for fetuses and neonates exposed to intrauterine inflammation. Further studies of HIE and intrauterine inflammation (as in cases of preterm birth and chorioamnionitis) will provide a better insight into development of effective therapeutic interventions for these conditions. PMID:27288075

  12. Barcoded sequencing reveals diverse intrauterine microbiomes in patients suffering with endometrial polyps

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Rui-Li; Chen, Lin-Xing; Shu, Wen-Sheng; Yao, Shu-Zhong; Wang, Si-Wen; Chen, Yu-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Results of this study showed that the bacterial composition in vagina (V) greatly differed from intrauterine microbiome (I). Microbiomes were present in all intrauterine samples of healthy women (Group H (I)) and patients with endometrial polyps (EP) (including Group EP (I) and Group EP/chronic endometritis (CE) (I)). Indeed, the intrauterine bacteria population in Group EP/CE (I) were more diverse than those in Groups EP (I) and H (I). The result also confirmed the bacterial composition differences between vagina and uterus as well as the intrauterine microbiome alteration in the patients, compared to the healthy. Although bacteria of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria, dominated the intrauterine microbiome in all samples, however, proportions of Firmicutes from Group EP/CE (I) and Group EP (I) were much higher than that from Group H (I), in contrast, the proportions of Proteobacteria were far lower than the healthy. At the genus level, compared to Group H (I), it is found that proportions of Lactobacillus, Gardnerella, Bifidobacterium, Streptococcus, and Alteromonas were significantly higher, and that of Pseudomonas were significantly lower in Group EP/CE (I) or Group EP (I). In addition, lower proportions of Enterobacter and Sphingomonas and a higher proportion of Prevotella were also observed in Group EP/CE (I). In conclusion, uterine microbiomes between patients with EP and the healthy are significantly different and all the potentially important variation of uterine microbes may cause EP, but not definitively related to CE. Further experiments should be performed to test these relationships to endometritis occurrence. PMID:27186283

  13. Barcoded sequencing reveals diverse intrauterine microbiomes in patients suffering with endometrial polyps.

    PubMed

    Fang, Rui-Li; Chen, Lin-Xing; Shu, Wen-Sheng; Yao, Shu-Zhong; Wang, Si-Wen; Chen, Yu-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Results of this study showed that the bacterial composition in vagina (V) greatly differed from intrauterine microbiome (I). Microbiomes were present in all intrauterine samples of healthy women (Group H (I)) and patients with endometrial polyps (EP) (including Group EP (I) and Group EP/chronic endometritis (CE) (I)). Indeed, the intrauterine bacteria population in Group EP/CE (I) were more diverse than those in Groups EP (I) and H (I). The result also confirmed the bacterial composition differences between vagina and uterus as well as the intrauterine microbiome alteration in the patients, compared to the healthy. Although bacteria of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria, dominated the intrauterine microbiome in all samples, however, proportions of Firmicutes from Group EP/CE (I) and Group EP (I) were much higher than that from Group H (I), in contrast, the proportions of Proteobacteria were far lower than the healthy. At the genus level, compared to Group H (I), it is found that proportions of Lactobacillus, Gardnerella, Bifidobacterium, Streptococcus, and Alteromonas were significantly higher, and that of Pseudomonas were significantly lower in Group EP/CE (I) or Group EP (I). In addition, lower proportions of Enterobacter and Sphingomonas and a higher proportion of Prevotella were also observed in Group EP/CE (I). In conclusion, uterine microbiomes between patients with EP and the healthy are significantly different and all the potentially important variation of uterine microbes may cause EP, but not definitively related to CE. Further experiments should be performed to test these relationships to endometritis occurrence. PMID:27186283

  14. Treatment of head lice.

    PubMed

    Diamantis, Stephanie A; Morrell, Dean S; Burkhart, Craig N

    2009-01-01

    Pediculosis capitis, or head lice, is a common infestation among children worldwide. Multiple therapies exist for the treatment of this condition, including topical pediculicides and oral medications. When used in combination with environmental decontamination, these drugs can be very effective in eradicating head lice infestation without significant adverse events. The present study discusses the use of available over-the-counter and prescription treatments, including pyrethroids and permethrin, lindane, malathion, ivermectin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, in the treatment of head lice. PMID:19580574

  15. Deposition head for laser

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Gary K.; Less, Richard M.

    1999-01-01

    A deposition head for use as a part of apparatus for forming articles from materials in particulate form in which the materials are melted by a laser beam and deposited at points along a tool path to form an article of the desired shape and dimensions. The deposition head delivers the laser beam and powder to a deposition zone, which is formed at the tip of the deposition head. A controller comprised of a digital computer directs movement of the deposition zone along the tool path and provides control signals to adjust apparatus functions, such as the speed at which the deposition head moves along the tool path.

  16. Bottom head assembly

    DOEpatents

    Fife, A.B.

    1998-09-01

    A bottom head dome assembly is described which includes, in one embodiment, a bottom head dome and a liner configured to be positioned proximate the bottom head dome. The bottom head dome has a plurality of openings extending there through. The liner also has a plurality of openings extending there through, and each liner opening aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening. A seal is formed, such as by welding, between the liner and the bottom head dome to resist entry of water between the liner and the bottom head dome at the edge of the liner. In the one embodiment, a plurality of stub tubes are secured to the liner. Each stub tube has a bore extending there through, and each stub tube bore is coaxially aligned with a respective liner opening. A seat portion is formed by each liner opening for receiving a portion of the respective stub tube. The assembly also includes a plurality of support shims positioned between the bottom head dome and the liner for supporting the liner. In one embodiment, each support shim includes a support stub having a bore there through, and each support stub bore aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening. 2 figs.

  17. Bottom head assembly

    DOEpatents

    Fife, Alex Blair

    1998-01-01

    A bottom head dome assembly which includes, in one embodiment, a bottom head dome and a liner configured to be positioned proximate the bottom head dome is described. The bottom head dome has a plurality of openings extending therethrough. The liner also has a plurality of openings extending therethrough, and each liner opening aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening. A seal is formed, such as by welding, between the liner and the bottom head dome to resist entry of water between the liner and the bottom head dome at the edge of the liner. In the one embodiment, a plurality of stub tubes are secured to the liner. Each stub tube has a bore extending therethrough, and each stub tube bore is coaxially aligned with a respective liner opening. A seat portion is formed by each liner opening for receiving a portion of the respective stub tube. The assembly also includes a plurality of support shims positioned between the bottom head dome and the liner for supporting the liner. In one embodiment, each support shim includes a support stub having a bore therethrough, and each support stub bore aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening.

  18. Head Injuries in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    School nurses play a crucial role in injury prevention and initial treatment when injuries occur at school. The role of school nurses includes being knowledgeable about the management of head injuries, including assessment and initial treatment. The school nurse must be familiar with the outcomes of a head injury and know when further evaluation…

  19. American Head and Neck Society

    MedlinePlus

    American Head & Neck Society Head and Neck Cancer Research & Education American Head & Neck Society | AHNS Head and Neck Cancer Research & Education About AHNS ... and Announcements Copyright ©2016 · American Head and Neck Society · Privacy and Return Policy Managed by BSC Management, ...

  20. Trunnion-Head Stresses in THA: Are Big Heads Trouble?

    PubMed

    Lavernia, Carlos J; Iacobelli, David A; Villa, Jesus M; Jones, Kinzy; Gonzalez, Jose L; Jones, William Kinzy

    2015-06-01

    The effects of large heads on stresses at the THA trunnion-head junction and their impact on tribocorrosion/metal ion release remain controversial. A 12/14 3D-model of a stem with different head sizes was investigated. Material properties of titanium were assigned to the trunnion and cobalt-chrome/alumina to the heads. A load simulating walking single-leg stand phase was applied to the head. A total contact head-trunnion interface was assumed. The area underneath the junction underwent significant elevations in stresses as head size increased from 28- to 40-mm. Maximum principal stress doubled between 28 and 40-mm heads, regardless of head material. Stress levels had a direct correlation to head diameter. Stress increases observed using increasingly larger heads will probably contribute to head-trunnion tribocorrosion and ion release. PMID:25724112

  1. Expanding Access to the Intrauterine Device in Public Health Facilities in Ethiopia: A Mixed-Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Tilahun, Yewondwossen; Mehta, Sarah; Zerihun, Habtamu; Lew, Candace; Brooks, Mohamad I; Nigatu, Tariku; Hagos, Kidest Lulu; Asnake, Mengistu; Tasissa, Adeba; Ali, Seid; Desalegn, Ketsela; Adane, Girmay

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In Ethiopia, modern contraceptive prevalence among currently married women nearly tripled over the last decade, but the method mix remains skewed toward short-acting methods. Since 2011, the Integrated Family Health Program (IFHP+), jointly implemented by Pathfinder International and John Snow Inc., has supported the Federal Ministry of Health to introduce intrauterine devices (IUDs) in more than 800 health centers across 4 regions to improve access to a wider range of methods. Between March and August 2014, Pathfinder conducted a mixed-methods study in 40 purposively selected health centers to assess shifts in the contraceptive method mix following introduction of IUDs using data from family planning registers; determine the characteristics of IUD users through a cross-sectional survey of 2,943 family planning clients who accepted the IUD; explore reasons for method discontinuation among 165 clients seeking IUD removal services; and identify facilitators and barriers to IUD use through focus group discussions (N = 115 clients) and key informant interviews (N = 36 providers, facility heads, and health office heads). Introduction of IUDs into the 40 health centers participating in the study was correlated with a statistically significant increase in the contribution of all long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs)—both IUDs and implants—to the method mix, from 6.9% in 2011 to 20.5% in 2014 (P<.001). Our study found that latent demand for the IUD was more prevalent than anticipated and that the method was acceptable to a broad cross-section of women. Of the 2,943 women who sought IUDs during the 6-month study period, 18.0% were new contraceptive users (i.e., those using a contraceptive method for the first time ever), 44.7% reported no educational attainment, 62.5% were from rural areas, and 59.3% were younger than 30 years old, with almost 3 in 10 (27.7%) under the age of 25. The most commonly cited reason for seeking IUD removal services

  2. Expanding Access to the Intrauterine Device in Public Health Facilities in Ethiopia: A Mixed-Methods Study.

    PubMed

    Tilahun, Yewondwossen; Mehta, Sarah; Zerihun, Habtamu; Lew, Candace; Brooks, Mohamad I; Nigatu, Tariku; Hagos, Kidest Lulu; Asnake, Mengistu; Tasissa, Adeba; Ali, Seid; Desalegn, Ketsela; Adane, Girmay

    2016-03-01

    In Ethiopia, modern contraceptive prevalence among currently married women nearly tripled over the last decade, but the method mix remains skewed toward short-acting methods. Since 2011, the Integrated Family Health Program (IFHP+), jointly implemented by Pathfinder International and John Snow Inc., has supported the Federal Ministry of Health to introduce intrauterine devices (IUDs) in more than 800 health centers across 4 regions to improve access to a wider range of methods. Between March and August 2014, Pathfinder conducted a mixed-methods study in 40 purposively selected health centers to assess shifts in the contraceptive method mix following introduction of IUDs using data from family planning registers; determine the characteristics of IUD users through a cross-sectional survey of 2,943 family planning clients who accepted the IUD; explore reasons for method discontinuation among 165 clients seeking IUD removal services; and identify facilitators and barriers to IUD use through focus group discussions (N = 115 clients) and key informant interviews (N = 36 providers, facility heads, and health office heads). Introduction of IUDs into the 40 health centers participating in the study was correlated with a statistically significant increase in the contribution of all long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs)-both IUDs and implants-to the method mix, from 6.9% in 2011 to 20.5% in 2014 (P<.001). Our study found that latent demand for the IUD was more prevalent than anticipated and that the method was acceptable to a broad cross-section of women. Of the 2,943 women who sought IUDs during the 6-month study period, 18.0% were new contraceptive users (i.e., those using a contraceptive method for the first time ever), 44.7% reported no educational attainment, 62.5% were from rural areas, and 59.3% were younger than 30 years old, with almost 3 in 10 (27.7%) under the age of 25. The most commonly cited reason for seeking IUD removal services was a desire to

  3. Micronutrients and intrauterine infection, preterm birth and the fetal inflammatory response syndrome.

    PubMed

    Romero, Roberto; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Espinoza, Jimmy

    2003-05-01

    Prematurity is the leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Intrauterine infection has emerged as a major cause of premature labor and delivery. It has been estimated that 25% of all preterm deliveries occur to mothers who have microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity, although these infections are mostly subclinical in nature. This article describes the pathways leading to intrauterine infection, microbiology, frequency and clinical consequences of infection. The pathophysiology of the fetal inflammatory response syndrome is reviewed, as is its relationship to long-term handicap, such as cerebral palsy and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. A possible role for two micronutrients, vitamins C and E, in the prevention of the preterm prelabor rupture of membranes and the consequences of fetal inflammation is considered. Research needs are listed. PMID:12730483

  4. Do Endometrial Movements Affect The Achievement of Pregnancy during Intrauterine Insemination?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ari; Young Lee, Ji; Il Ji, Yong; Hyeog Lee, Hae; Sil Lee, Eun; Yeol Kim, Heung; Oh, Young Lim

    2015-01-01

    Background This study was aimed to assess the effect of endometrial movements on pregnancy achievement in intrauterine insemination (IUI) cycles. Materials and Methods The population of this observational study was composed of unexplained infertility couples undergoing first-time IUI with clomiphene citrate between September 2010 and October 2011. Not only endometrial movements, but also thickness, volume, pattern, and echogenic change of endometrium were analyzed prospectively in prediction of pregnancy. Results The total number of 241 cycles of IUI with 49 intrauterine pregnancies (20.3%) was analyzed. Pregnancy was not related to endometrial thickness and endometrial volume, but significantly related to endometrial movements associated with the number of contraction, strong movement, cervicofundal direction, and hyperechoic change (p<0.05). Pregnant group showed higher cervicofundal movement rate (89.8 vs. 75.5%). Conclusion For IUI cycles stimulated by clomiphene citrate in unexplained infertility women, endometrial movements on the day of IUI could be a predictor of pregnancy. PMID:25780522

  5. Secondary Vesical Calculus Resulting from Migration of an Intrauterine Contraceptive Device

    PubMed Central

    Vagholkar, Suvarna; Vagholkar, Ketan

    2012-01-01

    Intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) is the commonest form of contraception used in view of less systemic side effects. However, there are a multitude of local complications caused by it. Of all the local complications described, migration of the device into adjacent organs is the most morbid of all complications. A patient presenting with history of loss or disappearance of the intrauterine contraceptive device accompanied by urinary symptoms should raise the doubt of a migrated device with the formation of a secondary calculus. This prompts further radiological investigations and merits surgical intervention either endourologically or by open surgery depending upon the merits of the case. A case report elucidating this fact is presented. PMID:22852102

  6. Intrauterine growth restriction: impact on cardiovascular development and function throughout infancy.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Emily; Wong, Flora Y; Horne, Rosemary S C; Yiallourou, Stephanie R

    2016-06-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) refers to the situation where a fetus does not grow according to its genetic growth potential. One of the main causes of IUGR is uteroplacental vascular insufficiency. Under these circumstances of chronic oxygen and nutrient deprivation, the growth-restricted fetus often displays typical circulatory changes, which in part represent adaptations to the suboptimal intrauterine environment. These fetal adaptations aim to preserve oxygen and nutrient supply to vital organs such as the brain, the heart, and the adrenals. These prenatal circulatory adaptations are thought to lead to an altered development of the cardiovascular system and "program" the fetus for life long cardiovascular morbidities. In this review, we discuss the alterations to cardiovascular structure, function, and control that have been observed in growth-restricted fetuses, neonates, and infants following uteroplacental vascular insufficiency. We also discuss the current knowledge on early life surveillance and interventions to prevent progression into chronic disease. PMID:26866903

  7. Cardiovascular Disease Risk in the Offspring of Diabetic Women: The Impact of the Intrauterine Environment

    PubMed Central

    Marco, Laura J.; McCloskey, Kate; Vuillermin, Peter J.; Burgner, David; Said, Joanne; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of gestational diabetes is increasing worldwide, exposing large numbers of infants to hyperglycaemia whilst in utero. This exposure may have a long-term negative impact on the cardiovascular health of the offspring. Novel methods to assess cardiovascular status in the neonatal period are now available—including measuring arterial intima-media thickness and retinal photography. These measures will allow researchers to assess the relative impact of intrauterine exposures, distinguishing these from genetic or postnatal environmental factors. Understanding the long-term impact of the intrauterine environment should allow the development of more effective health policy and interventions to decrease the future burden of cardiovascular disease. Initiating disease prevention aimed at the developing fetus during the antenatal period may optimise community health outcomes. PMID:23133443

  8. A Stab in the Dark?

    PubMed Central

    Tompson, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Test the influence of darkness in the street robbery crime event alongside temperature. Methods: Negative binomial regression models tested darkness and temperature as predictors of street robbery. Units of analysis were four 6-hr time intervals in two U.K. study areas that have different levels of darkness and variations of temperature throughout the year. Results: Darkness is a key factor related to robbery events in both study areas. Traversing from full daylight to full darkness increased the predicted volume of robbery by a multiple of 2.6 in London and 1.2 in Glasgow. Temperature was significant only in the London study area. Interaction terms did not enhance the predictive power of the models. Conclusion: Darkness is an important driving factor in seasonal variation of street robbery. A further implication of the research is that time of the day patterns are crucial to understanding seasonal trends in crime data. PMID:25076797

  9. Stabbing simulations and DNA transfer.

    PubMed

    Samie, Lydie; Hicks, Tacha; Castella, Vincent; Taroni, Franco

    2016-05-01

    Technical developments have made it possible to analyze very low amounts of DNA. This has many advantages, but the drawback of this technological progress is that interpretation of the results becomes increasingly complex: the number of mixed DNA profiles increased relatively to single source DNA profiles and stochastic effects in the DNA profile, such as drop-in and drop-out, are more frequently observed. Moreover, the relevance of low template DNA material regarding the activities alleged is not as straightforward as it was a few years ago, when for example large quantities of blood were recovered. The possibility of secondary and tertiary transfer is now becoming an issue. The purpose of this research is twofold: first, to study the transfer of DNA from the handler and secondly, to observe if handlers would transfer DNA from persons closely connected to them. We chose to mimic cases where the offender would attack a person with a knife. As a first approach, we envisaged that the defense would not give an alternative explanation for the origin of the DNA. In our transfer experiments (4 donors, 16 experiments each, 64 traces), 3% of the traces were single DNA profiles. Most of the time, the DNA profile of the person handling the knife was present as the major profile: in 83% of the traces the major contributor profile corresponded to the stabber's DNA profile (in single stains and mixtures). Mixture with no clear major/minor fraction (12%) were observed. 5% of the traces were considered of insufficient quality (more than 3 contributors, presence of a few minor peaks). In that case, we considered that the stabber's DNA was absent. In our experiments, no traces allowed excluding the stabber, however it must be noted that precautions were taken to minimize background DNA as knives were cleaned before the experiments. DNA profiles of the stabber's colleagues were not observed. We hope that this study will allow for a better understanding of the transfer mechanism and of how to assess and describe results given activity level propositions. In this preliminary research, we have focused on the transfer of DNA on the hand of the person. Besides, more research is needed to assign the probability of the results given an alternative activity proposed by the defense, for instance when the source of the DNA is not contested, but that the activities are. PMID:26875110

  10. Neurodegenerative changes and apoptosis induced by intrauterine and extrauterine exposure of radiofrequency radiation.

    PubMed

    Güler, Göknur; Ozgur, Elcin; Keles, Hikmet; Tomruk, Arin; Vural, Sevil Atalay; Seyhan, Nesrin

    2016-09-01

    Adverse health effects of radiofrequency radiation (RFR) on the ongoing developmental stages of children from conception to childhood are scientifically anticipated subject. This study was performed to identify the effects of global system for mobile communications (GSM) modulated mobile phone like RFR in 1800MHz frequency on oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation beside the apoptotic cell formation, using histopathological and immunohistochemical methods in the brain tissue of 1-month-old male and female New Zealand White rabbits that were exposed to these fields at their mother's womb and after the birth. Oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation levels were investigated by measuring the 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, respectively. Histopathological changes were observed using by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. Apoptotic cells were detected in the examined organs by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) staining. For both male and female infants; 8-OHdG levels increased in the group exposed to RFR in both intrauterine and extrauterine periods compared to the infants that were never exposed to RFR and the ones were exposed when they reached one month of age (p<0.05). MDA results were different for male and female rabbits. There was no difference between all female infant groups (p>0.05), while only intrauterine exposure significantly causes MDA level increase for the male infants. HE staining revealed mild lessions in neuronal necrobiosis in brain tissues of female rabbits that had only intaruterine exposure and male rabbits had only extrauterine exposure. Gliosis were mildly positive in brain tissues of rabbits that are exposed only intrauterine period, also the group exposed both intrauterine and extrauterine periods. However, there was no apoptotic change detected by TUNEL staining in the brain tissues of all groups. PMID:26520616