Science.gov

Sample records for intrauterine head stab

  1. Management of embedded foreign body: penetrating stab wound to the head.

    PubMed

    Martin, Sharolyn; Raup, Glenn H; Cravens, George; Arena-Marshall, Carrie

    2009-01-01

    Penetrating craniocerebral trauma is an injury in which a projectile violates the skull but does not exit. The significance of penetrating injuries to the head depends largely on the circumstances of the injury, the velocity of impact, and attributes of the projectile. While most penetrating head injuries are caused by firearms, lower-velocity mechanisms of penetrating brain injury present unique challenges for the multidisciplinary team involved with the delivery of care. Appropriate management can lead to optimal outcomes and limit secondary brain injury. PMID:19543016

  2. Intrauterine growth restricted piglets defined by their head shape ingest insufficient amounts of colostrum.

    PubMed

    Amdi, C; Krogh, U; Flummer, C; Oksbjerg, N; Hansen, C F; Theil, P K

    2013-12-01

    The increasing litter sizes of modern pig breeds have led to a significant number of piglets that are born undersized ("small" piglets) and some have been exposed to different degrees of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). The aim of this study was to investigate the physiology and capability to ingest colostrum of these small piglets, suffering from various degrees of IUGR, to see if their IUGR score could be a useful tool for easy identification of piglets in need of intervention in the colostrum period. Piglets were classified at birth based on head morphology. Piglets were classified either "normal," "mildly IUGR" (m-IUGR), or "severe IUGR" (s-IUGR), based on head morphology. Blood samples were collected at birth and at 24 h, and colostrum intake during two 12-h periods and blood metabolites at 0 and 24 h were measured. At 24 h, piglets weighing <900 g at birth and the median piglet in birth order were sacrificed, and organ weights and hepatic glycogen were measured. Overall, there was an influence of the piglets' classification on most characteristics, with normal piglets having a greater colostrum intake between 0 and 12 h (P < 0.001) and between 12 and 24 h (P < 0.05), and higher birth weight, crown rump length, body mass index, and ponderal index (P < 0.001), and a tendency toward a higher vitality score (P < 0.069) than s-IUGR piglets. There was a time × IUGR interaction, with plasma glucose levels being lowered (P < 0.001) and lactate levels elevated (P < 0.001) in s-IUGR piglets at 24 h compared with normal and m-IUGR piglets. Some differences were found in electrolytes; sodium plasma concentrations were greatest for normal piglets (P < 0.05) and highest at 0 h (P < 0.05). At 24 h of age, s-IUGR piglets had a higher heart (P < 0.001) and brain percentage (P < 0.001), and a lower liver percentage (P < 0.001) relative to body weight, compared with normal piglets. In addition, s-IUGR piglets had less hepatic glycogen than m-IUGR piglets and normal

  3. Environmentally Benign Stab Detonators

    SciTech Connect

    Gash, A

    2005-12-21

    Many energetic systems can be activated via mechanical means. Percussion primers in small caliber ammunition and stab detonators used in medium caliber ammunition are just two examples. Current medium caliber (20-60mm) munitions are detonated through the use of impact sensitive stab detonators. Stab detonators are very sensitive and must be small, as to meet weight and size limitations. A mix of energetic powders, sensitive to mechanical stimulus, is typically used to ignite such devices. Stab detonators are mechanically activated by forcing a firing pin through the closure disc of the device and into the stab initiating mix. Rapid heating caused by mechanically driven compression and friction of the mixture results in its ignition. The rapid decomposition of these materials generates a pressure/temperature pulse that is sufficient to initiate a transfer charge, which has enough output energy to detonate the main charge. This general type of ignition mix is used in a large variety of primers, igniters, and detonators.[1] Common primer mixes, such as NOL-130, are made up of lead styphnate (basic) 40%, lead azide (dextrinated) 20%, barium nitrate 20%, antimony sulfide 15%, and tetrazene 5%.[1] These materials pose acute and chronic toxicity hazards during mixing of the composition and later in the item life cycle after the item has been field functioned. There is an established need to replace these mixes on toxicity, health, and environmental hazard grounds. This effort attempts to demonstrate that environmentally acceptable energetic solgel coated flash metal multilayer nanocomposites can be used to replace current impact initiated devices (IIDs), which have hazardous and toxic components. Successful completion of this project will result in IIDs that include innocuous compounds, have sufficient output energy for initiation, meet current military specifications, are small, cost competitive, and perform as well as or better than current devices. We expect flash

  4. Retained garden fork following cranial stab injury

    PubMed Central

    Gonya, Sonwabile; Mbatha, Andile; Moyeni, Nondabula; Enicker, Basil

    2016-01-01

    Retained garden fork is a rare complication of penetrating cranial trauma. Retained knife blade is the most commonly reported presentation. We report an unusual case of a 30-year-old male patient treated at our institution, who presented with a retained garden fork following a stab to the head, with no associated neurological deficits. Computerized tomographic scan of the brain was performed preoperatively to assess the trajectory of the weapon and parenchymal injury. A craniectomy was performed to facilitate removal of the weapon in the operating theatre under general anaesthesia. Intravenous prophylactic antibiotics were administered pre- and postoperatively to prevent septic complications. The patient recovered well and was discharged home. PMID:26747398

  5. Environmentally Benign Stab Detonators

    SciTech Connect

    Gash, A E

    2006-07-07

    The coupling of energetic metallic multilayers (a.k.a. flash metal) with energetic sol-gel synthesis and processing is an entirely new approach to forming energetic devices for several DoD and DOE needs. They are also practical and commercially viable manufacturing techniques. Improved occupational safety and health, performance, reliability, reproducibility, and environmentally acceptable processing can be achieved using these methodologies and materials. The development and fielding of this technology will enhance mission readiness and reduce the costs, environmental risks and the necessity of resolving environmental concerns related to maintaining military readiness while simultaneously enhancing safety and health. Without sacrificing current performance, we will formulate new impact initiated device (IID) compositions to replace materials from the current composition that pose significant environmental, health, and safety problems associated with functions such as synthesis, material receipt, storage, handling, processing into the composition, reaction products from testing, and safe disposal. To do this, we will advance the use of nanocomposite preparation via the use of multilayer flash metal and sol-gel technologies and apply it to new small IIDs. This work will also serve to demonstrate that these technologies and resultant materials are relevant and practical to a variety of energetic needs of DoD and DOE. The goal will be to produce an IID whose composition is acceptable by OSHA, EPA, the Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act, Resource Recovery Act, etc. standards, without sacrificing current performance. The development of environmentally benign stab detonators and igniters will result in the removal of hazardous and toxic components associated with their manufacturing, handling, and use. This will lead to improved worker safety during manufacturing as well as reduced exposure of Service personnel during their storage and or use in operations. The

  6. Stab Sensitivity of Energetic Nanolaminates

    SciTech Connect

    Gash, A; Barbee, T; Cervantes, O

    2006-05-22

    This work details the stab ignition, small-scale safety, and energy release characteristics of bimetallic Al/Ni(V) and Al/Monel energetic nanolaminate freestanding thin films. The influence of the engineered nanostructural features of the energetic multilayers is correlated with both stab initiation and small-scale energetic materials testing results. Structural parameters of the energetic thin films found to be important include the bi-layer period, total thickness of the film, and presence or absence of aluminum coating layers. In general the most sensitive nanolaminates were those that were relatively thick, possessed fine bi-layer periods, and were not coated. Energetic nanolaminates were tested for their stab sensitivity as freestanding continuous parts and as coarse powders. The stab sensitivity of mock M55 detonators loaded with energetic nanolaminate was found to depend strongly upon both the particle size of the material and the configuration of nanolaminate material, in the detonator cup. In these instances stab ignition was observed with input energies as low as 5 mJ for a coarse powder with an average particle dimension of 400 {micro}m. Selected experiments indicate that the reacting nanolaminate can be used to ignite other energetic materials such as sol-gel nanostructured thermite, and conventional thermite that was either coated onto the multilayer substrate or pressed on it. These results demonstrate that energetic nanolaminates can be tuned to have precise and controlled ignition thresholds and can initiate other energetic materials and therefore are viable candidates as lead-free impact initiated igniters or detonators.

  7. Intrauterine Contraception.

    PubMed

    Hsia, Jennifer K; Creinin, Mitchell D

    2016-05-01

    Currently, there are only two basic types of intrauterine devices (IUDs): copper and hormonal. However, other types of IUDs are under development, some of which are in clinical trials around the world. Continued development has focused on increasing efficacy, longer duration of use, and noncontraceptive benefits. This review discusses currently available intrauterine contraceptives, such as the Cu380A IUD and levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine systems; novel intrauterine contraceptives that are available in select parts of the world including the intrauterine ball, low-dose copper products, frameless devices, and intrauterine delivery systems impregnated with noncontraceptive medication; and novel products currently in development. PMID:26947701

  8. [Stab wounds in emergency department].

    PubMed

    Bège, T; Berdah, S V; Brunet, C

    2013-12-01

    Stab wounds represent the most common cause of penetrating wounds, occurring mainly in case of aggression or suicide attempt. Clinical severity depends on the superficial or penetrating aspect of the wound, its location and damaged organs. Medical management must be known because the vital risk is involved in penetrating wounds. Hemodynamically unstable patients should be operated without delay after performing a chest X-ray and ultrasound Focus assisted sonography for trauma (FAST) to guide the surgery. In the stable patients, the general clinical examination, exploration of the wound and medical imaging detect injuries requiring surgical management. Stab penetrating wounds require close and rapid collaboration between medical teams, tailored to the institution's resources. PMID:24176734

  9. Multiple stabbing in sex-related homicides.

    PubMed

    Radojević, Nemanja; Radnić, Bojana; Petković, Stojan; Miljen, Maletin; Curović, Ivana; Cukić, Dragana; Soć, Miodrag; Savić, Slobodan

    2013-07-01

    It is possible that sexually driven homicides are the consequence of sexual deviation, but more often than not the main cause of such homicides stems from a non-paraphilic person's emotional component. It is known that homicides which involve multiple stabbing are very often the result of the assailant's highly expressed affect. This study tries to establish whether such homicides are essentially related to the sexual motives of the murderer. This paper is conducted through a retrospective autopsy study that includes 766 cases of homicides. These were reviewed and analysed according to the motive of the homicide, as well as by method, age, and gender of the victim, and the relationship between the victim and the assailant. The motives of homicides are classified as non-sexual and sexual, including homicides related to rape, jealousy, amorous affairs outside of an established relationship, deviant sexual behaviour of psychiatric patients, paraphilia, and disturbed emotional relationships between the victim and the assailant. Cases include both hetero- and homosexual relationships. Multiple stabbing occurs significantly more frequently in sex-related homicides (≥ 3 stab wounds) than in other homicide types. When the criteria for multiple stabbing are changed (≥ 4, 5, or 25 stab wounds), the percentage of sex-related homicides rises in every group in relation to the increased number of wounds. Sensitivity and specificity are represented by ROC curves for 3, 5 and 7 stab wounds. The correlation coefficients between multiple stabbing and sex-related homicides regarding gender are all near 0.9. For female victims, all homicides committed by 25 and more stab wounds were found to be sex-related. Statistically, jealousy was the most frequent motive for sex-related multiple stabbing homicides. Regardless of age, homicides involving multiple stabbings should be considered sex-related, especially when the victim is female. PMID:23756522

  10. Intracranial complications of transorbital stab wounds.

    PubMed Central

    De Villiers, J C; Sevel, D

    1975-01-01

    Oscular and orbital injuries due to stab wounds may mask underlying serious intracranial damage. The correct clinical assessment and treatment of such cases require the attention of a team comprising a neurosurgeon, ophthalmologist, otolaryngologist, and plastic surgeon. Images PMID:1125159

  11. [Intrauterine mycoplasmosis].

    PubMed

    Tsinzerling, A V; Mitrofanov, P M; Shastina, G V

    1977-01-01

    Comparative studies of pathological anatomy of intrauterine mycoplasmosis of man and cattle were carried out. On the basis of investigations of 22 deceased newborns and of 3 stillborns with uterine infection caused by Mycoplasma pneumonia descriptions of lesions of various organs are presented. They most regularly were defected in the liver. In the respiratory organs in this infection, in contrast to respiratory mycoplasmosis, lesions of respiratory departments, not of the respiratory tract, were predominantly observed. The investigation of 18 liveborn and 5 stillborn calfs with intrauterine infection caused by Mycoplasma bovirhinis revealed the same regularities of the pathological process. The localisation of lesions and the presence of changes in the placenta justify the conclusion that the disease developed, as a rule, as a result of hematogenic transplacental infection. PMID:558745

  12. Intrauterine programming

    PubMed Central

    Sedaghat, Katayoun; Zahediasl, Saleh; Ghasemi, Asghar

    2015-01-01

    In mammals, the intrauterine condition has an important role in the development of fetal physiological systems in later life. Suboptimal maternal environment can alter the regulatory pathways that determine the normal development of the fetus in utero, which in post-natal life may render the individual more susceptible to cardiovascular or metabolic adult-life diseases. Changes in the intrauterine availability of nutrients, oxygen and hormones can change the fetal tissue developmental regulatory planning, which occurs genomically and non-genomically and can cause permanent structural and functional changes in the systems, leading to diseases in early years of life and those that particularly become overt in adulthood. In this review we take a brief look at the main elements which program the fetal system development and consequently induce a crucial impact on the cardiovascular, nervous and hormonal systems in adulthood. PMID:25945232

  13. Intrauterine devices.

    PubMed

    Burkman, R T

    1991-08-01

    Approximately 60 million women use the intrauterine device (IUD) worldwide; however, owing primarily to nonmedical reasons, the IUD is far less popular in the United States. Although the contraceptive mechanism of action is unknown, it appears that spermicidal activity may be important. Overall, the efficacy of the copper devices is quite good, such that the overall lifespan can probably be extended. Possible pelvic infection remains the greatest potential risk, although in properly selected women the risk is quite low. Use of prophylactic antibiotics at the time of insertion may offer additional protection against this risk. Although IUD users may have more nonspecific vaginal inflammation than do other women, the clinical significance is probably limited. Further, users do not appear to have elevated risks for cervical infections. Although menometrorrhagia persists as a potential problem, the mechanism for such bleeding is not well understood. Finally, the retroflexed uterine position does not appear to increase the risk of abnormal outcomes. PMID:1878504

  14. Intrauterine contraception.

    PubMed

    Reinprayoon, D

    1992-08-01

    Currently 85 million women use an intrauterine device (IUD), making it the most widely used, reliable, reversible contraceptive method worldwide. Although the exact mechanisms by which copper-bearing IUDs produce contraceptive action are not completely defined, recent evidence indicates that they act primarily to prevent sperm from fertilizing ova. The future of the IUD is brighter than it has been for the past 20 years. The latest generation of IUDs, such as the TCu 380A (Paragard, GynoPharma, Somerville, NJ), are safer and more effective than ever. In World Health Organization large, multicenter trials, pregnancy rates for the TCu 380A are 1.0, 1.4, 1.6, and 1.8 at 3, 5, 7, and 9 years of use, respectively. The ectopic pregnancy rates and removal for pelvic inflammatory disease are very low. The device may soon be the major IUD available in most countries. The acceptability of IUD use can be increased by good clinical management, sympathetic counseling, careful client selection, proper device selection, careful insertion, timing of insertion, and regular follow-up with quick access to medical care. PMID:1324024

  15. Toward a Predictive Assessment of Stab-Penetration Forces.

    PubMed

    Ní Annaidh, Aisling; Cassidy, Marie; Curtis, Michael; Destrade, Michel; Gilchrist, Michael D

    2015-09-01

    Collaborative research between the disciplines of forensic pathology and biomechanics was undertaken to investigate the hyperelastic properties of human skin, to determine the force required for sharp instrument penetration of skin, and to develop a finite element model, which reflects the mechanisms of sharp instrument penetration. These studies have led to the development of a "stab metric," based on simulations, to describe the force magnitudes in stabbing incidents. Such a metric should, in time, replace the crudely quantitative descriptors of stabbing forces currently used by forensic pathologists. PMID:24781391

  16. Characteristics and rehabilitation for patients with spinal cord stab injury

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fangyong; Zhang, Junwei; Tang, Hehu; Li, Xiang; Jiang, Shudong; Lv, Zhen; Liu, Shujia; Chen, Shizheng; Liu, Jiesheng; Hong, Yi

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The objective of the study was to compare the incidence, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of patients with spinal cord stab injury to those with the more common spinal cord contusion injury. [Subjects] Of patients hospitalized in China Rehabilitation Research Center from 1994 to 2014, 40 of those having a spinal cord stab injury and 50 with spinal cord contusion were selected. [Methods] The data of all patients were analyzed retrospectively. The cases were evaluated by collecting admission and discharge ASIA (American Spinal Injury Association) and ADL (activity of daily living) scores. [Results] After a comprehensive rehabilitation program, ASIA and ADL scores of patients having both spinal cord stab injury and spinal cord contusion significantly increase. However, the increases were noted to be higher in patients having a spinal cord stab injury than those having spinal cord contusion. [Conclusion] Comprehensive rehabilitation is effective both for patients having spinal cord stab injury and those with spinal cord contusion injury. However, the prognosis of patients having spinal cord stab injury is better than that of patients with spinal cord contusion. PMID:26834329

  17. Socioeconomic aspects of stab and gunshot wounds.

    PubMed

    Wase, R E; Hamit, H F

    1979-09-01

    Records of 294 patients with gunshot, stab, or shotgun wounds admitted to Charlotte Memorial Hospital and Medical Center between July 1, 1976 and June 30, 1977 were reviewed. Data were gathered on 24 clinical, social, and economic aspects to discover any patterns in these areas. Eighty-three percent of the patients were male; 71%, black; 70%, unmarried; and 56%, between 16 and 30 years of age. Fifty-five percent came to the hospital between 10 pm and 3 am; 57% on Friday, Saturday, or Sunday; 31% came in June, July, or August. Sixty-four percent were gunshot wounds, 80% of which were by small caliber weapons. Ninety-four percent of all patients survived. The patients "consumed" 3,260 hosptial days, 526 intensive care unit days, 533 units of blood, and 261 operations, totaling 595 hours of operating room time. Hospital charges totaled $668,000, of which 1.1% was paid from private funds and nearly 65% from the taxpayers and other private paying patients. PMID:470276

  18. [Survived stab to the heart in a schizophrenic man].

    PubMed

    Fieseler, Sybille; Zinka, Bettina; Kunz, Sebastian N

    2011-01-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with a significant risk of suicide. According to recent research, 10-15 % of all schizophrenic patients die by suicide. It is not uncommon that the victims show sharp force injuries, so that the forensic pathologist first has to differentiate between self-infliction and involvement of another person. The authors' case report presents a 68-year-old schizophrenic patient who committed suicide by jumping out of a window of his apartment located on the second floor after inflicting multiple stab wounds to his thoracic region. At autopsy, an older stab wound to the apex of the heart was detected. In the criminal investigation, a suicide attempt made 13 days before could be ascertained. As the patient did not want to be taken to a hospital at that time, the injury had never been examined or documented. Since there was no evidence suggesting homicide, the older stab to the heart was interpreted as a tentative injury. PMID:22039699

  19. Quantification of forces required for stabbing with screwdrivers and other blunter instruments.

    PubMed

    Parmar, Kiran; Hainsworth, Sarah Victoria; Rutty, Guy Nathan

    2012-01-01

    In the UK, stabbing is the most common cause of homicide. The weapons used include knives, swords, screwdrivers and glass shards. Quantifying the exact force used in a stabbing incident is considered to be a difficult area due to the large number of variables present, such as sharpness of weapon, angle of attack and relative movements of the people involved. Having quantifiable data would allow a forensic pathologist to make a more informed decision when it comes to answering the commonly posed question in court "what was the degree of force involved in the stabbing incident?" The answer to this question is considered significant in determining an alleged assailant's intent to cause harm. This paper presents results of the first detailed study relating geometry of screwdrivers to the forces required for penetration. Additionally, a range of other blunt weapons such as pens and chisels have also been studied. A silicone rubber-foam analogue has been used as the main skin simulant owing to it having similar mechanical properties to that of human skin and giving highly repeatable results. Different screwdrivers of varying shape and size have been tested (i.e. slotted, Phillips, posidriv and Torx), along with other implements including chisels and pens. The weapon geometry was characterised and related to the peak force required for penetration. Our results show that there is a direct correlation between the cross-sectional area of a screwdriver head and the amount of force required for penetration. Screwdrivers with larger cross-sectional areas require a significantly greater force to penetrate (forces in the region of 100-120 N) but "sharper" slotted screwdrivers penetrate with much lower forces (~30 N). The forces required for penetrating the rubber-foam analogue with screwdrivers are higher than for "sharp" knives, but in some cases similar to the forces required for stabbing with "blunt" knives. For the other weapons such as chisels and biros, the force required

  20. Levonorgestrel Intrauterine System

    MedlinePlus

    ... new system inserted at any time during your menstrual cycle. If you have chosen to use a different ... of your intrauterine system and you have regular menstrual cycles, you should have the system removed during the ...

  1. Levonorgestrel Intrauterine System

    MedlinePlus

    ... period begins, or immediately after a first-trimester abortion. If you have given birth, had a miscarriage, or had a second-trimester abortion, your intrauterine system should not be inserted until ...

  2. New operational technology of intrauterine ventilation the fetus lungs by breathing gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urakov, A. L.; Nikityuk, D. B.; Urakova, N. A.; Kasankin, A. A.; Chernova, L. V.; Dementiev, V. B.

    2015-11-01

    New operational technology for elimination intrauterine hypoxia and asphyxia of the fetus using endoscopic artificial ventilation lungs by respiratory gas was developed. For intrauterine ventilation of fetal lung it is proposed to enter into the uterus a special breathing mask and wear it on the head of the fetus using the original endoscopic technology. The breathing mask, developed by us is connected with external breathing apparatus with a hose. The device is called "intrauterine aqualung". Intrauterine aqualung includes a ventilator and breathing circuit with a special fold-out breathing mask that is put on inside the uterus on the head of fetus like a mesh hat. Controlled by ultrasound the technology of the introduction of the mask inside of the uterus through the natural opening in the cervix and technology of putting on the respiratory mask on the head of the fetus with its head previa were developed. The technology intrauterine ventilation of the fetus lungs by respiratory gas was developed.

  3. 76 FR 69764 - Stab-Resistant Body Armor Standard Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-09

    ...The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) are jointly hosting a workshop focused on the NIJ Stab-resistant Body Armor Standard, and the discussion is directed toward manufacturers, certification bodies, and test laboratories. This workshop is being held specifically to discuss with interested parties recent progress made toward the......

  4. Class characteristics of serrated knife stabs to cartilage.

    PubMed

    Pounder, Derrick J; Cormack, Lesley; Broadbent, Elizabeth; Millar, John

    2011-06-01

    A total of 136 stab wounds were made in cartilage with 8 serrated knives and 72 stabs with 4 nonserrated knives. The walls of the stab track were documented by photography, cast with dental impression material, and the casts photographed. Staining the translucent cartilage surface with blue or green food dye improved photography. Serrated blades produced striations on cartilage in all stabbings. Patterns of blade serration beyond the broad categories of coarse and fine were recognizable. The overall pattern of striations was "irregularly regular." The distance between the blade-spine wound end and the first serration striation is a class characteristic of the knife which produced the defect, as are distances to the subsequent serration striations, which become ever close together and eventually merge near the blade-edge wound end. Serrated knives may be ground (scalloped) on either the left side or the right side of the blade and this class characteristic is identifiable from the walls of the wound track, on which the scalloped blade surface produces broad ridges and narrow striation valleys, with a reverse image on the opposing wound wall. A drop point serrated blade consistently produced an additional oblique mark angled from the blade-spine wound end, accurately reflecting the shape of the blade tip, and representing a chatter mark. PMID:20407362

  5. Carotid artery dissection due to elongated styloid process: a self-stabbing phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Razak, Anmar; Short, Jody L; Hussain, Syed I

    2014-01-01

    Elongated styloid process (ESP) is an anatomical variant that has been described as the cause of Eagle syndrome. Until recently, the styloid process has not been appreciated as a significant contributor to carotid artery dissection (CAD), which is not part of Eagle syndrome. We present a case of a 41-year-old male who presented with acute right middle cerebral artery occlusion and was found to have ESP projecting to and abutting the lateral wall of a dissected right internal carotid artery (ICA). Forced sustained head turning with maximal muscle contraction was the initiating event driving the styloid process into the wall of the ICA in a manner that can be likened to being stabbed with a pointed object. Knowing the association between ESP, Eagle syndrome, and CAD shall lead to increased awareness and appropriate diagnosis and treatment. PMID:23163559

  6. Forensic evidence in apparel fabrics due to stab events.

    PubMed

    Kemp, S E; Carr, D J; Kieser, J; Niven, B E; Taylor, M C

    2009-10-30

    Stab injuries and fatalities have been reported to be the most common crimes of violence in several countries, particularly in those where access to firearms is restricted [J.M. Taupin, F.-P. Adolf, J. Robertson, Examination of damage to textiles, in: J. Robertson, M. Grieve (Eds.), Forensic Examination of Fibres, CRC Press, United States of America, 1999, pp. 65-87; A.C. Hunt, R.J. Cowling, Murder by stabbing, Forensic Sci. Int. 52 (1991) 107-112; D.A. Rouse, Patterns of stab wounds: a six year study, Med. Sci. Law 34 (1994) 67-71]. Analysis of damaged apparel may provide important information about the cause of death and the events leading up to and after the victim's final moments [M.T. Pailthorpe, N.A.G. Johnson, The private forensic scientist and the criminal justice system, in: D. Biles, J. Vernon (Eds.), Private Sector and Community Involvement in the Criminal Justice System: Conference Proceedings, vol. 23, Australian Institute of Criminology, Wellington, 1994, 231-240]. A high proportion of stab wounds occur in the chest and as this area is generally clothed many sharp force cases involve damage to fabrics [J.M. Taupin, F.-P. Adolf, J. Robertson, Examination of damage to textiles, in: J. Robertson, M. Grieve (Eds.), Forensic Examination of Fibres, CRC Press, United States of America, 1999, pp. 65-87; A.C. Hunt, R.J. Cowling, Murder by stabbing, Forensic Sci. Int. 52 (1991) 107-112; D.A. Rouse, Patterns of stab wounds: a six year study, Med. Sci. Law 34 (1994) 67-71]. The structural stabilisation and degradation of fabric due to laundering significantly alters fabric properties [S.E. Gore, R.M. Laing, C.A. Wilson, D.J. Carr, B.E. Niven, Standardizing a pre-treatment cleaning procedure and effects of application on apparel fabrics, Text. Res. J. 76 (2006) 455-464], yet the effect of such on severance morphology does not appear to have been investigated. In this work the effect of blade type (hunting knife, kitchen knife, screwdriver) on new and laundered

  7. 76 FR 22920 - Stab Resistance of Personal Body Armor (2000) Standard Special Technical Committee Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ... of Justice Programs Stab Resistance of Personal Body Armor (2000) Standard Special Technical... Institute of Justice (NIJ) is in the process of revising its Stab Resistance of Personal Body Armor (2000... bodies and (2) test laboratories with experience in programs for similar types of personal...

  8. [Forensic medical evaluation of stab-incised wounds caused by knives with point defects].

    PubMed

    Krupin, K N; Leonov, S V

    2011-01-01

    The present experimental study allowed to characterize specific signs of stab-incised wounds caused by knives with operational point defects. Diagnostic coefficients calculated for these macro- and microscopic features facilitate differential diagnostics of the injuries and make it possible to identify a concrete stabbing/cutting weapon with which the wound was inflicted.. PMID:21866847

  9. Variability of simulants used in recreating stab events.

    PubMed

    Carr, D J; Wainwright, A

    2011-07-15

    Forensic investigators commonly use simulants/backing materials to mount fabrics and/or garments on when recreating damage due to stab events. Such work may be conducted in support of an investigation to connect a particular knife to a stabbing event by comparing the severance morphology obtained in the laboratory to that observed in the incident. There does not appear to have been a comparison of the effect of simulant type on the morphology of severances in fabrics and simulants, nor on the variability of simulants. This work investigates three simulants (pork, gelatine, expanded polystyrene), two knife blades (carving, bread), and how severances in the simulants and an apparel fabric typically used to manufacture T-shirts (single jersey) were affected by (i) simulant type and (ii) blade type. Severances were formed using a laboratory impact apparatus to ensure a consistent impact velocity and hence impact energy independently of the other variables. The impact velocity was chosen so that the force measured was similar to that measured in human performance trials. Force-time and energy-time curves were analysed and severance morphology (y, z directions) investigated. Simulant type and knife type significantly affected the critical forensic measurements of severance length (y direction) in the fabric and 'skin' (Tuftane). The use of EPS resulted in the lowest variability in data, further the severances recorded in both the fabric and Tuftane more accurately reflected the dimensions of the impacting knives. PMID:21371835

  10. Analytical assessment of woven fabrics under vertical stabbing - The role of protective clothing.

    PubMed

    Hejazi, Sayyed Mahdi; Kadivar, Nastaran; Sajjadi, Ali

    2016-02-01

    Knives are being used more commonly in street fights and muggings. Therefore, this work presents an analytical model for woven fabrics under vertical stabbing loads. The model is based on energy method and the fabric is assumed to be unidirectional comprised of N layers. Thus, the ultimate stab resistance of fabric was determined based on structural parameters of fabric and geometrical characteristics of blade. Moreover, protective clothing is nowadays considered as a strategic branch in technical textile industry. The main idea of the present work is improving the stab resistance of woven textiles by using metal coating method. In the final, a series of vertical stabbing tests were conducted on cotton, polyester and polyamide fabrics. Consequently, it was found that the model predicts with a good accuracy the ultimate stab resistance of the sample fabrics. PMID:26774251

  11. [Current management of stab wounds to the colon].

    PubMed

    Peycru, T; Avaro, J P; Biance, N; Tardat, E; Balandraud, P

    2006-06-01

    Stab wounds to the colon are a frequent surgical emergency. Local wound exploration under local anaesthesia is not required systematically. We recommend surveillance based on clinical observation and laboratory testing to detect peritoneal signs. If progression of symptoms is suspected, diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) should be performed. Immediate surgical exploration is indicated in two cases, i.e., generalized peritonitis and haemodynamic instability due to internal bleeding. The preferred repair technique is direct suture or resection followed by a handsewn or mechanical anastomosis. The morbidity, cost and social consequences of colostomy must be taken into account. It should be considered as a salvage procedure for patients in critical condition or extensive colonic injury. PMID:16924827

  12. Do Patients with Penetrating Abdominal Stab Wounds Require Laparotomy?

    PubMed Central

    Sanei, Behnam; Mahmoudieh, Mohsen; Talebzadeh, Hamid; Shahabi Shahmiri, Shahab; Aghaei, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Background The optimal management of hemodynamically stable asymptomatic patients with anterior abdominal stab wounds (AASWs) remains controversial. The goal is to identify and treat injuries in a safe cost-effective manner. Common evaluation strategies are local wound exploration (LWE), diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL), serial clinical assessment (SCAs) and computed tomography (CT) imaging. Making a decision about the right time to operate on a patient with a penetrating abdominal stab wound, especially those who have visceral evisceration, is a continuing challenge. Objectives Until the year 2010, our strategy was emergency laparotomy in patients with penetrating anterior fascia and those with visceral evisceration. This survey was conducted towards evaluating the results of emergency laparotomy. So, better management can be done in patients with penetrating abdominal stab wounds. Patients and Methods This retrospective cross-sectional study was performed on patients with abdominal penetrating trauma who referred to Al- Zahra hospital in Isfahan, Iran from October 2000 to October 2010. It should be noted that patients with abdominal blunt trauma, patients under 14 years old, those with lateral abdomen penetrating trauma and patients who had unstable hemodynamic status were excluded from the study. Medical records of patients were reviewed and demographic and clinical data were collected for all patients including: age, sex, mechanism of trauma and the results of LWE and laparotomy. Data were analyzed with PASW v.20 software. All data were expressed as mean ± SD. The distribution of nominal variables was compared using the Chi-squared test. Also, diagnostic index for LWE were calculated. A two-sided P value less than 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results During the 10 year period of the study, 1100 consecutive patients with stab wounds were admitted to Al-Zahra hospital Isfahan, Iran. In total, about 150 cases had penetrating traumas in

  13. Ultrasonography of intrauterine devices

    PubMed Central

    Nowitzki, Kristina M.; Hoimes, Matthew L.; Chen, Byron; Zheng, Larry Z.; Kim, Young H.

    2015-01-01

    The intrauterine device (IUD) is gaining popularity as a reversible form of contraception. Ultrasonography serves as first-line imaging for the evaluation of IUD position in patients with pelvic pain, abnormal bleeding, or absent retrieval strings. This review highlights the imaging of both properly positioned and malpositioned IUDs. The problems associated with malpositioned IUDs include expulsion, displacement, embedment, and perforation. Management considerations depend on the severity of the malposition and the presence or absence of symptoms. Three-dimensional ultrasonography has proven to be more sensitive in the evaluation of more subtle findings of malposition, particularly side-arm embedment. Familiarity with the ultrasonographic features of properly positioned and malpositioned IUDs is essential. PMID:25985959

  14. [Intrauterine hypotrophy and programming the health status. Late problems in newborns with intrauterine hypotrophy].

    PubMed

    Mumdzhiev, Hr; Slancheva, B

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, accumulating more and more evidence demonstrating the programming effects of intrauterine development on the subsequent health of the individual. Intrauterine fetal hypotrophy is a consequence of the wide range of pathological processes in different periods of pregnancy. It is the second leading cause of perinatal death after prematurity. Newborns from similar pathological pregnancies are often leaked premature baby and/or small for gestational age (SGA). Premature baby children have not only complicated and postnatal adaptation problems in the neonatal period, but many diseases occurring in later life: 1. Disorders in postnatal growth. 2. Neurological and intellectual consequences of IUH in term children (hyperactivity disorders attention, impaired fine motor skills, speech problems, risk of cerebral palsy). 3. Neurological and intellectual consequences of prematurity IUH (cognitive impairment in children with low birth weight, short stature at birth, and small head circumference for gestational age). 4. Metabolic syndrome (dyslipidemia, abdominal obesity, hypertension and high blood sugar). 5. Abnormal sexual development (hyperandrogenism, polycystic ovary syndrome in girls, reduced testicular size and lower testosterone levels in boys. 6. Other complications associated with intrauterine hypotrophy cardiovascular renal, pulmonary complications (BPD) disorders in vision, sensory neural hearing loss. PMID:23807979

  15. Changing trends in the pattern and outcome of stab injuries at a North London hospital

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Manojkumar S; Uzzaman, Mohammed M; Al-Zuhir, Naail; Jadeja, Ashok; Navaratnam, Romi

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the incidence, pattern and outcome of stab injuries attending a North London Teaching Hospital over a 3-year (2006-2008) period. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of collected data from the Hospital database was conducted. The database contains comprehensive medical records for all patients attended by the trauma team for deliberate stab injuries. It is updated by the surgical team after each admission. All patients with deliberate penetrating injury who were attended by the service between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2008 were identified. Patients who died in the prehospital phase, those managed exclusively by the emergency department and limb injuries without vascular compromise were excluded from the study. Results: Six hundred and nineteen patients with stab injuries (following knife crime) from North London attended the Hospital in the above period. One hundred and thirty-seven paients required surgical admission. Two were cases of self-inflicted knife injuries. Over the 3-year period the percentage of victims below 20 years of age is increasing. Ninety-three percent of knife crime occured between 6 pm and 6 am; recently moving toward week days from weekend period. Conclusions: The overall rate of penetrating injuries (stab injuries) is slowly declining. Timely cardiothoracic support facility is vital in saving lives with major cardiac stab injuries. Although alcohol drinking restriction has been lifted, most cases of stabbings are still occurring out-of-hours when surgical personnel are limited. PMID:22090737

  16. Intrauterine steroid contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Scholten, P C; Christaens, G C; Haspels, A A

    1987-11-15

    Progestagen releasing IUDs were specially developed to diminish the problems of bleeding and pain with inert and copper containing IUDs. The intrauterine release of the progestagen causes endometrial atrophy, resulting in impairment of nidation, and interferes with transport of the ovum and the spermatozoa. Two available types, Progestasert, Biograviplan (Alza Corporation, California; Grünenthal) and Levonorgestrel Nova-T (Leiras Pharmaceuticals, Finland), have been sufficiently tested in multinational trials. Compared with Progestasert, LNG Nova-T showed lower pregnancy rates (Pearl Index 0.30), less risk for ectopic pregnancy and a longer effective lifetime (7 years). With both IUDs the amount and duration of menstrual blood loss is decreased. Amenorrhea is a frequent occurring side effect of LNG Nova-T, caused by endometrial atrophy. Intermenstrual blood loss and spotting incidences are not uniformly reduced and are still a frequent reason for removal. Preinsertion counselling may improve the acceptance of these non-health-threatening side effects. With both IUDs a decrease of menstrual cramps during periods is percepted and a low incidence of PID is found. Basically, the progestagen releasing IUD can be recommended to all women who wish an IUD for contraception and to women with contraindications for oral contraceptives, especially to those with menorrhagia, anaemia or risk for anaemia. PMID:3131966

  17. Abdominal stab wounds: self-inflicted wounds versus assault wounds.

    PubMed

    Venara, Aurélien; Jousset, Nathalie; Airagnes, Guillaume; Arnaud, Jean-Pierre; Rougé-Maillart, Clotilde

    2013-05-01

    Intentional penetrating wounds, self inflicted or inflicted by others, are increasingly common. As a result, it can be difficult for the forensic examiner to determine whether the cause is self-inflicted or not. This type of trauma has been studied from a psychological perspective and from a surgical perspective but the literature concerning the forensic perspective is poorer. The objective of this study was to compare the epidemiology of abdominal stab wounds so as to distinguish specific features of each type. This could help the forensic scientist to determine the manner of infliction of the wound. We proposed a retrospective monocentric study that included all patients with an abdominal wound who were managed by the visceral surgery department at Angers University Hospital. Demographic criteria, patient history, circumstances and location of the wound were noted and compared. A comparison was drawn between group 1 (self inflicted wound) and group 2 (assault). This study showed that the only significant differences are represented by the patient's prior history and the circumstances surrounding the wound, i.e. the scene and time of day. In our study, neither the site, nor the injuries sustained reveal significant clues as to the origin of the wound. According to our findings, in order to determine the cause, the forensic examiner should thus carefully study the circumstances and any associated injuries. PMID:23622473

  18. Intrauterine radiation exposures and mental retardation

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.W.

    1988-08-01

    Small head size and mental retardation have been known as effects of intrauterine exposure to ionizing radiation since the 1920s. In the 1950s, studies of Japanese atomic-bomb survivors revealed that at 4-17 wk of gestation, the greater the dose, the smaller the brain (and head size), and that beginning at 0.5 Gy (50 rad) in Hiroshima, mental retardation increased in frequency with increasing dose. No other excess of birth defects was observed. Otake and Schull (1984) pointed out that the period of susceptibility to mental retardation coincided with that for proliferation and migration of neuronal elements from near the cerebral ventricles to the cortex. Mental retardation could be the result of interference with this process. Their analysis indicated that exposures at 8-15 wk to 0.01-0.02 Gy (1-2 rad) doubled the frequency of severe mental retardation. This estimate was based on small numbers of mentally retarded atomic-bomb survivors. Although nuclear accidents have occurred recently, new cases will hopefully be too rare to provide further information about the risk of mental retardation. It may be possible, however, to learn about lesser impairment. New psychometric tests may be helpful in detecting subtle deficits in intelligence or neurodevelopmental function. One such test is PEERAMID, which is being used in schools to identify learning disabilities due, for example, to deficits in attention, short- or long-term memory, or in sequencing information. This and other tests could be applied in evaluating survivors of intrauterine exposure to various doses of ionizing radiation. The results could change our understanding of the safety of low-dose exposures.

  19. Intrauterine growth restriction

    MedlinePlus

    ... may contribute to IUGR include: Alcohol abuse Smoking Drug addiction Clotting disorders High blood pressure or heart disease Kidney disease Poor nutrition If the mother is small, it may be ... head may be normal size while the rest of the body is small.

  20. Costs of gunshot and cut/stab wounds in the United States, with some Canadian comparisons.

    PubMed

    Miller, T R; Cohen, M A

    1997-05-01

    This article estimates the costs of U.S. gunshot and cut/stab wound by intent. It also compares U.S. to Canadian gunshot experience. Incidence data are from published sources, the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS), and cause-coded emergency department discharge and hospital discharge data systems. Medical care payments and lost earnings per case come from National Crime Survey data, a literature review, and weighting of costs by diagnosis from Databook on Nonfatal Injury-Incidence. Costs, and Consequences by Miller et al. (The Urban Institute Press, Washington, DC. 1995) with the diagnosis distribution of penetrating injuries from the discharge data systems. Quality of life losses are estimated primarily from jury awards to penetrating injury victims. In 1992, gunshots killed 37,776 Americans; cut/stab wounds killed 4095. Another 134,000 gunshot survivors and 3,100,000 cut/stab wound survivors received medical treatment. Annually, gunshot wounds cost an estimated U.S. $126 billion. Cut/stab wounds cost another U.S. $51 billion. The gunshot and cut/stab totals include U.S. $40 billion and U.S. $13 billion respectively in medical, public services, and work-loss costs. Across medically treated cases, costs average U.S. $154,000 per gunshot survivor and U.S. $12,000 per cut/stab survivor. Gunshot wounds are more than three times as common in the U.S. than in Canada, which has strict handgun control. With the same quality of life loss per victim, gunshot costs per capita are an estimated U.S. $495 in the U.S. vs U.S. $180 in Canada. Per gun, however, the costs are higher in Canada, Gunshot wound rates rise linearly with gun ownership. PMID:9183471

  1. Stabbing headache in an 8-year-old girl: primary or drug induced headache?

    PubMed

    Biedroł, Agnieszka; Kaciłski, Marek; Skowronek-Bała, Barbara

    2014-04-01

    The occurrence of stabbing headaches in children requires a thorough diagnostic approach that excludes secondary headaches. The organic background should be taken into consideration when alarming symptoms occur, such as a purely 1-sided location, a change in the character of the headache, or possibly a link to physical activity. The current study describes the case of an 8-year-old girl who suffered short-lasting stabbing headache attacks. The headaches with increasing intensity and frequency started 1 month before her hospitalization and were usually preceded by physical activity (dancing, running). The pain, which was located in the right supraorbital region, lasted 1 second and occurred several times during the day. No associated symptoms were observed. In addition, the girl suffered from allergic rhinitis and was on antiallergic treatment (levocetirizine, fluticasone nasal spray). On admission she was in good general condition, and a pediatric and neurologic examination revealed no abnormalities. Her brain MRI was normal. The initial diagnosis was that the patient was suffering from primary stabbing headaches. However, during a follow-up visit 4 months later, a relationship was observed between the cessation of the headache attacks and the discontinuation of an antihistaminic drug. Six months later, the girl remained headache free. In cases involving differential diagnoses of stabbing headaches, it is important to consider the adverse reactions of the drugs used. PMID:24664098

  2. A stab in the back with a screwdriver: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Bhutta, Mohammed A; Dunkow, Paul D; Lang, Derick M

    2008-01-01

    Background Stabbings infrequently produce spinal injury. However, the use weapons other than blades can overcome this natural defence barrier. Case Presentation We present a spinal injury produced by a screwdriver, its management and a review of the literature. Conclusion This case highlights the need for clinical vigilance, including in those who appear stable and a senior multidisciplinary approach to each individual case. PMID:19014454

  3. 76 FR 35024 - National Institute of Justice Stab-Resistant Body Armor Standard Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ...The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) are jointly hosting workshop focused on the NIJ Stab-Resistant Body Armor Standard. It is anticipated that the discussion at the workshop will be directed primarily toward manufacturers, certification bodies, and test laboratories. NIJ and NIST are hosting this workshop specifically to discuss......

  4. A Method for Cell Culture and Maintenance of Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea in Agar Stab.

    PubMed

    Chu, Yeon-Jin; Lee, Jin-Young; Shin, So-Ra; Kim, Geun-Joong

    2015-12-01

    Ammonia oxidizing archaea (AOA) are predominantly found and closely linked with geochemical cycling of nitrogen in non-extreme habitats. However, these strains have mainly been investigated using liquid cultures of enriched cells. Here, we provide an agar stab as a simple and reliable means of cultivating and maintaining AOA. PMID:26543273

  5. Efficacy of Intrauterine Device in the Treatment of Intrauterine Adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Salma, Umme; Xue, Min; Md Sayed, Ali Sheikh; Xu, Dabao

    2014-01-01

    The primary purpose of this paper is to assess the efficacy of the use of the intrauterine device (IUD) as an adjunctive treatment modality, for intrauterine adhesions (IUAs). All eligible literatures were identified by electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science. Additional relevant articles were identified from citations in these publications. There were 28 studies included for a systematic review. Of these, 5 studies were eligible for meta-analysis and 23 for qualitative assessment only. Twenty-eight studies related to the use of IUDs as ancillary treatment following adhesiolysis were identified. Of these studies, 25 studies at least one of the following methods were carried out as ancillary treatment: Foley catheter, hyaluronic acid gel, hormonal therapy, or amnion graft in addition to the IUD. There was one study that used IUD therapy as a single ancillary treatment. In 2 studies, no adjunctive therapy was used after adhesiolysis. There was a wide range of reported menstrual and fertility outcomes which were associated with the use of IUD combined with other ancillary treatments. At present, the IUD is beneficial in patients with IUA, regardless of stage of adhesions. However, IUD needs to be combined with other ancillary treatments to obtain maximal outcomes, in particular in patients with moderate to severe IUA. PMID:25254212

  6. Glucocorticoid programming of intrauterine development.

    PubMed

    Fowden, A L; Valenzuela, O A; Vaughan, O R; Jellyman, J K; Forhead, A J

    2016-07-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are important environmental and maturational signals during intrauterine development. Toward term, the maturational rise in fetal glucocorticoid receptor concentrations decreases fetal growth and induces differentiation of key tissues essential for neonatal survival. When cortisol levels rise earlier in gestation as a result of suboptimal conditions for fetal growth, the switch from tissue accretion to differentiation is initiated prematurely, which alters the phenotype that develops from the genotype inherited at conception. Although this improves the chances of survival should delivery occur, it also has functional consequences for the offspring long after birth. Glucocorticoids are, therefore, also programming signals that permanently alter tissue structure and function during intrauterine development to optimize offspring fitness. However, if the postnatal environmental conditions differ from those signaled in utero, the phenotypical outcome of early-life glucocorticoid receptor overexposure may become maladaptive and lead to physiological dysfunction in the adult. This review focuses on the role of GCs in developmental programming, primarily in farm species. It examines the factors influencing GC bioavailability in utero and the effects that GCs have on the development of fetal tissues and organ systems, both at term and earlier in gestation. It also discusses the windows of susceptibility to GC overexposure in early life together with the molecular mechanisms and long-term consequences of GC programming with particular emphasis on the cardiovascular, metabolic, and endocrine phenotype of the offspring. PMID:27345310

  7. Comanche Helmet-Mounted Display Heading-Tape Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turpin, Terry; Dowell, Susan; Atencio, Adolph

    2006-01-01

    The Aeroflightdynamics Directorate (AMRDEC) conducted a simulation to assess the performance associated with a Contact Analog, world-referenced heading tape as implemented on the Comanche Helmet Integrated Display Sight System (HIDSS) when compared with a Compressed heading tape similar to that specified by the former Military Standard (MIL-STD) 1295. Six experienced pilots flew three modified Aeronautical Design Standards (ADS)-33 maneuvers (Hover Turn, Bob-up, Transient Turn) and a precision traffic pattern in the NASA Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS). Analysis of the pilot objective performance data and subjective handling qualities ratings (HQRs) showed the following: Compressed symbology in the Velocity Stabilization (VelStab) flight mode generally produced the most precise performances over Contact Analog symbology with respect to the heading, altitude, position, and time criteria specified for the maneuvers tested. VelStab outperformed the Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS) on all maneuvers achieving desired performance on most maneuvers for both symbol sets. Performance in the AFCS mode was generally desirable to adequate for heading and altitude and did not meet adequate standards for hover position and time for the Hover Turn and Bob-up maneuvers. VelStab and AFCS performance were nearly the same for the Transient Turn. Pilot comments concerning the Contact Analog heading-tape implementation were generally unfavorable in spite of the achieved levels of performance. HQRs showed Compressed symbology in the VelStab flight mode produced the lowest mean HQR, encompassing mixed ratings of satisfactory handling and needing improvement. All other symbology/flight-mode combinations yielded higher HQRs, which characterized opinions that deficiencies in aircraft handling due to HMD symbology would need improvement. Contact Analog heading tape and other symbology require improvement, especially when operating in the AFCS mode. NASA-TLX rated Compressed symbology

  8. A rare suicidal case of a ten-year-old child stabbing himself in the throat.

    PubMed

    Hasekura, H; Fukushima, H; Yonemura, I; Ota, M

    1985-10-01

    A rare case is reported of a ten-year-old boy who committed suicide by stabbing himself in the throat with a pointed knife. Possibility of an accidental injury was excluded by the autopsy findings; suspicion of a homicide by his father was cleared through the deposition of his sister. The reason of suicide was attributed directly to his father's severe scolding and indirectly to his mother's death two years before. PMID:4067552

  9. [Recurrent ventricular tachycardia as a late complication of a cardiac stab wound].

    PubMed

    Niedziela, Justyna; Wozakowska-Kapłon, Beata; Dziubek, Katarzyna; Jaskulska-Niedziela, Elzbieta; Włosowicz, Monika

    2010-01-01

    We present a case of a 55-year-old male who suffered from a cardiac stab wound in his youth and 38 years later developed unstable sustained ventricular tachycardia. Imaging showed presence of a scarf of myocardium which probably caused the arrhythmia. Arrhythmia was successfully controlled using combined treatment with pharmacotherapy and cardioverter-defibrillator implantation. Relapses of ventricular tachycardia treated by appropriate interventions of cardioverter-defibrillator occurred when the patient stopped pharmacotherapy and experienced great psychic stress. PMID:20131201

  10. 21 CFR 884.2700 - Intrauterine pressure monitor and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Intrauterine pressure monitor and accessories. 884... Monitoring Devices § 884.2700 Intrauterine pressure monitor and accessories. (a) Identification. An intrauterine pressure monitor is a device designed to detect and measure intrauterine and amniotic...

  11. [Prevention of intrauterine adhesions after hysteroscopic surgery].

    PubMed

    Revaux, A; Ducarme, G; Luton, D

    2008-03-01

    Intrauterine adhesions are the most frequent complications after hysteroscopic surgery in women of reproductive age. The prevalence of intrauterine adhesions after hysteroscopic surgery is correlated to intrauterine pathology (myoma, polyp, or adhesions). Few clinical trials have demonstrated the efficiency of barrier agents developed in order to prevent adhesions after operative hysteroscopy. Adhesion barriers are mechanic agent (intrauterine device), fluid agents (Seprafilm, Hyalobarrier) and postoperative systemic treatment (estroprogestative treatment). In this article, we evaluate the efficiency of these barrier agents for adhesion prevention in hysteroscopic surgery, undertaking a review of clinical trials published. The most frequent published studies evaluate the anatomic efficiency of antiadhesion agents after hysteroscopic surgery in order to evaluate the fertility. Data are still insufficient to evaluate them for clinical use. There is a need for other randomised controlled trials. PMID:18308609

  12. Preterm Birth, Intrauterine Infection, and Fetal Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, Matthew W.

    2014-01-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) (delivery before 37 weeks’ gestation) is a leading cause of neonatal death and disease in industrialized and developing countries alike. Infection (most notably in high-risk deliveries occurring before 28 weeks’ gestation) is hypothesized to initiate an intrauterine inflammatory response that plays a key role in the premature initiation of labor as well as a host of the pathologies associated with prematurity. As such, a better understanding of intrauterine inflammation in pregnancy is critical to our understanding of preterm labor and fetal injury, as well as on-going efforts to prevent PTB. Focusing on the fetal innate immune system responses to intrauterine infection, the present paper will review clinical and experimental studies to discuss the capacity for a fetal contribution to the intrauterine inflammation associated with PTB. Evidence from experimental studies to suggest that the fetus has the capacity to elicit a pro-inflammatory response to intrauterine infection is highlighted, with reference to the contribution of the lung, skin, and gastrointestinal tract. The paper will conclude that pathological intrauterine inflammation is a complex process that is modified by multiple factors including time, type of agonist, host genetics, and tissue. PMID:25520716

  13. The effects of intrauterine cocaine exposure in newborns.

    PubMed Central

    Bateman, D A; Ng, S K; Hansen, C A; Heagarty, M C

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. We sought to determine the effects of intrauterine cocaine exposure in newborns, in an inner-city population in which cocaine use during pregnancy was common. METHODS. During a 1-year period, 12.8% (361 of 2810) of all live singleton infants at Harlem Hospital in New York were identified as cocaine exposed, either by universal urine toxicologic screening or by maternal history. Cocaine-exposed infants were compared with a control group of 387 infants not known to be exposed to cocaine or other illicit drugs. RESULTS. Low birthweight (< 2500 g) was more common among cocaine-exposed infants (31% vs 10%), as was preterm birth (< 37 completed weeks of gestation) (32% vs 14%). In multivariate analyses controlled for demographic and life-style factors and duration of gestation, cocaine was associated with decreased birthweight (154 g), length (1.02 cm), head circumference (0.69 cm), and duration of gestation (0.74 weeks). The birthweight deficits were larger for infants born to mothers who used cocaine in combination with other drugs (195 g) and for infants born to mothers who specifically admitted using crack (200 g). CONCLUSIONS. Intrauterine cocaine exposure is linked with fetal growth retardation and shortened gestation in this population. PMID:8427321

  14. Extrinsic Factors Influencing Fetal Deformations and Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Moh, Wendy; Graham, John M.; Wadhawan, Isha; Sanchez-Lara, Pedro A.

    2012-01-01

    The causes of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are multifactorial with both intrinsic and extrinsic influences. While many studies focus on the intrinsic pathological causes, the possible long-term consequences resulting from extrinsic intrauterine physiological constraints merit additional consideration and further investigation. Infants with IUGR can exhibit early symmetric or late asymmetric growth abnormality patterns depending on the fetal stage of development, of which the latter is most common occurring in 70–80% of growth-restricted infants. Deformation is the consequence of extrinsic biomechanical factors interfering with normal growth, functioning, or positioning of the fetus in utero, typically arising during late gestation. Biomechanical forces play a critical role in the normal morphogenesis of most tissues. The magnitude and direction of force impact the form of the developing fetus, with a specific tissue response depending on its pliability and stage of development. Major uterine constraining factors include primigravida, small maternal size, uterine malformation, uterine fibromata, early pelvic engagement of the fetal head, aberrant fetal position, oligohydramnios, and multifetal gestation. Corrective mechanical forces similar to those that gave rise to the deformation to reshape the deformed structures are often used and should take advantage of the rapid postnatal growth to correct form. PMID:22888434

  15. A Rare Case of Jejunal Atresia Due to Intrauterine Intussusception.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Sanjeev B; Kinhal, Vidyadhar; Desai, Mahesh; Tilak; Choudhari, Fazal Ur Rehman

    2015-09-01

    Intestinal atresia is generally caused by intrauterine vascular obstructions involving mesenteric vessels. Intrauterine intussusceptions (IUI) are one of these disruptive events. Intestinal intussusceptions affects children commonly between 3 months and 3 years of age, but it rarely affects in intrauterine life. The relationship between intrauterine intussusception and intestinal atresia has been demonstrated by few cases in literature, suggesting intrauterine intussusception as a rare cause of intestinal atresia. We report a 7-day-old full term neonate presenting with intrauterine intussusceptions (jejuno-jejunal) resulting in jejunal atresia. PMID:26500958

  16. Stabbing and safeguarding in children and young people: a Pan-London service evaluation and audit

    PubMed Central

    Apps, John R; Williams, Carrie; McGuinness, Anne; Gabbie, Susie; Sutcliffe, Alastair G

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To characterize paediatric presentations of stabbing to emergency departments across London and to audit existing referral rates to the police and social services against the new standard set by the General Medical Council. Design Retrospective multi-centre service evaluation/audit. Setting All emergency departments within London. Participants Patients under 18 years of age presenting to emergency departments with non-accidental stabbing between 1 April 2007 and 30 April 2009. Main outcome measures Patient age, nature of assault, assailant, injuries and management. Rates of documented referral to police and social services, as mandated by GMC guidance. Results A total of 381 presentations were identified from 20 out of the 32 hospitals in London, 160 of whom were less than 16 years old. The majority were seen only by emergency department staff and only a minority (28%) were admitted. Three died in the departments. A knife was the commonest weapon and the limbs the most common site of injury. Referrals to police were documented in only 30% of patients (43% if <16 years old) and to social services in 16% (31% if <16 years old) of those discharged. In the majority, there was no documentation (police 64%, social services 79%). Conclusions A significant number of paediatric stabbings present to emergency departments across London. The majority of these are discharged directly from departments. Of those discharged, documentation regarding referral rates to Police and Social Services was poor, and documented referral rates low. This study covered a period prior to the introduction of new General Medical Council guidance and a repeat audit to assess subsequent documented referrals is required. PMID:23885300

  17. Stab injury and device implantation within the brain results in inversely multiphasic neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative responses.

    PubMed

    Potter, Kelsey A; Buck, Amy C; Self, Wade K; Capadona, Jeffrey R

    2012-08-01

    An estimated 25 million people in the US alone rely on implanted medical devices, ∼2.5 million implanted within the nervous system. Even though many devices perform adequately for years, the host response to medical devices often severely limits tissue integration and long-term performance. This host response is believed to be particularly limiting in the case of intracortical microelectrodes, where it has been shown that glial cell encapsulation and localized neuronal cell loss accompany intracortical microelectrode implantation. Since neuronal ensembles must be within ∼50 µm of the electrode to obtain neuronal spikes and local field potentials, developing a better understanding of the molecular and cellular environment at the device-tissue interface has been the subject of significant research. Unfortunately, immunohistochemical studies of scar maturation in correlation to device function have been inconclusive. Therefore, here we present a detailed quantitative study of the cellular events and the stability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) following intracortical microelectrode implantation and cortical stab injury in a chronic survival model. We found two distinctly inverse multiphasic profiles for neuronal survival in device-implanted tissue compared to stab-injured animals. For chronically implanted animals, we observed a biphasic paradigm between blood-derived/trauma-induced and CNS-derived inflammatory markers driving neurodegeneration at the interface. In contrast, stab injured animals demonstrated a CNS-mediated neurodegenerative environment. Collectively these data provide valuable insight to the possibility of multiple roles of chronic neuroinflammatory events on BBB disruption and localized neurodegeneration, while also suggesting the importance to consider multiphasic neuroinflammatory kinetics in the design of therapeutic strategies for stabilizing neural interfaces. PMID:22832283

  18. Stab injury and device implantation within the brain results in inversely multiphasic neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, Kelsey A.; Buck, Amy C.; Self, Wade K.; Capadona, Jeffrey R.

    2012-08-01

    An estimated 25 million people in the US alone rely on implanted medical devices, ˜2.5 million implanted within the nervous system. Even though many devices perform adequately for years, the host response to medical devices often severely limits tissue integration and long-term performance. This host response is believed to be particularly limiting in the case of intracortical microelectrodes, where it has been shown that glial cell encapsulation and localized neuronal cell loss accompany intracortical microelectrode implantation. Since neuronal ensembles must be within ˜50 µm of the electrode to obtain neuronal spikes and local field potentials, developing a better understanding of the molecular and cellular environment at the device-tissue interface has been the subject of significant research. Unfortunately, immunohistochemical studies of scar maturation in correlation to device function have been inconclusive. Therefore, here we present a detailed quantitative study of the cellular events and the stability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) following intracortical microelectrode implantation and cortical stab injury in a chronic survival model. We found two distinctly inverse multiphasic profiles for neuronal survival in device-implanted tissue compared to stab-injured animals. For chronically implanted animals, we observed a biphasic paradigm between blood-derived/trauma-induced and CNS-derived inflammatory markers driving neurodegeneration at the interface. In contrast, stab injured animals demonstrated a CNS-mediated neurodegenerative environment. Collectively these data provide valuable insight to the possibility of multiple roles of chronic neuroinflammatory events on BBB disruption and localized neurodegeneration, while also suggesting the importance to consider multiphasic neuroinflammatory kinetics in the design of therapeutic strategies for stabilizing neural interfaces.

  19. Prehospital ultrasound detects pericardial tamponade in a pregnant victim of stabbing assault.

    PubMed

    Byhahn, Christian; Bingold, Tobias M; Zwissler, Bernhard; Maier, Marcus; Walcher, Felix

    2008-01-01

    The development of handheld, portable ultrasound devices has enabled the use of this diagnostic tool also in the out-of-hospital environment. We report on a pregnant teenager who was found haemodynamically unstable after a stab assault. When she suffered cardiac arrest shortly thereafter, diagnosis of cardiac tamponade was made by portable ultrasound, and immediate pericardiocentesis was performed by the emergency physician. While her baby died after emergency Caesarean section, the teenager survived after thoracotomy and prolonged resuscitation without neurological sequelae. PMID:17716805

  20. Delayed myelopathy secondary to stab wound with a retained blade tip within the laminae: case report

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Ma, Lei; Ding, Wen-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Delayed neurologic deficit after a stab wound with a retained foreign body near the spinal canal is unusual, adequate radiological examination is fundamental in detecting retained foreign bodies, especially the CT scan, surgical extraction of the foreign body is the primary task and the surgical outcome is satisfactory. Here, we report a rare case of delayed myelopathy caused by spinal stenosis secondary to broken blade tip within thoracic laminae in an old man, who was injured in a knife attack 39 years ago. The incidence, clinical presentation, diagnosis and prognosis are discussed. PMID:26629221

  1. A review of stab wound injuries at a tertiary trauma centre in Singapore: are self-inflicted ones less severe?

    PubMed Central

    Leow, Jeffrey J; Lingam, Pravin; Lim, Vanessa W; Go, Karen TS; Chiu, Ming Terk; Teo, Li Tserng

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION In Singapore, as strict laws are a strong deterrent against armed violence, little is known about the epidemiology of penetrating stab wound injuries. Our study aimed to investigate the epidemiology of stab wound injuries at a major trauma centre in Singapore and determine if there was a difference in severity between self-inflicted stab wound (SI) injuries and those inflicted by others (IO). METHODS We retrospectively reviewed all penetrating injuries at Tan Tock Seng Hospital, and identified and categorised all stab wound injuries as SI or IO. Basic demographic information, injury severity characteristics and outcome data were compared between these two groups. A review of all mortalities was performed, including recording the causes of death. RESULTS Between 2005 and 2010, there were a total of 149 stab wound injuries, of which 24 (16.1%) were SI and 125 (83.9%) were IO injuries. Patients tended to be young (mean age 34.1 ± 14.2 years). The mean Injury Severity Score was significantly different between the SI and IO groups (8.8 ± 6.5 vs. 12.3 ± 8.1; p = 0.03). In both groups, the majority underwent an operative procedure (83.3% vs. 85.6%) and had an average hospital stay of four days. CONCLUSION The study confirms our hypothesis that SI injuries tend to be less severe than IO injuries and are more likely to occur at home rather than at a public area. This finding may be useful in the triage of patients with stab wound injuries. PMID:26831311

  2. The case for intrauterine stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Mattar, Citra N; Biswas, Arijit; Choolani, Mahesh; Chan, Jerry K Y

    2012-10-01

    The clinical burden imposed by the collective group of monogenic disorders demands novel therapies that are effective at achieving phenotypic cure early in the disease process before the development of permanent organ damage. This is important for lethal diseases and also for non-perinatally lethal conditions that are characterised by severe disability with little prospect of postnatal cure. Where postnatal treatments are limited to palliative options, intrauterine stem-cell therapies may offer the potential to arrest pathogenesis in the early undamaged fetus. Intrauterine stem-cell transplantation has been attempted for a variety of diseases, but has only been successful in immune deficiency states in the presence of a competitive advantage for donor cells. This disappointing clinical record requires preclinical investigations into strategies that improve donor cell engraftment, including optimising the donor cell source and manipulating the microenvironment to facilitate homing. This chapter aims to outline the current challenges of intrauterine stem-cell therapy. PMID:22809469

  3. [Intrauterine growth restriction--diagnosis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Radoń-Pokracka, Małgorzata; Huras, Hubert; Jach, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of low birth weight affects approximately 3-10% of live-born newborns in developed countries and in developing countries it affects 15-20% of newborns. The most common cause of low birth weight is considered to intrauterine fetal growth resctriction. Low birth weight is responsible for 69.6% of stillbirths and for 66.4% of neonatal deaths. The purpose of this paper is to review reliable scientific data in order to summarize the current guidelines on intrauterine fetal growth restriction, addressed to obstetricians. The present review is based on guidelines of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG), the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada (SOGC), the results of DIGITAT- (ang. The Disproportionate Growth intrauterine Intervention Trial At Term) PORTO Study- (ang. Prospective Observational Trial is the Opitimize Pedriatric Health in intrauterine Growth Restriction), TRUFFLE- (ang. Randomized Trial of Fetal and Umbilical Flow in Europe), and the available literature. PMID:26817352

  4. Laparoscopic treatment of intrauterine fallopian tube incarceration.

    PubMed

    Kondo, William; Bruns, Rafael Frederico; Nicola, Marcelo Chemin; Ribeiro, Reitan; Trippia, Carlos Henrique; Zomer, Monica Tessmann

    2013-01-01

    Herniation of the pelvic structures into the uterine cavity (appendix vermiformis, small bowel, omentum, or fallopian tube) may occur after uterine perforation. In this paper, we describe one case of intrauterine fallopian tube incarceration treated by means of laparoscopic surgery. PMID:23738168

  5. Laparoscopic Treatment of Intrauterine Fallopian Tube Incarceration

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, William; Bruns, Rafael Frederico; Nicola, Marcelo Chemin; Ribeiro, Reitan; Trippia, Carlos Henrique; Zomer, Monica Tessmann

    2013-01-01

    Herniation of the pelvic structures into the uterine cavity (appendix vermiformis, small bowel, omentum, or fallopian tube) may occur after uterine perforation. In this paper, we describe one case of intrauterine fallopian tube incarceration treated by means of laparoscopic surgery. PMID:23738168

  6. Lethal penetrating stab injury to the vertebral artery: A case report with review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Sarkari, Avijit; Singh, Pankaj K.; Mahapatra, Ashok K.

    2016-01-01

    The vertebral arteries are rarely injured in penetrating neck trauma due to their deep location in the foramen transversarium. These injuries in isolation are not associated with neurological deficits or ischemic changes on radiology as the collaterals are usually sufficient. We report a case of fatal unilateral vertebral artery stab injury leading to bilateral cerebellar and brainstem infarction. The carotid Doppler ruled out the presence of any carotid artery injury. Life-threatening injuries are possible in the presence of hypoplastic contralateral vertebral artery or inadequate flow from the anterior circulation not making up for the deficit. This emphasizes that thorough evaluation and timely management of suspected injuries to even a single vertebral artery should be undertaken. PMID:27366277

  7. Complex suicide by self-stabbing with subsequent drowning in the sea.

    PubMed

    Kaliszan, Michał; Karnecki, Karol; Tomczak, Ewa; Gos, Tomasz; Jankowski, Zbigniew

    2013-09-01

    The paper presents a unique case of a complex suicide committed by a young man, mostly probably triggered by a disappointment in love. The uniqueness of the suicide lies in the fact that the victim inflicted several deep stab wounds on himself, in the chest and abdomen, while standing partly submerged in the sea and, having done so, he dropped and disappeared in the water. The postmortem examination showed, apart from deep wounds in the trunk, characteristics of drowning that manifested itself in the form of aqueous emphysema of the lungs. Suicide was clearly determined on the basis of the circumstances preceding death, the location, and arrangement of the trunk wounds and the testimony given by a witness of the incident. The circumstances preceding the suicidal act clearly suggest an underlying undiagnosed mental disorder. PMID:23866029

  8. Differences between postmortem computed tomography and conventional autopsy in a stabbing murder case

    PubMed Central

    Zerbini, Talita; da Silva, Luiz Fernando Ferraz; Ferro, Antonio Carlos Gonçalves; Kay, Fernando Uliana; Junior, Edson Amaro; Pasqualucci, Carlos Augusto Gonçalves; do Nascimento Saldiva, Paulo Hilario

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present work is to analyze the differences and similarities between the elements of a conventional autopsy and images obtained from postmortem computed tomography in a case of a homicide stab wound. METHOD: Comparison between the findings of different methods: autopsy and postmortem computed tomography. RESULTS: In some aspects, autopsy is still superior to imaging, especially in relation to external examination and the description of lesion vitality. However, the findings of gas embolism, pneumothorax and pulmonary emphysema and the relationship between the internal path of the instrument of aggression and the entry wound are better demonstrated by postmortem computed tomography. CONCLUSIONS: Although multislice computed tomography has greater accuracy than autopsy, we believe that the conventional autopsy method is fundamental for providing evidence in criminal investigations. PMID:25518020

  9. Lethal penetrating stab injury to the vertebral artery: A case report with review of literature.

    PubMed

    Sarkari, Avijit; Singh, Pankaj K; Mahapatra, Ashok K

    2016-01-01

    The vertebral arteries are rarely injured in penetrating neck trauma due to their deep location in the foramen transversarium. These injuries in isolation are not associated with neurological deficits or ischemic changes on radiology as the collaterals are usually sufficient. We report a case of fatal unilateral vertebral artery stab injury leading to bilateral cerebellar and brainstem infarction. The carotid Doppler ruled out the presence of any carotid artery injury. Life-threatening injuries are possible in the presence of hypoplastic contralateral vertebral artery or inadequate flow from the anterior circulation not making up for the deficit. This emphasizes that thorough evaluation and timely management of suspected injuries to even a single vertebral artery should be undertaken. PMID:27366277

  10. Spinal Cord Injury Caused by Stab Wounds: Incidence, Natural History, and Relevance for Future Research.

    PubMed

    McCaughey, Euan J; Purcell, Mariel; Barnett, Susan C; Allan, David B

    2016-08-01

    Spinal cord injury caused by stab wounds (SCISW) results from a partial or complete transection of the cord, and presents opportunities for interventional research. It is recognized that there is low incidence, but little is known about the natural history or the patient's suitability for long-term clinical outcome studies. This study aims to provide population-based evidence of the demographics of SCISW, and highlight the issues regarding the potential for future research. The database of the Queen Elizabeth National Spinal Injuries Unit (QENSIU), the sole center for treating SCI in Scotland, was reviewed between 1994 and 2013 to ascertain the incidence, demographics, functional recovery, and mortality rates for new SCISW. During this 20 year period, 35 patients with SCISW were admitted (97.1% male, mean age 30.0 years); 31.4% had a cervical injury, 60.0% had a thoracic injury, and 8.6% had a lumbar injury. All had a neurological examination, with 42.9% diagnosed as motor complete on admission and 77.1% discharged as motor incomplete. A total of 70.4% of patients with an American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale (AIS) level of A to C on admission had an improved AIS level on discharge. Nine (25.7%) patients have died since discharge, with mean life expectancy for these patients being 9.1 years after injury (20-65 years of age). Patients had higher levels of comorbidities, substance abuse, secondary events, and poor compliance compared with the general SCI population, which may have contributed to the high mortality rate observed post-discharge. The low incidence, heterogeneous nature, spontaneous recovery rate, and problematic follow-up makes those with penetrating stab injuries of the spinal cord a challenging patient group for SCI research. PMID:26825180

  11. Trophoblastic markers in women using intrauterine contraception.

    PubMed

    Ylikorkala, O; Siljander, M; Huhtaniemi, I; Kauppila, A; Seppälä, M

    1980-03-01

    Serum levels of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and pregnancy-specific beta 1-glycoprotein (PSBG) were measured in 214 women using Copper-T200 intrauterine devices (CIUDs). In a cross-sectional study the samples were taken between the 25th and 35th cycle days, 1 sample per cycle. Either trophoblastic marker was detectable in 8 women (3.7%), hCG in 3 (1.4%), PSBG in 7 (3.3%), and both markers together in (0.9%). Normal menstruation-like bleeding ensued in all but 1 woman whose bleeding was delayed by 5 days. Our results suggest that the intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD) prevents pregnancy mainly before significant amounts of trophoblastic products are secreted. Still, the incidence of subclinical abortion based on the demonstration of trophoblastic markers in serum was 7 to 10 times higher than that of established pregnancy in women using a CIUD. PMID:6965779

  12. Placental Nutrient Transport and Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Gaccioli, Francesca; Lager, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction refers to the inability of the fetus to reach its genetically determined potential size. Fetal growth restriction affects approximately 5–15% of all pregnancies in the United States and Europe. In developing countries the occurrence varies widely between 10 and 55%, impacting about 30 million newborns per year. Besides having high perinatal mortality rates these infants are at greater risk for severe adverse outcomes, such as hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy and cerebral palsy. Moreover, reduced fetal growth has lifelong health consequences, including higher risks of developing metabolic and cardiovascular diseases in adulthood. Numerous reports indicate placental insufficiency as one of the underlying causes leading to altered fetal growth and impaired placental capacity of delivering nutrients to the fetus has been shown to contribute to the etiology of intrauterine growth restriction. Indeed, reduced expression and/or activity of placental nutrient transporters have been demonstrated in several conditions associated with an increased risk of delivering a small or growth restricted infant. This review focuses on human pregnancies and summarizes the changes in placental amino acid, fatty acid, and glucose transport reported in conditions associated with intrauterine growth restriction, such as maternal undernutrition, pre-eclampsia, young maternal age, high altitude and infection. PMID:26909042

  13. Predictive factors for intrauterine growth restriction

    PubMed Central

    Albu, AR; Anca, AF; Horhoianu, VV; Horhoianu, IA

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Reduced fetal growth is seen in about 10% of the pregnancies but only a minority has a pathological background and is known as intrauterine growth restriction or fetal growth restriction (IUGR / FGR). Increased fetal and neonatal mortality and morbidity as well as adult pathologic conditions are often associated to IUGR. Risk factors for IUGR are easy to assess but have poor predictive value. For the diagnostic purpose, biochemical serum markers, ultrasound and Doppler study of uterine and spiral arteries, placental volume and vascularization, first trimester growth pattern are object of assessment today. Modern evaluations propose combined algorithms using these strategies, all with the goal of a better prediction of risk pregnancies. Abbreviations: SGA = small for gestational age; IUGR = intrauterine growth restriction; FGR = fetal growth restriction; IUFD = intrauterine fetal demise; HIV = human immunodeficiency virus; PAPP-A = pregnancy associated plasmatic protein A; β-hCG = beta human chorionic gonadotropin; MoM = multiple of median; ADAM-12 = A-disintegrin and metalloprotease 12; PP-13 = placental protein 13; VEGF = vascular endothelial growth factor; PlGF = placental growth factor; sFlt-1 = soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1; UAD = uterine arteries Doppler ultrasound; RI = resistence index; PI = pulsatility index; VOCAL = Virtual Organ Computer–Aided Analysis software; VI = vascularization index; FI = flow index; VFI = vascularization flow index; PQ = placental quotient PMID:25408721

  14. Consequences in Infants That Were Intrauterine Growth Restricted

    PubMed Central

    Cosmi, Erich; Fanelli, Tiziana; Visentin, Silvia; Trevisanuto, Daniele; Zanardo, Vincenzo

    2011-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction is a condition fetus does not reach its growth potential and associated with perinatal mobility and mortality. Intrauterine growth restriction is caused by placental insufficiency, which determines cardiovascular abnormalities in the fetus. This condition, moreover, should prompt intensive antenatal surveillance of the fetus as well as follow-up of infants that had intrauterine growth restriction as short and long-term sequele should be considered. PMID:21547088

  15. Heads Up

    MedlinePlus

    ... Juvenil HEADS UP to School Sports Online Concussion Training Coaches Parents Athletes Sports Officials HEADS UP to Schools School Nurses Teachers, Counselors, and School Professionals Parents HEADS UP ...

  16. Spontaneous intrauterine umbilical artery thrombosis leading to severe fetal growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Klaritsch, P; Haeusler, M; Karpf, E; Schlembach, D; Lang, U

    2008-04-01

    Intrauterine thrombosis of umbilical cord vessels is a rare event (2.5-4.5/10,000) and usually followed by poor fetal outcome. We present the rare case of spontaneous intrauterine thrombosis of an umbilical artery leading to severe intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and provide clinical and pathological findings. A 28-year-old nulliparous third gravida was referred to our institution because of IUGR at 32+4 weeks of gestation. Fetal growth had been appropriate until the 31st week of gestation and had stopped thereafter. There were no signs of abruption of the placenta and no structural abnormalities except an absent paravesical colour Doppler flow in the region of the right umbilical artery. Other Doppler measurements, karyotype and TORCH serology were normal. Intermittent non-reassuring fetal heart rate led to cesarean section at 34+3 weeks of gestation. A healthy girl with measurements on the 3rd centile was born (weight of 1,590 g, length of 41 cm and head circumference of 29 cm). Gross examination displayed an elongated, highly twisted umbilical cord with a length of 70 cm, central insertion and three umbilical vessels. Microscopic examination confirmed the diagnosis of umbilical artery thrombosis along the entire length of the umbilical cord. Calcification within the thrombus and microcalcification in occluded chorionic vessels were observed as well as hemorrhagic endovasculitis and endangiopathia obliterans in the stem villi arteries. This fetal thrombotic vasculopathy (FTV) comprised about 40% of the parenchyma. The coagulation parameters and blood counts of the mother and the infant were normal apart from transient neonatal thrombocytopenia. The reason for thrombosis remained unclear but could be attributed to the elongated and highly twisted umbilical cord. Intrauterine arterial thrombosis may cause severe IUGR. This condition might be detectable by ultrasound in the course of an IUGR workup, especially when no other reasons can be found. PMID:18289672

  17. [Forensic medical expertise of the stab wounds: the current state-of-the art].

    PubMed

    Sarkisian, B A; Karpov, D A

    2014-01-01

    This review of special literature encompasses the publications on the injuries inflicted by piercing objects. The results of analysis of these materials indicate that both the mechanisms of formation and the morphological features of stab wounds and damages to the clothes are studied perfectly well. Their shape and morphological patterns are shown to be dependent on the size, shape, and cross-section area of the great variety of the piercing objects. However, investigations carried out thus far did not take into consideration the formation of the signs of skin plastic deformation, such as edge portions of borderline thickening, stretching of epidermis over the walls, transformation of the epidermal network pattern into longitudinal folding, etc. It is concluded that further studies are necessary to better characterize injuries inflicted by piercing objects differing in the sharpness and the shape of cross section and thereby to obtain a deeper insight in the morphological features. It can be expected that such studies will provide a basis for the development of criteria for the individual and intra-group expert identification of the traumatic agents. PMID:25269165

  18. Endovascular Repair of an Actively Hemorrhaging Stab Wound Injury to the Abdominal Aorta

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, Qasim; Maleux, Geert Heye, Sam; Fourneau, Inge

    2008-09-15

    Traumatic injury of the abdominal aorta is rare and potentially lethal (Yeh et al., J Vasc Surg 42(5):1007-1009, 2005; Chicos et al., Chirurgia (Bucur) 102(2):237-240, 2007) as it can result in major retroperitoneal hemorrhage, requiring an urgent open surgery. In case of concomitant bowel injury or other conditions of hostile abdomen, endovascular repair can be an alternative treatment. This case report deals with a 50-year-old man presenting at the emergency ward with three stab wounds: two in the abdomen and one in the chest. During explorative laparotomy, liver laceration and bowel perforation were repaired. One day later, abdominal CT-scan revealed an additional retroperitoneal hematoma associated with an aortic pseudoaneurysm, located anteriorly 3 cm above the aortic bifurcation. Because of the risk of graft infection, an endovascular repair of the aortic injury using a Gore excluder stent-graft was performed. Radiological and clinical follow-up revealed a gradual shrinkage of the pseudo-aneurysm and no sign of graft infection at two years' follow-up.

  19. Multiple severe stab wounds to chest with cuts to the ribs. Suicide or homicide?

    PubMed

    Kaliszan, Michał

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the case of a 36-year-old man found dead in a forest near his home with multiple stab wounds on the chest and abdomen, while the chest wounds penetrated deep into the left pleural cavity and the lung parenchyma, completely cutting through the bone sections of four ribs along the channels of the wounds. In addition, a kitchen knife dug into the ground was found in the immediate vicinity of the corpse. The deceased was wearing a T-shirt with numerous clearly visible holes in places corresponding to the wounds and quite a large tear at the bottom. The post-mortem revealed 19 distinct wounds of the chest as well as a dozen or so superficial marks of cuts or pricks with a pointed tool on the torso. The findings of the police investigation suggested that shortly before death the man was in a bad mood and he had been telling his friends to prepare for his funeral, which was supposed to point to suicidal tendencies. Could, however, such numerous and heavy bodily injuries have been self-inflicted and would such a wounded person still be able to dig a knife into hard forest bed? If yes, in this case we are most probably dealing with aggressive self-destruction, a type of behavior sometimes observed in people suffering from serious mental disorders. PMID:21216377

  20. Stabbing Yourself in the Heart: A Case of Autoimmunity Gone Awry

    PubMed Central

    Vigneswaran, Hari; Parikh, Leslie; Poppas, Athena

    2015-01-01

    Within internal medicine, cardiac and neurologic pathology comprises a vast majority of patient complaints. Physicians and advanced-care practitioners must be highly educated and comfortable in the evaluation, diagnosis, and management of these entities. Chest pain accounts for millions of annual visits to the emergency room with pericarditis diagnosed in approximately four percent of patients with nonischemic chest pain. Guillain-Barre Syndrome is autoimmune polyneuropathy that often results in transient paralysis. Simultaneous diagnosis of both entities is a rare but described phenomenon. Here, we present a clinical case of GBS associated pericarditis. A fifty-five-year-old man with history of renal transplant presented with lower extremity weakness and urinary incontinence. Physical exam and diagnostic studies confirmed Guillain-Barre Syndrome. Patient subsequently developed stabbing chest pain with clinical presentation and electrocardiogram consistent with pericarditis. The patient was successfully treated for both diseases. This case highlights that although infrequent, internal medicine care providers must be cognizant of this correlation to ensure timely diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26664359

  1. Penetration of a piece of World War II rifle grenade initially suspected as a stab wound.

    PubMed

    Raul, Jean-Sébastien; Berthelon, Laurent; Tracqui, Antoine; Ludes, Bertrand

    2002-09-01

    The authors report the case of a 58-year-old man found dead by his son in the forest where he had gone to cut wood for winter. Initial examination showed an upper left laterocervical wound compatible with a stab wound. Radiography and autopsy performed the next day showed a piece of metal located in the left part of the occipital bone, associated with a half-ring fracture of the occipital bone and consequent diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage. Death was attributed to a spinal shock after impact at the cervicocephalic junction. Investigators returned to the scene and found a few more metal elements and also a 20-cm deep and 40-cm wide crater underneath a fire the deceased had set. Army experts concluded that the metal pieces belonged to an ATM 9 antitank rifle grenade used by the U.S. Army during World War II. Death was considered accidental, the deceased having unfortunately set a fire over the grenade. PMID:12198357

  2. The spectrum of injuries resulting from posterior abdominal stab wounds: a South African experience

    PubMed Central

    Oosthuizen, GV; Clarke, DL

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The spectrum of injury associated with anterior abdominal stab wounds (SWs) is well established. The literature on the spectrum of organ injury associated with SWs to the posterior abdomen, however, is limited. Methods We reviewed our experience of 105 consecutive patients who had established indications for laparotomy managed over a 4-year period in a high volume trauma service in South Africa. Results Of the 105 patients, 97 (92%) were male and the overall mean age was 24 years. Fifty-seven patients (54%) had immediate indications for laparotomy. The remaining 48 patients (46%) initially underwent active clinical observation and the indications for laparotomy became apparent during the observation period. Of the 105 laparotomies performed, 94 (90%) were positive and 11 (10%) were negative. Of the 94 positive laparotomies, 92 were therapeutic and 2 were non-therapeutic. A total of 176 organ injuries were identified: 50 (53%) of the 94 patients sustained a single organ injury while the remaining 44 (47%) sustained multiple organ injuries. The most commonly injured organs were the colon (n=63), spleen (n=21) and kidney (n=19). Conclusions The pattern of intra-abdominal injuries secondary to SWs to the posterior abdomen is different to that seen with the anterior abdomen. Colonic injury is most commonly encountered, followed by injuries to the spleen and kidney. Clinicians must remain vigilant because of the potential for occult injuries. PMID:26263933

  3. Does cone beam CT actually ameliorate stab wound analysis in bone?

    PubMed

    Gaudio, D; Di Giancamillo, M; Gibelli, D; Galassi, A; Cerutti, E; Cattaneo, C

    2014-01-01

    This study aims at verifying the potential of a recent radiological technology, cone beam CT (CBCT), for the reproduction of digital 3D models which may allow the user to verify the inner morphology of sharp force wounds within the bone tissue. Several sharp force wounds were produced by both single and double cutting edge weapons on cancellous and cortical bone, and then acquired by cone beam CT scan. The lesions were analysed by different software (a DICOM file viewer and reverse engineering software). Results verified the limited performances of such technology for lesions made on cortical bone, whereas on cancellous bone reliable models were obtained, and the precise morphology within the bone tissues was visible. On the basis of such results, a method for differential diagnosis between cutmarks by sharp tools with a single and two cutting edges can be proposed. On the other hand, the metrical computerised analysis of lesions highlights a clear increase of error range for measurements under 3 mm. Metric data taken by different operators shows a strong dispersion (% relative standard deviation). This pilot study shows that the use of CBCT technology can improve the investigation of morphological stab wounds on cancellous bone. Conversely metric analysis of the lesions as well as morphological analysis of wound dimension under 3 mm do not seem to be reliable. PMID:23392761

  4. [Intrauterine extraction of intrauterine devices using the BMK-2 extractor of our design].

    PubMed

    Berić, B; Vukelić, J; Marjanović, M; Bujas, M; Tomcova, A

    1989-01-01

    The so-called "lost" IUD's cannot be removed by common vaginocervical traction. The author extracts them by the intrauterine BMK-extractor (Instrumntalia, Zagreb) of his own construction. There were 150 extractions with no complication, performed by the use of the BMK-2 extractor in period from August 1, 1985 to December 31, 1988. PMID:2640268

  5. 21 CFR 529.1044a - Gentamicin sulfate intrauterine solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate intrauterine solution. 529... § 529.1044a Gentamicin sulfate intrauterine solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 50 or 100 milligrams gentamicin sulfate. (b) Sponsors. See Nos. 000010, 000061, 000856,...

  6. 21 CFR 529.1044a - Gentamicin sulfate intrauterine solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate intrauterine solution. 529... § 529.1044a Gentamicin sulfate intrauterine solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 50 or 100 milligrams gentamicin sulfate. (b) Sponsors. See Nos. 000010, 000061, 000856,...

  7. 21 CFR 529.1044a - Gentamicin sulfate intrauterine solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate intrauterine solution. 529... § 529.1044a Gentamicin sulfate intrauterine solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 50 or 100 milligrams gentamicin sulfate. (b) Sponsors. See Nos. 000010, 000061, 000856,...

  8. 21 CFR 529.1044a - Gentamicin sulfate intrauterine solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate intrauterine solution. 529... § 529.1044a Gentamicin sulfate intrauterine solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 50 or 100 milligrams gentamicin sulfate. (b) Sponsors. See Nos. 000010, 000061, 000856,...

  9. Intrauterine Growth and Infant Temperamental Difficulties: The Generation R Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roza, Sabine J.; Van Lier, Pol A. C.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Moll, Henriette A.; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tiemeier, Henning

    2008-01-01

    The Generation R Study a population-based prospective cohort study from fetal life to young adulthood is conducted to explore the possibility of an association between infant temperament and intrauterine growth trajectories. Results concluded little indication of any association between infant temperament and intrauterine growth trajectories.

  10. 21 CFR 529.50 - Amikacin sulfate intrauterine solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amikacin sulfate intrauterine solution. 529.50... Amikacin sulfate intrauterine solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains 250 milligrams of amikacin (as the sulfate). (b) Sponsor. See No. 000856 and 059130 in §...

  11. Intra-uterine hematoma in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Glavind, K; Nøhr, S; Nielsen, P H; Ipsen, L

    1991-06-01

    In 60 patients with a live fetus and an intra-uterine hematoma (IUH) proven by ultrasonic scanning the outcome of pregnancy was spontaneous abortion in 12% and premature delivery in 10%. No correlation between the outcome of the pregnancy and the maximum size of the hematoma or the week of detection was found. A subplacentar localization of the hematoma was associated with a higher, but not statistically significant, incidence of spontaneous abortion than a subchorionic localization. Spontaneous abortion most often occurred in the first weeks after the formation of the hematoma. PMID:1855608

  12. Obstetric management of intrauterine growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Marsál, Karel

    2009-12-01

    The aim of obstetric management is to identify growth-restricted foetuses at risk of severe intrauterine hypoxia, to monitor their health and to deliver when the adverse outcome is imminent. After 30-32 gestational weeks, a Doppler finding of absent or reverse end-diastolic flow in the umbilical artery of a small-for-gestational age foetus is in itself an indication for delivery. In very preterm foetuses, the intrauterine risks have to be balanced against the risk of prematurity. All available diagnostic information (e.g., Doppler velocimetry of umbilical artery, foetal central arteries and veins and of maternal uterine arteries; foetal heart rate with computerised analysis of short-term variability; amniotic fluid amount; and foetal gestational age-related weight) should be collected to support the timing of delivery. If possible, the delivery should optimally take place before the onset of late signs of foetal hypoxia (pathological foetal heart rate pattern, severely abnormal ductus venosus blood velocity waveform, pulsations in the umbilical vein). PMID:19854682

  13. Intrauterine resuscitation: active management of fetal distress.

    PubMed

    Thurlow, J A; Kinsella, S M

    2002-04-01

    Acute fetal distress in labour is a condition of progressive fetal asphyxia with hypoxia and acidosis. It is usually diagnosed by finding characteristic features in the fetal heart rate pattern, wherever possible supported by fetal scalp pH measurement. Intrauterine resuscitation consists of applying specific measures with the aim of increasing oxygen delivery to the placenta and umbilical blood flow, in order to reverse hypoxia and acidosis. These measures include initial left lateral recumbent positioning followed by right lateral or knee-elbow if necessary, rapid intravenous infusion of a litre of non-glucose crystalloid, maternal oxygen administration at the highest practical inspired percentage, inhibition of uterine contractions usually with subcutaneous or intravenous terbutaline 250 microg, and intra-amniotic infusion of warmed crystalloid solution. Specific manoeuvres for umbilical cord prolapse are also described. Intrauterine resuscitation may be used as part of the obstetric management of labour, while preparing for caesarean delivery for fetal distress, or at the time of establishment of regional analgesia during labour in the compromised fetus. The principles may also be applied during inter-hospital transfers of sick or labouring parturients. PMID:15321562

  14. Amniotic fluid embolism after intrauterine fetal demise.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Karl; Langdana, Fali; Clentworth, Howard; Hansby, Chu; Dalley, Paul

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of the successful treatment of severe amniotic fluid embolism in a 41-year-old woman undergoing emergency caesarean section at 36 weeks of gestation for placental abruption and intrauterine fetal demise. The treatment included prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation, emergency hysterectomy, re-operation with intra-abdominal packing and intra-aortic balloon pump insertion. The patient made a remarkable recovery and to date has minimal residual morbidity. Amniotic fluid embolism syndrome (AFES) is a rare and often fatal obstetric condition that remains one of the main causes of maternal mortality in developed countries. The incidence varies from 2 to 6 per 100,000 and suggested mortality rates exceed 60%.1-2 The classic triad of sudden hypoxia, hypotension and coagulopathy with acute onset during labour or immediately after delivery forms the hallmark of the AFES diagnosis, however AFES is primarily a clinical diagnosis of exclusion. We present a case of successful maternal outcome following severe amniotic fluid embolism after placental abruption and intrauterine fetal demise. PMID:27607089

  15. Excretion of biliary compounds during intrauterine life

    PubMed Central

    Macias, Rocio IR; Marin, Jose JG; Serrano, Maria A

    2009-01-01

    In adults, the hepatobiliary system, together with the kidney, constitute the main routes for the elimination of several endogenous and xenobiotic compounds into bile and urine, respectively. However, during intrauterine life the biliary route of excretion for cholephilic compounds, such as bile acids and biliary pigments, is very poor. Although very early in pregnancy the fetal liver produces bile acids, bilirubin and biliverdin, these compounds cannot be efficiently eliminated by the fetal hepatobiliary system, owing to the immaturity of the excretory machinery in the fetal liver. Therefore, the potentially harmful accumulation of cholephilic compounds in the fetus is prevented by their elimination across the placenta. Owing to the presence of detoxifying enzymes and specific transport systems at different locations of the placental barrier, such as the endothelial cells of chorionic vessels and trophoblast cells, this organ plays an important role in the hepatobiliary-like function during intrauterine life. The relevance of this excretory function in normal fetal physiology is evident in situations where high concentrations of biliary compounds are accumulated in the mother. This may result in oxidative stress and apoptosis, mainly in the placenta and fetal liver, which might affect normal fetal development and challenge the fate of the pregnancy. The present article reviews current knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the hepatobiliary function of the fetal-placental unit and the repercussions of several pathological conditions on this tandem. PMID:19230042

  16. Stab Incision Glaucoma Surgery: A Modified Guarded Filtration Procedure for Primary Open Angle Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Soosan; Figus, Michele; Ashok Kumar, Dhivya; Areeckal Incy, Saijimol

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To describe a modified guarded filtration surgery, stab incision glaucoma surgery (SIGS), for primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). Methods. This prospective, interventional case series included patients with POAG (IOP ≥21 mmHg with glaucomatous visual field defects). After sliding superior conjunctiva down over limbus, 2.8 mm bevel-up keratome was used to create conjunctival entry and superficial corneoscleral tunnel in a single step starting 1.5 mm behind limbus. Lamellar corneoscleral tunnel was carefully dissected 0.5–1 mm into cornea and anterior chamber (AC) was entered. Kelly Descemet's punch (1 mm) was slid along the tunnel into AC to punch internal lip of the tunnel, thereby compromising it. Patency of ostium was assessed by injecting fluid in AC and visualizing leakage from tunnel. Conjunctival incision alone was sutured. Results. Mean preoperative IOP was 27.41 ± 5.54 mmHg and mean postoperative IOP was 16.47 ± 4.81 mmHg (n = 17). Mean reduction in IOP was 38.81 ± 16.55%. There was significant reduction of IOP (p < 0.000). 64.7% had IOP at final follow-up of <18 mmHg without medication and 82.35% had IOP <18 mmHg with ≤2 medications. No sight threatening complications were encountered. Conclusion. Satisfactory IOP control was noted after SIGS in interim follow-up (14.18 ± 1.88 months). PMID:27144015

  17. Assessment of Reporting, Attitudes and Knowledge About the Stab Incidents and Professional Risk of Viral Infection among Health Care Professionals in Primary Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Becirovic, Sabina; Pranjic, Nurka; Sarajlic-Spahic, Selvedina; Ahmetagic, Sead; Huseinagic, Senad

    2013-01-01

    Conflict of interest: none declared. Goal The goal of the research is to determine the relationship between frequency and reporting of stab incidents, attitudes and knowledge about stab incidents and occupational risk for transmission of viral infection with HBV, HCV or HIV among health care professionals employed in primary health care. Material and methods Conducted is prospective, cross-section study by questionnaires in 2012. The survey included health professionals in Primary Health Care Center in Tuzla. The final sample has 131 respondents (85% women). Statistical analysis was performed using the statistical package SPSS version 20.0. Results The prevalence rate of stab incidents throughout their career in our study was 66%; while the rate of reported incidents was 4.83 ˜ 5 times lower than the actual prevalence. In 49 out of 87 cases this was a case of hollow needle prick. The most common causes of stab incidents are the time pressure, unforeseen reactions of patients and lack of concentration. Conclusion Stab incidents are often not reported in in developing countries. Training in order to raise awareness and knowledge about the problem, proper procedures, good organization of work and anti-stress program, safer disposal, conducting prophylaxis before and after exposure monitored by the relevant institutions of occupational medicine should contribute to solving this problem. PMID:24082835

  18. Head circumference

    MedlinePlus

    ... a child's head circumference Normal ranges for a child's sex and age (weeks, months), based on values that experts have obtained for normal growth rates of infants' and children's heads Measurement of the head circumference is an ...

  19. Head Lice

    MedlinePlus

    Head lice are parasitic wingless insects. They live on people's heads and feed on their blood. An adult louse ... Children ages 3-11 and their families get head lice most often. Personal hygiene has nothing to ...

  20. Head Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... of head injuries include bicycle or motorcycle wrecks, sports injuries, falls from windows (especially among children who live ... to watch for? When can I start playing sports again after a head injury? How can brain damage from a head injury ...

  1. Head Lice

    MedlinePlus

    Head lice are parasitic wingless insects. They live on people's heads and feed on their blood. An adult ... Children ages 3-11 and their families get head lice most often. Personal hygiene has nothing to do ...

  2. The Perforated Intrauterine Device: Endoscopic Retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Heinberg, Eric M.; McCoy, Travis W.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Uterine perforation is the most serious complication associated with an intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD). Minimally invasive techniques, such as hysteroscopy and advanced laparoscopy, are ideally suited to the diagnosis and surgical management of the perforated IUD. Case Reports: Three cases of uterine perforation caused by an IUD and treated with endoscopic surgery are presented. In all 3 cases, the IUD was located by using x-rays, ultrasonography, or pelvic magnetic resonance imaging. Diagnostic laparoscopy was performed to identify the specific location of the IUD and to remove it. All patients recovered without incident. Conclusion: The gynecologic surgeon should acquire familiarity with the complications of, and proficiency in managing, perforated and ectopic IUDs by using modern surgical techniques that permit the patient's rapid return to health. PMID:18402749

  3. The intrauterine device: dispelling the myths.

    PubMed

    Kimble-Haas, S L

    1998-11-01

    The worldwide popularity and usage of intrauterine devices (IUDs) plummeted in the 1970s, when grim reports of septic abortions and pelvic inflammatory disease were published. Although the Dalkon Shield ultimately was determined to be the culprit for these problems, the reputation of all IUDs was damaged, and their popularity spiraled downward. The stigma continues, despite the proven safety and efficacy of newer IUDs, particularly the ParaGard T 380A and the Progestasert, which are now the only two IUDs approved for use in the United States. This article will review how the IUD works and will focus on dispelling the misconceptions surrounding its use. Rigid patient-selection guidelines and strict aseptic insertion techniques can provide safe, long-term, cost-effective, and highly efficacious contraception for monogamous women. Practitioners who follow these guidelines should not fear prescribing IUDs as a contraceptive device in the appropriate female population. PMID:9834505

  4. Intrauterine insemination for treatment of male infertility.

    PubMed

    Keck, C; Gerber-Schäfer, C; Wilhelm, C; Vogelgesang, D; Breckwoldt, M

    1997-01-01

    Intrauterine inseminations (IUI) have been performed since the beginning of this century for treatment of infertility. Despite its widespread use the clinical value of this technique remains unclear. Today, indications for IUI include male factor, cervical factor, immunological and unexplained infertility and infertility due to ejaculatory disorders. IUI is superior to intravaginal (IVI) or intracervical insemination (ICI). Before insemination, semen has to be processed using one of the established sperm preparation techniques. Different techniques seem to be equally effective in preparing a highly concentrated sperm fraction with progressively motile, morphologically normal sperm. Ovarian stimulation further improves pregnancy rates achieved by insemination. Human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG) stimulation seems to be superior to clomiphene citrate stimulation. Among other factors, timing and number of inseminations are crucial when influencing the outcome of IUI treatment. PMID:9466187

  5. Early Adolescent Executive Functioning, Intrauterine Exposures and Own Drug Use

    PubMed Central

    Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Soenksen, Shayna; Appugliese, Danielle P.; Cabral, Howard J.; Richardson, Mark A.; Beeghly, Marjorie; Heeren, Timothy C.; Frank, Deborah A.

    2011-01-01

    Individual differences in adolescents' executive functioning are often attributed either to intrauterine substance exposure or to adolescents' own substance use, but both predictors typically have not been evaluated simultaneously in the same study. This prospective study evaluated whether intrauterine drug exposures, the adolescents' own substance use, and/or their potential interactions are related to poorer executive functioning after controlling for important contextual variables. Analyses were based on data collected on a sample of 137 predominantly African-American/ African Caribbean adolescents from low-income urban backgrounds who were followed since their term birth. Intrauterine substance exposures (cocaine, marijuana, alcohol, cigarettes) and adolescents' substance use were documented using a combination of biological assays and maternal and adolescent self-report. At 12-14 years of age, examiners masked to intrauterine exposures and current substance use assessed the adolescents using the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS), an age-referenced instrument evaluating multiple dimensions of executive functioning (EF). Results of covariate-controlled analyses in this study suggest that when intrauterine substance exposures and young adolescents' substance use variables were in the same analysis models, subtle differences in specific EF outcomes were identifiable in this non-referred sample. While further study with larger samples is indicated, these findings suggest that 1) research on adolescent substance use and intrauterine exposure research should evaluate both predictors simultaneously; 2) subtle neurocognitive effects associated with specific intrauterine drug exposures can be identified during early adolescence; and 3) intrauterine substance exposure effects may differ from those associated with adolescents' own drug use. PMID:21371553

  6. New technique for managing second trimester intrauterine fetal death.

    PubMed

    Malpani, A; Malpani, A; Krishna, U

    1989-03-01

    In this study, a new method for terminating second trimester pregnancies complicated by intrauterine fetal death is analysed. The technique consisted of a combination of extraamniotic ethacridine lactate with intramuscular sulprostone (16-phenoxy-omega-17,18,19,20 tetranor PGE2 methyl sulfonylamide). Objective documentation of the efficacy of this method was obtained by continuous monitoring of intrauterine pressure in two patients. The method was found to be simple, safe, cheap and effective and deserves increased acceptance. PMID:2564363

  7. Intrauterine Growth Restriction Associated with Excessively Long Umbilical Cord

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Ann; Jacquemyn, Yves; Loor, Jeannette De

    2013-01-01

    We present a 37-week female baby, known with intrauterine growth restriction since 25 weeks of pregnancy, born with a placenta with an excessive long umbilical cord (ELUC), without any other abnormalities. ELUC is mostly an incidental finding after delivery, but represents a potentially detectable intrauterine cause of growth restriction. A system that allows ultrasound measurement of the length of the umbilical cord could highly increase antenatal diagnosis of ELUC. PMID:24765511

  8. Small Size at Birth or Abnormal Intrauterine Growth Trajectory: Which Matters More for Child Growth?

    PubMed

    Hutcheon, Jennifer A; Jacobsen, Geir W; Kramer, Michael S; Martinussen, Marit; Platt, Robert W

    2016-06-15

    Small size at birth is linked with lifelong adverse health implications. However, small size is only a proxy for the pathological process of interest, intrauterine growth restriction. We examined the extent to which information on intrauterine growth patterns improved prediction of childhood anthropometry, above and beyond birth weight alone. We obtained fetal weights estimated via serial ultrasound for 478 children in the Scandinavian Successive Small-for-Gestational-Age Births Study (1986-1988). Size at birth was classified using birth weight-for-gestational-age z scores and conditional fetal growth z scores (reflecting growth between 25 weeks' gestation and birth) using internal references. Conditional z scores were also expressed as residuals of birth weight z scores. Growth measures were linked with age-5-years anthropometric characteristics using linear regression. In univariable analyses, conditional fetal growth z scores were positively associated with z scores for child height, body mass index, total skinfold thickness, and head circumference (β = 0.24 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.18, 0.31), β = 0.16 (95% CI: 0.09, 0.23), β = 0.08 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.16), and β = 0.37 (95% CI: 0.22, 0.52), respectively). However, conditional z scores were highly correlated with birth weight z scores (r = 0.9), and residuals explained minimal additional variation in anthropometric factors (null coefficients; adjusted R(2) increases < 0.01). Information on the intrauterine trajectory through which birth weight was attained provided little additional insight into child growth beyond that obtained from absolute size at birth. PMID:27257112

  9. Recent intrauterine growth parameters of term Sudanese neonates in Khartoum compared to the findings three decades earlier

    PubMed Central

    Abdel Rahman, Sirag Eldin M. Kheir; Ibrahim, Ghada O.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to present anthropometric measurements of term Sudanese neonates which will reflect intrauterine growth. Secondly, to compare such parameters with that of a previous study done about three decades ago to show if there is any secular changes. Normal term neonates born to healthy mothers between the period of October 2010 to January 2011 at Khartoum Teaching Hospital were included in the study. There were certain criteria for inclusion and exclusion of the newborns and their mothers. Measurements of birth weight, crown-heel length and head circumferences were done in the first twenty four hours after birth. Statistical test of the difference between the means was used to show any significant difference. The means of birth weight, crown-heel length and head circumference for both sexes against gestational age were obtained. Comparing this study with the previous one showed no statistical significant difference for both sexes regarding the birth weight, crown-heel length but there is some difference between males head circumference. There is no evidence of upward secular trend regarding the intrauterine parameters.

  10. [The morphological features of stab-and-slash skin wounds inflicted by the blades with differently shaped tips through the multilayer barrier].

    PubMed

    Sarkisian, B A; Fedorov, S Iu

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to study the shape, size, and morphological features of stab-and-slash skin wounds inflicted by the blades with differently shaped tips taking into consideration the direction of stab through multiple garments (1, 2, and 3 layers). The injuries were inflicted by kitchen knives having the blades of practically identical length and width but differently shaped tips. A total of 480 skin wounds and 720 damaged cloth specimens were available for the examination. The analysis of the data obtained revealed differences between morphological features of the skin wounds. Injuries to the skin unprotected by the cloths had different shape and length of the edge and end portions depending on the shape of the blade tip and the direction of the stab. The length of all wound inflicted through the barrier decreased as the number of layers increased. The wounds had the linear shape, their contusion collar and flattened area became narrower; the shape of the back edges of the wounds inflicted through a three-layer barrier altered. It is concluded that the result of the present study may be useful for the improvement of diagnostics of stab-and-slash skin wounds. PMID:25269167

  11. Intrauterine transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi in dogs.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, J M; Burgess, E C; Wachal, M D; Steinberg, H

    1993-06-01

    To determine whether intrauterine transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi could exist in dogs, 10 female Beagles were inoculated intradermally with approximately 1,000 B burgdorferi on day 1 of proestrus; inoculation was repeated every 2 weeks during the gestation period. Ten female control Beagles were similarly inoculated with phosphate-buffered saline solution. Prior to the start of the study, all females and 3 males used for breeding were seronegative for B burgdorferi on the basis of results of the indirect fluorescent antibody test and immunoblot (western analysis. Similarly, results of culture of blood for B burgdorferi were negative. All 20 of the females were bred naturally. Blood samples were collected weekly for serologic testing and culture. Blood samples were obtained from live pups on day 1 of life, then weekly until pups were 6 weeks old when they were euthanatized. Tissues were obtained for culture and testing by use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Of 10 spirochete-inoculated (SI) females, 8 became infected with B burgdorferi as evidenced by spirochete culture results and/or PCR-detected B burgdorferi DNA in the tissues of females or their pups. Of the 10 SI females, 8 delivered litters (3 to 7 pups) that had at least 1 neonatal or 6-week-old pup with B burgdorferi DNA-positive tissues (by PCR), and spirochetes were cultured from tissues from pups of 2 litters.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8323057

  12. [Intrauterine growth retardation and adult outcome].

    PubMed

    Lapillonne, Alexandre

    2011-03-01

    The epidemiologist David Barker was among the first to develop the concept that some adult diseases might have their origins during fetal life, based notably on a strong association between low birth weight and the risk of chronic diseases in adulthood (coronary artery disease, hypertension and stroke, type 2 diabetes, and osteoporosis). Several other groups replicated these results in other populations, thus confirming that birth weight is a determining factor of adult health. Intra-uterine growth retardation (IUGR) has been widely used as a marker of poor fetal nutrition and health, but some antenatal nutritional disturbances can increase the risk of diseases later in life without affecting fetal growth. The risk of diseases in adulthood appears to be further increased when IUGR is associated with rapid postnatal catch-up growth. This suggests that fetal malnutrition induces adaptations necessary for fetal survival and health, but that it also undermines future health if the postnatal environment is unfavorable. The fetal origins of adult diseases has major public health implications and calls for reinforced pre- and post-natal prevention strategies. PMID:22292298

  13. Intrauterine Growth Restriction: Antenatal and Postnatal Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Deepak; Shastri, Sweta; Sharma, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), a condition that occurs due to various reasons, is an important cause of fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. It has been defined as a rate of fetal growth that is less than normal in light of the growth potential of that specific infant. Usually, IUGR and small for gestational age (SGA) are used interchangeably in literature, even though there exist minute differences between them. SGA has been defined as having birth weight less than two standard deviations below the mean or less than the 10th percentile of a population-specific birth weight for specific gestational age. These infants have many acute neonatal problems that include perinatal asphyxia, hypothermia, hypoglycemia, and polycythemia. The likely long-term complications that are prone to develop when IUGR infants grow up includes growth retardation, major and subtle neurodevelopmental handicaps, and developmental origin of health and disease. In this review, we have covered various antenatal and postnatal aspects of IUGR. PMID:27441006

  14. Intrauterine Growth Restriction: Antenatal and Postnatal Aspects.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Deepak; Shastri, Sweta; Sharma, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), a condition that occurs due to various reasons, is an important cause of fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. It has been defined as a rate of fetal growth that is less than normal in light of the growth potential of that specific infant. Usually, IUGR and small for gestational age (SGA) are used interchangeably in literature, even though there exist minute differences between them. SGA has been defined as having birth weight less than two standard deviations below the mean or less than the 10th percentile of a population-specific birth weight for specific gestational age. These infants have many acute neonatal problems that include perinatal asphyxia, hypothermia, hypoglycemia, and polycythemia. The likely long-term complications that are prone to develop when IUGR infants grow up includes growth retardation, major and subtle neurodevelopmental handicaps, and developmental origin of health and disease. In this review, we have covered various antenatal and postnatal aspects of IUGR. PMID:27441006

  15. Intrauterine Growth Restriction and Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Kurjak, Asim; Predojevic, Maja; Stanojevic, Milan; Kadic, Aida Salihagic-; Miskovic, Berivoj; Badreldeen, Ahmed; Talic, Amira; Zaputovic, Sanja; Honemeyer, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) can be described as condition in which fetus fails to reach his potential growth. It is common diagnosis in obstetrics, and carries an increased risk of perinatal mortality and morbidity. Moreover, IUGR has lifelong implications on health, especially on neurological outcome. There is a need for additional neurological assessment during monitoring of fetal well-being, in order to better predict antenatally which fetuses are at risk for adverse neurological outcome. Studies have revealed that the behavior of the fetus reflects the maturational processes of the central nervous system (CNS). Hence, ultrasound investigation of the fetal behavior can give us insight into the integrity and functioning of the fetal CNS. Furthermore, investigations carried out using modern method, four-dimensional (4D) sonography, have produced invaluable details of fetal behavior and its development, opening the door to a better understanding of the prenatal functional development of the CNS. Based on previous observations and several years of investigation, our reaserch group has proposed a new scoring system for the assessment of fetal neurological status by 4D sonography named Kurjak antenatal neurodevelopmental test (KANET). The value of KANET in distinguishing fetal brain and neurodevelopmental alterations due to the early brain impairment in utero is yet to be assessed in large population studies. However, preliminary results are very encouraging. PMID:25473145

  16. Invasive hyphal growth in Wangiella dermatitidis is induced by stab inoculation and shows dependence upon melanin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Brush, L; Money, N P

    1999-12-01

    Stab inoculation of agar medium with yeasts of the human pathogen Wangiella dermatitidis resulted in induction of invasive hyphae. Mechanical penetration of agar was indicated by the observation that an increase in medium gel strength slowed the rate of substrate invasion. A melanized wild-type strain (8656) exhibited much faster invasive growth through 2-8% agar than three melanin-deficient mutants. Inhibition of melanin synthesis in strain 8656 using tricyclazole resulted in a decrease in its rate of invasive growth, while scytalone restored melanin synthesis in the albino mel3 strain and boosted its rate of invasive growth. Earlier research established that cellular melanization is also associated with invasive hyphal growth in the mouse brain, and infections with strain 8656 are invariably lethal. Together, these in vitro and in vivo data indicate that biomechanical characteristics of fungi may be important determinants of virulence and disease progression in human and animal mycoses. PMID:10669584

  17. Head Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... injuries internal head injuries, which may involve the skull, the blood vessels within the skull, or the brain Fortunately, most childhood falls or ... knock the brain into the side of the skull or tear blood vessels. Some internal head injuries ...

  18. Head Lice

    MedlinePlus

    ... or prescription products. Over-the-counter shampoos and lotions containing pyrethrin (one brand name: Rid) or permethrin ( ... commonly used to treat head lice. Shampoos and lotions that kill head lice contain pesticides and other ...

  19. Head MRI

    MedlinePlus

    ... the head; MRI - cranial; NMR - cranial; Cranial MRI; Brain MRI; MRI - brain; MRI - head ... tell your health care provider if you have: Brain aneurysm clips Certain types of artificial heart valves ...

  20. Head lice.

    PubMed

    Devore, Cynthia D; Schutze, Gordon E

    2015-05-01

    Head lice infestation is associated with limited morbidity but causes a high level of anxiety among parents of school-aged children. Since the 2010 clinical report on head lice was published by the American Academy of Pediatrics, newer medications have been approved for the treatment of head lice. This revised clinical report clarifies current diagnosis and treatment protocols and provides guidance for the management of children with head lice in the school setting. PMID:25917986

  1. Risk of intracranial hypertension with intrauterine levonorgestrel

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Hao; Gustafson, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to quantify the risk of intracranial hypertension (ICH) with the intrauterine levonorgestrel (IUL) device Mirena®. Methods: We used the United States Food and Drug Administration’s Adverse Events Reporting System (FAERS) database to quantify a reporting odds ratio (ROR) for ICH and Mirena®. We also conducted a retrospective cohort study using the IMS LifeLink® database, comparing the risk of two oral contraceptives ethinyl estradiol (EE) with Mirena®. A Bayesian sensitivity analysis was performed to account for the effect of body mass index (BMI). Results: The reported odds ratios (ORs) for ICH and papilledema with Mirena® were 1.78 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.41–2.25) and 1.50 (95% CI 1.10–2.05), respectively. In the cohort study, the OR for ICH and EE-norgestimate and EE-norethindrone compared with Mirena® were 1.29 (95% CI 0.83–2.00) and 0.31 (95% CI 0.04–2.29), respectively. The presence of a strong confounder BMI did not affect the estimated OR (OR = 1.31, 95% CI 0.73–2.41 for EE-norgestimate; OR = 0.18, 95% CI 0.01–1.27 for EE-norethindrone). Conclusion: We found a higher than expected number of reports of ICH with Mirena® in the FAERS database. We also found a similar risk of ICH with Mirena® compared with the oral contraceptive EE-norgestimate. The higher risk of ICH with EE-norethindrone, another oral contraceptive should be further investigated. PMID:26240745

  2. Hysteroscopic sterilization of patient with intrauterine device Mirena®

    PubMed Central

    Depes, Daniella De Batista; Pereira, Ana Maria Gomes; Yatabe, Salete; Lopes, Reginaldo Guedes Coelho

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tubal sterilization is the definitive procedure most often used worldwide to control fecundity. Laparoscopic ligature is safe, but invasive and with possible surgical and anesthetic risks. The hysteroscopic approach enables tubal occlusion at outpatient's setting without the need of incisions or anesthesia. A microdevice (Essure®) is inserted directly into the tubes and its polyethelene fibers cause obstruction of tubes in about three months. During this period, it is recommended that patients continue the use of a temporary birth control method. Several women use the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system, which is called in the market as Mirena®. This report evaluated the possibility of inserting Essure® without remove the intrauterine device; patient tolerance to the procedure was also assessed. The tubal device was successfully placed in the patient without the need to remove Mirena®. After three months the intrauterine device was removed with no intercurrent events. PMID:23579753

  3. A Lower-Cost Option for Intrauterine Contraception.

    PubMed

    Angelini, Kim

    2016-01-01

    In March 2015, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved Liletta (Actavis, Dublin, Ireland), a new intrauterine device for contraception. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend use of long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) as first-line pregnancy prevention. LARC efficacy rates are similar to those of sterilization, with the possibility for quick return of fertility upon removal of the device. Despite benefits and recommendations for this form of contraception, access and high cost remain barriers to use. Liletta is the first lower-cost option for intrauterine contraception. Available to qualified clinics and health centers at a reduced rate, this device may increase availability and decrease the overall cost to women who desire intrauterine contraception. PMID:27067935

  4. Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR): epidemiology and etiology.

    PubMed

    Romo, Agustín; Carceller, Raquel; Tobajas, Javier

    2009-02-01

    Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is mainly due to a pathologic slow-down in the fetal growth pace, resulting in a fetus that is unable to reach its growth potential. IUGR frequency will vary depending on the discrimination criteria adopted. It is extremely important to use local or national fetal growth graphs in order to avoid some confounding factors. IUGR incidence in newborns would be between 3% and 7% of the total population. In our experience it is 5.13% a figure similar to the one obtained by other authors but with a progressively higher incidence during the last decade. There are multiple maternal factors that can generally be grouped into constitutional and general factors given that they affect age, weight, race, maternal cardiac volume, etc, socioeconomic factors with key incidence in the mother's nutrition level, where a poor maternal nutrition level would be the key factor in this group. We have evaluated multiple factors as possible contributors to the IUGR risk: race, parents' age, mother's height (cm), mother's birth weight and before pregnancy (kg), ponderal gain and blood pressure during pregnancy, and previous SGA newborns. Socioeconomic factors like social class, parents' profession, habitual residence, salary, immigration, and diet were also evaluated. We also included variables such as total daily working time and time mothers spent standing up, daily sleeping time (hrs), stress self-perception test at work and primiparity age. Toxic factors during pregnancy: tobacco (active and passive), alcohol, drugs and coffee consumption. Fetal or utero-placental factors were considered. In our study, the most significant etiologic factors were: Active and passive tobacco consuming, mother's stress level, increase of total months worked during pregnancy, total daily working hours and time mothers spent standing up and finally, the parent's height. Our data support the main objective of reducing the incidence of SGA newborns after IUGR by fighting

  5. Immediate postabortal insertion of intrauterine devices.

    PubMed

    Okusanya, Babasola O; Oduwole, Olabisi; Effa, Emmanuel E

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of an effective contraceptive may be necessary after an abortion. Insertion of an intrauterine device (IUD) may be done the same day or later. Immediate IUD insertion is an option since the woman is not pregnant, pain of insertion is less because the cervical os is open, and her motivation to use contraception may be high. However, insertion of an IUD immediately after a pregnancy ends carries risks, such as spontaneous expulsion.Objectives To assess the safety and efficacy of IUD insertion immediately after spontaneous or induced abortion.Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, POPLINE, ClinicalTrials.gov,and ICTRP in January 27, 2014. We also contacted investigators to identify other trials.Selection criteria We sought all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with at least one treatment arm that involved IUD insertion immediately after an induced abortion or after curettage for spontaneous abortion.Data collection and analysis We evaluated the methodological quality of each report and abstracted the data. We focused on discontinuation rates for accidental pregnancy, perforation, expulsion, and pelvic inflammatory disease.We computed the weighted average of the rate ratios.We compute drisk ratios (RRs) with 95% Confidence Intervals (CIs).We performed an intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis by including all randomised participants in the analysis according to the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions.Main results We identified 12 trials most of which are of moderate risk of bias involving 7,119 participants which described random assignment.Five trials randomised to either immediate or delayed insertion of IUD. One of them randomised to immediate versus delayed insertion of Copper 7 showed immediate insertion of the Copper 7 was associated with a higher risk of expulsion than was delayed insertion(RR 11.98, 95% CI 1.61 to 89.35,1 study, 259 participants); the

  6. Undetected Aorto-RV Fistula With Aortic Valve Injury and Delayed Cardiac Tamponade following a Chest Stab Wound: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Esfahanizadeh, Jamil; Abbasi Tashnizi, Mohammad; Moeinipour, Ali Asghar; Sepehri Shamloo, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Although a few patients will survive after penetrating cardiac injuries, some of them may have unnoticeable intracardiac injuries. The combination of aorto-right ventricular fistula with aortic valve injury is rare. Case Presentation A 19 year-old man referred with an aorto-right ventricular fistula accompanied with aortic regurgitation and delayed tamponade following a stab in the chest. The patient was scheduled for fistula repair, aortic valve replacement and pericardectomy two months after trauma. Conclusions To prevent missing intracardiac injury and also late cardiac injury complications, in all pericordial stab wounds, serial clinical examinations and serial echocardiography should be performed. In addition, cardiac injuries should be repaired during the same hospital stay. PMID:24350161

  7. Head lice.

    PubMed

    Frankowski, Barbara L; Bocchini, Joseph A

    2010-08-01

    Head lice infestation is associated with limited morbidity but causes a high level of anxiety among parents of school-aged children. Since the 2002 clinical report on head lice was published by the American Academy of Pediatrics, patterns of resistance to products available over-the-counter and by prescription have changed, and additional mechanical means of removing head lice have been explored. This revised clinical report clarifies current diagnosis and treatment protocols and provides guidance for the management of children with head lice in the school setting. PMID:20660553

  8. EFFECT OF INTRAUTERINE PCB EXPOSURE ON VISUAL RECOGNITION MEMORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adverse neonatal outcomes have been associated with intrauterine exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In a follow-up study of exposed and nonexposed infants, 123 infants tested at birth were administered Fagan's test of visual recognition memory at 7 months. 2 measures o...

  9. 21 CFR 884.2700 - Intrauterine pressure monitor and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Intrauterine pressure monitor and accessories. 884.2700 Section 884.2700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... intensity, duration, and frequency of uterine contractions during labor. This generic type of device...

  10. Maternal HCV infection is associated with intrauterine fetal growth disturbance

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Qi-tao; Hang, Li-lin; Zhong, Mei; Gao, Yun-fei; Luo, Man-ling; Yu, Yan-hong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Since the evidence regarding the association between maternal hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and impaired intrauterine fetal growth had not been conclusive, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the risk of maternal HCV infection in association with intrauterine fetal growth restriction (IUGR) and/or low birth weight infants (LBW). We performed an extensive literature search of PubMed, MEDLINE, and EMBASE through December 1, 2015. The odds ratios (ORs) of HCV infection and IUGR/LBW were calculated and reported with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Statistical analysis was performed using RevMen 5.3 and Stata 10.0. Seven studies involving 4,185,414 participants and 5094 HCV infection cases were included. Significant associations between HCV infection and IUGR (OR = 1.53, 95% CI: 1.40–1.68, fixed effect model) as well as LBW were observed (OR = 1.97, 95% CI: 1.43–2.71, random effect model). The results still indicated consistencies after adjusting for multiple risk factors which could affect fetal growth, including maternal age, parity, maternal smoking, alcohol abuse, drugs abuse, coinfected with HBV/HIV and preeclampsia. Our findings suggested that maternal HCV infection was significantly associated with an increased risk of impaired intrauterine fetal growth. In clinical practice, a closer monitoring of intrauterine fetal growth by a series of ultrasound might be necessary for HCV-infected pregnant population. PMID:27583932

  11. Relationship between Intrauterine Bacterial Infection and Early Embryonic Developmental Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Shao-Fei; Liu, Xin-Yan; Cheng, Yun-Fei; Li, Zhi-Yi; Ou, Jie; Wang, Wei; Li, Feng-Qin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Early embryonic developmental arrest is the most commonly understudied adverse outcome of pregnancy. The relevance of intrauterine infection to spontaneous embryonic death is rarely studied and remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between intrauterine bacterial infection and early embryonic developmental arrest. Methods: Embryonic chorion tissue and uterine swabs for bacterial detection were obtained from 33 patients who underwent artificial abortion (control group) and from 45 patients who displayed early embryonic developmental arrest (trial group). Results: Intrauterine bacterial infection was discovered in both groups. The infection rate was 24.44% (11/45) in the early embryonic developmental arrest group and 9.09% (3/33) in the artificial abortion group. Classification analysis revealed that the highest detection rate for Micrococcus luteus in the early embryonic developmental arrest group was 13.33% (6/45), and none was detected in the artificial abortion group. M. luteus infection was significantly different between the groups (P < 0.05 as shown by Fisher's exact test). In addition, no correlation was found between intrauterine bacterial infection and history of early embryonic developmental arrest. Conclusions: M. luteus infection is related to early embryonic developmental arrest and might be one of its causative factors. PMID:27270541

  12. Optimization of Cry3A Yields in Bacillus thuringiensis by Use of Sporulation-Dependent Promoters in Combination with the STAB-SD mRNA Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyun-Woo; Ge, Baoxue; Bauer, Leah S.; Federici, Brian A.

    1998-01-01

    The insecticidal activity of Bacillus thuringiensis strains toxic to coleopterous insects is due to Cry3 proteins assembled into small rectangular crystals. Toxin synthesis in these strains is dependent primarily upon a promoter that is active in the stationary phase and a STAB-SD sequence that stabilizes the cry3 transcript-ribosome complex. Here we show that significantly higher yields of Cry3A can be obtained by using dual sporulation-dependent cyt1Aa promoters to drive the expression of cry3Aa when the STAB-SD sequence is included in the construct. The Cry3A yield per unit of culture medium obtained with this expression system was 12.7-fold greater than that produced by DSM 2803, the wild-type strain of B. thuringiensis from which Cry3Aa was originally described, and 1.4-fold greater than that produced by NB176, a mutant of the same strain containing two or three copies of cry3Aa, which is the active ingredient of the commercial product Novodor, used for control of beetle pests. The toxicities of Cry3A produced with this construct or the wild-type strain were similar when assayed against larvae of the cottonwood leaf beetle, Chrysomela scripta. The volume of Cry3A crystals produced with cyt1Aa promoters and the STAB-SD sequence was 1.3-fold that of typical bipyramidal Cry1 crystals toxic to lepidopterous insects. The dual-promoter/STAB-SD system offers an additional method for potentially improving the efficacy of insecticides based on B. thuringiensis. PMID:9758822

  13. Comparison Of Flat-Knitted Structures Made Of Poly(P-Phenylene-2,6-Benzobisoxazole) And Para-Aramid Referring To Their Stab Resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obermann, M.; Aumann, S.; Heimlich, F.; Weber, M. O.; Schwarz-Pfeiffer, A.

    2016-07-01

    In the field of protective gear, developers always aim for lighter and more flexible material in order to increase the wearing comfort. Suppliers now work on knitted garments in the sports-sector as well as in workwear and protective gear for policemen or security-agents. In a recent project different knitted structures made of a poly(p-phenylene-2,6-benzobisoxazole) (PBO)-multifilament were compared to their counterparts made of para-aramid. In focus of the comparison stood the stab-resistance linked to either the mass per unit area or the stitch density. The tested fabrics were produced on hand flat knitting machines as well as on electronical flat knitting machines of the type Stoll CMS 330TC4, in order to analyse fabrics with different tightness factor and machine gauges. The stab resistance of the different knitted fabrics was examined according to the standard of the Association of Test Laboratories for Bullet, Stab or Pike Resistant Materials and Construction Standards. The presentation includes the depiction of the results of the test series and their interpretation. Furthermore it will give an outlook on most suitable combinations of materials and structures to be used in protective gear.

  14. The direct cost of traumatic secretion transfer in hermaphroditic land snails: individuals stabbed with a love dart decrease lifetime fecundity

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Kazuki; Chiba, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Several taxa of simultaneously hermaphroditic land snails exhibit a conspicuous mating behaviour, the so-called shooting of love darts. During mating, such land snail species transfer a specific secretion by stabbing a mating partner's body with the love dart. It has been shown that sperm donors benefit from this traumatic secretion transfer, because the secretions manipulate the physiology of a sperm recipient and increase the donors' fertilization success. However, it is unclear whether reception of dart shooting is costly to the recipients. Therefore, the effect of sexual conflict and antagonistic arms races on the evolution of traumatic secretion transfer in land snails is still controversial. To examine this effect, we compared lifetime fecundity and longevity between the individuals that received and did not receive dart shooting from mating partners in Bradybaena pellucida. Our experiments showed that the dart-receiving snails suffered reduction in lifetime fecundity and longevity. These results suggest that the costly mating behaviour, dart shooting, generates conflict between sperm donors and recipients and that sexually antagonistic arms races have contributed to the diversification of the morphological and behavioural traits relevant to dart shooting. Our findings also support theories suggesting a violent escalation of sexual conflict in hermaphroditic animals. PMID:25761713

  15. The direct cost of traumatic secretion transfer in hermaphroditic land snails: individuals stabbed with a love dart decrease lifetime fecundity.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Kazuki; Chiba, Satoshi

    2015-04-01

    Several taxa of simultaneously hermaphroditic land snails exhibit a conspicuous mating behaviour, the so-called shooting of love darts. During mating, such land snail species transfer a specific secretion by stabbing a mating partner's body with the love dart. It has been shown that sperm donors benefit from this traumatic secretion transfer, because the secretions manipulate the physiology of a sperm recipient and increase the donors' fertilization success. However, it is unclear whether reception of dart shooting is costly to the recipients. Therefore, the effect of sexual conflict and antagonistic arms races on the evolution of traumatic secretion transfer in land snails is still controversial. To examine this effect, we compared lifetime fecundity and longevity between the individuals that received and did not receive dart shooting from mating partners in Bradybaena pellucida. Our experiments showed that the dart-receiving snails suffered reduction in lifetime fecundity and longevity. These results suggest that the costly mating behaviour, dart shooting, generates conflict between sperm donors and recipients and that sexually antagonistic arms races have contributed to the diversification of the morphological and behavioural traits relevant to dart shooting. Our findings also support theories suggesting a violent escalation of sexual conflict in hermaphroditic animals. PMID:25761713

  16. Head injury.

    PubMed

    Hureibi, K A; McLatchie, G R

    2010-05-01

    Head injury is one of the commonest injuries in sport. Most are mild but some can have serious outcomes. Sports medicine doctors should be able to recognise the clinical features and evaluate athletes with head injury. It is necessary during field assessment to recognise signs and symptoms that help in assessing the severity of injury and making a decision to return-to-play. Prevention of primary head injury should be the aim. This includes protective equipment like helmets and possible rule changes. PMID:20533694

  17. Head Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... before. Often, the injury is minor because your skull is hard and it protects your brain. But ... injuries can be more severe, such as a skull fracture, concussion, or traumatic brain injury. Head injuries ...

  18. Head Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... before. Usually, the injury is minor because your skull is hard and it protects your brain. But ... injuries can be more severe, such as a skull fracture, concussion, or traumatic brain injury. Head injuries ...

  19. Head Noises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senior, Tom

    2000-01-01

    Explains how a toy called "Sound Bites" can be modified to demonstrate the transmission of sound waves. Students can hear music from the toy when they press it against any bone in their heads or shoulders. (WRM)

  20. Intrauterine trophoblast migration: A comparative view of humans and rodents.

    PubMed

    Silva, Juneo F; Serakides, Rogéria

    2016-03-01

    Trophoblast migration and invasion through the decidua and maternal uterine spiral arteries are crucial events in placentation. During this process, invasive trophoblast replace vascular endothelial cells as the uterine arteries are remodeled to form more permissive vessels that facilitate adequate blood flow to the growing fetus. Placentation failures resulting from either extensive or shallow trophoblastic invasion can cause pregnancy complications such as preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, placenta creta, gestational trophoblastic disease and even maternal or fetal death. Consequently, the use of experimental animal models such as rats and mice has led to great progress in recent years with regards to the identification of mechanisms and factors that control trophoblast migration kinetics. This review aims to perform a comparative analysis of placentation and the mechanisms and factors that coordinate intrauterine trophoblast migration in humans, rats and mice under physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:26743330

  1. Evaluation of intrauterine adhesion treatment by laser hysteroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutrynowski, Andrzej; Zabielska, Renata

    1996-03-01

    Hysteroscopy, which is a kind of endoscopy, makes it possible to evaluate macroscopically the cervical canal, uterine cavity, and the uterine opening of the oviducts. Laser hysteroscopy is used for removing septa and intrauterine adhesions, polyps, small submucosus myomas, and for endometrium ablation in abnormal metrorrhagias. The paper aims at the initial evaluation of laser hysteroscopy in removing intrauterine adhesions in the cases of 41 infertile women. Among all infertile patients 16 women (39%) conceived. Among others 1 woman (2.5%) did not want to conceive and 19 had other causes of infertility. Thirteen (93%) out of 14 patients with hypomenorrhea before surgery reported improvement of the menstruation cycle after the treatment. Five patients (12%) had adhesions for the second time. The patients had the second laser hysteroscopy. The control diagnostic hysteroscopy showed no adhesions in those cases.

  2. Threatened miscarriage and intrauterine hematomas. Sonographic and biochemical studies.

    PubMed

    Stabile, I; Campbell, S; Grudzinskas, J G

    1989-06-01

    In a prospective study of 406 women with threatened miscarriage (TMC), 22 (5.4%) had an intrauterine hematoma (less than 16 mL) noted ultrasonically, decreasing in size as the patients experienced repeated episodes of bleeding. Twenty (91%) of the hematomas visualized were subchorionic and two (9%) were retroplacental. None of these women subsequently miscarried. Human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG), Schwangerschafts protein 1 (SP1), and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) levels measured in these patients were not significantly different in women with or without hematomas. We conclude that the presence of small intrauterine hematomas in women with TMC does not increase the risk of miscarriage. PMID:2472492

  3. Magnesium sulfate protects fetal skin from intrauterine ischemia reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Kaptanoglu, Asli F; Arca, Turkan; Kilinc, Kamer

    2012-09-01

    Intrauterine ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in fetus occurs with multifactorial pathogenesis and results with multiorgan injury including skin. Magnesium has widespread use in obstetric practice. Inn addition to magnesium's tocolytic and neuroprotective properties, it also has free radical reducing effects. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate whether magnesium sulfate could have protective effect on fetal rat skin in intrauterine ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Fetal skin ischemia was induced by clamping the utero-ovarian arteries bilaterally for 30 min, and reperfusion was achieved by removing the clamps for 60 min in 19-day pregnant rats. Magnesium Sulfate (MgSO(4)) was given to pregnant rats 20 min before I/R injury at the dose of 600 mg/kg in magnesium treatment group. No ischemia reperfusion was applied to control and sham-operated groups. Lipid peroxidation from the skin tissues was determined as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity was determined for neutrophil activation. The results showed that the levels of TBARS and MPO increased significantly in the fetal rat skin after I/R injury compared to control group. Levels of TBARS and MPO were significantly lower than those of I/R group in Magnesium-treated group. In conclusion, intrauterine ischemia-reperfusion may produce considerable fetal skin injury. Increased TBARS and MPO activity can be inhibited by magnesium treatment. This suggests that magnesium treatment may have protective effect on fetal rat skin in intrauterine I/R injury. PMID:22310734

  4. Intrauterine contraception in nulliparous women: a prospective survey

    PubMed Central

    Kutler, Beth A

    2016-01-01

    Background Intrauterine contraception is a first-line option for young women, yet relatively few prospective studies have been performed in nulliparous women using currently available devices, and many providers are still reluctant to provide this option. Methods Between January 2012 and June 2014, 109 nulliparous women, aged 18–30 years, who had an intrauterine device (IUD) placed at a student health clinic [88 levonorgestrel-intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) users and 21 Cu T 380A (IUD) users] were surveyed at 1, 6, 12 and 18 months after insertion. Results Overall satisfaction was high; at follow-up survey 83% of 100 women (mean use 13.4 months) were ‘happy’ or ‘very happy’ with their IUD, and there were no differences in satisfaction between the two IUD types. Some 75% of participants stated that the insertion procedure went ‘very well’, despite 78% rating insertion pain as moderate to severe, and 46% experiencing vasovagal symptoms. The 12-month continuation rate was 89%, with discontinuations for expulsion (3%), side effects (6%), lack of anticipated benefit (1%) and pregnancy (1%). Users of the Cu T 380A were more likely to have heavy menses (74% vs 2%; p<0.0001) or moderate to severe cramping (68% vs 20%; p=0.0002) compared with LNG-IUS users. There were no uterine perforations or diagnoses of pelvic inflammatory disease. The rate of failed insertions during the study period was 6.2%. Conclusions Despite significant symptoms with insertion, intrauterine contraception is safe, effective and ultimately well tolerated in nulliparous women and should be provided to this population in both university and community health settings. PMID:25854550

  5. Intrauterine nutrition: long-term consequences for vascular health

    PubMed Central

    Szostak-Wegierek, Dorota

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence that improper intrauterine nutrition may negatively influence vascular health in later life. Maternal malnutrition may result in intrauterine growth retardation and, in turn, metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance, diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, and also enhanced risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular death in the offspring. Energy and/or protein restriction is the most critical determinant for fetal programming. However, it has also been proposed that intrauterine n-3 fatty acid deficiency may be linked to later higher blood pressure levels and reduced insulin sensitivity. Moreover, it has been shown that inadequate supply of micronutrients such as folate, vitamin B12, vitamin A, iron, magnesium, zinc, and calcium may contribute to impaired vascular health in the progeny. In addition, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy that are linked to impaired placental blood flow and suboptimal fetal nutrition may also contribute to intrauterine growth retardation and aggravated cardiovascular risk in the offspring. On the other hand, maternal overnutrition, which often contributes to obesity and/or diabetes, may result in macrosomia and enhanced cardiometabolic risk in the offspring. Progeny of obese and/or diabetic mothers are relatively more prone to develop obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes, and hypertension. It was demonstrated that they may have permanently enhanced appetites. Their atheromatous lesions are usually more pronounced. It seems that, particularly, a maternal high-fat/junk food diet may be detrimental for vascular health in the offspring. Fetal exposure to excessive levels of saturated fatty and/or n-6 fatty acids, sucrose, fructose and salt, as well as a maternal high glycemic index diet, may also contribute to later enhanced cardiometabolic risk. PMID:25050077

  6. Factors affecting intrauterine contraceptive device performance. I. Endometrial cavity length.

    PubMed

    Hasson, H M; Berger, G S; Edelman, D A

    1976-12-15

    The relationship of endometrial cavity length to intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD) performance was evaluated in 319 patients wearing three types of devices. The rate of events, defined as pregnancy, expulsion, or medical removal, increased significantly when the length of the IUD was equal to, exceeded, or was shorter by two or more centimeters than the length of the endometrial cavity. Total uterine length was found to be a less accurate prognostic indicator of IUD performance than endometrial cavity length alone. PMID:998687

  7. Intrauterine nutrition: long-term consequences for vascular health.

    PubMed

    Szostak-Wegierek, Dorota

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence that improper intrauterine nutrition may negatively influence vascular health in later life. Maternal malnutrition may result in intrauterine growth retardation and, in turn, metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance, diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, and also enhanced risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular death in the offspring. Energy and/or protein restriction is the most critical determinant for fetal programming. However, it has also been proposed that intrauterine n-3 fatty acid deficiency may be linked to later higher blood pressure levels and reduced insulin sensitivity. Moreover, it has been shown that inadequate supply of micronutrients such as folate, vitamin B12, vitamin A, iron, magnesium, zinc, and calcium may contribute to impaired vascular health in the progeny. In addition, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy that are linked to impaired placental blood flow and suboptimal fetal nutrition may also contribute to intrauterine growth retardation and aggravated cardiovascular risk in the offspring. On the other hand, maternal overnutrition, which often contributes to obesity and/or diabetes, may result in macrosomia and enhanced cardiometabolic risk in the offspring. Progeny of obese and/or diabetic mothers are relatively more prone to develop obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes, and hypertension. It was demonstrated that they may have permanently enhanced appetites. Their atheromatous lesions are usually more pronounced. It seems that, particularly, a maternal high-fat/junk food diet may be detrimental for vascular health in the offspring. Fetal exposure to excessive levels of saturated fatty and/or n-6 fatty acids, sucrose, fructose and salt, as well as a maternal high glycemic index diet, may also contribute to later enhanced cardiometabolic risk. PMID:25050077

  8. [Heterotopic pregnancy in intrauterine insemination. Presentation of a case].

    PubMed

    Kably Ambe, A; Garza Rios, P; Serviere Zaragoza, C; Delgado Urdapilleta, J

    1992-04-01

    The heterotopic (ectopic and orthotopic simultaneous) pregnancy shows a frequency of 1 to 15,000 to 1 to 30,000 gestations. The clinical diagnosis is difficult due to the lack of precise indicators, as to diagnose an intrauterine pregnancy eliminates the possibility of ectopic pregnancy. The methods of Assisted Reproduction seem to be factors that have influenced on the increment of this type of gestations. A case of a 32 year patient with primary sterility by pelvic adhesions process, that was surgically treated, as there was no pregnancy after surgery, she was given intrauterine insemination with her husband's semen (IU) pregnancy was obtained, determined at 15 days of menstrual lack by presence of subunit B of HCG in serum and vaginal ultrasound that confirmed gestational sac. One month after she presented at Urgencies with an acute abdominal condition; laparotomy was done and salpingectomy was carried out for ruptured tubal pregnancy confirmed by histopathology. The evolution on intrauterine pregnancy was normal culminating with cesarean section at week 35 by inminence of eclampsia/Mother and child in good conditions. PMID:1601314

  9. Cone Heads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coy, Mary

    2005-01-01

    The author, a middle school art teacher, describes a sculpture project lesson involving Cone Heads (sculptures made from cardboard cones). Discussion of caricatures with exaggerated facial features and interesting profiles helped students understand that the more expressive the face, the better. This project took approximately four to five…

  10. The expression of marker for endometrial stem cell and fibrosis was increased in intrauterine adhesious

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jianguo; Zeng, Biao; Jiang, Xingwei; Hu, lina; Meng, Ying; Zhu, Yi; Mao, Min

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether fibrotic markers and endometrial stem cell markers were abnormal expressed in endometrium of intrauterine adhesions and a female mouse model for intrauterine adhesions. Methods: We revaluated endometrial fibrosis using Masson’s stain. We detected the expression of endometrium stem cell markers (CD146 and CD140b) and fibrosis markers (TGF-Beta, CTGF, collagen protein I and collagen protein III) in endometrial tissue with intrauterine adhesions using real-time PCR and S-P (Streptavidin-Peroxidase) immunohistochemistry. We create a female mouse model for intrauterine adhesions using mechanical injury, and then revalue the expression of endometrial stem cell markers and fibrosis markers in endometrial tissue of mouse model for intrauterine adhesions. Results: The ratio of the area with endometrial fibrosis to total endometrial area in intrauterine adhesious significantly increased compared with the normal endometrial tissue (P < 0.05); The expression levels of fibrotic markers and endometrial stem cell markers were higher in the endometrial tissue with intrauterine adhesious compared to normal endometrial tissue (P < 0.05). The animal experiments showed that the ratio of the area with endometrial fibrosis to total endometrial area significantly increased compared with the control group (P < 0.05); The expression levels of fibrotic markers and endometrial stem cell markers were higher in the endometrial tissue compared to the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Aberrant activation of fibrosis may be involved in the pathology of intrauterine adhesious. PMID:25973037

  11. Intra-uterine devices, A SEM study on the Dalkon Shield.

    PubMed

    Guidoin, R; Courtney, J M; Brault, R; Domurado, D; Haggis, G H

    1976-01-01

    A SEM study carried on intra-uterine devices (Dalkon Shield) is reported. The poor manufacturing of the devices is stressed, which could increase their efficiency but also the risks of penetration, or worse, perforation. The solution for the future could be copper bearing intra-uterine devices coated by hydrogels. This should maintain efficiency and improve security. PMID:1276332

  12. Intrauterine Cannabis Exposure Affects Fetal Growth Trajectories: The Generation R Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Marroun, Hanan; Tiemeier, Henning; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C.; van den Brink, Wim; Huizink, Anja C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Cannabis is the most commonly consumed illicit drug among pregnant women. Intrauterine exposure to cannabis may result in risks for the developing fetus. The importance of intrauterine growth on subsequent psychological and behavioral child development has been demonstrated. This study examined the relation between maternal cannabis use…

  13. Aspirin for the Prevention of Preeclampsia and Intrauterine Growth Restriction.

    PubMed

    Roberge, Stephanie; Odibo, Anthony O; Bujold, Emmanuel

    2016-06-01

    Low-dose aspirin (LDA) has been used for several years for the prevention of preeclampsia (PE). LDA started in early pregnancy is associated with improvement of placental implantation. The best evidence suggest that LDA can prevent more than half of PE cases in high-risk women when started before 16 weeks of gestation. Moreover, LDA started in early pregnancy reduces the risk of other placenta-mediated complications such as intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and perinatal death. The efficacy of LDA has been demonstrated in women with abnormal first-trimester uterine artery Doppler or with prior history of chronic hypertension or preeclampsia. PMID:27235915

  14. Vesical Calculus 10 Years Post Missing Intrauterine Contraceptive Device

    PubMed Central

    Abdulwahab-Ahmed, Abdullahi; Ogunleye, Oluwagbemiga Olabisi

    2013-01-01

    Intravesical migration of intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) is rare. Early diagnosis of this rare entity is difficult because of its non-specific manifestations and very low index of suspicion. We present this case of bladder stone following intravesical migration of IUCD found to have been missing since insertion 10 years earlier. Lower abdominal discomfort and a missing vaginal string may be the only pointer to this unfortunate event in the immediate post insertion period. It is pertinent to consider the possibility of an intravesical migration of a missing IUCD in a patient presenting with lower abdominal discomfort, urinary frequency, and missing IUCD string on vaginal examination. PMID:24470853

  15. Environmentally Benign Stab Detonators

    SciTech Connect

    Gash, A; Barbee, T; Simpson, R; Satcher, J; Walton, C

    2003-12-15

    This effort attempts to demonstrate that environmentally acceptable energetic sol-gel coated flash metal multilayer nanocomposites can be used to replace current impact initiated devices (IIDs) which have hazardous and toxic components. Successful completion of this project will result in IIDs that include innocuous compounds, have sufficient output energy for initiation, meet current military specifications, are small, cost competitive, and perform as well as or better than current devices. We expect flash metal multilayer and sol-gel to be generic technologies applicable to a wide range of devices, especially in small caliber ammunition and sub-munitions. We will replace the NOL-130 mixture with a nanocomposite that consists of a mechanically robust energetic multilayer foil that has been coated with a sol-gel energetic material. The exothermic reactions are activated in this nanocomposite are the transformation of the multilayer material to its respective intermetallic alloy and the thermite reaction, which is characterized by very high temperatures, a small pressure pulse, and hot particle ejection. The proposed materials and their reaction products consist of, but are not limited to aluminum, nickel, iron, aluminum oxide, titanium, iron oxide and boron. These materials have much more desirable environmental and health characteristics than the NOL-130 composition.

  16. Intrauterine contraceptives: a review of uses, side effects, and candidates.

    PubMed

    Shimoni, Noa'a

    2010-03-01

    This article reviews the two intrauterine devices (IUDs) available in the United States: the TCu380A, marketed as ParaGard (Duramed Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Pomona, NY), and the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS), marketed as Mirena (Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Wayne, NJ). The properties of the two devices are detailed, as well as noncontraceptive indications and appropriate candidates for use. Studies consistently demonstrate that the devices are safe, effective, and provide cost savings when compared with other reversible methods. The TCu380A may be used as postcoital contraception with close to 100% effectiveness. Menstrual blood loss is likely to increase with the TCu380A and decrease with the LNG-IUS. Reduction in menstrual blood loss and endometrial suppression make the LNG-IUS an increasingly popular treatment for menorrhagia, endometriosis, adenomyosis, and as an adjunct to estrogen therapy. IUDs may be inserted immediately after a first- or second-trimester abortion, immediately postpartum, and >or=4 weeks postpartum. Candidacy for IUDs has expanded, and includes nulliparous women, adolescents, and women with immunocompromised conditions including HIV. PMID:20352561

  17. Nd-YAG laser with a fibertom system in the treatment of intrauterine lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilczak, Maciej; Wozniak, Jakub; Sajdak, Stefan; Dydowicz, Piotr; Opala, Tomasz; Cwojdzinski, Marek; Pisarski, Tadeusz

    1997-10-01

    The results of 31 Nd:YAG hysteroscopic laser surgeries done in the Department of Reproduction, Institute of Gynecology and obstetrics, Karon Marcinkowski School of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland were describe. In nine patients the uterine septa and in 22 women the intrauterine adhesion were recognized. Hysteroscopy is a very useful and reliable method in diagnosis and treatment of intrauterine lesions reducing fertility. The laser resection of intrauterine lesions in women with malreproduction is an efficient and safe method. The fertility and parity after laser surgery are highly improved.

  18. Ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulfate in meconium and hair-potential biomarkers of intrauterine exposure to ethanol.

    PubMed

    Morini, L; Marchei, E; Vagnarelli, F; Garcia Algar, O; Groppi, A; Mastrobattista, L; Pichini, S

    2010-03-20

    This study investigated ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulfate (EtS) concentration in meconium and in maternal and neonatal hair (HEtG and HFAEEs, respectively) as potential markers of intrauterine exposure to ethanol together with meconium fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in a cohort of 99 mother-infant dyads, 49 coming from the Arcispedale of Reggio Emilia (Italy) and 50 from the Hospital del Mar of Barcelona (Spain). FAEEs, EtG and EtS were measured in meconium samples using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A head space-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to test HEtG and HFAEEs in hair samples from mothers and their newborns. Eighty-two meconium samples (82.8%) tested positive for EtG, 19 (19.2%) for EtS while 22 (22.2%) showed FAEEs levels higher than 2 nmol/g, the cut-off used to differentiate daily maternal ethanol consumption during pregnancy from occasional or no use. Although EtG and EtS in meconium did not correlate with total FAEEs concentration, a good correlation between EtG, EtS and ethyl stearate was observed. Moreover, EtG correlated well with ethyl palmitoleate, while EtS with ethyl laurate, myristate and linolenate. Neither maternal nor neonatal hair appears as good predictors of gestational ethanol consumption and subsequent fetal exposure in these mother-infant dyads. In conclusion, these data show that meconium is so far the best matrix in evaluating intrauterine exposure to ethanol, with EtG and EtS being potentially good alternative biomarkers to FAEEs. PMID:20060246

  19. Morbidity of low-birthweight infants with intrauterine cocaine exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Sehgal, S.; Ewing, C.; Waring, P.; Findlay, R.; Bean, X.; Taeusch, H. W.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of intrauterine cocaine exposure on 158 low-birthweight infants (500 g to 2500 g) were compared with 536 low-birthweight infants not known to be exposed to cocaine who were admitted to our neonatal intensive care unit. Univariate analyses indicated that drug-exposed infants had lower birthweights when compared with control infants. Frequency of necrotizing enterocolitis differed between the drug-exposed infants and controls (11% versus 6%). Frequency of severe respiratory distress syndrome, severe intraventricular hemorrhage, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia did not differ between groups of similar birthweight. We conclude that the most evident risks of prenatal cocaine exposure are low birthweight and increased incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis. PMID:8426379

  20. Levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system and iron overload syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vieira da Motta, Marcia; Vieira da Motta, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Severe fatigue is a common complaint among patients. This report presents a clinical case of a woman complaining of fatigue associated with diarrhea and myalgia that were first attributed to emotional stress and depression. Initially, the patient was diagnosed with chronic fatigue and irritable bowel syndrome. The patient followed nutritional and physical exercise programs without any improvement. Other clinical conditions, such as nutritional deficiencies, endocrine dysfunctions, autoimmune diseases and neoplasias, were then assessed. During clinical investigation, serum ferritin and iron levels were abnormally elevated despite normal hemoglobin levels, which pointed to an iron overload syndrome later diagnosed as hemochromatosis. It is possible that the symptoms were triggered by the amenorrhea caused by the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system used for contraception. PMID:23843714

  1. [Long-term clinical observation on VCu200 intrauterine devices].

    PubMed

    Wu, X Z; Lu, J; Li, H Q

    1994-09-01

    A comparative study was carried out in 350 women using VCu200 intrauterine devices (IUD) and 350 women using stainless steel ring (SSR) IUD for 5-18 years. The endometrial changes and shapes of IUD were studied. The results showed that the pregnancy rate was significantly lower in VCu200 group after 5 years of insertion. In spite of the oxidation, erosion or breakage of the copper wire, calcium deposit of even deformation of the IUD, they were not associated with an increased incidence of endometrial carcinoma and pelvic inflammatory disease. It is suggested that VCu200 IUD need not to be removed if the IUD keeps normal shape and the copper wire remains intact by X ray examination. PMID:7835133

  2. Successful intrauterine treatment of a patient with cobalamin C defect.

    PubMed

    Trefz, Friedrich K; Scheible, Dagmar; Frauendienst-Egger, Georg; Huemer, Martina; Suomala, Terttu; Fowler, Brian; Haas, Dorothea; Baumgartner, Matthias R

    2016-03-01

    Cobalamin C (cblC) defect is an inherited autosomal recessive disorder that affects cobalamin metabolism. Patients are treated with hydroxycobalamin to ameliorate the clinical features of early-onset disease and prevent clinical symptoms in late-onset disease. Here we describe a patient in whom prenatal maternal treatment with 30 mg/week hydroxycobalamin and 5 mg/day folic acid from week 15 of pregnancy prevented disease manifestation in a girl who is now 11 years old with normal IQ and only mild ophthalmic findings. The affected older sister received postnatal treatment only and is severely intellectually disabled with severe ophthalmic symptoms. This case highlights the potential of early, high-dose intrauterine treatment in a fetus affected by the cblC defect. PMID:27014578

  3. Intrauterine responses to nipple stimulation in late pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Viegas, O A; Adaikan, P G; Singh, K; Arulkumaran, S; Kottegoda, S R; Ratnam, S S

    1986-01-01

    Characteristics of intrauterine activity in response to nipple stimulation were studied in 9 healthy pregnant subjects at term. All patients showed an increase in uterine activity varying from 10 to 730%. In 1 subject, marked uterine hypertonus was noted which resulted in profound fetal bradycardia. This response was transient, lasting 5.5 min, and fetal outcome unaffected. We believe that nipple stimulation is associated with a higher incidence of increased uterine activity in terms of frequency, intensity and basal tone, than has been previously recognized. This uterine hypertonus may affect the fetal heart rate adversely indicating the need to exercise caution when adopting this manoeuvre in late pregnancy, particularly when there is already evidence of fetal compromise. PMID:3781343

  4. Successful intrauterine treatment of a patient with cobalamin C defect

    PubMed Central

    Trefz, Friedrich K.; Scheible, Dagmar; Frauendienst-Egger, Georg; Huemer, Martina; Suomala, Terttu; Fowler, Brian; Haas, Dorothea; Baumgartner, Matthias R.

    2016-01-01

    Cobalamin C (cblC) defect is an inherited autosomal recessive disorder that affects cobalamin metabolism. Patients are treated with hydroxycobalamin to ameliorate the clinical features of early-onset disease and prevent clinical symptoms in late-onset disease. Here we describe a patient in whom prenatal maternal treatment with 30 mg/week hydroxycobalamin and 5 mg/day folic acid from week 15 of pregnancy prevented disease manifestation in a girl who is now 11 years old with normal IQ and only mild ophthalmic findings. The affected older sister received postnatal treatment only and is severely intellectually disabled with severe ophthalmic symptoms. This case highlights the potential of early, high-dose intrauterine treatment in a fetus affected by the cblC defect. PMID:27014578

  5. Reappearance of the intrauterine device: a 'user-friendly' contraceptive.

    PubMed

    Kaunitz, A M

    1997-01-01

    Women in the United States, and their physicians, are "rediscovering" intrauterine devices (IUDs). Two IUDs, the 10-year Copper T 380A (Paragard) and 1-year progesterone-releasing T (Progestasert) are currently marketed in this country. In contrast to previous perceptions, recent studies have provided reassurance regarding the safety of these effective and convenient contraceptives. We now recognize that IUDs do not increase salpingitis or infertility risks in long-term users. Likewise, we now better understand the mechanism of action of copper IUDs: both the inert plastic device as well as the copper contribute to a spermicidal effect, preventing fertilization. Finally, we now recognize that copper IUDs reduce a user's overall risk of ectopic pregnancy. For appropriately informed and selected candidates, IUDs represent a safe, effective, convenient, and low-cost contraceptive option. PMID:9160223

  6. Intrauterine Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Congenital Heart Defects.

    PubMed

    Forest, Sharron; Priest, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco use and second-hand smoke exposure during pregnancy are linked to a host of deleterious effects on the pregnancy, fetus, and infant. Health outcomes improve when women quit smoking at any time during the pregnancy. However, the developing heart is vulnerable to noxious stimuli in the early weeks of fetal development, a time when many women are not aware of being pregnant. Congenital heart defects are the most common birth defects. Research shows an association between maternal tobacco exposure, both active and passive, and congenital heart defects. This article presents recent evidence supporting the association between intrauterine cigarette smoke exposure in the periconceptional period and congenital heart defects and discusses clinical implications for practice for perinatal and neonatal nurses. PMID:26813392

  7. Cost effectiveness in obstetrics and gynecology: The levonorgestrel intrauterine system.

    PubMed

    Mattson, Lisa

    2012-03-01

    Use of evidence-based practices that are both cost-effective and acceptable to patients is now a focus in health care. Considerable cost savings can be realized by reducing unintended pregnancies and improving control of menstrual-related morbidity. The levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS), often referred to by its brand name Mirena, has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration both for contraception and fortreating abnormal uterine bleeding. The device has been available in the United States since 2000 and has been used in Europe since 1990. Despite the fact that several evidence-based guidelines include use of the LNG-IUS, it remains underutilized in this country. This article reviews the benefits of the LNG-IUS as they pertain to women's health and to the cost of health care. PMID:22611822

  8. Massive subchorionic hematoma (Breus' mole) complicated by intrauterine growth retardation.

    PubMed

    Nishida, N; Suzuki, S; Hamamura, Y; Igarashi, K; Hayashi, Z; Sawa, R; Yoneyama, Y; Asakura, H; Kawabata, K; Shima, Y; Shin, S; Araki, T

    2001-02-01

    We present here a case of massive subchorionic hematoma complicated by intrauterine growth retardation and oligohydramnios diagnosed at 22 weeks' gestation. The patient was managed with the following medications: (1) tocolysis with ritodrine infusion, (2) 10%maltose infusion therapy (1500mL/day), (3) antibiotic infusion (cefotaxim sodium, 2 g/dayx7) and (4) kampo therapy with Sairei-to until delivery. At 33 weeks and 0 days' gestation, a female baby weighing 1,342 g was delivered without complication by caesarean section. During surgery, an escape of about 500~600 g of dark brown blood with no clots was noted from the subchorionic space of the placenta. Examination of the placenta showed a large fibrosis with well-defined margins on the fetal surface. PMID:11180702

  9. Neurological and neurocognitive functions from intrauterine methylmercury exposure.

    PubMed

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Kado, Yoko; Diez, Midory Higa; Kishikawa, Toshihiro; Sanada, Satoshi

    2016-05-01

    In the 1950s, large-scale food poisoning caused by methylmercury was identified in Minamata, Japan. Although severe intrauterine exposure cases (ie, congenital Minamata disease patients) are well known, possible impacts of methylmercury exposure in utero among residents, which is likely at lower levels than in congenital Minamata disease patients, are rarely explored. In 2014, the authors examined neurological and neurocognitive functions among 18 exposed participants in Minamata, focusing on fine motor, visuospatial construction, and executive functions. More than half of the participants had some fine motor and coordination difficulties. In addition, several participants had lower performance for neurocognitive function tests (the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure test and Keio version of the Wisconsin card sorting test). These deficits imply diffuse brain damage. This study suggests possible neurological and neurocognitive impacts of prenatal exposure to methylmercury among exposed residents of Minamata. PMID:26267674

  10. Intrauterine Growth Restriction Associated with Hematologic Abnormalities: Probable Manifestations of Placental Mesenchymal Dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Payo, Cristina; Bernabeu, Rocio Alvarez; Villar, Isabel Salas; Goy, Enrique Iglesias

    2015-10-01

    Introduction Placental mesenchymal dysplasia is a rare vascular disease associated with intrauterine growth restriction, fetal demise as well as Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. Some neonates present hematologic abnormalities possibly related to consumptive coagulopathy and hemolytic anemia in the placental circulation. Case report We present a case of placental mesenchymal dysplasia in a fetus with intrauterine growth restriction and cerebellar hemorrhagic injury diagnosed in the 20th week of pregnancy. During 26th week, our patient had an intrauterine fetal demise in the context of gestational hypertension. We have detailed the ultrasound findings that made us suspect the presence of hematologic disorders during 20th week. Discussion We believe that the cerebellar hematoma could be the consequence of thrombocytopenia accompanied by anemia. If hemorrhagic damage during fetal life is found, above all associates with an anomalous placental appearance and with intrauterine growth restriction, PMD should be suspected along other etiologies. PMID:26495159

  11. Role of angiogenesis in endometrial repair of patients with severe intrauterine adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuqing; Chang, Yajie; Yao, Shuzhong

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To detect vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and micro-vessel density (MVD) in patients with severe intrauterine adhesion before and after therapy, and to preliminarily explore the role of angiogenesis in the therapy of severe intrauterine adhesion. Methods: A total of 36 patients with severe intrauterine adhesion were prospectively recruited into the treatment group. In the control group, 20 patients with normal uterine were recruited. Patients with severe intrauterine adhesion received transcervical resection of adhesions under hysteroscope and then received artificial hormone therapy for 3 months. Methods: The changes in the organelles of endometrial cells were evaluated under an electric microscope; Immunohistochemistry was done to detect the VEGF expression and MVD in patients with severe intrauterine adhesion, which was compared with that in the control group; VEGF expression and MVD were compared among patients with different prognoses. Results: Electric microscopy showed vascular closure and hypoxic changes in the endometrial tissues of patients with intrauterine adhesion. After treatment, angiogenesis was observed, and the hypoxic changes in the endometrial glands and interstitium were also improved. Moreover, the VEGF expression and score of MVD also increased significantly when compared with those before treatment and in the control group. The VEGF expression and MVD score in intrauterine adhesion patients recovering from treatment were significantly higher than those in patients non-responding to treatment. Conclusion: In patients with intrauterine adhesion, the endometrial tissues present with vascular closure, and angiogenesis will be present in the endometrial tissues after treatment. The angiogenesis in the endometrial tissues may affect the endometrial repair. PMID:23826415

  12. Distinction between early normal intrauterine pregnancies and pathological pregnancies by means of a logistic model.

    PubMed

    Thorburn, J; Bryman, I; Hahlin, M

    1992-01-01

    The probability of an unclear very early pregnancy being a normal intrauterine pregnancy was estimated using a logistic model. Five diagnostic measures of prognostic value were identified in the model: (i) daily change in human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG), (ii) results of transvaginal ultrasound, (iii) vaginal bleeding, (iv) serum progesterone level and (v) risk score for ectopic pregnancy. With the use of this model, the probability of a normal intrauterine pregnancy has been estimated as 96.7%. PMID:1551947

  13. Abnormal Head Position

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause. Can a longstanding head turn lead to any permanent problems? Yes, a significant abnormal head posture could cause permanent ... occipitocervical synostosis and unilateral hearing loss. Are there any ... postures? Yes. Abnormal head postures can usually be improved depending ...

  14. Head and face reconstruction

    MedlinePlus

    Head and face reconstruction is surgery to repair or reshape deformities of the head and face (craniofacial). ... How surgery for head and face deformities (craniofacial reconstruction) ... and the person's condition. Surgical repairs involve the ...

  15. Head circumference (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Head circumference is a measurement of the circumference of the child's head at its largest area (above the eyebrows and ears and around the back of the head). During routine check-ups, the distance is measured ...

  16. Head Injury Prevention Tips

    MedlinePlus

    Head Injury Prevention Tips American Association of Neurological Surgeons 5550 Meadowbrook Drive, Rolling Meadows, IL 60008-3852 ... defined as a blow or jolt to the head or a penetrating head injury that disrupts the ...

  17. Genetic heterogeneity of prematurity and intrauterine growth retardation: clues from the Old Order Amish.

    PubMed

    Khoury, M J; Cohen, B H

    1987-08-01

    We studied differences in the role of genetic factors in prematurity and intrauterine growth retardation with the use of data on 312 Amish singleton live children ascertained from Amish records in Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, between 1969 and 1980. Birth and death certificates were obtained on all children, and inbreeding coefficients of child, mother, and father were computed by use of the path method of tracing common ancestors in a unique genealogic registry of Amish ancestors dating back to the 1700s. Multivariate analysis with linear and log linear models showed that a lower mean gestational age and a higher risk of prematurity (less than 37 weeks) and borderline maturity (37 to 38 weeks) were significantly associated with increased maternal inbreeding but not child or paternal inbreeding. On the other hand, a higher risk of intrauterine growth retardation (less than the tenth percentile in birth weight for gestational age) and mild intrauterine growth delay (tenth to twenty-fifth percentile) were associated with increased child inbreeding but not maternal or paternal inbreeding. The analysis suggests the presence of genetic heterogeneity in the etiology of prematurity and intrauterine growth retardation; while prematurity is mostly related to the maternal genotype, intrauterine growth retardation is related to the fetal genotype. The study reemphasizes the need for separating low birth weight into prematurity and intrauterine growth retardation in genetic and epidemiologic studies. PMID:3618690

  18. The effect of intrauterine HCG injection on IVF outcome: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Osman, A; Pundir, J; Elsherbini, M; Dave, S; El-Toukhy, T; Khalaf, Y

    2016-09-01

    In this systematic review and meta-analysis, the effect of intrauterine HCG infusion before embryo transfer on IVF outcomes (live birth rate, clinical pregnancy rate and spontaneous aboretion rate) was investigated. Searches were conducted on MEDLINE, EMBASE and The Cochrane Library. Randomized studies in women undergoing IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection comparing intrauterine HCG administration at embryo transfer compared with no intrauterine HCG were eligible for inclusion. Eight randomized controlled trials were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis. A total of 3087 women undergoing IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles were enrolled (intrauterine HCG group: n = 1614; control group: n = 1473). No significant difference was found in the live birth rate (RR 1.13; 95% CI 0.84 to 1.53) and spontaneous abortion rate (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.74 to 1.34) between women who received intrauterine HCG and those who did not receive HCG. Although this review was extensive and included randomized controlled trials, no significant heterogeneity was found, and the overall included numbers are relatively small. In conclusion the current evidence does not support the use of intrauterine HCG administration before embryo transfer. Well-designed multicentre trials are needed to provide robust evidence. PMID:27317131

  19. Intrauterine contraception in Saint Louis: A Survey of Obstetrician and Gynecologists’ knowledge and attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Madden, Tessa; Allsworth, Jenifer E.; Hladky, Katherine J.; Secura, Gina M.; Peipert, Jeffrey F.

    2009-01-01

    Background Many obstacles to intrauterine contraception use exist, including provider and patient misinformation, high upfront cost, and clinician practice patterns. The aim of our study was to investigate knowledge and attitudes about intrauterine contraception among obstetricians and gynecologists in the area of Saint Louis. Study Design We mailed a self-administered, anonymous survey to 250 clinicians who provide obstetric and gynecologic care in Saint Louis City and County which included questions about demographics, training, family planning visits, and intrauterine contraceptive knowledge and use. Results The overall survey response rate among eligible clinicians was 73.7%. Clinicians who had recently finished training or saw higher numbers of contraceptive patients per week were more likely to insert intrauterine contraception than clinicians who completed training prior to 1989 or saw fewer contraceptive patients. Several misconceptions among clinicians were identified, including an association between intrauterine contraceptives and an elevated risk of pelvic inflammatory disease. Conclusions Physician misconceptions about the risks of intrauterine contraception continue to occur. Improved clinician education is greatly needed to facilitate the use of these highly effective, long-acting, reversible methods of contraception. PMID:20103447

  20. High sodium intake increases blood pressure and alters renal function in intrauterine growth-retarded rats.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Marijke W; Fazzi, Gregorio E; Janssen, Ger M J; Blanco, Carlos E; De Mey, Jo G R

    2005-07-01

    A suboptimal fetal environment increases the risk to develop cardiovascular disease in the adult. We reported previously that intrauterine stress in response to reduced uteroplacental blood flow in the pregnant rat limits fetal growth and compromises renal development, leading to an altered renal function in the adult offspring. Here we tested the hypothesis that high dietary sodium intake in rats with impaired renal development attributable to intrauterine stress, results in increased blood pressure, altered renal function, and organ damage. In rats, intrauterine stress was induced by bilateral ligation of the uterine arteries at day 17 of pregnancy. At the age of 12 weeks, the offspring was given high-sodium drinking water (2% sodium chloride). At the age of 16 weeks, rats were instrumented for monitoring of blood pressure and renal function. After intrauterine stress, litter size and birth weight were reduced, whereas hematocrit at birth was increased. Renal blood flow, glomerular filtration rate, and the glomerular filtration fraction were increased significantly after intrauterine stress. High sodium intake did not change renal function and blood pressure in control animals. However, during high sodium intake in intrauterine stress offspring, renal blood flow, glomerular filtration rate, and the filtration fraction were decreased, and blood pressure was increased. In addition, these animals developed severe albuminuria, an important sign of renal dysfunction. Thus, a suboptimal fetal microenvironment, which impairs renal development, results in sodium-dependent hypertension and albuminuria. PMID:15956110

  1. A Report of Three Cases and Review of Intrauterine Herpes Simplex Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Marquez, Lucila; Levy, Moise L.; Munoz, Flor M.; Palazzi, Debra L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Intrauterine herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection often is omitted from descriptions of neonatal HSV disease. Previous characterizations of intrauterine HSV infection limit manifestations to the triad of cutaneous, central nervous system (CNS), and ophthalmologic findings. We report 3 cases of intrauterine HSV infection and provide a contemporary literature review of this disease. Methods Cases published between 1963 and January 2009 were identified. Selected cases fit the clinical description of intrauterine HSV infection, had manifestations present at birth, and had virologic confirmation of infection. Results This review yielded 64 cases, 3 of which were our own, of intrauterine HSV infection. Less than one-third fit the typical triad. Of the patients with cutaneous findings at birth, 24 (44%) had manifestations other than vesicles or bullae. Confirmation of HSV infection by culture of cutaneous lesions present at birth was delayed beyond 72 hours after birth in 15 patients and occurred at a median of 10 days of age. Nine of these patients had lesions at birth that were neither vesicles nor bullae, and 14 cases were confirmed by culture of new vesicles. Conclusions More than two-thirds of reported cases do not present with the typical triad. Cutaneous findings are not limited to vesicles or bullae. A high index of suspicion and recognition of varied cutaneous manifestations is necessary to diagnose infants with intrauterine HSV infection. PMID:20811312

  2. Mechanisms behind intrauterine device-induced luteal persistence in mares.

    PubMed

    Rivera Del Alamo, M M; Reilas, T; Kindahl, H; Katila, T

    2008-08-01

    Intrauterine glass balls are used to prevent oestrous signs in sports mares, but the mechanism of action is unknown. It has been suggested that the glass ball can mimic an embryo or act via an induced chronic uterine inflammation and absent or continuous low-grade prostaglandin (PG) release. The purpose of this study was to induce prolonged luteal function in mares using a small intrauterine device (IUD) and to study the mechanisms behind prolonged IUD-induced luteal function. A uterine swab and a biopsy specimen were obtained in early oestrus. A water-filled plastic ball, diameter 20mm and weight 3.6g, was inserted into the uterus 2-4 days after ovulation; the control mares underwent similar cervical manipulation without ball insertion. The mares were examined three times per week until day 23 and twice weekly thereafter until they returned to oestrus (transrectal palpation, ultrasonography and progesterone determination). The location of the IUD was recorded and ultrasound scans were video-recorded to assess the frequency of uterine contractions. When the mare returned to oestrus, a uterine swab and biopsy specimen were obtained and the bacteriological, cytological and histological (inflammation and glandular dilation) results compared with the samples obtained before the IUD insertion. The PG F(2alpha) metabolite levels were measured in the plasma of four control mares and eight IUD mares on days 11-16. The IUD induced a prolonged luteal phase in 75% of the mares (9/12; IUD-P); the mean dioestrous length was 57.0 days. The three mares that did not respond to the IUD (IUD-N) showed a mean dioestrous length of 15.7 days and the 12 control mares 16.1 days. The inflammation and glandular dilation scores were not significantly different in pre- and post-manipulation biopsy specimens. Although locational changes of the IUD were observed, they occurred over very small distances and were mostly limited within the body-bifurcation area. The IUD-N and control mares showed

  3. Heading and head injuries in soccer.

    PubMed

    Kirkendall, D T; Jordan, S E; Garrett, W E

    2001-01-01

    In the world of sports, soccer is unique because of the purposeful use of the unprotected head for controlling and advancing the ball. This skill obviously places the player at risk of head injury and the game does carry some risk. Head injury can be a result of contact of the head with another head (or other body parts), ground, goal post, other unknown objects or even the ball. Such impacts can lead to contusions, fractures, eye injuries, concussions or even, in rare cases, death. Coaches, players, parents and physicians are rightly concerned about the risk of head injury in soccer. Current research shows that selected soccer players have some degree of cognitive dysfunction. It is important to determine the reasons behind such deficits. Purposeful heading has been blamed, but a closer look at the studies that focus on heading has revealed methodological concerns that question the validity of blaming purposeful heading of the ball. The player's history and age (did they play when the ball was leather and could absorb significant amounts of water), alcohol intake, drug intake, learning disabilities, concussion definition and control group use/composition are all factors that cloud the ability to blame purposeful heading. What does seem clear is that a player's history of concussive episodes is a more likely explanation for cognitive deficits. While it is likely that the subconcussive impact of purposeful heading is a doubtful factor in the noted deficits, it is unknown whether multiple subconcussive impacts might have some lingering effects. In addition, it is unknown whether the noted deficits have any affect on daily life. Proper instruction in the technique is critical because if the ball contacts an unprepared head (as in accidental head-ball contacts), the potential for serious injury is possible. To further our understanding of the relationship of heading, head injury and cognitive deficits, we need to: learn more about the actual impact of a ball on the

  4. Prospective risk of intrauterine fetal death in monoamniotic twin pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Morikawa, Mamoru; Yamada, Takashi; Yamada, Takahiro; Sato, Shoji; Minakami, Hisanori

    2012-08-01

    This study was conducted to review the overall short-term outcome of monoamniotic twins in Japan and to determine the prospective risk of fetal death so as to adequately counsel parents with monoamniotic twins. Study subjects were 101 women with monoamniotic twins who were registered with the Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology Successive Pregnancy Birth Registry System and who had given birth at ≥22 weeks of gestation during 2002-2009. The gestational week at delivery (mean±SD) was 31.8±3.7. Fourteen women experienced intrauterine fetal death (IUFD). Short-term outcomes of co-twins born to the 14 women included 8 IUFDs, one early neonatal death within 7 days of life (END), and 5 survivors. Four other women experienced 5 ENDs. Thus, 13.9% (28/202) of infants died perinatally (22 IUFDs and 6 ENDs), 13.9% (14/101) of women experienced IUFD, and 82.2% (83/101) of women experienced neither IUFD nor END. Structural anomalies and twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome explained 17.9% (five infants) and 10.7% (three infants) of the 28 perinatal deaths, respectively. The prospective risk of IUFD was 13.9% (14/101) for women who reached gestational week 22(-0/7), gradually decreasing thereafter but remaining at between 4.5% and 8.0% between gestational week 30(-0/7) and 36(-0/7). PMID:22853819

  5. [Placental epigenetic programming in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR)].

    PubMed

    Casanello, Paola; Castro-Rodríguez, José A; Uauy, Ricardo; Krause, Bernardo J

    2016-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a perinatal condition affecting foetal growth, with under the 10th percentile of the weight curve expected for gestational age. This condition has been associated with higher cardiovascular and metabolic risk and post-natal obesity. There are also major changes in placental function, and particularly in a key molecule in this regulation, nitric oxide. The synthesis of nitric oxide has numerous control mechanisms and competition with arginase for their common substrate, the amino acid L-arginine. This competition is reflected in various vascular diseases and particularly in the endothelium of the umbilical vessels of babies with IUGR. Along with this, there is regulation at the epigenetic level, where methylation in specific regions of some gene promoters, such as the nitric oxide synthase, regulating their expression. It is currently of great interest to understand the mechanisms by which diseases such as IUGR may be conditioned, particularly by maternal nutritional and metabolic conditions, and epigenetic mechanisms that could eventually be modifiable, and thus a focus of interest for health interventions. PMID:27209119

  6. Role of the levonorgestrel intrauterine system in effective contraception

    PubMed Central

    Attia, Abdelhamid M; Ibrahim, Magdy M; Abou-Setta, Ahmed M

    2013-01-01

    Norgestrel, a synthetic progestin chemically derived from 19-nortestosterone, is six times more potent than progesterone, with variable binding affinity to various steroid receptors. The levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG IUS) provides a long-acting, highly effective, and reversible form of contraception, with a pearl index of 0.18 per 100 women-years. The locally released hormone leads to endometrial concentrations that are 200–800 times those found after daily oral use and a plasma level that is lower than that with other forms of levonorgestrel-containing contraception. The contraceptive effect of the LNG IUS is achieved mainly through its local suppressive effect on the endometrium, leading to endometrial thinning, glandular atrophy, and stromal decidualization without affecting ovulation. The LNG IUS is generally well tolerated. The main side effects are related to its androgenic activity, which is usually mild and transient, resolving after the first few months. Menstrual abnormalities are also common but well tolerated, and even become desirable (eg, amenorrhea, hypomenorrhea, and oligomenorrhea) with proper counseling of the patient during the choice of the method of contraception. The satisfaction rates after 3 years of insertion are high, reaching between 77% and 94%. The local effect of the LNG IUS on the endometrium and low rates of systemic adverse effects have led to its use in other conditions rather than contraception, as for the treatment of endometrial hyperplasia, benign menorrhagia, endometriosis, adenomyosis, and uterine fibroids. PMID:23990713

  7. Variation in guideline adherence in intrauterine insemination care.

    PubMed

    Haagen, Esther C; Nelen, Willianne L D M; Grol, Richard P T M; Braat, Didi D M; Hermens, Rosella P M G; Kremer, Jan A M

    2010-04-01

    Health-care delivery according to clinical practice guidelines is thought to be critical in achieving optimal outcomes. This study aimed to assess the extent to which practice performance in intrauterine insemination (IUI) care is consistent with guideline recommendations and to evaluate the association between guideline adherence and outcome of IUI care. In a retrospective cohort study, 1100 infertile couples who underwent IUI treatment at 10 Dutch hospitals were asked to grant access to their medical record for assessment of guideline adherence using 25 systematically developed guideline-based performance indicators. A total of 558 couples who started 2334 IUI cycles participated. Guideline adherence regarding 20 process and five structure aspects of IUI care was often substandard and varied considerably between hospitals. Out of 10 possible associations investigated, guideline adherence regarding sperm quality and guideline adherence regarding the total number of IUI cycles were associated with improved ongoing pregnancy rates after IUI. Thus, guideline adherence in IUI care is far from optimal and varies substantially between hospitals. As associations between guideline adherence and ongoing pregnancy after IUI were mainly non-significant, further research is needed to evaluate associations between guideline adherence and other outcomes of IUI care besides ongoing pregnancy, such as patient safety and cost effectiveness. PMID:20129823

  8. G-CSF Intrauterine for Thin Endometrium, and Pregnancy Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Tehraninejad, Ensieh; Davari Tanha, Fateme; Asadi, Ebrahim; Kamali, Koorosh; Aziminikoo, Elham; Rezayof, Elahe

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate effects of G-CSF on a cancelled ART cycle due to thin endometrium. Materials and methods: In a nonrandomized clinical trial from January 2011 to January 2013 in two tertiary university based hospitals fifteen patients undergoing embryo transfer and with the history of cycle cancellation due to thin endometrium were studied. Intrauterine infusion of G-CSF was done on the day of oocyte pick-up or 5 days before embryo transfer. The primary outcome to be measured was an endometrium thickened to at least 6 mm and the secondary outcome was clinical pregnancy rate and consequently take-home baby. All previous cycles were considered as control for each patient. Results: The G-CSF was infused at the day of oocyte retrieval or 5 days before embryo transfer. The endometrial thickness reached from 3.593±0.251 mm to 7.120 ± 0.84 mm. The mean age, gravidity, parity, and FSH were 35.13± 9.531 years, 3, 1 and 32.78 ± 31.10 mIU/ml, respectively. The clinical pregnancy rate was 20%, and there was one missed abortion, a mother death at 34 weeks, and a preterm labor at 30 weeks due to PROM. Conclusion: G-CSF may increase endometrial thickness in the small group of patients who had no choice except cycle cancellation or surrogacy. PMID:26622308

  9. Immediate Postabortion Intrauterine Device Insertion: Continuation and Satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    McNicholas, Colleen; Hotchkiss, Taylor; Madden, Tessa; Zhao, Qiuhong; Allsworth, Jenifer; Peipert, Jeffrey F.

    2013-01-01

    Background The provision of intrauterine devices (IUDs) immediately postabortion has the potential to decrease unintended pregnancy in the United States. Studies have demonstrated safety and efficacy; however, there are limited data about continuation, satisfaction, and bleeding patterns among women receiving immediate postabortion IUDs. Study Design We performed a retrospective cohort study of women undergoing immediate postabortion IUD insertion. Demographics and clinical data were collected from intake forms and procedure notes. We attempted to contact women by telephone to administer a short questionnaire to assess continuation, satisfaction, and bleeding patterns. Results We were able to contact 77 of 225 (34%). Women lost to follow-up were more likely to have higher parity or a pregnancy of greater gestational age at the time of abortion compared with women who were successfully contacted. Continuation and satisfaction rates were high (80.5% and 80.6%, respectively). Reported bleeding patterns with IUD use were similar to previously reported patterns. Conclusion Follow-up of women undergoing immediate postabortion IUD insertion is challenging. However, we found that women choosing immediate postabortion IUD had high rates of continuation and satisfaction. PMID:22749197

  10. Intrauterine contraceptive device embedded in the omentum - case report.

    PubMed

    Zolnierczyk, Piotr; Cendrowski, Krzysztof; Sawicki, Wlodzimierz

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the case of a 29-year-old patient, female (nulliparous) who had an intrauterine device (IUD) inserted in 2010 and who has had no gynecological control since then (for 4 years). After this time, the asymptomatic patient had a gynecological appointment, during which a doctor did not find the strings of IUD in the speculum. Ultrasound examination did not reveal the presence of the IUD in the uterine cavity, which led to the suspicion of its presence outside the uterus. The patient was referred to a hospital, where she underwent ultrasound and X-ray examination of the pelvis that confirmed the presence of the IUD outside the uterus. Laparoscopy was performed during which the IUD was localized as being embedded in the omentum. It was removed by performing a resection of a part of the omentum with inflammatory infiltration. The patient was discharged home on the second postoperative day in a good condition. This case confirms the need for gynecological control and ultrasound examination shortly after insertion. An ultrasound or/and X-ray is mandatory in any case of absence of IUD strings previously visible in the vagina, if the patient did not observe its expulsion. PMID:26664227

  11. Morphofunctional renal alterations in rats induced by intrauterine hyperglycemic environment

    PubMed Central

    França-Silva, Nathane; Oliveira, Natácia Dreyce Gonçalves

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The renal development of rats begins in intrauterine life, finishing by 15 days after birth. Diabetes and other diseases during pregnancy can cause systemic changes in the offspring. We evaluated the structural and functional renal alterations of the offspring from diabetic mothers. Material and methods Pregnant rats were separated and 1, 7, 30 and 90 days-old (DO) pups were divided into groups according to the treatment that the mothers received: G1: control, G2: untreated diabetic and G3: insulin-treated diabetic. The kidneys from offspring at 1, 7 and 30 DO were removed for immunohistochemical and histological studies. Furthermore, blood and urine samples were collected from animals at 30 DO to determine the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) by creatinine clearance, and the animals at 90 DO were subjected to blood pressure measurement by plethysmography. Results Our results show an increase of PCNA+ glomerular cells at 7 DO and a reduction in 30 DO animals as well as increased α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) tubulointerstitial expression at 1 and 7 DO in animals from G2, when compared with controls. The adult offspring from G2 showed reduced GFR and increased blood pressure. Conclusions Maternal diabetes may have induced programming of renal damage in offspring of hyperglycemic mothers, which may have contributed to the impairment of renal function. PMID:27186167

  12. [Case of intrauterine retardation and fetal death during labor].

    PubMed

    Frundeva, B; Dimitrova, V; Museva, A; Dimitrov, A; Zlatkov, V

    2014-01-01

    The case concerns to a 37 years old pregnant woman with a history of three miscarriages. Ultrasound biometry in early pregnancy corresponds to the term calculated according the last menstrual period (LMP). At 37 week of gestation was determined retardation of 5 weeks. Doppler velocimetry and quantity of amniotic fluid were in normal ranges and the pregnant refused hospitalization. She was admitted to the hospital three days after the appointed term without uterine contractions. The fetal ultrasound biometry meets 33 weeks and the Doppler examination of a. umbilicalis found resistance index (RI) of the upper limit of normal. The cardiotocography record shows: baseline fetal heart rate--143 beats/min, good variability and reactivity. There was one deceleration for 3 minutes, and then the recording returns to normal. Re-monitoring after 30 minutes establishes of a periodic decelerations and a tendency to bradycardia with reserved variability. At the start of the emergency Cesarean Section fetal heart beats are single. The delivered babe was with Apgar O. The reanimation was not successful and the fetus died. From the autopsy signs of severe asphyxia. In conclusion, it can be assumed that in strongly retarded fetuses, cardiotocography recording and Doppler velosimetry are not sufficiently reliable methods for continued monitoring. In late-onset and severe intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) desirable delivery time is after reaching biological maturity at 36-37 week. PMID:25558672

  13. Ultrastructural study on human placenta from intrauterine growth retardation cases.

    PubMed

    Battistelli, Michela; Burattini, Sabrina; Pomini, Francesco; Scavo, Maria; Caruso, Alessandro; Falcieri, Elisabetta

    2004-10-01

    A morphological study was performed on 27 human placentas from normal gestations (Group 1) and compared with those from eight cases of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) (Group 2). Semithin section light microscopy, transmission, and scanning electron microscopy were carried out on trophoblastic terminal villi, carefully identified under the stereomicroscope. In growth retardation cases, villi appear longer, thinner, and less vascularized, compared to the normal condition. Fibrinoid, an extracellular material of hematic origin, frequently fills villar stroma. The density of apical microvilli appears considerably reduced and occasional microvilli-free areas are observed in growth retardation cases. Moreover, the underlying basal membrane appears significantly thicker than that of normal syncytiotrophoblast. Recently, particular attention has been paid to apoptosis as a possible cell deletion mechanism in growth restriction. In our study, a majority of typical apoptotic features appear indifferently in both IUGR and normal pregnancy. Our data hints that growth retardation might be correlated with a complex of structural changes, suggestive of maternofetal traffic downregulation, but further studies are required to understand the underlying functional mechanisms. PMID:15605416

  14. Levonorgestrel Intrauterine Device Use in Overweight and Obese Women

    PubMed Central

    Soon, Reni A; Harris, Sara C; Salcedo, Jennifer; Kaneshiro, Bliss E

    2015-01-01

    The levonorgestrel intrauterine device (LNG-IUD) is a safe, effective, long-acting, reversible contraceptive that reduces unintended pregnancy and decreases heavy menstrual bleeding. Many procedures such as IUD insertion are more challenging in overweight and obese women. The objective of this study was to describe LNG-IUD insertion, continuation, and complications in overweight and obese women in an ethnically diverse population in Hawai‘i. A retrospective cohort study of women who had a LNG-IUD inserted at the University of Hawai‘i, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Resident and Faculty practice sites between January 2009 and December 2010 was performed. A total of 149 women were followed. The most commonly reported races were Asian (32%), Native Hawaiian (26%), and non-Hawaiian Pacific Islander (20%). The mean BMI of the study population was 28.4 (standard deviation 7.2) with 37% classified as normal weight, 30% as overweight, and 33% as obese. Overall, 76% of women continued the LNG-IUD 12 months after insertion. No statistically significant difference emerged in 12-month IUD continuation between the BMI groups. Difficult (5%) and failed (3%) IUD insertions were rare for all BMI groups. IUD complications occurred in 9% of women and included expulsion and self-removal. In this diverse population, the majority of women continued to use the LNG-IUD one year after insertion with low rates of difficult insertions and complications. PMID:26568900

  15. Analytical study of intrauterine fetal death cases and associated maternal conditions

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Susmita; Sidhu, Harpreet; Kaur, Sukhbir

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Intrauterine fetal death is an important indicator of maternal and perinatal health of a given population. This study was undertaken to study the maternal and fetal factors associated with intrauterine fetal death. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective single center study. The details were entered in a preformed proforma. The details of complaints at admission, obstetrics history, menstrual history, examination findings, per vaginal examination findings, mode of delivery and fetal outcomes, placental examination, condition of cord and investigation reports were recorded. Results: A total of 250 intrauterine fetal deaths were reported amongst 6942 deliveries conducted during the study period. The incidence rate of intrauterine fetal death was 36/1000 live births. Two hundred and twenty-two deliveries were unbooked and unsupervised. The other observations were rural population (58%), low socioeconomic group (71.2%), previous stillbirth (9.2%), gestational hypertension (32.8%), anemia (74.4%), antepartum hemorrhage (18.8%), and congenital malformations (CMFs) (8.8%). Conclusions: The incidence of intrauterine fetal deaths in our population is higher than that reported from developed countries. This is associated with anemia, pregnancy-induced hypertension, illiteracy, low socioeconomic status, and higher incidence of undiagnosed CMFs. PMID:26958515

  16. Unruptured rudimentary horn pregnancy presenting with acute haemoperitoneum with combined intrauterine pregnancy: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Lallar, Meenakshi; Nandal, Rajesh; Sharma, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    Background: The incidence of rudimentary heterotopic uterine horn pregnancy varies from 1:76,000 to 1:140,000. However the incidence of twin pregnancy i.e. intrauterine pregnancy in unicornuate uterus and its associated rudimentary horn pregnancy is estimated to be around 1 in 10 million gestations. Case: Here, we present 19 year old pramigravida women with acute haemoperitoneum with diagnosis of unruptured rudimentary horn pregnancy combined by intrauterine pregnancy. The patient was managed with emergency laparatomy and resuscitation. Rudimentary horn containing foetus was excised and intrauterine pregnancy was left untouched. The intrauterine pregnancy was supported with progesterone and tocolytics and the patient delivered a newborn of 2.8 kg through spontaneous labor at 37 weeks of gestation. Conclusion: Heterotopic pregnancies incidence have increased in comparison to past and there should be high level of suspicion for this rare event as this is often associated with high maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality where diagnosis is difficult and challenging and easily missed. . Timely intervention provides survival of intrauterine pregnancy in case of twin pregnancy, even in low resource settings where usually the diagnosis is missed before acute event. PMID:25653676

  17. Open randomised study of use of levonorgestrel releasing intrauterine system as alternative to hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Lähteenmäki, Pekka; Haukkamaa, Maija; Puolakka, Jukka; Riikonen, Ulla; Sainio, Susanna; Suvisaari, Janne; Nilsson, Carl Gustaf

    1998-01-01

    Objectives: To assess whether the levonorgestrel intrauterine system could provide a conservative alternative to hysterectomy in the treatment of excessive uterine bleeding. Design: Open randomised multicentre study with two parallel groups: a levonorgestrel intrauterine system group and a control group. Setting: Gynaecology departments of three hospitals in Finland. Subjects: Fifty six women aged 33-49 years scheduled to undergo hysterectomy for treatment of excessive uterine bleeding. Interventions: Women were randomised either to continue with their current medical treatment or to have a levonorgestrel intrauterine system inserted. Main outcome measure: Proportion of women cancelling their decision to undergo hysterectomy. Results: At 6 months, 64.3% (95% confidence interval 44.1 to 81.4%) of the women in the levonorgestrel intrauterine system group and 14.3% (4.0 to 32.7%) in the control group had cancelled their decision to undergo hysterectomy (P<0.001). Conclusions: The use of the levonorgestrel intrauterine system is a good conservative alternative to hysterectomy in the treatment of menorrhagia and should be considered before hysterectomy or other invasive treatments. PMID:9552948

  18. [Prevention and treatment of intra-uterine synechiae: Review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Warembourg, S; Huberlant, S; Garric, X; Leprince, S; de Tayrac, R; Letouzey, V

    2015-04-01

    Intra-uterine adhesions are a major cause of secondary infertility. The prevalence of adhesions is probably underestimated due to the heterogeneity of the symptoms. An exhaustive literature search using search engines MEDLINE, Pubmed, Cochrane library and Web of Science was performed to make a focus on the origins, consequences and methods of prevention of intra-uterine adhesions. Intra-uterine adhesions are likely to occur after any endo-uterine surgery via dysregulated activation of coagulation chain linked to the inflammatory process. Early and late obstetric complications are also recognized as caused by adhesions. The diagnosis is currently performed by hysteroscopy but it remains an invasive procedure even if it can be done with an ambulatory management. Several research approaches inspired by intra-abdominal surgery for the prevention of pelvic adhesions have been developed. However, no current method of prevention has proven its effectiveness in terms of improving spontaneous fertility. The improvement in surgical practices, the design of new intra-uterine medical devices and new research especially in the field of endometrial stem cells can maybe reduce the rate of adhesions end their complications after intra-uterine surgery. PMID:25479692

  19. Intrauterine Growth Restriction Alters Mouse Intestinal Architecture during Development.

    PubMed

    Fung, Camille M; White, Jessica R; Brown, Ashley S; Gong, Huiyu; Weitkamp, Jörn-Hendrik; Frey, Mark R; McElroy, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    Infants with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are at increased risk for neonatal and lifelong morbidities affecting multiple organ systems including the intestinal tract. The underlying mechanisms for the risk to the intestine remain poorly understood. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that IUGR affects the development of goblet and Paneth cell lineages, thus compromising the innate immunity and barrier functions of the epithelium. Using a mouse model of maternal thromboxane A2-analog infusion to elicit maternal hypertension and resultant IUGR, we tested whether IUGR alters ileal maturation and specifically disrupts mucus-producing goblet and antimicrobial-secreting Paneth cell development. We measured body weights, ileal weights and ileal lengths from birth to postnatal day (P) 56. We also determined the abundance of goblet and Paneth cells and their mRNA products, localization of cellular tight junctions, cell proliferation, and apoptosis to interrogate cellular homeostasis. Comparison of the murine findings with human IUGR ileum allowed us to verify observed changes in the mouse were relevant to clinical IUGR. At P14 IUGR mice had decreased ileal lengths, fewer goblet and Paneth cells, reductions in Paneth cell specific mRNAs, and decreased cell proliferation. These findings positively correlated with severity of IUGR. Furthermore, the decrease in murine Paneth cells was also seen in human IUGR ileum. IUGR disrupts the normal trajectory of ileal development, particularly affecting the composition and secretory products of the epithelial surface of the intestine. We speculate that this abnormal intestinal development may constitute an inherent "first hit", rendering IUGR intestine susceptible to further injury, infection, or inflammation. PMID:26745886

  20. Intrauterine Growth Restriction Alters Mouse Intestinal Architecture during Development

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Ashley S.; Gong, Huiyu; Weitkamp, Jörn-Hendrik; Frey, Mark R.; McElroy, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Infants with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are at increased risk for neonatal and lifelong morbidities affecting multiple organ systems including the intestinal tract. The underlying mechanisms for the risk to the intestine remain poorly understood. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that IUGR affects the development of goblet and Paneth cell lineages, thus compromising the innate immunity and barrier functions of the epithelium. Using a mouse model of maternal thromboxane A2-analog infusion to elicit maternal hypertension and resultant IUGR, we tested whether IUGR alters ileal maturation and specifically disrupts mucus-producing goblet and antimicrobial-secreting Paneth cell development. We measured body weights, ileal weights and ileal lengths from birth to postnatal day (P) 56. We also determined the abundance of goblet and Paneth cells and their mRNA products, localization of cellular tight junctions, cell proliferation, and apoptosis to interrogate cellular homeostasis. Comparison of the murine findings with human IUGR ileum allowed us to verify observed changes in the mouse were relevant to clinical IUGR. At P14 IUGR mice had decreased ileal lengths, fewer goblet and Paneth cells, reductions in Paneth cell specific mRNAs, and decreased cell proliferation. These findings positively correlated with severity of IUGR. Furthermore, the decrease in murine Paneth cells was also seen in human IUGR ileum. IUGR disrupts the normal trajectory of ileal development, particularly affecting the composition and secretory products of the epithelial surface of the intestine. We speculate that this abnormal intestinal development may constitute an inherent “first hit”, rendering IUGR intestine susceptible to further injury, infection, or inflammation. PMID:26745886

  1. Unilateral intrauterine horn insemination of frozen semen in cats.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, T; Tanaka, A; Takagi, Y; Nakagawa, K; Fujimoto, Y; Murai, M; Anzai, M; Hori, T

    2000-12-01

    Frozen feline semen was prepared using two types of extenders, egg yolk Tris-fructose citric acid (EYT-FC) and egg yolk sodium citrate solution (EYC), and the semen qualities after thawing and the conception rates obtained by unilateral intrauterine horn insemination (UIUI) were investigated. Cats used in the experiment were six males and 11 females aged 2-12 years (the number of experimental cases was 17). For preparation of frozen semen, semen collected by the artificial vagina method was adjusted to I x 10(8) sperm/m/ and 7% glycerol, put in 250 microl straws, and then frozen using a cell freezer. The mean sperm motility after thawing was 30.0+/-9.7 (SE) % in the semen prepared with EYT-FC and 30.0+/-3.3% in the semen prepared with EYC. Four of seven animals were fertilized by UIUI using two straws in both extenders, and the conception rate was 57.1%. The mean ratios of number of kits to the number of ovulations in the inseminated side were 61.1+/-24.5% and 30.5+/-3.4% for EYT-FC and EYC, respectively, showing that the ratio tended to be higher in the semen prepared with EYT-FC. The above findings, comparing the two extenders for preparation of frozen feline semen, showed that EYT-FC is slightly superior to EYC. To increase conception and fertility rates, it may be important to increase the sperm count for insemination and to inseminate both uterine horns. PMID:11193339

  2. Barriers to prescribing the Copper T 380A intrauterine device by physicians.

    PubMed Central

    Kooiker, C. H.; Scutchfield, F. D.

    1990-01-01

    From a questionnaire sent to all obstetricians and gynecologists and all family and general practitioners in San Diego County, California, regarding the Copper T 380A intrauterine device, substantial barriers to prescribing it were identified. Of all physicians responding, 40% reported that they were not recommending the Copper T 380A to anyone, the single most common reason given being concern about medical liability. A lack of knowledge about the new device, a lack of intrauterine device insertion skills, and certain medical practice settings were also important barriers to prescribing it. The new intrauterine device is considered in the context of innovation-diffusion theory. Substantial amounts of education and training and improvement in the medical-legal climate are needed before current barriers to prescribing the new device are removed. Images PMID:2219892

  3. Comparison between scissor and laser resections of intrauterine septa in hysteroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilczak, Maciej; Wozniak, Jakub; Cwojdzinski, Marek; Sajdak, Stefan; Opala, Tomasz; Pisarski, Tadeusz

    1996-03-01

    The comparison between results of scissors- and Nd-YAG laser-resection of intrauterine septa in hysteroscopy was shown. In 12 patients the scissors-resection and in 11 women the laser- resection was done. In the group of patients after laser procedure 10 of them were pregnant and 9 delivered healthy children. One missed abortion was diagnosed in the twenty-first week of gestation. After scissors-resection 7 women became pregnant and 5 of them bore mature children. Two of those seven lost their gestation (spontaneous abortions in the nineteenth and twentieth weeks of pregnancy). In the authors' opinion hysteroscopy is a very useful method of diagnostics and therapy of intrauterine septa. The Nd-YAG laser-resection of intrauterine septa seems to be the method with the lowest number of complications. Fertility and parity highly improves after removal of the septa localized in the uterine cavity.

  4. Long-term prognosis of pregnancies in women with intrauterine hematomas.

    PubMed

    Børlum, K G; Thomsen, A; Clausen, I; Eriksen, G

    1989-08-01

    To evaluate the long-term significance of intrauterine hematomas in patients with threatened abortion, 380 women with a living fetus of more than 8 weeks were studied. On ultrasound, intrauterine hematomas, defined as an echo-poor subchorionic collection, were found in 86 women. Two hundred ninety-four patients without hematomas served as controls. The rate of miscarriage was significantly increased in the study group (22.1 versus 8.2%; P less than .05). Patients discharged from the initial hospitalization without aborting still had a higher abortion risk than controls (16.3 versus 5.6%; P less than .05). Second-trimester debut of symptoms was followed more often by preterm delivery. Thus, patients with intrauterine hematomas continue to be a high-risk group for the remainder of their pregnancies. PMID:2664611

  5. Epidemiological Aspects of Neonatal Mortality Due To Intrauterine Infection in Kazakhstan

    PubMed Central

    MAMYRBAYEVA, Marzya; IGISSINOV, Nurbek; ZHUMAGALIYEVA, Galina; SHILMANOVA, Akmanat

    2015-01-01

    Background: In this study, we examined the epidemiological aspects of neonatal mortality due to intrauterine infections with regard to regional characteristics. Methods: Consolidated report of the Ministry of Health and Social Development of the Republic of Kazakhstan on children deceased during their first 28 days of life due to intrauterine infections (P23 – congenital pneumonia, P35–39 – infectious diseases specific to the perinatal period) in the country and its regions for 2010 – 2014 was used in this investigation. Descriptive and analytical methods of medical statistics and epidemiology were used as the main method of this 5-year (2010–2014) retrospective study. Results: Overall, 3,298 neonatal deaths from intrauterine infections were recorded in Kazakhstan during the period of 2010–2014, 1,925 of which were early and 1,373 were late neonatal deaths. The average annual rate of neonatal mortality rate from intrauterine infection in the country amounted to 1.73±0.23‰ (95% CI=1.27–2.19‰), whereas trends during the study period decreased (T=−15.3%). Regional characteristics of neonatal mortality were established. Different levels for cartograms of neonatal mortality from intrauterine infections were defined: low (up to 1.28‰), average (from 1.28‰ to 2.12‰) and high (by 2.12‰ and above). Neonatal mortality in the early and late periods was also analyzed. Conclusion: This is the first epidemiological study of neonatal mortality from intrauterine infection, which contains a detailed space-time evaluation. The results of this investigation can be used to improve the state program to combat infant mortality. PMID:26576344

  6. Offspring birth weights after maternal intrauterine undernutrition: a comparison within sibships.

    PubMed

    Lumey, L H; Stein, A D

    1997-11-15

    The authors examined the effects of maternal intrauterine undernutrition on offspring birth weights in a cohort of women born between August 1944 and April 1946 in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. This period included the Dutch Hunger Winter, a war-induced famine. Undernutrition was defined separately for each trimester of pregnancy as an average supply of less than 1,000 calories per day from government food rations. For maximum control of potential maternal confounding factors related to offspring birth weight, the authors performed a within-family analysis, including 437 families with two siblings and 107 families with three siblings born between 1960 and 1985. As in other studies of the famine, maternal birth weight itself was decreased after third trimester intrauterine exposure but not after first trimester exposure. The expected increase in offspring birth weights with increasing birth order was not seen after maternal intrauterine exposure in the first trimester of pregnancy. In this group, second born infants weighed, on average, 252 g less at birth than their firstborn siblings (95% confidence interval (CI) -419 to -85), and thirdborn infants weighed 419 g less (95% CI -926 to 87), even after adjustment for trimester of maternal intrauterine exposure, maternal birth weight, smoking during pregnancy, and sex of infants in the sibling pairs. Additional adjustment for the birth weight of the elder sibling did not materially change this abnormal pattern. There were no abnormal patterns in offspring birth weights after maternal intrauterine exposure in the second or third trimester of pregnancy. The study outcomes could not be explained by other selected determinants of birth weight, by lack of control for socioeconomic status, or by loss to follow-up of the 1944-1946 birth cohort. This study suggests that there may be long-term biologic effects, even into the next generation, of maternal intrauterine undernutrition which do not correspond to the effects on the

  7. Clinical findings in children with congenital anomalies and misoprostol intrauterine exposure: a study of 38 cases

    PubMed Central

    Vendramini-Pittoli, Siulan; Guion-Almeida, Maria L.; Richieri-Costa, Antonio; Santos, Juliana M.; Kokitsu-Nakata, Nancy M.

    2013-01-01

    The authors describe the clinical findings of 38 children with congenital anomalies and misoprostol intrauterine exposure. This study included 38 cases, ascertained from case series of the Hospital of Rehabilitation of Craniofacial Anomalies from University of São Paulo, with evidence of intrauterine exposure to misoprostol in the first trimester of the pregnancy. Information about misoprostol intake and drug administration route was obtained through interviews with mothers. Clinical evaluation showed 18 individuals with facial phenotype compatible with Moebius syndrome; 11 individuals with multiple congenital anomalies; and nine individuals with nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or cleft palate. This study showed a widening of the phenotypic spectrum associated with misoprostol embryotoxicity.

  8. Head injury. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, P.R.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 22 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Radiographic Evaluation; Epidemiology of Head Injury; Emergency Care and Initial Evaluation; Skull Fracture and Traumatic Cerebrospinal Fluid Fistulas; Mild Head Injury; and Injuries of the Cranial Nerves.

  9. Radial head fracture - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    Elbow fracture - radial head - aftercare ... the radius bone, just below your elbow. A fracture is a break in your bone. The most common cause of a radial head fracture is falling with an outstretched arm.

  10. Head injury - first aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000028.htm Head injury - first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... a concussion can range from mild to severe. First Aid Learning to recognize a serious head injury and ...

  11. Increased head circumference

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003305.htm Increased head circumference To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Increased head circumference is when the measured distance around the ...

  12. Head and Neck Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Head and neck cancer includes cancers of the mouth, nose, sinuses, salivary glands, throat, and lymph nodes in the ... increases your risk. In fact, 85 percent of head and neck cancers are linked to tobacco use, including smoking ...

  13. Head injury - first aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... is shaken, is the most common type of traumatic brain injury. Scalp wounds. Skull fractures. Head injuries may cause ... of people who suffer head injuries are children. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) accounts for over 1 in 6 injury- ...

  14. Head and Neck Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Head and neck cancer includes cancers of the mouth, nose, sinuses, salivary glands, throat, and lymph nodes in the ... swallowing A change or hoarseness in the voice Head and neck cancers are twice as common in men. Using ...

  15. Present status of amniocentesis in intrauterine diagnosis of genetic defects.

    PubMed

    Nadler, H L; Gerbie, A

    1971-11-01

    Practical and scientific aspects of prenatal detection of genetic disorders is discussed. The indications for intrauterine detection of familial biochemical and particular chromosomal disorders require assessment of the risks of transabdominal amniocentesis and of the reliability of diagnosis. A high degree of experience in cultivating amniotic fluid cells and in performing diagnostic tests is required. The obstetrician performing the amniocentesis should be responsible for referring the family to a physician who will perform the abortion. A high-risk group for which amniocentesis may be especially important includes families in which 1 parent is a carrier of a chromosomal rearrangement and in which the woman is a known carrier of an X-linked recessive disorder so that sex determination is important. A moderate-risk group includes women who become pregnant after age 40 in which the risk of having a child with a chromosomal aberration is greater than 1%. A low-risk group includes women over 35 and women who have previously borne a child with trisomic Down's syndrome. The experience gained in over 300 patients suggests that transabdominal aminocentesis carries minimal risks to mother and fetus. Analyses of amniotic fluid obtained by amniocentesis have resulted in antenatal diagnoses of Pompe's disease (deficient alpha-1, 4-glucosidase), Tay-Sachs disease (deficient hexosaminidase A), mucopolysaccharidosis (quantitative and qualitative changes in mucopolysaccharides), methylmalonic aciduria (increased methylamlonate), and adrenogenital syndrome (increase 17-ketosteroids and pregnanetriol). There is a lack of consensus on the reliability of several of these diagnoses resulting from the direct analysis of amniotic fluid. Analyses of uncultured amniotic fluid cells have resulted in diagnoses of Pompe's disease (ultrastructural changes) and Tay-Sachs disease. Analyses of cultivated amniotic fluid cells have enabled diagnoses of galactosemia (deficient galactose-1

  16. Metabolomic Research on Newborn Infants With Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jing; Chen, Xin-Xin; Li, Xiang-Wen; Fu, Wei; Zhang, Wan-Qiao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To compare differences in metabolites between newborns with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and those who are appropriate for gestational age (AGA) in order to understand the changes in metabolites of newborns with IUGR and to explore the possible metabolic mechanism of tissue and organ damages in patients with IUGR, with the ultimate goal of providing the basis for clinical intervention. A total of 60 newborns with IUGR and 60 AGA newborns who were hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit of our hospital between January 2011 and December 2015 and who underwent metabolic disease screening were enrolled in this study. The differences in 21 amino acids and 55 carnitines in peripheral blood, as well as changes in the ratios of free carnitine and acylcarnitine to total carnitine, were compared. Metabolites, particularly alanine, homocysteine, leucine, methionine, ornithine, serine, tyrosine, isovaleryl carnitine, and eicosenoyl carnitine, differed according to newborns’ birth weight (<3rd percentile, 3rd–5th percentiles, 5th–10th percentiles, and 10th–90th percentiles), with those with lower birth weight showing the greater difference (P < 0.05). Metabolites also differed by gestational age, and the differences observed were mainly as follows: preterm and full-term newborns showed differences in metabolites, mainly in alanine, proline, cerotoyl carnitine, and tetradecanedioyl carnitine (P < 0.05); preterm and full-term AGA newborns showed differences in metabolites, mainly in alanine, glutamine, homocysteine, pipecolic acid, proline, heptanoyl carnitine, and sebacoyl carnitine (P < 0.05); and preterm and full-term newborns with IUGR showed differences in metabolites, mainly in arginine, glutamic acid, homocysteine, histidine, leucine, isoleucine, ornithine, serine, threonine, tryptophan, valine, heptanoyl carnitine, decanoyl carnitine, linoleyl carnitine, methylmalonyl carnitine, glutarylcarnitine, sebacoyl carnitine

  17. Metabolomic Research on Newborn Infants With Intrauterine Growth Restriction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Chen, Xin-Xin; Li, Xiang-Wen; Fu, Wei; Zhang, Wan-Qiao

    2016-04-01

    To compare differences in metabolites between newborns with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and those who are appropriate for gestational age (AGA) in order to understand the changes in metabolites of newborns with IUGR and to explore the possible metabolic mechanism of tissue and organ damages in patients with IUGR, with the ultimate goal of providing the basis for clinical intervention.A total of 60 newborns with IUGR and 60 AGA newborns who were hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit of our hospital between January 2011 and December 2015 and who underwent metabolic disease screening were enrolled in this study. The differences in 21 amino acids and 55 carnitines in peripheral blood, as well as changes in the ratios of free carnitine and acylcarnitine to total carnitine, were compared.Metabolites, particularly alanine, homocysteine, leucine, methionine, ornithine, serine, tyrosine, isovaleryl carnitine, and eicosenoyl carnitine, differed according to newborns' birth weight (<3rd percentile, 3rd-5th percentiles, 5th-10th percentiles, and 10th-90th percentiles), with those with lower birth weight showing the greater difference (P < 0.05). Metabolites also differed by gestational age, and the differences observed were mainly as follows: preterm and full-term newborns showed differences in metabolites, mainly in alanine, proline, cerotoyl carnitine, and tetradecanedioyl carnitine (P < 0.05); preterm and full-term AGA newborns showed differences in metabolites, mainly in alanine, glutamine, homocysteine, pipecolic acid, proline, heptanoyl carnitine, and sebacoyl carnitine (P < 0.05); and preterm and full-term newborns with IUGR showed differences in metabolites, mainly in arginine, glutamic acid, homocysteine, histidine, leucine, isoleucine, ornithine, serine, threonine, tryptophan, valine, heptanoyl carnitine, decanoyl carnitine, linoleyl carnitine, methylmalonyl carnitine, glutarylcarnitine, sebacoyl carnitine, hydroxyacetyl carnitine

  18. Unilateral intrauterine horn insemination of fresh semen in cats.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, T; Tanaka, A; Takagi, Y; Nakagawa, K; Fujimoto, Y; Murai, M; Anzai, M; Hori, T

    2000-12-01

    The sperm count required were investigated to obtain a conception rate of 80% by unilateral intrauterine insemination (UIUI) of fresh semen in cats. The conception rates obtained by insemination before and after ovulation were also examined. Thirty-six female cats aged 1-7 years were used in the experiments, and the number of experimental cases was 44. Seven male cats aged 2-12 years from which semen could be collected by the artificial vagina method were used. In artificial insemination, 100 iu x 2 or 250 iu of hCG was administered on days 2-4 of estrus, and sperm were introduced into the uterine horn with a greater number of ovulations (or mature follicles) 15, 20 and 30 hr after hCG administration by laparotomy. The inseminated sperm counts were 2 x 10(6) (Exp. 1). 4 x 10(6) (Exp. 2), and 8 x 10(6) (Exp. 3). As a result, ovulation was induced in 42 of 44 cases (induction rate: 95.5%) regardless of the dosage of hCG. Conception was obtained by UIUI in two of 16 animals (conception rate: 12.5%) in the Exp. 1, five of 16 animals (31.3%) in Exp. 2, and eight of 10 animals (80.0%) in Exp. 3. Regarding the relationship between the ovulation state at insemination and conception, the conception rate obtained by insemination before ovulation was clearly higher than that obtained by insemination after ovulation (p<0.05). Regarding the number of kits compared to the number of ovulations on the inseminated side, the percentages of cases in which the number of kits exceeded the number of ovulations on the inseminated side were similar in all groups inseminated with a different number of sperm. It is therefore necessary to investigate conception rates obtained by bilateral insemination to increase the fertility rate. Based on the above findings, it was shown that the sperm count required for fertilization by UIUI is 8 x 10(6). PMID:11193338

  19. Head Start Facilities Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research Assessment Management, Inc., Silver Spring, MD.

    A quality Head Start facility should provide a physical environment responsive both to the needs of the children and families served and to the needs of staff, volunteers, and community agencies that share space with Head Start. This manual is a tool for Head Start grantees and delegate agencies for assessing existing facilities, making…

  20. The Head Start Debates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zigler, Edward, Ed.; Styfco, Sally J., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    The future of Head Start depends on how well people learn from and apply the lessons from its past. That's why everyone involved in early education needs this timely, forward-thinking book from the leader of Head Start. The first book to capture the Head Start debates in all their complexity and diversity, this landmark volume brings together the…

  1. Pediatric head trauma

    PubMed Central

    Alexiou, George A; Sfakianos, George; Prodromou, Neofytos

    2011-01-01

    Head injury in children accounts for a large number of emergency department visits and hospital admissions. Falls are the most common type of injury, followed by motor-vehicle-related accidents. In the present study, we discuss the evaluation, neuroimaging and management of children with head trauma. Furthermore, we present the specific characteristics of each type of pediatric head injury. PMID:21887034

  2. Did Emperor Moctezuma II's head injury and subsequent death hasten the fall of the Aztec nation?

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Gonzalo M

    2015-07-01

    This article analyzes the head injury of Emperor Moctezuma as one of those injuries that affected the course of history. The Emperor's death arguably changed the fate of an entire nation and led to the destruction of the Aztec civilization. Moctezuma died in the evening hours of June 30, 1520, in his palace in the Aztec capital, Tenochtitlan, while a prisoner of the Spanish conquistadors. The Emperor had been speaking to his people in an effort to persuade them to cease hostilities against Hernán Cortés, his Spanish soldiers, and Indian allies. Both Spanish and Indian contemporary sources document that he sustained a severe head injury when one of his own warriors hit him with a rock thrown from a sling. However, after the Conquest of Mexico some of the information collected by Spanish friars from Indian stories, songs, and pictorial representations raised the possibility that Moctezuma died of strangulation or stabbing at the hands of the Spaniards. There is even a suggestion of suicide. This issue remains unresolved and emotionally charged. The historical and clinical analysis of the events surrounding Moctezuma's death indicates that the Emperor most likely died as a consequence of head injury. The author has attempted to present a neutral analysis but agrees with Benjamin Keen that neutrality may be unattainable, no matter how remote the subject of historical inquiry is from the present. PMID:26126401

  3. [Stab wounds of the hand and forearm due to Kuluna in Kinshasa (Democratic Republic of Congo): types of injuries and treatment].

    PubMed

    Kibadi, K; Portaels, F; Pichot, Y; Kapinga, M; Moutet, F

    2015-01-01

    Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), a particular form of juvenile delinquency and insecurity intensifies in the city of Kinshasa. This is the phenomenon Kuluna. It is organized gangs equipped with machetes and other weapons. The main objective of this study is to know the phenomenon Kuluna and describe the upper limb injuries caused by machetes, while insisting on the specifics of the management of these lesions in our communities. This retrospective descriptive study examines 14 cases of wounds of the hand and forearm due to stab phenomenon Kuluna, in Kinshasa. It covers the period from 1 November 2010 to 1 November 2013. Among the 14 patients with lesions in the hand and forearm admitted and treated at the Unit of Plastic Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, Hand Surgery and Burns, University Clinics of Kinshasa to attacks due to the phenomenon Kuluna. We have 11 men and 3 women. The average age was 33, 5 years (extremes of 21 and 56 years). The right upper limb is reached that the left upper limb, respectively 12 patients and 2 patients. The lesions are localized to the wrist in the majority of cases (10 patients) in the palm of hand and in 3 patients in the fingers in 1 patient. The palmar surface is reached (10 cases) and the dorsal (4 cases). Zone 5 of the International Classification of flexor and Zone 8 topographic classification extensors at hand are the predilection sites of lesions respectively the palmar surface (6 out of 10) and the dorsal (2 case 4). The median nerve at the wrist is cut in half the cases. On bone lesions localized to the forearm, we observed a high incidence of fracture of the ulna (62.5%). The treatment begins with the stabilization of bone pieces, gestures revascularization and nerve sutures and suture tendon and finally skin coverage. Rehabilitation was mandatory, she supervises the actions of repair and it continues until the recovery of function. PMID:26837110

  4. Intrauterine bacterial inoculation and level of dietary methionine alter amino acid metabolism in nulliparous yearling ewes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using an intrauterine bacterial inoculation method, our objective was to determine the effects of acute sepsis and level of dietary metabolizable-methionine on splanchnic metabolism of amino acids in ewes. Twenty-five nulliparous yearling Rambouillet-cross ewes (initial BW = 65.1 ± 0.6 kg), surgical...

  5. Intrauterine growth retardation and premature delivery: the influence of maternal smoking and psychosocial factors.

    PubMed Central

    Nordentoft, M; Lou, H C; Hansen, D; Nim, J; Pryds, O; Rubin, P; Hemmingsen, R

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This study investigated the influence of psychosocial stress, maternal schooling, social support, psychological well-being, alcohol, and smoking on intrauterine growth retardation and premature delivery. METHODS. At a Copenhagen university hospital, 2432 pregnant women completed a questionnaire on general health, psychosocial stressors, and sociodemographic characteristics. RESULTS. In 212 cases (8.7%) the women delivered prematurely. Preterm delivery as associated with psychosocial stress (adjusted odds ratio [OR]=1.14 for each 1-point increase on the psychosocial stressor 5-point scale and 1.92 for the whole scale) and poor school education (adjusted OR=2.62 for 7-9 years of schooling, 1.91 for 10 years, and 1.0 for 11-13 years). In 152 cases (6.3%), infants had a birthweight below the 10th percentile. Intrauterine growth retardation was associated with smoking, daily drinking, school education, and social network variables. In a multiple logistic regression model, intrauterine growth retardation was associated with smoking habits (adjusted OR=2.40 for 0-9 cigarettes daily, 2.68 for 10-15 daily, and 2.88 for more than 15 daily). CONCLUSIONS. Psychosocial stressors and limited duration of schooling appeared to influence preterm delivery. Smoking habits influenced intrauterine growth retardation. PMID:8604759

  6. The hepatic transcriptome of young suckling and aging intrauterine growth restricted male rats.

    PubMed

    Freije, William A; Thamotharan, Shanthie; Lee, Regina; Shin, Bo-Chul; Devaskar, Sherin U

    2015-04-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction leads to the development of adult onset obesity/metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, stroke, dyslipidemia, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease/steatohepatitis. Continued postnatal growth restriction has been shown to ameliorate many of these sequelae. To further our understanding of the mechanism of how intrauterine and early postnatal growth affects adult health we have employed Affymetrix microarray-based expression profiling to characterize hepatic gene expression of male offspring in a rat model of maternal nutrient restriction in early and late life. At day 21 of life (p21) combined intrauterine and postnatal calorie restriction treatment led to expression changes in circadian, metabolic, and insulin-like growth factor genes as part of a larger transcriptional response that encompasses 144 genes. Independent and controlled experiments at p21 confirm the early life circadian, metabolic, and growth factor perturbations. In contrast to the p21 transcriptional response, at day 450 of life (d450) only seven genes, largely uncharacterized, were differentially expressed. This lack of a transcriptional response identifies non-transcriptional mechanisms mediating the adult sequelae of intrauterine growth restriction. Independent experiments at d450 identify a circadian defect as well as validate expression changes to four of the genes identified by the microarray screen which have a novel association with growth restriction. Emerging from this rich dataset is a portrait of how the liver responds to growth restriction through circadian dysregulation, energy/substrate management, and growth factor modulation. PMID:25371150

  7. The levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system: Safety, efficacy, and patient acceptability

    PubMed Central

    Beatty, Megan N; Blumenthal, Paul D

    2009-01-01

    The levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) is a safe, effective and acceptable form of contraception used by over 150 million women worldwide. It also has a variety of noncontraceptive benefits including treatment for menorrhagia, endometriosis, and endometrial hyperplasia. The LNG-IUS has also been used in combination with estrogen for hormone replacement therapy and as an alternative to hysterectomy. Overall, the system is very well tolerated and patient satisfaction is quite high when proper education regarding possible side effects is provided. However, despite all of the obvious benefits of the LNG-IUS, utilization rates remain quite low in the developed countries, especially in the United States. This is thought to be largely secondary to the persistent negative impressions from the Dalkon Shield intrauterine experience in the 1970s. This history continues to negatively influence the opinions of both patients and health care providers with regards to intrauterine devices. Providers should resolve to educate themselves and their patients on the current indications and uses for this device, as it, and intrauterine contraception in general, remains a largely underutilized approach to a variety of women’s health issues. PMID:19707273

  8. Cytologic atypias in the uterine fluid of intrauterine contraceptive device users.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, T K; Casslén, B; Stormby, N

    1983-01-01

    A peculiar cell pattern, characterized as an atypical glandular cell cluster (AGCC), was found in the uterine fluid from women using intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUDs). This atypia can mimic adenocarcinoma. Since the atypical cells were present in much higher frequency in the uterine fluid than in the cervical mucus, it is suggested that they originated in the endometrium. PMID:6573085

  9. Cesarean Scar Dehiscence Associated with Intrauterine Balloon Tamponade Placement After a Second Trimester Dilation and Evacuation

    PubMed Central

    Aeby, Tod; Kaneshiro, Bliss

    2011-01-01

    While surgical abortion is a safe procedure, the most common complication is excessive bleeding. Methods to conservatively manage hemorrhage are gaining popularity. The authors present a case of a Cesarean scar rupture that occurred after an intrauterine balloon tamponade was placed to treat postabortion bleeding. PMID:21886300

  10. Exploring Trends in Intrauterine Device (IUD) Usage among Women in the United States: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nobiling, Brandye; Drolet, Judy C.

    2012-01-01

    Intrauterine devices (IUDs) have not been popular contraceptives in the US for the past 40 years. Recent evidence, however, has shown a slight rebirth in use, from a rate of approximately 2% in 2002 to over 5% in 2008 (Guttmacher Institute, 2010). Empirical evidence is favorable of IUD use in most women, but the still-low usage rate suggests…

  11. Excitotoxicity as a Common Mechanism for Fetal Neuronal Injury with Hypoxia and Intrauterine Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Burd, I; Welling, J; Kannan, G; Johnston, M V

    2016-01-01

    Excitotoxicity is a mechanism of neuronal injury, implicated in the pathogenesis of many acute and chronic neurologic disorders, including perinatal brain injury associated with hypoxia-ischemia and exposure to intrauterine inflammation. Glutamate, the primary excitatory neurotransmitter, signals through N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA)/α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate (AMPA) receptors. Proper functioning of both of these receptors, in conjunction with glutamate signaling, is crucial for normal development. However, even a small imbalance can result in perinatal neuronal injury. Therefore, a mechanistic understanding of the role of excitotoxicity and the NMDA/AMPA receptor functions is critical to establishing the pathogenesis of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) and perinatal brain injury due to exposure to intrauterine inflammation. Evidence from experimental animal models and clinical studies indicates that both oxygen and glucose deficiencies play a major role in fetal neuronal injury. However, the connection between these deficiencies, excitotoxicity, and HIE is not well established. The excitotoxic mechanisms in animal models and humans have many parallels, suggesting that detailed animal studies can elicit clinically relevant discoveries. While current therapies for HIE include hypothermia and other neuroprotective measures, emphasizing prevention of acute injuries, increase of therapeutic time window, and increased neural repair, there are no effective widely used treatment modalities for fetuses and neonates exposed to intrauterine inflammation. Further studies of HIE and intrauterine inflammation (as in cases of preterm birth and chorioamnionitis) will provide a better insight into development of effective therapeutic interventions for these conditions. PMID:27288075

  12. Barcoded sequencing reveals diverse intrauterine microbiomes in patients suffering with endometrial polyps

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Rui-Li; Chen, Lin-Xing; Shu, Wen-Sheng; Yao, Shu-Zhong; Wang, Si-Wen; Chen, Yu-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Results of this study showed that the bacterial composition in vagina (V) greatly differed from intrauterine microbiome (I). Microbiomes were present in all intrauterine samples of healthy women (Group H (I)) and patients with endometrial polyps (EP) (including Group EP (I) and Group EP/chronic endometritis (CE) (I)). Indeed, the intrauterine bacteria population in Group EP/CE (I) were more diverse than those in Groups EP (I) and H (I). The result also confirmed the bacterial composition differences between vagina and uterus as well as the intrauterine microbiome alteration in the patients, compared to the healthy. Although bacteria of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria, dominated the intrauterine microbiome in all samples, however, proportions of Firmicutes from Group EP/CE (I) and Group EP (I) were much higher than that from Group H (I), in contrast, the proportions of Proteobacteria were far lower than the healthy. At the genus level, compared to Group H (I), it is found that proportions of Lactobacillus, Gardnerella, Bifidobacterium, Streptococcus, and Alteromonas were significantly higher, and that of Pseudomonas were significantly lower in Group EP/CE (I) or Group EP (I). In addition, lower proportions of Enterobacter and Sphingomonas and a higher proportion of Prevotella were also observed in Group EP/CE (I). In conclusion, uterine microbiomes between patients with EP and the healthy are significantly different and all the potentially important variation of uterine microbes may cause EP, but not definitively related to CE. Further experiments should be performed to test these relationships to endometritis occurrence. PMID:27186283

  13. Barcoded sequencing reveals diverse intrauterine microbiomes in patients suffering with endometrial polyps.

    PubMed

    Fang, Rui-Li; Chen, Lin-Xing; Shu, Wen-Sheng; Yao, Shu-Zhong; Wang, Si-Wen; Chen, Yu-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Results of this study showed that the bacterial composition in vagina (V) greatly differed from intrauterine microbiome (I). Microbiomes were present in all intrauterine samples of healthy women (Group H (I)) and patients with endometrial polyps (EP) (including Group EP (I) and Group EP/chronic endometritis (CE) (I)). Indeed, the intrauterine bacteria population in Group EP/CE (I) were more diverse than those in Groups EP (I) and H (I). The result also confirmed the bacterial composition differences between vagina and uterus as well as the intrauterine microbiome alteration in the patients, compared to the healthy. Although bacteria of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria, dominated the intrauterine microbiome in all samples, however, proportions of Firmicutes from Group EP/CE (I) and Group EP (I) were much higher than that from Group H (I), in contrast, the proportions of Proteobacteria were far lower than the healthy. At the genus level, compared to Group H (I), it is found that proportions of Lactobacillus, Gardnerella, Bifidobacterium, Streptococcus, and Alteromonas were significantly higher, and that of Pseudomonas were significantly lower in Group EP/CE (I) or Group EP (I). In addition, lower proportions of Enterobacter and Sphingomonas and a higher proportion of Prevotella were also observed in Group EP/CE (I). In conclusion, uterine microbiomes between patients with EP and the healthy are significantly different and all the potentially important variation of uterine microbes may cause EP, but not definitively related to CE. Further experiments should be performed to test these relationships to endometritis occurrence. PMID:27186283

  14. Treatment of head lice.

    PubMed

    Diamantis, Stephanie A; Morrell, Dean S; Burkhart, Craig N

    2009-01-01

    Pediculosis capitis, or head lice, is a common infestation among children worldwide. Multiple therapies exist for the treatment of this condition, including topical pediculicides and oral medications. When used in combination with environmental decontamination, these drugs can be very effective in eradicating head lice infestation without significant adverse events. The present study discusses the use of available over-the-counter and prescription treatments, including pyrethroids and permethrin, lindane, malathion, ivermectin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, in the treatment of head lice. PMID:19580574

  15. Deposition head for laser

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Gary K.; Less, Richard M.

    1999-01-01

    A deposition head for use as a part of apparatus for forming articles from materials in particulate form in which the materials are melted by a laser beam and deposited at points along a tool path to form an article of the desired shape and dimensions. The deposition head delivers the laser beam and powder to a deposition zone, which is formed at the tip of the deposition head. A controller comprised of a digital computer directs movement of the deposition zone along the tool path and provides control signals to adjust apparatus functions, such as the speed at which the deposition head moves along the tool path.

  16. Bottom head assembly

    DOEpatents

    Fife, A.B.

    1998-09-01

    A bottom head dome assembly is described which includes, in one embodiment, a bottom head dome and a liner configured to be positioned proximate the bottom head dome. The bottom head dome has a plurality of openings extending there through. The liner also has a plurality of openings extending there through, and each liner opening aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening. A seal is formed, such as by welding, between the liner and the bottom head dome to resist entry of water between the liner and the bottom head dome at the edge of the liner. In the one embodiment, a plurality of stub tubes are secured to the liner. Each stub tube has a bore extending there through, and each stub tube bore is coaxially aligned with a respective liner opening. A seat portion is formed by each liner opening for receiving a portion of the respective stub tube. The assembly also includes a plurality of support shims positioned between the bottom head dome and the liner for supporting the liner. In one embodiment, each support shim includes a support stub having a bore there through, and each support stub bore aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening. 2 figs.

  17. Bottom head assembly

    DOEpatents

    Fife, Alex Blair

    1998-01-01

    A bottom head dome assembly which includes, in one embodiment, a bottom head dome and a liner configured to be positioned proximate the bottom head dome is described. The bottom head dome has a plurality of openings extending therethrough. The liner also has a plurality of openings extending therethrough, and each liner opening aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening. A seal is formed, such as by welding, between the liner and the bottom head dome to resist entry of water between the liner and the bottom head dome at the edge of the liner. In the one embodiment, a plurality of stub tubes are secured to the liner. Each stub tube has a bore extending therethrough, and each stub tube bore is coaxially aligned with a respective liner opening. A seat portion is formed by each liner opening for receiving a portion of the respective stub tube. The assembly also includes a plurality of support shims positioned between the bottom head dome and the liner for supporting the liner. In one embodiment, each support shim includes a support stub having a bore therethrough, and each support stub bore aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening.

  18. Head Injuries in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    School nurses play a crucial role in injury prevention and initial treatment when injuries occur at school. The role of school nurses includes being knowledgeable about the management of head injuries, including assessment and initial treatment. The school nurse must be familiar with the outcomes of a head injury and know when further evaluation…

  19. American Head and Neck Society

    MedlinePlus

    American Head & Neck Society Head and Neck Cancer Research & Education American Head & Neck Society | AHNS Head and Neck Cancer Research & Education About AHNS ... and Announcements Copyright ©2016 · American Head and Neck Society · Privacy and Return Policy Managed by BSC Management, ...

  20. Trunnion-Head Stresses in THA: Are Big Heads Trouble?

    PubMed

    Lavernia, Carlos J; Iacobelli, David A; Villa, Jesus M; Jones, Kinzy; Gonzalez, Jose L; Jones, William Kinzy

    2015-06-01

    The effects of large heads on stresses at the THA trunnion-head junction and their impact on tribocorrosion/metal ion release remain controversial. A 12/14 3D-model of a stem with different head sizes was investigated. Material properties of titanium were assigned to the trunnion and cobalt-chrome/alumina to the heads. A load simulating walking single-leg stand phase was applied to the head. A total contact head-trunnion interface was assumed. The area underneath the junction underwent significant elevations in stresses as head size increased from 28- to 40-mm. Maximum principal stress doubled between 28 and 40-mm heads, regardless of head material. Stress levels had a direct correlation to head diameter. Stress increases observed using increasingly larger heads will probably contribute to head-trunnion tribocorrosion and ion release. PMID:25724112

  1. Micronutrients and intrauterine infection, preterm birth and the fetal inflammatory response syndrome.

    PubMed

    Romero, Roberto; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Espinoza, Jimmy

    2003-05-01

    Prematurity is the leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Intrauterine infection has emerged as a major cause of premature labor and delivery. It has been estimated that 25% of all preterm deliveries occur to mothers who have microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity, although these infections are mostly subclinical in nature. This article describes the pathways leading to intrauterine infection, microbiology, frequency and clinical consequences of infection. The pathophysiology of the fetal inflammatory response syndrome is reviewed, as is its relationship to long-term handicap, such as cerebral palsy and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. A possible role for two micronutrients, vitamins C and E, in the prevention of the preterm prelabor rupture of membranes and the consequences of fetal inflammation is considered. Research needs are listed. PMID:12730483

  2. Do Endometrial Movements Affect The Achievement of Pregnancy during Intrauterine Insemination?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ari; Young Lee, Ji; Il Ji, Yong; Hyeog Lee, Hae; Sil Lee, Eun; Yeol Kim, Heung; Oh, Young Lim

    2015-01-01

    Background This study was aimed to assess the effect of endometrial movements on pregnancy achievement in intrauterine insemination (IUI) cycles. Materials and Methods The population of this observational study was composed of unexplained infertility couples undergoing first-time IUI with clomiphene citrate between September 2010 and October 2011. Not only endometrial movements, but also thickness, volume, pattern, and echogenic change of endometrium were analyzed prospectively in prediction of pregnancy. Results The total number of 241 cycles of IUI with 49 intrauterine pregnancies (20.3%) was analyzed. Pregnancy was not related to endometrial thickness and endometrial volume, but significantly related to endometrial movements associated with the number of contraction, strong movement, cervicofundal direction, and hyperechoic change (p<0.05). Pregnant group showed higher cervicofundal movement rate (89.8 vs. 75.5%). Conclusion For IUI cycles stimulated by clomiphene citrate in unexplained infertility women, endometrial movements on the day of IUI could be a predictor of pregnancy. PMID:25780522

  3. Secondary Vesical Calculus Resulting from Migration of an Intrauterine Contraceptive Device

    PubMed Central

    Vagholkar, Suvarna; Vagholkar, Ketan

    2012-01-01

    Intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) is the commonest form of contraception used in view of less systemic side effects. However, there are a multitude of local complications caused by it. Of all the local complications described, migration of the device into adjacent organs is the most morbid of all complications. A patient presenting with history of loss or disappearance of the intrauterine contraceptive device accompanied by urinary symptoms should raise the doubt of a migrated device with the formation of a secondary calculus. This prompts further radiological investigations and merits surgical intervention either endourologically or by open surgery depending upon the merits of the case. A case report elucidating this fact is presented. PMID:22852102

  4. Cardiovascular Disease Risk in the Offspring of Diabetic Women: The Impact of the Intrauterine Environment

    PubMed Central

    Marco, Laura J.; McCloskey, Kate; Vuillermin, Peter J.; Burgner, David; Said, Joanne; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of gestational diabetes is increasing worldwide, exposing large numbers of infants to hyperglycaemia whilst in utero. This exposure may have a long-term negative impact on the cardiovascular health of the offspring. Novel methods to assess cardiovascular status in the neonatal period are now available—including measuring arterial intima-media thickness and retinal photography. These measures will allow researchers to assess the relative impact of intrauterine exposures, distinguishing these from genetic or postnatal environmental factors. Understanding the long-term impact of the intrauterine environment should allow the development of more effective health policy and interventions to decrease the future burden of cardiovascular disease. Initiating disease prevention aimed at the developing fetus during the antenatal period may optimise community health outcomes. PMID:23133443

  5. Intrauterine growth restriction: impact on cardiovascular development and function throughout infancy.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Emily; Wong, Flora Y; Horne, Rosemary S C; Yiallourou, Stephanie R

    2016-06-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) refers to the situation where a fetus does not grow according to its genetic growth potential. One of the main causes of IUGR is uteroplacental vascular insufficiency. Under these circumstances of chronic oxygen and nutrient deprivation, the growth-restricted fetus often displays typical circulatory changes, which in part represent adaptations to the suboptimal intrauterine environment. These fetal adaptations aim to preserve oxygen and nutrient supply to vital organs such as the brain, the heart, and the adrenals. These prenatal circulatory adaptations are thought to lead to an altered development of the cardiovascular system and "program" the fetus for life long cardiovascular morbidities. In this review, we discuss the alterations to cardiovascular structure, function, and control that have been observed in growth-restricted fetuses, neonates, and infants following uteroplacental vascular insufficiency. We also discuss the current knowledge on early life surveillance and interventions to prevent progression into chronic disease. PMID:26866903

  6. Expanding Access to the Intrauterine Device in Public Health Facilities in Ethiopia: A Mixed-Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Tilahun, Yewondwossen; Mehta, Sarah; Zerihun, Habtamu; Lew, Candace; Brooks, Mohamad I; Nigatu, Tariku; Hagos, Kidest Lulu; Asnake, Mengistu; Tasissa, Adeba; Ali, Seid; Desalegn, Ketsela; Adane, Girmay

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In Ethiopia, modern contraceptive prevalence among currently married women nearly tripled over the last decade, but the method mix remains skewed toward short-acting methods. Since 2011, the Integrated Family Health Program (IFHP+), jointly implemented by Pathfinder International and John Snow Inc., has supported the Federal Ministry of Health to introduce intrauterine devices (IUDs) in more than 800 health centers across 4 regions to improve access to a wider range of methods. Between March and August 2014, Pathfinder conducted a mixed-methods study in 40 purposively selected health centers to assess shifts in the contraceptive method mix following introduction of IUDs using data from family planning registers; determine the characteristics of IUD users through a cross-sectional survey of 2,943 family planning clients who accepted the IUD; explore reasons for method discontinuation among 165 clients seeking IUD removal services; and identify facilitators and barriers to IUD use through focus group discussions (N = 115 clients) and key informant interviews (N = 36 providers, facility heads, and health office heads). Introduction of IUDs into the 40 health centers participating in the study was correlated with a statistically significant increase in the contribution of all long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs)—both IUDs and implants—to the method mix, from 6.9% in 2011 to 20.5% in 2014 (P<.001). Our study found that latent demand for the IUD was more prevalent than anticipated and that the method was acceptable to a broad cross-section of women. Of the 2,943 women who sought IUDs during the 6-month study period, 18.0% were new contraceptive users (i.e., those using a contraceptive method for the first time ever), 44.7% reported no educational attainment, 62.5% were from rural areas, and 59.3% were younger than 30 years old, with almost 3 in 10 (27.7%) under the age of 25. The most commonly cited reason for seeking IUD removal services

  7. Expanding Access to the Intrauterine Device in Public Health Facilities in Ethiopia: A Mixed-Methods Study.

    PubMed

    Tilahun, Yewondwossen; Mehta, Sarah; Zerihun, Habtamu; Lew, Candace; Brooks, Mohamad I; Nigatu, Tariku; Hagos, Kidest Lulu; Asnake, Mengistu; Tasissa, Adeba; Ali, Seid; Desalegn, Ketsela; Adane, Girmay

    2016-03-01

    In Ethiopia, modern contraceptive prevalence among currently married women nearly tripled over the last decade, but the method mix remains skewed toward short-acting methods. Since 2011, the Integrated Family Health Program (IFHP+), jointly implemented by Pathfinder International and John Snow Inc., has supported the Federal Ministry of Health to introduce intrauterine devices (IUDs) in more than 800 health centers across 4 regions to improve access to a wider range of methods. Between March and August 2014, Pathfinder conducted a mixed-methods study in 40 purposively selected health centers to assess shifts in the contraceptive method mix following introduction of IUDs using data from family planning registers; determine the characteristics of IUD users through a cross-sectional survey of 2,943 family planning clients who accepted the IUD; explore reasons for method discontinuation among 165 clients seeking IUD removal services; and identify facilitators and barriers to IUD use through focus group discussions (N = 115 clients) and key informant interviews (N = 36 providers, facility heads, and health office heads). Introduction of IUDs into the 40 health centers participating in the study was correlated with a statistically significant increase in the contribution of all long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs)-both IUDs and implants-to the method mix, from 6.9% in 2011 to 20.5% in 2014 (P<.001). Our study found that latent demand for the IUD was more prevalent than anticipated and that the method was acceptable to a broad cross-section of women. Of the 2,943 women who sought IUDs during the 6-month study period, 18.0% were new contraceptive users (i.e., those using a contraceptive method for the first time ever), 44.7% reported no educational attainment, 62.5% were from rural areas, and 59.3% were younger than 30 years old, with almost 3 in 10 (27.7%) under the age of 25. The most commonly cited reason for seeking IUD removal services was a desire to

  8. A Stab in the Dark?

    PubMed Central

    Tompson, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Test the influence of darkness in the street robbery crime event alongside temperature. Methods: Negative binomial regression models tested darkness and temperature as predictors of street robbery. Units of analysis were four 6-hr time intervals in two U.K. study areas that have different levels of darkness and variations of temperature throughout the year. Results: Darkness is a key factor related to robbery events in both study areas. Traversing from full daylight to full darkness increased the predicted volume of robbery by a multiple of 2.6 in London and 1.2 in Glasgow. Temperature was significant only in the London study area. Interaction terms did not enhance the predictive power of the models. Conclusion: Darkness is an important driving factor in seasonal variation of street robbery. A further implication of the research is that time of the day patterns are crucial to understanding seasonal trends in crime data. PMID:25076797

  9. Stabbing simulations and DNA transfer.

    PubMed

    Samie, Lydie; Hicks, Tacha; Castella, Vincent; Taroni, Franco

    2016-05-01

    Technical developments have made it possible to analyze very low amounts of DNA. This has many advantages, but the drawback of this technological progress is that interpretation of the results becomes increasingly complex: the number of mixed DNA profiles increased relatively to single source DNA profiles and stochastic effects in the DNA profile, such as drop-in and drop-out, are more frequently observed. Moreover, the relevance of low template DNA material regarding the activities alleged is not as straightforward as it was a few years ago, when for example large quantities of blood were recovered. The possibility of secondary and tertiary transfer is now becoming an issue. The purpose of this research is twofold: first, to study the transfer of DNA from the handler and secondly, to observe if handlers would transfer DNA from persons closely connected to them. We chose to mimic cases where the offender would attack a person with a knife. As a first approach, we envisaged that the defense would not give an alternative explanation for the origin of the DNA. In our transfer experiments (4 donors, 16 experiments each, 64 traces), 3% of the traces were single DNA profiles. Most of the time, the DNA profile of the person handling the knife was present as the major profile: in 83% of the traces the major contributor profile corresponded to the stabber's DNA profile (in single stains and mixtures). Mixture with no clear major/minor fraction (12%) were observed. 5% of the traces were considered of insufficient quality (more than 3 contributors, presence of a few minor peaks). In that case, we considered that the stabber's DNA was absent. In our experiments, no traces allowed excluding the stabber, however it must be noted that precautions were taken to minimize background DNA as knives were cleaned before the experiments. DNA profiles of the stabber's colleagues were not observed. We hope that this study will allow for a better understanding of the transfer mechanism and of how to assess and describe results given activity level propositions. In this preliminary research, we have focused on the transfer of DNA on the hand of the person. Besides, more research is needed to assign the probability of the results given an alternative activity proposed by the defense, for instance when the source of the DNA is not contested, but that the activities are. PMID:26875110

  10. Neurodegenerative changes and apoptosis induced by intrauterine and extrauterine exposure of radiofrequency radiation.

    PubMed

    Güler, Göknur; Ozgur, Elcin; Keles, Hikmet; Tomruk, Arin; Vural, Sevil Atalay; Seyhan, Nesrin

    2016-09-01

    Adverse health effects of radiofrequency radiation (RFR) on the ongoing developmental stages of children from conception to childhood are scientifically anticipated subject. This study was performed to identify the effects of global system for mobile communications (GSM) modulated mobile phone like RFR in 1800MHz frequency on oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation beside the apoptotic cell formation, using histopathological and immunohistochemical methods in the brain tissue of 1-month-old male and female New Zealand White rabbits that were exposed to these fields at their mother's womb and after the birth. Oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation levels were investigated by measuring the 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, respectively. Histopathological changes were observed using by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. Apoptotic cells were detected in the examined organs by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) staining. For both male and female infants; 8-OHdG levels increased in the group exposed to RFR in both intrauterine and extrauterine periods compared to the infants that were never exposed to RFR and the ones were exposed when they reached one month of age (p<0.05). MDA results were different for male and female rabbits. There was no difference between all female infant groups (p>0.05), while only intrauterine exposure significantly causes MDA level increase for the male infants. HE staining revealed mild lessions in neuronal necrobiosis in brain tissues of female rabbits that had only intaruterine exposure and male rabbits had only extrauterine exposure. Gliosis were mildly positive in brain tissues of rabbits that are exposed only intrauterine period, also the group exposed both intrauterine and extrauterine periods. However, there was no apoptotic change detected by TUNEL staining in the brain tissues of all groups. PMID:26520616

  11. Complications and Continuation of Intrauterine Device Use Among Commercially Insured Teenagers

    PubMed Central

    Berenson, Abbey B.; Tan, Alai; Hirth, Jacqueline M.; Wilkinson, Gregg S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Many U.S. providers remain reluctant to prescribe intrauterine devices (IUDs) to teenagers due to concerns about serious complications. This study examined whether 15–19 year-old IUD users were more likely to experience complications, failure, or early discontinuation than adult users aged 20–24 and 25–44 years and whether there were differences in between users of levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine systems and copper IUDs. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted using health insurance claims obtained from a private insurance company of 90,489 women who had an IUD inserted between 2002 and 2009. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds of experiencing complications, method failure, or early discontinuation within 12 months of insertion by age group and type of IUD inserted. Results Serious complications, including ectopic pregnancy and pelvic inflammatory disease, occurred in less than 1% of patients regardless of age or IUD type. Women aged 15–19 years were more likely than those aged 25–44 years to have a claim for dysmenorrhea OR=1.4, CI=1.1, 1.6), amenorrhea (OR=1.3, CI=1.1, 1.5), or normal pregnancy (OR=1.4, CI=1.1, 1.8). Overall, early discontinuation did not differ between teenagers and women aged 25–44 years (13% vs. 11%, p>.05). However, use of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system was associated with fewer complications and less early discontinuation than the copper IUD in all age groups. Conclusions The IUD is as appropriate for teenagers to use as it is for older women, with serious complications occurring infrequently in all groups. The levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system may be a better choice than copper IUD due to lower odds of complications, discontinuation, and failure. PMID:23635730

  12. Intrauterine synechiae after myomectomy; laparotomy versus laparoscopy: Non-randomized interventional trial

    PubMed Central

    Asgari, Zahra; Hafizi, Leili; Hosseini, Rayhaneh; Javaheri, Atiyeh; Rastad, Hathis

    2015-01-01

    Background: Leiomyomata is the most frequent gynecological neoplasm. One of the major complications of myomectomy is intrauterine adhesion (synechiae). Objective: To evaluate and compare the rate and severity of synechiae formation after myomectomy by laparotomy and laparoscopy. Materials and Methods: In this non-randomized interventional trial, hysteroscopy was performed in all married fertile women who had undergone myomectomy (type 3-6 interamural and subserosal fibroids) via laparotomy and laparoscopy in Tehran’s Arash Hospital from 2010 to 2013. Three months after the operation, the occurrence rate and severity of intrauterine synechiae, and its relationship with type, number and location of myomas were investigated and compared in both groups. Results: Forty patients (19 laparoscopy and 21 laparotomy cases) were studied. Both groups were similar regarding the size, type (subserosal or intramural), number and location of myoma. The occurrence rate of synechiae in the laparoscopy and laparotomy group was 21% and 19%, respectively; showing no significant difference (p=0.99). Among all patients, no significant relationship was found between the endometrial opening (p=0.92), location (p=0.14) and type of myoma (p=0.08) with the occurrence rate of synechiae. However, a significant relationship was observed between myoma’s size (p=0.01) and the location of the largest myoma with the occurrence of synechiae (p=0.02). Conclusion: With favorable suturing methods, the outcome of intrauterine synechiae formation after myomectomy, either performed by laparotomy or laparoscopy, is similar. In all cases of myomectomy in reproductive-aged women, postoperative hysteroscopy is highly recommended to better screen intrauterine synechiae. PMID:26000007

  13. Intrauterine Pressure (IUP) Telemetry in Pregnant and Parturient Rats: Potential Applications for Spacecraft and Centrifugation Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ronca, A. E.; Baer, L. A.; Wade, C. E.

    2003-01-01

    Rats exposed to spaceflight or centrifugation from mid-to late pregnancy undergo either more or fewer labor contractions at birth, respectively, as compared to those in normal Earth gravity (1-g). In this paper, we report the development and validation of a new telemetric method for quantifying intrauterine pressure (IUP) in freely-moving, late pregnant and parturient rats. We plan to utilize this technique for studies of labor in altered gravity, specifically, to ascertain forces of uterine during birth, which we believe may be changed in micro- and hypergravity. The technique we describe yields precise, reliable measures of the forces experienced by rat fetuses during parturition. A small, surgically-implantable telemetric pressure sensor was fitted within a fluid-filled balloon. The total volume of the sensor-balloon assembly matched that of a full term rat fetus. Real-time videorecordings of sensor-implanted rat dams and non- implanted control dams enabled us to characterize effects of the intrauterine implant on behavioral aspects of parturition. Contraction frequency, duration, pup-to-pup birth intervals and pup-oriented activities of the dams measured during the peri-birth period were unaffected by the sensor implant. These findings establish intrauterine telemetry as a reliable, non-invasive technique for quantifying intrauterine pressures associated with parturition on Earth and in altered gravity environments. This new technology, readily amenable to spaceflight and centrifugation platforms, will enable us to answer key questions regarding the role of altered labor frequency labor in the adaptation of newborn mammals to hypo- and hypergravity.

  14. Diversity and health status specific fluctuations of intrauterine microbial communities in postpartum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Wagener, K; Prunner, I; Pothmann, H; Drillich, M; Ehling-Schulz, M

    2015-02-25

    For the interpretation of clinical findings of endometritis and the development of disease prevention and intervention strategies a better understanding of the dynamics and interactions within intrauterine bacterial communities in healthy and diseased cows is required. To gain deeper insights into fluctuations within the uterine microbiota, intrauterine samples were collected from 122 cows at the day of calving, days 3, 9, 15, 21 and 28 postpartum. A total of 2052 bacterial isolates were identified by Fourier-transform-infrared spectroscopy. This culturomics-based approach showed that the aerobic uterine microflora comprised a huge diversity of bacteria belonging to 202 different species, representing 76 genera, with members of the genus Staphylococcus (24.2%) being predominant. On species level the uterine microflora was dominated by Trueperella pyogenes (13.2%), Escherichia coli (11.2%), Staphylococcus xylosus (5.4%), Bacillus pumilus (5.2%) and Streptococcus uberis (4.9%). Comparative analysis of uterine bacteria from cows with different vaginal discharge scores (VDS) revealed health status specific temporal microbial diversifications. Although the intrauterine flora of all VDS groups was dominated by T. pyogenes, E. coli and Staphylococcus spp., the relative number of bacteria differed between VDS groups. The presence of T. pyogenes on days 15 and 21 significantly increased the risk of VDS 2 and 3 at day 21, whereas Staphylococci at day 9 reduced the likelihood of VDS 3 (P<0.05). This study demonstrates that intrauterine bacterial infections are highly dynamic processes and that bacterial species follow specific patterns of progression, which require further research to decipher their potential role in uterine disease development. PMID:25497238

  15. Tissue and serum concentrations of amikacin after intramuscular and intrauterine administration to mares in estrus.

    PubMed Central

    Orsini, J A; Park, M I; Spencer, P A

    1996-01-01

    Concentrations of amikacin in endometrial tissue and plasma were studied in mares in estrus after intrauterine infusion of 1.0 or 2.0 g once a day for 3 consecutive d, and after 9.7 or 14.5 mg/kg body weight (BW) had been injected intramuscularly once a day for 3 consecutive d to determine concentrations of amikacin sulfate in plasma and endometrial tissues, and whether parenteral administration provides any advantages over intramuscular infusion. No amikacin was detected in serum at the 1.0 g dose. At the infusion dose of 2.0 g once a day, very low levels of serum amikacin were detected at 1 and 4 h postinfusion on the 1st treatment day. Amikacin was found to penetrate the endometrium after intramuscular injection; however, the levels attained were not as high as those achieved following intrauterine infusion. Based on the tissue and serum concentrations of amikacin, an intrauterine infusion at a dose of 4.4 mg/kg BW/d would appear to be an appropriate therapeutic regimen for the treatment of gram-negative endometritis. PMID:8681283

  16. NOTE: Arterio-venous flow between monochorionic twins determined during intra-uterine transfusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Gemert, Martin J. C.; van den Wijngaard, Jeroen P. H. M.; Lopriore, Enrico; Pasman, Suzanne A.; Vandenbussche, Frank P. H. A.

    2008-04-01

    Twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) is a severe complication of monozygotic (identical) twin fetuses sharing one single (monochorionic) placenta. TTTS is caused by a net inter-twin transfusion of blood through placental anastomoses, from one twin (the donor) to the other (the recipient), which link the two feto-placental circulations. Currently, the only reliable method to measure the net inter-twin transfusion clinically is when incomplete laser therapy of TTTS occurs and one of the twins becomes anemic and requires an intra-uterine transfusion of adult red blood cells. Then, differences between adult hemoglobin concentrations measured during the transfusion and at birth relate not only to the net inter-twin transfusion but also to the finite lifetime of the adult red blood cells. We have analyzed this situation, derived the differential equations of adult hemoglobin in the donor and recipient twins, given the solutions and given expressions relating the net inter-twin flow with clinically measured parameters. We have included single and multiple intra-uterine transfusions. In conclusion, because incomplete laser therapy occurs frequently, and some cases require an intra-uterine transfusion, this method may allow collecting a wealth of net inter-twin flow data from clinicians involved in laser therapy of TTTS. To aid to the widespread use of this method, we have presented the equations as clearly as possible in tables for easy use by others.

  17. Altered levels of brain neurotransmitter from new born rabbits with intrauterine restriction.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Andrade, E; Cortés-Camberos, A J; Díaz, N F; Flores-Herrera, H; García-López, G; González-Jiménez, M; Santamaría, A; Molina-Hernández, A

    2015-01-01

    Fetal intrauterine growth restriction generates chronic hypoxia due to placental insufficiency. Despite the hemodynamic process of blood flow, redistributions are taking place in key organs such as the fetal brain during intrauterine growth restriction, in order to maintain oxygen and nutrients supply. The risk of short- and long-term neurological effects are still present in hypoxic offspring. Most studies previously reported the effect of hypoxia on the levels of a single neurotransmitter, making it difficult to have a better understanding of the relationship among neurotransmitter levels and the defects reported in products that suffer intrauterine growth restriction, such as motor development, coordination and execution of movement, and the learning-memory process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid, glutamate, dopamine and serotonin in three structures of the brain related to the above-mentioned function such as the cerebral cortex, the striatum, and the hippocampus in the chronic hypoxic newborn rabbit model. Our results showed a significant increase in glutamate and dopamine levels in all studied brain structures and a significant decrease in gamma-aminobutyric acid levels but only in the striatum, suggesting that the imbalance on the levels of several neurotransmitters could be involved in new born brain damage due to perinatal hypoxia. PMID:25304540

  18. Intrauterine effect of dam on prenatal development of craniofacial complex of mouse embryo.

    PubMed

    Nonaka, K; Sasaki, Y; Yanagita, K; Matsumoto, T; Watanabe, Y; Nakata, M

    1993-01-01

    Embryo transfer effect and intrauterine effect of the dam on prenatal development of the craniofacial complex of mice embryos were investigated with the use of embryo transfer and cephalostat. DDD strain embryos were transferred to the three strains of recipients (DDD, C57BL, and DBA). The cephalometric observation of newborn offspring developed from transferred embryos was performed just after parturition. Dorso-ventral craniofacial size of newborn offspring was calculated using values of X- and Y-coordinates on a dorsoventral cephalogram. Statistical analysis showed that a significant intergroup difference in craniofacial size between transferred and nontransferred groups as well as a significant inter-strain difference among those of the three strains of recipients were observed. Thus, it was disclosed that embryo transfer technique might retard the prenatal development of craniofacial complex of transferred embryo and that the three strains of recipients contributed unequally to the prenatal development of craniofacial complex of transferred embryo through each of their intrauterine environments as a prenatal maternal effect. These results indicated that the intrauterine environment of the recipient played an important role in the prenatal development of the craniofacial complex of the mice embryo. PMID:8227293

  19. [Pathologic-anatomical changes in newborn goats caused by an intrauterine Schmallenberg virus infection].

    PubMed

    Wagner, Henrik; Eskens, Ulrich; Nesseler, Anne; Riesse, Karin; Kaim, Ute; Volmer, Renate; Hamann, Hans-Peter; Sauerwald, Claudia; Wehrend, Axel

    2014-01-01

    A complex of various malformations in newborns was observed to an increased extent in sheep farms in the 2011/2012 lambing season. An intrauterine Schmallenberg virus (SBV) infection was identified as the cause of these malformations. To date, a detailed pathological description of the deformity complex has only been given for bovine and ovine newborns.The aim of this study was therefore to provide a description of pathologic-anatomical congenital malformations in goat kids caused by intrauterine SBV infection. To this end, pathologic-anatomical and molecular biological investigations by PCR were carried out on 37 goat kids and 457 lambs from 238 sheep and goat farms in order to carry out an interspecies comparison. Of the 37 goat kids dissected, it was possible to identify a SBV infection in twelve animals (32.4%) by RT-PCR. In nine animals (24.3%) displaying pathological-anatomical malformations SBV could not be detected by PCR. The following malformations were observed: athrogryposis, deformation of spinal column, torticollis, asymmetry of the skull, brachygnathia inferior, cerebellar hypoplasia, cerebellar aplasia and internal hydrocephalus. Arthogryposis was the most common malformation, both in animals with positive PCR results and those with negative PCR results. This study documents congenital malformations caused by an intrauterine SBV infection for the first time on a large number of newborn goats. PMID:24693655

  20. Levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system use in premenopausal women with symptomatic uterine leiomyoma: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wenxiao; Shen, Qi; Chen, Miaomiao; Wang, Ying; Zhou, Qingfeng; Zhu, Xuejie; Zhu, Xueqiong

    2014-08-01

    A systematic review is done to determine the efficacy and safety of levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine systems as a treatment using in premenopausal women with symptomatic uterine leiomyoma. We searched the Medline, Central and ICTRP databases for all articles published from inception through July 2013 that examined the following outcomes: uterine volume, uterine leiomyoma volume, endometrial thickness, then menstrual blood loss, blood haemoglobin, ferritin and hematocrit levels, treatment failure rate, device expulsion rate, hysterectomy rate and side effects. From 645 studies, a total of 11 studies met our inclusion criteria with sample sizes ranging from 10 to 104. Evidence suggested that levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine systems could decrease uterine volume and endometrial thickness, significantly reduce menstrual blood loss, and increase blood haemoglobin, ferritin and hematocrit levels. There was no evidence for decreasing uterine leiomyoma volume. There were no adverse effects on the ovarian function except for ovarian cysts. Device expulsion rates were low, which associated with leiomyoma size (larger than 3cm) but not with leiomyoma location. Irregular bleeding/spotting was observed at the beginning of the follow-up period and then decreased progressively. Results of this systematic review indicate that levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine systems may be effective and safe treatment for symptomatic uterine leiomyoma in premenopausal women. PMID:24832215

  1. Preterm labor and neonatal sepsis caused by intrauterine Helicobacter cinaedi infection.

    PubMed

    Maki, Yohei; Furukawa, Seishi; Kodama, Yuki; Sumiyoshi, Kaeko; Kino, Emi; Sameshima, Hiroshi

    2016-06-01

    Helicobacter cinaedi is a rare pathogen but known to cause bacteremia, cellulitis and enterocolitis. Recently, cases of involving various organs are increasingly reported such as endocarditis, meningitis, and kidney cyst infection. We report a case of intrauterine H. cinaedi infection leading preterm birth and neonatal sepsis. A 29-year-old pregnant women who was no underlying disease hospitalized due to threatened preterm labor at 22 weeks of gestation. Clinical findings showed uterine tenderness, fever, leukocytosis and elevated C-reactive protein. H. cinaedi was isolated from amniotic fluid obtained by transabdominal amniocentesis. We diagnosed as intrauterine H. cinaedi infection and administered intravenous ampicillin followed by oxytocin to terminate pregnancy. A live 446 g male infant was delivered. The patient was no signs of infection throughout postpartum course and discharged on post-delivery day 5. The neonate was admitted in neonatal intensive care unit and administered ampicillin and amikacin. H. cinaedi was isolated from umbilical cord blood culture. He has no signs of infection on day 5 but died from uncontrollable hyperglycemia and ketoacidosis on 15 days of age. H. cinaedi can cause intrauterine infection during pregnancy and lead preterm labor and neonatal sepsis. PMID:26806147

  2. Head Circumference and Neurocognitive Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Millichap, J Gordon

    2015-07-01

    Investigators from Universities of Glasgow and Bristol, UK, determined the value of head circumference (HC) as a screening measure, the incidence of head centile shifting, and the relationship between extremes of head size and later neurodevelopmental problems. PMID:26933592

  3. Maneuvering impact boring head

    DOEpatents

    Zollinger, W.T.; Reutzel, E.W.

    1998-08-18

    An impact boring head may comprise a main body having an internal cavity with a front end and a rear end. A striker having a head end and a tail end is slidably mounted in the internal cavity of the main body so that the striker can be reciprocated between a forward position and an aft position in response to hydraulic pressure. A compressible gas contained in the internal cavity between the head end of the striker and the front end of the internal cavity returns the striker to the aft position upon removal of the hydraulic pressure. 8 figs.

  4. Maneuvering impact boring head

    DOEpatents

    Zollinger, W. Thor; Reutzel, Edward W.

    1998-01-01

    An impact boring head may comprise a main body having an internal cavity with a front end and a rear end. A striker having a head end and a tail end is slidably mounted in the internal cavity of the main body so that the striker can be reciprocated between a forward position and an aft position in response to hydraulic pressure. A compressible gas contained in the internal cavity between the head end of the striker and the front end of the internal cavity returns the striker to the aft position upon removal of the hydraulic pressure.

  5. Genetic variant in CXCL13 gene is associated with susceptibility to intrauterine infection of hepatitis B virus.

    PubMed

    Wan, Zhihua; Lin, Xiaofang; Li, Tongyang; Zhou, Aifen; Yang, Mei; Hu, Dan; Feng, Li; Peng, Songxu; Fan, Linlin; Tu, Si; Bin Zhang; Du, Yukai

    2016-01-01

    Intrauterine infection of hepatitis B virus (HBV), which accounts for the majority of mother-to-child transmission, is one of the main reasons for the failure of combined immunoprophylaxis against the transmission. Recent studies have identified that genetic background might influence the susceptibility to intrauterine infection of HBV. We conducted this study to investigate the associations between 10 genetic variants in 9 genes (SLC10A1, HLA-DP, HLA-C, CXCR5, CXCL13, TLR3, TLR4, TLR9 and UBE2L3) of mothers and their neonates and HBV intrauterine infection. A significantly decreased risk of HBV intrauterine transmission were found among mothers who carried the rs355687 CT genotypes in CXCL13 gene compared to those with CC genotypes (OR = 0.25, 95% CI, 0.08-0.82, P = 0.022); and a marginally significantly decreased risk was also observed under the dominant model (OR = 0.34, 95% CI, 0.11-1.01, P = 0.052). Besides, neonatal rs3130542 in HLA-C gene was found to be marginally significantly associated with decreased risk of HBV intrauterine infection under the additive model (OR = 0.55, 95% CI, 0.29-1.04, P = 0.064). However, we found no evidence of associations between the remaining 8 SNPs and risk of HBV intrauterine infection among mothers and their neonates. In conclusion, this study suggested that genetic variant in CXCL13 gene was associated with susceptibility to intrauterine infection of HBV. PMID:27212637

  6. Genetic variant in CXCL13 gene is associated with susceptibility to intrauterine infection of hepatitis B virus

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Zhihua; Lin, Xiaofang; Li, Tongyang; Zhou, Aifen; Yang, Mei; Hu, Dan; Feng, Li; Peng, Songxu; Fan, Linlin; Tu, Si; Bin Zhang; Du, Yukai

    2016-01-01

    Intrauterine infection of hepatitis B virus (HBV), which accounts for the majority of mother-to-child transmission, is one of the main reasons for the failure of combined immunoprophylaxis against the transmission. Recent studies have identified that genetic background might influence the susceptibility to intrauterine infection of HBV. We conducted this study to investigate the associations between 10 genetic variants in 9 genes (SLC10A1, HLA-DP, HLA-C, CXCR5, CXCL13, TLR3, TLR4, TLR9 and UBE2L3) of mothers and their neonates and HBV intrauterine infection. A significantly decreased risk of HBV intrauterine transmission were found among mothers who carried the rs355687 CT genotypes in CXCL13 gene compared to those with CC genotypes (OR = 0.25, 95% CI, 0.08–0.82, P = 0.022); and a marginally significantly decreased risk was also observed under the dominant model (OR = 0.34, 95% CI, 0.11–1.01, P = 0.052). Besides, neonatal rs3130542 in HLA-C gene was found to be marginally significantly associated with decreased risk of HBV intrauterine infection under the additive model (OR = 0.55, 95% CI, 0.29–1.04, P = 0.064). However, we found no evidence of associations between the remaining 8 SNPs and risk of HBV intrauterine infection among mothers and their neonates. In conclusion, this study suggested that genetic variant in CXCL13 gene was associated with susceptibility to intrauterine infection of HBV. PMID:27212637

  7. Head and Neck Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... head and neck cancer. Poor oral and dental hygiene . Poor care of the mouth and teeth has ... sore throat Foul mouth odor not explained by hygiene Hoarseness or change in voice Nasal obstruction or ...

  8. Head Lice: Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... it may be necessary to use a second bottle. Pay special attention to instructions on the label ... or printed on the label. Nit (head lice egg) combs, often found in lice medicine packages, should ...

  9. Overview of Head Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Baby Health Highlights: Sept. 13, 2016 Smokers' Perceptions May Play Role in Addiction Sugar Companies Shifted ... amount of oxygen given and the rate and depth of breaths given by the ventilator. The head ...

  10. Abnormal Head Position

    MedlinePlus

    ... syndrome, Brown’s syndrome, orbital wall fractures, and restricted eye movement associated with thyroid eye disease. 2) Nystagmus: Some patients with nystagmus (jerky eye movements) will acquire a head turn or tilt if ...

  11. Head CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    Brain CT; Cranial CT; CT scan - skull; CT scan - head; CT scan - orbits; CT scan - sinuses; Computed tomography - cranial ... or other growth (mass) Cerebral atrophy (loss of brain tissue) ... with the hearing nerve Stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA)

  12. Ultrasound: Head (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the head and images are recorded on a computer. The black-and-white images show the internal ... the images can be seen clearly on the computer screen. A technician (sonographer) trained in ultrasound imaging ...

  13. Head tilt during driving.

    PubMed

    Zikovitz, D C; Harris, L R

    1999-05-01

    In order to distinguish between the use of visual and gravito-inertial force reference frames, the head tilt of drivers and passengers were measured as they went around corners at various speeds. The visual curvature of the corners were thus dissociated from the magnitude of the centripetal forces (0.30-0.77 g). Drivers' head tilts were highly correlated with the visually-available estimate of the curvature of the road (r2=0.86) but not with the centripetal force (r2<0.1). Passengers' head tilts were inversely correlated with the lateral forces (r2=0.3-0.7) and seem to reflect a passive sway. The strong correlation of the tilt of drivers' heads with a visual aspect of the road ahead, supports the use of a predominantly visual reference frame for the driving task. PMID:10722313

  14. TCGA head Neck

    Cancer.gov

    Investigators with The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network have discovered genomic differences – with potentially important clinical implications – in head and neck cancers caused by infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV).

  15. Head Injuries in Soccer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Karl B.

    1989-01-01

    This article reviews the medical literature on head injuries in soccer and concludes that protective headgear to reduce these injuries may not be as effective as rule changes and other measures, such as padding goal posts. (IAH)

  16. Treating Head Lice

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Prevention. Head lice are most common among preschool children attending child care, elementary school children, and ... Emergency Preparedness International Programs News & Events Training & Continuing Education Inspections & Compliance Federal, State & Local Officials Consumers Health ...

  17. Precision intrauterine contraception may significantly increase continuation of use: a review of long-term clinical experience with frameless copper-releasing intrauterine contraception devices

    PubMed Central

    Wildemeersch, Dirk; Pett, Ansgar; Jandi, Sohela; Hasskamp, Thomas; Rowe, Patrick; Vrijens, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this paper is to review the experience with the frameless, anchored, GyneFix copper-releasing intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUCDs/IUDs) (Contrel Europe, Belgium), and to demonstrate their high acceptability and low rate of discontinuation of use, which could contribute to current efforts that aim to reduce radically the high number of unintended pregnancies and induced abortions, particularly in young women. Materials and methods This paper is based on studies that examined the differences in uterine volume and cavity size, related to age and parity, and on original clinical research data and practical experience with frameless copper IUDs, as well as on literature data on the IUD–endometrial cavity relationship of conventional IUDs, with special reference to side effects and user discontinuation. Results The mean transverse diameter in nulliparous and parous women is significantly less than the length of the transverse arm of the TCu380A IUD (ParaGard, Duramed, NY, USA) or the levonorgestrel intrauterine system (Mirena, Bayer, Germany). Small, frameless, flexible, and unidimensional copper IUDs appear to be well tolerated, with less impact on menstrual bleeding, resulting in low discontinuation rates when compared with standard-size conventional IUDs, which often result in increased expulsion rates, complaints of pain and erratic or increased menstrual bleeding, and subsequent high rates of discontinuation, particularly in young women. Conclusion The unidimensional GyneFix IUDs fit the majority of uterine cavities. An IUD that fits is likely to result in increased tolerance and continued use of the method. As this would appeal to women, the logical result should be greater use of the method and fewer unintended pregnancies and induced abortions. Recommending the standard TCu380A (ParaGard) IUD or the Mirena levonorgestrel intrauterine system, primarily developed for use in parous women, for general use in nulliparous and adolescent

  18. Missouri: Early Head Start Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Missouri's Early Head Start/Child Care Partnership Project expands access to Early Head Start (EHS) services for children birth to age 3 by developing partnerships between federal Head Start, EHS contractors, and child care providers. Head Start and EHS contractors that participate in the initiative provide services through community child care…

  19. [Ultra sonography for the localization of intra-uterine contraceptive devices (i.u.d.'s) (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Meyenburg, M

    1978-11-01

    The localization of uterine devices by ultra-sound techniques was investigated. Seven different types of intra-uterine contraceptive devices were checked under immersion in water and in the uterus of 585 wearers of I.U.D.'s. The quality of the ultra-sound pictures is mostly determined by the type of intra-uterine device. Under optimal conditions the investigated types of I.U.D.'s produced standard ultra-sound pictures which permitted their identification. The evaluation of the localization of the intra-uterine contraceptive devices in the uterus was reasonably accurate. At first the classification of normal localization, lower segment localization and cervical localization was used, and this was later enlarged by the measurement of the distance between the uterine fundus and the end of the device closest to the fundus. It was possible to estimate the contraceptive efficiency with these measurements. In 486 cases (83%) the intra-uterine device was found in normal position. In 24 (4.1%) of the cases removal and repeat insertion of the device was suggested. In 18 (3.1%) cases the device was not localized despite normal intra-uterine localization. PMID:710881

  20. Local Morphological Response of the Distal Femoral Articular–Epiphyseal Cartilage Complex of Young Foals to Surgical Stab Incision and Potential Relevance to Cartilage Injury and Repair in Children

    PubMed Central

    Hendrickson, Eli H.S.; Ekman, Stina; Carlson, Cathy S.; Dolvik, Nils I.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Describe the local morphological response of the articular–epiphyseal cartilage complex to surgical stab incision in the distal femur of foals, with emphasis on the relationship between growth cartilage injury, enchondral ossification, and repair. Design: Nine foals were induced into general anesthesia at the age of 13 to 15 days. Four full-thickness stab incision defects were created in the cartilage on the lateral aspect of the lateral trochlear ridge of the left distal femur. Follow-up examination was carried out from 1 to 49 days postoperatively, including examination of intact bones, sawed slabs, and histological sections. Results: Incision defects filled with cells displaying fibroblast-, chondrocyte-, and osteoblast-like characteristics, potentially validating the rationale behind the drilling of stable juvenile osteochondritis dissecans lesions in children. Incisions induced necrosis within the cartilage on the margins at all depths of the defects. Sharp dissection may therefore be contraindicated in cartilage repair in young individuals. Incisions caused a focal delay in enchondral ossification in 2 foals, apparently related to the orientation of the incision defect relative to the direction of ossification. Defects became progressively surrounded by subchondral bone, in which granulation tissue containing clasts and foci of osteoblast-like cells was observed. Continued enchondral ossification was therefore likely to result in healing of uncomplicated defects to morphologically normal bone. Conclusions: Epiphyseal growth cartilage injury had the potential to exert a negative effect on enchondral ossification. Enchondral ossification exerted a beneficial effect on repair. This relationship warrants consideration in future studies of cartilage injury and repair within the articular–epiphyseal cartilage complex of all species. PMID:26069670

  1. Knowledge and attitudes of Latin American obstetricians and gynecologists regarding intrauterine contraceptives

    PubMed Central

    Bahamondes, Luis; Makuch, Maria Y; Monteiro, Ilza; Marin, Victor; Lynen, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Background Intrauterine contraceptives (IUCs), including the copper intrauterine device and the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS), are among the reversible contraceptive methods with high effectiveness. However, use is low in many settings, including some Latin American countries, mainly due to the influences of myths, fears, and negative attitudes, not only of users and potential users, but also of different cadres of health care professionals. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitudes of a group of Latin American obstetricians and gynecologists regarding IUCs. Methods A survey was conducted during a scientific meeting organized in Chile in 2014 to present and discuss updated information about contraception. Obstetricians and gynecologists from 12 Latin American countries, who reported that they provide daily contraception services in both the public and private sectors, participated in the meeting. Participants who agreed to take part in the survey responded to a multiple-choice questionnaire on issues regarding knowledge, use, and attitudes about IUCs. Results Of the 210 obstetricians and gynecologists participating in the meeting, the respondents to each question varied from 168 (80.0%) to 205 (97.6%). Almost 50% recognized that the failure rate of combined oral contraceptives, patches, and vaginal rings is 8%–10%. Furthermore, 10% of the participants did not recognize the high contraceptive effectiveness of long-acting reversible contraceptive methods. Additionally, almost 80% of the respondents answered that they did not offer IUCs to nulligravidas and almost 10% did not offer IUCs to adolescents, albeit almost 90% of the respondents reported that nulligravidas are candidates for an LNG-IUS. Conclusion Some deficiencies and contradictions in terms of knowledge and attitudes were identified from the answers of the Latin American obstetricians and gynecologists who participated in the survey. The knowledge and

  2. Are There Effects of Intrauterine Cocaine Exposure on Delinquency during Early Adolescence? A Preliminary Report

    PubMed Central

    Gerteis, Jessie; Chartrand, Molinda; Martin, Brett; Cabral, Howard J.; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Crooks, Denise; Frank, Deborah A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To ascertain whether level of intrauterine cocaine exposure (IUCE) is associated with early adolescent delinquent behavior, after accounting for prenatal exposures to other psychoactive substances and relevant psychosocial factors. Methods Ninety-three early adolescents (12.5–14.5 years old) participating since birth in a longitudinal study of IUCE reported delinquent acts via an audio computer assisted self interview (ACASI). Level of IUCE and exposure to cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana were determined by maternal report, maternal and infant urine assays, and infant meconium assays at birth. Participants reported their exposure to violence on the Violence Exposure Scale for Children – Revised (VEX-R) at ages 8.5, 9.5, 11 years and during early adolescence, and the strictness of supervision by their caregivers during early adolescence. Results Of the 93 participants, 24 (26%) reported ≥3 delinquent behaviors during early adolescence. In the final multivariate model (including level of IUCE and cigarette exposure, childhood exposure to violence, and caregiver strictness/supervision) ≥ 3 delinquent behaviors were not significantly associated with level of IUCE but were significantly associated with intrauterine exposure to half a pack or more of cigarettes per day and higher levels of childhood exposure to violence, effects substantially unchanged after control for early adolescent violence exposure. Conclusions In this cohort, prospectively ascertained prenatal exposure to cigarettes and childhood exposure to violence are associated with self-reported delinquent behaviors during early adolescence. Contrary to initial popular predictions, intrauterine cocaine is not a strong predictor of adolescent delinquent behaviors in this cohort. PMID:21558951

  3. Behavioral and Physiological Analyses of Parturition In Pregnant Rats: Insights Derived from Intrauterine Telemetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Villareal, J.; Mallery, E.; Lynch, A.; Mills, N.; Baer, L.; Wade, C.; Ronca, A.; Dalton, Donnie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    During labor and birth, fetuses are exposed to considerable physical stimulation associated with labor contractions and expulsion from the womb These forces are important for the neonates' adaptation to tile extrauterine environment. To further our understanding of the relationship between labor and postpartum outcome, we developed a novel method for measuring intrauterine pressure (IUP) in freely-moving, late pregnant and parturient rats that enables us to make precise, reliable measures of the forces experienced by rat fetuses during parturition. A small (1.25 x 4 cm) telemetric blood pressure sensor was fitted within a fluid-filled balloon, similar in size to a full term rat fetus. On Gestational day (G) 19 of the rats' 22/23 day pregnancy, each dam was anesthetized and a balloon/sensor unit surgically implanted within the uterus following removal of two fetuses. Comparisons were made between sensor-implanted dams (IMPL) and a control conditions: 1) LAP-R, laparotomy with two fetuses removed or 2) LAP-NR, laparotomy with no fetuses removed. IUP signals were sampled at 10s intervals from the IMPL dams during labor and birth. Dams in all three conditions were videorecorded enabling us to analyze the effect of the implant on behavioral expressions of parturition. Contraction frequency, duration, pup-to-pup birth intervals and pup-oriented activities of the dams measured from one hour prior to the first pup birth until the birth of the third pup were unaffected by the sensor implant. Intrauterine telemetry of freely-moving dams offers significant advantages over conventional hardwired IUP measurement techniques. These findings establish and validate intrauterine telemetry as a reliable, non-invasive technique for quantifying pressures associated with parturition.

  4. Intrauterine insemination versus fallopian tube sperm perfusion in non-tubal infertility

    PubMed Central

    Shekhawat, G.S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) combined with intrauterine insemination (IUI), using a volume of 0.5 ml of inseminate is commonly offered to couples with non-tubal sub fertility. Another method is Fallopian tube sperm perfusion (FSP) which is based on a pressure injection of 4 ml of sperm suspension while attempting to seal the cervix to prevent semen reflux. This technique ensures the presence of higher sperm density in the fallopian tubes at the time of ovulation than standard IUI. The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency of standard intrauterine insemination (IUI) and Fallopian tube sperm perfusion (FSP) in the treatment of non-tubal infertility. Methods 200 consecutive patients with infertility in 404 stimulated cycles were included in the study. Those randomized to standard IUI included 100 patients in 184 cycles [158 clomiphene citrate/human menopausal gonadotrophin cycles and 26 Letrozole/FSH cycles exclusively for polycystic ovarian disease patients] (group A). Patients subjected to FSP included 100 patients in 220 cycles (193 clomiphene citrate/human menopausal gonadotrophin cycles and 27 Letrozole/FSH cycles exclusively for polycystic ovarian disease patients] (group B). Swim up semen preparation technique was used in all cases. Insemination was performed in both groups 34–37 h after hCG administration. Standard IUI was performed using 0.5 ml of inseminate. In FSP 4 ml inseminate was used. Results In group A (184 IUI cycles in 100 patients), 22 clinical pregnancies (presence of gestational sac with fetal cardiac activity) occurred (11.95% per cycle over four cycles). In group B, (220 cycles of FSP in 100 patients), 48 clinical pregnancies occurred (21.81% per cycle over four cycles) and this difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Conclusions For non-tubal sub fertility, the results indicate clear benefit for FSP (Fallopian tube sperm perfusion) over IUI (Intrauterine insemination). PMID:24532873

  5. Head segmentation in vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Kuratani, Shigeru; Schilling, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Classic theories of vertebrate head segmentation clearly exemplify the idealistic nature of comparative embryology prior to the 20th century. Comparative embryology aimed at recognizing the basic, primary structure that is shared by all vertebrates, either as an archetype or an ancestral developmental pattern. Modern evolutionary developmental (Evo-Devo) studies are also based on comparison, and therefore have a tendency to reduce complex embryonic anatomy into overly simplified patterns. Here again, a basic segmental plan for the head has been sought among chordates. We convened a symposium that brought together leading researchers dealing with this problem, in a number of different evolutionary and developmental contexts. Here we give an overview of the outcome and the status of the field in this modern era of Evo-Devo. We emphasize the fact that the head segmentation problem is not fully resolved, and we discuss new directions in the search for hints for a way out of this maze. PMID:20607135

  6. Lubricating the swordfish head.

    PubMed

    Videler, John J; Haydar, Deniz; Snoek, Roelant; Hoving, Henk-Jan T; Szabo, Ben G

    2016-07-01

    The swordfish is reputedly the fastest swimmer on Earth. The concave head and iconic sword are unique characteristics, but how they contribute to its speed is still unknown. Recent computed tomography scans revealed a poorly mineralised area near the base of the rostrum. Here we report, using magnetic resonance imaging and electron microscopy scanning, the discovery of a complex organ consisting of an oil-producing gland connected to capillaries that communicate with oil-excreting pores in the skin of the head. The capillary vessels transport oil to abundant tiny circular pores that are surrounded by denticles. The oil is distributed from the pores over the front part of the head. The oil inside the gland is identical to that found on the skin and is a mixture of methyl esters. We hypothesize that the oil layer, in combination with the denticles, creates a super-hydrophobic layer that reduces streamwise friction drag and increases swimming efficiency. PMID:27385753

  7. West Nile virus (WNV) transmission routes in the murine model: intrauterine, by breastfeeding and after cannibal ingestion.

    PubMed

    Blázquez, Ana-Belén; Sáiz, Juan-Carlos

    2010-08-01

    Since its first detection in New York in 1999, West Nile virus (WNV) has already caused over 1000 human deaths in the U.S. Although the virus is usually transmitted by mosquito bites; other routes, such as intrauterine and breastfeeding, have been occasionally reported in humans. To investigate alternative routes of WNV transmission, mice were inoculated during gestation and after delivery, and offspring from infected and non-infected mothers were interchanged and nursed as foster babies. Intrauterine and breastfeeding transmission was confirmed after WNV detection, by quantitative RT-PCR and viral culture infectivity, in babies born to infected mothers and in newborns that were nursed by mothers infected after delivery. All infected mothers, either experimentally or after cannibal ingestion of infected fostered babies, succumbed to the disease, as did most of their nursed babies. These results indicate that WNV is efficiently transmitted by vertical routes (intrauterine and lactation) and after cannibal ingestion of infected animals. PMID:20438776

  8. Intrauterine device infection causing concomitant streptococcal toxic shock syndrome and pelvic abscess with Actinomyces odontolyticus bacteraemia.

    PubMed

    Wu, Carolyn M Yu; Noska, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Intrauterine devices (IUDs) are rarely associated with serious infections. We report an unusual concomitant infection of group A Streptococcus (GAS) causing toxic shock syndrome and pelvic abscess with Actinomyces odontolyticus associated with an IUD in a healthy 50-year-old patient. The IUD was subsequently removed and the patient recovered on the appropriate antibiotics. This case highlights the importance of clinicians' high index of suspicion of an IUD infection and prompt removal of the infected foreign body to obtain source control. PMID:26965406

  9. [Caloric balance in infants with intrauterine dystrophy fed formulas containing unmodified fats].

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk, Z; Symonowicz, H; Koziej, M

    1979-01-01

    The small-for-Date (S-f-D) infants are treated as high risk infants with regard to some metabolic disorders. Special attention should be paid to disorders of energy metabolism. The S-f-D infants already at birth showed the symptoms and results of intrauterine undernutrition, analogical to protein-calorie malnutrition in infants with postnatal dystrophy. The most important effect of intrauterine undernutrition influencing energy metabolism of S-f-D infants were discussed. Higher calorie requirement and higher calorie losses than in full-size (FS) infants were underlined. It was noted that proper feeding may, to a great extent, lessen the results of deficits in gestational age, as well as to increase the survival ability and assure the best possible physical and mental development. As the knowledge of energy metabolism in infants, particularly in those born with intrauterine undernutrition, is insufficient the studies of calorie balance were undertaken. The investigations were carried out in 26 infants observed longitudinally and crossectionally . All infants were fed ad libitum unmodified fat and protein cow's milk formulas containing glucose instead of saccharose in the first trimester and from second trimester gluten--free flour instead of wheat flour. Other meals were given according to obligatory scheme of infants' nutrition. The results of calorie balance studies were compared with the roper data of FS infants in I trimester and II semester of life, which were described in our previous paper. The results of fat an nitrogen balances were also taken into consideration. It was found, that the calorie intake in S-f-D infants is higher, particularly in first months of life, than in FS infants. It is closely related to the degree of intrauterine dystrophy. In this respect S-f-D infants behave similarly as the infants with postnatal dystrophy, which are capable to catch-up by increased calorie intake in answer to previous undernutrition. The calorie excretion in feces

  10. Postmenopausal Bleeding due to a Cu-7 Intrauterine Device Retained for Thirty Years

    PubMed Central

    Gimpelson, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: A retained intrauterine device is a rare, but easily correctable, cause of postmenopausal bleeding (PMB). Case: A 64-year-old woman presented to her gynecologist with PMB. Sonographic evaluation of the endometrium revealed the presence of a Cu-7 IUD retained for at least 30 years. Hysteroscopically assisted retrieval of the IUD resulted in complete resolution of symptoms. Conclusion: A retained IUD should be considered in the differential diagnosis for PMB. In addition, the authors recommend pelvic sonography as the first-line diagnostic modality for PMB to aid the diagnosis of retained IUD as well as other pathology. PMID:23477190

  11. Use of intrauterine devices as a means of contraception in a colony of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Porteous, I S; Mundy, N I; Grall, C

    1994-08-01

    The uncontrolled reproduction of the captive chimpanzee colony at the Primate Centre, CIRMF, Gabon, has led to high neonatal mortality. The only solution meeting ethical, financial, and practical considerations was to attempt reversible physical contraception using intrauterine devices (IUDs). Human IUDs were inserted into 21 females of various ages, parities, and stages of the menstrual cycle. Over a 30-month period, five of the study animals became pregnant. This reduction of conception rate, with minimal side effects, demonstrates the reliability of IUDs for controlling reproduction of chimpanzee colonies. PMID:7897642

  12. Anti-prostglandin therapy in prevention of side-effects of intrauterine contraceptive devices.

    PubMed

    Ylikorkala, O; Kauppila, A; Siljander, M

    1978-08-19

    The efficacy of an anti-prostaglandin, tolfenamic acid (T.A.), in the prevention of side-effects after insertion of a copper-T200 intrauterine contraceptive device (I.U.D.) was evaluated in a double-blind trial in 160 women. T.A. relieved pain and reduced bleeding after insertion and during three subsequent menstruations without serious side-effects. A scoring system for the assessment of I.U.D. side-effects showed that the acceptability of I.U.D. was significantly better in women treated with T.A. than in those given placebo. PMID:79760

  13. Multiple large brain abscesses in a newborn that may have resulted from intrauterine infection.

    PubMed

    Celik, Istemi Han; Demirel, Gamze; Erdeve, Omer; Uraş, Nurdan; Dilmen, Uğur

    2011-01-01

    Brain abscess is a focal, intracerebral infection that begins as a localized area of cerebritis and develops into a collection of pus surrounded by a well-vascularized capsule. Here, we report a case with multiple, large brain abscesses diagnosed coincidentally on postnatal day 11. This case is noteworthy because the organized abscesses were present as early as day 11 with no significant neurological signs or symptoms. Brain abscess in newborns is a very rare disease that may not exhibit the expected neurological signs and symptoms. Depending on the radiological organization, an abscess in a neonate in the first weeks may be the result of an intrauterine infection. PMID:22272460

  14. Fetomaternal Hemorrhage following Placement of an Intrauterine Pressure Catheter: Report of a New Association

    PubMed Central

    Mirza, Fadi G.; Thaker, Harshwardhan M.; Flejter, Wendy L.; D'Alton, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    Fetomaternal hemorrhage (FMH) can be associated with significant perinatal mortality. Our review of the literature did not identify any cases of FMH following placement of an intrauterine pressure catheter (IUPC). In our case, an IUPC was inserted in a patient undergoing induction of labor at term. Fetal bradycardia ensued shortly after placement, warranting an emergent cesarean delivery. Severe neonatal anemia was identified, and evaluation of maternal blood was consistent with massive FMH. This is the first reported association between FMH and IUPC placement. If this relationship is validated in future reports, appropriate changes in clinical practice may be warranted. PMID:26417466

  15. Barriers to Intrauterine Device Uptake in a Rural Setting in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Nuriya; Moshabela, Mosa; Owusu-Ansah, Lydia; Kapungu, Chisina; Geller, Stacie

    2016-01-01

    Long-acting reversible contraception is an underutilized method in low-resource areas. Our study aims to: (a) assess knowledge and attitudes around contraception; (b) identify barriers to intrauterine device (IUD) uptake; and (c) develop interventions to address this gap in contraceptive care. We conducted focus group discussions with pregnant, postpartum, and reproductive-aged women, males, and health care workers in rural Ghana. Lack of IUD-specific knowledge, provider discomfort with insertion, and incomplete contraceptive counseling contribute to lack of IUD use. Participant- and provider-related barriers contribute to poor uptake of IUDs within the community. Targeted interventions are necessary to improve IUD use. PMID:25153448

  16. Evaluation of quality of life and sexual functioning of women using levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine contraceptive system--Mirena.

    PubMed

    Skrzypulec, Violetta; Drosdzol, Agnieszka

    2008-12-01

    The advantages ensuing from the high contraceptive efficacy, positive effect on the parameters of the menstrual cycle as well as other values of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system may play an important role in women's sexual life. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system on the quality of life and sexual functioning of women. The research encompassed 200 women aged between 30 and 45. 52 women using the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system were qualified to the study as the research group (Mirena Group). The control groups consisted of 48 women using a different type of intrauterine device (Control Group I--Other IUD) and 50 women using no contraception (Control Group II). A specific questionnaire with a general part concerning socio-demographic conditions, a part dealing with contraception and Polish version of self-evaluation inventories: Short Form-36 Health Survey, Female Sexual Function Index and Mell-Krat Scale was used as a research tool. Quality of life parameters for women using the Mirena system were higher than for the control groups, especially in the aspect of general health, energy/fatigue and emotional well-being. A significant beneficial effect of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system on sexual functioning (sexual desire and arousal) was also revealed in the study. Sexual dysfunctions were diagnosed in 20.8% of Other IUD, 34.7% of Control Group II and 9.6% of Mirena Group. Levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system increases female quality of life and sexual functioning parameters. PMID:19149209

  17. Use of the Mirena LNG-IUS and Paragard CuT380A intrauterine devices in nulliparous women.

    PubMed

    Lyus, Richard; Lohr, Patricia; Prager, Sarah

    2010-05-01

    Two intrauterine devices (IUDs) are available in the United States, the levonorgestrel-bearing intrauterine system (Mirena) and the copper-bearing T380A (Paragard). These devices have very low typical-use failure rates but are used by only a minority of women. In particular, there is concern about their use in nulliparous women. We review the available data to address common concerns about using IUDs in this population and show that nulliparous women desiring effective contraception should be considered candidates for IUDs. PMID:20399942

  18. Reactor pressure vessel vented head

    DOEpatents

    Sawabe, James K.

    1994-01-11

    A head for closing a nuclear reactor pressure vessel shell includes an arcuate dome having an integral head flange which includes a mating surface for sealingly mating with the shell upon assembly therewith. The head flange includes an internal passage extending therethrough with a first port being disposed on the head mating surface. A vent line includes a proximal end disposed in flow communication with the head internal passage, and a distal end disposed in flow communication with the inside of the dome for channeling a fluid therethrough. The vent line is fixedly joined to the dome and is carried therewith when the head is assembled to and disassembled from the shell.

  19. Head Start Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Clare Coe; And Others

    One of a series of guides for preschool teachers and aides, the book offers a Head Start curriculum guide to help achieve goals regarding social behavior, general attitudes, academic skills, health, and parent development. Information on curriculum is divided into areas of bloc time outline, classroom arrangement, building concepts (such as…

  20. Sculpting Ceramic Heads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapiro, Maurice

    1983-01-01

    Clay sculpture is difficult to produce because of the requirements of kiln firing. The problems can be overcome by modeling the original manikin head and making a plaster mold, pressing molding slabs of clay into the plaster mold to form the hollow clay armature, and sculpting on the armature. (IS)

  1. Imaging of head trauma.

    PubMed

    Rincon, Sandra; Gupta, Rajiv; Ptak, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Imaging is an indispensable part of the initial assessment and subsequent management of patients with head trauma. Initially, it is important for diagnosing the extent of injury and the prompt recognition of treatable injuries to reduce mortality. Subsequently, imaging is useful in following the sequelae of trauma. In this chapter, we review indications for neuroimaging and typical computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocols used in the evaluation of a patient with head trauma. We review the role of CT), the imaging modality of choice in the acute setting, and the role of MRI in the evaluation of patients with head trauma. We describe an organized and consistent approach to the interpretation of imaging of these patients. Important topics in head trauma, including fundamental concepts related to skull fractures, intracranial hemorrhage, parenchymal injury, penetrating trauma, cerebrovascular injuries, and secondary effects of trauma, are reviewed. The chapter concludes with advanced neuroimaging techniques for the evaluation of traumatic brain injury, including use of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), functional MRI (fMRI), and MR spectroscopy (MRS), techniques which are still under development. PMID:27432678

  2. MULTIPLE SHAFT TOOL HEAD

    DOEpatents

    Colbert, H.P.

    1962-10-23

    An improved tool head arrangement is designed for the automatic expanding of a plurality of ferruled tubes simultaneously. A plurality of output shafts of a multiple spindle drill head are driven in unison by a hydraulic motor. A plurality of tube expanders are respectively coupled to the shafts through individual power train arrangements. The axial or thrust force required for the rolling operation is provided by a double acting hydraulic cylinder having a hollow through shaft with the shaft cooperating with an internally rotatable splined shaft slidably coupled to a coupling rigidly attached to the respectlve output shaft of the drill head, thereby transmitting rotary motion and axial thrust simultaneously to the tube expander. A hydraulic power unit supplies power to each of the double acting cylinders through respective two-position, four-way valves, under control of respective solenoids for each of the cylinders. The solenoids are in turn selectively controlled by a tool selection control unit which in turn is controlled by signals received from a programmed, coded tape from a tape reader. The number of expanders that are extended in a rolling operation, which may be up to 42 expanders, is determined by a predetermined program of operations depending upon the arrangement of the ferruled tubes to be expanded in the tube bundle. The tape reader also supplies dimensional information to a machine tool servo control unit for imparting selected, horizontal and/or vertical movement to the tool head assembly. (AEC)

  3. Clinical application of intrauterine bone marrow transplantation for treatment of genetic diseases--feasibility studies.

    PubMed

    Slavin, S; Naparstek, E; Ziegler, M; Lewin, A

    1992-01-01

    Intrauterine bone marrow transplantation (BMT) may represent a new approach for correction of a large variety of genetic disorders in utero. The procedure may become feasible for more genetic disorders in the future, since a large majority of potentially correctible diseases can be diagnosed at an early stage of gestation in utero using molecular probes that permit analysis of small biologic samples and even few cells that may be obtained by chorionic villi biopsy and/or amniocentesis. Haploidentical paternal marrow (2 cases) and sibling bone marrow cells from a disease-free family members, were infused into the fetus. GVHD was avoided following in vitro T-lymphocyte depletion using monoclonal antilymphocyte (CDW52) antibodies (Campath-1) without affecting stem cell viability, similarly to the procedures in routine use in clinical BMT programs in man. Three women underwent intrauterine BMT at 34, 23 and 25 weeks of gestation for metachromatic leucodystrophy (Arylsulfatase A deficiency, 2 cases) and beta thalassemia major (1 case), respectively. A total of 33 x 10(8), 30 x 10(8) and 30 x 10(8) bone marrow cells were infused intraperitoneally (1 case), intraportally plus intraperitoneally (2 cases) with no fetal distress. Although the procedure was uneventful and no clinical evidence of GVHD was observed following delivery, correction of the basic disorders was not accomplished because of anticipated rejection of marrow allografts.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1504665

  4. Intrauterine Exposure to Paracetamol and Aniline Impairs Female Reproductive Development by Reducing Follicle Reserves and Fertility.

    PubMed

    Holm, Jacob Bak; Mazaud-Guittot, Severine; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Niels Banhos; Chalmey, Clementine; Jensen, Benjamin; Nørregård, Mette Marie; Hansen, Cecilie Hurup; Styrishave, Bjarne; Svingen, Terje; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Koch, Holger Martin; Bowles, Josephine; Koopman, Peter; Jégou, Bernard; Kristiansen, Karsten; Kristensen, David Møbjerg

    2016-03-01

    Studies report that fetal exposure to paracetamol/acetaminophen by maternal consumption can interfere with male reproductive development. Moreover, recent biomonitoring data report widespread presence of paracetamol in German and Danish populations, suggesting exposure via secondary (nonpharmaceutical) sources, such as metabolic conversion from the ubiquitous industrial compound aniline. In this study, we investigated the extent to which paracetamol and aniline can interfere with female reproductive development. Intrauterine exposure to paracetamol by gavage of pregnant dams resulted in shortening of the anogenital distance in adult offspring, suggesting that fetal hormone signaling had been disturbed. Female offspring of paracetamol-exposed mothers had ovaries with diminished follicle reserve and reduced fertility. Fetal gonads of exposed animals had also reduced gonocyte numbers, suggesting that the reduced follicle count in adults could be due to early disruption of germ cell development. However, ex vivo cultures of ovaries from 12.5 days post coitum fetuses showed no decrease in proliferation or expression following exposure to paracetamol. This suggests that the effect of paracetamol occurs prior to this developmental stage. Accordingly, using embryonic stem cells as a proxy for primordial germ cells we show that paracetamol is an inhibitor of cellular proliferation, but without cytotoxic effects. Collectively, our data show that intrauterine exposure to paracetamol at levels commonly observed in pregnant women, as well as its precursor aniline, may block primordial germ cell proliferation, ultimately leading to reduced follicle reserves and compromised reproductive capacity later in life. PMID:26732887

  5. Estimated economic impact of the levonorgestrel intrauterine system on unintended pregnancy in active duty women.

    PubMed

    Heitmann, Ryan J; Mumford, Sunni L; Hill, Micah J; Armstrong, Alicia Y

    2014-10-01

    Unintended pregnancy is reportedly higher in active duty women; therefore, we sought to estimate the potential impact of the levonorgestrel-containing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) could have on unintended pregnancy in active duty women. A decision tree model with sensitivity analysis was used to estimate the number of unintentional pregnancies in active duty women which could be prevented. A secondary cost analysis was performed to analyze the direct cost savings to the U.S. Government. The total number of Armed Services members is estimated to be over 1.3 million, with an estimated 208,146 being women. Assuming an age-standardized unintended pregnancy rate of 78 per 1,000 women, 16,235 unintended pregnancies occur each year. Using a combined LNG-IUS failure and expulsion rate of 2.2%, a decrease of 794, 1588, and 3970 unintended pregnancies was estimated to occur with 5%, 10% and 25% usage, respectively. Annual cost savings from LNG-IUS use range from $3,387,107 to $47,352,295 with 5% to 25% intrauterine device usage. One-way sensitivity analysis demonstrated LNG-IUS to be cost-effective when the cost associated with pregnancy and delivery exceeded $11,000. Use of LNG-IUS could result in significant reductions in unintended pregnancy among active duty women, resulting in substantial cost savings to the government health care system. PMID:25269131

  6. Mother's prior intrauterine position affects the sex ratio of her offspring in house mice.

    PubMed Central

    Vandenbergh, J G; Huggett, C L

    1994-01-01

    Sex ratio alterations related to environmental factors occur in several mammals, but no mechanism has been identified to explain the adjustment. Intrauterine position (IUP) may provide the context in which such alterations occur. Previous studies on house mice and gerbils reveal that the position of a fetus in the uterus in relation to the sex of its neighbors influences its later anatomy, physiology, and behavior. The anogenital distance (AGD) of females located between two males (2M) is longer than that of females not between two males (OM). We have found that the IUP, as determined by cesarean section and by an index of the AGD, correlates with the sex ratio of the litters produced by female mice. The sex ratio of the first litter born to 2M females was 58% males, for 1M females was 51% males and for OM females was 42% males. The effect on sex ratio continues into the second litter. The number of pups produced by mothers of different IUPs in her first two litters did not differ, suggesting that the sex ratio adjustment occurs prior to parturition. These results provide a basis for the natural variability observed in sex ratios of litter-bearing mammals and suggest that one or more intrauterine mechanisms may be responsible for environmentally related sex ratio alterations. PMID:7972008

  7. Effects of intrauterine substance and postnatal violence exposure on aggression in children.

    PubMed

    Barthelemy, Olivier J; Richardson, Mark A; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Forman, Leah S; Cabral, Howard J; Frank, Deborah A

    2016-05-01

    During the cocaine epidemic of the 1980s and early 1990s, many expressed fears that children with intrauterine cocaine exposure (IUCE) would grow up to be unusually violent. The present study examines the relationship of caregiver reports of school-age children's aggressive behavior with IUCE and postnatal exposure to violence. Respondents were 140 low-income, primarily African American children, ages 8-11, and each child's current primary caregiver from a longitudinal study evaluating potential long term sequelae of IUCE. Multiple regression analyses were used to investigate the independent and interactive effects of level of IUCE (None (n = 69), Lighter (n = 47), Heavier (n =  24)) and exposure to violence (Violence Exposure Scale for Children-Revised) on aggressive behavior (Child Behavior Checklist), while also controlling for other intrauterine substance exposures and additional contextual factors. Children's self-reported exposure to violence was significantly positively associated with caregivers' reports of aggressive behavior (β = 2.17, P = .05), as was concurrent caregiver's psychiatric distress (β = .15, P = .003). However, neither IUCE nor its interaction with exposure to violence showed a significant association with aggressive behavior. Findings suggest the importance of postnatal social environment rather than IUCE in predicting aggressive behavior in childhood. Aggr. Behav. 42:209-221, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26660077

  8. Study of femoral torsion during prenatal growth: interpretations associated with the effects of intrauterine pressure.

    PubMed

    Bonneau, Noémie; Simonis, Caroline; Seringe, Raphaël; Tardieu, Christine

    2011-07-01

    The developing fetus is protected from external environmental influences by maternal tissues. However, these structures have a limited elasticity, such that the fetus must grow in a confined space, constraining its size at the end of pregnancy. Can these constraints modify the morphology of the fetal skeleton? The intensity of these constraints increases between 5 months and birth, making it the most appropriate period to address this question. A sample of 89 fetal femora was analyzed, and results provide evidence that during this period, the torsion of the femoral shaft (quantified by means of a new three-dimensional method) increases gradually. Two explanations were considered: this increase could signal effects of constraints induced by the intrauterine cavity, developmental patterning, or some combination of these two. Different arguments tend to support the biomechanical explanation, rather than a programming pattern formation. Indeed, the identification of the femur as a first degree lever, created by the hyperflexion of the fetal lower limbs on the pelvis, could explain the increase in femoral shaft torsion during prenatal life. A comparison with femora of infants is in accordance with this mechanical interpretation, which is possible through bone modeling/remodeling. Although genetic and epigenetic mechanisms may regulate timing of fetal development, our data suggest that at birth, the fetal skeleton also has an intrauterine mechanical history through adaptive bone plasticity. PMID:21541926

  9. The risk of childhood cancer from intrauterine and preconceptional exposure to ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Wakeford, R.

    1995-11-01

    The findings of studies investigating whether exposures to ionizing radiation before birth, either pre- or post-conception, increase the risk of childhood cancer have provoked much scientific controversy. An epidemiological association between the abdominal exposure or pregnant women to diagnostic X-rays and childhood cancer was first reported in the 1950s, while an association between the recorded dose of radiation received occupationally by fathers before the conception of their offspring and childhood leukemia was reported only recently in 1990. The scientific interpretation of these particular statistical associations is by no means straightforward, but the latest analyses of intrauterine irradiation and childhood cancer indicate that a causal inference is likely. Scientific committees have adopted risk coefficients for the intrauterine exposure of somatic tissues, which for childhood leukemia are comparable to those accepted for exposure in infancy, although questions remain about the level of risk of childhood solid tumors imparted by exposure to radiation in utero and shortly after birth. In contrast, the association has been found to be restricted to children born in one village, it does not extend to cancers other than leukemia, and it is markedly inconsistent with the established body of knowledge on radiation-induced hereditary disease. A causal interpretation of this association has effectively been abandoned by scientific authorities. 84 refs., 1 tab.

  10. New intrauterine technologies for contraception and treatment in nulliparous/adolescent and parous women

    PubMed Central

    Wildemeersch, D.

    2009-01-01

    The IUD (intra uterine device) is a highly effective method of contraception that is underused. New developments in intrauterine technology, smaller frameless copper and levonorgestrel-releasing devices, could help increase the prevalence of use in adolescents and nulliparous women. Because adolescents and young nulliparous women contribute disproportionately to the epidemic of unintended pregnancies, long-acting methods of contraception, particularly IUDs, should be considered as first-line choices for interval, emergency and immediate post-abortal contraception in this population of women. As the uterine cavity is generally much smaller in this group than in older women, adapted IUDs may be very useful. Compatibility of the IUD with the small uterine cavity leads to high acceptability and continuation of use, a prerequisite to reduce unintended pregnancies. A strategic advantage of IUDs is that, unlike the Pill, they are genuinely ‘fit-and-forget’. In use, they are much more effective than Pills in this age group. However, copper intrauterine devices do not offer protection against sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and, therefore, they are not always the methods of first choice for teenagers and nulliparous women. New evidence, however, from the World Health Organization and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, shows that IUDs can be used and that they are safe for most women, including adolescents. PMID:25489467

  11. Enhancement of Antibody Titre and Development of Additional Red Cell Alloantibodies Following Intrauterine Transfusion.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Anju; Sonker, Atul; Chaudhary, Rajendra

    2016-03-01

    Intrauterine blood transfusion is the mainstay of managing foetuses with severe anemia. It may however result in fetomaternal hemorrhage, which in cases of Rh isoimmunisation may increase the severity of the disease by enhancing the maternal immunological response to fetal antigens. This study was conducted to determine the frequency, specificity and origin of additional red cell antibodies which developed after IUT. The change in the titre of allo anti-D following IUT was also determined. Antibody detection and titration was done on the blood samples of all the patients before and after intrauterine blood transfusion to check for the development of additional antibody and change in the titre of existing anti-D. Severe anemia was found in 17 (58.6 %) fetuses who received a total of 42 ultrasound-guided IUTs. Development of antibodies additional to anti-D in maternal serum was seen in 5 (29.4 %) cases. The specificity of additional alloantibodies was anti-C in four cases whereas it was anti-E in one case. Four fold or greater increase in existing allo-anti D titre was seen in 6 (35.3 %) cases after IUT. Enhancement of maternal sensitisation leading to an increase in maternal antibody titre is particularly seen after the first IUT. Matching of the donor RBCs particularly for Rh antigens might prevent the induction of additional alloantibodies against these antigens. IUT as a treatment modality should be given judiciously and only when the need is inevitable. PMID:26855513

  12. Intrauterine growth rate in pregnancies complicated by type 1, type 2 and gestational diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Lim, E L; Burden, T; Marshall, S M; Davison, J M; Blott, M J; Waugh, J S J; Taylor, R

    2009-01-01

    Fetal macrosomia is a feature of all subtypes of maternal diabetes. The intrauterine time course of development of macrosomia in type 1, type 2 and gestational diabetes (GDM) could identify the times of more rapid growth, which differ as a result of different influences in subtypes of diabetes. Higher maternal weight in type 2 and GDM may be expected to contribute to macrosomia and the blood glucose control will exert an additional influence. Information was collected prospectively on 217 pregnancies in insulin-treated women at a single centre over a six-year period. All women were managed by a single team of obstetricians and diabetologists at a Joint Obstetric Medical Clinic. The rate of increase in abdominal circumference from 28 weeks was identical in each subtype of diabetes and there were no differences between subtypes at the earliest gestation assessed. Use of customized growth centiles showed rates of macrosomia to be similar in type 1, type 2 and GDM (43.0%, 50.0% and 41.8%, respectively). The intrauterine time course to macrosomia is similar in type 1, type 2 and GDM. The relationship of macrosomia to extent of elevation of mean blood glucose control is weak, implying a low threshold for maximal effect on the rate of fetal growth.

  13. Association between air pollution and intrauterine mortality in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, L A; Loomis, D; Conceição, G M; Braga, A L; Arcas, R M; Kishi, H S; Singer, J M; Böhm, G M; Saldiva, P H

    1998-01-01

    The associations among daily counts of intrauterine mortality and pollutant concentrations (NO2, SO2, CO, O3, and particulate matter (3/4)10 microm) were investigated for the period ranging from January 1991 to December 1992 in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. We used Poisson regression techniques, adjusted for season and weather. The association between intrauterine mortality and air pollution was strong for NO2 (coefficient = 0.0013/ microg/m3; p<0.01) but lesser for SO2 (coefficient = 0.0005/ microg/m3; p<0.10) and CO (coefficient = 0.0223/ppm; p<0.10). A significant association was observed when an index that combined these three pollutants was considered in the models instead of considering each pollutant individually (p<0.01). These associations exhibited a short time lag, not over 5 days. In addition, some evidence of fetal exposure to air pollution was obtained by disclosing a significant association between the levels of carboxyhemoglobin of blood sampled from the umbilical cord and ambient CO levels in children delivered by nonsmoking pregnant women in the period from May to July 1995. Our results suggest that air pollution in São Paulo may promote adverse health effects on fetuses. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:9618348

  14. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Neck and Oral Pathology Head, Neck and Oral Pathology Close to 42,000 Americans will be diagnosed ... Neck and Oral Pathology Head, Neck and Oral Pathology Close to 42,000 Americans will be diagnosed ...

  15. Heads Up to High School Sports

    MedlinePlus

    ... Juvenil HEADS UP to School Sports Online Concussion Training Coaches Parents Athletes Sports Officials HEADS UP to Schools School Nurses Teachers, Counselors, and School Professionals Parents HEADS UP ...

  16. Minnesota: Early Head Start Initiatiive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Minnesota provides supplemental state funding to existing federal Head Start and Early Head Start (EHS) grantees to increase their capacity to serve additional infants, toddlers, and pregnant women. The initiative was started in 1997 when the state legislature earmarked $1 million of the general state Head Start supplemental funds for children…

  17. Maryland Early Head Start Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Since 2000, Maryland has provided state supplemental funds to Head Start and Early Head Start (EHS) programs to improve access. Local EHS programs may use funds, through child care partnerships, to extend the EHS day or year. Maryland's approach to building on EHS includes: (1) Increase the capacity of existing Head Start and EHS programs to…

  18. Problematic Substance Use in Urban Adolescents: Role of Intrauterine Exposures to Cocaine and Marijuana and Post-Natal Environment

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Deborah A.; Kuranz, Seth; Appugliese, Danielle; Cabral, Howard; Chen, Clara; Crooks, Denise; Heeren, Timothy; Liebschutz, Jane; Richardson, Mark; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Background Linkages between intrauterine exposures to cocaine and marijuana and adolescents’ problematic substance use have not been fully delineated. Methods Prospective longitudinal study with assessors unaware of intrauterine exposure history followed 157 urban participants from birth until late adolescence. Level of intrauterine exposures was identified by mother's report and infant’s meconium. Problematic substance use, identified by the Voice Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (V-DISC) or the Audio Computer Assisted Self-Interview (ACASI) and urine assay, was a composite encompassing DSM-IV indication of tolerance, abuse, and dependence on alcohol, marijuana, and tobacco and any use of cocaine, glue, or opiates. Results Twenty percent (32/157) of the sample experienced problematic substance use by age 18 years, of whom the majority (22/157) acknowledged abuse, tolerance or dependence on marijuana with or without other substances. Structural equation models examining direct and indirect pathways linking a Cox survival model for early substance initiation to a logistic regression models found effects of post-natal factors including childhood exposure to violence and household substance use, early youth substance initiation, and ongoing youth violence exposure contributing to adolescent problematic substance use. Conclusion We did not identify direct relationships between intrauterine cocaine or marijuana exposure and problematic substance use, but did find potentially modifiable post-natal risk factors also noted to be associated with problematic substance use in the general population including earlier substance initiation, exposure to violence and to household substance use. PMID:24999059

  19. Maternal HCV infection is associated with intrauterine fetal growth disturbance: A meta-analysis of observational studies.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qi-Tao; Hang, Li-Lin; Zhong, Mei; Gao, Yun-Fei; Luo, Man-Ling; Yu, Yan-Hong

    2016-08-01

    Since the evidence regarding the association between maternal hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and impaired intrauterine fetal growth had not been conclusive, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the risk of maternal HCV infection in association with intrauterine fetal growth restriction (IUGR) and/or low birth weight infants (LBW). We performed an extensive literature search of PubMed, MEDLINE, and EMBASE through December 1, 2015. The odds ratios (ORs) of HCV infection and IUGR/LBW were calculated and reported with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Statistical analysis was performed using RevMen 5.3 and Stata 10.0. Seven studies involving 4,185,414 participants and 5094 HCV infection cases were included. Significant associations between HCV infection and IUGR (OR = 1.53, 95% CI: 1.40-1.68, fixed effect model) as well as LBW were observed (OR = 1.97, 95% CI: 1.43-2.71, random effect model). The results still indicated consistencies after adjusting for multiple risk factors which could affect fetal growth, including maternal age, parity, maternal smoking, alcohol abuse, drugs abuse, coinfected with HBV/HIV and preeclampsia. Our findings suggested that maternal HCV infection was significantly associated with an increased risk of impaired intrauterine fetal growth. In clinical practice, a closer monitoring of intrauterine fetal growth by a series of ultrasound might be necessary for HCV-infected pregnant population. PMID:27583932

  20. Transgenerational Glucose Intolerance of Tumor Necrosis Factor with Epigenetic Alteration in Rat Perirenal Adipose Tissue Induced by Intrauterine Hyperglycemia

    PubMed Central

    Su, Rina; Yan, Jie; Yang, Huixia

    2016-01-01

    Changes in DNA methylation may play a role in the genetic mechanism underlying glucose intolerance in the offspring of mothers with diabetes. Here, we established a rat model of moderate intrauterine hyperglycemia induced by streptozotocin to detect glucose and lipid metabolism of first-generation (F1) and second-generation (F2) offspring. Moderate intrauterine hyperglycemia induced high body weight in F1 and F2 offspring of diabetic mothers. F1 offspring had impaired glucose tolerance and abnormal insulin level. Additionally, F1 and F2 offspring that were exposed to intrauterine hyperglycemia had impaired insulin secretion from the islets. The tumor necrosis factor (Tnf) gene was upregulated in perirenal adipose tissue from F1 offspring and relatively increased in F2 offspring. Both F1 and F2 offspring showed similar hypomethylation level at the −1952 site of Tnf. We confirmed that DNA methylation occurs in offspring exposed to intrauterine hyperglycemia and that the DNA methylation is intergenerational and inherited. PMID:26881249

  1. The Effect of Intrauterine Growth Retardation on the Expression of Developmental Factors in Porcine Placenta Subsequent to Placentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The onset of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) hinders fetal growth during gestation and is strongly correlated to a placental weight that has declined below critical threshold. However, little is known about the molecular etiology of this pathology, particularly in swine. In this study, the...

  2. Intra-uterine infection and cord immunoglobulin M II. Clinical analysis of infants with elevated cord serum immunoglobulin M *

    PubMed Central

    Finkel, Annette; Dent, P. B.; Emrich, W. H.; Gent, M.; Rahim, M. A.

    1974-01-01

    Cord blood immunoglobulin M was measured in 3474 consecutive newborn infants. A group of 147 infants with elevated IgM values (≥19.0 mg./100 ml.) were compared with 92 unselected newborn infants with normal IgM values. One infant with clinically unsuspected congenital rubella was detected in the study group while no cases of intra-uterine infection were found among the controls. A greater proportion of mothers in the study group had a history of viral infection. The study group also contained a larger number of mothers who might be considered to be at greater risk of infection with agents known to cause intra-uterine disease. Follow-up studies at 6 months of age revealed no differences between the two groups aside from an increased incidence of minor motor abnormalities in the study group. While it is recognized that infants with cord blood IgM levels truly in excess of 30 mg./100 ml. may represent a high-risk group with respect to proved or subclinical intra-uterine infection, it is concluded that routine cord blood screening for elevated IgM values is not a high-yield procedure for the detection of intra-uterine infection in our population. PMID:4203457

  3. Readiness and Adjustments to School for Children with Intrauterine Growth Restriction (IUGR): An Extreme Test Case Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geva, Ronny; Yosipof, Rina; Eshel, Rina; Leitner, Yael; Valevski, Aviva Fattal; Harel, Shaul

    2009-01-01

    This long-term, prospective study evaluated repeatedly school readiness and adjustment at kindergarten and first grade of children with extreme intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR; n = 20) in relation to controls (n = 19). Methods included individual testing of cognitive competence, self-perception, motivation, loneliness and academic…

  4. Adolescent Initiation of Licit and Illicit Substance Use: Impact of Intrauterine Exposures and Post-natal Exposure to Violence

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Deborah A.; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Crooks, Denise; Cabral, Howard J.; Gerteis, Jessie; Hacker, Karen A.; Martin, Brett; Weinstein, Zohar B.; Heeren, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    Whether intrauterine exposures to alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, or cocaine predispose offspring to substance use in adolescence has not been established. We followed a sample of 149 primarily African American/African Caribbean, urban adolescents recruited at term birth until age 16 to investigate intrauterine cocaine exposure (IUCE). We found that in Kaplan-Meier analyses higher levels of IUCE were associated with a greater likelihood of initiation of any substance (licit or illicit), as well as marijuana and alcohol specifically. Adolescent initiation of other illicit drugs and cigarettes were analyzed only in the “any” summary variable since they were used too infrequently to analyze as individual outcomes. In Cox proportional hazard models controlling for intrauterine exposure to alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana and demographic and postnatal covariates, those who experienced heavier IUCE had a greater likelihood of initiation of any substance, and those with lighter intrauterine marijuana exposure had a greater likelihood of initiation of any substance as well as of marijuana specifically. Time-dependent higher levels of exposure to violence between ages of 8 and 16 were also robustly associated with initiation of any licit or illicit substance, and of marijuana, and alcohol particularly. PMID:20600847

  5. Verbal Short-Term Memory Span in Children: Long-Term Modality Dependent Effects of Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geva, R.; Eshel, R.; Leitner, Y.; Fattal-Valevski, A.; Harel, S.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Recent reports showed that children born with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are at greater risk of experiencing verbal short-term memory span (STM) deficits that may impede their learning capacities at school. It is still unknown whether these deficits are modality dependent. Methods: This long-term, prospective design study…

  6. Hormonal Profiles of Late Gestation Ewes Following Intra-Uterine Inoculation With and Without Lux-Modified Escherichia Coli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of these investigations were to develop an ovine model for Escherichia coli (E. coli)-induced preterm delivery, and monitor ewe hormonal response. EXP 1: Ewes (105 ± 13 d of gestation) were allotted to the following intra-uterine inoculations: Saline-(CON; n=5); 1×106 CFU/ml (Low Tre...

  7. Ex Vivo Bioluminescence Imaging of Late Gestation Ewes Following Intra-uterine Inoculation With Lux-modified Escherichia coli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objectives were to develop an ovine model for Escherichia coli-induced preterm delivery, and monitor E. coli (lux modified for photonic detection) invasion of the fetal environment—ewes (124 ± 18 d of gestation) received intrauterine inoculations using E. coli-lux as follows: control (n = 5), 1....

  8. Intrauterine pregnancy after treatment of tubal pregnancy with local and systemic prostaglandins in a patient with a single oviduct.

    PubMed

    Hönigl, W; Lang, P F; Weiss, P A; Winter, R

    1992-04-01

    A spontaneous intrauterine pregnancy occurred after instillation of prostaglandin-F2 alpha into the solitary tube and systemic prostaglandin administration for treatment of an ectopic gestation. This is the first unequivocal proof of intact function of the affected tube after non-surgical treatment of a tubal pregnancy with prostaglandins. PMID:1325989

  9. Intrauterine Devices

    MedlinePlus

    ... years. What Are the Advantages? ● IUDs are not permanent. Your IUD can be removed at any time. ... will heal well. It does not usually cause permanent damage. ● Sometimes the uterus will push the IUD ...

  10. Intrauterine Adhesions

    MedlinePlus

    ... of delivery due to abnormal implantation of the placenta. Less commonly, if the scar tissue blocks menstrual ... trimester bleeding and/or abnormal attachment of the placenta to the uterine wall (placenta accreta). The chance ...

  11. MAGNETIC RECORDING HEAD

    DOEpatents

    Merrill, L.C.

    1958-06-17

    An electromagetic recording head is described for simultaneous recording of a plurality of signals within a small space on a magnetically semsitized medium. Basically the head structure comprises a non-magnetic centerpiece provided with only first and second groups of spaced cut-out slots respectively on opposite sides of the centerpiece. The two groups of slots are in parallel alignment and the slots of one group are staggered with respect to the slots of the other group so that one slot is not directly opposite another slot. Each slot has a magnet pole piece disposed therein and cooperating with a second pole and coil to provide a magnetic flux gap at the upper end of the slot. As a tape is drawn over the upper end of the centerpiece the individual magnetic circuits are disposed along its width to provide means for simultaneously recording information on separate portions, tracks. of the tape.

  12. Multilaser print head

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, Douglas S.; Roblee, Jeffrey W.; Plummer, William T.; Clark, Peter P.

    1998-12-01

    This paper discusses the optical and opto-mechanical design of a new laser head developed at Polaroid for printing Helios binary film for printing high quality medical hard copy images. The head is part of an external drum printer for 14' X 17' film. The pixel size is 84 X 84 micrometer, produced by four lasers, with the smallest printable spot 3 X 6 micrometer, to produce 4096 gray levels. Two pixels side-by-side are simultaneously printed. The head has eight independent 840 nm diode lasers manufactured by Polaroid. Each laser emits up to 1.1 W over an emission length of about 100 micrometer, with a particularly uniform nearfield irradiance. The lasers are microlensed to equalize the divergences in the two principal meridians. Each packaged laser is aligned in a field-replaceable illuminator whose output beam, focused at infinity, is bore-sighted in a mechanical cylinder. The illuminators are arranged roughly radially. Eight lenses image the laser nearfields on a multi-facet mirror produced by diamond machining. The mirror facets truncate the beams to give the desired pixel shapes and separations. A reducing afocal relay images the mirror onto the film. The final element is a molded aspheric lens, mounted in an actuator to maintain focus on the film. The focusing unit also comprises a triangulation-based focus sensor. The alignment procedures and fixtures were devised concurrently with the head for manufacturing simplicity. The main physical structure is a casting, into which reference surfaces are machined. All optical subassemblies are attached to this casting, with a mixture of optical alignment and self-location. Semi-kinematic cylinder-in-V methodology is utilized. The active alignment steps are done in a sequence that tends to reduce errors from previous steps.

  13. [Bilateral caudate head infarcts].

    PubMed

    Kuriyama, N; Yamamoto, Y; Akiguchi, I; Oiwa, K; Nakajima, K

    1997-11-01

    We reported a 67-year-old woman with bilateral caudate head infarcts. She developed sudden mutism followed by abulia. She was admitted to our hospital 2 months after ictus for further examination. She showed prominent abulia and was inactive, slow and apathetic. Spontaneous activity and speech, immediate response to queries, spontaneous word recall and attention and persistence to complex programs were disturbed. Apparent motor disturbance, gait disturbance, motor aphasia, apraxia and remote memory disturbance were not identified. She seemed to be depressed but not sad. Brain CT and MRI revealed bilateral caudate head hemorrhagic infarcts including bilateral anterior internal capsules, in which the left lesion was more extensive than right one and involved the part of the left putamen. These infarct locations were thought to be supplied by the area around the medial striate artery including Heubner's arteries and the A1 perforator. Digital subtraction angiography showed asymptomatic right internal carotid artery occlusion. She bad had hypertension, diabetes mellitus and atrial fibrillation and also had a left atrium with a large diameter. The infarcts were thought to be caused by cardioembolic occlusion to the distal portion of the left internal carotid artery. Although some variations of vasculature at the anterior communicating artery might contribute to bilateral medial striate artery infarcts, we could not demonstrate such abnormalities by angiography. Bilateral caudate head infarcts involving the anterior internal capsule may cause prominent abulia. The patient did not improve by drug and rehabilitation therapy and died suddenly a year after discharge. PMID:9503974

  14. Postplacental or Delayed Insertion of the Levonorgestrel Intrauterine Device After Vaginal Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Beatrice A.; Reeves, Matthew F.; Hayes, Jennifer L.; Hohmann, Heather L.; Perriera, Lisa K.; Creinin, Mitchell D.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate whether 6-month use of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device (IUD) would be higher when insertion occurred within 10 minutes of placental delivery compared with 6–8 weeks postpartum. METHODS We enrolled pregnant women planning vaginal deliveries and desiring a postpartum levonorgestrel-releasing IUD. Patients were randomly assigned when admitted in labor to postplacental or delayed IUD insertion. The women followed up in person at 6–8 weeks and 6 months and were contacted by telephone at 3 months. Women were ineligible for a study IUD postenrollment for intrapartum events including infection, hemorrhage, and cesarean delivery; these women were contacted by phone at 3 and 6 months. Expelled IUDs were replaced per patient preference. RESULTS Successful IUD placement occurred in 50 of 51 participants (98.0%) and 46 of 51 participants (90.2%) in the postplacental and delayed groups, respectively (P=.2). Expulsion within 6 months occurred in 12 of 50 (24.0%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 13.1–38.2) and two of 46 (4.4%; 95% CI 0.5–14.8) participants, respectively (P=.008). Intrauterine device use at 6 months was 43 of 51 (84.3%; 95% CI 71.4–93.0) and 39 of 51 (76.5%; 95% CI 62.5–87.2), respectively (P=.32). For ineligible patients, only 11 of 41 (26.8%) women were using IUDs at 6 months and two (4.9%) had become pregnant. CONCLUSION Intrauterine device use 6 months after delivery is similar in women who have postpartum or scheduled delayed IUD placement through a study after replacement of expelled IUDs. Expulsions are significantly higher with postplacental compared with delayed IUD placement. Women asked to follow up with their own health care providers for delayed insertion are significantly less likely to receive an IUD. CLINICALTRIALREGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov, www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00476021. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE I PMID:20966692

  15. Maternal thyroid dysfunction affects placental profile of inflammatory mediators and the intrauterine trophoblast migration kinetics.

    PubMed

    Silva, Juneo Freitas; Ocarino, Natália Melo; Serakides, Rogéria

    2014-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the gene and immunohistochemical expression of inflammatory mediators involved in the immune activity and the intrauterine trophoblast migration of the placentas in hypothyroid and L-thyroxine (L-T4)-treated rats. A total of 144 adult female rats were divided equally into hypothyroid, l-T4-treated, and euthyroid (control) groups. Hypothyroidism was induced by daily administration of propylthiouracil. Rats were killed at 0, 10, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, and 19 days of gestation. We evaluated the depth of interstitial and endovascular intrauterine trophoblast invasion and the immunohistochemical expression of interferon γ (INFy), migration inhibitory factor (MIF), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2 (iNOS)). The gene expression of Toll-like receptor 2 (Tlr2) and Tlr4, Infy, Mif, tumor necrosis factor (Tnf (Tnfα)), Il10, Nos2, matrix metalloproteinase 2 (Mmp2) and Mmp9, and placental leptin was also measured in placental disks by real-time RT-PCR. The data were analyzed using an Student-Newman-Keuls (SNK) test. Hypothyroidism reduced the endovascular and interstitial trophoblast migration, and the expression of TLR4, INFy, MIF, interleukin 10 (IL10), NOS2, MMP2 and MMP9, and placental leptin, while increased the expression of TLR2 (P<0.05). T4-treated rats not only increased the expression of IL10 and NOS2 but also reduced the expression of TNF and MIF at 10 days of gestation (P<0.05). However, at 19 days of gestation, expression of INFy and MIF was increased in T4-treated group (P<0.05). Excess of T4 also increased the gene expression of Mmp2 at 10 days of gestation (P<0.05), but reduced the endovascular trophoblast migration at 18 days of gestation (P<0.05). Hypothyroidism and excess of T4 differentially affect the immune profile and the intrauterine trophoblast migration of the placenta, and these effects are dependent on the gestational period. PMID:24534949

  16. Evaluation of Efficacy of Herbal Intrauterine Infusion Uterofix Liquid in Treatment of Various Reproductive Disorders in Cows: A Field Study

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Satinder; Choudhary, Adarsh; Maini, Shivi; Ravikanth, K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of herbal intrauterine infusion Uterofix liquid in the treatment of various reproductive disorders in cows. Materials and Methods: Based on symptoms of endometritis, anestrous, metritis, and repeat breeders, 28 cows were selected to study the efficacy of herbal intrauterine infusion Uterofix liquid (M/S Ayurvet Limited) in uterine infections study. Group T0 (n = 8) cows served as control group, no treatment was given to this group, Group T1 (n = 5) repeat breeder cows, Group T2 (n = 5) endometritis effected cows, Group T3 (n = 5) anoestrus cows, and Group T4 (n = 5) metritis suffered cows were treated with Uterofix liquid (25 ml as intrauterine infusion once a day for 3–5 days). Total observational period was 60 days. Number of treatments needed, nature of discharge in first posttreatment estrus (physical examination), after treatment number of animal showing heat/estrus out of total treated, and posttreatment conception rate were used as criteria to judge the success or failure of treatment. Results: Results revealed that 18 out of 20 animals (90%) showed signs of heat with clear discharge, recovered completely without causing any irritation, or severe irritation/sloughing of genital mucous membrane after Uterofix liquid treatment. Conclusion: Herbal intrauterine infusion Uterofix liquid significantly treated the uterine infections in cows. SUMMARY Uterine infection is a major problem in reproductive management. A wide variety of genital tract diseases of female domestic animals are known to produce significant losses and responsible for poor fertility. Amongst these highly prevalent are metritis and repeat breeding in high-producing dairy cows which if remains untreated are associated with low conception rate per artificial insemination (AI), extended interval to pregnancy, increased culling, and economic losses. As herbal remedy the Uterofix liquid (Ayurvet Limited, India) was highly efficacious as an intrauterine infusion

  17. Endovascular Therapy of Traumatic Vascular Lesions of the Head and Neck

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz-Daza, Orlando; Arraiza, Francisco J.; Barkley, John M.; Whigham, Cliff J.

    2003-06-15

    Pseudoaneurysm and fistula formation are well-documented complications of arterial vascular injury and may be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the presentation and therapy of patients with traumatic vascular injuries of the head and neck. Eight patients were admitted to a Level 1 Trauma Center and diagnostic angiography of the carotid artery and vertebral circulation was performed. The mechanisms of injury included motor vehicle accident, gunshot wound,stab wound and aggravated assault. Cause of trauma, vascular lesion,endovascular therapy and outcome were analyzed retrospectively. The angiographic findings, clinical presentation and hospital course were reviewed. There were eight patients, seven males and one female, aged 17-65. Four patients (50%) had multiple lesions; four had pseudoaneurysms, two with fistula formation and two with active arterial hemorrhage. A total of 17 lesions were embolized using coils,Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA), Gelfoam or a combination. Two of the 17 lesions received stents. Six of the eight patients remained clinically improved or stable at varying follow-up intervals. One of the four patients who presented with penetrating trauma and neurological deficits had resolution of right hemiplegia at the 8{sup th}month follow-up. One of the four patients who sustained blunt trauma and carotid-cavernous fistula presented with a new pseudoaneurysm at the 2-month post-embolization follow-up. The evolution of diagnostics neuroangiogaphic techniques provides opportunities for endovascular therapy of traumatic vascular lesions of the head and neck that are minimally invasive, attractive options in selected cases.

  18. First molecular evidence of intrauterine and surgical-site infections caused by Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Binghuai; Diao, Baowei; Fang, Yujie; Shi, Yanli; Zhu, Fengxia; Li, Dong; Zhang, Shuchen; Cui, Yanchao; Wang, Duochun

    2016-01-01

    S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE) is infrequently associated with maternal infections during delivery in pregnant women. A rare case is presented of a woman with intrauterine infection and surgical-site infection due to SDSE after cesarean section, which had colonized her genital tract and, via the ascending pathway, reached her intact fetal membrane. All isolates were identified as Streptococcus Lancefield group G, and their emm genes that coded M protein belonged to stG6.1. The isolates tested negative for a series of streptococcal superantigen virulence genes but positive for nonsuperantigenic virulence genes. In particular, molecular typing using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis disclosed that the three isolates from the different infection sites had identical profiles. Furthermore, multilocus sequence typing indicated that the three isolates belonged to a new sequence typing. Our results indicated that SDSE is potentially pathogenic for pregnant women and newborns if colonized. PMID:27367018

  19. The effects of essential fatty acids preparation in the treatment of intrauterine growth retardation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L

    1997-10-01

    A treatment of intravenous infusion of glucose, amino acids, and emulsion enriched in essential fatty acids (EFAs), linoleic, and linolenic acids were given to 30 pregnant women with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and 28 non-EFAs treated cases as controls. There was a marked gain in fetal biparietal diameter (BPD) and in the estimated weight of the treated group over the control group. The mean birth weight was significantly different in the two groups. Fetal BPD increased much more in patients treated with EFAs at 28-34 gestational weeks than those at 34 1/7-37 weeks, which indicates that early initiate complement of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids to IUGR mothers may correct pregnancy-induced EFAs deficiency and maternal-fetal malnutrition, which demonstrates a fetal catch-up of growth in the brain and the whole body. PMID:9394162

  20. [Early intervention in infants with intrauterine growth retardation: its effects on neuropsychological development].

    PubMed

    Padín-Rojas, Y Y; García Coll, C T; Gómez, G; Bonet, L; Escobar, M; Varcárcel, M

    1991-09-01

    Forty-eight term infants in a tertiary center in Puerto Rico during 1985-86 were monitored prospectively since birth completing a neuropsychological evaluation using the Mental Developmental Index of Bayley Scales. All infants were free from perinatal complications and chronic diseases by clinical evaluation. 25 infants with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and 23 adequate for gestational age (AGA) infants were evaluated. Fourteen IUGR infants were controls and eleven IUGR infants were intervened. However, all AGA infants were used as controls. Mother-infant relationship at one month was scored and none of intervened infants had poor neuropsychological behavior with normal or near normal MDI values. Other relationships and possible explanations are discussed in the article. PMID:1725483

  1. [Late sequelae of intrauterine and birth-related lesions of the brain].

    PubMed

    Asanova, L M; Makshantseva, N V

    1987-01-01

    The article analyzes the characteristics of the motor and mental development of children with a history of intrauterine and birth-related damage to the brain. On the basis of a long-term follow-up the authors have identified correlation between the severity of cerebral damage and the course of pregnancy and parturition and describe characteristics of the psychomotor development of children with a history of brain damage of varying degree. An emphasis is made on the necessity of prolonged observation of children with a history of perinatal encephalopathy and of the conduction of adequate rehabilitative therapy of patients with a curable form of childhood cerebral paralysis, which is conducive to the better social adaptation of such patients. PMID:3425065

  2. MRI in the assessment of pregnancy related intrauterine bleeding: a valuable adjunct to ultrasound?

    PubMed

    Verswijvel, G; Grieten, M; Gyselaers, W; Van Holsbeke, C; Vandevenne, J; Horvath, M; Gelin, G; Palmers, Y

    2002-01-01

    MR imaging using ultrafast MR sequences is a useful method in assessing pregnancies at risk. This is especially the case for fetal imaging. However, reports of imaging of the placenta or the uterus are rare. We report the MR findings in 8 pregnant patients with vaginal blood loss in whom the obstetrical ultrasound was equivocal. MR imaging was performed with a 1.5 T magnet and consisted of T2- (HASTE), fat-suppressed gradient echo T1- and gradient echo T2-weighted images. Adequate anatomical visualisation of the uterus, the placentary tissue and the intrauterine bleeding irrespective of size and location of the latter, were obtained in all cases. PMID:12403387

  3. Penetration of the Descending Colon by a Migrating Intrauterine Contraceptive Device

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jung Min; Lee, Chang Seog; Kim, Min Seong; Kim, Do Young; Kim, Chul Young; Lim, Young Bae; Lee, Yong Kyu; Park, Dong Eun

    2010-01-01

    Foreign bodies in the gastrointestinal tract often cause serious complications, such as perforation, obstruction, abscess formation, or hemorrhage. This is a case in which a patient visited our hospital and complained of a vague lower abdominal pain that had been present for three months. She had an intrauterine device (IUD) inserted five years earlier. The abdominal X-ray, computed tomography and colonoscopy revealed that the IUD had penetrated into the descending colon. We tried to remove the IUD by colonoscopy but failed due to pain, so we removed the IUD surgically. Thus, we report a case in which a previously inserted IUD had penetrated into the descending colon and was surgically removed. We also present a brief review of the literature. PMID:21221246

  4. Practical advice for avoidance of pain associated with insertion of intrauterine contraceptives

    PubMed Central

    Bahamondes, Luis; Mansour, Diana; Fiala, Christian; Kaunitz, Andrew M; Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Few studies in the scientific literature provide clear direction on the prevention or management of pain associated with intrauterine contraceptive (IUC) placement. Those that have been published have studied small numbers of women and fail to provide definitive conclusions. There are also no guidelines available detailing recognised standard approaches to this problem. The consensus recommendations in this review focus primarily on non-pharmacological and often non-evidence-based interventions. This review includes general considerations, practical recommendations for both routine and more difficult cases and guidance on the optimal choice of instruments. General considerations, including pre-insertion counselling, the setting for the procedure, the confidence and technique of the provider and the interplay between the provider and assistant, can influence women's level of anxiety and, in turn, influence their perception of pain and their overall experience. Further studies are required to refine the optimal strategy for managing pain associated with IUC insertion. PMID:24076534

  5. Proteome Differences in Placenta and Endometrium between Normal and Intrauterine Growth Restricted Pig Fetuses

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fang; Wang, Taiji; Feng, Cuiping; Lin, Gang; Zhu, Yuhua; Wu, Guoyao; Johnson, Gregory; Wang, Junjun

    2015-01-01

    Uteroplacental tissue plays a key role in substance exchanges between maternal and fetal circulation, and, therefore, in the growth and development of fetuses. In this study, proteomics and western blotting were applied to investigate the changes of proteome in the placenta and endometrium of normal and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) porcine fetuses during mid to late pregnancy (D60, 90, and 110 of gestation). Our results showed that proteins participating in cell structure, energy metabolism, stress response, cell turnover, as well as transport and metabolism of nutrients were differentially expressed in placenta and endometrium between normal and IUGR fetuses. Analysis of functions of these proteins suggests reductions in ATP production and nutrients transport, increases in oxidative stress and apoptosis, and impairment of cell metabolism in IUGR fetuses. Collectively, our findings aid in understanding of the mechanisms responsible for uteroplacental dysfunction in IUGR fetus, and are expected to provide new strategies to reduce fetal growth restriction in pigs and other mammals. PMID:26554841

  6. Intrauterine contraceptive device with rectal perforation and strings presenting at the anus.

    PubMed

    Abasiattai, Aniekan M; Umoiyoho, Aniefiok J; Utuk, Ntiense M; Ugege, Wilson; Udoh, Issac A

    2010-01-01

    A 36-year-old grand multiparous midwife presented to the gynaecological unit of the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital with the string of an intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) protruding from her anus. She had had a copper IUCD inserted at a health centre 8 years earlier. However, 4 months later she noticed that she no longer felt its strings and had another IUCD inserted in the same facility when the first device was not located. Four months prior to presentation, she presented to a private clinic when she no longer felt the strings of the second IUCD. The device in the uterus was removed in the private clinic and she was referred to the teaching hospital. At the teaching hospital rectal examination and plain x-ray revealed the presence of a device. Under general anaesthesia, the device was successfully removed in theatre through the rectum with no postoperative complications. PMID:22802233

  7. PEG3 domain gene expression in maternal and foetal placenta in intrauterine growth restricted bovine foetuses.

    PubMed

    Li, Shun; Pausch, Hubert; Venhoranta, Heli; Adamowicz, Krzysztof; Andersson, Magnus; Zwierzchowski, Lech; Kind, Alexander; Schnieke, Angelika; Flisikowski, Krzysztof

    2016-02-01

    We used a genetic (MIMT1(Del)) model of intrauterine growth restriction to investigate dysregulation of PEG3 domain gene expression in bovine foetal and maternal placenta. ZIM2, APEG3 and PEG3 expressions were similarly reduced in MIMT1(Del/) (WT) foetal placenta, suggesting coordinated regulation. Methylation of DNA CpG sites associated with these genes showed no differences, but differences in the levels of MIMT1 RNA methylation at three CpG sites were found in foetal placenta. Our data are consistent with the presence of a bidirectional promoter 5' of MIMT1 and suggest a regulatory role for the MIMT1 non-coding transcript. PEG3 domain expression on the maternal placenta side was not affected by the foetal mutation. PMID:26537866

  8. Levonorgestrel Intrauterine Device Placement in a Premenopausal Breast Cancer Patient with a Bicornuate Uterus.

    PubMed

    Eskew, Ashley M; Crane, Erin K

    2016-01-01

    Young women with breast cancer face contraceptive challenges. Data are limited and conflicting on the use of the levonorgestrel intrauterine device (LNG-IUD) in this patient population. A 32-year-old nulligravid woman with a history of breast cancer on tamoxifen presented with new-onset vaginal bleeding. Further workup revealed a previously undiagnosed bicornuate uterus. She underwent hysteroscopy, dilation and curettage, and LNG-IUD placement in each uterine horn. Postoperative follow-up confirmed retention and proper placement of both IUDs. Pathology from the dilation and curettage was benign, and the abnormal uterine bleeding abated. LNG-IUD placement in a young patient with a personal history of breast cancer on tamoxifen and a bicornuate uterus is a safe and feasible alternative for contraception. PMID:26342448

  9. Ovarian stimulation and intrauterine insemination in women aged 40 years or more.

    PubMed

    Wiser, Amir; Shalom-Paz, Einat; Reinblatt, Shauna Leigh; Son, Weon-Young; Das, Mausumi; Tulandi, Togas; Holzer, Hananel

    2012-02-01

    Fertility decreases with advancing age. This study retrospectively reviewed the results of ovarian stimulation and intrauterine insemination (IUI) in women 40 years old with diminished ovarian reserve or unexplained infertility who underwent treatment with ovarian stimulation/IUI with clomiphene citrate or gonadotrophin and compared them with the results of IVF and in-vitro maturation (IVM) treatments. The main outcome measures were pregnancy and live-birth rates. The profiles of the patients in ovarian stimulation, IVM and IVF groups were comparable. There were no clinical pregnancies in the clomiphene citrate and IVM groups. The clinical-pregnancy rates in the gonadotrophin and IVF groups were 2.6% and 16.9% and the live-birth rates were 2.6% and 13.7%, respectively. Compared with ovarian stimulation, IVF is most effective for women aged 40 years or more. Attempting success with ovarian stimulation or IVM will delay conception unnecessarily. PMID:22197126

  10. Surgical intrauterine insemination with cat semen cryopreserved with Orvus ES paste or sodium lauryl sulfate.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Toshihiko; Mizutani, Tatsuji; Matsubara, Yuka; Toyonaga, Mari; Oba, Hiromichi; Hori, Tatsuya

    2011-02-01

    The mean post-thaw sperm motilities of feline frozen semen prepared with 1% OEP or 3 g/ml SLS as a cryoprotective agent, in addition to 7% glycerin, were 35.0 ± 2.4 and 37.0 ± 2.5%, respectively, showing no significant difference. On unilateral intrauterine insemination (UIUI) using these semen samples at a sperm number of 40 × 10(6), the conception rate was 70.0% (7/10) in the OEP group and 30% (3/10) in the SLS group, showing that the rate was higher in the OEP group, but the difference was not significant. It was suggested that sperm in frozen semen showing the above qualities were transferred to the contralateral uterine horn on UIUI. PMID:20948170

  11. Factors influencing the outcome of intrauterine insemination (IUI): age, clinical variables and significant thresholds.

    PubMed

    Speyer, B E; Abramov, B; Saab, W; Doshi, A; Sarna, U; Harper, J C; Serhal, P

    2013-10-01

    The aim was to investigate the influence of various biological factors upon the outcome of intrauterine insemination (IUI). The total IUI history (856 cycles) of 352 couples was studied. Live-birth showed a strong negative correlation with female age but no correlation with male age. Antimüllerian hormone (AMH) and antral follicle count (AFC) correlated negatively with female age, and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) correlated positively. Significant thresholds were found for all three variables, and also for total motile count (TMC) in the prepared sperm. Calculating pregnancy losses per positive pregnancy showed a strong correlation with increasing female age. This was highly significant for biochemical losses but not for fetal heart miscarriages. Male age had no effect on rate of pregnancy loss. In conclusion, female age, FSH, AMH and TMC are good predictive factors for live-birth and therefore relate to essential in vivo steps in the reproductive process. PMID:24127958

  12. Intrauterine growth restriction programs an accelerated age-related increase in cardiovascular risk in male offspring.

    PubMed

    Dasinger, John Henry; Intapad, Suttira; Backstrom, Miles A; Carter, Anthony J; Alexander, Barbara T

    2016-08-01

    Placental insufficiency programs an increase in blood pressure associated with a twofold increase in serum testosterone in male growth-restricted offspring at 4 mo of age. Population studies indicate that the inverse relationship between birth weight and blood pressure is amplified with age. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that intrauterine growth restriction programs an age-related increase in blood pressure in male offspring. Growth-restricted offspring retained a significantly higher blood pressure at 12 but not at 18 mo of age compared with age-matched controls. Blood pressure was significantly increased in control offspring at 18 mo of age relative to control counterparts at 12 mo; however, blood pressure was not increased in growth-restricted at 18 mo relative to growth-restricted counterparts at 12 mo. Serum testosterone levels were not elevated in growth-restricted offspring relative to control at 12 mo of age. Thus, male growth-restricted offspring no longer exhibited a positive association between blood pressure and testosterone at 12 mo of age. Unlike hypertension in male growth-restricted offspring at 4 mo of age, inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system with enalapril (250 mg/l for 2 wk) did not abolish the difference in blood pressure in growth-restricted offspring relative to control counterparts at 12 mo of age. Therefore, these data suggest that intrauterine growth restriction programs an accelerated age-related increase in blood pressure in growth-restricted offspring. Furthermore, this study suggests that the etiology of increased blood pressure in male growth-restricted offspring at 12 mo of age differs from that at 4 mo of age. PMID:27147668

  13. Evidence-Based Selection of Candidates for the Levonorgestrel Intrauterine Device (IUD)

    PubMed Central

    Callegari, Lisa S.; Darney, Blair G.; Godfrey, Emily M.; Sementi, Olivia; Dunsmoor-Su, Rebecca; Prager, Sarah W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent evidence-based guidelines expanded the definition of appropriate candidates for the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS). We investigated correlates of evidence-based selection of candidates for the LNG-IUS by physicians who offer insertion. Methods We conducted a mixed-mode (online and mail) survey of practicing family physicians and obstetrician-gynecologists in Seattle. Results A total of 269 physicians responded to the survey (44% response rate). Of the 217 respondents who inserted intrauterine devices, half or fewer routinely recommended the LNG-IUS to women who are nulliparous, younger than 20 years old, or have a history of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In multivariable analyses, training/resident status was positively associated with recommending the LNG-IUS to women <20 years old (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 3.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6–8.0) and women with history of STI (aOR, 3.7; 95% CI, 1.6–8.4). Perceived risk of infection or infertility was negatively associated with recommending the LNG-IUS to nulliparous women (aOR, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.1–0.5) and women with a history of STI (aOR, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.1–0.8). Conclusions Many family physicians and obstetrician-gynecologists who insert the LNG-IUS are overly restrictive in selecting candidates, although those who train residents are more likely to follow evidence-based guidelines. Interventions that address negative bias and perceptions of risks, in addition to improving knowledge, are needed to promote wider use of the LNG-IUS. PMID:24390883

  14. Deep freezing of concentrated boar semen for intra-uterine insemination: effects on sperm viability.

    PubMed

    Saravia, Fernando; Wallgren, Margareta; Nagy, Szabolcs; Johannisson, Anders; Rodríguez-Martínez, Heriberto

    2005-03-15

    The use of deep-frozen boar semen for artificial insemination (AI) is constrained by the need for high sperm numbers per dose, yielding few doses per ejaculate. With the advancement of new, intra-uterine insemination strategies, there is an opportunity for freezing small volumes containing high sperm numbers, provided the spermatozoa properly sustain cryopreservation. The present study aimed to concentrate (2 x 10(9) spz/mL) and freeze boar spermatozoa packed in a 0.5 mL volume plastic medium straw (MS) or a multiple FlatPack (MFP) (four 0.7 mL volume segments of a single FlatPack [SFP]) intended as AI doses for intra-uterine AI. A single freezing protocol was used, with a conventional FlatPack (SFP, 5 x 10(9) spz/5 mL volume) as control. Sperm viability post-thaw was monitored as sperm motility (measured by computer-assisted sperm analysis, CASA), as plasma membrane integrity (PMI, assessed either by SYBR-14/PI, combined with flow cytometry, or a rapid hypo-osmotic swelling test [sHOST]). Sperm motility did not differ statistically (NS) between test-packages and control, neither in terms of overall sperm motility (range of means: 37-46%) nor sperm velocity. The percentages of linearly motile spermatozoa were, however, significantly higher in controls (SFP) than in the test packages. Spermatozoa frozen in the SFP (control) and MFP depicted the highest PMI (54 and 49%, respectively) compared to MS (38%, P < 0.05) when assessed with flow cytometry. In absolute numbers, more viable spermatozoa post-thaw were present in the MFP dose than in the MS (P < 0.05). Inter-boar variation was present, albeit only significant for MS (sperm motility) and SFP (PMI). In conclusion, the results indicate that boar spermatozoa can be successfully frozen when concentrated in a small volume. PMID:15725440

  15. Birth Weight, Intrauterine Growth Retardation and Fetal Susceptibility to Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus

    PubMed Central

    Ladinig, Andrea; Foxcroft, George; Ashley, Carolyn; Lunney, Joan K.; Plastow, Graham; Harding, John C. S.

    2014-01-01

    The severity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome was compared in pregnant gilts originating from high and low birth weight litters. One-hundred and eleven pregnant gilts experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus on gestation day 85 (±1) were necropsied along with their fetuses 21 days later. Ovulation rates and litter size did not differ between groups, but fetuses from low birth weight gilts were shorter, lighter and demonstrated evidence of asymmetric growth with large brain:organ weight ratios (i.e. brain sparing). The number of intrauterine growth retarded fetuses, defined by brain:organ weight ratios greater than 1 standard deviation from the mean, was significantly greater in low, compared to high, birth weight gilts. Although γδ T cells significantly decreased over time in high compared to low birth weight gilts, viral load in serum and tissues, gilt serum cytokine levels, and litter outcome, including the percent dead fetuses per litter, did not differ by birth weight group. Thus, this study provided no substantive evidence that the severity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome is affected by dam birth weight. However, intrauterine growth retarded fetuses had lower viral loads in both fetal thymus and in endometrium adjacent to the umbilical stump. Crown rump length did not significantly differ between fetuses that survived and those that died at least one week prior to termination. Taken together, this study clearly demonstrates that birth weight is a transgenerational trait in pigs, and provides evidence that larger fetuses are more susceptible to transplacental PRRSv infection. PMID:25275491

  16. Loss of Methylation at GNAS Exon A/B Is Associated With Increased Intrauterine Growth

    PubMed Central

    Bréhin, Anne-Claire; Colson, Cindy; Maupetit-Méhouas, Stéphanie; Grybek, Virginie; Richard, Nicolas; Linglart, Agnès; Kottler, Marie-Laure

    2015-01-01

    Context: GNAS is one of few genetic loci that undergo allelic-specific methylation resulting in the parent-specific expression of at least four different transcripts. Due to monoallelic expression, heterozygous GNAS mutations affecting either paternally or maternally derived transcripts cause different forms of pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP), including autosomal-dominant PHP type Ib (AD-PHP1B) associated with loss of methylation (LOM) at exon A/B alone or sporadic PHP1B (sporPHP1B) associated with broad GNAS methylation changes. Similar to effects other imprinted genes have on early development, we recently observed severe intrauterine growth retardation in newborns, later diagnosed with pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism (PPHP) because of paternal GNAS loss-of-function mutations. Objectives: This study aimed to determine whether GNAS methylation abnormalities affect intrauterine growth. Patients and Methods: Birth parameters were collected of patients who later developed sporPHP1B or AD-PHP1B, and of their healthy siblings. Comparisons were made to newborns affected by PPHP or PHP1A. Results: As newborns, AD-PHP1B patients were bigger than their healthy siblings and well above the reference average; increased sizes were particularly evident if the mothers were unaffected carriers of STX16 deletions. SporPHP1B newborns were slightly above average for weight and length, but their overgrowth was less pronounced than that of AD-PHP1B newborns from unaffected mothers. Conclusion: LOM at GNAS exon A/B due to maternal STX16 deletions and the resulting biallelic A/B expression are associated with enhanced fetal growth. These findings are distinctly different from those of PPHP patients with paternal GNAS exons 2–13 mutations, whose birth parameters are almost 4.5 z-scores below those of AD-PHP1B patients born to healthy mothers. PMID:25603460

  17. Linking Myometrial Physiology to Intrauterine Pressure; How Tissue-Level Contractions Create Uterine Contractions of Labor

    PubMed Central

    Young, Roger C.; Barendse, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms used to coordinate uterine contractions are not known. We develop a new model based on the proposal that there is a maximum distance to which action potentials can propagate in the uterine wall. This establishes “regions”, where one action potential burst can rapidly recruit all the tissue. Regions are recruited into an organ-level contraction via a stretch-initiated contraction mechanism (myometrial myogenic response). Each uterine contraction begins with a regional contraction, which slightly increases intrauterine pressure. Higher pressure raises tension throughout the uterine wall, which initiates contractions of more regions and further increases pressure. The positive feedback synchronizes regional contractions into an organ-level contraction. Cellular automaton (CA) simulations are performed with Mathematica. Each “cell” is a region that is assigned an action potential threshold. An anatomy sensitivity factor converts intrauterine pressure to regional tension through the Law of Laplace. A regional contraction occurs when regional tension exceeds regional threshold. Other input variables are: starting and minimum pressure, burst and refractory period durations, enhanced contractile activity during an electrical burst, and reduced activity during the refractory period. Complex patterns of pressure development are seen that mimic the contraction patterns observed in laboring women. Emergent behavior is observed, including global synchronization, multiple pace making regions, and system memory of prior conditions. The complex effects of nifedipine and oxytocin exposure are simulated. The force produced can vary as a nonlinear function of the number of regions. The simulation directly links tissue-level physiology to human labor. The concept of a uterine pacemaker is re-evaluated because pace making activity may occur well before expression of a contraction. We propose a new classification system for biological CAs that parallels the 4

  18. Quantitative analysis of tightness of nuchal cord and its relationship with fetal intrauterine distress.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fangui; Geng, Qiuying; Kong, Fanbin; Ning, Yan

    2015-01-01

    The perinatal outcomes of pregnancies with nuchal cord (NC) are uncertain and reports disagree about the incidence of cesarean section due to NC. Variable tightness of the NC may be a contributor to this controversy. The study was to examine whether the tightness of NC affect fetal intrauterine distress by determining valuable ultrasonic indicators. Total 149 singleton pregnancies between 36 and 41 weeks without pregnancy complications were recruited. The pregnant women, whose fetuses have NC, formed the study group and the others made up the control group. The ratio of peak systolic velocity and end diastolic velocity (S/D), pulsatility index (PI) of fetal umbilical artery (UA), middle cerebral artery (MCA) and renal artery (RA) were examed by ultrasound. We found that mean levels of S/D and PI of RA and the incidence of fetal distress and intervention rate during delivery were higher in the study group than those in control group (p<0.05). In contrast, the levels of RI of RA and flow spectrum parameters of UA and MCA showed no difference between the two groups (p>0.05). In addition, as compared with the control group, the mean levels of S/D and PI of RA, S/D of UA were higher in the tight subgroup (p<0.05). The S/D of UA and S/D, PI of RA were increased with D and A1/A, but there were no significant correlations between D or A1/A and fetal distress in study group. In summary, NC affects the level of flow spectrum parameters of RA and UA, especially in tight NC cases, which increases the rate of fetal intrauterine distress. A1/A% and D are valuable ultrasonographic indicator to describe the tightness of NC and predict the fetal hemodynamics, but they could not predict the fetal distress in our study. PMID:26770341

  19. Quantitative analysis of tightness of nuchal cord and its relationship with fetal intrauterine distress

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Fangui; Geng, Qiuying; Kong, Fanbin; Ning, Yan

    2015-01-01

    The perinatal outcomes of pregnancies with nuchal cord (NC) are uncertain and reports disagree about the incidence of cesarean section due to NC. Variable tightness of the NC may be a contributor to this controversy. The study was to examine whether the tightness of NC affect fetal intrauterine distress by determining valuable ultrasonic indicators. Total 149 singleton pregnancies between 36 and 41 weeks without pregnancy complications were recruited. The pregnant women, whose fetuses have NC, formed the study group and the others made up the control group. The ratio of peak systolic velocity and end diastolic velocity (S/D), pulsatility index (PI) of fetal umbilical artery (UA), middle cerebral artery (MCA) and renal artery (RA) were examed by ultrasound. We found that mean levels of S/D and PI of RA and the incidence of fetal distress and intervention rate during delivery were higher in the study group than those in control group (p<0.05). In contrast, the levels of RI of RA and flow spectrum parameters of UA and MCA showed no difference between the two groups (p>0.05). In addition, as compared with the control group, the mean levels of S/D and PI of RA, S/D of UA were higher in the tight subgroup (p<0.05). The S/D of UA and S/D, PI of RA were increased with D and A1/A, but there were no significant correlations between D or A1/A and fetal distress in study group. In summary, NC affects the level of flow spectrum parameters of RA and UA, especially in tight NC cases, which increases the rate of fetal intrauterine distress. A1/A% and D are valuable ultrasonographic indicator to describe the tightness of NC and predict the fetal hemodynamics, but they could not predict the fetal distress in our study. PMID:26770341

  20. Efficacy of Intrauterine Bakri Balloon Tamponade in Cesarean Section for Placenta Previa Patients

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hee Young; Park, Yong Won; Kim, Young Han; Jung, Inkyung; Kwon, Ja-Young

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aims of this study were to analyze the predictive factors for the use of intrauterine balloon insertion and to evaluate the efficacy and factors affecting failure of uterine tamponade with a Bakri balloon during cesarean section for abnormal placentation. Methods We reviewed the medical records of 137 patients who underwent elective cesarean section for placenta previa between July 2009 and March 2014. Cesarean section and Bakri balloon insertion were performed by a single qualified surgeon. The Bakri balloon was applied when blood loss during cesarean delivery exceeded 1,000 mL. Results Sixty-four patients (46.7%) required uterine balloon tamponade during cesarean section due to postpartum bleeding from the lower uterine segment, of whom 50 (78.1%) had placenta previa totalis. The overall success rate was 75% (48/64) for placenta previa patients. Previous cesarean section history, anterior placenta, peripartum platelet count, and disseminated intravascular coagulopathy all significantly differed according to balloon success or failure (all p<0.05). The drainage amount over 1 hour was 500 mL (20–1200 mL) in the balloon failure group and 60 mL (5–500 mL) in the balloon success group (p<0.01). Conclusion Intrauterine tamponade with a Bakri balloon is an adequate adjunct management for postpartum hemorrhage following cesarean section for placenta previa to preserve the uterus. This method is simple to apply, non-invasive, and inexpensive. However, possible factors related to failure of Bakri balloon tamponade for placenta previa patients such as prior cesarean section history, anterior placentation, thrombocytopenia, presence of DIC at the time of catheter insertion, and catheter drainage volume more than 500 mL within 1 hour of catheter placement should be recognized, and the next-line management should be prepared in advance. PMID:26263014

  1. Effect of intrauterine cocaine exposure on respiratory distress syndrome in very low birthweight infants.

    PubMed Central

    Beeram, M. R.; Abedin, M.; Young, M.; Leftridge, C.; Dhanireddy, R.

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of intrauterine cocaine exposure on lung maturity of very low birthweight infants, the medical records of all infants with birthweight < 1500 g born between January 1989 and December 1990 at DC General Hospital were reviewed. Infants with conditions known to cause lung maturity, severe congenital anomalies, proven early sepsis, and birthweight > or = 500 g were excluded. A total of 69 infants were included in the study. Chest roentgenograms of these infants were evaluated by a pediatric radiologist, who was unaware of the infant's medical course, for evidence of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), and radiological findings were correlated with clinical signs. Forty infants were exposed to cocaine in utero (cocaine group) and 29 were not exposed (noncocaine group). African-American ethnicity, pregnancy-induced hypertension, prolonged rupture of membranes, and alcohol use were similar in both groups. Tobacco use among cocaine group mothers was higher (42.5% versus 13.8%; P = .01). Gestational age (28.3 +/- 2.8 versus 28.3 +/- 3 weeks), birthweight (966 +/- 282 versus 1059 +/- 295 g), male gender, and Apgar scores were similar in both groups. Thirty (75%) infants in the cocaine group developed RDS compared with 19 (66%) in the noncocaine group (P > .05). Using multiple logistic regression analysis and controlling for smoking, alcohol use, and prolonged rupture of membranes (24 to 72 hours), the incidence of RDS between the groups remained statistically insignificant. We conclude that intrauterine cocaine exposure does not alter the incidence of RDS in very low birthweight infants. PMID:8046765

  2. Essential nutrient supplementation prevents heritable metabolic disease in multigenerational intrauterine growth-restricted rats

    PubMed Central

    Goodspeed, Danielle; Seferovic, Maxim D.; Holland, William; Mcknight, Robert A.; Summers, Scott A.; Branch, D. Ware; Lane, Robert H.; Aagaard, Kjersti M.

    2015-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) confers heritable alterations in DNA methylation, rendering risk of adult metabolic syndrome (MetS). Because CpG methylation is coupled to intake of essential nutrients along the one-carbon pathway, we reasoned that essential nutrient supplementation (ENS) may abrogate IUGR-conferred multigenerational MetS. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats underwent bilateral uterine artery ligation causing IUGR in F1. Among the F2 generation, IUGR lineage rats were underweight at birth (6.7 vs. 8.0 g, P < 0.0001) and obese by adulthood (p160: 613 vs. 510 g; P < 0.0001). Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry studies revealed increased central fat mass (Δ+40 g), accompanied by dyslipidemic (>30% elevated, P < 0.05) serum triglycerides (139 mg/dl), very-LDLs (27.8 mg/dl), and fatty acids (632 µM). Hyperglycemic-euglycemic clamp studies and glucose tolerance testing revealed insulin resistance. Conversely, IUGR lineage ENS-fed rats did not manifest MetS, with significantly lower body weight (p160: 410 g), >5-fold less central fat mass, normal hepatic glucose efflux, and >70% reduced circulating triglycerides and very-LDLs compared with IUGR control-fed F2 offspring (P < 0.01). Moreover, increased methylation of the IGF-1 P2 transcriptional start site among IUGR lineage F2 offspring was reversed in ENS (P < 0.04). This is an initial demonstration that supplementation along the one-carbon pathway abrogates adult morbidity and associated epigenomic modifications of IGF-1 in a rodent model of multigenerational MetS.—Goodspeed, D., Seferovic, M. D., Holland, W., Mcknight, R. A., Summers, S. A., Branch, D. W., Lane, R. H., Aagaard, K. M. Essential nutrient supplementation prevents heritable metabolic disease in multigenerational intrauterine growth-restricted rats. PMID:25395450

  3. Role of uterine forces in intrauterine device embedment, perforation, and expulsion

    PubMed Central

    Goldstuck, Norman D; Wildemeersch, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine factors that could help reduce primary perforation during insertion of a framed intrauterine device (IUD) and to determine factors that contribute in generating enough uterine muscle force to cause embedment and secondary perforation of an IUD. The objective was also to evaluate the main underlying mechanism of IUD expulsion. Methods We compared known IUD insertion forces for “framed” devices with known perforation forces in vitro (hysterectomy specimens) and known IUD removal forces and calculated a range of possible intrauterine forces using pressure and surface area. These were compared with known perforation forces. Results IUD insertion forces range from 1.5 N to 6.5 N. Removal forces range from 1 N to 5.8 N and fracture forces from 8.7 N to 30 N depending upon device. Measured perforation forces are from 20 N to 54 N, and calculations show the uterus is capable of generating up to 50 N of myometrial force depending on internal pressure and surface area. Conclusion Primary perforation with conventional framed IUDs may occur if the insertion pressure exceeds the perforation resistance of the uterine fundus. This is more likely to occur if the front end of the inserter/IUD is narrow, the passage through the cervix is difficult, and the procedure is complex. IUD embedment and secondary perforation and IUD expulsion may be due to imbalance between the size of the IUD and that of the uterine cavity, causing production of asymmetrical uterine forces. The uterine muscle seems capable of generating enough force to cause an IUD to perforate the myometrium provided it is applied asymmetrically. A physical theory for IUD expulsion and secondary IUD perforation is given. PMID:25143756

  4. Increased Rat Placental Fatty Acid, but Decreased Amino Acid and Glucose Transporters Potentially Modify Intrauterine Programming.

    PubMed

    Nüsken, Eva; Gellhaus, Alexandra; Kühnel, Elisabeth; Swoboda, Isabelle; Wohlfarth, Maria; Vohlen, Christina; Schneider, Holm; Dötsch, Jörg; Nüsken, Kai-Dietrich

    2016-07-01

    Regulation of placental nutrient transport significantly affects fetal development and may modify intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and fetal programming. We hypothesized that placental nutrient transporters are differentially affected both by utero-placental insufficiency and prenatal surgical stress. Pregnant rats underwent bilateral uterine artery and vein ligation (LIG), sham operation (SOP) or no operation (controls, C) on gestational day E19. Placentas were obtained by caesarean section 4 h (LIG, n=20 placentas; SOP, n=24; C, n=12), 24 h (LIG, n=28; SOP, n=20; C, n=12) and 72 h (LIG, n=20; SOP, n=20; C, n=24) after surgery. Gene and protein expression of placental nutrient transporters for fatty acids (h-FABP, CD36), amino acids (SNAT1, SNAT2) and glucose (GLUT-1, Connexin 26) were examined by qRT-PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry. Interestingly, the mean protein expression of h-FABP was doubled in placentas of LIG and SOP animals 4, 24 (SOP significant) and 72 h (SOP significant) after surgery. CD36 protein was significantly increased in LIG after 72 h. SNAT1 and SNAT2 protein and gene expressions were significantly reduced in LIG and SOP after 24 h. Further significantly reduced proteins were GLUT-1 in LIG (4 h, 72 h) and SOP (24 h), and Connexin 26 in LIG (72 h). In conclusion, placental nutrient transporters are differentially affected both by reduced blood flow and stress, probably modifying the already disturbed intrauterine milieu and contributing to IUGR and fetal programming. Increased fatty acid transport capacity may affect energy metabolism and could be a compensatory reaction with positive effects on brain development. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 1594-1603, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26590355

  5. Intrauterine device use and the risk of pre-eclampsia: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Parker, SE; Jick, SS; Werler, MM

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the association between intrauterine device (IUD) use, timing of removal prior to pregnancy, and the risk of pre-eclampsia. Design A case–control study within the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, UK. Setting Medical record database in the UK. Sample Cases of pre-eclampsia (n = 2744) were identified among pregnancies resulting in singleton deliveries from 1993 to 2010. Four controls, or pregnancies unaffected by pre-eclampsia, were matched to each case on maternal age, general practice, and year of delivery. Methods Data on IUD use were obtained from patient records. The odds ratios (ORs) for the association between IUD and pre-eclampsia were adjusted for covariates identified a priori, and analyses were stratified by BMI and number of prior deliveries. Main outcome measures Odds ratios (95% confidence intervals, 95% CIs) of pre-eclampsia in pregnancies among women with a history of IUD use, compared with women without a history of IUD use. Results Prior IUD use was associated with a reduced risk of pre-eclampsia (OR 0.76; 95% CI 0.58–0.98). The timing of removal in relation to the start of pregnancy showed an inverse association, with shorter intervals associated with a larger decrease in risk of pre-eclampsia. IUD removal within a year prior to pregnancy had an OR of 0.68 (95% CI 0.46–1.00). Among women with a prior delivery, the association between IUD use and pre-eclampsia was null. Conclusions Intrauterine device use is associated with a small decreased risk of pre-eclampsia, specifically if removed within the year prior to conception. PMID:25854682

  6. Successful treatment of severe oligozoospermia with sperm washing and intrauterine insemination.

    PubMed

    Centola, G M

    1997-01-01

    During the period January 1, 1991 through December 31, 1995, 258 patients, in whom motile sperm counts for insemination (postwash, processed) were 10.0 million motile sperm or less were seen in the andrology unit for sperm washing and intrauterine insemination (IUI). No significant female factors were noted on history; all female partners had patent Fallopian tubes and were ovulatory spontaneously or were treated by the referring gynecologist with clomiphene citrate, human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG), or follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) ovulation induction in both anovulatory or ovulatory women. Of the total of 258 patients, 15 achieved a pregnancy in 284 cycles of IUI in which the inseminating motile-count was < 1.0 million motile sperm, resulting in a monthly fecundity (f) of 5.3%. The mean (+/-SD) motile count for IUI in this group was 0.61 (+/-0.29) million sperm, with a range of 0.19-0.95 million motile sperm. The initial motile count was 2.97 (3.2) million sperm, with a range of 0.2-12.81 million sperm. With inseminating motile counts of 1.0-10.0 million motile sperm, there were 83 pregnancies after 467 cycles of IUI, resulting in a monthly f of 17.8%. The mean (+/-SD) motile count for IUI in this group was 4.9 (+/-2.7) million motile sperm with a range of 1.0-9.9 million motile sperm. The initial sperm count in this group was 10.9 million (+/-7.1), with a range of 1.1-23.7 million motile sperm. These data suggest that acceptable pregnancy rates can be achieved with IUI, even in severely oligozoospermic specimens. Intrauterine insemination is less invasive and less costly than other assisted reproductive techniques. These data are supportive of IUI prior to attempting other more invasive and potentially costly reproductive technologies. PMID:9283959

  7. Adipokine, adropin and endothelin-1 levels in intrauterine growth restricted neonates and their mothers.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Halil Ibrahim; Eser, Ayla; Kaygusuz, Ikbal; Yildirim, Sevgi; Celik, Tugrul; Gunduz, Suzan; Kalman, Suleyman

    2016-08-01

    Intrauterine growth retardation/restriction (IUGR) is associated with fetal malnutrition. It has consequences for later life including increased incidence of obesity, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and metabolic syndrome. Adipokines (adiponectin and leptin), adropin, and endothelin-1 are associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome regulation. Intrauterine changes in these mediators could affect programming of later adult obesity and metabolic syndrome. Our objectives were to compare the levels of these mediators in both cord and maternal blood between IUGR pregnancies and control, healthy pregnancies, and to study the correlation of adipokines with adropin and endothelin-1 in maternal and cord blood in IUGR pregnancies as well as in healthy control pregnancies. Maternal and cord blood samples were taken from 16 women with IUGR pregnancies and 16 women with healthy pregnancies. Serum levels of leptin, adiponectin, adropin, and endothelin-1 were measured by ELISA. Maternal blood adropin levels were significantly lower in the IUGR group than in the control group; the other mediators did not differ significantly. There was a positive correlation between maternal blood adropin and endothelin levels. (r=0.731, P=0.001) in the control but not the IUGR group. Cord blood adropin and adiponectin levels were significantly lower in the IUGR group compared with the control group, while leptin or endothelin-1 did not differ significantly. There was a negative correlation between adropin and leptin (r=-0.704, P=0.001) in the IUGR but not the control group cord blood. There were also positive correlations between endothelin and adropin for both groups (r=0.594, P=0.006; r=0.560, P=0.010, respectively); to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of such a correlation. Differences in fetal expression of adropin and adiponectin in IUGR could influence programming of obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and CVD in later life. PMID:26352058

  8. Corrosion of a new copper-gold or copper-platinum intrauterine device.

    PubMed

    Gal-Or, L; Gonen, R; Zilberman, A; Scharf, M

    1982-11-01

    It has been shown previously that supplementing plastic intrauterine devices (IUDs) with copper wire enhances the antifertility effect of the device. The use of copper intrauterine contraceptive devices, however, is currently limited to two to three years, mainly because of wire fragmentation, which was observed as early as after eight months of use. In the resulting search for a long-lasting device, two new systems of duplex wire, with gold and platinum cores electrolytically coated with copper, were devised and studied. Initially, duplex wires and controls were exposed to physiological solution. Copper dissolution rate and corrosion morphology were studied by weight-loss measurements and optical metallography. Similar systems were then surgically implanted in rat uteri for varying periods of up to 26 weeks. Electron microanalysis of corrosion products, in addition to weight-loss measurements and metallography, was performed. The results showed that a uniform and ductile copper coating is obtainable by electroplating on gold and platinum wires. Rate of copper dissolution is similar to that of solid copper wire. No dissolution of gold and platinum in the controls or coated wires was detected by weight loss, metallography, or atomic absorption measurements. Microanalysis of the deposits and corrosion products on the wires in the uteri environment showed sulfur, chlorine, and calcium, in addition to copper. The results of this study suggest that supplementing IUDs with copper-coated gold or platinum wires may result in significant prolongation of the life span of the device by preventing uncontrolled loss of copper caused by wire fragmentation. PMID:7174708

  9. Symptoms of an Intrauterine Hematoma Associated with Pregnancy Complications: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Lan; Wei, Zhaolian; Cao, Yunxia

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the predictive value of the symptoms of an intrauterine hematoma (IUH) for adverse pregnancy outcomes. Methods A literature review was performed with the search terms, including intrauterine/subchorionic/retroplacental/subplacental hematoma/hemorrhage/bleeding/collection/fluid, covering the period from January, 1981 to January, 2014. We just focused on the pregnancy outcomes associated with different symptoms of an IUH. Results It is generally agreed that a retroplacental, posterior or subchorionic in the fundus of uterus, and/or persistent IUH is associated with adverse outcomes in the ongoing pregnancy. However, the prognosis value of both volume and gestational age at diagnosis of IUH still remains controversial. Some researchers argue that a large IUH is associated with an increased risk of adverse events during pregnancy while others refuted. It is believed by some that the earlier an IUH was detected, the higher the risk for adverse outcomes would be, while no or weak association were reported by other studies. The prognostic value of the simultaneous presence of vaginal bleeding on pregnancy outcome is also controversial. Conclusions Both the position relative to the placenta or uterus and duration of IUH have strong predictive value on the prognosis in the ongoing pregnancy. However, the prognostic values of the IUH volume, gestational age at diagnosis and the simultaneous presence of vaginal bleeding remain controversial up to now. Moreover, most of previous reports are small, uncontrolled studies with incomplete information. Prospective, large sample, cohorts studies which take all detailed symptoms of an IUH into consideration are needed when we evaluate its clinical significance in the prognosis of pregnancy. PMID:25369062

  10. Measuring head circumference

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Susan R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To provide an evidence-based update emphasizing the importance of measuring head circumference (HC) in infants, with a focus on microcephaly. Quality of evidence PubMed and EMBASE (OvidSP) were searched. Search terms used were head circumference and infants and measurement; microcephaly and infants and measurement; idiopathic microcephaly and infants; and congenital microcephaly and infants. Most of the references for this review were published in 2000 or later. Most evidence is level II. Main message Serial measurement of HC should be incorporated into routine well-child care. Measure the distance around the back of the child’s head with a nonelastic tape measure held above the eyebrows and ears, and plot the measurement on an age- and sex-appropriate growth chart. Microcephaly is HC more than 2 SD below the mean. The most common disability associated with microcephaly is intellectual delay; other common concomitant conditions include epilepsy, cerebral palsy, language delay, strabismus, ophthalmologic disorders, and cardiac, renal, urinary tract, and skeletal anomalies. An interdisciplinary approach to microcephaly is warranted. Although there are no specific interventions to enhance brain growth, dietary or surgical interventions might be helpful in some cases. Infants with microcephaly who show developmental delays might benefit from early intervention programs or developmental physical and occupational therapy. Conclusion Early identification of HC concerns by family physicians can be a critical first step in identifying disorders such as microcephaly, leading to referral to pediatric specialists and, as needed, provision of family-centred early intervention services. PMID:26505062

  11. Active head rotations and eye-head coordination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zangemeister, W. H.; Stark, L.

    1981-01-01

    It is pointed out that head movements play an important role in gaze. The interaction between eye and head movements involves both their shared role in directing gaze and the compensatory vestibular ocular reflex. The dynamics of head trajectories are discussed, taking into account the use of parameterization to obtain the peak velocity, peak accelerations, the times of these extrema, and the duration of the movement. Attention is given to the main sequence, neck muscle EMG and details of the head-movement trajectory, types of head model accelerations, the latency of eye and head movement in coordinated gaze, gaze latency as a function of various factors, and coordinated gaze types. Clinical examples of gaze-plane analysis are considered along with the instantaneous change of compensatory eye movement (CEM) gain, and aspects of variability.

  12. Reactor vessel head permanent shield

    SciTech Connect

    Hankinson, M.F.; Leduc, R.J.; Richard, J.W.; Malandra, L.J.

    1989-05-09

    A nuclear reactor is described comprising: a nuclear reactor pressure vessel closure head; control rod drive mechanisms (CRDMs) disposed within the closure head so as to project vertically above the closure head; cooling air baffle means surrounding the control rod drive mechanisms for defining cooling air paths relative to the control rod drive mechanisms; means defined within the periphery of the closure head for accommodating fastening means for securing the closure head to its associated pressure vessel; lifting lugs fixedly secured to the closure head for facilitating lifting and lowering movements of the closure head relative to the pressure vessel; lift rods respectively operatively associated with the plurality of lifting lugs for transmitting load forces, developed during the lifting and lowering movements of the closure head, to the lifting lugs; upstanding radiation shield means interposed between the cooling air baffle means and the periphery of the enclosure head of shielding maintenance personnel operatively working upon the closure head fastening means from the effects of radiation which may emanate from the control rod drive mechanisms and the cooling air baffle means; and connecting systems respectively associated with each one of the lifting lugs and each one of the lifting rods for connecting each one of the lifting rods to a respective one of each one of the lifting lugs, and for simultaneously connecting a lower end portion of the upstanding radiation shield means to each one of the respective lifting lugs.

  13. Relationships between intrauterine infusion of N-acetylcysteine, equine endometrial pathology, neutrophil function, post-breeding therapy, and reproductive performance.

    PubMed

    Gores-Lindholm, Alicia R; LeBlanc, Michelle M; Causey, Robert; Hitchborn, Anna; Fayrer-Hosken, Richard A; Kruger, Marius; Vandenplas, Michel L; Flores, Paty; Ahlschwede, Scott

    2013-08-01

    Persistent endometritis in the mare is associated with hypersecretion of mucus by endometrial epithelium and migration of neutrophils into the uterine lumen. This study examines the relationships between N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a mucolytic agent with anti-inflammatory properties, and endometrial architecture, serum neutrophil function, post-breeding therapy, and reproductive performance of NAC-treated mares in a clinical setting. In study 1, endometrial biopsies from mares receiving intrauterine saline (fertile-control, n = 6) or 3.3% NAC (fertile-treatment, n = 6; barren-treatment, n = 10) were evaluated by histology and image analysis. In study 2, phagocytic activity of serum-derived neutrophils was measured after adding 0.5% or 3% NAC. In study 3, pregnancy rates of repeat breeders (n = 44) receiving an intrauterine infusion of 3.3% NAC 24-36 hours before mating (group 1) was recorded, as was first cycle of the season pregnancy rates of reproductively normal mares (group 2, n = 85), and mares treated for bacterial endometritis the cycle before mating (group 3, n = 25). Intrauterine NAC did not adversely affect endometrial histology. Extracellular mucus thickness and staining intensity were reduced in fertile-treatment mares (P < 0.03). Neutrophil function was inhibited by 3% NAC solution, but not by 0.5% NAC (P < 0.05). In study 3, for groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively, the first-cycle pregnancy rates were 77%, 74%, and 56%, and early embryonic death rates were 15%, 13%, and 7%. In group 2 mares treated with uterine lavage and oxytocin post-mating, the pregnancy rate was 89% (39/44), whereas in mares treated with uterine lavage and 1 g ceftiofur, it was 60% (24/40). Of the oxytocin-treated mares, 18% (8/44) had ≥ 1 cm of intrauterine fluid or marked uterine edema, whereas 80% (32/40) of the antibiotic-treated mares did. In conclusion, intrauterine infusion of a 3.3% solution of NAC was not irritating and inhibited the oxidative burst of neutrophils. Repeat

  14. Reactor pressure vessel vented head

    DOEpatents

    Sawabe, J.K.

    1994-01-11

    A head for closing a nuclear reactor pressure vessel shell includes an arcuate dome having an integral head flange which includes a mating surface for sealingly mating with the shell upon assembly therewith. The head flange includes an internal passage extending therethrough with a first port being disposed on the head mating surface. A vent line includes a proximal end disposed in flow communication with the head internal passage, and a distal end disposed in flow communication with the inside of the dome for channeling a fluid therethrough. The vent line is fixedly joined to the dome and is carried therewith when the head is assembled to and disassembled from the shell. 6 figures.

  15. Firing Properties of Rat Lateral Mammillary Single Units: Head Direction, Head Pitch, and Angular Head Velocity

    PubMed Central

    Stackman, Robert W.; Taube, Jeffrey S.

    2006-01-01

    Many neurons in the rat anterodorsal thalamus (ADN) and postsubiculum (PoS) fire selectively when the rat points its head in a specific direction in the horizontal plane, independent of the animal’s location and ongoing behavior. The lateral mammillary nuclei (LMN) are interconnected with both the ADN and PoS and, therefore, are in a pivotal position to influence ADN/PoS neurophysiology. To further understand how the head direction (HD) cell signal is generated, we recorded single neurons from the LMN of freely moving rats. The majority of cells discharged as a function of one of three types of spatial correlates: (1) directional heading, (2) head pitch, or (3) angular head velocity (AHV). LMN HD cells exhibited higher peak firing rates and greater range of directional firing than that of ADN and PoS HD cells. LMN HD cells were modulated by angular head velocity, turning direction, and anticipated the rat’s future HD by a greater amount of time (~95 msec) than that previously reported for ADN HD cells (~25 msec). Most head pitch cells discharged when the rostrocaudal axis of the rat’s head was orthogonal to the horizontal plane. Head pitch cell firing was independent of the rat’s location, directional heading, and its body orientation (i.e., the cell discharged whenever the rat pointed its head up, whether standing on all four limbs or rearing). AHV cells were categorized as fast or slow AHV cells depending on whether their firing rate increased or decreased in proportion to angular head velocity. These data demonstrate that LMN neurons code direction and angular motion of the head in both horizontal and vertical planes and support the hypothesis that the LMN play an important role in processing both egocentric and allocentric spatial information. PMID:9787007

  16. Management of endometrial hyperplasia with a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system: single arm, prospective multicenter study: Korean gynecologic oncology group study (KGOG2006).

    PubMed

    Lee, Taek Sang; Seong, Seok Ju; Kim, Jae Weon; Ryu, Hee Sug; Song, Eun Seop; Nam, Byung Ho

    2011-06-01

    A prospective multicenter trial has been commenced in Korea to investigate the treatment efficacy of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system in patients with endometrial hyperplasia. The levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system is an alternative to oral progesterone without the disadvantages of oral progestogens. Therefore, we hypothesize that if the therapeutic efficacy of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system is similar to or greater than that of oral progesterone, the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system could become the standard treatment for endometrial hyperplasia patients who do not want a hysterectomy. The levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system is inserted into uteri of patients with histologically confirmed endometrial hyperplasia. An office endometrial aspiration biopsy and transvaginal ultrasound are conducted every 3 months at an outpatients clinic. The primary endpoint is the response rate. The secondary endpoint is to estimate the consistency of the results of the office endometrial aspiration biopsy during the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system being placed in uterus and a dilatation and curettage procedure. PMID:21478178

  17. Chryse 'Alien Head'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    26 January 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows an impact crater in Chryse Planitia, not too far from the Viking 1 lander site, that to seems to resemble a bug-eyed head. The two odd depressions at the north end of the crater (the 'eyes') may have formed by wind or water erosion. This region has been modified by both processes, with water action occurring in the distant past via floods that poured across western Chryse Planitia from Maja Valles, and wind action common occurrence in more recent history. This crater is located near 22.5oN, 47.9oW. The 150 meter scale bar is about 164 yards long. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the left/lower left.

  18. NASA head sworn in

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James C. Fletcher was sworn in on May 12, 1986, as administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). At a news conference after he was sworn in, Fletcher said that NASA would deal with both its technical problems and its procedural problems before the shuttle will fly again. According to press accounts, he stressed that funds should be made available to replace the Challenger orbiter, which was lost in an explosion on January 28.Fletcher, who had also headed the agency from 1971 to 1977, succeeds James M. Beggs, who was indicted in December 1985 for conspiring to defraud the federal government while serving as a senior executive at the General Dynamics Corporation.

  19. Head of Administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-03-01

    Purpose and scope of the position: The main task is to provide efficient administrative services and advice to the Director General, Division Leaders and to staff members in the scientific and technical areas in the fields of financial planning and accounting, personnel management, purchasing, legal and contractual matters, information systems and building and site maintenance. As a member of the ESO Management the Head of Administration contributes essentially to the development of the overall policy, strategic planning, relations to the members of the personnel and maintains professional contacts at highest level outside the Organisation. ESO employs in total approximately 650 staff members and the Administration Division comprises the Administration at the Headquarters in Garching near Munich and the Administration in Santiago (Chile). The successful candidate will be supported by some 50 qualified staff members.

  20. Invading of intrauterine contraceptive device into the sigmoid colon through uterine perforation caused by a blunt trauma.

    PubMed

    Davoodabadi, Abdoulhossein; Mohammadzadeh, Mahdi; Amirbeigi, Mahdieh; Jazayeri, Hoda

    2015-01-01

    Intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) is relatively safe but still with some serious risks. Uterus perforation is rare and would be fatal. A case of Cu-7 IUCD invading into the sigmoid colon through uterine perforation caused by a pelvic blunt trauma was presented. Our case showed that uterus perforation by an IUCD could induce utero-sigmoid fistula which is likely to be missed. Imaging is required when the patients with IUCD present abdominal pain, particularly with a history of trauma. PMID:26764547

  1. Comparison of the efficacy of intrauterine lidocaine, paracervical block and oral etodolac for decreasing pain in endometrial biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Güler, Ayşe; Şahin, H. Güler; Küçükaydın, Zehra; Erdemoğlu, Evrim

    2010-01-01

    Objective To compare the effectiveness of paracervical block, intrauterine lidocaine and oral etodolac in decreasing the pain caused by pipelle endometrial sampling. A secondary goal of this study was to determine the adverse effects and compare possible effects of these methods on pulse and blood pressure. Material and Methods The study was performed between April 2006 and October 2006 in the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of Van Yüzüncü Yıl University Research Hospital. One-hundred twenty patients were randomized into four groups: 1. Group: Paracervical block was performed with 3 ml 2% prilocaine solution. 2. Group: Five ml of 2% lidocaine solution was instilled through the endocervix into the uterine cavity. 3. Group: Subjects received 400 mg oral etodolac tablet 1–1.5 hour before the procedure. 4. Group: No method of anesthesia was used in the control group. Endometrial sampling was performed with pipelle. Severity of pain during the procedure was scored by the subjects according to the “6-point Verbal Rating Scale (VRS)”. Blood pressure and pulse rate were measured before, during and 30 minutes after the procedure. Results Pain scores in intrauterine lidocaine group (2nd group) were found statistically significantly lower than the other three groups (p<0.05). Conclusion Intrauterine lidocaine anesthesia technique decreases pain in endometrial sampling with pipelle more efficiently than paracervical block or oral etodolac. While indication of menorrhagia and endometrial thickness more than 5 mm increased pain scores, intrauterine lidocaine application or paracervical block decreased the scores significantly (p<0.05). PMID:24591932

  2. Progesterone levels and days to luteolysis in mares treated with intrauterine fractionated coconut oil.

    PubMed

    Diel de Amorim, Mariana; Nielsen, Kayla; Cruz, Raissa Karolliny Salgueiro; Card, Claire

    2016-07-15

    Intrauterine plant oil infusion, including fractionated coconut oil, has been previously found to be a safe, inexpensive, and reversible method of prolonging the luteal phase in mares when administered on Day 10 of the estrous cycle. Our objective was to understand the uteroovarian response to the administration of fractionated coconut oil infusion in the uterus of diestrous mares. We hypothesized that intrauterine coconut oil administration on Day 10 would prolong luteal life span in a dose-dependent fashion and would result in higher serum progesterone levels than untreated mares at the expected time of luteolysis. Light-horse mares (n = 18) were examined using transrectal palpation and ultrasonography to determine if they had a normal interovulatory interval and were then examined daily in estrus until the day of ovulation (Day 0) and then every other day during an estrous cycle. Jugular blood was drawn on Day 11, Day 13, Day 15, and Day 17, centrifuged, and serum stored until assayed for progesterone (P4; Siemens Coat-a-Count Progesterone RIA, Los Angeles, CA, USA). Mares were randomly assigned to treatment and studied over one to two estrous cycles with a rest cycle after each treatment cycle. Groups were: control (n = 5), fractionated coconut oil 1.0 mL (Miglyol 810; Sasol Oil, Witten, Germany) infused in the uterus with an artificial insemination pipette on Day 10 (Group 1; n = 5) and fractionated coconut oil 0.5 mL infused in the uterus with an embryo transfer gun, on Day 10 (Group 2; n = 5). All statistical analyses were performed using analytical software (Stata SE, version 13.1, College Station, TX, USA) at P < 0.05. Data were first evaluated using the Shapiro-Wilk test for normality. Differences between groups in days to luteolysis (DTL) were examined using analysis of variance and Bonferroni, and the effect of day and treatment on P4 levels were examined using the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's all pairwise test. There was a significant

  3. Intrauterine balloon tamponade as management of postpartum haemorrhage and prevention of haemorrhage related to low-lying placenta.

    PubMed

    Patacchiola, F; D'Alfonso, A; Di Fonso, A; Di Febbo, G; Kaliakoudas, D; Carta, G

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Bakri balloon in preventing and treating postpartum haemorrhage (PPH). Intrauterine Bakri balloon was used in a total of 16 patients with two different purposes: prophylactic placement of the balloon after cesarean section (CS) in six patients with low-lying placenta and therapeutic placement in ten patients with persistent bleeding from uterine atony, after spontaneous delivery, and administration of uterotonics. Intrauterine Bakri balloon was a successful approach in controlling and preventing PPH in all 16 patients. The median nadir hematocrit was 26.6% in six patients who underwent CS and 25.6% in ten patients with persistent bleeding after spontaneous delivery. The intrauterine balloon was in place for a duration of 24 hours. The median balloon infusion volume was 345 ml (range 250-455). No complications were reported. Bakri balloon tamponade was a useful measure in treating PPH unresponsive to pharmacological therapy in patients who delivered vaginally. Moreover, it was able to prevent persistent bleeding in patients who underwent CS for central placenta previa. PMID:23444752

  4. Intrauterine diabetic environment confers risks for type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity in the offspring, in addition to genetic susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Dabelea, D; Pettitt, D J

    2001-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported that offspring whose mothers had type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) are more likely to develop type 2 DM, impaired glucose tolerance, and obesity at an early age than offspring whose fathers had DM. Exposure to the diabetic intrauterine environment has been shown to be an important risk factor for all these conditions. To what extent transmission of type 2 DM from mother to offspring is the effect of genetic inheritance and to what extent it is the long-term consequence of exposure to maternal hyperglycemia is still uncertain. There are, of course, interactions between the diabetic intrauterine environment and genetics. Several data in experimental animals as well as in humans suggest, however, that exposure of the fetus to the mother's DM confers a risk for type 2 DM and obesity that is above any genetically transmitted susceptibility. In the Pima Indian population much of the increase in childhood type 2 DM can be attributed to the diabetic intrauterine environment. This suggests that intensive glucose control during pregnancy might have extended beneficial effects, contributing to a decrease in the prevalence of childhood type 2 DM. PMID:11592564

  5. Effect of a povidone-iodine intrauterine infusion on progesterone levels and endometrial steroid receptor expression in mares

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Intrauterine infusions have been widely used for the treatment of endometritis in the mare. Nevertheless, their consequences on endocrine and endometrial molecular aspects are unknown. We studied the effect of a 1% povidone-iodine solution intrauterine infusion on progesterone levels, endometrial histology and estrogen (ERα) and progesterone (PR) receptor distribution by immunohistochemistry. Methods Fourteen healthy mares were used in this study. Estruses were synchronized and seven mares were treated with intrauterine infusions at days 0 and 2 post ovulation of two consecutive estrous cycles. Uterine biopsy samples were taken on days 6 and 15 post ovulation. Results The treatment did not induce an inflammatory response indicating endometritis, neither affected the ERα. However, it reduced the percentage of PR positive cells (PPC) on day 6 (deep glandular epithelium, control: 95.7 vs. infused: 61.5, P < 0.05). Treated mares tended to have lower progesterone levels on day 2 (3.9 ng/ml vs. 6.6 ng/ml, P = 0.07), and higher levels on day 15 compared with controls (4.4 ng/ml vs. 1.3 ng/ml, P = 0.07). Conclusion a 1% povidone-iodine infusion during days 0 and 2 post ovulation in healthy mares did not induce histological changes indicating endometritis, but altered progesterone concentrations and reduced the expression of endometrial PR at day 6 without affecting the ERα. These changes could reduce embryo survival. PMID:21162724

  6. Ultrasonographic uterine changes and vaginal discharges following intrauterine infusion of liquid paraffin in cows.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wengeng; Kuroiwa, Takenobu; Zabuli, Jahid; Tanaka, Tomomi; Kamomae, Hideo

    2009-02-01

    This study was conducted to examine uterine changes and uterocervical discharges following intrauterine infusion with liquid paraffin (LP) during the luteal phase by ultrasonic and vaginoscopic examinations in cows. Multiparous dairy cows (n=10) were infused with 50 ml physiological saline (PS group; n=5) or liquid paraffin (LP group; n=5) on day 10 or 11 after ovulation (day 0: ovulation). Vaginoscopic, rectal and ultrasonogaphic examinations were carried out at 0.25, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12 and 24 h after the LP and PS infusion and then at daily intervals until subsequent ovulation after the infusions. The mean volumes of recovered discharges from the vagina within 6 h after infusion were significantly greater (P<0.05) in the LP group than in the PS group (33.0 +/- 9.9 vs.14.0 +/- 13.9 ml). Yellowish-white discharge was first observed at 3.2 +/- 0.5 and 3.6 +/- 0.6 h after infusion and lasted for 12.2 +/- 2.9 and 2.1 +/- 1.5 days for the LP and PS groups, respectively, showing a significant difference (P<0.05) in duration. Subsequently, transparent discharge appeared again 2-3 days before the subsequent ovulation after the treatments in both groups and disappeared on the day prior to or the day of ovulation. During the immediate examination after the infusion, the cavity of the uterine horn appeared anechoic and dilated in the images of both groups. The anechoic images changed to echoic images at 2.2 +/- 0.8 and 2.6 +/- 0.9 h after the infusion in the LP and PS groups, respectively, and the echoic images lasted for 12.2 +/- 2.9 and 2.1 +/- 1.5 days in the LP and PS groups, respectively. These results suggest that the appearance and disappearance of intrauterine anechoic and echoic images reflect the appearance and disappearance of the characteristics of the recovered LP/PS-like liquid and yellowish-white and transparent discharges from the vagina. PMID:18957825

  7. Intrauterine crowding impairs formation and growth of secondary myofibers in pigs.

    PubMed

    Pardo, C E; Bérard, J; Kreuzer, M; Bee, G

    2013-03-01

    There are indications that intrauterine crowding may cause intrauterine growth retardation with the possibility of an impaired myofiber hyperplasia. The aim of the study was to confirm this by generating large differences in uterine space using sows that were unilaterally hysterectomized-ovariectomized (HO; crowded) or unilaterally oviduct ligated (OL; non-crowded). In the study, seven HO and seven OL Swiss Large White third parity sows were used. At farrowing, litter size and litter birth weight were determined. Subsequently, within each litter two male and two female progenies each with the respectively lowest (L) and highest (H) birth weight were sacrificed. Internal organs and brain were weighed, and longissimus (LM) and semitendinosus muscle (SM) samples were collected. Histological analyses were performed in both muscles using mATPase staining after preincubation at pH 4.3 and 10.2. Myosin heavy chain (MyHC) polymorphism was determined in the LM by means of SDS-PAGE. The number of piglets born alive was similar in both sow groups, but litter size expressed per uterine horn was lower (P < 0.05) in OL than HO sows. Consequently, OL progeny were markedly heavier (P < 0.01). Regardless of gender, the organs, the brain and the SM were heavier (P < 0.001) in OL and H compared with HO and L offspring, respectively. Compared with HO pigs, the SM of OL offspring tended (P < 0.1) to have more myofibers, which were of larger (P < 0.05) size. However, myofiber density appeared to be lower (P < 0.1) in the SM of OL than HO pigs. The impact of birth weight on myofiber characteristics was limited to the lower (P < 0.05) myofiber density in the SM and the larger (P < 0.01) myofiber size in the light portion of the SM of H than L offspring, whereas myofiber hyperplasia did not differ between birth weight categories. The SM, but not the LM, of male offspring had a greater (P < 0.05) myofiber density. This did not affect total SM myofiber number. The relative abundance of fetal

  8. Repeated intrauterine infusions of lipopolysaccharide alter gene expression and lifespan of the bovine corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Lüttgenau, J; Lingemann, B; Wellnitz, O; Hankele, A K; Schmicke, M; Ulbrich, S E; Bruckmaier, R M; Bollwein, H

    2016-08-01

    Inflammation of the uterus is associated with disturbed ovarian function and reduced reproductive performance in dairy cows. To investigate the influence of endometritis on the bovine corpus luteum, 8 heifers received intrauterine infusions with either phosphate-buffered saline (PBS; 9mL) or Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 3µg/kg of body weight diluted in 9mL of PBS) at 6-h intervals from 12h before and until 9d after ovulation during 2 cycles in a random order (ovulation=d 1). An untreated cycle was examined before and after PBS and LPS cycles, and the mean values from both untreated cycles were used as control. In all cycles, blood sampling and ultrasonography of the ovaries were performed on d 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 15, 18, and then every 2d until ovulation. Endometrial cells were collected for cytology and quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR on d 0, 6, and 9, and on d 0 and 6, respectively, and luteal tissue was collected for quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR on d 6 and 9. Both, PBS and LPS infusions induced subclinical endometritis, which was accompanied by increased endometrial mRNA abundance of proinflammatory cytokines IL1β, IL8, and tumor necrosis factor α. Additionally, LPS challenge induced premature luteolysis, which was characterized by increased plasma concentrations of PGF2α metabolite, decreased plasma progesterone concentrations, and reduced luteal size and blood flow compared with the control. The luteal mRNA expression of the LPS receptor TLR4, PGE synthase, and the apoptosis-related factor CASP3 were higher, and those of steroidogenic factors STAR and HSD3B, the PGF receptor, and the angiogenic factor VEGFA121 were lower after LPS challenge compared with the control. In conclusion, repeated intrauterine LPS infusions during the first 9d of the estrous cycle alter gene expression and shorten the lifespan of the bovine corpus luteum. PMID:27179870

  9. The effect of hypoxia-induced intrauterine growth restriction on renal artery function.

    PubMed

    Verschuren, M T C; Morton, J S; Abdalvand, A; Mansour, Y; Rueda-Clausen, C F; Compston, C A; Luyckx, V; Davidge, S T

    2012-10-01

    The risk of developing cardiovascular diseases is known to begin before birth and the impact of the intrauterine environment on subsequent adult health is currently being investigated from many quarters. Following our studies demonstrating the impact of hypoxia in utero and consequent intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) on the rat cardiovascular system, we hypothesized that changes extend throughout the vasculature and alter function of the renal artery. In addition, we hypothesized that hypoxia induces renal senescence as a potential mediator of altered vascular function. We demonstrated that IUGR females had decreased responses to the adrenergic agonist phenylephrine (PE; pEC50 6.50 ± 0.05 control v. 6.17 ± 0.09 IUGR, P < 0.05) and the endothelium-dependent vasodilator methylcholine (MCh; E max 89.8 ± 7.0% control v. 41.0 ± 6.5% IUGR, P < 0.001). In IUGR females, this was characterised by increased basal nitric oxide (NO) modulation of vasoconstriction (PE pEC50 6.17 ± 0.09 IUGR v. 6.42 ± 0.08 in the presence of the NO synthase inhibitor N-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (l-NAME; P < 0.01) but decreased activated NO modulation (no change in MCh responses in the presence of l-NAME), respectively. In contrast, IUGR males had no changes in PE or MCh responses but demonstrated increased basal NO (PE pEC50 6.29 ± 0.06 IUGR v. 6.42 ± 0.12 plus l-NAME, P < 0.01) and activated NO (E max 37.8 ± 9.4% control v. -0.8 ± 13.0% plus l-NAME, P < 0.05) modulation. No significant changes were found in gross kidney morphology, proteinuria or markers of cellular senescence in either sex. In summary, renal vascular function was altered by hypoxia in utero in a sex-dependent manner but was unlikely to be mediated by premature renal senescence. PMID:25102262

  10. Intrauterine contraception after cesarean section and during lactation: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Goldstuck, Norman D; Steyn, Petrus S

    2013-01-01

    Background All postpartum women, including those who are breastfeeding or have had a cesarean section, appear potentially suited to intrauterine contraception, a long acting reversible contraceptive (LARC). Like any other method used after delivery, it should not interfere with lactation or be affected by cesarean section. Study design We searched the MEDLINE, PubMed, Popline, Google Scholar, and Clinicaltrials.gov databases from January 1968 through to December 2012. Studies were included if they reported event rates in women who had a cesarean section and event rates and clinical outcomes in lactating women or their infants in the breastfeeding group. Summary odds ratios were not calculated because of the diverse methods of reporting event rates in the cesarean section group and the heterogeneity of the results in the breastfeeding group. Results We found 26 articles on event rates in interval and post-placental intrauterine device (IUD) use, and 18 on event rates and clinical outcomes in breastfeeding IUD users. Four prospective studies and one retrospective study showed an increased expulsion rate in interval insertion. There were 19 studies, of which five were controlled in post-placental IUD insertion after cesarean section. Four studies had expulsion rates of 10 or more per 100 woman-years of use and 15 expulsion rates below 10 per 100 woman-years of use. Three studies showed that event rates for lactating IUD users are the same as those for non-lactating users. Fifteen controlled studies showed that the IUD had no effect on milk production and seven of these showed no effect on infant growth. Pharmacovigilance databases report an increased rate of IUD perforations in lactating women, while the event rate studies report that insertion is generally easier and less painful than expected. These were uncontrolled reports. Conclusion The IUD is a long-acting reversible method of contraception with expulsion rates of 5–15 per 100 woman-years of use when used as

  11. Dual-Head Robotic Welder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beard, Gary S.

    1990-01-01

    Robotic welder uses two welding heads simultaneously. Developed for assembly of "hot dog" shell on main injector for Space Shuttle main engine, concept applicable to other, similarly rounded or contoured workpieces. Opposed heads reduce distortion and stress in opposed weld joints and speed up welding operations.

  12. Kansas: Early Head Start Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Kansas Early Head Start (KEHS) provides comprehensive services following federal Head Start Program Performance Standards for pregnant women and eligible families with children from birth to age 4. KEHS was implemented in 1998 using Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) quality set-aside dollars augmented by a transfer of federal…

  13. Cutting Head for Ultrasonic Lithotripsy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angulo, Earl D. (Inventor); Goodfriend, Roger (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A cutting head for attachment to the end of the wire probe of an ultrasonic kidney stone disintegration instrument. The cutting head has a plurality of circumferentially arranged teeth formed at one end thereof to provide a cup-shaped receptacle for kidney stones encountered during the disintegration procedure. An integral reduced diameter collar diminishes stress points in the wire and reduces breakage thereof.

  14. Vision Screening For Head Starters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Celia

    To determine which children in the Head Start program may have vision problems, Head Start teachers and staff do vision "screening." This booklet demonstrates how to do the screening using the Snellen "E Chart." Trouble signs that the test administrator should be aware of are listed, and vision scores are explained simply. Amblyopia is defined,…

  15. Nebraska: Early Head Start Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Since 1999, Nebraska's Early Head Start Infant/Toddler Quality Initiative has supported Early Head Start (EHS) and community child care partnerships to improve the quality and professionalism of infant and toddler care. EHS programs apply to receive funding to establish partnerships with center-based or home-based child care.The initiative has…

  16. The Acquisition of [Head] Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pye, Clifton

    An analysis of one theory of the acquisition of head movement by children is presented, using longitudinal data from the Mayan language, K'iche'. This theory assumes that children would just require positive evidence of head movement in the input language to instantiate the constructions of their own grammar. The Incorporation Theory addresses the…

  17. Interview with Joe F. Head

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Kim

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Joe F. Head, Dean of University Admissions and Enrollment Services at Kennesaw State University (KSU) in Georgia, who has more than 35 years of experience in admissions and enrollment services. After completing an M.Ed. in higher education at Georgia Southern University, Head immediately landed a position as…

  18. The Start of Head Start

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neugebauer, Roger

    2010-01-01

    The creation of the Head Start program occurred at break-neck speed with many dramatic turns and many colorful players. No one tells the story better than Edward Zigler in "Head Start: The Inside Story of America's Most Successful Educational Experiment"--a detailed and personal, behind the scenes look at the program's inception. From this…

  19. Head Start Impact Study: First Year Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puma, Michael; Bell, Stephen; Cook, Ronna; Heid, Camilla; Lopez, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The Congressionally-mandated Head Start Impact Study is being conducted across 84 nationally representative grantee/delegate agencies. Approximately 5,000 newly entering 3- and 4-year-old children applying for Head Start were randomly assigned to either a Head Start group that had access to Head Start program services or to a non-Head Start group…

  20. Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Head and Neck Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-18

    Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck; Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Cancer; Head and Neck Sarcoma; Paraganglioma of Head and Neck; Chordoma of Head and Neck; Chondrosarcoma of Head and Neck; Angiofibroma of Head and Neck

  1. Turbidity Current Head Mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, David; Sanchez, Miguel Angel; Medina, Pablo

    2010-05-01

    A laboratory experimental set - up for studying the behaviour of sediment in presence of a turbulent field with zero mean flow is compared with the behaviour of turbidity currents [1] . Particular interest is shown on the initiation of sediment motion and in the sediment lift - off. The behaviour of the turbidity current in a flat ground is compared with the zero mean flow oscilating grid generated turbulence as when wave flow lifts off suspended sediments [2,3]. Some examples of the results obtained with this set-up relating the height of the head of the turbidity current to the equilibrium level of stirred lutoclines are shown. A turbulent velocity u' lower than that estimated by the Shield diagram is required to start sediment motion. The minimum u' required to start sediment lift - off, is a function of sediment size, cohesivity and resting time. The lutocline height depends on u', and the vorticity at the lutocline seems constant for a fixed sediment size [1,3]. Combining grid stirring and turbidty current head shapes analyzed by means of advanced image analysis, sediment vertical fluxes and settling speeds can be measured [4,5]. [1] D. Hernandez Turbulent structure of turbidity currents and sediment transport Ms Thesis ETSECCPB, UPC. Barcelona 2009. [2] A. Sánchez-Arcilla; A. Rodríguez; J.C. Santás; J.M. Redondo; V. Gracia; R. K'Osyan; S. Kuznetsov; C. Mösso. Delta'96 Surf-zone and nearshore measurements at the Ebro Delta. A: International Conference on Coastal Research through large Scale Experiments (Coastal Dynamics '97). University of Plymouth, 1997, p. 186-187. [3] P. Medina, M. A. Sánchez and J. M. Redondo. Grid stirred turbulence: applications to the initiation of sediment motion and lift-off studies Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Part B: Hydrology, Oceans and Atmosphere. 26, Issue 4, 2001, Pages 299-304 [4] M.O. Bezerra, M. Diez, C. Medeiros, A. Rodriguez, E. Bahia., A. Sanchez-Arcilla and J.M. Redondo. Study on the influence of waves on

  2. Contraindication of ART following a sperm FISH analysis, even though only 12% of the spermatozoa had enlarged heads.

    PubMed

    Guthauser, Bruno; Boitrelle, Florence; Albert, Martine; Ketata, Fadoua; Meynant, Celine; Ferfouri, Fatma; Selva, Jacqueline; Vialard, Francois

    2013-08-01

    We report on a couple with a five-year history of idiopathic primary infertility. Two early miscarriages had followed intrauterine insemination (IUI). The man's fertility was then re-evaluated, in order to establish whether or not IUI was the best treatment option. Although the semen parameters were normal (sperm concentration: 89 million/ml; progressive motility: 40%; percentage of typical forms: 20%), a computer-assisted sperm morphology analysis with strict criteria found that 12% of the spermatozoa had enlarged heads. All of the latter had a normal form and none had multiple flagella. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis, we found that the proportion of aneuploid and diploid spermatozoa was 78% for the sample as a whole and 68% for normally-shaped spermatozoa with a normal-sized head. Although treatment options are well documented for men with macrocephalic sperm head syndrom, there is no consensus on individuals with a low but non-negligible proportion of spermatozoa with enlarged heads. Here, our FISH results contraindicated the use of assisted reproductive technology with the man's sperm. The couple decided to resort to donor sperm. PMID:23517468

  3. Metabolic Programming of MEST DNA Methylation by Intrauterine Exposure to Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    El Hajj, Nady; Pliushch, Galyna; Schneider, Eberhard; Dittrich, Marcus; Müller, Tobias; Korenkov, Michael; Aretz, Melanie; Zechner, Ulrich; Lehnen, Harald; Haaf, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Epigenetic processes are primary candidates when searching for mechanisms that can stably modulate gene expression and metabolic pathways according to early life conditions. To test the effects of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) on the epigenome of the next generation, cord blood and placenta tissue were obtained from 88 newborns of mothers with dietetically treated GDM, 98 with insulin-dependent GDM, and 65 without GDM. Bisulfite pyrosequencing was used to compare the methylation levels of seven imprinted genes involved in prenatal and postnatal growth, four genes involved in energy metabolism, one anti-inflammatory gene, one tumor suppressor gene, one pluripotency gene, and two repetitive DNA families. The maternally imprinted MEST gene, the nonimprinted glucocorticoid receptor NR3C1 gene, and interspersed ALU repeats showed significantly decreased methylation levels (4–7 percentage points for MEST, 1–2 for NR3C1, and one for ALUs) in both GDM groups, compared with controls, in both analyzed tissues. Significantly decreased blood MEST methylation (3 percentage points) also was observed in adults with morbid obesity compared with normal-weight controls. Our results support the idea that intrauterine exposure to GDM has long-lasting effects on the epigenome of the offspring. Specifically, epigenetic malprogramming of MEST may contribute to obesity predisposition throughout life. PMID:23209187

  4. Epigenetics and life-long consequences of an adverse nutritional and diabetic intrauterine environment

    PubMed Central

    El Hajj, Nady; Schneider, Eberhard; Lehnen, Harald; Haaf, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The phenomenon that adverse environmental exposures in early life are associated with increased susceptibilities for many adult, particularly metabolic diseases, is now referred to as ‘developmental origins of health and disease (DOHAD)’ or ‘Barker’ hypothesis. Fetal overnutrition and undernutrition have similar long-lasting effects on the setting of the neuroendocrine control systems, energy homeostasis, and metabolism, leading to life-long increased morbidity. There are sensitive time windows during early development, where environmental cues can program persistent epigenetic modifications which are generally assumed to mediate these gene–environment interactions. Most of our current knowledge on fetal programing comes from animal models and epidemiological studies in humans, in particular the Dutch famine birth cohort. In industrialized countries, there is more concern about adverse long-term consequences of fetal overnutrition, i.e. by exposure to gestational diabetes mellitus and/or maternal obesity which affect 10–20% of pregnancies. Epigenetic changes due to maternal diabetes/obesity may predispose the offspring to develop metabolic disease later in life and, thus, transmit the adverse environmental exposure to the next generation. This vicious cycle could contribute significantly to the worldwide metabolic disease epidemics. In this review article, we focus on the epigenetics of an adverse intrauterine environment, in particular gestational diabetes, and its implications for the prevention of complex disease. PMID:25187623

  5. Neonatal short-term outcomes in infants with intrauterine growth restriction

    PubMed Central

    Hasmasanu, Monica G.; Bolboaca, Sorana D.; Baizat, Melinda I.; Drugan, Tudor C.; Zaharie, Gabriela C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the neonatal outcomes in newborns with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) in a Romanian population in a 3 level maternity unit. Methods: A matched case-control design, with one control for each patient was used. The case group comprised neonates with birth weight and birth length below the 10th percentile for the gestational age. Individual matching by gender and age of gestation was used to identify the control group. Both cases and controls were selected from the infants admitted to and discharged from the Neonatal Ward, at the First Gynecology Clinic, of the County Emergency Hospital Cluj-Napoca, Cluj-Napoca, Romania, between January 2012 and June 2014. Results: One hundred and forty-two subjects were included in each group. The cesarean delivery was significantly more frequent in the IUGR group (66.9%) compared with controls (46.5%; p=0.0006). The Apgar score at one minute was ≥7 for most infants in both groups (77.9% IUGR group versus 77.5% control group), with no significant differences between the groups. A significantly higher percentage of infants in the IUGR group had hypoglycemia or intraventricular hemorrhage compared with the controls (p<0.05). Hypoglycemia proved a significant factor for IUGR (odds ratio = 4.763, 95% confidence interval: 1.711-13.255). Conclusion: Hypoglycemia and intraventricular hemorrhage characterized the IUGR newborns. PMID:26219445

  6. Epigenetics and life-long consequences of an adverse nutritional and diabetic intrauterine environment.

    PubMed

    El Hajj, Nady; Schneider, Eberhard; Lehnen, Harald; Haaf, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    The phenomenon that adverse environmental exposures in early life are associated with increased susceptibilities for many adult, particularly metabolic diseases, is now referred to as 'developmental origins of health and disease (DOHAD)' or 'Barker' hypothesis. Fetal overnutrition and undernutrition have similar long-lasting effects on the setting of the neuroendocrine control systems, energy homeostasis, and metabolism, leading to life-long increased morbidity. There are sensitive time windows during early development, where environmental cues can program persistent epigenetic modifications which are generally assumed to mediate these gene-environment interactions. Most of our current knowledge on fetal programing comes from animal models and epidemiological studies in humans, in particular the Dutch famine birth cohort. In industrialized countries, there is more concern about adverse long-term consequences of fetal overnutrition, i.e. by exposure to gestational diabetes mellitus and/or maternal obesity which affect 10-20% of pregnancies. Epigenetic changes due to maternal diabetes/obesity may predispose the offspring to develop metabolic disease later in life and, thus, transmit the adverse environmental exposure to the next generation. This vicious cycle could contribute significantly to the worldwide metabolic disease epidemics. In this review article, we focus on the epigenetics of an adverse intrauterine environment, in particular gestational diabetes, and its implications for the prevention of complex disease. PMID:25187623

  7. Metabolic programming of MEST DNA methylation by intrauterine exposure to gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    El Hajj, Nady; Pliushch, Galyna; Schneider, Eberhard; Dittrich, Marcus; Müller, Tobias; Korenkov, Michael; Aretz, Melanie; Zechner, Ulrich; Lehnen, Harald; Haaf, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Epigenetic processes are primary candidates when searching for mechanisms that can stably modulate gene expression and metabolic pathways according to early life conditions. To test the effects of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) on the epigenome of the next generation, cord blood and placenta tissue were obtained from 88 newborns of mothers with dietetically treated GDM, 98 with insulin-dependent GDM, and 65 without GDM. Bisulfite pyrosequencing was used to compare the methylation levels of seven imprinted genes involved in prenatal and postnatal growth, four genes involved in energy metabolism, one anti-inflammatory gene, one tumor suppressor gene, one pluripotency gene, and two repetitive DNA families. The maternally imprinted MEST gene, the nonimprinted glucocorticoid receptor NR3C1 gene, and interspersed ALU repeats showed significantly decreased methylation levels (4-7 percentage points for MEST, 1-2 for NR3C1, and one for ALUs) in both GDM groups, compared with controls, in both analyzed tissues. Significantly decreased blood MEST methylation (3 percentage points) also was observed in adults with morbid obesity compared with normal-weight controls. Our results support the idea that intrauterine exposure to GDM has long-lasting effects on the epigenome of the offspring. Specifically, epigenetic malprogramming of MEST may contribute to obesity predisposition throughout life. PMID:23209187

  8. S6K1 controls pancreatic β cell size independently of intrauterine growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Um, Sung Hee; Sticker-Jantscheff, Melanie; Chau, Gia Cac; Vintersten, Kristina; Mueller, Matthias; Gangloff, Yann-Gael; Adams, Ralf H; Spetz, Jean-Francois; Elghazi, Lynda; Pfluger, Paul T; Pende, Mario; Bernal-Mizrachi, Ernesto; Tauler, Albert; Tschöp, Matthias H; Thomas, George; Kozma, Sara C

    2015-07-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a worldwide heath problem that is characterized by insulin resistance and the eventual loss of β cell function. As recent studies have shown that loss of ribosomal protein (RP) S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) increases systemic insulin sensitivity, S6K1 inhibitors are being pursued as potential agents for improving insulin resistance. Here we found that S6K1 deficiency in mice also leads to decreased β cell growth, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), and impaired placental development. IUGR is a common complication of human pregnancy that limits the supply of oxygen and nutrients to the developing fetus, leading to diminished embryonic β cell growth and the onset of T2DM later in life. However, restoration of placental development and the rescue of IUGR by tetraploid embryo complementation did not restore β cell size or insulin levels in S6K1-/- embryos, suggesting that loss of S6K1 leads to an intrinsic β cell lesion. Consistent with this hypothesis, reexpression of S6K1 in β cells of S6K1-/- mice restored embryonic β cell size, insulin levels, glucose tolerance, and RPS6 phosphorylation, without rescuing IUGR. Together, these data suggest that a nutrient-mediated reduction in intrinsic β cell S6K1 signaling, rather than IUGR, during fetal development may underlie reduced β cell growth and eventual development of T2DM later in life. PMID:26075820

  9. S6K1 controls pancreatic β cell size independently of intrauterine growth restriction

    PubMed Central

    Um, Sung Hee; Sticker-Jantscheff, Melanie; Chau, Gia Cac; Vintersten, Kristina; Mueller, Matthias; Gangloff, Yann-Gael; Adams, Ralf H.; Spetz, Jean-Francois; Elghazi, Lynda; Pfluger, Paul T.; Pende, Mario; Bernal-Mizrachi, Ernesto; Tauler, Albert; Tschöp, Matthias H.; Thomas, George; Kozma, Sara C.

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a worldwide heath problem that is characterized by insulin resistance and the eventual loss of β cell function. As recent studies have shown that loss of ribosomal protein (RP) S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) increases systemic insulin sensitivity, S6K1 inhibitors are being pursued as potential agents for improving insulin resistance. Here we found that S6K1 deficiency in mice also leads to decreased β cell growth, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), and impaired placental development. IUGR is a common complication of human pregnancy that limits the supply of oxygen and nutrients to the developing fetus, leading to diminished embryonic β cell growth and the onset of T2DM later in life. However, restoration of placental development and the rescue of IUGR by tetraploid embryo complementation did not restore β cell size or insulin levels in S6K1–/– embryos, suggesting that loss of S6K1 leads to an intrinsic β cell lesion. Consistent with this hypothesis, reexpression of S6K1 in β cells of S6K1–/– mice restored embryonic β cell size, insulin levels, glucose tolerance, and RPS6 phosphorylation, without rescuing IUGR. Together, these data suggest that a nutrient-mediated reduction in intrinsic β cell S6K1 signaling, rather than IUGR, during fetal development may underlie reduced β cell growth and eventual development of T2DM later in life. PMID:26075820

  10. [Use of translational medicine in the early diagnosis of xenobiotic-induced intrauterine growth retardation].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan-Song; Wang, Hui

    2011-01-01

    Translational medicine is an emerging idea in current medical research area. Typically, for the purpose of bridging the gap between basic and clinical research, it not only emphasizes the urgency and necessity to break the traditional working formats, including single subject centered research team and limited cooperation among different scientific groups, but also highlights a more close and frequent interaction between basic scientist and clinician. In order to reach this goal, the theory and method of systems biology should be employed. This paper mainly focused on a central issue that how to carry out an investigation on early clinical diagnosis of xenobiotic-induced intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) by using research concept of translational medicine and method of systems biology. Briefly, a hypothesis of common mechanism of IUGR was first proposed and subsequent validation was performed via integrating--omics (e.g. genomics, proteomics, cytomics, metabonomics/metabolomics) and molecular biology techniques. Metabonomics was further utilized to explore IUGR biomarker and establish preliminary forecasting model by bioinformatics and computational biology, which is available for early diagnosis of IUGR and make a complement to current evaluation criteria. PMID:21465805

  11. Intrauterine Growth Restricted Rats Exercised before and during Pregnancy: Maternal and Perinatal Repercussions

    PubMed Central

    Corvino, S. B.; Volpato, G. T.; Rudge, M. V. C.; Damasceno, D. C.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the effect of swimming before and during pregnancy on rats born with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and their offspring. For this, nondiabetic and streptozotocin-induced severely diabetic (SD) pregnant rats were mated and generated offspring with appropriate (control, C) and small (IUGR) for pregnancy age, respectively. Following that, C and IUGR groups were further distributed into nonexercised control (C), exercised control (Cex), nonexercised IUGR (IUGR), and exercised IUGR (IUGRex). IUGR rats presented lower mating rate than control rats. Regardless of physical exercise IUGR rats presented decreased body weight from birth to lactation. At 90 days of life, IUGR rats presented glucose intolerance. Maternal organ weights were increased and relative adiposity of IUGRex rats was lower than Cex. IUGR and IUGRex offspring presented reduced body weight than C and Cex, respectively. IUGRex dams presented an increased rate of appropriate for pregnancy age newborns. IUGEex male and female offspring relative brain weight was increased compared with Cex. Therefore, swimming before and during pregnancy prevented glucose intolerance, reduced general adiposity, and increased maternal and offspring organ weight in rats, showing the benefit of physical exercise for IUGR rats. PMID:26345406

  12. Association of Intrauterine Device (IUD) and Cervical Neoplasia - A Study in a Poor Nigerian Population

    PubMed Central

    Chigbu, Chibuike Ogwuegbu; Ozumba, Benjamin Chukwuma; Oguanuo, Theophilus Chimezie; Ezeonu, Paul Olisaemeka

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Intrauterine Device (IUD) is a contraceptive method used by women of reproductive age group. However, there are conflicting reports on the association between IUD and cervical neoplasia. These controversies may further hamper the poor uptake of modern contraception in Nigeria. Aim This study was therefore aimed at evaluating the association between IUD and cervical neoplasia. Materials and Methods This was a case control study in which Pap smear results of 156 participants on IUD were compared with those of 156 non-users of modern contraception. The participants who were found to have abnormal cervical smear cytology results were further subjected to colposcopy. Biopsy specimens for histology were collected from the participants with obvious cervical lesions or those with suspicious lesions on colposcopy. The results were analysed with descriptive and inferential statistics at 95% level of confidence. Results Seven (4.5%) and 2(1.3%) of participants using IUD had Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) 1 and CIN 2 respectively. Also, 5(3.2%) and 1(0.6%) of non-users of modern contraception had CIN 1 and CIN 2 respectively. The prevalence of cervical neoplasia among all the participants was 4.8%. Although, the proportion of women who had CIN was more among participants using IUD than non-users of modern contraception, the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion There was no significant association between IUD and cervical neoplasia in this study. PMID:27504358

  13. Neural injury markers to predict neonatal complications in intrauterine growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Velipaşaoğlu, M; Yurdakök, M; Özyüncü, Ö; Portakal, O; Deren, Ö

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the neural injury markers (NIMs) in maternal and umbilical blood in preterm deliveries with and without intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), and relationship between NIMs and neonatal complications. Deliveries between 24 and 34 weeks' gestation with (study group) and without (control group) IUGR were included to the study. Three NIMs (s100B, neurone-specific enolase [NSE] and alpha-foetoprotein [AFP]) were investigated in umbilical arterial, umbilical venous and maternal venous serum. Thirty-two IUGR and twenty-nine non-IUGR pregnancies with preterm delivery were included. Maternal and umbilical arterial s100B levels were significantly higher in the study group, whereas there was no relationship among IUGR, AFP and NSE levels. In the study group, umbilical venous s100B and NSE levels were associated with perinatal mortality (p = 0.012, 0.005, respectively), necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) (p = 0.001, 0.04, respectively) and need for intubation (p = 0.001, 0.007, respectively). Negative predictive values for perinatal mortality and NEC were 100% and for need for intubation it was 92.8% when both s100B and NSE were below the cutoff line determined by the receiver-operating characteristic curves. Perinatal mortality, NEC and need for intubation can be predicted by assessment of umbilical venous s100B and NSE measurement during birth in IUGR newborns. PMID:25392968

  14. Epigenetic changes caused by intrauterine malnutrition as potential disease mediator and early prevention in developmental stages.

    PubMed

    Fukuoka, Hideoki

    2014-01-01

    Presently, the incidences of noncommunicable diseases (NCD) have been increasing in both low- and middle-income countries worldwidely. Effective long-term and multigeneration interventions to decrease the risk of NCD should be developed and introduced. The environment in utero alters phenotypes mainly through epigenetic mechanisms. The epigenetic changes induced in an unfavorable developmental environment have lifelong effects on cardiovascular and metabolic functions, susceptibility to cardiovascular disease, obesity, and other NCD. Although compared with animals, epigenetic analysis of human specimens is restricted except for peripheral blood, placental, or umbilical specimens, recently, important human studies have been reported concerning the epigenetic analysis of Line 1 gene from the umbilical blood, umbilical RXRα, or the peripheral nuclear cell IGF-2. The birth weight is an indirect marker of in-the-womb nutritional status. The incidence of low-birth-weight infants, weighing less than 2,500 g, has been increasing in Japan. Presently, it is higher than that in the latter half of the 20 s of the Showa era, and is the highest among the OECD countries. This trend suggests that in Japan the intrauterine nutritional status has been deteriorating. We have to change this trend and put much attention on the prepregnancy and pregnancy nutrition for the present and future generations. PMID:24858500

  15. Intrauterine growth restriction inhibits expression of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase, a regulator of protein translation.

    PubMed

    McKnight, Robert A; Yost, Christian C; Zinkhan, Erin K; Fu, Qi; Callaway, Christopher W; Fung, Camille M

    2016-08-01

    Nutrient deprivation suppresses protein synthesis by blocking peptide elongation. Transcriptional upregulation and activation of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase (eEF2K) blocks peptide elongation by phosphorylating eukaryotic elongation factor 2. Previous studies examining placentas from intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) newborn infants show decreased eEF2K expression and activity despite chronic nutrient deprivation. However, the effect of IUGR on hepatic eEF2K expression in the fetus is unknown. We, therefore, examined the transcriptional regulation of hepatic eEF2K gene expression in a Sprague-Dawley rat model of IUGR. We found decreased hepatic eEF2K mRNA and protein levels in IUGR offspring at birth compared with control, consistent with previous placental observations. Furthermore, the CpG island within the eEF2K promoter demonstrated increased methylation at a critical USF 1/2 transcription factor binding site. In vitro methylation of this binding site caused near complete loss of eEF2K promoter activity, designating this promoter as methylation sensitive. The eEF2K promotor in IUGR offspring also lost the protective histone covalent modifications associated with unmethylated CGIs. In addition, the +1 nucleosome was displaced 3' and RNA polymerase loading was reduced at the IUGR eEF2K promoter. Our findings provide evidence to explain why IUGR-induced chronic nutrient deprivation does not result in the upregulation of eEF2K gene transcription. PMID:27317589

  16. Determinants of Method Switching among Social Franchise Clients Who Discontinued the Use of Intrauterine Contraceptive Device

    PubMed Central

    Hameed, Waqas; Azmat, Syed Khurram; Ali, Moazzam; Hussain, Wajahat; Mustafa, Ghulam; Ishaque, Muhammad; Ali, Safdar; Ahmed, Aftab; Temmerman, Marleen

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Women who do not switch to alternate methods after contraceptive discontinuation, for reasons other than the desire to get pregnant or not needing it, are at obvious risk for unplanned pregnancies or unwanted births. This paper examines the factors that influence women to switch from Intrauterine Contraceptive Device (IUCD) to other methods instead of terminating contraceptive usage altogether. Methods. The data used for this study comes from a larger cross-sectional survey conducted in nine (9) randomly selected districts of Sindh and Punjab provinces of Pakistan, during January 2011. Using Stata 11.2, we analyzed data on 333 women, who reported the removal of IUCDs due to reasons other than the desire to get pregnant. Results. We found that 39.9% of the women do not switch to another method of contraception within one month after IUCD discontinuation. Use of contraception before IUCD insertion increases the odds for method switching by 2.26 times after removal. Similarly, postremoval follow-up by community health worker doubles (OR = 2.0) the chances of method switching. Compared with women who received free IUCD service (via voucher scheme), the method switching is 2.01 times higher among women who had paid for IUCD insertion. Conclusion. To increase the likelihood of method switching among IUCD discontinuers this study emphasizes the need for postremoval client counseling, follow-up by healthcare provider, improved choices to a wider range of contraceptives for poor clients, and user satisfaction. PMID:26576454

  17. Global health indicators and maternal health futures: The case of Intrauterine Growth Restriction.

    PubMed

    Erikson, Susan L

    2015-01-01

    Public health indicators generally operate in the world as credible, apolitical and authoritative. But indicators are less stable than they appear. Clinical critiques of Intrauterine Growth Restriction (IUGR) criteria have been forthcoming for decades. This article, though, takes up the measuring and calculation gradients of IUGR in the ultrasound machine itself, including the software algorithms that identify IUGR. One hospital where research was conducted incorrectly predicted pathological birth outcomes 14 of 14 times. We are at a historical moment when the global use of prenatal diagnostic ultrasound for the express purpose of assessing IUGR is set to escalate. Medical imaging device corporations like Siemens, Toshiba, General Electric and Phillips are quite literally banking on it, and new forms of ultrasound technology and diagnostic software are increasingly available on smartphones, tablets and laptops. Clinical guidelines for IUGR--assumed to be authoritative and evidence-based--are evolving right along with the installation throughout the world of the technology capable of diagnosing it. Maternal malnutrition remains the single strongest predictive factor for IUGR, regardless of the technological investments currently amassing to identify the indicator, which is cause for a reassessment of priority spending and investment. PMID:26172620

  18. Nurse auxiliaries as providers of intrauterine devices for contraception in Guatemala and Honduras.

    PubMed

    Vernon, Ricardo

    2009-05-01

    Nurse auxiliaries staff the majority of primary health service delivery outlets in low-income countries, particularly in rural areas with high unmet need for contraception. Yet often service delivery guidelines prohibit them from providing contraceptive methods such as the intrauterine device (IUD). Operations research in Guatemala and Honduras in 1997-2005, described in this paper, have shown that nurse auxiliaries can provide IUDs in a safe and clinically appropriate fashion, which can help improve women's choice of methods and decrease costs in health centres with physicians and professional nurses, and health posts. Empowering these health workers requires commitment at the health system and policy levels to a long-term strategy in which small pilot studies are first conducted, followed by phased scaling-up of the strategies, which can require several years. Training can be conducted both in high volume clinics or on-site in health posts. Simple measures such as mentioning the method during counselling and to users of different services and providing women and communities with printed materials have been effective in increasing requests for IUDs. These studies also showed that nurse auxiliaries can take on other reproductive health services, such as contraceptive injections. PMID:19523582

  19. Intrauterine Growth Restricted Rats Exercised at Pregnancy: Maternal-Fetal Repercussions.

    PubMed

    Corvino, S B; Netto, A O; Sinzato, Y K; Campos, K E; Calderon, I M P; Rudge, M V C; Volpato, G T; Zambrano, E; Damasceno, D C

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of swimming in pregnant rats born with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and their offspring, IUGR rats were obtained using the streptozotocin-induced severe diabetic (SD) rats. In this study, the nondiabetic parental generation presented 10 rats and diabetic parental generation presented 116 rats. Of these, the mated nondiabetic female rats were 10 and the number of diabetic rats was 45. In relation to term pregnancy, there were 10 animals in the nondiabetic group and 15 rats in the diabetic group. In the offspring of SD rats (IUGR group), 43 females were classified as small for pregnancy age, 19 rats were classified as appropriate for pregnancy age, and 0 female was classified as large for pregnancy age. The nondiabetic and SD pregnant rats generated offspring with appropriate (control [C]) and small (IUGR) weight for pregnancy age, respectively. At adult life, the C group was maintained as nonexercised C group and IUGR rats were distributed into 2 subgroups, namely, nonexercised (IUGR) and exercised (IUGRex). The rate of mated rats in the IUGR group was reduced compared to the C group. During pregnancy, the IUGR rats presented hyperinsulinemia, impaired reproductive outcomes, decreased body weight, hypertriglyceridemia, and hyperlactacidemia. The IUGRex presented reduced insulin and triglyceride levels. Thus, swimming improved lipid metabolism and increased insulin sensitivity. However, the offspring showed retarded growth, reinforcing the need to stimulate the exercise practice in women under supervision with different professional expertise to promote appropriate gestational conditions and improve perinatal outcomes. PMID:25761405

  20. Role of Transforming Growth Factor-β1 and Smads Signaling Pathway in Intrauterine Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Salma, Umme; Xue, Min; Ali Sheikh, Md Sayed; Guan, Xiaoming; Xu, Bin; Zhang, Aiqian; Huang, Lihua; Xu, Dabao

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of Smad3, Smad7, and TGF-β1 in intrauterine adhesion (IUA) patients and experimental rabbit models. 60 IUA patients, 30 control participants, and 18 female rabbits were enrolled in this study. We found that the plasma concentrations and protein expressions of TGF-β1 were significantly increased in patients and experimental rabbits compared to those in controls (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the mRNA and protein expression levels of Smad3 were significantly elevated, while Smad7 level was markedly decreased in the patients and experimental rabbits compared with controls (P < 0.05). This altered ratio recommended that IUA was positively correlated to the mRNA and protein expression levels of Smad3, Smad7, and TGF-β1 in blood and uterine tissue. Moreover, we used the specific inhibitor of Smad3 (SIS3) in experimental rabbit. SIS3 obviously reduced the mRNA and protein expression of smad3 and TGF-β1, while it increased Smad7 expression in the treatment groups as compared with IUA rabbits (P < 0.05). Our study suggested that TGF-β1/Smad3/smad7 is a major pathway which plays an important role in the regulation of the IUA and specific inhibitor of Smad3 (SIS3) may provide a new therapeutic strategy for IUA. PMID:26997760

  1. Permanent Cardiac Sarcomere Changes in a Rabbit Model of Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Torre, Iratxe; González-Tendero, Anna; García-Cañadilla, Patricia; Crispi, Fátima; García-García, Francisco; Bijnens, Bart; Iruretagoyena, Igor; Dopazo, Joaquin; Amat-Roldán, Ivan; Gratacós, Eduard

    2014-01-01

    Background Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) induces fetal cardiac remodelling and dysfunction, which persists postnatally and may explain the link between low birth weight and increased cardiovascular mortality in adulthood. However, the cellular and molecular bases for these changes are still not well understood. We tested the hypothesis that IUGR is associated with structural and functional gene expression changes in the fetal sarcomere cytoarchitecture, which remain present in adulthood. Methods and Results IUGR was induced in New Zealand pregnant rabbits by selective ligation of the utero-placental vessels. Fetal echocardiography demonstrated more globular hearts and signs of cardiac dysfunction in IUGR. Second harmonic generation microscopy (SHGM) showed shorter sarcomere length and shorter A-band and thick-thin filament interaction lengths, that were already present in utero and persisted at 70 postnatal days (adulthood). Sarcomeric M-band (GO: 0031430) functional term was over-represented in IUGR fetal hearts. Conclusion The results suggest that IUGR induces cardiac dysfunction and permanent changes on the sarcomere. PMID:25402351

  2. Changes in amniotic fluid and umbilical cord serum proteomic profiles of foetuses with intrauterine growth retardation.

    PubMed

    Cecconi, Daniela; Lonardoni, Francesco; Favretto, Donata; Cosmi, Erich; Tucci, Marianna; Visentin, Silvia; Cecchetto, Giovanni; Fais, Paolo; Viel, Guido; Ferrara, Santo Davide

    2011-12-01

    Foetal growth is a result of a complex net of processes, requiring coordination within the maternal, placental, and foetal compartments, the imbalance or lack of which may lead to intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). IUGR is the major cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality, and is also related to enhanced morbidity and metabolic abnormalities later in life. In the present study, the protein profiles of umbilical cord serum (UCS) and amniotic fluid (AF) of ten IUGR and ten appropriate for gestational age newborns have been analysed by 2-DE, and nanoHPLC-Chip/MS technology. A total of 18 and 13 spots were found to be differentially expressed (p<0.01) in UCS and AF respectively. The unique differentially expressed proteins identified by MS/MS analysis were 14 in UCS, and 11 in AF samples. Protein gene ontology classification indicate that 21% of proteins are involved in inflammatory response, 20% in immune response, while a smaller proportion are related to transport, blood pressure, and coagulation. These results support the conclusion that the IUGR condition alters the expression of proteins involved in the coagulation process, immune mechanisms, blood pressure and iron and copper homeostasis control, offering a new insight into IUGR pathogenesis. PMID:22180211

  3. [Changes in the endometrium of the cow after intrauterine administration of different drugs].

    PubMed

    Schnyder, D; Küpfer, U; Zwahlen, R

    1990-01-01

    32 young and healthy cows each received a single intrauterine treatment with one of the following solutions: Lugol's solution, Vetedine, Lorasol, Lotagen, Aureomycin, and normal saline solution as a control. Endometrial biopsies were taken immediately before application and at days 1, 3, 6, 10, 15, 20 and 30 thereafter. On day 1, degenerative and inflammatory reactions could already be observed in all groups, with the exception of the control group. The intensity of the lesions varied, not only between treatment groups but also to a lesser extent between individuals within groups. Degeneration and inflammatory reaction found in the subepithelial stromal tissues were more distinct than those seen in the epithelia. Lorasol caused the most severe degenerative changes, regarding the depth of degeneration into the tissue, as well as the intensity of the inflammatory reaction. Lugol's solution also showed a high degree of change, followed by Lotagen and Vetedine showing moderate change, respectively. Reaction to the antibiotic treatment with Aureomycin was only slight. The regeneration time of these lesions was proportional to the intensity of the induced changes, amounting to 10-15 days for Lorasol and 3-6 days for Aureomycin, respectively. The clinical significance of these findings is discussed. PMID:2218470

  4. The prevalence of subclinical endometritis and intrauterine infections in repeat breeder cows.

    PubMed

    Pothmann, H; Prunner, I; Wagener, K; Jaureguiberry, M; de la Sota, R L; Erber, R; Aurich, C; Ehling-Schulz, M; Drillich, M

    2015-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of subclinical endometritis and the presence of common uterine pathogens in repeat breeder cows. A total of 121 cows with three or more consecutive artificial inseminations without conception and no clinical signs of disease were defined as repeat breeder cows and were enrolled in this trial. Intrauterine samples were collected with the cytobrush technique to determine the prevalence of subclinical endometritis and bacteriologic infections. Blood samples were analyzed for concentrations of progesterone and estradiol in plasma to assess ovarian activity. Furthermore, breed, parity, history of calving and postpartum uterine infection, clinical findings of transrectal palpation, and backfat thickness were analyzed as potential factors for the prevalence of subclinical endometritis in repeat breeder cows. The prevalence of subclinical endometritis in repeat breeder cows was 12.7%; but common uterine pathogens, Escherichia coli and Trueperella pyogenes, were found in only one and three cows, respectively. Ovarian activity was determined in 95.0% of all cows. Recorded variables had no effect on the prevalence of subclinical endometritis in repeat breeder cows. In conclusion, subclinical endometritis and uterine infections linked to common pathogens were playing a minor role as a cause for repeat breeder cows in this study. Alternative reasons for failure to conceive in these cows are discussed. PMID:25670153

  5. Increased aggressive and affiliative display behavior in intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) baboons

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Hillary F; Ford, Susan M; Bartlett, Thad Q; Nathanielsz, Peter W

    2016-01-01

    Background We hypothesized intrauterine growth restricted offspring (IUGR) demonstrate higher rates of aggression and higher dominance ranks than control (CTR) offspring with normal weight at term; if aggressive behavior is advantageous during resource scarcity, developmental programming may lead to an association between aggression and IUGR. Methods We studied 22 group-housed baboons (ages 3-5 years). CTR (male n=8, female n=5) mothers ate ad libitum. IUGR (male n=4, female n=5) mothers were fed 70% feed eaten by CTR mothers during pregnancy and lactation. Results IUGR showed higher rates of aggressive displays (p<0.01) and friendly displays (p<0.02). Dominance ranks and physical aggression rates did not differ between groups. Conclusions High rates of IUGR aggressive display might reflect developmental programming of behavioral phenotypes enhancing fitness. Friendly displays may reflect reconciliation. Potential mechanisms include neurodevelopment and learning. Exploration of IUGR as a risk factor for behavioral patterns is important for developing diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. PMID:25891005

  6. Altered Platelet Function in Intrauterine Growth Restriction: A Cause or a Consequence of Uteroplacental Disease?

    PubMed

    Müllers, Sieglinde M; Burke, Naomi; Flood, Karen; Cowman, Jonathan; O'connor, Hugh; Cotter, Brian; Kearney, Morgan; Dempsey, Mark; Dicker, Patrick; Tully, Elizabeth; Geary, Michael P; Kenny, Dermot; Malone, Fergal D

    2016-07-01

    Objective A limited number of platelet function studies in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) have yielded conflicting results. We sought to evaluate platelet reactivity in IUGR using a novel platelet aggregation assay. Study Design Pregnancies with IUGR were recruited from 24 weeks' gestation (estimated fetal weight < 10th centile) and had platelet function testing performed after diagnosis. A modification of light transmission aggregometry created dose-response curves of platelet reactivity in response to multiple agonists at differing concentrations. Findings were compared with healthy third trimester controls. IUGR cases with a subsequent normal birth weight were analyzed separately. Results In this study, 33 pregnancies retained their IUGR diagnosis at birth, demonstrating significantly reduced platelet reactivity in response to all agonists (arachidonic acid, adenosine diphosphate, collagen, thrombin receptor-activating peptide, and epinephrine) when compared with 36 healthy pregnancy controls (p < 0.0001). Similar results were obtained for cases demonstrating an increasing in utero growth trajectory. When IUGR preceded preeclampsia or gestational hypertension, platelet function was significantly reduced compared with normotensive IUGR. Conclusion Using this comprehensive platelet assay, we have demonstrated a functional impairment of platelets in IUGR. This may reflect platelet-derived placental growth factor release. Further evaluation of platelet function may aid in the development of future platelet-targeted therapies for uteroplacental disease. PMID:26906182

  7. Sotos syndrome: An unusual presentation with intrauterine growth restriction, generalized lymphedema, and intention tremor.

    PubMed

    McClelland, Jessie; Burgess, Bronwyn; Crock, Patricia; Goel, Himanshu

    2016-04-01

    Sotos syndrome is a childhood overgrowth syndrome characterized clinically by a distinctive facial gestalt, advanced bone age, childhood overgrowth, and non-progressive developmental delay; and genetically by haploinsufficiency of the Nuclear receptor binding SET Domain 1 (NSD1) gene. Generalized lymphedema has not previously been associated with Sotos syndrome. Generalized lymphedema has been associated with mutations in several genes including FLT4. This gene is involved in the regulation of VEGFR3, a key governor of lymphatic-endothelial cell development and function. We report on a 28-year-old Caucasian female with a de novo NSD1 intragenic mutation, c.5841_5848dup: p.Leu1950Serfs*22, who presented with characteristic clinical features of Sotos syndrome. Unusually this case includes atypical features of intrauterine growth retardation and post-pubertal onset of primary lymphedema. To our knowledge, no link between Sotos syndrome and generalized lymphedema has previously been described in the literature. We propose a mechanism by which disruptions in NSD1 gene may lead to generalized lymphedema. Aberrations of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-signaling pathway has been identified in both Sotos syndrome and lymphedema. This finding extends the known phenotype of Sotos syndrome through the inclusion of lymphedema. This case also indicates that presence of low birth weight does not exclude the possibility of Sotos syndrome. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26738611

  8. Isolated abnormal strict morphology is not a contraindication for intrauterine insemination.

    PubMed

    Lockwood, G M; Deveneau, N E; Shridharani, A N; Strawn, E Y; Sandlow, J I

    2015-11-01

    This study sought to investigate whether isolated abnormal strict morphology (<5% normal forms) and very low strict morphology (0-1% normal forms) affects pregnancy rates in intrauterine insemination (IUI). This was a retrospective study performed at an Academic Medical Center/Reproductive Medicine Center. Four hundred and eight couples were included for 856 IUI cycles. 70 IUI cycles were performed in couples with abnormal strict morphology and otherwise normal semen parameters. Outcomes were measured as clinical pregnancy rate per IUI cycle as documented by fetal heart activity on maternal ultrasound. Clinical pregnancy rate did not significantly differ between the group with abnormal strict morphology [11/70 (15.7%)] and the normal morphology group [39/281 (13.9%)]. Additionally, there was no significant difference between the pregnancy rate in the abnormal morphology group compared to that of our overall institutional IUI pregnancy rate [145/856 (16.9%)]. Furthermore, there was no significant difference between pregnancy rate in the very low morphology group [3/14 (21.4%)] compared to those with normal morphology or the overall IUI pregnancy rate. Patients with isolated abnormal strict morphology have clinical pregnancy rates similar to those with normal morphology for IUI. Even in those with very low normal forms, consideration of IUI for assisted reproduction should not be excluded. PMID:26384603

  9. Ovarian reserve markers in unexplained infertility patients treated with clomiphene citrate during intrauterine insemination

    PubMed Central

    Ulug, Pasa; Elmali, Ferhan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this retrospective case control study was to identify predictors of ovarian response and pregnancy outcomes in intrauterine insemination (IUI). Material and methods One hundred women undergoing IUI cycles with clomiphene citrate were enrolled. The number of antral follicles and the total ovarian volume by ultrasound, and the basal levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol, and inhibin B on cycle day 3 were measured in groups that were divided according to ovarian response. The tests were also evaluated according to ovarian response and pregnancy outcomes. All analyses were performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 15.0 (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA). Results The antral follicle count (AFC) was the best single predictor for ovarian response and pregnancy outcomes. The sensitivity and specificity for prediction of ovarian response were 81% and 78% for AFC at an optimum cutoff value of ≤ 13.1. Age was negatively correlated with ovarian volume (r = –0.280, p = 0.021) and AFC (r = –0.358, p = 0.003). Increasing FSH was associated with a reduction in AFC (r = –0.273, p = 0.025). The AFC was significantly correlated with ovarian volume (r = 0.660, p < 0.0001) and FSH (r = –0.273, p = 0.03). Conclusions Our data demonstrate that the AFC provides better prognostic information on the occurrence of ovarian response during clomiphene citrate stimulation for IUI. PMID:26788087

  10. Effect of endometrial biopsy on intrauterine insemination outcome in controlled ovarian stimulation cycle

    PubMed Central

    Wadhwa, Leena; Pritam, Amrita; Gupta, Taru; Gupta, Sangeeta; Arora, Sarika; Chandoke, Rajkumar

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective was to evaluate the effect of endometrial biopsy (EB) on intrauterine insemination (IUI) outcome in controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) cycle. DESIGN: Prospective randomized control study. SETTING: Tertiary care center. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 251 subjects were enrolled in the study. Subjects undergoing COS with IUI were randomly allocated into three groups. Group A: EB was taken between D19 and 24 of the spontaneous menstrual cycles that precedes the fertility treatment and IUI, which was done in next cycle (n = 86). Group B: EB was taken before D6 of the menstrual cycle, and fertility treatment and IUI was done in the same cycle (n = 90). Group C: (control group) no EB in previous 3 cycle (n = 75). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Clinical pregnancy rate (CPR). RESULTS: Clinical pregnancy rate was 19.77%, 31.11%, and 9.3% for Group A, Group B, and Group C, respectively. The results show a highly significant value for the paired t-test of intervention Group B and control Group C of the cases (P = 0.000957). CPR was maximum after first cycle of ovulation induction and IUI following EB scratch in both Groups A and in Group B (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Endometrial biopsy done in early follicular phase in the same cycle of stimulation with IUI gives better CPR as compared with EB done in the luteal phase of the previous cycle. PMID:26538858

  11. Pregnancy Rate after Controlled Ovarian Hyperstimulation and Intrauterine Insemination for the Treatment of Endometriosis following Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Keresztúri, Attila; Kozinszky, Zoltan; Daru, József; Pásztor, Norbert; Sikovanyecz, János; Zádori, János; Márton, Virág; Koloszár, Sándor; Szöllősi, János; Németh, Gábor

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To compare pregnancy rate after controlled ovarian hyperstimulation and intrauterine insemination (COH-IUI) with no treatment in patients with endometriosis-associated infertility treated with laparoscopy. Design. A clinical cohort study. Setting. University-level tertiary care center. Patients. 238 women with various stages of endometriosis after laparoscopic treatment. Interventions. Either COH-IUI or follow-up for 12 months. Main Outcome Measures. The primary outcome measures were clinical pregnancy and live birth rate. Predictive factors evaluated were female age, maternal BMI, and duration of infertility. Results. The pregnancy rate attained after the integrated laparoscopy–COH-IUI approach was 53.4%, while it was significantly lower (38.5%) in the control group. Similarly, a significant difference was observed in live births (48.3% versus 34.2%). Patients with severe endometriosis were less likely to achieve pregnancy (38%) and live birth (35%) than their counterparts with milder forms (57% and 53%). Conclusions. In patients with endometriosis-based infertility, surgery followed by COH-IUI is more effective than surgery alone. PMID:26247014

  12. Altered resting-state whole-brain functional networks of neonates with intrauterine growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Batalle, Dafnis; Muñoz-Moreno, Emma; Tornador, Cristian; Bargallo, Nuria; Deco, Gustavo; Eixarch, Elisenda; Gratacos, Eduard

    2016-04-01

    The feasibility to use functional MRI (fMRI) during natural sleep to assess low-frequency basal brain activity fluctuations in human neonates has been demonstrated, although its potential to characterise pathologies of prenatal origin has not yet been exploited. In the present study, we used intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) as a model of altered neurodevelopment due to prenatal condition to show the suitability of brain networks to characterise functional brain organisation at neonatal age. Particularly, we analysed resting-state fMRI signal of 20 neonates with IUGR and 13 controls, obtaining whole-brain functional networks based on correlations of blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal in 90 grey matter regions of an anatomical atlas (AAL). Characterisation of the networks obtained with graph theoretical features showed increased network infrastructure and raw efficiencies but reduced efficiency after normalisation, demonstrating hyper-connected but sub-optimally organised IUGR functional brain networks. Significant association of network features with neurobehavioral scores was also found. Further assessment of spatiotemporal dynamics displayed alterations into features associated to frontal, cingulate and lingual cortices. These findings show the capacity of functional brain networks to characterise brain reorganisation from an early age, and their potential to develop biomarkers of altered neurodevelopment. PMID:26927726

  13. [Spontaneous intrauterine rupture of the umbilical cord is very uncommon but a serious condition].

    PubMed

    Åmark, Hanna; Eneroth, Eva

    Spontaneous intrauterine rupture of the umbilical cord is an uncommon and dangerous complication during delivery. We describe a case of a 27-year-old woman with a normal pregnancy. When the membranes broke, the fetal heart sounds suddenly disappeared, and the vaginal bleeding was heavier than normal. An emergency caesarean section was executed and the examination of the placenta revealed a broken umbilical artery. The child was born with an Apgar score of 0,1,1 and a blood gas analysis from the umbilical vein showed pH 6.68 and Base Excess -24.3. Urgent treatment with heart massage, adrenaline, blood transfusion and tribonate was initiated and followed by therapeutic hypothermia. The child was discharged after 10 days with no pathological findings on a MRI examination of the brain. The 6 month follow-up showed a normal development. When a fetal bleeding is suspected, it is important to inform a neonatologist so that correct treatment can be started as early as possible. PMID:25584580

  14. Placental mesenchymal dysplasia, a case of intrauterine sudden death in a normal-sized fetus

    PubMed Central

    Sudano, Maria Chiara; D’Emidio, Laura; Mangiafico, Lucia; Mobili, Luisa; Giorlandino, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction placental mesenchymal dysplasia (PMD) is a rare placental anomaly characterized by placentomegaly and grape-like vesicles which resemble molar pregnancy. Case we report the case of 33-year-old woman (1-gravid) who visited our clinic at 11 weeks of gestation due to a suspected molar pregnancy. Ultrasound examination showed an enlarged placenta with multiple vesicular lesions. Maternal human chorionic gonadotropin level was normal and chorionic villus sampling showed a normal male karyotype (46 XY). The fetus exhibited no specific anomalies and fetal growth was normal during pregnancy with no signs of fetal suffering. At 31 weeks, the pregnancy ended owing to intrauterine fetal death (IUFD). The patient delivered a normal-sized male fetus (1800 g) with no definite anomalies. A pathological examination led to a diagnosis of placental mesenchymal dysplasia. Conclusion in the presence of placental ultrasound anomalies with no other sign of fetal suffering, the pregnancy should be considered at risk and, therefore, should be monitored carefully including the option of hospitalization. PMID:23741541

  15. Head and Neck Cancer: Symptoms and Signs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Symptoms and Signs Request Permissions Print to PDF Head and Neck Cancer - Symptoms and Signs Approved by the Cancer. ... Cancer Research and Advocacy Survivorship Blog About Us Head and Neck Cancer Guide Cancer.Net Guide Head and Neck ...

  16. Keeping Your Head On Target

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Aaron L.; Zee, David S.; Jinnah, H. A.

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms by which the human brain controls eye movements are reasonably well understood, but those for the head less so. Here, we show that the mechanisms for keeping the head aimed at a stationary target follow strategies similar to those for holding the eyes steady on stationary targets. Specifically, we applied the neural integrator hypothesis that originally was developed for holding the eyes still in eccentric gaze positions to describe how the head is held still when turned toward an eccentric target. We found that normal humans make head movements consistent with the neural integrator hypothesis, except that additional sensory feedback is needed, from proprioceptors in the neck, to keep the head on target. We also show that the complicated patterns of head movements in patients with cervical dystonia can be predicted by deficits in a neural integrator for head motor control. These results support ideas originally developed from animal studies that suggest fundamental similarities between oculomotor and cephalomotor control, as well as a conceptual framework for cervical dystonia that departs considerably from current clinical views. PMID:23825431

  17. Eye and head motion during head turns in spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, William E.; Uri, John J.; Moore, Thomas P.; Pool, Sam L.

    1988-01-01

    Eye-head motion was studied pre-, in- and postflight during single voluntary head turns. A transient increase in vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) gain occurred early in the flight, but later trended toward normal. This increased gain was produced by a relative increase in eye counterrotation velocity. Asymmetries in gain with right and left turns also occurred, caused by asymmetries in eye counterrotation velocities. These findings were remarkably similar to those from Soviet primate studies using gaze fixation targets, except the human study trended more rapidly toward normal. These findings differ substantially from those measuring VOR gain by head oscillation, in which no significant changes were found inflight. No visual disturbances were noted in either test condition or in normal activities. These head turn studies are the only ones to date documenting any functional change in VOR in weightlessness.

  18. Cutting Head for Ultrasonic Lithotripsy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angulo, E. D.; Goodfriend, R.

    1987-01-01

    Kidney stones lodged in urinary tract disintegrated with increased safety and efficiency by cutting head attached to end of vibrated wire probe. Aligns probe with stone and enables probe to vibrate long enough to disintegrate stone. Design of cutting head reduces risk of metal-fatigue-induced breakage of probe tip leaving metal fragments in urinary tract. Teeth of cutting head both seat and fragment kidney stone, while extension of collar into catheter lessens mechanical strain in probe wire, increasing probe life and lessening danger of in situ probe breakage.

  19. Topiramate Responsive Exploding Head Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Palikh, Gaurang M.; Vaughn, Bradley V.

    2010-01-01

    Exploding head syndrome is a rare phenomenon but can be a significant disruption to quality of life. We describe a 39-year-old female with symptoms of a loud bang and buzz at sleep onset for 3 years. EEG monitoring confirmed these events occurred in transition from stage 1 sleep. This patient reported improvement in intensity of events with topiramate medication. Based on these results, topiramate may be an alternative method to reduce the intensity of events in exploding head syndrome. Citation: Palikh GM; Vaughn BV. Topiramate responsive exploding head syndrome. J Clin Sleep Med 2010;6(4):382-383. PMID:20726288

  20. Anaphylaxis Due to Head Injury

    PubMed Central

    Bruner, Heather C.; Bruner, David I.

    2015-01-01

    Both anaphylaxis and head injury are often seen in the emergency department, but they are rarely seen in combination. We present a case of a 30-year-old woman who presented with anaphylaxis with urticaria and angioedema following a minor head injury. The patient responded well to intramuscular epinephrine without further complications or airway compromise. Prior case reports have reported angioedema from hereditary angioedema during dental procedures and maxillofacial surgery, but there have not been any cases of first-time angioedema or anaphylaxis due to head injury. PMID:25987924

  1. Head-Up Tilt.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jinyi; Yang, Lihong; Zhang, Qiang; Li, Shuaibing; Qiao, Zihao; Fang, Ying; Zhao, Guihua; Wang, Qingyi; Liu, Guanghui

    2015-01-01

    Autonomic dysfunction has been associated with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF). The head-up tilt test (HUTT) is an important diagnostic tool for autonomic dysfunction. The aim of this study was to examine atrial fibrillation recurrence after RFCA by performing HUTT. A total of 488 consecutive patients with PAF who underwent RFCA were prospectively enrolled. HUTT was positive in 154 (31.6%) patients after a mean follow-up of 22.7 ± 3.5 months, and 163 (33.4%) had a recurrence. HUTT positive was significantly higher in PAF patients with recurrence compared to those without (68 (41.7%) versus 86 (26.5%), P < 0.001). Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that HUTT positive (HR: 1.96; 95% CI: 1.49-2.48, P < 0.001), left atrial diameter (HR: 1.77; 95%CI: 1.15-2.11, P = 0.004), AF duration (HR: 1.27; 95%CI: 0.98-1.83, P = 0.014), and sleep apnea (HR: 1.02; 95%CI: 0.81-1.53, P = 0.032) were independent predictors of clinical recurrence after RFCA. The success rate of ablation was 70.4% in patients in the HUTT negative group compared with 58.4% in patients in the HUTT positive group (log-rank P = 0.006). Patients with a positive headup tilt test were at an increased risk of AF recurrence after catheter ablation. Our results suggest that HUTT was a significant predictor for AF recurrence after catheter ablation for PAF. PMID:26370369

  2. Preventing head injuries in children

    MedlinePlus

    ... strapped in with the safety harness. Store all firearms and bullets in a locked cabinet. ... of Health and Human Services. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Heads up. Facts for physicians about ...

  3. Heater head for stirling engine

    DOEpatents

    Corey, John A.

    1985-07-09

    A monolithic heater head assembly which augments cast fins with ceramic inserts which narrow the flow of combustion gas and obtains high thermal effectiveness with the assembly including an improved flange design which gives greater durability and reduced conduction loss.

  4. Tensile Tests of Round-head, Flat-head, and Brazier-head Rivets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuette, Evan H; Bartone, Leonard M; Mandel, Merven W

    1944-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the tensile strength of round-head (AN43C), flat-head(AN442), and brazier-head (AN4556) aluminum-alloy rivets because of the scarcity of information on the tensile strength of rivets. The results of the investigation are presented as curves that show the variation of the ratio of the tensile strength of the rivet to the tensile strength of the rivet crank with the ratio of the sheet thickness to the rivet diameter for the different types of rivet.

  5. Indications for ulnar head replacement.

    PubMed

    Berger, Richard A

    2008-08-01

    Implanting an endoprosthesis is a clinically proven means of reestablishing mechanical contact between the distal radius and ulna, thus providing the foundation for stability of the entire forearm. The indications for, contraindications to, and outcomes of ulnar head replacement are discussed, together with the underlying mechanics, pathomechanics of ulnar head excision, the theoretical basis for implant arthroplasty, and the designs that have been employed. PMID:18836608

  6. Cutting head for ultrasonic lithotripsy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anguluo, E. D.; Goodfriend, R. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A cutting head for attachment to the end of the wire probe of an ultrasonic kidney stone disintegration instrument is described. The cutting head has a plurality of circumferentially arranged teeth formed at one end thereof to provide a cup shaped receptacle for kidney stones encountered during the disintegration procedure. An integral reduced diameter collar diminishes stress points in the wire and reduce breakage thereof.

  7. Ghost Head Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Looking like a colorful holiday card, a new image from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope reveals a vibrant green and red nebula far from Earth.

    The image of NGC 2080, taken by Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, designed and built by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is available online at http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/images/wfpc . Images like this help astronomers investigate star formation in nebulas.

    NGC 2080, nicknamed 'The Ghost Head Nebula,' is one of a chain of star-forming regions lying south of the 30 Doradus nebula in the Large Magellanic Cloud. 30 Doradus is the largest star-forming complex in the local group of galaxies. This 'enhanced color' picture is composed of three narrow-band-filter images obtained by Hubble on March 28, 2000.

    The red and blue light come from regions of hydrogen gas heated by nearby stars. The green light on the left comes from glowing oxygen. The energy to illuminate the green light is supplied by a powerful stellar wind, a stream of high-speed particles coming from a massive star just outside the image. The central white region is a combination of all three emissions and indicates a core of hot, massive stars in this star-formation region. Intense emission from these stars has carved a bowl-shaped cavity in surrounding gas.

    In the white region, the two bright areas (the 'eyes of the ghost') - named A1 (left) and A2 (right) -- are very hot, glowing 'blobs' of hydrogen and oxygen. The bubble in A1 is produced by the hot, intense radiation and powerful stellar wind from one massive star. A2 contains more dust and several hidden, massive stars. The massive stars in A1 and A2 must have formed within the last 10,000 years, since their natal gas shrouds are not yet disrupted by the powerful radiation of the newborn stars.

    The Space Telescope Science Institute is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., for NASA, under contract with the Goddard Space Flight Center

  8. Changes in genital tract immune cell populations after initiation of intrauterine contraception

    PubMed Central

    ACHILLES, Sharon L.; CREININ, Mitchell D.; STONER, Kevin A.; CHEN, Beatrice A.; MEYN, Leslie; HILLIER, Sharon L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The primary target cells for HIV infection in the genital tract are CD4 T-cells expressing CCR5 on the surface. Alterations in genital tract T-cells expressing CCR5 could impact human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition risk. We hypothesized that when compared to baseline, use of a hormonal intrauterine device (IUD) would alter HIV target cells (primarily CCR5+ CD4 cells) in the female genital tract more than a non-hormonal IUD. Study Design Thirty-four healthy, HIV negative women age 18-40 seeking an IUD for contraception were randomized to receive a levonorgestrel IUD or a copper T380A IUD. A parallel group of 8 control women not needing contraception was also enrolled. Genital tract mucosal immune cell populations collected by cervical cytobrush and endometrial biopsy before and two months after IUD placement were analyzed by flow cytometry. Mean differences in cell number and percent expressing receptors from baseline to follow-up were evaluated using paired Student’s t-tests. Results Neither IUD altered the number of T-cells within the upper and lower genital tracts. Levonorgestrel IUD users had a decrease in T-cells expressing the HIV co-receptor CCR5 in the endometrium and cervix after two months of use compared with baseline. There was a decrease in activated endometrial T-cells in levonorgestrel IUD users and a decrease in activated cervical T-cells in copper IUD users after two months of IUD use compared with baseline. Conclusions Women using IUDs have reduced expression of the CCR5 HIV co-receptor on T-cells in the endometrium and cervix compared to expression prior to IUD placement. These findings suggest that susceptibility to HIV infection would not be increased by IUD use. PMID:24834865

  9. Placental TonEBP/NFAT5 osmolyte regulation in an ovine model of intrauterine growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, Juan A; Garcia-Jones, Pastora; Graham, Amanda; Teng, Cecilia C; Battaglia, Frederick C; Galan, Henry L

    2012-03-01

    TonEBP/NFAT5 (the tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein/nuclear factor of activated T cells) modulates cellular response to osmotic changes by accumulating inositol and sorbitol inside the cells. Our objective was to assess placental osmolytes, TonEBP/NFAT5 RNA and protein expression, and signaling molecules across gestation between control and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) ovine pregnancies. Pregnant sheep were placed in hyperthermic conditions to induce IUGR. Placental tissues were collected at 55, 95, and 130 days gestational age (dGA) to measure inositol, sorbitol, TonEBP/NFAT5 (NFAT5), sodium-dependent myo-inositol transporter (SMIT; official symbol SLC5A3), aldose reductase (AR), and NADPH (official symbol DE-CR1). Placental weight was reduced in IUGR compared to controls at 95 and 130 dGA. Osmolyte concentrations were similar between control and IUGR placentas, but both groups demonstrated a significant decrease in inositol concentration and an increase in sorbitol concentration with advancing gestation. Cytosolic NFAT5 protein decreased significantly from 55 to 95 dGA in both groups, and nuclear NFAT5 protein increased only at 130 dGA in the IUGR group, but no differences were seen between groups for either cytosolic or nuclear NFAT5 protein concentrations. DE-CR1 concentrations were similar between groups and increased significantly with advancing gestational age. AR was lowest at 55dGA, and SLC5A3 increased with advancing gestational age. We conclude that both placental osmolytes inositol and sorbitol (and their corresponding proteins SLC5A3 and AR) change with gestational age and are regulated, at least in part, by NFAT5 and DE-CR1 (NADPH). The inverse relationship between each osmolyte across gestation (e.g., inositol higher in early gestation and sorbitol higher in late gestation) may reflect nutritional needs that change across gestation. PMID:22190709

  10. Intrauterine devices and endometrial cancer risk: a pooled analysis of the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Felix, Ashley S.; Gaudet, Mia M.; La Vecchia, Carlo; Nagle, Christina M.; Ou Shu, Xiao; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Olov Adami, Hans; Beresford, Shirley; Bernstein, Leslie; Chen, Chu; Cook, Linda S.; De Vivo, Immaculata; Doherty, Jennifer A.; Friedenreich, Christine M.; Gapstur, Susan M.; Hill, Dierdre; Horn-Ross, Pamela L.; Lacey, James V.; Levi, Fabio; Liang, Xiaolin; Lu, Lingeng; Magliocco, Anthony; McCann, Susan E.; Negri, Eva; Olson, Sara H.; Palmer, Julie R.; Patel, Alpa V.; Petruzella, Stacey; Prescott, Jennifer; Risch, Harvey A.; Rosenberg, Lynn; Sherman, Mark E.; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Webb, Penelope M.; Wise, Lauren A.; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Xu, Wanghong; Yang, Hannah P.; Yu, Herbert; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Brinton, Louise A.

    2014-01-01

    Intrauterine devices (IUDs), long-acting and reversible contraceptives, induce a number of immunological and biochemical changes in the uterine environment that could affect endometrial cancer (EC) risk. We addressed this relationship through a pooled analysis of data collected in the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium. We combined individual-level data from 4 cohort and 14 case-control studies, in total 8,801 EC cases and 15,357 controls. Using multivariable logistic regression, we estimated pooled odds ratios (pooled-ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for EC risk associated with ever use, type of device, ages at first and last use, duration of use, and time since last use, stratified by study and adjusted for confounders. Ever use of IUDs was inversely related to EC risk (pooled-OR=0.81, 95% CI=0.74–0.90). Compared with never use, reduced risk of EC was observed for inert IUDs (pooled-OR=0.69, 95% CI=0.58–0.82), older age at first use (≥35 years pooled-OR=0.53, 95% CI=0.43–0.67), older age at last use (≥45 years pooled-OR=0.60, 95% CI=0.50–0.72), longer duration of use (≥10 years pooled-OR=0.61, 95% CI=0.52–0.71), and recent use (within 1 year of study entry pooled-OR=0.39, 95% CI=0.30–0.49). Future studies are needed to assess the respective roles of detection biases and biologic effects related to foreign body responses in the endometrium, heavier bleeding (and increased clearance of carcinogenic cells), and localized hormonal changes. PMID:25242594

  11. Epigenetic Characterization of CDKN1C in Placenta Samples from Non-syndromic Intrauterine Growth Restriction.

    PubMed

    López-Abad, Miriam; Iglesias-Platas, Isabel; Monk, David

    2016-01-01

    The cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)-inhibitor 1C (CDKN1C) gene is expressed from the maternal allele and is located within the centromeric imprinted domain at chromosome 11p15. It is a negative regulator of proliferation, with loss-of-function mutations associated with the overgrowth disorder Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. Recently, gain-of-function mutations within the PCNA domain have been described in two disorders characterized by growth failure, namely IMAGe (intra-uterine growth restriction, metaphyseal dysplasia, adrenal hypoplasia congenita and genital abnormalities) syndrome and Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS). Over-expression of CDKN1C by maternally inherited microduplications also results in SRS, suggesting that in addition to activating mutations this gene may regulate growth by changes in dosage. To determine if CDKN1C is involved in non-syndromic IUGR we compared the expression and DNA methylation levels in a large cohort of placental biopsies from IUGR and uneventful pregnancies. We observe higher levels of expression of CDKN1C in IUGR placentas compared to those of controls. All placenta biopsies heterozygous for the PAPA repeat sequence in exon 2 showed appropriate monoallelic expression and no mutations in the PCNA domain were observed. The expression profile was independent of both genetic or methylation variation in the minimal CDKN1C promoter interval and of methylation of the cis-acting maternally methylated region associated with the neighboring KCNQ1OT1 non-coding RNA. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed binding sites for CTCF within the unmethylated CDKN1C gene body CpG island and putative enhancer regions, associated with the canonical enhancer histone signature, H3K4me1 and H3K27ac, located ∼58 and 360 kb away. Using 3C-PCR we identify constitutive higher-order chromatin loops that occur between one of these putative enhancer regions and CDKN1C in human placenta tissues, which we propose facilitates expression. PMID:27200075

  12. Epigenetic Characterization of CDKN1C in Placenta Samples from Non-syndromic Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    PubMed Central

    López-Abad, Miriam; Iglesias-Platas, Isabel; Monk, David

    2016-01-01

    The cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)-inhibitor 1C (CDKN1C) gene is expressed from the maternal allele and is located within the centromeric imprinted domain at chromosome 11p15. It is a negative regulator of proliferation, with loss-of-function mutations associated with the overgrowth disorder Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome. Recently, gain-of-function mutations within the PCNA domain have been described in two disorders characterized by growth failure, namely IMAGe (intra-uterine growth restriction, metaphyseal dysplasia, adrenal hypoplasia congenita and genital abnormalities) syndrome and Silver–Russell syndrome (SRS). Over-expression of CDKN1C by maternally inherited microduplications also results in SRS, suggesting that in addition to activating mutations this gene may regulate growth by changes in dosage. To determine if CDKN1C is involved in non-syndromic IUGR we compared the expression and DNA methylation levels in a large cohort of placental biopsies from IUGR and uneventful pregnancies. We observe higher levels of expression of CDKN1C in IUGR placentas compared to those of controls. All placenta biopsies heterozygous for the PAPA repeat sequence in exon 2 showed appropriate monoallelic expression and no mutations in the PCNA domain were observed. The expression profile was independent of both genetic or methylation variation in the minimal CDKN1C promoter interval and of methylation of the cis-acting maternally methylated region associated with the neighboring KCNQ1OT1 non-coding RNA. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed binding sites for CTCF within the unmethylated CDKN1C gene body CpG island and putative enhancer regions, associated with the canonical enhancer histone signature, H3K4me1 and H3K27ac, located ∼58 and 360 kb away. Using 3C-PCR we identify constitutive higher-order chromatin loops that occur between one of these putative enhancer regions and CDKN1C in human placenta tissues, which we propose facilitates expression. PMID:27200075

  13. Long-term reorganization of structural brain networks in a rabbit model of intrauterine growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Batalle, Dafnis; Muñoz-Moreno, Emma; Arbat-Plana, Ariadna; Illa, Miriam; Figueras, Francesc; Eixarch, Elisenda; Gratacos, Eduard

    2014-10-15

    Characterization of brain changes produced by intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is among the main challenges of modern fetal medicine and pediatrics. This condition affects 5-10% of all pregnancies and is associated with a wide range of neurodevelopmental disorders. Better understanding of the brain reorganization produced by IUGR opens a window of opportunity to find potential imaging biomarkers in order to identify the infants with a high risk of having neurodevelopmental problems and apply therapies to improve their outcomes. Structural brain networks obtained from diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a promising tool to study brain reorganization and to be used as a biomarker of neurodevelopmental alterations. In the present study this technique is applied to a rabbit animal model of IUGR, which presents some advantages including a controlled environment and the possibility to obtain high quality MRI with long acquisition times. Using a Q-Ball diffusion model, and a previously published rabbit brain MRI atlas, structural brain networks of 15 IUGR and 14 control rabbits at 70 days of age (equivalent to pre-adolescence human age) were obtained. The analysis of graph theory features showed a decreased network infrastructure (degree and binary global efficiency) associated with IUGR condition and a set of generalized fractional anisotropy (GFA) weighted measures associated with abnormal neurobehavior. Interestingly, when assessing the brain network organization independently of network infrastructure by means of normalized networks, IUGR showed increased global and local efficiencies. We hypothesize that this effect could reflect a compensatory response to reduced infrastructure in IUGR. These results present new evidence on the long-term persistence of the brain reorganization produced by IUGR that could underlie behavioral and developmental alterations previously described. The described changes in network organization have the potential to be used

  14. Intrauterine insemination: a UK survey on the adherence to NICE clinical guidelines by fertility clinics

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dongah; Child, Tim; Farquhar, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the awareness and response of fertility clinics in the UK to the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guideline recommendation that intrauterine insemination (IUI) should not be offered routinely, in order to report on current practice in the UK. Design Online questionnaire survey of fertility clinics in the UK regarding their current clinical practice of IUI, formal discussion of the guideline recommendations, and any alterations made since the recommendations. Setting 66 UK fertility clinics licensed to provide IUI. Participants 46 fertility clinics, including 6 clinic groups which represent 70% of all clinics and clinic groups licensed to provide IUI in April 2014 when the survey email was sent. Results Of the 46 clinics that responded, 96% (44/46) of clinics continue to offer IUI. 98% (43/44) of those offering IUI also use ovarian stimulation. The most commonly used medications for ovarian stimulation are gonadotrophins (95%), followed by clomiphene citrate (49%) and letrozole (19%). 78% (36/46) of clinics had formally discussed NICE guideline recommendations. 17 clinics (37%) had made some changes to their practices; as a result, four clinics reported a reduction in the number of IUI cycles, six clinics had restricted the indications for IUI, and five clinics had begun informing patients of the guideline recommendations, while two did not specify. Conclusions The majority of clinics were aware of the guideline recommendations. However, only a small proportion of clinics had made significant changes to their practice by reducing the number of IUI cycles or restricting the clinical indications for IUI. The availability of further evidence will assist NICE and clinicians in making recommendations on the use of IUI. There is a need to further explore the reasons for the lack of adherence to the recommendations. PMID:25979869

  15. Deep intra-uterine artificial inseminations using cryopreserved spermatozoa in beluga (Delphinapterus leucas).

    PubMed

    Robeck, T R; Steinman, K J; Montano, G A; Katsumata, E; Osborn, S; Dalton, L; Dunn, J L; Schmitt, T; Reidarson, T; O'Brien, J K

    2010-10-01

    Artificial insemination (AI) with liquid-stored spermatozoa and sperm cryopreservation using directional freezing (DF) have been successful in the beluga. This study built on this foundation to develop a deep intra-uterine AI technique with frozen-thawed semen in beluga. Forty-two ejaculates from one male were cryopreserved using DF technology and subsequently used for 10 insemination attempts with seven females. Percentage pre- and post-thaw progressive motility and viability were (mean +/- SD) 73.0 +/- 12.2, 38.4 +/- 8.8, 88.0 +/- 0.1, and 59.3 +/- 15.7%, respectively. A series of GnRH injections (3 x 250 microg, IV, 1.5 to 2 h apart) were used to induce ovulation, once a growing follicle >2.5 cm in diameter was visualized via trans-abdominal ultrasonography. Artificial insemination was performed at 30.1 +/- 3.8 h post-initial GnRH injection with semen deposited in the uterine horn, 92.6 +/- 16.2 cm beyond the genital opening using a flexible endoscope. The external cervical os (cEOS) was located beyond a series of 5 to 10 vaginal rings, 44.8 +/- 9.3 cm from the external genital opening. The internal bifurcation of the uterus was 27 +/- 6.8 cm beyond the cEOS. Ovulation occurred at 8.5 +/- 7.6 h post-AI. Two of 10 inseminations (20%) resulted in pregnancy. The first pregnancy resulted in twins; both calves were born 442 d after AI, with one surviving. The second pregnancy is ongoing. These findings represent the first successful application of AI using frozen-thawed semen in beluga, and are important examples of how assisted reproductive technologies can provide tools for the global management of threatened species. PMID:20570326

  16. Intrauterine growth retardation in Iowa communities with herbicide-contaminated drinking water supplies.

    PubMed Central

    Munger, R; Isacson, P; Hu, S; Burns, T; Hanson, J; Lynch, C F; Cherryholmes, K; Van Dorpe, P; Hausler, W J

    1997-01-01

    In a statewide survey of 856 Iowa municipal drinking water supplies in 1986-1987 the Rathbun rural water system was found to contain elevated levels of triazine herbicides. Rates of low birth weight, prematurity, and intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) in live singleton births during the period 1984-1990 by women living in 13 communities served by the Rathbun water system were compared to other communities of similar size in the same Iowa counties. The Rathbun communities had a greater risk of IUGR than southern Iowa communities with other surface sources of drinking water (relative risk = 1.8; 95% CI = 1.3, 2.7). Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that levels of the herbicides atrazine, metolachlor, and cyanzinc were each significant predictors of community IUGR rates in southern Iowa after controlling for several potentially confounding factors including maternal smoking and socioeconomic variables. The association with IUGR was strongest for atrazine, but all three herbicides were intercorrelated and the independent contributions of each to IUGR risk could not be determined. We conclude that communities in southern Iowa with drinking water supplies contaminated with herbicides have elevated rates of IUGR compared to neighboring communities with different water supplies. Because of the limitations of the ecologic design of this study, including aggregate rather than individual measures of exposure and limited ability to control for confounding factors related to source of drinking water and risk of IUGR, a strong causal relationship between any specific water contaminant and risk of IUGR cannot yet be inferred. The association between the water supplied to the Rathbun communities and the increased risk of IUGR should be considered a preliminary finding that needs to be verified by more detailed epidemiologic studies. PMID:9171992

  17. Postnatal nutritional restriction affects growth and immune function of piglets with intra-uterine growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Hu, Liang; Liu, Yan; Yan, Chuan; Peng, Xie; Xu, Qin; Xuan, Yue; Han, Fei; Tian, Gang; Fang, Zhengfeng; Lin, Yan; Xu, Shengyu; Zhang, Keying; Chen, Daiwen; Wu, De; Che, Lianqiang

    2015-07-14

    Postnatal rapid growth by excess intake of nutrients has been associated with an increased susceptibility to diseases in neonates with intra-uterine growth restricted (IUGR). The aim of the present study was to determine whether postnatal nutritional restriction could improve intestinal development and immune function of neonates with IUGR using piglets as model. A total of twelve pairs of normal-birth weight (NBW) and IUGR piglets (7 d old) were randomly assigned to receive adequate nutrient intake or restricted nutrient intake (RNI) by artificially liquid feeding for a period of 21 d. Blood samples and intestinal tissues were collected at necropsy and were analysed for morphology, digestive enzyme activities, immune cells and expression of innate immunity-related genes. The results indicated that both IUGR and postnatal nutritional restriction delayed the growth rate during the sucking period. Irrespective of nutrient intake, piglets with IUGR had a significantly lower villous height and crypt depth in the ileum than the NBW piglets. Moreover, IUGR decreased alkaline phosphatase activity while enhanced lactase activity in the jejunum and mRNA expressions of Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR-9) and DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) in the ileum of piglets. Irrespective of body weight, RNI significantly decreased the number and/or percentage of peripheral leucocytes, lymphocytes and monocytes of piglets, whereas the percentage of neutrophils and the ratio of CD4+ to CD8+ were increased. Furthermore, RNI markedly enhanced the mRNA expression of TLR-9 and DNMT1, but decreased the expression of NOD2 and TRAF-6 in the ileum of piglets. In summary, postnatal nutritional restriction led to abnormal cellular and innate immune response, as well as delayed the growth and intestinal development of IUGR piglets. PMID:26059215

  18. Limited capacity for glucose oxidation in fetal sheep with intrauterine growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Brown, Laura D; Rozance, Paul J; Bruce, Jennifer L; Friedman, Jacob E; Hay, William W; Wesolowski, Stephanie R

    2015-10-15

    Intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR) fetal sheep, produced by placental insufficiency, have lower oxygen concentrations, higher lactate concentrations, and increased hepatic glucose production that is resistant to suppression by insulin. We hypothesized that increased lactate production in the IUGR fetus results from reduced glucose oxidation, during basal and maximal insulin-stimulated conditions, and is used to support glucose production. To test this, studies were performed in late-gestation control (CON) and IUGR fetal sheep under basal and hyperinsulinemic-clamp conditions. The basal glucose oxidation rate was similar and increased by 30-40% during insulin clamp in CON and IUGR fetuses (P < 0.005). However, the fraction of glucose oxidized was 15% lower in IUGR fetuses during basal and insulin-clamp periods (P = 0.05). IUGR fetuses also had four-fold higher lactate concentrations (P < 0.001) and lower lactate uptake rates (P < 0.05). In IUGR fetal muscle and liver, mRNA expression of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK4), an inhibitor of glucose oxidation, was increased over fourfold. In IUGR fetal liver, but not skeletal muscle, mRNA expression of lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) was increased nearly fivefold. Hepatic expression of the gluconeogenic genes, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK)1, and PCK2, was correlated with expression of PDK4 and LDHA. Collectively, these in vivo and tissue data support limited capacity for glucose oxidation in the IUGR fetus via increased PDK4 in skeletal muscle and liver. We speculate that lactate production also is increased, which may supply carbon for glucose production in the IUGR fetal liver. PMID:26224688

  19. Problems with contraception in adolescents. The successful use of an intrauterine device.

    PubMed

    Johnson, L B; Burket, R L; Rauh, J L

    1971-06-01

    The use of intrauterine contraceptive devices to prevent out-of-wedlock pregnancies among 155 adolescents at the Adolecent Clinic of the University of Cincinnati Medical Center is described. The girls participating in the program from 1965 to 1971 were predominantly black, ranging in age from 11-20 years. Patients and parents were counselled about contraceptive methods, and if the IUD was chosen, its function and use were explained. An IUD was usually recommended for those patients who had a medical contraindication to oral contraceptives, in cases of other method failure, or in cases of lack of motivation or ability to follow instructions. Of 91 insertions of the Lippes loop IUD, there were 50 spontaneous expulsions. The high expulsion rate was a serious deterrent to proper patient motivation. In 1968 the program began using the Majzlin Spring, a stainless steel accordion-like device. 60 insertions were performed with this device and only 3 expulsions have been reported in follow-up ranging from 5 to 18 months. 1 uterine perforation occurred, believed due to problems with early postpartum insertion. 17 removals for infection or bleeding were necessary with the Lippes loop, and 8 with the Majzlin Spring. The pregnancy failure rate for the loop was 2.2% and 1.6% for the spring. The Majzlin device was also noticeably well retained by patients who had expelled other IUDs, but one-third of the patients with the spring device experienced significant postinsertion bleeding. The Majzlin Spring appears to be a highly acceptable contraceptive method for adolescents who fail to handle other means of preventing pregnancy, provided careful clinic observations are maintained. PMID:5578152

  20. Cauterization of meso-ovarian vessels, a new model of intrauterine growth restriction in rats.

    PubMed

    Camprubí, M; Ortega, A; Balaguer, A; Iglesias, I; Girabent, M; Callejo, J; Figueras, J; Krauel, X

    2009-09-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) remains an important cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Both IUGR and low birth weight have been identified as risk factors for increased incidence of cardiovascular disease, dyslipemia, and other diseases in the adulthood. Several animal models have been developed to study the underlying mechanisms of IUGR and its later consequences, with utero-placental ischemia by uterine artery ligation (UAL) being the most frequently used in rats. The relevance of this model lies in the fact that it induces altered placental perfusion, the main cause of IUGR in humans in Western countries. However, there is also controversy over the grade and homogeneity of IUGR obtained. In this study, we propose a new animal model of IUGR related to placental ischemia through the cauterization of meso-ovarian vessels. We aimed to test the feasibility of meso-ovarian vessel cauterization (CMO), and to compare it with uterine artery ligation (UAL). The CMO group had similar incidence of perinatal mortality, percentage of IUGR, and evolution of body weight during early extrauterine life to the UAL group, indicating that both methods are similarly efficient for inducing IUGR. Moreover, both of them affect the ratio of fetal to placental weight, and the weight of vital organs, supporting the hypothesis of a fetal compensatory response or "brain- and heart-sparing effect". Both operative models suffer approximately 50% perinatal mortality, implying that they are both more efficient in the production of IUGR when C-section is performed. On the other hand, CMO was significantly faster to perform than UAL and seemed to produce a more uniform ischemia throughout the uterus than the UAL method, resulting in a more homogeneous group of IUGR pups. PMID:19631378

  1. Postnatal Anthropometric and Body Composition Profiles in Infants with Intrauterine Growth Restriction Identified by Prenatal Doppler

    PubMed Central

    Mazarico, E.; Martinez-Cumplido, R.; Díaz, M.; Sebastiani, G.; Ibáñez, L.; Gómez-Roig, M. D.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Infant anthropometry and body composition have been previously assessed to gauge the impact of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) at birth, but the interplay between prenatal Doppler measurements and postnatal development has not been studied in this setting. The present investigation was performed to assess the significance of prenatal Doppler findings relative to postnatal anthropometrics and body composition in IUGR newborns over the first 12 months of life. Patients and Methods Consecutive cases of singleton pregnancies with suspected IUGR were prospectively enrolled over 12 months. Fetal biometry and prenatal Doppler ultrasound examinations were performed. Body composition was assessed by absorptiometry at ages 10 days, and at 4 and12 months. Results A total of 48 pregnancies qualifying as IUGR were studied. Doppler parameters were normal in 26 pregnancies. The remaining 22 deviated from normal, marked by an Umbilical Artery Pulsatility Index (UA-PI) >95th centil or Cerebro-placental ratio (CPR) <5th centile. No significant differences emerged when comparing anthropometry and body composition at each time point, in relation to Doppler findings. Specifically, those IUGR newborns with and without abnormal Doppler findings had similar weight, length, body mass index, lean and fat mass, and bone mineral content throughout the first 12 months of life. In a separate analysis, when comparing IUGR newborns by Doppler (abnormal UA-PI vs. abnormal CPR), anthropometry and body composition did not differ significantly. Conclusions Infants with IUGR maintain a pattern of body composition during the first year of life that is independent of prenatal Doppler findings. Future studies with larger sample sizes and correlating with hormonal status are warranted to further extend the phenotypic characterization of the various conditions now classified under the common label of IUGR. PMID:26938993

  2. When can a woman have an intrauterine device inserted? A systematic review☆

    PubMed Central

    Whiteman, Maura K.; Tyler, Crystal P.; Folger, Suzanne G.; Gaffield, Mary E.; Curtis, Kathryn M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Intrauterine device (IUD) insertion during menses may be viewed as preferable by some providers, as it provides reassurance that the woman is not pregnant. However, this practice may result in unnecessary inconvenience and cost to women. The objective of this systematic review is to evaluate the evidence for the effect of inserting IUDs on different days of the menstrual cycle on contraceptive continuation, effectiveness and safety. Study Design We searched the MEDLINE database for peer-reviewed articles published in any language from database inception through March 2012 concerning the effect of inserting copper IUDs (Cu-IUD) or levonorgestrel-releasing IUDs (LNG-IUDs) on different days of the menstrual cycle on contraceptive continuation, effectiveness, and safety. The quality of each individual piece of evidence was assessed using the United States Preventive Services Task Force grading system. Results We identified eight articles that met the criteria for review. Each study examined the Cu-IUD; no studies were identified that examined the LNG-IUD. Overall, these studies suggest that timing of Cu-IUD insertion has little effect on longer term outcomes (rates of continuation, removal, expulsion, or pregnancy) or on shorter term outcomes (pain at insertion, bleeding at insertion, immediate expulsion). Specifically, there was no evidence to suggest that outcomes were better when Cu-IUD insertions were performed during menses. Limitations of the studies include small sample sizes for insertions performed during later days of the menstrual cycle and non-randomized assignment to timing of insertion. Conclusions There is fair evidence (body of evidence grading: II-2, fair) indicating that timing of Cu-IUD insertion has little effect on contraceptive continuation, effectiveness or safety. PMID:22995537

  3. Identifying Counseling Needs of Nulliparous Adolescent Intrauterine Contraceptive Users: A Qualitative Approach

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Margot K.; Auerswald, Colette; Eyre, Stephen L.; Deardorff, Julianna; Dehlendorf, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To describe the Intrauterine Contraception (IUC) adoption process among nulliparous adolescents and to identify the role of the medical provider in this trajectory. Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews with a clinic-based sample of twenty nulliparous adolescents (ages 15-24 years) with a history of IUC use. Interviews were analyzed using modified grounded theory and cross-case analysis to reveal a process model for IUC adoption with a focus on the role of the medical provider. Results The model includes the following stages: awareness, initial reaction, information gathering, adoption, and adjustment and reassessment. It is influenced by personal preferences and experiences, friends, family, sexual partner(s), and medical providers. Interactions with medical providers that study participants found helpful in navigating the adoption process included the use of visuals; tailored counseling to address specific contraceptive needs; assurance that IUC discontinuation was an option; information on a wide range of side effects; medical provider self-disclosure regarding use of IUC; and addressing and validating concerns both before and after IUC insertion. Conclusions Nulliparous adolescents in this study described a complex IUC adoption process in which the medical provider plays a substantial supportive role. Findings from this study may be used to counsel and support future nulliparous adolescents regarding IUC use. Implications and Contribution Summary Little is known about nulliparous adolescent use of IUC and the counseling needs of this population. This study offers counseling suggestions for medical providers that they may use to support nulliparous adolescents as they make decisions about IUC use. PMID:23299012

  4. Evaluation of midwifery students’ competency in providing intrauterine device services using objective structured clinical examination

    PubMed Central

    Erfanian, Fatemeh; Khadivzadeh, Talaat

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Delivering IUD services is one of the important competencies that midwifery students must obtain during academic period. As Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) can be reasonably reliable, valid and objective method for clinical skills assessment, this study was conducted to assess midwifery students’ skill in delivering intrauterine device (IUD) services using a clinical examination and their satisfaction from the OSCE. METHODS: All of the 62 eligible Bachelor of Science midwifery students of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences participated in a ten-station OSCE about delivering IUD services for 50 minutes in 2006. Students performed technical skills or interacted with standard patients in 6 stations and in 4 stations they answered to the related questions. Students’ performance in 6 stations was rated by observer or standard patients using validated checklists. Students’ level of satisfaction and also their experience of participating in OSCE examination were gathered. RESULTS: Performance of 98.2% of students was poor. On average, the students gained 49% of total score in counseling and screening, 35.7% in inserting the IUD, 40% in IUD removal and 24.4% in management of IUD side effect. Eighty percent of students rated their satisfaction from the OSCE high and very high. Students reported the OSCE as an enjoying examination experience. CONCLUSIONS: Students’ skill in delivering IUD services was lower than expected level that shows the need to change the current teaching methods. OSCE is a valid evaluation method which provides valuable information which cannot be obtained by more traditional assessment modalities. Based on the finding of this study a workshop program on providing IUD services for midwifery students and family planning providers should be prepared. PMID:22224105

  5. The efficacy of intrauterine devices for emergency contraception: a systematic review of 35 years of experience

    PubMed Central

    Cleland, Kelly; Zhu, Haoping; Goldstuck, Norman; Cheng, Linan; Trussell, James

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Intrauterine devices (IUDs) have been studied for use for emergency contraception for at least 35 years. IUDs are safe and highly effective for emergency contraception and regular contraception, and are extremely cost-effective as an ongoing method. The objective of this study was to evaluate the existing data to estimate the efficacy of IUDs for emergency contraception. METHODS The reference list for this study was generated from hand searching the reference lists of relevant articles and our own article archives, and electronic searches of several databases: Medline, Global Health, Clinicaltrials.gov, Popline, Wanfang Data (Chinese) and Weipu Data (Chinese). We included studies published in English or Chinese, with a defined population of women who presented for emergency contraception and were provided with an IUD, and in which the number of pregnancies was ascertained and loss to follow-up was clearly defined. Data from each article were abstracted independently by two reviewers. RESULTS The 42 studies (of 274 retrieved) that met our inclusion criteria were conducted in six countries between 1979 and 2011 and included eight different types of IUD and 7034 women. The maximum timeframe from intercourse to insertion of the IUD ranged from 2 days to 10 or more days; the majority of insertions (74% of studies) occurred within 5 days of intercourse. The pregnancy rate (excluding one outlier study) was 0.09%. CONCLUSIONS IUDs are a highly effective method of contraception after unprotected intercourse. Because they are safe for the majority of women, highly effective and cost-effective when left in place as ongoing contraception, whenever clinically feasible IUDs should be included in the range of emergency contraception options offered to patients presenting after unprotected intercourse. This review is limited by the fact that the original studies did not provide sufficient data on the delay between intercourse and insertion of the IUD, parity, cycle day

  6. Effect of Pertubation on Pregnancy Rates before Intrauterine Insemination Treatment in Patients with Unexplained Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Yildiz, Funda; Bozkurt, Nuray; Erdem, Ahmet; Erdem, Mehmet; Oktem, Mesut; Onur Karabacak, Recep

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between marital violence and distress level among women with a diagnosis of infertility. Materials and Methods: In this prospective randomized study, a total of 180 patients were included in the study. Amongst these, pertubation of the uterine cavity was carried out in 79 patients prior to insemination. One patient in the pertubation group was later excluded because insemination could not be performed due to cycle cancellation. Results: There were no significant differences in demographic characteristics between the study and control groups. When the pregnancy rates of both groups were evaluated, 14(17.8%) patients in the study group achieved pregancy. Three (3.8%) had a biochemical pregnancy, 1(1.3%) miscarried and 10(12.7%) had live births. In the control group, a total of 24(23.8%) pregnancies were achieved, amongst which one (1%) had a biochemical pregnancy, 3(3%) miscarried and 20(19.8%) resulted in live births. There was no significant difference between groups in terms of total pregnancy and live birth rates (p>0.05). There was a 21% total pregnancy loss rate. There was no significant difference between the control and study groups in terms of pregnancy loss rates (p>0.05). Conclusion: This study on a homogenous group of unexplained infertile patients determined that the addition of pertubation to a controlled ovarian hyperstimulation plus intrauterine insemination (COH+IUI) treatment protocol did not affect pregnancy rates (Registration Number: NCT01999959). PMID:24695882

  7. Intrauterine device survival in Iranian women: systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Farajzadegan, Ziba; Motamedi, Narges; Nouri, Rasool; Kheyri, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The intrauterine device (IUD) is one of the modern contraception methods that is reversible, safe, effective, and with long-term efficacy. The problem of using this method is early discontinuation. The survival of the IUD use has been reported differently in different studies. In this meta-analysis, we estimated average time of surviving in Iranian women. Materials and Methods: We evaluated the incident of IUD removed in the Iranian women with a broad systematic review of the literature regarding MOOSES criteria. ISI, Scopus, Medline, WHO, Cochrane, Web of Science, Biological abstracts, Google Scholar and DARE and Iran Medex, SID, Magiran and IranDoc were searched. We defined inclusion and exclusion criteria for selection of articles. All chosen articles were appraised using Critical Appraisal Skills Programme checklist. Data were extracted regarding prepared sheets. We used a Cochrane Q-test with a significance <0.1 for checking of heterogeneity of results. We defined I2 = 50–75% as a medium heterogeneity and I2 >75% as high heterogeneity. We applied both fix and random effect model by comprehensive meta-analysis software. Results: A total of 14 articles was included in the systematic review. These were obtained from screening 63 potentially relevant citations and reviewing 17 full-text study articles. One-year survival of IUD, for the random effects model was 78.4% (69.8–85.1%). Three-year survival for the random effects model was 69.4% (53.3–81.9%). Five years for the random effects model was 49.7% (36–63.4%). Conclusion: Above half of Iranian IUD users discontinued it within 5 years after insertion, it means half of IUD expected lifetime was used and make additional costs to the state and the consumer. To reduce these costs, it is recommended for Iranian women to use the IUD with 5-year survival, and they should be consulted before insertion. PMID:25949968

  8. Effects of Intrauterine Devices in Mares: A Histomorphological and Immunohistochemical Evaluation of the Endometrium.

    PubMed

    Klein, V; Müller, K; Schoon, H A; Reilas, T; Rivera Del Alamo, M M; Katila, T

    2016-02-01

    Oestrous suppression by intrauterine devices (IUDs) is caused by prolongation of luteal function, but the biological mechanism is unknown. The aim of the study was to investigate mechanisms which could explain the action of IUDs. Thirty mares were age-matched and either inseminated (AI, n = 15) or fitted with an IUD (IUD, n = 15) and subsequently divided into four groups: AI-P, pregnant (n = 8); AI-N, non-pregnant (n = 7); IUD-P, prolonged luteal phase (n = 7); and IUD-N, normal luteal phase (n = 8). The median ages were 5.5 and 7 years in AI-P and IUD-P groups and 14 and 11 years in AI-N and IUD-N groups, respectively. On Day 15 after ovulation, an endometrial biopsy was obtained to study histomorphological and immunohistochemical expression patterns of uterine proteins (uteroferrin, UF; uterocalin, UC; uteroglobin, UG), oestrogen and progesterone receptors (ER, PR), proliferation marker Ki-67 and content of inflammatory cells. Expression of UF was higher in IUD mares; the difference between pregnant and IUD-P mares was significant. Mares exhibiting a prolonged luteal phase (AI-P, IUD-P) showed only mild angiosclerosis and lower expression of both ER and PR than mares with a normal luteal phase (AI-N, IUD-N). No significant differences were detected in the numbers of inflammatory cells, with the exception of macrophages, which were more numerous in AI-P than AI-N mares. Although inflammatory cells were not detected in IUD mares, increased UF levels may indicate chronic inflammation. Young age and normality of the endometrial blood vessels may improve the efficacy of IUDs. PMID:26661561

  9. The Effect of Subclinical Maternal Thyroid Dysfunction and Autoimmunity on Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Zhao; Xiaowen, Zhang; Baomin, Chen; Aihua, Liu; Yingying, Zhou; Weiping, Teng; Zhongyan, Shan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between maternal subclinical thyroid dysfunction and autoimmunity with the risk for intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Design is a systematic review and meta-analysis. A literature search was conducted using PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane database. A combination of 2 key words was used to search for the eligible studies: one indexed thyroid dysfunction or antithyroid antibodies; and the other one indexed the adverse neonatal outcomes of pregnancy, such as IUGR, small for gestational age, fetal growth restriction, or low birth weight. Two reviewers selected the studies, and eligible studies met the following criteria: prospective cohort studies or case control studies, studies of maternal thyroid dysfunction and positive antithyroid antibodies as the exposure of interest, and studies of IUGR or small for gestational age as the outcome of interest. Data were recorded, including data from maternal thyroid disorders and IUGR, and compared with a reference group. There were 22 individual data from the 13 cohort articles. Among these, 7 were focused on subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH), 4 on subclinical hyperthyroidism, 7 on positivity for thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), and 4 on isolated hypothyroxinemia. Meta-analysis showed that there was no effect of subclinical hyperthyroidism (odds ratio (OR) = 0.98; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.40–2.41), TPOAb positivity (OR = 1.57; 95% CI, 0.77–3.18), or isolated hypothyroxinemia (OR = 1.05, 95% CI: 0.37–2.92) on IUGR. However, SCH is associated with IUGR (OR = 1.54; 95% CI, 1.06–2.25). SCH is associated with IUGR; however, subclinical hyperthyroidism, TPOAb positivity, or isolated hypothyroxinemia do not affect the risk of IUGR. PMID:27175703

  10. Cryoconservation of Oocytes in a Patient with Breast Cancer and Intrauterine Early Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Werling, M.; Tandler-Schneider, A.; Siemann, A.; Stief, G.; Kentenich, H.

    2012-01-01

    Case Report: A 38-year-old patient newly diagnosed with invasive ductal breast cancer wished to cryoconserve her unfertilised oocytes. Stimulation was started on the 26th day of her menstrual cycle with daily administration of 300 IE hMG s. c. and a GnRH antagonist (cetrorelix 0.25 mg s. c.). The patient additionally received an aromatase inhibitor during the first 5 days of stimulation (letrozole 5 mg p. o.). Induction of ovulation occurred on the 11th day of stimulation with hCG (10 000 IE s. c.) and a GnRH agonist (triptorelin 0.2 mg s. c.). Seventeen oocytes were retrieved during follicle puncture and 11 were cryopreserved. Despite the administration of cetrotide (a GnRH antagonist) no luteolysis occurred during stimulation. A pregnancy test was therefore done on the 11th day of stimulation and the result was positive (β-HCG 3493 mIU/ml). Sonography showed an intrauterine pregnancy. The patient was in gestational week 5 + 0. The aspirated oocytes mostly showed a normal morphology (metaphase II) despite high progesterone levels during stimulation. The patient decided to terminate the pregnancy before starting adjuvant chemotherapy. Conclusion: We describe the case of a patient who underwent stimulation for cryopreservation of oocytes during a spontaneous pregnancy conceived in the same cycle just before starting stimulation. Stimulation was done over a short period using a combination of a GnRH antagonist and an aromatase inhibitor to ensure the lowest possible estradiol levels. The quality of the oocytes does not appear to have been negatively affected by the high progesterone levels of early pregnancy. PMID:25258460

  11. Detection of expressional changes induced by intrauterine growth restriction in the developing rat pancreas.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Chen, Wei; Dai, Yuee; Zhu, Ziyang; Liu, Qianqi

    2016-07-01

    Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is a disorder that can result in permanent changes in the physiology and metabolism of the newborn, which increased the risk of disease in adulthood. Evidence supports IUGR as a risk factor for the development of diabetes mellitus, which could reflect changes in pancreas developmental pathways. We sought to characterize the IUGR-induced alterations of the complex pathways of pancreas development in a rat model of IUGR. We analyzed the pancreases of Sprague Dawley rats after inducing IUGR by feeding a maternal low calorie diet from gestational day 1 until term. IUGR altered the pancreatic structure, islet areas, and islet quantities and resulted in abnormal morphological changes during pancreatic development, as determined by HE staining and light microscopy. We identified multiple differentially expressed genes in the pancreas by RT-PCR. The genes of the insulin/FoxO1/Pdx1/MafA signaling pathway were first expressed at embryonic day 14 (E14). The expressions of insulin and MafA increased as the fetus grew while the expressions of FoxO1 and Pdx1 decreased. Compared with the control rats, the expressions of FoxO1, Pdx1, and MafA were lower in the IUGR rats, whereas insulin levels showed no change. Microarray profiling, in combination with quantitative real-time PCR, uncovered a subset of microRNAs that changed in their degree of expression throughout pancreatic development. In conclusion, our data support the hypothesis that IUGR influences the development of the rat pancreas. We also identified new pathways that appear to be programmed by IUGR. PMID:27190278

  12. Inhaled Lavender Effect on Anxiety and Pain Caused From Intrauterine Device Insertion

    PubMed Central

    Shahnazi, Mahnaz; Nikjoo, Roya; Yavarikia, Parisa; Mohammad-Alizadeh-Charandabi, Sakineh

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Intrauterine device (IUD) is the most common reliable, effective and reversible contraceptive method used worldwide and in areas with high growth rate is of particular importance. IUD insertion is associated with high anxiety in most people that causes pain and discomfort. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of aromatherapy on anxiety and pain caused by IUD insertion. Methods: This study was conducted on 106 women in a health care center located in Ardebil, Iran. Participants were divided into two groups by randomized blocks of 4 and 6. In the experimental group lavender scent was inhaled and in the control group the placebo was inhaled 30 minutes before IUD insertion. The anxiety of the participants was measured by Spielberger questionnaire, and the pain of IUD insertion was measured immediately after the insertion using visual analog scale (range 0-10). Results: The mean score (standard deviation) of anxiety before intervention was 43.2 (9.2) in the experimental group that decreased after intervention to 39.0 (10.5) (p < 0.001), while this score was 42.2 (9.0) and 41.5 (8.4) before and after the intervention in the control group (p = 0.21). Mean differences of anxiety in both groups was statistically significant (p < 0.001). The pain score after intervention did not show significant difference between two groups (p = 0.51). Conclusion: Aromatherapy with lavender inhalation was effective in decreasing anxiety in IUD procedure, and this method can be used in health care centers as complementary treatments. PMID:25276703

  13. Intrauterine administration of drugs for termination of pregnancy in the second trimester.

    PubMed

    Toppozada, M; Ismail, A A

    1990-06-01

    Medical methods have been used for many years to terminate mid-trimester pregnancy, ranging from irritant chemicals and traditional plants to ecbolic agents and solutions instilled locally into the uterus. These methods had serious limitations, with relatively high rates of maternal mortality and morbidity. Surgical evacuation requires special skills not available to all practitioners and many doctors consider second trimester dilatation and evacuation as a surgical taboo. In recent years several approaches evolved and reached the clinics, presenting safer and more effective options. Intra-amniotic instillation of hypertonic solutions, particularly saline or urea, proved in many hands to be a good method for pregnancies beyond 15 weeks of gestation. Due to a long latency period after instillation, these agents are often supplemented by an intravenous oxytocin infusion. Extraovular hypertonic saline or ethacridine (Rivanol) have their advocates, particularly in the grey-zone of pregnancy range from 13-15 weeks. In the last two decades, intrauterine prostaglandins were added to the methods in current use. Extra-amniotic prostaglandins (E2, F2 alpha or 15-methyl F2 alpha) were originally given in repeated doses or as a continuous local drip, but later a single instillation was used, usually mixing the drug with a viscous solution or gel. Intra-amniotic prostaglandins, in much higher doses, particularly the 15-methyl analogue, proved highly effective and relatively safe, especially when combined with laminaria tent insertion in the cervix. Various combinations of methods have provided a wide spectrum of data which is difficult to evaluate at present. Studies comparing different methods were mainly attempted in the mid-seventies. The outcome raised many pertinent questions and left many major issues unresolved. Most of the comparisons were not randomized or well-controlled and only referred to the natural prostaglandin compounds. The analogues, however, seem to offer

  14. Intrauterine growth retardation in Iowa communities with herbicide-contaminated drinking water supplies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Munger, R.; Isacson, P.; Hu, S.; Burns, T.; Hanson, J.; Lynch, C.F.; Cherryholmes, K.; Van Dorpe, P.; Hausler, W.J., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    In a statewide survey of 856 Iowa municipal drinking water supplies in 1986-1987 the Rathbun rural water system was found to contain elevated levels of triazine herbicides. Rates of low birth weight, prematurity, and intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) in live singleton births during the period 1984-1990 by women living in 13 communities served by the Rathbun water system were compared to other communities of similar size in the same Iowa counties. The Rathbun communities had a greater risk of IUGR than southern Iowa communities with other surface sources of drinking water (relative risk = 1.8; 95% CI = 1.3, 2.7). Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that levels of the herbicides atrazine, metolachlor, and cyanazine were each significant predictors of community IUGR rates in southern Iowa after controlling for several potentially confounding factors including maternal smoking and socioeconomic variables. The association with IUGR was strongest for atrazine, but all three herbicides were intercorrelated and the independent contributions of each to IUGR risk could not be determined. We conclude that communities in southern Iowa with drinking water supplies contaminated with herbicides have elevated rates of IUGR compared to neighboring communities with different water supplies. Because of the limitations of the ecologic design of this study, including aggregate rather than individual measures of exposure and limited ability to control for confounding factors related to source of drinking water and risk of IUGR, a strong causal relationship between any specific water contaminant and risk of IUGR cannot yet be inferred. The association between the water supplied to the Rathbun communities and the increased risk of IUGR should be considered a preliminary finding that needs to be verified by more detailed epidemiologic studies.

  15. Intrauterine group A streptococcal infections are exacerbated by prostaglandin E2.

    PubMed

    Mason, Katie L; Rogers, Lisa M; Soares, Elyara M; Bani-Hashemi, Tara; Erb Downward, John; Agnew, Dalen; Peters-Golden, Marc; Weinberg, Jason B; Crofford, Leslie J; Aronoff, David M

    2013-09-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A Streptococcus; GAS) is a major cause of severe postpartum sepsis, a re-emerging cause of maternal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Immunological alterations occur during pregnancy to promote maternofetal tolerance, which may increase the risk for puerperal infection. PGE2 is an immunomodulatory lipid that regulates maternofetal tolerance, parturition, and innate immunity. The extent to which PGE2 regulates host immune responses to GAS infections in the context of endometritis is unknown. To address this, both an in vivo mouse intrauterine (i.u.) GAS infection model and an in vitro human macrophage-GAS interaction model were used. In C57BL/6 mice, i.u. GAS inoculation resulted in local and systemic inflammatory responses and triggered extensive changes in the expression of eicosanoid pathway genes. The i.u. administration of PGE2 increased the mortality of infected mice, suppressed local IL-6 and IL-17A levels, enhanced neutrophilic inflammation, reduced uterine macrophage populations, and increased bacterial dissemination. A role for endogenous PGE2 in the modulation of antistreptococcal host defense was suggested, because mice lacking the genes encoding the microsomal PGE2 synthase-1 or the EP2 receptor were protected from death, as were mice treated with the EP4 receptor antagonist, GW627368X. PGE2 also regulated GAS-macrophage interactions. In GAS-infected human THP-1 (macrophage-like) cells, PGE2 inhibited the production of MCP-1 and TNF-α while augmenting IL-10 expression. PGE2 also impaired the phagocytic ability of human placental macrophages, THP-1 cells, and mouse peritoneal macrophages in vitro. Exploring the targeted disruption of PGE2 synthesis and signaling to optimize existing antimicrobial therapies against GAS may be warranted. PMID:23913961

  16. Assessment of Multiple Intrauterine Gestations from Ovarian Stimulation (AMIGOS) Trial: Baseline Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, Michael P.; Legro, Richard S.; Coutifaris, Christos; Alvero, Ruben; Robinson, Randal D.; Casson, Peter; Christman, Gregory M.; Ager, Joel; Huang, Hao; Hansen, Karl R.; Baker, Valerie; Usadi, Rebecca; Seungdamrong, Aimee; Bates, G. Wright; Rosen, R. Mitchell; Haisonleder, Daniell; Krawetz, Stephen A.; Barnhart, Kurt; Trussell, J.C.; Jin, Yufeng; Santoro, Nanette; Eisenberg, Esther; Zhang, Heping

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify baseline characteristics of women with unexplained infertility to determine whether treatment with an aromatase inhibitor will result in a lower rate of multiple gestations than current standard ovulation induction medications. Design Randomized, prospective clinical trial Patients 900 couples with unexplained infertility Interventions: Ovarian stimulation with gonadotropins, clomiphene citrate, or letrozole in conjunction with intrauterine insemination. Setting Multicenter University based clinical practices. Main Outcome Measures Demographic, laboratory, imaging, and survey characteristics. Interventions Collection of baseline demographics, blood samples, and ultrasonographic assessments. Results Demographic characteristics of women receiving clomiphene citrate, letrozole, or gonadotropins for ovarian stimulation were very consistent. Their mean age was 32.2 ± 4.4 years and infertility duration was 34.7± 25.7 months, with 59% primary infertility. More than 1/3 of the women were current or past smokers. The mean BMI was 27 and mean AMH level was 2.6; only 11 women (1.3%) had antral follicle counts of less than 5. Similar observations were identified for hormonal profiles, ultrasound characterization of the ovaries, semen parameters, and quality of life assessments in both male and female partners. Conclusion The cause of infertility in the couples recruited to this treatment trial is elusive, as the women were regularly ovulating and had evidence of good ovarian reserve both by basal FSH, AMH levels, and antral follicle counts; the male partners had normal semen parameters. The three treatment subgroups have common baseline characteristics, thereby providing comparable patient populations for testing the hypothesis that use of letrozole for ovarian stimulation can reduce the rates of multiples from that observed with gonadotropin and clomiphene citrate treatment. PMID:25707331

  17. Evaluating The Effective Factors in Pregnancy after Intrauterine Insemination: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Ghaffari, Firoozeh; Sadatmahalleh, Shahideh Jahanian; Akhoond, Mohammad Reza; Eftekhari Yazdi, Poopak; Zolfaghari, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Background Controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) in conjunction with intrauterine inseminations (IUI) are commonly used to treat infertile couples. In this study we evaluated the relationship between IUI outcome and special causes of infertility. We also aimed to examine parameters that might predict success following IUI. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study, we included 994 IUI cycles in 803 couples who referred to the infertility Institute. All statistical analyses were performed by using SPSS program, t tests and chi-square. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was performed to compare the association between dependent and independent variables. Logistic regression was conducted to build a prediction model of the IUI outcome. Results Overall pregnancy rate per completed cycle (16.5%) and live birth rate per cycle (14.5%). The mean age in the pregnant group was significantly lower than that of the non-pregnant group (P=0.01).There was an association between cause of infertility and clinical pregnancies (P<0.001). Logistic regression identified four significant factors in determining the success of the IUI [menstrual irregularites (OR:2.3, CI:1.6-3.4, P<0.001), duration of infertility (OR:0.8, CI:0.8-0.9, P<0.001), total dose of gonadotropin (OR:1.02, CI:1.003-1.04, P=0.02) and semen volume (OR:1.1, CI:1.008-1.2, P=0.03)] which were the most predictive of IUI success. Conclusion Our study defined prognostic factors for pregnancy in COH+IUI. These variables can be integrated into a mathematical model to predict the chance of pregnancy rate in subsequent COH+IUI cycles. PMID:26644852

  18. Impaired alveolarization and intra-uterine growth restriction in rats: a postnatal genome-wide analysis.

    PubMed

    Zana-Taieb, E; Pham, H; Franco-Montoya, M L; Jacques, S; Letourneur, F; Baud, O; Jarreau, P H; Vaiman, D

    2015-02-01

    Intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) dramatically increases the risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in preterm babies, a disease characterized by arrested alveolarization and abnormal microvascular angiogenesis. We have previously described a rodent low protein diet (LPD) model of IUGR inducing impaired alveolarization, but failed to demonstrate any modification of the classical factors involved in lung development. We performed a genome-wide microarray analysis in 120 rat pups with LPD-induced IUGR and their controls, at three key time points of the alveolarization process: postnatal day 4 (P4): start of alveolarization; P10: peak of the alveolarization process and P21: end of the alveolarization process. Results were analysed using Arraymining, DAVID and KEGG software and validated by qRT-PCR and western blots. Considering a cut-off of 2:1 as significant, 67 transcripts at P4, 102 transcripts at P10 and 451 transcripts at P21 were up-regulated, and 89 transcripts at P4, 25 transcripts at P10 and 585 transcripts at P21 were down-regulated. Automatic functional classification identified three main modified pathways, 'cell adhesion molecules', 'cardiac muscle contraction' and 'peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor' (PPAR). Protein analysis confirmed involvement of the PPAR pathway, with an increase of FABP4, an activator of this pathway, at P4 and an increase of adiponectin at P21. Other data also suggest involvement of the PPAR pathway in impaired alveolarization. Our results show that deregulation of the PPAR pathway may be an important component of the mechanism inducing impaired alveolarization observed in IUGR. The complete dataset is available as GEO profiles on the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database ( www.ncbi.nih.gov/geo/, GEO Accession No. GSE56956). PMID:25347958

  19. Comparing the Effect of Mefenamic Acid and Vitex Agnus on Intrauterine Device Induced Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Yavarikia, Parisa; Shahnazi, Mahnaz; Hadavand Mirzaie, Samira; Javadzadeh, Yousef; Lutfi, Razieh

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Increased bleeding is the most common cause of intrauterine device (IUD) removal. The use of alternative therapies to treat bleeding has increased due to the complications of medications. But most alternative therapies are not accepted by women. Therefore, conducting studies to find the right treatment with fewer complications and being acceptable is necessary. This study aimed to compare the effect of mefenamic acid and vitex agnus castus on IUD induced bleeding. Methods: This was a double blinded randomized controlled clinical trial. It was conducted on 84 women with random allocation in to two groups of 42 treated with mefenamic acid and vitex agnus capsules taking three times a day during menstruation for four months. Data were collected by demographic questionnaire and Higham 5 stage chart (1 month before the treatment and 4 months during the treatment)., Paired t-test, independent t-test, chi-square test, analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measurements, and SPSS software were used to determine the results. Results: Mefenamic acid and vitex agnus significantly decreased bleeding. This decrease in month 4 was 52% in the mefenamic acid group and 47.6% in the vitex agnus group. The mean bleeding score changes was statistically significant between the two groups in the first three months and before the intervention. In the mefenamic acid group, the decreased bleeding was significantly more than the vitex agnus group. However, during the 4th month, the mean change was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Mefenamic acid and vitex agnus were both effective on IUD induced bleeding; however, mefenamic acid was more effective. PMID:25276733

  20. Genital flora in pregnancy and its association with intrauterine growth retardation.

    PubMed Central

    Germain, M; Krohn, M A; Hillier, S L; Eschenbach, D A

    1994-01-01

    A study of risk factors for intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was conducted among a cohort of 13,914 pregnant women enrolled in the multicenter Vaginal Infections and Prematurity Study. From 23 through 26 weeks of gestational age, cultures of specimens from the vagina and cervix were done for group B streptococci, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, Candida albicans, Gardnerella vaginalis, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, and anaerobic gram-negative rods belonging to the genera Bacteroides, Porphyromonas, and Prevotella. Newborns who were small for their gestational age were delivered by 1,251 women, and infants of the appropriate weight for their gestational age were delivered by 10,332 women. When controlling for ethnicity and smoking and excluding women treated with antibiotics, the Mantel-Haenszel adjusted relative risk of IUGR was 1.16 for Bacteroides, Prevotella, and Porphyromonas spp. (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.01 to 1.33), 1.16 for M. hominis (95% CI, 1.04 to 1.29), 1.20 for U. urealyticum (95% CI, 1.05 to 1.38), and 1.22 for T. vaginalis (95% CI, 1.05 to 1.42). There was also a strong and significant trend for an increasing risk of IUGR with the number of these four microbes recovered. Among women colonized with all four isolates, the adjusted odds ratio of IUGR was 1.79 (95% CI, 1.27 to 2.52) in comparison with women not colonized with any of these microorganisms. Group B streptococci, N. gonorrhoeae, C. trachomatis, and C. albicans were not significantly associated with IUGR. These results suggest that infection is associated with some cases of IUGR and that specific microorganisms, alone or in combination, are involved. Since genital isolates are highly correlated with each other, the relative contribution of each microbe is difficult to determine. PMID:7814541

  1. The prognosis of pregnancy conceived despite the presence of an intrauterine device (IUD)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun Kwon; Romero, Roberto; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Erez, Offer; Vaisbuch, Edi; Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Gotsch, Francesca; Mittal, Pooja; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Pacora, Percy; Oggé, Giovanna; Gomez, Ricardo; Yoon, Bo Hyun; Yeo, Lami; Lamont, Ronald F.; Hassan, Sonia S

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Intrauterine devices (IUDs) are used for contraception worldwide; however, the management of pregnancies with an IUD poses a clinical challenge. The purpose of this study was to determine the outcome of pregnancy in patients with an IUD. STUDY DESIGN A retrospective cohort study (December 1997-June 2007) was conducted. The cohort consisted of 12,297 pregnancies, of which 196 had an IUD. Only singleton pregnancies were included. Logistic regression analysis was used to adjust for potential confounders between the groups. RESULTS 1) Pregnancies with an IUD were associated with a higher rate of late miscarriage, preterm delivery, vaginal bleeding, clinical chorioamnionitis, and placental abruption than those without an IUD; 2) among patients with available histologic examination of the placenta, the rate of histologic chorioamnionitis and/or funisitis was higher in patients with an IUD than in those without an IUD (54.2% vs. 14.7%; p<.001). Similarly, among patients who underwent an amniocentesis, the prevalence of microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity (MIAC) was also higher in pregnant women with an IUD than in those without an IUD (45.9% vs. 8.8%; p<.001); and 3) intra-amniotic infection caused by Candida species was more frequently present in pregnancies with an IUD than in those without an IUD (31.1% vs. 6.3%; p<.001). CONCLUSION Pregnant women with an IUD are at a very high risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes. This finding can be attributed, at least in part, to the high prevalence of intra-amniotic infection and placental inflammatory lesions observed in pregnancies with an IUD. PMID:19650756

  2. PLASMA PROTEIN Z CONCENTRATIONS IN PREGNANT WOMEN WITH IDIOPATHIC INTRAUTERINE BLEEDING AND IN WOMEN WITH SPONTANEOUS PRETERM LABOR

    PubMed Central

    Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Espinoza, Jimmy; Romero, Roberto; Hoppensteadt, Debra; Nien, Jyh Kae; Kim, Chong Jai; Erez, Offer; Soto, Eleazar; Fareed, Jawed; Edwin, Sam; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Than, Nandor G.; Yoon, Bo Hyun; Gomez, Ricardo; Papp, Zoltan; Hassan, Sonia S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Preterm parturition has been associated with decidual vascular disorders and excessive thrombin generation. The objective of this study was to examine maternal plasma concentrations of protein Z in normal pregnancies, as well as in those presenting with spontaneous preterm labor (PTL) and intrauterine bleeding during pregnancy. Study design A cross-sectional study was designed to include patients with preterm labor and intact membranes and those with idiopathic intrauterine bleeding during pregnancy. Protein Z plasma concentrations were measured in the following groups: 1) normal pregnant women (n=71); 2) patients at term with (n=67) and without labor (n=88); 3) patients with spontaneous PTL before 34 weeks who were classified into: a) PTL with intra-amniotic infection/inflammation (IAI; n=35), b) PTL without IAI (n=54), and c) patients with PTL who delivered at term (n=49); and 4) patients with idiopathic intrauterine bleeding in the second and third trimester who were divided into: a) subsequent spontaneous PTL and delivery, and b) term delivery. Maternal plasma protein Z concentration was measured by a specific and sensitive immunoassay. Moreover, the amniotic fluid concentration of protein Z was determined in a subset of patients with preterm labor (n=30). Results 1) There was no correlation between maternal plasma protein Z concentration and gestational age in normal pregnant women. 2) The mean maternal plasma concentration of protein Z was significantly lower in women during spontaneous labor at term than in those not in labor [mean: 2.15 μg/mL (95% CI: 2.01-2.29) vs. mean: 2.45 ± 0.52 μg/mL (95% CI: 2.34-2.56), respectively; p=0.001]; 3) Women with PTL without IAI who delivered preterm had a significantly lower mean protein Z concentration than normal pregnant women [mean: 2.12 μg/mL (95% CI: 1.98-2.26) vs. mean: 2.39 μg/mL (95% CI: 2.28-2.5); p=0.008); 4) Of interest, PTL with IAI was not associated with lower plasma concentrations of protein

  3. Level of Intrauterine Cocaine Exposure and Neuropsychological Test Scores in Preadolescence: Subtle Effects on Auditory Attention and Narrative Memory

    PubMed Central

    Beeghly, Marjorie; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Martin, Brett M.; Cabral, Howard J.; Heeren, Timothy C.; Frank, Deborah A.

    2014-01-01

    Neuropsychological processes such as attention and memory contribute to children's higher-level cognitive and language functioning and predict academic achievement. The goal of this analysis was to evaluate whether level of intrauterine cocaine exposure (IUCE) alters multiple aspects of preadolescents' neuropsychological functioning assessed using a single age-referenced instrument, the NEPSY: A Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment (NEPSY) [71], after controlling for relevant covariates. Participants included 137 term 9.5-year-old children from low-income urban backgrounds (51% male, 90% African American/Caribbean) from an ongoing prospective longitudinal study. Level of IUCE was assessed in the newborn period using infant meconium and maternal report. 52% of the children had IUCE (65% with lighter IUCE, and 35% with heavier IUCE), and 48% were unexposed. Infants with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, HIV seropositivity, or intrauterine exposure to illicit substances other than cocaine and marijuana were excluded. At the 9.5-year follow-up visit, trained examiners masked to IUCE and background variables evaluated children's neuropsychological functioning using the NEPSY. The association between level of IUCE and NEPSY outcomes was evaluated in a series of linear regressions controlling for intrauterine exposure to other substances and relevant child, caregiver, and demographic variables. Results indicated that level of IUCE was associated with lower scores on the Auditory Attention and Narrative Memory tasks, both of which require auditory information processing and sustained attention for successful performance. However, results did not follow the expected ordinal, dose-dependent pattern. Children's neuropsychological test scores were also altered by a variety of other biological and psychosocial factors. PMID:24978115

  4. Neurobehavioral consequences of chronic intrauterine opioid exposure in infants and preschool children: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background It is assumed within the accumulated literature that children born of pregnant opioid dependent mothers have impaired neurobehavioral function as a consequence of chronic intrauterine opioid use. Methods Quantitative and systematic review of the literature on the consequences of chronic maternal opioid use during pregnancy on neurobehavioral function of children was conducted using the Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. We searched Cinahl, EMBASE, PsychINFO and MEDLINE between the periods of January 1995 to January 2012. Results There were only 5 studies out of the 200 identified that quantitatively reported on neurobehavioral function of children after maternal opioid use during pregnancy. All 5 were case control studies with the number of exposed subjects within the studies ranging from 33–143 and 45–85 for the controls. This meta-analysis showed no significant impairments, at a non-conservative significance level of p < 0.05, for cognitive, psychomotor or observed behavioural outcomes for chronic intra-uterine exposed infants and pre-school children compared to non-exposed infants and children. However, all domains suggested a trend to poor outcomes in infants/children of opioid using mothers. The magnitude of all possible effects was small according to Cohen’s benchmark criteria. Conclusions Chronic intra-uterine opioid exposed infants and pre-school children experienced no significant impairment in neurobehavioral outcomes when compared to non-exposed peers, although in all domains there was a trend to poorer outcomes. The findings of this review are limited by the small number of studies analysed, the heterogenous populations and small numbers within the individual studies. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine if any neuropsychological impairments appear after the age of 5 years and to help investigate further

  5. Intrauterine infusion of latency-associated peptide (LAP) during early porcine pregnancy affects conceptus elongation and placental size.

    PubMed

    Massuto, Dana A; Hooper, R Neil; Kneese, Eric C; Johnson, Greg A; Ing, Nancy H; Weeks, Bradley R; Jaeger, Laurie A

    2010-03-01

    In the pig, transforming growth factor beta (TGFB), TGFB receptors (TGFBRs), and integrins are present during the peri-implantation period. Latency-associated peptide (LAP), a part of latent TGFB, can bind to integrin heterodimers via its Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) sequence; therefore, ligand-receptor interactions between TGFB and TGFBRs, along with LAP and integrin heterodimers, may be functional in mediating events supporting conceptus elongation and attachment. With the use of surgically implantable osmotic pumps, we were able to maintain pregnancy with the aim of mechanistically altering in vivo receptor-ligand interactions involving TGFB with TGFBRs and LAP with integrins during porcine pregnancy. Day 9 pregnant gilts received intrauterine infusions of LAP-RGD, a recombinant mutant of LAP (LAP-RGE), or vehicle control and were ovariohysterectomized on Day 13 or 24 of pregnancy. We hypothesized that intrauterine infusion of LAP-RGD would decrease downstream signaling of TGFB while increasing LAP-integrin interactions and that net effect would enhance conceptus survival and attachment early in the peri-implantation period but possibly increase the chance of abnormal placentation later in pregnancy. Additionally, we hypothesized that infusion of LAP-RGE would disrupt TGFB signals but not alter integrin signaling, and thus the net result would be decreased conceptus survival and abnormal development. Unexpectedly, LAP-RGD intrauterine infusions resulted in a reduction of conceptus elongation, whereas infusions of LAP-RGE permitted implantation and placentation but resulted in larger fetal weight, allantois length, and allantoic fluid volume. Results suggest TGFB and integrins are contributing factors in the regulation of conceptus elongation and placental and fetal size. PMID:19906685

  6. Progestin-releasing intrauterine device insertion plus palliative radiotherapy in frail, elderly uterine cancer patients unfit for radical treatment

    PubMed Central

    MACCHIA, GABRIELLA; DEODATO, FRANCESCO; CILLA, SAVINO; LEGGE, FRANCESCO; CARONE, VITO; CHIANTERA, VITO; VALENTINI, VINCENZO; MORGANTI, ALESSIO GIUSEPPE; FERRANDINA, GABRIELLA

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the combination of levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device (LNG-IUD) insertion and palliative radiotherapy (RT) as a potential approach for treating frail, elderly endometrial cancer (EC) patients considered unfit for curative oncological treatments. The inclusion criteria were an age of ≥65 years, pathological confirmation of a uterine neoplasm, a Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) value of ≥4 and the presence of vaginal bleeding. Patients underwent intrauterine insertion of an LNG-IUD, and thereafter, received a total dose of 30 Gy at 3 Gy per fraction, over 10 days. The clinical target volume (CTV) was defined as the uterus and disease-involved tissues in the pelvis plus a 1-cm margin. The planning target volume was obtained by adding a 1-cm isotropic margin to the CTV. A total of 9 patients with EC (median age, 85 years; Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status ≥2, ≥88.8%; obesity, 55.5%; median CCI, 5) received an LNG-IUD plus RT. An early complete resolution of bleeding was documented in 8 patients (88.8%), while the remaining patient experienced a marked improvement. The median duration of bleeding control was 18 months, while the 2-year actuarial rate of bleeding-free survival was 53.3% (median follow-up time, 20 months; range, 9–60 months). No LNG-IUD- or severe RT-related complications were documented. Overall, a high rate of bleeding remission, durable bleeding-free survival in face of the easy intrauterine insertion of an LNG-IUD and a negligible toxicity profile of the complete treatment were documented in this study, indicating a requirement for further investigation in a larger series. PMID:27123133

  7. Effectiveness of lipopolysaccharide as an intrauterine immunomodulator in curing bacterial endometritis in repeat breeding cross-bred cows.

    PubMed

    Singh, J; Sidhu, S S; Dhaliwal, G S; Pangaonkar, G R; Nanda, A S; Grewal, A S

    2000-05-31

    Antibiotics are usually used to combat microbial infections of the uterus, responsible for hindering establishment of pregnancy in cross-bred cows. The major disadvantages of antibiotics are: development of bacterial resistance, high costs and diminishing uterine defense mechanisms (UDM). As an alternative therapy, intrauterine application of Escherichia coli Lipopolysaccharide (E. coli LPS) as a uterine defense stimulator was used in this study in confirmed clinical cases of repeat breeding associated with bacterial endometritis. In the treated group (n=12), on the day of estrus, 100 microg of E. coli LPS dissolved in 30-ml sterile phosphate buffer saline (PBS) was infused intrauterine; while in the control group (n=12), only 30 ml of PBS was infused. Six-hour post-treatment, in the treatment group uterine washings showed a 100-fold increase in the total leucocytic count (TLC). Out of the cellular contents, more than 80% of the cells were recognised as neutrophils; above 60% were alive and their phagocytic activity was five bacteria/neutrophil. Such a cellular response was maintained until 72-h post-treatment. At the subsequent estrus period, the cervicovaginal mucus (CVM) became clear in 9 out of 12 cows (75%) and showed no bacterial growth. In the control group, similar micro-organisms were present in CVM of all the 12 cows before and after the PBS infusions. During the subsequent estrus, all nine cows with sterile CVM in the treatment group conceived while only one cow conceived from the control group. It was concluded that, administration of intrauterine E. coli LPS as single infusion in cows with bacterial endometritis stimulated UDM and cleared the infection within one estrous cycle, and thereby restoring fertility. PMID:10837976

  8. Level of intrauterine cocaine exposure and neuropsychological test scores in preadolescence: subtle effects on auditory attention and narrative memory.

    PubMed

    Beeghly, Marjorie; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Martin, Brett M; Cabral, Howard J; Heeren, Timothy C; Frank, Deborah A

    2014-01-01

    Neuropsychological processes such as attention and memory contribute to children's higher-level cognitive and language functioning and predict academic achievement. The goal of this analysis was to evaluate whether level of intrauterine cocaine exposure (IUCE) alters multiple aspects of preadolescents' neuropsychological functioning assessed using a single age-referenced instrument, the NEPSY: A Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment (NEPSY) (Korkman et al., 1998), after controlling for relevant covariates. Participants included 137 term 9.5-year-old children from low-income urban backgrounds (51% male, 90% African American/Caribbean) from an ongoing prospective longitudinal study. Level of IUCE was assessed in the newborn period using infant meconium and maternal report. 52% of the children had IUCE (65% with lighter IUCE, and 35% with heavier IUCE), and 48% were unexposed. Infants with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, HIV seropositivity, or intrauterine exposure to illicit substances other than cocaine and marijuana were excluded. At the 9.5-year follow-up visit, trained examiners masked to IUCE and background variables evaluated children's neuropsychological functioning using the NEPSY. The association between level of IUCE and NEPSY outcomes was evaluated in a series of linear regressions controlling for intrauterine exposure to other substances and relevant child, caregiver, and demographic variables. Results indicated that level of IUCE was associated with lower scores on the Auditory Attention and Narrative Memory tasks, both of which require auditory information processing and sustained attention for successful performance. However, results did not follow the expected ordinal, dose-dependent pattern. Children's neuropsychological test scores were also altered by a variety of other biological and psychosocial factors. PMID:24978115

  9. 29 CFR 1917.93 - Head protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Head protection. 1917.93 Section 1917.93 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Personal Protection § 1917.93 Head protection. (a) The employer shall ensure that each... the head from falling objects. (b)(1) The employer must ensure that head protection complies with...

  10. 29 CFR 1917.93 - Head protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Head protection. 1917.93 Section 1917.93 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Personal Protection § 1917.93 Head protection. (a) The employer shall ensure that each... the head from falling objects. (b)(1) The employer must ensure that head protection complies with...

  11. 29 CFR 1926.100 - Head protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Head protection. 1926.100 Section 1926.100 Labor... § 1926.100 Head protection. (a) Employees working in areas where there is a possible danger of head... Institute, Z89.1-1969, Safety Requirements for Industrial Head Protection. (c) Helmets for the...

  12. 29 CFR 1917.93 - Head protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Head protection. 1917.93 Section 1917.93 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Personal Protection § 1917.93 Head protection. (a) The employer shall ensure that each... the head from falling objects. (b)(1) The employer must ensure that head protection complies with...

  13. 29 CFR 1917.93 - Head protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Head protection. 1917.93 Section 1917.93 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Personal Protection § 1917.93 Head protection. (a) The employer shall ensure that each... the head from falling objects. (b)(1) The employer must ensure that head protection complies with...

  14. 29 CFR 1917.93 - Head protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Head protection. 1917.93 Section 1917.93 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Personal Protection § 1917.93 Head protection. (a) The employer shall ensure that each... the head from falling objects. (b)(1) The employer must ensure that head protection complies with...

  15. Communicating printed headings to the ear.

    PubMed

    Lorch, Robert F; Chen, Hung-Tao; Jawahir, Aqeel A; Lemarié, Julie

    2016-05-01

    Two experiments compared three methods of translating printed headings into an auditory format. In both experiments, college students listened to a text with instructions to stop the recording whenever they heard a heading and type the hierarchical level and exact wording of the heading. Listeners were poor at identifying headings and their levels if the headings were not distinguished from the rest of the text. However, listeners were very good at identifying headings if any method of signalling was used to distinguish headings and communicate their hierarchical level. The methods included: (1) tones preceding headings, (2) changes of speaker to indicate headings or (3) verbal labels preceding headings. Although all three signalling methods improved identification of a heading's hierarchical level, the labelling method was the most effective means of communicating hierarchical level. Thus, the study identifies a simple method of effectively communicating headings in spoken text. Practitioner Summary: The study attempted to identify effective ways of communicating heading information in spoken text. College students listened to texts in order to detect headings and record their wording and hierarchical level. Performance was excellent when headings were preceded by verbal phrases that signalled the upcoming headings and their levels. PMID:27267653

  16. Heterotopic Triplet Pregnancy after In Vitro Fertilization with Favorable Outcome of the Intrauterine Twin Pregnancy Subsequent to Surgical Treatment of the Tubal Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Akrivis, Christodoulos; Tsirkas, Panagiotis; Korkontzelos, Ioannis

    2014-01-01

    Heterotopic triplet pregnancy is an exceptionally rare medical condition. The broad use of assisted reproductive technologies has contributed to the increase of ectopic and subsequently heterotopic pregnancy rate, masking a life-threatening condition for the gravid and the intrauterine pregnancy. We describe a case of a woman with heterotopic triplets at 9+4 gestational week following transfer of three embryos obtained by in vitro fertilization techniques. The ectopic tubal pregnancy was ruptured and salpingectomy was performed by laparotomy. The intrauterine pregnancy progressed to the delivery by cesarean section of two healthy twins at 36+2 gestational age. Heterotopic triplets with tubal ectopic are a special diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for the obstetrician. High index of suspicion and timely treatment by laparotomy or laparoscopy can preserve the intrauterine gestation with a successful outcome of the pregnancy. PMID:24527252

  17. Comparative intrauterine development and placental function of ART concepti: implications for human reproductive medicine and animal breeding

    PubMed Central

    Bloise, Enrrico; Feuer, Sky K.; Rinaudo, Paolo F.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND The number of children conceived using assisted reproductive technologies (ART) has reached >5 million worldwide and continues to increase. Although the great majority of ART children are healthy, many reports suggest a forthcoming risk of metabolic complications, which is further supported by the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease hypothesis of suboptimal embryo/fetal conditions predisposing adult cardiometabolic pathologies. Accumulating evidence suggests that fetal and placental growth kinetics are important features predicting post-natal health, but the relationship between ART and intrauterine growth has not been systematically reviewed. METHODS Relevant studies describing fetoplacental intrauterine phenotypes of concepti generated by in vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) in the mouse, bovine and human were comprehensively researched using PubMed and Google Scholar. Intrauterine growth plots were created from tabular formatted data available in selected reports. RESULTS ART pregnancies display minor but noticeable alterations in fetal and placental growth curves across mammalian species. In all species, there is evidence of fetal growth restriction in the earlier stages of pregnancy, followed by significant increases in placental size and accelerated fetal growth toward the end of gestation. However, there is a species-specific effect of ART on birthweights, that additionally vary in a culture condition-, strain-, and/or stage at transfer-specific manner. We discuss the potential mechanisms that underlie these changes, and how they are affected by specific components of ART procedures. CONCLUSIONS ART may promote measurable alterations to intrauterine growth trajectory and placental function. Key findings include evidence that birthweight is not a reliable marker of fetal stress, and that increases in embryo manipulation result in more deviant fetal growth curves

  18. Randomized clinical trial of intrauterine cephapirin infusion in dairy cows for the treatment of purulent vaginal discharge and cytological endometritis.

    PubMed

    Denis-Robichaud, J; Dubuc, J

    2015-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to quantify the effect of an intrauterine infusion of cephapirin on reproductive performance at first service of postpartum dairy cows affected by purulent vaginal discharge (PVD) and cytological endometritis (ENDO) using different diagnostic strategies, and to determine if the presence of prolonged anovulation would influence the magnitude of treatment benefit. In total, 2,259 Holstein cows in 28 herds were enrolled in a randomized clinical trial. At 35 (± 7) days in milk (DIM), cows were diagnosed with PVD using the Metricheck device (Simcro, Hamilton, New Zealand), with cytological endometritis using endometrial cytology (ENDO-CYTO), and with cytological endometritis using leukocyte esterase (ENDO-LE). Regardless of reproductive tract disease status, cows were randomly assigned to receive an intrauterine cephapirin infusion or to not be treated. Serum progesterone was measured at 35 and 49 (± 7) DIM (14 d apart); cows were considered to have prolonged anovulation if progesterone was <1 ng/mL at both times. Reproductive events of cows were collected until 200 DIM. Statistical analyses were conducted using multivariable mixed logistic regression models. Intrauterine cephapirin treatment was associated with an increased first-service pregnancy risk in cows diagnosed with PVD (no treatment: 15.4%; treatment: 31.4%), ENDO-CYTO (no treatment: 16.2%, treatment: 24.4%), and ENDO-LE (no treatment: 15.8%; treatment: 25.1%), but not in cows unaffected by any form of reproductive tract disease (no treatment: 34.8%; treatment: 32.6%). Cephapirin treatment was also associated with an increased first-service reproductive performance in cows affected simultaneously by both PVD and ENDO-CYTO (no treatment: 8.7%; treatment: 23.4%). The effect of cephapirin treatment in anovular cows (no treatment: 21.0%; treatment: 26.4%) was numerically lower than in cyclic cows (no treatment: 22.7%; treatment: 34.1%). Overall, an intrauterine infusion of

  19. The effect of intrauterine infusion of dextrose on clinical endometritis cure rate and reproductive performance of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Machado, V S; Oikonomou, G; Ganda, E K; Stephens, L; Milhomem, M; Freitas, G L; Zinicola, M; Pearson, J; Wieland, M; Guard, C; Gilbert, R O; Bicalho, R C

    2015-06-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the intrauterine administration use of 200 mL of 50% dextrose solution as a treatment against clinical endometritis (CE); CE cure rate and reproductive performance were evaluated. Additionally, the association of several relevant risk factors, such as retained placenta (RP), metritis, CE, anovulation, hyperketonemia, and body condition score with reproductive performance, early embryonic mortality, and CE were evaluated. A total of 1,313 Holstein cows housed on 4 commercial dairy farms were enrolled in the study. At 7±3 DIM cows were examined for metritis and had blood collected to determine serum β-hydroxybutyrate concentration. To determine if cows had ovulated at least once before 44±3 DIM, the presence of a corpus luteum was evaluated by ovarian ultrasonography at 30±3 DIM and at 44±3 DIM. At 30±3 DIM, CE was diagnosed using the Metricheck device (SimcroTech, Hamilton, New Zealand); cows with purulent or mucopurulent vaginal discharge were diagnosed as having CE. Cows diagnosed with CE (n=175) were randomly allocated into 2 treatment groups: treatment (intrauterine infusion of 200 mL of 50% dextrose) or control (no infusion). Clinical endometritis cows were re-evaluated as described above at 44±3 DIM, and cows that were free of purulent or mucopurulent vaginal discharge were considered cured. Intrauterine infusion of dextrose tended to have a detrimental effect on CE cure rate, and treatment did not have an effect on first-service conception rate and early embryonic mortality. A multivariable Cox's proportional hazard model was performed to evaluate the effect of several variables on reproductive performance; the variables RP, CE, parity, anovulation, and the interaction term between parity and anovulation were associated with hazard of pregnancy. Cows that did not have RP or CE were more likely to conceive than cows that were diagnosed with RP or CE. Cows that had RP were at 3.36 times higher odds of

  20. The impact of progesterone supplementation on pregnancy rates after intrauterine insemination in patients developing a single follicle.

    PubMed

    Güven, Davut; Batıoğlu, Ali; Sari, Seher; Bakay, Kadir

    2016-06-01

    The objective was to determine whether progesterone support affects pregnancy rates in patients who develop a single follicle. This was a non-randomized prospective controlled study performed on 591 intrauterine insemination (IUI) cycles that developed a single follicle; 337 women received 100 mg oral progesterone daily. The pregnancy rate was 24.3%, or 82 out of 337, in the group receiving progesterone support compared with 14.96%, or 254 out of 591, in the group with no progesterone support. IUI luteal phase supplementation with oral progesterone may improve clinical pregnancy rates when begun the day after insemination. PMID:27321474