Intravenous administration of fluids, drugs, and nutrition is very common in hospitals. Although insertion of peripheral and central cannulae and subsequent intravenous therapy are usually well tolerated, complications that prolong hospitalisation, and in some cases cause death, can arise on occasions. Additionally, many cannulae are inserted unnecessarily. This article seeks to review this area and to outline good medical practice.
Waitt, C; Waitt, P; Pirmohamed, M
Outpatient intravenous antibiotic therapy is a cost-effective modality to shorten hospital stays and provide continued care to patients with infections. The recent availability of tamper-proof pumps that can deliver multiple antibiotics on independently timed regimens will further expand the use of home intravenous antibiotics. Problems with reimbursement remain, and new classes of oral antibiotics may provide alternatives to parenteral medications. PMID:2801460
Brown, R B; Sands, M
Many patients who are hospitalized for intensive intravenous (IV) antibiotic therapy of serious infections are not disabled. Following a short period of treatment in the hospital and after their medical problem has stabilized, these patients can safety receive IV antibiotics at home. Patients who had osteomyelitis or infective endocarditis were selected for this study. Utilizing an IV nurse team, patients were instructed in the administration of the antibiotic. They returned to the hospital every 48 hours to have their IV catheter changed and to receive a new supply of antibiotic. There was a substantial monetary saving with each treatment course (at least $1,600 per patient), and, in addition, the patients were much more comfortable at home and some returned to work or to school. PMID:434994
Kind, A C; Williams, D N; Persons, G; Gibson, J A
Substance use disorders (SUD) are inheritable and the culprit is hypodopaminergic function regulated by reward genes. We evaluated a natural dopaminergic agonist; KB220 intravenous (IV) and oral variants, to improve dopaminergic function in SUD. Our pilot experiment found a significant reduction of chronic symptoms, measured by the Chronic Abstinence Symptom Severity (CASS) Scale. The combined group (IV and oral) did significantly better than the oral-only group over the first week and 30-day follow-up period. Next, the combination was given to129 subjects and three factors; Emotion, Somatic, and Impaired Cognition, with eigenvalues greater than one were extracted for baseline CASS-Revised (CASS-R) variables. Paired sample t-tests for pre and post-treatment scales showed significant declines (p = .00001) from pre- to post-treatment: t = 19.1 for Emotion, t = 16.1 for Somatic, and t = 14.9 for Impaired Cognition. In a two-year follow-up of 23 subjects who underwent KB220IV therapy (at least five IV treatments over seven days) plus orals for 30+ days: 21 (91%) were sober at six months, 19 (82%) having no relapse; 19 (82%) were sober at one year, 18 (78%) having no relapse; and 21 (91%) were sober two-years post-treatment, 16 (70%) having no relapse. We await additional research and advise caution in interpreting these encouraging results.
Miller, Merlene; Chen, Amanda LC; Stokes, Stan D.; Silverman, Susan; Bowirrat, Abdalla; Manka, Matthew; Manka, Debra; Miller, David K.; Perrine, Kenneth; Chen, Thomas JH; Bailey, John A.; Downs, William; Waite, Roger L.; Madigan, Margaret A.; Braverman, Eric R.; Damle, Uma; Kerner, Mallory; Giordano, John; Morse, Siobhan; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Barh, Debmalya; Blum, Kenneth
This is the second article in this issue that addresses pediatric IV therapy, which is one of the fastest-growing services in the IV therapy field. Twenty percent of home parenteral care patients are children. As technologic advances are developed, more children will be treated at home. The authors discuss many issues that are pertinent to all IV therapy for children,
Rosemary J. Young; Nancy D. Murray
The administration of intravenous (IV) therapy at home is an alternative to hospitalization for treatment of infection and a number of other conditions, and has been demonstrated to be effective and safe, to reduce cost and to improve quality of life. While home IV therapy has many advantages for children, it is not uniformly available and access may be limited by age, geographical location and ability to pay. Physicians caring for children need to be aware of the indications for home IV therapy, its requirements and limitations, as well as whether this option is available for children in their care. Where access is limited, physicians should advocate for home IV therapy for children when it is medically indicated.
Moore, DL; Bortolussi, R
Intravenous antimicrobial therapy often continues after a patient is discharged from the hospital or it begins in the outpatient setting. Reimbursement for this therapy varies by payer. The United States Outpatient Parenteral Antibiotic Therapy (OPAT) Outcomes Registry is a valuable resource for quantifying cost by payer, as well as for describing practice patterns and adverse events related to intravenous antimicrobial therapy. To describe the reimbursement structure and cost of intravenous vancomycin home care therapy for four different types of payers, a survey of home infusion companies was done. Also surveyed were infusion programs participating in the OPAT Outcomes Registry, representing four different types of payers, to determine the cost of outpatient intravenous therapy. A retrospective cohort study of these infusion programs was conducted to describe practice patterns and to identify adverse events that resulted from intravenous vancomycin. We found that the cost of outpatient therapy was substantial, although nonuniform, across payer types. Alternative outpatient therapies associated with lower risks for adverse events and lower costs should be considered. PMID:11837549
Tice, Alan D; Hoaglund, Pam A; Nolet, Barbara; McKinnon, Peggy S; Mozaffari, Essy
Background: Adjuvant therapy is commonly used in pemphigus to mitigate the high morbidity and mortality associated with the use of corticosteroids and improve dis- ease control. However, these adjuvant agents are not with- out adverse effects of their own, including an increased risk of malignancy with the use of oral immunosuppres- sives. Intravenous pulse cyclophosphamide, which may be more efficacious
Mary E. Fleischli; Rachel H. Valek; Amit G. Pandya
The pharmacokinetic, economic and practical aspects of sequential therapy with iv and oral cephalosporins are reviewed. New broad spectrum oral cephalosporins, such as cefixime, cefpodoxime proxetil and cefetamet pivoxil achieve serum concentrations above the MICs for most Enterobacteriaceae for at least as long as for parenteral cefuroxime. Substantial cost reductions are possible with an early switch from iv to oral cephalosporins. The clinical studies that have been performed so far have important shortcomings. Well designed clinical studies are necessary to prove the feasibility of sequential therapy with cephalosporins for serious infections in hospitalized patients. PMID:8157558
Janknegt, R; van der Meer, J W
For several years the medical treatment of active ankylosing spondylitis (AS) has been NSAID because gold, penicillamine, antimalarials and steroids have been without efficacy. In 1981, Mintz et al reported that methylprednisolone pulse therapy (MPPT) had an excellent effect in patients with AS. Seven patients with active AS and insufficient efficacy of NSAID for three months were treated with one gram methylprednisolone daily given intravenously for three successive days. Mobility and pain were recorded before, during, and after treatment. Significant pain relief and improvement of mobility of the spine for at least six weeks were clearly demonstrated (p less than 0.05). Finger to floor distance and chin manubrium distance improved significantly for at least six months (p less than 0.05). We conclude that intravenous MPPT is a useful treatment in patients with active AS when NSAID is insufficient. PMID:4042697
Ejstrup, L; Peters, N D
Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is an immunomodulating agent that induces beneficial therapeutic responses in children and adults. IVIG is not only used for prophylaxis and therapy of infections in patients with primary and secondary immunodeficiencies associated with defective antibody production, but also used for treatment of patients with systemic inflammatory disorders, autoimmune diseases, and neuroimmunologic conditions. IVIG is generally considered a safe and efficacious therapeutic modality. However, it is associated with certain adverse effects including hematologic complications such as hemolytic anemia, leukopenia, neutropenia, monocytopenia, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and changes in blood rheology. Venous and arterial thrombotic complications can also occur following treatment with IVIG in high risk patients. It is very important for clinicians to have the knowledge of those adverse events profiles; and this article summarizes hematologic toxicities associated with IVIG therapy reported in the literature; and describes strategies for their identification and management. PMID:21843660
Baxley, Allison; Akhtari, Mojtaba
Majority of the patients admitted to a hospital with severe infections are initially started with intravenous medications. Short intravenous course of therapy for 2-3 days followed by oral medications for the remainder of the course is found to be beneficial to many patients. This switch over from intravenous to oral therapy is widely practiced in the case of antibiotics in many developed countries. Even though intravenous to oral therapy conversion is inappropriate for a patient who is critically ill or who has inability to absorb oral medications, every hospital will have a certain number of patients who are eligible for switch over from intravenous to oral therapy. Among the various routes of administration of medications, oral administration is considered to be the most acceptable and economical method of administration. The main obstacle limiting intravenous to oral conversion is the belief that oral medications do not achieve the same bioavailability as that of intravenous medications and that the same agent must be used both intravenously and orally. The advent of newer, more potent or broad spectrum oral agents that achieve higher and more consistent serum and tissue concentration has paved the way for the popularity of intravenous to oral medication conversion. In this review, the advantages of intravenous to oral switch over therapy, the various methods of intravenous to oral conversion, bioavailability of various oral medications for the switch over program, the patient selection criteria for conversion from parenteral to oral route and application of intravenous to oral switch over through case studies are exemplified.
Cyriac, Jissa Maria; James, Emmanuel
Use of recombinant human erythropoietin in patients with end-stage renal disease has highlighted iron deficiency as the major cause of resistant anemia. The current mainstay of intravenous (IV) iron replacement therapy, iron dextran, has been shown in prior studies to have a risk of serious life-threatening anaphylaxis of just under 1 per 100 patients exposed. The current study assessed the
Gerald Faich; Jur Strobos
Prepared from the collective plasma of several thousand people, therapeutic intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) consists mostly of human polyspecific IgG. In addition to its use in primary and secondary immune deficiencies, IVIg is used in the treatment of several rheumatic conditions, including Kawasaki disease, dermatomyositis and antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-positive vasculitis. In these diseases, IVIg therapy generally involves the use of 2 g/kg administered over either 2 or 5 consecutive days. However, dosage regimens have not been thoroughly explored, and indications for IVIg in most rheumatic diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, polymyositis and catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome, derive from its off-label usage. Randomized clinical trials are warranted to support the evidence-based use of IVIg, and to identify the ideal administration protocols to maximize the benefits of what is a limited resource. Further research to improve the therapeutic application of IVIg relies essentially on the conception of next-generation immunoglobulin preparations and optimization of combined therapies with immunomodulatory drugs and biologic agents. PMID:21556030
Bayry, Jagadeesh; Negi, Vir Singh; Kaveri, Srini V
Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy has been used not only as replacement treatment for immunodeficiency, but also as treatment of autoimmune diseases, specifically Kawasaki disease, systemic juvenile arthritis and juvenile dermatomyositis. In Kawasaki disease, IVIG reduces the incidence of coronary artery abnormalities, as well as rapidly improving clinical and laboratory variables such as fever and rash, platelet count, white blood cell count and serum albumin. Furthermore, a single high dose of 2 g/kg is as effective as 400 mg/kg x 4 days. In systemic juvenile arthritis, followup of at least one year demonstrated that monthly treatment with IVIG resulted in improvement of systemic disease in 10/11 patients, allowed for cessation of prednisone treatment in 7/8 patients and significant improvement of arthritis in 8 patients. In juvenile dermatomyositis, we report 2 uncontrolled trials of IVIG treatment that resulted in significant clinical improvement and steroid-sparing. In contrast, IVIG treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) resulted in improvement in 3 patients, but exacerbation or new onset of renal disease in 3 patients. Overall, our report demonstrates that IVIG has been effective both in a controlled trial in Kawasaki disease and in uncontrolled trials in systemic juvenile arthritis and juvenile dermatomyositis. We suggest that IVIG should be used cautiously in SLE. PMID:1593608
Barron, K S; Sher, M R; Silverman, E D
BackgroundLarge vessel occlusions with a high clot burden are less likely to improve with presently accepted and FDA-approved intravenous thrombolysis (IV) strategy. Endovascular therapy within the first 3 h of stroke symptom onset provides an effective alternative treatment in patients with large vessel occlusion. It is not clear if combination of IV thrombolysis and endovascular approach is superior to endovascular
T Kass-Hout; M Mokin; O Kass-Hout; M Darkhabani; D Orion; S Jahshan; P Yashar; E Levy; A Siddiqui; K Snyder
Background and Objectives: The fibrosing form of lung injury (occupational, environmental, infective or drug induced) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Amiodarone (AM), often prescribed for control of arrhythmias is considered a potential cause. No effective treatment was confirmed, except lung transplantation. Intravenous (IV) stem cell therapy may produce pulmonary emboli or infarctions. Despite being commonly used in clinical practice, the intraperitoneal (IP.) route has been rarely used for cell delivery. The present study aimed at investigating and comparing the possible effect of IP stem cell therapy (SCT) on pulmonary toxicity versus the intravenous route in a rat model of amiodarone induced lung damage. Methods and Results: 36 adult male albino rats were divided into 4 groups. Rats of AM group were given 30 mg/kg daily orally for 4 weeks. Rats of IV SCT group were injected with stem cells in the tail vein. Rats of IP SCT group received IP cell therapy. Histological, histochemical, immunohistochemical and morphometric studies were performed. Obstructed bronchioles, overdistended alveoli, reduced type I pneumocytes, increased thickness of alveolar septa and vessels wall besides increased area% of collagen fibers regressed in response to IV and IP SCT. The improvement was more obvious in IV group. The area% of Prussion blue +ve and CD105 +ve cells was significantly higher in IV group. Conclusions: Cord blood MSC therapy proved definite amelioration of lung injury ending in fibrosis. The effect of IP SCT was slightly inferior to that of IV SCT, which may be overwhelmed by repeated IP injection.
Zickri, Maha Baligh; Fadl, Sahar Gamal Aboul; Metwally, Hala Gabr
Background: The regenerative potential of brain has led to emerging therapies that can cure clinico-motor deficits after neurological diseases. Bone marrow mononuclear cell therapy is a great hope to mankind as these cells are feasible, multipotent and aid in neurofunctional gains in Stroke patients. Aims: This study evaluates safety, feasibility and efficacy of autologous mononuclear (MNC) stem cell transplantation in patients with chronic ischemic stroke (CIS) using clinical scores and functional imaging (fMRI and DTI). Design: Non randomised controlled observational study Study: Twenty four (n=24) CIS patients were recruited with the inclusion criteria as: 3 months-2years of stroke onset, hand muscle power (MRC grade) at least 2; Brunnstrom stage of recovery: II-IV; NIHSS of 4-15, comprehendible. Fugl Meyer, modified Barthel Index (mBI) and functional imaging parameters were used for assessment at baseline, 8 weeks and at 24 weeks. Twelve patients were administered with mean 54.6 million cells intravenously followed by 8 weeks of physiotherapy. Twelve patients served as controls. All patients were followed up at 24 weeks. Outcomes: The laboratory and radiological outcome measures were within normal limits in MNC group. Only mBI showed statistically significant improvement at 24 weeks (p<0.05) whereas the mean FM, MRC, Ashworth tone scores in the MNC group were high as compared to control group. There was an increased number of cluster activation of Brodmann areas BA 4, BA 6 post stem cell infusion compared to controls indicating neural plasticity. Cell therapy is safe and feasible which may facilitate restoration of function in CIS. PMID:24693196
A, Bhasin; Mv, Srivastava; R, Bhatia; S, Mohanty; Ss, Kumaran; S, Bose
Background. The most common chemotherapies in metastatic soft tissue sarcoma (mSTS) require intravenous (IV) administration. This often requires patients to make multiple outpatient visits per chemotherapy cycle, possibly impeding patients' daily activities and increasing caregiver burden and medical costs. This study investigated costs associated with IV cancer therapy administration in mSTS from the payer perspective of the health care system. Patients and Methods. From the Experian Healthcare database, 1,228 mSTS patients were selected. Data were analyzed on outpatient visits during 2005–2012 involving IV cancer therapy administration. Costs were estimated on a per patient per visit (PPPV) and per patient per month (PPPM) basis. Results. The mean (median) cost of IV therapy was $2,427 ($1,532) PPPV and $5,468 ($4,310) PPPM, of which approximately 60% was IV drug costs. IV administration costs averaged $399 PPPV and $900 PPPM, representing 16.5% of total visit costs. Anthracycline and alkylating-agents-based therapies had the highest PPPV and PPPM IV administration costs, respectively (mean $479 and $1,336, resp.). Patients with managed care insurance had the highest IV administration costs (mean $504 PPPV; $1,120 PPPM). Conclusions. IV administration costs constitute a considerable proportion of the total costs of receiving an IV cancer therapy to treat mSTS.
Hackshaw, Michelle D.; Ivanova, Jasmina I.; Miller, Lesley-Ann N.
Infiltration and phlebitis are common complications associated with peripherally inserted vascular (PIV) therapy. This performance improvement plan included a pretest, a competency-based training module, and a posttest to determine whether nursing knowledge of infiltration and phlebitis improved. The postintervention data revealed a 50% reduction in infiltration and phlebitis. Annual education requirements combined with competency skills for assessing PIV catheter sites will provide nursing staff with the knowledge and tools to change current practice. PMID:24202121
Woody, Gina; Davis, Barbara A
Disopyramide phosphate was administered intravenously to 57 patients with 60 episodes of arrhythmia (21 supraventricular and 39 ventricular) as a 2 mg/kg bolus. Conversion to sinus rhythm was achieved in three (38 percent) of eight patients with atrial flutter, two (20 percent) of ten patients with atrial fibrillation, one (33 percent) of three patients with paroxysmal atrial tachycardia, and two (50 percent) of four patients with sustained ventricular tachycardia. In nine (75 percent) of 12 patients with nonsustained ventricular tachycardia, suppression of the arrhythmia was accomplished following the intravenous bolus of disopyramide. In 18 (78 percent) of 23 patients with frequent ventricular premature contractions, greater than 50 percent suppression of the ventricular premature contractions was achieved. These effects were satisfactorily maintained in six (86 percent) of seven patients with nonsustained ventricular tachycardia and in 14 (88 percent) of 16 patients with frequent ventricular premature contractions in whom therapy with disopyramide phosphate was continued as a 20 mg/hour intravenous drip infusion for up to 24 hours. Side effects were observed in only eight patients (14 percent) and were primarily anticholinergic in nature. Transient hypotension, not necessitating treatment with pressor agents, was observed in three patients (5 percent), in two of whom discontinuance of therapy with disopyramide was deemed necessary. Intravenous therapy with disopyramide in the dosage regimen employed appears to be moderately effective against supraventricular arrhythmia and particularly effective against ventricular arrhythmia with minimal toxicity. It appears to be a suitable alternative to intravenous therapy with lidocaine and has the additional advantage of availability for oral administration. PMID:856558
Deano, D A; Wu, D; Mautner, R K; Sherman, R H; Ehsani, A I; Rosen, K M
Ten patients with systemic mycoses, including five with fungal meningitis, were treated with intravenously or intrathecally administered miconazole, or both. Minimal inhibitory concentrations of miconazole for clinical isolates of Coccidioides immitis, Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida albicans were less than 0.6 µg per ml. Except for pruritis of variable degrees, the drug was well tolerated both intravenously and intrathecally by all patients. No measurable impairment of renal, hepatic or bone marrow function was observed in patients after 4½ months of intravenous therapy. No hematological or biochemical abnormalities and no evidence of recurrent coccidioidal osteomyelitis were observed in 16 months of follow-up in our first patient treated with this drug. Miconazole is apparently an effective antifungal drug of low toxicity and is a potentially useful agent for treatment of human systemic mycoses.
Sung, James P.; Grendahl, Jan G.; Levine, H. B.
Intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV-PCA) using opioids such as morphine and fentanyl can be an effective analgesic method for post-operative pain that is resistant to conventional administration of narcotic analgesics and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and where epidural block and peripheral nerve block are not feasible. In addition to post-operative pain relief, IV-PCA can facilitate early ambulation, reduce respiratory complications, and increase patient satis-faction. However, respiratory and circulatory depression, and post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV) often occur as side effects of IV-PCA with opioids. Administration of droperidol can be an effective treatment for PON. PMID:21861414
Mizuno, Ju; Morita, Shigeho; Hanaue, Nobuaki; Hanaoka, Kazuo; Yokoyama, Takeshi
Reversible neurotoxic symptoms were observed in three adult patients with absence status epilepticus on lamotrigine (LTG) therapy after administration of an IV bolus followed by oral valproic acid (VPA). Neurotoxicity was likely related to elevated serum LTG levels, as improvement correlated with discontinuing or reducing LTG dosage. PMID:12821749
Burneo, J G; Limdi, N; Kuzniecky, R I; Knowlton, R C; Mendez, M; Lawn, N; Faught, E; Welty, T E; Prasad, A
Recent articles promoting the advantages of intravenous antibiotic therapy and total parenteral nutrition for use in home health care patients have spawned a multitude of commercial and hospital-based programs dedicated to providing such therapies in outpatient settings. Only since the establishment of these programs has there evolved an increasing familiarity with adverse experiences and pitfalls in the provision of outpatient care. Significant errors have been made in the areas of patient and disease admission criteria, antibiotic regimens, medicolegal concepts, medical and hospital politics, and financial reimbursement. This article explores the pitfalls intrinsic to the delivery of outpatient parenteral therapies and focuses on the need for diligence in program coordination, multidisciplinary involvement, and education in averting those pitfalls. PMID:4006719
Goldenberg, R I
The results of management of 14 patients with Stage IV-S neuroblastoma are reported. The treatment policy, although not consistent over this time span, in general used a combination of radiotherapy and chemotherapy or infrequently one modality alone. Twelve of 14 (86%) survived more than 6 years. One patient, with a solitary mediastinal primary tumor, died of rapidly progressive disease at three months. The other death occurred in a 4.5-year-old presenting with hepatomegaly at diagnosis followed by skeletal dissemination 2.5 years later. Thirteen of the patients were younger than 1 year of age. Of the 11 patients that received radiotherapy, 4 experienced mild asymptomatic scoliosis or kyphoscoliosis at 3 to 12 years after initial therapy. A review of the literature indicates that spontaneous regression in this tumor is very frequent; therefore, it is recommended that for the common presentation of massive hepatomegaly in an infant, close observation is warranted, unless life threatening complications occur. However, initial therapeutic intervention may be indicated in those patients with life threatening presentations. This data did not substantiate the necessity for complete surgical excision of the primary tumor, as has been suggested by others.
Stokes, S.H.; Thomas, P.R.; Perez, C.A.; Vietti, T.J.
The therapeutic potential of human multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells, especially human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (hASC), is promising. However, there are concerns about the safety of infusion of hASC in human. Recently, we have experienced pulmonary embolism and infarct among family members who have taken multiple infusions of intravenous autologous hASC therapy. A 41-year-old man presented with chest pain for one month. Chest CT showed multiple pulmonary artery embolism and infarct at right lung. Serum D-dimer was 0.8 ?g/mL (normal; 0-0.5 ?g/mL). He had received intravenous autologous adipose tissue-derived stem cell therapy for cervical herniated intervertebral disc three times (one, two, and three months prior to the visit). His parents also received the same therapy five times and their chest CT also showed multiple pulmonary embolism. These cases represent artificial pulmonary embolisms and infarct after IV injection of hASC. Follow-up chest CT showed spontaneous resolution of lesions in all three patients. PMID:23918585
Jung, Jae Woo; Kwon, Minsuk; Choi, Jae Chol; Shin, Jong Wook; Park, In Won; Choi, Byoung Whui; Kim, Jae Yeol
BACKGROUND: An estimated $8.1 billion (in 2004 dollars) is spent annually on total health care costs for the treatment of breast cancer in the United States. Breast cancer has traditionally been treated with intravenous (IV) cancer therapies that entail not only the drug acquisition cost, but additional costs of personnel time, supplies, and equipment used in the preparation and administration
Gregory B. Kruse; Mayur M. Amonkar; Gregory Smith; Dean C. Skonieczny; Spyros Stavrakas
Background The majority of patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) in functional classes II and III are currently being treated with non-parenteral therapies, including endothelin receptor antagonists (ERA), phosphodiesterase (PDE)-5 inhibitors, inhaled iloprost or combinations of these substances. If these treatments fail, current guidelines recommend the addition of parenteral prostanoid therapy. There is, however, limited evidence for the efficacy of parenteral prostanoids when added to combinations of non-parenteral therapies. Methods In this retrospective, multicentre study we collected data from consecutive IPAH patients receiving intravenous iloprost in addition to optimized non-parenteral therapy between Jan 2002 and Dec 2009. Analyses included 6 min walk distance (6MWD), functional class, need for transplantation, and survival. Results During the observation period, 50 patients were treated with intravenous iloprost in addition to non-parenteral therapy; 44% of the patients were on dual combination therapy and 52% on triple combination. Three months after initiation of iloprost, functional class had improved in 24% of the patients and the median 6MWD had increased from 289 m to 298 m (n.s.). During the observation period, 22 patients (44%) died and 14 (28%) underwent lung transplantation. The probabilities of LuTx-free survival at 1, 3 and 5 years following iloprost initiation were 38%, 17% and 17%, respectively. A 6MWD < 300 m and persistent functional class IV at 3 months after initiation of intravenous iloprost were predictors of an adverse outcome. Conclusion In essence, late initiation of intravenous iloprost in IPAH patients who previously failed to respond to non-parenteral therapies appears to be of limited efficacy in the majority patients. Alternative therapeutic options are currently not available, underlying the need for the development of new drugs.
The primary objective is to identify and describe the complications associated with the use of intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) therapy as an antidote for lipophilic drug toxicity. This study is a retrospective chart review of patients treated with ILE at two academic medical centers between 2005 and 2012. Based on previously reported complications, we hypothesized that pancreatitis, ARDS, and lipemia-induced laboratory interference might occur. Clinical definitions of these complications were defined a priori. Subjects treated with ILE who did not develop at least one complication were excluded. A total of nine patients were treated with ILE during the study period, six of whom experienced potential complications as a result of the ILE. Two patients developed pancreatitis, and four patients had lipemia-induced interference of interpretation of laboratory studies, despite ultracentrifugation. Laboratory interference precluded one patient from being an organ donor. Three patients developed ARDS; although temporally associated, a causal relationship between ILE and the development of ARDS cannot be clearly established. As ILE is increasingly used for less severe cases of drug toxicity, clinicians should be aware of potential complications associated with its use. A risk-benefit assessment for the use of ILE should be implemented on a case-by-case basis. PMID:24338451
Levine, Michael; Skolnik, Aaron B; Ruha, Anne-Michelle; Bosak, Adam; Menke, Nathan; Pizon, Anthony F
Background:Calciphylaxis is a life-threatening condition traditionally observed in patients with end-stage renal disease. Cases of nonuremic calciphylaxis have also been reported, but data on this rare condition are mainly empirical.Objectives:To present a case of severe nonuremic calciphylaxis treated with intravenous sodium thiosulfate (IV STS) and to assess the implications of this treatment.Methods:Case report and review of the literature.Results:A nonuremic patient diagnosed with distal calciphylaxis was started on IV STS after a 12-month nonresponse to conventional therapy. On week 12, the patient requested palliative care, given her many side effects (transient severe nausea and significant electrolyte imbalance). Pain subsided after 14 weeks, and complete wound healing was observed after 6 months.Conclusion:Based on this case report, IV STS can improve refractory calciphylaxis in nonuremic patients. However, literature on the subject remains scarce. Careful monitoring for adverse transient side effects is advised. PMID:24518610
Fernandes, Carolina; Maynard, Bruno; Hanna, Dominique
Intravenous ascorbic acid as an adjuvant therapy for recombinant erythropoietin in hemodialysis patients with hyperferritinemia.BackgroundInadequate iron mobilization and defective iron utilization may cause recombinant erythropoietin (rEPO) hyporesponsiveness in hemodialysis (HD) patients with iron overload. We have demonstrated that intravenous ascorbic acid (IVAA), but not intravenous iron medication, can effectively circumvent the functional iron-deficient erythropoiesis associated with iron overload in HD
Der-Cherng Tarng; Yau-Huei Wei; Tung-Po Huang; Benjamin I. T. Kuo; Wu-Chang Yang
Nurse training and education programmes have changed in recent years, moving from a 'learning on the job' process of training and learning to a much more structured and academic approach. As professionals in health, we must continually update and refresh our knowledge and skills (Mann et al, 2009), a view supported by Fry et al (2003) who highlight that nurses are now encouraged to continue with lifelong learning. The Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) Code of Conduct 40 states: 'You must keep your knowledge and skills up to date throughout your working life'. Code 41 states: 'You must take part in appropriate learning and practice activities that maintain and develop your competence' (NMC, 2010). Within the hospital setting, most patients will receive some form of intravenous therapy (IV) treatment (Peterson, 2002: cited by RCN, 2010). Infusion therapy has therefore become an integral part of professional practice for most nurses, who must learn the initial skills in IV therapy and vascular access and achieve clinical competence. Education and clinical training by specialist teams in organisations must be delivered to ensure safe skills are learnt (RCN, 2010). This education and training must incorporate both theoretical and practical elements, with appropriate means of assessment. The delivery methods should be diverse, recognising that individuals have different approaches to learning. Clinical competency assessment frameworks are widely used within nurse education. But are they the most appropriate method of assessment, or can other methods be used? An in-depth literature review in this paper will highlight different approaches to learning, assessment and clinical competence. PMID:24037394
Hulse, Anna Louise
Background Recent studies have suggested that mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) may offer advantages over intravenous cyclophosphamide (IVC)\\u000a for the treatment of lupus nephritis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of MMF compared with IVC in the induction\\u000a therapy of proliferative lupus nephritis.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods We randomly assigned 47 patients with newly diagnosed active proliferative lupus nephritis class III or IV
Eid M. El-ShafeySaid; Said H. Abdou; Mohamed M. Shareef
Oral iron supplementation is usually the first choice for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) because of its effectiveness and low cost. But unfortunately in many iron deficient conditions, oral iron is a less than the ideal treatment mainly because of adverse events related to the gastrointestinal tract as well as the long course required to treat anemia and replenish body iron stores. The first iron product for intravenous use was high-molecular-weight iron dextran. However, dextran-containing intravenous iron preparations are associated with an elevated risk of anaphylactic reactions, which made physicians reluctant to prescribe intravenous iron in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia for many years. In 1999 and 2001, two new intravenous iron preparations (ferric gluconate and iron sucrose) were introduced into the market as safer alternatives to iron dextran. Over the last five years, three new intravenous iron dextran-free preparations have been developed and have better safety profiles than the more traditional intravenous compounds, as none require test doses and all these products are promising in respect to a more rapid replacement of body iron stores (15-60 minutes/infusion) as they can be given at higher doses (from 500 mg to more than 1000 mg/infusion). The purpose of this review is to discuss some pertinent issues in relation to the history, pharmacology, administration, efficacy, safety profile and toxicity of intravenous iron for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia. PMID:23049364
Cançado, Rodolfo Delfini; Muñoz, Manuel
Maximum plasma levels in six acute colitics were about three times greater after an intravenous bolus of 20 mg prednisolone than the mean level achieved during infusion of the same dose (p<0·001) over eight hours; the level during infusion was about twice as great as the maximum recorded previously after a single 40 mg oral dose of prednisolone. These findings favour the use of intravenous administration in severe acute colitis. No difference was found between plasma levels of patients and six normal subjects after the intravenous bolus.
Berghouse, L M; Elliott, P R; Lennard-Jones, J E; English, J; Marks, V
Duhon B, Attridge RL, Hughes DW. Response to comment on "Intravenous Sodium Bicarbonate Therapy in Severely Acidotic Diabetic Ketoacidosis" [published online December 5, 2013]. Ann Pharmacother. doi:10.1177/1060028013513885. PMID:24311726
The NHS Executive is keen to promote "hospital at home" services in Britain, as part of its philosophy of keeping more care in the community and also to relieve the increasing demand for hospital beds. One such service is the provision of intravenous antimicrobial therapy in the community. Yet, compared with the United States, where home or outpatient intravenous antimicrobial therapy programmes are well developed, experience in Britain and Europe is limited, reflecting a difference in cultural attitudes and healthcare structures between the two continents. Only a few units in Britain currently run home intravenous antimicrobial therapy programmes, and several issues need to be addressed if more treatment is to be provided outside hospital. These include an assessment of the need for community intravenous antibiotic treatment and which patient groups many benefit. The main motive for community intravenous treatment should be better patient care and not simply a reduction in healthcare costs. At present the pace of change is being set by a few clinical enthusiasts and by commercial organisations, whereas the NHS deserves a more organised strategy for purchasing treatment with intravenous antibiotics in the community. Images Fig 1
Nathwani, D.; Davey, P.
We report a case of Susac's syndrome characterized by subacute encephalopathy, bilateral hearing loss and multiple bilateral branch retinal artery occlusions in a forty-year-old-white-woman. Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging showed on T2-weighted images multiple, punctate areas of increased signal intensity in periventricular white matter, gray matter and brainstem most of them being enhanced by gadolinium. Cerebrospinal fluid was acellular but with an increased protein level (1.66 g/l). Treatment with cyclophosphamid and intravenous immmunoglobulin resulted in dramatic improvement of the clinical status over the following months and CSF normalization. PMID:10992124
Papeix, C; Laloum, L; Richet, A; Ayache, D; Moulignier, A; Héran, F; Bakouche, P; Gout, O
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) presents a major challenge to effective treatment of neurological disorders, including lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs), which frequently present with life-shortening and untreatable neurodegeneration. There is considerable interest in methods for intravenous delivery of lysosomal proteins across the BBB but for the most part, levels achievable in the brain of mouse models are modest and increased lifespan remains to be demonstrated. In this study, we have investigated delivery across the BBB using a mouse model of late-infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (LINCL), a neurodegenerative LSD caused by loss of tripeptidyl peptidase I (TPP1). We have achieved supraphysiological levels of TPP1 throughout the brain of LINCL mice by intravenous (IV) coadministration of recombinant TPP1 with a 36-residue peptide that contains polylysine and a low-density lipoprotein receptor binding sequence from apolipoprotein E. Importantly, IV administration of TPP1 with the peptide significantly reduces brain lysosomal storage, increases lifespan and improves neurological function. This simple "mix and inject" method is immediately applicable towards evaluation of enzyme replacement therapy to the brain in preclinical models and further exploration of its clinical potential is warranted. PMID:24394185
Meng, Yu; Sohar, Istvan; Sleat, David E; Richardson, Jason R; Reuhl, Kenneth R; Jenkins, Robert B; Sarkar, Gobinda; Lobel, Peter
In four patients with symptoms of presumed acute ischaemic stroke intravenous treatment with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) was considered. Two patients indeed received rtPA within 3 hours after onset of symptoms. One of them, a 55-year-old woman, recovered and was able to resume her job as a teacher four months later. The other patient, a 38-year-old man, had a severe bleeding complication that could be stopped, but the patient died several days later because of the massive stroke. The third patient, an 82-year-old woman, could not be treated with rtPA because the time of onset of neurological deficit was uncertain. Nevertheless, she recovered well from her hemiplegia after a few days. The fourth patient, a 24-year-old woman, did not receive rtPA because her symptoms were thought to be the result of a psychogenic disorder. Intravenous thrombolysis increases the risk of intracranial haemorrhage, but should be considered a useful treatment for ischaemic stroke provided there is no doubt about this diagnosis and treatment with rtPA can be started within 3 hours of onset of the neurological deficit. PMID:10850102
Kappelle, L J; van der Worp, H B
BACKGROUND Endovascular therapy is increasingly used after the administration of intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) for patients with moderate-to-severe acute ischemic stroke, but whether a combined approach is more effective than intravenous t-PA alone is uncertain. METHODS We randomly assigned eligible patients who had received intravenous t-PA within 3 hours after symptom onset to receive additional endovascular therapy or intravenous t-PA alone, in a 2:1 ratio. The primary outcome measure was a modified Rankin scale score of 2 or less (indicating functional independence) at 90 days (scores range from 0 to 6, with higher scores indicating greater disability). RESULTS The study was stopped early because of futility after 656 participants had undergone randomization (434 patients to endovascular therapy and 222 to intravenous t-PA alone). The proportion of participants with a modified Rankin score of 2 or less at 90 days did not differ significantly according to treatment (40.8% with endovascular therapy and 38.7% with intravenous t-PA; absolute adjusted difference, 1.5 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], ?6.1 to 9.1, with adjustment for the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale [NIHSS] score [8–19, indicating moderately severe stroke, or ?20, indicating severe stroke]), nor were there significant differences for the predefined subgroups of patients with an NIHSS score of 20 or higher (6.8 percentage points; 95% CI, ?4.4 to 18.1) and those with a score of 19 or lower (?1.0 percentage point; 95% CI, ?10.8 to 8.8). Findings in the endovascular-therapy and intravenous t-PA groups were similar for mortality at 90 days (19.1% and 21.6%, respectively; P = 0.52) and the proportion of patients with symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage within 30 hours after initiation of t-PA (6.2% and 5.9%, respectively; P = 0.83). CONCLUSIONS The trial showed similar safety outcomes and no significant difference in functional independence with endovascular therapy after intravenous t-PA, as compared with intravenous t-PA alone. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00359424.)
Broderick, Joseph P.; Palesch, Yuko Y.; Demchuk, Andrew M.; Yeatts, Sharon D.; Khatri, Pooja; Hill, Michael D.; Jauch, Edward C.; Jovin, Tudor G.; Yan, Bernard; Silver, Frank L.; von Kummer, Rudiger; Molina, Carlos A.; Demaerschalk, Bart M.; Budzik, Ronald; Clark, Wayne M.; Zaidat, Osama O.; Malisch, Tim W.; Goyal, Mayank; Schonewille, Wouter J.; Mazighi, Mikael; Engelter, Stefan T.; Anderson, Craig; Spilker, Judith; Carrozzella, Janice; Ryckborst, Karla J.; Janis, L. Scott; Martin, Renee H.; Foster, Lydia D.; Tomsick, Thomas A.
Study objective: Intravenous (IV) prochlorperazine with diphenhydramine is superior to subcutaneous sumatriptan in the treatment of migraine patients presenting to the emergency department (ED). Methods: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlle...
F. J. Gutierrez M. A. Kostic R. T. Gendron T. S. Moore T. S. Rieg
The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of two antibiotic therapy protocols for osteomyelitis with different durations of intravenous treatment. This was a prospective randomized study of children treated for acute hematogenous osteomyelitis. Patients in group 1 (G1) received 7 days of intravenous antibiotics, whereas patients in group 2 (G2) received 14 days. Treatment was deemed effective if there were no signs of chronic osteomyelitis at the last follow-up. Fifty-three patients were included in the study (G1=27, G2=26). After a mean follow-up of 11.5 months, none of the patients in either group showed signs of chronic osteomyelitis. In conclusion, a shortened treatment of 7 days of intravenous antibiotic therapy is as effective as a longer treatment. PMID:23566577
Bouchoucha, S; Gafsi, K; Trifa, M; Saied, W; Ammar, C; Nessib, M N; Smida, M; Ben Ghachem, M
G207, a conditionally replicating herpes vector, efficiently kills human bladder cancer cells in vitro. To evaluate the therapeutic potential of G207, we have established three in vivo models similar to the clinical situation. In vivo, G207 was intraneoplastically, intravesically, or intravenously inoculated in nude mice. Intraneoplastic inoculation into subcutaneous tumor caused significant tumor growth inhibition. Intravesical inoculation of G207 also caused decreased tumor growth in an orthotopic human bladder cancer model. Furthermore, multiple intravenous inoculation markedly inhibited subcutaneous tumor growth. These results suggest that intravesical therapy with G207 is effective for localized bladder tumor, especially for carcinoma in situ (CIS), and intravenous therapy with G207 is promising for invasive or metastasized bladder tumor. PMID:10954902
Oyama, M; Ohigashi, T; Hoshi, M; Nakashima, J; Tachibana, M; Murai, M; Uyemura, K; Yazaki, T
Objectives. To assess the efficacy and safety of intravenous cyclophosphamide (CYP) used in severe and refractory juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM). Methods. Retrospective case note review of the outcome of 12 patients. Results. Assessment at 6 months of therapy in 10 of the 12 patients showed a significant improvement in muscle function as assessed by the Childhood Myositis Assessment Scale (CMAS) (P
P. Riley; S. M. Maillard; L. R. Wedderburn; P. Woo; K. J. Murray; C. A. Pilkington
Twenty seven patients with acute rheumatoid disease who had not previously received systemic corticosteroid therapy were given a pulse(s) of high dose methylprednisolone sodium succinate (MPS) intravenously. Of the 27 patients 22 received 1 g MPS once and 5 were given the drug on three consecutive days. Plasma “MP” (total MPS plus hydrolysed methylprednisolone) and cortisol levels were measured at
E. M. Baylis; I. A. Williams; J. English; V. Marks; J. Chakraborty
Hopefully this review has brought some cephalosporin contentment to replace cephalosporin confusion. From the classification of these antibiotics in Table 1, we have made some significant reductions. One should know how to use cefazolin for staphylococcal/streptococcal infections and for surgical prophylaxis. One should know that cephalexin is massively overused, and really now not all that useful an agent. Cefuroxime is a useful agent for beta-lactamase producing H. influenzae infections. Cefotetan has a role in surgical prophylaxis in ob/gyn and represents the best antianaerobic activity of the cephalosporins; although no cephalosporin is a primary drug for anaerobic infections. Cefuroxime axetil or cefprozil can be useful for comparatively minor infections due to beta-lactamase producing H. influenzae. A third generation cephalosporin represents a reasonable alternative, in certain situations, to aminoglycoside therapy for infections due to multiply drug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli. Ceftazidime is an alternative antipseudomonal beta-lactam antibiotic. Despite the lack of indications for use of cephalosporins as drugs of choice, rational use of these agents can provide safe, effective, and efficient therapy for a variety of infectious diseases. They will likely remain an important part of the physicians' antimicrobial armamentarium for the foreseeable future. PMID:8426246
Greenfield, R A
Five commercially available parenteral solutions were compared for their effectiveness in correcting the disturbances associated with diarrhoea induced by Escherichia coli. Each solution (saline, Hartmann's, Darrow's, Plasmalyte +/- glucose) was tested on eight Jersey calves less than a week old and weighing approximately 25 kg. Each calf received 8.5 litres over three days, at about 20 ml kg-1 h-1. Solutions such as saline or Plasmalyte which had higher concentrations of sodium were more effective at correcting dehydration and electrolyte disturbances than those with less sodium (Darrow's, Hartmann's) but only those with bicarbonate precursors (lactate, acetate, gluconate) were effective in correcting metabolic acidosis. The additional potassium in Darrow's was predictably unhelpful in correcting hyperkalaemia and the additional glucose in Plasmalyte-glucose, despite some beneficial effects, undermined its effectiveness in correcting acidosis. These results suggest that solutions for intravenous treatment should probably contain about 150 mmol litre-1 Na+, 5 mmol litre-1 K+ and about 50 mmol litre-1 of a mixture of bicarbonate and precursors. Neither of the commonly used solutions (saline or Hartmann's) is thus ideal. PMID:2267419
Groutides, C P; Michell, A R
We report a patient who developed an acute lumbosacral plexopathy (LSP) following spinal surgery on lumbos segments. He recovered dramatically following treatment with high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg). A 66-year-old man who underwent an L4 to S1 decompressive laminectomy required re-admission after developing contralateral leg pain. Follow-up lumbosacral magnetic resonance imaging showed only mild postoperative changes. Ten days after re-admission, he developed relatively rapid onset ipsilateral inguinal pain and weakness of all his leg muscles with diminished sensation in a lumbosacral plexus distribution. Re-exploration revealed no specific lesion except for adhesions and resulted in no improvement. Following treatment with IVIg (0.4 g/kg daily) for five days, he showed dramatic resolution of motor weakness and pain. There has been no relapse following six months follow-up. Although IVIg treatment does not guarantee a positive response in all types of LSP, it should be considered for severe, rapidly progressive and even for postoperative cases. PMID:15851092
Park, Dong-Hyuk; Park, Youn-Kwan; Kim, Joo-Han
Family therapy educators listed most critical/basic skills/competencies of beginning family therapists with transgenerational orientation. Self-selected respondents then rated items according to importance for beginning therapists. Found transgenerational family therapy skills founded in theory and identifiable behaviorally. Most important skills…
Nelson, Thorana S.; And Others
The year 1952 marked the first use of subcutaneous immunoglobulin therapy to treat primary immunodeficiency disease. Subsequently, intramuscular and then intravenous administration became the norm in the United States and most of Europe. Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy, however, can be burdensome and often causes systemic side effects. To overcome obstacles presented by the intravenous route of administration, subcutaneous preparations were developed. To further enhance patient satisfaction, adherence, and quality of life, enzyme-enhanced subcutaneous immunoglobulin administration using hyaluronidase, an enzyme spreading agent, was studied. The dose and flow rate of traditional subcutaneous immunoglobulin infusion is limited by the inhibition of bulk fluid flow by the extracellular matrix. Recombinant human hyaluronidase, administered with or immediately prior to infusate, increases the absorption and dispersion of infused fluids and drugs. Results from a phase III clinical trial indicate that subcutaneous immunoglobulin infusion, facilitated by recombinant human hyaluronidase, is well tolerated, and delivers infusion volumes at treatment intervals and rates equivalent to intravenous administration. This review surveys the state of the art of immunoglobulin replacement therapy. PMID:22828788
Wasserman, Richard L
Background Osmotic demyelination syndrome (ODS) primarily occurs after rapid correction of severe hyponatremia. There are no proven effective therapies for ODS, but we describe the first case showing the successful treatment of central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) by plasma exchange, which occurred after rapid development of hypernatremia from intravenous sodium bicarbonate therapy. Case presentation A 40-year-old woman presented with general weakness, hypokalemia, and metabolic acidosis. The patient was treated with oral and intravenous potassium chloride, along with intravenous sodium bicarbonate. Although her bicarbonate deficit was 365 mEq, we treated her with an overdose of intravenous sodium bicarbonate, 480 mEq for 24 hours, due to the severity of her acidemia and her altered mental status. The next day, she developed hypernatremia with serum sodium levels rising from 142.8 mEq/L to 172.8 mEq/L. Six days after developing hypernatremia, she exhibited tetraparesis, drooling, difficulty swallowing, and dysarthria, and a brain MRI revealed high signal intensity in the central pons with sparing of the peripheral portion, suggesting CPM. We diagnosed her with CPM associated with the rapid development of hypernatremia after intravenous sodium bicarbonate therapy and treated her with plasma exchange. After two consecutive plasma exchange sessions, her neurologic symptoms were markedly improved except for mild diplopia. After the plasma exchange sessions, we examined the patient to determine the reason for her symptoms upon presentation to the hospital. She had normal anion gap metabolic acidosis, low blood bicarbonate levels, a urine pH of 6.5, and a calyceal stone in her left kidney. We performed a sodium bicarbonate loading test and diagnosed distal renal tubular acidosis (RTA). We also found that she had Sjögren’s syndrome after a positive screen for anti-Lo, anti-Ra, and after the results of Schirmer’s test and a lower lip biopsy. She was discharged and treated as an outpatient with oral sodium bicarbonate and potassium chloride. Conclusion This case indicates that serum sodium concentrations should be carefully monitored in patients with distal RTA receiving intravenous sodium bicarbonate therapy. We should keep in mind that acute hypernatremia and CPM can be associated with intravenous sodium bicarbonate therapy, and that CPM due to acute hypernatremia may be effectively treated with plasma exchange.
This report presents a case that shows a significant anticancer effect of Korean medicine therapy (KMT). A 79-year-old man, who was diagnosed as stage IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in December 2012, was treated with KMT including intravenous pharmacopunctures and oral herbal medicine from February 22, 2013, until September 2013 without any surgical intervention, chemotherapy or radiotherapy. The intravenous pharmacopunctures were the wild ginseng pharmacopuncture, Cordyceps sinensis pharmacopuncture and Trichosanthes kirilowii pharmacopuncture. The oral herbal medicine used was soramdan, made of cultivated wild ginseng. The effectiveness of this therapy was evaluated with computed tomography and the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance scale. The size of the tumor mass was markedly decreased and the ECOG performance scale was also improved. These results suggest that KMT alone can be an effective method to treat NSCLC. PMID:24348396
Lee, Dong-Hyun; Seong, Shin; Kim, Sung-Su; Han, Jae-Bok
Background and Aims Microarray analysis of RNA expression allows gross examination of pathways operative in inflammation. We aimed to determine whether genes expressed in whole blood early following initiation of intravenous corticosteroid treatment can be associated with response. Methods From a prospectively accrued cohort of 128 pediatric patients hospitalized for intravenous corticosteroid treatment of severe UC, we selected for analysis 20 corticosteroid responsive (hospital discharge or PUCAI ?45 by day 5) and 20 corticosteroid resistant patients (need for second line medical therapy or colectomy, or PUCAI >45 by day 5). Total RNA was extracted from blood samples collected on day 3 of intravenous corticosteroid therapy. The eluted transcriptomes were quantified on Affymetrix Human Gene 1.0 ST arrays. The data was analysed by the local-pooled error method for discovery of differential gene expression and false discovery rate correction was applied to adjust for multiple comparisons. Results A total of 41 genes differentially expressed between responders and non-responders were detected with statistical significance. Two of these genes, CEACAM1 and MMP8, possibly inhibited by methylprednisolone through IL8, were both found to be over-expressed in non-responsive patients. ABCC4 (MRP4) as a member of the multi-drug resistance superfamily was a novel candidate gene for corticosteroid resistance. The expression pattern of a cluster of 10 genes selected from the 41 significant hits were able to classify the patients with 80% sensitivity and 80% specificity. Conclusions Elevated expression of several genes involved in inflammatory pathways was associated with resistance to intravenous corticosteroid therapy early in the course of treatment. Gene expression profiles may be useful to classify resistance to intravenous corticosteroids in children with severe UC and assist with clinical management decisions.
Hyams, Jeffrey; Mack, David; Leleiko, Neal; Crandall, Wallace; Markowitz, James; Otley, Anthony R.; Xu, Wei; Hu, Pingzhao; Griffiths, Anne M.; Silverberg, Mark S.
We compared oral rehydration therapy (ORT) with rapid intravenous rehydration (IV) in 42 young children with mild to moderate dehydration due to diarrhea. Overall, treatment was successful for 82% of the ORT patients and for 78% of the IV patients. Many physicians in hospitals are unfamiliar with the use of ORT for treating dehydration.
Issenman, R. M.; Leung, A. K.
Objective: Interstitial lung disease (ILD) frequently complicates systemic sclerosis (SSc). Cyclophosphamide (CYC) is a promising immunosuppressive therapy for SSc-related ILD. Our objective was to investigate the effectiveness of an intravenous CYC (iv CYC) pulse regime in SSc-related ILD during treatment and thereafter. Methods: In a prospective observational study ten consecutive patients with SSc-related ILD were treated with iv CYC in a pulse regime lasting from 6 to 24 months. Clinical status, pulmonary functional testing (PFT) and high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the chest were evaluated at enrolment and 6, 12 and 24 months thereafter. After treatment withdrawal, patients were followed up every 6 months with PFT and chest HRCT to monitor lung disease. Results: Clinical improvement was apparent in 8 out of 10 patients. The median values of forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) and diffusion lung capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) as well as ground-glass pattern on HRCT did not change significantly after 6, 12 and 24 months of therapy. The follow-up continued in 8 out of 10 patients after treatment withdrawal for a median of 26.5 months (range: 12-48 months). The final median FVC was 54.5% of predicted value (interquartile range, IQR= 31.6%-94%). Only one patient suffered a FVC deterioration greater than 10%, even though less than 160 ml. The final median DLCO was 68% of predicted value (IQR=38.3-83.6%). Only 2 patients who developed pulmonary arterial hypertension deteriorated their DLCO values of more than 15%. Conclusions: An iv CYC pulse regimen over 24 months may stabilize pulmonary activity in patients with SSc-related ILD during the course of treatment and for a median of 26.5 months thereafter.
Simeon-Aznar, C.P; Fonollosa-Pla, V; Tolosa-Vilella, C; Selva-O?Callaghan, A; Solans-Laque, R; Palliza, E; Munoz, X; Vilardell-Tarres, M
Erythromelalgia is a rare condition characterized by constant or paroxysmal burning pain, erythema, and the elevation of skin temperature in the extremities. Recently, the impairment of C-fiber function due to autoimmune system involvement is considered as the primary cause of erythromelalgia. However, a successful treatment has yet not been established. We report a case of a 39-year-old woman with primary erythromelalgia accompanied by high cerebrospinal fluid protein concentration and axonal neuropathy. She received various antiepileptic and anti-inflammatory drugs, but failed to improve. She finally underwent high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin therapy, which dramatically improved her symptoms and normalized cerebrospinal fluid protein concentration. This result demonstrates the effectiveness of high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin therapy for the treatment of primary erythromelalgia and the possibility of autoimmune system involvement. PMID:24523317
Kuroda, Takeshi; Sugimoto, Azusa; Ishigaki, Seiichirou; Murakami, Hidetomo; Kawamura, Mitsuru
The objective of our study is to evaluate the clinical response, steroid-sparing and adverse affects of long-term intravenous\\u000a immunoglobulin (IVIG) treatment for autoimmune diseases. Patients were recruited from the Rheumatology clinic. All patients\\u000a fulfilled the ACR criteria for the appropriate autoimmune disease. Beneficial effects of IVIG therapy in systemic lupus erythematosus\\u000a (SLE) patients were evaluated utilizing the SLEDAI score. Clinical
Gisele Zandman-Goddard; Alexander Krauthammer; Yair Levy; Pnina Langevitz; Yehuda Shoenfeld
Study Objectives: To review the randomized, controlled, multicenter trials of intravenous thrombolytic therapy for ischemic stroke. Methods: Studies of ischemic stroke confirmed by computed tomography (CT) and randomization of more than 100 patients are reviewed. Streptokinase studies are the MAST-I, the MAST-E, and the ASK Trial. Studies using tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) are the NINDS Stroke Study, ECASS I, ECASS
Tiffany Medlin Osborn; Marian P LaMonte; Wade R Gaasch
Thirty-five patients with diffuse systemic sclerosis were studied in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Seventeen patients received intravenous dexamethasone "pulse" therapy, while 18 patients received placebo. Each "pulse" consisted of 100 mg dexamethasone in 250 ml 5% dextrose infused intravenously over 1 h. Pulse therapy was repeated every month for 6 months. Assessment of disease status with various parameters was done at entry and at completion of trial, i.e. after 6 months. Significant improvement in skin involvement was seen in the study group, with the total skin score (TSS) decreasing from 28.5 +/- 12.2 to 25.8 +/- 12.8, while in the control group, TSS increased from 30.6 +/- 13.2 to 34.7 +/- 10. Similarly, significant improvement was noted in the flexion index. Other parametres that included extension index, maximum oral opening, range of movement of joints, functional disability score, Raynaud's phenomenon (frequency and duration), ESR, proteinuria, chest X-ray, ECG, lung function tests, barium swallow and antinuclear antibody were unchanged. Adverse effects of therapy were limited to an increased incidence of minor chest infections. It is concluded that intravenous pulse dexamethasone may be useful in the treatment of diffuse systemic sclerosis. PMID:7839076
Sharada, B; Kumar, A; Kakker, R; Adya, C M; Pande, I; Uppal, S S; Pande, J N; Sunderam, K R; Malaviya, A N
Background & objectives: Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) is the most common nutritional deficiency in pregnancy. Prophylactic oral iron is recommended during pregnancy to meet the increased requirement. In India, women become pregnant with low baseline haemoglobin level resulting in high incidence of moderate to severe anaemia in pregnancy where oral iron therapy cannot meet the requirement. Pregnant women with moderate anaemia are to be treated with parentral iron therapy. This study was undertaken to evaluate the response and effect of intravenous iron sucrose complex (ISC) given to pregnant women with IDA. Methods: A prospective study was conducted (June 2009 to June 2011) in the department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. One hundred pregnant women with haemoglobin between 5-9 g% with diagnosed iron deficiency attending antenatal clinic were given intravenous iron sucrose complex in a dose of 200 mg twice weekly schedule after calculating the dose requirement. Results: The mean haemoglobin raised from 7.63 ± 0.61 to 11.20 ± 0.73 g% (P<0.001) after eight wk of therapy. There was significant rise in serum ferritin levels (from 11.2 ± 4.7 to 69 ± 23.1 ?g/l) (P<0.001). Reticulocyte count increased significantly after two wk of starting therapy (from 1.5 ± 0.6 to 4.6±0.8%). Other parameters including serum iron levels and red cell indices were also improved significantly. Only one woman was lost to follow up. No major side effects or anaphylactic reactions were noted during study period. Interpretation & conclusions: Parentral iron therapy was effective in increasing haemoglobin, serum ferritin and other haematological parameters in pregnant women with moderate anaemia. Intravenous iron sucrose can be used in hospital settings and tertiary urban hospitals where it can replace intramuscular therapy due to injection related side effects. Further, long-term comparative studies are required to recommend its use at peripheral level.
Kriplani, Alka; Mahey, Reeta; Dash, Biswa Bhusan; Kulshreshta, Vidushi; Agarwal, Nutan; Bhatla, Neerja
Five patients with common variable immunodeficiency treated in our hospital between December 1979 and December 1990 were given six kinds of intravenous immunoglobulin preparations (pepsin treated, S-sulfonated, polyethylene glycol treated, pH4 treated, alkylated, and pH4.25 formulation preparation) for replacement therapy. Duration of the therapy ranged from 7.6 to 11 years. Incidences of fever and acute infections were variable among patients,
Kyosuke Mushiake; Fumiaki Motoyoshi; Naomi Kondo; Hiroyuki Shimizu; Tadao Orii
We focus on the role of CD8+ Treg cell in Intravenous methyl-prednisolone (IVMP) pulse therapy in forty patients with active Class III/IV childhood lupus nephritis (LN) with heavy proteinuria. IVMP therapy for five days. From peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and renal tissues, we saw IVMP therapy definitely restoring both CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ and CD8+CD25+Foxp3+ Treg cell number plus greater expression with intracellular IL-10 and granzyme B in CD8+FoxP3+ Treg from PBMCs. IVMP-treated CD8+CD25+ Treg cells directly suppressed CD4+ T proliferation and induced CD4+CD45RO+ apoptosis. Histologically, CD4+FoxP3+ as well as CD8+FoxP3+ Treg cells appeared in renal tissue of LN patients before IVMP by double immunohistochemical stain. CD8+FoxP3+ Treg cells increased in 10 follow-up renal biopsy specimens after IVMP. Reverse correlation of serum anti-C1q antibody and FoxP3+ Treg cells in PBMNCs (r?=??0.714, P<0.01). After IVMP, serum anti-C1q antibody decrease accompanied increase of CD4+FoxP3+ Treg cells. CD8+Treg cells reduced interferon-r response in PBMCs to major peptide autoepitopes from nucleosomes after IVMP therapy; siRNA of FoxP3 suppressed granzyme B expression while decreasing CD8+CD25+Treg-induced CD4+CD45RO+ apoptosis. Renal activity of LN by SLEDAI-2k in childhood LN was significantly higher than two weeks after IVMP (P<0.01). CD8+FoxP3+ Treg cells return in post-IVMP therapy and exert crucial immune modulatory effect to control autoimmune response in LN. Trial Registration DMR97-IRB-259
Lin, Tze-Yi; Lin, Ching-Yuang
Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) preparations comprise pooled IgG antibodies from the serum of thousands of donors and were initially used as an IgG replacement therapy in immunocompromised patients. Since the discovery, more than 30 years ago, that IVIG therapy can ameliorate immune thrombocytopenia, the use of IVIG preparations has been extended to a wide range of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Despite the broad efficacy of IVIG therapy, its modes of action remain unclear. In this Review, we cover the recent insights into the molecular and cellular pathways that are involved in IVIG-mediated immunosuppression, with a particular focus on IVIG as a therapy for IgG-dependent autoimmune diseases. PMID:23411799
Schwab, Inessa; Nimmerjahn, Falk
Background: Intravenous thrombolysis is an approved treatment method for patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and is recommended by multiple guidelines. However, it seems that it is less frequently used in the developing countries compared to the developed countries. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to estimate the percentage of patients with AIS, eligible for intravenous thrombolytic therapy, at the main referral center in Northwest Iran and to determine the main barriers for implementation of this method. Patients and Methods: Over one year, 647 patients who were admitted to the emergency department and met the Cincinnati Stroke Scale were enrolled into the study. The center to which patients were admitted, is a tertiary university hospital that has the required infrastructure for thrombolytic therapy in AIS. Factors recorded were neurological examinations and time between onset of symptoms and hospital arrival, hospital arrival and performance of brain computed tomography (CT) scanning, and hospital arrival to complete the investigations. Patients eligible for intravenous thrombolytic therapy were identified according to the American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines. Results: Mean time interval between hospital arrival and completion of brain CT scanning was 91 minutes (range: 20–378 minutes) and mean time from hospital arrival to completion of investigations was 150 minutes (range: 30–540 minutes). A total of 159 (31.3%) patients arrived at hospital within 3 hours of the onset of symptoms (early enough for intravenous thrombolytic therapy). However, 81.7% (130/159) of these patients missed thrombolytic therapy due to delayed performance of brain CT scanning and laboratory tests and 38.3% (61/159) had contraindications. The remaining 16 patients (10% of those who arrived within 3 hours and 3.1% of all cases) were eligible for thrombolytic therapy. Conclusions: The major barriers for thrombolytic therapy for patients with AIS in this setting were delays in the provision of in-hospital services, like initial patient assessment, CT scans or laboratory studies. These results were in contrast with previous reports.
Ayromlou, Hormoz; Soleimanpour, Hassan; Farhoudi, Mehdi; Taheraghdam, Aliakbar; Sadeghi Hokmabadi, Elyar; Rajaei Ghafouri, Rouzbeh; Najafi Nashali, Mehdi; Sharifipour, Ehsan; Mostafaei, Somayeh; Altafi, Davar
Five patients with common variable immunodeficiency treated in our hospital between December 1979 and December 1990 were given six kinds of intravenous immunoglobulin preparations (pepsin treated, S-sulfonated, polyethylene glycol treated, pH4 treated, alkylated, and pH4.25 formulation preparation) for replacement therapy. Duration of the therapy ranged from 7.6 to 11 years. Incidences of fever and acute infections were variable among patients, but no significant differences were seen in the incidences among periods given each preparation. Three cases revealed abnormal pulmonary functions in tests. Adverse reactions were rarely seen in our study periods, and no severe reactions were observed. No significant differences were seen in incidences of adverse reactions. Postinfusion levels of serum complement slightly decreased from preinfusion levels. However, the decrease in complement was not related to any adverse reaction. No long-term complications such as transmission of hepatitis have been observed. Our data suggest that no obvious differences exist between the efficacy and safety of each IVIG preparation. Differences of efficacy of IVIG replacement therapy may be due to the variable pathophysiology of each patient. PMID:7803189
Mushiake, K; Motoyoshi, F; Kondo, N; Shimizu, H; Orii, T
Current modalities of cancer treatment, including surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, show marginal therapeutic responses in cancer patients. In adoptive immunotherapy, interleukin-2 (IL-2) activated immune cells demonstrated notable results in patients with advanced malignant disease. The present study reports the efficacy and safety of repetitive infusions of autologous immune enhancement therapy (AIET) in a stage IV colonic cancer patient who had already received first-line chemotherapeutic drugs. Peripheral blood was aspirated from the patient. Specifically, natural killer (NK) cells and T-lymphocytes were isolated from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). These cells were activated and expanded ex vivo for 14 days and were transfused intravenously to the patient. After six infusions of AIET, the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level was decreased from 901 to 437 U/ml, regression of lesions was noted and there were no adverse reactions during the course of this therapy. Thus, AIET may be a promising anticancer approach to eradicate tumor cells with other conventional therapies. PMID:23761827
Subramani, Baskar; Ratnavelu, Kananathan; Pullai, Chithra Ramanathan; Krishnan, Kohila; Sugadan, Sheela Devi; Deng, Xuewen; Hiroshi, Terunuma
Aims: To examine the use of the treatments for acute heart failure (AHF) recommended by ESC guidelines in different clinical presentations and blood pressure groups. Methods: The use of intravenous diuretics, nitrates, opioids, inotropes, and vasopressors as well as non-invasive ventilation (NIV) was analysed in 620 patients hospitalized due to AHF. The relation between AHF therapies and clinical presentation, especially systolic blood pressure (SBP) on admission, was also assessed. Results: Overall, 76% of patients received i.v. furosemide, 42% nitrates, 29% opioids, 5% inotropes and 7% vasopressors, and 24% of patients were treated with NIV. Furosemide was the most common treatment in all clinical classes and irrespective of SBP on admission. Nitrates were given most often in pulmonary oedema and hypertensive AHF. Overall, only SBP differed significantly between patients with and without the studied treatments. SBP was higher in patients treated with nitrates than in those who were not (156 vs. 141 mmHg, p<0.001). Still, only one-third of patients presenting acute decompensated heart failure and SBP over 120 mmHg were given nitrates. Inotropes and vasopressors were given most frequently in cardiogenic shock and pulmonary oedema, and their use was inversely related to initial SBP (p<0.001). NIV was used only in half of the cardiogenic shock and pulmonary oedema patients. Conclusions: The management of AHF differs between ESC clinical classes and the use of i.v. vasoactive therapies is related to the initial SBP. However, there seems to be room for improvement in administration of vasodilators and NIV.
Harjola, Veli-Pekka; Tolonen, Jukka; Siirila-Waris, Krista; Nieminen, Markku S; Lassus, Johan
Introduction This study was designed to compare the effects of intranasal (IN) and intravenous (IV) administration of naloxone in patients who had overdosed on opioids. Material and methods This randomized clinical trial study was conducted in the Department of Poisoning Emergencies at Noor and Ali Asghar (PBUH) University Hospital. One hundred opioid overdose patients were assigned by random allocation software into two study groups (n = 50). Both groups received 0.4 mg naloxone: one group IN and the other IV. Outcomes included change in the level of consciousness (measured using a descriptive scale and the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS)), time to response, vital signs (blood pressure, heart rate and respiratory rate), arterial blood O2 saturation before and after naloxone administration, side-effects (agitation) and length of hospital stay. Results Patients who had been administered IN naloxone demonstrated significantly higher levels of consciousness than those in the IV group using both descriptive and GCS scales (p < 0.001). There was a significant difference in the heart rate between IN and IV groups (p = 0.003). However, blood pressure, respiratory rate and arterial O2 saturation were not significantly different between the two groups after naloxone administration (p = 0.18, p = 0.17, p = 0.32). There was also no significant difference in the length of hospital stay between the two groups (p = 0.14). Conclusions Intranasal naloxone is as effective as IV naloxone in reversing both respiratory depression and depressive effects on the central nervous system caused by opioid overdose.
Sabzghabaee, Ali Mohammad; Eizadi-Mood, Nastaran; Zandifar, Samaneh
The relationship between the success rate of empirical antifungal therapy with intravenous itraconazole and clinical parameters, including plasma levels of itraconazole, in immunocompromised patients receiving itraconazole oral solution as prophylaxis: a multicenter, prospective, open-label, observational study in Korea.
To identify the role of therapeutic drug monitoring of itraconazole (ITZ) in the setting of empirical antifungal therapy with intravenous (IV) ITZ, we performed a multicenter, prospective study in patients with hematological malignancies who had received antifungal prophylaxis with ITZ oral solution (OS). We evaluated the plasma levels of ITZ and hydroxy (OH) ITZ both before initiation of IV ITZ and on days 5-7 of IV ITZ. A total of 181 patients showed an overall success rate of 68.0 %. Prolonged baseline neutropenia and accompanying cardiovascular comorbidity were significantly associated with poor outcomes of the empirical antifungal therapy (P?=?0.005 and P?=?0.001, respectively). A significantly higher trough plasma level of OH ITZ per body weight was found in the patients who achieved success with empirical antifungal therapy (P?=?0.036). There were no significant correlations between plasma concentrations of ITZ/OH ITZ (baseline or trough levels) and toxicities. Seven patients had a discontinuation of ITZ therapy due to toxicity. This study demonstrated that IV ITZ as empirical antifungal therapy was effective and therapeutic drug monitoring was helpful to estimate the outcome of empirical antifungal therapy in patients receiving antifungal prophylaxis with ITZ OS. To predict the outcome of empirical antifungal therapy with IV ITZ, we should evaluate baseline clinical characteristics and also perform the therapeutic drug monitoring of both ITZ and OH ITZ. PMID:23807252
Kim, Jin Seok; Cheong, June-Won; Kim, Yeo-Kyeoung; Park, Jinny; Mun, Yeung-Chul; Kang, Hye Jin; Yi, Hyeon Gyu; Lee, Je-Hwan; Kim, Yang Soo; Ryoo, Hun-Mo; Kim, Sung-Hyun; Kim, Ho Young; Kim, Jin Young; Lee, Dong-Gun; Kim, Hoon-Gu; Kim, Hawk; Joo, Young-Don; Min, Yoo Hong
Osteoporosis is a chronic disease of the osseous system characterised by decreased strength of bone tissue, which in turn leads to increased fracture risk. It has been demonstrated that osteoporosis affects more than 30% of women after the menopause (World Health Organization, 1994). However, the disease is also observed in men. The primary goals of osteoporosis therapy include prevention of low-energy fractures and general improvement of quality of life. Any patient with diagnosed osteoporosis requires, besides prevention, the application of proper treatment. Of the available therapeutic options, the best are bisphosphonates, medical agents with well identified properties, therapeutic efficacy, and safety which has been confirmed in many clinical studies. Therefore, they are recommended as first line drugs for osteoporosis. The efficacy of oral preparations may be limited, due to low bioavailability, complications and adverse effects from the gastrointestinal tract. So the parenteral administration of bisphosphonates is a valuable alternative. A fine example of such therapy is the intravenous administration of ibandronate. Short injection time periods and the relatively long, three-month intervals between administrations are unquestionable advantages of this therapy mode. In addition, the therapy does not constrain a patient's everyday activity, and simultaneously provides regular contact with doctors and the therapeutic centre. Additionally, a good tolerance of the drug and its high therapeutic efficacy, proven by appreciably reduced fracture risks, significantly improves the quality of life of patients suffering from osteoporosis. This paper is a thorough review of current knowledge on the efficacy and safety of i.v. ibandronate in osteoporosis therapy, as presented in the latest literature reports. PMID:22125017
Sewerynek, Ewa; Stuss, Micha?
Osteoporosis is a chronic disease of the osseous system characterised by decreased strength of bone tissue, which in turn leads to increased fracture risk. It has been demonstrated that osteoporosis affects more than 30% of women after the menopause (WHO, 1994). However, the disease is also observed in men. The primary goals of osteoporosis therapy include prevention of low-energy fractures and general improvement of quality of life. Any patient with diagnosed osteoporosis requires, besides prevention, the application of proper treatment. Of the available therapeutic options, the best are bisphosphonates, medical agents with well identified properties, therapeutic efficacy, and safety which has been confirmed in many clinical studies. Therefore, they are recommended as first line drugs for osteoporosis. The efficacy of oral preparations may be limited, due to low bioavailability, complications and adverse effects from the gastrointestinal tract. So the parenteral administration of bisphosphonates is a valuable alternative. A fine example of such therapy is the intravenous administration of ibandronate. Short injection time periods and the relatively long, three-month intervals between administrations are unquestionable advantages of this therapy mode. In addition, the therapy does not constrain a patient's everyday activity, and simultaneously provides regular contact with doctors and the therapeutic centre. Additionally, a good tolerance of the drug and its high therapeutic efficacy, proven by appreciably reduced fracture risks, significantly improves the quality of life of patients suffering from osteoporosis. This paper is a thorough review of current knowledge on the efficacy and safety of i.v. ibandronate in osteoporosis therapy, as presented in the latest literature reports. PMID:21365580
Sewerynek, Ewa; Stuss, Micha?
Prostate cancer (CaP) continues to be a significant burden on men's health. While significant advances have been made in the diagnosis and treatment of localized disease, androgen deprivation therapy remains the treatment of choice for advanced and metastatic disease. However, once a man progresses on androgen deprivation, therapies targeting castration-resistant CaP have been extremely limited until quite recently. Urologic oncologists who wish to play an active role in the treatment of men with CaP from diagnosis through end-of-life care should be familiar with administration of and toxicities associated with chemotherapeutic agents. This review is directed at urologists and urologic oncologists and will discuss many of the FDA-approved intravenous agents currently available for castration-resistant CaP with a specific focus on the side-effects associated with these regimens. PMID:22014836
Singer, Eric A; Srinivasan, Ramaprasad
The switch from intravenous to oral antibiotic therapy is recommended for treating hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). We performed a multicenter, randomized study to assess the benefit of switching from intravenous sulbactam/ampicillin (SBT/ABPC) to oral garenoxacin (GRNX) in patients with CAP. Among adult CAP patients who must be hospitalized for intravenous antibiotic treatment, those with Pneumonia Patient Outcomes Research Team (PORT) scores of II-IV (mild to moderate) were initially treated with intravenous SBT/ABPC (6 g/day) for 3 days. A total of 108 patients who fulfilled the inclusion criteria (improved respiratory symptoms, CRP < 15 mg/dl, adequately improved oral intake, fever ? 38 °C for ? 12 h), were divided into two groups based on the antibiotic administered, the GRNX (switch to GRNX 400 mg/day) and SBT/ABPC groups (continuous administration of SBT/ABPC), for 4 days. Improvement in clinical symptoms, chest radiographic findings, and clinical effectiveness were evaluated by a central review board. Improvement in clinical symptoms was 96.3 and 90.2% in the GRNX and SBT/ABPC groups, respectively. Improvement in chest radiographic findings was 94.4 and 90.2% and clinical effectiveness was 94.4 and 90.2% in the GRNX and SBT/ABPC groups, respectively. Microbiological efficacy was 90.9 and 69.2% in the GRNX and SBT/ABPC groups, respectively. There were no significant differences between the groups. Converting to GRNX was as effective as continuous SBT/ABPC treatment in mild to moderate CAP patients in whom initial intravenous antibiotic treatment was successful. PMID:23695232
Kohno, Shigeru; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Yamamoto, Yoshihiro; Tokimatsu, Issei; Hiramatsu, Kazufumi; Higa, Futoshi; Tateyama, Masao; Fujita, Jiro; Kadota, Jun-Ichi
Background: For patients with active moderate-to-severe Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO), a course of 4.5 g iv glucocorticoids (GCs) is the recommended therapy. The weekly protocol is preferred because of the potential safety concerns with the daily protocol. However, evidence for the superiority of different administration protocols is lacking. Methods: We conducted a prospective, randomized trial to compare the efficacy and safety of two protocols of iv 4.5 g methylprednisolone in a total of 80 patients in our institute. The patients were randomized to receive iv methylprednisolone weekly or daily. The response rate (a composite response endpoint including lid width, soft tissue involvement, proptosis, intraocular pressure, Clinical Activity Score [CAS], diplopia, and visual acuity) was evaluated as the primary outcome, and adverse effects were recorded at each visit. GO-associated serum cytokines were measured. Results: We found a significantly greater response rate for the weekly protocol vs the daily protocol at the 12th week (76.92 vs 41.03%; P = .0025) and a similar response rate at the fourth week. Seven patients on the daily protocol worsened when tapering iv methylprednisolone to oral prednisone in the fourth week. Patients in both groups showed significant CAS response, and at the 12th week, patients on the weekly protocol showed a nonsignificant trend toward greater CAS response. Weekly protocol showed significant prolonged retreatment-free survival. Severe side effects were only observed in two cases, both of which were on the daily protocol. Furthermore, we observed sustained decreased levels of serum CXCL10 in the 12th week compared to the baseline level (P = .0009) in the patients on the weekly protocol. Conclusions: The weekly protocol of iv methylprednisolone therapy is more efficient and safer than the daily protocol for patients with active moderate-to-severe GO. PMID:24606088
Zhu, Wei; Ye, Lei; Shen, Liyun; Jiao, Qin; Huang, Fengjiao; Han, Rulai; Zhang, Xiaofang; Wang, Shu; Wang, Weiqing; Ning, Guang
Symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH) is a known complication following administration of intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV tPA) for acute ischemic stroke. sICH results in high rates of death or long-term disability. Our ability to predict its occurrence is important in clinical decision making and when counseling families. The initial National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) investigators developed a list of relative contraindications to IV tPA meant to decrease the risk of subsequent sICH. To date, the impact of renal impairment has not been well studied. In the current study we evaluate the potential association between renal impairment and post-tPA intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). Admission serum creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were recorded in 224 patients presenting within 4.5 hours from symptom onset and treated with IV tPA based on NINDS criteria. Neuroimaging was obtained 1 day post-tPA and for any change in neurologic status to evaluate for ICH. Images were retrospectively evaluated for hemorrhage by a board-certified neuroradiologist and 2 reviewers blinded to the patient's neurologic status. Medical records were reviewed retrospectively for evidence of neurologic decline indicating a "symptomatic" hemorrhage. sICH was defined as subjective clinical deterioration (documented by the primary neurology team) and hemorrhage on neuroimaging that was felt to be the most likely cause. Renal impairment was evaluated using both serum creatinine and eGFR in a number of ways: 1) continuous creatinine; 2) any renal impairment by creatinine (serum creatinine >1.0 mg/dL); 3) continuous eGFR; and 4) any renal impairment by eGFR (eGFR <60 mL/min per 1.73 m²). Student paired t tests, Fisher exact tests, and multivariable logistic regression (adjusted for demographics and vascular risk factors) were used to evaluate the relationship between renal impairment and ICH. Fifty-seven (25%) of the 224 patients had some evidence of hemorrhage on neuroimaging. The majority of patients were asymptomatic. Renal impairment (defined by serum creatinine >1.0 mg/dL) was not associated with combined symptomatic and asymptomatic intracranial bleeding (p = 0.359); however, there was an adjusted 5.5-fold increased odds of sICH when creatinine was >1.0 mg/dL (95% confidence interval, 1.08-28.39), and the frequency of sICH for patients with elevated serum creatinine was 10.6% (12/113), versus 1.8% (2/111) in those with normal renal function (p = 0.010). Our study suggests that renal impairment is associated with higher risk of sICH after administration of IV tPA. As IV tPA is an important and effective treatment for acute ischemic stroke, a multicenter study is needed to determine whether the observation that renal dysfunction is associated with sICH from this retrospective study holds true in a larger prospective trial. PMID:24145699
Marsh, Elisabeth B; Gottesman, Rebecca F; Hillis, Argye E; Urrutia, Victor C; Llinas, Rafael H
Interaction between chemokines and heparan sulfate (HS) is essential for leukocyte recruitment during inflammation. Previous studies have shown that a non-HS-binding mutant form of the inflammatory chemokine CCL7 can block inflammation produced by wild-type chemokines. This study examined the anti-inflammatory mechanism of a non-HS-binding mutant of the homeostatic chemokine CXCL12. Initial experiments demonstrated that mutant CXCL12 was an effective CXCR4 agonist. However, this mutant chemokine failed to promote transendothelial migration in vitro and inhibited the haptotactic response to wild-type CCL7, CXCL12, and CXCL8, and naturally occurring chemoattractants in synovial fluid from the rheumatoid synovium, including CCL2, CCL7, and CXCL8. Notably, intravenous administration of mutant CXCL12 also inhibited the recruitment of leukocytes to murine air pouches filled with wild-type CXCL12. Following intravenous administration, wild-type CXCL12 was cleared from the circulation rapidly, while the mutant chemokine persisted for >24 h. Chronic exposure to mutant CXCL12 in the circulation reduced leukocyte-surface expression of CXCR4, reduced the chemotactic response of these cells to CXCL12, and inhibited normal chemokine-mediated induction of adhesion between the ?4?1 integrin, VLA-4, and VCAM-1. These data demonstrate that systemic administration of non-HS-binding variants of CXCL12 can mediate a powerful anti-inflammatory effect through chemokine receptor desensitization.—O’Boyle, G., Mellor, P., Kirby, J. A., Ali, S. Anti-inflammatory therapy by intravenous delivery of non-heparan sulfate-binding CXCL12.
O'Boyle, Graeme; Mellor, Paul; Kirby, John A.; Ali, Simi
The first use of immunoglobulin therapy, historically, was in 1890 when Emil von Behring developed effective antiserum against diphtheria toxin, but only in the early 1970s technological advancements in the fractionation of plasma lead to the production of Ig preparations which could be administered intravenously. Intravenous Ig products are a mainstay for disorders such as: primary immunodeficiency, serious infections, autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. During autoimmune and systemic inflammatory disease IVIg exhibits a number of immune modulatory activities such as: Fc Receptor-mediated effects, modulation of complement, modulation of cytokine production, superantigens neutralization, antibodies neutralization by idiotype network, increased catabolism of IgG, but also biologic effects of other molecules present in IVIg preparations. Recent understanding about IVIg composition and mechanism of action can explain its therapeutic effect in autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. Nevertheless it is important to underline that IVIg is a heterogeneous product and it is difficult to determine the exact mechanism of its activities in every disease. The increased use of IVIg in the treatment of autoimmune disorders outlined the issue of tolerability. Undesiderable effects to IVIg occurs in less than 5% of patients. PMID:12032582
Emmi, L; Chiarini, F
Nutritional iron-deficiency anaemia (IDA) is the most common disorder in the world, affecting more than two billion people. The World Health Organization's global database on anaemia has estimated a prevalence of 14% based on a regression-based analysis. Recent data show that the prevalence of IDA in pregnant women in industrialized countries is 17.4% while the incidence of IDA in developing countries increases significantly up to 56%. Although oral iron supplementation is widely used for the treatment of IDA, not all patients respond adequately to oral iron therapy. This is due to several factors including the side effects of oral iron which lead to poor compliance and lack of efficacy. The side effects, predominantly gastrointestinal discomfort, occur in a large cohort of patients taking oral iron preparations. Previously, the use of intravenous iron had been associated with undesirable and sometimes serious side effects and therefore was underutilised. However, in recent years, new type II and III iron complexes have been developed, which offer better compliance and toleration as well as high efficacy with a good safety profile. In summary, intravenous iron can be used safely for a rapid repletion of iron stores and correction of anaemia during and after pregnancy.
Khalafallah, Alhossain A.; Dennis, Amanda E.
Interstitial lung disease (ILD) associated with polymyositis/dermatomyositis (ILD-PM/DM), including amyopathic dermatomyositis (ADM), is recognized as an important condition because it frequently causes death, despite intensive therapy with high-dose corticosteroid and immunosuppressive agents, such as cyclosporine A and cyclophosphamide. Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy (IVIG) has shown efficacy for myopathy associated with PM/DM, but its usefulness for ILD-PM/DM is unclear. This study was designed to investigate the efficacy of IVIG for refractory ILD-PM/DM. A review was made of medical charts of five patients (2 men and 3 women) who were treated with IVIG for refractory ILD-PM/DM resistant to high-dose corticosteroid and cyclosporine A and/or cyclophosphamide. One patient had acute ILD-PM and four patients had acute ILD-ADM. Of the five patients, one patient with ILD-PM and one patient with ILD-ADM survived. No adverse reactions were seen due to IVIG treatment. There were no critical differences in the clinical parameters and clinical courses between survivors and nonsurvivors. IVIG treatment is safe and could be an effective salvage therapy for refractory ILD-PM/DM in certain cases, suggesting that further controlled trials are worthwhile. PMID:19387736
Suzuki, Yuzo; Hayakawa, Hiroshi; Miwa, Seiichi; Shirai, Masahiro; Fujii, Masato; Gemma, Hitoshi; Suda, Takafumi; Chida, Kingo
We conducted a multicenter controlled trial to test the hypothesis that high-dose intravenous immune globulin (HDivIG) therapy can modulate bilirubin production and reduce the frequency of exchange transfusions in newborn infants with Rh hemolytic disease. Thirty-four patients with Rh incompatibility proved by positive direct antiglobulin test (Coombs test) results were randomly assigned to receive conventional treatment including phototherapy, with or without additional HDivIG therapy at 500 mg/kg given for a 2-hour period as soon as the diagnosis was established. Exchange transfusions were performed if serum bilirubin concentrations exceeded the modified curves of Polácek by more than 2 mg/dl. Two patients were excluded because of protocol violations. The results in 32 infants were analyzed. In the HDivIG group, 2 (12.5%) of 16 children required exchange transfusions, whereas it became necessary in 11 (69%) of 16 children in the control group (p less than 0.005). Bilirubin levels in the HDivIG group were lower despite reduced frequency of exchange transfusions. No side effects of HDivIG treatment were observed. We conclude that HDivIG therapy by a yet unknown mechanism reduces serum bilirubin levels and the need for blood exchange transfusions in children with Rh hemolytic disease. PMID:1306646
Rübo, J; Albrecht, K; Lasch, P; Laufkötter, E; Leititis, J; Marsan, D; Niemeyer, B; Roesler, J; Roll, C; Roth, B
Pompholyx is a common eruption of small vesicles on the palms, soles, and/or lateral aspects of the fingers. It has a multifactorial etiology, including genetic determinants, allergy to metals, and id reaction; rarely it is a drug-related side effect. We report a paediatric case of pompholyx of the hands related to the intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy for Clinically Isolated Syndrome (CIS). A 10-year-old boy, received an IVIG therapy (Venital, Kedrion Spa, Italy) at a dose of 400 mg/kg daily for five days. The fifth day of IVIG infusion, a symmetrical vesicular eruption appeared on the palms of the hands and on lateral aspects of the fingers. The lesions improved with application of topical steroids in few days. The mechanism of induction of pompholyx by IVIG therapy is unknown. A review of the Literature suggests the hypothesis that dyshidrotic eczematous reactions may be related not only to the type of IVIG, to the dose and the rates of infusion, but also to an allergic response to excipients and preservatives contained in the drug, probably elicited by an underlying neurological disease in some cases. PMID:24674688
Brazzelli, V; Grassi, S; Savasta, S; Ruffinazzi, G; Carugno, A; Barbaccia, V; Marseglia, G L; Borroni, G
We prospectively evaluated the efficacy and safety of a 24-month course of intermittent intravenous cyclophosphamide (IC) therapy for children suffering from lupus nephritis soon after the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) was made. Eight children with severe lupus nephritis were treated with IC monthly for 6 months and then every 3 months, totaling 24 months. The repeated measurements of
Shih-Jung Chiu; Liang-Shiou Ou; Tien-Lung Tsai; Iou-Jih Hung; Jing-Long Huang
We hypothesized that the route of administration would impact the beneficial effects of bone marrow-derived mononuclear cell (BMDMC) therapy on the remodelling process of asthma. C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to two main groups. In the OVA group, mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin, while the control group received saline using the same protocol. Twenty-four hours before the first challenge, control and OVA animals were further randomized into three subgroups to receive saline (SAL), BMDMCs intravenously (2×10(6)), or BMDMCs intratracheally (2×10(6)). The following changes were induced by BMDMC therapy in OVA mice regardless of administration route: reduction in resistive and viscoelastic pressures, static elastance, eosinophil infiltration, collagen fibre content in airways and lung parenchyma; and reduction in the levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-13, transforming growth factor-? and vascular endothelial growth factor. In conclusion, BMDMC modulated inflammatory and remodelling processes regardless of administration route in this experimental model of allergic asthma. PMID:23164835
Abreu, Soraia C; Antunes, Mariana A; Maron-Gutierrez, Tatiana; Cruz, Fernanda F; Ornellas, Debora S; Silva, Adriana L; Diaz, Bruno L; Ab'Saber, Alexandre M; Capelozzi, Vera L; Xisto, Debora G; Morales, Marcelo M; Rocco, Patricia R M
Transient hypogammaglobulinemia of infancy (THI) is characterized by recurrent infections and one or more reduced serum immunoglobulin levels. Typically, THI patients recover spontaneously, mostly within 30-40 months of age, but sometimes recovery may be delayed until 5-6 years of age. The use of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) as an alternative to antibiotic prophylaxis remains contraversial also in symptomatic THI patients. In fact, some authors believe that IVIg therapy may cause a delay in the maturation of the humoral immune system because of the interference from passively transfered antibodies. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of IVIg replacement on recovery from immunodeficiency in THI patients and determine new parameters in order to include these patients in IVIg therapy groups. In this retrospective study, 43 patients (65%) received IVIg replacement therapy while 23 patients (34.8%) showed spontaneous normalization without IVIg. The percentages of patients who had more than six times the number of febrile infections in a year decreased from 91% to 21% in the group receiving IVIg treatment. At admission, before being recruited to IVIg therapy, serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels and anti-hemophilus B (Hib) antibody titers were found to be significantly low in cases who were selected for IVIg replacement. The percentages of patients who did not have protective levels of anti-Hib, anti-rubella or anti-rubeola-IgG were also significantly high in IVIg cases. There was no statistically significant difference in the age at which IgG levels normalized between the IVIg and the non-IVIg group. Patients in the IVIg group and non-IVIg group reached normal IgG levels at the age of 42.9±22.0 and 40.7±19.8 months, respectively. In conclusion, IVIg infusions do not cause a delay in the maturation of the immune system in THI patients. Besides the well-established criteria, very low and non-protective specific antibody responses against previously applied vaccines are important factors to consider when selecting patients for IVIg therapy.
Memmedova, Lale; Azarsiz, Elif; Edeer Karaca, Neslihan; Aksu, Guzide; Kutukculer, Necil
For patients presenting to emergency departments with ethanol intoxication, intravenous (i.v.) fluids are initiated for varied reasons. This investigation determined the effect of i.v. fluid therapy on the rate of blood ethanol clearance in such patients. Volunteers received a predetermined dose of ethanol on two separate occasions. On the second occasion, volunteers rapidly received a liter of i.v. saline directly
James Li; Trevor Mills; Ray Erato
Erythropoietin combined with parenteral iron sucrose therapy is an alternative to blood transfusion in anemic patients. It was shown to be effective in surgical patients in several previous studies when used in conjunction with other methods. However, there are no guidelines about safety limits in dosage amounts or intervals. In this study, we report a case of significant postoperative hemorrhage managed with high dose parenteral iron sucrose, low dose erythropoietin, vitamin B(12), vitamin C, and folic acid. An 80-year-old female patient presented for severe anemia after a total hip arthroplasty and refused an allogenic blood transfusion as treatment. The preoperative hemoglobin of 12.2 g/dL decreased to 5.3 g/dL postoperatively. She received the aforementioned combination of iron sucrose, erythropoietin, and vitamins. A total of 1,500 mg of intravenous iron sucrose was given postoperatively for 6 consecutive days. Erythropoietin was also administered at 2,000 IU every other day for a total of 12,000 IU. The patient was discharged in good condition on the twelfth postoperative day with a hemoglobin of 8.5 g/dL. Her hemoglobin was at 11.2 g/dL on the twentieth postoperative day. PMID:21179286
Yoon, Jiyeol; Kim, Sungmin; Lee, Soo Chan; Lim, Hongsub
Erythropoietin combined with parenteral iron sucrose therapy is an alternative to blood transfusion in anemic patients. It was shown to be effective in surgical patients in several previous studies when used in conjunction with other methods. However, there are no guidelines about safety limits in dosage amounts or intervals. In this study, we report a case of significant postoperative hemorrhage managed with high dose parenteral iron sucrose, low dose erythropoietin, vitamin B12, vitamin C, and folic acid. An 80-year-old female patient presented for severe anemia after a total hip arthroplasty and refused an allogenic blood transfusion as treatment. The preoperative hemoglobin of 12.2 g/dL decreased to 5.3 g/dL postoperatively. She received the aforementioned combination of iron sucrose, erythropoietin, and vitamins. A total of 1,500 mg of intravenous iron sucrose was given postoperatively for 6 consecutive days. Erythropoietin was also administered at 2,000 IU every other day for a total of 12,000 IU. The patient was discharged in good condition on the twelfth postoperative day with a hemoglobin of 8.5 g/dL. Her hemoglobin was at 11.2 g/dL on the twentieth postoperative day.
Kim, Sungmin; Lee, Soo Chan; Lim, Hongsub
Transplant glomerulopathy (TG) is associated with poor long-term allograft survival and is often accompanied by microcirculation inflammation. Histopathologic scoring may inform prognosis and help guide therapy. We retrospectively assessed 33 patients with biopsy-proven TG. All biopsies were given a glomerulitis (g) and peritubular capillaritis (ptc) score. We determined allograft survival and serum creatinine stability in three different score groups: g < 2 and ? 2, ptc < 2 and ? 2, and (g + ptc) < 4 and ? 4. We assessed the impact of treatment with intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) and rituximab on outcomes. Graft survival and serum creatinine stability did not differ in each of the histopathologic score groups. Higher-score groups were associated with the presence of concomitant antibody-mediated rejection and were more likely to receive IVIG and rituximab. Treatment with IVIG and rituximab resulted in stability of serum creatinine within the higher-score groups, but not in the lower-score groups. Stabilization of serum creatinine was associated with an improvement in donor-specific antibody. Histopathologic scoring in kidney allograft biopsies with TG may help guide treatment. The combination of IVIG and rituximab appears to be beneficial in patients whose biopsies have moderate or severe microvascular injury. PMID:24579925
Kahwaji, Joseph; Najjar, Reiad; Kancherla, Deepika; Villicana, Rafael; Peng, Alice; Jordan, Stanley; Vo, Ashley; Haas, Mark
Purpose: With the advent of newer cancer therapies (eg, biologic and cytotoxic), treatment is becoming increasingly expensive for patients with cancer. Patients enrolled in Medicare and commercial insurance plans often have large copay requirements with each treatment cycle. Often, these patients undergo significant financial hardship, and some patients decline treatment. We have developed a support program that works closely with all copay assistance foundations to secure financial assistance to facilitate appropriate treatment. Methods: In September, 2008 we initiated a coordinated program with various copay assistance foundations, including Healthwell, Cancer Care, Patient Access, Chronic Disease Fund, Beckstrand Cancer, Lilly Cares and the Leukemia and Lymphoma Society. Patients requesting assistance with chemotherapy copay were enrolled in this program. Information about income level, chemotherapy regimens, and associated copay was given to these foundations, who then determined the amount of monetary assistance. Results: Since the initiation of this program, of 201 patients who began receiving chemotherapy, 25 (12.4%) requested assistance with this program for either intravenous or oral treatments. The current results of time delays for foundation decision, success rates and administrative costs to secure funding will be presented at the time of the poster presentation. Conclusion: Copay for chemotherapy drugs is a financial hardship for a significant number of patients. Coordinated resources must be provided and reimbursed to facilitate appropriate and sustainable cancer care. This program is a successful model for other centers to adopt.
Rajurkar, Swapnil P.; Presant, Cary A.; Bosserman, Linda D.; McNatt, Wendy J.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of intravenous magnesium (IVMg) therapy for moderate to severe asthma exacerbations in pediatric patients. DESIGN: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial. SETTING: Urban pediatric emergency department. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-one patients aged 6 to 18 years who were being treated for an acute asthma exacerbation with peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) less than 60% of the predicted value
Lydia Ciarallo; Andrew H. Sauer; Michael W. Shannon
In order to understand the psychopathology of severe anorexia nervosa (AN), and determine appropriate therapeutic approaches, a clinical study was conducted on 13 patients with severe AN who were hospitalized and were treated with intravenous hyperalimentation (IVH). The patients were divided into three types based on their clinical symptoms and initiating factors: Type I (Restricting Type; "Non-dieters"), Type II (Restricting Type: "Dieters"). Type III (Binge-eating/Purging Type). The clinical features of each type were evaluated. Based on this evaluation, the basic approach and the role of IVH in the treatment of each type are described as follows. Type I: The patients experience loss of appetite and subsequently, suffer involuntary weight loss as a result of psychological or physical stresses at school and/or home. Since the patients do not intentionally restrict food intake, they cannot explain the loss of appetite. The age at onset of this type is the youngest among the three groups. The patients are introverted, passive and not good at expressing their emotions. Therefore, it is often difficult to deepen the emotional commitment further. It is possible to understand the pathology of Type I through the psychosomatic model. IVH therapy promotes benign regression for Type I patients, so that the mother-child relationship may be restored. As the therapeutic progress, the mother child relationship occasionally become ambivalent. In such a case, it is important for the treatment team to support independent activities of the patients. Type II: The patients lose weight by intentionally restricting necessary food intake for reasons such as beauty or sports. Any experience of failure in studies or sports or trouble in complex personal relations can trigger the onset of AN. Weight loss is looked as a great achievement, whereas weight gain is recognized as a serious failure of self-control. Since type II patients understand the necessity of receiving treatment, it is possible to establish a trusting relationship during therapy. Their prognosis is generally good. The psychotherapeutic approach for Type II patients is most effective in the context of a weight gain program utilizing behavior therapy. It is important for the therapist to integrate psychological approach with physiological approach using IVH, and to modify cognitive distortion and body image disturbance. Type III: The patients have regularly engaged in binge eating or purging (or both) in the progress of AN. But as they intensely fear becoming fat, they refuse to maintain a minimally normal body weight. Therefore, they exhibit recurrently inappropriate compensatory behavior in order to prevent weight gain. In the therapeutic sessions, they often become ambivalent and unstable, showing dissatisfaction and reacting strongly against their therapists. The age at onset is the oldest of the three types. The prognosis is not good in many cases. IVH therapy may be required only in life-threatening situation for Type III patients. And severe bulimic patients may require sufficient drug treatment. The patients should be trained for interpersonal relationships at the day care unit or the occupational therapy unit. And they should be encouraged to adapt to real life. PMID:9170982
Denda, K; Kitagawa, N; Shimanaka, S
The purpose of this study was to determine which predischarge exercise thallium-201 imaging pattern(s) best correlate with myocardial salvage following intravenous streptokinase therapy (IVSK). Myocardial salvage was defined as improvement in regional left ventricular function determined by two-dimensional echocardiography between the time of admission and time of discharge in 21 prospectively studied patients receiving IVSK within 4 hours of chest pain. All patients had coronary angiography 2 hours following IVSK. Whereas 16 of the 21 patients (76%) had patent infarct-related vessels, only seven (33%) showed significant improvement in regional function at hospital discharge. Eleven patients demonstrated persistent defects (PD), and five each showed delayed and reverse redistribution. Patients with both delayed and reverse redistribution demonstrated significant improvement in regional left ventricular function score, while those with PD did not (+3.9 +/- 3.3 versus -0.5 +/- 2.9, p = 0.004). All other clinical, exercise, electrocardiographic, scintigraphic, and angiographic variables were similar between all patients, with the exception of the interval between chest pain and the institution of IVSK, which was longer in patients with reverse compared to delayed redistribution (3.5 +/- 0.4 versus 2.2 +/- 0.4 hours, p = 0.001). It is concluded that both delayed and reverse redistribution seen on predischarge exercise thallium-201 imaging are associated with myocardial salvage, defined as serial improvement in regional systolic function. Despite a high infarct vessel patency rate in patients with acute myocardial infarction receiving IVSK within 4 hours of onset of symptoms, only one third demonstrated improvement in regional function that was associated with either delayed or reverse redistribution seen on predischarge exercise thallium-201 imaging.
Touchstone, D.A.; Beller, G.A.; Nygaard, T.W.; Watson, D.D.; Tedesco, C.; Kaul, S.
Intravenous (IV) smart pumps provide substantial safety features during infusion. However, nurses need to understand the requisite education necessary to fully benefit from and improve IV smart pump use and clinical integration. Failure to use IV smart pumps places the nurse and patient at increased risk. PMID:23558918
Harding, Andrew D
We present a case series of seven patients with an established diagnosis of heart failure enrolled in a transitional care program that were treated with intravenous diuretic therapy in the outpatient setting. The patients presented in this cases series were treated due to the development of decompensated heart failure within 30 days of their discharge from our hospital. All seven patients stated that they would have originally presented to the emergency department for their symptoms, but consented to alternative treatment by a transitional care physician, or transitionalist. These patients with decompensated heart failure (four male and three female) with a median age of 55 years (24 - 84 years) were evaluated and treated from November 2011 to March 2012. Of the seven patients, four presented with decompensated systolic heart failure (three with diastolic). All seven patients were treated with an intravenous diuretic for hypervolemia in our outpatient infusion room. All of the patients experienced relief of their dyspnea the day of diuretic administration or the following day. No adverse effects or emergency department transfers occurred as a result of outpatient intravenous diuretic therapy. Through the use of outpatient intravenous diuretic therapy, we have avoided the need for emergency department visits and potential hospitalization in select patients with decompensated heart failure. Based on our preliminary findings, the clinical efficacy of this approach to the treatment of heart failure decompensation is not only due to the pharmacologic effectiveness of intravenous diuretics, but also due to the bidirectional open line of communication that exists between transitionalist and patients in the program. The direct telephone access that patients have to the transitionalist allows for close post-hospitalization monitoring and facilitates timely evaluation and treatment when acute issues arise. The added benefit of our particular transitional care program is that we have an alternate venue in the hospital where our transitional care patients can be treated for heart failure decompensation (our outpatient infusion room), thus, enabling us to avoid emergency department transfers and possible hospital admissions. Further investigation of this therapy in a non-emergency department setting is warranted as our experience with this treatment modality is limited to the case series presented.
Lazkani, Mohamad; Ota, Ken S.
Background High dose intravenous proton pump inhibitor after endoscopic therapy for peptic ulcer bleeding has been recommended as adjuvant therapy. Whether oral proton pump inhibitor can replace intravenous proton pump inhibitor in this setting is unknown. This study aims to compare the clinical efficacy of oral and intravenous proton pump inhibitor after endoscopic therapy. Methods Patients with high-risk bleeding peptic ulcers after successful endoscopic therapy were randomly assigned as oral lansoprazole or intravenous esomeprazole group. Primary outcome of the study was re-bleeding rate within 14?days. Secondary outcome included hospital stay, volume of blood transfusion, surgical intervention and mortality within 1?month. Results From April 2010 to Feb 2011, 100 patients were enrolled in this study. The re-bleeding rates were 4% (2/50) in the intravenous group and 4% (2/50) in the oral group. There was no difference between the two groups with regards to the hospital stay, volume of blood transfusion, surgery or mortality rate. The mean duration of hospital stay was 1.8?days in the oral lansoprazole group and 3.9?days in the intravenous esomeprazole group (p?>?0.01). Conclusion Patients receiving oral proton pump inhibitor have a shorter hospital stay. There is no evidence of a difference in clinical outcomes between oral and intravenous PPI treatment. However, the study was not powered to prove equivalence or non-inferiority. Future studies are still needed. Trial registration NCT01123031
High-dose phenobarbital (PB) therapy is effective for refractory status epilepticus. We reviewed medical records of patients with intractable partial epilepsies on whom performed non-intravenous high-dose PB therapy. Thirteen patients received PB rectally or orally at a dosage of 20-30mg/kg/day initially, and the PB dosage was gradually reduced to a maintenance dosage of 5-10mg/kg/day orally. We evaluated the effectiveness and safety of this procedure after 14days at the maintenance dosage level. Twelve patients had partial seizures and one had secondary generalized seizures. In six of 13 patients (46%), seizure frequencies decreased more than 50%, and two of 13 patients (15%) became seizure free. In five of seven patients who were treated by continuous midazolam infusion therapy, we were able to discontinue the midazolam therapy. Adverse effects were found in seven of 13 patients. We were able to continue high-dose PB therapy in six patients because their adverse effects were transient and improved after a decrease in PB concentration, but we discontinued this therapy in the patient who developed Stevens-Johnson syndrome. Respiratory depression and hypotension were not found in our study. We conclude that high-dose PB therapy is effective and may be considered as an additional treatment for intractable partial epilepsy in childhood. PMID:20724088
Kikuchi, Kenjiro; Hamano, Shin-Ichiro; Oritsu, Tomotaka; Koichihara, Reiko; Tanaka, Manabu; Minamitani, Motoyuki; Ida, Hiroyuki
Acute anterior spinal cord ischemia is a rare but disastrous complication of endovascular aortic procedures. Although intravenous thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator is an effective treatment for acute brain ischemia, its use for the treatment of spinal cord ischemia has not previously been reported. We report the case of a patient who developed anterior spinal cord ischemia during diagnostic aortography. He was treated with intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator within 3 hours after the onset of symptoms. The patient had a rapid neurologic improvement and was discharged from the hospital 3 days after thrombolysis, regaining his ability to walk unassisted. We propose that acute spinal cord ischemia can be treated with intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator within 3 hours after the onset of symptoms, as can any other case of acute ischemic stroke.
Restrepo, Lucas; Guttin, Jorge F.
Intravenous (IV) administration errors present a particularly chal- lenging problem to hospital pharmacists. Current control systems intercept only 2% of drug administration errors causing preventable adverse drug events (PADEs). 4 Estimated costs per preventable ADE are $4685 (1993 dollars). Of the most serious, life-threatening errors, 60% are associated with IV therapy. Conventional, general-purpose infusion devices cannot limit doses or easily
James A. Eskew; Judith Jacobi
Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) is administered for various indications and generally considered a safe therapy. Most of\\u000a the adverse effects (AEs) associated with IVIg administration are mild and transient. The immediate AEs include headache,\\u000a flushing, malaise, chest tightness, fever, chills, myalgia, fatigue, dyspnea, back pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, blood\\u000a pressure changes, tachycardia, and anaphylactic reactions, especially in IgA-deficient patients. Late AEs
Hedi Orbach; Uriel Katz; Yaniv Sherer; Yehuda Shoenfeld
In 1948 a corticosteroid compound was administered for the first time to a patient affected by rheumatoid arthritis by Philip Showalter Hench, a rheumatologist at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota (USA). He was investigating since 1929 the role of adrenal gland-derived substances in rheumatoid arthritis. For the discovery of cortisone and its applications in anti-rheumatic therapy, Hench, along with Edward Calvin Kendall and Tadeusz Reichstein, won the 1950 Nobel Prize for Medicine. In this review we summarize the main stages that led to the identification of the so-called compound E, which was used by Hench. We also consider the subsequent development of steroid therapy in rheumatic diseases, through the introduction of new molecules with less mineralocorticoid effects, such as prednisone, and more recently, deflazacort. PMID:21253624
Pasero, G; Marson, P
SUMMARY Objective The objective of this study is to evaluate the economic benefits of immunoglobulin replacement therapy achieved subcutaneously (subcutaneous immunoglobulin, SCIG) by the rapid push method compared to intravenous infusion therapy (intravenous immunoglobulin, IVIG) in primary immune deficiency (PID) patients from the healthcare system perspective in the context of the adult SCIG home infusion program based at St Paul's Hospital, Vancouver, Canada. Materials and methods SCIG and IVIG options were compared in cost-minimisation and budget impact models (BIMs) over 3 years. Sensitivity analyses were performed for both models to evaluate the impact of varying modality of IVIG treatments and proportion of patients switching from IVIG to SCIG. Results The cost-minimisation model estimated that SCIG treatment reduced cost to the healthcare system per patient of $5736 over 3 years, principally because of less use of hospital personnel. This figure varied between $5035 and $8739 depending on modality of IVIG therapy. Assuming 50% of patients receiving IVIG switched to SCIG, the BIM estimated cost savings for the first 3 years at $1·308 million or 37% of the personnel and supply budget. These figures varied between $1·148 million and $2·454 million (36 and 42%) with varying modalities of IVIG therapy. If 75% of patients switched to SCIG, the reduced costs reached $1·962 million or 56% of total budget. Conclusion This study demonstrated that from the health system perspective, rapid push home-based SCIG was less costly than hospital-based IVIG for immunoglobulin replacement therapy in adult PID patients in the Canadian context.
Martin, A; Lavoie, L; Goetghebeur, M; Schellenberg, R
A 91-year-old woman affected with acquired Von Willebrand (VW) syndrome and intestinal angiodysplasias presented with severe gastrointestinal bleeding (hemoglobin 5 g/dl). Despite replacement therapy with VW factor/factor VIII concentrate qid, bleeding did not stop (eleven packed red blood cell units were transfused over three days). High circulating levels of anti-VW factor immunoglobulin M were documented immunoenzimatically. Heart ultrasound showed abnormalities of the mitral and aortic valves with severe flow alterations. When intravenous immunoglobulins were added to therapy, prompt clinical and laboratory responses occurred: complete cessation of bleeding, raise in hemoglobin, VW factor antigen, VW ristocetin cofactor and factor VIII levels as well as progressive reduction of the anti-VWF autoantibody levels.
Worldwide, colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common forms of malignancy and is increasing in incidence in many regions. At diagnosis, approximately 40% of patients with CRC are anemic, a figure that increases over the course of a patient's treatment due to many factors, including ongoing hemorrhage. Preoperative anemia is therefore associated with increased allogenic red blood cell transfusion (ARBT) rates. In the context of CRC, perioperative ARBT has been linked with adverse postoperative outcomes, including higher morbidity, mortality and cancer recurrence rates. Therefore, strategies to potentially reduce the need for ARBT have been the focus of several recent studies. We critically evaluate a recent paper that explores intravenous iron III sucrose as a treatment option for the management of postoperative anemia in CRC patients. This study is a retrospective, observational case-controlled study that was designed to evaluate whether the use of postoperative intravenous iron reduces the incidence of ARBT following CRC resection. PMID:23249105
Keeler, Barrie D; Krell, Jonathan; Acheson, Austin G; Brookes, Matthew J; Stebbing, Justin; Frampton, Adam E
Introduction Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) often occurring as ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most frequent hospital infection in intensive care units (ICU). Early adequate antimicrobial therapy is an essential determinant of clinical outcome. Organisations like the German PEG or ATS/IDSA provide guidelines for the initial calculated treatment in the absence of pathogen identification. We conducted a retrospective chart review for patients with HAP/VAP and assessed whether the initial intravenous antibiotic therapy (IIAT) was adequate according to the PEG guidelines Materials and methods We collected data from 5 tertiary care hospitals. Electronic data filtering identified 895 patients with potential HAP/VAP. After chart review we finally identified 221 patients meeting the definition of HAP/VAP. Primary study endpoints were clinical improvement, survival and length of stay. Secondary endpoints included duration of mechanical ventilation, total costs, costs incurred on the intensive care unit (ICU), costs incurred on general wards and drug costs. Results We found that 107 patients received adequate initial intravenous antibiotic therapy (IIAT) vs. 114 with inadequate IIAT according to the PEG guidelines. Baseline characteristics of both groups revealed no significant differences and good comparability. Clinical improvement was 64% over all patients and 82% (85/104) in the subpopulation with adequate IIAT while only 47% (48/103) inadequately treated patients improved (p < 0.001). The odds ratio of therapeutic success with GA versus NGA treatment was 5.821 (p < 0.001, [95% CI: 2.712-12.497]). Survival was 80% for the total population (n = 221), 86% in the adequately treated (92/107) and 74% in the inadequately treated 'subpopulation (84/114) (p = 0.021). The odds ratio of mortality for GA vs. NGA treatment was 0.565 (p = 0.117, [95% CI: 0.276-1.155]). Adequately treated patients had a significantly shorter length of stay (LOS) (23.9 vs. 28.3 days; p = 0.022), require significantly less hours of mechanical ventilation (175 vs. 274; p = 0.001), incurred lower total costs (EUR 28,033 vs. EUR 36,139, p = 0.006) and lower ICU-related costs (EUR 13,308 vs. EUR 18,666, p = 0.003). Drug costs for the hospital stay were also lower (EUR 4,069 vs. EUR 4,833) yet not significant. The most frequent types of inadequate therapy were monotherapy instead of combination therapy, wrong type of penicillin and wrong type of cephalosporin. Discussion These findings are consistent with those from other studies analyzing the impact of guideline adherence on survival rates, clinical success, LOS and costs. However, inadequately treated patients had a higher complicated pathogen risk score (CPRS) compared to those who received adequate therapy. This shows that therapy based on local experiences may be sufficient for patients with low CPRS but inadequate for those with high CPRS. Linear regression models showed that single items of the CPRS like extrapulmonary organ failure or late onset had no significant influence on the results. Conclusion Guideline-adherent initial intravenous antibiotic therapy is clinically superior, saves lives and is less expensive than non guideline adherent therapy. Using a CPRS score can be a useful tool to determine the right choice of initial intravenous antibiotic therapy. the net effect on the German healthcare system per year is estimated at up to 2,042 lives and EUR 125,819,000 saved if guideline-adherent initial therapy for HAP/VAP were established in all German ICUs.
For treating end-stage renal disease-associated anemia, various strategies to achieve optimal hemoglobin levels with lower erythropoiesis stimulating agent doses are being tried. One of these involves the use of a high dose [transferrin saturation (TSAT) >30%] of intravenous (IV) iron supplementation. However, due to in vitro effects of iron on stimulating bacterial growth, there are concerns of increased risk of infection. The safety of higher iron targets with respect to infectious complications (bacteremias, pneumonias, soft tissue infections, and osteomyelitis) is unknown. This was a retrospective study of patients on maintenance hemodialysis from a single, urban dialysis center to assess the long-term impact of the higher cumulative use of IV iron, on the incidence of clinically important infections. Our iron protocol was modified in June 2010 to aim for TSAT >30% unless serum ferritin levels were >1200 ng/mL. Data from only those patients who had been on dialysis for the whole duration between June 2009 and May 2011 were included. A total of 140 patients with end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis patients were found to be eligible for the study. There was a statistically significant increase in the mean TSAT and mean serum ferritin with the new anemia management protocol with a significant decrease in the mean erythropoiesis stimulating agent dose requirement. There was no statistically significant increase in the incidence of infectious complications. Although in vitro effects of iron are known to stimulate bacterial growth, a higher IV dose of iron may not increase the risk of infection in such patients. PMID:22832501
Bansal, Anip; Sandhu, Gagangeet; Gupta, Isha; Kalahalli, Shriharsha; Nayak, Rushi; Zouain, Eduardo; Chitale, Rohit A; Meisels, Ira; Chan, Germaine
High-dose busulfan is widely used in allogeneic and autologous marrow transplantation preparative regimens. Variation in the area under the concentration\\/time curve (AUC) for oral busulfan results in substantial risk of over or under treatment with excess risk of toxicity or relapse. Use of the IV formulation reduces this variability by eliminating variability in absorption. Variability due to drug metabolism remains,
William P Vaughan; Delicia Carey; Stephanie Perry; Andrew O Westfall; Donna E Salzman
Background and Objectives: The myocyte death that follows intestinal ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury is a major factor contributing to high mortality and morbidity in ischemic heart disease. The purpose of stem cell (SC) therapy for myocardial infarction is to improve clinical outcomes. The present study aimed at investigating the possible therapeutic effect of intravenous human cord blood mesenchymal stem cells (HCBMSCs) on intestinal ischemia reperfusion induced cardiac muscle injury in albino rat. Methods and Results: Thirty male albino rats were divided equally into control (Sham-operated) group, I/R group where rats were exposed to superior mesenteric artery ligation for 1 hour followed by 1 hour reperfusion. In SC therapy group, the rats were injected with HCBMSCs into the tail vein. The rats were sacrificed four weeks following therapy. Cardiac muscle sections were exposed to histological, histochemical, immunohistochemical and morphometric studies. In I/R group, multiple fibers exhibited deeply acidophilic sarcoplasm with lost striations and multiple fibroblasts appeared among the muscle fibers. In SC therapy group, few fibers appeared with deeply acidophilic sarcoplasm and lost striations. Mean area of muscle fibers with deeply acidophilic sarcoplasm and mean area% of fibroblasts were significantly decreased compared to I/R group. Prussion blue and CD105 positive cells were found in SC therapy group among the muscle fibers, inside and near blood vessels. Conclusions: Intestinal I/R induced cardiac muscle degenerative changes. These changes were ameliorated following HCBMSC therapy. A reciprocal relation was recorded between the extent of regeneration and the existence of undifferentiated mesenchymal stem cells.
Embaby, Azza; Metwally, Hala Gabr
Acute cerebral ischemia resulting from the occlusion of a large or medium size intracranial artery is a known complication of antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (AAS). Usually these patients are treated by low dose aspirin and anticoagulants to prevent a stroke. We are reporting a case of acute stroke in a patient with AAS in whom combined intravenous and intraarterial thrombolytics were used emergently with an excellent outcome. A 32-year-old woman presented with a left hemispheric stroke of 2.5 hours duration. A computed tomography (CT) study of the brain was normal. The patient was treated with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator but remained aphasic and hemiplegic. Subsequently, the patient had a stable xenon CT cerebral blood flow study demonstrating low flow in the left middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory and an angiogram, which demonstrated occlusion of the left MCA. The patient was then treated with intraarterial urokinase with a rapid and marked improvement in her neurological deficit. The case suggests that stroke patients can be treated safely and effectively with combined thrombolytics. PMID:17895175
Swarnkar, A S; Jungreis, C A; Wechsler, L R; Wehner, J J
Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) represents the most severe drug-related skin condition that is potentially life-threatening with no well-established treatments. The application of corticosteroid therapy is controversial, whereas recently intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy is emerging as a promising new method. A severity-of-illness score for TEN (SCORTEN) has gained acceptance in some western countries. In this study, our objectives were to assess the applicability of SCORTEN in Chinese patients with TEN and to evaluate the efficacy of the combination therapy of IVIG and corticosteroid in these patients. We performed a retrospective review of data from 61 patients with TEN treated at our intensive care unit from 2000 to 2010 to assess the performance of SCORTEN. In particular, 55 patients between 2002 and 2010 were grouped as a series to compare the therapeutic effects of corticosteroid therapy and IVIG combined therapy contemporaneously. During this period, 16 patients were administered with corticosteroid therapy and 39 were treated with the combination therapy. An initial dose of 1.5 mg/kg/day of methylprednisolone was given to all TEN patients. The combination therapy was combined with a total dose of 2 g/kg IVIG within 5 days. Areas under receiver operating characteristic curves and Hosmer-Lemeshow statistic were analyzed to illustrate the performance of SCORTEN. The comparison of the efficacy of the two therapies was conducted on the basis of clinical outcomes, standardized mortality ratio (SMR), and survival analysis. The overall actual mortality of patients between 2000 and 2010 was 16% (10/61), statistically insignificantly lower than predicted (24%, SMR = 67.98). Excellent discriminatory power (the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves: 88.9, 88.2, 90.6%) and good calibration (P = .637, .833, .530) were found in all the groups. In patients admitted between 2002 and 2010, IVIG combined therapy showed a trend toward reducing the mortality rate (13%, SMR = 52.35), whereas corticosteroid monotherapy suggested no such difference (31%, SMR = 123.92). Besides, the cumulative survival rates of the combination therapy were higher at almost all the levels of SCORTEN (P = .002), especially at the score of 5 (P = 3.10 × 10??). Compared with corticosteroid alone, the combination therapy arrested progression earlier (P = .013), although it did not significantly lead to a tapering of corticosteroid or a reduction of the time of hospitalization. We concluded that SCORTEN was generally applicable to Chinese patients with TEN. The comparison of the effect indicated that the combination therapy might achieve a better therapeutic effect than the administration of corticosteroid alone, especially in severe TEN patients. PMID:22955159
Zhu, Qin-yuan; Ma, Li; Luo, Xiao-qun; Huang, Hui-yuan
Arsenic trioxide (ATO) is an effective therapy for relapsed acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) patients; however, the optimal treatment strategy remains unclear, and knowledge of the prognostic factors is still limited. We retrospectively analyzed the outcomes of 64 consecutive first relapsed APL patients (12 with molecular relapse and 52 with hematologic relapse). Patients received re-induction with intravenous ATO-based regimens. Patients who achieved a CR2 were offered further courses of alternating ATO/conventional chemotherapy with or without stem cell transplantation (SCT). With a median follow-up of 27 months (range, 6-57) in the molecular relapsed subgroup, the 3-year relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were 81.5 % and 100 %, respectively. With a median follow-up of 38 months (range, 0-129) in the hematologic relapse group, the 3-year RFS and OS rates were 57.1 % and 72.1 %, respectively. Furthermore, in the hematologic relapse group, we compared the outcome between relapsed patients after previous ATO therapy (n?=?20) with those who did not receive prior ATO therapy (n?=?32). The CR2 rate was 80 % (16/20) vs. 93.8 % (30/32), (p?=?0.189). However, the relapse rate was 68.8 % (11/16) vs. 33.3 % (10/30), (p?=?0.03). The 4-year OS rate was 62.4 % vs. 71.2 %, (p?=?0.816), and the 4-year RFS rate was 29.8 % vs. 66.2 % (p?=?0.023). The results indicate that, irrespective of frontline therapy with ATO, salvage therapy with an ATO-based regimen remains effective. However, the long-term survival for those patients who received previous ATO-based treatment was inferior compared to those who did not receive prior ATO. In addition, the alternating ATO/chemotherapy strategy can be a post-remission treatment option in a subset of patients. PMID:24408159
Lou, Yinjun; Suo, Shanshan; Tong, Yin; Tong, Hongyan; Qian, Wenbin; Meng, Haitao; Mai, Wenyuan; Huang, Jian; Yu, Wenjuan; Jin, Jie
The aim of the study was to determine whether intravenous gamma globulin (IVIG) treatment is effective in patients with West Nile Virus (WNV) neuroinvasive disease. We contacted hospital based infectious disease experts in Israeli hospitals to identify patients with WNV neuroinvasive disease who were treated with IVIG. The main outcome measure was neurological response after treatment. There were 12 patients who received IVIG and four improved within 48 h. Three patients died, 6 had partial recovery, and 3 recovered completely. Eleven of the 12 patients were infected with Israeli genotypes that are highly homologous to Europe/Africa viruses. The rapid response in some patients suggests that IVIG is effective, and might be used to treat patients with WNV neuroinvasive disease with IVIG.
Shimoni, Zvi; Bin, Hanna; Bulvik, Shlomo; Niven, Mark; Hazzan, Rawi; Mendelson, Ella; Froom, Paul
Anetoderma is a rare, benign disorder characterized microscopically by the pan-dermal loss of elastic fibers in the dermis and presenting clinically as circumscribed, skin-colored or grey-white atrophic macules and/or patches on the trunk and/or extremities. Lesions are described as having a “sac-like” appearance, since they bulge or herniate upon palpation. Although the clinical picture is characteristic, a definitive diagnosis requires histological confirmation in order to differentiate this disorder from other conditions of elastolysis, such as cutis laxa and mid-dermal elastolysis. Little is known concerning the pathogenesis of this condition, and treatment attempts have been both diverse and unsuccessful. This article will review a case of generalized anetoderma in a patient with secondary syphilis after being treated with intravenous penicillin, along with a concise literature review.
Roberts, Daniel; Sidhu, Harleen; Phelps, Robert; Goodheart, Herbert
For efficient photodynamic treatment of wound infection, a photosensitizer must be distributed in the whole infected tissue region. To ensure this, depth profiling of a photosensitizer is necessary in vivo. In this study, we applied photoacoustic (PA) imaging to visualize the depth profile of an intravenously injected photosensitizer in rat burn models. In burned tissue, pharmacokinetics is complicated; vascular occlusion takes place in the injured tissue, while vascular permeability increases due to thermal invasion. In this study, we first used Evans Blue (EB) as a test drug to examine the feasibility of photosensitizer dosimetry based on PA imaging. On the basis of the results, an actual photosensitizer, talaporfin sodium was used. An EB solution was intravenously injected into a rat deep dermal burn model. PA imaging was performed on the wound with 532 nm and 610 nm nanosecond light pulses for visualizing vasculatures (blood) and EB, respectively. Two hours after injection, the distribution of EB-originated signal spatially coincided well with that of blood-originated signal measured after injury, indicating that EB molecules leaked out from the blood vessels due to increased permeability. Afterwards, the distribution of EB signal was broadened in the depth direction due to diffusion. At 12 hours after injection, clear EB signals were observed even in the zone of stasis, demonstrating that the leaked EB molecules were delivered to the injured tissue layer. The level and time course of talaporfin sodium-originated signals were different compared with those of EB-originated signals, showing animal-dependent and/or drug-dependent permeabilization and diffusion in the tissue. Thus, photosensitizer dosimetry should be needed before every treatment to achieve desirable outcome of photodynamic treatment, for which PA imaging can be concluded to be valid and useful.
Tsunoi, Yasuyuki; Sato, Shunichi; Ashida, Hiroshi; Terakawa, Mitsuhiro
Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS) is characterized by the presence of asthma, eosinophilia, and small-vessel vasculitis with granuloma. It is a distinct entity, as determined from all classifications of systemic vasculitis. The poor prognostic factors in CSS are renal insufficiency, cardiomyopathy, severe gastrointestinal (GI) tract, and central nervous systems (CNS) involvement. The initial management of CSS should include a high dose of a corticosteroid: prednisone at 1 mg/kg/day or its equivalent for methylprednisolone with tapering over 6 months. In patients with severe or rapidly progressing CSS, the administration of methylprednisolone pulse at 1 g/body/day for 3 days is recommended. When corticosteroid therapy does not induce remission, or when patients have poor prognostic factors, immunosuppressive cytotoxic therapy is indicated. However, some patients with severe CSS often show resistance to conventional treatment. We think that IVIG therapy is a hopeful candidate for second-line treatment for CSS patients, particularly in the case of neuropathy and/or cardiomyopathy, which are resistant to conventional therapy. However, there is not much evidence supporting the effectiveness of IVIG in CSS, and the mechanisms underlying the action of IVIG remain unclear. Now we are performing clinical trials of IVIG therapy for CSS patients who are resistant to conventional treatment, through a nationwide double-blinded placebo-controlled study in Japan. PMID:17460439
Taniguchi, Masami; Tsurikisawa, Naomi; Higashi, Noritaka; Saito, Hiroshi; Mita, Haruhisa; Mori, Akio; Sakakibara, Hiroki; Akiyama, Kazuo
Background: Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common disorder in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) that causes motor agitation and insomnia. Because RLS has been associated with iron deficiency, we sought to investigate the effects of intravenous (IV) iron dextran on symptoms of RLS in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Methods: Patients determined to have RLS by International RLS Study
James A. Sloand; Mark A. Shelly; Andrew Feigin; Paul Bernstein; Rebeca D. Monk
Cyclophosphamide (CYC) has long been considered a gold standard in inducing renal remission and preventing renal flares for patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, the rational use of CYC has not reached a consensus, such as the timing and length of treatment, the route of administration, and the ideal dosage. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of short-interval lower-dose (SILD) intravenous (IV) CYC in the treatment of SLE. A total of 225 patients with lupus nephritis were randomly assigned to a 1-year trial, either the SILD group (12 fortnightly pulses at a fixed dose of 400 mg followed by 6 monthly pulses) or high-dose (HD) group (6 monthly pulses followed by two quarterly pulses at a dose of 0.5~1.0 g/m(2)). At 6 months of treatment, 28 % (30/107) of patients in the SILD group reached a complete remission (CR), and 51.4 % (55/107) were in partial remission (PR), as compared with 32.7 % (35/107) and 45.8 % (49/107) in the HD group, respectively. Serum albumin, 24-h urinary protein, and the scores of disease activity were significantly improved in both groups at 6 months and maintained at the end of clinical trial. However, the SILD group showed much less menstrual disturbances (11.5 %), gastrointestinal adverse effects (5.3 %), and leukopenia (9.7 %) than the HD group (28.6, 26.8, and 19.8 %, respectively) at the end of clinical trial. The efficacy of the short-interval lower-dose (SILD) IV CYC regimen in the treatment of lupus nephritis is equivalent to that of the high-dose (HD) regimen, whereas the incidence of adverse events is much lower in the SILD group. PMID:24744152
Zhang, X W; Li, Chun; Ma, X X; Zhao, J X; An, Yuan; Liu, Shuang; Li, Yan; Li, Z G
The purpose of this prospective study was to test whether intratympanic application of dexamethasone\\/hyaluronic acid improves hearing outcome in patients with pantonal idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSHL), in patients with sudden deafness or sudden profound SHL and in patients with predominant high-frequency ISSHL who are refractory to intravenous steroid and vasoactive therapy. The study took place in an academic
Haralampos Gouveris; Oksana Selivanova; Wolf Mann
Sixty-three stool samples and five bile samples were prospectively collected from 33 patients receiving intravenous vancomycin therapy and were quantitatively analyzed for vancomycin by a competitive immunoassay. Vancomycin was excreted via bile into the stools of almost all patients at concentrations of 3.3 to 94.8 ?g/ml after ?5 days of a therapy of 1 g every 12 h.
Currie, Brian P.; Lemos-Filho, Luciano
Our aim was to investigate the long term effectiveness of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) against intractable childhood epilepsy in the era of new antiepileptics and to determine the predictors of a favorable response in a prospective open-label add-on study. Of thirty-seven 9.9+/-0.9-year-old patients (11 with partial seizures, 26 with generalized seizures of whom 9 had West syndrome and 17 Lennox-Gastaut syndrome) followed for 15+/-3 months, 43% had a >50% decrease in seizures (including 15% seizure free, 229+/-58 compared with 104+/-3 seizures/month, P=0.035: generalized 246+/-318 to 117+/-200, P=0.025, partial 191+/-437 to 72+/-179, P>0.05; power=0.2). Males were more likely to respond than females (P=0.011, odds ratio=9.3). Review of the literature revealed nine other articles reporting efficacy of IVIG against epileptic seizures. Only one other used statistical methods and, unlike ours, showed only a trend toward seizure frequency reduction without achieving statistical significance, presumably because it was underpowered. These results indicate large-scale controlled studies of IVIG in epilepsy are still needed. PMID:20004620
Mikati, Mohamad A; Kurdi, Rana; El-Khoury, Ziad; Rahi, Amal; Raad, Wissam
Patients' Assessment of the Convenience of Fentanyl HCl Iontophoretic Transdermal System (ITS) Versus Morphine Intravenous Patient-Controlled Analgesia (IV PCA) in the Management of Postoperative Pain After Major Surgery
The patient-controlled fentanyl HCl iontophoretic transdermal system (ITS) is a compact, self-contained, needle-free system that has been approved for acute postoperative pain management in hospitalized adults. The objective of the present analysis was to evaluate patients' assessment of fentanyl ITS and morphine intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV PCA) convenience on 7 different subscales, using a validated patient ease of care (EOC)
Peg Pennington; Stephanie Caminiti; Jeff R. Schein; David J. Hewitt; Winnie W. Nelson
The efficacy and safety of intravenous (IV) ertapenem, 1 and 1.5 g once a day, for treatment of adults with complicated intra-abdominal infection were compared with those of IV ceftriaxone 2 g once a day plus IV metronidazole 500 mg every 8 h. After at least 3 days of IV therapy and satisfactory clinical response, patients could be switched to
Albert E Yellin; James M Hassett; Alvaro Fernandez; James Geib; Ben Adeyi; Gail L Woods; Hedy Teppler
Context Thienopyridines are among the most widely prescribed medications, but their use can be complicated by the unanticipated need for surgery. Despite increased risk of thrombosis, guidelines recommend discontinuing thienopyridines 5–7 days prior to surgery to minimize bleeding. Objective To evaluate the use of cangrelor, an intravenous, reversible P2Y12 platelet inhibitor for bridging thienopyridine-treated patients to coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Design, Setting, and Patients Prospective, randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial, in patients (n=210) with an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) or treated with a coronary stent on a thienopyridine awaiting CABG to receive either cangrelor or placebo after an initial open-label, dose-finding phase (n=11) conducted between January 2009 and April 2011. Interventions Thienopyridines were stopped and patients administered cangrelor or placebo for at least 48 hours, which was discontinued 1–6 hours prior to CABG. Main outcome measures The primary efficacy endpoint was platelet reactivity (measured in P2Y12 Reaction Units [PRU]), assessed daily with the VerifyNow™ P2Y12 assay. The main safety endpoint was excessive CABG-related bleeding. Results The dose of cangrelor determined in the open-label stage was 0.75 µg/kg/min. In the randomized phase, a greater proportion of patients treated with cangrelor had low levels of platelet reactivity throughout the entire treatment period compared with placebo (primary endpoint, PRU<240: 98.8% (83/84) vs. 19.0% (16/84); relative risk [RR]: 5.2, 95% confidence interval [CI]:3.3–8.1, p<0.001). Excessive CABG-related bleeding occurred in 11.8% (12/102) vs. 10.4% (10/96) in the cangrelor and placebo groups, respectively (RR=1.1, 95% CI: 0.5–2.5, p=0.763). There were no significant differences in major bleeding prior to CABG, although minor bleeding was numerically higher with cangrelor. Conclusions Among patients who must wait for cardiac surgery after thienopyridine discontinuation, the use of cangrelor compared with placebo resulted in a higher rate of maintenance of platelet inhibition.
Angiolillo, Dominick J; Firstenberg, Michael S.; Price, Matthew J.; Tummala, Pradyumna E.; Hutyra, Martin; Welsby, Ian J.; Voeltz, Michele D.; Chandna, Harish; Ramaiah, Chandrashekhar; Brtko, Miroslav; Cannon, Louis; Dyke, Cornelius; Liu, Tiepu; Montalescot, Gilles; Manoukian, Steven V.; Prats, Jayne; Topol, Eric J.
Treatment for patients with stage IV indo- lent lymphoma ranges from watchful wait- ing to intensive chemotherapy and stem cell transplantation. In this trial we com- pared 2 induction regimens followed by 1 year of interferon maintenance therapy. Fludarabine, mitoxantrone (Novantrone), and dexamethasone (FND) were com- pared with an alternating triple therapy (ATT) regimen (CHOD-Bleo, ESHAP, and NOPP). Maintenance interferon\\/dexameth-
Apostolia M. Tsimberidou; Peter McLaughlin; Anas Younes; Maria A. Rodriguez; Fredrick B. Hagemeister; Andreas Sarris; Jorge Romaguera; Mark Hess; Terry L. Smith; Ying Yang; Ana Ayala; Alejandro Preti; Ming-Sheng Lee; Fernando Cabanillas
The INIS Study. International Neonatal Immunotherapy Study: non-specific intravenous immunoglobulin therapy for suspected or proven neonatal sepsis: an international, placebo controlled, multicentre randomised trial
Background Sepsis is an important cause of neonatal death and perinatal brain damage, particularly in preterm infants. While effective antibiotic treatment is essential treatment for sepsis, resistance to antibiotics is increasing. Adjuvant therapies, such as intravenous immunoglobulin, therefore offer an important additional strategy. Three Cochrane systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials in nearly 6,000 patients suggest that non-specific, polyclonal intravenous immunoglobulin is safe and reduces sepsis by about 15% when used as prophylaxis but does not reduce mortality in this situation. When intravenous immunoglobulin is used in the acute treatment of neonatal sepsis, however, there is a suggestion that it may reduce mortality by 45%. However, the existing trials of treatment were small and lacked long-term follow-up data. This study will assess reliably whether treatment of neonatal sepsis with intravenous immunoglobulin reduces mortality and adverse neuro-developmental outcome. Methods and design A randomised, placebo controlled, double blind trial. Babies with suspected or proven neonatal sepsis will be randomised to receive intravenous immunoglobulin therapy or placebo. Eligibility criteria Babies must be receiving antibiotics and have proven or suspected serious infection AND have at least one of the following: birthweight less than 1500 g OR evidence of infection in blood culture, cerebrospinal fluid or usually sterile body fluid OR be receiving respiratory support via an endotracheal tube AND there is substantial uncertainty that intravenous immunoglobulin is indicated. Exclusion criteria Babies are excluded if intravenous immunoglobulin has already been given OR intravenous immunoglobulin is thought to be needed OR contra-indicated. Trial treatment Babies will be given either 10 ml/kg of intravenous immunoglobulin or identical placebo solution over 4–6 hours, repeated 48 hours later. Primary outcome Mortality or major disability at two years, corrected for gestational age. Data collection Data will be collected at discharge from hospital and at 2 years of age (corrected for gestation) using a parental questionnaire and a health status questionnaire completed during a face-to-face follow-up appointment with the child's paediatrician. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISCRTN94984750.
To determine whether systemic administration of MnSOD-PL protected mice from the acute hematopoietic syndrome as well as delayed death following total body irradiation (TBI), C57BL/6J mice received intravenously 100?l liposomes containing 100?g of human MnSOD-transgene plasmid 24 hours prior to 9.5 Gy or 1.0 Gy. The dose of 9.5 Gy was lethal to 42% of irradiated control female and 74% of irradiated control male mice respectively at 30 days with bone marrow hypocellularity consistent with the hematopoietic syndrome. A statistically significant increase in survival was detected in MnSOD-PL treated compared to 9.5 Gy irradiated control female mice out to 400 days, and in male mice out to 340 days. The incidence of tumors was similar between surviving groups. Between 350 to 600 days, outcome was similar for both MnSOD-PL treated and control irradiated groups consistent with aging with no difference in gross or microscopic pathologic evidence of tumors. Male and female mice receiving 1.0 Gy TBI showed irradiation induced life shortening after 120 days that was decreased by MnSOD-PL administration, and was associated with no increase in rate of tumor associated death. Therefore, systemic MnSOD-PL radioprotective gene therapy is not associated with a detectably higher incidence of late carcinogenesis.
Epperly, Michael W.; Smith, Tracy; Wang, Hong; Schlesselman, James; Franicola, Darcy; Greenberger, Joel S.
Selective immunoglobulin (Ig)G3 subclass deficiency in adults, especially its immunological profile, has not been described previously in detail. Therefore, a retrospective chart review was conducted to characterize the immune profile and clinical manifestations in adult patients with selective IgG3 deficiency. We reviewed the charts of 17 adult patients attending our subspeciality immunology clinic with a diagnosis of selective IgG3 deficiency. The following immunological test results were recorded: lymphocyte subsets, proliferative response to mitogens (phytohaemagglutinin, concanavalin A, pokeweed mitogen) and soluble antigens (mumps, Candida albicans, tetanus toxoid), specific antibody response to tetanus toxoid and pneumococcal antigens, neutrophil oxidative burst and natural killer cell cytotoxicity. In addition, we recorded information about the types of infections and other associated diseases, and response to intravenous immunoglobulin therapy (IVIG). In the majority of patients, lymphocyte subsets were normal. Proliferative responses to mitogens and antigens were decreased in 33% and 40% of patients, respectively. Specific antibody responses to tetanus were normal; however, responses to various pneumococcal serotypes were impaired in a subset of patients. Patients suffered from recurrent upper respiratory tract infections, which usually decreased in frequency and severity following treatment with IVIG. The majority of these patients also had concurrent atopic diseases in the form of allergic rhinitis or asthma. Selective IgG3 subclass deficiency should be considered in adults with recurrent upper respiratory tract infections with or without allergic rhinitis or asthma, who may have normal levels of total IgG. IVIG appears to be an effective therapy. PMID:20015274
Abrahamian, F; Agrawal, S; Gupta, S
Decubitus ulcers remain a significant healthcare concern today, especially in the elderly and immobile population. Following the observation of three Stage IV decubitus ulcers refractory to standard medical and surgical therapy for 10 months, a new vacuum-assisted closure device (V.A.C.) was initiated to speed wound healing. The V.A.C. was initiated in August 1996. The three Stage IV ulcers were located on the patient's right ischium, left ischium, and sacrum. On initiation, they measured 7 1/2 cm x 2 1/2 cm x 2 1/2 cm, 8 cm x 3 1/2 cm x 2 1/2 cm, and 3 1/2 cm x 2 cm x 2 cm respectively. The treatment consisted of insertion of sterile sponge into the wound bed connected to the negative pressure device by suction hose. The device operated at a negative pressure of 125 mm Hg with a 5-minute-on 2-minute-off-cycle. Dressing changes were performed every 48 hours during the treatment period. Successful closure of the sacral ulcer occurred in October 1996. The ischial ulcers were small enough to be taken off V.A.C. therapy in early November 1996. While we are encouraged by the results of this study, further additional clinical studies are warranted. PMID:10347508
Baynham, S A; Kohlman, P; Katner, H P
Background: Despite the lack of supporting evidence, intravenous heparin is still given frequently in the treatment of cerebral ischemia. However, there is only one study for the use of heparin nomogram in ischemic stroke or TIA. We evaluated the usefulness of a patient-specific, as well as weight-based, nomogram for the intravenous heparin in patients with ischemic stroke or TIA. Methods:
Yunsook Jhang; Jihoon Kang; Jungmoo Nam; Curie Chung; Jong-Moo Park; Ohyun Kwon; Byung-Kun Kim; Ja-Seong Koo
Background: Postpartum anemia can develop after delivery because of unforeseen medical problems during and after delivery which could complicate a mother’s ability to properly care for her newborn child. The current treatment for postpartum anemia is oral iron supplementation but this treatment has been associated with several gastrointestinal side effects. Alternative treatments include blood transfusions and intravenous (IV) iron therapy.
Background Patients with antibody deficiencies depend on the presence of a variety of antibody specificities in intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) to ensure continued protection against pathogens. Few studies have examined levels of antibodies to specific pathogens in IVIG preparations and little is known about the specific antibody levels in patients under regular IVIG treatment. The current study determined the range of antibodies to tetanus, diphtheria, measles and varicella in IVIG products and the levels of these antibodies in patients undergoing IVIG treatment. Methods We selected 21 patients with primary antibody deficiencies who were receiving regular therapy with IVIG. Over a period of one year, we collected four blood samples from each patient (every 3 months), immediately before immunoglobulin infusion. We also collected samples from the IVIG preparation the patients received the month prior to blood collection. Antibody levels to tetanus, diphtheria, measles and varicella virus were measured in plasma and IVIG samples. Total IgG levels were determined in plasma samples. Results Antibody levels to tetanus, diphtheria, varicella virus and measles showed considerable variation in different IVIG lots, but they were similar when compared between commercial preparations. All patients presented with protective levels of antibodies specific for tetanus, measles and varicella. Some patients had suboptimal diphtheria antibody levels. There was a significant correlation between serum and IVIG antibodies to all pathogens, except tetanus. There was a significant correlation between diphtheria and varicella antibodies with total IgG levels, but there was no significant correlation with antibodies to tetanus or measles. Conclusions The study confirmed the variation in specific antibody levels between batches of the same brand of IVIG. Apart from the most common infections to which these patients are susceptible, health care providers must be aware of other vaccine preventable diseases, which still exist globally.
Intravenous (IV) levetiracetam (LEV) is available for humans for bridge therapy when the oral route is unavailable. We investigated the safety and pharmacokinetics of LEV administered intramuscularly (IM), IV, and orally to dogs. Six Hound dogs received 19.5-22.6 mg/kg of LEV IM, IV and orally with a wash-out period in between. All dogs received 500 mg LEV orally and 5 mL of 100 mg/mL LEV IM. Three dogs received 500 mg of LEV IV and three dogs received 250 mg LEV IV with 250 mg given perivascularly to approximate extravasation. Safety was assessed using a pain scale at time of IM administration and histopathological examination 24 h to 5 days after injection. Intravenous LEV half-life was 180 +/- 18 min. Bioavailability of IM LEV was 100%. Mean time to T(max) after IM was 40 +/- 16 min. The mean C(max) IM was 30.3 +/- 3 mug/mL compared to the C(0) of 37 +/- 5 mug/mL for IV. Mean inflammation score (0-4 scale) for IM LEV was 0.28 and for saline 0.62. Extravasation did not cause tissue damage. Parenteral LEV is well tolerated and appears safe following IM and IV injections in dogs. Parenteral LEV should be evaluated for use in dogs with epilepsy. PMID:18471147
Patterson, E E; Goel, V; Cloyd, J C; O'Brien, T D; Fisher, J E; Dunn, A W; Leppik, I E
Background Voriconazole was introduced for the treatment of life-threatening fungal infections. The intravenous form includes the solvent vehicle sulphobutylether beta cyclodextrin sodium which shows an impaired clearance under intermittent dialysis therapy. This investigation aimed to determine first clinical data on sulphobutylether beta cyclodextrin sodium blood levels to verify the risk for accumulation. Methods In four patients suffering from renal insufficiency and intermittent dialysis therapy who needed a treatment with intravenous voriconazole as a reserve antifungal at the intensive care unit of the Mainz University Hospital the trough levels of voriconazole and sulphobutylether beta cyclodextrin sodium were measured. Results A 75-year-old woman showed a maximal sulphobutylether beta cyclodextrin sodium plasma level of 145 ?g/ml in the initial phase. After a few days renal function recovered and the plasma levels came down to less than 20 ?g/ml. In contrast to this patient with a recovery of renal function the remaining three patients showed renal failure during the complete period of intravenous treatment with voriconazole. In these patients an accumulation of sulphobutylether beta cyclodextrin sodium plasma levels was determined with a maximum of 523 ?g/ml in a 18-year-old man, 409 ?g/ml in a 57-year-old man, and 581 ?g/ml in a 47-year-old man. Conclusion The present data indicate an accumulation of sulphobutylether beta cyclodextrin sodium in patients treated with intravenous voriconazole and dialysis therapy. Fortunately, no toxic effects were observed, although the accumulated dose values were lower but comparable with those used in previous toxicity studies with animals.
von Mach, Marc A; Burhenne, Jurgen; Weilemann, Ludwig S
Background Intravenous (IV) iron dextran, the original parenteral iron formulation, is associated with a high incidence of non-IgE mediated hypersensitivity. Newer formulations of IV iron therapies include low molecular weight iron sucrose (IS) and sodium ferric gluconate complex (SFGC) without dextran, reducing severe adverse reactions by 93%. A case of a rare reaction to IV IS associated with generalized skin pruritus and difficulty in breathing is reported. Methods A 62-year-old Caucasian male with multiple gastric surgeries, secondary to recurrent gastric ulcers and gastric outlet obstruction, presented with severe iron deficiency anemia (IDA) requiring IV iron therapy. Results Chronic malnutrition and malabsorption, associated with difficulty in tolerating oral and jejunostomy tube (J-tube) feedings, resulted in a two month 30 pound weight loss. Oral iron supplementation via a J-tube did not improve the IDA. Prior administrations of IV iron dextran resulted in flushing, generalized urticaria and angioedema associated with pruritus of the face and extremities within ten minutes of infusion. The allergy/immunology service was consulted. Premedication with IV diphenhydramine, 50 mg, prednisone via J-tube, 32 mg, and IV ranitidine, 50 mg, was followed with slow administration of a test dose of IS, 25 mg, at 1.6 mg/min. Within 30 minutes of the IV IS infusion, symptoms of nausea, flushing, and generalized pruritus, and difficulty in breathing were noted. The infusion was stopped and treatment with IV methyprednisolone, 125 mg, resulted in resolution of the reaction over several hours. No eosinophilia or elevated liver transaminases occurred. Subsequently, the infusion was reattempted: pre-medications consisted of IV methylprednisolone, 60 mg, IV diphenhydramine, 50 mg, and IV ranitidine, 50 mg, 75 minutes prior to the infusion of IS, 275 mg, 1.5 mg/min. Treatment was tolerated without adverse effects. Conclusions A rare systemic reaction to IV IS is reported. Pretreatment with methylprednisolone, diphenhydramine and ranitidine 75 minutes before IS infusion was successful.
Balduzzi, Michael; Rashid, Daanish; Butt, Ahmed; Lockey, Richard F.; Ledford, Dennis
Endometrial Papillary Serous Carcinoma; Recurrent Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IIIB Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IIIC Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IVA Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IVB Endometrial Carcinoma
This paper describes the intravenous (IV) fluids requirements being developed for medical care during NASA s future exploration class missions. Previous research on IV solution generation and mixing in space is summarized. The current exploration baseline mission profiles are introduced, potential medical conditions described and evaluated for fluidic needs, and operational issues assessed. We briefly introduce potential methods for generating IV fluids in microgravity. Conclusions on the recommended fluid volume requirements are presented.
Miller, Fletcher J.; Niederhaus, Charles; Barlow, Karen; Griffin, DeVon
Since January 1981, 52 patients have entered the Radiaton Therapy Oncology Group Phase I trial with intravenous (i.v.) desmethylmisonidazole (DMM). DMM is less lipophilic than misonidazole (MISO) and theoretically will be less neurotoxic due to lower penetration into neural tissue and more rapid elimination. The drug is administered intravenously to achieve the maximum drug concentration in tumor for a given dose. The protocol slowly escalates the total dose of drug administered. At this time the planned dose on the three week schedule is 1 g/m/sup 2/ twice weekly to a total dose of 17.5g/m/sup 2/. The preliminary plasma pharmacokinetic data demonstrates high peak plasma levels within five minutes of the end of the drug infusion. Compared to MISO the percent of DMM excreted in the urine is increased, 63% vs 10%, and the elimination half-life is decreased: DMM, i.v. 5.3h; MISO, i.v. 9.3h; MISO, oral 10 to 13h. Neurotoxicity has been observed in approximately 30% of patients given a cumulative dose of >11g/m/sup 2/. This is in comparison to a 50% incidence in RTOG Phase 1 study with oral MISO at doses of 12g/m/sup 2/. There is not sufficient data to evaluate the relationship between neurotoxicity and drug exposure. Further patient accrual on this study is required to better define the properties of DMN.
Coleman, C.N. (Stanford Univ., CA); Wasserman, T.H.; Phillips, T.L.; Strong, J.M.; Urtasun, R.C.; Schwade, J.G.; Johnson, R.J.; Zagars, G.
Oral mucositis (OM) is a serious and acute side effect in patients with cancer who receive chemotherapy or radiotherapy, often leading to the suspension of therapy and a need for opioid analgesic and enteral/parenteral nutrition, with an effect on patient survival. Among the various interventions proposed in OM management, laser therapy is becoming a recommended treatment option but has limitations due to its heterogeneous laser parameters. Here, we report on our successful clinical experience on the use of class IV laser therapy to treat OM induced by different chemotherapy regimens. To shed light on the mechanisms of action of laser therapy in improving OM resolution, we have developed an animal model of chemotherapy-induced OM, in which we compare the efficacy of the standard low-power laser therapy protocol with an innovative protocol, defined as high-power laser therapy. We show that high-power laser therapy is more effective than low-power laser therapy in improving OM lesion healing, reducing the inflammatory burden, and preserving tissue integrity. In addition, high-power laser therapy has been particularly effective in promoting the formation of new arterioles within the granulation tissue. Our results provide important insights into the mechanism of action of biostimulating laser therapy on OM in vivo and pave a way for clinical experimentation with the use of high-power laser therapy. PMID:24096076
Ottaviani, Giulia; Gobbo, Margherita; Sturnega, Mauro; Martinelli, Valentina; Mano, Miguel; Zanconati, Fabrizio; Bussani, Rossana; Perinetti, Giuseppe; Long, Carlin S; Di Lenarda, Roberto; Giacca, Mauro; Biasotto, Matteo; Zacchigna, Serena
Objectives: Intravenous thrombolytic therapy has established acceptable results in treating ischemic stroke. However, there is little information on treatment outcome especially in different subtypes. The aim of current study was to evaluate early and intermediate prognosis in intravenous thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke subtypes. Methodology: Forty eligible patients (57.5% male with mean age of 63.18±13.49 years) with definite ischemic stroke who were admitted to emergency department of Imam Reza University Hospital, in the first 180 minutes after occurrence received recombinant tissue plasminogen activator. All investigation findings were recorded and stroke subtypes were determined according to the Causative Classification of Stroke System. Stroke severity forms including modified Rankin Scale (mRS) and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores were recorded for all patients in first, seven and 90 days after stroke and disease outcome was evaluated. Results: The etiology of stroke was large artery atherosclerosis in 20%, cardio-aortic embolism in 45%, small artery occlusion in 17.5% and undetermined causes in 17.5%. NIHSS and mRS scores were significantly improved during time (P < 0.001 in both cases). Three months mortality rate was 25%. Among the etiologies, patients with small artery occlusion and then cardio-aortic embolism had lower NIHSS score at arrival (P = 0.04). Caplan-meier analysis showed that age, sex and symptom to needle time could predict disease outcome. Conclusion: Intravenous thrombolytic therapy is accompanied by good early and intermediate outcome in most patients with ischemic stroke. Small artery occlusion subtype had less disease severity and higher improvement.
Pashapour, Ali; Atalu, Abolfazl; Farhoudi, Mehdi; Taheraghdam, Ali-Akbar; Sadeghi Hokmabadi, Elyar; Sharifipour, Ehsan; NajafiNeshli, Mehdi
Background Regular intravenous immunoglobulin treatment is used to replace antibody deficiency in primary immunodeficiency diseases; however the therapeutic effect seems to be related not only to antibody replacement but also to an active role in the modulation of the immune response. Common variable immunodeficiency is the most frequent primary immunodeficiency seen in clinical practice. Methods We have studied the effect of intravenous immunoglobulin replacement in patients with common variable immunodeficiency by evaluating the gene-expression profiles from Affimetrix HG-U133A. Some of the gene array results were validated by real time RT-PCR and by the measurement of circulating cytokines and chemokines by ELISA. Moreover we performed FACS analysis of blood mononuclear cells from the patients enrolled in the study. Results A series of genes involved in innate and acquired immune responses were markedly up- or down-modulated before therapy. Such genes included CD14, CD36, LEPR, IRF-5, RGS-1, CD38, TNFRSF25, IL-4, CXCR4, CCR3, IL-8. Most of these modulated genes showed an expression similar to that of normal controls after immunoglobulin replacement. Real time RT-PCR of selected genes and serum levels of IL-4, CXCR4 before and after therapy changed accordingly to gene array results. Interestingly, serum levels of IL-8 remained unchanged, as the corresponding gene, before and after treatment. FACS analysis showed a marked decrease of CD8+T cells and an increase of CD4+T cells following treatment. Moreover we observed a marked increase of CD23?CD27?IgM?IgG? B cells (centrocytes). Conclusions Our results are in accordance with previous reports and provide further support to the hypothesis that the benefits of intravenous immunoglobulin therapy are not only related to antibody replacement but also to its ability to modulate the immune response in common variable immunodeficiency.
Barbieri, Alessandro; Tinazzi, Elisa; Rizzi, Monica; Beri, Ruggero; Argentino, Giuseppe; Ottria, Andrea; Lunardi, Claudio; Puccetti, Antonio
The purpose of this experiment is to establish the difficulty associated with securing an intravenous (IV) catheter in place in microgravity flight and the techniques applicable in training the Crew Medical Officer (CMO) for Space Station Freedom, as well as aiding in the selection of appropriate hardware and supplies for the Health Maintenance Facility (HMF). The objectives are the following: (1) to determine the difficulties associated with venipuncture in a microgravity environment; (2) to evaluate the various methods of securing an IV catheter and attached tubing for infusion with regard to the unique environment; (3) to evaluate the various materials available for securing an intravenous catheter in place; and (4) to evaluate the fluid therapy administration system when functioning in a complete system. The inflight test procedures and other aspects of the KC-135 parabolic flight test to simulate microgravity are presented.
Krupa, Debra T.; Gosbee, John; Billica, Roger; Bechtle, Perry; Creager, Gerald J.; Boyce, Joey B.
Background: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy, safety and achievement of the target hemoglobin level (Hb ?10 g\\/dl) in patients with preoperative anemia due to menorrhagia who received intravenous iron sucrose compared with oral iron protein succinylate for anemia management. Methods: Seventy-six patients with Hb levels <9.0 g\\/dl who were scheduled to undergo surgical treatment were
Yun Hwan Kim; Hyun Hoon Chung; Soon-Beom Kang; Seung Cheol Kim; Young Tae Kim
Background Guidelines recommend use of the oral route whenever possible to treat or prevent hypokalemia. Although a myriad of papers have been published regarding intravenous to oral (IV to PO) therapy conversion programs and about clinical pharmacy services provided in hospitals, little is known on the role of hospital pharmacists in promoting the oral route for potassium administration. Objective The aim of this work was to describe the frequency of interventions related to IV to PO potassium therapy conversions performed by hospital pharmacists. Setting French hospitals recording pharmacist's interventions on the website tool of the French Society of Clinical Pharmacy. Methods From the pharmacist's interventions (PI) dataset recorded we extracted all interventions related to potassium IV to PO conversion. We assessed the acceptance rate of these PI by prescribers. Additional free text information in the dataset was analysed. Main outcome measures IV to PO potassium therapy conversions related to potassium chloride. Results From January 2007 to December 2010, 87 hospitals recorded 1,868 PIs concerning IV to PO therapy conversion. Among these, 16 (<1 %) concerned potassium chloride. They were recorded by four hospitals (4.6 %) with respectively 12, 2, 1 and 1 PIs. Six PIs were accepted by physicians and the prescriptions were modified. Conclusion PIs to promote the administration of potassium by the oral route are extremely rare. Our results and scarce previously published data reveal that this field of practice remains almost unexplored. These findings highlight an important gap in the field of intravenous to oral therapy programs. This situation must be regarded as unsatisfactory and should lead to setting up more education and research programs. PMID:24633449
Charpiat, B; Bedouch, P; Conort, O; Juste, M; Rose, F X; Roubille, R; Allenet, B
Results of a randomized trial comparing sequential intravenous/oral treatment with ciprofloxacin plus metronidazole to imipenem/cilastatin for intra-abdominal infections. The Intra-Abdominal Infection Study Group.
OBJECTIVE: In a randomized, double-blind, multicenter trial, ciprofloxacin/metronidazole was compared with imipenem/cilastatin for treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infections. A secondary objective was to demonstrate the ability to switch responding patients from intravenous (IV) to oral (PO) therapy. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Intra-abdominal infections result in substantial morbidity, mortality, and cost. Antimicrobial therapy often includes a 7- to 10-day intravenous course. The use of oral antimicrobials is a recent advance due to the availability of agents with good tissue pharmacokinetics and potent aerobic gram-negative activity. METHODS: Patients were randomized to either ciprofloxacin plus metronidazole intravenously (CIP/MTZ IV) or imipenem intravenously (IMI IV) throughout their treatment course, or ciprofloxacin plus metronidazole intravenously and treatment with oral ciprofloxacin plus metronidazole when oral feeding was resumed (CIP/MTZ IV/PO). RESULTS: Among 671 patients who constituted the intent-to-treat population, overall success rates were as follows: 82% for the group treated with CIP/MTZ IV; 84% for the CIP/MTZ IV/PO group; and 82% for the IMI IV group. For 330 valid patients, treatment success occurred in 84% of patients treated with CIP/MTZ IV, 86% of those treated with CIP/MTZ IV/PO, and 81% of the patients treated with IMI IV. Analysis of microbiology in the 30 patients undergoing intervention after treatment failure suggested that persistence of gram-negative organisms was more common in the IMI IV-treated patients who subsequently failed. Of 46 CIP/MTZ IV/PO patients (active oral arm), treatment success occurred in 96%, compared with 89% for those treated with CIP/MTZ IV and 89% for those receiving IMI IV. Patients who received intravenous/oral therapy were treated, overall, for an average of 8.6 +/- 3.6 days, with an average of 4.0 +/- 3.0 days of oral treatment. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate statistical equivalence between CIP/MTZ IV and IMI IV in both the intent-to-treat and valid populations. Conversion to oral therapy with CIP/MTZ appears as effective as continued intravenous therapy in patients able to tolerate oral feedings.
Solomkin, J S; Reinhart, H H; Dellinger, E P; Bohnen, J M; Rotstein, O D; Vogel, S B; Simms, H H; Hill, C S; Bjornson, H S; Haverstock, D C; Coulter, H O; Echols, R M
Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Carcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Undifferentiated Adenocarcinoma; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer
In preparation for photodynamic therapy clinical trials, a research class IV argon ion-pumped dye laser was modified to allow delivery of laser radiation from the Laser Biology Research Laboratory (LBRL) to a surgical operating room (OR) located one floor below and over 50 meters away. Optical fibers and coaxial cable, protected by flame retardant conduit, were fed from the LBRL to the OR. A remote control box was constructed to allow physician control of the laser output from the OR. A safety-off and output-power control wee included in the control system. Safety issues involved calculations of maximum permissible exposure of OR staff to optical radiation, the classification of the laser output in the OR and dealing with the placement of relatively high-flux carrying optical fiber placed in utility chases. Operational considerations involved the calculation and measurement of optical transmission losses, the procedure for relaying operational status between the OR and laser facility and the necessity of conducting practice runs with the laser and OR staff.
Schwartz, Jon A.; Thomsen, Sharon L.; Janssen, Erle; Erickson, Sharon; Supkis, Daniel E., Jr.
Neurological involvement occurs in approximately 20% of patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome. Although neurological symptoms can affect the peripheral nervous system and the central nervous system, the most frequent symptom is polyneuropathy. Small fiber neuropathy (SFN) is a form of painful peripheral polyneuropathy that is common in patients with diabetic neuropathy, but may also occur in toxic, infectious, or immune-mediated neuropathy. We show here a patient with Sjögren's syndrome who developed SFN and was treated with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy, which was immediately and extremely effective. Because of the efficacy of IVIG therapy, we propose that direct immune-mediated mechanisms may be involved in the pathogenesis of SFN complicated by Sjögren's syndrome. PMID:19458906
Wakasugi, Daisuke; Kato, Takashi; Gono, Takahisa; Ito, Eiichi; Nodera, Hiroyuki; Kawaguchi, Yasushi; Yamanaka, Hisashi; Hara, Masako
AIDS-related Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; AIDS-related Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; AIDS-related Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; AIDS-related Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; AIDS-related Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; AIDS-related Peripheral/Systemic Lymphoma; AIDS-related Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma; Stage III AIDS-related Lymphoma; Stage IV AIDS-related Lymphoma
A 7-year-old girl had presented with high body temperature and joint pain which continued for 3 days. Because of the prolonged history of unexplained fever, rash, bilateral nonpurulent conjunctival injection, oropharyngeal erythema, strawberry tongue, and extreme of age, incomplete Kawasaki disease was considered and started on an intravenous immunoglobulin infusion. Six days after this treatment, patient was referred to eye clinic with decreased vision and photophobia. Visual acuity was reduced to 20/40 in both eyes. Slit-lamp examination revealed bilateral diffuse corneal punctate epitheliopathy and anterior stromal haze. Corneal epitheliopathy seemed like crystal deposits. One day after presentation, mild anterior uveitis was added to clinical picture. All ocular findings disappeared in one week with topical steroid and unpreserved artificial tear drops. We present a case who was diagnosed as incomplete Kawasaki disease along with bilateral diffuse crystalline-like keratopathy. We supposed that unusual ocular presentation may be associated with intravenous immunoglobulin treatment. PMID:23607016
Erdem, Elif; Kocabas, Emine; Taylan Sekeroglu, Hande; Ozgür, Ozlem; Yagmur, Meltem; Ersoz, T Reha
Objective The goal of this prospective observational study was to identify adverse events (AEs) related to the use of intravenous access sites used for infective endocarditis (IE) treatment in a tertiary care hospital. Design This is an observational, analytical and prospective study on AEs resulting from the use of intravenous access sites in patients under antimicrobial treatment for IE. Patients enrolled in the International Collaboration on Endocarditis (ICE) study had their peripheral, short-term central catheters (CVC) and peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) monitored for AEs. Setting Tertiary care hospital for cardiac surgery in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Patients Patients over 14?years of age, hospitalised in 2009 and 2010 with possible or definite criteria for IE by the modified Duke criteria were included. Main outcome measures AEs related to intravenous catheters: erythema and infiltration, fever, obstruction, externalisation and blood stream infection. Results Thirty-seven episodes of IE in 35 patients were studied. Mean patient age was 44.32±15.2?years; 22 (63%) were men. The number of vascular catheters studied were 253, 148 of which were peripheral, 85 CVC (21 of which for haemodialysis) and 20 PICC. The most frequent AEs were ‘erythema’ and ‘infiltration’ for peripheral catheters, ‘fever’ for CVCs and ‘obstruction’ and ‘externalisation’ for PICCs. The number of catheter-days was 360 for peripheral catheters, 1.156 for CVC and 420 for PICC. Kaplan-Meier curves for CVC and PICC showed statistical difference for obstruction (p<0.001) in PICCs. More bacteraemia occurred in CVC compared with PICC. Conclusions The choice of intravenous access sites is critical in the treatment of IE. Close observation for AEs and stricter implementation of infection control measures and better manipulation of catheters are suggested.
De Paula, Debora Holanda Goncalves; Tura, Bernardo Rangel; Lamas, Cristiane da Cruz
Background—Arterial recanalization precedes clinical improvement or may lead to hemorrhage or reperfusion injury. Speed of clot lysis was not previously measured in human stroke. Methods and Results—Transcranial Doppler (TCD) and the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) were used to monitor consecutive patients receiving intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), before tPA bolus and at 24 hours. Patients with complete
Andrei V. Alexandrov; W. Scott Burgin; Andrew M. Demchuk; Ashraf El-Mitwalli; James C. Grotta
Hyperacute rejection is a rare but potentially catastrophic complication after cardiac transplantation. We describe an unusual case of hyperacute rejection due to preformed anti-donor antibodies despite a negative preoperative panel-reactive antibody (PRA) screen. An excellent outcome was achieved in this case and our strategy involving the use of CentriMag ventricular assist devices (VADs) for biventricular support during treatment with rituximab, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), and plasmapheresis is illustrated.
We recently reported a novel anticancer small molecule, designated FL118, which was discovered via high throughput screening (HTS), and followed by hit-lead in vitro and in vivo analysis. FL118 selectively inhibits the expression of four major cancer survival-associated gene products (survivin, Mcl-1, XIAP, and cIAP2) and shows promising antitumor activity in animal models of human cancers when administered using a weekly x 4 schedule (Ling et al., PLOS ONE. 2012, 7: e45571). Here, we compared the antitumor efficacy and therapeutic index (TI) of FL118 in a newly developed Tween 80-free formulation that can be delivered intravenously (i.v.) and intraperitoneally (i.p.) against the previous Tween 80-containing formulation that can only be delivered via an i.p. route. We found that the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) for FL118 in the i.v. formulation increases 3-7 fold in comparison with the MTD of FL118 in the i.p. formulation. FL118 in the i.v. recipe was able to eliminate human tumor xenografts in all three major schedules tested (daily x 5, q2 x 5 and weekly x 5). In contrast, FL118 was able to eliminate human tumor xenografts in the i.p. formulation only with the weekly x 4 schedule previously reported. The TI of FL118 in the i.v. formulation reached 5-6 in the most effective schedule, while the TI of FL118 in the i.p. formulation was only 1.3 - 2. These findings overcome several clinical challenges including FL118 formulation to realize clinically compatible drug administration routes, and expanding effective treatment schedules. The striking improvement of the TI makes FL118 a much safer drug for further development toward clinical trials.
Ling, Xiang; Li, Fengzhi
Home care has become a more attractive option as economic constraints are placed on the total healthcare system. Over the past 25 years, home intravenous service programmes have developed simultaneously with the development of more reliable means of providing intravenous therapy in the home. Reports have been published on a variety of home intravenous programmes including antibiotic therapy, parenteral nutrition support, chemotherapy, blood product administration and pain control. This review examines the economics of home intravenous programmes, including such direct cost items as drugs, medical supplies and equipment, personnel, hospital room, inventory control, and carrying inventory. Indirect costs, assessed as loss of wages, are also analysed. Cost savings have been reported ranging from 18 to 75% for intravenous antibiotic programmes and 60 to 76% for parenteral nutrition programmes. Earlier reports concentrated on analysis of savings derived from comparison of direct costs only, but recent studies have explored a more comprehensive fiscal analysis. PMID:10146945
Thickson, N D
Intravenous maintenance fluid therapy aims to replace daily urinary and insensible losses for ill children in whom adequate enteric administration of fluids is contraindicated or infeasible. The traditional determination of fluid volumes and composition dates back to Holliday and Segar's seminal article from 1957, which describes the relationship between weight, energy expenditure, and physiologic losses in healthy children. Combined with estimates of daily electrolyte requirements, this information supports the use of the hypotonic maintenance fluids that were widely used in pediatric medicine. However, using hypotonic intravenous fluids in a contemporary hospitalized patient who may have complex physiologic derangements, less caloric expenditure, decreased urinary output, and elevated antidiuretic hormone levels is often not optimal; evidence over the last 2 decades shows that it may lead to an increased incidence of hyponatremia. In this review, we present the evidence for using isotonic rather than hypotonic fluids as intravenous maintenance fluid. PMID:24196097
Cavari, Yuval; Pitfield, Alexander F; Kissoon, Niranjan
INO-1001 is a PARP-1 inhibitor that interrupts the repair process of N-methylpurines generated by temozolomide. We evaluated the pharmacokinetics of INO-1001 and determined its safety when used with temozolomide at 200 mg/m(2)/day x 5 days every 4 weeks. We enrolled 12 adult patients, in cohorts of 3-6 patients, into the study. INO-1001 at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg was given intravenous for 1 hr q 12 hr for 10 doses. INO-1001 had a moderate clearance, volume of distribution and a relatively short terminal half-life. Myelosuppression and elevation of liver transaminases were dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) of INO-1001 at 400 mg. PMID:19440934
Bedikian, Agop Y; Papadopoulos, Nicholas E; Kim, Kevin B; Hwu, Wen-Jen; Homsi, Jade; Glass, Michelle R; Cain, Suzanne; Rudewicz, Patrick; Vernillet, Laurent; Hwu, Patrick
Background The clinical need to be able to administer high doses of intravenous iron conveniently as a rapid infusion has been addressed by the recent introduction of ferric carboxymaltose and subsequently iron isomaltoside 1000. Neither requires a test dose. The maximum dose of ferric carboxymaltose is 1000 mg. The maximum dose of iron isomaltoside 1000 is based on 20 mg/kg body weight without a specified ceiling dose, thereby increasing the scope of being able to achieve total iron repletion with a single infusion. This ability to give high doses of iron is important in the context of managing iron deficiency anemia, which is associated with a number of clinical conditions where demands for iron are high. It is also an important component of the strategy as an alternative to blood transfusion. Affordability is a key issue for health services. Recent price changes affecting iron sucrose and ferric carboxymaltose, plus modifications to the manufacturers’ prescribing information, have provoked this update. Methods This study is a comparative analysis of the costs of acquiring and administering the newly available intravenous iron formulations against standard treatments in the hospital setting. The costs include the medication, nursing costs, equipment, and patient transportation. Three dosage levels (600 mg, 1000 mg, and 1600 mg) are considered. Results and conclusion The traditional standard treatments, blood and iron sucrose, cost more than the alternative intravenous iron preparations across the dose spectrum and sensitivities. Low molecular weight iron dextran is the least expensive option at the 1600 mg dose level but has the caveat of a prolonged administration time and requirement for a test dose. At 600 mg and 1000 mg dose levels, both iron isomaltoside 1000 and ferric carboxymaltose are more economical than low molecular weight iron dextran. Iron isomaltoside 1000 is less expensive than ferric carboxymaltose at all dose levels. Newly available iron preparations appear to be clinically promising, cost effective, and practical alternatives to current standards of iron repletion.
Leiomyomas are benign tumors arising from smooth muscle of the uterus. Intravenous leiomyomatosis is characterized by intraluminal growth of benign smooth muscle into either venous or lymphatic vessels outside the limits of myoma. It commonly extends into the pelvic veins and manifests as worm-like protrusions of tumor emanating from veins at the parametrial margins of hysterectomy specimen. The tumor can cause life-threatening symptoms if it involves inferior vena cava or right atrium. We report a case of intravenous leiomyomatosis of the uterus managed at our institution. PMID:24027407
Mariyappa, Narayanaswamy; Manikyam, Uday Kumar; Krishnamurthy, Dinesh; Preeti, K; Agarwal, Yamini; Prakar, U
Forty-three children with newly diagnosed idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), platelet count (PC) below 20 x 10(9)l-1, and either continued bleeding or failure to show a spontaneous rise in the PC after a 3 day observation period were randomized to treatment with either intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) infusions 1 g kg-1 (n = 23) or intravenous methylprednisolone pulse therapy (MPPT) 30 mg kg-1 (n = 20) on two consecutive days. After 72 h, IVIG had induced greater platelet responses (mean PC 188 x 10(9) versus 77 x 10(9)l-1, 2p < 0.001) and raised the PC to a haemostatically safe level above 50 x 10(9)l-1 more frequently (91 versus 50%, one-sided exact p = 0.003). Children responding poorly were then given the alternative treatment in addition. After 6 days, a normal PC of over 150 x 10(9)l-1 had been obtained more frequently in the group given first-line IVIG (70 versus 50%, p = 0.16). The relapse rates during 6 months of follow-up were not significantly different (26 versus 40%, p = 0.26). Cross-over treatment in 11 children with relapse confirmed the superior response to IVIG. The treatment given was restricted to the two initial infusions more often in the IVIG group (70 versus 35%, p = 0.05). These results indicate that IVIG may be preferable to MPPT as the initial treatment for ITP. PMID:8863869
Rosthøj, S; Nielsen, S; Pedersen, F K
Medications given via the intravenous (IV) route provide rapid drug delivery to the body. IV therapy is a complex process requiring proper drug preparation before administration to the patients. Therefore, errors occurring at any stage can cause harmful clinical outcomes to the patients, which may lead to morbidity and mortality. This was a prospective observational study with the objectives to determine whether medication errors occur in IV drug preparation and administration in Selayang Hospital, determining the associated factors and identifying the strategies in reducing these medication errors. 341 (97.7%) errors were identified during observation of total 349 IV drug preparations and administrations. The most common errors include the vial tap not swabbed during prepreparation and injecting bolus doses faster than the recommended administration rate. There was one incident of wrong drug attempted. Errors were significantly more likely to occur during administration time at 8.00am and when bolus drugs were given. Errors could be reduced by having proper guidelines on IV procedures, more common use of IV infusion control devices and by giving full concentration during the process. Awareness among the staff nurses and training needs should be addressed to reduce the rate of medication errors. Standard IV procedures should be abided and this needs the cooperation and active roles from all healthcare professionals as well as the staff nurses. PMID:23466768
Ong, W M; Subasyini, S
Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) VII is a lysosomal storage disease due to deficient ?-glucuronidase (GUSB) activity. We previously reported that IV injection of 3×10E9 transducing units (TU)\\/kg of a retroviral vector (RV) expressing GUSB into newborn MPS VII dogs resulted in transduction of hepatocytes, which secreted GUSB into blood and has been stable for more than 3 years. One MPS VII animal
Mark Haskins; Thomas O'Malley; N. Matthew Ellinwood; Patricia O'Donnell; Kristen Cullen; Karyn Cullen; Margaret Sleeper; Gustavo Aguirre; Lingfie Xu; Ping Wang; Katherine Ponder
The present investigation included 65 patients (36 men and 29 women of the mean age of 51.3 +/- 6.7 years) presenting with grade I-II arterial hypertension (AH) and undergoing intravenous ozone therapy in combination with the intake of antihypertensive preparations. ECG studies showed that a course of ozone therapy decreases the degree of in homogeneity of intra-myocardial electrophysiological processes in the patients with AH as apparent from reduced dispersion of P-wave and corrected QT-interval. Analysis of the results of high-resolution ECG revealed a significant decrease in the frequency of ventricular late potentials from 29.2% (19 patients) to 13.8% (9 patients) (chi2=4.5; p=0.03) whereas the decrease in the frequency of atrial late potentials was insignificant, from 40% (26 patients) to 29.2% (19 patients) (chi2=1.67; p=0.19). The results of spectral-temporal mapping indicate that a course of ozone therapy resulted in a significant decrease of the total number of local peaks in the QRS complex and the number of peaks with low-amplitude and high-frequency characteristics. PMID:24640657
Gimaev, R Kh; Drapova, D P; Skvortsov, D Iu; Olezov, N V
Juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) is a multisystem disease characterized by non-purulent inflammation in the striated muscle and skin. Banker-type JDM is difficult to treat and control, especially when it is a form that is resistant to steroid treatment. Here, we report a 2-year-old girl with Banker-type JDM resistant to steroid treatment. The patient received intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) at 400 mg/kg/5 days a week every 6 weeks. Motor function improved and the patient was able to walk after six cycles. IVIg was administered every four weeks for six cycles thereafter, and the patient was able to walk more quickly with an improvement in quality of life. No apparent adverse effects were observed during IVIg treatment. PMID:24500836
Imataka, George; Arisaka, Osamu
The incidence of extravasation of contrast medium is reported in the literature to be between 0.2?% and 0.9 %. A rare consequence of this could be compartment syndrome of the affected limb which requires immediate treatment.We report the case of a patient who developed acute compartment syndrome of the forearm after intravenous injection of radiographic contrast medium in a radiovolar vein during a computed tomography (CT) scan for multiple trauma. The clinical symptoms with pain, loss of range of motion and sensitivity functions, measurement of compartment pressure and radiological images confirmed the diagnosis. After emergency dermatofasciotomy of the forearm the full range of motion and sensitivity functions could be restored. PMID:23652930
Hawi, N; Citak, M; Liodakis, E; Petri, M; Haasper, C; Krettek, C; Meller, R
Background: The clinical significance and efficacy of treating patients who have immunoglobulin (Ig) G subclass deficiency and\\/or antibody deficiency with Ig-replacement therapy has been debated. There are no clear guidelines to recommend intravenous gammaglobulin (IgIV) in these patients as there are few published studies documenting its efficacy. Methods: We studied in an open-label protocol 10 adult patients with recurrent respiratory
Nabih I. Abdou; Cindy A. Greenwell; Reena Mehta; Madhu Narra; Jeffery D. Hester; John F. Halsey
Left ventricular assist device (LVAD) as destination for patients undergoing intravenous inotropic therapy: A subset analysis from REMATCH (Randomized Evaluation of Mechanical Assistance in Treatment of Chronic Heart failure)
Background—Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) have improved survival in patients with end-stage heart failure. Compared with previous trials, the Randomized Evaluation of Mechanical Assistance in Treatment of Chronic Heart Failure (REMATCH) trial enrolled patients with more advanced heart failure and high prevalence of intravenous inotropic therapy. This study analyzes, on a post hoc basis, outcomes in patients undergoing inotropic infusions
Lynne Warner Stevenson; Leslie W. Miller; Patrice Desvigne-Nickens
Background Switching primary/secondary immunodeficiency (PID/SID) patients from intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) to home-based subcutaneous immunoglobulin (SCIg) therapy reduces nurse time. A nurse shortage in Canada provides an important context to estimate the net economic benefit, the number of patients needed to switch to SCIg to recoup one full-time equivalent (FTE), and potential population-wide savings of reduced nurse time to a payer. Methods The net economic benefit was estimated by multiplying the hourly compensation for nurses in Canada by the hours required for each administration route. The number needed to switch to SCIg to gain one nurse FTE was estimated by dividing the work hours in a year by the average annual savings in nursing time in a PID population in Canada. The prevalence of treated PID/SID in Canada was calculated using provincial IgG audit data to extrapolate the potential population-wide savings of switching patients to SCIg therapy. Findings The net economic gain from switching one patient to home-based SCIg care would be C$2,603 (Canadian Dollars) in year 1 and C$2,948 each year thereafter. Switching 37 IVIg patients to SCIg would gain one nurse FTE. Switching 50% of the estimated 5,486 PID and SID patients in Canada receiving IVIg therapy to SCIg has the potential to save 223.3 nurse FTEs (C$23.2 million in labor costs). Conclusions A shift from IVIg to less labor-intensive SCIg has the potential to help alleviate nurse shortages and reduce overall health care costs in Canada. Health care professionals might consider advocating for home-based SCIg therapy for PID/SID patients when clinically appropriate.
Sixteen patients with acute myocardial infarction underwent treatment with streptokinase up to 3 hours after the onset of chest pain. Nine patients (group I) received streptokinase within 1 hour of the onset of pain, and seven patients (group II) received it within 2 to 3 hours. All underwent multigated radionuclide ventriculography after streptokinase therapy and 1 week later. Percutaneous transluminal
Hylton I. Miller; Yaron Almagor; Gad Keren; Joseph Chernilas; Arie Roth; Yemima Eschar; Itzhak Shapira; Boris Shargorodsky; Dora Berenfeld; Shlomo Laniado
Background: Despite high patency rates, primary angioplasty for myocardial infarction does not necessarily result in optimal myocardial reperfusion and limitation of infarct size. Experimentally, trimetazidine limits infarct size, decreases platelet aggregation, and reduces leukocyte influx into the infarct zone. To assess trimetazidine as adjunctive therapy to primary angioplasty for acute myocardial infarction a prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot trial was performed.
Ph. Gabriel Steg; Gilles Grollier; Pierre Gallay; Marie-Claude Morice; Gaëtan J. Karrillon; Hakim Benamer; Christian Kempf; Thierry Laperche; Pierre Arnaud; Philippe Sellier; Christian Bourguignon; Catherine Harpey
Background. Traditional mistletoe therapy in cancer patients involves subcutaneous applications of Viscum album L. preparations, with doses slowly increasing based on patient responses. Intravenous infusion of high doses may improve therapeutic outcomes and is becoming more common. Little is known about the safety of this "off-label" application of mistletoe. Methods. An observational study was performed within the Network Oncology. Treatment with intravenous mistletoe applications is described. The frequency of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) to intravenous mistletoe applications was calculated and compared to ADR data from a study on subcutaneous applications. Results. Of 475 cancer patients who received intravenous infusions of Helixor, Abnoba viscum, or Iscador mistletoe preparations, 22 patients (4.6%) reported 32 ADRs of mild (59.4%) or moderate severity (40.6%). No serious ADRs occurred. ADRs were more frequently reported to i.v. mistletoe administered alone (4.3%), versus prior to chemotherapy (1.6%). ADR frequency differed with respect to preparation type, with Iscador preparations showing a higher relative frequency, compared to Abnoba viscum and Helixor. Overall, patients were almost two times less likely to experience an ADR to intravenous compared to subcutaneous application of mistletoe. Conclusion. Intravenous mistletoe therapy was found to be safe and prospective studies for efficacy are recommended. PMID:24955100
Steele, Megan L; Axtner, Jan; Happe, Antje; Kröz, Matthias; Matthes, Harald; Schad, Friedemann
Background. Traditional mistletoe therapy in cancer patients involves subcutaneous applications of Viscum album L. preparations, with doses slowly increasing based on patient responses. Intravenous infusion of high doses may improve therapeutic outcomes and is becoming more common. Little is known about the safety of this “off-label” application of mistletoe. Methods. An observational study was performed within the Network Oncology. Treatment with intravenous mistletoe applications is described. The frequency of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) to intravenous mistletoe applications was calculated and compared to ADR data from a study on subcutaneous applications. Results. Of 475 cancer patients who received intravenous infusions of Helixor, Abnoba viscum, or Iscador mistletoe preparations, 22 patients (4.6%) reported 32 ADRs of mild (59.4%) or moderate severity (40.6%). No serious ADRs occurred. ADRs were more frequently reported to i.v. mistletoe administered alone (4.3%), versus prior to chemotherapy (1.6%). ADR frequency differed with respect to preparation type, with Iscador preparations showing a higher relative frequency, compared to Abnoba viscum and Helixor. Overall, patients were almost two times less likely to experience an ADR to intravenous compared to subcutaneous application of mistletoe. Conclusion. Intravenous mistletoe therapy was found to be safe and prospective studies for efficacy are recommended.
Steele, Megan L.; Axtner, Jan; Happe, Antje; Kroz, Matthias; Matthes, Harald; Schad, Friedemann
The ability to stabilize and treat patients on exploration missions will depend on access to needed consumables. Intravenous (IV) fluids have been identified as required consumables. A review of the Space Medicine Exploration Medical Condition List (SMEMCL) lists over 400 medical conditions that could present and require treatment during ISS missions. The Intravenous Fluid Generation System (IVGEN) technology provides the scalable capability to generate IV fluids from indigenous water supplies. It meets USP (U.S. Pharmacopeia) standards. This capability was performed using potable water from the ISS; water from more extreme environments would need preconditioning. The key advantage is the ability to filter mass and volume, providing the equivalent amount of IV fluid: this is critical for remote operations or resource- poor environments. The IVGEN technology purifies drinking water, mixes it with salt, and transfers it to a suitable bag to deliver a sterile normal saline solution. Operational constraints such as mass limitations and lack of refrigeration may limit the type and volume of such fluids that can be carried onboard the spacecraft. In addition, most medical fluids have a shelf life that is shorter than some mission durations. Consequently, the objective of the IVGEN experiment was to develop, design, and validate the necessary methodology to purify spacecraft potable water into a normal saline solution, thus reducing the amount of IV fluids that are included in the launch manifest. As currently conceived, an IVGEN system for a space exploration mission would consist of an accumulator, a purifier, a mixing assembly, a salt bag, and a sterile bag. The accumulator is used to transfer a measured amount of drinking water from the spacecraft to the purifier. The purifier uses filters to separate any air bubbles that may have gotten trapped during the drinking water transfer from flowing through a high-quality deionizing cartridge that removes the impurities in the water before entering the salt bag and mixing with the salt to create a normal saline solution.
McQuillen, John; McKay, Terri; Brown, Daniel; Zoldak, John
Background: The American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (A.S.P.E.N.) and the Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM) published guidelines in 2009 recommending against the use of intravenous lipids for parenteral nutrition (PN) within the first week of hospitalization in critically ill patients. This grade D recommendation is controversial as it is based on the results of 2 studies that evaluated approximately 100 patients and did not evaluate glycemic control. The purpose of this study was to evaluate outcomes associated with the receipt of lipids within the first week in the intensive care unit (ICU) compared with withholding lipids. Methods: This retrospective study included critically ill adult patients who received PN at a large, academic medical center. This study examined the incidence of new infections with receipt of early lipids (n = 66) compared with withholding lipids in the first 7 days (n = 29). Secondary outcomes included mortality, hyperglycemia, ICU length of stay (LOS), and total LOS. Results: There was no difference between the early lipids and late lipids groups in the incidence of new infections after the initiation of PN (40.9% vs 55.2%, P = .264). Additionally, there was no difference between groups for any of the secondary outcomes. Conclusion: Withholding lipids within the first 7 days of hospitalization in the ICU was not associated with a significant reduction in infections, ICU or total LOS, or mortality. A multicenter, randomized, controlled trial is needed to further evaluate the effects of lipid administration in the critically ill. PMID:24690614
Arrazcaeta, Janet; Lemon, Stephen
Thallium-201 imaging has been utilized to estimate myocardial salvage after thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction. However, results from recent animal studies have suggested that as a result of reactive hyperemia and delayed necrosis, thallium-201 imaging may overestimate myocardial salvage. To determine whether early overestimation of salvage occurs in humans, intracoronary thallium-201 scans 1 hour after thrombolytic therapy were compared with intravenous thallium-201 scans obtained approximately 10 and 100 days after myocardial infarction in 29 patients. In 10 patients with angiographic evidence of coronary reperfusion, immediate improvement in thallium defects and no interim clinical events, there was no change in imaging in the follow-up studies. Of nine patients with coronary reperfusion but no initial improvement of perfusion defects, none showed worsening of defects in the follow-up images. Six of these patients demonstrated subsequent improvement at either 10 or 100 days after infarction. Seven of 10 patients with neither early evidence of reperfusion nor improvement in perfusion defects had improvement of infarct-related perfusion defects, and none showed worsening. In conclusion, serial scanning at 10 and 100 days after infarction in patients with no subsequent clinical events showed no worsening of the perfusion image compared with images obtained in acute studies. Therefore, there is no evidence that thallium-201 imaging performed early in patients with acute myocardial infarction overestimates improvement.
Heller, G.V.; Parker, J.A.; Silverman, K.J.; Royal, H.D.; Kolodny, G.M.; Paulin, S.; Braunwald, E.; Markis, J.E.
In a randomized open controlled study the clinical effects and tolerability of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) and the stable prostacyclin (PGI2) analogue, iloprost in the management of diabetic and non-diabetic patients with advanced peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD Fontaine stage IV) were compared. 267 patients were enrolled in this multicentre study and treated for 21-28 days, either by daily infusions of 6 h with iloprost or 2 x 2 h with PGE1. At the end of treatment patients were assessed for evidence of improvement of trophic lesions, relief of rest pain and change of global clinical status. 228 patients were considered as evaluable for efficacy analysis, which revealed 52.7% responders in the iloprost group and 43.1% for PGE1 (p = 0.148). Whereas iloprost showed similar effects in diabetics and non-diabetics (53.3% and 51.4% response rates, respectively), the diabetics treated with PGE1 had a considerably poorer outcome (36.6% versus 53.3%). At 6 months follow-up 62.2% of patients in both groups were alive with a viable limb. Slightly more iloprost patients underwent major amputation (32.1% versus 27.2%), but the number of deaths was reduced by 50% in the iloprost group compared to the PGE1 group (7.5% versus 14.6%, p = 0.10). Side-effects such as headache, flushing and gastrointestinal symptoms were significantly more common in the iloprost group (73.9%) than in the PGE1 group (31.0%), particularly during the first 3 days of dose titration. No specific toxic or unexpected reactions were reported in either group. PMID:7692455
Altstaedt, H O; Berzewski, B; Breddin, H K; Brockhaus, W; Bruhn, H D; Cachovan, M; Diehm, C; Dörrler, J; Franke, C S; Gruss, J D
Extravasation of some cytostatics applied i.v. can often cause local edema with skin redness, thrombophlebitis and not infrequently skin necrosis with chronic ulcera. Local treatment is usually ineffective, and so far surgical excision of ulcera is the only curative approach. Tetrachlorodecaoxygen anion complex (TCDO) has shown high activity in healing chronic leg ulcera, by increasing pO2 in hypoxic wound tissue and stimulating phagocytosis as one of anti-inflammatory processes To study the local activity of TCDO in tissue necrosis and chronic ulcera caused by cytostatic extravasation, 23 patients with local skin complications underwent local treatment with TCDO, made as isotonic water solution. Seventeen patients experienced only local edema with redness, while 6 patients showed deep chronic ulcera. All the skin changes were complications after i.v. doxorubicin, cisplatinum, dactinomycin or vinblastine application. The treatments with TCDO followed 1-3 months after ulcera appeared, while skin inflammations were treated 1-8 days after they occurred. TCDO was applied locally twice a day by impregnated cotton tissue for 4-6 weeks. Evaluable were only measurable lesions. From 17 patients with only skin inflammation 3 patients obtained complete resolution, 8 partial resolution and 6 had stable lesions. Thus, overall response was recorded in 65% of patients (11/17). In 6 patients with deep chronic ulcera a longer treatment (6 weeks) was needed, and in 5 of them the complete epithelization and resolution occurred. One patient had a partial wound healing. No side effects of treatment were observed. The effect of locally applied TCDO in chronic ulcera seems to be preferable to surgical treatment. A controlled study will show the exact therapeutic value of this new anti-inflammatory compound. PMID:3059251
Kolari?, K; Zupanc, D; Stahl, K W; Hinz, J; Kempf, S R; Ivankovic, S
Background and Purpose The malignant profile has been associated with poor outcomes after reperfusion in the 3- to 6-hour time window. The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence and prognostic implications of the malignant profile, as identified by CT perfusion, in intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator-treated patients who were imaged <3 hours from stroke onset. Methods The incidence of the malignant profile, based on the previously published optimal perfusion-weighted imaging definition, was assessed in consecutive patients using a fully automated software program (RApid processing of Perfusion and Diffusion [RAPID]). A receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was done to identify time to maximum and core volume thresholds that optimally identify patients with poor outcome (modified Rankin Scale 5–6). Results Forty-two patients had an interpretable CT perfusion performed within 3 hours of symptom onset. Mean age was 74±14 years and median (interquartile range) National Institutes of Stroke Scale score was 13 (6–19). Four patients (9.5%) met the prespecified criteria for the malignant profile and all 4 had poor outcome. Receiver operating characteristic analysis determined that the best CT perfusion measure to identify patients with poor outcome was a cerebral blood flow based infarct core >53 mL (100% specificity and 67% sensitivity). This criterion identified 5 patients as malignant (12%). The poor outcome rate in these patients was 100% versus 7.1% in the 37 nonmalignant patients (P<0.001). Conclusion The incidence of the malignant profile on CT perfusion is approximately 10% in tissue-type plasminogen activator-eligible patients imaged within 3 hours of symptom onset. The clinical outcome of these patients is very poor despite intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator therapy.
Inoue, Manabu; Mlynash, Michael; Straka, Matus; Lansberg, Maarten G.; Zaharchuk, Greg; Bammer, Roland; Albers, Gregory W.
Since various innovative strategies including local infusion therapy and rituximab have been introduced, the survivals and outcomes of recipients in ABO-incompatible (ABO-I) living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) have remarkably improved. Thus, ABO-I LDLT can be a feasible therapeutic option for the patient with end-stage liver disease if an ABO-compatible donor is not available. Although most ABO-I protocols are based on rituximab, plasma exchange, and local infusion therapy, treatment strategies have been changing according to a center's preference or their results. Nonetheless, the consensus of the ABO-I LDLT protocol remains undetermined. Herein, we present our experience with new simple ABO-I LDLT protocol and the excellent results for 14 patients from January 2011 to May 2013. All patients were administrated a single dose of rituximab over 7 days before transplantation followed by plasma exchange to lower anti-ABO antibody titer ?32. The basic immunosuppression protocol consisted of tacrolimus and steroids with mycophenolate mofetil starting 3 days before transplantation. Splenectomy was not performed routinely and local infusion therapy was not applied at the postoperative period. Instead, the patients received intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) after LDLT on days 1, 3, and 5. Neither antibody-mediated rejection nor biliary stricture were encountered in the patients, with a mean follow-up of 16.27 ± 9.4 months. This new simplified ABO-I LDLT protocol seems to prevent antibody-mediated rejection and could be considered as the safe and effective modality to overcome the ABO blood-type barrier in LDLT. PMID:24767341
Kim, J D; Choi, D L; Han, Y S
In progressive immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN), intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) treatment has been used to delay disease progression, but the long-term efficacy is largely unknown. We report the clinical outcomes after IVIg therapy in six male patients with progressive IgAN [median glomerular filtration rate (GFR) 31 ml/min per 1·73 m2] followed for a median observation period of 8 years. In this single-arm, non-randomized study, IVIg was given monthly at a dose of 2 g/kg body weight for 6 months. The course of renal function was assessed by linear regression analysis of GFR and proteinuria, and was compared to eight patients with IgAN (median GFR 29 ml/min per 1·73 m2) without IVIg as a contemporaneous control group. IgAN disease progression was delayed after IVIg therapy on average for 3 years. The mean loss of renal function decreased from ? 1·05 ml/min per month to ? 0·15 ml/min per month (P = 0·024) and proteinuria decreased from 2·4 g/l to 1·0 g/l (P = 0·015). The primary end-point (GFR < 10 ml/min or relapse) occurred 5·2 years (median; range 0·4–8·8) after the first IVIg pulse, and after 1·3 years (median; range 0·8–2·4) in the control group (P = 0·043). In Kaplan–Meier analysis, the median renal survival time with IVIg was prolonged by 3·5 years (IVIg 4·7 years versus control 1·2 years; P = 0·006). IVIg pulse therapy may be considered as a treatment option to reduce the loss of renal function and improve proteinuria in patients with progressive IgAN.
Rasche, F M; Keller, F; Lepper, P M; Aymanns, C; Karges, W; Sailer, L-C; von Muller, L; Czock, D
We postulated that fludarabine (Flu) instead of cyclophosphamide (Cy) combined with i.v. busulfan (Bu) as preconditioning for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) would improve safety and retain antileukemic efficacy. Sixty-seven patients received BuCy2, and subsequently, 148 patients received Bu-Flu. We used a Bayesian method to compare outcomes between these nonrandomized patients. The groups had comparable pretreatment characteristics, except that
Borje S. Andersson; Marcos de Lima; Peter F. Thall; Xuemei Wang; Daniel Couriel; Martin Korbling; Soonja Roberson; Sergio Giralt; Betty Pierre; James A. Russell; Elizabeth J. Shpall; Roy B. Jones; Richard E. Champlin
Background Functional iron deficiency (FID) may cause erythropoietin resistance in patients under hemodialysis (HD). Since the role of chronic inflammation or oxidative stress in its pathogenesis is unclear, controversy remains to whether intravenous iron or intravenous ascorbic acid (an antioxidant) can improve this anemia due to decreased iron availability. Objectives The current study compared the effect of intravenous iron versus intravenous ascorbic acid in the management of FID in HD patients. Patients and Methods Forty HD patients with hemoglobin (Hb) ? 11 g/dL, serum ferritin ? 500 ng/mL and transferrin saturation (TSAT) ? 25% were randomly divided into two groups. 20 patients received 100 mg of intravenous (IV) iron (group I), and 20 patients received 300 mg of IV ascorbic acid (group II) postdialysis, twice a week for 5 consecutive weeks. Hb and iron metabolism indices were measured before the onset of the study and after 12 weeks following therapy. Results Twenty one percent of all HD patients, exhibited high serum ferritin, low TSAT and sufficient data for analysis. Both Group I (n = 20) and Group II (n = 20) patients showed a significant increase in Hb, serum iron, and TSAT (P < 0.001). There were no significant differences between both groups in increasing Hb (P = 0.076), serum iron (P = 0.589), serum ferritin (0.725), and TSAT (P = 0.887). Conclusions This study showed that both IV iron and IV ascorbic acid can improve FID in HD patients. A larger randomized trial is warranted to determine the optimal management of FID in HD patients.
Sedighi, Omid; Makhlough, Atieh; Janbabai, Ghasem; Neemi, Mohammad
Intravenous (IV) iron therapy has been a major asset in the management of refractory iron-deficiency anemia in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and other diseases. However, the cost-effectiveness of parenteral substitution as the first-line treatment of this condition in IBD has been questioned. A study published by Reinisch et al. in this issue of the journal fails to show non-inferiority of iron isomaltose 1,000, a novel high-dose IV preparation, compared to oral iron sulfate. PMID:24300864
Van Assche, Gert
Introduction Parkinsonism is a neurodegenerative disease with impaired motor function. The current research was directed to investigate the effect of CD34+ stem cells versus levodopa in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced Parkinsonism. Material and methods Mice were divided into 4 groups; saline-injected, MPTP: received four MPTP injections (20 mg/kg, i.p.) at 2 h intervals, MPTP groups treated with levodopa/carbidopa (100/10 mg/kg/twice/day for 28 days) or single intravenous injection of 106 CD34+ stem cells/mouse at day 7 and allowed to survive until the end of week 5. Results Levodopa and stem cells improved MPTP-induced motor deficits; they abolished the difference in stride length, decreased percentage of foot slip errors and increased ambulation, activity factor and mobility duration in parkinsonian mice (p < 0.05). Further, they significantly (p < 0.05) increased striatal dopamine (85.3 ±4.3 and 110.6 ±5.3) and ATP levels (10.6 ±1.1 and 15.5 ±1.14) compared to MPTP (60.1 ±3.9 pmol/g and 3.6 ±0.09 mmol/g, respectively) (p < 0.05). Moreover, mitochondrial DNA from mice treated with levodopa or stem cells was in intact form; average concentration was (52.8 ±3.01 and 107.8 ±8.6) and no appreciable fragmentation of nuclear DNA was found compared to MPTP group. Regarding tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunostaining, stem cell group showed a marked increase of percentage of TH-immunopositive neurons (63.55 ±5.2) compared to both MPTP (37.6 ±3.1) and levodopa groups (41.6 ±3.5). Conclusions CD34+ cells ameliorated motor, biochemical and histological deficits in MPTP-parkinsonian mice, these effects were superior to those produced by levodopa that would be promising for the treatment of PD.
Abo-Grisha, Noha; Abo-Elmatty, Dina M.; Abdel-Hady, Zenab
Central Nervous System Metastases; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Predominant Intraductal Component; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma With Predominant in Situ Component; Liver Metastases; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lung Metastases; Male Breast Cancer; Medullary Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Lymphocytic Infiltrate; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Tumors Metastatic to Brain
Stabilizing the intravenous catheter after insertion is a significant part of intravenous therapy. Dislodgments of the cannula from its optimal position in the vein can lead to complications such as phlebitis, thrombophlebitis, infiltration, and infection. Intravenous site protector shields are designed to protect the catheter from impact and tissue trauma at the insertion site. Nurses have requested ventilation in these shields to avoid moisture build up that may increase the risk of infections. To address this issue, experimental laboratory testing was performed to determine if moisture accumulation as evidenced by increased weight of the shield and visible evidence of condensation occurred. No moisture condensation problems with the ventilated intravenous site protectors were found. PMID:8852177
Lee, W E; Vallino, L M
The aim of this study was to investigate changes in CD4(+)CD25(+)FOXP3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) throughout the clinical course of Kawasaki disease (KD) and correlations with response to intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) therapy. Participants comprised 18 patients who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for KD and 20 healthy subjects. Expressions of CD25 and FOXP3 among all CD4(+) T cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were analyzed by flow cytometry before and 7 and 30 days after IVIg therapy. Before treatment, percentages of CD4(+)CD25(+)FOXP3(+) Tregs among total CD4(+) Tregs were significantly lower among KD patients (4.19 %; range, 0.16-8.11 %) than among healthy subjects (7.32 %; 4.18-13.42 %; P?=?0.0001). Both percentages and absolute numbers of CD4(+)CD25(+)FOXP3(+) Tregs on day? 7 after IVIg therapy were significantly increased compared with values before treatment (8.02 % (range, 0.51-12.6 %) vs. 4.19 % (range, 0.16-8.11 %), P?=?0.0005; 93.25/??L (range, 6.67-258.05) vs. 41.85/??L (range, 0.44-160.62), P?0.0001, respectively). Moreover, percentages and absolute numbers of CD4(+)CD25(+)FOXP3(+) Tregs before treatment were significantly lower in the IVIg-resistant group than in the IVIg-sensitive group (0.18 % (range, 0.16-3.34 %) vs. 4.52 % (range, 2.8-8.11 %), P?=?0.0022; 0.68/?L (range, 0.44-53.81) vs. 51.66/?L (range, 2.88-160.62), P?=?0.0098, respectively). The frequency of CD4(+)CD25(+)FOXP3(+) Tregs in four of the five IVIg-resistant patients at diagnosis was more than 3 standard deviations below that in healthy subjects. Two of these four patients displayed coronary abnormalities, and one of these two patients developed coronary aneurysm. Conclusion: Lack of CD4(+)CD25(+)FOXP3(+) Tregs before treatment may predict resistance to IVIg therapy in patients with KD. PMID:23340699
Hirabayashi, Yu; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Xu, Yinyan; Akane, Kazuyuki; Villalobos, Itzel Bustos; Okuno, Yusuke; Hasegawa, Shinji; Muramatsu, Hideki; Hama, Asahito; Kato, Taichi; Kojima, Seiji
Aim of the study: To evaluate semen parameters and to assess serum FSH, LH, Testosterone (T) concentrations before and 12 weeks after intravenous iron therapy (800-1200 mg elemental iron therapy - IVI) in adults with iron-deficiency anemia (IDA). Materials and Methods: We studied 11 eugonadal adults with IDA, aged 40 ± 5 years, due to defective intake of iron. Anemia was diagnosed when hemoglobin (Hb) was equal or below 10 g/dl. Serum iron, total iron-binding capacity (TIBC) and ferritin concentrations confirmed the diagnosis of IDA. Basal serum concentrations of FSH, LH, and T were measured. Semen parameters were evaluated before and 6-7 weeks after IVI therapy. Results: After IVI therapy and correction of anemia, a significant increase of Hb from 8.1 ± 1.17 g/dL to 13.1 ± 0.7 g/dL was observed and was associated with an increase of T (from 12.22 ± 1.4 nmol/L to 15.9 ± 0.96 nmol/L; P < 0.001), FSH (from 2.82 ± 0.87 to 3.82 ± 1.08 IU/L; P = 0.007), and LH (from 2.27 ± 0.9 to 3.82 ± 1.5 IU/L; P = 0.0002). Total sperm count (TSC) increased significantly from 72 ± 17.5 million/ml to 158 ± 49 million/mL (P < 0.001), rapid progressive sperm motility (RPM) increased from 22 ± 9.4 to 69 ± 30 million/ml (P < 0.001), and sperms with normal morphology (NM) increased from 33 ± 5 to 56 ± 7 million/ml (P < 0.001). Increment in Hb concentration was correlated significantly with LH, FSH, and T concentrations after IVI (r = 0.69 and r = 0.44, r = 0.75, respectively; P < 0.01). The increment in serum T was correlated significantly with increments in the TSC and total sperm motility and RPM (r = 0.66, 0.43, and 0.55, respectively; P < 0.001) but not with gonadotrophin levels. Conclusion: Our study proved for the first time, to our knowledge, that correction of IDA with IVI is associated with significant enhancement of sperm parameters and increased concentrations of serum LH, FSH, and T. These effects on spermatogenesis are reached by an unknown mechanism and suggest a number of pathways that need further human and/or experimental studies.
Soliman, Ashraf; Yassin, Mohamed; De Sanctis, Vincenzo
The treatment for chronic active antibody-mediated rejection (CAMR) remains controversial. We investigated the efficacy of rituximab (RTX) and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) for CAMR. Eighteen patients with CAMR were treated with RTX (375?mg/m(2)) and IVIg (0.4?g/kg) for 4 days. The efficacy of RTX/IVIg combination therapy (RIT) was assessed by decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate per month (?eGFR) before and after RIT. Patients were divided into responder and nonresponder groups based on decrease and no decrease in ?eGFR, respectively, and their clinical and histological characteristics were compared. Response rate to RIT was 66.7% (12/18), and overall ?eGFR decreased significantly to 0.4 ± 1.7?mL·min(-1) ·1.73?m(-2) per month 6 months after RIT compared to that observed 6 months before RIT (1.8 ± 1.0, P < 0.05). Clinical and histological features between the 12 responders and the 6 nonresponders were not significantly different, but nonresponders had a significantly higher proteinuria levels at the time of RIT (2.5 ± 2.5 versus 7.0 ± 3.5 protein/creatinine (g/g), P < 0.001). The effect of the RIT on ?eGFR had dissipated in all patients by 1 year post-RIT. Thus, RIT delayed CAMR progression, and baseline proteinuria level was a prognostic factor for response to RIT. PMID:24741626
An, Gun Hee; Yun, Jintak; Hong, Yu Ah; Khvan, Marina; Chung, Byung Ha; Choi, Bum Soon; Park, Cheol Whee; Choi, Yeong Jin; Kim, Yong-Soo; Yang, Chul Woo
Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a noteworthy condition in the treatment of systemic sclerosis (SSc) because of its associated mortality and morbidity; however, the efficacy of various treatments for ILD has been controversial in previous reports. In this study, we examined the efficacy and safety of intravenous cyclophosphamide (IVCY) pulse therapy with prednisolone (PSL) for the treatment of ILD with SSc. A total of 121 patients with SSc were screened and evaluated for ILD, using high-resolution computed tomography of the chest, pulmonary function testing, and bronchoalveolar lavage. Thirteen patients with active ILD were enrolled in this study. The treatment protocol for ILD was 0.4 g/m(2) of body surface area of IVCY monthly plus 0.8 mg/kg of body weight of PSL daily. Two to six doses of IVCY were administered, depending on the remission of ILD. Initial PSL doses were maintained for a month and then gradually tapered to 10 mg daily. An activity index of ILD showed improvements in all patients in the 12 months after the initial intervention; however, four patients experienced recurrence of ILD after 24 months, and one additional patient had recurrence of ILD after 36 months. Seven patients reached the 48-month point with no recurrence of ILD. This long observational study for 48 months showed the efficacy of IVCY with PSL for active alveolitis in the first year. However, because five patients had recurrence of ILD more than 1 year after the treatment, it would be necessary to consider maintenance therapy for ILD beyond 1 year. PMID:21240620
Tochimoto, Akiko; Kawaguchi, Yasushi; Hara, Masako; Tateishi, Mutsuto; Fukasawa, Chikako; Takagi, Kae; Nishimagi, Emi; Ota, Yuko; Katsumata, Yasuhiro; Gono, Takahisa; Tanaka, Eiichi; Yamanaka, Hisashi
This report summarizes what we believe to be the first verifiable case of a significant and progressive motor neuron disease (MND) consistent with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis that resolved during treatment with i.v. ceftriaxone plus oral atovaquone and mefloquine. The rationale for use of these antibiotics was (i) positive testing for Borrelia burgdorferi and (ii) red blood cell ring forms consistent with Babesia species infection. The patient has continued to be free of MND signs and symptoms for 15 months, although some symptoms consistent with disseminated Borreliosis remain. PMID:17212618
Harvey, W T; Martz, D
Developmental Counseling and Therapy offers an approach to the fourth Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders classification systems that enables the reframing of severe client distress as a logical response to developmental history. Specific suggestions for positive case management and practice, multicultural issues, etiology, and…
Ivey, Allen E.; Ivey, Mary Bradford
The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of and tolerance to antithymocyte globulin (ATG)-based therapy in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Therapy consisted of ATG 40 mg\\/kg\\/day daily intravenously (i.v.) for 4 days; cyclosporine daily orally for 6 months with levels titrated between 200 and 400 mg\\/dl; and methylprednisone 1 mg\\/kg i.v. daily before each dose of
S Yazji; F J Giles; A-M Tsimberidou; E H Estey; H M Kantarjian; S A O'Brien; R Kurzrock
Markers of increased risk of intracerebral hemorrhage after intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator therapy for acute ischemic stroke in clinical practice: the multicenter rt-PA acute stroke survey
Background—Intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) is an effective therapy for acute ischemic stroke, but it is associated with risk of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Our aim was to identify, in a large cohort of patients, readily available baseline factors that are associated with thrombolysis-related ICH. Methods and Results—In a multicenter retrospective and prospective investigation of individual data from 1205 patients
David Tanne; Scott E. Kasner; Andrew M. Demchuk
Background: Infusion therapy through intravenous (IV) access is a therapeutic option used in the treatment of many hospitalized patients. IV therapy is complex, potentially dangerous and error prone. The objectives were to ascertain the drug-related problems (DRPs) involved in IV medication administration and further to develop strategies to reduce and prevent the occurrence of DRPs during IV administration. Materials and Methods: A prospective observational study was carried out for a period of 4 months. Patients receiving more than two medications through IV route were included and studied. Results: Of 110 patients, 76 (69.09%) were male and the rest were female. Nearly, half of the patients (46.3%, n = 51) were reported with DRPs. Of the 80 DRPs (72.72%) documented, 61 problems (55.4%) were seen in patients given IV medications through peripheral line. Among the DRPs majority seen were incompatibilities (40.9%, n = 45), followed by complications developed (12.7%, n = 14), errors in rate of administration (10.9%), and dilution errors (8%). To study the association of DRPs among gender, statistical analysis was performed and significant association was seen between DRPs and gender (P = 0.03). Conclusion: Among the reported DRPs, simultaneous IV administration of two incompatible drugs was the main predicament faced.
Vijayakumar, A.; Sharon, E. V.; Teena, J.; Nobil, S.; Nazeer, I.
High pancreatic cancer mortality and poor prognosis are caused by the difficulty for early diagnosis and extremely low rates of resection because of metastasis. Mesothelin overexpression in pancreatic cancer is a remarkable biomarker for tumor progression, especially for invasion and metastasis. Here, we generated a novel replication-defective recombinant adenovirus 40 (rAd40), whose gene delivery properties are totally different from a conventional rAd5. In this study, we have identified intravenous administration with rAd40 expressing mouse mesothelin (Msln) as an effective prophylactic cancer vaccine against metastatic lesions of pancreatic cancer in mice. Intravenous administration of rAd40 (rAd40 i.v.) achieved transgene delivery in wider range of organs compared to rAd5 i.v., while rAd5 was distributed mainly to the liver, spleen, and lungs. Additionally, rAd40 i.v. showed less transduction of the liver or inflammatory responses, resulted in reduced liver toxicity compared to rAd5 i.v. Also, more robust systemic antigen-specific immune responses were stimulated by rAd40 i.v. Pretreatment with a single ovalbumin-expressing rAd40 i.v. prevented tumor growth in mouse subcutaneous models of ovalbumin-expressing pancreatic cancer. When used with Msln-expressing rAd40 i.v., Msln protein expression and metastases were suppressed in a syngeneic orthotopic mouse model of pancreatic cancer, corresponding to the detection of Msln- and tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL). Our novel methods generated antitumor effects against antigen-expressing tumors through antigen- and tumor-specific CTL-mediated immunity. Thus, our results indicate that a rAd40-based intravenous vaccine provides a new strategy for the effective control of metastatic pancreatic cancer and novel therapy against other cancers and infectious diseases.
Yamasaki, Satoshi; Miura, Yoshiaki; Davydova, Julia; Vickers, Selwyn M.; Yamamoto, Masato
The clinical features of patients treated with streptokinase for chest pain and anterior ST-segment elevation who subsequently develop non-Q-wave infarction are unknown. Of the 75 consecutive patients who initially presented with chest pain and ST-segment elevation in the anterior leads (V1-V6, I, aVL) and were treated with intravenous streptokinase (time from symptoms to treatment averaged less than 3 hours), 32 (43%) developed a non-Q-wave and 43 (57%) a Q-wave myocardial infarction. Twenty seven of 32 patients (84%) from the non-Q-wave group and 39 of 43 (91%) from the Q-wave group were studied by angiography at 5.16 +/- 2.88 days after the onset of myocardial infarction. Left ventricular end-diastolic pressure was 13 +/- 6 vs 20 +/- 7 mm Hg (p less than 0.001), left ventricular ejection fraction was 60 +/- 8 vs 49 +/- 14% (p less than 0.001) and the infarct vessel patency rate was 85 vs 72% (p = 0.44) in patients with a non-Q versus a Q-wave infarction, respectively. In summary, when patients presenting with chest pain and ST-segment elevation are treated with streptokinase, a significant portion of these symptoms will evolve into a non-Q-wave infarction. Patients with a non-Q-wave infarction will have a better preserved left ventricular function than patients who develop a Q-wave infarction. This suggests the need for equal distribution of such patients in randomized trials of thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction to avoid misinterpreting data between groups. PMID:1872269
Chouhan, L; Hajar, H A; George, T; Pomposiello, J C
Data from rats with chronic intracardiac cannulae support the cellular dehydration theory of thirst: (1) Drinking was stimulated by intravenous (IV) hypertonic saline, the degree of stimulation being a function of amount injected. (2) Drinking was depressed by IV distilled water as a function of amount injected and temporal relationship between injection and drinking. (3) Drinking was unaffected by IV
John D. Corbit
The patient was a 54-year-old man who had undergone resection of the sigmoid colon for unresectable sigmoid colon cancer with multiple liver( H1), lymph node, and lung metastases at the previous hospital. Chemotherapy with 5-fuorouracil, Leucovorin, and oxaliplatin (mFOLFOX6) plus bevacizumab was initiated after surgery. The outcome was partial response. The patient was introduced to our hospital because he had relocated. Based on the findings of the patient's computed tomography( CT) and positron emission tomography( PET)-CT scans, we decided to perform radical resection. We performed partial hepatectomy( S7 and S8) and pancreatoduodenectomy for metastases to the hepatoduodenal ligament lymph node. After confirming that there was no recurrence, he underwent right partial pneumonectomy. Currently, the patient shows no signs of recurrence. The therapy for colon cancer should include aggressive radical surgery to control metastasis. PMID:24393978
Babaya, Akihito; Fukunaga, Mutsumi; Yamamoto, Tameyoshi; Oda, Kazuyuki; Nakata, Ken; Ohzato, Hiroki
Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity
Summary We investigated the pharmacokinetics of rifampicin and its major metabolites, 25-desacetylrifampicin and 3-formylrifampicin, in two groups of six patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis, who received either multiple oral or intravenous rifampicin therapy in combination with intravenous isoniazid and ethambutol. Serum concentrations of rifampicin were each determined after a single oral and intravenous test dose of 600 mg rifampicin at
U. Loos; E. Musch; J. C. Jensen; G. Mikus; H. K. Schwabe; M. Eichelbaum
The prevalence of anemia across studies on patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is high (30%). Both iron deficiency (ID) and anemia of chronic disease contribute most to the development of anemia in IBD. The prevalence of ID is even higher (45%). Anemia and ID negatively impact the patient’s quality of life. Therefore, together with an adequate control of disease activity, iron replacement therapy should start as soon as anemia or ID is detected to attain a normal hemoglobin (Hb) and iron status. Many patients will respond to oral iron, but compliance may be poor, whereas intravenous (IV) compounds are safe, provide a faster Hb increase and iron store repletion, and presents a lower rate of treatment discontinuation. Absolute indications for IV iron treatment should include severe anemia, intolerance or inappropriate response to oral iron, severe intestinal disease activity, or use of an erythropoietic stimulating agent. Four different products are principally used in clinical practice, which differ in their pharmacokinetic properties and safety profiles: iron gluconate and iron sucrose (lower single doses), and iron dextran and ferric carboxymaltose (higher single doses). After the initial resolution of anemia and the repletion of iron stores, the patient’s hematological and iron parameters should be carefully and periodically monitored, and maintenance iron treatment should be provided as required. New IV preparations that allow for giving 1000-1500 mg in a single session, thus facilitating patient management, provide an excellent tool to prevent or treat anemia and ID in this patient population, which in turn avoids allogeneic blood transfusion and improves their quality of life.
Munoz, Manuel; Gomez-Ramirez, Susana; Garcia-Erce, Jose Antonio
Acute ischemic stroke is a medical emergency requiring urgent treatment. Randomized clinical trial and Phase IV data have provided unequivocal evidence that intravenous thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) improves early functional outcomes by restoring brain perfusion. Moreover, these studies have shed substantial light on the factors which are associated with more favorable outcome with tPA and are related to the highest benefit-to-risk ratio. Stroke physicians should consider vascular imaging techniques to aid decision making with thrombolytic therapy. The presence of intracranial occlusion is the target of treatment with early recanalization being the goal. Successful use of intravenous thrombolysis depends on a sound understanding of the decision-making process and organization of the treating team who strives for early treatment initiation and strict adherence to the protocol. Intravenous rt-PA within 4.5 h of onset should now be a standard treatment of acute disabling ischemic stroke throughout the world. This review also summarizes intravenous thrombolysis contraindications as well as the safety of novel reperfusion therapies including tenecteplase, sonothrombolysis and the combination of alteplase with direct thrombin inhibitors or glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor antagonists. PMID:24984941
Haršány, Michal; Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Alexandrov, Andrei V
An 11-year-old female felt discomfort in her head, and left hemispheric syndrome occurred shortly thereafter. At presentation, her National Institutes of Health stroke scale (NIHSS) score was 13, and a magnetic resonance imaging scan revealed acute brain infarction in the left thalamus. She was immediately treated with the intravenous administration of tissue plasminogen activator (IV t-PA) followed by edaravone, a free radical scavenger. Two hours after IV t-PA, her symptoms dramatically resolved and her NIHSS score decreased to 5. No adverse events were observed. She was the youngest patient treated with IV t-PA in Japan, and would be the youngest treated in most developed countries. An optimal treatment for stroke in children has not been established, and this case highlights the urgent need to examine the safety and efficacy of IV t-PA and edaravone therapy for ischemic stroke in children. PMID:21421331
Baba, Haruhisa; Sugimori, Hiroshi; Nanishi, Etsuro; Nagata, Hazumu; Lee, Sooyoung; Kuwashiro, Takahiro; Hashizume, Makoto
Intravenous iron therapy is recommended for children and adults who receive hemodialysis (HD) and recombinant human erythropoietin\\u000a (rHuEPO). However, limited information exists on the use of any maintenance IV iron regimen in children. Therefore, we conducted\\u000a a prospective, multicenter, open-label trial of maintenance therapy with sodium ferric gluconate complex (SFGC) in iron-replete\\u000a pediatric HD patients receiving rHuEPO. Patients received SFGC
Bradley A. Warady; R. Howard Zobrist; Eileen Finan
AIM: To investigate the use of high dose consensus-interferon in combination with ribavirin in former iv drug users infected with hepatitis C. METHODS: We started, before pegylated (PEG)-interferons were available, an open-label study to investigate the efficacy and tolerability of high dose induction therapy with consensus interferon (CIFN) and ribavirin in treatment of naiive patients with chronic hepatitis C. Fifty-eight patients who were former iv drug users, were enrolled receiving 18 ?g of CIFN daily for 8 wk, followed by 9 ?g daily for up to wk 24 or 48 and 800 mg of ribavirin daily. End point of the study was tolerability and eradication of the virus at wk 48 and sustained virological response at wk 72. RESULTS: More than 62% of patients responded to the treatment with CIFN at wk 24 or 48, respectively, showing a negative qualitative PCR [genotype 1 fourteen patients (56%), genotype 2 five (50%), genotype 3 thirteen (87%), genotype 4 four (50%)]. Forty-eight percent of genotype 1 patients showed sustained virological response (SVR) six months after the treatment. CONCLUSION: CIFN on a daily basis is well tolerated and side effects like leuko- and thrombocytopenia are moderate. End of therapy (EOT) rates are slightly lower than the newer standard therapy with pegylated interferons. CIFN on a daily basis might be a favourable therapy regimen for patients with GT1 and high viral load or for non-responders after failure of standard therapy.
Witthoeft, Th; Fuchs, M; Ludwig, D
Intravenous insulin protocols are increasingly common in the intensive care unit to maintain normoglycemia. Little is known about the accuracy of point-of-care glucometers for measuring glucose in this patient population or the impact of sample source (capillary, arterial, or venous whole blood) on the accuracy of glucometer results. We compared capillary, arterial, and venous whole blood glucose values with laboratory
Brad S. Karon; Gunjan Y. Gandhi; Gregory A. Nuttall; Sandra C. Bryant; Hartzell V. Schaff; M. Molly McMahon; Paula J. Santrach
Recently, it has been postulated that the beneficial effect of intravenous immuno- globulins (IVIGs) in antibody-mediated au- toimmune disorders is based on acceler- ated catabolism of autoantibodies. In the current study, in vivo experiments were performed with mice in which autoanti- body production was mimicked by con- tinuous infusion of monoclonal antibod- ies. In this model, a single dose of
Wim K. Bleeker; Jessica L. Teeling; C. Erik Hack
Background The toxicity of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) is less than that of cytotoxic agents. The reports of dramatic response and improvement in performance status with the use of EGFR TKIs may influence a physician’s decision-making for patients with non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and life-threatening respiratory distress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of rescue or maintenance therapy with EGFR TKI for stage IIIb-IV non-squamous NSCLC patients requiring mechanical ventilation. Methods Eighty-three Asian patients with stage IIIb-IV non-squamous NSCLC and who required mechanical ventilation between June 2005 and January 2010 were evaluated. Results Of the 83 patients, 16 (19%) were successfully weaned from the ventilator. The use of EGFR TKI as rescue or maintenance therapy during respiratory failure did not improve the rate of successful weaning (standard care 18% vs. with EGFR TKI, 22%; p?=?0.81) in univariate and multivariate analyses. Conclusions Rescue or maintenance therapy with EGFR TKI for stage IIIb-IV non-squamous NSCLC patients requiring mechanical ventilation was not associated with better outcome. An end-of-life discussion should be an important aspect in the care of this group of patients, since only 19% were successfully weaned from mechanical ventilation.
Hope for progress after 40 years of futility? Novel approaches in the treatment of advanced stage III and IV non-small-cell-lung cancer: Stereotactic body radiation therapy, mediastinal lymphadenectomy, and novel systemic therapy
Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains a leading cause of cancer mortality. The majority of patients present with advanced (stage III-IV) disease. Such patients are treated with a variety of therapies including surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. Despite decades of work, however, overall survival in this group has been resistant to any substantial improvement. This review briefly details the evolution to the current standard of care for advanced NSCLC, advances in systemic therapy, and novel techniques (stereotactic body radiation therapy [SBRT], and transcervical extended mediastinal lymphadenectomy [TEMLA] or video-assisted mediastinal lymphadenectomy [VAMLA]) that have been used in localized NSCLC. The utility of these techniques in advanced stage therapy and potential methods of combining these novel techniques with systemic therapy to improve survival are discussed.
Fung, Simon Fung Fee; Warren, Graham W.; Singh, Anurag K.
Explosions account for 79% of combat-related injuries, leading to multiorgan hemorrhage and uncontrolled bleeding. Uncontrolled bleeding is the leading cause of death in battlefield traumas as well as in civilian life. We need to stop the bleeding quickly to save lives, but, shockingly, there are no treatments to stop internal bleeding. A therapy that halts bleeding in a site-specific manner and is safe, stable at room temperature, and easily administered is critical for the advancement of trauma care. To address this need, we have developed hemostatic nanoparticles that are administered intravenously. When tested in a model of blast trauma with multiorgan hemorrhaging, i.v. administration of the hemostatic nanoparticles led to a significant improvement in survival over the short term (1 h postblast). No complications from this treatment were apparent out to 3 wk. This work demonstrates that these particles have the potential to save lives and fundamentally change trauma care. PMID:24982180
Lashof-Sullivan, Margaret M; Shoffstall, Erin; Atkins, Kristyn T; Keane, Nickolas; Bir, Cynthia; VandeVord, Pamela; Lavik, Erin B
Pegaspargase (PEG) is a standard component of therapy for pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Because PEG preparations are bacterially derived, they are highly immunogenic. PEG has traditionally been delivered intramuscularly (IM), but over the last several years, more PEG has been given intravenously (IV) in order to provide a less painful and more convenient means of delivery. However, there are limited data comparing allergic reactions between IV and IM PEG recipients, especially in a large cohort of patients. We reviewed the charts of pediatric ALL patients diagnosed from 2006 to 2011 who received PEG at our institution and compared the incidence, time to onset of symptoms, reaction grade, and hospitalization rate for patients who had allergic reactions to PEG. Of 318 evaluable patients, 159 received IV and 159 received IM PEG. Thirty-one (19.5%) IV patients had an allergic reaction, compared to 17 (10.7%) IM patients (P = .028). Time to onset of symptoms was ? 30 minutes for 26 of 27 evaluable IV patients (96.3%) versus only two of 11 evaluable IM patients (18.2%; P < .001). Four of 31 IV patients (12.9%) and six of 17 IM patients (35.5%) required hospitalization (P = .134). There is increased incidence of allergy in patients who received IV PEG compared to IM. Grade of reaction was similar between IV and IM, but allergic reactions to IV PEG had a more rapid onset. While the risk of allergy may be increased, IV delivery appears to have an acceptable safety profile for administration in ALL patients. PMID:24498943
Petersen, William C; Clark, Dana; Senn, Stacy L; Cash, W Thomas; Gillespie, Scott E; McCracken, Courtney E; Keller, Frank G; Lew, Glen
Background and Study Aims. The optimal dose of intravenous proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy for the prevention of peptic ulcer (PU) rebleeding remains controversial. This study aimed to understand the real world experiences in prescribing high-dose PPI and non-high-dose PPI for preventing rebleeding after endoscopic treatment of high-risk PU. Patients and Methods. A total of 220 subjects who received high-dose and non-high-dose pantoprazole for confirmed acute PU bleeding that were successfully treated endoscopically were enrolled. They were divided into rebleeding (n = 177) and non-rebleeding groups (n = 43). Randomized matching of the treatment-control group was performed. Patients were randomly selected for non-high-dose and high-dose PPI groups (n = 44 in each group). Results. Univariate analysis showed, significant variables related to rebleeding were female, higher creatinine levels, and higher Rockall scores (?6). Before case-control matching, the high-dose PPI group had higher creatinine level, higher percentage of shock at presentation, and higher Rockall scores. After randomized treatment-control matching, no statistical differences were observed for rebleeding rates between the high-dose and non-high-dose groups after case-control matching. Conclusion. This study suggests that intravenous high-dose pantoprazole may not be superior to non-high-dose regimen in reducing rebleeding in high-risk peptic ulcer bleeding after successful endoscopic therapy.
Lu, Lung-Sheng; Lin, Sheng-Chieh; Kuo, Chung-Mou; Tai, Wei-Chen; Tseng, Po-Lin; Chang, Kuo-Chin; Kuo, Chung-Huang; Chuah, Seng-Kee
In this preliminary study, we evaluated the effects of methylnaltrexone, a peripheral opioid-receptor antagonist, on chronic opioid-induced gut motility and transit changes in four subjects with chronic methadone-induced constipation. Subjects participated in this single blind, placebo controlled study for up to 8 days. We gave placebo the first day; for the remainder of the study, we gave intravenous methylnaltrexone (0.05–0.45
C. S Yuan; J. F Foss; M O'Connor; J Osinski; M. F Roizen; J Moss
Objective It has previously been shown that a combination of inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) and intravenous (IV) steroid attenuates endotoxin-induced organ damage in a 6-hour porcine endotoxemia model. We aimed to further explore these effects in a 30-hour model with attention to clinically important variables. Design Randomized controlled trial. Setting University animal laboratory. Subjects Domestic piglets (n?=?30). Interventions Animals were randomized into 5 groups (n?=?6 each): 1) Controls, 2) LPS-only (endotoxin/lipopolysaccharide (LPS) infusion), 3) LPS + iNO, 4) LPS + IV steroid, 5) LPS + iNO + IV steroid. Measurements and Main Results Exposure to LPS temporarily increased pulmonary artery mean pressure and impeded renal function with elevated serum creatinine and acidosis compared to a control group over the 30-hour study period. Double treatment with both iNO and IV steroid tended to blunt the deterioration in renal function, although the only significant effect was on Base Excess (p?=?0.045). None of the LPS + iNO + IV steroid treated animals died during the study period, whereas one animal died in each of the other LPS-infused groups. Conclusions This study suggests that combined early therapy with iNO and IV steroid is associated with partial protection of kidney function after 30 hours of experimental LPS infusion.
Goranson, Sofie Paues; Gozdzik, Waldemar; Harbut, Piotr; Ryniak, Stanislaw; Zielinski, Stanislaw; Haegerstrand, Caroline Gillis; Kubler, Andrzej; Hedenstierna, Goran; Frostell, Claes; Albert, Johanna
In gonorrhea therapy, cephalosporins are conventionally administered by intramuscular (i.m.) injection, which rather frequently leads to local side effects. To investigate whether the well-tolerated intravenous (i.v.) injection of cephalosporins may be of comparable gonocidal effect, levels of cefodizime, a new broad-spectrum cephalosporin, in serum and tissue fluid (suction blister and cantharides blister fluid) were determined in six healthy men. Single doses of 1 g of cefodizime were injected i.v. and i.m. according to a randomized crossover design. On i.m. injection the drug was completely bioavailable, and the peak concentration in serum was 75 +/- 8 micrograms/ml. The terminal half-life of serum levels was 2.4 h. Cefodizime concentrations in the blister fluids increased for 1.5 to 3 h after the i.v. dose and for at least 3 h on i.m. administration. The concentrations of non-protein-bound cefodizime in blister fluid already exceeded the MIC for 90% of Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains 10 min after i.v. injection and 20 to 30 min after the i.m. dose. At 6 h after each dose, active concentrations were still present in serum. The results suggest that cefodizime administered i.v. and i.m. has equivalent high cure rates in uncomplicated gonorrhea. This hypothesis should be tested further by a controlled clinical trial. If equivalent, i.v. administration excels because it is better tolerated locally.
Korting, H C; Schafer-Korting, M; Maass, L; Klesel, N; Mutschler, E
Background Few studies have evaluated survival, treatment, resource use, and costs among women with stage IV ER + breast cancer (BC) who did not receive HER2 targeted therapy. Methods Using linked Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) and Medicare data from 2006-2009, women aged 66+ years with an incident diagnosis of stage IV ER?+?BC (index date) in 2007 and no HER2 targeted therapy were identified. A comparison cohort without cancer was created from the SEER 5% Medicare sample and matched 1:1 to the study cohort based on age, sex, and race. All patients had continuous enrollment for a 12-month baseline period prior to index and were followed until the end of the study window, disenrollment, or death, whichever came first. Resource utilization and costs (by place of service, reported per patient per month, PPPM) were compared across cohorts. Treatment patterns including receipt of surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, aromatase inhibitors (AI), and non-AI hormonal therapy were evaluated for study cohort patients with at least 2 months of follow-up. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was also conducted. Results 325 women with stage IV ER?+?BC without HER2 targeted therapy were identified and matched to 325 women without cancer. Mean age was 77 years for both cohorts, with average follow-up of 18 months for study patients and 26 months for comparison patients. Compared to the comparison cohort, study patients had significantly higher mortality (60.3% versus 31.1%, P?0.001), shorter survival (survival at 36 months 28% vs. 62%) and higher resource utilization across all settings except for oral prescription drugs. Total PPPM healthcare costs were also significantly higher among study patients ($7,271 vs. $1,778, P?0.001). Approximately 57% of study patients with 2+ months of follow-up received chemotherapy and over 62% received an AI during follow-up. Within 4 months of cancer diagnosis, surgery and radiation were received by 39% and 32% of study patients, respectively. Conclusions We found significant excess clinical and economic burden among women with stage IV ER?+?breast cancer who did not receive HER2 targeted therapy. Future studies with more precise and recent data are warranted to confirm and extend these results.
Oral and intravenous high calorie-amino acid nutritional therapy postoperatively resulted in significant weight gain, improved colonic wound healing and maintenance of normal intravascular albumin levels. Provision of caloric needs without amino acids minimized weight loss postoperatively. However, infusion of hypertonic dextrose solutions resulted in severe generalized hepatic fatty infiltration and marked hypoalbuminemia. Protein and calorie deprivation by administration of 5% dextrose and water resulted in the greatest postoperative weight loss, reduced intravascular albumin levels and decreased colonic anastomotic strength. Comparison of oral and intravenous diet administration demonstrated that hypertonic dextrose infusion was markedly deleterious to hepatic morphology and serum protein metabolism in normal rats. Further clinical investigation appears indicated in previously well-nourished patients undergoing extensive surgery who will not be able to ingest adequate nutrients in the postoperative period. ImagesFig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.
Daly, J. M.; Steiger, E.; Vars, H. M.; Dudrick, S. J.
Long-term efficacy of low-dose all-trans retinoic acid plus minimal chemotherapy induction followed by the addition of intravenous arsenic trioxide post-remission therapy in newly diagnosed acute promyelocytic leukaemia.
We evaluated the efficacy of low-dose all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) plus minimal chemotherapy for induction in newly diagnosed acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL). Furthermore, we compared its long-term outcome with or without the addition of intravenous arsenic trioxide (ATO) in post-remission therapy. From January 2004 to September 2011, a total of 109 patients with a median age of 41?years (range 14-73) were enrolled in the study. Two arms were assigned according to post-remission protocols: ATO group cases were subsequently treated with intravenous ATO, standard chemotherapy, and ATRA. No-ATO group cases were subsequently treated with chemotherapy and ATRA only. Patients were monitored of minimal residual disease (MRD) by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The haematologic complete remission (CR) rate was 96.3%. The early death rate was 0.9%. At a median follow-up of 49?months (range 8-102?months), the Kaplan-Meier estimates of 5-year relapse-free survival were significantly better for patients in the ATO group than in the no-ATO group, 94.4% vs 54.8% (p?=?0.0001), and the 5-year overall survival rate was 95.7% vs 64.1%, in the two groups (p?=?0.003). Our data show that low-dose ATRA plus minimal chemotherapy exhibits efficacy in induction therapy for untreated APL and suggest that the addition of ATO to post-remission therapy significantly improves the long-term outcome. PMID:23963734
Lou, Yinjun; Qian, Wenbin; Meng, Haitao; Mai, Wenyuan; Tong, Hongyan; Tong, Yin; Huang, Jian; Jin, Jie
Outpatient daily intravenous infusions of interleukin-2 (IL-2) have been developed to maintain anticancer activity and decrease toxicity of this agent against kidney cancer. Lymphokine activated killer cell (LAK) numbers are increased with these IL-2 schedules. Famotidine may enhance the LAK activity by increasing IL-2 internalization by the IL-2 receptor on lymphocytes. Fifteen patients with metastatic clear cell kidney cancer received IL-2 18 million IU/M² intravenously over 15-30 minutes preceded by famotidine 20 mg IV daily for 3 days for 6 consecutive weeks as outpatients. Cycles were repeated every 8 weeks. Patient characteristics were seven males/eight females, median age 59 (range: 28-70), median Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status-1; common metastatic sites were lungs (14), lymph nodes (9), liver (4), bone (4), and pancreas (4). Prior systemic therapies were oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor (8), IL-2 (6), and mTor inhibitor (2). Most common toxicities were rigors, arthralgia/myalgia, nausea/emesis, fever, and hypotension. All episodes of hypotension were reversible with intravenous fluid. No patients required hospitalization due to toxicity. One complete response (7%) and four partial responses (26%) were seen (total response rate=33%; 95% confidence interval: 15%-59%). Responses occurred in the lungs, liver, lymph nodes, and bone. Outpatient intravenous IL-2 with famotidine has activity in metastatic clear cell kidney cancer. PMID:24251758
Quan, Walter D Y; Quan, Francine Marie
Objectives To evaluate outcomes following implementation of a checklist with criteria for switching from intravenous (iv) to oral antibiotics on unselected patients on two general medical wards. Methods During a 12 month intervention study, a printed checklist of criteria for switching on the third day of iv treatment was placed in the medical charts. The decision to switch was left to the discretion of the attending physician. Outcome parameters of a 4 month control phase before intervention were compared with the equivalent 4 month period during the intervention phase to control for seasonal confounding (before–after study; April to July of 2006 and 2007, respectively): 250 episodes (215 patients) during the intervention period were compared with the control group of 176 episodes (162 patients). The main outcome measure was the duration of iv therapy. Additionally, safety, adherence to the checklist, reasons against switching patients and antibiotic cost were analysed during the whole year of the intervention (n = 698 episodes). Results In 38% (246/646) of episodes of continued iv antibiotic therapy, patients met all criteria for switching to oral antibiotics on the third day, and 151/246 (61.4%) were switched. The number of days of iv antibiotic treatment were reduced by 19% (95% confidence interval 9%–29%, P = 0.001; 6.0–5.0 days in median) with no increase in complications. The main reasons against switching were persisting fever (41%, n = 187) and absence of clinical improvement (41%, n = 185). Conclusions On general medical wards, a checklist with bedside criteria for switching to oral antibiotics can shorten the duration of iv therapy without any negative effect on treatment outcome. The criteria were successfully applied to all patients on the wards, independently of the indication (empirical or directed treatment), the type of (presumed) infection, the underlying disease or the group of antibiotics being used.
Mertz, Dominik; Koller, Michael; Haller, Patricia; Lampert, Markus L.; Plagge, Herbert; Hug, Balthasar; Koch, Gian; Battegay, Manuel; Fluckiger, Ursula; Bassetti, Stefano
The aim of the present study was to clarify the therapeutic effects of 1alpha, 25[OH]2 vitamin D3 (calcitriol) pulse injection on bone lesions induced in a rat model of chronic cadmium toxicosis. Ovariectomized (OVX) and control-operated (sham-OVX) rats were given repeated intravenous injections of 0.5 mg/kg/day CdCl2 for 70 weeks. The rats were then treated intravenously with 0.02 microg/kg/day calcitriol 3 days per week for 8 weeks. CdCl2 treatment induced increases in osteoid volumes of the femur cortex and trabecula. This change was accompanied by an increase in the volume of iron deposition at the mineralization front of the trabeculae and a reduction in mineral density. Abnormalities of bone metabolic parameters, which were increases in the blood calcium, inorganic phosphorous, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and osteocalcin levels, and in the urine deoxypyridinoline (D-PYR) level, were also induced. Calcitriol treatment increased the blood calcium and inorganic phosphorous levels, and reduced the blood PTH level. Decreases in blood tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase and urine d-PYR levels were also induced indicating that bone resorption was suppressed. The findings indicated that the increased osteoid volume of the cortex and Fe-deposition volume of the trabecula were improved. These effects or improvements were observed in the sham-OVX rats but not in the OVX rats. PMID:11422540
Kurata, Y; Katsuta, O; Hiratsuka, H; Tsuchitani, M; Umemura, T
Parenteral nutrition (PN) has been associated with a higher rate of adverse outcomes compared with enteral feeding in patients with acute pancreatitis (AP). However, PN may be necessary when feeding via the enteral route is poorly tolerated or impossible, and PN is recommended as a second-line nutrition therapy in AP. Intravenous (IV) lipids are commonly used as a part of PN in patients with AP. While the adverse outcomes related to the use of PN in AP have commonly been attributed to infectious complications, data suggest that the unsaturated fatty acids in the triglycerides used in IV lipids may contribute to the development of organ failure. We discuss the clinical and experimental data on this issue and the alternative lipid emulsions that are being studied. PMID:24687866
Patel, Krutika S; Noel, Pawan; Singh, Vijay P
For more than a century, acetaminophen has been recognized worldwide as a safe and effective agent for relieving pain and reducing fever in a wide range of patients. However, until recently, acetaminophen was available in the United States only in oral and rectal suppository formulations. In November 2010, the United States Food and Drug Administration granted approval for the use of a new intravenous (IV) formulation of acetaminophen for: 1) the management of mild to moderate pain; 2) the management of moderate to severe pain with adjunctive opioid analgesics; and 3) the reduction of fever in adults and children (age ? 2 years). This case-illustrated review of IV acetaminophen begins with a discussion of the rationale for the drug's development and proceeds to analyze the clinical pharmacology, efficacy, safety, and nursing implications of its use, both as monotherapy and in combination with other agents as part of a multimodal pain therapy strategy. PMID:22652283
Pasero, Chris; Stannard, Daphne
Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is a mainstay of therapy in many disorders. An uncommon adverse side effect is IVIG-related hemolysis. Risk factors for IVIG-related hemolysis have been identified, including high dose IVIG given to non-O blood group recipients with an underlying inflammatory state. IVIG-related hemolysis has been linked to anti-A and anti-B hemagglutinins in the IVIG preparations and may involve both IgG and complement mediated hemolysis. A two-hit mechanism with threshold effect is proposed for IVIG-related hemolysis. Strategies exist to minimize or avoid IVIG-related hemolysis. PMID:22169381
Padmore, Ruth F
Insulin has been in use for nearly a century, but its real clinical worth has been utilized only in the last one and half decade after the landmark study on tight glycaemic control by van Den Berghe. Intravenous (i.v.) insulin is the mainstay of treatment for hyperglycaemia in many acute settings as well as in managing diabetic complications. However, i.v. insulin usage may be associated with numerous potential errors which may have unintended consequences. A thorough knowledge of various aspects associated with insulin injection techniques such as preparations of i.v. insulin, calculation of correct dosage, precautions while using insulin with various i.v. fluids, formulating strategies to minimize insulin adsorption to tubing surface, choosing appropriate insulin injection accessories and devices, can help in optimal control of hyperglycaemia with minimal errors. Improvisation of insulin injection techniques is often necessary in resource challenged settings to minimize the morbidity and mortality associated with uncontrolled hyperglycaemia. PMID:23758001
Kalra, Sanjay; Bajwa, Sukhminder Jit Singh
Background Incorporation of the solubilizing excipient, sulfobutylether-?-cyclodextrin (SBECD), in the intravenous (IV) formulation of voriconazole has resulted in the recommendation that this formulation be used with caution in patients with creatinine clearances (Clcr)?50 mL/min. This study evaluated the safety of IV voriconazole compared with two other IV antifungals not containing SBECD in patients with compromised renal function. Methods A total of 128 patients aged 11–93 years who had a baseline Clcr?50 mL/min between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2010 were identified from a database of a university-affiliated inpatient healthcare system; of these, 55 patients received caspofungin, 54 patients received fluconazole, and 19 patients received voriconazole. Changes in serum creatinine (Scr) and Clcr levels while on therapy were compared with baseline values and between groups. Results The groups had similar characteristics apart from the larger proportion of females that received fluconazole. Baseline Scr was higher in those receiving caspofungin, but maximal increases of Scr and decreases in Clcr were greatest for the fluconazole group. Acute kidney injury (AKI), assessed by RIFLE criteria, was more frequent in the fluconazole vs. the caspofungin group (p?0.01); incidence of AKI in the voriconazole group was not significantly different than found in the other two groups. The infecting organism was a predictor of AKI and formulation with SBECD was not. Conclusions Treatment of fungal infections in patients with compromised renal function with an SBECD-containing antifungal agent was not associated with AKI in clinical practice. Since the infecting organism was associated with AKI, decision on which antifungal to use should be determined by susceptibilities to the organism and not the incorporation of SBECD in the IV formulation.
In an effort to determine if differences exist in the treatment and outcome of patients with suboptimally debulked stage IIIc and IV epithelial ovarian cancer between two tertiary-care cancer centers in Canada and the United States, we conducted a comparative study. The records of all patients who underwent treatment for epithelial ovarian cancer at two tertiary-care cancer centers in Canada
S. LOCOCO; A. COVENS; M. CARNEY; E. FRANSSEN; R. DOGDE; B. ROSEN; R. OSBORNE; I. KERR; R. BUCKMAN; J. SOPER; G. RODRIGUEZ; A. DEPETRILLO; D. CLARKE-PEARSON; A. BERCHUCK
Intravenous t-PA is effective if given to appropriate patients within 3 hours of stroke onset, and its effectiveness increases even within the first 3 hours when given as soon as possible. t-PA is reasonably safe if used in a carefully defined manner that ensures close attention to blood pressure, careful patient monitoring, no use of heparin and aspirin during first 24 hours, and appropriate patient selection. It is still unclear whether a lower dose of t-PA given with 3 hours could be as effective as but safer than the currently approved intravenous dose of 0.9 mg/kg over 1 hour. The effectiveness and safety of intravenous t-PA when given beyond 3 hours after stroke onset has yet to be conclusively demonstrated. One attractive development is the potential use of imaging, such as diffusion/perfusion MRI to determine if salvageable brain remains and if t-PA should be given in patients who are beyond the 3-hour time window. The drawback to MRI is the additional time required before the start of recanalization therapy. PMID:14964479
Broderick, Joseph P
Wound care issues and the ability to establish intravenous (IV) access among injured or ill crew members are a source of concern for NASA flight surgeons. Indeed, the microgravity environment and the remote nature of the International Space Station (ISS) pose unique challenges in diagnosing and treating an injured astronaut. Therefore, it is necessary to identify and adapt the best evidence based terrestrial practices regarding wound care, hemostasis, and IV access for use on the ISS. Methods: A panel of consultants was convened to evaluate the adequacy of the current ISS in-flight medical system for diagnosis and treatment of wounds and establishing IV access by a nonclinician crew medical officer. Participants were acknowledged experts in terrestrial wound care and/or operational medicine. Prior to the meeting, each panelist was encouraged to participate in a pre-summit online forum. Results: Eight external experts participated in a face-to-face meeting held at NASA-Johnson Space Center. Recommendations were made to augment the space station pharmacopoeia, as well as current wound care diagnostic, therapeutic, and deorbit criteria protocols. Additionally, suggestions were offered regarding IV access techniques and devices for use in the microgravity environment. Discussion: The results of the expert panel provide an evidence-based approach to the diagnosis and care of wounds in an injured astronaut on aboard the ISS. The results of the panel underscored the need for further research in wound therapy and IV access devices.
Scheuring, R.; Paul, B.; Gillis, D.; Bacal, K.; McCulley, P.; Polk, J.; Johnson-Throop, K.
Naegleria fowleri produced fatal meningoencephalitis in mice following intravenous (i.v.) inoculation. Amebae were present in the peripheral circulation for 120 minutes after i.v. inoculation with a dose of 10(7) trophozoites per mouse. Amebae were cultured from and observed in brain (days 1-21), lung (days 1-12), and liver and kidney (days 1-5). Infected mice exhibited weight loss, leukocytosis, reduced lymphocyte/neutrophil ratio, neurologic symptoms, and mortality. Histologically, the disease was characterized by an acute, hemorrhagic, necrotizing meningoencephalitis. Although amebae were detected in tissues other than brain, pathologic involvement of these tissues was minimal. PMID:7129235
May, R G; John, D T
Background Switch therapy is a management approach combining early discontinuation of intravenous (IV) antibiotics, switch to oral antibiotics, and early hospital discharge. This analysis compares switch therapy using tigecycline versus levofloxacin in hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Methods A prospective, randomized, double-blind, Phase 3 clinical trial; patients were randomized to IV tigecycline (100 mg, then 50 mg q12h) or IV levofloxacin (500 mg q24h). Objective criteria were used to define time to switch therapy; patients were switched to oral levofloxacin after ?6 IV doses if criteria met. Switch therapy outcomes were assessed within the clinically evaluable (CE) population. Results In the CE population, 138 patients were treated with IV tigecycline and 156 were treated with IV levofloxacin. The proportion of the population that met switch therapy criteria was 67.4% (93/138) for tigecycline and 66.7% (104/156) for levofloxacin. The proportion that actually switched to oral therapy was 89.9% (124/138) for tigecycline and 87.8% (137/156) for levofloxacin. Median time to actual switch therapy was 5.0 days each for tigecycline and levofloxacin. Clinical cure rates for patients who switched were 96.8% for tigecycline and 95.6% for levofloxacin. Corresponding cure rates for those that met switch criteria were 95.7% for tigecycline and 92.3% for levofloxacin. Conclusions Switch therapy outcomes in hospitalized patients with CAP receiving initial IV therapy with tigecycline are comparable to those of patients receiving initial IV therapy with levofloxacin. These data support the use of IV tigecycline in hospitalized patients with CAP when the switch therapy approach is considered. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT00081575
Tolerability of intensified intravenous interferon alfa-2b versus the ECOG 1684 schedule as adjuvant therapy for stage III melanoma: a randomized phase III Italian Melanoma Inter-group trial (IMI - Mel.A.) [ISRCTN75125874
Background High-dose interferon alfa-2b (IFNalfa-2b), according to the ECOG 1684 schedule, is the only approved adjuvant treatment for stage III melanoma patients by the FDA and EMEA. However, the risk/benefit profile has been questioned limiting its world-wide use. In the late nineties, the Italian Melanoma Inter-group started a spontaneous randomized clinical trial (RCT) to verify if a more intense, but shorter than the ECOG 1684 regimen, could improve survival without increasing the toxicity profile. The safety analysis in the first 169 patients who completed the treatment is here described. Methods Stage III melanoma patients were randomized to receive IFNalfa-2b 20 MU/m2/d intravenously (IV) 5 days/week × 4 weeks, repeated for three times on weeks 9 to 12, 17 to 20, 25 to 28 (Dose-Dense/Dose-Intense, DD/DI, arm), or IFNalfa-2b 20 MU/m2/d IV 5 days/week × 4 weeks followed by 10 MU/m2 subcutaneously (SC) three times per week × 48 weeks (High Dose Interferon, HDI, arm). Toxicity was recorded and graded, according to the WHO criteria, as the worst grade that occurred during each cycle. Results The most common toxicities in both arms were flu-like and gastrointestinal symptoms, leukopenia, liver and neuro-psichiatric morbidities; with regard to severe toxicity, only leukopenia was statistically more frequent in DD/DI arm than in HDI arm (24% vs 9%) (p = 0.0074), yet, this did not cause an increase in the infection risk. Discontinuation of treatment, due to toxicity, was observed in 13 and 17% of the patients in the DD/DI and HDI arm, respectively. The median actual dose intensity delivered in the DD/DI arm (36.4 MU/m2/week) was statistically higher than that delivered in the HDI arm (30.7 MU/m2/week) (p = 0.003). Conclusion Four cycles of intravenous high-dose IFNalfa-2b can be safely delivered with an increase in the median dose intensity. Efficacy results from this trial are eagerly awaited.
Chiarion-Sileni, Vanna; Del Bianco, Paola; Romanini, Antonella; Guida, Michele; Paccagnella, Adriano; Dalla Palma, Maurizio; Naglieri, Emanuele; Ridolfi, Ruggero; Silvestri, Barbara; Michiara, Maria; De Salvo, Gian Luca
Purpose: In 2006 the Institute of Medicine reported that at least 400,000 preventable adverse drug events (ADEs) occur annually among patients being hospitalized, with costs of $3.5 billion (or $8,750 per preventable ADE). Recommended medication error prevention technologies include computerized prescriber order entry, bar-code medication administration, and computerized intravenous (IV) safety systems with dose-error reduc- tion software. When St. Joseph's\\/Candler
Sherry H. Danello; Ray R. Maddox; Gregory J. Schaack
Value of intravenous 6-mercaptopurine during continuation treatment in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: final results of a randomized phase III trial (58881) of the EORTC CLG
Between November 1990 and November 1996, EORTC Children Leukemia Group conducted a randomized trial in de novo acute lymphoblastic leukemia and lymphoblastic non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients using a Berlin–Frankfurt–Munster protocol to evaluate the monthly addition of intravenous 6-mercaptopurine (i.v. 6-MP) (1 g\\/m2) to conventional continuation therapy comprising per oral MTX weekly and 6-MP daily. Only during the first 18 months of
J van der Werff ten Bosch; S Suciu; A Thyss; Y Bertrand; L Norton; F Mazingue; A Uyttebroeck; P Lutz; A Robert; P Boutard; A Ferster; E Plouvier; P Maes; M Munzer; D Plantaz; M-F Dresse; P Philippet; N Sirvent; C Waterkeyn; E Vilmer; N Philippe; J Otten
A randomized controlled trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of intermittent 3-, 4-, and 5-day cycles of intravenous recombinant human Interleukin2 combined with antiretroviral therapy (ART) versus ART alone in HIV-seropositive patients with 100–300 CD4 + t cells
The effect of length of therapy on the safety and efficacy profile of continuous intravenous (CIV) interleukin-2 (IL-2) in combination with antiretroviral therapy (ART) was evaluated in 81 HIV-seropositive patients with CD4+ T-cell counts of 100–300\\/mm3. Patients were randomized to CIV IL-2 (12 mIU\\/day) for 3, 4, or 5 days plus ART every 8 weeks for six cycles, or to
Alberdina W de Boer; Norman Markowitz; Louis D Saravolatz; Susan L Koletar; Haig Donabedian; Carl Yoshizawa; Anne-Marie Duliege; Gwendolyn Fyfe; Ronald T Mitsuyasu
Background and Purpose—The objective of this study was to determine the clinical features, angiographic findings, and response to treatment with thrombolytic therapy in patients with ischemic stroke caused by acute occlusion of the distal internal carotid artery. Methods—This is a retrospective case series from a prospectively collected stroke database for patients with acute internal carotid occlusion presenting within 6 hours
Osama O. Zaidat; Jose I. Suarez; Concepcion Santillan; Jeffrey L. Sunshine; Robert W. Tarr; Vanessa H. Paras; Warren R. Selman; Dennis M. D. Landis
Forty three children with newly diagnosed idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), platelet count (pl.c.) below 20 x 10(9)/l, and either clinically significant bleeding or failure to show a spontaneous platelet rise within three days of admission were randomly allocated to treatment with intravenous infusions of either immunoglobulin (IVIG) 1 g/kg or methylprednisolone (MPPT) 30 mg/kg on two consecutive days. Prompt induction of partial remission with pl.c. > 50 x 10(9)/l after 72 hours was seen in 21/23 given IVIG versus 10/20 given MPPT (exact p = 0.003); mean pl.c.s after 72 hours were 188 versus 77 x 10(9)/l (2p < 0.001). Poor responders were then given the alternative infusions in addition. After six days, complete remission with pl.c. > 150 x 10(9)/l was achieved in 16/23 versus 10/20 (p = 0.16). During six months follow-up, there were no significant differences regarding relapse rates or chronic course. Eleven children with relapse were crossed over to the alternative treatment arm: the estimated treatment effect in pl.c. after 72 hours was 134 x 10(9)/l in favour of IVIG. These results indicate that IVIG infusions may be preferable to high-dose corticosteroids as initial treatment for children with ITP. PMID:9522658
Rosthøj, S; Nielsen, S M; Pedersen, F K
The present study was conducted to test the hypothesis; OCT may be active from blood-to-vitreous for the uptake of its substrates. Ocular uptake of Tetraethylammonium (TEA) across blood ocular barriers and the tissue distribution was evaluated in vivo in New Zealand albino rabbits after intravenous administration. Quinidine (blocker) pretreatment resulted in a significant (p < 0.05) reduction in the Area Under the Curve (AUC) of TEA in vitreous (4.2 fold) and aqueous humor (1.8 fold) as compared to the control group which supports the role of OCT in uptake transport of its substrate across Blood ocular barrier. The blockade of OCT also affected the elimination of its substrate resulting in increased plasma levels. In most of the tissues, OCT are functionally present from apical to basolateral. The gene expression studies also showed the presence of OCT1, OCTN1 and OCTN2 in various ocular tissues studied. The present findings suggest that OCT are functionally active in blood ocular barriers and involved in the transport of its substrate from blood-to-vitreous humor. PMID:23892056
Nirmal, Jayabalan; Sirohiwal, Anju; Singh, Sundararajan Baskar; Biswas, Nihar Ranjan; Thavaraj, Vasantha; Azad, Raj Vardhan; Velpandian, Thirumurthy
Background The risk for amenorrhea following treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients with low-dose intravenous cyclophosphamide (IVCY) has not been fully explored. Our objective was to ascertain the incidence of amenorrhea following treatment with low-dose IVCY and the association between amenorrhea and the clinical parameters of SLE. Methods A case-control retrospective study of premenopausal women ? 45 years old who had been treated for SLE with low-dose IVCY (500 mg/body/pulse) plus high-dose glucocorticoids (0.8-1.0 mg/kg/day of prednisolone; IVCY group) or glucocorticoids alone (0.8-1.0 mg/kg/day of prednisolone; steroid group) in our hospital from 2000 through 2009 was conducted using a questionnaire survey and medical record review. Results Twenty-nine subjects in the IVCY group and 33 subjects in the steroid group returned the questionnaire. A multivariate analysis revealed that age at initiation of treatment ? 40 years old was significantly associated with amenorrhea [p = 0.009; odds ratio (OR) 10.2; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.8-58.7]. IVCY treatment may display a trend for association with amenorrhea (p = 0.07; OR 2.9; 95% CI 0.9-9.4). Sustained amenorrhea developed in 4 subjects in the IVCY group and 1 subject in the steroid group; all of these patients were ? 40 years old. Menses resumed in all subjects < 40 years old, irrespective of treatment. Conclusions Although low-dose IVCY may increase the risk for amenorrhea, our data suggest that patients < 40 years old have a minimum risk for sustained amenorrhea with low-dose IVCY treatment. A higher risk for sustained amenorrhea following treatment with IVCY is a consideration for patients ? 40 years old.
Fetal and neonatal immune thrombocytopenia (FNIT) is a severe bleeding disorder caused by maternal antibody–mediated destruction of fetal/neonatal platelets. It is the most common cause of severe thrombocytopenia in neonates, but the frequency of FNIT-related miscarriage is unknown, and the mechanism(s) underlying fetal mortality have not been explored. Furthermore, although platelet ?IIb?3 integrin and GPIb? are the major antibody targets in immune thrombocytopenia, the reported incidence of anti-GPIb?–mediated FNIT is rare. Here, we developed mouse models of FNIT mediated by antibodies specific for GPIb? and ?3 integrin and compared their pathogenesis. We found, unexpectedly, that miscarriage occurred in the majority of pregnancies in our model of anti-GPIb?–mediated FNIT, which was far more frequent than in anti-?3–mediated FNIT. Dams with anti-GPIb? antibodies exhibited extensive fibrin deposition and apoptosis/necrosis in their placentas, which severely impaired placental function. Furthermore, anti-GPIb? (but not anti-?3) antiserum activated platelets and enhanced fibrin formation in vitro and thrombus formation in vivo. Importantly, treatment with either intravenous IgG or a monoclonal antibody specific for the neonatal Fc receptor efficiently prevented anti-GPIb?–mediated FNIT. Thus, the maternal immune response to fetal GPIb? causes what we believe to be a previously unidentified, nonclassical FNIT (i.e., spontaneous miscarriage but not neonatal bleeding) in mice. These results suggest that a similar pathology may have masked the severity and frequency of human anti-GPIb?–mediated FNIT, but also point to possible therapeutic interventions.
Li, Conglei; Piran, Siavash; Chen, Pingguo; Lang, Sean; Zarpellon, Alessandro; Jin, Joseph W.; Zhu, Guangheng; Reheman, Adili; van der Wal, Dianne E.; Simpson, Elisa K.; Ni, Ran; Gross, Peter L.; Ware, Jerry; Ruggeri, Zaverio M.; Freedman, John; Ni, Heyu
Vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) therapy is a new entrant in wound care after growth factors and alginate or hydrocolloid dressing, in the treatment of pressure ulcers. We have been using this technique for diabetic foot ulcers. A young nondiabetic man presented with a large sacral bed sore after high doses of ionotropes in an intensive care unit for treating severe hypotension. His wound was debrided, and instead of flap surgery in such infected wound, he was treated with VAC therapy. The complete wound healing was achieved in 6 weeks and at half the cost of flap surgery. Moreover, the chances of flap failure and its related complications were eliminated. PMID:24891788
Batra, R K; Aseeja, Veena
In existential holistic group therapy, the whole person heals in accordance with the holistic process theory and the life mission theory. Existential group psychotherapy addresses the emotional aspect of the human mind related to death, freedom, isolation, and meaninglessness, while existential holistic group therapy addresses the state of the person"s wholeness. This includes the body, the person's philosophy of life, and often also love, purpose of life, and the spiritual dimension, to the same extent as it addresses the emotional psyche and sexuality, and it is thus much broader than traditional psychotherapy. Where existential psychotherapy is rather depressing concerning the fundamental human condition, existential holistic therapy conceives life to be basically good. The fundamentals in existential holistic therapy are that everybody has the potential for healing themselves to become loving, joyful, sexually attractive, strong, and gifted, which is a message that most patients welcome. While the patient is suffering and fighting to get through life, the most important job for the holistic therapist is to keep a positive perspective of life. In accordance with these fundamentals, many participants in holistic group therapy will have positive emotional experiences, often of an unknown intensity, and these experiences appear to transform their lives within only a few days or weeks of therapy. An important idea of the course is Bohm's concept of "holo-movement" in the group, resulting from intense coherence between the group members. When the group comes together, the individual will be linked to the totality and the great movement forward towards love, consciousness, and happiness will happen collectively--if it happens at all. This gives the individual the feeling that everything that happens is right, important, and valuable for all the participants at the same time. Native Americans and other premodern people refer to this experience as "the spiritual design". This design is actually an underlying regulation that appears when people, through their feelings and engagement for each other, tie the group together and engage their complex emotional intelligence. Practically, this means that all participants are sunk in the same information matrix, so that everybody learns from each other. Everything that happens in the perception of each trainee has immediate and developing relevance for him. Spontaneous healing happens far more effectively in a group setting, where all the participants stand together and support each other, than it does in the clinic, where the therapist is alone with the patient. A 5-day course in personal development can be compatible to a half year of holistic individual therapy. PMID:14755121
Ventegodt, Søren; Andersen, Niels Jørgen; Merrick, Joav
We isolated the rat synaptotagmin IV (Syt IV) cDNA in a screen for sequences that are specifically induced in neuronal cells.\\u000a The Syts are a large family of genes thought to mediate synaptic function. Syt IV is brain-specific, induced in hippocampus\\u000a by depolarization, and predominantly vesicular. To assess the function role of Syt IV in vivo, we generated Syt IV
Gregory D. Ferguson; Linda Vician; Harvey R. Herschman
We report a case of a teenage boy with cyclical vomiting syndrome (CVS) who was referred to the anesthesia-run postoperative pain service for symptom management. His symptoms were uncontrolled by oral pizotifen prophylaxis and acute therapy with intravenous (IV) hydration and ondansetron. A continuous low dose IV midazolam infusion was added to his treatment regimen (as is instituted for recalcitrant postoperative nausea and vomiting) with benefit, but not total symptom resolution. Recent literature review suggested links between migraine, CVS and adrenergic autonomic dysfunction. Consequently, IV clonidine was administered, in addition, with recovery. This combination was reinstituted successfully on subsequent admissions and emergency department presentations with shortened episode durations from 4-5 days to 16-48 h. It is uncertain if clonidine's sympatholytic effects were significantly beneficial or if associated sedation or natural resolution were contributors. Many agents have been used in CVS therapy but no trials have been done. Neither midazolam nor clonidine has been reported previously as used in the treatment of CVS. The apparent success of this combination raises possibilities both for future trials and research into the pathogenesis of CVS. PMID:15649168
Palmer, Greta M; Cameron, Donald J S
Gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE) is an angiodysplastic disorder that causes gastric bleeding. GAVE can develop as a complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT-GAVE), and it has been suggested that it may be associated with oral administration of busulfan. We report two cases of HSCT-GAVE after a conditioning regimen containing intra-venous busulfan (ivBu), not oral busulfan. The first case, a 42-year-old woman with blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm, underwent second allogeneic HSCT with conditioning regimen consisting of cyclophosphamide (120 mg/kg) and ivBu (12.8 mg/kg). HSCT-GAVE developed on day 84 post-transplant, and argon plasma coagulation (APC) was performed successfully. The second case, a 60-year-old woman with acute myelogenous leukemia, underwent allogeneic HSCT with the conditioning regimen consisting of ivBu (12.8 mg/kg) and fludarabine (150 mg/kg). She developed melena and was diagnosed with GAVE by endoscopy on day 145 post-transplant. Although complete hemostasis was not achieved despite four administrations of APCs, the melena spontaneously terminated on day 235 post-transplant. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing HSCT-GAVE after ivBU-based HSCT. Although there is no established therapy for HSCT-GAVE, APC may be an option for HSCT-GAVE. PMID:23632949
Fukuda, Kuniyoshi; Kurita, Naoki; Sakamoto, Tatsuhiro; Nishikii, Hidekazu; Okoshi, Yasushi; Sugano, Masato; Chiba, Shigeru
Mucositis; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer
This fourth review in the series covers eight recent U.S. surveys on complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use by patients with rheumatologic and other autoimmune conditions, and summarizes seven studies of other disease categories. Regarding the previous reviews, the acronym CAM is used unless it is possible to refine the concepts. This reflects the problem that most survey questionnaires do not differentiate between adjunct or complementary therapies and alternative approaches to treatment. PMID:11822620
Wootton, J C; Sparber, A
Stage III Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma
The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of intravenous iron sucrose with oral iron therapy in pregnant patients with anemia. The primary outcome of the study was increase in haemoglobin on day 7, 14 & 28 and rise of serum ferritin over 28 days. The study population consisted of 100 patients with singleton pregnancy between 24 and 34 weeks, hemoglobin levels between 7.0-9.0 gm/dL and serum ferritin levels less than 15 ng/mL. The participants in the oral group were given daily 180 mg elemental iron in three divided oral doses for 4 weeks. Total calculated dose of iron sucrose with a target hemoglobin of 11 gm %, was given in 200 mg dose on alternate days. Mean haemoglobin rise was 0.58 gm/dL in the IV group as compared to 0.23 gm/dL in the oral group on day 14 and 1.9 gm/dL in the IV group & 1.3 gm/dL in the oral group on day 28, (p <0.05). In the IV group, 76% of the subjects achieved haemoglobin levels of ?11 gm% at the time of delivery, as compared to only 54% of the subjects in the oral group who achieved these levels. Serum ferritin value was significantly higher in the IV group, 37.45 ± 5.73 ng/mL as compared to 13.96 ± 1.88 ng/mL in the oral group at 4th week (p <0.001). There was no major side effect in the IV group. 36% subjects in the oral group developed gastrointestinal side effects & 10% of the subjects were non compliant. The rate of hemoglobin rise is faster with intravenous iron sucrose therapy as compared to oral iron therapy which can be beneficial in pregnant women presenting with anemia at a later period of gestation. Intravenous iron sucrose is very well tolerated during pregnancy. PMID:24839366
Gupta, Avantika; Manaktala, Usha; Rathore, Asmita Muthal
Nineteen patients with biopsy-proven high-grade astrocytomas received as initial treatment whole-brain radiation and combination chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), 1000 mg/m/sup 2//24 h as a continuous infusion for 96 h, and bolus cisdiamminedichloroplatinum II (CDDP), 100 mg/m/sup 2/. Chemotherapy cycles were repeated on day 21, then every 28 days until progression or completion of six cycles. All 19 patients completed one cycle of chemotherapy. Toxicity was moderate, with cytopenias, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, stomatitis, and reversible azotemia. Survival ranged from 2 to 160+ weeks, with a median of 35 weeks. The survival of the pilot group was compared with historical controls treated with radiation plus 1,3,-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU). Controls were similar in histology, age, performance score, and survival, without statistically significant differences. The combination of radiation therapy, continuous-infusion 5-FU, and bolus CDDP as described here for high-grade astrocytomas is moderately toxic and appears to offer no survival advantage compared with radiation therapy plus BCNU.
Decker, D.A.; Kinzie, J.; Evans, R.; Abu-Zahra, H.; Al-Sarraf, M.
Background: Power lifting places the shoulder complex at risk for injury. Microfracture is a relatively new procedure for chondral defects of the glenohumeral joint and is not well described in the literature. Objectives: The purpose of this case report is to describe the post-operative rehabilitation used with a power lifter who underwent a microfracture procedure to address glenoid and humeral chondral defects, debridement of type I superior labral anterior-posterior lesion, and a subacromial decompression. Case Description: The patient was a 46 year-old male who was evaluated nine weeks status-post arthroscopic microfracture procedure for glenoid and humeral chondral defects, debridement of superior labral anterior-posterior (SLAP) lesion, and subacromial decompression. Rehabilitation consisted of postural education, manual therapy, rotator cuff and scapular strengthening, dynamic stabilization, weightbearing exercises, and weight training over nine weeks (24 sessions). Lifting modifications were addressed. Outcomes: Results of the QuickDASH indicate that activities of daily living (ADLs), work, and sports modules all improved significantly, and the patient was able to return to recreational power lifting with limited discomfort or restrictions. Discussion: A structured post-operative physical therapy treatment program allowed this patient to return to recreational power lifting while restoring independent function for work-related activities and ADLs.
Results of a clinical study using intravenous (IV) ribavirin for treating Department of Defense personnel with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) acquired in Korea from 1987 to 2005 were reviewed to determine the clinical course of HFRS treated ...
J. M. Rusnak K. N. Chung P. H. Gibbs T. T. Kim W. R. Byrne
Reticuloendothelial blockade in hemodialysis patients prevents optimal intravenous (IV) iron utilization. Vitamin C has emerged as a potential therapy to improve anemia treatment by enhancing iron mobilization. However, Vitamin C can act as a pro-oxidant in the presence of iron. This was a prospective, open-label, crossover study. Thirteen patients with end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis and four healthy controls were assigned to receive 100 mg of IV iron sucrose (IS) or 100 mg of IV IS co-administered with 300 mg of IV Vitamin C (IS + C) in random sequence. Serum samples for IL-1, IL-6, TNF-? and IL-10 and non-transferrin bound iron were obtained at baseline, 45 min and 105 min post study medication administration. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated at the same time points and stained with fluorescent probes to identify intracellular reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) by flow cytometry. Lipid peroxidation was assessed by plasma F2-isoprosatane concentration. Both IS and IS + C were associated with increased plasma F2-isoprostanes concentrations post-infusion. Maximal plasma F2-isoprostane concentrations after IS + C were significantly elevated from baseline (234 ± 0.04 vs. 0.198 ± 0.028 ng/mL, p = 0.02). After IS + C, IL-1, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-alpha were significantly elevated compared to baseline. After IS alone only IL-6 was noted to be elevated. Intracellular production of H(2)O(2) and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) was observed after IS while IS + C was associated with increased O (2) (·-) production. Both IS and IS + C induced serum cytokine activation accompanied by lipid peroxidation, however, IS + C induced higher plasma concentrations of F2-isoprostanes, IL-1, IL-10, and TNF-? post-infusion. Long-term safety studies of IV iron co-administered with Vitamin C are warranted. PMID:22706571
Conner, Todd A; McQuade, Charles; Olp, Jonathan; Pai, Amy Barton
Aim The hypothesis that postoperative pain would be reduced by using 1 ?g/kg/min of ketamine, both intra- and post-operatively, for lumbar microdiscectomy surgery was assessed by measuring morphine consumption. Patient side effects were reported. Methods Forty-five patients undergoing microdiscectomy surgery were randomized under double-blind conditions into three groups: Group1 (G1) received normal saline, Group 2 (G2) ketamine (1 ?g/kg/min) intra-operatively and Group 3 (G3) ketamine (1 ?g/kg/min) both intra- and post-operatively. Morphine consumption, pain scores, nausea and vomiting, CNS disorders were recorded for 24 h post surgery. This study was conducted by applying the concept of a clinical pharmacist intervention. Results The time for the first analgesia demand dose was significantly shorter (P < 0.05) in G117 ± 1.7 min than for G2 and G3. In G3 morphine consumption 6, 12, and 24 h after surgery was 3 ± 2.26, 9.2 ± 2.11 and 26.9 ± 2.71 mg. Total morphine consumption was significantly lower for G3 than for G1 or G2 (P < 0.05). The visual analog scale score (VAS) values were significantly lower in G3 (P < 0.05) than for the other groups during the first 24 h. The rate of nausea and vomiting was significantly higher in G1 vs G3 (P < 0.05). No difference in drug induced CNS disturbances was observed among the groups. Conclusions Using 1 ?g/kg/min of ketamine hydrochloride intra- and post-operatively for microdiscectomy surgery could be an adjunct therapy to reduce postoperative morphine consumption minimizing its side effects. Collaborative clinical pharmacy practice on the basis of pharmacology had an effective role in improving the general outcome of microdiscectomy surgery.
Hadi, Bushra A.; Daas, Rafat; Zelko, Romana
The vascular response observation by the monitoring of the photosensitizer, oxygen, and blood flow during the high intensity pulsed excitation photodynamic therapy 1h after water-soluble photosensitizer intravenous injection
We investigated the correlation between the therapeutic effect by early irradiation Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) and vascular response. The early irradiation PDT has been proposed by our group. This PDT protocol is that pulse laser irradiates to tumors 1 h after intravenous injection of water-soluble photosensitizer. The intact layer appeared over the well treated layer, when the early irradiation PDT was performed at rat prostate subcutaneous tumors with high intensity pulse laser (over 1 MW/cm2 in peak intensity) and Talaporfin sodium. In order to clarify the phenomenon mechanism, we monitored blood volume, surface temperature, photosensitizer amount, and oxygen saturation during the PDT. The rat prostate subcutaneous tumor was irradiated with excimer dye laser light at 1 h after the intravenous injection. The photosensitizer dose wa 2.0 mg/kg, and the pulse energy density was 2.5 mJ/cm2 (low intensity) or 10 mJ/cm2 (high intensity). Under the low intensity pulsed PDT, the fluorescence amount was decreasing gently during the irradiation, and the blood volume and oxygen saturation started decreasing just after the irradiation. Under the hgh intensity pulsed PDT, the fluorescence amount was decreaased rapidly for 20 s after the irradiation started. The blood volume and oxygen saturation were temporally decreased during the irradiation, and recovered at 48 hrs after the irradiation. According to these results, under the low intensity pulsed PDT, the blood vessel located near the surface started closing just after the irradiation. On the other hand, under the high intensity pulsed PDT the blood vessel was closing for 20 s after the irradiation started, moreover, the blood flow recovered at 48 hrs after the irradiation. We concluded that the vascular response depended on the pulse energy density, and then the therapeutic effect was attributed to the difference of the vascular response. In other words, the surface intact layer could be considered to be induced the temporal drug and oxygen depletion effect associated with the temporal vascular shutdown.
Hakomori, S.; Matsuo, H.; Arai, T.
Background and purpose: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of a single 1000 mg iron infusion in treating Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS).Patients and methods: A single 1000 mg intravenous (IV) [Am J Med Sci 31 (1999) 213] infusion of iron dextran was evaluated in an open-label study. Primary outcomes of efficacy were symptom severity assessed by global rating scale and
Christopher J Earley; Debbie Heckler; Richard P Allen
One of the complications of specific antiblastoma therapy in the patients presenting with malignant neoplasms is the suppressed functional activity of blood neutrophil granulocytes. The results of clinical and experimental investigations suggest the enhanced enzymatic activity of neutrophils and lymphocytes under effect of ultrahigh-frequency electromagnetic radiation (UHF EMR). Our study has demonstrated that UHF EMR with a frequency selected on an individual basis in the range from 59 to 63 GHz exerts the protective action on the function and metabolism of blood neutrophils exposed to the damaging action of gamma-radiation in the patients presenting with lung cancer. Moreover, it allows the severity of local and systemic complications of specific antiblastoma chemo- and radiotherapy in these patients to be reduced. PMID:23718077
Kolmatsu?, N B; Levitski?, E F; Golosova, O E; Pyzhova, I B
To evaluate the efficacy of cisplatin, gemcitabine, and treosulfan (CGT) in 91 patients with pretreated relapsed AJCC stage IV cutaneous malignant melanoma. Patients in relapse after first-, second-, or third-line therapy received 40?mg?m?2 intravenous (i.v.) cisplatin, 1000?mg?m?2 i.v. gemcitabine, and 2500?mg?m?2 i.v. treosulfan on days 1 and 8. Cisplatin, gemcitabine, and treosulfan therapy was repeated every 5 weeks until progression of disease occurred. A maximum of 11 CGT cycles (mean, two cycles) was administered per patient. Four patients (4%) showed a partial response; 15 (17%) patients had stable disease; and 72 (79%) patients progressed upon first re-evaluation. Overall survival of all 91 patients was 6 months (2-year survival rate, 7%). Patients with partial remission or stable disease exhibited a median overall survival of 11 months (2-year survival rate, 36%), while patients with disease progression upon first re-evaluation had a median overall survival of 5 months (2-year survival rate, 0%). Treatment with CGT was efficient in one-fifth of the pretreated relapsed stage IV melanoma patients achieving disease stabilisation or partial remission with prolonged but limited survival.
Atzpodien, J; Terfloth, K; Fluck, M; Reitz, M
Objective: We aimed to determine the effects of intravenous iron therapy on blood parameters in pediatric patients who do not tolerate oral iron therapy for any reason. Patients and Methods: The patient group consisted of candidates for elective operations requiring blood transfusions in order to raise hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations rapidly and for whom oral iron administration is useless and compliance
Saadet Akarsu; Erdal Taskin; Erdal Yilmaz; Huseyin Yilmaz; Mehmet Kilic; A. Denizmen Aygun
Objectives. This multicenter study compared the efficacy and safety of ibutilide versus procainamide for conversion of recent- onset atrial flutter or fibrillation. Background. Ibutilide fumarate is an intravenous (IV) class III antiarrhythmic agent that has been shown to be significantly more effective than placebo in the pharmacologic conversion of atrial flutter and fibrillation to sinus rhythm. Procainamide is com- monly
ANNABELLE S. VOLGMAN; PETER A. CARBERRY; BRUCE STAMBLER; WILLIAM R. LEWIS; GEORGE H. DUNN; KIMBERLY T. PERRY; JAMES T. VANDERLUGT; PETER R. KOWEY
HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor
Whether non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) unveiled by immunohistochemistry (IHC) has the same clinical outcome as those typed by morphology is still matter of debate. A total of 145 stage III-IV, consecutive inoperable NSCLC patients treated by chemotherapy (133 cases) or EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (12 cases) and including 100 biopsies, 11 surgical specimens, and 34 cytological samples had originally accounted for 120 adenocarcinomas (ADs), 19 squamous cell carcinomas (SQCs), and 6 adenosquamous carcinomas (ADSQCs) by integrating morphology and thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF1)/p40 IHC. Thirty-two NSCLC-not otherwise specified (NSCLC-NOS) cases were identified by morphology revision of the original diagnoses, which showed solid growth pattern (P < .001), 22 ADs, 5 SQCs, and 5 ADSQCs by IHC profiling (P < .001), and 10 gene-altered tumors (3 EGFR, 5 KRAS, and 2 ALK). While no significant relationships were observed between response to therapy and original, morphology or IHC diagnoses, driver mutations and tumor differentiation by TTF1 expression, AD run better progression-free survival (PFS) or overall survival (OS) than other tumor types by morphology (P = .010 and P = .047) and IHC (P = .033 and P = .046), respectively. Furthermore, patients with NSCLC-NOS confirmed as AD by IHC tended to have poorer OS (P = .179) and PFS (P = .193) similar to that of ADSQC and SQC (P = .702 and P = .540, respectively). A category of less differentiated AD with poorer prognosis on therapy could be identified by IHC, while there were no differences for SQC or ADSQC. The terminology of "NSCLC-NOS, favor by IHC" is appropriate to alert clinicians toward more aggressive tumors. PMID:24326823
Pelosi, Giuseppe; Haspinger, Eva Regina; Bimbatti, Manuela; Leone, Giorgia; Paolini, Biagio; Fabbri, Alessandra; Tamborini, Elena; Perrone, Federica; Testi, Adele; Garassino, Marina; Maisonneuve, Patrick; de Braud, Filippo; Pilotti, Silvana; Pastorino, Ugo
Maintaining patency of small-bore intravenous (IV) catheters in infants is problematic. Traditionally, heparin has been used in flush solutions due to its anticoagulant properties. There is conflict in the existing literature, however, regarding the effic...
L. A. Kyle
This is a systematic review of eighty-two published studies investigating the impact of DSM-IV mental disorders on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) adherence and persistence among persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Sixty-two articles examined depression, with 58 % (N = 32/62) finding lower cART adherence and persistence. Seventeen articles examined one or more anxiety disorders, with the majority finding no association with cART adherence or persistence. Eighty percent of the studies that evaluated the impact of psychotic (N = 3), bipolar (N = 5) and personality disorders (N = 2) on cART adherence and persistence also found no association. Seven out of the nine studies (78 %) evaluating the impact of antidepressant treatment (ADT) on cART adherence found improvement. Adherence and depression measurements varied significantly in studies; common research measurements would improve data harmonization. More research specifically addressing the impact of other mental disorders besides depression on cART adherence and RCTs evaluating ADT on cART adherence are also needed. PMID:22644066
Springer, Sandra A; Dushaj, Azem; Azar, Marwan M
Study Objective: To test the hypothesis that the magnitude of the acute hemodynamic response to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is related to the duration of the seizure activity in patients receiving different dosages of intravenous (IV) lidocaine.Design: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study.Setting: University-affiliated hospital.Patients: 21 ASA physical status I, II, and III patients undergoing four consecutive maintenance ECT treatments for chronic
Wen Fu; Louis A. Stool; Mustafa M. Husain
Valproic acid (VPA) has a narrow therapeutic range (50-100mg/l) and exhibits nonlinear protein binding. Additionally, VPA pharmacokinetics are dependent on age, induction status, and formulation; so titration and dosing vary between individuals. The aim of these simulations was to determine optimal intravenous (i.v.) loading dose, and i.v. and oral VPA maintenance regimens. A 5-min 15mg/kg loading dose resulted in total and free plasma VPA concentrations of approximately 65 and 7.5mg/l in children, and approximately 80 and 11mg/l in adults, 1h after the infusion; induction status had little effect. For uninduced children and adults, 7.5 and 3.5mg/kg q6h i.v. valproate sodium, initiated 6h after loading dose maintains therapeutic plasma VPA concentrations. The rapid decline of plasma VPA concentrations following an i.v. loading dose in combination with the delayed initial absorption of drug from delayed-release divalproex sodium tablets warrant beginning q12h oral maintenance regimens of delayed-release divalproex sodium within 2h of a loading dose in the uninduced population. Plasma VPA concentrations can be sustained in the therapeutic range using once-daily maintenance regimens of extended-release divalproex sodium tablets if initiated concurrently with i.v. loading dose in the uninduced population. A two-fold higher i.v. and oral maintenance regimen dose may be required in induced patients. PMID:12576165
Dutta, Sandeep; Cloyd, James C; Granneman, G Richard; Collins, Stephen D
Abstract Objective: Rituximab is part of standard therapy for many non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) patients, and is usually administered as an intravenous (IV) infusion. A formulation for subcutaneous (SC) injection will be available from June 2014. A time and motion study was conducted to investigate the staff time and costs associated with administration of SC and IV rituximab. Research design and methods: The time and motion study was conducted in three UK centers alongside a phase III trial of SC rituximab in patients with NHL (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01461928). Active healthcare professional (HCP) time spent on the preparation and administration of IV and SC rituximab was recorded and used to calculate the associated costs. Results: Total active HCP time associated with administration of IV rituximab was 223.3?min (95% CI?=?218.0-228.7), vs 48.5?min (95% CI?=?45.5-51.6) for SC rituximab, a saving of 174.8?min (95% CI?=?172.5-177.1) per session. Patient time in the treatment room was 263.8?min (95% CI?=?236.6-294.3) for IV rituximab and 70.0?min (95% CI?=?57.1-87.2) for SC rituximab, per session. The SC formulation reduced total mean staff costs by £115.17 (95% CI?=?98.95-136.93) per session. Differing monitoring scenarios during infusion consistently showed time and cost savings for SC rituximab. Limitations: Study limitations include the non-interventional design and lack of statistical power, and the investigational nature of SC rituximab. The data collected did not account for patient and center characteristics and variability on active HCP time. Conclusions: SC rituximab was associated with reduced active HCP time and costs vs IV rituximab, as well as reduced patient time in the treatment room. Switching from IV to SC rituximab could increase treatment room capacity and patient throughput, as well as improving the patient experience. PMID:24720836
Rule, Simon; Collins, Graham P; Samanta, Kunal
Intravenous (IV) iron and Erythropoiesis Stimulating Agents (ESAs) are recommended for anemia management in chronic kidney disease (CKD). This retrospective cohort study analyzed utilization patterns of IV iron and ESA in patients over 18 years of age admitted to University Health System Hospitals with a primary or secondary diagnosis of CKD between January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2008. A clustered binomial logistic regression using the GEE methodology was used to identify predictors of IV iron utilization. Only 8% (n = 6678) of CKD patients on ESA therapy received IV iron supplementation in university hospitals. Those receiving iron used significantly less amounts of ESAs. Patient demographics (age, race, primary payer), patient clinical conditions (admission status, severity of illness, dialysis status), and physician specialty were identified as predictors of IV iron use in CKD patients. Use of IV iron with ESAs was low despite recommendations from consensus guidelines. The low treatment rate of IV iron represents a gap in treatment practices and signals an opportunity for healthcare improvement in CKD anemic patients. PMID:22577528
Joshi, Avani D; Holdford, David A; Brophy, Donald F; Harpe, Spencer E; Mays, Darcy; Gehr, Todd W B
ObjectiveThe study objective was to evaluate patient safety, increase nursing satisfaction, and affect economic factors through implementation of intelligent intravenous (IV) infusion devices in a specialty cardiac hospital. Intelligent IV infusion devices have been shown to decrease medication errors associated with inpatient infusions.
Jacqueline L. Wood; Jeremy S. Burnette
The risks associated with AIDS transmission among intravenous drug users overlap with a constellation of other risk events common in the use of IV drugs. This paper explores the subcultural definition, meaning and use of risk from the experience of the active user. In assessing the extent and nature of risk among IV drug users, street-based ethnographic research was conducted
Margaret M. Connors
Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Carcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Undifferentiated Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer
A prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter, double-blind trial in fibromyalgia patients demonstrated that peroral daily treatment with 5 mg tropisetron for 10 days produced a significant reduction in pain and other symptoms. The aim of the present study was to determine whether intravenous administration of 2 mg tropisetron daily for a limited period of time would produce quicker and more favorable results. In the first cohort 18 fibromyalgia patients received a single intravenous injection of 2 mg tropisetron. In the second cohort 24 fibromyalgia patients were treated with 2 mg intravenous tropisetron daily for 5 days. Pain intensity was measured with the visual analog scale and the pain score. Pain at tender and control points (dolorimeter) as well as 17 ancillary symptoms before and after treatment were evaluated. Pain intensity was followed-up by means of a patient diary until recurrence. Dolorimetry revealed that a single intravenous injection of 2 mg tropisetron significantly reduced pain and enhanced pain threshold. These effects, however, lasted for only a few days. Of 18 patients in the first cohort, only three showed no response to therapy. Of the 24 patients in the second cohort, 23 showed pain reduction when 2 mg tropisetron was administered daily for 5 days. Pain relief lasted for 2 weeks to 2 months in 20 of these patients. Two patients stopped filling in the pain diary. Twelve ancillary symptoms such as sleep disturbances, fatigue, morning stiffness were also significantly improved by the latter treatment. In the global assessment 16 out of 24 patients showed significant improvement and seven showed slight improvement. Only one patient experienced no improvement. Tolerability was good. In conclusion, intravenous injection of 2 mg of the 5-hydroxytryptamine3 receptor antagonist tropisetron once daily for 5 days produced a longer-lasting therapeutic effect on fibromyalgia symptoms than did peroral daily treatment with 5 mg of this drug. The results achieved are currently being evaluated in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. PMID:11447769
Stratz, T; Färber, L; Varga, B; Baumgartner, C; Haus, U; Müller, W
SERCA2a gene therapy improves contractile and energetic function of failing hearts and has been shown to be associated with benefits in clinical outcomes, symptoms, functional status, biomarkers, and cardiac structure in a phase 2 clinical trial. In an effort to enhance the efficiency and homogeneity of gene uptake in cardiac tissue, we examined the effects of nitroglycerin (NTG) in a porcine model following AAV1.SERCA2a gene delivery. Three groups of Göttingen minipigs were assessed: (i) group A: control intracoronary (IC) AAV1.SERCA2a (n = 6); (ii) group B: a single bolus IC injection of NTG (50 µg) immediately before administration of intravenous (IV) AAV1.SERCA2a (n = 6); and (iii) group C: continuous IV NTG (1 µg/kg/minute) during the 10 minutes of AAV1.SERCA2a infusion (n = 6). We found that simultaneous IV infusion of NTG and AAV1.SERCA2a resulted in increased viral transduction efficiency, both in terms of messenger RNA (mRNA) as well as SERCA2a protein levels in the whole left ventricle (LV) compared to control animals. On the other hand, IC NTG pretreatment did not result in enhanced gene transfer efficiency, mRNA or protein levels when compared to control animals. Importantly, the transgene expression was restricted to the heart tissue. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that IV infusion of NTG significantly improves cardiac gene transfer efficiency in porcine hearts.
Karakikes, Ioannis; Hadri, Lahouaria; Rapti, Kleopatra; Ladage, Dennis; Ishikawa, Kiyotake; Tilemann, Lisa; Yi, Geng-Hua; Morel, Charlotte; Gwathmey, Judith K; Zsebo, Krisztina; Weber, Thomas; Kawase, Yoshiaki; Hajjar, Roger J
Endolymphatic hydrops (EH) in Ménière's disease is currently evaluated by 3-dimensional (3D)-real inversion recovery (IR) sequence after intratympanic (IT) administration of gadolinium (Gd) or by heavily T2-weighted (hT2W)-3D-fluid-attenuated IR (FLAIR) sequence after intravenous (IV) injection of Gd. Unilateral IT injection is usually performed. We employed a method in which we simultaneously administered contrast into one ear intravenously (IV side) and into the other ear both intravenously and intratympanically (IT + IV side) to evaluate EH in 10 patients with Ménière's disease. We then compared a HYDROPS2 image obtained by subtracting magnetic resonance cisternography from hT2W-3D-FLAIR with an image obtained by 3D-real IR and found that we could evaluate EH in all ears on the HYDROPS2 image but only in the IT + IV side on the 3D-real IR image. PMID:24769636
Naganawa, Shinji; Yamazaki, Masahiro; Kawai, Hisashi; Bokura, Kiminori; Iida, Tatsuo; Sone, Michihiko; Nakashima, Tsutomu
Therapeutic gene delivery to the whole spinal cord is a major challenge for the treatment of motor neuron (MN) diseases. Systemic administration of viral gene vectors would provide an optimal means for the long-term delivery of therapeutic molecules from blood to the spinal cord but this approach is hindered by the presence of the blood–brain barrier (BBB). Here, we describe the first successful study of MN transduction in adult animals following intravenous (i.v.) delivery of self-complementary (sc) AAV9 vectors (up to 28% in mice). Intravenous MN transduction was achieved in adults without pharmacological disruption of the BBB and transgene expression lasted at least 5 months. Importantly, this finding was successfully translated to large animals, with the demonstration of an efficient systemic scAAV9 gene delivery to the neonate and adult cat spinal cord. This new and noninvasive procedure raises the hope of whole spinal cord correction of MN diseases and may lead to the development of new gene therapy protocols in patients.
Duque, Sandra; Joussemet, Beatrice; Riviere, Christel; Marais, Thibaut; Dubreil, Laurence; Douar, Anne-Marie; Fyfe, John; Moullier, Philippe; Colle, Marie-Anne; Barkats, Martine
Objective:To determine outcome following treatment of refractory Crohn's disease with intravenous (i.v.) cyclosporine (CYA).Methods:The medical records of 18 patients with refractory Crohn's disease treated with i.v. CYA were reviewed. Nine patients had refractory inflammatory Crohn's disease and nine patients had complex fistulizing Crohn's disease. All patients were initially treated with i.v. CYA (4 mg\\/kg\\/day). Patients who responded were converted to
Laurence J. Egan; William J. Sandborn; William J. Tremaine
AimErrors in the preparation and administration of intravenous (IV) drugs are frequent events. Human error theory has recently been applied to understand the causes of IV drug errors in an ethnographic study in the United Kingdom. We used this approach to explore causes of IV drug errors by nursing staff in a German hospital.MethodsA trained and experienced observer accompanied nurses
Katja Taxis; Nick Barber
Erythromelalgia is a rare condition characterized by episodic painful erythema and warmth often affecting, but not limited to, the distal extremities. This condition is notoriously difficult to treat. We report a young female patient with seronegative polyarthritis who presented with a 6-year history of recurrent bouts of painful erythema and swelling often triggered by minor trauma. An extensive evaluation was unremarkable. Several medical therapies provided limited and inconsistent relief of her symptoms over many years. Treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin significantly decreased the frequency and severity of her symptoms. PMID:22156790
Moody, Shadé; Pacheco, Susan; Butler, Ian J; Koenig, Mary Kay
1. In a randomized, parallel, double-blind study felodipine was administered to 11 and placebo to 12 patients with congestive heart failure. The kinetics of felodipine were studied after acute intravenous administration and after chronic oral treatment for 8 weeks. The relationship between cardiac output and pharmacokinetics was analyzed. The pharmacokinetic data were compared with data from young healthy individuals and hypertensive patients. 2. After oral therapy, significant correlations were found between cardiac output and AUC and systemic bioavailability (F). Furthermore, cardiac output before therapy was also significantly correlated with absorption characteristics. No relationship could be demonstrated between cardiac output and i.v. pharmacokinetics. A comparison of patients with heart failure and young healthy individuals revealed that the AUC was three times higher in heart failure patient, while Vss and the ratio of the AUC of the pyridine metabolite to that of felodipine were similar. Oral clearance was reduced by 50% and the terminal half-life was concomitantly increased. Pharmacokinetic data for felodipine are similar in patients with heart failure to published data from elderly hypertensive patients. 3. An increase in liver blood flow during chronic oral therapy, induced by felodipine itself, appears to explain an increase in bioavailability and thus to higher plasma drug concentrations. Thus, it is advisable to start felodipine treatment at a low dosage in patients with congestive heart failure.
Dunselman, P H; Edgar, B; Scaf, A H; Kuntze, C E; Wesseling, H
Multicenter trials in Southeast Asia have shown better survival rates among patients with severe malaria, particularly those with high parasitemia levels, treated with intravenous (IV) artesunate than among those treated with quinine. In Europe, quinine is still the primary treatment for severe malaria. We conducted a retrospective analysis for 25 travelers with severe malaria who returned from malaria-endemic regions and were treated at 7 centers in Europe. All patients survived. Treatment with IV artesunate rapidly reduced parasitemia levels. In 6 patients at 5 treatment centers, a self-limiting episode of unexplained hemolysis occurred after reduction of parasitemia levels. Five patients required a blood transfusion. Patients with posttreatment hemolysis had received higher doses of IV artesunate than patients without hemolysis. IV artesunate was an effective alternative to quinine for treatment of malaria patients in Europe. Patients should be monitored for signs of hemolysis, especially after parasitologic cure. PMID:21529383
Zoller, Thomas; Junghanss, Thomas; Kapaun, Annette; Gjorup, Ida; Richter, Joachim; Hugo-Persson, Mats; Mørch, Kristine; Foroutan, Behruz; Suttorp, Norbert; Yürek, Salih; Flick, Holger
Multicenter trials in Southeast Asia have shown better survival rates among patients with severe malaria, particularly those with high parasitemia levels, treated with intravenous (IV) artesunate than among those treated with quinine. In Europe, quinine is still the primary treatment for severe malaria. We conducted a retrospective analysis for 25 travelers with severe malaria who returned from malaria-endemic regions and were treated at 7 centers in Europe. All patients survived. Treatment with IV artesunate rapidly reduced parasitemia levels. In 6 patients at 5 treatment centers, a self-limiting episode of unexplained hemolysis occurred after reduction of parasitemia levels. Five patients required a blood transfusion. Patients with posttreatment hemolysis had received higher doses of IV artesunate than patients without hemolysis. IV artesunate was an effective alternative to quinine for treatment of malaria patients in Europe. Patients should be monitored for signs of hemolysis, especially after parasitologic cure.
Junghanss, Thomas; Kapaun, Annette; Gj?rup, Ida; Richter, Joachim; Hugo-Persson, Mats; M?rch, Kristine; Foroutan, Behruz; Suttorp, Norbert; Yurek, Salih; Flick, Holger
Iron deficiency is commonly seen in congestive heart failure (CHF) in both anemic and nonanemic patients. In six studies in\\u000a which these iron-deficient patients with CHF were treated with intravenous (IV) iron, five found an improvement in the hemoglobin.\\u000a In uncontrolled and controlled studies, the New York Heart Association (NYHA) class, quality of life, and exercise capacity\\u000a were improved consistently
Donald S. Silverberg; Adrian Iaina; Doron Schwartz; Dov Wexler
Five different intravenous IgG (i.v. IgG) preparations were assessed for their capacity to modify the pyrogenic response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of rabbits under the conditions of a pharmacopoeal test. Four of the five preparations were found to mitigate the reaction rendering the result “non-pyrogenic” with an LPS dose proved pyrogenic when administered in saline or in albumin. Bacterial LPS
Gizella Huszár; Béla Jenei; Györgyi Szabó; György A. Medgyesi
We have evaluated the haemodynamic effects of intravenous (iv) nitroglycerin (NG) and vasopressin (VP) alone and in combination, in 12 patients with cirrhosis and recent variceal haemorrhage (two to seven days). Nitroglycerin infusion alone (200 micrograms\\/min) produced a significant fall in portal pressure (WHVP-FHVP) (from 16.4 (0.6) to 13.3 (1.2) mmHg; p less than .001) associated with hypotension (mean arterial
D Westaby; A Gimson; P C Hayes; R Williams
Ciliary Body and Choroid Melanoma, Medium/Large Size; Ciliary Body and Choroid Melanoma, Small Size; Extraocular Extension Melanoma; Iris Melanoma; Metastatic Carcinoma of Unknown Primary; Metastatic Intraocular Melanoma; Mucosal Melanoma; Stage IIB Intraocular Melanoma; Stage IIB Melanoma; Stage IIC Melanoma; Stage IIIA Intraocular Melanoma; Stage IIIA Melanoma; Stage IIIB Intraocular Melanoma; Stage IIIB Melanoma; Stage IIIC Intraocular Melanoma; Stage IIIC Melanoma; Stage IV Intraocular Melanoma; Stage IV Melanoma
A 26-year-old male intravenous drug user (IDU) presented twice within 6 months with relapsed polymicrobial infective endocarditis (IE) due to Eikenella corrodens and Streptococcus constellatus after completing two courses of appropriate antimicrobial therapy. This report points to relapsing endocarditis as a clinical entity that warrants attention in IDUs when E. corrodens or S. constellatus are causative agents of IE.
Wang'ondu, Ruth W.; Murray, Thomas S.
BackgroundPrednisone pulse therapy is used to treat active non-infectious orbital inflammatory disease to attain faster clinical improvement and to shorten the duration of prednisone treatment. This study addresses the use of intravenous methylprednisolone (IVMP) pulse therapy, in addition to oral prednisone (OP), in the treatment of severe idiopathic orbital inflammation (IOI).MethodsThis was a multicentre retrospective cohort study. Patients with severe
Ward R Bijlsma; Dion Paridaens; Rachel Kalmann
Good surgical outcomes depend in part on good pain relief, allowing for early mobilization, optimal recovery, and patient satisfaction. Postsurgical pain has multiple mechanisms, and multimechanistic approaches to postoperative analgesia are recommended and may be associated with improved pain relief, lowered opioid doses, and sometimes a lower rate of opioid-associated side effects. Acetaminophen (paracetamol) is a familiar agent for treating many types of pain, including postsurgical pain. Oral acetaminophen has been shown to be safe and effective in a variety of acute pain models. Combination products using a fixed-dose of acetaminophen and an opioid have also been effective in treating postsurgical pain. Combination products with acetaminophen have demonstrated an opioid-sparing effect, which inconsistently results in a reduced rate of opioid-associated side effects. Intravenous (IV) acetaminophen and an opioid analgesic administered in the perioperative period may be followed by an oral acetaminophen and opioid combination in the postoperative period. Transitioning from an IV acetaminophen and opioid formulation to a similar but oral formulation of the same drugs appears to be a reasonable step in that both analgesic therapies are known to be safe and effective. For postsurgical analgesia with any acetaminophen product, patient education is necessary to be sure that the patient does not concurrently take any over-the-counter products containing acetaminophen and accidentally exceed dose limits. PMID:21676161
Pergolizzi, Joseph V; Raffa, Robert B; Tallarida, Ronald; Taylor, Robert; Labhsetwar, Sumedha A
To aid planning for the storage of supplies onboard Space Station Freedom, an estimate was made of the amount of intravenous (IV) fluid required to support a patient who has suffered a medical emergency for a period of up to 10 days. Six different medical scenarios were evaluated, and the volume of IV fluids required for each scenario was estimated. Up to 220 liters of fluid would be required to support a patient for all of the scenarios. When optimizing the volumes to support any single scenario, a total of 123 liters is required. Use of a water polishing system to produce sterile water for injection from potable supplies and on-station formulation of IV fluids results in a smaller mass and volume requirement for the Fluid Therapy Subsystem than carrying prepackaged bags of fluid.
Creager, Gerald J.; Lloyd, Charles W.
Instructional objectives and performance requirements are outlined in this course guide for Welding IV, a competency-based course in advanced arc welding offered at the Community College of Allegheny County to provide students with proficiency in: (1) single vee groove welding using code specifications established by the American Welding Society…
Allegheny County Community Coll., Pittsburgh, PA.
Objectives To develop 3 computer simulation models to determine the potential economic effect of using intravenous (IV) antiviral agents to treat hospitalized patients with influenza-like illness, as well as different testing and treatment strategies. Study Design Stochastic decision analytic computer simulation model. Methods During the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic, the Food and Drug Administration granted emergency use authorization of IV neuraminidase inhibitors for hospitalized patients with influenza, creating a need for rapid decision analyses to help guide use. We compared the economic value from the societal and third-party payer perspectives of the following 4 strategies for a patient hospitalized with influenza-like illness and unable to take oral antiviral agents: Strategy 1: Administration of IV antiviral agents without polymerase chain reaction influenza testing. Strategy 2: Initiation of IV antiviral treatment, followed by polymerase chain reaction testing to determine whether the treatment should be continued. Strategy 3: Performance of polymerase chain reaction testing, followed by initiation of IV antiviral treatment if the test results are positive. Strategy 4: Administration of no IV antiviral agents. Sensitivity analyses varied the probability of having influenza (baseline, 10%; range, 10%–30%), IV antiviral efficacy (baseline, oral oseltamivir phosphate; range, 25%–75%), IV antiviral daily cost (range, $20–$1000), IV antiviral reduction of illness duration (baseline, 1 day; range, 1–2 days), and ventilated vs nonventilated status of the patient. Results When the cost of IV antiviral agents was no more than $500 per day, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for most of the IV antiviral treatment strategies was less than $10,000 per quality-adjusted life-year compared with no treatment. When the cost was no more than $100 per day, all 3 IV antiviral strategies were even more cost-effective. The order of cost-effectiveness from most to least was strategies 3, 1, and 2. The findings were robust to changing risk of influenza, influenza mortality, IV antiviral efficacy, IV antiviral daily cost, IV antiviral reduction of illness duration, and ventilated vs nonventilated status of the patient for both societal and third-party payer perspectives. Conclusion Our study supports the use of IV antiviral treatment for hospitalized patients with influenza-like illness.
Lee, Bruce Y.; Tai, Julie H. Y.; Bailey, Rachel R.; McGlone, Sarah M.; Wiringa, Ann E.; Zimmer, Shanta M.; Smith, Kenneth J.; Zimmerman, Richard K.
Background In cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, the upper airways display the same ion channel defect as evident in the lungs, resulting in chronic inflammation and infection. Recognition of the sinonasal area as a site of first and persistent infection with pathogens, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, reinforces the “one-airway” hypothesis. Therefore, we assessed the effect of systemic antibiotics against pulmonary pathogens on sinonasal inflammation. Methods Nasal lavage fluid (NLF) from 17 CF patients was longitudinally collected prior to and during elective intravenous (i.v.) antibiotic treatment to reduce pathogen burden and resulting inflammation (median treatment time at time of analysis: 6 days). Samples were assessed microbiologically and cytologically. Cytokine and chemokine expression was measured by Cytometric Bead Array and ELISA (interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, IL-8, MPO, MMP9, RANTES and NE). Findings were compared with inflammatory markers from NLF obtained from 52 healthy controls. Results Initially, the total cell count of the NLF was significantly higher in CF patients than in controls. However after i.v. antibiotic treatment it decreased to a normal level. Compared with controls, detection frequencies and absolute concentrations of MPO, IL-8, IL-6 and IL-1? were also significantly higher in CF patients. The detection frequency of TNF was also higher. Furthermore, during i.v. therapy sinonasal concentrations of IL-6 decreased significantly (P?=?0.0059), while RANTES and MMP9 levels decreased 10-fold and two-fold, respectively. PMN-Elastase, assessed for the first time in NFL, did not change during therapy. Conclusions Analysis of NLF inflammatory markers revealed considerable differences between controls and CF patients, with significant changes during systemic i.v. AB treatment within just 6 days. Thus, our data support further investigation into the collection of samples from the epithelial surface of the upper airways by nasal lavage as a potential diagnostic and research tool.
The present study was planned to investigate the disposition kinetics of levofloxacin in plasma of female native Barky breed sheep after single intravenous (IV) and intramuscular (IM) administration of 4?mg/kg body weight. The concentrations of levofloxacin in the plasma were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a UV detector on samples collected at 0, 0.08, 0.16, 0.33, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 18, 24, 32, and 48?h after treatment. Following intravenous injection, the decline in plasma drug concentration was biexponential with half-lives of (t1/2?) 0.33 ± 0.12?h and (t1/2?) 3.29 ± 0.23?h for distribution and elimination phases, respectively. The volume of distribution at steady state V(d(ss)) was 0.86 ± 0.23?l/kg. After intramuscular administration of levofloxacin at the same dose, the peak plasma concentration (Cmax) was 3.1 ± 0.35??g/mL and was obtained at 1.64 ± 0.29?h (Tmax), the elimination half-life (T1/2el) was 3.58 ± 0.30?h, and AUC was 20.24 ± 1.31??g.h/mL. The systemic bioavailability was 91.35 ± 6.81 %. In vitro plasma protein binding was 23.74%. When approved therapy fails, levofloxacin may be used in some countries for therapy of food animals, however, that is not true in the US.
Goudah, Ayman; Hasabelnaby, Sherifa
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Treatment of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis currently involves intravenous antibiotic administration. To test the possibility of treating spontaneous bacterial peritonitis with oral antibiotics, oral ofloxacin was compared with intravenous cefotaxime in this infection. METHODS: One hundred twenty-three cirrhotics with uncomplicated spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (no septic shock, grade II-IV hepatic encephalopathy, serum creatinine level of > 3 mg\\/dL, and
M Navasa; A Follo; JM Llovet; G Clemente; V Vargas; A Rimola; F Marco; C Guarner; M Forne; R Planas; R Banares; L Castells; MT Jimenez De Anta; V Arroyo; J Rodes
Following successful endoscopic therapy in patients with peptic ulcer bleeding, rebleeding occurs in 4% to 30% of cases. Rebleeding remains the most important determinant of poor prognosis. The aim of our study is to compare the efficacy of intravenous pantoprazole and ranitidine for prevention of rebleeding of peptic ulcers following initial endoscopic hemostasis. In our study patients who had gastric or duodenal ulcers with bleeding received combined endoscopy therapy with injection of epinephrine and thermocoagulation. Patients with initial hemostasis were randomly assigned to two groups. One group (45 patients) was treated with intravenous pantoprazole, with an initial dose of 40 mg and subsequently with 40 mg every twelve hours during the first three days, followed by 40 mg a day orally. The other group (44 patients) was treated with intravenous ranitidine, with an initial dose of 50 mg and subsequently every eight hours during the first three days, followed by 150 mg ranitidine every 12 h. In all case of rebleeding repeated endoscopy was performed. One patient (2,2%) had rebleeding in pantoprazole group. Bleeding could not be blocked by repeated endoscopic intervention, thus the patient underwent emergency surgery. 6 patients (13,6%) from ranitidine group had recurrence of bleeding. Repeated endoscopy was performed in all these patients: bleeding was stopped in 3 cases endoscopically, other 3 patients were surgically treated urgently as endoscopic hemostasis was not successful. None of the patients died of uncontrolled rebleeding. The frequency of rebleeding was significantly low in the group of pantoprazole compared to ranitidine group (2,2% vs 13,6% P=0,046). There were no statistically significant differences between the groups with regard to need for emergency surgery (2,2% vs 6,8%), the length of hospital stay (6,7±3,3 vs 7,4±4,3 d) and mortality (0%vs 0%). After endoscopic treatment of bleeding peptic ulcers, intravenous pantoprazole is more effective than ranitidine for the prevention of rebleeding. PMID:24214585
Demetrashvili, Z M; Lashkhi, I M; Ekaladze, E N; Kamkamidze, G K
Recurrent Fallopian Tube Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer
A 49-year-old woman suffering from rapidly progressing right-sided heart failure assessed as World Health Organization functional class (WHO-FC) IV is described. After treatment with oxygen and diuretics, she was in WHO-FC III on admission to our hospital, as confirmed by her poor exercise tolerance in cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Upon detailed examination, she was diagnosed as having idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). Right heart catheterization (RHC) revealed severe pulmonary hypertension (mPAP = 65 mmHg) with a markedly decreased cardiac index (CI = 1.0 L/minute/m(2)), and an acute vasoreactivity test with nitric oxide inhalation did not show any response. Due to her severe condition, we decided to attempt oral combination therapy consisting of bosentan, tadalafil, and beraprost, prescribed in the same order and titrated up to their maximum respective doses, instead of intravenous (IV) epoprostenol therapy. Her clinical symptoms improved day by day, and the hemodynamic parameters recovered to nearly normal ranges about 6 months after initiation of the combination therapy. Initial/programmed oral combination therapy for severe IPAH patients is not yet fully established, and there is less evidence concerning its efficacy than IV epoprostenol therapy. However, it has tremendous advantages for PAH patients when they respond well. It is very important to further identify what types of PAH patients will respond to this oral combination therapy and should be treated with it as the first-line therapy. PMID:22008445
Maki, Hisataka; Yao, Atsushi; Inaba, Toshiro; Shiga, Taro; Hatano, Masaru; Kinugawa, Koichiro; Yamashita, Takeshi; Aizawa, Tadanori; Nagai, Ryozo
Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with intravenous recombinant human alpha-l-iduronidase (IV rhIDU) is a treatment for patients with mucopolysaccharidosis I (MPS I). Spinal cord compression develops in MPS I patients due in part to dural and leptomeningeal thickening from accumulated glycosaminoglycans (GAG). We tested long-term and every 3-month intrathecal (IT) and weekly IV rhIDU in MPS I dogs age 12-15months (Adult) and MPS I pups age 2-23days (Early) to determine whether spinal cord compression could be reversed, stabilized, or prevented. Five treatment groups of MPS I dogs were evaluated (n=4 per group): IT+IV Adult, IV Adult, IT + IV Early, 0.58mg/kg IV Early and 1.57mg/kg IV Early. IT + IV rhIDU (Adult and Early) led to very high iduronidase levels in cervical, thoracic, and lumber spinal meninges (3600-29,000% of normal), while IV rhIDU alone (Adult and Early) led to levels that were 8.2-176% of normal. GAG storage was significantly reduced from untreated levels in spinal meninges of IT + IV Early (p<.001), IT+IV Adult (p=.001), 0.58mg/kg IV Early (p=.002) and 1.57mg/kg IV Early (p<.001) treatment groups. Treatment of dogs shortly after birth with IT+IV rhIDU (IT + IV Early) led to normal to near-normal GAG levels in the meninges and histologic absence of storage vacuoles. Lysosomal storage was reduced in spinal anterior horn cells in 1.57mg/kg IV Early and IT + IV Early animals. All dogs in IT + IV Adult and IV Adult groups had compression of their spinal cord at 12-15months of age determined by magnetic resonance imaging and was due to protrusion of spinal disks into the canal. Cord compression developed in 3 of 4 dogs in the 0.58mg/kg IV Early group; 2 of 3 dogs in the IT + IV Early group; and 0 of 4 dogs in the 1.57mg/kg IV Early group by 12-18months of age. IT + IV rhIDU was more effective than IV rhIDU alone for treatment of meningeal storage, and it prevented meningeal GAG accumulation when begun early. High-dose IV rhIDU from birth (1.57mg/kg weekly) appeared to prevent cord compression due to protrusion of spinal disks. PMID:20655780
Dickson, Patricia I; Hanson, Stephen; McEntee, Michael F; Vite, Charles H; Vogler, Carole A; Mlikotic, Anton; Chen, Agnes H; Ponder, Katherine P; Haskins, Mark E; Tippin, Brigette L; Le, Steven Q; Passage, Merry B; Guerra, Catalina; Dierenfeld, Ashley; Jens, Jackie; Snella, Elizabeth; Kan, Shih-Hsin; Ellinwood, N Matthew
The NINDS trial demonstrated for the first time the effectiveness of intravenous thrombolysis in improving outcome after acute ischemic stroke. The absolute benefit of this intervention was 11–13% greater chance of being normal or near normal (MRS ? 1) at 3 months. However, if patients with severe stroke were considered (NIHSS ? 20), the absolute benefit dropped to 5–6%, indicating that IV thrombolysis may not be as effective for large vessel occlusion. This observation was further supported by TCD studies that clearly demonstrated that large artery occlusions had a recanalization rate of 13–18% with IV rt-PA. Intra-arterial thrombolysis achieves recanalization rates of 60–70%. Since tissue viability is clearly important, it is time to stop defining rigid time windows and if there is a large penumbra (20–50%) and the occlusion is in a large artery, there exists a logic and a growing evidence to consider either bridge therapy or direct intra-arterial therapy.
The effect of intravenous fluid replacement on the response to mannitol in experimental cerebral edema: an analysis of intracranial pressure, serum osmolality, serum electrolytes, and brain water content.
Albino rabbits that had undergone a cryogenic insult over the left parieto-occipital cortex were analyzed for serum osmolality, serum electrolytes, brain water content, and intracranial pressure (ICP) following either a baseline infusion of intravenous (i.v.) fluid (45 mL total) for 3 hours or above-maintenance isotonic saline (73.5 +/- 12 mL or 90.5 +/- 1.5 mL) and mannitol therapy. The subgroups were compared amongst themselves and to sham-operated controls. Serum osmolality was elevated in the higher-dose mannitol subgroup compared with maintenance i.v. fluids subgroup (1 g/kg/h vs 1 g/kg/3 h; p < 0.05), accompanied by an insignificant reduction of serum sodium. A significant reduction in brain water in the injured left hemisphere was seen following high-dose mannitol in the subgroup that received less i.v. (maintenance) fluids than the group that received above-maintenance i.v. fluids (p < 0.025). No reduction in brain water was seen in the subgroup that received above-maintenance i.v. fluids (non-treated groups). Reduction of ICP was not found in the lower mannitol dose group. We conclude that the ability of mannitol to reduce cerebral edema is related to the total amount of i.v. fluid replacement. This implies that the amount of i.v. crystalloid fluid that is administered to patients with cerebral edema and raised ICP requiring mannitol for control needs to be carefully monitored. PMID:16671439
James, H E
Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Tumors Metastatic to Brain
Adenocarcinoma of the Lung; Adenosquamous Cell Lung Cancer; Large Cell Lung Cancer; Malignant Pleural Effusion; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Squamous Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer
Intractable epilepsy in children poses a serious medical challenge. Acute repetitive seizures and status epilepticus leads to frequent emergency room visits and hospital admissions. Delay of treatment may lead to resistance to the first-line anticonvulsant therapies. It has been shown that these children continue to remain intractable even after acute seizure management with approved Food and Drug Administration (FDA) agents. Intravenous levetiracetam, a second-generation anticonvulsant was approved by the FDA in 2006 in patients 16?years and older as an alternative when oral treatment is not an option. Data have been published showing that intravenous levetiracetam is safe and efficacious, and can be used in an acute inpatient setting. This current review will discuss the recent data about the safety and tolerability of intravenous levetiracetam in children and neonates, and emphasize the need for a larger prospective multicenter trial to prove the efficacy of this agent in acute seizure management.
Aceves, Jose; Khan, Owais; Mungall, Diana; Fonkem, Ekokobe; Wright, Chanin; Wenner, Andrea; Kirmani, Batool
Intractable epilepsy in children poses a serious medical challenge. Acute repetitive seizures and status epilepticus leads to frequent emergency room visits and hospital admissions. Delay of treatment may lead to resistance to the first-line anticonvulsant therapies. It has been shown that these children continue to remain intractable even after acute seizure management with approved Food and Drug Administration (FDA) agents. Intravenous levetiracetam, a second-generation anticonvulsant was approved by the FDA in 2006 in patients 16?years and older as an alternative when oral treatment is not an option. Data have been published showing that intravenous levetiracetam is safe and efficacious, and can be used in an acute inpatient setting. This current review will discuss the recent data about the safety and tolerability of intravenous levetiracetam in children and neonates, and emphasize the need for a larger prospective multicenter trial to prove the efficacy of this agent in acute seizure management. PMID:23966977
Aceves, Jose; Khan, Owais; Mungall, Diana; Fonkem, Ekokobe; Wright, Chanin; Wenner, Andrea; Kirmani, Batool
Introduction The intraosseous (IO) route has become a popular method to gain access to the peripheral circulation in emergency situations. Despite little supporting data, it is generally believed that IO absorption is immediate and equivalent to the intravenous (IV) route. It is important to determine if rocuronium can effectively be administered by the IO route. The aim of the study was to determine and compare the onset and duration of rocuronium when administered via the IO and IV routes in a normovolemic pig model. Methods We recorded electromyographic (EMG) data following tibial IO and peripheral IV administration of rocuronium (1.2 mg/kg) in 10 swine weighing between 56 and 71 Kg. We transformed data were transformed to percent of baseline, determined onset and recovery characteristics. Results The onset EMG-time profiles for IO and IV administration were very similar: tibial IO compared to IV administration did not statistically alter the onset of paralysis. The IO group took statistically longer than the IV group to return to 50 (p=0.042), 75 (p=0.034) and 95 (p=0.036) percent of baseline activity. Conclusion The duration of effect is statistically longer after IO administration but is more of an academic interest than a clinical concern. The results of this study suggest that rocuronium can effectively be administered via the IO route without the need for dose adjustments.
Loughren, Michael; Banks, Sarah; Naluan, Carleo; Portenlanger, Paul; Wendorf, Arthur; Johnson, Don
Phase I feasibility study of intraperitoneal cisplatin and intravenous paclitaxel followed by intraperitoneal paclitaxel in untreated ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal carcinoma: A Gynecologic Oncology Group Study
Purpose Intraperitoneal chemotherapy has shown a survival advantage over intravenous chemotherapy for women with newly diagnosed optimally debulked epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal carcinoma. However, significant toxicity has limited its acceptance. In an effort to reduce toxicity, the Gynecologic Oncology Group conducted a Phase I study to evaluate the feasibility of day 1 intravenous (IV) paclitaxel and intraperitoneal (IP) cisplatin followed by day 8 IP paclitaxel on an every 21-day cycle. Methods Patients with Stage IIB-IV epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, primary peritoneal carcinomas or carcinosarcoma received paclitaxel 135 mg/m2 IV over 3 hours followed by cisplatin 75 mg/m2 IP on day 1 and paclitaxel 60 mg/m2 IP on day 8 of a 21 day cycle with 6 cycles planned. Dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) was defined as febrile neutropenia or dose-delay of greater than 2 weeks due to failure to recover counts, or Grade 3-5 non-hematologic toxicity occurring within the first 4 cycles of treatment. Results Twenty of 23 patients enrolled were evaluable and nineteen (95%) completed all six cycles of therapy. Three patients experienced a DLT consisting of infection with normal absolute neutrophil count, grade 3 hyperglycemia, and grade 4 abdominal pain. Conclusions This modified IP regimen which administers both IV paclitaxel and IP cisplatin on day one, followed by IP paclitaxel on day eight, of a twenty-one day cycle appears feasible and is an attractive alternative to the intraperitoneal treatment regimen administered in GOG-0172.
Dizon, Don S.; Sill, Michael W.; Gould, Natalie; Rubin, Stephen C.; Yamada, S. Diane; DeBernardo, Robert L.; Mannel, Robert S.; Eisenhauer, Eric L.; Duska, Linda R.; Fracasso, Paula M.
A selected group of 18 patients (among them 16 diabetics) with chronic disorders of arterial blood flow at Stage IV according to Fontaine received treatment by a standardised therapeutic scheme. None of the cases was suitable for reconstruction by vascular surgery. Infusion treatment, using Infukoll M 40 and Actovegin, was to be checked for its capability of providing sufficient improvement in blood flow and thus eliminating the need for imminent high-level amputation. Evaluation was undertaken on the basis of clinical and laboratory-chemical parameters. The rate of above-knee amputation was reduced by 14 per cent. Hence, the above therapeutic concept has proved to be suitable for treatment of Stage IV chronic arterial occlusion. PMID:2461011
Stoltz, J; Bartel, M
Human Papilloma Virus Infection; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx
The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of subcutaneous and intravenous fluid therapy in hydrating, elderly acute stroke patients. Thirty-four such patients, needing parenteral fluids because of impaired consciousness or dysphagia, were randomly allocated to receive either subcutaneous or intravenous fluids (2 litres of dextrose-saline/24 hours). Serum osmolality was measured before starting fluid therapy (Day 1) and on Days 2 and 3. An analysis of covariance of the osmolalities showed no statistical difference between the two groups (P = 0.12). The total cost of cannulae used over the 3 days for the subcutaneous route was approximately a third of that for the intravenous route. Complication rates were similar for the two groups. The results suggest that subcutaneous fluid therapy is an effective alternative to the intravenous route.
Challiner, Y. C.; Jarrett, D.; Hayward, M. J.; al-Jubouri, M. A.; Julious, S. A.
Conventional therapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) includes prednisone and oral 6-mercaptopurine. Prior observations suggested potential advantages for dexamethasone over prednisone and for intravenous (IV) over oral 6-mercaptopurine, which remain to be validated. We report the results of a randomized trial of more than 1000 subjects that examined the efficacy of dexamethasone and IV 6-mercaptopurine. Children with National Cancer Institute standard-risk ALL were randomly assigned in a 2 x 2 factorial design to receive dexamethasone (6 mg/m(2)/d) for 28 days in induction, plus taper, compared with prednisone (40 mg/m(2)/d). The second randomized assignment was for daily oral or weekly IV 6-mercaptopurine during consolidation. During maintenance, 5 days of the randomized steroid was given monthly, at the same dose, and all patients received daily oral 6-mercaptopurine. During delayed intensification, all patients received a dexamethasone dosage of 10 mg/m(2)/d for 21 days, with taper. Intrathecal (IT) methotrexate was the sole central nervous system-directed therapy. Patients randomly assigned to receive dexamethasone had a 6-year isolated central nervous system-relapse rate of 3.7% +/- 0.8%, compared with 7.1% +/- 1.1% for prednisone (P =.01). There was also a trend toward fewer isolated bone marrow relapses with dexamethasone. The 6-year event-free survival (EFS) was 85% +/- 2% for dexamethasone and 77% +/- 2% for prednisone (P =.002). EFS was similar with oral or IV 6-mercaptopurine; however, patients assigned to IV 6-mercaptopurine had decreased survival after relapse. PMID:12531809
Bostrom, Bruce C; Sensel, Martha R; Sather, Harland N; Gaynon, Paul S; La, Mei K; Johnston, Katherine; Erdmann, Gary R; Gold, Stuart; Heerema, Nyla A; Hutchinson, Raymond J; Provisor, Arthur J; Trigg, Michael E
Aims of the study include: (1) identify the socio-demographic characteristics of intravenous (IV) drug users (IVDUs) with AIDS, (2) assess their clinical characteristics, AIDS severity, and addiction histories by using administrative databases, (3) measur...
J. Hidalgo J. Bareta W. Rusinko N. Allen B. Sugland
Background and Purpose—Better selection of patients for intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (IV tPA) treatment may improve clinical outcomes. We examined the cost-effectiveness of adding penumbral-based MRI to usual computed tomography (CT)-based methods to identify patients for IV tPA treatment. Methods—A decision-analytic model estimated the lifetime costs and outcomes associated with penumbral-based MRI selection in a patient population similar to
Stephanie R. Earnshaw; Dan Jackson; Ray Farkouh; Lee Schwamm
Abuse of buprenorphine (BUP) by the intravenous (IV) route has been documented in several studies, and reports of intranasal (IN) abuse are increasing. However, no studies have directly compared the effects of BUP when it is administered intranasally and intravenously. The present secondary analysis used data from two separate studies to compare the reinforcing and subjective effects of IV and IN buprenorphine. One study evaluated IV buprenorphine (N=13) and the other evaluated IN buprenorphine (N=12). Participants were maintained on 2 mg sublingual (SL) BUP and tested with each intranasal or intravenous buprenorphine test dose (0 mg, 2 mg, 4 mg, 8 mg, and 16 mg). During morning laboratory sessions, participants received money (US $20) and sample doses of IN or IV BUP, and then completed subjective effects questionnaires. Later that day, they completed a self-administration task to receive 10% portions of the drug and/or money they previously sampled. In general, positive subjective ratings for both IV and IN BUP were significantly greater than placebo, with IV BUP having a greater effect than IN BUP. All active BUP doses (IV and IN) maintained significantly higher progressive ratio breakpoint values than placebo, but breakpoint values for IV BUP were greater than for IN BUP. Buprenorphine is an effective maintenance treatment for opioid dependence, valued for its ability to reduce the positive subjective effects of other opioids. Nevertheless, the present data demonstrate that in participants maintained on a low dose of SL BUP, the medication itself has abuse liability when used intravenously or intranasally. PMID:24793093
Jones, Jermaine D; Madera, Gabriela; Comer, Sandra D
Objective To determine the incidence of errors in preparing and administering intravenous (i.v.) drugs, identify the stages in the process at which errors occurred and evaluate their clinical importance. Methods A prospective ethnographic study using disguised observation was carried out on two wards in one German non-university hospital. Results We observed 22 nurses administering 122 i.v. drug preparations and administrations.
K. Taxis; N. Barber
Oxygen therapies are unproven alternatives promoted as a cure for cancer, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), and other degenerative diseases. These "therapies" are offered at clinics in Mexico, the United States, and Europe. Proponents claim that many diseases, including cancer, are caused by oxygen deficiency and that oxygenation can restore health by destroying cancer cells, eliminating pathogens, stimulating metabolism, and by producing "oxidative detoxification." There is no scientific evidence to support any of these claims. Oxygen therapies include: (1) hydrogen peroxide therapy involving intravenous infusion, ingestion, colonic administration, or soaking in hydrogen peroxide solution; (2) ozone colonies and ozone autohemotherapy, in which blood is withdrawn and treated with ozone before reinfusion, and (3) "oxygenated" water, pills, and solutions. The use of oxygen therapies has resulted in serious adverse events and several deaths. Oxygen therapies should not be confused with those commonly used in respiratory care. PMID:20043470
Evaluation of: Goodacre S, Cohen J, Bradburn M et al. Intravenous or nebulised magnesium sulphate versus standard therapy for severe acute asthma (3Mg trial): a double-blind, randomized controlled trial. Lancet Respir. Med. 1, 293-300 (2013). Acute exacerbations of asthma are common. The current recommended treatment approach to managing an acute asthma exacerbation is to administer a short-acting inhaled ?2-agonist (SABA). SABAs are rapidly effective but may not provide the bronchodilation needed to restore adequate lung function. Consequently, in severe acute asthma exacerbations, despite a standard approach to treatment including SABAs, hospitalization is common. Magnesium is a bronchodilator that may provide additional benefit to SABAs in managing acute asthma exacerbations. In this article, the comparative effectiveness of inhaled and intravenous magnesium in addition to standard therapy is evaluated in the management of severe acute asthma exacerbations. Although neither inhaled nor intravenous magnesium achieved the protocol-specified benefits, intravenous magnesium was associated with fewer hospitalizations and a trend for greater improvement in the symptom of breathlessness than inhaled magnesium. PMID:24236741
Colice, Gene L
Backround: We aimed to evaluate analgesic efficacy, opioid-sparing, and opioid-related adverse effects of intravenous paracetamol and intravenous dexketoprofen trometamol in combination with iv morphine after total abdominal hysterectomy. Materials and Methods: Sixty American Society of Anesthesiologist Physical Status Classification I-II patients scheduled for total abdominal hysterectomy were enrolled to this double-blinded, randomized, placebo controlled, and prospective study. Patients were divided into three groups as paracetamol, dexketoprofen trometamol, and placebo (0.9% NaCl) due to their post-operative analgesic usage. Intravenous patient controlled analgesia morphine was used as a rescue analgesic in all groups. Pain scores, hemodynamic parameters, morphine consumption, patient satisfaction, and side-effects were evaluated. Results: Visual Analog Scale (VAS) scores were not statistically significantly different among the groups in all evaluation times, but decrease in VAS scores was statistically significant after the evaluation at 12th h in all groups. Total morphine consumption (morphine concentration = 0.2 mg/ml) in group paracetamol (72.3 ± 38.0 ml) and dexketoprofen trometamol (69.3 ± 24.1 ml) was significantly lower than group placebo (129.3 ± 22.6 ml) (P < 0.001). Global satisfaction scores of the patients in group placebo was significantly lower than group dexketoprofen trometamol after surgery and the increase in global satisfaction score was significant only in group placebo. Conclusion: Dexketoprofen trometamol and Paracetamol didn’t cause significant change on pain scores, but increased patients’ comfort. Although total morphine consumption was significantly decreased by both drugs, the incidence of nausea and vomiting were similar among the groups. According to results of the present study routine addition of dexketoprofen trometamol and paracetamol to patient controlled analgesia morphine after hysterectomies is not recommended.
Unal, Cigdem; Cakan, Turkay; Baltaci, Bulent; Basar, Hulya
Background The role of oral antibiotic therapy in treating infective endocarditis (IE) is not well established. Methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and Scopus for studies in which oral antibiotic therapy was used for the treatment of IE. Results Seven observational studies evaluating the use oral beta-lactams (five), oral ciprofloxacin in combination with rifampin (one), and linezolid (one) for the treatment of IE caused by susceptible bacteria reported cure rates between 77% and 100%. Two other observational studies using aureomycin or sulfonamide, however, had failure rates >75%. One clinical trial comparing oral amoxicillin versus intravenous ceftriaxone for streptococcal IE reported 100% cure in both arms but its reporting had serious methodological limitations. One small clinical trial (n = 85) comparing oral ciprofloxacin and rifampin versus conventional intravenous antibiotic therapy for uncomplicated right-sided S. aureus IE in intravenous drug users (IVDUs) reported cure rates of 89% and 90% in each arm, respectively (P =0.9); however, drug toxicities were more common in the latter group (62% versus 3%; P <0.01). Major limitations of this trial were lack of allocation concealment and blinding at the delivery of the study drug(s) and assessment of outcomes. Conclusion Reported cure rates for IE treated with oral antibiotic regimens vary widely. The use of oral ciprofloxacin in combination with rifampin for uncomplicated right-sided S. aureus IE in IVDUs is supported by one small clinical trial of relatively good quality and could be considered when conventional IV antibiotic therapy is not possible.
Patients with severe pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class (FC) III/IV have a poor prognosis, despite survival benefits being demonstrated with intravenous epoprostenol. In this pilot study, the efficacy and safety of a triple combination therapy regimen in patients with severe PAH was investigated. Data from newly diagnosed NYHA FC III/IV PAH patients (n=19) initiated on upfront triple combination therapy (intravenous epoprostenol, bosentan and sildenafil) were collected retrospectively from a prospective registry. Significant improvements in 6-min walk distance and haemodynamics were observed after 4 months' triple combination therapy in 18 patients (p<0.01); 17 patients had improved to NYHA FC I or II. One patient was not included in the month 4 assessment (due to an emergency lung transplant in month 3). At the final evaluation (mean ± sd 32 ± 19 months), all 18 patients had sustained clinical and haemodynamic improvement. Overall survival estimates for the triple combination cohort were 100% at 1, 2 and 3 years. Expected survival calculated from the French equation was 75% (95% CI 68-82%), 60% (95% CI 50-70%) and 49% (95% CI 38-60%) at 1, 2 and 3 years, respectively. This pilot study provides preliminary evidence of the long-term benefits of upfront triple combination therapy in patients with severe PAH. PMID:24627535
Sitbon, Olivier; Jaïs, Xavier; Savale, Laurent; Cottin, Vincent; Bergot, Emmanuel; Macari, Elise Artaud; Bouvaist, Hélène; Dauphin, Claire; Picard, François; Bulifon, Sophie; Montani, David; Humbert, Marc; Simonneau, Gérald
The purpose of this study was to find a safe dosing regimen for landiolol, an ultra-short-acting ?-adrenergic blocking agent, to rapidly control supraventricular tachyarrhythmias (SVTs) in patients with heart failure (HF). Landiolol is reported to have good effects in the treatment of SVTs after cardiac surgery. We evaluated 52 patients with SVT and symptoms of HF (NYHA class III/IV, 10/42; EF 32 ± 12 %) on admission because of ischaemic disease (n = 10), non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy (n = 32), or valvular disease (n = 10). Paroxysmal/persistent atrial fibrillation and atrial tachycardia were present in 16 (30 %), 23 (45 %), and 13 (25 %) patients, respectively. The patients first underwent conventional therapy with carperitide, dobutamine, or milrinone. Intravenous landiolol was administered at an infusion rate of 1 ?g/kg/min and, if no adverse effects developed, the maintenance dose, titrated to HR and blood pressure response, was increased. At an average dose of 10.8 ± 9.4 ?g/kg/min, mean HR significantly decreased significantly from 133 ± 27 to 82 ± 15 beats/min (P < 0.01), whereas systolic blood pressure did not differ from baseline to attainment of an effective dose level (105 ± 21 vs. 101 ± 19 mmHg, P = ns). Within 60 min after initiation of therapy, all patients had achieved a 20 % reduction in HR at the maintenance dose. Transient asymptomatic hypotension requiring cessation of landiolol therapy occurred in three patients. Intravenous administration of landiolol was both effective in rapidly controlling HR for up to 24 h and useful as bridging treatment to additional therapy of oral ? blockade, pulmonary vein catheter ablation, or cardiac resynchronisation therapy in patients with HF. PMID:23801459
Adachi, Toru; Sato, Akira; Baba, Masako; Hiraya, Daigo; Hasegawa, Tomoaki; Kuroki, Kenji; Hoshi, Tomoya; Aonuma, Kazutaka
Acute ischaemic stroke has significant attendant morbidity and is one of the top ten causes of childhood death. It requires prompt investigation and management, however little is known about the safety and efficacy of acute thrombolytic therapies in childhood arterial ischaemic stroke. The authors report a case of a 13-year-old girl with an acute basilar thrombosis, successfully treated with intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator and discuss the management of paediatric arterial ischaemic stroke.
Rego Sousa, Paulo; Vasconcellos, Rui
Escalation of drug intake reliably occurs when animals are allowed extended self-administration access. As a form of plasticity, escalation of drug intake may be accompanied by neuroadaptive changes that are related to the transition from controlled use to addiction. The purpose of the present experiment was to examine the effects of agmatine (decarboxylated l-arginine) on the escalation of intravenous (iv)
Andrew D. Morgan; Una C. Campbell; Ryen D. Fons; Marilyn E. Carroll
Alcohol consumption produces a complex array of effects that can be divided into two types: the explicit pharmacological effects of ethanol (which can be temporally separate from time of intake) and the more temporally "relevant" effects (primarily olfactory and taste) that bridge the time from intake to onset of the pharmacological effects. Intravenous (IV) self-administration of ethanol limits the confounding "non-pharmacological" effects associated with oral consumption, allows for controlled and precise dosing, and bypasses first order absorption kinetics, allowing for more direct and better-controlled assessment of alcohol's effect on the brain. IV ethanol self-administration has been reliably demonstrated in mouse and human experimental models; however, models of IV self-administration have been historically problematic in the rat. An operant multiple-schedule study design was used to elucidate the role of each component of a compound IV-ethanol plus oral-sucrose reinforcer. Male alcohol-preferring P rats had free access to both food and water during all IV self-administration sessions. Animals were trained to press a lever for orally delivered 1% sucrose (1S) on a fixed ratio 4 schedule, and then surgically implanted with an indwelling jugular catheter. Animals were then trained to respond on a multiple FR4-FR4 schedule composed of alternating 2.5-min components across 30-min sessions. For the multiple schedule, two components were used: an oral 1S only and an oral 1S plus IV 20% ethanol (25 mg/kg/injection). Average total ethanol intake was 0.47 ± 0.04 g/kg. We found significantly higher earning of sucrose-only reinforcers and greater sucrose-lever error responding relative to the compound oral-sucrose plus IV-ethanol reinforcer. These response patterns suggest that sucrose, not ethanol, was responsible for driving overall responding. The work with a compound IV ethanol-oral sucrose reinforcer presented here suggests that the existing intravenous ethanol self-administration methodology cannot overcome the aversive properties of ethanol via this route in the rat. PMID:24835637
Windisch, Kyle A; Kosobud, Ann E K; Czachowski, Cristine L
The effect of dose and schedule of continuous i.v. rIL-2 infusions on leucocyte subset counts, activation status of CD56+CD3- natural killer (NK) and CD3+ T lymphocytes, and cytolytic activities of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was studied. A single 4-day course of rIL-2 in escalating doses (0.9-11.5 x 10(6) U/m2 per day) was given to 18 patients with various types of metastatic cancer. The serum IL-2 concentration during rIL-2 therapy ranged between 23 and 64 U/ml and was proportional to the administered rIL-2 dose, as was the rebound lymphocytosis following therapy. Before therapy, the CD56+CD3- NK cells expressed low levels of the p75 chain of the IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) and virtually no IL-2R(p55). Most CD3+ T cells were IL-2R(p55-,p75-). Between 2 and 4 days following therapy, i.e. at the time of lymphocytosis, the percentage of CD56+,CD3- NK cells among the lymphocytes had increased proportional to the administered rIL-2 dose. The levels of IL-2R(p75) expression by the CD56+,CD3- NK cells had increased. The percentages of CD3+ T cells expressing IL-2R(p55), HLA-DR and CD45RO had increased proportional to the administered rIL-2 dose. The level of lymphokine- activated killer (LAK) activity against Daudi cells was also positively correlated with rIL-2 dose. Subsequently, seven patients received 4-weekly cycles of rIL-2 (2.9-4.4 x 10(6) U/m2 per day) during 4 consecutive weeks. This schedule led to marked increments in lymphocyte and eosinophil counts, and to increased cytolytic activities compared with pretreatment. We conclude that CD56+,CD3- NK and CD3+ T cells are activated differentially by continuous i.v. rIL-2 proportional to dose and duration of treatment.
Gratama, J W; Bruin, R J; Lamers, C H; Oosterom, R; Braakman, E; Stoter, G; Bolhuis, R L
Introduction Despite evidence from developing world trials that intravenous (IV) artesunate (AS) is superior to IV quinine (Q) in severe falciparum malaria (FM), IV AS remains unlicensed in the UK with national guidelines listing it as an acceptable alternative to IV Q as the drug of choice. We retrospectively evaluate the safety and effectiveness of IV AS in returning travellers with severe FM. Methods We identified adults admitted to the Infectious Diseases unit with severe FM and treated with IV Q (1991–2009) or IV AS (2009–2011). Outcomes included adverse events, mortality, length of stay, admission to intensive care and, where data were available, parasite/fever clearance time and hypoglycaemic events. Results Of 167 patients, 24 received IV AS and 143 IV Q. There was one potential AS-associated adverse event, a case of late onset haemolysis. Median length of stay (LOS) was significantly shorter for AS (3.5 versus 5 days, P?=?0.017), even after adjusting for African ethnicity (for LOS ?3 days, mhor?=?0.33, P?=?0.027; crude OR?=?0.29, P?=?0.013). In the AS group, there were no fatalities (versus five in Q group, NS) and fewer intensive care unit (ICU) admissions (NS). Median parasite clearance was significantly faster in AS (65 versus 85 hours in Q, P?=?0.0045) with no hypoglycaemic episodes (versus five in Q). Discussion We found IV AS to be safe and effective, with shorter LOS, faster parasite and fever clearance, no fatalities or hypoglycaemic events, and fewer ICU admissions versus IV Q. This corroborates both developing world trials and smaller European case series (although these lacked comparison groups). As well as obvious benefits for patients, there are potential resource savings. A case of late-onset haemolysis may represent an adverse event, particularly as it has been documented elsewhere, warranting further investigation. Nonetheless, our experience suggests IV AS should be first-line for treating severe FM in the UK.
Eder, Marcus; Farne, Hugo; Cargill, Tamsin; Abbara, Aula; Davidson, Robert N
Atopic dermatitis is one of the most common allergic diseases that almost always respond to conventional therapies with topical emollient, topical corticosteroids, systemic antihistamines and allergic abstinence. However few cases of atopic dermatitis with severe course do not respond to conventional therapies and high dose of intravenous immunoglobulin or cyclosporine are recommended for them. This clinical trial study has been
Mohammad Hassan Bemanian; Masoud Movahedi; Abolhassan Farhoudi; Mohammad Gharagozlou; Mehran Heidari Seraj; Zahra Pourpak; Mohammad Nabavi; Asghar Aghamohammadi; Zahra Shirkhoda
The kinetic profile of diltiazem, a novel calcium antagonist, was studied in 12 volunteers following oral (60 mg) and intravenous (15 mg) administration. After i.v. administration biphasic elimination was observed, with a distribution half-life of 0.3±0.2 h and an elimination half-life of 3.1±1.0 h; the apparent volume of distribution was 5.3±1.71\\/kg and the total clearance was 1.28±0.48 l\\/kg\\/h. After the
Ph. Hermann; S. D. Rodger; G. Remones; J. P. Thenot; D. R. London; P. L. Morselli
This double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated the safety and efficacy of intravenous (IV) calcitriol (Calcijex) for treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism (2°HPT) in pediatric end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients on hemodialysis (HD). After a 2 to 6-week washout period of all vitamin D compounds, patients with two consecutive PTH values >400 pg mL-1, calcium levels =10.5 mg dL-1 and calcium×phosphorus product values =70 mg2 dL-2 were eligible
Larry A. Greenbaum; Ryszard Grenda; Ping Qiu; Irene Restaino; Amy Wojtak; Ana Paredes; Nadine Benador; Joel Z. Melnick; Laura A. Williams; Isidro B. Salusky
Oxovanadium(IV) complexes [VO(salmet)(B)] (1-3) and [VO(saltrp)(B)] (4-6), where salmet and saltrp are N-salicylidene-l-methionate and N-salicylidene-l-tryptophanate, respectively, and B is a N,N-donor heterocyclic base (viz. 1,10-phenanthroline (phen, 1, 4), dipyrido[3,2-d:2',3'-f]quinoxaline (dpq, 2, 5), and dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine (dppz, 3, 6)) are prepared and characterized and their DNA binding and photoinduced DNA cleavage activity studied. Complexes 1, 2, and 4 are structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray crystallography. The molecular structure shows the presence of a vanadyl group in the VO3N3 coordination geometry. The dianionic alpha-amino acid Schiff base acts as a tridentate O,N,O-donor ligand in a meridional binding mode. The N,N-donor heterocyclic base displays a chelating mode of bonding with a N-donor site trans to the oxo group. The complexes show a d-d band in the range of 680-710 nm in DMF with a shoulder near 840 nm. They exhibit an irreversible oxidative cyclic voltammetric response near 0.8 V assignable to the V(V)/V(IV) couple and a quasi-reversible V(IV)/V(III) redox couple near -1.1 V vs SCE in DMF-0.1 M TBAP. The complexes show good binding propensity to calf thymus DNA giving binding constant values in the range from 5.2 x 10(4) to 7.2 x 10(5) M(-1). The binding site size, thermal melting, and viscosity data suggest DNA surface and/or groove binding nature of the complexes. The complexes show poor "chemical nuclease" activity in the dark in the presence of 3-mercaptopropionic acid or hydrogen peroxide. The dpq and dppz complexes show efficient DNA cleavage activity on irradiation with UV-A light of 365 nm via a mechanistic pathway involving formation of singlet oxygen as the reactive species. They also show significant DNA cleavage activity on photoexcitation in red light (>750 nm) by (1)O2 species. Observation of red-light-induced cleavage of DNA is unprecedented in the vanadium chemistry. The DNA cleavage activity is metal promoted as the ligands or vanadyl sulfate alone are cleavage inactive on photoirradiation at these wavelengths. PMID:18020327
Sasmal, Pijus K; Patra, Ashis K; Nethaji, Munirathinam; Chakravarty, Akhil R
Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer
Purpose Cumulative sensory neurotoxicity (sNT) is the dose-limiting toxicity of oxaliplatin, which commonly leads to early discontinuation of oxaliplatin-based therapy in the palliative and adjuvant settings. In a nonrandomized, retrospective study, intravenous (IV) calcium/magnesium (Ca/Mg) was associated with reduced oxaliplatin-induced sNT. Methods Patients with colon cancer undergoing adjuvant therapy with infusional fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) were randomly assigned to Ca/Mg (1g calcium gluconate plus 1g magnesium sulfate pre- and post-oxaliplatin) or placebo, in a double-blinded manner. The primary end point was the percentage of patients with grade 2 or greater sNT at any time during or after oxaliplatin-based therapy by National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (NCI CTCAE; version 3) criteria. An oxaliplatin-specific sNT scale and patient questionnaires were also used to assess sNT. After 104 of 300 planned patients were enrolled, the study was closed. This was due to preliminary reports from another trial that suggested that Ca/Mg decreased treatment efficacy; these data were subsequently found to be incorrect. Results Overall, 102 patients were available for analysis. Ca/Mg decreased the incidence of chronic, cumulative, grade 2 or greater sNT, as measured by NCI CTCAE (P = .038) and also by the oxaliplatin-specific sNT scale (P = .018). In addition, acute muscle spasms associated with oxaliplatin were significantly reduced (P = .01) No effect on acute, cold-induced sNT was found. No substantial differences in adverse effects were noted between Ca/Mg and placebo. Conclusion Despite early termination and decreased statistical power, this study supports IV Ca/Mg as an effective neuroprotectant against oxaliplatin-induced cumulative sNT in adjuvant colon cancer.
Grothey, Axel; Nikcevich, Daniel A.; Sloan, Jeff A.; Kugler, John W.; Silberstein, Peter T.; Dentchev, Todor; Wender, Donald B.; Novotny, Paul J.; Chitaley, Umesh; Alberts, Steven R.; Loprinzi, Charles L.
Background Anti-epileptic drugs are commonly used for seizure prophylaxis after neurological injury. We performed a study comparing intravenous\\u000a (IV) levetiracetam (LEV) to IV phenytoin (PHT) for seizure prophylaxis after neurological injury.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods In this prospective, single-center, randomized, single-blinded comparative trial of LEV versus PHT (2:1 ratio) in patients\\u000a with severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI) or subarachnoid hemorrhage (NCT00618436) patients received IV load
Jerzy P. Szaflarski; Kiranpal S. Sangha; Christopher J. Lindsell; Lori A. Shutter
Photodynamic therapy is a potentially advantageous treatment for non-melanoma skin cancers. We evaluated the clinical response, recurrence and adverse events of photodynamic therapy for in situ extramammary Paget's disease in 14 male and 3 female Chinese patients with 21 lesions. Topical 20% 5-aminolevulinic acid was applied for 6 h. Each lesion was irradiated with 633 nm red light three times, 1 week apart, at a total dose of 339 J/cm2, followed by three assessments at 6, 12 and 24 months. Overall complete response (CR) rates were 52.4%, 42.9%, and 33.3% at 6, 12 and 24 months, respectively. The CR rate was significantly higher in scrotal lesions (66.6%) than in non-scrotal lesions (8.3%). The overall recurrence rate was 50%. The highest CR rate was for the lesions < 4 cm in diameter (62.5%), followed by those 4-8 cm (33.3%) and > 8 cm (0%). Most adverse events were well tolerated. In conclusion, photodynamic therapy for extramammary Paget's disease is not recommended as the first option except for scrotal cases or lesions < 4 cm in diameter. PMID:20169299
Li, Qiang; Gao, Tianwen; Jiao, Bin; Qi, Xianlong; Long, Heather Ann; Qiao, Hongjiang; Wang, Lei; Lv, Yajie; Hu, Xuehui; Liao, Wenjun; Wang, Shengchun; Li, Chunying
Magnetic nanoparticles heated by an alternating magnetic field could be used to treat cancers, either alone or in combination with radiotherapy or chemotherapy. However, direct intratumoral injections suffer from tumor incongruence and invasiveness, typically leaving undertreated regions, which lead to cancer regrowth. Intravenous injection more faithfully loads tumors, but, so far, it has been difficult achieving the necessary concentration in tumors before systemic toxicity occurs. Here, we describe use of a magnetic nanoparticle that, with a well-tolerated intravenous dose, achieved a tumor concentration of 1.9 mg Fe/g tumor in a subcutaneous squamous cell carcinoma mouse model, with a tumor to non-tumor ratio > 16. With an applied field of 38 kA/m at 980 kHz, tumors could be heated to 60°C in 2 minutes, durably ablating them with millimeter (mm) precision, leaving surrounding tissue intact.
Huang, Hui S; Hainfeld, James F
Forty-five ASA physical status I volunteers, divided in three groups of 15 each, received intravenous regional anesthesia (IVRA) of the upper limb with 40 mL meper- idine 0.25%, lidocaine 0.5%, or 0.9% sodium chloride (isolated ischemia) by random allocation. Using a dou- ble-blind method, the onset and recovery of sensory block was tested at six sites of the forearm and
Iurie Acalovschi; Tudor Cristea
Total intravenous feeding was accomplished for 5 clinically normal calves and for 1 calf with atresia coli. During the trials, which lasted 8 to 14 days (mean of 12 days), calves were not permitted to ingest any food or water. Body weight and state of hydration remained essentially constant. Plasma protein content decreased, but there were only minor changes in other physiologic measures. Calves were clinically normal at the conclusion of the trials. PMID:407200
Hoffsis, G F; Gingerich, D A; Sherman, D M; Bruner, R R
Introduction Stem cell therapy can promote good recovery from stroke. Several studies have demonstrated that mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are safe and effective. However, more information regarding appropriate cell type is needed from animal model. This study was targeted at analyzing the effects in ischemic stroke of acute intravenous (i.v.) administration of allogenic bone marrow- (BM-MSC) and adipose-derived-stem cells (AD-MSC) on functional evaluation results and brain repair markers. Methods Allogenic MSC (2 × 106 cells) were administered intravenously 30 minutes after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) to rats. Infarct volume and cell migration and implantation were analyzed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and immunohistochemistry. Function was evaluated by the Rogers and rotarod tests, and cell proliferation and cell-death were also determined. Brain repair markers were analyzed by confocal microscopy and confirmed by western blot. Results Compared to infarct group, function had significantly improved at 24 h and continued at 14 d after i.v. administration of either BM-MSC or AD-MSC. No reduction in infarct volume or any migration/implantation of cells into the damaged brain were observed. Nevertheless, cell death was reduced and cellular proliferation significantly increased in both treatment groups with respect to the infarct group. At 14 d after MSC administration vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), synaptophysin (SYP), oligodendrocyte (Olig-2) and neurofilament (NF) levels were significantly increased while those of glial fiibrillary acid protein (GFAP) were decreased. Conclusions i.v. administration of allogenic MSC - whether BM-MSC or AD-MSC, in pMCAO infarct was associated with good functional recovery, and reductions in cell death as well as increases in cellular proliferation, neurogenesis, oligodendrogenesis, synaptogenesis and angiogenesis markers at 14 days post-infarct.
Background Induced hypothermia is a promising neuroprotective therapy. We studied the feasibility and safety of hypothermia and thrombolysis after acute ischemic stroke. Methods ICTuS-L was a randomized, multi-center trial of hypothermia and intravenous t-PA in patients treated within 6 hours after ischemic stroke. Enrollment was stratified to the treatment time windows 0–3 and 3–6 hours. Patients presenting within 3 hours of symptom onset received standard dose intravenous alteplase (IV tPA) and were randomized to undergo 24 hours of endovascular cooling to 33°C followed by 12 hours of controlled re-warming or normothermia treatment. Patients presenting between 3 and 6 hours were randomized twice: to receive t-PA or not and to receive hypothermia or not. Results In total, 59 patients were enrolled. One patient was enrolled but not treated when pneumonia was discovered just prior to treatment. All 44 patients enrolled within 3 hours and 4 of 14 patients enrolled between 3–6 hours received t-PA. Overall, 28 patients randomized to receive hypothermia (HY) and 30 to normothermia (NT). Baseline demographics and risk factors were similar between groups. Mean age was 65.5±12.1 years and baseline NIHSS was 14.0±5.0; 32 (55%) were male. Cooling was achieved in all patients except 2 in whom there were technical difficulties. The median time to target temperature after catheter placement was 67min (Q1 57.3 –Q3 99.4). At 3 months, 18% of patients treated with HY had a modified Rankin Scale (mRS) of 0 or 1, versus 24% in the NT groups (NS). Symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage occurred in 4 patients (68), all were treated with tPA less than 3 hours (1 received HY). Six patients in the HY and 5 in the NT groups died within 90 days (NS). Pneumonia occurred in 14 patients in the HY and in 3 of the NT groups (p=0.001). The pneumonia rate did not significantly adversely affect 3 month mRS (p=0.32). Conclusion This study demonstrates the feasibility and preliminary safety of combining endovascular hypothermia after stroke with intravenous thrombolysis. Pneumonia was more frequent after hypothermia, but further studies are needed to determine its effect on patient outcome and whether it can be prevented. A definitive efficacy trial is necessary to evaluate the efficacy of therapeutic hypothermia for acute stroke.
Hemmen, Thomas M; Raman, Rema; Guluma, Kama Z; Meyer, Brett C; Gomes, Joao A; Cruz-Flores, Salvador; Wijman, Christine A; Rapp, Karen S; Grotta, James C; Lyden, Patrick D
Our objective is to present a case of fatal multiple systemic emboli after intravenous thrombolysis for cardioembolic stroke. A 64-year-old woman with atrial fibrillation was admitted for evaluation of sudden consciousness disturbance, right hemiplegia, and aphasia. Diffusion-weighted imaging showed no early ischemic changes of the brain, and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) showed occlusion of the left middle cerebral artery (MCA). One hour after initiation of 0.6 mg/kg of intravenous alteplase, the MCA was partially recanalized. Her symptoms disappeared the following day. We began intravenous heparin for secondary prevention of cardioembolic stroke. However, on the third day (52 hours after thrombolysis), she suddenly developed a coma and left hemiplegia. MRA showed acute occlusion of the right internal carotid artery (ICA). She developed acute kidney injury and sudden shock and then died of fatal cardiorespiratory arrest on the fourth day. Autopsy revealed occlusion of the mitral valve orifice by a spherical fresh red thrombus that led from the left atrial appendage. Acute embolic infarcts were identified in the spleen and right kidney, the latter secondary to occlusion of the right renal artery with fresh red thrombus. Intravenous thrombolysis and subsequent anticoagulation therapy may destabilize pre-existing intracardiac thrombus, potentially leading to recurrent stroke, multiple systemic embolisms, and the fatal "hole-in-one" effect. PMID:23545321
Tanaka, Koji; Ohara, Tomoyuki; Ishigami, Akiko; Ikeda, Yoshihiko; Matsushige, Toshinori; Satow, Tetsu; Ishibashi-Ueda, Hatsue; Iihara, Koji; Toyoda, Kazunori
This study examines effectiveness of a donated Laerdal Virtual I.V. simulator when compared with traditional methods of teaching intravenous (IV) cannulation to third year medical students in the Philippines. Forty novice Filipino medical students viewed an instructional video on how to start intravenous lines and were then randomly divided into two groups of twenty. The "Traditional" group observed an IV insertion on an actual patient performed by an experienced practitioner, and then subsequently performed an IV on an actual patient which was videotaped. The "Simulation" group practiced the Virtual I.V. simulator until they successfully completed level three using the "doctor" setting. These students then performed an IV on an actual patient which was videotaped. The videotapes for both groups were reviewed by two pre-trained (Inter-rater reliability of > or =0.84) observers who were blinded to the group using a previously validated checklist for IV insertion. Students trained on the Virtual I.V. showed significantly greater success in successfully starting an IV on an actual patient (40% VS. 15%, p<0.05), decreased constrictive band time (p<.05), increased raw score on the check list (p<.03), and decreased overall time to start an IV (p<.05). The technology was well received but wider application in the non western world is limited by lack of in country company support and the relative expense. PMID:19377182
Sotto, Juan Alejandro R; Ayuste, Eduardo C; Bowyer, Mark W; Almonte, Josefina R; Dofitas, Rodney B; Lapitan, Marie C M; Pimentel, Elisabeth A; Ritter, E Matthew; Wherry, David C
The long plasma half-life of IgG, while allowing for enhanced tumor uptake of tumor-targeted IgG conjugates, also results in increased background activity and normal-tissue toxicity. Therefore, successful therapeutic uses of conjugated antibodies have been limited to the highly sensitive and readily accessible hematopoietic tumors. We report a therapeutic strategy to beneficially alter the pharmacokinetics of IgG antibodies via pharmacological inhibition of the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) using high-dose IgG therapy. IgG-treated mice displayed enhanced blood and whole-body clearance of radioactivity, resulting in better tumor-to-blood image contrast and protection of normal tissue from radiation. Tumor uptake and the resultant therapeutic response was unaltered. Furthermore, we demonstrated the use of this approach for imaging of tumors in humans and discuss its potential applications in cancer imaging and therapy. The ability to reduce the serum persistence of conjugated IgG antibodies after their infusion can enhance their therapeutic index, resulting in improved therapeutic and diagnostic efficacy.
Singh Jaggi, Jaspreet; Carrasquillo, Jorge A.; Seshan, Surya V.; Zanzonico, Pat; Henke, Erik; Nagel, Andrew; Schwartz, Jazmin; Beattie, Brad; Kappel, Barry J.; Chattopadhyay, Debjit; Xiao, Jing; Sgouros, George; Larson, Steven M.; Scheinberg, David A.
Background\\/Aims: Pamidronate is widely used to treat pediatric patients with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). We aimed at delineating the effects of monthly pamidronate therapy on the growth of different body segments in prepubertal OI patients. Methods: The study included 14 prepubertal patients (12 boys, 2 girls) with mild forms of OI (type I and IV). The mean age at treatment start
Terhi J. Heino; Eva Åström; Evaldas Laurencikas; Lars Sävendahl; Stefan Söderhäll
Potential immunological advantage of intravenous mycophenolate mofetil with tacrolimus and steroids in primary deceased donor liver transplantation and live donor liver transplantation without antibody induction.
With the current immunosuppressive regimens, graft loss secondary to immunological reasons after successful liver transplantation is a rarity; acute rejections, however, do occur, with the majority of them being steroid-responsive. The aim of the present study is to examine the rate of acute rejection with tacrolimus, intravenous (IV) mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), and steroids in primary deceased donor liver transplant (DDLT) and live donor liver transplant (LDLT) recipients. During the year 2005, 130 patients (mean age: 54.9 +/- 10.8, males: 84, females: 46, 112 DDLT and 18 LDLT) received primary liver transplantation. They were followed up for the incidence of acute rejection in the first 12 months. Liver biopsies were performed as clinically indicated; protocol liver biopsies were never performed. A total of 127 liver biopsies were performed. Thirty-two had a rejection activity index (RAI) score of > or =3, of which 24 biopsies in 20 patients were not treated with a steroid bolus. Eight (6.1%) patients (mean RAI score: 5.1 +/- 1.4) received 750 to 1500 mg of methylprednisolone over 3 days. Out of these, 2 were noncompliant, 4 were off MMF, and 1 was on cyclosporine. All patients responded to steroid therapy. None of the patients required any antibody preparation. In conclusion, IV MMF with tacrolimus and steroids is useful and required antirejection therapy in 6.1% of liver transplant recipients. PMID:18236395
Jain, Ashokkumar; Sharma, Rajeev; Ryan, Charlotte; Tsoulfas, Georgious; Orloff, Mark; Abt, Peter; Kashyap, Randeep; Batzold, Pam; Sauberman, Lisa; Safadjou, Saman; Graham, Maureen; Bozorgzadeh, Adel
Objective Intravenous (IV) levetiracetam (LEV) is approved for use in patients older than 16 years and may be useful in critically ill children, although there is little data available regarding pharmacokinetics. We aim to investigate the safety, an appropriate dosing, and efficacy of IV LEV in critically ill children. Design We describe a cohort of critically ill children who received IV LEV for status epilepticus, including refractory or nonconvulsive status, or acute repetitive seizures. Results There were no acute adverse effects noted. Children had temporary cessation of ongoing refractory status epilepticus, termination of ongoing nonconvulsive status epilepticus, cessation of acute repetitive seizures, or reduction in epileptiform discharges with clinical correlate. Conclusions IV LEV was effective in terminating status epilepticus or acute repetitive seizures and well tolerated in critically ill children. Further study is needed to elucidate the role of IV LEV in critically ill children.
Abend, Nicholas S.; Monk, Heather M.; Licht, Daniel J.; Dlugos, Dennis J.
Aim: To compare the onset and duration of intravenous (IV) and intraosseous (IO) administration of succinylcholine in swine. Methods: Electromyographic (EMG) amplitudes were used to characterize muscle paralysis following administration of succinylcholine via the IV or IO route in four Yorkshire-cross swine. Results: The onset of action of succinylcholine was statistically longer after IO administration (0.97 ± 0.40) compared with IV administration (0.55 ± 0.26) (p = .048). Duration of action was unaffected by route of administration: IO, 11.4 ± 4.2, and IV, 12.9 ± 3.8 (p = .65). Conclusions: Succinylcholine can be effectively administered via the IO route. However, an increased dose may be necessary when administering succinylcholine via the IO route to achieve the same rapid onset as standard IV dosing. PMID:24952038
Loughren, Michael J; Kilbourn, James; Worth, Kevin; Burgert, James; Gegel, Brian; Johnson, Don
Five different intravenous IgG (i.v. IgG) preparations were assessed for their capacity to modify the pyrogenic response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of rabbits under the conditions of a pharmacopoeal test. Four of the five preparations were found to mitigate the reaction rendering the result "non-pyrogenic" with an LPS dose proved pyrogenic when administered in saline or in albumin. Bacterial LPS was found readily detectable by a simple Limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) gelation test. Four of six brands of i.v. IgG were found reactive in the test under conditions adjusted to detect the FDA limit. The reaction obtained upon addition of standard LPS to the negative preparations supported the validity of the assay. The LAL reactivity of two of the reactive preparations was inhibited by laminarin, a compound known to inhibit Limulus lysate gelation by beta-D-glucan, but not by Polymyxin B. Specific detection of bacterial endotoxins in i.v. IgG solutions requires inhibition of the beta-D-glucan pathway of the Limulus lysate coagulation. Using an appropriate inhibitor, the LAL gelation test is suitable to detect a potential endotoxin contamination in i.v. IgG which might have not been unravelled by the in vivo test for pyrogens. PMID:12127308
Huszár, Gizella; Jenei, Béla; Szabó, Györgyi; Medgyesi, György A
Surgical repair of pectus excavatum can be associated with significant postoperative pain. Various analgesic modalities have been suggested including thoracic epidural analgesia and intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV PCA). The current study compares the efficacy and adverse efficacy profile of these 2 analgesic modalities. The charts of 18 adolescents who had undergone pectus excavatum repair were retrospectively reviewed and divided into 2 groups: thoracic epidural analgesia (E) or IV PCA (I). Demographic data included age, weight, sex, and anesthesia/surgical times. Treatment days (defined as the number of days the patients received intravenous or epidural analgesia), time to oral intake, and time to discharge from the hospital were also recorded. Pain scores using a visual analogue scale ranging from 0 (no pain) to 10 (worst imaginable pain) and sedation scores were recorded in the postanesthesia care unit and at 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, and 60 hours postoperatively. The charts were also reviewed for side effects including nausea and/or vomiting, pruritus, oxygen desaturation, and respiratory depression. The study cohort included 18 patients divided equally into group E (epidural analgesia) (n = 9) and group I (IV PCA). There were no statistically significant differences between the 2 groups with regard to demographic data, time to oral intake, and time to hospital discharge. Anesthesia to surgery times were longer in group E compared with group I (43 +/- 11 versus 25 +/- 11 minutes, P = 0.004), but there was no difference in overall surgery and anesthesia times. The number of treatment days (days that the patients received intravenous or epidural medications) was decreased in group E versus group I (2.3 +/- 0.7 versus 3.3 +/- 1.0 days, P = 0.027). There was no difference between the 2 groups in regard to the onset of oral intake or hospital discharge time. Pain scores were initially higher in the postanesthesia care unit in group E versus group I (6.78 +/- 2.17 versus 5.78 +/- 3.77); however, after that point, pain scores were lower in group E than in group I. There was no difference between the 2 groups in regard to sedation scores or adverse effect profile. Epidural analgesia provided better pain control than the intravenous route for the management of patients after pectus excavatum repair. No adverse effects related to epidural analgesia were noted. The only issue identified with thoracic epidural anesthesia was a mean increase of 18 minutes for anesthesia time required for catheter placement before the start of the case. PMID:19262363
Soliman, Iris E; Apuya, Jesus S; Fertal, Kathy M; Simpson, Pippa M; Tobias, Joseph D
Background Postoperative delirium is relatively common. However, the relationship between intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV-PCA) and delirium has not been thoroughly investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of IV-PCA on the prognosis of postoperative delirium in patients undergoing orthopedic surgery. Methods Medical records of 129 patients with postoperative delirium were reviewed. Patients were divided into two groups according to whether they used IV-PCA with fentanyl and ketorolac. The IV-PCA group consisted of 73 patients who were managed with IV-PCA; the NO-PCA group consisted of 56 patients who were managed without PCA. Results Incidences of multiple psychiatric consultations and prolonged delirium were significantly lower in patients using IV-PCA with fentanyl and ketorolac than in those without PCA. Conclusions We recommend the use of IV-PCA for pain control and management of delirium in patients with postoperative delirium.
Heo, Dae Young
An economic evaluation of oral compared with intravenous ganciclovir for maintenance treatment of newly diagnosed for maintenance treatment of newly diagnosed cytomegalovirus retinitis in AIDS patients
This prospective, clinical economic study was done to determine the cost impact of oral compared with intravenous (IV) ganciclovir for the maintenance treatment of newly diagnosed cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Efficacy and safety data were extracted from a trial of oral and IV ganciclovir. Medical care utilization and reimbursement data were obtained from the
Sean D. Sullivan; Essy Mozaffari; Eric S. Johnson; Richard Wolitz; Stephen E. Follansbee
Background Iron deficiency is the most common disorder in the world, affecting approximately 25% of the world`s population and the most common cause of anemia. Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of intravenous iron sucrose (IS) in the treatment of adults with iron deficiency anemia Methods Eighty-six adult patients with iron deficiency anemia, who had intolerance or showed no effect with oral iron therapy, received a weekly dose of 200 mg of intravenous iron sucrose until the hemoglobin level was corrected or until receiving the total dose of intravenous iron calculated for each patient Results The mean hemoglobin and serum ferritin levels were 8.54 g/dL and 7.63 ng/mL (pre-treatment) and 12.1 g/dL and 99.0 ng/mL (post-treatment) (p-value < 0.0001), respectively. The average increases in hemoglobin levels were 3.29 g/dL for women and 4.58 g/dL for men; 94% of male and 84% of female patients responded (hemoglobin increased by at least 2 g/dL) to intravenous iron therapy. Correction of anemia was obtained in 47 of 69 (68.1%) female patients and in 12 of 17 male (70.6%) patients. A total of 515 intravenous infusions of iron sucrose were administered and iron sucrose was generally well tolerated with no moderate or serious adverse drug reactions recorded by the investigators. Conclusions Our data confirm that the use of intravenous iron sucrose is a safe and effective option in the treatment of adult patients with iron deficiency anemia who lack satisfactory response to oral iron therapy. Intravenous iron sucrose is well tolerated and with a clinically manageable safety profile when using appropriate dosing and monitoring. The availability of intravenous iron sucrose would potentially improve compliance and thereby reduce morbidities from iron deficiency.
Cancado, Rodolfo Delfini; de Figueiredo, Pedro Otavio Novis; Olivato, Maria Cristina Albe; Chiattone, Carlos Sergio
Over the past decade, our views have\\u000a considerably evolved with respect to the metabolism of intravenous\\u000a lipid emulsions and their composition. Substantial progress has been\\u000a made in understanding the metabolic pathways of emulsion particles and\\u000a the delivery of their various components (fatty acids and vitamins) to\\u000a specific tissues or cells. Although soybean long-chain triglycerides\\u000a represent a valuable source of energy,
Intracranial bleeding is an important and dangerous complication associated with thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke. Spinal hemorrhage has been reported after systemic thrombolysis for various conditions other than acute ischemic stroke. Our patient presented with an acute ischemic stroke and showed significant clinical recovery during intravenous thrombolysis. CT scan of the brain, performed about 6 h later due to neurological deterioration did not reveal any bleeding or a new infarction. However, an acute epidural hematoma was noted on MRI of the cervical spine. She was treated conservatively and showed a satisfactory recovery. We report, probably the first case of spinal epidural hemorrhage after systemic thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke. Spinal hemorrhage should be considered as a differential diagnosis for neurological worsening after intravenous thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke, especially when the brain imaging studies do not reveal an appropriate intracranial pathology. PMID:19411083
Yeo, Leonard L L; Lim, Joline Si Jing; Sharma, Vijay K
We tested the hypothesis that differences in (+)-methamphetamine (METH) disposition during late rat pregnancy could lead to increased vulnerability to acute METH effects. The disposition of a single 1 mg/kg i.v. METH dose was studied during early (gestation day 7, GD7) and late (GD21) gestation. Results showed gestation time-dependent pharmacokinetics, characterized by a significantly higher area under the METH serum concentration versus time curve and a lower clearance on GD21 (p < 0.05; total, renal, and nonrenal clearance). The terminal elimination half-life (t1/2?z) of METH and (+)-amphetamine (AMP; a pharmacologically active metabolite of METH) were not different on GD7, but by GD21, AMP t1/2?z was 37% longer than METH t1/2?z (p < 0.05). To identify the mechanism for AMP metabolite changes, intravenous AMP pharmacokinetics on GD21 were compared with AMP metabolite pharmacokinetics after intravenous METH. The intravenous AMP t1/2?z was significantly shorter than metabolite AMP t1/2?z (p < 0.05), which suggested AMP metabolite formation (not elimination) was the rate-limiting process. To understand the medical consequence of METH use during late-stage pregnancy, timed-pregnant rats received an intravenous dose of saline or METH (1, 3, or 5.6 mg/kg) on GD21, 0 to 2 days antepartum. Although one rat died and another had stillbirths at term after the 5.6-mg/kg dose, the pharmacokinetic values for all of the other animals were not significantly different. In conclusion, late-gestational clearance reductions lengthen METH exposure time, possibly increasing susceptibility to adverse effects, including death.
White, Sarah; Laurenzana, Elizabeth; Hendrickson, Howard; Gentry, W. Brooks
Background In systemic sclerosis (SSc), joint involvement may reduce the functional capacity of the hands. Intravenous immunoglobulins have previously been shown to benefit patients with SSc. Aim To verify the efficacy of intravenous immunoglobulins on joint involvement and function in SSc. Patients and methods 7 women with SSc, 5 with limited and 2 with diffuse SSc, with a severe and refractory joint involvement were enrolled in the study. Methotrexate and cyclophosphamide pulse therapy did not ameliorate joint symptoms. Hence, intravenous immunoglobulins therapy was prescribed at a dosage of 2?g/kg body weight during 4?days/month for six consecutive courses. The presence of joint tenderness and swelling, and articular deformities (due to primary joint involvement and not due to skin and subcutaneous changes) were evaluated. Before and after 6?months of treatment, patients were subjected to (1) Ritchie Index (RI) evaluation of joint involvement; (2) Dreiser Algo?Functional Index (IAFD) evaluation of hand joint function; (3) pain visual analogue scale (VAS) to measure joint pain; (4) Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) to evaluate the limitations in everyday living and physical disability; and (5) modified Rodnan Skin Score for skin involvement. Results After 6?months of intravenous immunoglobulins therapy, joint pain and tenderness, measured with the VAS, decreased significantly (p<0.03), and hand function (IAFD) improved significantly (p<0.02), together with the quality of life (HAQ; p<0.03). All patients significantly improved, except for one. The skin score after 6?months of intravenous immunoglobulins therapy was significantly reduced (p<0.003). Conclusion This pilot study suggests that intravenous immunoglobulins may reduce joint pain and tenderness, with a significant recovery of joint function in patients with SSc with severe and refractory joint involvement. The cost of intravenous immunoglobulins might limit their use only to patients who failed disease?modifying antirheumatic drugs.
Nacci, F; Righi, A; Conforti, M L; Miniati, I; Fiori, G; Martinovic, D; Melchiorre, D; Sapir, T; Blank, M; Shoenfeld, Y; Pignone, A Moggi; Cerinic, M Matucci
Total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) is frequently used for major operations requiring general anesthesia in critically ill burn patients. We reviewed our experience with this approach. Methods: During a 22-month period, 547 major burn surgeries were performed in this center’s operating room and were staffed by full-time burn anesthesiologists. The records of all 123 TIVA cases were reviewed; 112 records were complete and were included. For comparison, 75 cases were selected at random from a total of 414 non-TIVA general anesthetics. Some patients had more than one operation during the study: as appropriate for the analysis in question, each operation or each patient was entered as an individual case. For inter-patient analysis, exposure to 1 or more TIVAs was used to categorize a patient as member of the TIVA group. Results: Excision and grafting comprised 78.2% of the operations. 14 TIVA regimens were used, employing combinations of 4 i.v. drugs: ketamine (K, 91 cases); i.v. methadone (M, 62); fentanyl (F, 58); and propofol (P, 21). The most common regimens were KM (34 cases); KF (26); KMF (16); and K alone (8). Doses used often exceeded those used in non-burn patients. TIVA was preferred for those patients who were more critically ill prior to surgery, with a higher ASA score (3.87 vs. 3.11). Consistent with this, inhalation injury (26.7 vs. 1.6%), burn size (TBSA, 36.3 vs. 15.8%), and full-thickness burn size (FULL, 19.8 vs. 6.5%) were higher in TIVA than in non-TIVA patients. Despite this, intraoperative pressor use was as common in TIVA as in non-TIVA cases (23.9 vs. 22.7%). Conclusions: TIVA was used in patients whose inhalation injury rate and TBSA were greater than those of non-TIVA patients. TIVA cases were not associated with increased hemodynamic instability. TIVA is a viable approach to general anesthesia in critically ill burn patients.
Cancio, Leopoldo C; Cuenca, Phillip B; Walker, Stephen C; Shepherd, John M
Objective: To compare the effectiveness and safety of add on therapy of bromocriptine with metformin in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. Material and Methods: Adult type 2 DM patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria were randomized in three groups. Group A received metformin (1000 mg/ day), while group B patients were treated with metformin (1000 mg/day) plus bromocriptine (0.8 mg/day) and group C received metformin (1000 mg/day) plus bromocriptine (1.6 mg/day) for 12 weeks. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), postprandial plasma glucose (PPPG), and body weight were measured at week 4, 8, and 12 visits and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C) at week 12 visit. Results: Metformin alone and in combination with bromocriptine in escalating dose (0.8 mg/day and 1.6 mg/day) significantly (P < 0.05) decreased FPG and PPPG levels at weeks 4, 8, and 12 compared with pretreatment values. HbA1C level in all three treatment groups significantly (P < 0.05) decreased at week 12 as compared with pretreatment baseline value. HbA1C level in groups B and C significantly (P < 0.05) decreased as compared with group A at week 12. Addition of bromocriptine to metformin also significantly (P < 0.05) decreased FPG and PPPG levels in a dose-dependent manner as compared with metformin alone. Intergroup analysis did not show any statistically significant change in weight of study subjects at different intervals. Conclusion: The combination of bromocriptine with metformin significantly decreased FPG, PPPG, and HbA1C compared with metformin alone in type 2 DM patients in a dose-dependent manner.
Ghosh, Arijit; Sengupta, Nilanjan; Sahana, Pranab; Giri, Debasis; Sengupta, Parama; Das, Nina
Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) is used increasingly in the management of patients with neurological conditions. The efficacy and safety of IVIg treatment in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) and Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS) have been established clearly in randomized controlled trials and summarized in Cochrane systematic reviews. However, questions remain regarding the dose, timing and duration of IVIg treatment in both disorders. Reports about successful IVIg treatment in other neurological conditions exist, but its use remains investigational. IVIg has been shown to be efficacious as second-line therapy in patients with dermatomyositis and suggested to be of benefit in some patients with polymyositis. In patients with inclusion body myositis, IVIg was not shown to be effective. IVIg is also a treatment option in exacerbations of myasthenia gravis. Studies with IVIg in patients with Alzheimer's disease have reported increased plasma anti-A? antibody titres associated with decreased A? peptide levels in the cerebrospinal fluid following IVIg treatment. These changes at the molecular level were accompanied by improved cognitive function, and large-scale randomized trials are under way.
Hughes, R A C; Dalakas, M C; Cornblath, D R; Latov, N; Weksler, M E; Relkin, N
Obtaining an intravenous (IV) access is a simple procedure which can be done in almost any hospital setting. One of the most dreaded complications of this procedure is an inadvertent intra-arterial cannulation. This can result in an accidental injection of medications intra-arterially, which can potentially lead to life altering consequences. In the hope that these types of events can be prevented, we are presenting a case of a 57-year-old male who underwent bougie dilatation for an oesophageal stricture and was accidentally given medication for pain management intra-arterially through an improperly placed IV line, which resulted in ischaemia, gangrene and subsequent loss of the hand. Those who try to obtain an IV access should always be on the lookout for possible clues that can prevent an inadvertent IA injection, especially if cannulation is in an area where an artery is in close proximity to a vein; these clues include but are not limited to the following: a bright-red flash of blood in the cannula, pulsatile movement of blood in the IV line, and intense pain or burning at the site of injection. These signs, as well as educating the patient on early symptoms of ischaemia, may allow early action to be taken, to prevent irreparable damage. We always have to be careful when we insert an I.V line.
Prabhu, Raghunath; Shenoy, Rajgopal; Thinda, Nitin; Patel, Anisha; Sadhu, Sakshi
The development of a fever in response to intravenous (IV, 1.5 µg\\/kg body mass) and intracerebroventricular (ICV, 1.5 µg\\/animal) injections of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was studied in control, thyroidectomised and protein-calorie malnourished rabbits (New Zealand Whites, n=55). ICV injection of LPS in control rabbits produced a fever response, the characteristics of which differed from those obtained after IV pyrogen
M. Macari; I. R. Pela; C. A. A. Silva; R. S. Viana
Fosaprepitant Dimeglumine, Palonosetron Hydrochloride, and Dexamethasone in Preventing Nausea and Vomiting Caused by Cisplatin in Patients With Stage III or Stage IV Head and Neck Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy
Nausea and Vomiting; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx
Background. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are currently the most effective agents for acid-related disorders. However, studies show that 25–75% of patients receiving intravenous PPIs had no appropriate justification, indicating high rates of inappropriate prescribing. Objective. To examine the appropriate use of intravenous PPIs in accordance with guidelines and the efficacy of a prescribing awareness intervention at an Asian teaching institution. Setting. Prospective audit in a tertiary hospital in Malaysia. Method. Every 4th intravenous PPI prescription received in the pharmacy was screened against hospital guidelines. Interventions for incorrect indication/dose/duration were performed. Patients’ demographic data, medical history and the use of intravenous PPI were collected. Included were all adult inpatients prescribed intravenous PPI. Main Outcome Measure. Proportion of appropriate IV PPI prescriptions. Results. Data for 106 patients were collected. Most patients were male [65(61.3%)], Chinese [50(47.2%)], with mean age ± SD = 60.3 ± 18.0 years. Most intravenous PPI prescriptions were initiated by junior doctors from the surgical [47(44.3%)] and medical [42(39.6%)] departments. Only 50/106(47.2%) patients had upper gastrointestinal endoscopy/surgery performed to verify the source of bleeding. Unexplained abdominal pain [81(76.4%)] was the main driver for prescribing intravenous PPIs empirically, out of which 73(68.9%) were for suspected upper gastrointestinal bleed. Overall, intravenous PPI was found to be inappropriately prescribed in 56(52.8%) patients for indication, dose or duration. Interventions on the use of intravenous PPI were most effective when performed by senior doctors (100%), followed by clinical pharmacists (50%), and inpatient pharmacists (37.5%, p = 0.027). Conclusion. Inappropriate intravenous PPI usage is still prevalent despite the enforcement of hospital guidelines. The promotion of prescribing awareness and evidence-based prescribing through education of medical staff could result in more judicious use of intravenous PPI and dose-optimization.
Wong, Yin Yen; Low, Yong Chia; Lau, Hui Ling; Chin, Kin-Fah; Mahadeva, Sanjiv
Background Dual antiplatelet therapy is usually superior to mono therapy in preventing recurrent vascular events (VEs). This systematic review assesses the safety and efficacy of triple antiplatelet therapy in comparison with dual therapy in reducing recurrent vascular events. Methods Completed randomized controlled trials investigating the effect of triple versus dual antiplatelet therapy in patients with ischaemic heart disease (IHD), cerebrovascular disease or peripheral vascular disease were identified using electronic bibliographic searches. Data were extracted on composite VEs, myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, death and bleeding and analysed with Cochrane Review Manager software. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using random effects models. Results Twenty-five completed randomized trials (17,383 patients with IHD) were included which involving the use of intravenous (iv) GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors (abciximab, eptifibatide, tirofiban), aspirin, clopidogrel and/or cilostazol. In comparison with aspirin-based therapy, triple therapy using an intravenous GP IIb/IIIa inhibitor significantly reduced composite VEs and MI in patients with non-ST elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACS) (VE: OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.55-0.86; MI: OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.56-0.88) and ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) (VE: OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.30-0.51; MI: OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.17-0.38). A significant reduction in death was also noted in STEMI patients treated with GP IIb/IIIa based triple therapy (OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.49-0.99). Increased minor bleeding was noted in STEMI and elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) patients treated with GP IIb/IIIa based triple therapy. Stroke events were too infrequent for us to be able to identify meaningful trends and no data were available for patients recruited into trials on the basis of stroke or peripheral vascular disease. Conclusions Triple antiplatelet therapy based on iv GPIIb/IIIa inhibitors was more effective than aspirin-based dual therapy in reducing VEs in patients with acute coronary syndromes (STEMI and NSTEMI). Minor bleeding was increased among STEMI and elective PCI patients treated with a GP IIb/IIIa based triple therapy. In patients undergoing elective PCI, triple therapy had no beneficial effect and was associated with an 80% increase in transfusions and an eightfold increase in thrombocytopenia. Insufficient data exist for patients with prior ischaemic stroke and peripheral vascular disease and further research is needed in these groups of patients.
There are several medical conditions that require intravenous (IV) fluids. Limitations of mass, volume, storage space, shelf-life, transportation, and local resources can restrict the availability of such important fluids. These limitations are expected in long-duration space exploration missions and in remote or austere environments on Earth. Current IV fluid production requires large factory-based processes. Easy, portable, on-site production of IV fluids can eliminate these limitations. Based on experience gained in developing a device for spaceflight, a ground-use device was developed. This design uses regular drinking water that is pumped through two filters to produce, in minutes, sterile, ultrapure water that meets the stringent quality standards of the United States Pharmacopeia for Water for Injection (Total Bacteria, Conductivity, Endotoxins, Total Organic Carbon). The device weighs 2.2 lb (1 kg) and is 10 in. long, 5 in. wide, and 3 in. high (.25, 13, and 7.5 cm, respectively) in its storage configuration. This handheld device produces one liter of medical-grade water in 21 minutes. Total production capacity for this innovation is expected to be in the hundreds of liters.
Scarpa, Philip J.; Scheuer, Wolfgang K.
Tramadol is a synthetic opioid agonist used extensively in human and, to a lesser extent, veterinary medicine throughout the world. The clinical efficacy and pharmacokinetic profile of intravenous (i.v.) and extradural (e.d.) tramadol (2 mg/kg) and its o-desmethyl metabolite were studied in dogs undergoing tibial plateau levelling osteotomy (TPLO). Intra-operative cardiorespiratory variables were monitored and post-operative pain was assessed using the short form of the Glasgow Composite Pain Scale. A rapid (<5 min) and effective production of o-desmethyl tramadol was recorded. The pharmacokinetic profile was similar for tramadol and its metabolite irrespective of the route of administration. E.d. tramadol provided sufficient intra- and post-operative analgesia without significant clinical side-effects, but the post-operative analgesia was comparable to that following i.v. administration and the e.d. route could therefore not be considered a practical alternative to the i.v. route. PMID:19138866
Vettorato, Enzo; Zonca, Annalisa; Isola, Maurizio; Villa, Roberto; Gallo, Martina; Ravasio, Giuliano; Beccaglia, Michela; Montesissa, Clara; Cagnardi, Petra
Florfenicol, is a broad spectrum antimicrobial agent with wide tissue distribution commonly used to treat camelids. To address the lack of drug disposition data for florfenicol in llamas, we evaluated the pharmacokinetics after 20mg/kg intravenous (i.v.) and intramuscular (i.m.) dosing. Serum concentrations were determined using a HPLC-UV assay and pharmacokinetic analysis was conducted using non-compartmental analysis. Following i.v. injection, systemic clearance and Vdss in llamas were 4.6 mL/min/kg and 737 mL/kg, respectively. Mean residence time after i.v. dosing was 3h. After i.m. injection, florfenicol was rapidly absorbed, with Cmax concentrations being 3.2 ?g/mL at 0.5h, mean residence time was 15 h, mean absorption time was 12h and absolute bioavailability of florfenicol after i.m. injection was 63%. The prolonged absorption of florfenicol after i.m. administration suggests the apparent HL_?z reflects the absorption process rather than elimination of the drug. Florfenicol administration was not associated with adverse reactions after dosing by either route. Serum florfenicol concentrations remained >1.0 ?g/mL for 12h after i.m. administration. For susceptible pathogens, once daily dosing of 20mg/kg body weight appears appropriate. PMID:23769151
Pentecost, Rebecca L; Niehaus, Andrew J; Werle, Nick A; Lakritz, Jeffrey
Introduction Intravenous immunoglobulin is considered generally safe and is used widely as proven, and sometimes empiric, treatment for an expanding list of autoimmune diseases. Thromboembolic complications following intravenous immunoglobulin therapy are rare and there have been only five previous reports of stroke occurring within 2 to 10 days of infusion. This is the first report of cerebral infarction occurring after a longer latency of 3 weeks following intravenous immunoglobulin therapy in a patient presenting with Miller Fisher syndrome. Case presentation A previously well, 44-year-old Sri Lankan man progressively developed ophthalmoplegia, facial paralysis, ataxia and areflexia with neurophysiological and cerebrospinal fluid evidence consistent with the Miller Fisher syndrome. He made an unremarkable recovery with intravenous immunoglobulin therapy (0.4g/kg/day for 5 days, total 180g), but developed a cerebral infarct with haemorrhagic transformation 25 days later. He was noted to have a low blood pressure. Extensive investigations ruled out vasculopathic, embolic, thrombophilic and inflammatory aetiologies. Circulating intravenous immunoglobulins combined with a low blood pressure was considered the most probable cause of his stroke. Conclusions Cerebral infarction following intravenous immunoglobulin is thought to be secondary to hyperviscosity, thromboemboli, vasculitis, or cerebral vasospasm and reported to occur after a short latency when the immunoglobulin load is highest. Even though the immunoglobulin load is halved by 3 weeks, our case suggests that that the predisposition to thromboembolism persists over a longer period and may result in vascular complications if synergised with other vascular risk factors. It is recommended that intravenous immunoglobulin be infused at a rate of not less than 8 hours per day and that factors predisposing to thromboembolism such as dehydration, immobilisation and low blood pressure be avoided for the duration of at least two half-lives of immunoglobulin (6 weeks).
Medical emergencies, especially those resulting from accidents, frequently require the administration of intravenous fluids to replace lost body liquids. The development of a prototype space flight intravenous injection system is presented. The definition of requirements, injectable concentrates development, water polisher, reconstitution hardware development, administration hardware development, and prototype fabrication and testing are discussed.
Colombo, G. V.
Radiographic identification of vicarious excretion of intravenous contrast into the stomach has not previously been cited in the literature. We report here an instance of gastric excretion of iodinated intravenous contrast following excretory urography in a severely burned patient. The physiology and possible pathways of vicarious excretion of contrast are discussed. PMID:1817573
Meholic, A J; Davis, M; Bonmati, C
Despite frequent use of intravenous (i.v.) cyclosporin A (CsA) in the early post-operative course of transplant recipients, allergic reactions have been infrequently described. Of 134 transplants, we report four pediatric renal transplant recipients with severe reaction to i.v. CsA with pulmonary capillary leak syndrome. Pulmonary edema developed at a mean time of 3.5 h after commencement of i.v. CsA, with two patients requiring mechanical ventilation. Discontinuation of i.v. CsA and conversion to oral CsA was followed by rapid resolution of pulmonary edema, suggesting that cremaphor, the solubilizing agent in the i.v. formulation, is likely to be responsible for this adverse response. Skin prick testing with cremaphor was negative in all patients and alternative mechanisms for the cremaphor response are proposed. It is likely that inadequate mixing of the i.v. CsA solution triggered this reaction, by delivering a higher concentration of cremaphor at the start of the CsA infusion. Pulmonary edema in the early post-transplant course in the absence of obvious fluid overload should prompt the diagnosis of an i.v. CsA reaction. This life-threatening reaction is easily reversible if recognized, and can be managed easily without compromise to the allograft, by discontinuing i.v. CsA and switching early to an oral CsA formulation. PMID:10731056
Mackie, F E; Umetsu, D; Salvatierra, O; Sarwal, M M
Using a clinically relevant regimen, this study investigated the effects of treatment with ibandronate, a highly potent nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate, on bone loss, biochemical markers of bone turnover, densitometry, histomorphometry, biomechanical properties, and bone concentration in aged ovariectomized monkeys. Sixty-six female cynomolgus monkeys, aged 9 years and older, were ovariectomized (OVX) or sham operated. Intravenous (iv) bolus injections of ibandronate at
S. Y Smith; R. R Recker; M Hannan; R Müller; F Bauss
NSC-107 455, an antibiotic with antitumor activity, was submitted to preclinical, toxicological evaluation. Altogether, 5 dogs were injected intravenously (I.V.) with 5 daily consecutive doses of 0.6, 0.3, 0.15, 0.075, or 0.0375 mg/kg. The dogs receiving ...
U. H. Schaeppi D. A. Cooney R. D. Davis
Recurrence and metastatic dissemination of breast cancers account for a significant morbidity and mortality in women, and effective means of treating this subset of patients remain elusive. The reports that intravenously (IV)- administered, genetically mo...
J. O. Ojeifo
The aim of this study was to determine the patient's preference for oral UFT\\/leucovorin (LV) or intravenous (i.v.) 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)\\/LV chemotherapy in metastatic colorectal cancer and to compare 5-FU exposure with these two treatment options. A total of 37 previously untreated patients with advanced colorectal cancer were randomised to start treatment with either oral UFT 300 mg\\/m2\\/day plus oral LV
M. M Borner; P Schöffski; R de Wit; F Caponigro; G Comella; A Sulkes; G Greim; G. J Peters; K van der Born; J Wanders; R. F de Boer; C Martin; P Fumoleau
A physiologically based mathematical model was built to describe the pharmacodynamic effects in response to the administration of intravenous (iv)dihydropyridine drugs in healthy volunteers. This model incorporates a limited number of hemodynamic variables, namely, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP),cardiac output (CO)or heart rate (HR),stroke volume (SV),and total peripheral resistance (TPR),into a closed-loop system supposed to represent essential features of the
Patrice Francheteau; Jean-Louis Steimer; Henri Merdjan; Madeleine Guerret; Claude Dubray
Capsule Summary In Kawasaki Disease patients, the authors show associations between high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) response and a polymorphism in the FC?RIIB. This provides basis for defining the IVIG regulatory mechanisms and pharmacogenomic approach to IVIG therapy.
Shrestha, Sadeep; Wiener, Howard; Olson, Aaron K.; Edberg, Jeffrey C; Bowles, Neil E.; Patel, Hitendra; Portman, Michael A.
The present study aimed to determine the role of tissue injury in migration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) intravenously transplanted into heart and to establish experimental basis for improving stem cell therapy in its targeting and effectiveness. MSCs were isolated from bone marrow of male Sprague-Dawley rats and purified by density centrifuge and adhered to the culture plate in vitro.
JIANG Wen-Hui; MA Ai-Qun; ZHANG Yan-Min; HAN Ke; LIU Yu; ZHANG Zeng-Tie; WANG Ting-Zhong
Pancreas graft thrombosis is one of the commonest non-immunological causes for early graft loss after transplantation. This case report describes a patient who developed graft thrombosis after intravenous immunoglobulin administration to treat acute parvovirus B19 infection. The potential role of hypercoagulability in graft thrombosis and the implications for immunoglobulin therapy in transplant patients with hypercoagulable states is discussed. PMID:19594866
Muthusamy, A S R; Vaidya, A C; Sinha, S; Atabani, S F; Haque, T; Jones, G; Cunningham, J; Friend, P J
Human papilloma virus is a common and often distressing cutaneous disease. It can be therapeutically challenging, especially in immunocompromised patients. We report a case of recalcitrant cutaneous warts that resolved with intravenous cidofovir treatment. The patient was immunocompromised secondary to monoclonal antibody therapy for psoriasis. PMID:21771010
McAleer, M A; Bourke, J
Amifostine (Ethyol®) is a cytoprotective drug approved for the reduction of xerostomia in head and neck cancer when administered to patients receiving postoperative radiation therapy. Although amifostine is approved for intravenous infusion, the off-label subcutaneous route of administration has become more prevalent. Although human patient data indicate higher plasma bioavailability of the active metabolite (WR-1065) following intravenous compared to subcutaneous
Christine M. Bachy; Christine A. Fazenbaker; Gizachew Kifle; Michael P. McCarthy; David R. Cassatt
Infiltration of medications during infusion therapy results in complications ranging from erythema and pain to tissue necrosis requiring amputation. Infiltration occurs from improper insertion of the cannula, separation of the cannula from the vein, penetration of the vein by the cannula during movement, and response of the vein to the medication. At present, visual inspection by the clinical staff is
Leonard W. Winchester; Nee-Yin Chou
Lipid is an essential macronutrient in parenteral nutrition (PN) support. intravenous (IV) lipid provides essential fatty acids and a concentrated calorie source. Preterm infants are at risk for essential fatty deficiency early in life. Lipid administration is associated with some risks, and there are guidelines for administration to minimize complications. Lipid emulsions in the United States are derived from soybean oil. Outside of the United States, lipid emulsions made from fish oil or combinations of fish, soybean, olive, and medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) are under investigation for improved tolerance, lower plasma lipid levels, and improved fatty acid profiles, all of which are considered beneficial. Triglyceride levels are an important measurement to assess patient tolerance. PMID:24816878
Between 2010 and 2011, a perioperative pain protocol for primary total hip and knee replacement at one Florida medical center replaced preoperative oral analgesics with intravenous methocarbamol and intravenous acetaminophen. This is a retrospective cohort study of 300 patients, with 150 patients using the new pain protocol and 150 patients using a 2008 pain protocol that did not include these medications. The 2 cohorts were similar in patient gender, age, and body mass index. Opioid consumption was evaluated for a period of 48 hours after incision and was divided into 3 separate time intervals, as well as total 48-hour consumption. Mean opiate use decreased significantly from 2008 to 2011 in all time intervals and total consumption (7.5±3.4 mg to 6.1±3.0 mg; P<.01). Subgroup analysis suggested that changes to the hip protocol were responsible for decreased opioid use in the operating room and the postanesthesia care unit, and changes to the knee protocol were responsible for decreased opioid use on the hospital floor and total consumption. The difference between the 2 protocol groups was not due to differences in individual surgeon practice patterns. Physical therapy progress of knee flexion, average walking distance, and maximum walking distance were significantly improved. Hospital discharge was shorter in the 2011 group (4.0±1.1 days in 2008 group and 3.6±1.0 days in 2011 group). This study shows significant improvement in patient care from 2008 to 2011 that is at least partially due to the change to the use of preoperative intravenous methocarbamol and intravenous acetaminophen. PMID:23379573
Looke, Thomas D; Kluth, Cameron T
Background “Smart” intravenous infusion pumps (Smart IV pumps) are increasingly being implemented in hospitals to reduce medication administration errors. Objectives This study examines nurses’ experience with the implementation and use of a Smart IV pump in an academic hospital. Method Data were collected in three longitudinal surveys: (a) a pre-implementation survey, (b) a 6-week-post-implementation survey, and (c) a 1-year-post-implementation survey. We examined: (a) the technology implementation process, (b) technical performance of the pump, (c) usability of the pump, and (d) user acceptance of the pump. Results Initially, nurses had a somewhat positive acceptance of the Smart IV pump technology that significantly increased one year after implementation. User experiences associated with the pump in general improved over time, especially perceptions of pump efficiency. However, user experience with the pump implementation process and pump technical performance did not consistently improve from the pre-implementation survey to the post-implementation survey. Several characteristics of pump technical performance and usability influenced user acceptance at the one-year post-implementation survey. Discussion These data may be useful for other institutions to guide implementation and post-implementation follow-up of IV pump use; other institutions could use the survey instrument from this study to evaluate nurses’ perceptions of the technology. Our study identified several characteristics of the implementation process that other institutions may need to pay attention to (e.g., sharing information about the implementation process with nurses).
Carayon, Pascale; Hundt, Ann Schoofs; Wetterneck, Tosha B.
NASA designed and operated the Intravenous Fluid Generation (IVGEN) experiment onboard the International Space Station (ISS), Increment 23/24, during May 2010. This hardware was a demonstration experiment to generate intravenous (IV) fluid from ISS Water Processing Assembly (WPA) potable water using a water purification technique and pharmaceutical mixing system. The IVGEN experiment utilizes a deionizing resin bed to remove contaminants from feedstock water to a purity level that meets the standards of the United States Pharmacopeia (USP), the governing body for pharmaceuticals in the United States. The water was then introduced into an IV bag where the fluid was mixed with USP-grade crystalline salt to produce USP normal saline (NS). Inline conductivity sensors quantified the feedstock water quality, output water purity, and NS mixing uniformity. Six 1.5-L bags of purified water were produced. Two of these bags were mixed with sodium chloride to make 0.9 percent NS solution. These two bags were returned to Earth to test for compliance with USP requirements. On-orbit results indicated that all of the experimental success criteria were met with the exception of the salt concentration. Problems with a large air bubble in the first bag of purified water resulted in a slightly concentrated saline solution of 117 percent of the target value of 0.9 g/L. The second bag had an inadequate amount of salt premeasured into the mixing bag resulting in a slightly deficient salt concentration of 93.8 percent of the target value. The USP permits a range from 95 to 105 percent of the target value. The testing plans for improvements for an operational system are also presented.
McQuillen, John B.; McKay, Terri L.; Griffin, DeVon W.; Brown, Dan F.; Zoldak, John T.
The bioavailability of amprolium (APL) was measured after intravenous (i.v.) and oral (p.o.) administration to chickens. Twelve healthy chickens weighing 1.28-1.41 kg received a dose of 13 mg APL/kg intravenously, and 13 or 26 mg APL/kg orally in both a fasted and a nonfasted condition in a Latin square design. Plasma samples were taken from the subwing vein for determination of APL concentration by HPLC method. The data following intravenous and oral administration were best fitted by 2-compartment and 1-compartment models, respectively, using weighted nonlinear least squares regression. The half-life beta t(1/2)beta, volume of distribution (Vd) and total body clearance (Cl) after intravenous administration were 0.21 h, 0.12 L/kg and 1.32 L/h.kg, respectively. The elimination half-life (t(1/2) Kel) after oral administration was 0.292-0.654 h which is 1.5-3.2 times longer than after intravenous administration, suggesting the presence of a 'flip-flop' phenomenon in chickens. The maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) of 13 mg/kg APL administered orally to chickens during fasting was significantly (about four times) higher than that during nonfasting (P < 0.05). Bioavailability during nonfasting was from 2.3 to 2.6%, and 6.4% during fasting. PMID:10747238
Hamamoto, K; Koike, R; Machida, Y
This study reviews our experience with the safety and tolerability of levetiracetam (LVM) with different methods of intravenous administration in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. We used retrospective chart review to identify 33 ICU patients who received intravenous LVM for treatment of seizures. Collected data included age, gender, diagnosis on admission, dosing regimen, documented seizure activity, adverse reactions, concomitant use of other antiepileptic drugs, and condition on discharge. A total of 33 ICU patients were given intravenous (IV) LVM as add-on treatment to standard regimen for treatment of breakthrough seizures or status epilepticus or given as preventive medication postoperatively. Among these 33 patients, 16 received intravenous LVM as bolus, and 17 received intravenous LVM as continuous infusion. Safety and tolerability of intravenous LVM were evaluated on the basis of the occurrence of adverse or side effects reported in daily progress notes of the physicians and nurses. There were no significant adverse or side effects reported in daily progress notes. The addition of intravenous LVM to the standard regimen for controlling seizures in ICU patients seems feasible and tolerable. PMID:24357676
Burakgazi, Evren; Bashir, Sairah; Doss, Vindoth; Pellock, Jack
Reserpine, the purified alkaloid of Rauwolfia serpentina, was the first potent drug widely used in the long-term treatment of hypertension. Rauwolfia serpentina is a tropical woody plant of the Apocyanaceae family ingenious to Asia, South America and Africa. Extracts of its different parts and of plants resembling to rauwolfia were used in Hindu medicine for snakebite, insomnia, insanity and many other diseases and complaints. In Europe, Georg Eberhard Rumpf first reported about rauwolfia in his Herbarium amboinense, 1755. The first modern paper about therapeutic applications of the whole root of rauwolfia was published in 1931 in the Indian Medical Journal by Sen and Bose, and many papers dealing with botanics, chemistry and pharmacology then appeared in Indian and European periodics. In 1949, Vakil published the first report of the antihypertensive effect of rauwolfia in the British Heart Journal. In the Ciba laboratories in Basel, Switzerland, Mueller, Schlittler and Bein analysed various rauwolfia alkaloids and published in 1952 the first complete report about their chemistry and pharmacology. In the same year, reserpine was introduced under the name Serpasil in the treatment of hypertension, tachycardia and thyreotoxicosis. The combination of reserpine, dihydroergocristine and a diuretic is still on the market (Brinerdin, Crystepin). In psychiatry, reserpine was prescr