Science.gov

Sample records for intrinsic asymmetry parameter

  1. Exploiting intrinsic fluctuations to identify model parameters.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Christoph; Sahle, Sven; Pahle, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    Parameterisation of kinetic models plays a central role in computational systems biology. Besides the lack of experimental data of high enough quality, some of the biggest challenges here are identification issues. Model parameters can be structurally non-identifiable because of functional relationships. Noise in measured data is usually considered to be a nuisance for parameter estimation. However, it turns out that intrinsic fluctuations in particle numbers can make parameters identifiable that were previously non-identifiable. The authors present a method to identify model parameters that are structurally non-identifiable in a deterministic framework. The method takes time course recordings of biochemical systems in steady state or transient state as input. Often a functional relationship between parameters presents itself by a one-dimensional manifold in parameter space containing parameter sets of optimal goodness. Although the system's behaviour cannot be distinguished on this manifold in a deterministic framework it might be distinguishable in a stochastic modelling framework. Their method exploits this by using an objective function that includes a measure for fluctuations in particle numbers. They show on three example models, immigration-death, gene expression and Epo-EpoReceptor interaction, that this resolves the non-identifiability even in the case of measurement noise with known amplitude. The method is applied to partially observed recordings of biochemical systems with measurement noise. It is simple to implement and it is usually very fast to compute. This optimisation can be realised in a classical or Bayesian fashion. PMID:26672148

  2. Regulation of branching dynamics by axon-intrinsic asymmetries in Tyrosine Kinase Receptor signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zschätzsch, Marlen; Oliva, Carlos; Langen, Marion; De Geest, Natalie; Özel, Mehmet Neset; Williamson, W Ryan; Lemon, William C; Soldano, Alessia; Munck, Sebastian; Hiesinger, P Robin; Sanchez-Soriano, Natalia; Hassan, Bassem A

    2014-01-01

    Axonal branching allows a neuron to connect to several targets, increasing neuronal circuit complexity. While axonal branching is well described, the mechanisms that control it remain largely unknown. We find that in the Drosophila CNS branches develop through a process of excessive growth followed by pruning. In vivo high-resolution live imaging of developing brains as well as loss and gain of function experiments show that activation of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) is necessary for branch dynamics and the final branching pattern. Live imaging also reveals that intrinsic asymmetry in EGFR localization regulates the balance between dynamic and static filopodia. Elimination of signaling asymmetry by either loss or gain of EGFR function results in reduced dynamics leading to excessive branch formation. In summary, we propose that the dynamic process of axon branch development is mediated by differential local distribution of signaling receptors. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01699.001 PMID:24755286

  3. The beta decay asymmetry parameter of /sup 35/Ar

    SciTech Connect

    Garnett, J.D.

    1987-11-01

    The beta decay asymmetry parameter for /sup 35/Ar = /sup 35/Cl + e/sup +/ + nu/sub e/ has been remeasured in order to resolve a long standing puzzle. Previous asymmetry measurements, when combined with the comparative half-life, yield a value for the vector coupling constant, G/sub v/, that is in serious disagreement with the accepted value. We produced polarized /sup 35/Ar by a (p,n) reaction on /sup 35/Cl using the polarized proton beam provided by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's 88-Inch Cyclotron. The polarization of the /sup 35/Ar was determined by measuring the asymmetry of the positrons produced in /sup 35/Ar decay to the first excited state in /sup 35/Cl (branching ratio = 1.3%) in coincidence with a 1219.4 keV gamma ray. Our result, A/sub 0/ = 0.49 +- 0.10, combined with the comparative half-life yields a value for G/sub v/ in agreement with the accepted value.

  4. Direction dependence of cosmological parameters due to cosmic hemispherical asymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Suvodip; Aluri, Pavan K.; Das, Santanu; Shaikh, Shabbir; Souradeep, Tarun

    2016-06-01

    Persistent evidence for a cosmic hemispherical asymmetry in the temperature field of cosmic microwave background (CMB) as observed by both WMAP as well as PLANCK increases the possibility of its cosmological origin. Presence of this signal may lead to different values for the standard model cosmological parameters in different directions, and that can have significant implications for other studies where they are used. We investigate the effect of this cosmic hemispherical asymmetry on cosmological parameters using non-isotropic Gaussian random simulations injected with both scale dependent and scale independent modulation strengths. Our analysis shows that As and ns are the most susceptible parameters to acquire position dependence across the sky for the kind of isotropy breaking phenomena under study. As expected, we find maximum variation arises for the case of scale independent modulation of CMB anisotropies. We find that scale dependent modulation profile as seen in PLANCK data could lead to only 1.25σ deviation in As in comparison to its estimate from isotropic CMB sky.

  5. Velocity asymmetries in young stellar object jets. Intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsakos, T.; Vlahakis, N.; Tsinganos, K.; Karampelas, K.; Sauty, C.; Cayatte, V.; Matt, S. P.; Massaglia, S.; Trussoni, E.; Mignone, A.

    2012-09-01

    Context. It is well established that some YSO jets (e.g. RW Aur) display different propagation speeds between their blue and red shifted parts, a feature possibly associated with the central engine or the environment in which the jet propagates. Aims: To understand the origin of asymmetric YSO jet velocities, we investigate the efficiency of two candidate mechanisms, one based on the intrinsic properties of the system and the other on the role of the external medium. In particular, a parallel or anti-parallel configuration between the protostellar magnetosphere and the disk magnetic field is considered, and the resulting dynamics examined both in an ideal and in a resistive magneto-hydrodynamical (MHD) regime. Moreover, we explore the effects of a potential difference in the pressure of the environment, as a consequence of the nonuniform density distribution of molecular clouds. Methods: Ideal and resistive axisymmetric numerical simulations were carried out for a variety of models, all of which are based on a combination of two analytical solutions, a disk wind and a stellar outflow. The initial two-component jet is modified by either inverting the orientation of its inner magnetic field or imposing a constant surrounding pressure. The velocity profiles are studied by assuming steady flows as well as after strong time variable ejection is incorporated. Results: Discrepancies between the speeds of the two outflows in opposite directions can indeed occur both due to unaligned magnetic fields and different outer pressures. In the former case, the asymmetry appears only on the dependence of the velocity on the cylindrical distance, but the implied observed value is significantly altered when the density distribution is also taken into account. On the other hand, a nonuniform medium collimates the two jets unevenly, directly affecting their propagation speed. A further interesting feature of the pressure-confined outflow simulations is the formation of static knots

  6. Intrinsic viscosity and related parameters of PEOX aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tothova, J.; Paulovicova, K.; Kopcansky, P.; Timko, M.; Lisy, V.

    2015-12-01

    Poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) (PEOX) is a polymer used in many applications. In this work we present the steady-state shear viscosity experiment on low-concentrated high-molecular PEOX aqueous solutions near the presumed theta temperature. In the interpretation of these experiments we consider the polymer being partially permeable to water, with a finite draining parameter h, contrary to the usual approach when the polymer coil is assumed to be impermeable and h approaches the infinite value. By this way we have determined important polymer parameters, such as the gyration and hydrodynamic radii. The calculated Huggins coefficient kH was compared to its value extracted from the measured intrinsic viscosity. We have found that at the temperature 20°C the theoretically predicted kH(h) agrees with the experiment. Since the theory is built for the theta condition, we propose that the theta temperature for PEOX is notably lower than 25°C known from the previous studies. This finding is supported by our measurements of the dependence of the intrinsic viscosity on the PEOX molecular weight.

  7. Intrinsic Size Parameters for Palmitoylated and Carboxyamidomethylated Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhiyu; Dilger, Jonathan M.; Pejaver, Vikas; Smiley, David; Arnold, Randy J.; Mooney, Sean D.; Mukhopadhyay, Suchetana; Radivojac, Predrag; Clemmer, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Cross sections for 61 palmitoylated peptides and 73 cysteine-unmodified peptides are determined and used together with a previously obtained tryptic peptide library to derive a set of intrinsic size parameters (ISPs) for the palmitoyl (Pal) group (1.26 ± 0.04), carboxyamidomethyl (Am) group (0.92 ± 0.04), and the 20 amino acid residues to assess the influence of Pal- and Am-modification on cysteine and other amino acid residues. These values highlight the influence of the intrinsic hydrophobic and hydrophilic nature of these modifications on the overall cross sections. As a part of this analysis, we find that ISPs derived from a database of a modifier on one amino acid residue (CysPal) can be applied on the same modification group on different amino acid residues (SerPal and TyrPal). Using these ISP values, we are able to calculate peptide cross sections to within ± 2% of experimental values for 83% of Pal-modified peptide ions and 63% of Am-modified peptide ions. We propose that modification groups should be treated as individual contribution factors, instead of treating the combination of the particular group and the amino acid residue they are on as a whole when considering their effects on the peptide ion mobility features. PMID:26023288

  8. Hemispheric asymmetry of visual scene processing in the human brain: evidence from repetition priming and intrinsic activity.

    PubMed

    Stevens, W Dale; Kahn, Itamar; Wig, Gagan S; Schacter, Daniel L

    2012-08-01

    Asymmetrical specialization of cognitive processes across the cerebral hemispheres is a hallmark of healthy brain development and an important evolutionary trait underlying higher cognition in humans. While previous research, including studies of priming, divided visual field presentation, and split-brain patients, demonstrates a general pattern of right/left asymmetry of form-specific versus form-abstract visual processing, little is known about brain organization underlying this dissociation. Here, using repetition priming of complex visual scenes and high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we demonstrate asymmetrical form specificity of visual processing between the right and left hemispheres within a region known to be critical for processing of visual spatial scenes (parahippocampal place area [PPA]). Next, we use resting-state functional connectivity MRI analyses to demonstrate that this functional asymmetry is associated with differential intrinsic activity correlations of the right versus left PPA with regions critically involved in perceptual versus conceptual processing, respectively. Our results demonstrate that the PPA comprises lateralized subregions across the cerebral hemispheres that are engaged in functionally dissociable yet complementary components of visual scene analysis. Furthermore, this functional asymmetry is associated with differential intrinsic functional connectivity of the PPA with distinct brain areas known to mediate dissociable cognitive processes. PMID:21968568

  9. Relationship between the fraction of backscattered light and the asymmetry parameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horvath, Helmuth

    2015-04-01

    The fraction of backscattered light is defined as the ratio of the integral of the volume scattering function over the backward half solid angle divided by the integral of the volume scattering function over the full solid angle. It can be measured with an integrating nephelometer. On the other hand the asymmetry parameter is the integral over the full solid angle of the volume scattering function weighted with the cosine of the scattering angle divided by the integral of the volume scattering function. To determine the asymmetry parameter the measurement of the angular dependence of the volume scattering function is needed, which can be obtained e.g. with a polar nephelometer. The asymmetry parameter is an important input parameter for radiative transfer calculations in order to obtain information of effects of the atmospheric aerosol effects (climate, screening, visibility, and others). Unfortunately measurements of the asymmetry parameter of the atmospheric aerosol are scarce. It is obvious, that a relation between the asymmetry parameter and the backscattered fraction should exist: the smaller the backscattered fraction, the more asymmetric the scattering, thus the larger the asymmetry parameter. A large set of 6500 angular scattering data have been obtained at various locations of the world: Vienna (Austria), Kyoto (Japan), Granada (Spain) and Palencia (Spain). The aerosols in these locations were considerably different, ranging from continental, urban, maritime, to desert dust. The volume scattering function has been measured between 5° and 175° , the values for 0° to 5° and 175° to 180° have been obtained by extrapolation of the shape of the curve, thus the whole range of scattering angles was available for calculating the backscattered fraction and the asymmetry parameter of the aerosol. PIC A summary of all data is shown in figure 1. The majority of the data points suggest an unanimous relation between backscattering and asymmetry parameter. The

  10. Conflict between Intrinsic Leaf Asymmetry and Phyllotaxis in the Resupinate Leaves of Alstroemeria psittacina.

    PubMed

    Chitwood, Daniel H; Naylor, Daniel T; Thammapichai, Paradee; Weeger, Axelle C S; Headland, Lauren R; Sinha, Neelima R

    2012-01-01

    Spiral phyllotactic patterning is the result of intricate auxin transport relationships in the shoot apical meristem (SAM) that act to place auxin maxima at the future sites of leaf initiation. Inherent to this process is a bias in auxin distribution in leaf primordia, such that increased auxin is found on the descending side of the leaf (toward the older neighbor) compared to the ascending side (toward the younger neighbor), creating phyllotactically dependent leaf asymmetry. Separate from phyllotactic-dependent asymmetry is handedness in plants - that is, genetically encoded, fixed chirality, such as the twining of certain vines and the torsions induced by microtubule mutations. Here, we perform a morphometric analysis on the resupinate leaves of Alstroemeria psittacina. Interestingly, the twist in leaves always occurs in a single direction, regardless of the phyllotactic direction of the plant. Because of the resupination, leaves in this species possess an inherent handedness. However, this asymmetry is modulated in a phyllotactic-dependent manner, consistent with the known developmental constraints of phyllotaxis upon leaf morphology. This creates the interesting circumstance in A. psittacina that leaves arising from plants with a counter-clockwise phyllotactic direction are (1) more asymmetric, (2) larger, and (3) possess symmetrical shape differences relative to leaves from plants with clockwise phyllotaxis. The mechanism underlying these differences likely involves a developmental delay in clockwise leaves caused by the conflict between the phyllotaxis-dependent asymmetry and asymmetry resulting from resupination. The evolutionary implications of a dimorphic population without a genetic basis for selection to act upon are discussed. PMID:22908025

  11. Conflict between Intrinsic Leaf Asymmetry and Phyllotaxis in the Resupinate Leaves of Alstroemeria psittacina

    PubMed Central

    Chitwood, Daniel H.; Naylor, Daniel T.; Thammapichai, Paradee; Weeger, Axelle C. S.; Headland, Lauren R.; Sinha, Neelima R.

    2012-01-01

    Spiral phyllotactic patterning is the result of intricate auxin transport relationships in the shoot apical meristem (SAM) that act to place auxin maxima at the future sites of leaf initiation. Inherent to this process is a bias in auxin distribution in leaf primordia, such that increased auxin is found on the descending side of the leaf (toward the older neighbor) compared to the ascending side (toward the younger neighbor), creating phyllotactically dependent leaf asymmetry. Separate from phyllotactic-dependent asymmetry is handedness in plants – that is, genetically encoded, fixed chirality, such as the twining of certain vines and the torsions induced by microtubule mutations. Here, we perform a morphometric analysis on the resupinate leaves of Alstroemeria psittacina. Interestingly, the twist in leaves always occurs in a single direction, regardless of the phyllotactic direction of the plant. Because of the resupination, leaves in this species possess an inherent handedness. However, this asymmetry is modulated in a phyllotactic-dependent manner, consistent with the known developmental constraints of phyllotaxis upon leaf morphology. This creates the interesting circumstance in A. psittacina that leaves arising from plants with a counter-clockwise phyllotactic direction are (1) more asymmetric, (2) larger, and (3) possess symmetrical shape differences relative to leaves from plants with clockwise phyllotaxis. The mechanism underlying these differences likely involves a developmental delay in clockwise leaves caused by the conflict between the phyllotaxis-dependent asymmetry and asymmetry resulting from resupination. The evolutionary implications of a dimorphic population without a genetic basis for selection to act upon are discussed. PMID:22908025

  12. Genuine T, CP, CPT asymmetry parameters for the entangled B d system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernabéu, José; Botella, Francisco J.; Nebot, Miguel

    2016-06-01

    The precise connection between the theoretical T, CP, CPT asymmetries, in terms of transition probabilities between the filtered neutral meson B d states, and the experimental asymmetries, in terms of the double decay rate intensities for Flavour-CP eigenstate decay products in a B-factory of entangled states, is established. This allows the identification of genuine Asymmetry Parameters in the time distribution of the asymmetries and their measurability by disentangling genuine and possible fake terms. We express the nine asymmetry parameters — three different observables for each one of the three symmetries — in terms of the ingredients of the Weisskopf-Wigner dynamical description of the entangled B d -meson states and we obtain a global fit to their values from the BaBar collaboration experimental results. The possible fake terms are all compatible with zero and the information content of the nine asymmetry parameters is indeed different. The non-vanishing [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.] and [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.] are impressive separate direct evidence of Time-Reversal-violation and CP-violation in these transitions and compatible with Standard Model expectations. An intriguing 2 σ effect for the Re( θ) parameter responsible of CPT-violation appears which, interpreted as an upper limit, leads to |{M}_{{overline{B}}^0{overline{B}}^0}-{M}_B{{{}{^0}}_B}{^0}|<4.0× 1{0}^{-5} eV at 95% C.L. for the diagonal flavour terms of the mass matrix. It contributes to the CP-violating [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.] asymmetry parameter in an unorthodox manner — in its cos(Δ M t) time dependence —, and it is accessible in facilities with non-entangled B d 's, like the LHCb experiment.

  13. Effect of asymmetry parameter on the dynamical states of nonlocally coupled nonlinear oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopal, R.; Chandrasekar, V. K.; Senthilkumar, D. V.; Venkatesan, A.; Lakshmanan, M.

    2015-06-01

    We show that coexisting domains of coherent and incoherent oscillations can be induced in an ensemble of any identical nonlinear dynamical systems using nonlocal rotational matrix coupling with an asymmetry parameter. Further, a chimera is shown to emerge in a wide range of the asymmetry parameter in contrast to near π/2 values of it employed in earlier works. We have also corroborated our results using the strength of incoherence in the frequency domain (Sω) and in the amplitude domain (S ), thereby distinguishing the frequency and amplitude chimeras. The robust nature of the asymmetry parameter in inducing chimeras in any generic dynamical system is established using ensembles of identical Rössler oscillators, Lorenz systems, and Hindmarsh-Rose neurons in their chaotic regimes.

  14. Radiative Corrections to Asymmetry Parameter in the {Omega}{sup -{yields}{Lambda}}+K{sup -} Decay

    SciTech Connect

    Queijeiro, A.

    2010-07-29

    We compute the radiative corrections, to first order in the fine structure constant {alpha}, to the asymmetry parameter {alpha}{sub {Omega}}of the {Omega}{sup -{yields}{Lambda}}+K{sup -} decay. We use previous results where Sirlin's procedure is used to separate the radiative corrections into two parts, one independent model contribution and a model dependent one.

  15. Pion cloud and sea quark flavor asymmetry in the impact parameter representation

    SciTech Connect

    Strikman, Mark; Weiss, Christian

    2008-07-01

    We study large-distance contributions to the nucleon parton densities in the transverse coordinate (impact parameter) representation based on generalized parton distributions (GPDs). Chiral dynamics generates a distinct component of the partonic structure, located at momentum fractions x ~< M_pi / M_N and transverse distances b ~ 1/M_pi. We analyze the phenomenological "pion cloud" model of the flavor asymmetry dbar(x) - ubar(x) and quantify what fraction of the calculated asymmetry results from the universal large-distance region. Our findings indicate that a two-component picture of the nucleon's partonic structure -- a "core" antiquark distribution at b < b_core ~ 0.55 fm which vanishes at x -> 0, and the universal large-distance pion cloud at b > b_core -- could naturally account for the x-dependence of the measured asymmetry.

  16. Modeling and Extraction of Parasitic Thermal Conductance and Intrinsic Model Parameters of Thermoelectric Modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sim, Minseob; Park, Hyunbin; Kim, Shiho

    2015-11-01

    We have presented both modeling and a method for extracting parasitic thermal conductance as well as intrinsic device parameters of a thermoelectric module based on information readily available in vendor datasheets. An equivalent circuit model that is compatible with circuit simulators is derived, followed by a methodology for extracting both intrinsic and parasitic model parameters. For the first time, the effective thermal resistance of the ceramic and copper interconnect layers of the thermoelectric module is extracted using only parameters listed in vendor datasheets. In the experimental condition, including under condition of varying electric current, the parameters extracted from the model accurately reproduce the performance of commercial thermoelectric modules.

  17. Study of asymmetry parameters of {\\Lambda }_{c}^{+} decays in a τ-charm factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jie; Ping, Rong-Gang; Li, Hai-Bo

    2015-09-01

    An enhancement of cross section for {e}+{e}-\\to {Λ }c+{\\bar{Λ }}c- pair production near their threshold provides an opportunity to study the charm baryon {Λ }c+/{\\bar{Λ }}c- at a τ-charm factory with {e}+{e}- collisions. We estimate the prospects of searching for the CP violation in the decays {Λ }c+\\to Λ {π }+ and {\\bar{Λ }}c-\\to \\bar{Λ }{π }-. Helicity amplitude analysis shows that the asymmetry parameters, {α }{Λ c+} and {α }{\\bar{Λ }c-}, can be directly accessed by looking at the angular proton and antiproton distributions in their helicity systems. A Monte Carlo estimation shows that data with the integrated luminosity of 530 {{pb}}-1 yields a statistical precision of about 25% for the {CP} asymmetry parameter {A}. To improve the precision to better than 0.1%, an integrated luminosity of at least 1800 fb-1 of data is required.

  18. Fano interference at the excitation of coherent phonons: Relation between the asymmetry parameter and the initial phase of coherent oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Misochko, O. V. Lebedev, M. V.

    2015-04-15

    The theoretical assertion that the Fano asymmetry parameter and the asymptotic initial phase of a harmonic oscillator interacting with a continuum are interrelated is experimentally verified. By an example of coherent fully symmetric A{sub 1g} phonons in bismuth that are excited by ultrashort laser pulses at liquid helium temperature, it is demonstrated that, for negative values of the asymmetry parameter, the asymptotic phase increases as the modulus of the parameter decreases.

  19. Type Ia Supernova Intrinsic Magnitude Dispersion and the Fitting of Cosmological Parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Alex G

    2010-12-10

    I present an analysis for fitting cosmological parameters from a Hubble Diagram of a standard candle with unknown intrinsic magnitude dispersion. The dispersion is determined from the data themselves, simultaneously with the cosmological parameters. This contrasts with the strategies used to date. The advantages of the presented analysis are that it is done in a single fit (it is not iterative), it provides a statistically founded and unbiased estimate of the intrinsic dispersion, and its cosmological-parameter uncertainties account for the intrinsic dispersion uncertainty. Applied to Type Ia supernovae, my strategy provides a statistical measure to test for sub-types and assess the significance of any magnitude corrections applied to the calibrated candle. Parameter bias and differences between likelihood distributions produced by the presented and currently-used fitters are negligibly small for existing and projected supernova data sets.

  20. Intrinsic parameters of periodic waves observed in the OI6300 over Brazilian equatorial region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medeiros, Amauri; Buriti, Ricardo; Paulino, Igo; Meriwether, John; Takahashi, Hisao; Maranhão, Glelson

    2016-07-01

    Using two Fabry-Perot interferometers (FPIs) deployed at São João do Cariri (36.5oW, 7.4oS) and Cajazeiras (38.6oW and 6.9oS ) and an all sky imager installed at São João do Cariri, the intrinsic parameters of 23 periodic waves, observed in the OI630.0 nm airglow layer, were estimated and studied. The observed horizontal parameters of these waves were estimated using two-dimensional Fourier analysis. In order to estimate the intrinsic parameters, simultaneous horizontal winds measurements performed by the FPI were used. The results show that the observed parameters of the waves were quite similar to the previous observation, indicating the sources of these waves are not changing along the time. The horizontal wavelengths were mostly found between 90 and 180 km, intrinsic periods ranged from 12 to 36 min and horizontal intrinsic phase speed from 50 to 200 ms-1. Furthermore, the wind was blowing almost perpendicular to the propagation direction of these waves, suggesting that the wind is as important factor to the filtering process of these waves in the lower thermosphere.

  1. Study of the decay asymmetry parameter and CP violation parameter in the Lambda(c)+ ---> Lambda pi+ decay

    SciTech Connect

    Link, J.M.; Yager, P.M.; Anjos, J.C.; Bediaga, I.; Castromonte, C.; Machado, A.A.; Magnin, J.; Massafferri, A.; de Miranda, J.M.; Pepe, I.M.; Polycarpo, E.; dos Reis, A.C.; Carrillo, S.; Casimiro, E.; Cuautle, E.; Sanchez-Hernandez, A.; Uribe, C.; Vazquez, F.; Agostino, L.; Cinquini, L.; Cumalat, J.P.; /Colorado U. /Fermilab /Frascati /Guanajuato U. /Illinois U., Urbana /Indiana U. /Korea U. /Kyungpook Natl. U. /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /North Carolina U. /Pavia U. /INFN, Pavia /Rio de Janeiro, Pont. U. Catol. /Puerto Rico U., Mayaguez /South Carolina U. /Tennessee U. /Vanderbilt U. /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2005-09-01

    Using data from the FOCUS (E831) experiment at Fermilab, we present a new measurement of the weak decay-asymmetry parameter a{sub {Lambda}{sub c}} in {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} {Lambda}{pi}{sup +} decay. Comparing particle with antiparticle decays, we obtain the first measurement of the CP violation parameter {Alpha} {triple_bond} a{sub {Lambda}{sub c}} + a{sub {ovr {Lambda}{sub c}}}/a{sub {Lambda}{sub c}} - a{sub {ovr {Lambda}{sub c}}}. We obtain a{sub {Lambda}{sub c}} = -0.78 {+-} 0.16 {+-} 0.13 and {Alpha} = -0.07 {+-} 0.19 {+-} 0.12 where errors are statistical and systematic.

  2. Extracting intrinsic dynamic parameters of biomolecular folding from single-molecule force spectroscopy experiments.

    PubMed

    Nam, Gi-Moon; Makarov, Dmitrii E

    2016-01-01

    Single-molecule studies in which a mechanical force is transmitted to the molecule of interest and the molecular extension or position is monitored as a function of time are versatile tools for probing the dynamics of protein folding, stepping of molecular motors, and other biomolecular processes involving activated barrier crossing. One complication in interpreting such studies, however, is the fact that the typical size of a force probe (e.g., a dielectric bead in optical tweezers or the atomic force microscope tip/cantilever assembly) is much larger than the molecule itself, and so the observed molecular motion is affected by the hydrodynamic drag on the probe. This presents the experimenter with a nontrivial task of deconvolving the intrinsic molecular parameters, such as the intrinsic free energy barrier and the effective diffusion coefficient exhibited while crossing the barrier from the experimental signal. Here we focus on the dynamical aspect of this task and show how the intrinsic diffusion coefficient along the molecular reaction coordinate can be inferred from single-molecule measurements of the rates of biomolecular folding and unfolding. We show that the feasibility of accomplishing this task is strongly dependent on the relationship between the intrinsic molecular elasticity and that of the linker connecting the molecule to the force probe and identify the optimal range of instrumental parameters allowing determination of instrument-free molecular dynamics. PMID:26088347

  3. Measurement of the neutron β-asymmetry parameter A0 with ultracold neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaster, B.; Rios, R.; Back, H. O.; Bowles, T. J.; Broussard, L. J.; Carr, R.; Clayton, S.; Currie, S.; Filippone, B. W.; García, A.; Geltenbort, P.; Hickerson, K. P.; Hoagland, J.; Hogan, G. E.; Hona, B.; Holley, A. T.; Ito, T. M.; Liu, C.-Y.; Liu, J.; Makela, M.; Mammei, R. R.; Martin, J. W.; Melconian, D.; Mendenhall, M. P.; Morris, C. L.; Mortensen, R.; Pattie, R. W., Jr.; Pérez Galván, A.; Pitt, M. L.; Ramsey, J. C.; Russell, R.; Saunders, A.; Schmid, R.; Seestrom, S. J.; Sjue, S.; Sondheim, W. E.; Tatar, E.; Tipton, B.; Vogelaar, R. B.; VornDick, B.; Wrede, C.; Xu, Y. P.; Yan, H.; Young, A. R.; Yuan, J.

    2012-11-01

    We present a detailed report of a measurement of the neutron β-asymmetry parameter A0, the parity-violating angular correlation between the neutron spin and the decay electron momentum, performed with polarized ultracold neutrons (UCN). UCN were extracted from a pulsed spallation solid deuterium source and polarized via transport through a 7-T magnetic field. The polarized UCN were then transported through an adiabatic-fast-passage spin-flipper field region, prior to storage in a cylindrical decay volume situated within a 1-T 2×2π solenoidal spectrometer. The asymmetry was extracted from measurements of the decay electrons in multiwire proportional chamber and plastic scintillator detector packages located on both ends of the spectrometer. From an analysis of data acquired during runs in 2008 and 2009, we report A0=-0.11966±0.00089-0.00140+0.00123, from which we extract a value for the ratio of the weak axial-vector and vector coupling constants of the nucleon, λ=gA/gV=-1.27590±0.00239-0.00377+0.00331. Complete details of the analysis are presented.

  4. Simultaneous intrinsic and extrinsic parameter identification of a hand-mounted laser-vision sensor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong Kwang; Kim, Kiho; Lee, Yongseok; Jeong, Taikyeong

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a simultaneous intrinsic and extrinsic parameter identification of a hand-mounted laser-vision sensor (HMLVS). A laser-vision sensor (LVS), consisting of a camera and a laser stripe projector, is used as a sensor component of the robotic measurement system, and it measures the range data with respect to the robot base frame using the robot forward kinematics and the optical triangulation principle. For the optimal estimation of the model parameters, we applied two optimization techniques: a nonlinear least square optimizer and a particle swarm optimizer. Best-fit parameters, including both the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of the HMLVS, are simultaneously obtained based on the least-squares criterion. From the simulation and experimental results, it is shown that the parameter identification problem considered was characterized by a highly multimodal landscape; thus, the global optimization technique such as a particle swarm optimization can be a promising tool to identify the model parameters for a HMLVS, while the nonlinear least square optimizer often failed to find an optimal solution even when the initial candidate solutions were selected close to the true optimum. The proposed optimization method does not require good initial guesses of the system parameters to converge at a very stable solution and it could be applied to a kinematically dissimilar robot system without loss of generality. PMID:22164104

  5. Hemispherical power asymmetry: parameter estimation from cosmic microwave background WMAP5 data

    SciTech Connect

    Lew, Bartosz

    2008-09-15

    We re-examine the evidence for hemispherical power asymmetry, detected in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) WMAP (Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe) data using a new method. We use a data filtering, preprocessing, and a statistical approach different from those used previously, and pursue an independent method of parameter estimation. First, we analyze the hemispherical variance ratios and compare these with simulated distributions. Secondly, working within a previously proposed CMB bipolar modulation model, we constrain model parameters: the amplitude and the orientation of the modulation field, as a function of various multipole bins. Finally, we select three ranges of multipoles leading to the most anomalous signals, and we process a hundred corresponding Gaussian random field (GRF) simulations, treated as observational data, to further test the statistical significance and robustness of the hemispherical power asymmetry. For our analysis we use the Internally Linearly Coadded (ILC) full sky map, and the KQ75 cut sky V channel foreground reduced map of the WMAP five-year data (V5). We constrain the modulation parameters using a generic maximum a posteriori method. In particular, we find differences in hemispherical power distribution, which when described in terms of a model with a bipolar modulation field, exclude the field amplitude value of the isotropic model, A = 0, at the confidence level of {approx}99.5% ({approx}99.4%) in the multipole range l element of [7,19] (l element of [7,79]) for the V5 data, and at the confidence level of {approx}99.9% in the multipole range l element of [7,39] for the ILC5 data, with best-fit (modal probability distribution function) values in these particular multipole ranges of A = 0.21 (A = 0.21) and A = 0.15 respectively. However, we also point out that similar or larger significances (in terms of rejecting the isotropic model) and large best-fit modulation amplitudes are obtained in GRF simulations as well, which

  6. Photoionization of He above the N =2 threshold. II. Angular distribution of photoelectrons and asymmetry parameter

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, I.; Martin, F. )

    1992-04-01

    We report theoretical calculations for the {beta}{sub 2{ital p}}-asymmetry parameter in the photoionization of He(1{ital s}{sup 2}) above the {ital N}=2 ionization threshold. We use an extension of a method recently proposed (I. Sanchez and F. Martin, Phys. Rev. A 44, 7318 (1991)) that makes use of a Feshbach partitioning of the final-state wave function and an {ital L}{sup 2} representation of the coupled continuum states. Partial differential cross sections at emission angles 0{degree} and 90{degree} are also provided. Our results are in good agreement with the experimental data, thus showing the accuracy of the present method to study electron angular-distribution properties.

  7. On the reliable measurement of specific absorption rates and intrinsic loss parameters in magnetic hyperthermia materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wildeboer, R. R.; Southern, P.; Pankhurst, Q. A.

    2014-12-01

    In the clinical application of magnetic hyperthermia, the heat generated by magnetic nanoparticles in an alternating magnetic field is used as a cancer treatment. The heating ability of the particles is quantified by the specific absorption rate (SAR), an extrinsic parameter based on the clinical response characteristic of power delivered per unit mass, and by the intrinsic loss parameter (ILP), an intrinsic parameter based on the heating capacity of the material. Even though both the SAR and ILP are widely used as comparative design parameters, they are almost always measured in non-adiabatic systems that make accurate measurements difficult. We present here the results of a systematic review of measurement methods for both SAR and ILP, leading to recommendations for a standardised, simple and reliable method for measurements using non-adiabatic systems. In a representative survey of 50 retrieved datasets taken from published papers, the derived SAR or ILP was found to be more than 5% overestimated in 24% of cases and more than 5% underestimated in 52% of cases.

  8. Determination of solubility parameters of ionic liquids and ionic liquid/solvent mixtures from intrinsic viscosity.

    PubMed

    Weerachanchai, Piyarat; Wong, Yuewen; Lim, Kok Hwa; Tan, Timothy Thatt Yang; Lee, Jong-Min

    2014-11-10

    The total and partial solubility parameters (dispersion, polar and hydrogen-bonding solubility parameters) of ten ionic liquids were determined. Intrinsic viscosity approaches were used that encompassed a one-dimensional method (1D-Method), and two different three-dimensional methods (3D-Method1 and 3D-Method2). The effect of solvent type, the dimethylacetamide (DMA) fraction in the ionic liquid, and dissolution temperature on solubility parameters were also investigated. For all types of effect, both the 1D-Method and 3D-Method2 present the same trend in the total solubility parameter. The partial solubility parameters are influenced by the cation and anion of the ionic liquid. Considering the effect on partial solubility parameters of the solvent type in the ionic liquid, it was observed that in both 3D methods, the dispersion and polar parameters of a 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate/solvent (60:40 vol %) mixture tend to increase as the total solubility parameter of the solvent increases. PMID:25145759

  9. Diagnostic accuracy of posterior pole asymmetry analysis parameters of spectralis optical coherence tomography in detecting early unilateral glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Paaraj; Shah, Juhi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To report the diagnostic ability of posterior pole asymmetry analysis (PPAA) parameters of spectralis optical coherence tomography (OCT) in detecting early unilateral glaucoma. Methods: A prospective, cross-sectional study which included 80 eyes of 80 normal subjects and 76 eyes of 76 patients with unilateral early primary open-angle glaucoma by Hodapp-Anderson-Parrish classification. All subjects were of age more than 18 years, best-corrected visual acuity 20/40 or better, and a refractive error within ± 5 diopter (D) sphere and ± 3 D cylinder. Control subjects had a normal ocular examination, intraocular pressure (IOP) <22 mmHg, no past history of high IOP, no family history of glaucoma, normal optic disc morphology, and visual field in both eyes. One eye of the control subject was randomly included. All eyes underwent OCT for retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) analysis and PPAA. The number of continuous black squares was noted in the asymmetry analysis (right-left + hemisphere asymmetry). The area under curve (AUC) was calculated for all OCT parameters. Results: The best value for AUC for RNFL analysis was 0.858 for the inferotemporal quadrant thickness. This was similar to the best value for AUC for PPAA which was 0.833 for the inferior macular thickness parameter (P = 0.5). The AUC for the right-left and the hemisphere asymmetry part of PPAA was 0.427 and 0.499, respectively. Conclusion: The macular thickness PPAA parameters were equally good as the RNFL parameters. However, the asymmetry analysis parameters performed poorly and need further refinement before its use in early unilateral glaucoma diagnosis. PMID:26669335

  10. The Dependence Of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Image Contrast On Intrinsic And Operator-Selectable Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehrli, F. W.; MacFall, J. R.; Glover, G. H.

    1983-12-01

    In nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) the image pixel value is governed by four intrinsic parameters: the spin density ρ, the spin-lattice relaxation time T1, the spin-spin relaxation time T2 and, for non-stationary spins, the flow velocity v. The extent to which the signal is weighted toward one or several parameters is related to the history of the spin system preceding the detection pulse. In the present work T1 and T2 were determined in vivo for several regions in the CNS from inversion-recovery (T1) And multiple-echo (T2) images, using least-squares fitting procedures. From averaged values of T1 and T2 in grey matter, white matter and CSF, the signal intensity was calculated on the basis of the Bloch equations and plotted as a function of the intrinsic parameters for the three most common imaging pulse sequences. These data are in excellent agreement with images, recorded from normal volunteers on an experimental whole-body imaging system operating at 12.8 MHz (0.3T). The graphical presentation of contrast further will provide the radiologist with a straightforward tool for image interpretation.

  11. Optimizing gravitational-wave searches for a population of coalescing binaries: Intrinsic parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dent, T.; Veitch, J.

    2014-03-01

    We revisit the problem of searching for gravitational waves from inspiralling compact binaries in Gaussian colored noise. If the intrinsic parameters of a quasicircular, nonprecessing binary are known, then the optimal statistic for detecting the dominant mode signal in a single interferometer is given by the well-known two-phase matched filter. However, the matched filter signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is not in general an optimal statistic for an astrophysical population of signals, since their distribution over the intrinsic parameters will almost certainly not mirror that of noise events, which is determined by the (Fisher) information metric. Instead, the optimal statistic for a given astrophysical distribution will be the Bayes factor, which we approximate using the output of a standard template matched filter search. We then quantify the improvement in number of signals detected for various populations of nonspinning binaries: for a distribution of signals uniformly distributed in volume and with component masses distributed uniformly over the range 1≤m1,2/M⊙≤24, (m1+m2)/M⊙≤25 at fixed expected SNR, we find ≳20% more signals at a false alarm threshold of 10-6 Hz in a single detector. The method may easily be generalized to binaries with nonprecessing spins.

  12. Estimation of Filling and Afterload Conditions by Pump Intrinsic Parameters in a Pulsatile Total Artificial Heart.

    PubMed

    Cuenca-Navalon, Elena; Laumen, Marco; Finocchiaro, Thomas; Steinseifer, Ulrich

    2016-07-01

    A physiological control algorithm is being developed to ensure an optimal physiological interaction between the ReinHeart total artificial heart (TAH) and the circulatory system. A key factor for that is the long-term, accurate determination of the hemodynamic state of the cardiovascular system. This study presents a method to determine estimation models for predicting hemodynamic parameters (pump chamber filling and afterload) from both left and right cardiovascular circulations. The estimation models are based on linear regression models that correlate filling and afterload values with pump intrinsic parameters derived from measured values of motor current and piston position. Predictions for filling lie in average within 5% from actual values, predictions for systemic afterload (AoPmean , AoPsys ) and mean pulmonary afterload (PAPmean ) lie in average within 9% from actual values. Predictions for systolic pulmonary afterload (PAPsys ) present an average deviation of 14%. The estimation models show satisfactory prediction and confidence intervals and are thus suitable to estimate hemodynamic parameters. This method and derived estimation models are a valuable alternative to implanted sensors and are an essential step for the development of a physiological control algorithm for a fully implantable TAH. PMID:26634983

  13. Dependence of nuclear quadrupole resonance transitions on the electric field gradient asymmetry parameter for nuclides with half-integer spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Herman

    2016-09-01

    Allowed transition energies and eigenstate expansions have been calculated and tabulated in numerical form as functions of the electric field gradient asymmetry parameter for the zero field Hamiltonian of quadrupolar nuclides with I = 3 / 2 , 5 / 2 , 7 / 2, and 9 / 2. These results are essential to interpret nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) spectra and extract accurate values of the electric field gradient tensors. Applications of NQR methods to studies of electronic structure in heavy element systems are proposed.

  14. Dependence of nuclear quadrupole resonance transitions on the electric field gradient asymmetry parameter for nuclides with half-integer spins

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Cho, Herman

    2016-02-28

    Allowed transition energies and eigenstate expansions have been calculated and tabulated in numerical form as functions of the electric field gradient asymmetry parameter for the zero field Hamiltonian of quadrupolar nuclides with I = 3/2,5/2,7/2, and 9/2. These results are essential to interpret nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) spectra and extract accurate values of the electric field gradient tensors. Furthermore, applications of NQR methods to studies of electronic structure in heavy element systems are proposed.

  15. A mesospheric airglow multichannel photometer and an optical method to measure mesospheric AGW intrinsic parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangognia, Anthony; Swenson, Gary; Vargas, Fabio; Liu, Alan

    2016-05-01

    A multichannel photometer (MCP) instrument, designed with filters for three specific airglow emissions, OH Meinel (5-1), (6-2), 840 nm; O2 (b) (0,1), 865 nm; and O(1S), 557.7 nm, as well as background, is used to observe atmospheric wave perturbations to layers in the local zenith with high temporal resolution (∼5 s). By measuring the relative phase of propagating waves through the layers, with known altitude separation, we deduce the vertical wavelength. We describe here the instrument attributes, a unique background subtraction technique, and the validation of a new method for determining intrinsic wave parameters via MCP and imager data that can be taken from various platforms, including ground-based and spacecraft platforms. Vertical wavelengths deduced using this method are in close agreement with those measured using LIDAR temperatures as well as those calculated with the dispersion relation using a combination of all-sky imager (horizontal wavelength) and meteor radar (winds) data.

  16. Vibrational branching ratios and asymmetry parameters in the photoionization of CO2 in the region between 650 Å and 840 Å

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 119 Vibrational branching ratios and asymmetry parameters in the photoionization of CO2 in the region between 650 Å and 840 Å (Web, free access)   CO2 is studied using dispersed synchrotron radiation in the 650 Å to 850 Å spectral region. The vibrationally resolved photoelectron spectra are analyzed to generate relative vibrational transition amplitudes and the angular asymmetry parameters describing the various transitions observed.

  17. Using Drell-Yan forward-backward asymmetry to reduce PDF uncertainties in the measurement of electroweak parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodek, A.; Han, J.; Khukhunaishvili, A.; Sakumoto, W.

    2016-03-01

    The uncertainties in parton distribution functions (PDFs) are the dominant source of the systematic uncertainty in precision measurements of electroweak parameters at hadron colliders (e.g. sin ^2θ _{eff}(M_Z), sin ^2θ W=1-M_W^2/M_Z^2 and the mass of the W boson). We show that measurements of the forward-backward charge asymmetry (A_{FB}(M,y)) of Drell-Yan dilepton events produced at hadron colliders provide a new powerful tool to reduce the PDF uncertainties in these measurements.

  18. Remote sensing of ice crystal asymmetry parameter using multi-directional polarization measurements - Part 2: Application to the Research Scanning Polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Diedenhoven, B.; Cairns, B.; Fridlind, A. M.; Ackerman, A. S.; Garrett, T. J.

    2012-12-01

    A new method to retrieve ice cloud asymmetry parameters from multi-directional polarized reflectance measurements is applied to measurements of the airborne Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP) obtained during the CRYSTAL-FACE campaign in 2002. The method assumes individual hexagonal ice columns and plates serve as proxies for more complex shapes and aggregates. The closest fit is searched in a look-up table of simulated polarized reflectances computed for cloud layers that contain individual, randomly oriented hexagonal columns and plates with a virtually continuous selection of aspect ratios and distortion. The asymmetry parameter, aspect ratio and distortion of the hexagonal particle that leads to the best fit with the measurements are considered the retrieved values. Two cases of thick convective clouds and two cases of thinner anvil cloud layers are analyzed. Median asymmetry parameters retrieved by the RSP range from 0.76 to 0.78, and are generally smaller that those currently assumed in most climate models and satellite retrievals. In all cases the measurements indicate roughened ice crystals, which is consistent with previous findings. Retrieved aspect ratios in three of the cases range from 0.9 to 1.6, indicating compact particles dominate the cloud-top shortwave radiation. Retrievals for the remaining case indicate plate-like ice crystals with aspect ratios around 0.3. The RSP retrievals are qualitatively consistent with the CPI images obtained in the same cloud layers. Retrieved asymmetry parameters are compared to those determined in situ by the Cloud Integrating Nephelometer (CIN). For two cases, the median values of asymmetry parameter retrieved by CIN and RSP agree within 0.01, while for the two other cases RSP asymmetry parameters are about 0.03-0.05 greater than those obtained by the CIN. Part of this bias might be explained by vertical variation of the asymmetry parameter.

  19. Remote sensing of ice crystal asymmetry parameter using multi-directional polarization measurements - Part 2: Application to the Research Scanning Polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Diedenhoven, B.; Cairns, B.; Fridlind, A. M.; Ackerman, A. S.; Garrett, T. J.

    2013-03-01

    A new method to retrieve ice cloud asymmetry parameters from multi-directional polarized reflectance measurements is applied to measurements of the airborne Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP) obtained during the CRYSTAL-FACE campaign in 2002. The method assumes individual hexagonal ice columns and plates serve as proxies for more complex shapes and aggregates. The closest fit is searched in a look-up table of simulated polarized reflectances computed for cloud layers that contain individual, randomly oriented hexagonal columns and plates with a virtually continuous selection of aspect ratios and distortion. The asymmetry parameter, aspect ratio and distortion of the hexagonal particle that leads to the best fit with the measurements are considered the retrieved values. Two cases of thick convective clouds and two cases of thinner anvil cloud layers are analyzed. Median asymmetry parameters retrieved by the RSP range from 0.76 to 0.78, and are generally smaller than those currently assumed in most climate models and satellite retrievals. In all cases the measurements indicate roughened or distorted ice crystals, which is consistent with previous findings. Retrieved aspect ratios in three of the cases range from 0.9 to 1.6, indicating compact particles dominate the cloud-top shortwave radiation. Retrievals for the remaining case indicate plate-like ice crystals with aspect ratios around 0.3. The RSP retrievals are qualitatively consistent with the CPI images obtained in the same cloud layers. Retrieved asymmetry parameters are compared to those determined in situ by the Cloud Integrating Nephelometer (CIN). For two cases, the median values of asymmetry parameter retrieved by CIN and RSP agree within 0.01, while for the two other cases RSP asymmetry parameters are about 0.03-0.05 greater than those obtained by the CIN. Part of this bias might be explained by vertical variation of the asymmetry parameter or ice shattering on the CIN probe, or both.

  20. Variation of Ice Crystal Size, Shape and Asymmetry Parameter in Tops of Convective Storm Systems Observed during SEAC4RS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Diedenhoven, B.; Cairns, B.; Fridlind, A. M.; Ackerman, A. S.

    2014-12-01

    The sizes and shapes of ice particles in tops of convective storms have a significant impact on their radiative properties. Ice crystal sizes and shapes likely vary with altitude, environmental conditions and convective strength, but these relationships are not well characterized. The rich dataset of the NASA SEAC4RS field campaign offers unique perspectives to further identify variations of ice crystal sizes and shapes and their relations to environmental and dynamical conditions. Here we focus on data acquired with the Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP), which was mounted on the high-altitude ER-2 aircraft during SEAC4RS. RSP's unique multi-angular, multi-wavelength total and polarized reflectance measurements allow retrieval of ice effective radius, the aspect ratio of components of ice crystals, the crystal distortion level and ice asymmetry parameter, as well as cloud optical thickness and cloud top height. Using RSP data, as well as data from the eMAS and CPL sensors and in situ probes, we explore the statistical variation of ice properties retrieved during SEAC4RS in tops of convective systems. The data indicates that, in general, ice crystal populations consistent with plate-like components with aspect ratios near 0.4 are prevalent at cloud tops. The asymmetry parameter is around 0.76-0.8 and generally decreases with increasing cloud top height, mainly because the ice crystal distortion increases with height. Below about 12 km height, the effective radius decreases with increasing altitude, as previously shown for convective clouds using satellite data, but at higher levels the SEAC4RS data indicate a transition to effective radii increasing with cloud top height. Here we explore some possible explanations for this transition, related to its approximate coincidence with the level of minimum stability and the homogeneous freezing level, either of which could affect ice crystal formation and evolution. Additionally, we will demonstrate some of the

  1. a Measurement of the Asymmetry Parameter for Argon -35 Beta-Decay as a Test of the Conserved Vector Current Hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Converse, Alexander Milovan

    The spatial asymmetry of positrons emitted parallel and antiparallel to the spin axis of a polarized sample of ^{35}Ar has been measured. The measured asymmetry parameter for the mixed Fermi--Gamow - Teller decay ^{35}Ar( beta^+)^{35}Cl is A_0 = 0.427(23). This agrees with the value predicted by the Standard Model, A _0^{rm theory} = 0.4302(86). The Standard Model prediction assumes vector-axial vector couplings and the validity of the conserved vector current hypothesis; the vector coupling strength is derived from comparative half-lives of pure Fermi 0^+to0^+ transitions, and the ratio of axial vector to vector coupling strengths is calculated using the ^ {35}Ar comparative half-life. In the measurement, polarized ^{35}Ar was created by bombarding a Cl_2 target with 68% polarized 9.2 MeV protons. Positrons emitted at 0^circ and 180 ^circ with respect to the ^{35}Ar polarization axis were observed with DeltaE-E plastic scintillator detectors. The ^{35}Ar polarization was determined from the asymmetry of positrons emitted in the decays ^{35}Ar( beta^+)^{35}Cl ^*, which were identified by the observation of coincident gamma - rays in pure Ge detectors. The decay to the first excited state of ^{35}Cl is pure Gamow - Teller, so its asymmetry parameter may be derived from angular momentum coupling arguments without reference to the Standard Model. The relative uncertainty in this measurement, DeltaA_0 /A_0 = 5.4%, is the quadratic sum of the statistical error, 5.4%, and systematic errors, 0.5%. In light of published measurements of the neutron asymmetry parameter, which are accurate to 1.5% and disagree with the Standard Model prediction by more than 2 sigma, it might be worthwhile to repeat the measurement of the ^{35}Ar ground state asymmetry parameter to obtain statistical precision of <2%.

  2. Additional information on heavy quark parameters from charged lepton forward-backward asymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turczyk, Sascha

    2016-04-01

    The determination of | V cb | using inclusive and exclusive (semi-)leptonic decays exhibits a long-standing tension of varying O(3σ ) significance. For the inclusive determination the decay rate is expanded in 1/ m b using heavy quark expansion, and from moments of physical observables the higher order heavy quark parameters are extracted from experimental data in order to assess | V cb | from the normalisation. The drawbacks are high correlations both theoretically as well as experimentally among these observables. We will scrutinise the inclusive determination in order to add a new and less correlated observable. This observable is related to the decay angle of the charged lepton and can help to constrain the important heavy quark parameters in a new way. It may validate the current seemingly stable extraction of | V cb | from inclusive decays or hints to possible issues, and even may be sensitive to New Physics operators.

  3. Measurement of the asymmetry parameter for the decay {Lambda}{yields}p{pi}{sup +}

    SciTech Connect

    Ablikim, M.; Bai, J. Z.; Bai, Y.; Cai, X.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, H. X.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, Jin; Chen, Y. B.; Chu, Y. P.; Deng, Z. Y.; Du, S. X.; Fang, J.; Fu, C. D.; Gao, C. S.; Gu, S. D.; Guo, Y. N.; He, K. L.; Heng, Y. K.; Hu, H. M.

    2010-01-01

    Based on a sample of 58x10{sup 6}J/{psi} decays collected with the BESII detector at the BEPC, the {Lambda} decay parameter {alpha}{sub {Lambda}}for {Lambda}{yields}p{pi}{sup +} is measured using about 9000 J/{psi}{yields}{Lambda}{Lambda}{yields}pp{pi}{sup +{pi}-} decays. A fit to the joint angular distributions yields {alpha}{sub {Lambda}({Lambda}{yields}p{pi}{sup +})}=-0.755{+-}0.083{+-}0.063, where the first error is statistical, and the second systematic.

  4. Recent Development in Determining Spontaneous Heating Susceptibility of Indian Coals and Its Correlation with Intrinsic Parameters of Coal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Santosh Kumar; Panigrahi, Durga Charan

    2015-10-01

    The paper describes a new electro-chemical method called wet oxidation potential technique for determining the susceptibility of coal to spontaneous combustion. Altogether 78 coal samples collected from thirteen different mining companies spreading over most of the Indian coalfields have been used for this experimental investigation. Experiments have also been carried out for proximate and ultimate analyses of coal. Susceptibility index obtained from wet oxidation potential was correlated with intrinsic parameters of coal. It has been found that susceptibility index bears a good correlation with moisture content, volatile matter, oxygen, hydrogen and carbon content of coal.

  5. Aerosol Single-Scattering Albedo and Asymmetry Parameter from MFRSR Observations during the ARM Aerosol IOP 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Flynn, Connor J.; Ackerman, Thomas P.; Barnard, James C.

    2007-06-15

    Multi-filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometers (MFRSRs) provide routine measurements of the aerosol optical depth ( << OLE Object: Microsoft Equation 3.0 >> ) at six wavelengths (0.415, 0.5, 0.615, 0.673, 0.870 and 0.94  << OLE Object: Picture (Metafile) >> ). The single-scattering albedo ( << OLE Object: Microsoft Equation 3.0 >> ) is typically estimated from the MFRSR measurements by assuming the asymmetry parameter ( << OLE Object: Microsoft Equation 3.0 >> ). In most instances, however, it is not easy to set an appropriate value of << OLE Object: Microsoft Equation 3.0 >> due to its strong temporal and spatial variability. Here, we introduce and validate an updated version of our retrieval technique that allows one to estimate simultaneously << OLE Object: Microsoft Equation 3.0 >> and << OLE Object: Microsoft Equation 3.0 >> for different types of aerosol. We use the aerosol and radiative properties obtained during the Atmospheric Science Program (ARM) Aerosol Intensive Operational Period (IOP) to validate our retrieval in two ways. First, the MFRSR-retrieved optical properties are compared with those obtained from independent surface, Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) and aircraft measurements. The MFRSR-retrieved optical properties are in reasonable agreement with these independent measurements. Second, we perform radiative closure experiments using the MFRSR-retrieved optical properties. The calculated broadband values of the direct and diffuse fluxes are comparable (~ 5 << OLE Object: Microsoft Equation 3.0 >> ) to those obtained from measurements.

  6. Characterization of the oral absorption of several aminopenicillins: determination of intrinsic membrane absorption parameters in the rat intestine in situ

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinko, P. J.; Amidon, G. L.

    1992-01-01

    The absorption mechanism of several penicillins was characterized using in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion in the rat. The intrinsic membrane parameters were determined using a modified boundary layer model (fitted value +/- S.E.): Jmax* = 11.78 +/- 1.88 mM, Km = 15.80 +/- 2.92 mM, Pm* = 0, Pc* = 0.75 +/- 0.04 for ampicillin; Jmax* = 0.044 +/- 0.018 mM, Km = 0.058 +/- 0.026 mM, Pm* = 0.558 +/- 0.051, Pc* = 0.757 +/- 0.088 for amoxicillin; and Jmax* = 16.30 +/- 3.40 mM, Km = 14.00 +/- 3.30 mM, Pm* = 0, Pc* = 1.14 +/- 0.05 for cyclacillin. All of the aminopenicillins studied demonstrated saturable absorption kinetics as indicated by their concentration-dependent wall permeabilities. Inhibition studies were performed to confirm the existence of a nonpassive absorption mechanism. The intrinsic wall permeability (Pw*) of 0.01 mM ampicillin was significantly lowered by 1 mM amoxicillin and the Pw* of 0.01 mM amoxicillin was reduced by 2 mM cephradine consistent with competitive inhibition.

  7. On metachronism in ciliary systems: a model describing the dependence of the metachronal wave properties on the intrinsic ciliary parameters.

    PubMed

    Gheber, L; Priel, Z

    1990-01-01

    A mathematical model is proposed to explain the dependence of the direction and the length of the metachronal wave on parameters that characterize the ciliary beat, the dimensions of the cilia, and the geometry of their arrangement on the ciliated surface. The metachronal wave is decomposed into two mutually perpendicular components, which are chosen in such a way that the direction of one of them is in the direction of the effective stroke. The magnitudes of the two components are determined by using the concept of the time of delay between adjacent cilia. The properties of the metachronal wave are then calculated as a function of the ciliary parameters. The results obtained with the present model predict that the direction of the wave propagation is strongly dependent on the type of metachronism in the direction of the effective stoke and the polarization in time and in space of the ciliary beat. The metachronal wavelength is found to depend on four parameters: the ciliary length, the angle of the arc projected on the cell surface by the ciliary tip during the recovery stroke, the degree of asymmetry of ciliary beat, and the portion of the cycle occupied by the pause. The metachronal wavelength is also found to be only weakly dependent on the ciliary frequency. At this stage there exists relatively little experimental information with which to characterize fully the metachronal properties of ciliary systems. Even when only partial information exists, the model allows prediction, to within a certain range, of the direction of the wave propagation. It also suggests a possible mechanism for the influence of changes in environmental conditions on wave direction and wavelength. In several cases in which full information does exist, good agreement between the experimental findings and the predictions of the model is found. According to this model it will be worthwhile to invest more effort in measuring the time and space polarization of ciliary beating and times of

  8. Intrinsic parameters for the structure control of nonionic reverse micelles in styrene: SAXS and rheometry studies.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Lok Kumar; Shrestha, Rekha Goswami; Aramaki, Kenji

    2011-05-17

    Shape, size, and internal structure of nonionic reverse micelle in styrene depending on surfactant chain length, concentration, temperature, and water addition have been investigated using a small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) technique. The generalized indirect Fourier transformation (GIFT) method has been employed to deduce real-space structural information. The consistency of the GIFT method has been tested by the geometrical model fittings, and the micellar aggregation number (N(agg)) has been determined. It was found that diglycerol monocaprate (C(10)G(2)), diglycerol monolaurate (C(12)G(2)), and diglycerol monomyristate (C(14)G(2)), spontaneously self-assemble into reverse micelles in organic solvent styrene under ambient conditions. The micellar size and the N(agg) decrease with an increase in surfactant chain length, a scenario that could be understood from the modification of the critical packing parameter (cpp). A clear picture of one-dimensional (1-D) micellar growth was observed with an increase in surfactant weight fraction (W(s)) in the C(10)G(2) system, which eventually formed rodlike micelles at W(s) ≥ 15%. On the other hand, micelles shrunk favoring a rod-to-sphere type transition upon heating. Reverse micelles swelled with water, forming a water pool at the micellar core; the size of water-incorporated reverse micelles was much bigger than that of the empty micelles. Model fittings showed that water addition not only increase the micellar size but also increase the N(agg). Zero-shear viscosity was found to decrease with surfactant chain but increase with W(s), supporting the results derived from SAXS. PMID:21488609

  9. Intrinsic kinetic parameters of Thermococcus onnurineus NA1 strains and prediction of optimum carbon monoxide level for ideal bioreactor operation.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Yeseul; Jang, Nulee; Yasin, Muhammad; Park, Shinyoung; Chang, In Seop

    2016-02-01

    This study determines and compares the intrinsic kinetic parameters (Ks and Ki) of selected Thermococcus onnurineus NA1 strains (wild-type (WT), and mutants MC01, MC02, and WTC156T) using the substrate inhibition model. Ks and Ki values were used to find the optimum dissolved CO (CL) conditions inside the reactor. The results showed that in terms of the maximum specific CO consumption rates (qCO(max)) of WT, MC01, MC02, and WTC156T the optimum activities can be achieved by maintaining the CL levels at 0.56mM, 0.52mM, 0.58mM, and 0.75mM, respectively. The qCO(max) value of WTC156T at 0.75mM was found to be 1.5-fold higher than for the WT strain, confirming its superiority. Kinetic modeling was then used to predict the conditions required to maintain the optimum CL levels and high cell concentrations in the reactor, based on the kinetic parameters of the WTC156T strain. PMID:26638136

  10. Development of a numerical framework for studying intrinsic parameter of a micro-lens-based optical detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paar, Steffen; Jiang, Xiaoming; Semmler, Wolfhard; Peter, Jörg

    2012-10-01

    In order to validate and to optimize the imaging capabilities of a micro-lens-array (MLA) based optical detector dedicated for preclinical in-vivo small animal imaging applications a numeric investigation framework is developed. The framework is laid-out to study the following MLA detector parameters: micro-lens diameter (D) and focal length (f), as well as sensor pixel size (A). Two mathematical models are implemented for light modeling: line-based and cone-based ray projections. Since the MLA detector requires mathematical postprocessing, specifically inverse mapping for image formation, the framework is fully integrated into such approach. MLA detector designs have been studied within valid parameter ranges yielding sub-millimeter spatial resolution for in vivo imaging of mice for detector-object-distances (t) up to 50 mm. In summary, there is a non-linear dependency of the detector's spatial resolution, scaling with D and f, for any respective t. On the other hand, detector efficiency is strongly dependent on f. Regardless of mathematical postprocessing the following set of intrinsic detector parameters had been found optimal for the intended application: D = 0.336 mm, f = 4.0 mm, A = 0.048 mm. When mathematical postprocessing is involved, particularly three-dimensional surface recognition, increasing f (cf. decreasing D) yields solid angles of the incoming rays closer to 90° and, thus, will decrease spatial depth information from the elementary images. Hence, a setup with D not larger than 0.5 mm and f between 2.0 mm and 3.0 mm is recommended.

  11. Impact of Z' and universal extra dimension parameters on different asymmetries in Bs→ϕℓ+ℓ- decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Ishtiaq; Aslam, M. Jamil; Paracha, M. Ali

    2013-07-01

    A comprehensive study of the impact of new physics on different observables for Bs→ϕℓ+ℓ- is carried out. We examine the new physics models, such as Z' and universal extra dimension models, where the effects of new physics come through the modification of Wilson coefficients. We analyze these effects through the theoretical prediction of the branching ratio, the forward-backward asymmetry, lepton polarization asymmetries, and the helicity fractions of the final-state meson. These observables will definitely be measured in present and future colliders with great precision. We also point out that hadronic uncertainties in various physical observables are small, which make them an ideal probe to establish new physics. Therefore, the measurements of these observables for the same decay would permit the detection of physics beyond the Standard Model and will also help us to distinguish between different new physics scenarios.

  12. Vibrational Branching Ratios and Asymmetry Parameters in the Photoionization of CO2 in the Region Between 650 Å and 840 Å

    PubMed Central

    Parr, A. C.; West, J. B.; King, M. R. F.; Ueda, K.; Dehmer, P. M.; Dehmer, J. L.

    2001-01-01

    The vibrational branching ratios and asymmetry parameters for CO2 have been determined in the wavelength region of 650 Å to near the ionization onset at about 840 Å. The study was performed using synchrotron radiation from the Daresbury storage ring that was dispersed with a 5 m grating monochomator that afforded resolution of 0.1 Å to 0.2 Å. This resolution allowed the study of the branching ratios and asymmetry parameters with enough detail to see the changes in the parameters within the pronounced autoionization structure in CO2 in this wavelength region. While the electron spectrometer resolution was not sufficient to resolve the spin orbit and Renner-Teller splitting in the photoelectron spectra, we are able to fit the data with a model that identifies the major structure in terms of the symmetric stretch and elements of the asymmetric stretch and bending modes. A calculation of the expected relative vibrational excitations based upon the Franck-Condon principle clearly showed non-Franck-Condon behavior in some of the vibrational-electronic transitions.

  13. Structural asymmetries, relativistic beaming and orientation effects in Lobe-Dominated Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onuchukwu, C. C.; Ubachukwu, A. A.

    2013-03-01

    We have examined statistically, structural asymmetries and simple relativistic beaming/source orientation in a sample of Lobe-Dominated Quasars (LDQs) using the source size D as orientation parameter; relative core strength R as beaming parameter; arm-length ratio Q, apparent flux ratio R ∗, and bending angle Φ as asymmetric parameters. Our result for Q>1.5, based on the median value data is inconsistent with beaming scenario, where we expect stronger negative correlation for more asymmetric sources, between our beaming parameter R and orientation parameter D than for less asymmetric sources Q≤1.5. This observation indicates that structural asymmetries may depend more on intrinsic factors than beaming. Our kinematic asymmetric model of extra galactic radio sources suggests that larger (possibly older) sources are less asymmetric, which may be interpreted to be indicative of other factors other than beaming as responsible for the observed asymmetries in radio sources.

  14. The regime of aerosol asymmetry parameter over Europe, the Mediterranean and the Middle East based on MODIS satellite data: evaluation against surface AERONET measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korras-Carraca, M. B.; Hatzianastassiou, N.; Matsoukas, C.; Gkikas, A.; Papadimas, C. D.

    2015-11-01

    Atmospheric particulates are a significant forcing agent for the radiative energy budget of the Earth-atmosphere system. The particulates' interaction with radiation, which defines their climate effect, is strongly dependent on their optical properties. In the present work, we study one of the most important optical properties of aerosols, the asymmetry parameter (gaer), over sea surfaces of the region comprising North Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, Europe, and the Mediterranean Basin. These areas are of great interest, because of the variety of aerosol types they host, both anthropogenic and natural. Using satellite data from the collection 051 of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, Terra and Aqua), we investigate the spatiotemporal characteristics of the asymmetry parameter. We generally find significant spatial variability, with larger values over regions dominated by larger size particles, e.g., outside the Atlantic coasts of northwestern Africa, where desert-dust outflow takes place. The gaer values tend to decrease with increasing wavelength, especially over areas dominated by small particulates. The intra-annual variability is found to be small in desert-dust areas, with maximum values during summer, while in all other areas larger values are reported during the cold season and smaller during the warm. Significant intra-annual and inter-annual variability is observed around the Black Sea. However, the inter-annual trends of gaer are found to be generally small. Although satellite data have the advantage of broad geographical coverage, they have to be validated against reliable surface measurements. Therefore, we compare satellite-measured values with gaer values measured at 69 stations of the global surface AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network), located within our region of interest. This way, we provide some insight on the quality and reliability of MODIS data. We report generally better agreement at the wavelength of 860 nm (correlation

  15. The regime of aerosol asymmetry parameter over Europe, Mediterranean and Middle East based on MODIS satellite data: evaluation against surface AERONET measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korras-Carraca, M. B.; Hatzianastassiou, N.; Matsoukas, C.; Gkikas, A.; Papadimas, C. D.

    2014-09-01

    Atmospheric particulates are a significant forcing agent for the radiative energy budget of the Earth-atmosphere system. The particulates' interaction with radiation, which defines their climate effect, is strongly dependent on their optical properties. In the present work, we study one of the most important optical properties of aerosols, the asymmetry parameter (gaer), in the region comprised of North Africa, the Arabian peninsula, Europe, and the Mediterranean basin. These areas are of great interest, because of the variety of aerosol types they host, both anthropogenic and natural. Using satellite data from the collection 051 of MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, Terra and Aqua), we investigate the spatio-temporal characteristics of the asymmetry parameter. We generally find significant spatial variability, with larger values over regions dominated by larger size particles, e.g. outside the Atlantic coasts of north-western Africa, where desert-dust outflow is taking place. The gaer values tend to decrease with increasing wavelength, especially over areas dominated by small particulates. The intra-annual variability is found to be small in desert-dust areas, with maximum values during summer, while in all other areas larger values are reported during the cold season and smaller during the warm. Significant intra-annual and inter-annual variability is observed around the Black Sea. However, the inter-annual trends of gaer are found to be generally small. Although satellite data have the advantage of broad geographical coverage, they have to be validated against reliable surface measurements. Therefore, we compare satellite-based values with gaer values measured at 69 stations of the global surface network AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network), located within our region of interest. This way, we provide some insight on the quality and reliability of MODIS data. We report generally better agreement at the wavelength of 870 nm (correlation coefficient

  16. Bottom production asymmetries at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Norrbin, E.; Vogt, R.

    1999-01-01

    We present results on bottom hadron production asymmetries at the LHC within both the Lund string fragmentation model and the intrinsic bottom model. The main aspects of the models are summarized and specific predictions for pp collisions at 14 TeV are given. Asymmetries are found to be very small at central rapidities increasing to a few percent at forward rapidities. At very large rapidities intrinsic production could dominate but this region is probably out of reach of any experiment.

  17. Intrinsic n

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, S. B.; Wei, S.-H.; Zunger, Alex

    2001-02-15

    ZnO typifies a class of materials that can be doped via native defects in only one way: either n type or p type. We explain this asymmetry in ZnO via a study of its intrinsic defect physics, including Zn{sub O}, Zn{sub i}, V{sub O}, O{sub i}, and V{sub Zn} and n-type impurity dopants, Al and F. We find that ZnO is n type at Zn-rich conditions. This is because (i) the Zn interstitial, Zn{sub i}, is a shallow donor, supplying electrons; (ii) its formation enthalpy is low for both Zn-rich and O-rich conditions, so this defect is abundant; and (iii) the native defects that could compensate the n-type doping effect of Zn{sub i} (interstitial O, O{sub i}, and Zn vacancy, V{sub Zn}), have high formation enthalpies for Zn-rich conditions, so these ''electron killers'' are not abundant. We find that ZnO cannot be doped p type via native defects (O{sub i},V{sub Zn}) despite the fact that they are shallow (i.e., supplying holes at room temperature). This is because at both Zn-rich and O-rich conditions, the defects that could compensate p-type doping (V{sub O},Zn{sub i},Zn{sub O}) have low formation enthalpies so these ''hole killers'' form readily. Furthermore, we identify electron-hole radiative recombination at the V{sub O} center as the source of the green luminescence. In contrast, a large structural relaxation of the same center upon double hole capture leads to slow electron-hole recombination (either radiative or nonradiative) responsible for the slow decay of photoconductivity.

  18. Measurement of the β-asymmetry parameter of Cu67 in search for tensor-type currents in the weak interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soti, G.; Wauters, F.; Breitenfeldt, M.; Finlay, P.; Herzog, P.; Knecht, A.; Köster, U.; Kraev, I. S.; Porobic, T.; Prashanth, P. N.; Towner, I. S.; Tramm, C.; Zákoucký, D.; Severijns, N.

    2014-09-01

    Background: Precision measurements at low energy search for physics beyond the standard model in a way complementary to searches for new particles at colliders. In the weak sector the most general β-decay Hamiltonian contains, besides vector and axial-vector terms, also scalar, tensor, and pseudoscalar terms. Current limits on the scalar and tensor coupling constants from neutron and nuclear β decay are on the level of several percent. Purpose: Extracting new information on tensor coupling constants by measuring the β-asymmetry parameter in the pure Gamow-Teller decay of Cu67, thereby testing the V-A structure of the weak interaction. Method: An iron sample foil into which the radioactive nuclei were implanted was cooled down to mK temperatures in a 3He-4He dilution refrigerator. An external magnetic field of 0.1 T, in combination with the internal hyperfine magnetic field, oriented the nuclei. The anisotropic β radiation was observed with planar high-purity germanium detectors operating at a temperature of about 10 K. An on-line measurement of the β asymmetry of Cu68 was performed as well for normalization purposes. Systematic effects were investigated using geant4 simulations. Results: The experimental value, Ã=0.587(14), is in agreement with the standard model value of 0.5991(2) and is interpreted in terms of physics beyond the standard model. The limits obtained on possible tensor-type charged currents in the weak interaction Hamiltonian are -0.045<(CT+CT')/CA<0.159 (90% C.L.). Conclusions: The obtained limits are comparable to limits from other correlation measurements in nuclear β decay and contribute to further constraining tensor coupling constants.

  19. Intrinsically incompatible crystal (ligand) field parameter sets for transition ions at orthorhombic and lower symmetry sites in crystals and their implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudowicz, C.; Gnutek, P.

    2010-01-01

    Central quantities in spectroscopy and magnetism of transition ions in crystals are crystal (ligand) field parameters (CFPs). For orthorhombic, monoclinic, and triclinic site symmetry CF analysis is prone to misinterpretations due to large number of CFPs and existence of correlated sets of alternative CFPs. In this review, we elucidate the intrinsic features of orthorhombic and lower symmetry CFPs and their implications. The alternative CFP sets, which yield identical energy levels, belong to different regions of CF parameter space and hence are intrinsically incompatible. Only their ‘images’ representing CFP sets expressed in the same region of CF parameter space may be directly compared. Implications of these features for fitting procedures and meaning of fitted CFPs are categorized into negative: pitfalls and positive: blessings. As a case study, the CFP sets for Tm 3+ ions in KLu(WO 4) 2 are analysed and shown to be intrinsically incompatible. Inadvertent, so meaningless, comparisons of incompatible CFP sets result in various pitfalls, e.g., controversial claims about the values of CFPs obtained by other researchers as well as incorrect structural conclusions or faulty systematics of CF parameters across rare-earth ion series based on relative magnitudes of incompatible CFPs. Such pitfalls bear on interpretation of, e.g., optical spectroscopy, inelastic neutron scattering, and magnetic susceptibility data. An extensive survey of pertinent literature was carried out to assess recognition of compatibility problems. Great portion of available orthorhombic and lower symmetry CFP sets are found intrinsically incompatible, yet these problems and their implications appear barely recognized. The considerable extent and consequences of pitfalls revealed by our survey call for concerted remedial actions of researchers. A general approach based on the rhombicity ratio standardization may solve compatibility problems. Wider utilization of alternative CFP sets in the

  20. Characterization of the oral absorption of beta-lactam antibiotics. I. Cephalosporins: determination of intrinsic membrane absorption parameters in the rat intestine in situ.

    PubMed

    Sinko, P J; Amidon, G L

    1988-10-01

    The oral absorption of five cephalosporin antibiotics, cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefatrizine, cephalexin, and cephradine, has been studied using a single-pass intestinal perfusion technique in rats. Intrinsic membrane absorption parameters, "unbiased" by the presence of an aqueous permeability (diffusion or stagnant layer), have been calculated utilizing a boundary layer mathematical model. The resultant intrinsic membrane absorption parameters are consistent with a significant carrier-mediated, Michaelis-Menten-type kinetic mechanism and a small passive component in the jejunum. Cefaclor colon permeability is low and does not exhibit concentration dependent behavior. The measured carrier parameters (+/- SD) for the jejunal perfusions are as follows: cefaclor, J*max = 21.3 (+/- 4.0), Km = 16.1 (+/- 3.6), P*m = 0, and P*c = 1.32 (+/- 0.07); cefadroxil, J*max = 8.4 (+/- 0.8), Km = 5.9 (+/- 0.8), P*m = 0, and P*c = 1.43 (+/- 0.10); cephalexin, J*max = 9.1 (+/- 1.2), Km = 7.2 (+/- 1.2), P*m = 0, and P*c = 1.30 (+/- 0.10); cefatrizine, J*max = 0.73 (+/- 0.19), Km = 0.58 (+/- 0.17), P*m = 0.17 (+/- 0.03), and P*c = 1.25 (+/- 0.10); and cephradine, J*max = 1.57 (+/- 0.84), Km = 1.48 (+/- 0.75), P*m = 0.25 (+/- 0.07), and P*c = 1.06 (+/- 0.08). The colon absorption parameter for cefaclor is P*m = 0.36 (+/- 0.06, where J*max (mM) is the maximal flux, Km (mM) is the Michaelis constant, P*m is the passive membrane permeability, and P*c is the carrier permeability.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3244617

  1. Simulation Study of Intrinsic Parameter Fluctuations in Variable-Body-Factor Silicon-on-Thin-Box Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yunxiang; Du, Gang; Han, Ruqi; Liu, Xiaoyan

    2011-04-01

    The effects of intrinsic parameter fluctuations, including line-edge-roughness (LER), silicon-body thickness variation (STV) and work-function variation (WFV), in 20-nm-gate variable-γ silicon-on-thin-box (SOTB) metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) have been investigated and compared with those of the conventional SOTB. Results show that the variable-γ SOTB offers not only an enhanced Ion but also a reduced Ion fluctuation with a small increase in the active-state Ioff fluctuation. The Vth-roll-off value in the variable-γ SOTB can be reduced by adopting a reverse-biased side gate to optimize the short channel effect, but the variability of the DIBL effect is enlarged. It is expected that a thinner silicon body can be used to reduce the dominant variability sources.

  2. Macroscopic quantum tunneling and qubit design parameters of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ surface intrinsic Josephson junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, D. J.; Yu, H. F.; Peng, Z. H.; Cao, W. H.; Zhu, X. B.; Tian, Ye; Chen, G. H.; Lin, D. H.; Gu, C. Z.; Zheng, D. N.; Jing, X. N.; Lu, Li; Zhao, S. P.

    2008-12-01

    Macroscopic quantum tunneling (MQT) has been demonstrated recently in a Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ surface intrinsic Josephson junction (SIJJ) with its critical current density Jc below 100 A cm-2 and its size below 1 µm. In this work, we present a study of the switching current distributions of SIJJs fabricated on the same crystal, with Jc>500 A cm-2 and size of 0.8 and 1.6 µm. MQT is clearly observed, and the crossover from MQT to thermal activation (TA) is seen. Our analysis shows that the data agree well with the theoretical predictions of MQT and TA for different-sized SIJJs when parameters that roughly scale with the SIJJ size are used. In the crossover regime, the data are found to be better fitted by considering quantum corrections to TA. We discuss the realistic design of phase- and flux-type qubits using the experimentally attainable SIJJ parameters, which shows that the SIJJs, with their controllable Jc and size (or junction capacitance), are feasible for qubit applications in the future.

  3. QCD coherence and the top quark asymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skands, Peter; Webber, Bryan; Winter, Jan

    2012-07-01

    Coherent QCD radiation in the hadroproduction of top quark pairs leads to a forward-backward asymmetry that grows more negative with increasing transverse momentum of the pair. This feature is present in Monte Carlo event generators with coherent parton showering, even though the production process is treated at leading order and has no intrinsic asymmetry before showering. In addition, depending on the treatment of recoils, showering can produce a positive contribution to the inclusive asymmetry. We explain the origin of these features, compare them in fixed-order calculations and the H erwig++, P ythia and S herpa event generators, and discuss their implications.

  4. No Evidence of Intrinsic Optical/Near-infrared Linear Polarization for V404 Cygni during Its Bright Outburst in 2015: Broadband Modeling and Constraint on Jet Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Y. T.; Itoh, R.; Uemura, M.; Inoue, Y.; Cheung, C. C.; Watanabe, M.; Kawabata, K. S.; Fukazawa, Y.; Yatsu, Y.; Yoshii, T.; Tachibana, Y.; Fujiwara, T.; Saito, Y.; Kawai, N.; Kimura, M.; Isogai, K.; Kato, T.; Akitaya, H.; Kawabata, M.; Nakaoka, T.; Shiki, K.; Takaki, K.; Yoshida, M.; Imai, M.; Gouda, S.; Gouda, Y.; Akimoto, H.; Honda, S.; Hosoya, K.; Ikebe, A.; Morihana, K.; Ohshima, T.; Takagi, Y.; Takahashi, J.; Watanabe, K.; Kuroda, D.; Morokuma, T.; Murata, K.; Nagayama, T.; Nogami, D.; Oasa, Y.; Sekiguchi, K.

    2016-05-01

    We present simultaneous optical and near-infrared (NIR) polarimetric results for the black hole binary V404 Cyg spanning the duration of its seven-day-long optically brightest phase of its 2015 June outburst. The simultaneous R- and K s -band light curves showed almost the same temporal variation except for the isolated (∼30-minute duration) orphan K s -band flare observed at MJD 57193.54. We did not find any significant temporal variation of polarization degree (PD) and position angle (PA) in both R and K s bands throughout our observations, including the duration of the orphan NIR flare. We show that the observed PD and PA are predominantly interstellar in origin by comparing the V404 Cyg polarimetric results with those of the surrounding sources within the 7‧ × 7‧ field of view. The low intrinsic PD (less than a few percent) implies that the optical and NIR emissions are dominated by either disk or optically thick synchrotron emission, or both. We also present the broadband spectra of V404 Cyg during the orphan NIR flare and a relatively faint and steady state by including quasi-simultaneous Swift/XRT and INTEGRAL fluxes. By adopting a single-zone synchrotron plus inverse-Compton model as widely used in modeling of blazars, we constrained the parameters of a putative jet. Because the jet synchrotron component cannot exceed the Swift/XRT disk/corona flux, the cutoff Lorentz factor in the electron energy distribution is constrained to be <102, suggesting that particle acceleration is less efficient in this microquasar jet outburst compared to active galactic nucleus jets. We also suggest that the loading of the baryon component inside the jet is inevitable based on energetic arguments.

  5. No Evidence of Intrinsic Optical/Near-infrared Linear Polarization for V404 Cygni during Its Bright Outburst in 2015: Broadband Modeling and Constraint on Jet Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Y. T.; Itoh, R.; Uemura, M.; Inoue, Y.; Cheung, C. C.; Watanabe, M.; Kawabata, K. S.; Fukazawa, Y.; Yatsu, Y.; Yoshii, T.; Tachibana, Y.; Fujiwara, T.; Saito, Y.; Kawai, N.; Kimura, M.; Isogai, K.; Kato, T.; Akitaya, H.; Kawabata, M.; Nakaoka, T.; Shiki, K.; Takaki, K.; Yoshida, M.; Imai, M.; Gouda, S.; Gouda, Y.; Akimoto, H.; Honda, S.; Hosoya, K.; Ikebe, A.; Morihana, K.; Ohshima, T.; Takagi, Y.; Takahashi, J.; Watanabe, K.; Kuroda, D.; Morokuma, T.; Murata, K.; Nagayama, T.; Nogami, D.; Oasa, Y.; Sekiguchi, K.

    2016-05-01

    We present simultaneous optical and near-infrared (NIR) polarimetric results for the black hole binary V404 Cyg spanning the duration of its seven-day-long optically brightest phase of its 2015 June outburst. The simultaneous R- and K s -band light curves showed almost the same temporal variation except for the isolated (˜30-minute duration) orphan K s -band flare observed at MJD 57193.54. We did not find any significant temporal variation of polarization degree (PD) and position angle (PA) in both R and K s bands throughout our observations, including the duration of the orphan NIR flare. We show that the observed PD and PA are predominantly interstellar in origin by comparing the V404 Cyg polarimetric results with those of the surrounding sources within the 7‧ × 7‧ field of view. The low intrinsic PD (less than a few percent) implies that the optical and NIR emissions are dominated by either disk or optically thick synchrotron emission, or both. We also present the broadband spectra of V404 Cyg during the orphan NIR flare and a relatively faint and steady state by including quasi-simultaneous Swift/XRT and INTEGRAL fluxes. By adopting a single-zone synchrotron plus inverse-Compton model as widely used in modeling of blazars, we constrained the parameters of a putative jet. Because the jet synchrotron component cannot exceed the Swift/XRT disk/corona flux, the cutoff Lorentz factor in the electron energy distribution is constrained to be <102, suggesting that particle acceleration is less efficient in this microquasar jet outburst compared to active galactic nucleus jets. We also suggest that the loading of the baryon component inside the jet is inevitable based on energetic arguments.

  6. On perturbative azimuthal asymmetry at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Rezaeian, A. H.

    2008-10-13

    We investigate the azimuthal asymmetry of partons and photons produced at the initial stage of nuclear collisions at the RHIC energy originating from quark-nucleus collisions. In our approach, the azimuthal asymmetry results from the correlation between color dipole orientation and impact parameter of the collision. The asymmetry is sensitive to the rapid variation of the nuclear density at the nuclear periphery. We either introduce the color-dipole orientation into the improved Born approximation, or model the dipole partial amplitude which satisfies available DIS data. We conclude that the azimuthal asymmetry coming from these mechanisms can be sizable.

  7. Strength Training for the Intrinsic Flexor Muscles of the Foot: Effects on Muscle Strength, the Foot Arch, and Dynamic Parameters Before and After the Training

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Takayuki; Sakuraba, Keishoku

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to verify the effects of intrinsic foot flexor strength training. [Subjects] The subjects were 12 healthy males without motor system disease. [Methods] A training method that involved flexion of all toe interphalangeal and metatarsophalangeal joints against a 3-kg load was implemented and was performed for 200 repetitions once per day, three times per week, for a period of eight weeks. [Results] Significant changes were observed for intrinsic foot flexor strength scores, foot arches, vertical jumping, 1-legged long jumping, and 50-m dash time. [Conclusion] This muscle strength training method significantly improved muscle strength scores, foot arch shape, and movement performance. PMID:24707086

  8. The regime of aerosol asymmetry parameter and Angstrom exponent over Europe, Mediterranean and Middle East based on MODIS satellite data. Intercomparison of MODIS-Aqua C051 and C006 retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korras-Carraca, Marios Bruno; Hatzianastassiou, Nikolaos; Matsoukas, Christos; Gkikas, Antonis; Papadimas, Christos; Sayers, Andy

    2015-04-01

    Atmospheric aerosols, both natural and anthropogenic, can cause climate change through their direct, indirect, and semi-direct effects on the radiative energy budget of the Earth-atmosphere system. In the present work, we study two of the most important optical properties of aerosols, the asymmetry parameter (gaer) and the Angstrom exponent (α). Both gaer and α are related with aerosol size, which is a very important parameter for climate and human health. The study region comprises North Africa, the Arabian peninsula, Europe, and the Mediterranean basin. These areas are of great interest, because of the variety of aerosol types they host, both anthropogenic and natural. Urban, industrial or biomass-burning aerosols are usually fine, while desert dust or sea-salt are basically coarse, making thus possible the establishment of a relationship between the type and the size of aerosols. Using satellite data from the collection 051 of MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, Aqua), we investigate the spatio-temporal characteristics of the asymmetry parameter and Angstrom exponent. We generally find significant spatial variability, with larger gaer values over regions dominated by larger size particles, e.g. outside the Atlantic coasts of north-western Africa, where desert-dust outflow is taking place. The gaer values tend to decrease with increasing wavelength, especially over areas dominated by small particulates. The intra-annual variability is found to be small in desert-dust areas, with maximum values during summer, while in all other areas larger values are reported during the cold season and smaller during the warm. Significant intra-annual and inter-annual variability is observed around the Black Sea. However, the inter-annual trends of gaer are found to be generally small. The geographical distributions for α (given for the pair of wavelengths 550-865 nm) affirm the conclusions drawn from the asymmetry parameter as regards the aerosol size over

  9. Asymmetries observed in Saturn's magnetopause geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilkington, N. M.; Achilleos, N.; Arridge, C. S.; Guio, P.; Masters, A.; Ray, L. C.; Sergis, N.; Thomsen, M. F.; Coates, A. J.; Dougherty, M. K.

    2015-09-01

    For over 10 years, the Cassini spacecraft has patrolled Saturn's magnetosphere and observed its magnetopause boundary over a wide range of prevailing solar wind and interior plasma conditions. We now have data that enable us to resolve a significant dawn-dusk asymmetry and find that the magnetosphere extends farther from the planet on the dawnside of the planet by 7 ± 1%. In addition, an opposing dawn-dusk asymmetry in the suprathermal plasma pressure adjacent to the magnetopause has been observed. This probably acts to reduce the size asymmetry and may explain the discrepancy between the degree of asymmetry found here and a similar asymmetry found by Kivelson and Jia (2014) using MHD simulations. Finally, these observations sample a wide range of season, allowing the "intrinsic" polar flattening (14 ± 1%) caused by the magnetodisc to be separated from the seasonally induced north-south asymmetry in the magnetopause shape found theoretically (5 ± 1% when the planet's magnetic dipole is tilted away from the Sun by 10-17°).

  10. Geometric measure of quantum correlation: The influence of the asymmetry environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Qinsheng; Ding, Changchun; Wu, Shaoyi; Lai, Wei

    2016-09-01

    The quantum correlation in open quantum systems is of fundamental and practical importance for quantum information processing and controllable nanometer devices. And the properties of quantum correlation can be influenced by the information flow between systems and environments. In this study, we investigated the geometric measure discord of quantum correlation of a two qubits system, interacting with two independent and intrinsic interacting spin-environments, respectively. Based on the asymmetry environments with comparable parameters, the different properties of the geometric measure of entanglement and quantum discord are displayed and discussed for initial Bell states.

  11. Intrinsic rotation driven by the electrostatic turbulence in up-down asymmetric toroidal plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Camenen, Y.; Peeters, A. G.; Casson, F. J.; Hornsby, W. A.; Snodin, A. P.; Angioni, C.; Strintzi, D.

    2009-06-15

    The transport of parallel momentum by small scale fluctuations is intrinsically linked to symmetry breaking in the direction of the magnetic field. In tokamaks, an up-down asymmetry in the equilibrium proves to be an efficient parallel symmetry breaking mechanism leading to the generation of a net radial flux of parallel momentum by the electrostatic turbulence [Y. Camenen et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 125001 (2009)]. This flux is neither proportional to the toroidal rotation nor to its gradient and arises from an incomplete cancellation of the local contributions to the parallel momentum flux under the flux surface average. The flux of parallel momentum then depends on the asymmetry of the curvature drift and on the extension of the fluctuations around the low field side midplane. In this paper, the mechanisms underlying the generation of the flux of parallel momentum are highlighted and the main dependences on plasma parameters investigated using linear gyrokinetic simulations.

  12. Intrinsic magnetization of antiferromagnetic textures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tveten, Erlend G.; Müller, Tristan; Linder, Jacob; Brataas, Arne

    2016-03-01

    Antiferromagnets (AFMs) exhibit intrinsic magnetization when the order parameter spatially varies. This intrinsic spin is present even at equilibrium and can be interpreted as a twisting of the homogeneous AFM into a state with a finite spin. Because magnetic moments couple directly to external magnetic fields, the intrinsic magnetization can alter the dynamics of antiferromagnetic textures under such influence. Starting from the discrete Heisenberg model, we derive the continuum limit of the free energy of AFMs in the exchange approximation and explicitly rederive that the spatial variation of the antiferromagnetic order parameter is associated with an intrinsic magnetization density. We calculate the magnetization profile of a domain wall and discuss how the intrinsic magnetization reacts to external forces. We show conclusively, both analytically and numerically, that a spatially inhomogeneous magnetic field can move and control the position of domain walls in AFMs. By comparing our model to a commonly used alternative parametrization procedure for the continuum fields, we show that the physical interpretations of these fields depend critically on the choice of parametrization procedure for the discrete-to-continuous transition. This can explain why a significant amount of recent studies of the dynamics of AFMs, including effective models that describe the motion of antiferromagnetic domain walls, have neglected the intrinsic spin of the textured order parameter.

  13. Angular distribution measurements of the xenon N{sub 4,5}O{sub 2,3}O{sub 2,3} Auger electrons: Determination of alignment and intrinsic parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Snell, G.; Kukk, E.; Berrah, N.

    2000-04-01

    In the framework of the two-step model of Auger decay the alignment of the xenon 4d{sup -1} primary hole states has been derived as a function of photon energy. This quantity was obtained from angular distribution measurements of the N{sub 4,5}O{sub 2,3}O{sub 2,3} Auger lines after ionization of free atoms by monochromatized synchrotron radiation of 80-250 eV photon energy. The data show a minimum of the alignment parameter in the Cooper minimum of the 4d photoionization cross section, which proves the vanishing of the outgoing {epsilon}f electron wave. Furthermore, the intrinsic parameters for all lines in this Auger group were determined and are compared with previous experiments and calculations. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  14. Fluctuating Asymmetry and Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Timothy C.

    2007-01-01

    The general factor of mental ability ("g") may reflect general biological fitness. If so, "g"-loaded measures such as Raven's progressive matrices should be related to morphological measures of fitness such as fluctuating asymmetry (FA: left-right asymmetry of a set of typically left-right symmetrical body traits such as finger lengths). This…

  15. Measurement of time dependent CP asymmetry parameters in B0 meson decays to ωKS0, η'K0, and π0KS0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubert, B.; Bona, M.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Prudent, X.; Tisserand, V.; Tico, J. Garra; Grauges, E.; Lopez, L.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; Abrams, G. S.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D. N.; Cahn, R. N.; Jacobsen, R. G.; Kerth, L. T.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Lynch, G.; Osipenkov, I. L.; Ronan, M. T.; Tackmann, K.; Tanabe, T.; Hawkes, C. M.; Soni, N.; Watson, A. T.; Koch, H.; Schroeder, T.; Walker, D.; Asgeirsson, D. J.; Fulsom, B. G.; Hearty, C.; Mattison, T. S.; McKenna, J. A.; Barrett, M.; Khan, A.; Blinov, V. E.; Bukin, A. D.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Druzhinin, V. P.; Golubev, V. B.; Onuchin, A. P.; Serednyakov, S. I.; Skovpen, Yu. I.; Solodov, E. P.; Todyshev, K. Yu.; Bondioli, M.; Curry, S.; Eschrich, I.; Kirkby, D.; Lankford, A. J.; Lund, P.; Mandelkern, M.; Martin, E. C.; Stoker, D. P.; Abachi, S.; Buchanan, C.; Gary, J. W.; Liu, F.; Long, O.; Shen, B. C.; Vitug, G. M.; Yasin, Z.; Zhang, L.; Sharma, V.; Campagnari, C.; Hong, T. M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Mazur, M. A.; Richman, J. D.; Beck, T. W.; Eisner, A. M.; Flacco, C. J.; Heusch, C. A.; Kroseberg, J.; Lockman, W. S.; Martinez, A. J.; Schalk, T.; Schumm, B. A.; Seiden, A.; Wilson, M. G.; Winstrom, L. O.; Cheng, C. H.; Doll, D. A.; Echenard, B.; Fang, F.; Hitlin, D. G.; Narsky, I.; Piatenko, T.; Porter, F. C.; Andreassen, R.; Mancinelli, G.; Meadows, B. T.; Mishra, K.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Bloom, P. C.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Hirschauer, J. F.; Nagel, M.; Nauenberg, U.; Smith, J. G.; Ulmer, K. A.; Wagner, S. R.; Ayad, R.; Soffer, A.; Toki, W. H.; Wilson, R. J.; Altenburg, D. D.; Feltresi, E.; Hauke, A.; Jasper, H.; Karbach, M.; Merkel, J.; Petzold, A.; Spaan, B.; Wacker, K.; Kobel, M. J.; Mader, W. F.; Nogowski, R.; Schubert, K. R.; Schwierz, R.; Volk, A.; Bernard, D.; Bonneaud, G. R.; Latour, E.; Verderi, M.; Clark, P. J.; Playfer, S.; Watson, J. E.; Andreotti, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bozzi, C.; Calabrese, R.; Cecchi, A.; Cibinetto, G.; Franchini, P.; Luppi, E.; Negrini, M.; Petrella, A.; Piemontese, L.; Santoro, V.; Baldini-Ferroli, R.; Calcaterra, A.; de Sangro, R.; Finocchiaro, G.; Pacetti, S.; Patteri, P.; Peruzzi, I. M.; Piccolo, M.; Rama, M.; Zallo, A.; Buzzo, A.; Contri, R.; Lo Vetere, M.; Macri, M. M.; Monge, M. R.; Passaggio, S.; Patrignani, C.; Robutti, E.; Santroni, A.; Tosi, S.; Chaisanguanthum, K. S.; Morii, M.; Adametz, A.; Marks, J.; Schenk, S.; Uwer, U.; Klose, V.; Lacker, H. M.; Bard, D. J.; Dauncey, P. D.; Nash, J. A.; Tibbetts, M.; Behera, P. K.; Chai, X.; Charles, M. J.; Mallik, U.; Cochran, J.; Crawley, H. B.; Dong, L.; Meyer, W. T.; Prell, S.; Rosenberg, E. I.; Rubin, A. E.; Gao, Y. Y.; Gritsan, A. V.; Guo, Z. J.; Lae, C. K.; Arnaud, N.; Béquilleux, J.; D'Orazio, A.; Davier, M.; da Costa, J. Firmino; Grosdidier, G.; Höcker, A.; Lepeltier, V.; Le Diberder, F.; Lutz, A. M.; Pruvot, S.; Roudeau, P.; Schune, M. H.; Serrano, J.; Sordini, V.; Stocchi, A.; Wormser, G.; Lange, D. J.; Wright, D. M.; Bingham, I.; Burke, J. P.; Chavez, C. A.; Fry, J. R.; Gabathuler, E.; Gamet, R.; Hutchcroft, D. E.; Payne, D. J.; Touramanis, C.; Bevan, A. J.; Clarke, C. K.; George, K. A.; di Lodovico, F.; Sacco, R.; Sigamani, M.; Cowan, G.; Flaecher, H. U.; Hopkins, D. A.; Paramesvaran, S.; Salvatore, F.; Wren, A. C.; Brown, D. N.; Davis, C. L.; Denig, A. G.; Fritsch, M.; Gradl, W.; Schott, G.; Alwyn, K. E.; Bailey, D.; Barlow, R. J.; Chia, Y. M.; Edgar, C. L.; Jackson, G.; Lafferty, G. D.; West, T. J.; Yi, J. I.; Anderson, J.; Chen, C.; Jawahery, A.; Roberts, D. A.; Simi, G.; Tuggle, J. M.; Dallapiccola, C.; Li, X.; Salvati, E.; Saremi, S.; Cowan, R.; Dujmic, D.; Fisher, P. H.; Sciolla, G.; Spitznagel, M.; Taylor, F.; Yamamoto, R. K.; Zhao, M.; Patel, P. M.; Robertson, S. H.; Biassoni, P.; Lazzaro, A.; Lombardo, V.; Palombo, F.; Bauer, J. M.; Cremaldi, L.; Godang, R.; Kroeger, R.; Sanders, D. A.; Summers, D. J.; Zhao, H. W.; Simard, M.; Taras, P.; Viaud, F. B.; Nicholson, H.; de Nardo, G.; Lista, L.; Monorchio, D.; Onorato, G.; Sciacca, C.; Raven, G.; Snoek, H. L.; Jessop, C. P.; Knoepfel, K. J.; Losecco, J. M.; Wang, W. F.; Benelli, G.; Corwin, L. A.; Honscheid, K.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Morris, J. P.; Rahimi, A. M.; Regensburger, J. J.; Sekula, S. J.; Wong, Q. K.; Blount, N. L.; Brau, J.; Frey, R.; Igonkina, O.; Kolb, J. A.; Lu, M.; Rahmat, R.; Sinev, N. B.; Strom, D.; Strube, J.; Torrence, E.; Castelli, G.; Gagliardi, N.; Margoni, M.; Morandin, M.; Posocco, M.; Rotondo, M.; Simonetto, F.; Stroili, R.; Voci, C.; Del Amo Sanchez, P.; Ben-Haim, E.; Briand, H.; Calderini, G.; Chauveau, J.; David, P.; Del Buono, L.; Hamon, O.; Leruste, Ph.; Ocariz, J.; Perez, A.; Prendki, J.; Sitt, S.; Gladney, L.; Biasini, M.; Covarelli, R.; Manoni, E.; Angelini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Carpinelli, M.; Cervelli, A.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M. A.; Lusiani, A.; Marchiori, G.; Morganti, M.; Neri, N.; Paoloni, E.; Rizzo, G.; Walsh, J. J.; Pegna, D. Lopes; Lu, C.; Olsen, J.; Smith, A. J. S.; Telnov, A. V.; Anulli, F.; Baracchini, E.; Cavoto, G.; Del Re, D.; di Marco, E.; Faccini, R.; Ferrarotto, F.; Ferroni, F.; Gaspero, M.; Jackson, P. D.; Gioi, L. Li; Mazzoni, M. A.; Morganti, S.; Piredda, G.; Polci, F.; Renga, F.; Voena, C.; Ebert, M.; Hartmann, T.; Schröder, H.; Waldi, R.; Adye, T.; Franek, B.; Olaiya, E. O.; Wilson, F. F.; Emery, S.; Escalier, M.; Esteve, L.; Ganzhur, S. F.; de Monchenault, G. Hamel; Kozanecki, W.; Vasseur, G.; Yèche, Ch.; Zito, M.; Chen, X. R.; Liu, H.; Park, W.; Purohit, M. V.; White, R. M.; Wilson, J. R.; Allen, M. T.; Aston, D.; Bartoldus, R.; Bechtle, P.; Benitez, J. F.; Cenci, R.; Coleman, J. P.; Convery, M. R.; Dingfelder, J. C.; Dorfan, J.; Dubois-Felsmann, G. P.; Dunwoodie, W.; Field, R. C.; Gabareen, A. M.; Gowdy, S. J.; Graham, M. T.; Grenier, P.; Hast, C.; Innes, W. R.; Kaminski, J.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kim, H.; Kim, P.; Kocian, M. L.; Leith, D. W. G. S.; Li, S.; Lindquist, B.; Luitz, S.; Luth, V.; Lynch, H. L.; Macfarlane, D. B.; Marsiske, H.; Messner, R.; Muller, D. R.; Neal, H.; Nelson, S.; O'Grady, C. P.; Ofte, I.; Perazzo, A.; Perl, M.; Ratcliff, B. N.; Roodman, A.; Salnikov, A. A.; Schindler, R. H.; Schwiening, J.; Snyder, A.; Su, D.; Sullivan, M. K.; Suzuki, K.; Swain, S. K.; Thompson, J. M.; Va'Vra, J.; Wagner, A. P.; Weaver, M.; West, C. A.; Wisniewski, W. J.; Wittgen, M.; Wright, D. H.; Wulsin, H. W.; Yarritu, A. K.; Yi, K.; Young, C. C.; Ziegler, V.; Burchat, P. R.; Edwards, A. J.; Majewski, S. A.; Miyashita, T. S.; Petersen, B. A.; Wilden, L.; Ahmed, S.; Alam, M. S.; Ernst, J. A.; Pan, B.; Saeed, M. A.; Zain, S. B.; Spanier, S. M.; Wogsland, B. J.; Eckmann, R.; Ritchie, J. L.; Ruland, A. M.; Schilling, C. J.; Schwitters, R. F.; Drummond, B. W.; Izen, J. M.; Lou, X. C.; Bianchi, F.; Gamba, D.; Pelliccioni, M.; Bomben, M.; Bosisio, L.; Cartaro, C.; Della Ricca, G.; Lanceri, L.; Vitale, L.; Azzolini, V.; Lopez-March, N.; Martinez-Vidal, F.; Milanes, D. A.; Oyanguren, A.; Albert, J.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bhuyan, B.; Choi, H. H. F.; Hamano, K.; Kowalewski, R.; Lewczuk, M. J.; Nugent, I. M.; Roney, J. M.; Sobie, R. J.; Gershon, T. J.; Harrison, P. F.; Ilic, J.; Latham, T. E.; Mohanty, G. B.; Band, H. R.; Chen, X.; Dasu, S.; Flood, K. T.; Pan, Y.; Pierini, M.; Prepost, R.; Vuosalo, C. O.; Wu, S. L.

    2009-03-01

    We present measurements of the time-dependent CP-violation parameters S and C in the decays B0→ωKS0, B0→η'K0, reconstructed as η'KS0 and η'KL0, and B0→π0KS0. The data sample corresponds to the full BABAR dataset of 467×106 B Bmacr pairs produced at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy e+e- collider at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The results are SωKS0=0.55-0.29+0.26±0.02, CωKS0=-0.52-0.20+0.22±0.03, Sη'K0=0.57±0.08±0.02, Cη'K0=-0.08±0.06±0.02, Sπ0KS0=0.55±0.20±0.03, and Cπ0KS0=0.13±0.13±0.03, where the first errors are statistical and the second systematic. These results are consistent with our previous measurements and the world average of sin⁡2β measured in B0→J/ψKS0.

  16. Asymmetries between strange and antistrange particle production inpion-proton interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Gutierrez, T.D.; Vogt, R.

    2002-01-29

    Recent measurements of the asymmetries between Feynman x-distributions of strange and antistrange hadrons in {pi}{sup -}A interactions show a strong effect as a function of x{sub F}. We calculate strange hadron production in the context of the intrinsic model and make predictions for particle/antiparticle asymmetries in these interactions.

  17. The pesky power asymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Liang; Jeong, Donghui; Kamionkowski, Marc; Chluba, Jens

    2013-06-01

    Physical models for the hemispherical power asymmetry in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) reported by the Planck Collaboration must satisfy CMB constraints to the homogeneity of the Universe and quasar constraints to power asymmetries. We survey a variety of models for the power asymmetry and show that consistent models include a modulated scale-dependent isocurvature contribution to the matter power spectrum or a modulation of the reionization optical depth, gravitational-wave amplitude, or scalar spectral index. We propose further tests to distinguish between the different scenarios.

  18. Predicting intrinsic brain activity.

    PubMed

    Craddock, R Cameron; Milham, Michael P; LaConte, Stephen M

    2013-11-15

    Multivariate supervised learning methods exhibit a remarkable ability to decode externally driven sensory, behavioral, and cognitive states from functional neuroimaging data. Although they are typically applied to task-based analyses, supervised learning methods are equally applicable to intrinsic effective and functional connectivity analyses. The obtained models of connectivity incorporate the multivariate interactions between all brain regions simultaneously, which will result in a more accurate representation of the connectome than the ones available with standard bivariate methods. Additionally the models can be applied to decode or predict the time series of intrinsic brain activity of a region from an independent dataset. The obtained prediction accuracy provides a measure of the integration between a brain region and other regions in its network, as well as a method for evaluating acquisition and preprocessing pipelines for resting state fMRI data. This article describes a method for learning multivariate models of connectivity. The method is applied in the non-parametric prediction accuracy, influence, and reproducibility-resampling (NPAIRS) framework, to study the regional variation of prediction accuracy and reproducibility (Strother et al., 2002). The resulting spatial distribution of these metrics is consistent with the functional hierarchy proposed by Mesulam (1998). Additionally we illustrate the utility of the multivariate regression connectivity modeling method for optimizing experimental parameters and assessing the quality of functional neuroimaging data. PMID:23707580

  19. The small scale power asymmetry in the cosmic microwave background

    SciTech Connect

    Flender, Samuel; Hotchkiss, Shaun E-mail: shaun.hotchkiss@helsinki.fi

    2013-09-01

    We investigate the hemispherical power asymmetry in the cosmic microwave background on small angular scales. We find an anomalously high asymmetry in the multipole range l = 601−2048, with a naive statistical significance of 6.5σ. However, we show that this extreme anomaly is simply a coincidence of three other effects, relativistic power modulation, edge effects from the mask applied, and inter-scale correlations. After correcting for all of these effects, the significance level drops to ∼ 1σ, i.e., there is no anomalous intrinsic asymmetry in the small angular scales. Using this null result, we derive a constraint on a potential dipolar modulation amplitude, A(k) < 0.0045 on the ∼ 10 Mpc-scale, at 95% C.L. This new constraint must be satisfied by any theoretical model attempting to explain the hemispherical asymmetry at large angular scales.

  20. Intrinsic anion oxidation potentials.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Patrik

    2006-11-01

    Anions of lithium battery salts have been investigated by electronic structure calculations with the objective to find a computational measure to correlate with the observed (in)stability of nonaqueous lithium battery electrolytes vs oxidation often encountered in practice. Accurate prediction of intrinsic anion oxidation potentials is here made possible by computing the vertical free energy difference between anion and neutral radical (Delta Gv) and further strengthened by an empirical correction using only the anion volume as a parameter. The 6-311+G(2df,p) basis set, the VSXC functional, and the C-PCM SCRF algorithm were used. The Delta Gv calculations can be performed using any standard computational chemistry software. PMID:17078600

  1. Geometric intrinsic symmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Gozdz, A. Szulerecka, A.; Pedrak, A.

    2013-08-15

    The problem of geometric symmetries in the intrinsic frame of a many-body system (nucleus) is considered. An importance of symmetrization group notion is discussed. Ageneral structure of the intrinsic symmetry group structure is determined.

  2. Asymmetry through time dependency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantzaris, Alexander V.; Higham, Desmond J.

    2016-03-01

    Given a single network of interactions, asymmetry arises when the links are directed. For example, if protein A upregulates protein B and protein B upregulates protein C, then (in the absence of any further relationships between them) A may affect C but not vice versa. This type of imbalance is reflected in the associated adjacency matrix, which will lack symmetry. A different type of imbalance can arise when interactions appear and disappear over time. If A meets B today and B meets C tomorrow, then (in the absence of any further relationships between them) A may pass a message or disease to C, but not vice versa. Hence, even when each interaction is a two-way exchange, the effect of time ordering can introduce asymmetry. This observation is very closely related to the fact that matrix multiplication is not commutative. In this work, we describe a method that has been designed to reveal asymmetry in static networks and show how it may be combined with a measure that summarizes the potential information flow between nodes in the temporal case. This results in a new method that quantifies the asymmetry arising through time ordering. We show by example that the new tool can be used to visualize and quantify the amount of asymmetry caused by the arrow of time.

  3. Nuclear asymmetry enthalpy

    SciTech Connect

    Sobotka, L. G.

    2011-07-15

    Recent work has sought to extract the asymmetry energy at very low density from observables in heavy-ion collisions. The logic employed starts from the assumption that the fragment yields are determined by a minimization of the Helmholtz free energy. As volume is in reality unconstrained, nor can a single freeze-out volume be expected, the physical relevance of the Helmholtz free energy must be questioned. If, for example, the identical logic were used, but the Gibbs free energy was the more relevant quantity to minimize, it would be the asymmetry enthalpy that would be extracted. The purpose of this report is to provide one measure of the difference between the asymmetry energy and enthalpy.

  4. Issues in Purchasing and Maintaining Intrinsic Standards

    SciTech Connect

    PETTIT,RICHARD B.; JAEGER,KLAUS; EHRLICH,CHARLES D.

    2000-09-12

    Intrinsic standards are widely used in the metrology community because they realize the best level uncertainty for many metrology parameters. For some intrinsic standards, recommended practices have been developed to assist metrologists in the selection of equipment and the development of appropriate procedures in order to realize the intrinsic standard. As with the addition of any new standard, the metrology laboratory should consider the pros and cons relative to their needs before purchasing the standard so that the laboratory obtains the maximum benefit from setting up and maintaining these standards. While the specific issues that need to be addressed depend upon the specific intrinsic standard and the level of realization, general issues that should be considered include ensuring that the intrinsic standard is compatible with the laboratory environment, that the standard is compatible with the current and future workload, and whether additional support standards will be required in order to properly maintain the intrinsic standard. When intrinsic standards are used to realize the best level of uncertainty for a specific metrology parameter, they usually require critical and important maintenance activities. These activities can including training of staff in the system operation, as well as safety procedures; performing periodic characterization measurements to ensure proper system operation; carrying out periodic intercomparisons with similar intrinsic standards so that proper operation is demonstrated; and maintaining control or trend charts of system performance. This paper has summarized many of these important issues and therefore should be beneficial to any laboratory that is considering the purchase of an intrinsic standard.

  5. Asymmetry Effects in Viscoresistive Magnetic Reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tebaldi, C.; Grasso, D.; Hastie, R. J.

    2010-04-01

    Magnetic reconnection from an asymmetric unreconnected equilibrium is investigated in a viscoresistive plasma via numerical simulations. The instability threshold of the standard stability parameter, Δ', increases with the asymmetry parameter, in a way similar to the effect of increasing viscosity. Also the topology of the velocity field changes significantly, the four-vortex structure typical of the tearing instability evolves into two-vortex structure, with strong increase of the velocity shear across the high magnetic shear rational surface.

  6. Electroweak asymmetries from SLD

    SciTech Connect

    Bellodi, G.

    2002-06-01

    We present a summary of the results on electroweak asymmetries performed by the SLD experiment at the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC). Most of these results are final and are based, unless otherwise stated, on the full 1993-1998 data set of approximately 550,000 hadronic decays of Z{sup 0} bosons, produced with an average electron beam polarization of 73%.

  7. TRANSVERSITY SINGLE SPIN ASYMMETRIES.

    SciTech Connect

    BOER,D.

    2001-04-27

    The theoretical aspects of two leading twist transversity single spin asymmetries, one arising from the Collins effect and one from the interference fragmentation functions, are reviewed. Issues of factorization, evolution and Sudakov factors for the relevant observables are discussed. These theoretical considerations pinpoint the most realistic scenarios towards measurements of transversity.

  8. Measurements of Time-Dependent CP-Asymmetry Parameters in B Meson Decays to η' K0 and of Branching Fractions of SU(3) Related Modes with BaBar Experiment at SLAC

    SciTech Connect

    Biassoni, Pietro

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis work we have measured the following upper limits at 90% of confidence level, for B meson decays (in units of 10-6), using a statistics of 465.0 x 106 B$\\bar{B}$ pairs: β(B0 → ηK0) < 1.6 β(B0 → ηη) < 1.4 β(B0 → η'η') < 2.1 β(B0 → ηΦ) < 0.52 β(B0 → ηω) < 1.6 β(B0 → η'Φ) < 1.2 β(B0 → η'ω) < 1.7 We have no observation of any decay mode, statistical significance for our measurements is in the range 1.3-3.5 standard deviation. We have a 3.5σ evidence for B → ηω and a 3.1 σ evidence for B → η'ω. The absence of observation of the B0 → ηK0 open an issue related to the large difference compared to the charged mode B+ → ηK+ branching fraction, which is measured to be 3.7 ± 0.4 ± 0.1 [118]. Our results represent substantial improvements of the previous ones [109, 110, 111] and are consistent with theoretical predictions. All these results were presented at Flavor Physics and CP Violation (FPCP) 2008 Conference, that took place in Taipei, Taiwan. They will be soon included into a paper to be submitted to Physical Review D. For time-dependent analysis, we have reconstructed 1820 ± 48 flavor-tagged B0 → η'K0 events, using the final BABAR statistic of 467.4 x 106 B$\\bar{B}$ pairs. We use these events to measure the time-dependent asymmetry parameters S and C. We find S = 0.59 ± 0.08 ± 0.02, and C = -0.06 ± 0.06 ± 0.02. A non-zero value of C would represent a directly CP non-conserving component in B0 → η'K0, while S would be equal to sin2β measured in B0 → J/ΨKs0 [108], a mixing-decay interference effect, provided the decay is dominated by amplitudes of a single weak phase. The new measured value of S can be considered in agreement with the expectations of the

  9. Generation of a global longitudinal asymmetry in Saturn's magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, T. W.; Jaggi, A.; Wolf, R.; Sazykin, S. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Numerous empirical studies have indicated that a global longitudinal asymmetry of Saturn's magnetospheric plasma population (the m=1 term in a Fourier expansion, where m is the azimuthal wavenumber) is required to explain observed spin-periodic modulations (~ 10.7 hr) of magnetospheric behavior (e.g., Carbary and Mitchell [2013], Rev. Geophys., 51, doi:10.1029/2012RG000416, and references therein). This is true in spite of the fact that Saturn's intrinsic magnetic field is well described by a perfectly spin-aligned dipole. The Rice Convection Model (RCM) has been used previously to simulate plasma transport in Saturn's magnetosphere with a spin-aligned dipole field and a longitudinally symmetric plasma source that is largely confined to the radial range L ~ 5 - 8 (e.g., Liu et al. [2010], J. Geophys. Res., 115, doi:10.1029/2010JA015859; Liu and Hill [2012], J. Geophys. Res., 117, doi:10.1029/2012JA017827). We have begun to explore the consequences of a global-scale longitudinal asymmetry of the plasma source. Preliminary results indicate that a small (~1%) asymmetry of the imposed plasma source produces a magnetospherically significant (factor ~2) m=1 asymmetry of the resultant plasma distribution in the middle magnetosphere (L ~ 8-15). Our objective is not to explain the (still mysterious) underlying cause of the source asymmetry, but rather to investigate the effects of a given source asymmetry on the plasma distribution in the more distant magnetosphere.

  10. Asymmetry in elite rowers: effect of ergometer design and stroke rate.

    PubMed

    Fohanno, Vincent; Nordez, Antoine; Smith, Richard; Colloud, Floren

    2015-09-01

    Between limb movement asymmetries and foot force production asymmetries are thought to be detrimental for both rower's performance and risk of injury, particularly when rowing frequently on ergometers. Several ergometers with different designs can be used by rowers as part of their indoor training. Hence, this study aimed to compare asymmetries in lower limb joint kinematics and foot force production with respect to ergometer design and rowing intensity. A new symmetry index was proposed to assess these asymmetries in elite rowers during a test on three ergometers. Additionally, the asymmetry in lower limb length was assessed to investigate its relationship with kinematic and kinetic asymmetries. Parameters describing medium (5-10%) or high (>10%) asymmetries were compared between rowing ergometers and intensities. Results indicated medium asymmetries for the ankle joint angle and hip-knee joint accelerations and high asymmetries for the resultant force and the ankle joint acceleration associated with a low inter-stroke variability. Kinetic asymmetry was neither correlated to kinematic asymmetry nor with lower limb length asymmetry. The use of a mobile ergometer led to higher joint acceleration asymmetries. Further studies are necessary to investigate the relation between these findings and muscular adaptations that may increase the risk of lower-back injury. PMID:26266336

  11. Lunar asymmetry and palaeomagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, D. J.

    1980-10-01

    A model is proposed for the early lunar evolution which accounts for the compositional asymmetry between the nearside and farside of the moon and the natural remanent magnetism of lunar rocks. According to the model, the preferred gravitational energy state consisted of an asymmetric accumulation of a liquid iron alloy (Fe-Ni and a small amount of sulfur) which displaces upwards the cold primordial undifferentiated core. The resulting depth asymmetry of the outer partially molten zone leads eventually to the subcrustal accumulation of light magnesium-rich pyroxenes and olivine, preferentially in one hemisphere, sufficient to explain the offset and also indirectly providing a possible explanation for the nearside concentration of KREEP and mass basalt. Slow downward migration of iron releases gravitational energy sufficient for convection and dynamo generation in an iron layer for about a billion years.

  12. A Justifiable Asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Brudney, Daniel; Siegler, Mark

    2015-01-01

    It is a clinician's cliché that a physician only challenges a patient's capacity to make a treatment decision if that decision is not what the physician wants. Agreement is proof of decisional capacity; disagreement is proof or at least evidence of capacity's absence. It is assumed that this asymmetry cannot be justified, that the asymmetry must be a form of physicians' paternalism. Instead what is at issue when patient and physician disagree are usually two laudable impulses. The first is physicians' commitment to patients' well-being: physicians have a professional obligation as well as, ideally, a personal commitment to take care of patients--to do their best to bring about a positive medical outcome. The second impulse is common to much of human life, namely, the urge to find and to understand the source of our disagreements with one another. In this article we argue that, jointly, these impulses justify the asymmetry with regard to examining patients' capacity. PMID:26132055

  13. Hidden asymmetry of ice.

    PubMed

    Kirov, Mikhail V

    2014-11-26

    Ice is a very complex and fundamentally important solid. In the present article, we review a new property of the hydrogen-bonded network in ice structures: an explicit nonequivalence of some antipodal configurations with the opposite direction of all hydrogen bonds (H-bonds). This asymmetry is most pronounced for the structures with considerable deviation of the H-bond network from the tetrahedral coordination. That is why we have investigated in detail four-coordinated ice nanostructures with no outer "dangling" hydrogen atoms, namely, ice bilayers and ice nanotubes consisting of stacked n-membered rings. The reason for this H-bonding asymmetry is a fundamental nonequivalence of the arrangements of water molecules in some antipodal configurations with the opposite direction of all H-bonds. For these configurations, the overall pictures of deviations of the hydrogen bonds from linearity are qualitatively different. We consider the reversal of all H-bonds as an additional nongeometric operation of symmetry, more precisely antisymmetry. It is not easy to find the explicit breaking of the symmetry of hydrogen bonding (H-symmetry) in the variety of all configurations. Therefore, this asymmetry may be named hidden. PMID:24905908

  14. Long-term changes in Jovian synchrotron radio emission - Intrinsic variations or effects of viewing geometry?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hood, L. L.

    1993-04-01

    Possible causes of the observed long-term variation of Jovian synchrotron radio emission, including both intrinsic changes in the Jovian radiation belts and apparent changes due to variations in the Jovigraphic declination of the earth, DE, are investigated. An increase in diffusion rate with other parameters held constant results in an inward displacement of the peak emission radial distance that is not observed. Effects of viewing geometry changes are examined. The possible importance of such effects is suggested by a correlation between the total decimetric radio flux and DE, which varies between -3.3 and +3.3 deg during one Jovian orbital period. Because the Jovian central meridian longitudes where the magnetic latitude passes through zero during a given Jovian rotation change substantially with DE and since significant longitudinal asymmetries exist in both the volume emissivity and the latitudinal profile of the beam, the total intensity should be at least a partial function of D sub E.

  15. Facial asymmetry: a current review

    PubMed Central

    Thiesen, Guilherme; Gribel, Bruno Frazão; Freitas, Maria Perpétua Mota

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The term "asymmetry" is used to make reference to dissimilarity between homologous elements, altering the balance between structures. Facial asymmetry is common in the overall population and is often presented subclinically. Nevertheless, on occasion, significant facial asymmetry results not only in functional, but also esthetic issues. Under these conditions, its etiology should be carefully investigated in order to achieve an adequate treatment plan. Facial asymmetry assessment comprises patient's first interview, extra- as well as intraoral clinical examination, and supplementary imaging examination. Subsequent asymmetry treatment depends on patient's age, the etiology of the condition and on the degree of disharmony, and might include from asymmetrical orthodontic mechanics to orthognathic surgery. Thus, the present study aims at addressing important aspects to be considered by the orthodontist reaching an accurate diagnosis and treatment plan of facial asymmetry, in addition to reporting treatment of some patients carriers of such challenging disharmony. PMID:26691977

  16. Trapped electron mode turbulence driven intrinsic rotation in Tokamak plasmas.

    PubMed

    Wang, W X; Hahm, T S; Ethier, S; Zakharov, L E; Diamond, P H

    2011-02-25

    Progress from global gyrokinetic simulations in understanding the origin of intrinsic rotation in toroidal plasmas is reported. The turbulence-driven intrinsic torque associated with nonlinear residual stress generation due to zonal flow shear induced asymmetry in the parallel wave number spectrum is shown to scale close to linearly with plasma gradients and the inverse of the plasma current, qualitatively reproducing experimental empirical scalings of intrinsic rotation. The origin of current scaling is found to be enhanced k(∥) symmetry breaking induced by the increased radial variation of the safety factor as the current decreases. The intrinsic torque is proportional to the pressure gradient because both turbulence intensity and zonal flow shear, which are two key ingredients for driving residual stress, increase with turbulence drive, which is R/L(T(e)) and R/L(n(e)) for the trapped electron mode. PMID:21405577

  17. Quasi-Classical Origins of Single Transverse Spin Asymmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sievert, Matthew; Kovchegov, Yuri

    2013-10-01

    We consider semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering and the Drell-Yan process on a transversely-polarized proton at high energies. We model the small- x wave function of the proton using the McLerran-Venugopalan (MV) model, which has been reasonably successful in describing high-energy proton data. The MV model, originally formulated for a heavy ion with a large number ~ A of independent color charges, is a quasi-classical description that should apply to any dense system of color charges, including a proton at very high energies. Here we incorporate spin dependence into the MV framework and analyze several microscopic scattering channels that lead to the generation of a single transverse spin asymmetry. In particular, we study asymmetries mediated by intrinsic orbital angular momentum, asymmetries produced locally by rescattering on the same constituent, and asymmetries that couple to the odderon. This analysis yields a simple, intuitive, quasi-classical picture in which one can understand understand the famous sign-reversal of the Sivers asymmetry between semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering and the Drell-Yan process. Sponsored in part by DOE Grant No. DE-SC0004286.

  18. Frobenius-norm-based measures of quantum coherence and asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yao; Dong, G H; Xiao, Xing; Sun, C P

    2016-01-01

    We formulate the Frobenius-norm-based measures for quantum coherence and asymmetry respectively. In contrast to the resource theory of coherence and asymmetry, we construct a natural measure of quantum coherence inspired from optical coherence theory while the group theoretical approach is employed to quantify the asymmetry of quantum states. Besides their simple structures and explicit physical meanings, we observe that these quantities are intimately related to the purity (or linear entropy) of the corresponding quantum states. Remarkably, we demonstrate that the proposed coherence quantifier is not only a measure of mixedness, but also an intrinsic (basis-independent) quantification of quantum coherence contained in quantum states, which can also be viewed as a normalized version of Brukner-Zeilinger invariant information. In our context, the asymmetry of N-qubit quantum systems is considered under local independent and collective transformations. In- triguingly, it is illustrated that the collective effect has a significant impact on the asymmetry measure, and quantum correlation between subsystems plays a non-negligible role in this circumstance. PMID:27558009

  19. Frobenius-norm-based measures of quantum coherence and asymmetry

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Yao; Dong, G. H.; Xiao, Xing; Sun, C. P.

    2016-01-01

    We formulate the Frobenius-norm-based measures for quantum coherence and asymmetry respectively. In contrast to the resource theory of coherence and asymmetry, we construct a natural measure of quantum coherence inspired from optical coherence theory while the group theoretical approach is employed to quantify the asymmetry of quantum states. Besides their simple structures and explicit physical meanings, we observe that these quantities are intimately related to the purity (or linear entropy) of the corresponding quantum states. Remarkably, we demonstrate that the proposed coherence quantifier is not only a measure of mixedness, but also an intrinsic (basis-independent) quantification of quantum coherence contained in quantum states, which can also be viewed as a normalized version of Brukner-Zeilinger invariant information. In our context, the asymmetry of N-qubit quantum systems is considered under local independent and collective transformations. In- triguingly, it is illustrated that the collective effect has a significant impact on the asymmetry measure, and quantum correlation between subsystems plays a non-negligible role in this circumstance. PMID:27558009

  20. (Bessel-) weighted asymmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Bernhard Musch, Alexey Prokudin

    2011-11-01

    Semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering experiments allow us to probe the motion of quarks inside the proton in terms of so-called transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions (TMD PDFs), but the information is convoluted with fragmentation functions (TMD FFs) and soft factors. It has long been known that weighting the measured event counts with powers of the hadron momentum before forming angular asymmetries de-convolutes TMD PDFs and TMD FFs in an elegant way, but this also entails an undesirable sensitivity to high momentum contributions. Using Bessel functions as weights, we find a natural generalization of weighted asymmetries that preserves the de-convolution property and features soft-factor cancellation, yet allows us to be less sensitive to high transverse momenta. The formalism also relates to TMD quantities studied in lattice QCD. We briefly show preliminary lattice results from an exploratory calculation of the Boer-Mulders shift using lattices generated by the MILC and LHP collaborations at a pion mass of 500 MeV.

  1. Pair breaking and ``intrinsic`` {Tc}

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, S.A.; Kresin, V.Z.; Ovchinnikov, Y.N.

    1996-12-31

    An analysis of the temperature dependence of the upper critical field in several cuprate families leads to the conclusion that magnetic impurities are present even in samples with the maximum observed value of T{sub c}. A new parameter, intrinsic T{sub c} (T{sub c;intr}) which is its value in the absence of magnetic impurities, is introduced. The maximum value of T{sub c;intr}, which corresponds to the maximum doping level, appears to be similar for different cuprates and to be equal to 160--170 K. This is an upper limit of T{sub c} in the cuprates.

  2. Single transverse-spin asymmetry in QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koike, Yuji

    2014-09-01

    So far large single transverse-spin asymmetries (SSA) have been observed in many high-energy processes such as semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering and proton-proton collisions. Since the conventional parton model and perturbative QCD can not accomodate such large SSAs, the framework for QCD hard processes had to be extended to understand the mechanism of SSA. In this extended frameworks of QCD, intrinsic transverse momentum of partons and the multi-parton (quark-gluon and pure-gluonic) correlations in the hadrons, which were absent in the conventional framework, play a crucial role to cause SSAs, and well-defined formulation of these effects has been a big challenge for QCD theorists. Study on these effects has greatly promoted our understanding on QCD dynamics and hadron structure. In this talk, I will present an overview on these theoretical activity, emphasizing the important role of the Drell-Yan process.

  3. Facial asymmetry in ocular torticollis.

    PubMed

    Akbari, Mohammad Reza; Khorrami Nejad, Masoud; Askarizadeh, Farshad; Pour, Fatemeh Farahbakhsh; Ranjbar Pazooki, Mahsa; Moeinitabar, Mohamad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Torticollis can arise from nonocular (usually musculoskeletal) and ocular conditions. Some facial asymmetries are correlated with a history of early onset ocular torticollis supported by the presence of torticollis on reviewing childhood photographs. When present in an adult, this type of facial asymmetry with an origin of ocular torticollis should help to confirm the chronicity of the defect and prevent unnecessary neurologic evaluation in patients with an uncertain history. Assessment of facial asymmetry consists of a patient history, physical examination, and medical imaging. Medical imaging and facial morphometry are helpful for objective diagnosis and measurement of the facial asymmetry, as well as for treatment planning. The facial asymmetry in congenital superior oblique palsy is typically manifested by midfacial hemihypoplasia on the side opposite the palsied muscle, with deviation of the nose and mouth toward the hypoplastic side. Correcting torticollis through strabismus surgery before a critical developmental age may prevent the development of irreversible facial asymmetry. Mild facial asymmetry associated with congenital torticollis has been reported to resolve with continued growth after early surgery, but if asymmetry is severe or is not treated in the appropriate time, it might remain even with continued growth after surgery. PMID:27239567

  4. Lepton forward-backward asymmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Pain, R. ); DELPHI Collaboration,

    1992-02-01

    Results of Forward-Backward Asymmetries with Leptons measured at [ital Z][sup 0] energies are presented. Details of the analysis by the DELPHI Collaboration are given together with the most recent values of the peak Asymmetries for electrons, muons, and taus obtained by ALEPH, DELPHI, L3, and OPAL Collaborations at LEP.

  5. Asymmetry In Biphase Data Signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Tien M.

    1992-01-01

    Report presents analysis of some effects of asymmetry in Manchester (biphase) binary data signal transmitted by phase modulation of sinusoidal carrier signal. Report extends analysis described in article, "Effects of Asymmetry of NRZ Data Signals on Performance" (NPO-18261), to include case where data biphase-modulated directly on residual carrier.

  6. Extent of structural asymmetry in homodimeric proteins: prevalence and relevance.

    PubMed

    Swapna, Lakshmipuram Seshadri; Srikeerthana, Kuchi; Srinivasan, Narayanaswamy

    2012-01-01

    Most homodimeric proteins have symmetric structure. Although symmetry is known to confer structural and functional advantage, asymmetric organization is also observed. Using a non-redundant dataset of 223 high-resolution crystal structures of biologically relevant homodimers, we address questions on the prevalence and significance of asymmetry. We used two measures to quantify global and interface asymmetry, and assess the correlation of several molecular and structural parameters with asymmetry. We have identified rare cases (11/223) of biologically relevant homodimers with pronounced global asymmetry. Asymmetry serves as a means to bring about 2:1 binding between the homodimer and another molecule; it also enables cellular signalling arising from asymmetric macromolecular ligands such as DNA. Analysis of these cases reveals two possible mechanisms by which possible infinite array formation is prevented. In case of homodimers associating via non-topologically equivalent surfaces in their tertiary structures, ligand-dependent mechanisms are used. For stable dimers binding via large surfaces, ligand-dependent structural change regulates polymerisation/depolymerisation; for unstable dimers binding via smaller surfaces that are not evolutionarily well conserved, dimerisation occurs only in the presence of the ligand. In case of homodimers associating via interaction surfaces with parts of the surfaces topologically equivalent in the tertiary structures, steric hindrance serves as the preventive mechanism of infinite array. We also find that homodimers exhibiting grossly symmetric organization rarely exhibit either perfect local symmetry or high local asymmetry. Binding of small ligands at the interface does not cause any significant variation in interface asymmetry. However, identification of biologically relevant interface asymmetry in grossly symmetric homodimers is confounded by the presence of similar small magnitude changes caused due to artefacts of

  7. Karyotype asymmetry: again, how to measure and what to measure?

    PubMed Central

    Peruzzi, Lorenzo; Eroğlu, Halil E.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract One of the most popular, cheap and widely used approaches in comparative cytogenetics – especially by botanists – is that concerning intrachromosomal and interchromosomal karyotype asymmetry. Currently, there is no clear indication of which method, among the many different ones reported in literature, is the most adequate to infer karyotype asymmetry (especially intrachromosomal), above all in view of the criticisms recently moved to the most recent proposal published. This work addresses a critical review of the methods so far proposed for estimation of karyotype asymmetry, using both artificial and real chromosome datasets. It is shown once again how the concept karyotype of asymmetry is composed by two kinds of estimation: interchromosomal and intrachromosomal asymmetries. For the first one, the use of Coefficient of Variation of Chromosome Length, a powerful statistical parameter, is here confirmed. For the second one, the most appropriate parameter is the new Mean Centromeric Asymmetry, where Centromeric Asymmetry for each chromosome in a complement is easily obtained by calculating the difference of relative lengths of long arm and short arm. The Coefficient of Variation of Centromeric Index, strongly criticized in recent literature, is an additional karyological parameter, not properly connected with karyotype asymmetry. This shows definitively what and how to measure to correctly infer karyotype asymmetry, by proposing to couple two already known parameters in a new way. Hopefully, it will be the basic future reference for all those scientists dealing with cytotaxonomy. PMID:24260685

  8. Karyotype asymmetry: again, how to measure and what to measure?

    PubMed

    Peruzzi, Lorenzo; Eroğlu, Halil E

    2013-01-01

    One of the most popular, cheap and widely used approaches in comparative cytogenetics - especially by botanists - is that concerning intrachromosomal and interchromosomal karyotype asymmetry. Currently, there is no clear indication of which method, among the many different ones reported in literature, is the most adequate to infer karyotype asymmetry (especially intrachromosomal), above all in view of the criticisms recently moved to the most recent proposal published. This work addresses a critical review of the methods so far proposed for estimation of karyotype asymmetry, using both artificial and real chromosome datasets. It is shown once again how the concept karyotype of asymmetry is composed by two kinds of estimation: interchromosomal and intrachromosomal asymmetries. For the first one, the use of Coefficient of Variation of Chromosome Length, a powerful statistical parameter, is here confirmed. For the second one, the most appropriate parameter is the new Mean Centromeric Asymmetry, where Centromeric Asymmetry for each chromosome in a complement is easily obtained by calculating the difference of relative lengths of long arm and short arm. The Coefficient of Variation of Centromeric Index, strongly criticized in recent literature, is an additional karyological parameter, not properly connected with karyotype asymmetry. This shows definitively what and how to measure to correctly infer karyotype asymmetry, by proposing to couple two already known parameters in a new way. Hopefully, it will be the basic future reference for all those scientists dealing with cytotaxonomy. PMID:24260685

  9. Measurements of W Charge Asymmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Holzbauer, J. L.

    2015-10-06

    We discuss W boson and lepton charge asymmetry measurements from W decays in the electron channel, which were made using 9.7 fb$^{-1}$ of RunII data collected by the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. The electron charge asymmetry is presented as a function of pseudo-rapidity out to |$\\eta$| $\\le$ 3.2, in five symmetric and asymmetric kinematic bins of electron transverse momentum and the missing transverse energy of the event. We also give the W charge asymmetry as a function of W boson rapidity. The asymmetries are compared with next-to-leading order perturbative quantum chromodynamics calculations. These charge asymmetry measurements will allow more accurate determinations of the proton parton distribution functions and are the most precise to date.

  10. Validity of the twitch interpolation technique for the assessment of quadriceps neuromuscular asymmetries.

    PubMed

    Maffiuletti, Nicola Angelo; Barbero, Marco; Cescon, Corrado; Clijsen, Ron; Beretta-Piccoli, Matteo; Schneebeli, Alessandro; Preiss, Stefan; Togninalli, Danilo

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the validity of the twitch interpolation technique for evaluating side-to-side asymmetries in quadriceps neuromuscular function. Fifty-six subjects with a wide range of asymmetries (19 healthy, 24 with unilateral and 13 with bilateral anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction) took part in the study. Supramaximal electrical paired stimuli were delivered to the quadriceps muscle during and immediately after a maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of the knee extensors (twitch interpolation technique). MVC torque, voluntary activation and resting doublet-evoked torque were measured separately for the two sides, and percent side-to-side asymmetries were calculated for each parameter. MVC torque asymmetry was plotted against voluntary activation asymmetry and doublet-evoked torque asymmetry, and a multiple regression analysis was also conducted. Significant positive correlations were observed between MVC torque asymmetry and both voluntary activation asymmetry (r=0.40; p=0.002) and doublet-evoked torque asymmetry (r=0.53; p<0.001), and their relative contribution to MVC torque asymmetry was comparable (r=0.64; p<0.001). These results establish the validity of the twitch interpolation technique for the assessment of neuromuscular asymmetries. This methodology could provide useful insights into the contribution of some neural and muscular mechanisms that underlie quadriceps strength deficits. PMID:26990615

  11. Intrinsic time quantum geometrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ita, Eyo Eyo; Soo, Chopin; Yu, Hoi-Lai

    2015-08-01

    Quantum geometrodynamics with intrinsic time development and momentric variables is presented. An underlying SU(3) group structure at each spatial point regulates the theory. The intrinsic time behavior of the theory is analyzed, together with its ground state and primordial quantum fluctuations. Cotton-York potential dominates at early times when the universe was small; the ground state naturally resolves Penrose's Weyl curvature hypothesis, and thermodynamic and gravitational "arrows of time" point in the same direction. Ricci scalar potential corresponding to Einstein's general relativity emerges as a zero-point energy contribution. A new set of fundamental commutation relations without Planck's constant emerges from the unification of gravitation and quantum mechanics.

  12. Theoretical morphology and development of flight feather vane asymmetry with experimental tests in parrots.

    PubMed

    Feo, Teresa J; Prum, Richard O

    2014-06-01

    Asymmetry in flight feather vane width is a major functional innovation associated with the evolution of flight in the ancestors of birds. However, the developmental and morphological basis of feather shape is not simple, and the developmental processes involved in vane width asymmetry are poorly understood. We present a theoretical model of feather morphology and development that describes the possible ways to modify feather development and produce vane asymmetry. Our model finds that the theoretical morphospace of feather shape is redundant, and that many different combinations of parameters could be responsible for vane asymmetry in a given feather. Next, we empirically measured morphological and developmental model parameters in asymmetric and symmetric feathers from two species of parrots to identify which combinations of parameters create vane asymmetry in real feathers. We found that both longer barbs, and larger barb angles in the relatively wider trailing vane drove asymmetry in tail feathers. Developmentally, longer barbs were the result of an offset of the radial position of the new barb locus, whereas larger barb angles were produced by differential expansion of barbs as the feather unfurls from the tubular feather germ. In contrast, the helical angle of barb ridge development did not contribute to vane asymmetry and could be indicative of a constraint. This research provides the first comprehensive description of both the morphological and developmental modifications responsible for vane asymmetry within real feathers, and identifies key steps that must have occurred during the evolution of vane asymmetry. PMID:24816758

  13. Quantifying asymmetry: ratios and alternatives.

    PubMed

    Franks, Erin M; Cabo, Luis L

    2014-08-01

    Traditionally, the study of metric skeletal asymmetry has relied largely on univariate analyses, utilizing ratio transformations when the goal is comparing asymmetries in skeletal elements or populations of dissimilar dimensions. Under this approach, raw asymmetries are divided by a size marker, such as a bilateral average, in an attempt to produce size-free asymmetry indices. Henceforth, this will be referred to as "controlling for size" (see Smith: Curr Anthropol 46 (2005) 249-273). Ratios obtained in this manner often require further transformations to interpret the meaning and sources of asymmetry. This model frequently ignores the fundamental assumption of ratios: the relationship between the variables entered in the ratio must be isometric. Violations of this assumption can obscure existing asymmetries and render spurious results. In this study, we examined the performance of the classic indices in detecting and portraying the asymmetry patterns in four human appendicular bones and explored potential methodological alternatives. Examination of the ratio model revealed that it does not fulfill its intended goals in the bones examined, as the numerator and denominator are independent in all cases. The ratios also introduced strong biases in the comparisons between different elements and variables, generating spurious asymmetry patterns. Multivariate analyses strongly suggest that any transformation to control for overall size or variable range must be conducted before, rather than after, calculating the asymmetries. A combination of exploratory multivariate techniques, such as Principal Components Analysis, and confirmatory linear methods, such as regression and analysis of covariance, appear as a promising and powerful alternative to the use of ratios. PMID:24842694

  14. Inflationary power asymmetry from primordial domain walls

    SciTech Connect

    Jazayeri, Sadra; Akrami, Yashar; Firouzjahi, Hassan; Solomon, Adam R.; Wang, Yi E-mail: yashar.akrami@astro.uio.no E-mail: a.r.solomon@damtp.cam.ac.uk

    2014-11-01

    We study the asymmetric primordial fluctuations in a model of inflation in which translational invariance is broken by a domain wall. We calculate the corrections to the power spectrum of curvature perturbations; they are anisotropic and contain dipole, quadrupole, and higher multipoles with non-trivial scale-dependent amplitudes. Inspired by observations of these multipole asymmetries in terms of two-point correlations and variance in real space, we demonstrate that this model can explain the observed anomalous power asymmetry of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) sky, including its characteristic feature that the dipole dominates over higher multipoles. We test the viability of the model and place approximate constraints on its parameters by using observational values of dipole, quadrupole, and octopole amplitudes of the asymmetry measured by a local-variance estimator. We find that a configuration of the model in which the CMB sphere does not intersect the domain wall during inflation provides a good fit to the data. We further derive analytic expressions for the corrections to the CMB temperature covariance matrix, or angular power spectra, which can be used in future statistical analysis of the model in spherical harmonic space.

  15. Measurement of Z{sup 0} lepton coupling asymmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Smy, M.B.

    1997-07-01

    Polarized Z{sup 0}`s from e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} collisions at the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) have been used to determine the asymmetry parameters A{sub e}, A{sub {mu}} and A{sub {tau}} from the leptonic decay channels. This is the first direct measurement of A{sub {mu}}. The data have been gathered by the SLC Large Detector (SLD) with the electron polarization averaging 63% during the 1993 data taking period and 77% in 1994-95. A maximum likelihood procedure as well as cross section asymmetries was used to measure the asymmetry parameters from the differential cross sections for equal luminosities of left- and right-handed electron beams. The polarization-dependent muon-pair distributions give A{sub {mu}} = 0.102 {+-}0.034 and the tau-pairs give A{sub {tau}} = 0.195 {+-}0.034. The initial state electronic couplings in all three leptonic channels as well as the final state angular distribution in the e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} final state measure A{sub e} to be A{sub e} = 0.152{+-}0.012. Assuming lepton universality and defining a global leptonic asymmetry parameter A{sub e-{mu}-{tau}} = 0.151{+-}0.011. This global leptonic asymmetry value translates directly into sin{sup 2}{theta}{sub W}{sup eff}=0.2310{+-}0.0014 at the Z{sup 0} pole.

  16. Predicting Intrinsic Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, Rob; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2004-01-01

    Intrinsic motivation can be predicted from participants' perceptions of the social environment and the task environment (Ryan & Deci, 2000)in terms of control, relatedness and competence. To determine the degree of independence of these factors 251 students in higher vocational education (physiotherapy and hotel management) indicated the extent to…

  17. Baryon asymmetry and split SUSY

    SciTech Connect

    Kasuya, Shinta

    2005-12-02

    It is one of the greatest mysteries that the baryon asymmetry in our universe is so small. It is argued that it may originate from some profound physics beyond the standard model. We investigate the Affleck-Dine baryogenesis in split supersymmetry, and find that the smallness of the baryon asymmetry is directly related to the hierarchy between the supersymmetry breaking squark/slepton masses and the weak scale. Put simply, the baryon asymmetry is small because of the split mass spectrum. LHC may prove or falsify our scenario.

  18. CMB maximum temperature asymmetry axis: Alignment with other cosmic asymmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariano, Antonio; Perivolaropoulos, Leandros

    2013-02-01

    We use a global pixel-based estimator to identify the axis of the residual Maximum Temperature Asymmetry (MTA) (after the dipole subtraction) of the WMAP seven-year Internal Linear Combination (ILC) cosmic microwave background temperature sky map. The estimator is based on considering the temperature differences between opposite pixels in the sky at various angular resolutions (4°-15°) and selecting the axis that maximizes this difference. We consider three large-scale HEALPix resolutions: Nside=16(3.7°), Nside=8(7.3°) and Nside=4(14.7°). We compare the direction and magnitude of this asymmetry with three other cosmic asymmetry axes (α dipole, dark energy dipole and dark flow) and find that the four asymmetry axes are abnormally close to each other. We compare the observed MTA axis with the corresponding MTA axes of 104 Gaussian isotropic simulated ILC maps (based on ΛCDM). The fraction of simulated ILC maps that reproduce the observed magnitude of the MTA asymmetry and alignment with the observed α dipole is in the range of 0.1%-0.5% (depending on the resolution chosen for the cosmic microwave background map). The corresponding magnitude+alignment probabilities with the other two asymmetry axes (dark energy dipole and dark flow) are at the level of about 1%. We propose Extended Topological Quintessence as a physical model qualitatively consistent with this coincidence of directions.

  19. Characterization of Asymmetry in Magnetoacoustic Emission Burst by Numerical Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Namkung, M.; Fulton, J. P.; Wincheski, B.; DeNale, R.

    1991-01-01

    It has been well known that the pattern of the magnetoacoustic emission (MAE) burst observed during the sweep over one half-cycle of the hysteresis loop becomes asymmetric depending on the strength of the magnetic domain wall-defect interaction and the state of residual stresses in a ferromagnet. The ascending asymmetry due to the former has been observed at a very low frequency (.7 Hz) of applied AC magnetic field at a given amplitude. The descending asymmetry due to uniaxial compressive stress has been typically observed at the AC applied magnetic field frequency of 20 Hz. The physical interpretation of both types of asymmetry has been well established. It is, however, necessary to perform investigations of the dependence of asymmetry on externally controlled parameters such as the amplitude and frequency of the AC applied magnetic fields. The purpose of the present study is therefore to devise a mathematical means that describes the degree of asymmetry of the MAE burst and apply this scheme to investigate the AC magnetic field amplitude dependence of the asymmetry.

  20. Gaussian quantum steering and its asymmetry in curved spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jieci; Cao, Haixin; Jing, Jiliang; Fan, Heng

    2016-06-01

    We study Gaussian quantum steering and its asymmetry in the background of a Schwarzschild black hole. We present a Gaussian channel description of quantum state evolution under the influence of Hawking radiation. We find that thermal noise introduced by the Hawking effect will destroy the steerability between an inertial observer Alice and an accelerated observer Bob who hovers outside the event horizon, while it generates steerability between Bob and a hypothetical observer anti-Bob inside the event horizon. Unlike entanglement behaviors in curved spacetime, here the steering from Alice to Bob suffers from a "sudden death" and the steering from anti-Bob to Bob experiences a "sudden birth" with increasing Hawking temperature. We also find that the Gaussian steering is always asymmetric and the maximum steering asymmetry cannot exceed ln 2 , which means the state never evolves to an extremal asymmetry state. Furthermore, we obtain the parameter settings that maximize steering asymmetry and find that (i) s =arccosh cosh/2r 1 -sinh2r is the critical point of steering asymmetry and (ii) the attainment of maximal steering asymmetry indicates the transition between one-way steerability and both-way steerability for the two-mode Gaussian state under the influence of Hawking radiation.

  1. [Dreams and interhemispheric asymmetry].

    PubMed

    Korabel'nikova, E A; Golubev, V L

    2001-01-01

    The dreams of 103 children and adolescents, aged 10-17 years, have been studied. The test group included 78 patients with neurotic disorders; control one consisted of 25 healthy subjects. Dream features, which were common for those with preferentially left asymmetry profile both in patients as well as in healthy subjects, were: less expressed novelty factor and frequent appearance of rare phenomena, such as "déjà vu in wakefulness", reality, "mixed" (overlapped) dreams, prolonged dreams in repeat sleep, frequent changes of personages and scenes of action. Left-hander dream peculiarities, being detected only in neurotic patients but not in healthy subjects, emerged as lucid phenomena deficit, "dream in dreams" and "dream reminiscence in dream" syndrome, which have been found only in left-handers. Right and left hemispheres seem to contribute in different ways to a dream formation. In authors believe that the left hemisphere seems to provide dream origin while the right hemisphere provides dream vividness, figurativeness and affective activation level. PMID:11811128

  2. Cognitive Deficits and Cerebral Asymmetry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakker, Dirk J.

    1982-01-01

    Research concerning cerebral asymmetry and its effect on scholastic achievement, reading disabilities, learning disabilities, and linguistic competence is reviewed in an exploration of brain hemisphere-specific etiologies of dyslexia. (CJ)

  3. Hemispheric Asymmetries: The Comparative View

    PubMed Central

    Ocklenburg, Sebastian; Güntürkün, Onur

    2012-01-01

    Hemispheric asymmetries play an important role in almost all cognitive functions. For more than a century, they were considered to be uniquely human but now an increasing number of findings in all vertebrate classes make it likely that we inherited our asymmetries from common ancestors. Thus, studying animal models could provide unique insights into the mechanisms of lateralization. We outline three such avenues of research by providing an overview of experiments on left–right differences in the connectivity of sensory systems, the embryonic determinants of brain asymmetries, and the genetics of lateralization. All these lines of studies could provide a wealth of insights into our own asymmetries that should and will be exploited by future analyses. PMID:22303295

  4. Balmer-beta line asymmetry characteristics in a high pressure, microwave-produced argon plasma.

    PubMed

    Palomares, J M; Torres, J; Gigosos, M A; van der Mullen, J J A M; Gamero, A; Sola, A

    2009-11-01

    This paper presents a study on the asymmetry of the Balmer H(beta) profile in plasmas produced by microwaves at high pressure with the help of some functions of asymmetry for the whole profile, as well as by means of some specific parameters characterizing only its central dip. The study shows how this asymmetry--very low in our case--depends on the electron density and flux of gases and how the existence of inhomogeneities in the plasma can affect the shape and symmetry of this line. Also, limitations on the determination of the asymmetry are pointed out and the use of this profile for plasma diagnosis is discussed. PMID:19891830

  5. Measurement of the parity-violation parameter {ital A}{sub {ital b}} from the left-right forward-backward asymmetry of {ital b} quark production in {ital Z}{sup 0} decays using a momentum-weighted track-charge technique

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, K.; Abt, I.; Ahn, C.J.; Akagi, T.; Ash, W.W.; Aston, D.; Bacchetta, N.; Baird, K.G.; Baltay, C.; Band, H.R.; Barakat, M.B.; Baranko, G.; Bardon, O.; Barklow, T.; Bazarko, A.O.; Ben-David, R.; Benvenuti, A.C.; Bienz, T.; Bilei, G.M.; Bisello, D.; Blaylock, G.; Bogart, J.R.; Bolton, T.; Bower, G.R.; Brau, J.E.; Breidenbach, M.; Bugg, W.M.; Burke, D.; Burnett, T.H.; Burrows, P.N.; Busza, W.; Calcaterra, A.; Caldwell, D.O.; Calloway, D.; Camanzi, B.; Carpinelli, M.; Cassell, R.; Castaldi, R.; Castro, A.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Church, E.; Cohn, H.O.; Coller, J.A.; Cook, V.; Cotton, R.; Cowan, R.F.; Coyne, D.G.; D`Oliveira, A.; Damerell, C.J.S.; Dasu, S.; De Sangro, R.; De Simone, P.; Dell`Orso, R.; Dima, M.; Du, P.Y.C.; Dubois, R.; Eisenstein, B.I.; Elia, R.; Falciai, D.; Fan, C.; Fero, M.J.; Frey, R.; Furuno, K.; Gillman, T.; Gladding, G.; Gonzalez, S.; Hallewell, G.D.; Hart, E.L.; Hasegawa, Y.; Hedges, S.; Hertzbach, S.S.; Hildreth, M.D.; Huber, J.; Huffer, M.E.; Hughes, E.W.; Hwang, H.; Iwasaki, Y.; Jacques, P.; Jaros, J.; Johnson, A.S.; Johnson, J.R.; Johnson, R.A.; Junk, T.; Kajikawa, R.; Kalelkar, M.; Karliner, I.; Kawahara, H.; Kendall, H.W.; Kim, Y.; King, M.E.; King, R.; Kofler, R.R.; Krishna, N.M.; Kroeger, R.S.; Labs, J.F.; Langston, M.; Lath, A.; Lauber, J.A.; Leith, D.W.G.; Liu, X.; Loreti, M.; Lu, A.; Lynch, H.L.; Ma, J.; Mancinelli, G.; Manly, S.; Mantovani, G.; Markiewicz, T.W.; Maruyama, T.; Massetti, R.; Masuda, H.; Mazzucato, E.; McKemey, A.K.; Meadows, B.T.; Messner, R.; Mockett, P.M.; Moffeit, K.C.; Mours, B.; Mueller, G.; Muller, D.; Nagamine, T.; Nauenberg, U.; Neal, H.; Nussbaum, M.; Ohnishi, Y.; Osborne, L.S.; Panvini, R.S.; Park, H.; Pavel, T.J.; Peruzzi, I.; Pescara, L.; Piccolo, M.; Piemontese, L.; Pieroni, E.; Pitts, K.T.; Plano, R.J.; Prepost, R.; Prescott, C.Y.; Punkar, G.D.; Quigley, J.; Ratcliff, B.N.; Reeves, T.W.; Rensing, P.E.; Rochester, L.S.; Rothberg, J.E.; Rowson, P.C.; Russell, J.J.; Saxton, O.H.; Schalk, T.; (SLD Collaborat...

    1995-04-10

    Using an impact parameter tag to select an enriched sample of {ital Z}{sup 0}{r_arrow}{ital bb}{ovr bar} events, and the net momentum-weighted track charge to identify the sign of the charge of the underlying {ital b} quark, we have measured the left-right forward-backward asymmetry for {ital b} quark production as a function of polar angle. Based on 1.8pb{sup {minus}1} of {ital Z}{sup 0} decay data produced with a mean electron beam polarization of {ital P}{sub {ital e}}=63%, this yields a direct measurement of the extent of parity violation in the {ital Zbb} coupling of {ital A}{sub {ital b}}=0.87{plus_minus}0.11(stat){plus_minus}0.09(syst).

  6. Two-dimensional chiral asymmetry in unidirectional magnetic anisotropy structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perna, P.; Ajejas, F.; Maccariello, D.; Cuñado, J. L.; Guerrero, R.; Niño, M. A.; Muñoz, M.; Prieto, J. L.; Miranda, R.; Camarero, J.

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the symmetry-breaking effects of magnetic nanostructures that present unidirectional (one-fold) magnetic anisotropy. Angular and field dependent transport and magnetic properties have been studied in two different exchange-biased systems, i.e. ferromagnetic (FM)/ antiferromagnetic (AFM) bilayer and spin-valve structures. We experimentally show the direct relationships between the magnetoresistance (MR) response and the magnetization reversal pathways for any field value and direction. We demonstrate that even though the MR signals are related to different transport phenomena, namely anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) and giant magnetoresistance (GMR), chiral asymmetries are found around the magnetization hard-axis direction, in both cases originated from the one-fold symmetry of the interfacial exchange coupling. Our results indicate that the chiral asymmetry of transport and magnetic behaviors are intrinsic of systems with an unidirectional contribution.

  7. Deformity, Erosion, Lesion, and Tumor Occurrence, Fluctuating Asymmetry, and Population Parameters for Bluntnose Minnow (Pimephales notatus) as Indicators of Recovering Water Quality in a Great Lakes Area of Concern, USA.

    PubMed

    Simon, Thomas P; Burskey, Jacob L

    2016-02-01

    The Grand Calumet River is an industrial river and a Great Lakes Area of Concern in southwestern Lake Michigan, USA. Recovery end points require well-formulated designs to assess the use of occurrence of internal and external anomalies, fluctuating asymmetry, and population indicators to determine recovery from the water-quality Beneficial Use Impairments of fish tumors and deformities. A paired-watershed approach using three reaches within the study area was sampled weekly and separated into near- and far-field reaches, whereas the Little Calumet River, Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, served as a control. Field-collected Pimephales notatus were inspected for occurrence of deformities, erosion, lesion, and tumor (DELT) anomalies, measured for body symmetry, and dissected to ascertain sex and the condition of internal organs. Morphometric measurements (p ≤ 0.000), internal organ conditions (p = 0.001), and sex ratios of the fish (p = 0.001) were significantly different between the control and P. notatus test populations. The near-field individuals had the highest incidence of DELT occurrence (70 %) followed by the far-field reaches at Roxana Marsh (45 %) and Kennedy Avenue (41.9 %). Morphometric analysis showed significant differences between body size and shape and age class structure between populations. No test-reach individual lived to reach age >2 years. Gonads and livers from Grand Calumet individuals were found to be blackened, ruptured, and decreased in thickness. None of the fish from test study reaches displayed sexual structure in a 1:1 ratio. High sediment-contaminant concentrations for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metals in the Grand Calumet River correlated (r (2) = 0.998) with decreased population fitness and decreased individual reproductive health. PMID:26729349

  8. Direct mapping of hippocampal surfaces with intrinsic shape context.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yonggang; Thompson, Paul M; de Zubicaray, Greig I; Rose, Stephen E; Tu, Zhuowen; Dinov, Ivo; Toga, Arthur W

    2007-09-01

    We propose in this paper a new method for the mapping of hippocampal (HC) surfaces to establish correspondences between points on HC surfaces and enable localized HC shape analysis. A novel geometric feature, the intrinsic shape context, is defined to capture the global characteristics of the HC shapes. Based on this intrinsic feature, an automatic algorithm is developed to detect a set of landmark curves that are stable across population. The direct map between a source and target HC surface is then solved as the minimizer of a harmonic energy function defined on the source surface with landmark constraints. For numerical solutions, we compute the map with the approach of solving partial differential equations on implicit surfaces. The direct mapping method has the following properties: (1) it has the advantage of being automatic; (2) it is invariant to the pose of HC shapes. In our experiments, we apply the direct mapping method to study temporal changes of HC asymmetry in Alzheimer's disease (AD) using HC surfaces from 12 AD patients and 14 normal controls. Our results show that the AD group has a different trend in temporal changes of HC asymmetry than the group of normal controls. We also demonstrate the flexibility of the direct mapping method by applying it to construct spherical maps of HC surfaces. Spherical harmonics (SPHARM) analysis is then applied and it confirms our results on temporal changes of HC asymmetry in AD. PMID:17625918

  9. Direct Mapping of Hippocampal Surfaces with Intrinsic Shape Context

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yonggang; Thompson, Paul M.; de Zubicaray, Greig I.; Rose, Stephen E.; Tu, Zhuowen; Dinov, Ivo; Toga, Arthur W.

    2007-01-01

    We propose in this paper a new method for the mapping of hippocampal (HC) surfaces to establish correspondences between points on HC surfaces and enable localized HC shape analysis. A novel geometric feature, the intrinsic shape context, is defined to capture the global characteristics of the HC shapes. Based on this intrinsic feature, an automatic algorithm is developed to detect a set of landmark curves that are stable across population. The direct map between a source and target HC surface is then solved as the minimizer of a harmonic energy function defined on the source surface with landmark constraints. For numerical solutions, we compute the map with the approach of solving partial differential equations on implicit surfaces. The direct mapping method has the following properties: 1) it has the advantage of being automatic; 2) it is invariant to the pose of HC shapes. In our experiments, we apply the direct mapping method to study temporal changes of HC asymmetry in Alzheimer disease (AD) using HC surfaces from 12 AD patients and 14 normal controls. Our results show that the AD group has a different trend in temporal changes of HC asymmetry than the group of normal controls. We also demonstrate the flexibility of the direct mapping method by applying it to construct spherical maps of HC surfaces. Spherical harmonics (SPHARM) analysis is then applied and it confirms our results about temporal changes of HC asymmetry in AD. PMID:17625918

  10. Predicting intrinsic disorder from amino acid sequence.

    PubMed

    Obradovic, Zoran; Peng, Kang; Vucetic, Slobodan; Radivojac, Predrag; Brown, Celeste J; Dunker, A Keith

    2003-01-01

    Blind predictions of intrinsic order and disorder were made on 42 proteins subsequently revealed to contain 9,044 ordered residues, 284 disordered residues in 26 segments of length 30 residues or less, and 281 disordered residues in 2 disordered segments of length greater than 30 residues. The accuracies of the six predictors used in this experiment ranged from 77% to 91% for the ordered regions and from 56% to 78% for the disordered segments. The average of the order and disorder predictions ranged from 73% to 77%. The prediction of disorder in the shorter segments was poor, from 25% to 66% correct, while the prediction of disorder in the longer segments was better, from 75% to 95% correct. Four of the predictors were composed of ensembles of neural networks. This enabled them to deal more efficiently with the large asymmetry in the training data through diversified sampling from the significantly larger ordered set and achieve better accuracy on ordered and long disordered regions. The exclusive use of long disordered regions for predictor training likely contributed to the disparity of the predictions on long versus short disordered regions, while averaging the output values over 61-residue windows to eliminate short predictions of order or disorder probably contributed to the even greater disparity for three of the predictors. This experiment supports the predictability of intrinsic disorder from amino acid sequence. PMID:14579347

  11. Intrinsic and extrinsic mortality reunited.

    PubMed

    Koopman, Jacob J E; Wensink, Maarten J; Rozing, Maarten P; van Bodegom, David; Westendorp, Rudi G J

    2015-07-01

    Intrinsic and extrinsic mortality are often separated in order to understand and measure aging. Intrinsic mortality is assumed to be a result of aging and to increase over age, whereas extrinsic mortality is assumed to be a result of environmental hazards and be constant over age. However, allegedly intrinsic and extrinsic mortality have an exponentially increasing age pattern in common. Theories of aging assert that a combination of intrinsic and extrinsic stressors underlies the increasing risk of death. Epidemiological and biological data support that the control of intrinsic as well as extrinsic stressors can alleviate the aging process. We argue that aging and death can be better explained by the interaction of intrinsic and extrinsic stressors than by classifying mortality itself as being either intrinsic or extrinsic. Recognition of the tight interaction between intrinsic and extrinsic stressors in the causation of aging leads to the recognition that aging is not inevitable, but malleable through the environment. PMID:25916736

  12. CP violating asymmetries in charged D meson decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buccella, F.; Lusignoli, M.; Mangano, G.; Miele, G.; Pugliese, A.; Santorelli, P.

    1993-03-01

    The CP violating asymmetries for Cabibbo suppressed charged D meson decays in the standard model are estimated in the factorized approximation, using the two-loop effective hamiltonian and a model for final state interactions previously tested for Cabibbo allowed D decays. No new parameters are added. The predictions are larger than expected and not too far from the experimental possibilities.

  13. Micropatterned mammalian cells exhibit phenotype-specific left-right asymmetry

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Leo Q.; Ronaldson, Kacey; Park, Miri; Taylor, Grace; Zhang, Yue; Gimble, Jeffrey M.; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2011-01-01

    Left-right (LR) asymmetry (handedness, chirality) is a well-conserved biological property of critical importance to normal development. Changes in orientation of the LR axis due to genetic or environmental factors can lead to malformations and disease. While the LR asymmetry of organs and whole organisms has been extensively studied, little is known about the LR asymmetry at cellular and multicellular levels. Here we show that the cultivation of cell populations on micropatterns with defined boundaries reveals intrinsic cell chirality that can be readily determined by image analysis of cell alignment and directional motion. By patterning 11 different types of cells on ring-shaped micropatterns of various sizes, we found that each cell type exhibited definite LR asymmetry (p value down to 10-185) that was different between normal and cancer cells of the same type, and not dependent on surface chemistry, protein coating, or the orientation of the gravitational field. Interestingly, drugs interfering with actin but not microtubule function reversed the LR asymmetry in some cell types. Our results show that micropatterned cell populations exhibit phenotype-specific LR asymmetry that is dependent on the functionality of the actin cytoskeleton. We propose that micropatterning could potentially be used as an effective in vitro tool to study the initiation of LR asymmetry in cell populations, to diagnose disease, and to study factors involved with birth defects in laterality. PMID:21709270

  14. Decision making in noisy bistable systems with time-dependent asymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nené, Nuno R.; Zaikin, Alexey

    2013-01-01

    Our work draws special attention to the importance of the effects of time-dependent parameters on decision making in bistable systems. Here, we extend previous studies of the mechanism known as speed-dependent cellular decision making in genetic circuits by performing an analytical treatment of the canonical supercritical pitchfork bifurcation problem with an additional time-dependent asymmetry and control parameter. This model has an analogous behavior to the genetic switch. In the presence of transient asymmetries and fluctuations, slow passage through the critical region in both systems increases substantially the probability of specific decision outcomes. We also study the relevance for attractor selection of reaching maximum values for the external asymmetry before and after the critical region. Overall, maximum asymmetries should be reached at an instant where the position of the critical point allows for compensation of the detrimental effects of noise in retaining memory of the transient asymmetries.

  15. Primary structure and solution conditions determine conformational ensemble properties of intrinsically disordered proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Hsuan-Han Alberto

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are a class of proteins that do not exhibit well-defined three-dimensional structures. The absence of structure is intrinsic to their amino acid sequences, which are characterized by low hydrophobicity and high net charge per residue compared to folded proteins. Contradicting the classic structure-function paradigm, IDPs are capable of interacting with high specificity and affinity, often acquiring order in complex with protein and nucleic acid binding partners. This phenomenon is evident during cellular activities involving IDPs, which include transcriptional and translational regulation, cell cycle control, signal transduction, molecular assembly, and molecular recognition. Although approximately 30% of eukaryotic proteomes are intrinsically disordered, the nature of IDP conformational ensembles remains unclear. In this dissertation, we describe relationships connecting characteristics of IDP conformational ensembles to their primary structures and solution conditions. Using molecular simulations and fluorescence experiments on a set of base-rich IDPs, we find that net charge per residue segregates conformational ensembles along a globule-to-coil transition. Speculatively generalizing this result, we propose a phase diagram that predicts an IDP's average size and shape based on sequence composition and use it to generate hypotheses for a broad set of intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs). Simulations reveal that acid-rich IDRs, unlike their oppositely charged base-rich counterparts, exhibit disordered globular ensembles despite intra-chain repulsive electrostatic interactions. This apparent asymmetry is sensitive to simulation parameters for representing alkali and halide salt ions, suggesting that solution conditions modulate IDP conformational ensembles. We refine the ion parameters using a calibration procedure that relies exclusively on crystal lattice properties. Simulations with these parameters recover swollen

  16. Direct Measurement of Leptonic Coupling Asymmetries with Polarized Z Bosons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, K.; Abe, K.; Akagi, T.; Allen, N. J.; Ash, W. W.; Aston, D.; Baird, K. G.; Baltay, C.; Band, H. R.; Barakat, M. B.; Baranko, G.; Bardon, O.; Barklow, T. L.; Bashindzhagyan, G. L.; Bazarko, A. O.; Ben-David, R.; Benvenuti, A. C.; Bilei, G. M.; Bisello, D.; Blaylock, G.; Bogart, J. R.; Bolen, B.; Bolton, T.; Bower, G. R.; Brau, J. E.; Breidenbach, M.; Bugg, W. M.; Burke, D.; Burnett, T. H.; Burrows, P. N.; Busza, W.; Calcaterra, A.; Caldwell, D. O.; Calloway, D.; Camanzi, B.; Carpinelli, M.; Cassell, R.; Castaldi, R.; Castro, A.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Chou, A.; Church, E.; Cohn, H. O.; Coller, J. A.; Cook, V.; Cotton, R.; Cowan, R. F.; Coyne, D. G.; Crawford, G.; D'Oliveira, A.; Damerell, C. J.; Daoudi, M.; de Sangro, R.; dell'Orso, R.; Dervan, P. J.; Dima, M.; Dong, D. N.; Du, P. Y.; Dubois, R.; Eisenstein, B. I.; Elia, R.; Etzion, E.; Fahey, S.; Falciai, D.; Fan, C.; Fernandez, J. P.; Fero, M. J.; Frey, R.; Furuno, K.; Gillman, T.; Gladding, G.; Gonzalez, S.; Hart, E. L.; Harton, J. L.; Hasan, A.; Hasegawa, Y.; Hasuko, K.; Hedges, S. J.; Hertzbach, S. S.; Hildreth, M. D.; Huber, J.; Huffer, M. E.; Hughes, E. W.; Hwang, H.; Iwasaki, Y.; Jackson, D. J.; Jacques, P.; Jaros, J. A.; Jiang, Z. Y.; Johnson, A. S.; Johnson, J. R.; Johnson, R. A.; Junk, T.; Kajikawa, R.; Kalelkar, M.; Kang, H. J.; Karliner, I.; Kawahara, H.; Kendall, H. W.; Kim, Y. D.; King, M. E.; King, R.; Kofler, R. R.; Krishna, N. M.; Kroeger, R. S.; Labs, J. F.; Langston, M.; Lath, A.; Lauber, J. A.; Leith, D. W.; Lia, V.; Liu, M. X.; Liu, X.; Loreti, M.; Lu, A.; Lynch, H. L.; Ma, J.; Mancinelli, G.; Manly, S.; Mantovani, G.; Markiewicz, T. W.; Maruyama, T.; Masuda, H.; Mazzucato, E.; McKemey, A. K.; Meadows, B. T.; Messner, R.; Mockett, P. M.; Moffeit, K. C.; Moore, T. B.; Muller, D.; Nagamine, T.; Narita, S.; Nauenberg, U.; Neal, H.; Nussbaum, M.; Ohnishi, Y.; Onoprienko, D.; Osborne, L. S.; Panvini, R. S.; Park, C. H.; Park, H.; Pavel, T. J.; Peruzzi, I.; Piccolo, M.; Piemontese, L.; Pieroni, E.; Pitts, K. T.; Plano, R. J.; Prepost, R.; Prescott, C. Y.; Punkar, G. D.; Quigley, J.; Ratcliff, B. N.; Reeves, T. W.; Reidy, J.; Reinertsen, P. L.; Rensing, P. E.; Rochester, L. S.; Rowson, P. C.; Russell, J. J.; Saxton, O. H.; Schalk, T.; Schindler, R. H.; Schumm, B. A.; Schwiening, J.; Sen, S.; Serbo, V. V.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Shank, J. T.; Shapiro, G.; Sherden, D. J.; Shmakov, K. D.; Simopoulos, C.; Sinev, N. B.; Smith, S. R.; Smy, M. B.; Snyder, J. A.; Stamer, P.; Steiner, H.; Steiner, R.; Strauss, M. G.; Su, D.; Suekane, F.; Sugiyama, A.; Suzuki, S.; Swartz, M.; Szumilo, A.; Takahashi, T.; Taylor, F. E.; Torrence, E.; Trandafir, A. I.; Turk, J. D.; Usher, T.; Va'Vra, J.; Vannini, C.; Vella, E.; Venuti, J. P.; Verdier, R.; Verdini, P. G.; Wagner, D. L.; Wagner, S. R.; Waite, A. P.; Watts, S. J.; Weidemann, A. W.; Weiss, E. R.; Whitaker, J. S.; White, S. L.; Wickens, F. J.; Williams, D. A.; Williams, D. C.; Williams, S. H.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, R. J.; Wisniewski, W. J.; Woods, M.; Word, G. B.; Wyss, J.; Yamamoto, R. K.; Yamartino, J. M.; Yang, X.; Yashima, J.; Yellin, S. J.; Young, C. C.; Yuta, H.; Zapalac, G.; Zdarko, R. W.; Zhou, J.

    1997-08-01

    We present direct measurements of the Z0-lepton coupling asymmetry parameters Ae, Aμ, and Aτ, based on a data sample of 12 063 leptonic Z0 decays collected by the SLD detector. The Z bosons are produced in collisions of beams of polarized e- with unpolarized e+ at the SLAC Linear Collider. The couplings are extracted from the measurement of the left-right and forward-backward asymmetries for each lepton species. The results are Ae = 0.152+/-0.012\\(stat\\)+/-0.001\\(syst\\), Aμ = 0.102+/-0.034+/-0.002, and Aτ = 0.195+/-0.034+/-0.003.

  17. Expected dipole asymmetry in CMB polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namjoo, M. H.; Abolhasani, A. A.; Assadullahi, H.; Baghram, S.; Firouzjahi, H.; Wands, D.

    2015-05-01

    We explore the hemispherical asymmetry predicted in cosmic microwave background polarization when there is an asymmetry in temperature anisotropies due to primordial perturbations. We consider the cases of asymmetries due to adiabatic and isocurvature modes, and tensor perturbations. We show that the asymmetry in the TE, EE and/or BB correlations can be substantially larger than those in the TT power spectrum in certain cases. The relative asymmetry in the different cross-correlations, as well as the angular scale dependence, can in principle distinguish between different origins for the asymmetry.

  18. Sivers Asymmetry with QCD Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echevarria, Miguel G.; Idilbi, Ahmad; Kang, Zhong-Bo; Vitev, Ivan

    2015-02-01

    We analyze the Sivers asymmetry in both Drell-Yan (DY) production and semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS), while considering properly defined transverse momentum dependent parton distribution and fragmentation functions and their QCD evolution. After finding a universal non-perturbative spin-independent Sudakov factor that can describe reasonably well the world's data of SIDIS, DY lepton pair and W/Z production in unpolarized scatterings, we perform a global fitting of all the experimental data on the Sivers asymmetry in SIDIS from HERMES, COMPASS and Jefferson Lab. Then we make predictions for the asymmetry in DY lepton pair and W boson production, which could be compared to the future experimental data in order to test the sign change of the Sivers function.

  19. Geometric asymmetry driven Janus micromotors.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guanjia; Pumera, Martin

    2014-10-01

    The production and application of nano-/micromotors is of great importance. In order for the motors to work, asymmetry in their chemical composition or physical geometry must be present if no external asymmetric field is applied. In this paper, we present a "coconut" micromotor made of platinum through the partial or complete etching of the silica templates. It was shown that although both the inner and outer surfaces are made of the same material (Pt), motion of the structure can be observed as the convex surface is capable of generating oxygen bubbles. This finding shows that not only the chemical asymmetry of the micromotor, but also its geometric asymmetry can lead to fast propulsion of the motor. Moreover, a considerably higher velocity can be seen for partially etched coconut structures than the velocities of Janus or fully etched, shell-like motors. These findings will have great importance on the design of future micromotors. PMID:25122607

  20. Intrinsically Disordered Energy Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chebaro, Yassmine; Ballard, Andrew J.; Chakraborty, Debayan; Wales, David J.

    2015-05-01

    Analysis of an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) reveals an underlying multifunnel structure for the energy landscape. We suggest that such ‘intrinsically disordered’ landscapes, with a number of very different competing low-energy structures, are likely to characterise IDPs, and provide a useful way to address their properties. In particular, IDPs are present in many cellular protein interaction networks, and several questions arise regarding how they bind to partners. Are conformations resembling the bound structure selected for binding, or does further folding occur on binding the partner in a induced-fit fashion? We focus on the p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) protein, which adopts an -helical conformation when bound to its partner, and is involved in the activation of apoptosis. Recent experimental evidence shows that folding is not necessary for binding, and supports an induced-fit mechanism. Using a variety of computational approaches we deduce the molecular mechanism behind the instability of the PUMA peptide as a helix in isolation. We find significant barriers between partially folded states and the helix. Our results show that the favoured conformations are molten-globule like, stabilised by charged and hydrophobic contacts, with structures resembling the bound state relatively unpopulated in equilibrium.

  1. Intrinsically Disordered Energy Landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Chebaro, Yassmine; Ballard, Andrew J.; Chakraborty, Debayan; Wales, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) reveals an underlying multifunnel structure for the energy landscape. We suggest that such ‘intrinsically disordered’ landscapes, with a number of very different competing low-energy structures, are likely to characterise IDPs, and provide a useful way to address their properties. In particular, IDPs are present in many cellular protein interaction networks, and several questions arise regarding how they bind to partners. Are conformations resembling the bound structure selected for binding, or does further folding occur on binding the partner in a induced-fit fashion? We focus on the p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) protein, which adopts an -helical conformation when bound to its partner, and is involved in the activation of apoptosis. Recent experimental evidence shows that folding is not necessary for binding, and supports an induced-fit mechanism. Using a variety of computational approaches we deduce the molecular mechanism behind the instability of the PUMA peptide as a helix in isolation. We find significant barriers between partially folded states and the helix. Our results show that the favoured conformations are molten-globule like, stabilised by charged and hydrophobic contacts, with structures resembling the bound state relatively unpopulated in equilibrium. PMID:25999294

  2. Intrinsically disordered energy landscapes.

    PubMed

    Chebaro, Yassmine; Ballard, Andrew J; Chakraborty, Debayan; Wales, David J

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) reveals an underlying multifunnel structure for the energy landscape. We suggest that such 'intrinsically disordered' landscapes, with a number of very different competing low-energy structures, are likely to characterise IDPs, and provide a useful way to address their properties. In particular, IDPs are present in many cellular protein interaction networks, and several questions arise regarding how they bind to partners. Are conformations resembling the bound structure selected for binding, or does further folding occur on binding the partner in a induced-fit fashion? We focus on the p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) protein, which adopts an α-helical conformation when bound to its partner, and is involved in the activation of apoptosis. Recent experimental evidence shows that folding is not necessary for binding, and supports an induced-fit mechanism. Using a variety of computational approaches we deduce the molecular mechanism behind the instability of the PUMA peptide as a helix in isolation. We find significant barriers between partially folded states and the helix. Our results show that the favoured conformations are molten-globule like, stabilised by charged and hydrophobic contacts, with structures resembling the bound state relatively unpopulated in equilibrium. PMID:25999294

  3. Transverse top quark polarization and the forward-backward asymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgart, Matthew; Tweedie, Brock

    2013-08-01

    The forward-backward asymmetry in top pair production at the Tevatron has long been in tension with the Standard Model prediction. One of the only viable new physics scenarios capable of explaining this anomaly is an s-channel axigluon-like resonance, with the quantum numbers of the gluon but with significant axial couplings to quarks. While such a resonance can lead to a clear bump or excess in the or dijet mass spectra, it may also simply be too broad to cleanly observe. Here, we point out that broad resonances generally lead to net top and antitop polarizations transverse to the production plane. This polarization is consistent with all discrete spacetime symmetries, and, analogous to the forward-backward asymmetry itself, is absent in QCD at leading order. Within the parameter space consistent with the asymmetry measurements, the induced polarization can be sizable, and might be observable at the Tevatron or the LHC.

  4. Line asymmetry in the Seyfert Galaxy NGC 3783

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramirez, J. M.; Bautista, Manuel; Kallman, Timothy

    2005-01-01

    We have reanalyzed the 900 ks Chandra X-ray spectrum of NGC 3783, finding evidence on the asymmetry of the spectral absorption lines. The lines are fitted with a parametric expression that results from an analytical treatment of radiatively driven winds. The line asymmetry distribution derived from the spectrum is consistent with a non-spherical outflow with a finite optical depth. Within this scenario, our model explains the observed correlations between the line velocity shifts and the ionization parameter and between the line velocity shift and the line asymmetry. The present results may provide a framework for detailed testing of models for the dynamic and physical properties of warm absorber in Seyfert galaxies.

  5. Effect of poloidal asymmetries on impurity peaking in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Mollen, A.; Pusztai, I.; Fueloep, T.; Kazakov, Ye. O.; Moradi, S.

    2012-05-15

    Poloidal impurity asymmetries are frequently observed in tokamaks. In this paper, the effect of poloidal asymmetry on electrostatic turbulent transport is studied, including the effect of the E Multiplication-Sign B drift. Collisions are modeled by a Lorentz operator, and the gyrokinetic equation is solved with a variational approach. The impurity transport is shown to be sensitive to the magnetic shear and changes sign for s Greater-Than-Or-Equivalent-To 0.5 in the presence of inboard accumulation. The zero-flux impurity density gradient (peaking factor) is shown to be rather insensitive to collisions in both ion temperature gradient and trapped electron mode driven cases. Our results suggest that the asymmetry (both the location of its maximum and its strength) and the magnetic shear are the two most important parameters that affect the impurity peaking.

  6. Solar wind driving of asymmetries in the magnetosheath - magnetosphere system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimmock, Andrew; Pulkkinen, Tuija; Osmane, Adnane; Nykyri, Katariina

    2015-04-01

    Over the decades of in-situ measurements of the terrestrial magnetosphere it has been suggested and experimentally shown that various parameter dawn-dusk asymmetries arise. What is also apparent is that such asymmetries are delicately coupled to the properties of the solar wind. The IMF configuration has a considerable impact since its orientation dictates the shock geometry, thus driving different dawn-dusk plasma properties downstream. Magnetosheath asymmetries are notably important since the magnetosheath effectively modifies and reconfigures plasma before it enters the inner magnetosphere and therefore may play a role in driving asymmetries in the inner magnetosphere. We apply our existing statistical mapping tool which uses over 7 years of THEMIS and OMNI data to create statistical maps of plasma properties in the global magnetospheric system. We look at asymmetries of both steady state properties (e.g. B, V, n), and also transient/kinetic features such as mirror mode activity. We focus specifically on 1. solar wind dependence and 2. the co-dependence between the magnetosheath and magnetospheric regions.

  7. Precise discussion of time-reversal asymmetries in B-meson decays

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Morozumi, Takuya; Okane, Hideaki; Umeeda, Hiroyuki

    2015-02-26

    BaBar collaboration announced that they observed time reversal (T) asymmetry through B meson system. In the experiment, time dependencies of two distinctive processes, B_ →B¯0 and B¯0 → B_ (– expresses CP value) are compared with each other. In our study, we examine event number difference of these two processes. In contrast to the BaBar asymmetry, the asymmetry of events number includes the overall normalization difference for rates. Time dependence of the asymmetry is more general and it includes terms absent in one used by BaBar collaboration. Both of the BaBar asymmetry and ours are naively thought to be T-oddmore » since two processes compared are related with flipping time direction. We investigate the time reversal transformation property of our asymmetry. Using our notation, one can see that the asymmetry is not precisely a T-odd quantity, taking into account indirect CP and CPT violation of K meson systems. The effect of ϵK is extracted and gives rise to O(10–3) contribution. The introduced parameters are invariant under rephasing of quarks so that the coefficients of our asymmetry are expressed as phase convention independent quantities. Some combinations of the asymmetry enable us to extract parameters for wrong sign decays of Bd meson, CPT violation, etc. As a result, we also study the reason why the T-even terms are allowed to contribute to the asymmetry, and find that several conditions are needed for the asymmetry to be a T-odd quantity.« less

  8. Precise discussion of time-reversal asymmetries in B-meson decays

    SciTech Connect

    Morozumi, Takuya; Okane, Hideaki; Umeeda, Hiroyuki

    2015-02-26

    BaBar collaboration announced that they observed time reversal (T) asymmetry through B meson system. In the experiment, time dependencies of two distinctive processes, B_ →B¯0 and B¯0 → B_ (– expresses CP value) are compared with each other. In our study, we examine event number difference of these two processes. In contrast to the BaBar asymmetry, the asymmetry of events number includes the overall normalization difference for rates. Time dependence of the asymmetry is more general and it includes terms absent in one used by BaBar collaboration. Both of the BaBar asymmetry and ours are naively thought to be T-odd since two processes compared are related with flipping time direction. We investigate the time reversal transformation property of our asymmetry. Using our notation, one can see that the asymmetry is not precisely a T-odd quantity, taking into account indirect CP and CPT violation of K meson systems. The effect of ϵK is extracted and gives rise to O(10–3) contribution. The introduced parameters are invariant under rephasing of quarks so that the coefficients of our asymmetry are expressed as phase convention independent quantities. Some combinations of the asymmetry enable us to extract parameters for wrong sign decays of Bd meson, CPT violation, etc. As a result, we also study the reason why the T-even terms are allowed to contribute to the asymmetry, and find that several conditions are needed for the asymmetry to be a T-odd quantity.

  9. Intrinsic Feature Motion Tracking

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2013-03-19

    Subject motion during 3D medical scanning can cause blurring and artifacts in the 3D images resulting in either rescans or poor diagnosis. Anesthesia or physical restraints may be used to eliminate motion but are undesirable and can affect results. This software measures the six degree of freedom 3D motion of the subject during the scan under a rigidity assumption using only the intrinsic features present on the subject area being monitored. This movement over timemore » can then be used to correct the scan data removing the blur and artifacts. The software acquires images from external cameras or images stored on disk for processing. The images are from two or three calibrated cameras in a stereo arrangement. Algorithms extract and track the features over time and calculate position and orientation changes relative to an initial position. Output is the 3D position and orientation change measured at each image.« less

  10. Intrinsic Feature Motion Tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Goddard, Jr., James S.

    2013-03-19

    Subject motion during 3D medical scanning can cause blurring and artifacts in the 3D images resulting in either rescans or poor diagnosis. Anesthesia or physical restraints may be used to eliminate motion but are undesirable and can affect results. This software measures the six degree of freedom 3D motion of the subject during the scan under a rigidity assumption using only the intrinsic features present on the subject area being monitored. This movement over time can then be used to correct the scan data removing the blur and artifacts. The software acquires images from external cameras or images stored on disk for processing. The images are from two or three calibrated cameras in a stereo arrangement. Algorithms extract and track the features over time and calculate position and orientation changes relative to an initial position. Output is the 3D position and orientation change measured at each image.

  11. Intrinsically variable stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohm-Vitense, Erika; Querci, Monique

    1987-01-01

    The characteristics of intrinsically variable stars are examined, reviewing the results of observations obtained with the IUE satellite since its launch in 1978. Selected data on both medium-spectral-class pulsating stars (Delta Cep stars, W Vir stars, and related groups) and late-type variables (M, S, and C giants and supergiants) are presented in spectra, graphs, and tables and described in detail. Topics addressed include the calibration of the the period-luminosity relation, Cepheid distance determination, checking stellar evolution theory by the giant companions of Cepheids, Cepheid masses, the importance of the hydrogen convection zone in Cepheids, temperature and abundance estimates for Population II pulsating stars, mass loss in Population II Cepheids, SWP and LWP images of cold giants and supergiants, temporal variations in the UV lines of cold stars, C-rich cold stars, and cold stars with highly ionized emission lines.

  12. Hemispheric Asymmetries and Cognitive Attributes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federico, Pat-Anthony

    Visual, auditory, and bimodal event-related potentials were recorded from 50 males, and lateral asymmetry indices were derived. Eleven psychometric tests of different cognitive attributes were also administered to them. This area of research has been labeled aptitude-treatment-interaction (ATI). The emphasis of ATI research is on identification of…

  13. A Global Gait Asymmetry Index.

    PubMed

    Cabral, Silvia; Resende, Renan A; Clansey, Adam C; Deluzio, Kevin J; Selbie, W Scott; Veloso, António P

    2016-04-01

    High levels of gait asymmetry are associated with many pathologies. Our long-term goal is to improve gait symmetry through real-time biofeedback of a symmetry index. Symmetry is often reported as a single metric or a collective signature of multiple discrete measures. While this is useful for assessment, incorporating multiple feedback metrics presents too much information for most subjects to use as visual feedback for gait retraining. The aim of this article was to develop a global gait asymmetry (GGA) score that could be used as a biofeedback metric for gait retraining and to test the effectiveness of the GGA for classifying artificially-induced asymmetry. Eighteen participants (11 males; age 26.9 y [SD = 7.7]; height 1.8 m [SD = 0.1]; body mass 72.7 kg [SD = 8.9]) walked on a treadmill in 3 symmetry conditions, induced by wearing custom-made sandals: a symmetric condition (identical sandals) and 2 asymmetric conditions (different sandals). The GGA score was calculated, based on several joint angles, and compared between conditions. Significant differences were found among all conditions (P < .001), meaning that the GGA score is sensitive to different levels of asymmetry, and may be useful for rehabilitation and assessment. PMID:26502455

  14. Poloidal Asymmetries in Edge Transport Barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churchill, R. M.

    2014-10-01

    Investigations of the poloidal structure within edge transport barriers on Alcator C-Mod using novel impurity measurements are presented, revealing large poloidal variations of parameters within a flux surface in the H-mode pedestal region, and significantly reduced poloidal variation in L-mode or I-mode pedestals. These measurements provide complete sets of impurity density, temperature, flow velocity, and electrostatic potential at both the low- and high-field side midplane, utilizing the Gas Puff-CXRS technique. Uncertainties in magnetic equilibrium reconstructions require assumptions to be made in order to properly align the LFS/HFS profiles. In H-mode plasmas, if profiles are aligned assuming impurity temperature is constant on a flux surface, large potential asymmetries would result (eΔΦ /Te ~ 0 . 6). If instead total pressure is assumed constant on a flux-surface, then the measured potential asymmetry is significantly reduced, but large in-out asymmetries result in the impurity temperature (>1.7x). This shows that impurity temperature and potential can not both be flux functions in the pedestal region. In both alignment cases, large asymmetries in impurity density (>6x) are present in H-mode plasmas. In I-mode plasmas, which lack an electron density pedestal but do have a temperature pedestal, the poloidal variation of impurity temperature is weaker (~1.3x) and the impurity density nearly symmetric between the LFS and HFS. These measurements indicate that the sharp gradients in the pedestal region, particularly of main ion density, have a significant effect on the poloidal and radial distribution of impurities, which could have important implications for the prediction of impurity contamination in future fusion reactors such as ITER. Estimates of particle and heat transport timescales suggest that the radial and parallel transport timescales are of the same order in the pedestal region of C-Mod, supporting the idea that two-dimensional transport effects

  15. Single transverse spin asymmetry of forward neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopeliovich, B. Z.; Potashnikova, I. K.; Schmidt, Iván; Soffer, J.

    2011-12-01

    We calculate the single transverse spin asymmetry AN(t), for inclusive neutron production in pp collisions at forward rapidities relative to the polarized proton in the energy range of RHIC. Absorptive corrections to the pion pole generate a relative phase between the spin-flip and nonflip amplitudes, leading to a transverse spin asymmetry which is found to be far too small to explain the magnitude of AN observed in the PHENIX experiment. A larger contribution, which does not vanish at high energies, comes from the interference of pion and a1-Reggeon exchanges. The unnatural parity of a1 guarantees a substantial phase shift, although the magnitude is strongly suppressed by the smallness of diffractive πp→a1p cross section. We replace the Regge a1 pole by the Regge cut corresponding to the πρ exchange in the 1+S state. The production of such a state, which we treat as an effective pole a, forms a narrow peak in the 3π invariant mass distribution in diffractive πp interactions. The cross section is large, so one can assume that this state saturates the spectral function of the axial current and we can determine its coupling to nucleons via the partially conserved axial-vector-current constraint Goldberger-Treiman relation and the second Weinberg sum rule. The numerical results of the parameter-free calculation of AN are in excellent agreement with the PHENIX data.

  16. From symmetry to asymmetry: Phylogenetic patterns of asymmetry variation in animals and their evolutionary significance

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, A. Richard

    1996-01-01

    Phylogenetic analyses of asymmetry variation offer a powerful tool for exploring the interplay between ontogeny and evolution because (i) conspicuous asymmetries exist in many higher metazoans with widely varying modes of development, (ii) patterns of bilateral variation within species may identify genetically and environmentally triggered asymmetries, and (iii) asymmetries arising at different times during development may be more sensitive to internal cytoplasmic inhomogeneities compared to external environmental stimuli. Using four broadly comparable asymmetry states (symmetry, antisymmetry, dextral, and sinistral), and two stages at which asymmetry appears developmentally (larval and postlarval), I evaluated relations between ontogenetic and phylogenetic patterns of asymmetry variation. Among 140 inferred phylogenetic transitions between asymmetry states, recorded from 11 classes in five phyla, directional asymmetry (dextral or sinistral) evolved directly from symmetrical ancestors proportionally more frequently among larval asymmetries. In contrast, antisymmetry, either as an end state or as a transitional stage preceding directional asymmetry, was confined primarily to postlarval asymmetries. The ontogenetic origin of asymmetry thus significantly influences its subsequent evolution. Furthermore, because antisymmetry typically signals an environmentally triggered asymmetry, the phylogenetic transition from antisymmetry to directional asymmetry suggests that many cases of laterally fixed asymmetries evolved via genetic assimilation. PMID:8962039

  17. W asymmetries at CDF and D0

    SciTech Connect

    Schellman, H.

    2010-08-01

    We present recent W and charged lepton asymmetry measurements from the CDF and D0 experiments. Theoretical predictions agree with the CDF W asymmetry, measured using a new matrix element technique. These theoretical predictions are less consistent with the latest lepton asymmetry measurements from D0 and CDF, especially for high charged lepton transverse momentum.

  18. On the Origin of System III Asymmetries in the Io Torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, N. M.; Delamere, P. A.

    2006-01-01

    The Io plasma torus exhibits several intriguing asymmetries which offer insights to the processes that transport mass and energy through the system. While these asymmetries are increasingly well described observationally, most still lack physical explanations. One important asymmetry is fixed in the coordinate system corotating with Jupiter's magnetic field. Space-based and ground-based observations have shown that torus ions are hotter and more highly ionized around System III 20 deg. Our simulations show that this type of torus asymmetry can be caused by enhanced pickup of fresh ions from Io's neutral clouds near these longitudes. The enhancement is caused primarily by the tilt and offset of the torus relative to the neutral clouds. We will report on the model parameters required to match the observed asymmetries, and offer predictions which will allow a test of this hypothesis.

  19. Magnetosheath dawn-dusk asymmetries and their impact on solar wind - magnetosphere coupling processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimmock, Andrew; Pulkkinen, Tuija; Nykyri, Katariina

    2016-07-01

    Through simulated and experimental investigations it is well established that from a statistical standpoint, the majority of plasma properties in the magnetosheath are asymmetric between the dawn (quasi-parallel) and dusk (quasi-perpendicular) flanks. To investigate this, we have compiled a 5 year database comprising of THEMIS magnetosheath measurements which are adjusted for boundary motion, planetary aberration, and changes in the upstream solar wind state. We quantify numerous asymmetries, determine their dependency on solar wind parameters, and show that coupling to solar wind properties vary between different asymmetries. In addition, using a combination our statistical data and local Hall MHD simulations, we show that magnetosheath dawn-dusk asymmetries play a role in the efficiency of the Kelvin Helmholtz Instability and its associated plasma transport. We also discuss the global impact from magnetosheath asymmetries on magnetospheric plasma conditions such as asymmetries reported in the cold dense plasma sheet.

  20. Space telemetry degradation due to Manchester data asymmetry induced carrier tracking phase error

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Tien M.

    1991-01-01

    The deleterious effects that the Manchester (or Bi-phi) data asymmetry has on the performance of phase-modulated residual carrier communication systems are analyzed. Expressions for the power spectral density of an asymmetric Manchester data stream, the interference-to-carrier signal power ratio (I/C), and the error probability performance are derived. Since data asymmetry can cause undesired spectral components at the carrier frequency, the I/C ratio is given as a function of both the data asymmetry and the telemetry modulation index. Also presented are the data asymmetry and asymmetry-induced carrier tracking loop and the system bit-error rate to various parameters of the models.

  1. The Intrinsic Connectome of the Rat Amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Oliver; Eipert, Peter; Philipp, Konstanze; Kettlitz, Richard; Fuellen, Georg; Wree, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The connectomes of nervous systems or parts there of are becoming important subjects of study as the amount of connectivity data increases. Because most tract-tracing studies are performed on the rat, we conducted a comprehensive analysis of the amygdala connectome of this species resulting in a meta-study. The data were imported into the neuroVIISAS system, where regions of the connectome are organized in a controlled ontology and network analysis can be performed. A weighted digraph represents the bilateral intrinsic (connections of regions of the amygdala) and extrinsic (connections of regions of the amygdala to non-amygdaloid regions) connectome of the amygdala. Its structure as well as its local and global network parameters depend on the arrangement of neuronal entities in the ontology. The intrinsic amygdala connectome is a small-world and scale-free network. The anterior cortical nucleus (72 in- and out-going edges), the posterior nucleus (45), and the anterior basomedial nucleus (44) are the nuclear regions that posses most in- and outdegrees. The posterior nucleus turns out to be the most important nucleus of the intrinsic amygdala network since its Shapley rate is minimal. Within the intrinsic amygdala, regions were determined that are essential for network integrity. These regions are important for behavioral (processing of emotions and motivation) and functional (memory) performances of the amygdala as reported in other studies. PMID:23248583

  2. Intrinsically irreversible heat engine

    DOEpatents

    Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

    1984-12-25

    A class of heat engines based on an intrinsically irreversible heat transfer process is disclosed. In a typical embodiment the engine comprises a compressible fluid that is cyclically compressed and expanded while at the same time being driven in reciprocal motion by a positive displacement drive means. A second thermodynamic medium is maintained in imperfect thermal contact with the fluid and bears a broken thermodynamic symmetry with respect to the fluid. The second thermodynamic medium is a structure adapted to have a low fluid flow impedance with respect to the compressible fluid, and which is further adapted to be in only moderate thermal contact with the fluid. In operation, thermal energy is pumped along the second medium due to a phase lag between the cyclical heating and cooling of the fluid and the resulting heat conduction between the fluid and the medium. In a preferred embodiment the engine comprises an acoustical drive and a housing containing a gas which is driven at a resonant frequency so as to be maintained in a standing wave. Operation of the engine at acoustic frequencies improves the power density and coefficient of performance. The second thermodynamic medium can be coupled to suitable heat exchangers to utilize the engine as a simple refrigeration device having no mechanical moving parts. Alternatively, the engine is reversible in function so as to be utilizable as a prime mover by coupling it to suitable sources and sinks of heat. 11 figs.

  3. Intrinsically irreversible heat engine

    DOEpatents

    Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

    1984-01-01

    A class of heat engines based on an intrinsically irreversible heat transfer process is disclosed. In a typical embodiment the engine comprises a compressible fluid that is cyclically compressed and expanded while at the same time being driven in reciprocal motion by a positive displacement drive means. A second thermodynamic medium is maintained in imperfect thermal contact with the fluid and bears a broken thermodynamic symmetry with respect to the fluid. The second thermodynamic medium is a structure adapted to have a low fluid flow impedance with respect to the compressible fluid, and which is further adapted to be in only moderate thermal contact with the fluid. In operation, thermal energy is pumped along the second medium due to a phase lag between the cyclical heating and cooling of the fluid and the resulting heat conduction between the fluid and the medium. In a preferred embodiment the engine comprises an acoustical drive and a housing containing a gas which is driven at a resonant frequency so as to be maintained in a standing wave. Operation of the engine at acoustic frequencies improves the power density and coefficient of performance. The second thermodynamic medium can be coupled to suitable heat exchangers to utilize the engine as a simple refrigeration device having no mechanical moving parts. Alternatively, the engine is reversible in function so as to be utilizable as a prime mover by coupling it to suitable sources and sinks of heat.

  4. Intrinsically irreversible heat engine

    DOEpatents

    Wheatley, John C.; Swift, Gregory W.; Migliori, Albert

    1984-01-01

    A class of heat engines based on an intrinsically irreversible heat transfer process is disclosed. In a typical embodiment the engine comprises a compressible fluid that is cyclically compressed and expanded while at the same time being driven in reciprocal motion by a positive displacement drive means. A second thermodynamic medium is maintained in imperfect thermal contact with the fluid and bears a broken thermodynamic symmetry with respect to the fluid. the second thermodynamic medium is a structure adapted to have a low fluid flow impedance with respect to the compressible fluid, and which is further adapted to be in only moderate thermal contact with the fluid. In operation, thermal energy is pumped along the second medium due to a phase lag between the cyclical heating and cooling of the fluid and the resulting heat conduction between the fluid and the medium. In a preferred embodiment the engine comprises an acoustical drive and a housing containing a gas which is driven at a resonant frequency so as to be maintained in a standing wave. Operation of the engine at acoustic frequencies improves the power density and coefficient of performance. The second thermodynamic medium can be coupled to suitable heat exchangers to utilize the engine as a simple refrigeration device having no mechanical moving parts. Alternatively, the engine is reversible in function so as to be utilizable as a prime mover by coupling it to suitable sources and sinks of heat.

  5. Geometric asymmetry driven Janus micromotors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Guanjia; Pumera, Martin

    2014-09-01

    The production and application of nano-/micromotors is of great importance. In order for the motors to work, asymmetry in their chemical composition or physical geometry must be present if no external asymmetric field is applied. In this paper, we present a ``coconut'' micromotor made of platinum through the partial or complete etching of the silica templates. It was shown that although both the inner and outer surfaces are made of the same material (Pt), motion of the structure can be observed as the convex surface is capable of generating oxygen bubbles. This finding shows that not only the chemical asymmetry of the micromotor, but also its geometric asymmetry can lead to fast propulsion of the motor. Moreover, a considerably higher velocity can be seen for partially etched coconut structures than the velocities of Janus or fully etched, shell-like motors. These findings will have great importance on the design of future micromotors.The production and application of nano-/micromotors is of great importance. In order for the motors to work, asymmetry in their chemical composition or physical geometry must be present if no external asymmetric field is applied. In this paper, we present a ``coconut'' micromotor made of platinum through the partial or complete etching of the silica templates. It was shown that although both the inner and outer surfaces are made of the same material (Pt), motion of the structure can be observed as the convex surface is capable of generating oxygen bubbles. This finding shows that not only the chemical asymmetry of the micromotor, but also its geometric asymmetry can lead to fast propulsion of the motor. Moreover, a considerably higher velocity can be seen for partially etched coconut structures than the velocities of Janus or fully etched, shell-like motors. These findings will have great importance on the design of future micromotors. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional SEM images, data analysis, Videos S

  6. Z Boson Asymmetry Measurements at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, B.

    2014-01-01

    We present measurements of the forward-backward asymmetry (A_fb) in dilepton pair decays of Z bosons produced in ppbar collisions using the full Tevatron dataset. The CDF experiment extracts a value for the effective weak mixing angle parameter sin^{2}\\theta^{l}_{eff} of 0.2315 +/- 0.0010 from the A_fb distribution of dimuon events in 9.2 fb^{-1} of integrated luminosity. From dielectron events in 9.7 fb^{-1} of data, the D0 experiment finds sin^{2}\\theta^{l}_{eff} = 0.23106 +/- 0.00053, the world's most precise measurement of sin^{2}\\theta^{l}_{eff} from hadron colliders and with light quark couplings.

  7. Single Spin Asymmetry in Charmonium Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godbole, Rohini M.; Kaushik, Abhiram; Misra, Anuradha; Rawoot, Vaibhav

    2015-09-01

    We present estimates of single spin asymmetry (SSA) in the electroproduction of taking into account the transverse momentum dependent (TMD) evolution of the gluon Sivers function and using Color Evaporation Model of charmonium production. We estimate SSA for JLab, HERMES, COMPASS and eRHIC energies using recent parameters for the quark Sivers functions which are fitted using an evolution kernel in which the perturbative part is resummed up to next-to-leading logarithms accuracy. We find that these SSAs are much smaller as compared to our first estimates obtained using DGLAP evolution but are comparable to our estimates obtained using TMD evolution where we had used approximate analytical solution of the TMD evolution equation for the purpose.

  8. Measurement of the parity-violation parameters {ital A}{sub {ital b}} and {ital A}{sub {ital c}} from the left-right forward-backward asymmetry of leptons in hadronic events at the {ital Z}{sup 0} resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, K.; Abt, I.; Ahn, C.J.; Akagi, T.; Ash, W.W.; Aston, D.; Bacchetta, N.; Baird, K.G.; Baltay, C.; Band, H.R.; Barakat, M.B.; Baranko, G.; Bardon, O.; Barklow, T.; Bazarko, A.O.; Ben-David, R.; Benvenuti, A.C.; Bienz, T.; Bilei, G.M.; Bisello, D.; Blaylock, G.; Bogart, J.R.; Bolton, T.; Bower, G.R.; Brau, J.E.; Breidenbach, M.; Bugg, W.M.; Burke, D.; Burnett, T.H.; Burrows, P.N.; Busza, W.; Calcaterra, A.; Caldwell, D.O.; Calloway, D.; Camanzi, B.; Carpinelli, M.; Cassell, R.; Castaldi, R.; Castro, A.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Church, E.; Cohn, H.O.; Coller, J.A.; Cook, V.; Cotton, R.; Cowan, R.F.; Coyne, D.G.; D`Oliveira, A.; Damerell, C.J.S.; Dasu, S.; De Sangro, R.; De Simone, P.; Dell`Orso, R.; Dima, M.; Du, P.Y.C.; Dubois, R.; Eisenstein, B.I.; Elia, R.; Falciai, D.; Fan, C.; Fero, M.J.; Frey, R.; Furuno, K.; Gillman, T.; Gladding, G.; Gonzalez, S.; Hallewell, G.D.; Hart, E.L.; Hasegawa, Y.; Hedges, S.; Hertzbach, S.S.; Hildreth, M.D.; Huber, J.; Huffer, M.E.; Hughes, E.W.; Hwang, H.; Iwasaki, Y.; Jacques, P.; Jaros, J.; Johnson, A.S.; Johnson, J.R.; Johnson, R.A.; Junk, T.; Kajikawa, R.; Kalelkar, M.; Karliner, I.; Kawahara, H.; Kendall, H.W.; Kim, Y.; King, M.E.; King, R.; Kofler, R.R.; Krishna, N.M.; Kroeger, R.S.; Labs, J.F.; Langston, M.; Lath, A.; Lauber, J.A.; Leith, D.W.G.; Liu, X.; Loreti, M.; Lu, A.; Lynch, H.L.; Ma, J.; Mancinelli, G.; Manly, S.; Mantovani, G.; Markiewicz, T.W.; Maruyama, T.; Massetti, R.; Masuda, H.; Mazzucato, E.; McKemey, A.K.; Meadows, B.T.; Messner, R.; Mockett, P.M.; Moffeit, K.C.; Mours, B.; Mueller, G.; Muller, D.; Nagamine, T.; Nauenberg, U.; Neal, H.; Nussbaum, M.; Ohnishi, Y.; Osborne, L.S.; Panvini, R.S.; Park, H.; Pavel, T.J.; Peruzzi, I.; Pescara, L.; Piccolo, M.; Piemontese, L.; Pieroni, E.; Pitts, K.T.; Plano, R.J.; Prepost, R.; Prescott, C.Y.; Punkar, G.D.; Quigley, J.; Ratcliff, B.N.; Reeves, T.W.; Rensing, P.E.; Rochester, L.S.; Rothberg, J.E.; Rowson, P.C.; Russell, J.J.; Saxton, O.H.; Schalk, T.; (SLD Collaborat...

    1995-04-10

    The parity-violating parameters {ital A}{sub {ital b}} and {ital A}{sub {ital c}} are directly measured by the SLD experiment at the SLAC Linear Collider in {ital e}{sup +}{ital e}{sup {minus}} collisions with polarized electrons at the {ital Z}{sup 0} resonance. Leptons with distinctive total and transverse momenta are used to select and analyze {ital Z}{sup 0}{r_arrow}{ital bc}{ovr bar} events. {ital A}{sub {ital b}} and {ital A}{sub {ital c}} are extracted by forming the left-right forward-backward asymmetry in electron beam polarization and quark polar angle. From our 1993 sample of 1.8 pb{sup --1} of {ital Z}{sup 0} decay data with an average electron beam polarization of 63% we find {ital A}{sub {ital b}}=0.91{plus_minus}0.14 (stat) {plus_minus}0.07 (syst) and {ital A}{sub {ital c}}=0.37{plus_minus}0.23 (stat) {plus_minus}0.21 (syst).

  9. Intrinsic Angular Momentum of Light.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santarelli, Vincent

    1979-01-01

    Derives a familiar torque-angular momentum theorem for the electromagnetic field, and includes the intrinsic torques exerted by the fields on the polarized medium. This inclusion leads to the expressions for the intrinsic angular momentum carried by the radiation traveling through a charge-free medium. (Author/MA)

  10. Motor Asymmetry in Elite Fencers

    PubMed Central

    Akpinar, Selcuk; Sainburg, Robert L.; Kirazci, Sadettin; Przybyla, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    We previously reported that asymmetrical patterns of hand preference are updated and modified by current sensorimotor conditions. We now examine whether participation in long-term training in the upper extremity sport fencing might modify arm selection and performance asymmetries. Eight fencers and eight non-fencers performed reaching movements under three experimental conditions: (1) non-choice right; (2) non-choice left; and (3) choice, either right or left arm as selected by subject. The non-choice conditions allowed assessment of potential interlimb differences in movement performance, while the choice condition allowed assessment of the frequency and pattern of arm selection across subject groups. Our findings showed that the athlete groups showed substantially greater symmetry in both our performance and selection measures. These findings suggest that arm selection and performance asymmetries can be altered by intense long-term practice. PMID:25494618

  11. Trapped Electron Mode Turbulence Driven Intrinsic Rotation in Tokamak Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, W. X.; Hahm, T. S.; Ethier, S.; Zakharov, L. E.

    2011-02-07

    Recent progress from global gyrokinetic simulations in understanding the origin of intrinsic rotation in toroidal plasmas is reported with emphasis on electron thermal transport dominated regimes. The turbulence driven intrinsic torque associated with nonlinear residual stress generation by the fluctuation intensity and the intensity gradient in the presence of zonal flow shear induced asymmetry in the parallel wavenumber spectrum is shown to scale close to linearly with plasma gradients and the inverse of the plasma current. These results qualitatively reproduce empirical scalings of intrinsic rotation observed in various experiments. The origin of current scaling is found to be due to enhanced kll symmetry breaking induced by the increased radial variation of the safety factor as the current decreases. The physics origin for the linear dependence of intrinsic torque on pressure gradient is that both turbulence intensity and the zonal flow shear, which are two key ingredients for driving residual stress, increase with the strength of turbulence drive, which is R0/LTe and R0/Lne for the trapped electron mode. __________________________________________________

  12. CP violation, single lepton polarization asymmetry, and polarized CP asymmetry in B{yields}K{sup *}l{sup +}l{sup -} decay in the four-generation standard model

    SciTech Connect

    Bashiry, V.; Shirkhanghah, N.; Zeynali, K.

    2009-07-01

    In this paper we present a study of CP asymmetry, single lepton polarization asymmetry and polarized CP asymmetry in B{yields}K*l{sup +}l{sup -} decay within the four-generation standard model. Taking |V{sub t{sup '}}{sub s}*V{sub t{sup '}}{sub b}|=0.01, 0.02, 0.03 with phase {l_brace}60 deg. -120 deg.{r_brace}, which is consistent with the b{yields}sl{sup +}l{sup -} rate and the Bs mixing parameter {delta}m{sub Bs}, we find that CP asymmetry, single lepton polarization asymmetry and polarized CP asymmetry are sensitive to the existence of the fourth generation. This can serve as an indirect method to search for new physics effects, in particular, to search for the fourth-generation quarks(t{sup '},b{sup '}) via their indirect manifestations in loop diagrams.

  13. Cardiolipin asymmetry, oxidation and signaling

    PubMed Central

    Kagan, Valerian E.; Chu, Charleen T.; Tyurina, Yulia Y.; Cheikhi, Amin; Bayir, Hülya

    2014-01-01

    Cardiolipins (CLs) are ancient and unusual dimeric phospholipids localized in the plasma membrane of bacteria and in the inner mitochondrial membrane of eukaryotes. In mitochondria, two types of asymmetries – trans-membrane and molecular - are essential determinants of CL functions. In this review, we describe CL-based signaling mitochondrial pathways realized via modulation of trans-membrane asymmetry and leading to externalization and peroxidation of CLs in mitophagy and apoptosis, respectively. We discuss possible mechanisms of CL translocations from the inner leaflet of the inner to the outer leaflet of the outer mitochondrial membranes. We present redox reaction mechanisms of cytochrome c-catalyzed CL peroxidation as a required stage in the execution of apoptosis as well as a possible source of lipid mediators. We also emphasize the significance of CL-related metabolic pathways as new targets for drug discovery. Finally, a remarkable diversity of polyunsaturated CL species and their oxidation products have evolved in eukaryotes vs. prokaryotes. This diversity - associated with CL molecular asymmetry - is presented as the basis for mitochondrial communications language. PMID:24300280

  14. Using Brownian motion to measure shape asymmetry in mesoscopic matter using optical tweezers.

    PubMed

    Roy, Basudev; Mondal, Argha; Bera, Sudipta K; Banerjee, Ayan

    2016-06-21

    We propose a new method for quantifying shape asymmetry on the mesoscopic scale. The method takes advantage of the intrinsic coupling between rotational and translational Brownian motion (RBM and TBM, respectively) which happens in the case of asymmetric particles. We determine the coupling by measuring different correlation functions of the RBM and TBM for single, morphologically different, weakly trapped red blood cells in optical tweezers. The cells have different degrees of asymmetry that are controllably produced by varying the hypertonicity of their aqueous environment. We demonstrate a clear difference in the nature of the correlation functions both qualitatively and quantitatively for three types of cells having a varying degree of asymmetry. This method can have a variety of applications ranging from early stage disease diagnosis to quality control in microfabrication. PMID:27198612

  15. PHOTOELECTRON AND AUGER ELECTRON ASYMMETRIES: ALIGNMENT OF Xe{sup +}({sup 2}D{sub 5/2}) BY PHOTOIONIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Southworth, S. H.; Kobrin, P. H.; Truesdale, C. M.; Lindle, D.; Owaki, S.; Shirley, D. A.

    1980-12-01

    Angular distributions of photoelectrons from the Xe 4d subshell, and N{sub 4,5}oo Auger electrons, have been measured using synchrotron radiation. The 4d asymmetry parameter exhibits strong oscillations with energy, in agreement with several theoretical calculations. The Auger electrons show large asymmetries due to alignment of Xe{sup +} by photoionization.

  16. A Robust Quantification of Galaxy Cluster Morphology Using Asymmetry and Central Concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurgaliev, D.; McDonald, M.; Benson, B. A.; Miller, E. D.; Stubbs, C. W.; Vikhlinin, A.

    2013-12-01

    We present a novel quantitative scheme of cluster classification based on the morphological properties that are manifested in X-ray images. We use a conventional radial surface brightness concentration parameter (c SB) as defined previously by others and a new asymmetry parameter, which we define in this paper. Our asymmetry parameter, which we refer to as photon asymmetry (A phot), was developed as a robust substructure statistic for cluster observations with only a few thousand counts. To demonstrate that photon asymmetry exhibits better stability than currently popular power ratios and centroid shifts, we artificially degrade the X-ray image quality by (1) adding extra background counts, (2) eliminating a fraction of the counts, (3) increasing the width of the smoothing kernel, and (4) simulating cluster observations at higher redshift. The asymmetry statistic presented here has a smaller statistical uncertainty than competing substructure parameters, allowing for low levels of substructure to be measured with confidence. A phot is less sensitive to the total number of counts than competing substructure statistics, making it an ideal candidate for quantifying substructure in samples of distant clusters covering a wide range of observational signal-to-noise ratios. Additionally, we show that the asymmetry-concentration classification separates relaxed, cool-core clusters from morphologically disturbed mergers, in agreement with by-eye classifications. Our algorithms, freely available as Python scripts (https://github.com/ndaniyar/aphot), are completely automatic and can be used to rapidly classify galaxy cluster morphology for large numbers of clusters without human intervention.

  17. Parameterization of asymmetry in magnetoacoustic emission by numerical processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birt, E. A.; Yost, W. T.; Denale, R.; Grainger, J. L.

    Two methods for processing the digitized waveform data obtained from magnetoacoustic emission measurements on a high-strength steel are investigated. Two different techniques to obtain an asymmetry parameter are presented. It is shown that the variation in this asymmetry parameter from five embrittled samples and one unembrittled steel sample can be related to the impact toughness and is not dependent on the magnetic field strength. This technique is nondestructive and is shown to determine the normalized impact toughness of a high-strength steel to better than 14 percent in the decade of interest. A comparison of a magnetoacoustic emission burst and pickup coil output from an unembrittled steel sample and an embrittled sample is illustrated.

  18. Lean Mass Asymmetry Influences Force and Power Asymmetry During Jumping in Collegiate Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Bell, David R.; Sanfilippo, Jennifer L.; Binkley, Neil; Heiderscheit, Bryan C.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to: (1) examine how asymmetry in lower extremity lean mass influenced force and power asymmetry during jumping, (2) determine how power and force asymmetry affected jump height, and (3) report normative values in collegiate athletes. Force and power were assessed from each limb using bilateral force plates during a countermovement jump in 167 Division 1 athletes (mass=85.7±20.3kg, age=20.0±1.2years, 103M/64F). Lean mass of the pelvis, thigh, and shank was assessed via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Percent asymmetry was calculated for lean mass at each region (pelvis, thigh, and shank) as well as force and power. Forward stepwise regressions were performed to determine the influence of lean mass asymmetry on force and power asymmetry. Thigh and shank lean mass asymmetry explained 20% of the variance in force asymmetry (R2=0.20, P<0.001), while lean mass asymmetry of the pelvis, thigh and shank explained 25% of the variance in power asymmetry (R2=0.25, P<0.001). Jump height was compared across level of force and power asymmetry (P>0.05) and greater than 10% asymmetry in power tended to decrease performance (effect size>1.0). Ninety-five percent of this population (2.5th to 97.5th percentile) displayed force asymmetry between −11.8 to 16.8% and a power asymmetry between −9.9 to 11.5%. A small percentage (<4%) of these athletes displayed more than 15% asymmetry between limbs. These results demonstrate that lean mass asymmetry in the lower extremity is at least partially responsible for asymmetries in force and power. However, a large percentage remains unexplained by lean mass asymmetry. PMID:24402449

  19. A halo model for intrinsic alignments of galaxy ellipticities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Michael D.; Bridle, Sarah

    2010-03-01

    Correlations between intrinsic ellipticities of galaxies are a potentially important systematic error when constraining dark energy properties from weak gravitational lensing (cosmic shear) surveys. In the absence of perfectly known galaxy redshifts, some modelling of the galaxy intrinsic alignments is likely to be required to extract the lensing signal to sufficient accuracy. We present a new model based on the placement of galaxies into dark matter haloes. The central galaxy ellipticity follows the large-scale potential and, in the simplest case, the satellite galaxies point at the halo centre. The two-halo term is then dominated by the linear-alignment model and the one-halo term provides a motivated extension of intrinsic alignment models to small scales. We provide fitting formulae for the spatial projected source power spectra for both intrinsic-intrinsic (II) and gravitational-intrinsic (GI) correlations. We illustrate the potential impact of ignoring intrinsic alignments on cosmological parameter constraints from non-tomographic surveys, finding that σ8 could be underestimated by up to the size of the current 1σ error bar from cosmic shear if very small scales are included in the analysis. Finally, we highlight areas of interest for numerical simulations of dark matter clustering and galaxy formation that can further constrain the intrinsic alignment signal.

  20. $\\bar d - \\bar u$ asymmetry in the proton in chiral effective theory

    SciTech Connect

    Salamu, Yusupujiang; Ji, Chueng -Ryong; Melnitchouk, W.; Wang, P.

    2015-03-25

    We compute the $\\bar d - \\bar u$ asymmetry in the proton in chiral effective theory, including both nucleon and Δ degrees of freedom, within both relativistic and heavy baryon frameworks. In addition to the distribution at $x>0$, we estimate the correction to the integrated asymmetry arising from zero momentum contributions from pion rainbow and bubble diagrams at $x=0$, which have not been accounted for in previous analyses. In conclusion, we find that the empirical $x$ dependence of $\\bar d - \\bar u$ as well as the integrated asymmetry can be well reproduced in terms of a transverse momentum cutoff parameter.

  1. Fluctuating asymmetry and testing isolation of Montana grizzly bear populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Picton, Harold D.; Palmisciano, D.A.; Nelson, Gerald

    1990-01-01

    Fluctuating asymmetry of adult skulls was used to test he genetic isolation of the Yellowstone grizzly bear population from its nearest neighbor. An overall summary statistic was used in addition to 16 other parameters. Tests found the males of the Yellowstone populaion to be more vaiable than those of the North Conitinental Divide Exosystem. Evidence for precipitaiton effects is also included. This test tends to support the existing management haypothesis that the Yellowstone population is isolatied.

  2. Fully Differential Monte-Carlo Generator Dedicated to TMDs and Bessel-Weighted Asymmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Aghasyan, Mher M.; Avakian, Harut A.

    2013-10-01

    We present studies of double longitudinal spin asymmetries in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering using a new dedicated Monte Carlo generator, which includes quark intrinsic transverse momentum within the generalized parton model based on the fully differential cross section for the process. Additionally, we apply Bessel-weighting to the simulated events to extract transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions and also discuss possible uncertainties due to kinematic correlation effects.

  3. Intrinsic Negative Mass from Nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Mei, F.; Caramazza, P.; Pierangeli, D.; Di Domenico, G.; Ilan, H.; Agranat, A. J.; Di Porto, P.; DelRe, E.

    2016-04-01

    We propose and provide experimental evidence of a mechanism able to support negative intrinsic effective mass. The idea is to use a shape-sensitive nonlinearity to change the sign of the mass in the leading linear propagation equation. Intrinsic negative-mass dynamics is reported for light beams in a ferroelectric crystal substrate, where the diffusive photorefractive nonlinearity leads to a negative-mass Schrödinger equation. The signature of inverted dynamics is the observation of beams repelled from strongly guiding integrated waveguides irrespective of wavelength and intensity and suggests shape-sensitive nonlinearity as a basic mechanism leading to intrinsic negative mass.

  4. Time-Dependent CP Asymmetries in b {yields} s Penguins

    SciTech Connect

    Miyake, H.

    2006-07-11

    We present measurements of time-dependent CP asymmetry parameters in B{sup 0} {yields} {phi}(1020)K{sup 0}, {eta}'K{sup 0}, K{sub S}{sup 0}K{sub S}{sup 0}K{sub S}{sup 0} K{sub S}{sup 0}, K{sub S}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}, f{sub 0}(980)K{sub S}{sup 0}, {omega}(782)K{sub S}{sup 0} and K{sup +}K{sup -}K{sub S}{sup 0} decays based on a sample of 386 x 106BB(bar sign) pairs collected at the {upsilon}(4S) resonance with the Belle detector at the KEKB energy asymmetric e+e- collider. These decays are dominated by the b {yields} s gluonic penguin transition and are sensitive to new CP-violating phases from physics beyond the standard model. One neutral meson is fully reconstructed in one of the specified decay channels, and the flavor of the accompanying B meson is identified from its decay products. CP-violation parameters are obtained from the asymmetries in the distributions of the proper-time intervals between the two B decays. We also perform measurement of time-dependent CP asymmetry parameters in B{sup 0} {yields} K{sub S}{sup 0}{gamma} decay that is dominated by the b {yields} s radiative penguin.

  5. Azimuthal asymmetries at CLAS: Extraction of ea(x) and prediction of AUL

    SciTech Connect

    A. V. Efremov; K. Goeke; P. Schweitzer

    2002-08-01

    First information on the chirally odd twist-3 proton distribution function e(x) is extracted from the azimuthal asymmetry, A{sub LU}, in the electro-production of pions from deeply inelastic scattering of longitudinally polarized electrons off unpolarized protons, which has been recently measured by CLAS collaboration. Furthermore parameter-free predictions are made for azimuthal asymmetries, A{sub UL}, from scattering of an unpolarized beam on a polarized proton target for CLAS kinematics.

  6. Dentofacial Asymmetries: Challenging Diagnosis and Treatment Planning

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Manish; Agrawal, Jiwan Asha; Nanjannawar, Lalita; Fulari, Sangamesh; Kagi, Vishwal

    2015-01-01

    Dentofacial asymmetry is quite common and when sufficiently severe can require surgical orthodontic intervention. Asymmetries can be classified according to the structures involved into skeletal, dental and functional. In diagnosing asymmetries, a thorough clinical examination and radiographic survey are essential to determine the extent of soft tissue, skeletal, dental and functional involvement. Dental asymmetries, as well as a variety of functional deviations, can be managed orthodontically, whereas significant structural facial asymmetries require a comprehensive orthodontic and orthognathic management. With less severe dental, skeletal and soft tissue deviations the advisability of treatment should be carefully considered. The following article also contains a case report highlighting the importance of proper diagnosis in treatment plan for management of dentofacial asymmetry. PMID:26229387

  7. Dentofacial Asymmetries: Challenging Diagnosis and Treatment Planning.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Manish; Agrawal, Jiwan Asha; Nanjannawar, Lalita; Fulari, Sangamesh; Kagi, Vishwal

    2015-07-01

    Dentofacial asymmetry is quite common and when sufficiently severe can require surgical orthodontic intervention. Asymmetries can be classified according to the structures involved into skeletal, dental and functional. In diagnosing asymmetries, a thorough clinical examination and radiographic survey are essential to determine the extent of soft tissue, skeletal, dental and functional involvement. Dental asymmetries, as well as a variety of functional deviations, can be managed orthodontically, whereas significant structural facial asymmetries require a comprehensive orthodontic and orthognathic management. With less severe dental, skeletal and soft tissue deviations the advisability of treatment should be carefully considered. The following article also contains a case report highlighting the importance of proper diagnosis in treatment plan for management of dentofacial asymmetry. PMID:26229387

  8. Intrinsically disordered proteins and biomineralization.

    PubMed

    Boskey, Adele L; Villarreal-Ramirez, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    In vertebrates and invertebrates, biomineralization is controlled by the cell and the proteins they produce. A large number of these proteins are intrinsically disordered, gaining some secondary structure when they interact with their binding partners. These partners include the component ions of the mineral being deposited, the crystals themselves, the template on which the initial crystals form, and other intrinsically disordered proteins and peptides. This review speculates why intrinsically disordered proteins are so important for biomineralization, providing illustrations from the SIBLING (small integrin binding N-glycosylated) proteins and their peptides. It is concluded that the flexible structure, and the ability of the intrinsically disordered proteins to bind to a multitude of surfaces is crucial, but details on the precise-interactions, energetics and kinetics of binding remain to be determined. PMID:26807759

  9. WIMP abundance and lepton (flavour) asymmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Stuke, Maik; Schwarz, Dominik J.; Starkman, Glenn E-mail: dschwarz@physik.uni-bielefeld.de

    2012-03-01

    We investigate how large lepton asymmetries affect the evolution of the early universe at times before big bang nucleosynthesis and in particular how they influence the relic density of WIMP dark matter. In comparison to the standard calculation of the relic WIMP abundance we find a decrease, depending on the lepton flavour asymmetry. We find an effect of up to 20 per cent for lepton flavour asymmetries l{sub f} = O(0.1)

  10. Smallness of baryon asymmetry from split supersymmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Kasuya, Shinta; Takahashi, Fuminobu

    2005-06-15

    The smallness of the baryon asymmetry in our universe is one of the greatest mysteries and may originate from some profound physics beyond the standard model. We investigate the Affleck-Dine baryogenesis in split supersymmetry, and find that the smallness of the baryon asymmetry is directly related to the hierarchy between the supersymmetry breaking squark/slepton masses and the weak scale. Put simply, the baryon asymmetry is small because of the split mass spectrum.

  11. Gravitational asymmetries in gaseous disks.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junqueira, S.; Combes, F.

    1997-12-01

    The authors report preliminary results of self-gravitating simulations of spiral galaxies modeled by two components, stellar and gaseous disks. One of the objectives of this work is to study asymmetries in the distribution of the gas, features observed for a number of spiral galaxies. The gas disk is simulated by the Beam-Scheme method, where the gas is considered as a fluid. The results suggest that very concentrated galactic disks can be unstable to the one-armed (m = 1) spiral perturbation, which may explain the asymmetric patterns observed in isolated galaxies.

  12. UV Observations of Hemispheric Asymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, R. K.; Paxton, L. J.; Wolven, B. C.; Zhang, Y.; Romeo, G.

    2015-12-01

    Asymmetry in the auroral patterns can be an important diagnostic for understanding the dynamics of solar wind interaction with the magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere system (e.g., Newel and Meng, 1998; Fillingrim et al., 2005). Molecular nitrogen emission in the UV Lyman-Birge-Hopfield bands can be used to determine energy flux and electron mean energy (Sotirelis, et al, 2013) and thereby Hall and Pederson integrated conductances (Gjerloev, et al., 2014). UV imagery provided by the 4 SSUSI instruments on the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) F16-F19 spacecraft provide two dimensional maps of this emission at different local times. Often there are near simultaneous observations of both poles by some combination of the satellites. (see figure 1) The SSUSI auroral data products are well suited to this study, as they have the following features.: - dayglow has been subtracted on dayside aurora - electron energy flux and mean energy are pre-calculated - individual arcs have been identified through image processing. In order to intercompare data from multiple satellites, we must first ensure that the instrument calibrations are consistent. In this work we show that the instruments are consistently calibrated, and that results generated from the SSUSI data products can be trusted. Several examples of storm time asymmetries captured by the SSUSI instruments will be discussed. Fillingim, M. O., G. K. Parks, H. U. Frey, T. J. Immel, and S. B. Mende (2005), Hemispheric asymmetry of the afternoon electron aurora, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L03113, doi:10.1029/2004GL021635. Gjerloev, J., Schaefer, R., Paxton, L, and Zhang, Y. (2014), A comprehensive empirical model of the ionospheric conductivity derived from SSUSI/GUVI, SuperMAG and SuperDARN data, SM51G-4339, Fall 2014 AGU meeting, San Francisco. Newell, P. T., and C.-I. Meng (1988), Hemispherical asymmetry in cusp precipitation near solstices, J. Geophys. Res., 93(A4), 2643-2648, doi:10.1029/JA093iA04p02643

  13. Jet vectoring through nozzle asymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roh, Chris; Rosakis, Alexandros; Gharib, Morteza

    2015-11-01

    Previously, we explored the functionality of a tri-leaflet anal valve of a dragonfly larva. We saw that the dragonfly larva is capable of controlling the three leaflets independently to asymmetrically open the nozzle. Such control resulted in vectoring of the jet in various directions. To further understand the effect of asymmetric nozzle orifice, we tested jet flow through circular asymmetric nozzles. We report the relationship between nozzle asymmetry and redirecting of the jet at various Reynolds numbers. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. CBET-1511414; additional support by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE-1144469.

  14. Quantum speed limits, coherence, and asymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marvian, Iman; Spekkens, Robert W.; Zanardi, Paolo

    2016-05-01

    The resource theory of asymmetry is a framework for classifying and quantifying the symmetry-breaking properties of both states and operations relative to a given symmetry. In the special case where the symmetry is the set of translations generated by a fixed observable, asymmetry can be interpreted as coherence relative to the observable eigenbasis, and the resource theory of asymmetry provides a framework to study this notion of coherence. We here show that this notion of coherence naturally arises in the context of quantum speed limits. Indeed, the very concept of speed of evolution, i.e., the inverse of the minimum time it takes the system to evolve to another (partially) distinguishable state, is a measure of asymmetry relative to the time translations generated by the system Hamiltonian. Furthermore, the celebrated Mandelstam-Tamm and Margolus-Levitin speed limits can be interpreted as upper bounds on this measure of asymmetry by functions which are themselves measures of asymmetry in the special case of pure states. Using measures of asymmetry that are not restricted to pure states, such as the Wigner-Yanase skew information, we obtain extensions of the Mandelstam-Tamm bound which are significantly tighter in the case of mixed states. We also clarify some confusions in the literature about coherence and asymmetry, and show that measures of coherence are a proper subset of measures of asymmetry.

  15. Dimensional and discrete dental trait asymmetry relationships.

    PubMed

    Mayhall, J T; Saunders, S R

    1986-03-01

    Inuit (Eskimos) from the Foxe Basin region of the Northwest Territories, Canada, were studied to ascertain the amount of dimensional and morphological asymmetry in their dentitions. The results indicate that dimensional asymmetry does not appear to be greater on either the maxillary or mandibular teeth. Both types of asymmetry show partial conformity to the model of tooth fields with an increasing amount of asymmetry as one goes distally in each tooth group. The morphological asymmetry exception, the mandibular incisors, follows Dahlberg's "Field Concept." Rank-order correlations between the amount of dimensional asymmetry and morphological asymmetry reveal no detectable patterns. There appear to be no associations between the presence or absence of morphological asymmetry and the size of the tooth. This lack of association might be explained by differences in developmental timing of tooth dimensions and morphological traits; however, such a hypothesis requires experimental testing. In this population and those for which published results are available, it is practically impossible to overcome the "noise" level and test recent hypotheses regarding random dental asymmetry. PMID:3706516

  16. Bilateral asymmetries in max effort single-leg vertical jumps.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Thomas M; Lawson, Brooke R; Reiser, Raoul F

    2005-01-01

    While asymmetries in the lower extremity during jumping may have implications during rehabilitation, it is not clear if healthy subjects should be expected to jump equivalently on each leg. Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine if asymmetries exist in maximal effort single-leg vertical jumps. After obtaining university-approved informed consent, 13 men and 12 women with competitive volleyball playing experience and no injuries of the lower-extremity that would predispose them to asymmetries participated. After thorough warm-up, five maximal effort vertical jumps with countermovement were performed on each leg (random order) with ground reaction forces and lower extremity kinematics recorded. The best three jumps from each leg were analyzed, assigning the leg with the highest jump height average as the dominant side. Asymmetry was assessed by determining statistical significance in the dominant versus non-dominant sides (p < 0.05). A significant interaction existed between side and gender for thigh length and peak vertical ground reaction force. Women had a significantly shorter thigh and men a greater peak vertical ground reaction force on their dominant side. All other parameters were assessed as whole group. Jumps were significantly greater off the dominant leg (2.8 cm on average). No other differences between sides were observed. Significant differences in magnitude (p < 0.05) existed between the men and women in jump height, several anthropometric parameters, minimum ankle and hip angles, and vertical ground reaction forces (peak and average). In conclusion, though a person may jump slightly higher on one leg relative to the other, and women may jump slightly differently than men, the magnitude of the difference should be relatively small and due to the multi-factorial nature of jump performance, individual parameters related to performance may not be consistently different. PMID:15850125

  17. Learning intrinsic excitability in medium spiny neurons

    PubMed Central

    Scheler, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    We present an unsupervised, local activation-dependent learning rule for intrinsic plasticity (IP) which affects the composition of ion channel conductances for single neurons in a use-dependent way. We use a single-compartment conductance-based model for medium spiny striatal neurons in order to show the effects of parameterization of individual ion channels on the neuronal membrane potential-curent relationship (activation function). We show that parameter changes within the physiological ranges are sufficient to create an ensemble of neurons with significantly different activation functions. We emphasize that the effects of intrinsic neuronal modulation on spiking behavior require a distributed mode of synaptic input and can be eliminated by strongly correlated input. We show how modulation and adaptivity in ion channel conductances can be utilized to store patterns without an additional contribution by synaptic plasticity (SP). The adaptation of the spike response may result in either "positive" or "negative" pattern learning. However, read-out of stored information depends on a distributed pattern of synaptic activity to let intrinsic modulation determine spike response. We briefly discuss the implications of this conditional memory on learning and addiction. PMID:25520776

  18. X-ray spectra of Hercules X-1. 2: Intrinsic beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pravdo, S. H.; Boldt, E. A.; Holt, S. S.; Serlemitsos, P. J.

    1977-01-01

    The X-ray spectrum of Hercules X-1 was observed in the energy range 2-24 keV with sufficient temporal resolution to allow detailed study of spectral correlations with the 1.24 sec pulse phase. A region of spectral hardening which extends over approximately the 1/10 pulse phase may be associated with the underlying beam. The pulse shape stability and its asymmetry relative to this intrinsic beam are discussed.

  19. Whistled Turkish alters language asymmetries.

    PubMed

    Güntürkün, Onur; Güntürkün, Monika; Hahn, Constanze

    2015-08-17

    Whistled languages represent an experiment of nature to test the widely accepted view that language comprehension is to some extent governed by the left hemisphere in a rather input-invariant manner. Indeed, left-hemisphere superiority has been reported for atonal and tonal languages, click consonants, writing and sign languages. The right hemisphere is specialized to encode acoustic properties like spectral cues, pitch, and melodic lines and plays a role for prosodic communicative cues. Would left hemisphere language superiority change when subjects had to encode a language that is constituted by acoustic properties for which the right hemisphere is specialized? Whistled Turkish uses the full lexical and syntactic information of vocal Turkish, and transforms this into whistles to transport complex conversations with constrained whistled articulations over long distances. We tested the comprehension of vocally vs. whistled identical lexical information in native whistle-speaking people of mountainous Northeast Turkey. We discovered that whistled language comprehension relies on symmetric hemispheric contributions, associated with a decrease of left and a relative increase of right hemispheric encoding mechanisms. Our results demonstrate that a language that places high demands on right-hemisphere typical acoustical encoding creates a radical change in language asymmetries. Thus, language asymmetry patterns are in an important way shaped by the physical properties of the lexical input. PMID:26294179

  20. Asymmetry in the epithalamus of vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    L. CONCHA, MIGUEL; W. WILSON, STEPHEN

    2001-01-01

    The epithalamus is a major subdivision of the diencephalon constituted by the habenular nuclei and pineal complex. Structural asymmetries in this region are widespread amongst vertebrates and involve differences in size, neuronal organisation, neurochemistry and connectivity. In species that possess a photoreceptive parapineal organ, this structure projects asymmetrically to the left habenula, and in teleosts it is also situated on the left side of the brain. Asymmetries in size between the left and right sides of the habenula are often associated with asymmetries in neuronal organisation, although these two types of asymmetry follow different evolutionary courses. While the former is more conspicuous in fishes (with the exception of teleosts), asymmetries in neuronal organisation are more robust in amphibia and reptiles. Connectivity of the parapineal organ with the left habenula is not always coupled with asymmetries in habenular size and/or neuronal organisation suggesting that, at least in some species, assignment of parapineal and habenular asymmetries may be independent events. The evolutionary origins of epithalamic structures are uncertain but asymmetry in this region is likely to have existed at the origin of the vertebrate, perhaps even the chordate, lineage. In at least some extant vertebrate species, epithalamic asymmetries are established early in development, suggesting a genetic regulation of asymmetry. In some cases, epigenetic factors such as hormones also influence the development of sexually dimorphic habenular asymmetries. Although the genetic and developmental mechanisms by which neuroanatomical asymmetries are established remain obscure, some clues regarding the mechanisms underlying laterality decisions have recently come from studies in zebrafish. The Nodal signalling pathway regulates laterality by biasing an otherwise stochastic laterality decision to the left side of the epithalamus. This genetic mechanism ensures a consistency of

  1. Scintillation Monitoring Using Asymmetry Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaikh, Muhammad Mubasshir; Mahrous, Ayman; Abdallah, Amr; Notarpietro, Riccardo

    Variation in electron density can have significant effect on GNSS signals in terms of propagation delay. Ionospheric scintillation can be caused by rapid change of such delay, specifically, when they last for a longer period of time. Ionospheric irregularities that account for scintillation may vary significantly in spatial range and drift with the background plasma at speeds of 45 to 130 m/sec. These patchy irregularities may occur several times during night, e.g. in equatorial region, with the patches move through the ray paths of the GNSS satellite signals. These irregularities are often characterized as either ‘large scale’ (which can be as large as several hundred km in East-West direction and many times that in the North-South direction) or ‘small scale’ (which can be as small as 1m). These small scale irregularities are regarded as the main cause of scintillation [1,2]. In normal solar activity conditions, the mid-latitude ionosphere is not much disturbed. However, during severe magnetic storms, the aurora oval extends towards the equator and the equator anomaly region may stretched towards poles extending the scintillation phenomena more typically associated with those regions into mid-latitudes. In such stormy conditions, the predicted TEC may deviate largely from the true value of the TEC both at low and mid-latitudes due to which GNSS applications may be strongly degraded. This work is an attempt to analyze ionospheric scintillation (S4 index) using ionospheric asymmetry index [3]. The asymmetry index is based on trans-ionospheric propagation between GPS and LEO satellites in a radio occultation (RO) scenario, using background ionospheric data provided by MIDAS [4]. We attempted to simulate one of the recent geomagnetic storms (NOAA scale G4) occurred over low/mid-latitudes. The storm started on 26 September 2011 at UT 18:00 and lasted until early hours of 27 September 2011. The scintillation data for the storm was taken from an ionospheric

  2. Intrinsic disorder in transcription factors†

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiangang; Perumal, Narayanan B.; Oldfield, Christopher J.; Su, Eric W.; Uversky, Vladimir N.; Dunker, A. Keith

    2008-01-01

    Intrinsic disorder (ID) is highly abundant in eukaryotes, which reflect the greater need for disorder-associated signaling and transcriptional regulation in nucleated cells. Although several well-characterized examples of intrinsically disordered proteins in transcriptional regulation have been reported, no systematic analysis has been reported so far. To test for a general prevalence of intrinsic disorder in transcriptional regulation, we used the Predictor Of Natural Disorder Regions (PONDR) to analyze the abundance of intrinsic disorder in three transcription factor datasets and two control sets. This analysis revealed that from 94.13% to 82.63% of transcription factors posses extended regions of intrinsic disorder, relative to 54.51% and 18.64% of the proteins in two control datasets, which indicates the significant prevalence of intrinsic disorder in transcription factors. This propensity of transcription factors for intrinsic disorder was confirmed by cumulative distribution function analysis and charge-hydropathy plots. The amino acid composition analysis showed that all three transcription factor datasets were substantially depleted in order-promoting residues, and significantly enriched in disorder-promoting residues. Our analysis of the distribution of disorder within the transcription factor datasets revealed that: (a) The AT-hooks and basic regions of transcription factor DNA-binding domains are highly disordered; (b) The degree of disorder in transcription factor activation regions is much higher than that in DNA-binding domains; (c) The degree of disorder is significantly higher in eukaryotic transcription factors than in prokaryotic transcription factors; (d) The level of α-MoRFs (molecular recognition feature) prediction is much higher in transcription factors. Overall, our data reflected the fact that the eukaryotes with well-developed gene transcription machinery require transcription factor flexibility to be more efficient. PMID:16734424

  3. Dawn-dusk magnetosheath plasma asymmetries at 60 earth radii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fenner, M. A.; Freeman, J. W., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A study of data from the Apollo lunar surface suprathermal ion detector experiment (Side) package shows that plasma flow and energy parameters in the dusk magnetosheath are much better correlated with geomagnetic activity than those in the dawn magnetosheath. This result is in agreement with a dawn-dusk asymmetry in the magnetosheath magnetic field and in the bow shock configuration. The different orientations between the mean interplanetary magnetic field direction and the shock normal for the magnetosheaths suggest an explanation of the difference in the plasma parameters on the two sides.

  4. Neurophysiological origin of human brain asymmetry for speech and language

    PubMed Central

    Morillon, Benjamin; Lehongre, Katia; Frackowiak, Richard S. J.; Ducorps, Antoine; Kleinschmidt, Andreas; Poeppel, David; Giraud, Anne-Lise

    2010-01-01

    The physiological basis of human cerebral asymmetry for language remains mysterious. We have used simultaneous physiological and anatomical measurements to investigate the issue. Concentrating on neural oscillatory activity in speech-specific frequency bands and exploring interactions between gestural (motor) and auditory-evoked activity, we find, in the absence of language-related processing, that left auditory, somatosensory, articulatory motor, and inferior parietal cortices show specific, lateralized, speech-related physiological properties. With the addition of ecologically valid audiovisual stimulation, activity in auditory cortex synchronizes with left-dominant input from the motor cortex at frequencies corresponding to syllabic, but not phonemic, speech rhythms. Our results support theories of language lateralization that posit a major role for intrinsic, hardwired perceptuomotor processing in syllabic parsing and are compatible both with the evolutionary view that speech arose from a combination of syllable-sized vocalizations and meaningful hand gestures and with developmental observations suggesting phonemic analysis is a developmentally acquired process. PMID:20956297

  5. Intrinsic trapping of stochastic sheared magnetic field lines

    SciTech Connect

    Negrea, M.; Petrisor, I.; Balescu, R.

    2004-10-01

    The decorrelation trajectory method is applied to the diffusion of magnetic field lines in a perturbed sheared slab magnetic configuration. Some interesting decorrelation trajectories for several values of the magnetic Kubo number and of the shear parameter are exhibited. The asymmetry of the decorrelation trajectories appears in comparison with those obtained in the purely electrostatic case studied in earlier work. The running and asymptotic diffusion tensor components are calculated and displayed.

  6. Dark matter, shared asymmetries, and galactic gamma ray signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, Nayara; Necib, Lina; Thaler, Jesse

    2016-02-01

    We introduce a novel dark matter scenario where the visible sector and the dark sector share a common asymmetry. The two sectors are connected through an unstable mediator with baryon number one, allowing the standard model baryon asymmetry to be shared with dark matter via semi-annihilation. The present-day abundance of dark matter is then set by thermal freeze-out of this semi-annihilation process, yielding an asymmetric version of the WIMP miracle as well as promising signals for indirect detection experiments. As a proof of concept, we find a viable region of parameter space consistent with the observed Fermi excess of GeV gamma rays from the galactic center.

  7. Background check for anomalous like-sign dimuon charge asymmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Gronau, Michael; Rosner, Jonathan L.

    2010-10-01

    The D0 Collaboration has reported an excess of roughly 1% of {mu}{sup -{mu}-} pairs over {mu}{sup +{mu}+} pairs in pp collisions at a center-of-mass energy {radical}(s)=1.96 GeV at the Fermilab Tevatron, when known backgrounds are subtracted. This excess, if ascribed to CP violation in meson-antimeson mixing of nonstrange or strange neutral B mesons, is about 40 times that expected in the standard model. We propose a null test, based on a tight restriction on the muon impact parameter b, to confirm that this excess is indeed due to B mesons. If the asymmetry is due to anomalous CP violation in B{sub s}-B{sub s} mixing, then a tight restriction on b would increase by a factor 2 the net asymmetry from neutral B mixing, while the sample of dimuons from neutral B decays will be reduced significantly relative to background events.

  8. Flavor Asymmetry in the Proton in Chiral Effective Field Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salamu, Y.; Ji, C.-R.; Melnitchouk, W.; Wang, P.

    2015-09-01

    The flavor asymmetry in the proton arising from pion loops is computed using chiral effective field theory. The calculation includes both nucleon and Δ intermediate states, and uses both the fully relativistic and heavy baryon frameworks. The x dependence of extracted from the Fermilab E866 Drell-Yan data can be well reproduced in terms of a single transverse momentum cutoff parameter regulating the ultraviolet behavior of the loop integrals. In addition to the distribution at x > 0, corrections to the integrated asymmetry from zero momentum contributions are computed, which arise from pion rainbow and bubble diagrams at x = 0. These have not been accounted for in previous analyses, and can make important contributions to the lowest moment of.

  9. A collection of intrinsic disorder characterizations from eukaryotic proteomes

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Michael; Schnell, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins and protein regions lack a stable three-dimensional structure under physiological conditions. Several proteomic investigations of intrinsic disorder have been performed to date and have found disorder to be prevalent in eukaryotic proteomes. Here we present descriptive statistics of intrinsic disorder features for ten model eukaryotic proteomes that have been calculated from computational disorder prediction algorithms. The data descriptor also provides consensus disorder annotations as well as additional physical parameters relevant to protein disorder, and further provides protein existence information for all proteins included in our analysis. The complete datasets can be downloaded freely, and it is envisaged that they will be updated periodically with new proteomes and protein disorder prediction algorithms. These datasets will be especially useful for assessing protein disorder, and conducting novel analyses that advance our understanding of intrinsic disorder and protein structure. PMID:27326998

  10. A collection of intrinsic disorder characterizations from eukaryotic proteomes.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Michael; Schnell, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins and protein regions lack a stable three-dimensional structure under physiological conditions. Several proteomic investigations of intrinsic disorder have been performed to date and have found disorder to be prevalent in eukaryotic proteomes. Here we present descriptive statistics of intrinsic disorder features for ten model eukaryotic proteomes that have been calculated from computational disorder prediction algorithms. The data descriptor also provides consensus disorder annotations as well as additional physical parameters relevant to protein disorder, and further provides protein existence information for all proteins included in our analysis. The complete datasets can be downloaded freely, and it is envisaged that they will be updated periodically with new proteomes and protein disorder prediction algorithms. These datasets will be especially useful for assessing protein disorder, and conducting novel analyses that advance our understanding of intrinsic disorder and protein structure. PMID:27326998

  11. Nasal Septal Deviation and Facial Skeletal Asymmetries.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Christopher; Holton, Nathan; Miller, Steven; Yokley, Todd; Marshall, Steven; Srinivasan, Sreedevi; Southard, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    During ontogeny, the nasal septum exerts a morphogenetic influence on the surrounding facial skeleton. While the influence of the septum is well established in long snouted animal models, its role in human facial growth is less clear. If the septum is a facial growth center in humans, we would predict that deviated septal growth would be associated with facial skeletal asymmetries. Using computed tomographic (CT) scans of n = 55 adult subjects, the purpose of this study was to test whether there is a correlation between septal deviation and facial asymmetries using three-dimensional (3D) geometric morphometric techniques. We calculated deviation as a percentage of septal volume relative to the volume of a modeled non-deviated septum. We then recorded skeletal landmarks representing the nasal, palatal, and lateral facial regions. Landmark data were superimposed using Procrustes analysis. First, we examined the correlation between nasal septal deviation and the overall magnitude of asymmetry. Next, we assessed whether there was a relationship between nasal septal deviation and more localized aspects of asymmetry using multivariate regression analysis. Our results indicate that while there was no correlation between septal deviation and the overall magnitude of asymmetry, septal deviation was associated with asymmetry primarily in the nasal floor and the palatal region. Septal deviation was unassociated with asymmetries in the lateral facial skeleton. Though we did not test the causal relationship between nasal septal deviation and facial asymmetry, our results suggest that the nasal septum may have an influence on patterns of adult facial form. PMID:26677010

  12. Atypical Alpha Asymmetry in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, T. Sigi; Smalley, Susan L.; Hanada, Grant; Macion, James; McCracken, James T.; McGough, James J.; Loo, Sandra K.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: A growing body of literature suggests atypical cerebral asymmetry and interhemispheric interaction in ADHD. A common means of assessing lateralized brain function in clinical populations has been to examine the relative proportion of EEG alpha activity (8-12 Hz) in each hemisphere (i.e., alpha asymmetry). Increased rightward alpha…

  13. Determining Asymmetry Of A Weld Puddle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutow, David A.

    1992-01-01

    Sensing-and-data-processing subsystem provides information of asymmetry of weld puddle with respect to original midplane of joint. Shape of puddle inferred from surface-temperature distribution. Part of welding-control system which enables system to correct for asymmetry.

  14. Asymmetry and Performance: Toward a Neurodevelopmental Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boles, David B.; Barth, Joan M.; Merrill, Edward C.

    2008-01-01

    Hemispheric asymmetry implies the existence of developmental influences that affect one hemisphere more than the other. However, those influences are poorly understood. One simple view is that asymmetry may exist because of a relationship between a mental process' degree of lateralization and how well it functions. Data scaling issues have largely…

  15. Visual Search Asymmetry with Uncertain Targets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saiki, Jun; Koike, Takahiko; Takahashi, Kohske; Inoue, Tomoko

    2005-01-01

    The underlying mechanism of search asymmetry is still unknown. Many computational models postulate top-down selection of target-defining features as a crucial factor. This feature selection account implies, and other theories implicitly assume, that predefined target identity is necessary for search asymmetry. The authors tested the validity of…

  16. The evolution and genetics of cerebral asymmetry

    PubMed Central

    Corballis, Michael C.

    2008-01-01

    Handedness and cerebral asymmetry are commonly assumed to be uniquely human, and even defining characteristics of our species. This is increasingly refuted by the evidence of behavioural asymmetries in non-human species. Although complex manual skill and language are indeed unique to our species and are represented asymmetrically in the brain, some non-human asymmetries appear to be precursors, and others are shared between humans and non-humans. In all behavioural and cerebral asymmetries so far investigated, a minority of individuals reverse or negate the dominant asymmetry, suggesting that such asymmetries are best understood in the context of the overriding bilateral symmetry of the brain and body, and a trade-off between the relative advantages and disadvantages of symmetry and asymmetry. Genetic models of handedness, for example, typically postulate a gene with two alleles, one disposing towards right-handedness and the other imposing no directional influence. There is as yet no convincing evidence as to the location of this putative gene, suggesting that several genes may be involved, or that the gene may be monomorphic with variations due to environmental or epigenetic influences. Nevertheless, it is suggested that, in behavioural, neurological and evolutionary terms, it may be more profitable to examine the degree rather than the direction of asymmetry. PMID:19064358

  17. Repeated Split-BeltTreadmill Training Improves Poststroke Step Length Asymmetry

    PubMed Central

    Reisman, Darcy S.; McLean, Heather; Keller, Jennifer; Danks, Kelly A.; Bastian, Amy J.

    2013-01-01

    Background and objective Previous studies suggest that error augmentation may be used as a strategy to achieve longer-term changes in gait deficits after stroke. The purpose of this study was to determine whether longer-term improvements in step length asymmetry could be achieved with repeated split-belt treadmill walking practice using an error augmentation strategy. Methods 13 persons with chronic stroke (>6 months) participated in testing: (1) prior to 12 sessions of split-belt treadmill training, (2) after the training, and (3) in follow-up testing at 1 and 3 months. Step length asymmetry was the target of training, so belt speeds were set to augment step length asymmetry such that aftereffects resulted in reduced step length asymmetry during overground walking practice. Each individual was classified as a “responder” or “nonresponder” based on whether their reduction in step length asymmetry exceeded day-to-day variability. Results For the group and for the responders (7 individuals), step length asymmetry improved from baseline to posttesting (P < .05) through an increased step length on both legs but a relatively larger change on the shorter step side (P < .05). Other parameters that were not targeted (eg, stance time asymmetry) did not change over the intervention. Conclusions This study demonstrates that short-term adaptations can be capitalized on through repetitive practice and can lead to longer-term improvements in gait deficits poststroke. The error augmentation strategy, which promotes stride-by-stride adjustment to reduce asymmetry and results in improved asymmetry during overground walking practice, appears to be critical for obtaining the improvements observed. PMID:23392918

  18. Eliminating amplitude death by the asymmetry coupling and process delay in coupled oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Chenggui; Zhao, Qi; Zou, Wei

    2016-02-01

    Coupling mode plays a key role in determining the dynamical behavior and realizing certain system's rhythm and function in the complex systems. In this work, the effects of the asymmetry and process delay in the coupling on the dynamical behavior are investigated. We find that both the asymmetry and process delay effectively reduce the region of the frequency-mismatch-induced amplitude death in the parameter space, and make the system to recover oscillation in the amplitude death regime so as to retain sustained system's rhythm function. Furthermore, we show the asymmetry and process delay can destroy synchronization. Our results suggest that the asymmetry coupling and process delay are of crucial importance in controlling amplitude death and synchronization, and hence that their considerations are vital for modeling real life problems.

  19. DIRECTIONAL DEPENDENCE OF {Lambda}CDM COSMOLOGICAL PARAMETERS

    SciTech Connect

    Axelsson, M.; Fantaye, Y.; Hansen, F. K.; Eriksen, H. K.; Banday, A. J.; Gorski, K. M. E-mail: y.t.fantaye@astro.uio.no

    2013-08-10

    We study hemispherical power asymmetry in the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe 9 yr data. We analyze the combined V- and W-band sky maps, after application of the KQ85 mask, and find that the asymmetry is statistically significant at the 3.4{sigma} confidence level for l = 2-600, where the data are signal-dominated, with a preferred asymmetry direction (l, b) = (227, -27). Individual asymmetry axes estimated from six independent multipole ranges are all consistent with this direction. Subsequently, we estimate cosmological parameters on different parts of the sky and show that the parameters A{sub s} , n{sub s} , and {Omega}{sub b} are the most sensitive to this power asymmetry. In particular, for the two opposite hemispheres aligned with the preferred asymmetry axis, we find n{sub s} = 0.959 {+-} 0.022 and n{sub s} = 0.989 {+-} 0.024, respectively.

  20. Anatomic Brain Asymmetry in Vervet Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Fears, Scott C.; Scheibel, Kevin; Abaryan, Zvart; Lee, Chris; Service, Susan K.; Jorgensen, Matthew J.; Fairbanks, Lynn A.; Cantor, Rita M.; Freimer, Nelson B.; Woods, Roger P.

    2011-01-01

    Asymmetry is a prominent feature of human brains with important functional consequences. Many asymmetric traits show population bias, but little is known about the genetic and environmental sources contributing to inter-individual variance. Anatomic asymmetry has been observed in Old World monkeys, but the evidence for the direction and extent of asymmetry is equivocal and only one study has estimated the genetic contributions to inter-individual variance. In this study we characterize a range of qualitative and quantitative asymmetry measures in structural brain MRIs acquired from an extended pedigree of Old World vervet monkeys (n = 357), and implement variance component methods to estimate the proportion of trait variance attributable to genetic and environmental sources. Four of six asymmetry measures show pedigree-level bias and one of the traits has a significant heritability estimate of about 30%. We also found that environmental variables more significantly influence the width of the right compared to the left prefrontal lobe. PMID:22205941

  1. Asymmetry effects in fragment production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Manpreet; Kaur, Varinderjit

    2016-05-01

    The production of different fragments has been studied by taking into account the mass asymmetry of the reaction and employing the momentum dependent interactions. Two different set of asymmetric reactions have been analyzed while keeping Atotal fixed using soft momentum dependent equation of state. Our results indicate that the impact of momentum dependent interactions is different in lighter projectile systems as compared to heavier ones. The comparative analysis of IQMD simulations with the experimental data in case of heavier projectile and lighter target system for the reaction of 197Au+27Al (η = 0.7) at E = 600 MeV/nucleon shows that with the inclusion of MDI we are able, upto some extent, to reproduce the experimental universality of rise and fall of intermediate mass fragments (IMFs).

  2. Collins Asymmetry at Hadron Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Feng

    2008-01-17

    We study the Collins effect in the azimuthal asymmetricdistribution of hadrons inside a high energy jet in the single transversepolarized proton proton scattering. From the detailed analysis ofone-gluon and two-gluon exchange diagrams contributions, the Collinsfunction is found the same as that in the semi-inclusive deep inelasticscattering and e+e- annihilations. The eikonal propagators in thesediagrams do not contribute to the phase needed for the Collins-typesingle spin asymmetry, and the universality is derived as a result of theWard identity. We argue that this conclusion depends on the momentum flowof the exchanged gluon and the kinematic constraints in the fragmentationprocess, and is generic and model-independent.

  3. Phylogeny of major intrinsic proteins.

    PubMed

    Danielson, Jonas A H; Johanson, Urban

    2010-01-01

    Major intrinsic proteins (MIPs) form a large superfamily of proteins that can be divided into different subfamilies and groups according to phylogenetic analyses. Plants encode more MIPs than o ther organisms and se ven subfamilies have been defined, whereofthe Nodulin26-like major intrinsic proteins (NIPs) have been shown to permeate metalloids. In this chapter we review the phylogeny of MIPs in general and especially of the plant MIPs. We also identify bacterial NIP-like MIPs and discuss the evolutionary implications of this finding regarding the origin and ancestral transport specificity of the NIPs. PMID:20666221

  4. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation for Smoking Cessation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, Susan; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Evaluated intrinsic-extrinsic model of motivation for smoking cessation using two samples (Ns=1,217 and 151) of smokers. Analysis on Reasons for Quitting scale supported intrinsic-extrinsic motivation distinction, defining four-factor model with two intrinsic and two extrinsic dimensions. Found that smokers with higher levels of intrinsic relative…

  5. Fish otolith asymmetry: morphometry and modeling.

    PubMed

    Lychakov, D V; Rebane, Y T; Lombarte, A; Fuiman, L A; Takabayashi, A

    2006-09-01

    Mathematical modeling suggests that relatively large values of otolith mass asymmetry in fishes can alter acoustic functionality and may be responsible for abnormal fish behavior when subjected to weightlessness during parabolic or space flight [D.V. Lychakov, Y.T. Rebane, Otolith mass asymmetry in 18 species of fish and pigeon, J. Grav. Physiol. 11 (3) (2004) 17-34; D.V. Lychakov, Y.T. Rebane, Fish otolith mass asymmetry: morphometry and influence on acoustic functionality, Hear. Res. 201 (2005) 55-69]. The results of morphometric studies of otolith mass asymmetry suppose that the absolute value and the sign of the otolith mass asymmetry can change many times during the growth of individual fish within the range +/-20% [D.V. Lychakov, Y.T. Rebane, Otolith mass asymmetry in 18 species of fish and pigeon, J. Grav. Physiol. 11 (3) (2004) 17-34; D.V. Lychakov, Y.T. Rebane, Fish otolith mass asymmetry: morphometry and influence on acoustic functionality, Hear. Res. 201 (2005) 55-69]. This implies that the adverse effects of otolith asymmetry on acoustic and vestibular functionality could change during the lifetime of an individual fish. The aims of the present article were to examine the nature of otolith mass asymmetry fluctuation and to quantify otolith mass asymmetry in a large number of teleost fishes to verify our previous measurements. A dimensionless measure of otolith mass asymmetry, chi, was calculated as the difference between the masses of the right and left paired otoliths divided by average otolith mass. Saccular otolith mass asymmetry was studied in 59 Mediterranean teleost species (395 otolith pairs), 14 Black Sea teleost species (42 otolith pairs), red drum (196 otolith pairs) and guppy (30 otolith pairs). Utricular otolith mass asymmetry was studied in carp (103 otolith pairs) and goldfish (45 otolith pairs). In accordance with our previous results the value of chi did not depend on fish size (length or mass), systematic or ecological position of the

  6. A scaler-based data acquisition system for measuring parity-violating asymmetry in deep inelastic scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subedi, R.; Wang, D.; Pan, K.; Deng, X.; Michaels, R.; Reimer, P. E.; Shahinyan, A.; Wojtsekhowski, B.; Zheng, X.

    2013-10-01

    An experiment that measured the parity-violating asymmetries in deep inelastic scattering was completed at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in experimental Hall A. From these asymmetries, a combination of the quark weak axial charge could be extracted with a factor of five improvement in precision over world data. To achieve this, asymmetries at the 10-4 level needed to be measured at event rates up to 600 kHz and the high pion background typical to deep inelastic scattering experiments needed to be rejected efficiently. A specialized data acquisition (DAQ) system with intrinsic particle identification (PID) was successfully developed and used: the pion contamination in the electron samples was controlled at the order of 2×10-4 or below with an electron efficiency of higher than 91% during most of the production period of the experiment, the systematic uncertainty in the measured asymmetry due to DAQ deadtime was below 0.5%, and the statistical quality of the asymmetry measurement agreed with the Gaussian distribution to over five orders of magnitudes. The DAQ system is presented here with an emphasis on its design scheme, the achieved PID performance, deadtime effect and the capability of measuring small asymmetries.

  7. A scaler-based data acquisition system for measuring parity-violating asymmetry in deep inelastic scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Subedi, Ramesh R.; Wang, Diancheng; Pan, Kai; Deng, Xiaoyan; Michaels, Robert W.; Shahinyan, Albert; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan B.; Zheng, Xiaochao

    2013-10-01

    An experiment that measured the parity violating asymmetries in deep inelastic scattering was completed at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in experimental Hall A. From these asymmetries, a combination of the quark weak axial charge could be extracted with a factor of five improvement in precision over world data. To achieve this, asymmetries at the 10^-4 level needed to be measured at event rates up to 500 kHz and the high pion background typical to deep inelastic scattering experiments needed to be rejected efficiently. A specialized data acquisition (DAQ) system with intrinsic particle identification (PID) was successfully developed and used: The pion contamination in the electron samples was controlled at the order of 2 × 10^-4 or below with an electron efficiency of higher than 91% throughout the production period of the experiment, the systematic uncertainty in the measured asymmetry due to DAQ deadtime was below 0.2%, and the statistical quality of the asymmetry measurement agreed with the Gaussian distribution to over five orders of magnitudes. The DAQ system is presented here with an emphasis on its design scheme, the achieved PID performance, deadtime effect and the capability of measuring small asymmetries.

  8. Reading: Intrinsic versus Extrinsic Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    Much debate centers on motivating student in reading achievement. Should students feel motivated from within (intrinsic motivation), or is it better to have extrinsic motivation whereby external stimuli are used to help learners achieve optimally in reading? This paper aims to analyze the two points of view about motivating students in reading…

  9. Individual Patterns in Intrinsic Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hom, Harry L., Jr.; Maxwell, Frederick R.

    The effects of extrinsic reward on students' intrinsic interest was investigated using a single-subject design in a behavior disorders classroom. Baseline measures of the interest level of five children (ages 9-11 years) were collected for academic and non-academic tasks. Assessment was then made of each subject's response hierarchy or level of…

  10. Intrinsic Motivation in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Benjamin; Nambiar, Nathan; Hemphill, Caroline; Devietti, Elizabeth; Massengale, Alexandra; McCredie, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    This article describes ways in which educators can use Harter's perceived competence motivation theory, the achievement goal theory, and self-determination theory to develop students' intrinsic motivation to maintain physical fitness, as demonstrated by the Sound Body Sound Mind curriculum and proven effective by the 2013 University of…

  11. Black-white asymmetry in visual perception.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhong-Lin; Sperling, George

    2012-01-01

    With eleven different types of stimuli that exercise a wide gamut of spatial and temporal visual processes, negative perturbations from mean luminance are found to be typically 25% more effective visually than positive perturbations of the same magnitude (range 8-67%). In Experiment 12, the magnitude of the black-white asymmetry is shown to be a saturating function of stimulus contrast. Experiment 13 shows black-white asymmetry primarily involves a nonlinearity in the visual representation of decrements. Black-white asymmetry in early visual processing produces even-harmonic distortion frequencies in all ordinary stimuli and in illusions such as the perceived asymmetry of optically perfect sine wave gratings. In stimuli intended to stimulate exclusively second-order processing in which motion or shape are defined not by luminance differences but by differences in texture contrast, the black-white asymmetry typically generates artifactual luminance (first-order) motion and shape components. Because black-white asymmetry pervades psychophysical and neurophysiological procedures that utilize spatial or temporal variations of luminance, it frequently needs to be considered in the design and evaluation of experiments that involve visual stimuli. Simple procedures to compensate for black-white asymmetry are proposed. PMID:22984221

  12. Black–white asymmetry in visual perception

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zhong-Lin; Sperling, George

    2012-01-01

    With eleven different types of stimuli that exercise a wide gamut of spatial and temporal visual processes, negative perturbations from mean luminance are found to be typically 25% more effective visually than positive perturbations of the same magnitude (range 8–67%). In Experiment 12, the magnitude of the black–white asymmetry is shown to be a saturating function of stimulus contrast. Experiment 13 shows black–white asymmetry primarily involves a nonlinearity in the visual representation of decrements. Black–white asymmetry in early visual processing produces even-harmonic distortion frequencies in all ordinary stimuli and in illusions such as the perceived asymmetry of optically perfect sine wave gratings. In stimuli intended to stimulate exclusively second-order processing in which motion or shape are defined not by luminance differences but by differences in texture contrast, the black–white asymmetry typically generates artifactual luminance (first-order) motion and shape components. Because black–white asymmetry pervades psychophysical and neurophysiological procedures that utilize spatial or temporal variations of luminance, it frequently needs to be considered in the design and evaluation of experiments that involve visual stimuli. Simple procedures to compensate for black–white asymmetry are proposed. PMID:22984221

  13. Asymmetry in Time Evolution of Magnetization in Magnetic Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Tóbik, Jaroslav; Cambel, Vladimir; Karapetrov, Goran

    2015-01-01

    Strong interest in nanomagnetism stems from the promise of high storage densities of information through control of ever smaller and smaller ensembles of spins. There is a broad consensus that the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation reliably describes the magnetization dynamics on classical phenomenological level. On the other hand, it is not so evident that the magnetization dynamics governed by this equation contains built-in asymmetry in the case of broad topology sets of symmetric total energy functional surfaces. The magnetization dynamics in such cases shows preference for one particular state from many energetically equivalent available minima. We demonstrate this behavior on a simple one-spin model which can be treated analytically. Depending on the ferromagnet geometry and material parameters, this asymmetric behavior can be robust enough to survive even at high temperatures opening simplified venues for controlling magnetic states of nanodevices in practical applications. Using micromagnetic simulations we demonstrate the asymmetry in magnetization dynamics in a real system with reduced symmetry such as Pacman-like nanodot. Exploiting the built-in asymmetry in the dynamics could lead to practical methods of preparing desired spin configurations on nanoscale. PMID:26198544

  14. Asymmetry in Time Evolution of Magnetization in Magnetic Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tóbik, Jaroslav; Cambel, Vladimir; Karapetrov, Goran

    2015-07-01

    Strong interest in nanomagnetism stems from the promise of high storage densities of information through control of ever smaller and smaller ensembles of spins. There is a broad consensus that the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation reliably describes the magnetization dynamics on classical phenomenological level. On the other hand, it is not so evident that the magnetization dynamics governed by this equation contains built-in asymmetry in the case of broad topology sets of symmetric total energy functional surfaces. The magnetization dynamics in such cases shows preference for one particular state from many energetically equivalent available minima. We demonstrate this behavior on a simple one-spin model which can be treated analytically. Depending on the ferromagnet geometry and material parameters, this asymmetric behavior can be robust enough to survive even at high temperatures opening simplified venues for controlling magnetic states of nanodevices in practical applications. Using micromagnetic simulations we demonstrate the asymmetry in magnetization dynamics in a real system with reduced symmetry such as Pacman-like nanodot. Exploiting the built-in asymmetry in the dynamics could lead to practical methods of preparing desired spin configurations on nanoscale.

  15. Asymmetry in Time Evolution of Magnetization in Magnetic Nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Tóbik, Jaroslav; Cambel, Vladimir; Karapetrov, Goran

    2015-01-01

    Strong interest in nanomagnetism stems from the promise of high storage densities of information through control of ever smaller and smaller ensembles of spins. There is a broad consensus that the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation reliably describes the magnetization dynamics on classical phenomenological level. On the other hand, it is not so evident that the magnetization dynamics governed by this equation contains built-in asymmetry in the case of broad topology sets of symmetric total energy functional surfaces. The magnetization dynamics in such cases shows preference for one particular state from many energetically equivalent available minima. We demonstrate this behavior on a simple one-spin model which can be treated analytically. Depending on the ferromagnet geometry and material parameters, this asymmetric behavior can be robust enough to survive even at high temperatures opening simplified venues for controlling magnetic states of nanodevices in practical applications. Using micromagnetic simulations we demonstrate the asymmetry in magnetization dynamics in a real system with reduced symmetry such as Pacman-like nanodot. Exploiting the built-in asymmetry in the dynamics could lead to practical methods of preparing desired spin configurations on nanoscale. PMID:26198544

  16. Relic Density of Neutrinos with Primordial Asymmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Pastor, Sergio; Pinto, Teguayco; Raffelt, Georg G.

    2009-06-19

    We study flavor oscillations in the early Universe, assuming primordial neutrino-antineutrino asymmetries. Including collisions and pair processes in the kinetic equations, we not only estimate the degree of flavor equilibration, but for the first time also kinetic equilibration among neutrinos and with the ambient plasma. Typically, the restrictive big-bang nucleosynthesis bound on the nu{sub e}nu{sub e} asymmetry indeed applies to all flavors as claimed in the previous literature, but fine-tuned initial asymmetries always allow for a large surviving neutrino excess radiation that may show up in precision cosmological data.

  17. Relic density of neutrinos with primordial asymmetries.

    PubMed

    Pastor, Sergio; Pinto, Teguayco; Raffelt, Georg G

    2009-06-19

    We study flavor oscillations in the early Universe, assuming primordial neutrino-antineutrino asymmetries. Including collisions and pair processes in the kinetic equations, we not only estimate the degree of flavor equilibration, but for the first time also kinetic equilibration among neutrinos and with the ambient plasma. Typically, the restrictive big-bang nucleosynthesis bound on the nu_{e}nu[over]_{e} asymmetry indeed applies to all flavors as claimed in the previous literature, but fine-tuned initial asymmetries always allow for a large surviving neutrino excess radiation that may show up in precision cosmological data. PMID:19658994

  18. Management of Asymmetry After Breast Reduction.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Onelio

    2016-04-01

    Breast reduction surgery has achieved one of the highest patient satisfaction rates among plastic surgery procedures. Most of the complications encountered are usually minor and related to wound healing. Revision surgery to address these problems is common and usually consists of scar revisions. Postoperative breast asymmetry of a mild degree is also common; however, postoperative asymmetry severe enough to warrant surgical revision is a rare event, occurring in less than 1% of cases. Postmammaplasty revision surgery needs to be individualized. The asymmetry could be the result of nipple malposition or it could consist of a volume or shape discrepancy between the breast mounds. PMID:27012796

  19. Quantifying intrinsic and extrinsic factors affecting soil erodibility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil erodibility has traditionally been conceived as a soil dependent parameter that can be quantified from intrinsic soil properties that usually stay constant. Development of erosion prediction equations, from the empirical-based Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) to a more processed-based Water ...

  20. Intrinsic momentum transport in tokamaks with tilted elliptical flux surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, Justin; Parra, Felix; Barnes, Michael; Dorland, William; Hammett, Gregory; Rodrigues, Paulo; Loureiro, Nuno

    2014-10-01

    Recent work demonstrated that breaking the up-down symmetry of tokamaks removes a constraint limiting intrinsic momentum transport, and hence toroidal rotation, to be small. We show, through MHD analysis, that ellipticity is most effective at introducing up-down asymmetry throughout the plasma. Using GS2, a local δf gyrokinetic code that self-consistently calculates momentum transport, we simulate tokamaks with tilted elliptical poloidal cross-sections and a Shafranov shift. These simulations show both the magnitude and poloidal dependence of nonlinear momentum transport. The results are consistent with TCV experimental measurements and suggest that this mechanism can generate rotation with an Alfven Mach number of several percent in a tilted elliptical ITER-like machine. It appears that rotation generated with up-down asymmetry may be sufficient to stabilize the resistive wall mode in reactor-sized devices. J.R.B. and F.I.P. were partially supported by the RCUK Energy Programme (grant number EP/I501045) and the European Unions Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme.

  1. Asymmetry of planetary nebulae: Collimated ionized jets in butterfly nebulae and dust extinction effects in compact planetary nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ting-Hui

    dust distribution in PNe. Using the free-free continuum flux density and Hb recombination line flux relationship and the theoretical Ha/Hb line ratio, the intrinsic Ha flux was determined from the radio continuum maps. The dust optical depth distribution of each planetary nebula was then derived from the intrinsic-to-observed Ha flux ratio. With HST WFPC2 and VLA A-array observations, dust extinction maps with resolutions as high as ~0.1 inches can be obtained. The radio continuum images, Ha images, and derived dust extinction maps were then analyzed in terms of the dusty ellipsoidal shell (DES) model. Simulated radio images are produced using various asymmetry parameters in the DES model. For the same set of models, an identical space distribution of dust was used to simulate the optical and extinction images. These models provide a way to remove projection effects on the sky, reconstruct the three-dimensional ionized gas and dust distributions in planetary nebulae, and make quantitative measures of the intrinsic asymmetries of the nebulae.

  2. An Assessment of Sexual Dimorphism in Relation to Facial Asymmetry in Esthetically Pleasing Faces

    PubMed Central

    Rajpara, Yagnesh; Shyagali, Tarulatha R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study is to detect gender-wise difference in the skeletal asymmetry in the esthetically pleasing faces. Materials and methods: a cross sectional study was conducted on 25 females and 25 males of age 18 -25 years using the posterior-anterior cephalograms. The selected part of grummon’s frontal analysis for analyzing the vertical skeletal asymmetries, mandibular morphology, transverse asymmetry and mandibular deviation was used. The obtained data was subjected to independent student’s‘t’ test for comparing the difference between males and females. Results: there was statistically significant difference between the males and females for the measurements like Gonion-Menton length for the mandibular morphology and for the transverse parameters like zygomatico frontal suture length, jular length and antegonial notch length. There was no significant difference for the sidedness of asymmetry for the males and females. Conclusion: frontal facial asymmetry showed sexual dimorphism with males showing greater asymmetric values than the females. The asymmetry showed right sided prominence for both the males and females. This knowledge can be utilized for planning facial reconstruction and remodeling surgeries. PMID:25870491

  3. Pars triangularis asymmetry and language dominance.

    PubMed Central

    Foundas, A L; Leonard, C M; Gilmore, R L; Fennell, E B; Heilman, K M

    1996-01-01

    The pars triangular is a portion of Broca's area. The convolutions that form the inferior and caudal extent of the pars triangularis include the anterior horizontal and anterior ascending rami of the sylvian fissure, respectively. To learn if there are anatomic asymmetries of the pars triangularis, these convolutions were measured on volumetric magnetic resonance imaging scans of 11 patients who had undergone selective hemispheric anesthesia (Wada testing) to determine hemispheric speech and language lateralization. Of the 10 patients with language lateralized to the left hemisphere, 9 had a leftward asymmetry of the pars triangularis. The 1 patient with language lateralized to the right hemisphere had a significant rightward asymmetry of the pars triangularis. Our data suggest that asymmetries of the pars triangularis may be related to speech-language lateralization. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8570622

  4. What’s Left in Asymmetry?

    PubMed Central

    Aw, Sherry

    2008-01-01

    Left-right patterning is a fascinating problem of morphogenesis, linking evolutionary and cellular signaling mechanisms across many levels of organization. In the last 15 years, enormous progress has been made in elucidating the molecular details of this process in embryos of several model species. While many outside the field seem to believe that the fundamental aspects of this pathway are now solved, workers on asymmetry are faced with considerable uncertainties over the details of specific mechanisms, a lack of conceptual unity of mechanisms across phyla, and important questions that are not being pursued in any of the popular model systems. Here, we suggest that data from clinical syndromes, cryptic asymmetries, and bilateral gynandromorphs, while not figuring prominently in the mainstream work on LR asymmetry, point to crucial and fundamental gaps of knowledge about asymmetry. We identify 12 big questions that provide exciting opportunities for fundamental new advances in this field. PMID:18488999

  5. Symmetry and asymmetry in the human brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2005-10-01

    Structural and functional asymmetry in the human brain and nervous system is reviewed in a historical perspective, focusing on the pioneering work of Broca, Wernicke, Sperry, and Geschwind. Structural and functional asymmetry is exemplified from work done in our laboratory on auditory laterality using an empirical procedure called dichotic listening. This also involves different ways of validating the dichotic listening procedure against both invasive and non-invasive techniques, including PET and fMRI blood flow recordings. A major argument is that the human brain shows a substantial interaction between structurally, or "bottom-up" asymmetry and cognitively, or "top-down" modulation, through a focus of attention to the right or left side in auditory space. These results open up a more dynamic and interactive view of functional brain asymmetry than the traditional static view that the brain is lateralized, or asymmetric, only for specific stimuli and stimulus properties.

  6. Intrinsic adaptation in autonomous recurrent neural networks.

    PubMed

    Marković, Dimitrije; Gros, Claudius

    2012-02-01

    A massively recurrent neural network responds on one side to input stimuli and is autonomously active, on the other side, in the absence of sensory inputs. Stimuli and information processing depend crucially on the quality of the autonomous-state dynamics of the ongoing neural activity. This default neural activity may be dynamically structured in time and space, showing regular, synchronized, bursting, or chaotic activity patterns. We study the influence of nonsynaptic plasticity on the default dynamical state of recurrent neural networks. The nonsynaptic adaption considered acts on intrinsic neural parameters, such as the threshold and the gain, and is driven by the optimization of the information entropy. We observe, in the presence of the intrinsic adaptation processes, three distinct and globally attracting dynamical regimes: a regular synchronized, an overall chaotic, and an intermittent bursting regime. The intermittent bursting regime is characterized by intervals of regular flows, which are quite insensitive to external stimuli, interceded by chaotic bursts that respond sensitively to input signals. We discuss these findings in the context of self-organized information processing and critical brain dynamics. PMID:22091667

  7. Frontal sinus asymmetry: Is it an effect of cranial asymmetry? X-ray analysis of 469 normal adult human frontal sinus

    PubMed Central

    Kanat, Ayhan; Yazar, Ugur; Ozdemir, Bulent; Coskun, Zerrin O.; Erdivanli, Ozlem

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: There is no study in the literature that investigates an asymmetric morphological feature of the frontal sinus (FS). Materials and Methods: Four hundred and sixty-nine consecutive direct X-rays of FSs were analyzed for the asymmetry between the right and left sides. When an asymmetry in the height and contour of the FS existed, this difference was quantified. Results: Of the 469 patients, X-rays of 402 patients (85.7%), there was an asymmetry between right and left sides of the FS. Of these 235 (50.1%) were dominant on the left side, whereas 167 (35.6%) were dominant on the right, the sinuses of remaining 67 patients (14.3%) was symmetric. Statistical Analysis: The comparisons between parameters were performed using Wilkinson signed rank test. The relationship between handedness and sinus asymmetry was also examined by two proportions test. There is statistically significant difference between the dominance of left and right FS. Conclusions: Hemispheric dominance may have some effect (s) of on sinus asymmetry of the human cranium. Surgeons sometimes enter the cranium through the FS and knowledge of asymmetric FS is important to minimize surgical complications. PMID:26752894

  8. Measurement of the b forward-backward asymmetry and mixing using high- p⊥ leptons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buskulic, D.; de Bonis, I.; Decamp, D.; Ghez, P.; Goy, C.; Lees, J.-P.; Lucotte, A.; Minard, M.-N.; Odier, P.; Pietrzyk, B.; Casado, M. P.; Chmeissani, M.; Crespo, J. M.; Delfino, M.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Garrido, Ll.; Juste, A.; Martinez, M.; Orteu, S.; Pacheco, A.; Padilla, C.; Pascual, A.; Perlas, J. A.; Riu, I.; Sanchez, F.; Teubert, F.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; de Palma, M.; Gelao, G.; Girone, M.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Marinelli, N.; Nuzzo, S.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Zito, G.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Ouyang, Q.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, R.; Xue, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, W.; Alemany, R.; Bazarko, A. O.; Bonvicini, G.; Cattaneo, M.; Comas, P.; Coyle, P.; Drevermann, H.; Forty, R. W.; Frank, M.; Hagelberg, R.; Harvey, J.; Janot, P.; Jost, B.; Kneringer, E.; Knobloch, J.; Lehraus, I.; Martin, E. B.; Mato, P.; Minten, A.; Miquel, R.; Mir, Ll. M.; Moneta, L.; Oest, T.; Palla, F.; Pater, J. R.; Pusztaszeri, J.-F.; Ranjard, F.; Rensing, P.; Rolandi, L.; Schlatter, D.; Schmelling, M.; Schneider, O.; Tejessy, W.; Tomalin, I. R.; Venturi, A.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wagner, A.; Wildish, T.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Barrès, A.; Boyer, C.; Falvard, A.; Gay, P.; Guicheney, C.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Monteil, S.; Montret, J.-C.; Pallin, D.; Perret, P.; Podlyski, F.; Proriol, J.; Rossignol, J.-M.; Fearnley, T.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, P. H.; Nilsson, B. S.; Wäänänen, A.; Kyriakis, A.; Markou, C.; Simopoulou, E.; Siotis, I.; Vayaki, A.; Zachariadou, K.; Blondel, A.; Bonneaud, G.; Brient, J. C.; Bourdon, P.; Rougé, A.; Rumpf, M.; Valassi, A.; Verderi, M.; Videau, H.; Candlin, D. J.; Parsons, M. I.; Focardi, E.; Parrini, G.; Corden, M.; Georgiopoulos, C.; Jaffe, D. E.; Antonelli, A.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Bossi, F.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Casper, D.; Chiarella, V.; Felici, G.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G. P.; Passalacqua, L.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Curtis, L.; Dorris, S. J.; Halley, A. W.; Knowles, I. G.; Lynch, J. G.; O'Shea, V.; Raine, C.; Reeves, P.; Scarr, J. M.; Smith, K.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomson, F.; Thorn, S.; Turnbull, R. M.; Becker, U.; Geweniger, C.; Graefe, G.; Hanke, P.; Hansper, G.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E. E.; Putzer, A.; Rensch, B.; Schmidt, M.; Sommer, J.; Stenzel, H.; Tittel, K.; Werner, S.; Wunsch, M.; Abbaneo, D.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D. M.; Cameron, W.; Dornan, P. J.; Moutoussi, A.; Nash, J.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Stacey, A. M.; Williams, M. D.; Dissertori, G.; Girtler, P.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Betteridge, A. P.; Bowdery, C. K.; Colrain, P.; Crawford, G.; Finch, A. J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Sloan, T.; Williams, M. I.; Galla, A.; Greene, A. M.; Kleinknecht, K.; Quast, G.; Renk, B.; Rohne, E.; Sander, H.-G.; van Gemmeren, P.; Zeitnitz, C.; Aubert, J. J.; Bencheikh, A. M.; Benchouk, C.; Bonissent, A.; Bujosa, G.; Calvet, D.; Carr, J.; Diaconu, C.; Etienne, F.; Konstantinidis, N.; Payre, P.; Rousseau, D.; Talby, M.; Sadouki, A.; Thulasidas, M.; Trabelsi, K.; Aleppo, M.; Ragusa, F.; Abt, I.; Assmann, R.; Bauer, C.; Blum, W.; Dietl, H.; Dydak, F.; Ganis, G.; Gotzhein, C.; Jakobs, K.; Kroha, H.; Lütjens, G.; Lutz, G.; Männer, W.; Moser, H.-G.; Richter, R.; Rosado-Schlosser, A.; Schael, S.; Settles, R.; Seywerd, H.; Denis, R. St.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wolf, G.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Cordier, A.; Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Heusse, Ph.; Jacquet, M.; Kim, D. W.; Le Diberder, F.; Lefrançois, J.; Lutz, A.-M.; Nikolic, I.; Park, H. J.; Park, I. C.; Schune, M.-H.; Simion, S.; Veillet, J.-J.; Videau, I.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bozzi, C.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Ciocci, M. A.; Ciulli, V.; Dell'Orso, R.; Fantechi, R.; Ferrante, I.; Foà, L.; Forti, F.; Giassi, A.; Giorgi, M. A.; Gregorio, A.; Ligabue, F.; Lusiani, A.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Messineo, A.; Rizzo, G.; Sanguinetti, G.; Sciabà, A.; Spagnolo, P.; Steinberger, J.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Vannini, C.; Verdini, P. G.; Walsh, J.; Blair, G. A.; Bryant, L. M.; Cerutti, F.; Chambers, J. T.; Gao, Y.; Green, M. G.; Medcalf, T.; Perrodo, P.; Strong, J. A.; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J. H.; Botterill, D. R.; Clifft, R. W.; Edgecock, T. R.; Haywood, S.; Maley, P.; Norton, P. R.; Thompson, J. C.; Wright, A. E.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Colas, P.; Emery, S.; Kozanecki, W.; Lançon, E.; Lemaire, M. C.; Locci, E.; Marx, B.; Perez, P.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J.-F.; Roussarie, A.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schwindling, J.; Trabelsi, A.; Vallage, B.; Black, S. N.; Dann, J. H.; Johnson, R. P.; Kim, H. Y.; Litke, A. M.; McNeil, M. A.; Taylor, G.; Booth, C. N.; Boswell, R.; Brew, C. A. J.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Koksal, A.; Letho, M.; Newton, W. M.; Reeve, J.; Thompson, L. F.; Böhrer, A.; Brandt, S.; Büscher, V.; Cowan, G.; Grupen, C.; Lutters, G.; Minguet-Rodriguez, J.; Rivera, F.; Saraiva, P.; Smolik, L.; Stephan, F.; Apollonio, M.; Bosisio, L.; Della Marina, R.; Giannini, G.; Gobbo, B.; Musolino, G.; Rothberg, J.; Wasserbaech, S.; Armstrong, S. R.; Bellantoni, L.; Elmer, P.; Feng, Z.; Ferguson, D. P. S.; Gao, Y. S.; González, S.; Grahl, J.; Greening, T. C.; Harton, J. L.; Hayes, O. J.; Hu, H.; McNamara, P. A.; Nachtman, J. M.; Orejudos, W.; Pan, Y. B.; Saadi, Y.; Schmitt, M.; Scott, I. J.; Sharma, V.; Walsh, A. M.; Sau Lan Wu; Wu, X.; Yamartino, J. M.; Zheng, M.; Zobernig, G.; Aleph Collaboration

    1996-02-01

    The B 0 - B¯ 0 average mixing parameter overlineχ and b forward-backward asymmetry A FB0(b) are measured from a sample of about 4 200 000 Z → qq¯ events recorded with the ALEPH detector at LEP in the years 1990-1995. High transverse momentum electrons and muons produced in b semileptonic decays provide the tag of the quark flavour and of its charge. The average mixing parameter and the pole b asymmetry are measured to be overlineχ = 0.1246 ± 0.0051 stat ± 0.0052 syst, A FB0(b) = 0.1008 ± 0.0043 stat ± 0.0028 syst. The value of sin 2θ weff = 0.23198 ± 0.00092 is extracted from the asymmetry measurement.

  9. Dual radio frequency plasma source: Understanding via electrical asymmetry effect

    SciTech Connect

    Bora, B.; Bhuyan, H.; Favre, M.; Wyndham, E.; Wong, C. S.

    2013-04-21

    On the basis of the global model, the influences of driving voltage and frequency on electron heating in geometrically symmetrical dual capacitively coupled radio frequency plasma have been investigated. Consistent with the experimental and simulation results, non-monotonic behavior of dc self bias and plasma heating with increasing high frequency is observed. In addition to the local maxima of plasma parameters for the integer values of the ratio between the frequencies ({xi}), ourstudies also predict local maxima for odd integer values of 2{xi} as a consequence of the electrical asymmetry effect produced by dual frequency voltage sources.

  10. Di-hadron asymmetry and interplay between transversity induced asymmetries in hadron leptoproduction at COMPASS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sbrizzai, Giulio

    2016-02-01

    New results on the transverse spin azimuthal asymmetries in semi-inclusive DIS reactions extracted by the COMPASS Collaboration from the data collected with a transversely polarised proton target are presented. A noticeable similarity between the Collins asymmetry and the dihadron asymmetry, already been observed and reported, triggered a more deep investigation on the angular correlations and the relevant kinematical variables. The resulting phenomenological analysis of the transversity induced asymmetries, presented in this talk, allows to establish quantitative relationships, providing strong indication that the underlying fragmentation mechanisms are all driven by a common physical process.

  11. [Intrinsically Photosensitive Retinal Ganglion Cells].

    PubMed

    Skorkovská, K; Skorkovská, Š

    2015-06-01

    Recently discovered intrinsically photosensitive melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells contribute to circadian photoentrainment and pupillary constriction; recent works have also brought new evidence for their accessory role in the visual system in humans. Pupil light reaction driven by individual photoreceptors can be isolated by means of the so called chromatic pupillography. The use of chromatic stimuli to elicit different pupillary responses may become an objective clinical pupil test in the detection of retinal diseases and in assessing new therapeutic approaches particularly in hereditary retinal degenerations like retinitis pigmentosa. In advanced stages of disease, the pupil light reaction is even more sensitive than standard electroretinography for detecting residual levels of photoreceptor activity. This review summarizes current knowledge on intrinsically photosensitive retinal cells and highlights its possible implications for clinical practice. PMID:26201360

  12. Baryon asymmetry, inflation and squeezed states

    SciTech Connect

    Bambah, Bindu A. . E-mail: bbsp@uohyd.ernet.in; Chaitanya, K.V.S. Shiv; Mukku, C.

    2007-04-15

    We use the general formalism of squeezed rotated states to calculate baryon asymmetry in the wake of inflation through parametric amplification. We base our analysis on a B and CP violating Lagrangian in an isotropically expanding universe. The B and CP violating terms originate from the coupling of complex fields with non-zero baryon number to a complex background inflaton field. We show that a differential amplification of particle and antiparticle modes gives rise to baryon asymmetry.

  13. Case report: treatment of dental asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Bergamini, A; Melsen, B

    1995-01-01

    The treatment of dental asymmetries often comprises several treatment alternatives. This case report describes the treatment alternatives for an asymmetry generated secondary to surgical removal of an odontoma that included the germ of the lower left lateral incisor. The opening of the space was chosen based on the patient's wish. The asymmetrical biomechanical force system used for the correction of the midline is presented as free-body diagram. PMID:7486238

  14. Intrinsic Control of Axon Regeneration.

    PubMed

    He, Zhigang; Jin, Yishi

    2016-05-01

    A determinant of axon regeneration is the intrinsic growth ability of injured neurons, which dictates a battery of injury responses in axons and cell bodies. While some of these regulatory mechanisms are evolutionarily conserved, others are unique to the mammalian central nervous system (CNS) where spontaneous regeneration usually does not occur. Here we examine our current understanding of these mechanisms at cellular and molecular terms and discuss their potential implications for promoting axon regeneration and functional recovery after nerve injury. PMID:27151637

  15. Quasar redshifts: the intrinsic component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Peter M.

    2016-09-01

    The large observed redshift of quasars has suggested large cosmological distances and a corresponding enormous energy output to explain the brightness or luminosity as seen at earth. Alternative or complementary sources of redshift have not been identified by the astronomical community. This study examines one possible source of additional redshift: an intrinsic component based on the plasma characteristics of high temperature and high electron density which are believed to be present.

  16. Decoherence: Intrinsic, Extrinsic, and Environmental

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamp, Philip

    2012-02-01

    Environmental decoherence times have been difficult to predict in solid-state systems. In spin systems, environmental decoherence is predicted to arise from nuclear spins, spin-phonon interactions, and long-range dipolar interactions [1]. Recent experiments have confirmed these predictions quantitatively in crystals of Fe8 molecules [2]. Coherent spin dynamics was observed over macroscopic volumes, with a decoherence Q-factor Qφ= 1.5 x10^6 (the upper predicted limit in this system being Qφ= 6 x10^7). Decoherence from dipolar interactions is particularly complex, and depends on the shape and the quantum state of the system. No extrinsic ``noise'' decoherence was observed. The generalization to quantum dot and superconducting qubit systems is also discussed. We then discuss searches for ``intrinsic'' decoherence [3,4], coming from non-linear corrections to quantum mechanics. Particular attention is paid to condensed matter tests of such intrinsic decoherence, in hybrid spin/optomechanical systems, and to ways of distinguishing intrinsic decoherence from environmental and extrinsic decoherence sources. [4pt] [1] Morello, A. Stamp, P. C. E. & Tupitsyn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 207206 (2006).[0pt] [2] S. Takahashi et al., Nature 476, 76 (2011).[0pt] [3] Stamp, P. C. E., Stud. Hist. Phil. Mod. Phys. 37, 467 (2006). [0pt] [4] Stamp, P.C.E., Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. A (to be published)

  17. Troponins, intrinsic disorder, and cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Na, Insung; Kong, Min J; Straight, Shelby; Pinto, Jose R; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2016-08-01

    Cardiac troponin is a dynamic complex of troponin C, troponin I, and troponin T (TnC, TnI, and TnT, respectively) found in the myocyte thin filament where it plays an essential role in cardiac muscle contraction. Mutations in troponin subunits are found in inherited cardiomyopathies, such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). The highly dynamic nature of human cardiac troponin and presence of numerous flexible linkers in its subunits suggest that understanding of structural and functional properties of this important complex can benefit from the consideration of the protein intrinsic disorder phenomenon. We show here that mutations causing decrease in the disorder score in TnI and TnT are significantly more abundant in HCM and DCM than mutations leading to the increase in the disorder score. Identification and annotation of intrinsically disordered regions in each of the troponin subunits conducted in this study can help in better understanding of the roles of intrinsic disorder in regulation of interactomes and posttranslational modifications of these proteins. These observations suggest that disease-causing mutations leading to a decrease in the local flexibility of troponins can trigger a whole plethora of functional changes in the heart. PMID:27074551

  18. Experimental Tests on the Lifetime Asymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Zhi-Qiang; Ni, Guang-Jiong

    The experimental test problem of the left-right polarization-dependent lifetime asymmetry is discussed. It shows that the existing experiments cannot demonstrate the lifetime asymmetry to be right or wrong after analyzing the measurements on the neutron, the muon and the tau lifetime, as well as the g-2 experiment. However, it is pointed out emphatically that the SLD and the E158 experiments, the measurements of the left-right integrated cross section asymmetry in Z boson production by e+e- collisions and by electron-electron Møller scattering, can indirectly demonstrate the lifetime asymmetry. In order to directly demonstrate the lifetime asymmetry, we propose some possible experiments on the decays of polarized muons. The precise measurement of the lifetime asymmetry could have important significance for building a muon collider, also in cosmology and astrophysics. It would provide a sensitive test of the standard model in particle physics and allow for exploration of the possible V+A interactions.

  19. Broca's area: nomenclature, anatomy, typology and asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Keller, Simon S; Crow, Timothy; Foundas, Anne; Amunts, Katrin; Roberts, Neil

    2009-04-01

    In this review, we (i) describe the nomenclature of Broca's area and show how the circumscribed definition of Broca's area is disassociated from Broca's aphasia, (ii) describe in detail how the gross anatomy of Broca's area varies between people, and how the definitions vary between studies, (iii) attempt to reconcile the findings of structural asymmetry of Broca's area with the differences in methodological approaches, (iv) consider the functional significance of cytoarchitectonic definitions of Broca's area, and (v) critically elucidate the significance of circumscribed regions of cortex for language lateralisation and language development. Contrary to what has previously been reported in the literature, asymmetry of Broca's area has not been reproducibly demonstrated, particularly on a gross morphological level. This may be due to major inconsistencies in methodology (including different anatomical boundaries, measurement techniques and samples studied) or that the sulcal contours defining Broca's area are so naturally variable between people making a standard definition difficult. Cytoarchitectonic analyses more often than not report leftward asymmetry of some component of area 44 and/or area 45. If a structural asymmetry of Broca's area does exist, it is variable, which differs from that of the functional asymmetry of language, which is more consistent. One reason for this might be that the link between cellular architecture, connectivity and language function still remains to be elucidated. There is currently no convincing explanation to associate asymmetry of Broca's area with the lateralisation of language. PMID:19155059

  20. Cryptic asymmetry: unreliable signals mask asymmetric performance of crayfish weapons.

    PubMed

    Angilletta, Michael J; Wilson, Robbie S

    2012-08-23

    Animals commonly use their limbs as signals and weapons during territorial aggression. Asymmetries of limb performance that do not relate to asymmetries of limb size (cryptic asymmetry) could substantially affect disputes, but this phenomenon has not been considered beyond primates. We investigated cryptic asymmetry in male crayfish (Cherax dispar), which commonly use unreliable signals of strength during aggression. Although the strength of a chela can vary by an order of magnitude for a given size, we found repeatable asymmetries of strength that were only weakly related to asymmetries of size. Size-adjusted strength of chelae and the asymmetry of strength between chelae were highly repeatable between environmental conditions, suggesting that asymmetries of strength stemmed from variation in capacity rather than motivation. Cryptic asymmetry adds another dimension of uncertainty during conflict between animals, which could influence the evolution of unreliable signals and morphological asymmetry. PMID:22417793

  1. Cryptic asymmetry: unreliable signals mask asymmetric performance of crayfish weapons

    PubMed Central

    Angilletta, Michael J.; Wilson, Robbie S.

    2012-01-01

    Animals commonly use their limbs as signals and weapons during territorial aggression. Asymmetries of limb performance that do not relate to asymmetries of limb size (cryptic asymmetry) could substantially affect disputes, but this phenomenon has not been considered beyond primates. We investigated cryptic asymmetry in male crayfish (Cherax dispar), which commonly use unreliable signals of strength during aggression. Although the strength of a chela can vary by an order of magnitude for a given size, we found repeatable asymmetries of strength that were only weakly related to asymmetries of size. Size-adjusted strength of chelae and the asymmetry of strength between chelae were highly repeatable between environmental conditions, suggesting that asymmetries of strength stemmed from variation in capacity rather than motivation. Cryptic asymmetry adds another dimension of uncertainty during conflict between animals, which could influence the evolution of unreliable signals and morphological asymmetry. PMID:22417793

  2. A robust quantification of galaxy cluster morphology using asymmetry and central concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Nurgaliev, D.; Stubbs, C. W.; McDonald, M.; Miller, E. D.; Benson, B. A.; Vikhlinin, A.

    2013-12-20

    We present a novel quantitative scheme of cluster classification based on the morphological properties that are manifested in X-ray images. We use a conventional radial surface brightness concentration parameter (c {sub SB}) as defined previously by others and a new asymmetry parameter, which we define in this paper. Our asymmetry parameter, which we refer to as photon asymmetry (A {sub phot}), was developed as a robust substructure statistic for cluster observations with only a few thousand counts. To demonstrate that photon asymmetry exhibits better stability than currently popular power ratios and centroid shifts, we artificially degrade the X-ray image quality by (1) adding extra background counts, (2) eliminating a fraction of the counts, (3) increasing the width of the smoothing kernel, and (4) simulating cluster observations at higher redshift. The asymmetry statistic presented here has a smaller statistical uncertainty than competing substructure parameters, allowing for low levels of substructure to be measured with confidence. A {sub phot} is less sensitive to the total number of counts than competing substructure statistics, making it an ideal candidate for quantifying substructure in samples of distant clusters covering a wide range of observational signal-to-noise ratios. Additionally, we show that the asymmetry-concentration classification separates relaxed, cool-core clusters from morphologically disturbed mergers, in agreement with by-eye classifications. Our algorithms, freely available as Python scripts (https://github.com/ndaniyar/aphot), are completely automatic and can be used to rapidly classify galaxy cluster morphology for large numbers of clusters without human intervention.

  3. Phenomenological analysis of azimuthal asymmetries in unpolarized semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barone, V.; Boglione, M.; Gonzalez Hernandez, J. O.; Melis, S.

    2015-04-01

    We present a phenomenological analysis of the cos ϕ and cos 2 ϕ asymmetries in unpolarized semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering, based on the recent multidimensional data released by the COMPASS and HERMES collaborations. In the transverse-momentum-dependent framework, valid at relatively low transverse momenta, these asymmetries arise from intrinsic transverse momentum and transverse spin effects, and from their correlations. The role of the Cahn and Boer-Mulders effects in both azimuthal moments is explored up to order 1 /Q . As the kinematics of the present experiments is dominated by the low-Q2 region, higher-twist contributions turn out to be important, affecting the results of our fits.

  4. Localization of intrinsic factor and complement fixing intrinsic factor–intrinsic factor antibody complex in parietal cell of man

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Elizabeth; Glass, G. B. J.

    1971-01-01

    In an attempt to localize intrinsic factor in the human parietal cell, and to study its intracellular union with the intrinsic factor antibody and complement, intrinsic factor antibody was separated from coexisting parietal cell antibody in pernicious anaemia sera by gel filtration. Intrinsic factor antibody of both `binding' and `blocking' type was also produced in rabbits by immunization with semi-purified human intrinsic factor–[57Co]B12 complex. Intrinsic factor antibody obtained from both sources produced fluorescence in the human parietal cells in the indirect Coons' test in the presence of fluoresceinated anti-human IgG. The fluorescence was localized peripherally, at the cell membrane. When instead of the fluoresceinated anti-human IgG a fluoresceinated anti-human complement (C) serum and normal complement containing serum were used, intrinsic factor antibody from both sources produced fluorescence of the entire parietal cell cytoplasm of the human mucosa. Thus, intrinsic factor was localized at highest concentration at the membrane of the parietal cell in man, the intrinsic factor antibody–intrinsic factor complex was demonstrated within the human parietal cell, and evidence was obtained that this antigen–antibody complex fixes complement (C). The possible role of the intrinsic factor–intrinsic factor antibody–complement complex in the development of gastric atrophy in pernicious anaemia has been considered. ImagesFIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5 PMID:4995933

  5. Intrinsic versus extrinsic variability of analogue sand-box experiments - Insights from statistical analysis of repeated accretionary sand wedge experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santimano, Tasca; Rosenau, Matthias; Oncken, Onno

    2015-06-01

    Analogue models are not perfectly reproducible even under controlled boundary conditions which make their interpretation and application not always straight forward. As any scientific experiment they include some random component which can be influenced both by intrinsic (inherent processes) and extrinsic (boundary conditions, material properties) sources. In order to help in the assessment of analogue model results, we discriminate and quantify the intrinsic versus extrinsic variability of results from "sandbox" models of accretionary wedges that were repeated in a controlled environment. The extrinsic source of variability, i.e. the parameter varied is the nature of the décollement (material, friction and thickness). Experiment observables include geometric properties of the faults (lifetime, spacing, dip) as well as wedge geometry (height, slope, length). For each variable we calculated the coefficient of variance (CV) and quantified the variability as a symmetric distribution (Normal, Laplacian) or asymmetric distribution (Gamma) using a Chi squared test (χ2). Observables like fault dip/back thrust dip (CV = 0.6-0.7/0.2-0.6) are less variable and decrease in magnitude with decreasing basal friction. Variables that are time dependent like fault lifetime (CV = 0.19-0.56) and fault spacing (CV = 0.12 - 0.36) have a higher CV consequently affecting the variability of wedge slope (CV = 0.12-0.33). These observables also increase in magnitude with increasing basal friction. As the mechanical complexity of the evolving wedge increases over time so does the CV and asymmetry of the distribution. In addition, we confirm the repeatability of experiments using an ANOVA test. Through the statistical analysis of results from repeated experiments we present a tool to quantify variability and an alternative method to gaining better insights into the dynamic mechanics of deformation in analogue sand wedges.

  6. Probing intrinsic anisotropies of fluorescence: Mueller matrix approach.

    PubMed

    Saha, Sudipta; Soni, Jalpa; Chandel, Shubham; Kumar, Uday; Ghosh, Nirmalya

    2015-08-01

    We demonstrate that information on “intrinsic” anisotropies of fluorescence originating from preferential orientation/organization of fluorophore molecules can be probed using a Mueller matrix of fluorescence. For this purpose, we have developed a simplified model to decouple and separately quantify the depolarization property and the intrinsic anisotropy properties of fluorescence from the experimentally measured fluorescence Mueller matrix. Unlike the traditionally defined fluorescence anisotropy parameter, the Mueller matrix-derived fluorescence polarization metrics, namely, fluorescence diattenuation and polarizance parameters, exclusively deal with the intrinsic anisotropies of fluorescence. The utility of these newly derived fluorescence polarimetry parameters is demonstrated on model systems exhibiting multiple polarimetry effects, and an interesting example is illustrated on biomedically important fluorophores, collagen. PMID:26301796

  7. On the NuTeV anomaly and the asymmetry of the strange sea in the nucleon

    SciTech Connect

    Wakamatsu, M.

    2005-03-01

    Our recent theoretical analysis based on the flavor SU(3) chiral quark soliton model predicts fairly large particle-antiparticle asymmetry of the strange sea in the nucleon. We point out that the predicted magnitude of asymmetry is large enough to solely resolve the so-called NuTeV anomaly on the fundamental parameter sin{sup 2}{theta}{sub W} in the standard model.

  8. The electrical asymmetry effect in capacitive discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czarnetzki, Uwe

    2009-10-01

    One of the major demands in plasma processing has always been the independent control of ion energy and ion flux. Dual-frequency capacitive discharges with one low and one typically an order of magnitude higher frequency are one of the concepts presently applied in industry. However, recent investigations have shown that there is in fact a coupling between the two frequency components that limits independent control by the two RF powers. Here, a novel concept is introduced based on the electrical asymmetry effect (EAE) that provides simple and stable control of ion energy and flux in an almost ideally independent way [1]. Also here two RF frequencies are applied but with the second frequency being exactly the second harmonic of the first and with a fixed but controllable phase. This phase is the control parameter for the ion energy that changes approximately linearly with the phase. Geometrically symmetric discharges can be made effectively asymmetric with one electrode showing a higher sheath potential than the other. Choosing the proper phase allows then to reverse the situation or to make the discharge symmetric. In geometrically asymmetric discharges the wall potential can be raised or lowered. When tuning the phase, the flux stays approximately constant and its absolute value can be set with the RF amplitudes. The concept of the EAE is developed and analyzed by 1) an analytical model, 2) a hydrodynamic and Monte-Carlo (MC) simulation, 3) a self consistent PIC/MC simulation, and 4) an experimental verification in a laboratory experiment. All four approaches show excellent agreement and confirm the above advantages. The technique has found successful application already in an industrial reactor for large area solar cell production (Leybold Optics). Compared to the standard single frequency case at 13.56 MHz the silicon deposition rate was easily more than doubled and the homogeneity improved. [4pt] [1] Brian G. Heil, U. Czarnetzki, R. P. Brinkmann, T

  9. Intraday Variability: Intrinsic or Extrinsic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarma Kuchibhotla, Huthavahana; Lister, Matthew; Homan, Dan; Kellermann, Ken; Aller, Hugh; Aller, Margo; Agudo, Ivan; Arshakian, Tigran; Kovalev, Yuri; Lobanov, Andrew; Pushkarev, Alexander; Ros, Eduardo; Savolainen, Tuomas; Zensus, Tony; Kadler, Matthias; Vermeulen, Rene; Gehrels, Neil; McEnery, Julie; Sambruna, Rita; Tueller, Jack; Cohen, Marshall; Hovatta, Talvikki; Kharb, Preeti; Cooper, Nathan; Hogan, Brandon; Cara, Mihai

    A significant fraction of flat spectrum AGN exhibit rapid variability both in total intensity as well as polarization at cm wavelengths, on time scales ranging from a few hours to a few days, a phenomenon termed Intra Day Variability (IDV). The physical process responsible for this behavior is not well understood, though various models ranging from source-intrinsic (e.g., shock-in-jet) to source-extrinsic (e.g., scintillation due to electron density fl uctuations in the interstellar medium) have been proposed. The absence of multi-epoch data (especially at 2 cm) further exacerbates the situation. We present the results of analysis of archival VLBA data for a flux density limited sample of bright, flat spectrum AGN located predominantly in the north-ern sky, collected under the MOJAVE program. We find a clear detection of IDV in 25% of the 365 sources analyzed. We find significant differences in the IDV properties of quasars and true BL Lacs. Intermediate BL Lac objects, so classified due to the presence of broad lines in their optical spectra, have IDV characteristics similar to those of quasars. As expected, the presum-able weakly beamed CSS/GPS sources show no IDV. We find IDV properties to be correlated with source intrinsic properties such as Brightness temperature/Doppler factor and apparent speed. Episodes of IDV activity associated with radio flaring and/or component ejection have also been observed, suggesting an intrinsic mechanism at work. However, we also find IDV to be strongly correlated with the galactic latitude position of the source, indicative of a scintil-lation mechanism. However, we find no correlation between IDV and the observing day of the year, IDV and redshift of the source. We propose a qualitative model to explain all these results. The program is supported under the NSF grant 080786-AST and NASA grant NNX08AV67G.

  10. Effects of Optical Blur Reduction on Equivalent Intrinsic Blur

    PubMed Central

    Valeshabad, Ali Kord; Wanek, Justin; McAnany, J. Jason; Shahidi, Mahnaz

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the effect of optical blur reduction on equivalent intrinsic blur, an estimate of the blur within the visual system, by comparing optical and equivalent intrinsic blur before and after adaptive optics (AO) correction of wavefront error. Methods Twelve visually normal individuals (age; 31 ± 12 years) participated in this study. Equivalent intrinsic blur (σint) was derived using a previously described model. Optical blur (σopt) due to high-order aberrations was quantified by Shack-Hartmann aberrometry and minimized using AO correction of wavefront error. Results σopt and σint were significantly reduced and visual acuity (VA) was significantly improved after AO correction (P ≤ 0.004). Reductions in σopt and σint were linearly dependent on the values before AO correction (r ≥ 0.94, P ≤ 0.002). The reduction in σint was greater than the reduction in σopt, although it was marginally significant (P = 0.05). σint after AO correlated significantly with σint before AO (r = 0.92, P < 0.001) and the two parameters were related linearly with a slope of 0.46. Conclusions Reduction in equivalent intrinsic blur was greater than the reduction in optical blur due to AO correction of wavefront error. This finding implies that VA in subjects with high equivalent intrinsic blur can be improved beyond that expected from the reduction in optical blur alone. PMID:25785538

  11. An intrinsic timer specifies distal structures of the vertebrate limb

    PubMed Central

    Saiz-Lopez, Patricia; Chinnaiya, Kavitha; Campa, Victor M.; Delgado, Irene; Ros, Maria A.; Towers, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    How the positional values along the proximo-distal axis (stylopod-zeugopod-autopod) of the limb are specified is intensely debated. Early work suggested that cells intrinsically change their proximo-distal positional values by measuring time. Recently, however, it is suggested that instructive extrinsic signals from the trunk and apical ectodermal ridge specify the stylopod and zeugopod/autopod, respectively. Here, we show that the zeugopod and autopod are specified by an intrinsic timing mechanism. By grafting green fluorescent protein-expressing cells from early to late chick wing buds, we demonstrate that distal mesenchyme cells intrinsically time Hoxa13 expression, cell cycle parameters and the duration of the overlying apical ectodermal ridge. In addition, we reveal that cell affinities intrinsically change in the distal mesenchyme, which we suggest results in a gradient of positional values along the proximo-distal axis. We propose a complete model in which a switch from extrinsic signalling to intrinsic timing patterns the vertebrate limb. PMID:26381580

  12. Nuclear Filtering of Intrinsic Charm

    SciTech Connect

    Kopeliovich, B. Z.; Potashnikova, I. K.; Schmidt, Ivan

    2010-11-12

    Nuclei are transparent for a heavy intrinsic charm (IC) component of the beam hadrons, what leads to an enhanced nuclear dependence of open charm production at large Feynman x{sub F}. Indeed, such an effect is supported by data from the SELEX experiment published recently [1]. Our calculations reproduce well the data, providing strong support for the presence of IC in hadrons in amount less than 1%. Moreover, we performed an analysis of nuclear effects in J/{Psi} production and found at large x{sub F} a similar, albeit weaker effect, which does not contradict data.

  13. Balance Training Exercises Decrease Lower-Limb Strength Asymmetry in Young Tennis Players

    PubMed Central

    Sannicandro, Italo; Cofano, Giacomo; Rosa, Rosa A.; Piccinno, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The issue of functional asymmetries in the lower-limbs has been the subject of numerous recent investigations concerning many different contact, limited-contact and non-contact sports. The presence of strength asymmetries in the lower-limbs of young athletes practicing various sporting disciplines is considered an intrinsic risk factor for injury; in such cases, compensation strategies should thus be implemented aimed at eliminating, or at least limiting, the degree of asymmetry in order to avoid the negative consequences asymmetries can have upon the health of young sportsmen and women on the long-term. The aim of the present study was to examine the presence of functional asymmetries in the lower-limbs of young tennis players in strength and speed drill performance and to test a specific balance-training programme in its capacity to effectively reduce such asymmetries. Twenty-three young tennis players were randomly assigned to the Experimental Group (EG) (n = 11: 4 females, 7 males; 13.2 ± 0.9 years; 50.8 ± 8.9 Kg; 1.63 ± 0.08 m) or Comparison Group (CG) (n = 12: 4 females, 8 males; 13.0 ± 0.9 years; 51.1 ± 9.2 Kg; 1.61 ± 0.09 m). To quantify percent asymmetries in lower-limb strength before (T0) and following (T1) training, performances were assessed in the one-leg hop test (OLH), side-hop test (SH) and side steps and forward 4.115-m test (4m-SSF). Performances in the 10 and 20m sprint tests and the Foran test were also assessed. The EG completed a total of 12 training sessions directed at balance training: two 30-minute sessions/week over a 6-week period. The CG followed an identical training schedule, but training sessions consisted of tennis-specific drills only. The results reveal significant differences between pre- and post-training tests in the EG only: the degree of lower-limb asymmetry was decreased in the EG following completion of the training programme, as assessed using the OLH test (p < 0.001), SH test (p < 0.001) and 4m-SSF test (p < 0

  14. Measurement of azimuthal asymmetries of the unpolarized cross section at HERMES

    SciTech Connect

    Giordano, Francesca; Lamb, Rebecca

    2009-08-04

    A multi-dimensional (x, y, z, P{sub hperpendicular}) extraction of cos {phi}{sub h} and cos 2{phi}{sub h} azimuthal asymmetries of unpolarized Semi-Inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering at HERMES is discussed. The use of data taken with hydrogen and deuterium targets and the separation of positive and negative hadrons allow to access flavor-dependent information about quark intrinsic transverse momenta and spin-orbit correlations. This flavor sensitivity allows for a discrimination between theoretical models in the HERMES kinematic regime.

  15. Toroidal current asymmetry in tokamak disruptions

    SciTech Connect

    Strauss, H. R.

    2014-10-15

    It was discovered on JET that disruptions were accompanied by toroidal asymmetry of the toroidal plasma current I{sub ϕ}. It was found that the toroidal current asymmetry was proportional to the vertical current moment asymmetry with positive sign for an upward vertical displacement event (VDE) and negative sign for a downward VDE. It was observed that greater displacement leads to greater measured I{sub ϕ} asymmetry. Here, it is shown that this is essentially a kinematic effect produced by a VDE interacting with three dimensional MHD perturbations. The relation of toroidal current asymmetry and vertical current moment is calculated analytically and is verified by numerical simulations. It is shown analytically that the toroidal variation of the toroidal plasma current is accompanied by an equal and opposite variation of the toroidal current flowing in a thin wall surrounding the plasma. These currents are connected by 3D halo current, which is π/2 radians out of phase with the n = 1 toroidal current variations.

  16. Measurement of Collins asymmetry at BESIII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyu, Xiao-Rui

    2016-02-01

    In this talk, I present the recent measurement of the Collins fragmentation function based on a set of 62 pb-1 e+e- annihilation data at √s = 3.65 GeV collected with the BESIII detector at the BEPCII storage rings. In this work, the azimuthal asymmetries of two charged pions in the inclusive process e+e- → ππX are explored. These asymmetries can be attributed to the Collins fragmentation function, which describes the behavior of a hadron produced from a transversely polarized quark. The corresponding four-momentum transfer of the virtual photon, Q2, is close to the energy scale of the existing semi-inclusive DIS experimental data. We observe a nonzero asymmetry, which increases with increasing pion momentum and also indicates a larger spin-dependent Collins effect than at higher energy scale. The dependence of the asymmetry on the transverse momentum of hadrons to the reference axis is also investigated. The measured asymmetries are important inputs for the global analysis of extracting the quark transversity distribution inside the nucleon, and are valuable to explore the energy evolution of the spin-dependent fragmentation function.

  17. Quantum asymmetry between time and space

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    An asymmetry exists between time and space in the sense that physical systems inevitably evolve over time, whereas there is no corresponding ubiquitous translation over space. The asymmetry, which is presumed to be elemental, is represented by equations of motion and conservation laws that operate differently over time and space. If, however, the asymmetry was found to be due to deeper causes, this conventional view of time evolution would need reworking. Here we show, using a sum-over-paths formalism, that a violation of time reversal (T) symmetry might be such a cause. If T symmetry is obeyed, then the formalism treats time and space symmetrically such that states of matter are localized both in space and in time. In this case, equations of motion and conservation laws are undefined or inapplicable. However, if T symmetry is violated, then the same sum over paths formalism yields states that are localized in space and distributed without bound over time, creating an asymmetry between time and space. Moreover, the states satisfy an equation of motion (the Schrödinger equation) and conservation laws apply. This suggests that the time–space asymmetry is not elemental as currently presumed, and that T violation may have a deep connection with time evolution. PMID:26997899

  18. Asymmetry of the Brain: Development and Implications.

    PubMed

    Duboc, Véronique; Dufourcq, Pascale; Blader, Patrick; Roussigné, Myriam

    2015-01-01

    Although the left and right hemispheres of our brains develop with a high degree of symmetry at both the anatomical and functional levels, it has become clear that subtle structural differences exist between the two sides and that each is dominant in processing specific cognitive tasks. As the result of evolutionary conservation or convergence, lateralization of the brain is found in both vertebrates and invertebrates, suggesting that it provides significant fitness for animal life. This widespread feature of hemispheric specialization has allowed the emergence of model systems to study its development and, in some cases, to link anatomical asymmetries to brain function and behavior. Here, we present some of what is known about brain asymmetry in humans and model organisms as well as what is known about the impact of environmental and genetic factors on brain asymmetry development. We specifically highlight the progress made in understanding the development of epithalamic asymmetries in zebrafish and how this model provides an exciting opportunity to address brain asymmetry at different levels of complexity. PMID:26442849

  19. Least Asymmetry Centering Method and Comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lust, Nate B.; Britt, Daniel; Harrington, Joseph; Nymeyer, Sarah; Stevenson, Kevin B.; Ross, Emily L.; Bowman, William; Fraine, Jonathan

    2014-12-01

    The interpretation of astronomical photometry, astrometry, and orbit determination data depends on accurately and consistently identifying the center of the target object's photometric point spread function in the presence of noise. We introduce a new technique, called least asymmetry, which is designed to find the point about which the distribution is most symmetric. This technique, in addition to the commonly used techniques Gaussian fitting and center of light, was tested against synthetic datasets under realistic ranges of noise and photometric gain. With subpixel accuracy, we compare the determined centers to the known centers and evaluate each method against the simulated conditions. We find that in most cases center of light performs the worst, while Gaussian fitting and least asymmetry are alternately better under different circumstances. Using a real point response function with "reasonable signal-to-noise," we find that least asymmetry provides the most accurate center estimates, and Gaussian centering is the most precise. The least asymmetry routine implemented in the Python Programming Language can be found at https://github.com/natelust/least_asymmetry.

  20. Weak ENSO asymmetry due to weak nonlinear air-sea interaction in CMIP5 climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yan; Wang, Fan; Sun, De-Zheng

    2016-03-01

    State-of-the-art climate models have long-standing intrinsic biases that limit their simulation and projection capabilities. Significantly weak ENSO asymmetry and weakly nonlinear air-sea interaction over the tropical Pacific was found in CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, Phase 5) climate models compared with observation. The results suggest that a weak nonlinear air-sea interaction may play a role in the weak ENSO asymmetry. Moreover, a weak nonlinearity in air-sea interaction in the models may be associated with the biases in the mean climate—the cold biases in the equatorial central Pacific. The excessive cold tongue bias pushes the deep convection far west to the western Pacific warm pool region and suppresses its development in the central equatorial Pacific. The deep convection has difficulties in further moving to the eastern equatorial Pacific, especially during extreme El Ni˜no events, which confines the westerly wind anomaly to the western Pacific. This weakens the eastern Pacific El Ni˜no events, especially the extreme El Ni˜no events, and thus leads to the weakened ENSO asymmetry in climate models. An accurate mean state structure (especially a realistic cold tongue and deep convection) is critical to reproducing ENSO events in climate models. Our evaluation also revealed that ENSO statistics in CMIP5 climate models are slightly improved compared with those of CMIP3. The weak ENSO asymmetry in CMIP5 is closer to the observation. It is more evident in CMIP5 that strong ENSO activities are usually accompanied by strong ENSO asymmetry, and the diversity of ENSO amplitude is reduced.

  1. Updated measurement of the anamalous like-sign dimuon charge asymmetry at D0

    SciTech Connect

    Kasper, Penelope; /Fermilab

    2011-08-01

    We present an updated measurement of the like-sign dimuon charge asymmetry performed using 9 fb{sup -1} of data recorded by the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. The measured value of (-0.787 {+-} 0.172(stat) {+-} 0.093(syst))% is 3.9 standard deviations from the Standard Model (SM) predicted value. We also present a study which shows that the dependence of the asymmetry on the muon impact parameter is consistent with the hypothesis that it originates from semileptonic b-hadron decays.

  2. Intrinsic cylindrical and spherical waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludlow, I. K.

    2008-02-01

    Intrinsic waveforms associated with cylindrical and spherical Bessel functions are obtained by eliminating the factors responsible for the inverse radius and inverse square radius laws of wave power per unit area of wavefront. The resulting expressions are Riccati-Bessel functions for both cases and these can be written in terms of amplitude and phase functions of order v and wave variable z. When z is real, it is shown that a spatial phase angle of the intrinsic wave can be defined and this, together with its amplitude function, is systematically investigated for a range of fixed orders and varying z. The derivatives of Riccati-Bessel functions are also examined. All the component functions exhibit different behaviour in the near field depending on the order being less than, equal to or greater than 1/2. Plots of the phase angle can be used to display the locations of the zeros of the general Riccati-Bessel functions and lead to new relations concerning the ordering of the real zeros of Bessel functions and the occurrence of multiple zeros when the argument of the Bessel function is fixed.

  3. On the physical mechanism of front-back asymmetry of nonlinear gravity-capillary waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dosaev, Alexander; Troitskaya, Yulia; Shrira, Victor

    2016-04-01

    In nature wind waves of all scales are asymmetric both with respect to the horizontal and vertical axes. The front-back (or fore-aft asymmetry), i.e. the asymmetry with respect to the vertical axis, manifests itself in steeper front slopes. Although it can be important for remote sensing of sea surface and wave field interaction with wind, especially for the waves of gravity-capillary range, at present the understanding of physical mechanisms causing the gravity-capillary waves asymmetry and its dependence on parameters is very poor; there has been no study dedicated to this problem. Here we address this gap. The decimetre-range water waves in many respects essentially differ from the waves of other ranges: wind forcing is stronger, steep waves develop a characteristic pattern of capillary ripples on their forward slopes. These 'parasitic capillaries', generated by a narrow pressure distribution associated with an underlying longer wave' crest, remain quasi-stationary with regard to the longer wave. The train of capillaries is localised on the front slope and decays towards the trough. We investigate the nature of the asymmetry of such waves by extensive numerical simulations of the Euler equations employing the method of conformal mapping for two-dimensional potential flow and taking into account wave generation by wind and dissipation due to molecular viscosity. We examine the role of various factors contributing to the wave profile asymmetry: wind pumping, viscous stresses, the Reynolds stresses caused by ripples and found the latter to be by far the most important. It is the lop-sided ripple distribution which leads to noticeable fore-aft asymmetry of the mean wave profile. We also found how the asymmetry depends on wavelength, steepness, wind and viscosity, which enables us to parametrize these dependencies for applications in microwave remote sensing and wave generation.

  4. Probing lepton asymmetry with 21 cm fluctuations

    SciTech Connect

    Kohri, Kazunori; Oyama, Yoshihiko; Sekiguchi, Toyokazu; Takahashi, Tomo E-mail: oyamayo@post.kek.jp E-mail: tomot@cc.saga-u.ac.jp

    2014-09-01

    We investigate the issue of how accurately we can constrain the lepton number asymmetry ξ{sub ν}=μ{sub ν}/T{sub ν} in the Universe by using future observations of 21 cm line fluctuations and cosmic microwave background (CMB). We find that combinations of the 21 cm line and the CMB observations can constrain the lepton asymmetry better than big-bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). Additionally, we also discuss constraints on ξ{sub ν} in the presence of some extra radiation, and show that the 21 cm line observations can substantially improve the constraints obtained by CMB alone, and allow us to distinguish the effects of the lepton asymmetry from the ones of extra radiation.

  5. Longitudinal asymmetries of the coronal line intensities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xanthakis, J.; Petropoulos, B.; Tritakis, V. P.; Mavromichalaki, H.; Marmatsuri, L.

    The analysis of the daily measurements of the coronal green line intensity which have been collected by the Pic-du-Midi Observatory during the period 1944-1974 has led to some very interesting results. The main finding of this analysis is a permanent longitudinal asymmetry of the green line intensity which has been determined all along the data record. In an effort to make this asymmetry certain E-W intensity differences very close to the solar equator where the rotation rate for coronal features is equal to 25.35 days on the average are examined. When these data are examined every 25 days, namely data which almost correspond to the same points of the solar disk, it confirms the above mentioned longitudinal asymmetry.

  6. First measurement of the neutron beta asymmetry with ultracold neutrons.

    PubMed

    Pattie, R W; Anaya, J; Back, H O; Boissevain, J G; Bowles, T J; Broussard, L J; Carr, R; Clark, D J; Currie, S; Du, S; Filippone, B W; Geltenbort, P; García, A; Hawari, A; Hickerson, K P; Hill, R; Hino, M; Hoedl, S A; Hogan, G E; Holley, A T; Ito, T M; Kawai, T; Kirch, K; Kitagaki, S; Lamoreaux, S K; Liu, C-Y; Liu, J; Makela, M; Mammei, R R; Martin, J W; Melconian, D; Meier, N; Mendenhall, M P; Morris, C L; Mortensen, R; Pichlmaier, A; Pitt, M L; Plaster, B; Ramsey, J C; Rios, R; Sabourov, K; Sallaska, A L; Saunders, A; Schmid, R; Seestrom, S; Servicky, C; Sjue, S K L; Smith, D; Sondheim, W E; Tatar, E; Teasdale, W; Terai, C; Tipton, B; Utsuro, M; Vogelaar, R B; Wehring, B W; Xu, Y P; Young, A R; Yuan, J

    2009-01-01

    We report the first measurement of an angular correlation parameter in neutron beta decay using polarized ultracold neutrons (UCN). We utilize UCN with energies below about 200 neV, which we guide and store for approximately 30 s in a Cu decay volume. The interaction of the neutron magnetic dipole moment with a static 7 T field external to the decay volume provides a 420 neV potential energy barrier to the spin state parallel to the field, polarizing the UCN before they pass through an adiabatic fast passage spin flipper and enter a decay volume, situated within a 1 T field in a 2x2pi solenoidal spectrometer. We determine a value for the beta-asymmetry parameter A_{0}=-0.1138+/-0.0046+/-0.0021. PMID:19257182

  7. Charge asymmetry in pure vibrational states of the HD molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bubin, Sergiy; Leonarski, Filip; Stanke, Monika; Adamowicz, Ludwik

    2009-03-01

    Very accurate variational calculations of all rotationless states (also called pure vibrational states) of the HD molecule have been performed within the framework that does not assume the Born-Oppenheimer (BO) approximation. The non-BO wave functions of the states describing the internal motion of the proton, the deuteron, and the two electrons were expanded in terms of one-center explicitly correlated Gaussian functions multiplied by even powers of the internuclear distance. Up to 6000 functions were used for each state. Both linear and nonlinear parameters of the wave functions of all 18 states were optimized with a procedure that employs the analytical gradient of the energy with respect to the nonlinear parameters of the Gaussians. These wave functions were used to calculate expectation values of the interparticle distances and some other related quantities. The results allow elucidation of the charge asymmetry in HD as a function of the vibrational excitation.

  8. Measurement of the neutrino asymmetry in the β decay of laser-cooled, polarized 37K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melconian, D.; Behr, J. A.; Ashery, D.; Aviv, O.; Bricault, P. G.; Dombsky, M.; Fostner, S.; Gorelov, A.; Gu, S.; Hanemaayer, V.; Jackson, K. P.; Pearson, M. R.; Vollrath, I.

    2007-06-01

    A measurement of the neutrino asymmetry is presented which represents the first search for new physics using polarized radioactive atoms initially cooled and confined in a magneto-optical trap. Optical pumping and photoionization techniques are used to generate and measure, in situ, a highly spin-polarized (96.5 (0.8) %) sample of the short-lived β+-emitter 37K. The angular distribution of neutrinos from this polarized decay, inferred from the daughter recoil asymmetry, is used to search for a hypothetical V + A current in the weak interaction. We find the ν asymmetry parameter to be Bν = - 0.755 ± 0.020 (stat) ± 0.013 (syst), in agreement with the standard model's purely V- A interaction.

  9. Measurement of CP-violating asymmetries in B0-->D*(+/-)D(-/+).

    PubMed

    Aubert, B; Bona, M; Boutigny, D; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Prudent, X; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Garra Tico, J; Grauges, E; Lopez, L; Palano, A; Eigen, G; Stugu, B; Sun, L; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadyk, J A; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lopes Pegna, D; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Orimoto, T J; Ronan, M T; Tackmann, K; Wenzel, W A; del Amo Sanchez, P; Hawkes, C M; Watson, A T; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Schroeder, T; Steinke, M; Walker, D; Asgeirsson, D J; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Khan, A; Saleem, M; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, K Yu; Bondioli, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M; Martin, E C; Stoker, D P; Abachi, S; Buchanan, C; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Liu, F; Long, O; Shen, B C; Zhang, L; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Richman, J D; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Winstrom, L O; Chen, E; Cheng, C H; Fang, F; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Andreassen, R; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Mishra, K; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P C; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Hirschauer, J F; Kreisel, A; Nagel, M; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Zhang, J; Gabareen, A M; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Winklmeier, F; Zeng, Q; Altenburg, D D; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Jasper, H; Merkel, J; Petzold, A; Spaan, B; Wacker, K; Brandt, T; Klose, V; Kobel, M J; Lacker, H M; Mader, W F; Nogowski, R; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Volk, A; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Latour, E; Lombardo, V; Thiebaux, Ch; Verderi, M; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Robertson, A I; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cecchi, A; Cibinetto, G; Franchini, P; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Petrella, A; Piemontese, L; Prencipe, E; Santoro, V; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Contri, R; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Wu, J; Dubitzky, R S; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bard, D J; Dauncey, P D; Flack, R L; Nash, J A; Nikolich, M B; Panduro Vazquez, W; Tibbetts, M; Behera, P K; Chai, X; Charles, M J; Mallik, U; Meyer, N T; Ziegler, V; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Dong, L; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Gritsan, A V; Guo, Z J; Lae, C K; Denig, A G; Fritsch, M; Schott, G; Arnaud, N; Béquilleux, J; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Lepeltier, V; Le Diberder, F; Lutz, A M; Pruvot, S; Rodier, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Serrano, J; Sordini, V; Stocchi, A; Wang, W F; Wormser, G; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Bingham, I; Chavez, C A; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Schofield, K C; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; George, K A; Di Lodovico, F; Menges, W; Sacco, R; Cowan, G; Flaecher, H U; Hopkins, D A; Paramesvaran, S; Salvatore, F; Wren, A C; Brown, D N; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Chia, Y M; Edgar, C L; Lafferty, G D; West, T J; Yi, J I; Anderson, J; Chen, C; Jawahery, A; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Tuggle, J M; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Li, X; Moore, T B; Salvati, E; Saremi, S; Cowan, R; Dujmic, D; Fisher, P H; Koeneke, K; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Spitznagel, M; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Zhao, M; Zheng, Y; Mclachlin, S E; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Simard, M; Taras, P; Viaud, F B; Nicholson, H; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M A; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Jessop, C P; LoSecco, J M; Benelli, G; Corwin, L A; Honscheid, K; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Morris, J P; Rahimi, A M; Regensburger, J J; Wong, Q K; Blount, N L; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Kolb, J A; Lu, M; Rahmat, R; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Gagliardi, N; Gaz, A; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Pompili, A; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Ben-Haim, E; Briand, H; Calderini, G; Chauveau, J; David, P; Del Buono, L; de la Vaissière, Ch; Hamon, O; Leruste, Ph; Malclès, J; Ocariz, J; Perez, A; Gladney, L; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Manoni, E; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Carpinelli, M; Cenci, R; Cervelli, A; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Mazur, M A; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J J; Haire, M; Biesiada, J; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lu, C; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Baracchini, E; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; D'Orazio, A; del Re, D; Di Marco, E; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Jackson, P D; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Renga, F; Voena, C; Ebert, M; Hartmann, T; Schröder, H; Waldi, R; Adye, T; Castelli, G; Franek, B; Olaiya, E O; Ricciardi, S; Roethel, W; Wilson, F F; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Escalier, M; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, W; Vasseur, G; Yèche, Ch; Zito, M; Chen, X R; Liu, H; Park, W; Purohit, M V; Wilson, J R; Allen, M T; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Bechtle, P; Berger, N; Claus, R; Coleman, J P; Convery, M R; Dingfelder, J C; Dorfan, J; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dunwoodie, W; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Graham, M T; Grenier, P; Hast, C; Hryn'ova, T; Innes, W R; Kaminski, J; Kelsey, M H; Kim, H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Li, S; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; MacFarlane, D B; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Muller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ofte, I; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Pulliam, T; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Suzuki, K; Swain, S K; Thompson, J M; Va'vra, J; van Bakel, N; Wagner, A P; Weaver, M; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Yi, K; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Petersen, B A; Wilden, L; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Bula, R; Ernst, J A; Jain, V; Pan, B; Saeed, M A; Wappler, F R; Zain, S B; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Ritchie, J L; Ruland, A M; Schilling, C J; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Pelliccioni, M; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Azzolini, V; Lopez-March, N; Martinez-Vidal, F; Milanes, D A; Oyanguren, A; Albert, J; Banerjee, Sw; Bhuyan, B; Hamano, K; Kowalewski, R; Nugent, I M; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Ilic, J; Latham, T E; Mohanty, G B; Pappagallo, M; Band, H R; Chen, X; Dasu, S; Flood, K T; Hollar, J J; Kutter, P E; Pan, Y; Pierini, M; Prepost, R; Wu, S L; Neal, H

    2007-08-17

    We present updated measurements of CP-violating asymmetries in the decays B0-->D*(+/-)D(-/+) and B0-->D+D- using (383+/-4) x 10(6)B(B) pairs collected by the BABAR detector at the SLAC PEP-II B factory. We determine the time-integrated CP asymmetry A(D*(+/-)D(-/+))=0.12+/-0.06+/-0.02, and the time-dependent asymmetry parameters to be C(D*+D-)=0.18+/-0.15+/-0.04, S(D*+D-)=-0.79+/-0.21+/-0.06, C(D*-D+)=0.23+/-0.15+/-0.04, S(D*-D+)=-0.44+/-0.22+/-0.06, C(D+D-)=0.11+/-0.22+/-0.07, and S(D+D-)=-0.54+/-0.34+/-0.06, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic. PMID:17930885

  10. Measurement of time-dependent CP asymmetries in B0-->D(*)+/-D+/- decays.

    PubMed

    Aubert, B; Barate, R; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Grauges, E; Palano, A; Pappagallo, M; Pompili, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Borgland, A W; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Day, C T; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Wenzel, W A; Barrett, M; Ford, K E; Harrison, T J; Hart, A J; Hawkes, C M; Morgan, S E; Watson, A T; Fritsch, M; Goetzen, K; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schroeder, T; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Burke, J P; Chevalier, N; Cottingham, W N; Kelly, M P; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Hearty, C; Knecht, N S; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, A E; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Yushkov, A N; Best, D; Bondioli, M; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M; Mommsen, R K; Roethel, W; Stoker, D P; Buchanan, C; Hartfiel, B L; Weinstein, A J R; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Long, O; Shen, B C; Wang, K; Zhang, L; Del Re, D; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; Macfarlane, D B; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Lu, A; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Verkerke, W; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Nesom, G; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Andreassen, R; Jayatilleke, S; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Rankin, P; Ruddick, W O; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Zhang, J; Chen, A; Eckhart, E A; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Zeng, Q; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Spaan, B; Altenburg, D; Brandt, T; Brose, J; Dickopp, M; Klose, V; Lacker, H M; Nogowski, R; Otto, S; Petzold, A; Schott, G; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Grenier, P; Schrenk, S; Thiebaux, Ch; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Bard, D J; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Azzolini, V; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Piemontese, L; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Capra, R; Contri, R; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Bailey, S; Brandenburg, G; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Won, E; Dubitzky, R S; Langenegger, U; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Flack, R L; Gaillard, J R; Morton, G W; Nash, J A; Nikolich, M B; Taylor, G P; Charles, M J; Mader, W F; Mallik, U; Mohapatra, A K; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Yi, J; Arnaud, N; Davier, M; Giroux, X; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Le Diberder, F; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Oyanguren, A; Petersen, T C; Pierini, M; Plaszczynski, S; Rodier, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Stocchi, A; Wormser, G; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Simani, M C; Wright, D M; Bevan, A J; Chavez, C A; Coleman, J P; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; George, K A; Hutchcroft, D E; Parry, R J; Payne, D J; Schofield, K C; Touramanis, C; Cormack, C M; Di Lodovico, F; Sacco, R; Brown, C L; Cowan, G; Flaecher, H U; Green, M G; Hopkins, D A; Jackson, P S; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Brown, D; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Hodgkinson, M C; Lafferty, G D; Naisbit, M T; Williams, J C; Chen, C; Farbin, A; Hulsbergen, W D; Jawahery, A; Kovalskyi, D; Lae, C K; Lillard, V; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R; Koptchev, V B; Li, X; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Staengle, H; Willocq, S; Cowan, R; Koeneke, K; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Kim, H; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Lombardo, V; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Taras, P; Viaud, B; Nicholson, H; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M; Bulten, H; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Wilden, L; Jessop, C P; Losecco, J M; Allmendinger, T; Benelli, G; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Jackson, P D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Pulliam, T; Rahimi, A M; Ter-Antonyan, R; Wong, Q K; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Lu, M; Potter, C T; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Colecchia, F; Dorigo, A; Galeazzi, F; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; Buono, L Del; de la Vaissière, Ch; Hamon, O; John, M J J; Leruste, Ph; Malclès, J; Ocariz, J; Roos, L; Therin, G; Behera, P K; Gladney, L; Guo, Q H; Panetta, J; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Pacetti, S; Pioppi, M; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Cenci, R; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Paick, K; Wagoner, D E; Biesiada, J; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lu, C; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; D'Orazio, A; Marco, E Di; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Gioi, L Li; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Tehrani, F Safai; Voena, C; Schröder, H; Wagner, G; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B; Gopal, G P; Olaiya, E O; Wilson, F F; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Giraud, P-F; Graziani, G; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, W; Legendre, M; London, G W; Mayer, B; Vasseur, G; Yèche, Ch; Zito, M; Purohit, M V; Weidemann, A W; Wilson, J R; Yumiceva, F X; Abe, T; Allen, M T; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Berger, N; Boyarski, A M; Buchmueller, O L; Claus, R; Convery, M R; Cristinziani, M; Dingfelder, J C; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W; Fan, S; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Hadig, T; Halyo, V; Hast, C; Hryn'ova, T; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Libby, J; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Muller, D R; O'grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Stelzer, J; Strube, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Suzuki, K; Swain, S; Thompson, J M; Va'vra, J; Weaver, M; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Yi, K; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Petersen, B A; Roat, C; Ahmed, M; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Ernst, J A; Saeed, M A; Saleem, M; Wappler, F R; Zain, S B; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Ritchie, J L; Satpathy, A; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Bona, M; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Grancagnolo, S; Lanceri, L; Poropat, P; Vitale, L; Martinez-Vidal, F; Panvini, R S; Banerjee, Sw; Bhuyan, B; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Hamano, K; Kowalewski, R; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Latham, T E; Mohanty, G B; Band, H R; Chen, X; Cheng, B; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Eichenbaum, A M; Flood, K T; Graham, M; Hollar, J J; Johnson, J R; Kutter, P E; Li, H; Liu, R; Mellado, B; Mihalyi, A; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Tan, P; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J H; Wu, J; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Greene, M G; Neal, H

    2005-09-23

    We present a first measurement of CP asymmetries in neutral B decays to D+D-, and updated CP asymmetry measurements in decays to D(*+)D- and D(*-)D+. We use fully reconstructed decays collected in a data sample of (232+/-3) x 10(6) gamma(4S)-->BB events in the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B Factory at SLAC. We determine the time-dependent asymmetry parameters to be SD(*+)(D-)=-0.54+/-0.35+/-0.07, CD(*+)(D-)=0.09+/-0.25+/-0.06, SD(*-)(D+)=-0.29+/-0.33+/-0.07, CD(*-)(D+)=0.17+/-0.24+/-0.04, SD+(D-)=-0.29+/-0.63+/-0.06, and CD+(D-)=0.11+/-0.35+/-0.06, where in each case the first error is statistical and the second error is systematic. PMID:16197131

  11. Sagittal otolith morphogenesis asymmetry in marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Mille, T; Mahe, K; Villanueva, M C; De Pontual, H; Ernande, B

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated and compared asymmetry in sagittal otolith shape and length between left and right inner ears in four roundfish and four flatfish species of commercial interest. For each species, the effects of ontogenetic changes (individual age and total body length), sexual dimorphism (individual sex) and the otolith's location on the right or left side of the head, on the shape and length of paired otoliths (between 143 and 702 pairs according to species) were evaluated. Ontogenetic changes in otolith shape and length were observed for all species. Sexual dimorphism, either in otolith shape and length or in their ontogenetic changes, was detected for half of the species, be they round or flat. Significant directional asymmetry in otolith shape and length was detected in one roundfish species each, but its inconsistency across species and its small average amplitude (6·17% for shape and 1·99% for length) suggested that it has barely any biological relevance. Significant directional asymmetry in otolith shape and length was found for all flatfish species except otolith length for one species. Its average amplitude varied between 2·06 and 17·50% for shape and between 0·00 and 11·83% for length and increased significantly throughout ontogeny for two species, one dextral and one sinistral. The longer (length) and rounder otolith (shape) appeared to be always on the blind side whatever the species. These results suggest differential biomineralization between the blind and ocular inner ears in flatfish species that could result from perturbations of the proximal-distal gradient of otolith precursors in the endolymph and the otolith position relative to the geometry of the saccular epithelium due to body morphology asymmetry and lateralized behaviour. The fact that asymmetry never exceeded 18% even at the individual level suggests an evolutionary canalization of otolith shape symmetry to avoid negative effects on fish hearing and balance. Technically

  12. Footwear Decreases Gait Asymmetry during Running

    PubMed Central

    Hoerzer, Stefan; Federolf, Peter A.; Maurer, Christian; Baltich, Jennifer; Nigg, Benno M.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research on elderly people has suggested that footwear may improve neuromuscular control of motion. If footwear does in fact improve neuromuscular control, then such an influence might already be present in young, healthy adults. A feature that is often used to assess neuromuscular control of motion is the level of gait asymmetry. The objectives of the study were (a) to develop a comprehensive asymmetry index (CAI) that is capable of detecting gait asymmetry changes caused by external boundary conditions such as footwear, and (b) to use the CAI to investigate whether footwear influences gait asymmetry during running in a healthy, young cohort. Kinematic and kinetic data were collected for both legs of 15 subjects performing five barefoot and five shod over-ground running trials. Thirty continuous gait variables including ground reaction forces and variables of the hip, knee, and ankle joints were computed for each leg. For each individual, the differences between the variables for the right and left leg were calculated. Using this data, a principal component analysis was conducted to obtain the CAI. This study had two main outcomes. First, a sensitivity analysis suggested that the CAI had an improved sensitivity for detecting changes in gait asymmetry caused by external boundary conditions. The CAI may, therefore, have important clinical applications such as monitoring the progress of neuromuscular diseases (e.g. stroke or cerebral palsy). Second, the mean CAI for shod running (131.2 ± 48.5; mean ± standard deviation) was significantly lower (p = 0.041) than the CAI for barefoot running (155.7 ± 39.5). This finding suggests that in healthy, young adults gait asymmetry is reduced when running in shoes compared to running barefoot, which may be a result of improved neuromuscular control caused by changes in the afferent sensory feedback. PMID:26488484

  13. Asymmetry of Spinal Segments Mobility in Canoeists and its Relationship with Racing Speed

    PubMed Central

    Rynkiewicz, Mateusz; Rynkiewicz, Tadeusz; Starosta, Włodzimierz

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the extent of asymmetry of spinal segment mobility in canoeists. Moreover, the relationship between this parameter and racing speed was analyzed. The study included 18 canoeists with a mean age of 16.4 years. Mobility of cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine, in sagittal, coronal and transverse planes, was measured with the aid of a tensometric electrogoniometer. The racing speed was based on results achieved during the qualifying competition for the Polish national team. Spinal mobility was measured within two days after the competition. Significant associations were observed between average racing speed and the asymmetry coefficients of the cervical (r=−0.52; p=0.03) and lumbar spinal flexure in the coronal plane (r=0.57; p=0.01). The extent of the asymmetry of the cervical spine flexure in the coronal plane should possibly be reduced, because such asymmetry exerts a negative effect on racing speed. In contrast, canoeist’s training should be oriented towards increasing the asymmetry of the lumbar spine flexure in the coronal plane. However, one should keep in mind that such an approach, although favorable in terms of race performance, could negatively affect the canoeist’s health. PMID:23717353

  14. Introducing Charge Hydration Asymmetry into the Generalized Born Model.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Abhishek; Aguilar, Boris H; Tolokh, Igor S; Onufriev, Alexey V

    2014-04-01

    The effect of charge hydration asymmetry (CHA)-non-invariance of solvation free energy upon solute charge inversion-is missing from the standard linear response continuum electrostatics. The proposed charge hydration asymmetric-generalized Born (CHA-GB) approximation introduces this effect into the popular generalized Born (GB) model. The CHA is added to the GB equation via an analytical correction that quantifies the specific propensity of CHA of a given water model; the latter is determined by the charge distribution within the water model. Significant variations in CHA seen in explicit water (TIP3P, TIP4P-Ew, and TIP5P-E) free energy calculations on charge-inverted "molecular bracelets" are closely reproduced by CHA-GB, with the accuracy similar to models such as SEA and 3D-RISM that go beyond the linear response. Compared against reference explicit (TIP3P) electrostatic solvation free energies, CHA-GB shows about a 40% improvement in accuracy over the canonical GB, tested on a diverse set of 248 rigid small neutral molecules (root mean square error, rmse = 0.88 kcal/mol for CHA-GB vs 1.24 kcal/mol for GB) and 48 conformations of amino acid analogs (rmse = 0.81 kcal/mol vs 1.26 kcal/mol). CHA-GB employs a novel definition of the dielectric boundary that does not subsume the CHA effects into the intrinsic atomic radii. The strategy leads to finding a new set of intrinsic atomic radii optimized for CHA-GB; these radii show physically meaningful variation with the atom type, in contrast to the radii set optimized for GB. Compared to several popular radii sets used with the original GB model, the new radii set shows better transferability between different classes of molecules. PMID:24803871

  15. Particle-antiparticle asymmetries from annihilations.

    PubMed

    Baldes, Iason; Bell, Nicole F; Petraki, Kalliopi; Volkas, Raymond R

    2014-10-31

    An extensively studied mechanism to create particle-antiparticle asymmetries is the out-of-equilibrium and CP violating decay of a heavy particle. We, instead, examine how asymmetries can arise purely from 2→2 annihilations rather than from the usual 1→2 decays and inverse decays. We review the general conditions on the reaction rates that arise from S-matrix unitarity and CPT invariance, and show how these are implemented in the context of a simple toy model. We formulate the Boltzmann equations for this model, and present an example solution. PMID:25396359

  16. Single hadron transverse spin asymmetries from COMPASS

    SciTech Connect

    Bradamante, Franco

    2007-06-13

    Transverse spin physics is an important part of the scientific programme of the COMPASS experiment at CERN. The analysis of the data taken with the target polarized orthogonally to the 160 GeV/c muon beam momentum has allowed to measure for the first time the Collins and Sivers asymmetries of the deuteron. Both for the positive and the negative hadrons produced in semi-inclusive DIS the measured asymmetries are small and, within errors, compatible with zero. New results for {pi}{+-} ans K{+-} are presented here.

  17. Intrinsic rotation with gyrokinetic models

    SciTech Connect

    Parra, Felix I.; Barnes, Michael; Catto, Peter J.; Calvo, Ivan

    2012-05-15

    The generation of intrinsic rotation by turbulence and neoclassical effects in tokamaks is considered. To obtain the complex dependences observed in experiments, it is necessary to have a model of the radial flux of momentum that redistributes the momentum within the tokamak in the absence of a preexisting velocity. When the lowest order gyrokinetic formulation is used, a symmetry of the model precludes this possibility, making small effects in the gyroradius over scale length expansion necessary. These effects that are usually small become important for momentum transport because the symmetry of the lowest order gyrokinetic formulation leads to the cancellation of the lowest order momentum flux. The accuracy to which the gyrokinetic equation needs to be obtained to retain all the physically relevant effects is discussed.

  18. POWER ASYMMETRY IN COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND FLUCTUATIONS FROM FULL SKY TO SUB-DEGREE SCALES: IS THE UNIVERSE ISOTROPIC?

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, F. K.; Eriksen, H. K.; Lilje, P. B.; Banday, A. J.; Gorski, K. M. E-mail: h.k.k.eriksen@astro.uio.n E-mail: banday@MPA-Garching.MPG.D

    2009-10-20

    We repeat and extend the analysis of Eriksen et al. and Hansen et al., testing the isotropy of the cosmic microwave background fluctuations. We find that the hemispherical power asymmetry previously reported for the largest scales l = 2-40 extends to much smaller scales. In fact, for the full multipole range l = 2-600, significantly more power is found in the hemisphere centered at (theta = 107{sup 0} +- 10{sup 0}, phi = 226{sup 0} +- 10{sup 0}) in galactic co-latitude and longitude than in the opposite hemisphere, consistent with the previously detected direction of asymmetry for l = 2-40. We adopt a model selection test where the direction and amplitude of asymmetry, as well as the multipole range, are free parameters. A model with an asymmetric distribution of power for l = 2-600 is found to be preferred over the isotropic model at the 0.4% significance level, taking into account the additional parameters required to describe it. A similar direction of asymmetry is found independently in all six subranges of 100 multipoles between l = 2-600. None of our 9800 isotropic simulated maps show a similarly consistent direction of asymmetry over such a large multipole range. No known systematic effects or foregrounds are found to be able to explain the asymmetry.

  19. Hemispheric asymmetries and the control of motor sequences.

    PubMed

    Serrien, Deborah J; Sovijärvi-Spapé, Michiel M

    2015-04-15

    Sequencing of finger positions reflects a prototype of skilled behaviour. In order to perform sequencing, cognitive control supports the requirements and postural transitions. In this electroencephalography (EEG) study, we evaluate the effects of hand dominance and assess the neural correlates of unimanual and bimanual sequencing in left- and right-handers. The behavioural measurements provided an index of response planning (response time to first key press) and response execution (time between successive key presses, taps/s and percentage of correct responses), whereas the neural dynamics was determined by means of EEG coherence, expressing the functional connectivity between brain areas. Correlations between brain activity and behaviour were calculated for exploring the neural correlates that are functionally relevant for sequencing. Brain-behavioural correlations during response planning and execution revealed the significance of circuitry in the left hemisphere, underlining its significant role in the organisation of goal-directed behaviour. This lateralisation profile was independent of intrinsic constraints (hand dominance) and extrinsic demands (task requirements), suggesting essential higher-order computations in the left hemisphere. Overall, the observations highlight that the left hemisphere is specialised for sequential motor organisation in left- and right-handers, suggesting an endogenous hemispheric asymmetry for compound actions and the representation of skill; processes that can be separated from those that are involved in hand dominance. PMID:25617529

  20. Matter-antimatter asymmetry and dark matter from torsion

    SciTech Connect

    Poplawski, Nikodem J.

    2011-04-15

    We propose a simple scenario which explains the observed matter-antimatter imbalance and the origin of dark matter in the Universe. We use the Einstein-Cartan-Sciama-Kibble theory of gravity which naturally extends general relativity to include the intrinsic spin of matter. Spacetime torsion produced by spin generates, in the classical Dirac equation, the Hehl-Datta term which is cubic in spinor fields. We show that under a charge-conjugation transformation this term changes sign relative to the mass term. A classical Dirac spinor and its charge conjugate therefore satisfy different field equations. Fermions in the presence of torsion have higher energy levels than antifermions, which leads to their decay asymmetry. Such a difference is significant only at extremely high densities that existed in the very early Universe. We propose that this difference caused a mechanism, according to which heavy fermions existing in such a Universe and carrying the baryon number decayed mostly to normal matter, whereas their antiparticles decayed mostly to hidden antimatter which forms dark matter. The conserved total baryon number of the Universe remained zero.

  1. Matter-antimatter asymmetry and dark matter from torsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popławski, Nikodem J.

    2011-04-01

    We propose a simple scenario which explains the observed matter-antimatter imbalance and the origin of dark matter in the Universe. We use the Einstein-Cartan-Sciama-Kibble theory of gravity which naturally extends general relativity to include the intrinsic spin of matter. Spacetime torsion produced by spin generates, in the classical Dirac equation, the Hehl-Datta term which is cubic in spinor fields. We show that under a charge-conjugation transformation this term changes sign relative to the mass term. A classical Dirac spinor and its charge conjugate therefore satisfy different field equations. Fermions in the presence of torsion have higher energy levels than antifermions, which leads to their decay asymmetry. Such a difference is significant only at extremely high densities that existed in the very early Universe. We propose that this difference caused a mechanism, according to which heavy fermions existing in such a Universe and carrying the baryon number decayed mostly to normal matter, whereas their antiparticles decayed mostly to hidden antimatter which forms dark matter. The conserved total baryon number of the Universe remained zero.

  2. CP and charge asymmetries at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Morello, Michael; /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa

    2007-11-01

    We present CDF results on the branching fractions and time-integrated direct CP asymmetries for B0 and B0s decay modes into pairs of charmless charged hadrons (pions or kaons). We report also the first observation of B0s->DsK mode and the measurement of its branching fraction.

  3. Measuring Asymmetry in Insect-Plant Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, Cláudia P. T.; de Almeida, Adriana M.; Corso, Gilberto

    2011-03-01

    In this work we focus on interaction networks between insects and plants and in the characterization of insect plant asymmetry, an important issue in coevolution and evolutionary biology. We analyze in particular the asymmetry in the interaction matrix of animals (herbivorous insects) and plants (food resource for the insects). Instead of driving our attention to the interaction matrix itself we derive two networks associated to the bipartite network: the animal network, D1, and the plant network, D2. These networks are constructed according to the following recipe: two animal species are linked once if they interact with the same plant. In a similar way, in the plant network, two plants are linked if they interact with the same animal. To explore the asymmetry between D2 and D1 we test for a set of 23 networks from the ecologic literature networks: the difference in size, ΔL, clustering coefficient difference, ΔC, and mean connectivity difference, Δ. We used a nonparametric statistical test to check the differences in ΔL, ΔC and Δ. Our results indicate that ΔL and Δ show a significative asymmetry.

  4. Auxin asymmetry during gravitropism by tomato hypocotyls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, M. A.; Pickard, B. G.

    1989-01-01

    Gravitropic asymmetry of auxin was observed in hypocotyls of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) soon after horizontal placement: the ratio of apically supplied [3H]IAA collected from the lower sides to that from the upper sides was about 1.4 between 5 and 10 minutes. This was adequately early to account for the beginning of curvature. The auxin asymmetry ratio rose to about 2.5 between 20 and 25 minutes, and to 3.5 during the main phase of curvature. This compares reasonably well with the roughly 3.9 ratio for elongation on the lower side to elongation on the upper side that is the basis for the curvature. These data extend evidence that the Went-Cholodny theory for the mediation of tropisms is valid for dicot stems. Also consistent with the theory, an auxin asymmetry ratio of 2.5 was observed when wrong-way gravitropic curvature developed following application of a high level of auxin. In addition to reversing the asymmetry of elongation, the large supplement of auxin resulted in lower net elongation. Previous data established that ethylene is not involved in this decrease of growth as a function of increasing level of auxin.

  5. Exploring handedness asymmetries in the Simon effect.

    PubMed

    Seibold, Julia C; Chen, Jing; Proctor, Robert W

    2016-02-01

    Spatially corresponding stimulus-response pairings usually produce shorter reaction times (RTs) than do non-corresponding pairings, even when the spatial dimension of the stimulus is irrelevant to the task. This "Simon effect" for visual stimuli and manual responses is often larger for the stimulus location on the side to which the person's dominant hand is operating. The present study aimed at replicating and examining the nature of this asymmetry. To determine whether the Simon effect asymmetry is a function of the hand distinction or of conceptual spatial codes, performance with left and right manual key-presses was compared to that with vocal responses "left" and "right." Whether the asymmetric Simon effect pattern is restricted to spatial stimuli was tested by comparing effects obtained with left and right located squares to those found with the centered words Left and Right. The asymmetry was only replicated for the spatial stimulus-manual response Simon task, for which a second experiment showed similar results when the hands and response box were not visible during task performance. The analysis revealed a general dominant-hand RT advantage that similarly adds to both corresponding and non-corresponding trials and is rather independent from the Simon effect. This advantage yields an apparent asymmetry when the data are analyzed as a function of correspondence for each stimulus location because the corresponding and non-corresponding RTs that are compared come from different hands. PMID:26676871

  6. Parallel Processing in Visual Search Asymmetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dosher, Barbara Anne; Han, Songmei; Lu, Zhong-Lin

    2004-01-01

    The difficulty of visual search may depend on assignment of the same visual elements as targets and distractors-search asymmetry. Easy C-in-O searches and difficult O-in-C searches are often associated with parallel and serial search, respectively. Here, the time course of visual search was measured for both tasks with speed-accuracy methods. The…

  7. Neutron contribution to nuclear DVCS asymmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Vadim Guzey

    2008-01-22

    Using a simple model for nuclear GPDs, we study the role of the neutron contribution to nuclear DVCS observables. As an example, we use the beam-spin asymmetry $A_{LU}^A$ measured in coherent and incoherent DVCS on a wide range of nuclear targets in the HERMES and JLab kinematics. We find that at small values of the momentum transfer $t$, $A_{LU}^A$ is dominated by the coherent-enriched contribution, which enhances $A_{LU}^A$ compared to the free proton asymmetry $A_{LU}^p$, $A_{LU}^A(\\phi)/A_{LU}^p(\\phi)=1.8-2.2$. At large values of $t$, the nuclear asymmetry is dominated by the incoherent contribution and $A_{LU}^A/(\\phi)A_{LU}^p(\\phi)=0.66-0.74$. The deviation of $A_{LU}^A(\\phi)/A_{LU}^p(\\phi)$ from unity at large $t$ is a result of the neutron contribution, which gives a possibility to constain neutron GPDs in incoherent nuclear DVCS. A similar trend is expected for other DVCS asymmetries.

  8. Infant Frontal Asymmetry Predicts Child Emotional Availability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Licata, Maria; Paulus, Markus; Kühn-Popp, Nina; Meinhardt, Jorg; Sodian, Beate

    2015-01-01

    While factors influencing maternal emotional availability (EA) have been well investigated, little is known about the development of child EA. The present longitudinal study investigated the role of frontal brain asymmetry in young children with regard to child EA (child responsiveness and involvement) in mother-child interaction in a sample of 28…

  9. Search Asymmetry, Sustained Attention, and Response Inhibition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Hugh; Russell, Paul N.; Helton, William S.

    2011-01-01

    In the present experiment, we used search asymmetry to test whether the sustained attention to response task is a better measure of response inhibition or sustained attention. Participants performed feature present and feature absent target detection tasks using either a sustained attention to response task (SART; high Go low No-Go) or a…

  10. The Energy of Substituted Ethanes. Asymmetry Orbitals

    PubMed Central

    Salem, Lionel; Hoffmann, Roald; Otto, Peter

    1973-01-01

    The leading terms in the energy of a general substituted ethane are derived in explicit form as a function of the torsional angle θ, the substituent electronegativities, and their mutual overlaps. The energy is found to be the sum of all four overlaps between pairs of asymmetry orbitals, and satisfies the requisite symmetry properties. PMID:16592060

  11. Sources of Local Time Asymmetries in Magnetodiscs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arridge, C. S.; Kane, M.; Sergis, N.; Khurana, K. K.; Jackman, C. M.

    2015-04-01

    The rapidly rotating magnetospheres at Jupiter and Saturn contain a near-equatorial thin current sheet over most local times known as the magnetodisc, resembling a wrapped-up magnetotail. The Pioneer, Voyager, Ulysses, Galileo, Cassini and New Horizons spacecraft at Jupiter and Saturn have provided extensive datasets from which to observationally identify local time asymmetries in these magnetodiscs. Imaging in the infrared and ultraviolet from ground- and space-based instruments have also revealed the presence of local time asymmetries in the aurora which therefore must map to local time asymmetries in the magnetosphere. Asymmetries are found in (i) the configuration of the magnetic field and magnetospheric currents, where a thicker disc is found in the noon and dusk sectors; (ii) plasma flows where the plasma flow has local time-dependent radial components; (iii) a thicker plasma sheet in the dusk sector. Many of these features are also reproduced in global MHD simulations. Several models have been developed to interpret these various observations and typically fall into two groups: ones which invoke coupling with the solar wind (via reconnection or viscous processes) and ones which invoke internal rotational processes operating inside an asymmetrical external boundary. In this paper we review these observational in situ findings, review the models which seek to explain them, and highlight open questions and directions for future work.

  12. Phonological and Phonetic Asymmetries of Cw Combinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suh, Yunju

    2009-01-01

    This thesis investigates the relationship between the phonological distribution of Cw combinations, and the acoustic/perceptual distinctiveness between syllables with plain C onsets and with Cw combination onsets. Distributional asymmetries of Cw combinations discussed in this thesis include the avoidance of Cw combinations in the labial consonant…

  13. On the nature of the baryon asymmetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.

    1984-01-01

    Whether the baryon asymmetry in the universe is a locally varying or universally fixed number is examined with focus on the existence of a possible matter antimatter domain structure in the universe arising from a GUT with spontaneous CP symmetry breaking. Theoretical considerations and observational data and astrophysical tests relating to this fundamental question are reviewed.

  14. The Cost of Action Miscues: Hemispheric Asymmetries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shenal, Brian V.; Hinze, Stephan; Heilman, Kenneth M.

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive behaviors require preparation and when necessary inhibition or alteration of actions. The right hemisphere has been posited to be dominant for preparatory motor activation. This experiment was designed to learn if there are hemispheric asymmetries in the control of altered plans of actions. Cues, both valid and invalid, which indicate the…

  15. Outcomes of asymmetry in infants with congenital muscular torticollis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, KyeongSoo; Chung, EunJung; Koh, SeongEun; Lee, Byoung-Hee

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to assess the outcomes of asymmetry in infants with congenital muscular torticollis (CMT). [Subjects] A total of 102 patients with CMT under the age of 6 months were studied. [Methods] Asymmety was evaluated by determining the difference in the thicknesses of the two sternocleidomastoid muscles (DTSM) using ultrasonography, head tilt (HT) based on a physical examination, and the torticollis overall assessment (TOA). Patients received ultrasound and massage therapy for 30 minutes, in conjunction with passive stretching exercises, 3 times a week. [Results] The DTSM, HT, and TOA scores were significantly different after treatment. Pretest DTSM, HT, and TOA scores and pre-posttest change scores for DTSM, HT, and TOA scores were correlated with treatment duration in infants with CMT. [Conclusion] The findings of this study suggest that treatment duration is correlated with asymmetry evaluation parameters (DTSM, HT, and TOA) in infants with CMT. We propose that these results will help in reducing the treatment duration, and also in improving communication between doctors and therapists during the diagnosis and evaluation of torticollis. PMID:25729191

  16. Outcomes of asymmetry in infants with congenital muscular torticollis.

    PubMed

    Lee, KyeongSoo; Chung, EunJung; Koh, SeongEun; Lee, Byoung-Hee

    2015-02-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to assess the outcomes of asymmetry in infants with congenital muscular torticollis (CMT). [Subjects] A total of 102 patients with CMT under the age of 6 months were studied. [Methods] Asymmety was evaluated by determining the difference in the thicknesses of the two sternocleidomastoid muscles (DTSM) using ultrasonography, head tilt (HT) based on a physical examination, and the torticollis overall assessment (TOA). Patients received ultrasound and massage therapy for 30 minutes, in conjunction with passive stretching exercises, 3 times a week. [Results] The DTSM, HT, and TOA scores were significantly different after treatment. Pretest DTSM, HT, and TOA scores and pre-posttest change scores for DTSM, HT, and TOA scores were correlated with treatment duration in infants with CMT. [Conclusion] The findings of this study suggest that treatment duration is correlated with asymmetry evaluation parameters (DTSM, HT, and TOA) in infants with CMT. We propose that these results will help in reducing the treatment duration, and also in improving communication between doctors and therapists during the diagnosis and evaluation of torticollis. PMID:25729191

  17. Improved renormalization group theory for critical asymmetry of fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Long; Zhao, Wei; Wu, Liang; Li, Liyan; Cai, Jun

    2013-09-01

    We develop an improved renormalization group (RG) approach incorporating the critical vapor-liquid equilibrium asymmetry. In order to treat the critical asymmetry of vapor-liquid equilibrium, the integral measure is introduced in the Landau-Ginzbug partition function to achieve a crossover between the local order parameter in Ising model and the density of fluid systems. In the implementation of the improved RG approach, we relate the integral measure with the inhomogeneous density distribution of a fluid system and combine the developed method with SAFT-VR (statistical associating fluid theory of variable range) equation of state. The method is applied to various fluid systems including square-well fluid, square-well dimer fluid and real fluids such as methane (CH4), ethane (C2H6), trifluorotrichloroethane (C2F3Cl3), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). The descriptions of vapor-liquid equilibria provided by the developed method are in excellent agreement with simulation and experimental data. Furthermore, the improved method predicts accurate and qualitatively correct behavior of coexistence diameter near the critical point and produces the non-classical 3D Ising criticality.

  18. Combined effect of spatially fixed and rotating asymmetries on stability of a rotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mailybaev, Alexei A.; Spelsberg-Korspeter, Gottfried

    2015-02-01

    In this paper we study the combined effects of bearing and rotor asymmetry on the stability of the classical Laval rotor using analytical techniques. This setting intrinsically features equations of motion with periodic coefficients. We obtain closed form approximations for the stability boundaries which give insights in the interaction of different effects which are elsewhere mostly considered in isolated form. Using a classical two degree of freedom model of a rotor we investigate dissipative and follower force type of forcing in combination with internal and external damping in the presence of both rotating and stationary asymmetries. Since in many technical applications the resulting forces are small compared to the elastic restoring forces of the corresponding symmetric system, the former are treated as perturbations. The results are benchmarked with numerical simulations indicating the range of validity of the approximations. Our model is designed to illustrate the most generic effects originating from the coupling of rotor and bearing asymmetries, which cannot be captured in models with constant coefficients.

  19. Measurements of CP-violating asymmetries in B0-->a1+/-(1260)pi-/+ decays.

    PubMed

    Aubert, B; Bona, M; Boutigny, D; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Prudent, X; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Grauges, E; Palano, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadyk, J A; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lopes Pegna, D; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Tackmann, K; Wenzel, W A; Del Amo Sanchez, P; Barrett, M; Harrison, T J; Hart, A J; Hawkes, C M; Watson, A T; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schroeder, T; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Burke, J P; Cottingham, W N; Walker, D; Asgeirsson, D J; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Knecht, N S; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Saleem, M; Sherwood, D J; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, K Yu; Bondioli, M; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M; Martin, E C; Stoker, D P; Abachi, S; Buchanan, C; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Liu, F; Long, O; Shen, B C; Zhang, L; Hill, E J; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Richman, J D; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Winstrom, L O; Chen, E; Cheng, C H; Dvoretskii, A; Fang, F; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Mishra, K; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P C; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Hirschauer, J F; Kreisel, A; Nagel, M; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Zhang, J; Chen, A; Eckhart, E A; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Winklmeier, F; Zeng, Q; Altenburg, D D; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Jasper, H; Merkel, J; Petzold, A; Spaan, B; Wacker, K; Brandt, T; Klose, V; Lacker, H M; Mader, W F; Nogowski, R; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Volk, A; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Latour, E; Thiebaux, Ch; Verderi, M; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Robertson, A I; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Petrella, A; Piemontese, L; Prencipe, E; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Contri, R; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Wu, J; Dubitzky, R S; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bard, D J; Dauncey, P D; Flack, R L; Nash, J A; Nikolich, M B; Panduro Vazquez, W; Behera, P K; Chai, X; Charles, M J; Mallik, U; Meyer, N T; Ziegler, V; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Dong, L; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Gritsan, A V; Denig, A G; Fritsch, M; Schott, G; Arnaud, N; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Lepeltier, V; Le Diberder, F; Lutz, A M; Pruvot, S; Rodier, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Serrano, J; Sordini, V; Stocchi, A; Wang, W F; Wormser, G; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Chavez, C A; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Schofield, K C; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; George, K A; Di Lodovico, F; Menges, W; Sacco, R; Cowan, G; Flaecher, H U; Hopkins, D A; Jackson, P S; McMahon, T R; Salvatore, F; Wren, A C; Brown, D N; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Chia, Y M; Edgar, C L; Lafferty, G D; West, T J; Yi, J I; Chen, C; Hulsbergen, W D; Jawahery, A; Lae, C K; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Li, X; Moore, T B; Salvati, E; Saremi, S; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Spitznagel, M; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Kim, H; McLachlin, S E; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Lombardo, V; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Simard, M; Taras, P; Viaud, F B; Nicholson, H; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M A; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Jessop, C P; Losecco, J M; Benelli, G; Corwin, L A; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Morris, J P; Rahimi, A M; Regensburger, J J; Ter-Antonyan, R; Wong, Q K; Blount, N L; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Kolb, J A; Lu, M; Potter, C T; Rahmat, R; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Gaz, A; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Pompili, A; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Ben-Haim, E; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; Del Buono, L; de la Vaissière, Ch; Hamon, O; Hartfiel, B L; Leruste, Ph; Malclès, J; Ocariz, J; Gladney, L; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Cenci, R; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Mazur, M A; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J J; Haire, M; Biesiada, J; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lu, C; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; D'Orazio, A; Del Re, D; Di Marco, E; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Jackson, P D; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Voena, C; Ebert, M; Schröder, H; Waldi, R; Adye, T; Castelli, G; Franek, B; Olaiya, E O; Ricciardi, S; Roethel, W; Wilson, F F; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Escalier, M; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, W; Legendre, M; Vasseur, G; Yèche, Ch; Zito, M; Chen, X R; Liu, H; Park, W; Purohit, M V; Wilson, J R; Allen, M T; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Bechtle, P; Berger, N; Claus, R; Coleman, J P; Convery, M R; Dingfelder, J C; Dorfan, J; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Graham, M T; Grenier, P; Halyo, V; Hast, C; Hryn'ova, T; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Leith, D W G S; Li, S; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Macfarlane, D B; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Muller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Pulliam, T; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Suzuki, K; Swain, S K; Thompson, J M; Va'vra, J; van Bakel, N; Wagner, A P; Weaver, M; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Wulsin, H W; Yarritu, A K; Yi, K; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Petersen, B A; Wilden, L; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Bula, R; Ernst, J A; Jain, V; Pan, B; Saeed, M A; Wappler, F R; Zain, S B; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Ritchie, J L; Schilling, C J; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Pelliccioni, M; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Azzolini, V; Lopez-March, N; Martinez-Vidal, F; Oyanguren, A; Albert, J; Banerjee, Sw; Bhuyan, B; Hamano, K; Kowalewski, R; Nugent, I M; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Latham, T E; Mohanty, G B; Pappagallo, M; Band, H R; Chen, X; Dasu, S; Flood, K T; Hollar, J J; Kutter, P E; Mellado, B; Pan, Y; Pierini, M; Prepost, R; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H

    2007-05-01

    We present measurements of CP-violating asymmetries in the decay B(0)-->a(1)(+/-)(1260)pi(-/+) with a(1)(+/-)(1260)-->pi(-/+)pi(+/-)pi(+/-). The data sample corresponds to 384x10(6) BB[over ] pairs collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric B factory at SLAC. We measure the CP-violating asymmetry A(CP)(a(1)pi)=-0.07+/-0.07+/-0.02, the mixing-induced CP violation parameter S(a(1)pi)=0.37+/-0.21+/-0.07, the direct CP violation parameter C(a(1)pi)=-0.10+/-0.15+/-0.09, and the parameters DeltaC(a(1)pi)=0.26+/-0.15+/-0.07 and DeltaS(a(1)pi)=-0.14+/-0.21+/-0.06. From these measured quantities we determine the angle alpha(eff)=78.6 degrees +/-7.3 degrees. PMID:17501562

  20. LHC Predictions from a Tevatron Anomaly in the Top Quark Forward-Backward Asymmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Yang; Hewett, JoAnne L.; Kaplan, Jared; Rizzo, Thomas G.; /SLAC

    2011-08-12

    We examine the implications of the recent CDF measurement of the top-quark forward-backward asymmetry, focusing on a scenario with a new color octet vector boson at 1-3 TeV. We study several models, as well as a general effective field theory, and determine the parameter space which provides the best simultaneous fit to the CDF asymmetry, the Tevatron top pair production cross section, and the exclusion regions from LHC dijet resonance and contact interaction searches. Flavor constraints on these models are more subtle and less severe than the literature indicates. We find a large region of allowed parameter space at high axigluon mass and a smaller region at low mass; we match the latter to an SU(3){sub 1} x SU(3){sub 2}/SU(3){sub c} coset model with a heavy vector-like fermion. Our scenario produces discoverable effects at the LHC with only 1-2 inverse femtobarns of luminosity at 7-8 TeV. Lastly, we point out that a Tevatron measurement of the b-quark forward-backward asymmetry would be very helpful in characterizing the physics underlying the top-quark asymmetry.

  1. Intrinsic ductility of glassy solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yunfeng; Luo, Jian; Yuan, Fenglin; Huang, Liping

    2014-01-01

    Glasses are usually brittle, seriously limiting their practical usage. Recently, the intrinsic ductility of glass was found to increase with the Poisson's ratio (v), with a sharp brittle-to-ductile (BTD) transition at vBTD = 0.31-0.32. Such a correlation between far-from-equilibrium fracture and near-equilibrium elasticity is unexpected and not understood. Molecular dynamics simulations, on three families of glasses (metallic glasses, amorphous silicon, and silica) with controlled bonding, processing, and testing conditions, show that glasses with low covalency and high structural disorder have high v and ductility, and vice versa. The BTD transitions triggered by the aforementioned causes in each system correspond to a unified vBTD value, which increases with its average coordination number (CN). The vBTD-CN relation can be comprehended by recognizing v as a measure of covalency and disorder, and the BTD transition as a competition between shear and cleavage. Our results provide guidelines for developing new recipes and processes for tough glasses.

  2. Intrinsic Localized Modes in Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Nicolaï, Adrien; Delarue, Patrice; Senet, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Protein dynamics is essential for proteins to function. Here we predicted the existence of rare, large nonlinear excitations, termed intrinsic localized modes (ILMs), of the main chain of proteins based on all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of two fast-folder proteins and of a rigid α/β protein at 300 K and at 380 K in solution. These nonlinear excitations arise from the anharmonicity of the protein dynamics. The ILMs were detected by computing the Shannon entropy of the protein main-chain fluctuations. In the non-native state (significantly explored at 380 K), the probability of their excitation was increased by a factor between 9 and 28 for the fast-folder proteins and by a factor 2 for the rigid protein. This enhancement in the non-native state was due to glycine, as demonstrated by simulations in which glycine was mutated to alanine. These ILMs might play a functional role in the flexible regions of proteins and in proteins in a non-native state (i.e. misfolded or unfolded states). PMID:26658321

  3. Intelligent Viscoelastic Polyurethane Intrinsic Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilal Khan, M.

    2010-04-01

    Polyurethanes are multiphase systems comprising intrinsically variant nanodomains. The material properties can be tailored by adjusting the relative proportions and organizing the structure of the hard and soft segments akin to the spring-dashpot system in an automobile. This article describes how an intelligent polyurethane (PU) system is created to offer smart response to mechanical and vibration stimuli. In this work, unidirectional, dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA), acoustic, and impact testing results are qualified with the unique viscoelastic character that determines the rate-temperature response of the nanocomposite. Attenuated total reflection- infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR) and DMTA offer a logical explanation of the observed viscoelastic behavior in terms of the nanodomains. Enhanced nanophase segregation between the polymer building blocks (hard and soft segments) is the primary mechanism that leads to a higher loss tangent peak in DMTA at a lower glass transition temperature ( T g ) for greater energy dissipation in the polymer matrix. Acoustic and impact attenuation are correlated with the mechanical modulus and loss tangent of the polymer. Finally, autodyne simulation reveals the unique shock absorbent behavior of the material layer when retrofitted to concrete structure. Typically, shock overpressure spikes of the order of 9.97 × 104 MPa experienced by the unprotected surface are entirely evened out at a lower overpressure threshold.

  4. Intrinsic Localized Modes in Proteins.

    PubMed

    Nicolaï, Adrien; Delarue, Patrice; Senet, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Protein dynamics is essential for proteins to function. Here we predicted the existence of rare, large nonlinear excitations, termed intrinsic localized modes (ILMs), of the main chain of proteins based on all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of two fast-folder proteins and of a rigid α/β protein at 300 K and at 380 K in solution. These nonlinear excitations arise from the anharmonicity of the protein dynamics. The ILMs were detected by computing the Shannon entropy of the protein main-chain fluctuations. In the non-native state (significantly explored at 380 K), the probability of their excitation was increased by a factor between 9 and 28 for the fast-folder proteins and by a factor 2 for the rigid protein. This enhancement in the non-native state was due to glycine, as demonstrated by simulations in which glycine was mutated to alanine. These ILMs might play a functional role in the flexible regions of proteins and in proteins in a non-native state (i.e. misfolded or unfolded states). PMID:26658321

  5. Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Do, Michael Tri Hoang; Yau, King-Wai

    2010-10-01

    Life on earth is subject to alternating cycles of day and night imposed by the rotation of the earth. Consequently, living things have evolved photodetective systems to synchronize their physiology and behavior with the external light-dark cycle. This form of photodetection is unlike the familiar "image vision," in that the basic information is light or darkness over time, independent of spatial patterns. "Nonimage" vision is probably far more ancient than image vision and is widespread in living species. For mammals, it has long been assumed that the photoreceptors for nonimage vision are also the textbook rods and cones. However, recent years have witnessed the discovery of a small population of retinal ganglion cells in the mammalian eye that express a unique visual pigment called melanopsin. These ganglion cells are intrinsically photosensitive and drive a variety of nonimage visual functions. In addition to being photoreceptors themselves, they also constitute the major conduit for rod and cone signals to the brain for nonimage visual functions such as circadian photoentrainment and the pupillary light reflex. Here we review what is known about these novel mammalian photoreceptors. PMID:20959623

  6. The intrinsic shape of NGC 3379

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statler, Thomas S.

    1994-01-01

    Photometric and kinematic data from the literature are combined with new dynamical models to derive the intrinsic shape of the 'standard' elliptical galaxy NGC 3379. The parameters that are best constrained are the dynamical triaxiality T (essentially the triaxiality of the total mass distribution) and the short-to long axis ratio of the light distribution c(sub L). The inferred shape is given by a Bayesian probability distribution in the (T, c(sub L) plane. Assuming a uniform prior, the most probable shape is oblate with a flattening of c(sub L) = 87. The distribution is strongly non-Gaussian, however, and the expectation values, (T) = .31 (c(sub L) = .75, imply a flatter and more triaxial figure. The 68% highest posterior density region allows more triaxial shapes as long as they are fairly round, or flatter shapes as long as they are nearly oblate. These results are essentially unchanged if the galaxy is assumed to rotate about its short axis, or if it is modeled as an S0 with a negligible-mass disk rather than as an elliptical. The suggestion of Capaccioli et al. (ApJ, 371, 535 (1991)) that NGC 3379 is a rather flat, triaxial S0 galaxy is found to be improbable at the 98% level; this conclusion is largely independent of the bulge-to-disk ratio or the relative rotation speeds of the two components.

  7. Adaptive Responses Limited by Intrinsic Noise

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, Prabhat; Nishikawa, Masatoshi; Shibata, Tatsuo

    2015-01-01

    Sensory systems have mechanisms to respond to the external environment and adapt to them. Such adaptive responses are effective for a wide dynamic range of sensing and perception of temporal change in stimulus. However, noise generated by the adaptation system itself as well as extrinsic noise in sensory inputs may impose a limit on the ability of adaptation systems. The relation between response and noise is well understood for equilibrium systems in the form of fluctuation response relation. However, the relation for nonequilibrium systems, including adaptive systems, are poorly understood. Here, we systematically explore such a relation between response and fluctuation in adaptation systems. We study the two network motifs, incoherent feedforward loops (iFFL) and negative feedback loops (nFBL), that can achieve perfect adaptation. We find that the response magnitude in adaption systems is limited by its intrinsic noise, implying that higher response would have higher noise component as well. Comparing the relation of response and noise in iFFL and nFBL, we show that whereas iFFL exhibits adaptation over a wider parameter range, nFBL offers higher response to noise ratio than iFFL. We also identify the condition that yields the upper limit of response for both network motifs. These results may explain the reason of why nFBL seems to be more abundant in nature for the implementation of adaption systems. PMID:26305221

  8. Equinoctial asymmetry in low latitude ionosphere as observed by SROSS-C2 satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardhan, Ananna; Aggarwal, Malini; Sharma, D. K.; Rai, J.

    2014-09-01

    The ionospheric plasma parameters (electron, ion temperatures and ion composition-Te, Ti, O+ and H+) measured by SROSS-C2 satellite at an average altitude of ~500 km has been investigated to study the behaviour of the ionosphere in equinoxes during half a solar cycle (year 1995-2000, F10.7 ~70-195). The region under study spans over 5-35°N geog. latitude and 65-95°E geog. longitude in the Indian sector. We found an equinoctial asymmetry in the diurnal behaviour of Te, Ti, O+ and H+ varying with increase in solar activity. The strength of equinoctial asymmetry in Te and Ti is strong during early morning and daytime and strength decreases with increase in solar activity whereas during night time no asymmetry/weaker is observed in low/high solar activity respectively. During the day time, a very strong equinoctial asymmetry in O+ is observed during solar minimum which diminishes with increase in solar activity. The similar diurnal behaviour of H+ as that of O+ is observed during low solar activity but no clear equinoctial asymmetry is observed during solar maximum, as H+ being highly dynamic. The transition height (O+/H+) is the lowest in early morning during solar minimum, which increases during local day-time. The rate of increase in transition height is different in both the equinoxes (higher in vernal than autumn) with respect to dependence on the solar activity, during daytime. Hence equinoctial asymmetry is stronger during solar minimum period than maximum, with higher/lower transition height in vernal during daytime/nighttime respectively.

  9. Three-dimensional assessment of facial asymmetry: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Akhil, Gopi; Senthil Kumar, Kullampalayam Palanisamy; Raja, Subramani; Janardhanan, Kumaresan

    2015-01-01

    For patients with facial asymmetry, complete and precise diagnosis, and surgical treatments to correct the underlying cause of the asymmetry are significant. Conventional diagnostic radiographs (submento-vertex projections, posteroanterior radiography) have limitations in asymmetry diagnosis due to two-dimensional assessments of three-dimensional (3D) images. The advent of 3D images has greatly reduced the magnification and projection errors that are common in conventional radiographs making it as a precise diagnostic aid for assessment of facial asymmetry. Thus, this article attempts to review the newly introduced 3D tools in the diagnosis of more complex facial asymmetries. PMID:26538893

  10. Alpha Asymmetry in Infants at Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Gabard-Durnam, Laurel; Tierney, Adrienne L.; Vogel-Farley, Vanessa; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Nelson, Charles A.

    2013-01-01

    An emerging focus of research on autism spectrum disorder (ASD) targets the identification of early-developing ASD endophenotypes using infant siblings of affected children. One potential neural endophenotype is resting frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) alpha asymmetry, a metric of hemispheric organization. Here, we examined the development of frontal EEG alpha asymmetry in ASD high-risk and low-risk infant populations. Our findings demonstrate that low and high-risk infants show different patterns of alpha asymmetry at 6 months of age and opposite growth trajectories in asymmetry over the following 12 months. These results support the candidacy of alpha asymmetry as an early neural ASD endophenotype. PMID:23989937

  11. Intrinsic bioremediation of landfills interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Brigmon, R.L.; Fliermans, C.B.

    1997-07-14

    Intrinsic bioremediation is a risk management option that relies on natural biological and physical processes to contain the spread of contamination from a source. Evidence is presented in this report that intrinsic bioremediation is occurring at the Sanitary Landfill is fundamental to support incorportion into a Corrective Action Plan (CAP).

  12. Hypermagnetic gyrotropy, inflation, and the baryon asymmetry of the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the production of the hypermagnetic gyrotropy when the electric and magnetic gauge couplings evolve at different rates, as it happens in the relativistic theory of the van der Waals forces. If a pseudoscalar interaction breaks the duality symmetry of the corresponding equations, the gyrotropic configurations of the hypermagnetic fields can be amplified from the vacuum during an inflationary stage of expansion. After charting the parameter space of the model in terms of the rates of evolution of the magnetic and electric gauge couplings, we identify the regions where the gyrotropy is sufficiently intense to seed the baryon asymmetry of the Universe at the electroweak epoch while the backreaction constraints, the strong coupling bounds and the other astrophysical limits are concurrently satisfied.

  13. GRAND MINIMA AND NORTH-SOUTH ASYMMETRY OF SOLAR ACTIVITY

    SciTech Connect

    Olemskoy, S. V.; Kitchatinov, L. L.

    2013-11-01

    A solar-type dynamo model in a spherical shell is developed with allowance for random dependence of the poloidal field generation mechanism on time and latitude. The model shows repeatable epochs of a strongly decreased amplitude of magnetic cycles similar to the Maunder minimum of solar activity. Random dependence of dynamo parameters on latitude breaks the equatorial symmetry of generated fields. The model shows the correlation of the occurrence of grand minima with deviations in the dynamo field from dipolar parity. An increased north-south asymmetry of magnetic activity can, therefore, be an indicator of transitions to grand minima. Qualitative interpretation of this correlation is suggested. Statistics of grand minima in the model are close to the Poisson random process, indicating that the onset of a grand minimum is statistically independent of preceding minima.

  14. Axial asymmetry for improved sensitivity in MEMS piezoresistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuvra, Pranoy Deb; McNamara, Shamus; Lin, Ji-Tzuoh; Alphenaar, Bruce; Walsh, Kevin; Davidson, Jim

    2016-09-01

    The strain induced resistance change is compared for asymmetric, symmetric and diffused piezoresistive elements. Finite element analysis is used to simulate the performance of a T-shaped piezoresistive MEMS cantilever, including a lumped parameter model to show the effect of geometric asymmetry on the piezoresistor sensitivity. Asymmetric piezoresistors are found to be much more sensitive to applied load than the typical symmetric design producing about two orders of magnitude higher resistance change. This is shown to be due to the difference in the stress distribution in the symmetric and asymmetric geometries resulting in less resistance change cancellation in the asymmetric design. Although still less sensitive than diffused piezoresistors, asymmetric piezoresistors are sensitive enough for many applications, and are much easier to fabricate and integrate into MEMS devices.

  15. Predictions of the poloidal asymmetries and transport frequencies in KSTAR

    SciTech Connect

    Bae, C. Lee, S. G.; Terzolo, L.; Stacey, W. M.

    2014-01-15

    The extended neoclassical rotation theory formulated in Miller flux surface geometry enables unprecedented neoclassical calculations of the poloidal asymmetries in density, rotation velocities, electrostatic potential along the flux surfaces, and of the inertial (Reynolds stress) and gyroviscous transport frequencies, which are strong functions of these asymmetries. This paper presents such calculations of the poloidal asymmetries and non-negligible inertial and gyroviscous transport frequencies in two KSTAR (Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research) [Kwon et al., Nucl. Fusion 51, 094006 (2011)] Neutral Beam Injection H-mode discharges. The in-out asymmetries in the velocities are an order of magnitude larger than their up-down asymmetries. The magnitudes of the predicted inertial and gyroviscous transport frequencies depend on the magnitudes of the density and velocity asymmetries. The neoclassically predicted density asymmetries are shown to correspond with the reported measurements in tokamaks and the predicted carbon toroidal velocities agree very well with the measurements in KSTAR.

  16. Separating Scattering from Intrinsic Attenuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Wijk, K.; Scales, J. A.

    2003-12-01

    The subsurface appears disordered at all length-scales. Therefore, wave propatation at seismic or ultrasonic frequencies is subject to complicated scatterings. A pulse propagating in the subsurface loses energy at each scattering off an impedance contrast, but also decreases in amplitude as the impulse interacts with fluids in the rock. We call the latter non-elastic effect "intrinsic Q", while the former is "scattering Q". It is often the fluids in the rocks that are of interest, but conventional reflection and transmission of the incident pulse only cannot deceipher the individual components of Q due to scattering and fluid movement in the pore-space. We present an approach that can unravel these two mechanisms, allowing a separate estimate of absorption. This method treats the propagation of the average intensity in the framework of radiative transfer (RT); the arrival of (what is left of) the incident pulse is modeled as the coherent energy, whereas the later arriving multiply scattered events form the incoherent intensity. The coherent pulse decays exponentially due to a combination of scattering and absorption, and so does the incoherent intensity. However, multiple scattering can re-direct energy back to the receiver, supplying a gain-term at later times that makes up the incoherent intensity. Strictly speaking, one can invert for scattering and absorption from the intensity at late times only, often modeled with the late-time equivalent of RT, diffusion. However, we will show that fitting both early- and late-time signal with RT constrains absorption and scattering constants more rigorously. These ideas are illustrated by laboratory and sonic-logging measurements.

  17. Collective Dynamics of Intrinsic Josephson Junctions in HTSC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukrinov, Yu M.; Mahfouzi, F.

    2006-06-01

    The dynamics of a stack of intrinsic Josephson junctions (IJJ) in the high-Tc superconductors is theoretically investigated with both the quasineutrality breakdown effect and quasiparticle charge imbalance effect taken into account. The current-voltage characteristics (IVC) of IJJ are numerically calculated in the framework of capacitively coupled Josephson junctions model and charge imbalance model including set of differential equations for phase differences, kinetic equations and generalized Josephson relations. We obtain the branch structure in IVC and investigate it as a function of model parameters such as coupling constant, McCumber parameter and number of junctions in the stack. The dependence of branch slopes and branch endpoints on the coupling and disequilibrium parameters are found. We study the nonequilibrium effects created by current injection and show that the increase in the disequilibrium parameter changes essentially the character of IVC. The new features of the hysteresis behavior of IVC of IJJ are obtained.

  18. Morphologies of ABC Triblock Terpolymer Melts Containing Poly(Cyclohexadiene): Effects of Conformational Asymmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Rajeev; Sides, Scott W.; Goswami, Monojoy; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Hong, Kunlun; Wu, Xiaodong; Russell, Thomas P.; Gido, Samuel P.; Misichronis, Konstantinos; Rangou, Sofia; Avgeropoulos, Apostolos; Tsoukatos, Thodoris; Hadjichristidis, Nikos; Beyer, Frederick L.; Mays, Jimmy W.

    2013-02-12

    We have synthesized linear ABC triblock terpolymers containing poly(1,3-cyclohexadiene), PCHD, as an end block and characterized their morphologies in the melt. Specifically, we have studied terpolymers containing polystyrene (PS), polybutadiene (PB), and polyisoprene (PI) as the other blocks. Systematically varying the ratio of 1,2- /1,4-microstructures of poly(1,3-cyclohexadiene), we have studied the effects of conformational asymmetry among the three blocks on the morphologies using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and self-consistent field theory (SCFT) performed with PolySwift++. Our work reveals that the triblock terpolymer melts containing a high percentage of 1,2-microstructures in the PCHD block are disordered at 110 °C for all the samples, independent of sequence and volume fraction of the blocks. In contrast, the triblock terpolymer melts containing a high percentage of 1,4-microstructure form regular morphologies known from the literature. The accuracy of the SCFT calculations depends on calculating the χ parameters that quantify the repulsive interactions between different monomers. Simulations using χ values obtained from solubility parameters and group contribution methods are unable to reproduce the morphologies as seen in the experiments. However, SCFT calculations accounting for the enhancement of the χ parameter with an increase in the conformational asymmetry lead to an excellent agreement between theory and experiments. These results highlight the importance of conformational asymmetry in tuning the χ parameter and, in turn, morphologies in block copolymers.

  19. Single spin asymmetries in electroproduction at CLAS

    SciTech Connect

    Harut Avakian; Latifa Elouadrhiri

    2004-06-02

    We present measurements of spin asymmetries in semi-inclusive processes in hard scattering kinematics using a 5.7 GeV electron beam and the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) at JLab. Scattering of longitudinally polarized electrons of an unpolarized liquid-hydrogen and off a polarized NH{sub 3} targets was studied over a wide range of kinematics. Non-zero single-beam and single-target spin asymmetries have been observed in semi-inclusive pion production in hard-scattering kinematics (Q{sup 2} > 1.2 GeV{sup 2}, W{sup 4} > 4 GeV{sup 2}). Systematic studies of factorization of x and z dependences have been done for different spin-dependent and spin-independent observables. No significant x/z dependence has been observed within statistical uncertainties, which is consistent with factorization of hard scattering and fragmentation processes.

  20. QCD evolution of the Sivers asymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echevarria, Miguel G.; Idilbi, Ahmad; Kang, Zhong-Bo; Vitev, Ivan

    2014-04-01

    We study the QCD evolution of the Sivers effect in both semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) and Drell-Yan production (DY). We pay close attention to the nonperturbative spin-independent Sudakov factor in the evolution formalism and find a universal form which can describe reasonably well the experimental data on the transverse momentum distributions in SIDIS, DY lepton pair and W/Z production. With this Sudakov factor at hand, we perform a global fitting of all the experimental data on the Sivers asymmetry in SIDIS from HERMES, COMPASS and Jefferson Lab. We then make predictions for the Sivers asymmetry in DY lepton pair and W production that can be compared to the future experimental measurements to test the sign change of the Sivers functions between SIDIS and DY processes and constrain the sea quark Sivers functions.

  1. Scrotal asymmetry, varicocoele and the Riace Bronzes.

    PubMed

    Bonafini, B; Pozzilli, P

    2012-04-01

    In 1972, a pair of remarkably attractive Greek statues, later named Riace Bronzes, were found along the Mediterranean coast in the province of Reggio Calabria, Italy. We analyse the Riace Bronzes in the context of previous research on scrotal asymmetry in Greek statues. By examining their testis, one can define a more exact time of their dating by placing them beside previous observations of scrotal asymmetry, and possibly by taking a pathological condition, varicocoele, as an influencing factor in determining the appearance of the testis. In statue A of the Riace Bronzes, the left testicle is remarkably lower compared with the right one; it also appears as it looks when under physical examination varicocoele is suspected. Being located on the left testicle (as in 90% of cases) and by sight, we feel sufficiently confident to affirm that varicocoele might be diagnosed. PMID:22288773

  2. GDH Integral on the Proton from Asymmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Yelena Prok

    2004-05-01

    Inclusive double spin electron asymmetries have been measured by scattering polarized electrons off the solid polarized {sup 15}NH{sub 3} target in Hall B of Jefferson Lab in 2000-2001. The virtual photon asymmetry A{sub 1} (x), the longitudinal spin structure function, g{sub 1} (x, Q{sup 2}), and the first moment, {Gamma}{sub 1}{sup p}, have been evaluated for a kinematic range of 0.05 {ge} Q{sup 2} {ge} 4.5 GeV{sup 2}. The extracted results complement the existing data in the resonance region, extending it to lower and higher Q{sup 2} regions. The results are important in the study of Q{sup 2} evolution of nucleon structure from the hadronic to partonic degrees of freedom.

  3. The dawn-dusk asymmetry of ion density in the dayside magnetosheath and its annual variability measured by THEMIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimmock, Andrew P.; Pulkkinen, Tuija I.; Osmane, Adnane; Nykyri, Katariina

    2016-05-01

    The local and global plasma properties in the magnetosheath play a fundamental role in regulating solar wind-magnetosphere coupling processes. However, the magnetosheath is a complex region to characterise as it has been shown theoretically, observationally and through simulations that plasma properties are inhomogeneous, non-isotropic and asymmetric about the Sun-Earth line. To complicate matters, dawn-dusk asymmetries are sensitive to various changes in the upstream conditions on an array of timescales. The present paper focuses exclusively on dawn-dusk asymmetries, in particularly that of ion density. We present a statistical study using THEMIS data of the dawn-dusk asymmetry of ion density in the dayside magnetosheath and its long-term variations between 2009 and 2015. Our data suggest that, in general, the dawn-side densities are higher, and the asymmetry grows from noon towards the terminator. This trend was only observed close to the magnetopause and not in the central magnetosheath. In addition, between 2009 and 2015, the largest asymmetry occurred around 2009 decreasing thereafter. We also concluded that no single parameter such as the Alfvén Mach number, plasma velocity, or the interplanetary magnetic field strength could exclusively account for the observed asymmetry. Interestingly, the dependence on Alfvén Mach number differed between data sets from different time periods. The asymmetry obtained in the THEMIS data set is consistent with previous studies, but the solar cycle dependence was opposite to an analysis based on IMP-8 data. We discuss the physical mechanisms for this asymmetry and its temporal variation. We also put the current results into context with the existing literature in order to relate THEMIS era measurements to those made during earlier solar cycles.

  4. Reverse Schottky-asymmetry spin current detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yuan; Appelbaum, Ian

    2010-10-01

    By reversing the Schottky barrier-height asymmetry in hot-electron semiconductor-metal-semiconductor ballistic spin filtering spin detectors, we have achieved the following: (1) demonstration of >50% spin polarization in silicon, resulting from the increase of detection efficiency by elimination of the ferromagnet/silicon interface on the transport channel detector contact and (2) evidence of spin transport at temperatures as high as 260 K, enabled by an increase in detector Schottky barrier height.

  5. Mandibular asymmetry and the fourth dimension.

    PubMed

    Kaban, Leonard B

    2009-03-01

    This paper represents more than 30 years of discussion and collaboration with Drs Joseph Murray and John Mulliken in an attempt to understand growth patterns over time (ie, fourth dimension) in patients with hemifacial microsomia (HFM). This is essential for the development of rational treatment protocols for children and adults with jaw asymmetry. Traditionally, HFM was thought of as a unilateral deformity, but it was recognized that 20% to 30% of patients had bilateral abnormalities. However, early descriptions of skeletal correction addressed almost exclusively lengthening of the short (affected) side of the face. Based on longitudinal clinical observations of unoperated HFM patients, we hypothesized that abnormal mandibular growth is the earliest skeletal manifestation and that restricted growth of the mandible plays a pivotal role in progressive distortion of both the ipsilateral and contralateral facial skeleton. This hypothesis explains the progressive nature of the asymmetry in patients with HFM and provides the rationale for surgical lengthening of the mandible in children to prevent end-stage deformity. During the past 30 years, we have learned that this phenomenon of progressive distortion of the adjacent and contralateral facial skeleton occurs with other asymmetric mandibular undergrowth (tumor resection, radiation therapy, or posttraumatic defects) and overgrowth (mandibular condylar hyperplasia) conditions. In this paper, I describe the progression of deformity with time in patients with mandibular asymmetry as a result of undergrowth and overgrowth. Understanding these concepts is critical for the development of rational treatment protocols for adults with end-stage asymmetry and for children to minimize secondary deformity. PMID:19182686

  6. The intrinsic bispectrum of the cosmic microwave background

    SciTech Connect

    Pettinari, Guido W.; Fidler, Christian; Crittenden, Robert; Koyama, Kazuya; Wands, David E-mail: Christian.Fidler@port.ac.uk E-mail: Kazuya.Koyama@port.ac.uk

    2013-04-01

    We develop a new, efficient code for solving the second-order Einstein-Boltzmann equations, and use it to estimate the intrinsic CMB non-Gaussianity arising from the non-linear evolution of density perturbations. The full calculation involves contributions from recombination and less tractable contributions from terms integrated along the line of sight. We investigate the bias that this intrinsic bispectrum implies for searches of primordial non-Gaussianity. We find that the inclusion or omission of certain line of sight terms can make a large impact. When including all physical effects but lensing and time-delay, we find that the local-type f{sub NL} would be biased by f{sub NL}{sup intra} = 0.5, below the expected sensitivity of the Planck satellite. The speed of our code allows us to confirm the robustness of our results with respect to a number of numerical parameters.

  7. Nodal signalling determines biradial asymmetry in Hydra.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hiroshi; Schmidt, Heiko A; Kuhn, Anne; Höger, Stefanie K; Kocagöz, Yigit; Laumann-Lipp, Nico; Ozbek, Suat; Holstein, Thomas W

    2014-11-01

    In bilaterians, three orthogonal body axes define the animal form, with distinct anterior-posterior, dorsal-ventral and left-right asymmetries. The key signalling factors are Wnt family proteins for the anterior-posterior axis, Bmp family proteins for the dorsal-ventral axis and Nodal for the left-right axis. Cnidarians, the sister group to bilaterians, are characterized by one oral-aboral body axis, which exhibits a distinct biradiality of unknown molecular nature. Here we analysed the biradial growth pattern in the radially symmetrical cnidarian polyp Hydra, and we report evidence of Nodal in a pre-bilaterian clade. We identified a Nodal-related gene (Ndr) in Hydra magnipapillata, and this gene is essential for setting up an axial asymmetry along the main body axis. This asymmetry defines a lateral signalling centre, inducing a new body axis of a budding polyp orthogonal to the mother polyp's axis. Ndr is expressed exclusively in the lateral bud anlage and induces Pitx, which encodes an evolutionarily conserved transcription factor that functions downstream of Nodal. Reminiscent of its function in vertebrates, Nodal acts downstream of β-Catenin signalling. Our data support an evolutionary scenario in which a 'core-signalling cassette' consisting of β-Catenin, Nodal and Pitx pre-dated the cnidarian-bilaterian split. We presume that this cassette was co-opted for various modes of axial patterning: for example, for lateral branching in cnidarians and left-right patterning in bilaterians. PMID:25156256

  8. Transport at spin-orbit and exchange-split interfaces and universal giant asymmetry (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, Huong Thi; Jaffrès, Henri; Nguyen, T. L. Hoai; Drouhin, Henri-Jean

    2015-09-01

    We report on theoretical investigations and k.p calculations of carrier tunneling, both electrons and holes, in model systems and heterostructures composed of exchange-split III-V semiconductors, involving spin-orbit interactions. The two media are separated-or not-by a thin tunnel barrier made out of a (III-V) semiconductor. In a 2x2 exchange-split band model, we show that, when Dresselhaus interactions are included in the conduction band of two exchange-split semiconductors in contact in the antiparallel states of magnetization, the electrons are differently transmitted with respect to an axis orthogonal to both normal axis of the interface and of the magnetization. The transmission asymmetry (A) between +k// and -k// incidence is shown to be maximal (A=100%) at some points of the Brillouin zone corresponding to a totally quenched transmission at some given incidence angles. More generally, we derive a universal character of the transmission asymmetry A vs. the in-plane incidence wavevector, the reduced kinetic energy and exchange parameter, A being universally scaled by a unique function, independent of the spin-orbit strength and of material parameters. This particular asymmetry feature is reproduced by a more complete 14x14 band model involving coupling with the conduction band. On the other hand, calculations performed in the valence-band of equivalent model heterostructures and including tunnel barriers in both 6x6 (without inversion) and 14x14 k.p band model more astonishingly highlight, the same trends in the transmission asymmetry (A) which is related to the difference of orbital chirality and to the related branching (overlap) of the corresponding evanescent wavefunctions responsible for tunneling current. In both cases of electrons and holes, the asymmetry appears to be robust and persists only when a single electrode is magnetic.

  9. Intrinsic structure in Saturn's rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albers, N.

    2015-10-01

    Saturn's rings are the most prominent in our Solar system and one example of granular matter in space. Dominated by tides and inelastic collisions the system is highly flattened being almost 300000km wide while only tens of meters thick. Individual particles are composed of primarily water ice and range from microns to few tens of meters in size. Apparent patterns comprise ringlets, gaps, kinematic wakes, propellers, bending waves, and the winding spiral arms of density waves. These large-scale structures are perturbations foremost created by external as well as embedded moons. Observations made by the Cassini spacecraft currently in orbit around Saturn show these structures in unprecedented detail. But high-resolution measurements reveal the presence of small-scale structures throughout the system. These include self-gravity wakes (50-100m), overstable waves (100-300m), subkm structure at the A and B ring edges, "straw" and "ropy" structures (1-3km), and the C ring "ghosts". Most of these had not been anticipated and are found in perturbed regions, driven by resonances with external moons, where the system undergoes periodic phases of compression and relaxation that correlate with the presence of structure. High velocity dispersion and the presence of large clumps imply structure formation on time scales as short as one orbit (about 10 hours). The presence of these intrinsic structures is seemingly the response to varying local conditions such as internal density, optical depth, underlying particle size distribution, granular temperature, and distance from the central planet. Their abundance provides evidence for an active and dynamic ring system where aggregation and fragmentation are ongoing on orbital timescales. Thus a kinetic description of the rings may be more appropriate than the fluid one. I will present Cassini Ultraviolet Spectrometer (UVIS) High Speed Photometer (HSP) occultations, Voyager 1 and 2 Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS), and high

  10. IS THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND ASYMMETRY DUE TO THE KINEMATIC DIPOLE?

    SciTech Connect

    Naselsky, P.; Zhao, W.; Kim, J.; Chen, S.

    2012-04-10

    Parity violation found in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation is a crucial clue for the non-standard cosmological model or the possible contamination of various foreground residuals and/or calibration of the CMB data sets. In this paper, we study the directional properties of the CMB parity asymmetry by excluding the m = 0 modes in the definition of parity parameters. We find that the preferred directions of the parity parameters coincide with the CMB kinematic dipole, which implies that the CMB parity asymmetry may be connected with the possible contamination of the residual dipole component. We also find that such tendency is not only localized at l = 2, 3, but in the extended multipole ranges up to l {approx} 22.

  11. Intrinsic operators for the electromagnetic nuclear current

    SciTech Connect

    J. Adam, Jr.; H. Arenhovel

    1996-09-01

    The intrinsic electromagnetic nuclear meson exchange charge and current operators arising from a separation of the center-of-mass motion are derived for a one-boson-exchange model for the nuclear interaction with scalar, pseudoscalar and vector meson exchange including leading order relativistic terms. Explicit expressions for the meson exchange operators corresponding to the different meson types are given in detail for a two-nucleon system. These intrinsic operators are to be evaluated between intrinsic wave functions in their center-of-mass frame.

  12. Leaf Lateral Asymmetry in Morphological and Physiological Traits of Rice Plant

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Shen; Li, Yong; Peng, Shaobing

    2015-01-01

    Leaf lateral asymmetry in width and thickness has been reported previously in rice. However, the differences between the wide and narrow sides of leaf blade in other leaf morphological and physiological traits were not known. This study was conducted to quantify leaf lateral asymmetry in leaf width, leaf thickness, specific leaf weight (SLW), leaf nitrogen (N) concentration based on dry weight (Nw) and leaf area (Na), and chlorophyll meter reading (SPAD). Leaf morphological and physiological traits of the two lateral halves of the top three leaves at heading stage were measured on 23 rice varieties grown in three growing seasons in two locations. Leaf lateral asymmetry was observed in leaf width, leaf thickness, Nw, Na, and SPAD, but not in SLW. On average, the leaf width of the wide side was about 17% higher than that of the narrow side. The wide side had higher leaf thickness than the narrow side whereas the narrow side had higher Nw, Na, and SPAD than the wide side. We conclude that the narrow side of leaf blade maintained higher leaf N status than the wide side based on all N-related parameters, which implies a possibility of leaf lateral asymmetry in photosynthetic rate in rice plant. PMID:26053267

  13. Leaf Lateral Asymmetry in Morphological and Physiological Traits of Rice Plant.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Shen; Li, Yong; Peng, Shaobing

    2015-01-01

    Leaf lateral asymmetry in width and thickness has been reported previously in rice. However, the differences between the wide and narrow sides of leaf blade in other leaf morphological and physiological traits were not known. This study was conducted to quantify leaf lateral asymmetry in leaf width, leaf thickness, specific leaf weight (SLW), leaf nitrogen (N) concentration based on dry weight (Nw) and leaf area (Na), and chlorophyll meter reading (SPAD). Leaf morphological and physiological traits of the two lateral halves of the top three leaves at heading stage were measured on 23 rice varieties grown in three growing seasons in two locations. Leaf lateral asymmetry was observed in leaf width, leaf thickness, Nw, Na, and SPAD, but not in SLW. On average, the leaf width of the wide side was about 17% higher than that of the narrow side. The wide side had higher leaf thickness than the narrow side whereas the narrow side had higher Nw, Na, and SPAD than the wide side. We conclude that the narrow side of leaf blade maintained higher leaf N status than the wide side based on all N-related parameters, which implies a possibility of leaf lateral asymmetry in photosynthetic rate in rice plant. PMID:26053267

  14. Downscaling Smooth Tomographic Models: Separating Intrinsic and Apparent Anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodin, Thomas; Capdeville, Yann; Romanowicz, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, a number of tomographic models based on full waveform inversion have been published. Due to computational constraints, the fitted waveforms are low pass filtered, which results in an inability to map features smaller than half the shortest wavelength. However, these tomographic images are not a simple spatial average of the true model, but rather an effective, apparent, or equivalent model that provides a similar 'long-wave' data fit. For example, it can be shown that a series of horizontal isotropic layers will be seen by a 'long wave' as a smooth anisotropic medium. In this way, the observed anisotropy in tomographic models is a combination of intrinsic anisotropy produced by lattice-preferred orientation (LPO) of minerals, and apparent anisotropy resulting from the incapacity of mapping discontinuities. Interpretations of observed anisotropy (e.g. in terms of mantle flow) requires therefore the separation of its intrinsic and apparent components. The "up-scaling" relations that link elastic properties of a rapidly varying medium to elastic properties of the effective medium as seen by long waves are strongly non-linear and their inverse highly non-unique. That is, a smooth homogenized effective model is equivalent to a large number of models with discontinuities. In the 1D case, Capdeville et al (GJI, 2013) recently showed that a tomographic model which results from the inversion of low pass filtered waveforms is an homogenized model, i.e. the same as the model computed by upscaling the true model. Here we propose a stochastic method to sample the ensemble of layered models equivalent to a given tomographic profile. We use a transdimensional formulation where the number of layers is variable. Furthermore, each layer may be either isotropic (1 parameter) or intrinsically anisotropic (2 parameters). The parsimonious character of the Bayesian inversion gives preference to models with the least number of parameters (i.e. least number of layers, and

  15. Asymmetry in prefrontal resting-state EEG spectral power underlies individual differences in phasic and sustained cognitive control.

    PubMed

    Ambrosini, Ettore; Vallesi, Antonino

    2016-01-01

    In our daily life, we constantly exert sustained and phasic cognitive control processes to manage multiple competing task sets and rapidly switch between them. Increasing research efforts are attempting to unveil how the brain mediates these processes, highlighting the importance of the prefrontal cortex. An intriguing question concerns the influence of hemispheric asymmetries and whether it may be generalized to different cognitive domains depending on lateralized processing. Another currently open question concerns the underlying causes of the observed huge inter-individual variability in cognitive control abilities. Here we tackle these issues by investigating whether participants' hemispheric asymmetry in intrinsic (i.e., resting-state-related) brain dynamics can reflect differences in their phasic and/or sustained cognitive control abilities regardless of the cognitive domain. To this aim, we recorded human participants' resting-state electroencephalographic activity and performed a source-based spectral analysis to assess their lateralized brain dynamics at rest. Moreover, we used three task-switching paradigms involving different cognitive domains to assess participants' domain-general phasic and sustained cognitive control abilities. By performing a series of correlations and an intersection analysis, we showed that participants with stronger left- and right-lateralized intrinsic brain activity in the middle frontal gyrus were more able, respectively, to exert phasic and sustained cognitive control. We propose that the variability in participants' prefrontal hemispheric asymmetry in the intrinsic electrophysiological spectral profile reflects individual differences in preferentially engaging either the left-lateralized, phasic or the right-lateralized, sustained cognitive control processes to regulate their behavior in response to changing task demands, regardless of the specific cognitive domain involved. PMID:26416650

  16. Intrinsic and acquired resistance mechanisms in enterococcus

    PubMed Central

    Hollenbeck, Brian L.; Rice, Louis B.

    2012-01-01

    Enterococci have the potential for resistance to virtually all clinically useful antibiotics. Their emergence as important nosocomial pathogens has coincided with increased expression of antimicrobial resistance by members of the genus. The mechanisms underlying antibiotic resistance in enterococci may be intrinsic to the species or acquired through mutation of intrinsic genes or horizontal exchange of genetic material encoding resistance determinants. This paper reviews the antibiotic resistance mechanisms in Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis and discusses treatment options. PMID:23076243

  17. Structural Asymmetry of Anterior Insula: Behavioral Correlates and Individual Differences

    PubMed Central

    Chiarello, Christine; Vazquez, David; Felton, Adam; Leonard, Christiana M.

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigated behavioral correlates of structural asymmetry of the insula, and traditional perisylvian language regions, in a large sample of young adults (N=200). The findings indicated 1) reliable leftward surface area asymmetry of the anterior insula, 2) association of this asymmetry with divided visual field lateralization of visual word recognition, and 3) modulation of the correlation of structural and linguistic asymmetry by consistency of hand preference. Although leftward asymmetry of cortical surface area was observed for the anterior insula, pars opercularis and triangularis, and planum temporale, only the anterior insula asymmetry was associated with lateralized word recognition. We interpret these findings within the context of recent structural and functional findings about the human insula. We suggest that leftward structural lateralization of earlier developing insular cortex may bootstrap asymmetrical functional lateralization even if the insula is only a minor component of the adult language network. PMID:23681069

  18. The intrinsic resistome of bacterial pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Olivares, Jorge; Bernardini, Alejandra; Garcia-Leon, Guillermo; Corona, Fernando; B. Sanchez, Maria; Martinez, Jose L.

    2013-01-01

    Intrinsically resistant bacteria have emerged as a relevant health problem in the last years. Those bacterial species, several of them with an environmental origin, present naturally low-level susceptibility to several drugs. It has been proposed that intrinsic resistance is mainly the consequence of the impermeability of cellular envelopes, the activity of multidrug efflux pumps or the lack of appropriate targets for a given family of drugs. However, recently published articles indicate that the characteristic phenotype of susceptibility to antibiotics of a given bacterial species depends on the concerted activity of several elements, what has been named as intrinsic resistome. These determinants comprise not just classical resistance genes. Other elements, several of them involved in basic bacterial metabolic processes, are of relevance for the intrinsic resistance of bacterial pathogens. In the present review we analyze recent publications on the intrinsic resistomes of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We present as well information on the role that global regulators of bacterial metabolism, as Crc from P. aeruginosa, may have on modulating bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics. Finally, we discuss the possibility of searching inhibitors of the intrinsic resistome in the aim of improving the activity of drugs currently in use for clinical practice. PMID:23641241

  19. CPT violation and particle-antiparticle asymmetry in cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Dolgov, A. D.

    2010-04-15

    General features of generation of the cosmological charge asymmetry in CPT noninvariant world are discussed. If the effects of CPT violationmanifest themselves only inmass differences of particles and antiparticles, the baryon asymmetry of the Universe hardly can be explained solely by breaking of CPT invariance. However, CPT noninvariant theories may lead to a new effect of distorting the usual equilibrium distributions. If this takes place, CPT violation may explain the baryon asymmetry of the Universe.

  20. The intrinsic shapes of starless cores in Ophiuchus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomax, O.; Whitworth, A. P.; Cartwright, A.

    2013-12-01

    Using observations of cores to infer their intrinsic properties requires the solution of several poorly constrained inverse problems. Here we address one of these problems, namely to deduce from the projected aspect ratios of the cores in Ophiuchus their intrinsic three-dimensional shapes. Four models are proposed, all based on the standard assumption that cores are randomly orientated ellipsoids, and on the further assumption that a core's shape is not correlated with its absolute size. The first and simplest model, M1, has a single free parameter, and assumes that the relative axes of a core are drawn randomly from a log-normal distribution with zero mean and standard deviation σO. The second model, M2a, has two free parameters, and assumes that the log-normal distribution (with standard deviation σO) has a finite mean, μO, defined so that μO < 0 means elongated (prolate) cores are favoured, whereas μO > 0 means flattened (oblate) cores are favoured. Details of the third model (M2b, two free parameters) and the fourth model (M4, four free parameters) are given in the text. Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling and Bayesian analysis are used to map out the posterior probability density functions of the model parameters, and the relative merits of the models are compared using Bayes factors. We show that M1 provides an acceptable fit to the Ophiuchus data with σO ≈ 0.57 ± 0.06; and that, although the other models sometimes provide an improved fit, there is no strong justification for the introduction of their additional parameters.

  1. Intrinsic geometry of a tidally deformed Kerr horizon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poisson, Eric

    2013-04-01

    The intrinsic metric of a tidally deformed black-hole horizon can be presented in a coordinate system adapted to the horizon's null generators, with one coordinate acting as a running parameter along each generator, and two coordinates acting as constant generator labels. The metric is invariant under reparametrizations of the generators, and as such the horizon's intrinsic geometry is known to be gauge invariant. We consider a Kerr black hole deformed by a slowly-evolving external tidal field, and describe the intrinsic geometry of its event horizon in terms of the electric and magnetic tidal moments that characterize the tidal environment. When the black hole is slowly rotating, the horizon's geometry can be described in terms of a deviation from an otherwise spherical surface, and the deformation can be characterized by gauge invariant Love numbers. Some aspects of this tidal deformation have direct analogues in Newtonian physics. Some do not, and I will describe the similarities and differences between the tidal deformation of rotating black holes in general relativity and rotating fluid bodies in Newtonian physics.

  2. Intrinsic low-frequency variability of the Gulf Stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quattrocchi, G.; Pierini, S.; Dijkstra, H. A.

    2012-03-01

    In this paper a process study aimed at analyzing the low-frequency variability of intrinsically oceanic origin of the Gulf Stream (GS) and GS extension (GSE) is presented. An eddy-permitting reduced-gravity nonlinear shallow water model is implemented in an idealized North Atlantic Ocean, with schematic boundaries including the essential geometric features of the coastline and a realistic zonal basin width at all latitudes. The forcing is provided by a time-independent climatological surface wind stress obtained from 41 years of monthly ECMWF fields. The model response yields strong intrinsic low-frequency fluctuations on the interannual to decadal time scales. The modelled time-averaged GS/GSE flows are found to exhibit several features that can also be deduced from satellite altimeter data, such as the Florida Current seaward deflection, the GS separation at Cape Hatteras, and the overall structure of the GSE. The intrinsic low-frequency variability yields two preferred states of the GSE differing in latitudinal location that also have their counterpart in the altimeter data. A preliminary analysis of the variability in terms of dynamical systems theory is carried out by using the lateral eddy viscosity as the control parameter. A complex transition sequence from a steady state to irregular low-frequency variability emerges, in which Hopf and global bifurcations can be identified.

  3. Asymmetries in the HD 141569 circumstellar disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouillet, D.; Lagrange, A. M.; Augereau, J. C.; Ménard, F.

    2001-06-01

    We present HST/STIS coronagraphic observations of the disk around HD 141569. The data, with a spatial resolution and signal to noise higher than those previously obtained with HST/NICMOS2 allow a more detailed insight in the system. They reveal a very structured system, in which two ring-like structures at distances =~ 200 and 325 AU from the star are the most prominent features. The region between 125 and 175 AU is clearly devoid of material. An arc-like structure is also detected at about 250 AU, as well as a diffuse extended emission, both on the North side of the disk. The system appears to be highly asymmetrical, both with respect to its major and minor axes. Surprisingly, the brightness asymmetry with respect to both axes in the inner and outer parts of the disk is reversed. Possible explanations to the asymmetries include anisotropic scattering and/or non axisymmetrical distribution of the dust within the system. It is shown that anisotropic scattering cannot alone be responsible for all observed asymmetries. It is concluded that HD 141569 disk is non axi-symmetrical. Eventhough no detailed modeling is given in this observational paper, it is probable that the sculpting and brightness properties of the disk are due to the gravitational perturbation of a massive body. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. under NASA contract No. NAS5-26555.

  4. Hemispheric asymmetries of the Venus plasma environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarvinen, R.; Kallio, E.; Dyadechkin, S.

    2013-07-01

    We study the Venus-solar wind interaction and the hemispheric asymmetries of the Venus plasma environment in the global HYB-Venus hybrid simulation. We concentrate especially on the role of the flow-aligned interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) component (i.e., the Parker spiral angle or the IMF cone angle) and analyze the dawn-dusk and Esw asymmetries between four magnetic quadrants around Venus. Using the simulation model, we study two upstream condition cases in detail: the perpendicular IMF to the solar wind flow case and the nominal Parker spiral case (dominant flow-aligned IMF component). Several differences and similarities were found in these two simulation runs. Common features of the Venus plasma environment between the two cases include asymmetric magnetic barrier and tail lobes and asymmetric planetary ion escape in the direction of the solar wind convection electric field. Further, protons of planetary origin and of solar wind origin were found to follow similar velocity patterns in the Venus plasma wake in both cases. The differences when the IMF flow-aligned component is dominating compared to the perpendicular IMF case, the so-called (magnetic) dawn-dusk asymmetries, include the parallel bow shock and the foreshock region, the asymmetric magnetic barrier, the asymmetric tail current system, and the asymmetric central tail current sheet. Further, the escaping planetary H+ and O+ ion fluxes are concentrated more on the hemisphere of the parallel bow shock. When interpreting in situ plasma and magnetic observations from Venus, the features of at least these two basic IMF configurations should be considered.

  5. Titan's stratospheric temperature asymmetry: a radiative origin?

    PubMed

    Bézard, B; Coustenis, A; McKay, C P

    1995-02-01

    During the 1981 Voyager encounter, Titan's stratosphere exhibited a large thermal asymmetry, with high northern latitudes being colder than comparable southern latitudes. Given the short radiative time constant, this asymmetry would not be expected at the season of the Voyager observations (spring equinox), if the infrared and solar opacity sources were distributed symmetrically. We have investigated the radiative budget of Titan's stratosphere, using two selections of Voyager IRIS spectra recorded at symmetric northern and southern latitudes. In the region 0.1-1 mbar, temperatures are 7 K colder at 50 degrees N than at 53 degrees S and the difference reaches approximately 13 K at 5 mbar. On the other hand, the northern region is strongly enriched in nitriles and hydrocarbons, and the haze optical depth derived from the continuum emission between 8 and 15 micrometers is twice as large as in the south. Cooling rate profiles have been computed at the two locations, using the gas and haze abundances derived from the IRIS measurements. We find that, despite lower temperatures, the cooling rate profiles in the pressure range 0.15-5 mbar are 20 to 40% larger in the north than in the south, because of the enhanced concentrations of infrared radiators. Because the northern hemisphere appears darker than the southern one in the Voyager images, enhanced solar heating is also expected to take place at 50 degrees N. Solar heating rate profiles have been calculated, with two different assumptions on the origin of the hemispheric asymmetry. In the most likely case where it results from a variation in the absorbance of the haze material, the heating rates are found to be 12-15% larger at the northern location than at the southern one, a smaller increase than that in the cooling rates. If the lower albedo in the north results from an increase in the particle number density, a 55 to 75% difference is found for the pressure range 0.15-5 mbar, thus larger than that calculated for the

  6. Top Quark Production Asymmetries AFBt and AFBl

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Berger, Edmond L.; Cao, Qing-Hong; Chen, Chuan-Ren; Yu, Jiang-Hao; Zhang, Hao

    2012-02-14

    A large forward-backward asymmetry is seen in both the top quark rapidity distribution AFBt and in the rapidity distribution of charged leptons AFBl from top quarks produced at the Tevatron. We study the kinematic and dynamic aspects of the relationship of the two observables arising from the spin correlation between the charged lepton and the top quark with different polarization states. We emphasize the value of both measurements, and we conclude that a new physics model which produces more right-handed than left-handed top quarks is favored by the present data.

  7. Charge asymmetry in charmed-meson photoproduction

    SciTech Connect

    Berezhnoy, A. V. Likhoded, A. K.

    2006-01-15

    Within the perturbative-recombination model, the charge asymmetries in the D*{sup +}-D*{sup -}, D*{sup 0}-D*{sup 0}, and D{sup +}{sub s}-D{sup -}{sub s} yields are estimated under the kinematical conditions of the COMPASS experiment. Corrections that arise owing to the mass of a light quark in a charmed meson are taken into account. The yield of D{sup +}{sub s} mesons is predicted to be large in relation to the yield of D{sup -}{sub s} mesons.

  8. Asymmetry in ferroelectric polymer laminate composites

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, B.A.; Scheinbeim, J.I.; Su, Ji

    1996-10-01

    Studies of the ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of composite bilaminates of poly(vinylidene fluoride) and nylon 11 films have shown that the properties of the bilaminates cannot be understood solely in terms of the properties of the individual components. Further, the properties of films which are polarized with the positive voltage on the nylon 11 side are different from those having the positive voltage on the poly(vinylidene fluoride) side. This asymmetry is interpreted as resulting from a region of space charge trapped at the interface between the two layers.

  9. Parametric resonance of intrinsic localized modes in coupled cantilever arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Masayuki; Matsushita, Yasuo; Hikihara, Takashi

    2016-08-01

    In this study, the parametric resonances of pinned intrinsic localized modes (ILMs) were investigated by computing the unstable regions in parameter space consisting of parametric excitation amplitude and frequency. In the unstable regions, the pinned ILMs were observed to lose stability and begin to fluctuate. A nonlinear Klein-Gordon, Fermi-Pasta-Ulam-like, and mixed lattices were investigated. The pinned ILMs, particularly in the mixed lattice, were destabilized by parametric resonances, which were determined by comparing the shapes of the unstable regions with those in the Mathieu differential equation. In addition, traveling ILMs could be generated by parametric excitation.

  10. Radius of gyration and intrinsic viscosity of polyelectrolyte solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Milas, M.; Borsali, R.; Rinaudo, M.

    1993-12-31

    Relatively low molecular weights polyelectrolytes (10{sup 4}-10{sup 6}) behave as worm-like chain when electrostatic repulsions are assumed to govern the excluded volume parameter. Under such conditions, predictions of chain expansion and effect of polyelectrolyte concentrations are made assuming that unperturbed dimensions could be obtained at infinite salt content. Experimental studies of an ionic polysaccharide, namely the Na-hyaluronate, were done and the values obtained for the radius of gyration as well as the intrinsic viscosity at different charge densities are in good agreement with the predictions.

  11. Resonant tunneling and intrinsic bistability in twisted graphene structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Nieva, J. F.; Dresselhaus, M. S.; Levitov, L. S.

    2016-08-01

    We predict that vertical transport in heterostructures formed by twisted graphene layers can exhibit a unique bistability mechanism. Intrinsically bistable I -V characteristics arise from resonant tunneling and interlayer charge coupling, enabling multiple stable states in the sequential tunneling regime. We consider a simple trilayer architecture, with the outer layers acting as the source and drain and the middle layer floating. Under bias, the middle layer can be either resonant or nonresonant with the source and drain layers. The bistability is controlled by geometric device parameters easily tunable in experiments. The nanoscale architecture can enable uniquely fast switching times.

  12. Intrinsic interface states in InAs-AlSb heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Raouafi, F; Benchamekh, R; Nestoklon, M O; Jancu, J-M; Voisin, P

    2016-02-01

    We examine the formation of intrinsic interface states bound to the plane of In-Sb chemical bonds at InAs-AlSb interfaces. Careful parameterization of the bulk materials in the frame of the extended-basis spds (*)tight-binding model and recent progress in predictions of band offsets severely limit the span of tight-binding parameters describing this system. We find that a heavy-hole-like interface state bound to the plane of In-Sb bonds exists for a large range of values of the InSb-InAs band offset. PMID:26732184

  13. Scale-dependent CMB asymmetry from primordial configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Kohri, Kazunori; Lin, Chia-Min; Matsuda, Tomohiro E-mail: lin@chuo-u.ac.jp

    2014-08-01

    We demonstrate that a topological defect can explain the hemispherical power asymmetry of the CMB. The first point is that a defect configuration, which already exists prior to inflation, can source asymmetry of the CMB. The second point is that modulation mechanisms, such as the curvaton and other modulation mechanisms, can explain scale-dependence of the asymmetry. Using a simple analysis of the δ N formalism, we show models in which scale-dependent hemispherical power asymmetry is explained by primordial configuration of a defect.

  14. Semantic Asymmetries Are Modulated by Phonological Asymmetries: Evidence from the Disambiguation of Homophonic versus Heterophonic Homographs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peleg, Orna; Eviatar, Zohar

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated cerebral asymmetries in accessing multiple meanings of two types of homographs: homophonic homographs (e.g., "bank") and heterophonic homographs (e.g., "tear"). Participants read homographs preceded by either a biasing or a non-biasing sentential context and performed a lexical decision on lateralized targets…

  15. North-south components of the annual asymmetry in the ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulyaeva, T. L.; Arikan, F.; Hernandez-Pajares, M.; Veselovsky, I. S.

    2014-07-01

    A retrospective study of the asymmetry in the ionosphere during the solstices is made using the different geospace parameters in the North and South magnetic hemispheres. Data of total electron content (TEC) and global electron content (GEC) produced from global ionospheric maps, GIM-TEC for 1999-2013, the ionospheric electron content (IEC) measured by TOPEX-Jason 1 and 2 satellites for 2001-2012, the F2 layer critical frequency and peak height measured on board ISIS 1, ISIS 2, and IK19 satellites during 1969-1982, and the earthquakes M5+ occurrences for 1999-2013 are analyzed. Annual asymmetry is observed with GEC and IEC for the years of observation with asymmetry index, AI, showing January > July excess from 0.02 to 0.25. The coincident pattern of January-to-July asymmetry ratio of TEC and IEC colocated along the magnetic longitude sector of 270° ± 5°E in the Pacific Ocean is obtained varying with local time and magnetic latitude. The sea/land differences in the F2 layer peak electron density, NmF2, and the peak height, hmF2, gathered with topside sounding data exhibit tilted ionosphere along the seashores with denser electron population at greater peak heights over the sea. The topside peak electron density NmF2, TEC, IEC, and the hemisphere part of GEC are dominant in the South hemisphere which resembles the pattern for seismic activity with dominant earthquake occurrence in the South magnetic hemisphere. Though the study is made for the hemispheric and annual asymmetry during solstices in the ionosphere, the conclusions seem valid for other aspects of seismic-ionospheric associations with tectonic plate boundaries representing zones of enhanced risk for space weather.

  16. Control of tension-compression asymmetry in Ogden hyperelasticity with application to soft tissue modelling.

    PubMed

    Moerman, Kevin M; Simms, Ciaran K; Nagel, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    This paper discusses tension-compression asymmetry properties of Ogden hyperelastic formulations. It is shown that if all negative or all positive Ogden coefficients are used, tension-compression asymmetry occurs the degree of which cannot be separately controlled from the degree of non-linearity. A simple hybrid form is therefore proposed providing separate control over the tension-compression asymmetry. It is demonstrated how this form relates to a newly introduced generalised strain tensor class which encompasses both the tension-compression asymmetric Seth-Hill strain class and the tension-compression symmetric Bažant strain class. If the control parameter is set to q=0.5 a tension-compression symmetric form involving Bažant strains is obtained with the property Ψ(λ1,λ2,λ3)=Ψ(1λ1,1λ2,1λ3). The symmetric form may be desirable for the definition of ground matrix contributions in soft tissue modelling allowing all deviation from the symmetry to stem solely from fibrous reinforcement. Such an application is also presented demonstrating the use of the proposed formulation in the modelling of the non-linear elastic and transversely isotropic behaviour of skeletal muscle tissue in compression (the model implementation and fitting procedure have been made freely available). The presented hyperelastic formulations may aid researchers in independently controlling the degree of tension-compression asymmetry from the degree of non-linearity, and in the case of anisotropic materials may assist in determining the role played by, either the ground matrix, or the fibrous reinforcing structures, in generating asymmetry. PMID:26719933

  17. Intrinsic shapes of elliptical galaxy: NGC 1052 using modified prior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar Singh, Arun; Chakraborty, D. K.

    Determination of intrinsic shapes of the individual elliptical galaxies using photometry is an important problem because the number of galaxies with good photometry is many more than those with good kinematics. We determine the intrinsic shapes of the light distribution of elliptical galaxies by combining the profiles of photometric data from the literature with triaxial models. We use ensembles of models so that the shape estimates are largely model independent. We follow the methodology as described in Statler (1994) which is modified to suit our requirements. We find that short to long axial ratios at very small radii and at very large radii, and the absolute value of the triaxiality difference are the best constrained shape parameters. Using a flat prior, the shapes of elliptical galaxies are reported by Chakraborty et al (2008) and Singh & Chakraborty (2009). The flat prior of 20 galaxies are superimposed over EAC-Ph other to obtain the distribution. This distribution is regarded as a prior (a modified prior) and shapes of 20 galaxies are again recalculated by using such modified prior. We determine the intrinsic shapes of the elliptical galaxy NGC 1052 using modified prior should be more reliable. These results are compared with the previous estimates which are determined by using flat prior. The plot shows the intrinsic shapes of the NGC 1052 as a function of (q0,q∞) for two dimensional shapes and (q0,q∞, |Td|) for three dimensional shapes, where q0 and q∞(=q) are the short to long axial ratios at small and at large radii and |Td| is the absolute values of the triaxiality difference, defined as |Td|= |T∞ - T0|. The probability is shown in the dark gray region: darker is the region higher is the probability. We find that the galaxy NGC 1052 is flatter inside and flatter outside.

  18. Reactions of human and hog intrinsic factors with type I antibody to intrinsic factor

    PubMed Central

    Gullberg, R.

    1970-01-01

    A simple and rapid small-scale gel filtration method was applied in studies of type I antibody to intrinsic factor using radioactive vitamin B12 of high specific activity and purified human and hog intrinsic factor preparations, taking into account the unsaturated B12-binding capacity of the individual pernicious anaemia sera. This procedure allows the use of small amounts of reagents. Evidence was obtained for a close antigenic similarity of determinants of human and hog intrinsic factor. The use of purified intrinsic-factor preparations is important. PMID:4097742

  19. Intrinsic alignments of BOSS LOWZ galaxies - II. Impact of shape measurement methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Sukhdeep; Mandelbaum, Rachel

    2016-04-01

    Measurements of intrinsic alignments of galaxy shapes with the large-scale density field, and the inferred intrinsic alignments model parameters, are sensitive to the shape measurement methods used. In this paper, we measure the intrinsic alignments of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-III (SDSS-III) Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) low redshift (LOWZ) galaxies using three different shape measurement methods (re-Gaussianization, isophotal, and de Vaucouleurs), identifying a variation in the inferred intrinsic alignments amplitude at the 40 per cent level between these methods, independent of the galaxy luminosity or other properties. We also carry out a suite of systematics tests on the shapes and their two-point correlation functions, identifying a pronounced contribution from additive point spread function systematics in the de Vaucouleurs shapes. Since different methods measure galaxy shapes at different effective radii, the trends we identify in the intrinsic alignments amplitude are consistent with the interpretation that the outer regions of galaxy shapes are more responsive to tidal fields, resulting in isophote twisting and stronger alignments for isophotal shapes. We observe environment dependence of ellipticity, with brightest galaxies in groups being rounder on average compared to satellite and field galaxies. We also study the anisotropy in intrinsic alignments measurements introduced by projected shapes, finding effects consistent with predictions of the non-linear alignment model and hydrodynamic simulations. The large variations seen using the different shape measurement methods have important implications for intrinsic alignments forecasting and mitigation with future surveys.

  20. Intraeye retinal nerve fiber layer and macular thickness asymmetry measurements for the discrimination of primary open-angle glaucoma and normal tension glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Khanal, Safal; Davey, Pinakin Gunvant; Racette, Lyne; Thapa, Madhu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic capability of intraeye retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness and macular thickness (MT) asymmetry measurements for the discrimination of normal tension glaucoma (NTG) and primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Methods A total of 90 subjects were enrolled including 30 consecutive healthy subjects, 30 consecutive subjects with POAG, and 30 consecutive subjects with NTG. RNFL thicknesses around the optic disc as well as MT measurements were taken with circular and radial SD-OCT scans. Intraeye retinal and MT asymmetry were calculated as the absolute difference between superior and inferior hemispheres of the eye using posterior pole asymmetry analysis protocol. Analysis of variance was used for comparison and areas under the receiver operating characteristic (AROC) were obtained for different parameters among the three diagnostic groups. Results There was a significant difference in MT asymmetry for all comparison groups (normal-NTG, p < 0.05; normal-POAG, p < 0.001; and NTG-POAG, p < 0.001). Intraeye retinal nerve fiber thickness asymmetry measurements were not different between the groups (normal-NTG, p < 0.187; normal-POAG, p < 0.056; and NTG-POAG, p < 0.837). The area under ROC curves exceeded 0.800 for all the studied parameters, including the MT asymmetry except for intraeye RNFL thickness asymmetry which had the lowest AROC as well as the least sensitivity for identifying subjects with NTG from normal (AROC = 0.626, sensitivity = 30%); POAG from normal (AROC = 0.644, sensitivity = 37%) and NTG from POAG (AROC = 0.533, sensitivity = 13%). Conclusion The intraeye MT asymmetry holds significant potential as a distinguishing parameter for NTG and POAG. PMID:26652244

  1. Observational Constraints on the Lepton Asymmetry and Radiation Energy Density

    SciTech Connect

    Popa, L. A.; Vasile, A.

    2008-01-24

    By using most of the present Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) and Large Scale Structure (LSS) measurements we set bounds on the radiation content of the Universe and neutrino properties. We consider lepton asymmetric cosmological models parametrized by the neutrino degeneracy parameter {xi}{sub {nu}} and the variation of the relativistic degrees of freedom, {delta}N{sub eff}{sup oth}, due to possible unknown physical processes during BBN.We found 0<{xi}{sub {nu}}<0.788 (2{sigma}) that implies a lepton asymmetry of the neutrino background 0.001parameters obtained by using the WMAP data alone, showing that the LSS measurements are useful tools in constraining the radiation content of the Universe during BBN.

  2. Cholesterol Asymmetry in Synaptic Plasma Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Wood, W. Gibson; Igbavboa, Urule; Müller, Walter E.; Eckert, Gunter P.

    2010-01-01

    Lipids are essential for the structural and functional integrity of membranes. Membrane lipids are not randomly distributed but are localized in different domains. A common characteristic of these membrane domains is their association with cholesterol. Lipid rafts and caveolae are examples of cholesterol enriched domains, which have attracted keen interest. However, two other important cholesterol domains are the exofacial and cytofacial leaflets of the plasma membrane. The two leaflets that make up the bilayer differ in their fluidity, electrical charge, lipid distribution, and active sites of certain proteins. The synaptic plasma membrane (SPM) cytofacial leaflet contains over 85% of the total SPM cholesterol as compared with the exofacial leaflet. This asymmetric distribution of cholesterol is not fixed or immobile but can be modified by different conditions in vivo: 1) chronic ethanol consumption; 2) statins; 3) aging; and 4) apoE isoform. Several potential candidates have been proposed as mechanisms involved in regulation of SPM cholesterol asymmetry: apoE, low-density-lipoprotein receptor, sterol carrier protein-2, fatty acid binding proteins, polyunsaturated fatty acids, p-glycoprotein and caveolin-1. This review examines cholesterol asymmetry in SPM, potential mechanisms of regulation and impact on membrane structure and function. PMID:21214553

  3. Westward drift, rift asymmetry and continental uplift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doglioni, C.; Carminati, E.; Bonatti, E.

    2003-04-01

    Although not predicted by classic plate tectonics theory, the topography of ocean ridges and rifts show a distinct asymmetry, when depth is plotted both vs. distance from the ridge and square root of the age of the oceanic crust. The eastern sides of the East Pacific Rise, of the mid Atlantic ridge, of the NW Indian ridge are in average more elevated than the conjugate flank to the west and eastern sides show slower subsidence rates. A similar asymmetry can be observed across the Red Sea and Baikal rifts. We suggest that depleted and lighter asthenosphere generated by partial melting below the ocean ridges shifts 'eastward' relative to the lithosphere, determining a density deficit below the eastern flank. The 'eastward' migration of the lighter Atlantic asthenosphere under the African continent, could eventually have contributed to the anomalous post-rift uplift of Africa and explain the anomalously higher topography of Africa with respect to other continents. This model suggests that the 'westward' drift of the lithosphere relative to the underlying mantle might be a global phenomenon and not just a mean delay.

  4. Underlying Asymmetry with Particle-Size Segregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajjar, Parmesh; van der Vaart, Kasper; Epely-Chauvin, Gael; Andreini, Nicolas; Gray, Nico; Ancey, Christophe

    2015-11-01

    Granular media have a natural tendency to self-organise when sheared, with different sized constituents counter-intuitively separating from each other. Not only does the segregation produce a rich diversity of beautiful patterns, but it can also have serious implications in both industrial and geophysical environments. Despite the universal importance, the individual particle dynamics during segregation are still poorly understand, with such an analysis proving to be difficult with conventional techniques such as binning and sidewall observation. This talk will present results of recent experiments that studied particle scale segregation dynamics during oscillatory shear. Refractive index matched scanning allowed examination of the interior of the flow, where it was observed that large and small particles have an underlying asymmetry that is dependant on the local particle concentration. Small particles were seen to segregate faster through regions of many large particles, whilst large particles rise slower through regions of many small particles. The asymmetry is quantified on both bulk and particle length scales, and is shown to have good agreement with a continuum model that uses a cubic segregation flux.

  5. Fish otolith mass asymmetry: morphometry and influence on acoustic functionality.

    PubMed

    Lychakov, D V; Rebane, Y T

    2005-03-01

    The role of the fish otolith mass asymmetry in acoustic functionality is studied. The saccular, lagenar and utricular otoliths are weighted in two species of the Black Sea rays, 15 species of the Black Sea teleost fish and guppy fish. The dimensionless otolith mass asymmetry chi is calculated as ratio of the difference between masses of the right and left paired otoliths to average otolith mass. In the most fish studied the otolith mass asymmetry is within the range of -0.2 < chi < +0.2 (< 20%). We do not find specific fish species with extremely large or extremely small otolith asymmetry. The large otoliths do not belong solely to any particular side, left or right. The heavier otoliths of different otolithic organs can be located in different labyrinths. No relationship has been found between the magnitude of the otolith mass asymmetry and the length (mass, age) of the animal. The suggested fluctuation model of the otolith growth can interpret these results. The model supposes that the otolith growth rate varies slightly hither and thither during lifetime of the individual fish. Therefore, the sign of the relative otolith mass asymmetry can change several times in the process of the individual fish growth but within the range outlined above. Mathematical modeling shows that acoustic functionality (sensitivity, temporal processing, sound localization) of the fish can be disturbed by the otolith mass asymmetry. But this is valid only for the fish with largest otolith masses, characteristic of the bottom and littoral fish, and with highest otolith asymmetry. For most fish the values of otolith mass asymmetry is well below critical values. Thus, the most fish get around the troubles related to the otolith mass asymmetry. We suggest that a specific physicochemical mechanism of the paired otolith growth that maintains the otolith mass asymmetry at the lowest possible level should exist. However, the principle and details of this mechanism are still far from being

  6. Experimental investigation on liquid film asymmetry in air-water horizontal annular flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setyawan, Andriyanto; Deendarlianto, Indarto, Neo, Fredrick

    2016-06-01

    The asymmetry of circumferential liquid film thickness distribution in an air-water horizontal annular flow has been experimentally investigated using superficial gas and liquid velocity of 10 - 40 m/s and 0.025 to 0.4 m/s, respectively. In general, the film at the bottom of the pipe will be thicker than that of the side and the top. The asymmetry parameter could be expressed in the ratio of average film thickness to the bottom film thickness or the ratio of the top-to-bottom film thickness. Measurement using compact multiple probe instrument shows that the circumferential film thickness distribution is strongly affected by superficial gas velocity. The higher gas velocity results in the more uniform liquid film circumferential distribution. In comparison to the existing correlations, the asymmetry parameter resulted from the experiment shows a good agreement. It is also shown from the experiment that a less symmetry of film thickness distribution is resulted when the gravity force is dominant. A more symmetry distribution is resulted when the inertial force takes control.

  7. Intrinsic delay of permeable base transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Wenchao; Guo, Jing; So, Franky

    2014-07-28

    Permeable base transistors (PBTs) fabricated by vacuum deposition or solution process have the advantages of easy fabrication and low power operation and are a promising device structure for flexible electronics. Intrinsic delay of PBT, which characterizes the speed of the transistor, is investigated by solving the three-dimensional Poisson equation and drift-diffusion equation self-consistently using finite element method. Decreasing the emitter thickness lowers the intrinsic delay by improving on-current, and a thinner base is also preferred for low intrinsic delay because of fewer carriers in the base region at off-state. The intrinsic delay exponentially decreases as the emitter contact Schottky barrier height decreases, and it linearly depends on the carrier mobility. With an optimized emitter contact barrier height and device geometry, a sub-nano-second intrinsic delay can be achieved with a carrier mobility of ∼10 cm{sup 2}/V/s obtainable in solution processed indium gallium zinc oxide, which indicates the potential of solution processed PBTs for GHz operations.

  8. Patterns of Fluctuating Asymmetry and Shape Variation in Chironomus riparius (Diptera, Chironomidae) Exposed to Nonylphenol or Lead

    PubMed Central

    Arambourou, Hélène; Beisel, Jean-Nicolas; Branchu, Philippe; Debat, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Deformities and fluctuating asymmetry in chironomid larvae have been proposed as sensitive indicators of biological stress and are commonly used to assess the ecological impact of human activities. In particular, they have been associated in Chironomus riparius, the most commonly used species, with heavy metal and pesticide river pollution. In this study, the effect of lead and 4-nonylphenol on mouthpart morphological variation of Chironomus riparius larvae was investigated by traditional and geometric morphometrics. For this purpose, first to fourth instar larvae were exposed to sediment spiked with lead (from 3.0 to 456.9 mg/kg dry weight) or 4-NP (from 0.1 to 198.8 mg/kg dry weight). Mentum phenotypic response to pollutants was assessed by four parameters: (1) the frequency of deformities, (2) fluctuating asymmetry of mentum length, (3) fluctuating asymmetry of mentum shape and (4) the mentum mean shape changes. Despite the bioaccumulation of pollutants in the chironomid’s body, no significant differences between control and stressed groups were found for mouthpart deformities and fluctuating asymmetry of mentum length. Slight effects on mentum shape fluctuating asymmetry were observed for two stressed groups. Significant mean shape changes, consisting of tooth size increase and tooth closing, were detected for lead and 4-NP exposure respectively. Those variations, however, were negligible in comparison to mentum shape changes due to genetic effects. These results suggest that the use of mentum variation as an indicator of toxic stress in Chironomus riparius should be considered cautiously. PMID:23133660

  9. Helicity asymmetry E measurement for single π0 photoproduction with a frozen spin target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwamoto, Hideko; CLAS Collaboration

    2012-04-01

    The helicity asymmetry for single neutral pion photoproduction was measured using the CLAS detector in Hall B at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. This measurement used longitudinally polarized protons and circularly polarized photons with photon energis between 0.35 GeV to 2.4 GeV. The target was a frozen-spin butanol (C4H9OH) target, polarized at about 85%. The helicity asymmetry E for the γp→pπ0 was measured with missing-mass technique at the high statistics of about 12×106 events. The experimental results are compared to three available theoretical predictions, SAID, MAID, and EBAC. The preliminary results are in good agreement with the model calculations at low Eγ energy bins. However, a significant deviation is observed at high energy bins. Therefore, the new data will help to constrain the parameters of the theoretical models.

  10. First Order QED Corrections to the Parity-Violating Asymmetry in Moller Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Zykunov, Vladimir A.; Suarez, Juan; Tweedie, Brock A.; Kolomensky, Yury G.; /UC, Berkeley

    2005-08-15

    We compute a full set of the first order QED corrections to the parity-violating observables in polarized Moeller scattering. We employ a covariant method of removing infrared divergences, computing corrections without introducing any unphysical parameters. When applied to the kinematics of the SLAC E158 experiment, the QED corrections reduce the parity violating asymmetry by 4.5%. We combine our results with the previous calculations of the first-order electroweak corrections and obtain the complete {Omicron}({alpha}) prescription for relating the experimental asymmetry A{sub LR} to the low-energy value of the weak mixing angle sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W}. Our results are applicable to the recent measurement of A{sub LR} by the SLAC E158 collaboration, as well as to the future parity violation experiments.

  11. Absence of a day-night asymmetry in the 7Be solar neutrino rate in Borexino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellini, G.; Benziger, J.; Bick, D.; Bonetti, S.; Bonfini, G.; Buizza Avanzini, M.; Caccianiga, B.; Cadonati, L.; Calaprice, F.; Carraro, C.; Cavalcante, P.; Chavarria, A.; D'Angelo, D.; Davini, S.; Derbin, A.; Etenko, A.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Fomenko, K.; Franco, D.; Galbiati, C.; Gazzana, S.; Ghiano, C.; Giammarchi, M.; Göger-Neff, M.; Goretti, A.; Grandi, L.; Guardincerri, E.; Hardy, S.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Kobychev, V.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Koshio, Y.; Kryn, D.; Laubenstein, M.; Lewke, T.; Litvinovich, E.; Loer, B.; Lombardi, P.; Lombardi, F.; Ludhova, L.; Machulin, I.; Manecki, S.; Maneschg, W.; Manuzio, G.; Meindl, Q.; Meroni, E.; Miramonti, L.; Misiaszek, M.; Montanari, D.; Mosteiro, P.; Muratova, V.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Ortica, F.; Pallavicini, M.; Papp, L.; Peña-Garay, C.; Perasso, L.; Perasso, S.; Pocar, A.; Raghavan, R. S.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Re, A.; Romani, A.; Sabelnikov, A.; Saldanha, R.; Salvo, C.; Schönert, S.; Simgen, H.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Sukhotin, S.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Testera, G.; Vignaud, D.; Vogelaar, R. B.; Winter, J.; Wojcik, M.; Wright, A.; Wurm, M.; Xu, J.; Zaimidoroga, O.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zuzel, G.

    2012-01-01

    We report the result of a search for a day-night asymmetry in the 7Be solar neutrino interaction rate in the Borexino detector at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) in Italy. The measured asymmetry is Adn = 0.001 ± 0.012 (stat) ± 0.007 (syst), in agreement with the prediction of MSW-LMA solution for neutrino oscillations. This result disfavors MSW oscillations with mixing parameters in the LOW region at more than 8.5 σ. This region is, for the first time, strongly disfavored without the use of reactor anti-neutrino data and therefore the assumption of CPT symmetry. The result can also be used to constrain some neutrino oscillation scenarios involving new physics.

  12. Kinetics of symmetry and asymmetry in a phase-separating bilayer membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, J. J.; Olmsted, P. D.

    2015-11-01

    We simulate a phase-separating bilayer in which the leaflets experience a direct coupling favoring local compositional symmetry ("registered" bilayer phases), and an indirect coupling due to hydrophobic mismatch that favors strong local asymmetry ("antiregistered" bilayer phases). For wide ranges of overall leaflet compositions, multiple competing states are possible. For estimated physical parameters, a quenched bilayer may first evolve toward a metastable state more asymmetric than if the leaflets were uncorrelated; subsequently, it must nucleate to reach its equilibrium, more symmetric, state. These phase-transition kinetics exhibit characteristic signatures through which fundamental and opposing interleaflet interactions may be probed. We emphasize how bilayer phase diagrams with a separate axis for each leaflet can account for overall and local symmetry or asymmetry, and capture a range of observations in the experiment and simulation literature.

  13. Update of Time-Dependent CP Asymmetry Measurements in b to c-cbar-s Decays

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.

    2008-08-20

    We present updated measurements of time-dependent CP asymmetries in fully reconstructed neutral B decays containing a charmonium meson. The measurements reported here use a data sample of (465 {+-} 5) x 10{sup 6} {Upsilon}(4S) {yields} B{bar B} decays collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II B factory. The time-dependent CP asymmetry parameters measured from J/{psi}K{sub S}{sup 0}, J/{psi}K{sub L}{sup 0}, {psi}(2S)K{sub S}{sup 0}, {chi}{sub c1}K{sub S}{sup 0}, {eta}{sub c}K{sub S}{sup 0}, and J/{psi}K*{sup 0} decays are: (1) C{sub f} = 0.026 {+-} 0.020(stat) {+-} 0.016(syst); and (2) S{sub f} = 0.691 {+-} 0.029(stat) {+-} 0.014(syst).

  14. Solar neutrinos: Near-far asymmetry and just-so oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Faied, B.; Fogli, G.L.; Montanino, D.

    1997-02-01

    We propose to study possible signals of just-so oscillations in new-generation solar neutrino experiments by separating the events detected when the Earth is nearest to the Sun (perihelion {plus_minus} 3 months) from those detected when the Earth is farthest from the Sun (aphelion {plus_minus} 3 months). We introduce a solar-model-independent near-far asymmetry, which is nonzero if just-so oscillations occur. We apply our calculations to the kinetic energy spectra of electrons induced by {sup 8}B solar neutrino interactions in the SuperKamiokande and Sudbury Neutrino Observatory experiments. We show that the sensitivity to the neutrino oscillation parameters can be increased by probing the near-far asymmetry in selected parts of the electron energy spectra. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  15. Empirical evidence for latitude dependence and asymmetry of geomagnetic spatial variation in mainland China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Shikun; Zhang, Hao; Li, Xihai; Liu, Daizhi; Wang, Xiqin

    2016-05-01

    Spatiotemporal geomagnetic variation is a significant research topic of geomagnetism and space physics. Generated by convection and flows within the fluid outer core, latitude dependence and asymmetry, as the inherent spatiotemporal properties of geomagnetic field, have been extensively studied. We apply and modify an extension of existing method, Hidden Markov Model (HMM), which is an efficient tool for modeling the statistical properties of time series. Based on ground magnetic measurement data set in mainland China, first, we find the parameters of HMM can be used as the geomagnetic statistical signature to represent the spatiotemporal geomagnetic variations for each site. The results also support the existence of the geomagnetic latitude dependence more apparently. Furthermore, we provide solid empirical evidence for geomagnetic asymmetry relying on such ground magnetic measurement data set.

  16. Implications of the cosmic microwave background power asymmetry for the early universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrnes, Christian T.; Regan, Donough; Seery, David; Tarrant, Ewan R. M.

    2016-06-01

    Observations of the microwave background fluctuations suggest a scale-dependent amplitude asymmetry of roughly 2.5 σ significance. Inflationary explanations for this "anomaly" require non-Gaussian fluctuations which couple observable modes to those on much larger scales. In this paper, we describe an analysis of such scenarios which significantly extends previous treatments. We identify the non-Gaussian "response function" which characterizes the asymmetry and show that it is nontrivial to construct a model which yields a sufficient amplitude; many independent fine-tunings are required, often making such models appear less likely than the anomaly they seek to explain. We present an explicit model satisfying observational constraints and determine for the first time how large its bispectrum would appear to a Planck-like experiment. Although this model is merely illustrative, we expect it is a good proxy for the bispectrum in a sizeable class of models which generate a scale-dependent response using a large η parameter.

  17. Study on branching ratios and direct CP asymmetries of D → PV decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Qin; Li, Hsiang-Nan; Lü, Cai-Dian; Yu, Fu-Sheng

    2014-04-01

    We study the non-leptonic two-body decays of D mesons decaying into one pseudoscalar meson (P) and one vector meson (V) in the factorization-asisted topological-amplitude approach. In this approach, the decay amplitudes are factorized into two parts, the short-distance contribution (Wilson coefficients) and the long-distance contribution (hadronic matrix elements). We predict the branching ratios of D → PV decays using a global fit with the non-perturbative parameters. Our results agree well with the experimental data. We also predict the direct CP asymmetries by combining short-distance dynamics associated with penguin operators and long-distance hadronic matrix elements determined by branching ratios. The large asymmetries in D+ → π+ρ0 and Ds+-> K+φ may be measurable in the LHCb and future Belle II experiments.

  18. ${{\\bar{d}} - {\\bar{u}}}$ Flavor Asymmetry in the Proton in Chiral Effective Field Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Salamu, Y.; Ji, Cheung-Ryong; Melnitchouk, Wally; Wang, P.

    2015-09-01

    The ${\\bar d - \\bar u}$ flavor asymmetry in the proton arising from pion loops is computed using chiral effective field theory. The calculation includes both nucleon and Δ intermediate states, and uses both the fully relativistic and heavy baryon frameworks. The x dependence of ${\\bar d - \\bar u}$ extracted from the Fermilab E866 Drell–Yan data can be well reproduced in terms of a single transverse momentum cutoff parameter regulating the ultraviolet behavior of the loop integrals. In addition to the distribution at x > 0, corrections to the integrated asymmetry from zero momentum contributions are computed, which arise from pion rainbow and bubble diagrams at x = 0. These have not been accounted for in previous analyses, and can make important contributions to the lowest moment of ${\\bar d-\\bar u}$ .

  19. Modeling Intrinsic Heterogeneity and Growth of Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Greene, James M.; Levy, Doron; Fung, King L.; Silva de Souza, Paloma; Gottesman, Michael M.; Lavi, Orit

    2014-01-01

    Intratumoral heterogeneity has been found to be a major cause of drug resistance. Cell-to-cell variation increases as a result of cancer-related alterations, which are acquired by stochastic events and further induced by environmental signals. However, most cellular mechanisms include natural fluctuations that are closely regulated, and thus lead to asynchronization of the cells, which causes intrinsic heterogeneity in a given population. Here, we derive two novel mathematical models, a stochastic agent-based model and an integro-differential equation model, each of which describes the growth of cancer cells as a dynamic transition between proliferative and quiescent states. These models are designed to predict variations in growth as a function of the intrinsic heterogeneity emerging from the durations of the cell-cycle and apoptosis, and also include cellular density dependencies. By examining the role all parameters play in the evolution of intrinsic tumor heterogeneity, and the sensitivity of the population growth to parameter values, we show that the cell-cycle length has the most significant effect on the growth dynamics. In addition, we demonstrate that the agent-based model can be approximated well by the more computationally efficient integro-differential equations when the number of cells is large. This essential step in cancer growth modeling will allow us to revisit the mechanisms of multi-drug resistance by examining spatiotemporal differences of cell growth while administering a drug among the different sub-populations in a single tumor, as well as the evolution of those mechanisms as a function of the resistance level. PMID:25457229

  20. Genome-Wide Prediction of Intrinsic Disorder; Sequence Alignment of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Midic, Uros

    2012-01-01

    Intrinsic disorder (ID) is defined as a lack of stable tertiary and/or secondary structure under physiological conditions in vitro. Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are highly abundant in nature. IDPs possess a number of crucial biological functions, being involved in regulation, recognition, signaling and control, e.g. their functional…

  1. Fluctuating Asymmetry and General Intelligence: No Genetic or Phenotypic Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Wendy; Segal, Nancy L.; Bouchard, Thomas J., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Fluctuating asymmetry (FA) is the non-pathological left-right asymmetry of body traits that are usually left-right symmetrical, such as eye breadths and elbow to wrist lengths in humans, but which can be affected by developmental stressors. It is generally considered throughout biology to be an indicator of developmental instability and thus of…

  2. Hemispheric Asymmetry in the Efficiency of Attentional Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asanowicz, Dariusz; Marzecova, Anna; Jaskowski, Piotr; Wolski, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    Despite the fact that hemispheric asymmetry of attention has been widely studied, a clear picture of this complex phenomenon is still lacking. The aim of the present study was to provide an efficient and reliable measurement of potential hemispheric asymmetries of three attentional networks, i.e. alerting, orienting and executive attention.…

  3. Robustness of asymmetry and coherence of quantum states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piani, Marco; Cianciaruso, Marco; Bromley, Thomas R.; Napoli, Carmine; Johnston, Nathaniel; Adesso, Gerardo

    2016-04-01

    Quantum states may exhibit asymmetry with respect to the action of a given group. Such an asymmetry of states can be considered a resource in applications such as quantum metrology, and it is a concept that encompasses quantum coherence as a special case. We introduce explicitly and study the robustness of asymmetry, a quantifier of asymmetry of states that we prove to have many attractive properties, including efficient numerical computability via semidefinite programming and an operational interpretation in a channel discrimination context. We also introduce the notion of asymmetry witnesses, whose measurement in a laboratory detects the presence of asymmetry. We prove that properly constrained asymmetry witnesses provide lower bounds to the robustness of asymmetry, which is shown to be a directly measurable quantity itself. We then focus our attention on coherence witnesses and the robustness of coherence, for which we prove a number of additional results; these include an analysis of its specific relevance in phase discrimination and quantum metrology, an analytical calculation of its value for a relevant class of quantum states, and tight bounds that relate it to another previously defined coherence monotone.

  4. A Hemispheric Asymmetry for the Unconscious Perception of Emotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Stephen D.; Bulman-Fleming, M. Barbara

    2004-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that hemispheric asymmetries for conscious visual perception do not lead to asymmetries for unconscious visual perception. These studies utilized emotionally neutral items as stimuli. The current research utilized both emotionally negative and neutral stimuli to assess hemispheric differences for conscious and…

  5. Effects Of Asymmetry Of NRZ Data Signals On Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Tien M.

    1992-01-01

    Report presents theoretical analysis of effects of asymmetry in binary non-return-to-zero (NRZ) data signals upon performance of radiotelemetry system. Simple mathematical model predicting overall degradation of bit signal-to-noise ratio of telemetry system derived. Shows degradation increases with asymmetry.

  6. Disentangling the Relationship between Hemispheric Asymmetry and Cognitive Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirnstein, Marco; Leask, Stuart; Rose, Jonas; Hausmann, Markus

    2010-01-01

    It is widely believed that advantages of hemispheric asymmetries originated in better cognitive processing, hence it is often implied that the relationship between hemispheric asymmetry and cognitive performance is linearly positive: the higher the degree of lateralization in a specific cognitive domain, the better the performance in a…

  7. Asymmetries of Knowledge and Epistemic Change in Social Gaming Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piirainen-Marsh, Arja; Tainio, Liisa

    2014-01-01

    While a growing number of studies investigate the role of knowledge and interactional management of knowledge asymmetries in conversation analysis, the epistemic organization of multilingual and second language interactions is still largely unexplored. This article addresses this issue by investigating how knowledge asymmetries and changing…

  8. Identification of Foot Pathologies Based on Plantar Pressure Asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Wafai, Linah; Zayegh, Aladin; Woulfe, John; Aziz, Syed Mahfuzul; Begg, Rezaul

    2015-01-01

    Foot pathologies can negatively influence foot function, consequently impairing gait during daily activity, and severely impacting an individual's quality of life. These pathologies are often painful and correspond with high or abnormal plantar pressure, which can result in asymmetry in the pressure distribution between the two feet. There is currently no general consensus on the presence of asymmetry in able-bodied gait, and plantar pressure analysis during gait is in dire need of a standardized method to quantify asymmetry. This paper investigates the use of plantar pressure asymmetry for pathological gait diagnosis. The results of this study involving plantar pressure analysis in fifty one participants (31 healthy and 20 with foot pathologies) support the presence of plantar pressure asymmetry in normal gait. A higher level of asymmetry was detected at the majority of the regions in the feet of the pathological population, including statistically significant differences in the plantar pressure asymmetry in two regions of the foot, metatarsophalangeal joint 3 (MPJ3) and the lateral heel. Quantification of plantar pressure asymmetry may prove to be useful for the identification and diagnosis of various foot pathologies. PMID:26295239

  9. Asymmetries for the Visual Expression and Perception of Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholls, Michael E. R.; Searle, Dara A.

    2006-01-01

    This study explored asymmetries for movement, expression and perception of visual speech. Sixteen dextral models were videoed as they articulated: "bat," "cat," "fat," and "sat." Measurements revealed that the right side of the mouth was opened wider and for a longer period than the left. The asymmetry was accentuated at the beginning and ends of…

  10. Information Asymmetries as Trade Barriers: ISO 9000 Increases International Commerce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potoski, Matthew; Prakash, Aseem

    2009-01-01

    Spatial, cultural, and linguistic barriers create information asymmetries between buyers and sellers that impede international trade. The International Organization for Standardization's ISO 9000 program is designed to reduce these information asymmetries by providing assurance about the product quality of firms that receive its certification.…

  11. Unvail the Mysterious of the Single Spin Asymmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Feng

    2010-01-05

    Single transverse-spin asymmetry in high energy hadronic reaction has been greatly investigated from both experiment and theory sides in the last few years. In this talk, I will summarize some recent theoretical developments, which, in my opinion, help to unvail the mysterious of the single spin asymmetry.

  12. On reducing information asymmetry in U.S. health care.

    PubMed

    Mascarenhas, Oswald A J; Kesavan, Ram; Bernacchi, Michael D

    2013-01-01

    Information asymmetry is a significant issue facing the U.S. health care system. In this article, we investigate some methods of reducing this asymmetry. We trace the information asymmetry using the "wicked problem" of the health care distribution system. An information asymmetry reduction method requiring joint responsibilities among health care stakeholders is developed. It is argued that information asymmetry is a contributor to enormous health care inflation. Hence, any reduction in such asymmetry will reduce health care costs. Concepts from both signaling and corrective justice theories are integrated in this article to help reduce the information asymmetry that exists in the U.S. health care system. Getting health care costs in line with other "advanced" nations, is the long-term solution to the wicked problem that currently exists in the U.S. health care system. There is an immediate need for a centralized health care database with adequate provisions for individual privacy. Both processes as well as an outcome-based control system are essential for reducing information asymmetries in the U.S. health care system. PMID:24308415

  13. Identification of Foot Pathologies Based on Plantar Pressure Asymmetry

    PubMed Central

    Wafai, Linah; Zayegh, Aladin; Woulfe, John; Aziz, Syed Mahfuzul; Begg, Rezaul

    2015-01-01

    Foot pathologies can negatively influence foot function, consequently impairing gait during daily activity, and severely impacting an individual’s quality of life. These pathologies are often painful and correspond with high or abnormal plantar pressure, which can result in asymmetry in the pressure distribution between the two feet. There is currently no general consensus on the presence of asymmetry in able-bodied gait, and plantar pressure analysis during gait is in dire need of a standardized method to quantify asymmetry. This paper investigates the use of plantar pressure asymmetry for pathological gait diagnosis. The results of this study involving plantar pressure analysis in fifty one participants (31 healthy and 20 with foot pathologies) support the presence of plantar pressure asymmetry in normal gait. A higher level of asymmetry was detected at the majority of the regions in the feet of the pathological population, including statistically significant differences in the plantar pressure asymmetry in two regions of the foot, metatarsophalangeal joint 3 (MPJ3) and the lateral heel. Quantification of plantar pressure asymmetry may prove to be useful for the identification and diagnosis of various foot pathologies. PMID:26295239

  14. Observations of Wind Asymmetries in Atlantic Tropical Cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dougherty, E.; Davis, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    Most major cities are located on coastlines, vulnerable to the direct impacts of tropical cyclones. Therefore, it is critical to understand and improve prediction of these storms in order to make communities more resilient. Though hurricane warning systems have improved in recent years, these warnings are insufficient, because they fail to account for an indication of tropical cyclone wind asymmetry, or the radial extent of maximum winds in different locations within the cyclone. This study explored the wind asymmetry (defined by magnitude and orientation) among 337 Atlantic tropical cyclones from 1988-2012, utilizing the National Hurricane Center's (NHC) Extended Best Track Dataset (EBT) and Statistical Hurricane Intensity Prediction Scheme (SHIPS). Asymmetry was defined as the magnitude of the largest difference in the radius of gale-force wind across opposing quadrants, normalized by the average of the four wind radii. The asymmetry orientation pointed along the axis of maximum asymmetry toward the quadrant with the greater gale radius. Relationships between wind asymmetry and various storm characteristics such as geographical location, storm life cycle, intensity, size, storm motion, and vertical wind shear were examined. The magnitude of asymmetry increased in higher latitudes and along coastlines, particularly in smaller storms. Asymmetry was higher at the beginning of a storm's life, possibly owing to a less well-organized structure, and higher at the end of a storm's life, coinciding with an increase in vertical wind shear and translation speed. Results from this study may allow for improved tropical cyclone forecasts and warnings to help protect seaside communities.

  15. Plastic-casting intrinsic-surface unique identifier (tag)

    SciTech Connect

    Palm, R.G.; De Volpi, A.

    1995-04-01

    This report describes the development of an authenticated intrinsic-surf ace tagging method for unique- identification of controlled items. Although developed for control of items limited by an arms control treaty, this method has other potential applications to keep track of critical or high-value items. Each tag (unique-identifier) consists of the intrinsic, microscopic surface topography of a small designated area on a controlled item. It is implemented by making a baseline plastic casting of the designated tag area and usually placing a cover (for example, a bar-code label) over this area to protect the surface from environmental alteration. The plastic casting is returned to a laboratory and prepared for high-resolution scanning electron microscope imaging. Several images are digitized and stored for use as a standard for authentication of castings taken during future inspections. Authentication is determined by numerically comparing digital images. Commercially available hardware and software are used for this tag. Tag parameters are optimized, so unique casting images are obtained from original surfaces, and images obtained from attempted duplicate surfaces are detected. This optimization uses the modulation transfer function, a first principle of image analysis, to determine the parameters. Surface duplication experiments confirmed the optimization.

  16. CP-conserving unparticle phase effects on the unpolarized and polarized direct CP asymmetry in b{yields}dl{sup +}l{sup -} transition

    SciTech Connect

    Bashiry, V.

    2008-05-01

    We examine the unparticle CP-conserving phase effects on the direct CP asymmetry for both polarized and unpolarized leptons in the inclusive b{yields}dl{sup +}l{sup -} transition, where the flavor-changing neutral currents are forbidden at tree level but are induced by one-loop penguin diagrams. The averaged polarized and unpolarized CP asymmetries depict strong dependency on the unparticle parameters. In particular, a sizable discrepancy corresponding to the standard model is achieved when the scale dimension value is 1asymmetry depending on the definite value of the scaling dimension d{sub U}. Especially, when d{sub U}{approx}1.1 the CP asymmetries vanish.

  17. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ASYMMETRY ORIGIN OF GALAXIES IN DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS. I. OPTICAL OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Plauchu-Frayn, I.; Coziol, R. E-mail: rcoziol@astro.ugto.m

    2010-06-15

    This paper presents the first of two analyses about the influence of environment on the formation and evolution of galaxies observed in the nearby universe. For our study, we used three different samples representing different density environments: galaxies in Compact Groups (HCGs), Isolated Pairs of Galaxies (KPGs), and Isolated Galaxies (KIGs), which were taken as references. Usingboth characteristic isophotal parameters and evidence of asymmetries in the optical and the near-infrared, we are able to establish differences in the characteristics of galaxies with different morphologies in different environments, allowing us to better understand their different formation histories. In this first paper, we present the isophotal and asymmetry analyses of a sample of 214 galaxies in different environments observed in the optical (V and I images). For each galaxy, we have determined different characteristic isophotal parameters and V - I color profiles, as a function of semi-major axis, and performed a full asymmetry analysis in residual images using the V filter. Evidence of asymmetry in the optical is almost missing in the KIG sample and significantly more common in the KPG than in the HCG samples. Our isophotal analysis suggests that the stellar populations in the HCG galaxies are older and more dynamically relaxed than in the KPG. The HCG galaxies seem to be at a more advanced stage of interaction than the KPGs. One possible explanation is that these structures formed at different epochs: compact groups of galaxies would have formed before close pairs of galaxies, which only began interacting recently. However, similarities in the formation process of galaxies with same morphology suggest CGs and close pairs of galaxies share similar conditions; they are new structures forming relatively late in low-density environments.

  18. An effective model for microscopic intrinsic localized modes.

    SciTech Connect

    Kalosakas, G.; Bishop, A. R.

    2001-01-01

    We present a system of coupled degrees of freedom that can effectively describe the localization of intra-molecular excitations in the charge transfer solid PtCl. These excitations correspond to the Raman active motion of chlorines (symmetric Pt - Cl stretching). By fitting two parameters of the model we obtain an accurate description of the strong red-shifts that appear in the overtone Raman spectra of the isotopically pure material. The resulting intrinsic localized modes extend on length scales of the order of nanometers. With the same set of parameters the model can reproduce the specific structure of the Raman spectra of naturally abundant PtCl, which contains a random distribution of chloride isotopes.

  19. Intrinsic and extrinsic switching in molecular devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Molen, Sense Jan; Trouwborst, Marius L.

    2015-01-01

    The details of metal-molecule coupling play a pivotal role in the functionality of molecular junctions. Molecules that have intrinsic switchable properties may lose this capability after coupling to electrodes. On the other hand, connecting passive molecules to electrodes may lead to a switchable molecular device ('extrinsic switching'). Here, we first discuss this general matter, and then focus on two specific cases, one of intrinsic switching (for photochromic diarylethenes) and one of extrinsic switching (for hydrogen molecules) in gold-molecule-gold structures.

  20. Bootstrapped models for intrinsic random functions

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, K.

    1987-01-01

    The use of intrinsic random function stochastic models as a basis for estimation in geostatistical work requires the identification of the generalized covariance function of the underlying process, and the fact that this function has to be estimated from the data introduces an additional source of error into predictions based on the model. This paper develops the sample reuse procedure called the ''bootstrap'' in the context of intrinsic random functions to obtain realistic estimates of these errors. Simulation results support the conclusion that bootstrap distributions of functionals of the process, as well as of their ''kriging variance,'' provide a reasonable picture of the variability introduced by imperfect estimation of the generalized covariance function.

  1. Bootstrapped models for intrinsic random functions

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, K.

    1988-08-01

    Use of intrinsic random function stochastic models as a basis for estimation in geostatistical work requires the identification of the generalized covariance function of the underlying process. The fact that this function has to be estimated from data introduces an additional source of error into predictions based on the model. This paper develops the sample reuse procedure called the bootstrap in the context of intrinsic random functions to obtain realistic estimates of these errors. Simulation results support the conclusion that bootstrap distributions of functionals of the process, as well as their kriging variance, provide a reasonable picture of variability introduced by imperfect estimation of the generalized covariance function.

  2. Transverse single-spin asymmetries: Challenges and recent progress

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Metz, Andreas; Pitonyak, Daniel; Schafer, Andreas; Schlegel, Marc; Vogelsang, Werner; Zhou, Jian

    2014-11-25

    In this study, transverse single-spin asymmetries are among the most intriguing observables in hadronic physics. Though such asymmetries were already measured for the first time about four decades ago, their origin is still under debate. Here we consider transverse single-spin asymmetries in semi-inclusive lepton–nucleon scattering, in nucleon–nucleon scattering, and in inclusive lepton–nucleon scattering. It is argued that, according to recent work, the single-spin asymmetries for those three processes may be simultaneously described in perturbative QCD, where the re-scattering of the active partons plays a crucial role. A comparison of single-spin asymmetries in different reactions can also shed light on themore » universality of transverse momentum dependent parton correlation functions. In particular, we discuss what existing data may tell us about the predicted process dependence of the Sivers function.« less

  3. Transverse single-spin asymmetries: Challenges and recent progress

    SciTech Connect

    Metz, Andreas; Pitonyak, Daniel; Schafer, Andreas; Schlegel, Marc; Vogelsang, Werner; Zhou, Jian

    2014-11-25

    In this study, transverse single-spin asymmetries are among the most intriguing observables in hadronic physics. Though such asymmetries were already measured for the first time about four decades ago, their origin is still under debate. Here we consider transverse single-spin asymmetries in semi-inclusive lepton–nucleon scattering, in nucleon–nucleon scattering, and in inclusive lepton–nucleon scattering. It is argued that, according to recent work, the single-spin asymmetries for those three processes may be simultaneously described in perturbative QCD, where the re-scattering of the active partons plays a crucial role. A comparison of single-spin asymmetries in different reactions can also shed light on the universality of transverse momentum dependent parton correlation functions. In particular, we discuss what existing data may tell us about the predicted process dependence of the Sivers function.

  4. Forward-backward asymmetry in top quark-antiquark production

    SciTech Connect

    Abazov, V.M.; Abbott, B.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Alexeev, G. D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Alverson, G.; Alves, G. A.; Aoki, M.; Arov, M.; Askew, A.; Asman, B.; Atramentov, O.; Avila, C.; BackusMayes, J.; Badaud, F.; Bagby, L.; Baldin, B.; Bandurin, D. V.; Banerjee, S.; Barberis, E.; Baringer, P.; Barreto, J.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bassler, U.; Bazterra, V.; Beale, S.; Bean, A.; Begalli, M.; Begel, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bellantoni, L.; Beri, S. B.; Bernardi, G.; Bernhard, R.; Bertram, I.; Besancon, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Bezzubov, V. A.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatnagar, V.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Bloom, K.; Boehnlein, A.; Boline, D.; Boos, E. E.; Borissov, G.; Bose, T.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, O.; Brock, R.; Brooijmans, G.; Bross, A.; Brown, D.; Brown, J.; Bu, X. B.; Buehler, M.; Buescher, V.; Bunichev, V.; Burdin, S.; Burnett, T. H.; Buszello, C. P.; Calpas, B.; Camacho-Perez, E.; Carrasco-Lizarraga, M. A.; Casey, B. C. K.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Chakrabarti, S.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K. M.; Chandra, A.; Chen, G.; Chevalier-Thery, S.; Cho, D. K.; Cho, S. W.; Choi, S.; Choudhary, B.; Cihangir, S.; Claes, D.; Clutter, J.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, W. E.; Corcoran, M.; Couderc, F.; Cousinou, M. -C.; Croc, A.; Cutts, D.; Das, A.; Davies, G.; De, K.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Deliot, F.; Demarteau, M.; Demina, R.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Desai, S.; Deterre, C.; DeVaughan, K.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; Ding, P. F.; Dominguez, A.; Dorland, T.; Dubey, A.; Dudko, L. V.; Duggan, D.; Duperrin, A.; Dutt, S.; Dyshkant, A.; Eads, M.; Edmunds, D.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Enari, Y.; Evans, H.; Evdokimov, A.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Facini, G.; Ferbel, T.; Fiedler, F.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, H. E.; Fortner, M.; Fox, H.; Fuess, S.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Gavrilov, V.; Gay, P.; Geng, W.; Gerbaudo, D.; Gerber, C. E.; Gershtein, Y.; Ginther, G.; Golovanov, G.; Goussiou, A.; Grannis, P. D.; Greder, S.; Greenlee, H.; Greenwood, Z. D.; Gregores, E. M.; Grenier, G.; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J. -F.; Grohsjean, A.; Gruenendahl, S.; Gruenewald, M. W.; Guillemin, T.; Guo, F.; Gutierrez, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Haas, A.; Hagopian, S.; Haley, J.; Han, L.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hays, J.; Head, T.; Hebbeker, T.; Hedin, D.; Hegab, H.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hensel, C.; Heredia-De La Cruz, I.; Herner, K.; Hesketh, G.; Hildreth, M. D.; Hirosky, R.; Hoang, T.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hohlfeld, M.; Hubacek, Z.; Huske, N.; Hynek, V.; Iashvili, I.; Ilchenko, Y.; Illingworth, R.; Ito, A. S.; Jabeen, S.; Jaffre, M.; Jamin, D.; Jayasinghe, A.; Jesik, R.; Johns, K.; Johnson, M.; Johnston, D.; Jonckheere, A.; Jonsson, P.; Joshi, J.; Jung, A. W.; Juste, A.; Kaadze, K.; Kajfasz, E.; Karmanov, D.; Kasper, P. A.; Katsanos, I.; Kehoe, R.; Kermiche, S.; Khalatyan, N.; Khanov, A.; Kharchilava, A.; Kharzheev, Y. N.; Kirby, M. H.; Kohli, J. M.; Kozelov, A. V.; Kraus, J.; Kulikov, S.; Kumar, A.; Kupco, A.; Kurca, T.; Kuzmin, V. A.; Kvita, J.; Lammers, S.; Landsberg, G.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, S. W.; Lee, W. M.; Lellouch, J.; Li, L.; Li, Q. Z.; Lietti, S. M.; Lim, J. K.; Lincoln, D.; Linnemann, J.; Lipaev, V. V.; Lipton, R.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Z.; Lobodenko, A.; Lokajicek, M.; de Sa, R. Lopes; Lubatti, H. J.; Luna-Garcia, R.; Lyon, A. L.; Maciel, A. K. A.; Mackin, D.; Madar, R.; Magana-Villalba, R.; Malik, S.; Malyshev, V. L.; Maravin, Y.; Martinez-Ortega, J.; McCarthy, R.; McGivern, C. L.; Meijer, M. M.; Melnitchouk, A.; Menezes, D.; Mercadante, P. G.; Merkin, M.; Meyer, A.; Meyer, J.; Miconi, F.; Mondal, N. K.; Muanza, G. S.; Mulhearn, M.; Nagy, E.; Naimuddin, M.; Narain, M.; Nayyar, R.; Neal, H. A.; Negret, J. P.; Neustroev, P.; Novaes, S. F.; Nunnemann, T.; Obrant, G.; Orbaker, D.; Orduna, J.; Osman, N.; Osta, J.; et. al.

    2011-12-12

    We present a measurement of forward-backward asymmetry in top quark-antiquark production in proton-antiproton collisions in the final state containing a lepton and at least four jets. Using a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5.4 fb{sup -1}, collected by the D0 experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider, we measure the t{bar t} forward-backward asymmetry to be (9.2 {+-} 3.7)% at the reconstruction level. When corrected for detector acceptance and resolution, the asymmetry is found to be (19.6 {+-} 6.5)%. We also measure a corrected asymmetry based on the lepton from a top quark decay, found to be (15.2 {+-} 4.0)%. The results are compared to predictions based on the next-to-leading-order QCD generator mc@nlo. The sensitivity of the measured and predicted asymmetries to the modeling of gluon radiation is discussed.

  5. Extrapolation technique pitfalls in asymmetry measurements at colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colletti, Katrina; Hong, Ziqing; Toback, David; Wilson, Jonathan S.

    2016-09-01

    Asymmetry measurements are common in collider experiments and can sensitively probe particle properties. Typically, data can only be measured in a finite region covered by the detector, so an extrapolation from the visible asymmetry to the inclusive asymmetry is necessary. Often a constant multiplicative factor is advantageous for the extrapolation and this factor can be readily determined using simulation methods. However, there is a potential, avoidable pitfall involved in the determination of this factor when the asymmetry in the simulated data sample is small. We find that to obtain a reliable estimate of the extrapolation factor, the number of simulated events required rises as the inverse square of the simulated asymmetry; this can mean that an unexpectedly large sample size is required when determining the extrapolation factor.

  6. Tidal asymmetry in estuaries with mixed semidiurnal/diurnal tides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nidzieko, Nicholas J.

    2010-08-01

    Tidal asymmetry in estuaries with mixed, mainly semidiurnal tides arises from both the interaction of principal tides and the higher harmonics generated by distortions within the estuary. The duration asymmetry in rise and fall of water level caused by principal tides on the west coast of the continental United States is ebb-dominant, and so the tide entering estuaries is also ebb-dominant, prior to any internal distortions within the estuary. The interaction of higher harmonics with principal constituents either augments or cancels the duration asymmetry in the principal tides. In estuaries where tidal elevation and velocity phase are near quadrature (90° out of phase), the duration asymmetry in tidal elevation leads to asymmetries in tidal current magnitude. Asymmetry can be conveniently quantified in terms of the sample skewness, γ1, the normalized third sample moment about the mean. An analytic approximation to the skewness shows that traditional metrics of asymmetry, namely the ratio of constituent amplitudes and the relative constituent phase difference, arise from calculating the third sample moment. Observations from three California estuaries of different morphologies are presented as an illustration of how skewness can be used to quantify asymmetry in real systems. As in semidiurnal systems, morphology is a good predictor of whether higher harmonics engender ebb-dominance or flood-dominance, however asymmetry imposed by principal tides at the mouth must first be overcome and so there is a spatial evolution in the total asymmetry. Quantifying observations via skewness should be considered in addition to traditional metrics in estuaries with mixed tides.

  7. Facial asymmetry and genetic ancestry in Latin American admixed populations.

    PubMed

    Quinto-Sánchez, Mirsha; Adhikari, Kaustubh; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Cintas, Celia; Silva de Cerqueira, Caio Cesar; Ramallo, Virginia; Castillo, Lucia; Farrera, Arodi; Jaramillo, Claudia; Arias, Williams; Fuentes, Macarena; Everardo, Paola; de Avila, Francisco; Gomez-Valdés, Jorge; Hünemeier, Tábita; Gibbon, Shara; Gallo, Carla; Poletti, Giovanni; Rosique, Javier; Bortolini, Maria Cátira; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Rothhammer, Francisco; Bedoya, Gabriel; Ruiz-Linares, Andres; González-José, Rolando

    2015-05-01

    Fluctuating and directional asymmetry are aspects of morphological variation widely used to infer environmental and genetic factors affecting facial phenotypes. However, the genetic basis and environmental determinants of both asymmetry types is far from being completely known. The analysis of facial asymmetries in admixed individuals can be of help to characterize the impact of a genome's heterozygosity on the developmental basis of both fluctuating and directional asymmetries. Here we characterize the association between genetic ancestry and individual asymmetry on a sample of Latin-American admixed populations. To do so, three-dimensional (3D) facial shape attributes were explored on a sample of 4,104 volunteers aged between 18 and 85 years. Individual ancestry and heterozygosity was estimated using more than 730,000 genome-wide markers. Multivariate techniques applied to geometric morphometric data were used to evaluate the magnitude and significance of directional and fluctuating asymmetry (FA), as well as correlations and multiple regressions aimed to estimate the relationship between facial FA scores and heterozygosity and a set of covariates. Results indicate that directional and FA are both significant, the former being the strongest expression of asymmetry in this sample. In addition, our analyses suggest that there are some specific patterns of facial asymmetries characterizing the different ancestry groups. Finally, we find that more heterozygous individuals exhibit lower levels of asymmetry. Our results highlight the importance of including ancestry-admixture estimators, especially when the analyses are aimed to compare levels of asymmetries on groups differing on socioeconomic levels, as a proxy to estimate developmental noise. PMID:25582401

  8. On the matter-antimatter asymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, W. A.

    2015-08-01

    Although the big bang should have produced equal amounts of matter and antimatter, there is evidence that the universe does not contain significant amounts of antimatter. The usual explanations for this matter-antimatter asymmetry involve finding causes for Sakharov’s three conditions to be satisfied. However, if the composite photon theory is correct, antimatter galaxies should appear to us as dark matter, neither emitting light (that we can detect) or reflecting ordinary light. Thus the presence of antimatter galaxies may be harder to detect than previously thought. The large clumps of dark matter that have been observed by weak gravitation lensing could be clusters of antimatter galaxies. “Dark photons,” that are hypothesized to cause self-interactions between dark matter particles, are identified as antiphotons in the composite photon theory. The possibility of a patchwork universe, that had been previously excluded, is also re-examined.

  9. Leptophilic dark matter from the lepton asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Timothy; Zurek, Kathryn M

    2010-03-12

    We present a model of weak scale dark matter (DM) where the thermal DM density is set by the lepton asymmetry due to the presence of higher dimension lepton violating operators. In these models there is generically a separation between the annihilation cross section responsible for the relic abundance (through lepton violating operators) and the annihilation cross section that is relevant for the indirect detection of DM (through lepton preserving operators). This implies a perceived boost in the annihilation cross section in the Galaxy today relative to that derived for canonical thermal freeze-out, giving a natural explanation for the observed cosmic ray electron and positron excesses, without resorting to a Sommerfeld enhancement. These models motivate continued searches for DM with apparently nonthermal annihilation cross sections. The DM may also play a role in radiatively generating Majorana neutrino masses. PMID:20366412

  10. Single-Spin Asymmetries at CLAS

    SciTech Connect

    Avakian, Harutyun

    2003-05-01

    Single spin asymmetries (SSA) are crucial tools in the study of the spin structure of hadrons in pion electroproduction, since they are directly related to some hot topics,including transverse polarization distribution functions, fragmentation of polarized quarks and generalized parton distribution functions. At low beam energies, when the virtual photon has a relatively large angle with respect to the initial spin direction, the measured single-target spin-dependent sin φ moment in the cross section for the longitudinally polarized target contain contributions from the target spin components, both longitudinal and transverse with respect to the photon direction.This contribution presents preliminary results from Jefferson Lab's CLAS detector on beam and target SSA in pion azimuthal distributions in one particle inclusive electroproduction in the DIS regime (Q2 > 1GeV 2,W > 2GeV ) off a polarized NH3 target.

  11. Dark Atoms: Asymmetry and Direct Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, David E.; Krnjaic, Gordan Z.; Rehermann, Keith R.; Wells, Christopher M.

    2011-10-01

    We present a simple UV completion of Atomic Dark Matter (aDM) in which heavy right-handed neutrinos decay to induce both dark and lepton number densities. This model addresses several outstanding cosmological problems: the matter/anti-matter asymmetry, the dark matter abundance, the number of light degrees of freedom in the early universe, and the smoothing of small-scale structure. Additionally, this realization of aDM may reconcile the CoGeNT excess with recently published null results and predicts a signal in the CRESST Oxygen band. We also find that, due to unscreened long-range interactions, the residual un recombined dark ions settle into a diffuse isothermal halo.

  12. Time-reversal asymmetry in financial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, X. F.; Chen, T. T.; Zheng, B.

    2013-11-01

    We investigate the large-fluctuation dynamics in financial markets, based on the minute-to-minute and daily data of the Chinese Indices and the German DAX. The dynamic relaxation both before and after the large fluctuations is characterized by a power law, and the exponents p± usually vary with the strength of the large fluctuations. The large-fluctuation dynamics is time-reversal symmetric at the time scale in minutes, while asymmetric at the daily time scale. Careful analysis reveals that the time-reversal asymmetry is mainly induced by external forces. It is also the external forces which drive the financial system to a non-stationary state. Different characteristics of the Chinese and German stock markets are uncovered.

  13. Asymmetries in the Io plasma torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desch, M. D.; Farrell, W. M.; Kaiser, M. L.

    1994-01-01

    Using Ulysses radio wave data taken during the 1992 Jupiter encounter, we conclude that there are significant large and small spatial scale azimuthal asymmetries at high latitudes in the Io plasma torus. During a period of time near perijove when the spacecraft motion was predominantly in the azimuthal direction and was relatively fixed in both latitude and radial distance, inferred electron densities depart significantly from the common assumption of longitudinal symmetry. Specifically, electron plasma concentrations near 0 deg system III longitude (and 0400 LT) are greater than those near 180 deg (and 0000 LT). Superposed on this large-scale variation are regularly spaced density depletions, 30-50% in magnitude, and having a spatial periodicity of about 17 deg. Some of these depletions may drive various known radio and plasma wave sources by means of large B parallel electric potentials. The observations are compared with recent models and with the in-situ Voyager observations.

  14. Quantifying asymmetry of quantum states using entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toloui, Borzu

    2013-03-01

    For open systems, symmetric dynamics do not always lead to conservation laws. We show that, for a dynamic symmetry associated with a compact Lie group, one can derive new selection rules from entanglement theory. These selection rules apply to both closed and open systems as well as reversible and irreversible time evolutions. Our approach is based on an embedding of the system's Hilbert space into a tensor product of two Hilbert spaces allowing for the symmetric dynamics to be simulated with local operations. The entanglement of the embedded states determines which transformations are forbidden because of the symmetry. In fact, every bipartite entanglement monotone can be used to quantify the asymmetry of the initial states. Moreover, where the dynamics is reversible, each of these monotones becomes a new conserved quantity. This research has been supported by the Institute for Quantum Information Science (IQIS) at the University of Calgary, Alberta Innovates, NSERC, General Dynamics Canada, and MITACS.

  15. Left-right asymmetry in two types of soccer kick.

    PubMed Central

    McLean, B D; Tumilty, D M

    1993-01-01

    The ability to kick with both feet is regarded as a desirable skill in high level soccer players; however, most players display a dominance of kicking ability on one side. This study investigated the characteristics of asymmetry in two types of soccer kick. A low drive and a chip kick from both the left and right foot of 12 élite junior soccer players were analysed. Kick velocity, kick accuracy, position of the plant foot from the ball centre, and time from foot plant to ball contact were measured for each kick. Knee extension and flexion strength were also determined for each leg at 60 degree s-1, 180 degree s-1 and 240 degrees s-1 on a Cybex II Isokinetic Dynamometer. A single factor repeated measures analysis of variance was applied to velocity, plant foot position and timing parameters to compare between sides and between shots. chi 2 analysis was used to compare accuracy between shots and between sides, and a paired Student's t test was used to compare strength parameters between sides. Pearson's product moment correlation analysis was used to examine the relationship between velocity and both leg strength and the time from foot plant to ball contact. Significance was set at P < or = 0.05. The results showed that this group had strength dominance at all speeds tested on the right side and better drive kick performance with their right leg as determined by mean(s.d.) velocity (79(6) versus 66(8) km h-1) and accuracy (66.6% versus 33.3%). There was no difference in these parameters between sides for chip kicks.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8130965

  16. Impact parameter dependent potentials and average transverse momentum in inclusive DIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhalholy, Tareq; Burkardt, Matthias

    2016-06-01

    We exploit a connection between the Coulomb/Eikonal phase and the charge distribution in the transverse plane for a transversely polarized nucleon. The known deformation of the charge density in impact parameter space translates into an asymmetry in the Coulomb/Eikonal phase (or the impact parameter electromagnetic potential). The asymmetry in the transverse potential implies an azimuthal asymmetry in the scattering cross section of the scattered electrons in inclusive DIS. We use the transverse potential to calculate the average transverse momentum of the scattered electrons. The sign of the calculated average transverse momentum for a neutron target is consistent with recent Jefferson Lab data.

  17. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation among Collegiate Instrumentalists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Frank M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gather and compare information on measures of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation among instrumentalists enrolled in collegiate ensembles. A survey instrument was developed to gather information concerning demographic data and responses to questions on motivational preference. Participants were undergraduate and…

  18. Disrupted Intrinsic Local Synchronization in Poststroke Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Mi; Li, Jiao; Yao, Dezhong; Chen, Huafu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Evidence has accumulated from the task-related and task-free (i.e., resting state) studies that alternations of intrinsic neural networks exist in poststroke aphasia (PSA) patients. However, information is lacking on the changes in the local synchronization of spontaneous functional magnetic resonance imaging blood–oxygen level-dependent fluctuations in PSA at rest. We investigated the altered intrinsic local synchronization using regional homogeneity (ReHo) on PSA (n = 17) and age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HCs) (n = 20). We examined the correlations between the abnormal ReHo values and the aphasia severity and language performance in PSA. Compared with HCs, the PSA patients exhibited decreased intrinsic local synchronization in the right lingual gyrus, the left calcarine, the left cuneus, the left superior frontal gyrus (SFG), and the left medial of SFG. The local synchronization (ReHo value) in the left medial of SFG was positively correlated with aphasia severity (r = 0.55, P = 0.027) and the naming scores of Aphasia Battery of Chinese (r = 0.66, P = 0.005). This result is consistent with the important role of this value in language processing even in the resting state. The pathogenesis of PSA may be attributed to abnormal intrinsic local synchronous in multiple brain regions. PMID:26986152

  19. Revitalizing Faculty Work through Intrinsic Rewards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froh, Robert C.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A faculty survey suggests that college climate can help maximize faculty effectiveness. Institutions are making use of the intrinsic rewards of academic work to improve its quality, by helping faculty reach new levels of understanding and mutual learning with students, accomplish greater mastery of content, and find successful new teaching…

  20. Intrinsic Motivation, Organizational Justice, and Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannam, Kalli; Narayan, Anupama

    2015-01-01

    For employees to generate creative ideas that are not only original, but also useful to their company, they must interact with their workplace environment to determine organizational needs. Therefore, it is important to consider aspects of the individual as well as their environment when studying creativity. Intrinsic motivation, a predictor of…

  1. Intrinsic Factors Affecting Overseas Student Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firmin, Michael W.; MacKay, Brenda B.; Firmin, Ruth L.

    2007-01-01

    We conducted a qualitative research study involving 13 undergraduate students who completed their student-teaching in overseas contexts. Participants completed two waves of interviews immediately after returning to campus from their multicultural experiences. Three intrinsic factors were found to have the greatest impact on students' overseas…

  2. Disrupted Intrinsic Local Synchronization in Poststroke Aphasia.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mi; Li, Jiao; Yao, Dezhong; Chen, Huafu

    2016-03-01

    Evidence has accumulated from the task-related and task-free (i.e., resting state) studies that alternations of intrinsic neural networks exist in poststroke aphasia (PSA) patients. However, information is lacking on the changes in the local synchronization of spontaneous functional magnetic resonance imaging blood-oxygen level-dependent fluctuations in PSA at rest.We investigated the altered intrinsic local synchronization using regional homogeneity (ReHo) on PSA (n = 17) and age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HCs) (n = 20). We examined the correlations between the abnormal ReHo values and the aphasia severity and language performance in PSA.Compared with HCs, the PSA patients exhibited decreased intrinsic local synchronization in the right lingual gyrus, the left calcarine, the left cuneus, the left superior frontal gyrus (SFG), and the left medial of SFG. The local synchronization (ReHo value) in the left medial of SFG was positively correlated with aphasia severity (r = 0.55, P = 0.027) and the naming scores of Aphasia Battery of Chinese (r = 0.66, P = 0.005). This result is consistent with the important role of this value in language processing even in the resting state.The pathogenesis of PSA may be attributed to abnormal intrinsic local synchronous in multiple brain regions. PMID:26986152

  3. Organisational Learning and Employees' Intrinsic Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remedios, Richard; Boreham, Nick

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the effects of organisational learning initiatives on employee motivation. Four initiatives consistent with theories of organisational learning were a priori ranked in terms of concepts that underpin intrinsic-motivation theory. Eighteen employees in a UK petrochemical company were interviewed to ascertain their experiences of…

  4. The intrinsic cost of cognitive control.

    PubMed

    Kool, Wouter; Botvinick, Matthew

    2013-12-01

    Kurzban and colleagues carry forward an important contemporary movement in cognitive control research, tending away from resource-based models and toward a framework focusing on motivation or value. However, their specific proposal, centering on opportunity costs, appears problematic. We favor a simpler view, according to which the exertion of cognitive control carries intrinsic subjective costs. PMID:24304795

  5. Visual stimuli recruit intrinsically generated cortical ensembles

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Jae-eun Kang; Ayzenshtat, Inbal; Carrillo-Reid, Luis; Yuste, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    The cortical microcircuit is built with recurrent excitatory connections, and it has long been suggested that the purpose of this design is to enable intrinsically driven reverberating activity. To understand the dynamics of neocortical intrinsic activity better, we performed two-photon calcium imaging of populations of neurons from the primary visual cortex of awake mice during visual stimulation and spontaneous activity. In both conditions, cortical activity is dominated by coactive groups of neurons, forming ensembles whose activation cannot be explained by the independent firing properties of their contributing neurons, considered in isolation. Moreover, individual neurons flexibly join multiple ensembles, vastly expanding the encoding potential of the circuit. Intriguingly, the same coactive ensembles can repeat spontaneously and in response to visual stimuli, indicating that stimulus-evoked responses arise from activating these intrinsic building blocks. Although the spatial properties of stimulus-driven and spontaneous ensembles are similar, spontaneous ensembles are active at random intervals, whereas visually evoked ensembles are time-locked to stimuli. We conclude that neuronal ensembles, built by the coactivation of flexible groups of neurons, are emergent functional units of cortical activity and propose that visual stimuli recruit intrinsically generated ensembles to represent visual attributes. PMID:25201983

  6. Electric Field Effect in Intrinsic Josephson Junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyama, T.

    The electric field effect in intrinsic Josephson junction stacks (IJJ's) is investigated on the basis of the capacitively-coupled IJJ model. We clarify the current-voltage characteristics of the IJJ's in the presence of an external electric field. It is predicted that the IJJ's show a dynamical transition to the voltage state as the external electric field is increased.

  7. TOPICAL REVIEW: Intrinsic Josephson junctions: recent developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurgens, A. A.

    2000-08-01

    Some recent developments in the fabrication of intrinsic Josephson junctions (IJJ) and their application for studying high-temperature superconductors are discussed. The major advantages of IJJ and unsolved problems are outlined. The feasibility of three-terminal devices based on the stacked IJJ is briefly evaluated.

  8. Advancing polymers of intrinsic microporosity by mechanochemistry

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhang, Pengfei; Jiang, Xueguang; Wan, Shun; Dai, Sheng

    2015-02-20

    Herein, we report a fast (15 min) and solvent-free mechanochemical approach to construct polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIMs) with high molecular mass and low polydispersity by solid grinding. The enhanced reaction efficiency results from the instantaneous frictional heating and continuous exposure of active sites within those solid reactants.

  9. Archaic chaos: intrinsically disordered proteins in Archaea

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Many proteins or their regions known as intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) and intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs) lack unique 3D structure in their native states under physiological conditions yet fulfill key biological functions. Earlier bioinformatics studies showed that IDPs and IDRs are highly abundant in different proteomes and carry out mostly regulatory functions related to molecular recognition and signal transduction. Archaea belong to an intriguing domain of life whose members, being microbes, are characterized by a unique mosaic-like combination of bacterial and eukaryotic properties and include inhabitants of some of the most extreme environments on the planet. With the expansion of the archaea genome data (more than fifty archaea species from five different phyla are known now), and with recent improvements in the accuracy of intrinsic disorder prediction, it is time to re-examine the abundance of IDPs and IDRs in the archaea domain. Results The abundance of IDPs and IDRs in 53 archaea species is analyzed. The amino acid composition profiles of these species are generally quite different from each other. The disordered content is highly species-dependent. Thermoproteales proteomes have 14% of disordered residues, while in Halobacteria, this value increases to 34%. In proteomes of these two phyla, proteins containing long disordered regions account for 12% and 46%, whereas 4% and 26% their proteins are wholly disordered. These three measures of disorder content are linearly correlated with each other at the genome level. There is a weak correlation between the environmental factors (such as salinity, pH and temperature of the habitats) and the abundance of intrinsic disorder in Archaea, with various environmental factors possessing different disorder-promoting strengths. Harsh environmental conditions, especially those combining several hostile factors, clearly favor increased disorder content. Intrinsic disorder is highly abundant

  10. Intrinsic rotation of toroidally confined magnetohydrodynamics.

    PubMed

    Morales, Jorge A; Bos, Wouter J T; Schneider, Kai; Montgomery, David C

    2012-10-26

    The spatiotemporal self-organization of viscoresistive magnetohydrodynamics in a toroidal geometry is studied. Curl-free toroidal magnetic and electric fields are imposed. It is observed in our simulations that a flow is generated, which evolves from dominantly poloidal to toroidal when the Lundquist numbers are increased. It is shown that this toroidal organization of the flow is consistent with the tendency of the velocity field to align with the magnetic field. Up-down asymmetry of the geometry causes the generation of a nonzero toroidal angular momentum. PMID:23215195

  11. Multimomentum and multiflavor active-sterile neutrino oscillations in the early universe: Role of neutrino asymmetries and effects on nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saviano, Ninetta; Mirizzi, Alessandro; Pisanti, Ofelia; Serpico, Pasquale Dario; Mangano, Gianpiero; Miele, Gennaro

    2013-04-01

    We perform a study of the flavor evolution in the early universe of a multiflavor active-sterile neutrino system with parameters inspired by the short-baseline neutrino anomalies. In a neutrino-symmetric bath a “thermal” population of the sterile state would quickly grow, but in the presence of primordial neutrino asymmetries a self-suppression as well as a resonant sterile neutrino production can take place, depending on temperature and chosen parameters. In order to characterize these effects, we go beyond the usual average momentum and single-mixing approximations and consider a multimomentum and multiflavor treatment of the kinetic equations. We find that the enhancement obtained in this case with respect to the average momentum approximation is significant, up to ˜20% of a degree of freedom. Such a detailed and computationally demanding treatment further raises the asymmetry values required to significantly suppress the sterile neutrino production, up to |Lν|≳O(10-2). For such asymmetries, however, the active-sterile flavor conversions happen so late that significant distortions are produced in the electron (anti)neutrino spectra. The larger |Lν|, the more the impact of these distortions takes over as a dominant cosmological effect, notably increasing the He4 abundance in primordial nucleosynthesis. The standard expression of the primordial yields in terms of the effective number of neutrinos and asymmetries is also greatly altered. We numerically estimate the magnitude of such effects for a few representative cases and comment on the implications for current cosmological measurements.

  12. Shifting brain asymmetry: the link between meditation and structural lateralization.

    PubMed

    Kurth, Florian; MacKenzie-Graham, Allan; Toga, Arthur W; Luders, Eileen

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have revealed an increased fractional anisotropy and greater thickness in the anterior parts of the corpus callosum in meditation practitioners compared with control subjects. Altered callosal features may be associated with an altered inter-hemispheric integration and the degree of brain asymmetry may also be shifted in meditation practitioners. Therefore, we investigated differences in gray matter asymmetry as well as correlations between gray matter asymmetry and years of meditation practice in 50 long-term meditators and 50 controls. We detected a decreased rightward asymmetry in the precuneus in meditators compared with controls. In addition, we observed that a stronger leftward asymmetry near the posterior intraparietal sulcus was positively associated with the number of meditation practice years. In a further exploratory analysis, we observed that a stronger rightward asymmetry in the pregenual cingulate cortex was negatively associated with the number of practice years. The group difference within the precuneus, as well as the positive correlations with meditation years in the pregenual cingulate cortex, suggests an adaptation of the default mode network in meditators. The positive correlation between meditation practice years and asymmetry near the posterior intraparietal sulcus may suggest that meditation is accompanied by changes in attention processing. PMID:24643652

  13. Evaluation of Limb Load Asymmetry Using Two New Mathematical Models

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Senthil NS; Omar, Baharudin; Joseph, Leonard H.; Htwe, Ohnmar; Jagannathan, K.; Hamdan, Nor M Y; Rajalakshmi, D.

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative measurement of limb loading is important in orthopedic and neurological rehabilitation. In current practice, mathematical models such as Symmetry index (SI), Symmetry ratio (SR), and Symmetry angle (SA) are used to quantify limb loading asymmetry. Literatures have identified certain limitations with the above mathematical models. Hence this study presents two new mathematical models Modified symmetry index (MSI) and Limb loading error (LLE) that would address these limitations. Furthermore, the current mathematical models were compared against the new model with the goal of achieving a better model. This study uses hypothetical data to simulate an algorithmic preliminary computational measure to perform with all numerical possibilities of even and uneven limb loading that can occur in human legs. Descriptive statistics are used to interpret the limb loading patterns: symmetry, asymmetry and maximum asymmetry. The five mathematical models were similar in analyzing symmetry between limbs. However, for asymmetry and maximum asymmetry data, the SA and SR values do not give any meaningful interpretation, and SI gives an inflated value. The MSI and LLE are direct, easy to interpret and identify the loading patterns with the side of asymmetry. The new models are notable as they quantify the amount and side of asymmetry under different loading patterns. PMID:25716372

  14. Shifting brain asymmetry: the link between meditation and structural lateralization

    PubMed Central

    Kurth, Florian; MacKenzie-Graham, Allan; Toga, Arthur W.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have revealed an increased fractional anisotropy and greater thickness in the anterior parts of the corpus callosum in meditation practitioners compared with control subjects. Altered callosal features may be associated with an altered inter-hemispheric integration and the degree of brain asymmetry may also be shifted in meditation practitioners. Therefore, we investigated differences in gray matter asymmetry as well as correlations between gray matter asymmetry and years of meditation practice in 50 long-term meditators and 50 controls. We detected a decreased rightward asymmetry in the precuneus in meditators compared with controls. In addition, we observed that a stronger leftward asymmetry near the posterior intraparietal sulcus was positively associated with the number of meditation practice years. In a further exploratory analysis, we observed that a stronger rightward asymmetry in the pregenual cingulate cortex was negatively associated with the number of practice years. The group difference within the precuneus, as well as the positive correlations with meditation years in the pregenual cingulate cortex, suggests an adaptation of the default mode network in meditators. The positive correlation between meditation practice years and asymmetry near the posterior intraparietal sulcus may suggest that meditation is accompanied by changes in attention processing. PMID:24643652

  15. The use of three-dimensional imaging to evaluate the effect of conventional orthodontic approach in treating a subject with facial asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Kheir, Nadia Abou; Kau, Chung How

    2016-01-01

    The growth of the craniofacial skeleton takes place from the 3(rd) week of intra-uterine life until 18 years of age. During this period, the craniofacial complex is affected by extrinsic and intrinsic factors which guide or alter the pattern of growth. Asymmetry can be encountered due to these multifactorial effects or as the normal divergence of the hemifacial counterpart occurs. At present, an orthodontist plays a major role not only in diagnosing dental asymmetry but also facial asymmetry. However, an orthodontist's role in treating or camouflaging the asymmetry can be limited due to the severity. The aim of this research is to report a technique for facial three-dimensional (3D) analysis used to measure the progress of nonsurgical orthodontic treatment approach for a subject with maxillary asymmetry combined with mandibular angular asymmetry. The facial analysis was composed of five parts: Upper face asymmetry analysis, maxillary analysis, maxillary cant analysis, mandibular cant analysis, and mandibular asymmetry analysis which were applied using 3D software InVivoDental 5.2.3 (Anatomage Company, San Jose, CA, USA). The five components of the facial analysis were applied in the initial cone-beam computed tomography (T1) for diagnosis. Maxillary analysis, maxillary cant analysis, and mandibular cant analysis were applied to measure the progress of the orthodontics treatment (T2). Twenty-two linear measurements bilaterally and sixteen angular criteria were used to analyze the facial structures using different anthropometric landmarks. Only angular mandibular asymmetry was reported. However, the subject had maxillary alveolar ridge cant of 9.96°and dental maxillary cant was 2.95° in T1. The mandibular alveolar ridge cant was 7.41° and the mandibular dental cant was 8.39°. Highest decrease in the cant was reported maxillary alveolar ridge around 2.35° and in the mandibular alveolar ridge around 3.96° in T2. Facial 3D analysis is considered a useful adjunct

  16. The use of three-dimensional imaging to evaluate the effect of conventional orthodontic approach in treating a subject with facial asymmetry

    PubMed Central

    Kheir, Nadia Abou; Kau, Chung How

    2016-01-01

    The growth of the craniofacial skeleton takes place from the 3rd week of intra-uterine life until 18 years of age. During this period, the craniofacial complex is affected by extrinsic and intrinsic factors which guide or alter the pattern of growth. Asymmetry can be encountered due to these multifactorial effects or as the normal divergence of the hemifacial counterpart occurs. At present, an orthodontist plays a major role not only in diagnosing dental asymmetry but also facial asymmetry. However, an orthodontist's role in treating or camouflaging the asymmetry can be limited due to the severity. The aim of this research is to report a technique for facial three-dimensional (3D) analysis used to measure the progress of nonsurgical orthodontic treatment approach for a subject with maxillary asymmetry combined with mandibular angular asymmetry. The facial analysis was composed of five parts: Upper face asymmetry analysis, maxillary analysis, maxillary cant analysis, mandibular cant analysis, and mandibular asymmetry analysis which were applied using 3D software InVivoDental 5.2.3 (Anatomage Company, San Jose, CA, USA). The five components of the facial analysis were applied in the initial cone-beam computed tomography (T1) for diagnosis. Maxillary analysis, maxillary cant analysis, and mandibular cant analysis were applied to measure the progress of the orthodontics treatment (T2). Twenty-two linear measurements bilaterally and sixteen angular criteria were used to analyze the facial structures using different anthropometric landmarks. Only angular mandibular asymmetry was reported. However, the subject had maxillary alveolar ridge cant of 9.96°and dental maxillary cant was 2.95° in T1. The mandibular alveolar ridge cant was 7.41° and the mandibular dental cant was 8.39°. Highest decrease in the cant was reported maxillary alveolar ridge around 2.35° and in the mandibular alveolar ridge around 3.96° in T2. Facial 3D analysis is considered a useful adjunct in

  17. NODAL PATHWAY GENES ARE DOWNREGULATED IN FACIAL ASYMMETRY

    PubMed Central

    Nicot, Romain; Hottenstein, Molly; Raoul, Gwenael; Ferri, Joel; Horton, Michael; Tobias, John W.; Barton, Elisabeth; Gelé, Patrick; Sciote, James J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Facial asymmetry is a common comorbid condition in patients with jaw deformation malocclusion. Heritability of malocclusion is advancing rapidly, but very little is known regarding genetic contributions to asymmetry. This study identifies differences in expression of key asymmetry-producing genes which are down regulated in facial asymmetry patients. Material and Methods Masseter muscle samples were collected during BSSO orthognathic surgery to correct skeletal-based malocclusion. Patients were classified as Class II or III and open or deep bite malocclusion with or without facial asymmetry. Muscle samples were analyzed for gene expression differences on Affymetrix HT2.0 microarray global expression chips. Results Overall gene expression was different for asymmetric patients compared to other malocclusion classifications by principal component analysis (P<0.05). We identified differences in the nodal signaling pathway (NSP) which promotes development of mesoderm and endoderm and left-right patterning during embryogenesis. Nodal and Lefty expression was 1.39–1.84 fold greater (P<3.41×10−5) whereas integral membrane Nodal-modulators Nomo1,2,3 were −5.63 to −5.81 (P<3.05×10−4) less in asymmetry subjects. Fold differences among intracellular pathway members were negative in the range of −7.02 to −2.47 (P<0.003). Finally Pitx2, a upstream effector of Nodal known to influence the size of type II skeletal muscle fibers was also significantly decreased in facial asymmetry (P<0.05). Conclusions When facial asymmetry is part of skeletal malocclusion there are decreases of NSP genes in masseter muscle. This data suggests that the NSP is down regulated to help promote development of asymmetry. Pitx2 expression differences also contributed to both skeletal and muscle development in this condition. PMID:25364968

  18. Quantifying the influence of flow asymmetries on glottal sound sources in speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erath, Byron; Plesniak, Michael

    2008-11-01

    Human speech is made possible by the air flow interaction with the vocal folds. During phonation, asymmetries in the glottal flow field may arise from flow phenomena (e.g. the Coanda effect) as well as from pathological vocal fold motion (e.g. unilateral paralysis). In this study, the effects of flow asymmetries on glottal sound sources were investigated. Dynamically-programmable 7.5 times life-size vocal fold models with 2 degrees-of-freedom (linear and rotational) were constructed to provide a first-order approximation of vocal fold motion. Important parameters (Reynolds, Strouhal, and Euler numbers) were scaled to physiological values. Normal and abnormal vocal fold motions were synthesized, and the velocity field and instantaneous transglottal pressure drop were measured. Variability in the glottal jet trajectory necessitated sorting of the data according to the resulting flow configuration. The dipole sound source is related to the transglottal pressure drop via acoustic analogies. Variations in the transglottal pressure drop (and subsequently the dipole sound source) arising from flow asymmetries are discussed.

  19. Measurement of Time-Dependent CP Asymmetries in B0 to D(*)D Decays

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.; Barate, R.; Boutigny, D.; Couderc, F.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A.; Grauges, E.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pompili, A.; Chen, J.C.; Qi, N.D.; Rong, G.; Wang, P.; Zhu, Y.S.; Eigen, G.; Ofte, I.; Stugu, B. /Bergen U. /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /Bristol U. /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UCLA /UC, Riverside /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Frascati /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Harvard U. /Heidelberg U. /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa U. /Iowa State U. /Orsay, LAL /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT, LNS /McGill U. /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /Mt. Holyoke Coll. /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /Paris U., VI-VII /Pennsylvania U. /Perugia U. /INFN, Perugia /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Prairie View A-M /Princeton U. /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DAPNIA, Saclay /South Carolina U. /SLAC /Oregon U. /SLAC /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Stony Brook /Tennessee U. /Texas U. /Texas U., Dallas /Turin U. /INFN, Turin /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Valencia U., IFIC /Vanderbilt U. /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison /Yale U.

    2005-06-24

    The authors present a first measurement of CP asymmetries in neutral B decays to D{sup +}D{sup -}, and updated CP asymmetry measurements in decays to D*{sup +}D{sup -} and D*{sup -}D{sup +}. They use fully-reconstructed decays collected in a data sample of (232 {+-} 3) x 10{sup 6} {Upsilon}(4S) {yields} B{bar B} events in the BABAR detector at the PEp-II asymmetric-energy B Factory at SLAC. they determine the time-dependent asymmetry parameters to be S{sub D*{sup +}D{sup -}} = -0.54 {+-} 0.35 {+-} 0.07, C{sub D*{sup +}D{sup -}} = 0.09 {+-} 0.25 {+-} 0.06, S{sub D*{sup -}D{sup +}} = -0.29 {+-} 0.33 {+-} 0.07, C{sub D*{sup -}D{sup +}} = 0.17 {+-} 0.24 {+-} 0.04, S{sub D{sup +}D{sup -}} = -0.29 {+-} 0.63 {+-} 0.06, and C{sub D{sup +}D{sup -}} = 0.11 {+-} 0.35 {+-} 0.06, where in each case the first error is statistical and the second error is systematic.

  20. Reversal of the asymmetry in a cylindrical coaxial capacitively coupled Ar/Cl2 plasma

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Upadhyay, Janardan; Im, Do; Popović, Svetozar; Vušković, Leposava; Valente-Feliciano, Anne -Marie; Phillips, Larry

    2015-10-08

    The reduction of the asymmetry in the plasma sheath voltages of a cylindrical coaxial capacitively coupled plasma is crucial for efficient surface modification of the inner surfaces of concave three-dimensional structures, including superconducting radio frequency cavities. One critical asymmetry effect is the negative dc self-bias, formed across the inner electrode plasma sheath due to its lower surface area compared to the outer electrode. The effect on the self-bias potential with the surface enhancement by geometric modification on the inner electrode structure is studied. The shapes of the inner electrodes are chosen as cylindrical tube, large and small pitch bellows, andmore » disc-loaded corrugated structure (DLCS). The dc self-bias measurements for all these shapes were taken at different process parameters in Ar/Cl2 discharge. Lastly, the reversal of the negative dc self-bias potential to become positive for a DLCS inner electrode was observed and the best etch rate is achieved due to the reduction in plasma asymmetry.« less

  1. Polarized-target asymmetry in pion-proton bremsstrahlung at 298 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Bosshard, A.; Amsler, C.; Bistirlich, J.A.; van den Brandt, B.; Crowe, K.M.; Doebeli, M.; Doser, M.; Haddock, R.P.; Konter, J.A.; Ljungfelt, S.; Loude, J.F.; Mango, S.; Meyer, C.A.; Perroud, J.P.; Riedlberger, J.; Renker, D.; Schaad, M.; Sober, D.I.; Truoel, P.; Weymuth, P. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley California 94720 Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen, Paul Scherrer Institut, Department of Physics, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90024 Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Universite de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne, Department of Physics, Catholic University of America, Washington, D.C. 10024 )

    1990-05-28

    First data are presented for the polarized-target asymmetry in the reaction {pi}{sup +}{ital p}{r arrow}{pi}{sup +}{ital p}{gamma} at an incident pion energy of 298 MeV. The geometry was chosen to maximize the sensitivity to the radiation of the magnetic dipole moment {mu}{sub {Delta}} of the {Delta}{sup ++}(1232 MeV). A fit of the asymmetry in the cross section {ital d}{sup 5}{sigma}/{ital d}{Omega}{sub {pi}} {ital d}{Omega}{sub {gamma}} {ital dk} as a function of the photon energy {ital k} to predictions from a recent isobar-model calculation with {mu}{sub {Delta}} as the only free parameter yields {mu}{sub {Delta}}=1.64({plus minus}0.19exp{Delta},{plus minus}0.14 theor){mu}{sub {ital p}}. Though this value agrees with bag-model corrections to the SU(6) prediction {mu}{sub {Delta}}=2{mu}{sub {ital p}}, further clarifications on the model dependence of the result are needed, in particular since the isobar model fails to describe both the cross section and the asymmetry at the highest photon energies.

  2. North-South non-Gaussian asymmetry in Planck CMB maps

    SciTech Connect

    Bernui, A.; Oliveira, A.F.; Pereira, T.S. E-mail: adhimar@unifei.edu.br

    2014-10-01

    We report the results of a statistical analysis performed with the four foreground-cleaned Planck maps by means of a suitably defined local-variance estimator. Our analysis shows a clear dipolar structure in Planck's variance map pointing in the direction (l,b) ≅ (220°,-32°), thus consistent with the North-South asymmetry phenomenon. Surprisingly, and contrary to previous findings, removing the CMB quadrupole and octopole makes the asymmetry stronger. Our results show a maximal statistical significance, of 98.1% CL, in the scales ranging from ℓ=4 to ℓ=500. Additionally, through exhaustive analyses of the four foreground-cleaned and individual frequency Planck maps, we find unlikely that residual foregrounds could be causing this dipole variance asymmetry. Moreover, we find that the dipole gets lower amplitudes for larger masks, evidencing that most of the contribution to the variance dipole comes from a region near the galactic plane. Finally, our results are robust against different foreground cleaning procedures, different Planck masks, pixelization parameters, and the addition of inhomogeneous real noise.

  3. Leptogenesis in the symmetric phase of the early universe: Baryon asymmetry and hypermagnetic helicity evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Semikoz, V. B. Smirnov, A. Yu.

    2015-02-15

    We investigate the evolution of the baryon asymmetry of the Universe (BAU) in its symmetric phase before the electroweak phase transition (EWPT) induced by leptogenesis in the hypermagnetic field of an arbitrary structure and with a maximum hypermagnetic helicity density. The novelty of this work is that the BAU has been calculated for a continuous hypermagnetic helicity spectrum. The observed BAU B{sub obs} = 10{sup −10} that can be in large-scale hypermagnetic fields satisfying the wave number inequality k ≤ k{sub max} grows with increasing k{sub max}. We will also show that the initial right-handed electron asymmetry ξ{sub eR}(η{sub 0}) used in our leptogenesis model as a free parameter cannot take too large values, ξ{sub eR}(η{sub 0}) = 10{sup −4}, because this leads to a negative BAU by the EWPT time. In contrast, a sufficiently small initial right-handed electron asymmetry, ξ{sub eR}(η{sub 0}), provides its further growth and the corresponding BAU growth from zero to some positive value, including the observed B{sub obs} = 10{sup −10}.

  4. Branching ratios and direct CP asymmetries in D→PV decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Qin; Li, Hsiang-nan; Lü, Cai-Dian; Yu, Fu-Sheng

    2014-03-01

    We study the two-body hadronic D→PV decays, where P (V) denotes a pseudoscalar (vector) meson, in the factorization-assisted topological-amplitude approach proposed in our previous work. This approach is based on the factorization of short-distance and long-distance dynamics into Wilson coefficients and hadronic matrix elements of four-fermion operators, respectively, with the latter being parametrized in terms of several nonperturbative quantities. We further take into account the ρ-ω mixing effect, which improves the global fit to the branching ratios involving the ρ0 and ω mesons. Combining short-distance dynamics associated with penguin operators and the hadronic parameters determined from the global fit to branching ratios, we predict direct CP asymmetries. In particular, the direct CP asymmetries in the D0→K0K¯*0, K¯0K*0, D+→π+ρ0, and Ds+→K+ω, K+ϕ decays are found to be of O(10-3), which can be observed at the LHCb and future Belle II experiment. We also predict the CP asymmetry observables of some neutral D meson decays.

  5. The Carnegie Supernova Project: Intrinsic colors of type Ia supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, Christopher R.; Persson, S. E.; Freedman, Wendy L.; Madore, Barry F.; Stritzinger, Maximilian; Contreras, Carlos; Phillips, M. M.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Boldt, Luis; Campillay, Abdo; Castellón, Sergio; Morrell, Nidia; Salgado, Francisco; Folatelli, Gaston; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.

    2014-07-01

    We present an updated analysis of the intrinsic colors of Type Ia supernova (SNe Ia) using the latest data release of the Carnegie Supernova Project. We introduce a new light-curve parameter very similar to stretch that is better suited for fast-declining events, and find that these peculiar types can be seen as extensions to the population of 'normal' SNe Ia. With a larger number of objects, an updated fit to the Lira relation is presented along with evidence for a dependence on the late-time slope of the B – V light-curves with stretch and color. Using the full wavelength range from u to H band, we place constraints on the reddening law for the sample as a whole and also for individual events/hosts based solely on the observed colors. The photometric data continue to favor low values of R{sub V} , though with large variations from event to event, indicating an intrinsic distribution. We confirm the findings of other groups that there appears to be a correlation between the derived reddening law, R{sub V} , and the color excess, E(B – V), such that larger E(B – V) tends to favor lower R{sub V} . The intrinsic u-band colors show a relatively large scatter that cannot be explained by variations in R{sub V} or by the Goobar power-law for circumstellar dust, but rather is correlated with spectroscopic features of the supernova and is therefore likely due to metallicity effects.

  6. Lepton asymmetry in the primordial gravitational wave spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Ichiki, Kiyotomo; Yamaguchi, Masahide; Yokoyama, Jun'Ichi

    2007-04-15

    Effects of neutrino free streaming are evaluated on the primordial spectrum of gravitational radiation taking both neutrino chemical potential and masses into account. The former or the lepton asymmetry induces two competitive effects, namely, to increase anisotropic stress, which damps the gravitational wave more, and to delay the matter-radiation equality time, which reduces the damping. The latter effect is more prominent and a large lepton asymmetry would reduce the damping. We may thereby be able to measure the magnitude of lepton asymmetry from the primordial gravitational wave spectrum.

  7. Inert scalar doublet asymmetry as origin of dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhen, Mikaël; Hambye, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    In the inert scalar doublet framework, we analyze what would be the effect of a B -L asymmetry that could have been produced at high temperature in the thermal bath of the Universe. We show that unless the "λ5" scalar interaction is tiny, this asymmetry is automatically reprocessed in part into an inert scalar asymmetry that could be at the origin of dark matter today. Along this scenario, the inert mass scale lies in the few-TeV range, and direct detection constraints require that the inert scalar particles decay into a lighter dark matter particle which, as the inert doublet, is odd under a Z2 symmetry.

  8. Measurement of Transverse Asymmetries from Interference Fragmentation at HERMES

    SciTech Connect

    Marco, Contalbrigo

    2007-06-13

    The HERMES experiment has measured for the first time single target-spin asymmetries in semi-inclusive two-pion production using a transversely polarized hydrogen target. These asymmetries are related to the product of two unknowns: the transversity distribution function and the interference fragmentation function. The measured asymmetries are found to be non-zero in the invariant mass range 0.51 GeV < M{pi}{pi} < 0.97 GeV, indicating that two-pion semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering can be used to probe transversity.

  9. Baryogenesis and dark matter through a Higgs asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Servant, Géraldine; Tulin, Sean

    2013-10-11

    In addition to explaining the masses of elementary particles, the Higgs boson may have far-reaching implications for the generation of the matter content in the Universe. For instance, the Higgs boson plays a key role in two main theories of baryogenesis, namely, electroweak baryogenesis and leptogenesis. In this Letter, we propose a new cosmological scenario where the Higgs chemical potential mediates asymmetries between visible and dark matter sectors, either generating a baryon asymmetry from a dark matter asymmetry or vice versa. We illustrate this mechanism with a simple model with two new fermions coupled to the Higgs boson and discuss the associated signatures. PMID:24160589

  10. Functional asymmetry of posture and body system regulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boloban, V. N.; Otsupok, A. P.

    1980-01-01

    The manifestation of functional asymmetry during the regulation of an athlete's posture and a system of bodies and its effect on the execution of individual and group acrobatic exercises were studied. Functional asymmetry of posture regulation was recorded in acrobats during the execution of individual and group exercises. It was shown that stability is maintained at the expense of bending and twisting motions. It is important to consider whether the functional asymmetry of posture regulation is left or right sided in making up pairs and groups of acrobats.

  11. CMB hemispherical asymmetry: long mode modulation and non-Gaussianity

    SciTech Connect

    Namjoo, Mohammad Hossein; Baghram, Shant; Firouzjahi, Hassan; Abolhasani, Ali Akbar E-mail: abolhasani@ipm.ir E-mail: firouz@ipm.ir

    2014-08-01

    The observed hemispherical asymmetry in CMB map can be explained by modulation from a long wavelength super horizon mode which non-linearly couples to the CMB modes. We address the criticism in [1] about the role of non-Gaussianities in squeezed and equilateral configurations in generating hemispherical asymmetry from the long mode modulation. We stress that the modulation is sensitive to the non-Gaussianity in the squeezed limit. In addition, we demonstrate the validity of our approach in providing a consistency condition relating the amplitude of dipole asymmetry to f{sub NL} in the squeezed limit.

  12. Parton Distributions in the Impact Parameter Space

    SciTech Connect

    Matthias Burkardt

    2009-08-01

    Parton distributions in impact parameter space, which are obtained by Fourier transforming GPDs, exhibit a significant deviation from axial symmetry when the target and/or quark is transversely polarized. In combination with the final state interactions, this transverse deformation provides a natural mechanism for naive-T odd transverse single-spin asymmetries in semi-inclusive DIS. The deformation can also be related to the transverse force acting on the active quark in polarized DIS at higher twist.

  13. Measurements of time-dependent CP asymmetries in B0→D(*)+D(*)- decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubert, B.; Bona, M.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Prudent, X.; Tisserand, V.; Tico, J. Garra; Grauges, E.; Lopez, L.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; Abrams, G. S.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D. N.; Cahn, R. N.; Jacobsen, R. G.; Kerth, L. T.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Lynch, G.; Osipenkov, I. L.; Ronan, M. T.; Tackmann, K.; Tanabe, T.; Hawkes, C. M.; Soni, N.; Watson, A. T.; Koch, H.; Schroeder, T.; Walker, D.; Asgeirsson, D. J.; Fulsom, B. G.; Hearty, C.; Mattison, T. S.; McKenna, J. A.; Barrett, M.; Khan, A.; Blinov, V. E.; Bukin, A. D.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Druzhinin, V. P.; Golubev, V. B.; Onuchin, A. P.; Serednyakov, S. I.; Skovpen, Yu. I.; Solodov, E. P.; Todyshev, K. Yu.; Bondioli, M.; Curry, S.; Eschrich, I.; Kirkby, D.; Lankford, A. J.; Lund, P.; Mandelkern, M.; Martin, E. C.; Stoker, D. P.; Abachi, S.; Buchanan, C.; Gary, J. W.; Liu, F.; Long, O.; Shen, B. C.; Vitug, G. M.; Yasin, Z.; Zhang, L.; Sharma, V.; Campagnari, C.; Hong, T. M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Mazur, M. A.; Richman, J. D.; Beck, T. W.; Eisner, A. M.; Flacco, C. J.; Heusch, C. A.; Kroseberg, J.; Lockman, W. S.; Martinez, A. J.; Schalk, T.; Schumm, B. A.; Seiden, A.; Wilson, M. G.; Winstrom, L. O.; Cheng, C. H.; Doll, D. A.; Echenard, B.; Fang, F.; Hitlin, D. G.; Narsky, I.; Piatenko, T.; Porter, F. C.; Andreassen, R.; Mancinelli, G.; Meadows, B. T.; Mishra, K.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Bloom, P. C.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Hirschauer, J. F.; Nagel, M.; Nauenberg, U.; Smith, J. G.; Ulmer, K. A.; Wagner, S. R.; Ayad, R.; Soffer, A.; Toki, W. H.; Wilson, R. J.; Altenburg, D. D.; Feltresi, E.; Hauke, A.; Jasper, H.; Karbach, M.; Merkel, J.; Petzold, A.; Spaan, B.; Wacker, K.; Kobel, M. J.; Mader, W. F.; Nogowski, R.; Schubert, K. R.; Schwierz, R.; Volk, A.; Bernard, D.; Bonneaud, G. R.; Latour, E.; Verderi, M.; Clark, P. J.; Playfer, S.; Watson, J. E.; Andreotti, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bozzi, C.; Calabrese, R.; Cecchi, A.; Cibinetto, G.; Franchini, P.; Luppi, E.; Negrini, M.; Petrella, A.; Piemontese, L.; Santoro, V.; Baldini-Ferroli, R.; Calcaterra, A.; de Sangro, R.; Finocchiaro, G.; Pacetti, S.; Patteri, P.; Peruzzi, I. M.; Piccolo, M.; Rama, M.; Zallo, A.; Buzzo, A.; Contri, R.; Lo Vetere, M.; Macri, M. M.; Monge, M. R.; Passaggio, S.; Patrignani, C.; Robutti, E.; Santroni, A.; Tosi, S.; Chaisanguanthum, K. S.; Morii, M.; Adametz, A.; Marks, J.; Schenk, S.; Uwer, U.; Klose, V.; Lacker, H. M.; Bard, D. J.; Dauncey, P. D.; Nash, J. A.; Tibbetts, M.; Behera, P. K.; Chai, X.; Charles, M. J.; Mallik, U.; Cochran, J.; Crawley, H. B.; Dong, L.; Meyer, W. T.; Prell, S.; Rosenberg, E. I.; Rubin, A. E.; Gao, Y. Y.; Gritsan, A. V.; Guo, Z. J.; Lae, C. K.; Arnaud, N.; Béquilleux, J.; D'Orazio, A.; Davier, M.; da Costa, J. Firmino; Grosdidier, G.; Höcker, A.; Lepeltier, V.; Le Diberder, F.; Lutz, A. M.; Pruvot, S.; Roudeau, P.; Schune, M. H.; Serrano, J.; Sordini, V.; Stocchi, A.; Wormser, G.; Lange, D. J.; Wright, D. M.; Bingham, I.; Burke, J. P.; Chavez, C. A.; Fry, J. R.; Gabathuler, E.; Gamet, R.; Hutchcroft, D. E.; Payne, D. J.; Touramanis, C.; Bevan, A. J.; Clarke, C. K.; George, K. A.; di Lodovico, F.; Sacco, R.; Sigamani, M.; Cowan, G.; Flaecher, H. U.; Hopkins, D. A.; Paramesvaran, S.; Salvatore, F.; Wren, A. C.; Brown, D. N.; Davis, C. L.; Denig, A. G.; Fritsch, M.; Gradl, W.; Schott, G.; Alwyn, K. E.; Bailey, D.; Barlow, R. J.; Chia, Y. M.; Edgar, C. L.; Jackson, G.; Lafferty, G. D.; West, T. J.; Yi, J. I.; Anderson, J.; Chen, C.; Jawahery, A.; Roberts, D. A.; Simi, G.; Tuggle, J. M.; Dallapiccola, C.; Li, X.; Salvati, E.; Saremi, S.; Cowan, R.; Dujmic, D.; Fisher, P. H.; Sciolla, G.; Spitznagel, M.; Taylor, F.; Yamamoto, R. K.; Zhao, M.; Patel, P. M.; Robertson, S. H.; Lazzaro, A.; Lombardo, V.; Palombo, F.; Bauer, J. M.; Cremaldi, L.; Godang, R.; Kroeger, R.; Sanders, D. A.; Summers, D. J.; Zhao, H. W.; Simard, M.; Taras, P.; Viaud, F. B.; Nicholson, H.; de Nardo, G.; Lista, L.; Monorchio, D.; Onorato, G.; Sciacca, C.; Raven, G.; Snoek, H. L.; Jessop, C. P.; Knoepfel, K. J.; Losecco, J. M.; Wang, W. F.; Benelli, G.; Corwin, L. A.; Honscheid, K.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Morris, J. P.; Rahimi, A. M.; Regensburger, J. J.; Sekula, S. J.; Wong, Q. K.; Blount, N. L.; Brau, J.; Frey, R.; Igonkina, O.; Kolb, J. A.; Lu, M.; Rahmat, R.; Sinev, N. B.; Strom, D.; Strube, J.; Torrence, E.; Castelli, G.; Gagliardi, N.; Margoni, M.; Morandin, M.; Posocco, M.; Rotondo, M.; Simonetto, F.; Stroili, R.; Voci, C.; Del Amo Sanchez, P.; Ben-Haim, E.; Briand, H.; Calderini, G.; Chauveau, J.; David, P.; Del Buono, L.; Hamon, O.; Leruste, Ph.; Ocariz, J.; Perez, A.; Prendki, J.; Sitt, S.; Gladney, L.; Biasini, M.; Covarelli, R.; Manoni, E.; Angelini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Carpinelli, M.; Cervelli, A.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M. A.; Lusiani, A.; Marchiori, G.; Morganti, M.; Neri, N.; Paoloni, E.; Rizzo, G.; Walsh, J. J.; Pegna, D. Lopes; Lu, C.; Olsen, J.; Smith, A. J. S.; Telnov, A. V.; Anulli, F.; Baracchini, E.; Cavoto, G.; Del Re, D.; di Marco, E.; Faccini, R.; Ferrarotto, F.; Ferroni, F.; Gaspero, M.; Jackson, P. D.; Gioi, L. Li; Mazzoni, M. A.; Morganti, S.; Piredda, G.; Polci, F.; Renga, F.; Voena, C.; Ebert, M.; Hartmann, T.; Schröder, H.; Waldi, R.; Adye, T.; Franek, B.; Olaiya, E. O.; Wilson, F. F.; Emery, S.; Escalier, M.; Esteve, L.; Ganzhur, S. F.; de Monchenault, G. Hamel; Kozanecki, W.; Vasseur, G.; Yèche, Ch.; Zito, M.; Chen, X. R.; Liu, H.; Park, W.; Purohit, M. V.; White, R. M.; Wilson, J. R.; Allen, M. T.; Aston, D.; Bartoldus, R.; Bechtle, P.; Benitez, J. F.; Cenci, R.; Coleman, J. P.; Convery, M. R.; Dingfelder, J. C.; Dorfan, J.; Dubois-Felsmann, G. P.; Dunwoodie, W.; Field, R. C.; Gabareen, A. M.; Gowdy, S. J.; Graham, M. T.; Grenier, P.; Hast, C.; Innes, W. R.; Kaminski, J.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kim, H.; Kim, P.; Kocian, M. L.; Leith, D. W. G. S.; Li, S.; Lindquist, B.; Luitz, S.; Luth, V.; Lynch, H. L.; Macfarlane, D. B.; Marsiske, H.; Messner, R.; Muller, D. R.; Neal, H.; Nelson, S.; O'Grady, C. P.; Ofte, I.; Perazzo, A.; Perl, M.; Ratcliff, B. N.; Roodman, A.; Salnikov, A. A.; Schindler, R. H.; Schwiening, J.; Snyder, A.; Su, D.; Sullivan, M. K.; Suzuki, K.; Swain, S. K.; Thompson, J. M.; Va'Vra, J.; Wagner, A. P.; Weaver, M.; West, C. A.; Wisniewski, W. J.; Wittgen, M.; Wright, D. H.; Wulsin, H. W.; Yarritu, A. K.; Yi, K.; Young, C. C.; Ziegler, V.; Burchat, P. R.; Edwards, A. J.; Majewski, S. A.; Miyashita, T. S.; Petersen, B. A.; Wilden, L.; Ahmed, S.; Alam, M. S.; Ernst, J. A.; Pan, B.; Saeed, M. A.; Zain, S. B.; Spanier, S. M.; Wogsland, B. J.; Eckmann, R.; Ritchie, J. L.; Ruland, A. M.; Schilling, C. J.; Schwitters, R. F.; Drummond, B. W.; Izen, J. M.; Lou, X. C.; Bianchi, F.; Gamba, D.; Pelliccioni, M.; Bomben, M.; Bosisio, L.; Cartaro, C.; Della Ricca, G.; Lanceri, L.; Vitale, L.; Azzolini, V.; Lopez-March, N.; Martinez-Vidal, F.; Milanes, D. A.; Oyanguren, A.; Albert, J.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bhuyan, B.; Choi, H. H. F.; Hamano, K.; Kowalewski, R.; Lewczuk, M. J.; Nugent, I. M.; Roney, J. M.; Sobie, R. J.; Gershon, T. J.; Harrison, P. F.; Ilic, J.; Latham, T. E.; Mohanty, G. B.; Band, H. R.; Chen, X.; Dasu, S.; Flood, K. T.; Pan, Y.; Pierini, M.; Prepost, R.; Vuosalo, C. O.; Wu, S. L.

    2009-02-01

    We present new measurements of time-dependent CP asymmetries for B0→D(*)+D(*)- decays using (467±5)×106 B Bmacr pairs collected with the BABAR detector located at the PEP-II B Factory at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. We determine the CP-odd fraction of the B0→D*+D*- decays to be R⊥=0.158±0.028±0.006 and find CP asymmetry parameters S+=-0.76±0.16±0.04 and C+=+0.00±0.12±0.02 for the CP-even component of this decay and S⊥=-1.80±0.70±0.16 and C⊥=+0.41±0.49±0.08 for the CP-odd component. We measure S=-0.63±0.36±0.05 and C=-0.07±0.23±0.03 for B0→D+D-, S=-0.62±0.21±0.03 and C=+0.08±0.17±0.04 for B0→D*+D-, and S=-0.73±0.23±0.05 and C=+0.00±0.17±0.03 for B0→D+D*-. For the B0→D*±D∓ decays, we also determine the CP-violating asymmetry A=+0.008±0.048±0.013. In each case, the first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic. The measured values for the asymmetries are all consistent with the standard model.

  14. Measurements of time-dependent CP asymmetries in B0 --> D(*)+D(*)- decays

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.; Bona, M.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Prudent, X.; Tisserand, V.; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; Lopez, L.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; Abrams, G.S.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D.N.; Cahn, R.N.; Jacobsen, R.G.; /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /Bristol U. /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UCLA /UC, Riverside /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /Frascati /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /Harvard U. /Heidelberg U. /Humboldt U., Berlin /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Orsay, LAL /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Karlsruhe U., EKP /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT, LNS /McGill U. /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /Mt. Holyoke Coll. /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /Paris U., VI-VII /Pennsylvania U. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Princeton U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DSM, DAPNIA, Saclay /South Carolina U. /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Albany /Tennessee U. /Texas U. /Texas U., Dallas /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /Valencia U., IFIC /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2009-02-12

    We present new measurements of time-dependent CP asymmetries for B{sup 0} {yields} D{sup (*)+}d{sup (*)-} decays using (467 {+-} 5) x 10{sup 6} B{bar B} pairs collected with the BABAR detector located at the PEP-II B Factory at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. We determine the CP-odd fraction of the B{sup 0} {yields} D*{sup +}D*{sup -} decays to be R{perpendicular} = 0.158 {+-} 0.028 {+-} 0.006 and find CP asymmetry parameters for the CP-even component of the decay S{sub +} = -0.76 {+-} 0.16 {+-} 0.04 and C{sub +} = 0.00 {+-} 0.12 {+-} 0.02. We measure S = -0.63{+-}0.36{+-}0.05 and C = -0.07{+-}0.23{+-}0.03 for B{sup 0} {yields} D{sup +}D{sup -}, S = -0.62{+-}0.21{+-}0.03 and C = 0.08 {+-} 0.17 {+-} 0.04 for B{sup 0} {yields} D*{sup +}D{sup -}, and S = -0.73 {+-} 0.23 {+-} 0.05 and C = 0.00 {+-} 0.17 {+-} 0.03 for B{sup 0} {yields} D{sup +}D*{sup -}. For the B{sup 0} {yields} D*{sup {+-}}D{sup {-+}} decays, we also determine the CP-violating asymmetry A = 0.008 {+-} 0.048 {+-} 0.013. In each case, the first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic. The measured values for the asymmetries are all consistent with the Standard Model.

  15. Constrained molecular dynamics for quantifying intrinsic ductility versus brittleness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanguy, D.

    2007-10-01

    Evaluating the critical load levels for intrinsic ductility and brittle propagation is a first, but necessary, step for modeling semibrittle crack propagation. In the most general case, the calculations have to be fully atomistic because the details of the crack tip structure cannot be captured by continuum mechanics. In this paper, we present a method to explore ductile and brittle configurations, within the same force field, giving a quantitative estimate of the proximity of a transition from intrinsic ductility to brittleness. The shear localization is characterized by a centrosymmetry criterion evaluated on each atom in the vicinity of the crack tip. This provides an efficient order parameter to track the nucleation and propagation of dislocations. We show that it can be used as a holonomic constraint within molecular dynamics simulations, giving a precise control over plasticity during crack propagation. The equations of motion are derived and applied to crack propagation in the [112¯] direction of an fcc crystal loaded in mode I along [111]. The critical loads for dislocation emission and for brittle propagation are computed. The key point is that the generalized forces of constraint are not dissipative. Therefore, they do not spoil the critical elastic energy release rates (the Griffith criterion is preserved). As an example of the possibilities of the method, the response of blunted tips is investigated for three configurations: a slab of vacancies, an elliptical hole, and a circular hole. Brittle propagation by an alternative mechanism to cleavage, called “vacancy injection,” is reported.

  16. Intrinsic remediation of an industrial waste impoundment

    SciTech Connect

    Swindoll, C.M.; Lee, M.D.; Wood, K.N.; Hartten, A.S.; Bishop, A.L.; Connor, J.M.

    1995-12-31

    Intrinsic remediation, also known as natural restoration, was evaluated as a potential corrective action alternative for an industrial surface impoundment previously used for the disposal of waste treatment biosolids, organic wastes, and fly ash. Organic waste constituents included chlorobenzene, aniline, xylenes, benzene, toluene, acetone, p-cresol, 2-butanone, fluorene, and ethylbenzene. The evaluation demonstrated that the impoundment contains an active microbial community including aerobic, denitrifying, sulfate-reducing, and methanogenic microbes, and that environmental conditions were favorable for their growth. Laboratory studies confirmed that these microbes could biodegrade the organic waste constituents under varying redox conditions. The sorptive properties of the residual biosolids and fly ash contribute to the immobilization of chemical constituents and may enhance biodegradation by sequestering chemicals onto surfaces where microbes grow. Based on this field and laboratory evaluation, it was concluded that intrinsic remediation offers significant environmental benefits over other corrective action alternatives that would not allow these natural restoration processes to continue in the surface impoundment.

  17. Intrinsic two-dimensional features as textons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, E.; Zetzsche, C.; Rentschler, I.

    1998-01-01

    We suggest that intrinsic two-dimensional (i2D) features, computationally defined as the outputs of nonlinear operators that model the activity of end-stopped neurons, play a role in preattentive texture discrimination. We first show that for discriminable textures with identical power spectra the predictions of traditional models depend on the type of nonlinearity and fail for energy measures. We then argue that the concept of intrinsic dimensionality, and the existence of end-stopped neurons, can help us to understand the role of the nonlinearities. Furthermore, we show examples in which models without strong i2D selectivity fail to predict the correct ranking order of perceptual segregation. Our arguments regarding the importance of i2D features resemble the arguments of Julesz and co-workers regarding textons such as terminators and crossings. However, we provide a computational framework that identifies textons with the outputs of nonlinear operators that are selective to i2D features.

  18. Intrinsic emittance reduction in transmission mode photocathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyeri; Cultrera, Luca; Bazarov, Ivan

    2016-03-01

    High quantum efficiency (QE) and low emittance electron beams provided by multi-alkali photocathodes make them of great interest for next generation high brightness photoinjectors. Spicer's three-step model well describes the photoemission process; however, some photocathode characteristics such as their thickness have not yet been completely exploited to further improve the brightness of the generated electron beams. In this work, we report on the emittance and QE of a multi-alkali photocathode grown onto a glass substrate operated in transmission and reflection modes at different photon energies. We observed a 20% reduction in the intrinsic emittance from the reflection to the transmission mode operation. This observation can be explained by inelastic electron-phonon scattering during electrons' transit towards the cathode surface. Due to this effect, we predict that thicker photocathode layers will further reduce the intrinsic emittance of electron beams generated by photocathodes operated in transmission mode.

  19. Intrinsically disordered proteins from A to Z.

    PubMed

    Uversky, Vladimir N

    2011-08-01

    The ideas that proteins might possess specific functions without being uniquely folded into rigid 3D-structures and that these floppy polypeptides might constitute a noticeable part of any given proteome would have been considered as a preposterous fiction 15 or even 10 years ago. The situation has changed recently, and the existence of functional yet intrinsically disordered proteins and regions has become accepted by a significant number of protein scientists. These fuzzy objects with fuzzy structures and fuzzy functions are among the most interesting and attractive targets for modern protein research. This review summarizes some of the major discoveries and breakthroughs in the field of intrinsic disorder by representing related concepts and definitions. PMID:21501695

  20. Extrinsic and intrinsic curvatures in thermodynamic geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini Mansoori, Seyed Ali; Mirza, Behrouz; Sharifian, Elham

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the intrinsic and extrinsic curvatures of a certain hypersurface in thermodynamic geometry of a physical system and show that they contain useful thermodynamic information. For an anti-Reissner-Nordström-(A)de Sitter black hole (Phantom), the extrinsic curvature of a constant Q hypersurface has the same sign as the heat capacity around the phase transition points. The intrinsic curvature of the hypersurface can also be divergent at the critical points but has no information about the sign of the heat capacity. Our study explains the consistent relationship holding between the thermodynamic geometry of the KN-AdS black holes and those of the RN (J-zero hypersurface) and Kerr black holes (Q-zero hypersurface) ones [1]. This approach can easily be generalized to an arbitrary thermodynamic system.

  1. Intrinsic two-dimensional features as textons.

    PubMed

    Barth, E; Zetzsche, C; Rentschler, I

    1998-07-01

    We suggest that intrinsic two-dimensional (i2D) features, computationally defined as the outputs of nonlinear operators that model the activity of end-stopped neurons, play a role in preattentive texture discrimination. We first show that for discriminable textures with identical power spectra the predictions of traditional models depend on the type of nonlinearity and fail for energy measures. We then argue that the concept of intrinsic dimensionality, and the existence of end-stopped neurons, can help us to understand the role of the nonlinearities. Furthermore, we show examples in which models without strong i2D selectivity fail to predict the correct ranking order of perceptual segregation. Our arguments regarding the importance of i2D features resemble the arguments of Julesz and co-workers regarding textons such as terminators and crossings. However, we provide a computational framework that identifies textons with the outputs of nonlinear operators that are selective to i2D features. PMID:9656473

  2. Optimizing chirped laser pulse parameters for electron acceleration in vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Akhyani, Mina; Jahangiri, Fazel; Niknam, Ali Reza; Massudi, Reza

    2015-11-14

    Electron dynamics in the field of a chirped linearly polarized laser pulse is investigated. Variations of electron energy gain versus chirp parameter, time duration, and initial phase of laser pulse are studied. Based on maximizing laser pulse asymmetry, a numerical optimization procedure is presented, which leads to the elimination of rapid fluctuations of gain versus the chirp parameter. Instead, a smooth variation is observed that considerably reduces the accuracy required for experimentally adjusting the chirp parameter.

  3. Intrinsic interfacial phenomena in manganite heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaz, C. A. F.; Walker, F. J.; Ahn, C. H.; Ismail-Beigi, S.

    2015-04-01

    We review recent advances in our understanding of interfacial phenomena that emerge when dissimilar materials are brought together at atomically sharp and coherent interfaces. In particular, we focus on phenomena that are intrinsic to the interface and review recent work carried out on perovskite manganites interfaces, a class of complex oxides whose rich electronic properties have proven to be a useful playground for the discovery and prediction of novel phenomena.

  4. Design Space Issues for Intrinsic Evolvable Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hereford, James; Gwaltney, David

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the problem of increased programming time for intrinsic evolvable hardware (EM) as the complexity of the circuit grows. As the circuit becomes more complex, then more components will be required and a longer programming string, L, is required. We develop equations for the size of the population, n, and the number of generations required for the population to converge, based on L. Our analytical results show that even though the design search space grows as 2L (assuming a binary programming string), the number of circuit evaluations, n*ngen, only grows as O(Lg3), or slightly less than O(L). This makes evolvable techniques a good tool for exploring large design spaces. The major hurdle for intrinsic EHW is evaluation time for each possible circuit. The evaluation time involves downloading the bit string to the device, updating the device configuration, measuring the output and then transferring the output data to the control processor. Each of these steps must be done for each member of the population. The processing time of the computer becomes negligible since the selection/crossover/mutation steps are only done once per generation. Evaluation time presently limits intrinsic evolvable hardware techniques to designing only small or medium-sized circuits. To evolve large or complicated circuits, several researchers have proposed using hierarchical design or reuse techniques where submodules are combined together to form complex circuits. However, these practical approaches limit the search space of available designs and preclude utilizing parasitic coupling or other effects within the programmable device. The practical approaches also raise the issue of why intrinsic EHW techniques do not easily apply to large design spaces, since the analytical results show only an O(L) complexity growth.

  5. Transversity and intrinsic motion of the constituents

    SciTech Connect

    Efremov, A.V.; Teryaev, O.V.; Zavada, P.

    2004-09-01

    The probabilistic model of parton distributions, previously developed by one of the authors, is generalized to include the transversity distribution. When interference effects are attributed to quark level only, the intrinsic quark motion produces the transversity, which is about twice as large as the usual polarized distribution. The applicability of such a picture is considered and possible corrections, accounting for interference effects at the parton-hadron transition stage are discussed.

  6. Variations in size, shape and asymmetries of the third frontal convolution in hominids: paleoneurological implications for hominin evolution and the origin of language.

    PubMed

    Balzeau, Antoine; Gilissen, Emmanuel; Holloway, Ralph L; Prima, Sylvain; Grimaud-Hervé, Dominique

    2014-11-01

    The study of brain structural asymmetries as anatomical substrates of functional asymmetries in extant humans, great apes, and fossil hominins is of major importance in understanding the structural basis of modern human cognition. We propose methods to quantify the variation in size, shape and bilateral asymmetries of the third frontal convolution (or posterior inferior frontal gyrus) among recent modern humans, bonobos and chimpanzees, and fossil hominins using actual and virtual endocasts. These methodological improvements are necessary to extend previous qualitative studies of these features. We demonstrate both an absolute and relative bilateral increase in the size of the third frontal convolution in width and length between Pan species, as well as in hominins. We also observed a global bilateral increase in the size of the third frontal convolution across all species during hominin evolution, but also non-allometric intra-group variations independent of brain size within the fossil samples. Finally, our results show that the commonly accepted leftward asymmetry of Broca's cap is biased by qualitative observation of individual specimens. The trend during hominin evolution seems to be a reduction in size on the left compared with the right side, and also a clearer definition of the area. The third frontal convolution considered as a whole projects more laterally and antero-posteriorly in the right hemisphere. As a result, the left 'Broca's cap' looks more globular and better defined. Our results also suggest that the pattern of brain asymmetries is similar between Pan paniscus and hominins, leaving the gradient of the degree of asymmetry as the only relevant structural parameter. As the anatomical substrate related to brain asymmetry has been present since the appearance of the hominin lineage, it is not possible to prove a direct relationship between the extent of variations in the size, shape, and asymmetries of the third frontal convolution and the origin of

  7. Etiology of dental erosion--intrinsic factors.

    PubMed

    Scheutzel, P

    1996-04-01

    Dental erosion due to intrinsic factors is caused by gastric acid reaching the oral cavity and the teeth as a result of vomiting or gastroesophageal reflux. Since clinical manifestation of dental erosion does not occur until gastric acid has acted on the dental hard tissues regularly over a period of several years, dental erosion caused by intrinsic factors has been observed only in those diseases which are associated with chronic vomiting or persistent gastroesophageal reflux over a long period. Examples of such conditions include disorders of the upper alimentary tract, specific metabolic and endocrine disorders, cases of medication side-effects and drug abuse, and certain psychosomatic disorders, e.g. stress-induced psychosomatic vomiting, anorexia and bulimia nervosa or rumination. Based on a review of the medical and dental literature, the main symptoms of all disorders which must be taken into account as possible intrinsic etiological factors of dental erosion are thoroughly discussed with respect to the clinical picture, prevalence and risk of erosion. PMID:8804885

  8. Moral Distress, Workplace Health, and Intrinsic Harm.

    PubMed

    Weber, Elijah

    2016-05-01

    Moral distress is now being recognized as a frequent experience for many health care providers, and there's good evidence that it has a negative impact on the health care work environment. However, contemporary discussions of moral distress have several problems. First, they tend to rely on inadequate characterizations of moral distress. As a result, subsequent investigations regarding the frequency and consequences of moral distress often proceed without a clear understanding of the phenomenon being discussed, and thereby risk substantially misrepresenting the nature, frequency, and possible consequences of moral distress. These discussions also minimize the intrinsically harmful aspects of moral distress. This is a serious omission. Moral distress doesn't just have a negative impact on the health care work environment; it also directly harms the one who experiences it. In this paper, I claim that these problems can be addressed by first clarifying our understanding of moral distress, and then identifying what makes moral distress intrinsically harmful. I begin by identifying three common mistakes that characterizations of moral distress tend to make, and explaining why these mistakes are problematic. Next, I offer an account of moral distress that avoids these mistakes. Then, I defend the claim that moral distress is intrinsically harmful to the subject who experiences it. I conclude by explaining how acknowledging this aspect of moral distress should reshape our discussions about how best to deal with this phenomenon. PMID:26308751

  9. Intrinsic and extrinsic effects on image memorability.

    PubMed

    Bylinskii, Zoya; Isola, Phillip; Bainbridge, Constance; Torralba, Antonio; Oliva, Aude

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies have identified that images carry the attribute of memorability, a predictive value of whether a novel image will be later remembered or forgotten. Here we investigate the interplay between intrinsic and extrinsic factors that affect image memorability. First, we find that intrinsic differences in memorability exist at a finer-grained scale than previously documented. Second, we test two extrinsic factors: image context and observer behavior. Building on prior findings that images that are distinct with respect to their context are better remembered, we propose an information-theoretic model of image distinctiveness. Our model can automatically predict how changes in context change the memorability of natural images. In addition to context, we study a second extrinsic factor: where an observer looks while memorizing an image. It turns out that eye movements provide additional information that can predict whether or not an image will be remembered, on a trial-by-trial basis. Together, by considering both intrinsic and extrinsic effects on memorability, we arrive at a more complete and fine-grained model of image memorability than previously available. PMID:25796976

  10. Kinesin tail domains are intrinsically disordered.

    PubMed

    Seeger, Mark A; Zhang, Yongbo; Rice, Sarah E

    2012-10-01

    Kinesin motor proteins transport a wide variety of molecular cargoes in a spatially and temporally regulated manner. Kinesin motor domains, which hydrolyze ATP to produce a directed mechanical force along a microtubule, are well conserved throughout the entire superfamily. Outside of the motor domains, kinesin sequences diverge along with their transport functions. The nonmotor regions, particularly the tails, respond to a wide variety of structural and molecular cues that enable kinesins to carry specific cargoes in response to particular cellular signals. Here, we demonstrate that intrinsic disorder is a common structural feature of kinesins. A bioinformatics survey of the full-length sequences of all 43 human kinesins predicts that significant regions of intrinsically disordered residues are present in all kinesins. These regions are concentrated in the nonmotor domains, particularly in the tails and near sites for ligand binding or post-translational modifications. In order to experimentally verify these predictions, we expressed and purified the tail domains of kinesins representing three different families (Kif5B, Kif10, and KifC3). Circular dichroism and NMR spectroscopy experiments demonstrate that the isolated tails are disordered in vitro, yet they retain their functional microtubule-binding activity. On the basis of these results, we propose that intrinsic disorder is a common structural feature that confers functional specificity to kinesins. PMID:22674872

  11. Kinesin Tail Domains Are Intrinsically Disordered

    PubMed Central

    Seeger, Mark A.; Zhang, Yongbo; Rice, Sarah E.

    2012-01-01

    Kinesin motor proteins transport a wide variety of molecular cargoes in a spatially and temporally regulated manner. Kinesin motor domains, which hydrolyze ATP to produce a directed mechanical force along a microtubule, are well conserved throughout the entire superfamily. Outside of the motor domains, kinesin sequences diverge along with their transport functions. The non-motor regions, particularly the tails, respond to a wide variety of structural and molecular cues that enable kinesins to carry specific cargoes in response to particular cellular signals. Here, we demonstrate that intrinsic disorder is a common structural feature of kinesins. A bioinformatics survey of the full-length sequences of all 43 human kinesins predicts that significant regions of intrinsically disordered residues are present in all kinesins. These regions are concentrated in the non-motor domains, particularly in the tails and near sites for ligand binding or post-translational modifications. In order to experimentally verify these predictions, we expressed and purified the tail domains of kinesins representing three different families (Kif5B, Kif10, and KifC3). Circular dichroism (CD) and NMR spectroscopy experiments demonstrate that the isolated tails are disordered in vitro, yet they retain their functional microtubule-binding activity. Based on these results, we propose that intrinsic disorder is a common structural feature that confers functional specificity to kinesins. PMID:22674872

  12. Intrinsic disorder accelerates dissociation rather than association.

    PubMed

    Umezawa, Koji; Ohnuki, Jun; Higo, Junichi; Takano, Mitsunori

    2016-08-01

    The intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) has distinct properties both physically and biologically: it often becomes folded when binding to the target and is frequently involved in signal transduction. The physical property seems to be compatible with the biological property where fast association and dissociation between IDP and the target are required. While fast association has been well studied, fueled by the fly-casting mechanism, the dissociation kinetics has received less attention. We here study how the intrinsic disorder affects the dissociation kinetics, as well as the association kinetics, paying attention to the interaction strength at the binding site (i.e., the quality of the "fly lure"). Coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation of the pKID-KIX system, a well-studied IDP system, shows that the association rate becomes larger as the disorder-inducing flexibility that was imparted to the model is increased, but the acceleration is marginal and turns into deceleration as the quality of the fly lure is worsened. In contrast, the dissociation rate is greatly enhanced as the disorder is increased, indicating that intrinsic disorder serves for rapid signal switching more effectively through dissociation than association. Proteins 2016; 84:1124-1133. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27122223

  13. Asymmetries in the dust flux at Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borin, P.; Cremonese, G.; Bruno, M.; Marzari, F.

    2016-01-01

    The planet Mercury has an extended and tenuous exosphere made up of atoms that are ejected from the surface by energetic processes, including hypervelocity micrometeoritic impacts, photon-stimulated desorption by UV radiation, and ion sputtering. Meteoroid impacts of particles smaller than 1 cm, which are important for replenishing the exosphere daily, are not well-studied. We present a systematic investigation of spatial asymmetries in the impactor rate of micrometeoroids over Mercury's surface as a function of planetary true anomaly (TAA). Since the orbit of Mercury is quite eccentric a seasonal variation of the impact rate is to be expected. We find that the source peaks near the planetary equator for most TAA. Contrary to previous assumptions, we find the source to be non-uniform in local time. Only certain regions of Mercury are exposed to dust as a result of the orbital elements of Mercury and of the Main Belt particles (inclination less than 20°). Our results offer important constraints on transport models used for interpreting measurements of this exosphere, but also inform studies of space weathering of Mercury's surface.

  14. Value, obligation and the asymmetry question.

    PubMed

    Tooley, Michael

    1998-04-01

    Is there a prima facie obligation to produce additional individuals whose lives would be worth living? In his paper 'Is it good to make happy people?', Stuart Rachels argues not only that there is, but, also, that precisely as much weight should be assigned to the quality of life that would be enjoyed by such potential persons, if they were to be actualized, as to the quality of life enjoyed by actually existing persons. In response, I shall argue, first, that Rachels' view is exposed to very serious objections, and secondly, that his arguments in support of his position involve a crucial assumption, which cannot be sustained, concerning the relation between, on the one hand, propositions about good-making and bad-making properties, and, on the other, propositions about right-making and wrong-making ones. I shall then argue that there is a very plausible position concerning the conditions under which an action can be morally wrong which entails the following asymmetry: there is a prima facie obligation not to bring into existence individuals whose lives are not worth living, but there is no corresponding obligation to create additional individuals whose lives would be worth living. PMID:11655328

  15. Experimental investigations of the Electrical Asymmetry Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze, Julian; Schuengel, Edmund; Luggenhoelscher, Dirk; Czarnetzki, Uwe; Donko, Zoltan

    2009-10-01

    In 2008 a method to generate a variable DC self bias even in geometrically symmetric capacitively coupled radio frequency (CCRF) discharges was proposed theoretically [1]. If the discharge is operated at a fundamental frequency and its second harmonic, it has been predicted that the resulting DC self bias can be adjusted by the phase angle between the applied voltage harmonics. A PIC simulation demonstrated that this Electrical Asymmetry Effect (EAE) allows separate control of the energy and flux of ions at the electrode surfaces. Here the EAE and the related separate control of ion energy and flux is investigated experimentally in a geometrically symmetric CCRF discharge operated at 13.56 MHz and 27.12 MHz with variable phase shift between the harmonics in argon at different pressures. The DC self bias, the energy as well as the flux of ions at the grounded electrode are measured. The experimental results verify the theoretical predictions and show that ion energy and flux can be controlled separately. The EAE is optimized by choosing low and high frequency voltage amplitudes that yield the strongest relative DC self bias. [4pt] [1] Heil B G et al. 2008 J. Phys. D 41 165202

  16. Lepton asymmetry from mixing and oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartavtsev, A.; Millington, P.; Vogel, H.

    2016-06-01

    We show how the two physically-distinct sources of CP -asymmetry relevant to scenarios of leptogenesis: (i) resonant mixing and (ii) oscillations between different flavours can be unambiguously identified within the Kadanoff-Baym formalism. These contributions are isolated by analyzing the spectral structure of the non-equilibrium propagators without relying on the definition of particle number densities. The mixing source is associated with the usual mass shells, whereas the oscillation source is identified with a third intermediate shell. In addition, we identify terms lying on the oscillation shell that can be interpreted as the destructive interference between mixing and oscillation. We confirm that identical shell structure is obtained in both the Heisenberg- and interaction-picture realizations of the Kadanoff-Baym formalism. In so doing, we illustrate the self-consistency and complementarity of these two approaches. The interaction-picture approach in particular has the advantage that it may be used to analyze all forms of mass spectra from quasi-degenerate through to hierarchical.

  17. Visual field asymmetries in visual evoked responses

    PubMed Central

    Hagler, Donald J.

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral responses to visual stimuli exhibit visual field asymmetries, but cortical folding and the close proximity of visual cortical areas make electrophysiological comparisons between different stimulus locations problematic. Retinotopy-constrained source estimation (RCSE) uses distributed dipole models simultaneously constrained by multiple stimulus locations to provide separation between individual visual areas that is not possible with conventional source estimation methods. Magnetoencephalography and RCSE were used to estimate time courses of activity in V1, V2, V3, and V3A. Responses to left and right hemifield stimuli were not significantly different. Peak latencies for peripheral stimuli were significantly shorter than those for perifoveal stimuli in V1, V2, and V3A, likely related to the greater proportion of magnocellular input to V1 in the periphery. Consistent with previous results, sensor magnitudes for lower field stimuli were about twice as large as for upper field, which is only partially explained by the proximity to sensors for lower field cortical sources in V1, V2, and V3. V3A exhibited both latency and amplitude differences for upper and lower field responses. There were no differences for V3, consistent with previous suggestions that dorsal and ventral V3 are two halves of a single visual area, rather than distinct areas V3 and VP. PMID:25527151

  18. Functional chiral asymmetry in descending thoracic aorta.

    PubMed

    Frazin, L J; Lanza, G; Vonesh, M; Khasho, F; Spitzzeri, C; McGee, S; Mehlman, D; Chandran, K B; Talano, J; McPherson, D

    1990-12-01

    To determine whether rotational blood flow or chiral asymmetry exists in the human descending thoracic aorta, we established the ability of color Doppler ultrasound to detect rotational flow in a tornado tube model of a vortex descending fluid column. In a model of the human aortic arch with a pulse duplicator, color Doppler was then used to demonstrate that rotational flow occurs first in the transverse arch and then in the proximal descending thoracic aorta. With the use of color Doppler esophageal echocardiography, 53 patients (age range, 25-78 years; mean age, 56.4 years) were prospectively examined for rotational flow in the descending thoracic aorta. At 10 cm superior to retro-left ventricular position, 22 of 38 patients (58%) revealed rotational flow with obvious diastolic counterclockwise rotation but less obvious systolic clockwise rotation. At 5 cm superior to retro-left ventricular position, 29 of 46 patients (63%) revealed rotational flow with a tendency toward systolic clockwise and diastolic counterclockwise rotation. At the retro-left ventricular position, 47 of 53 patients (89%) revealed rotational flow, usually of a clockwise direction, occurring in systole. Our data suggest that aortic flow is not purely pulsatile and axial but has a rotational component. Rotational flow begins in the aortic arch and is carried through to the descending thoracic aorta, where flow is chirally asymmetric with systolic clockwise and diastolic counterclockwise components. These data demonstrate an aortic rotational flow component that may have physiological implications for organ perfusion. PMID:2242523

  19. Amplitude and polarization asymmetries in a ring laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, L. L.; Buholz, N. E.

    1971-01-01

    Asymmetric amplitude effects between the oppositely directed traveling waves in a He-Ne ring laser are analyzed both theoretically and experimentally. These effects make it possible to detect angular orientations of an inner-cavity bar with respect to the plane of the ring cavity. The amplitude asymmetries occur when a birefringent bar is placed in the three-mirror ring cavity, and an axial magnetic field is applied to the active medium. A simplified theoretical analysis is performed by using a first order perturbation theory to derive an expression for the polarization of the active medium, and a set of self-consistent equations are derived to predict threshold conditions. Polarization asymmetries between the oppositely directed waves are also predicted. Amplitude asymmetries similar in nature to those predicted at threshold occur when the laser is operating in 12-15 free-running modes, and polarization asymmetry occurs simultaneously.

  20. Cerebral blood flow asymmetries in headache-free migraineurs

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, S.R.; Welch, K.M.; Ewing, J.R.; Joseph, R.; D'Andrea, G.

    1987-11-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) asymmetries were studied in controls and patients with common and classic/complicated migraine using /sup 133/Xe inhalation with 8 homologously situated external collimators over each cerebral hemisphere. Migraine patients as a group more frequently had posterior rCBF asymmetries than controls (p less than 0.03). Although there were no differences in the number of anterior rCBF asymmetries, migraine patients had 2 or more asymmetric probe pairs more often than controls (p less than 0.02). The posterior rCBF asymmetries, consistent with the site of activation of many migraine attacks, may be related to more labile control of the cerebral circulation.