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Sample records for intrinsic optical signal

  1. Intrinsic optical signal imaging of retinal physiology: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Xincheng; Wang, Benquan

    2015-09-01

    Intrinsic optical signal (IOS) imaging promises to be a noninvasive method for high-resolution examination of retinal physiology, which can advance the study and diagnosis of eye diseases. While specialized optical instruments are desirable for functional IOS imaging of retinal physiology, in depth understanding of multiple IOS sources in the complex retinal neural network is essential for optimizing instrument designs. We provide a brief overview of IOS studies and relationships in rod outer segment suspensions, isolated retinas, and intact eyes. Recent developments of line-scan confocal and functional optical coherence tomography (OCT) instruments have allowed in vivo IOS mapping of photoreceptor physiology. Further improvements of the line-scan confocal and functional OCT systems may provide a feasible solution to pursue functional IOS mapping of human photoreceptors. Some interesting IOSs have already been detected in inner retinal layers, but better development of the IOS instruments and software algorithms is required to achieve optimal physiological assessment of inner retinal neurons.

  2. Intrinsic optical signal imaging of retinal physiology: a review.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xincheng; Wang, Benquan

    2015-09-01

    Intrinsic optical signal (IOS) imaging promises to be a noninvasive method for high-resolution examination of retinal physiology, which can advance the study and diagnosis of eye diseases. While specialized optical instruments are desirable for functional IOS imaging of retinal physiology, in depth understanding of multiple IOS sources in the complex retinal neural network is essential for optimizing instrument designs. We provide a brief overview of IOS studies and relationships in rod outer segment suspensions, isolated retinas, and intact eyes. Recent developments of line-scan confocal and functional optical coherence tomography (OCT) instruments have allowed in vivo IOS mapping of photoreceptor physiology. Further improvements of the line-scan confocal and functional OCT systems may provide a feasible solution to pursue functional IOS mapping of human photoreceptors. Some interesting IOSs have already been detected in inner retinal layers, but better development of the IOS instruments and software algorithms is required to achieve optimal physiological assessment of inner retinal neurons. PMID:26405819

  3. In vivo intrinsic optical signal imaging of mouse retinas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Benquan; Yao, Xincheng

    2016-03-01

    Intrinsic optical signal (IOS) imaging is a promising noninvasive method for advanced study and diagnosis of eye diseases. Before pursuing clinical applications, more IOS studies employing animal models are necessary to establish the relationship between IOS distortions and eye diseases. Ample mouse models are available for investigating the relationship between IOS distortions and eye diseases. However, in vivo IOS imaging of mouse retinas is challenging due to the small ocular lens (compared to frog eyes) and inevitable eye movements. We report here in vivo IOS imaging of mouse retinas using a custom-designed functional OCT. The OCT system provided high resolution (3 μm) and high speed (up to 500 frames/s) imaging of mouse retinas. An animal holder equipped with a custom designed ear bar and bite bar was used to minimize eye movement due to breathing and heartbeats. Residual eye movement in OCT images was further compensated by accurate image registration. Dynamic OCT imaging revealed rapid IOSs from photoreceptor outer segments immediately (<10 ms) after the stimulation delivery, and unambiguous IOS changes were also observed from inner retinal layers with delayed time courses compared to that of photoreceptor IOSs.

  4. A comparison of signal processing techniques for Intrinsic Optical Signal imaging in mice.

    PubMed

    Turley, Jordan A; Nilsson, Michael; Walker, Frederick Rohan; Johnson, Sarah J

    2015-08-01

    Intrinsic Optical Signal imaging is a technique which allows the visualisation and mapping of activity related changes within the brain with excellent spatial and temporal resolution. We analysed a variety of signal and image processing techniques applied to real mouse imaging data. The results were compared in an attempt to overcome the unique issues faced when performing the technique on mice and improve the understanding of post processing options available. PMID:26737728

  5. Retinal Intrinsic Optical Signals in a Cat Model of Primary Congenital Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Schallek, Jesse B.; McLellan, Gillian J.; Viswanathan, Suresh; Ts'o, Daniel Y.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To examine the impact of reduced inner retinal function and breed on intrinsic optical signals in cats. Methods. Retinal intrinsic optical signals were recorded from anesthetized cats with a modified fundus camera. Near infrared light (NIR, 700–900 nm) was used to illuminate the retina while a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera captured the NIR reflectance of the retina. Visible stimuli (540 nm) evoked patterned changes in NIR retinal reflectance. NIR intrinsic signals were compared across three subject groups: two Siamese cats with primary congenital glaucoma (PCG), a control Siamese cat without glaucoma, and a control group of seven normally pigmented cats. Intraocular pressure (IOP), pattern electroretinogram, and optical coherence tomography measurements were evaluated to confirm the inner retinal deficit in PCG cats. Results. Stimulus-evoked, NIR retinal reflectance signals were observed in PCG cats despite severe degeneration of the nerve fiber layer and inner retinal function. The time course, spectral dependence, and spatial profile of signals imaged in PCG cats were similar to signals measured from normal and Siamese control cats. Conclusions. Despite increased IOP, reduced nerve fiber layer thickness and ganglion cell function, intrinsic optical signals persist in cats affected with PCG. The mechanisms giving rise to intrinsic signals remain despite inner retinal damage. Signal strength was reduced in all Siamese cats compared to controls, suggesting that reduced intrinsic signals in PCG cats represent a difference between breeds rather than loss of ganglion cells. These results corroborated previous findings that retinal ganglion cells are not the dominant source of intrinsic optical signals of the retina. PMID:22395886

  6. Hyperspectral optical tomography of intrinsic signals in the rat cortex.

    PubMed

    Konecky, Soren D; Wilson, Robert H; Hagen, Nathan; Mazhar, Amaan; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S; Frostig, Ron D; Tromberg, Bruce J

    2015-10-01

    We introduce a tomographic approach for three-dimensional imaging of evoked hemodynamic activity, using broadband illumination and diffuse optical tomography (DOT) image reconstruction. Changes in diffuse reflectance in the rat somatosensory cortex due to stimulation of a single whisker were imaged at a frame rate of 5 Hz using a hyperspectral image mapping spectrometer. In each frame, images in 38 wavelength bands from 484 to 652 nm were acquired simultaneously. For data analysis, we developed a hyperspectral DOT algorithm that used the Rytov approximation to quantify changes in tissue concentration of oxyhemoglobin ([Formula: see text]) and deoxyhemoglobin (ctHb) in three dimensions. Using this algorithm, the maximum changes in [Formula: see text] and ctHb were found to occur at [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] beneath the surface of the cortex, respectively. Rytov tomographic reconstructions revealed maximal spatially localized increases and decreases in [Formula: see text] and ctHb of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], respectively, with these maximum changes occurring at [Formula: see text] poststimulus. The localized optical signals from the Rytov approximation were greater than those from modified Beer-Lambert, likely due in part to the inability of planar reflectance to account for partial volume effects. PMID:26835483

  7. Long-term optical imaging of intrinsic signals in anesthetized and awake monkeys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roe, Anna W.

    2007-04-01

    Some exciting new efforts to use intrinsic signal optical imaging methods for long-term studies in anesthetized and awake monkeys are reviewed. The development of such methodologies opens the door for studying behavioral states such as attention, motivation, memory, emotion, and other higher-order cognitive functions. Long-term imaging is also ideal for studying changes in the brain that accompany development, plasticity, and learning. Although intrinsic imaging lacks the temporal resolution offered by dyes, it is a high spatial resolution imaging method that does not require application of any external agents to the brain. The bulk of procedures described here have been developed in the monkey but can be applied to the study of surface structures in any in vivo preparation.

  8. Simultaneous imaging of intrinsic optical signals and cerebral vessel responses during cortical spreading depression in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pengcheng; Chen, Shangbin; Luo, Weihua; Luo, Qingming

    2003-12-01

    Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is an important disease model for migraine and cerebral ischemia. We investigated the spatio-temporal characteristics of the intrinsic optical signals (IOS) at 570 nm and the cerebral blood vessel responses during CSD simultaneously by optical reflectance imaging in vivo. The CSD were induced by pinprick in 10 α-chloralose/urethane anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats. A four-phasic IOS response was observed at pial arteries and parenchymal sites in all experimental animals and an initial slight pial arteries dilation (21.5%+/-13.6%) and constriction (-4.2%+/-3.5%) precedes the dramatic dilation (69.2%+/-26.1%) of pial arterioles was recorded. Our experimental results show a high correlation (r = 0.89+/-0.025) between the IOS response and the diameter changes of the cerebral blood vessels during CSD in rats.

  9. Functional imaging of glucose-evoked rat islet activities using transient intrinsic optical signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Xin-Cheng; Cui, Wan-Xing; Li, Yi-Chao; Zhang, Wei; Lu, Rong-Wen; Thompson, Anthony; Amthor, Franklin; Wang, Xu-Jing

    2012-05-01

    We demonstrate intrinsic optical signal (IOS) imaging of intact rat islet, which consists of many endocrine cells working together. A near-infrared digital microscope was employed for optical monitoring of islet activities evoked by glucose stimulation. Dynamic NIR images revealed transient IOS responses in the islet activated by low-dose (2.75 mM) and high-dose (5.5 mM) glucose stimuli. Comparative experiments and quantitative analysis indicated that both glucose metabolism and calcium/insulin dynamics might contribute to the observed IOS responses. Further investigation of the IOS imaging technology may provide a high resolution method for ex vivo functional examination of the islet, which is important for advanced study of diabetes associated islet dysfunctions and for improved quality control of donor islets for transplantation.

  10. Detection of low-amplitude in vivo intrinsic signals from an optical imager of retinal function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barriga, Eduardo S.; T'so, Dan; Pattichis, Marios; Kwon, Young; Kardon, Randy; Abramoff, Michael; Soliz, Peter

    2006-02-01

    In the early stages of some retinal diseases, such as glaucoma, loss of retinal activity may be difficult to detect with today's clinical instruments. Many of today's instruments focus on detecting changes in anatomical structures, such as the nerve fiber layer. Our device, which is based on a modified fundus camera, seeks to detect changes in optical signals that reflect functional changes in the retina. The functional imager uses a patterned stimulus at wavelength of 535nm. An intrinsic functional signal is collected at a near infrared wavelength. Measured changes in reflectance in response to the visual stimulus are on the order of 0.1% to 1% of the total reflected intensity level, which makes the functional signal difficult to detect by standard methods because it is masked by other physiological signals and by imaging system noise. In this paper, we analyze the video sequences from a set of 60 experiments with different patterned stimuli from cats. Using a set of statistical techniques known as Independent Component Analysis (ICA), we estimate the signals present in the videos. Through controlled simulation experiments, we quantify the limits of signal strength in order to detect the physiological signal of interest. The results of the analysis show that, in principle, signal levels of 0.1% (-30dB) can be detected. The study found that in 86% of the animal experiments the patterned stimuli effects on the retina can be detected and extracted. The analysis of the different responses extracted from the videos can give an insight of the functional processes present during the stimulation of the retina.

  11. Two different mechanisms underlie reversible, intrinsic optical signals in rat hippocampal slices.

    PubMed

    Fayuk, Dmitriy; Aitken, Peter G; Somjen, George G; Turner, Dennis A

    2002-04-01

    Intrinsic optical signals (IOSs) induced by synaptic stimulation and moderate hypotonic swelling in brain tissue slices consist of reduced light scattering and are usually attributed to cell swelling. During spreading depression (SD), however, light-scattering increases even though SD has been shown to cause strong cell swelling. To understand this phenomenon, we recorded extracellular voltage, light transmission (LT), which is inversely related to light scattering, and interstitial volume (ISV) simultaneously from the same site (stratum radiatum of CA1) in both interface and submerged hippocampal slices. As expected, moderate lowering of bath osmolarity caused concentration-dependent shrinkage of ISV and increase in LT, while increased osmolarity induced opposite changes in both variables. During severe hypotonia, however, after an initial increase of LT, the direction of the IOS reversed to a progressive decrease in spite of continuing ISV shrinkage. SD caused by hypotonia, by microinjection of high-K(+) solution, or by hypoxia, was associated with a pronounced LT decrease, during which ISV shrinkage indicated maximal cell swelling. If most of the extracellular Cl(-) was substituted by the impermeant anion methylsulfate and also in strongly hypertonic medium, the SD-related decrease in LT was suppressed and replaced by a monotonic increase. Nevertheless, the degree of ISV shrinkage was similar in low and in normal Cl(-) conditions. The optical signals and ISV changes were qualitatively identical in interface and submerged slices. We conclude that there are at least two mechanisms that underlie reversible optical responses in hippocampal slices. The first mechanism underlies light-scattering decrease (hence enhancing LT) when ISV shrinks (cell swelling) under synaptic stimulation and mild hypotonia. Similarly, as result of this mechanism, expansion of ISV (cell shrinkage) during mild hypertonia leads to an increased light scattering (and decreased LT). Thus

  12. Potential sources of intrinsic optical signals imaged in live brain slices.

    PubMed

    Andrew, R D; Jarvis, C R; Obeidat, A S

    1999-06-01

    Changes in how light is absorbed or scattered in biological tissue are termed intrinsic optical signals (IOSs). Imaging IOSs in the submerged brain slice preparation provides insight into brain activity if it involves significant water movement between intracellular and extracellular compartments. This includes responses to osmotic imbalance, excitotoxic glutamate agonists, and oxygen/glucose deprivation, the latter leading to spreading depression. There are several misconceptions regarding these signals. (1) IOSs are not generated by glial swelling alone. Although neuronal and glia sources cannot yet be directly imaged, several lines of evidence indicate that neurons contribute significantly to the changes in light transmittance. (2) Excitotoxic swelling and osmotic swelling are physiologically different, as are their associated IOSs. Hyposmotic swelling involves no detectable neuronal depolarization of cortical pyramidal neurons, only the passive drawing in of water from a dilute medium across the cell membrane. In contrast excitotoxic swelling involves sustained membrane depolarization associated with inordinate amounts of Na+ and Cl- entry followed by water. IOSs demonstrate substantial damage in the latter case. (3) Osmotic perturbations do not induce volume regulatory mechanisms as measured by IOSs. The osmotic responses measured by IOSs in brain slices are passive, without the compensatory mechanisms that are assumed to be active on a scale suggested by studies of cultured brain cells under excessive osmotic stress. (4) Spreading depression (SD) can cause neuronal damage. Innocuous during migraine aura, SD induces acute neuronal damage in brain slices that are metabolically compromised by oxygen/glucose deprivation, as demonstrated by IOSs. Neighboring tissue where SD does not spread remains relatively healthy as judged by a minimal reduction in light transmittance. IOSs show that the metabolic stress of SD combined with the compromise of energy resources

  13. Elicitation interval dependent spatiotemporal evolution of cortical spreading depression waves revealed by optical intrinsic signal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shangbin; Gong, Hui; Zeng, Shaoqun; Luo, Qingming; Li, Pengcheng

    2007-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the variation of propagation patterns of successive cortical spreading depression (CSD) waves induced by K + or pinprick in rat cortex. In the K + induction group, 18 Sprague-Dawley rats under Î+/--chloralose/urethane anesthesia were used to elicit CSD by 1 M KCl solution in the frontal cortex. Optical intrinsic signal imaging (OISI) at an isosbestic point of hemoglobin (550 nm) was applied to examine regional cerebral blood volume (CBV) changes in the parieto-occipital cortex. In 6 of the 18 rats, OISI was performed in conjunction with DC potential recording of the cortex. The results of this group were reported previously. In the pinprick group, 6 rats were used to induce CSD by pinprick with 8 min interval, and the other 6 rats were pricked with 4 min. CBV changes during CSD appeared as repetitive propagation of wave-like hyperemia at a speed of 3.7+/-0.4 mm/min, which was characterized by a significant negative peak (-14.3+/-3.2%) in the reflectance signal. Except for the first CSD wave, the following waves don't spread fully in the observed cortex all the time and they might abort in the medial area. Independent on the stimulation of pinprick or K+, a short interval of the current CSD to the last CSD no more than 4 min would induce the current CSD be partially propagated. For the first time, the data reveals the time-varying propagation patterns of CSD waves might be affected by the interval between CSD waves. The results suggest that the propagation patterns of a series of CSD waves are time-varying in different regions of rat cortex, and the variation is related to the interval between CSD waves.

  14. Impact of motion-associated noise on intrinsic optical signal imaging in humans with optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Teussink, Michel M.; Cense, Barry; van Grinsven, Mark J.J.P.; Klevering, B. Jeroen; Hoyng, Carel B.; Theelen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that phototransduction can be studied in the human eye in vivo by imaging of fast intrinsic optical signals (IOS). There is consensus concerning the limiting influence of motion-associated imaging noise on the reproducibility of IOS-measurements, especially in those employing spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). However, no study to date has conducted a comprehensive analysis of this noise in the context of IOS-imaging. In this study, we discuss biophysical correlates of IOS, and we address motion-associated imaging noise by providing correctional post-processing methods. In order to avoid cross-talk of adjacent IOS of opposite signal polarity, cellular resolution and stability of imaging to the level of individual cones is likely needed. The optical Stiles-Crawford effect can be a source of significant IOS-imaging noise if alignment with the peak of the Stiles-Crawford function cannot be maintained. Therefore, complete head stabilization by implementation of a bite-bar may be critical to maintain a constant pupil entry position of the OCT beam. Due to depth-dependent sensitivity fall-off, heartbeat and breathing associated axial movements can cause tissue reflectivity to vary by 29% over time, although known methods can be implemented to null these effects. Substantial variations in reflectivity can be caused by variable illumination due to changes in the beam pupil entry position and angle, which can be reduced by an adaptive algorithm based on slope-fitting of optical attenuation in the choriocapillary lamina. PMID:26137369

  15. An imaging system for intraoperative functional imaging of optical intrinsic signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Gregory Kai

    This dissertation focuses on the research, design, and implementation of a Neurosurgical Imaging System (NIS), having the principle characteristics of modularity, mobility, multispectral imaging capabilities, and an open software architecture. The NIS will enable functional imaging of humans and animals by implementing innovative hardware and software enhancements. The NIS is tightly integrated with data acquisition hardware and software for simultaneous measurements of real-time, physiological parameters and Optical Intrinsic Signals (OIS). The NIS provides a portable, versatile imaging system. High speed ``off the shelf'' hardware has been implemented and refined to reduce overall cost and maintenance of the NIS. Implementation of new, enhanced charge coupled device technology, such as, Electron Bombardment Charge Coupled Devices (EBCCD) dramatically increases sensitivity and multi-spectral image acquisition capabilities. Utilization of efficient calibration and testing protocols provides advanced trouble shooting and standard performance metrics for the NIS. The NIS was experimentally tested and validated on LED ``phantoms'' and a variety of mammalian brain models throughout its design phases. Implementation of an innovative imaging system such as the NIS provides a powerful research and clinical diagnostic tool that will enhance our current understanding of the various physiologic underpinnings of neurovascular coupling in normal and diseased brains. The development of this type of portable imaging instrumentation controlled by a robust software architecture that provides command and control, real time data acquisition, data analysis, auto calibration, and performance metrics lay the foundations for a comprehensive neurosurgical guidance tool, as well as, a powerful experimental research tool for mapping activity-related changes in cerebral perfusion and neuronal activity.

  16. Separation of arteries and veins in the cerebral cortex using physiological oscillations by optical imaging of intrinsic signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Dewen; Wang, Yucheng; Liu, Yadong; Li, Ming; Liu, Fayi

    2010-05-01

    An automated method is presented for artery-vein separation in cerebral cortical images recorded with optical imaging of the intrinsic signal. The vessel-type separation method is based on the fact that the spectral distribution of intrinsic physiological oscillations varies from arterial regions to venous regions. In arterial regions, the spectral power is higher in the heartbeat frequency (HF), whereas in venous regions, the spectral power is higher in the respiration frequency (RF). The separation method was begun by extracting the vascular network and its centerline. Then the spectra of the optical intrinsic signals were estimated by the multitaper method. A standard F-test was performed on each discrete frequency point to test the statistical significance at the given level. Four periodic physiological oscillations were examined: HF, RF, and two other eigenfrequencies termed F1 and F2. The separation of arteries and veins was implemented with the fuzzy c-means clustering method and the region-growing approach by utilizing the spectral amplitudes and power-ratio values of the four eigenfrequencies on the vasculature. Subsequently, independent spectral distributions in the arteries, veins, and capillary bed were estimated for comparison, which showed that the spectral distributions of the intrinsic signals were very distinct between the arterial and venous regions.

  17. Intrinsic optical signal imaging of glucose-stimulated physiological responses in the insulin secreting INS-1 β-cell line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yi-Chao; Cui, Wan-Xing; Wang, Xu-Jing; Amthor, Franklin; Yao, Xin-Cheng

    2011-03-01

    Intrinsic optical signal (IOS) imaging has been established for noninvasive monitoring of stimulus-evoked physiological responses in the retina and other neural tissues. Recently, we extended the IOS imaging technology for functional evaluation of insulin secreting INS-1 cells. INS-1 cells provide a popular model for investigating β-cell dysfunction and diabetes. Our experiments indicate that IOS imaging allows simultaneous monitoring of glucose-stimulated physiological responses in multiple cells with high spatial (sub-cellular) and temporal (sub-second) resolution. Rapid image sequences reveal transient optical responses that have time courses comparable to glucose-evoked β-cell electrical activities.

  18. Characterization of functional organization within rat barrel cortex using intrinsic signal optical imaging through a thinned skull.

    PubMed

    Masino, S A; Kwon, M C; Dory, Y; Frostig, R D

    1993-11-01

    We used optical imaging of intrinsic signals to characterize the functional representations of mystacial vibrissae (whiskers) in rat somatosensory cortex. Stimulation of individual whiskers for 2 s at 5 Hz resulted in a discrete area of functional activity in the cortex. Images of whisker representations were collected both through the dura and through a thinned skull. We characterized the functional representation of a whisker both spatially and temporally with two-dimensional images and three-dimensional surface plots of intrinsic signal development in the cortex in response to whisker stimulation. Single unit recordings verified that the representation of the whisker obtained with optical imaging corresponded with the electrophysiological response area of that whisker in the cortex. Lesions in the center of the functional activity were found to be in the center of the dense cytochrome oxidase patch for the corresponding whisker. In addition, a 3 x 3 matrix of whiskers was stimulated and the distances between the centers of the imaged representations and the distances between the centers of the layer IV cytochrome oxidase staining of the nine whiskers were found to be highly correlated (r = 0.98). This study shows a striking correspondence among imaging, physiology, and anatomy in the rat somatosensory cortex. Furthermore, the ability to use optical imaging through a thinned skull should allow investigations into the long-term changes in a sensory representation within a single animal. PMID:8234348

  19. Characterization of functional organization within rat barrel cortex using intrinsic signal optical imaging through a thinned skull.

    PubMed Central

    Masino, S A; Kwon, M C; Dory, Y; Frostig, R D

    1993-01-01

    We used optical imaging of intrinsic signals to characterize the functional representations of mystacial vibrissae (whiskers) in rat somatosensory cortex. Stimulation of individual whiskers for 2 s at 5 Hz resulted in a discrete area of functional activity in the cortex. Images of whisker representations were collected both through the dura and through a thinned skull. We characterized the functional representation of a whisker both spatially and temporally with two-dimensional images and three-dimensional surface plots of intrinsic signal development in the cortex in response to whisker stimulation. Single unit recordings verified that the representation of the whisker obtained with optical imaging corresponded with the electrophysiological response area of that whisker in the cortex. Lesions in the center of the functional activity were found to be in the center of the dense cytochrome oxidase patch for the corresponding whisker. In addition, a 3 x 3 matrix of whiskers was stimulated and the distances between the centers of the imaged representations and the distances between the centers of the layer IV cytochrome oxidase staining of the nine whiskers were found to be highly correlated (r = 0.98). This study shows a striking correspondence among imaging, physiology, and anatomy in the rat somatosensory cortex. Furthermore, the ability to use optical imaging through a thinned skull should allow investigations into the long-term changes in a sensory representation within a single animal. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8234348

  20. Plastic Change along the Intact Crossed Pathway in Acute Phase of Cerebral Ischemia Revealed by Optical Intrinsic Signal Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xiaoli; He, Yongzhi; Lu, Hongyang; Li, Yao; Su, Xin; Jiang, Ying; Tong, Shanbao

    2016-01-01

    The intact crossed pathway via which the contralesional hemisphere responds to the ipsilesional somatosensory input has shown to be affected by unilateral stroke. The aim of this study was to investigate the plasticity of the intact crossed pathway in response to different intensities of stimulation in a rodent photothrombotic stroke model. Using optical intrinsic signal imaging, an overall increase of the contralesional cortical response was observed in the acute phase (≤48 hours) after stroke. In particular, the contralesional hyperactivation is more prominent under weak stimulations, while a strong stimulation would even elicit a depressed response. The results suggest a distinct stimulation-response pattern along the intact crossed pathway after stroke. We speculate that the contralesional hyperactivation under weak stimulations was due to the reorganization for compensatory response to the weak ipsilateral somatosensory input. PMID:27144032

  1. In-vivo imaging of stimulus-evoked intrinsic optical signals correlated with retinal activation in anesthetized frog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Xin-Cheng; Zhang, Qiu-Xiang; Li, Yang-Guo

    2011-09-01

    Intrinsic optical signal imaging (IOS) promises a noninvasive method for high resolution examination of retinal function. Using freshly isolated animal retinas, we have conducted a series of experiments to test fast IOSs which have time courses comparable to electrophysiological kinetics. In this article, we demonstrate the feasibility of in vivo imaging of fast IOSs correlated with retinal activation in anesthetized frog (Rana Pipiens). A rapid (68,000 lines/s) line-scan confocal ophthalmoscope was constructed to achieve high-speed (200 frames/s) near infared (NIR) recording of fast IOSs. By rejecting out-of-focus background light, the line-scan confocal imager provided enough resolution to differentiate individual photoreceptors in vivo. With visible light stimulation, NIR confocal images disclosed transient IOSs with time courses comparable to retinal ERG kinetics. High-resolution IOS images revealed both positive (increasing) and negative (decreasing) light responses, with sub-cellular complexity, in the activated retina.

  2. Imaging nanomaterials in vitro and in vivo by exploring their intrinsic nonlinear optical signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Ling

    The extension of nanotechnology to biomedical system creates a new and fast developing field, nanomedicine. A wide range of nanoparticles has been developed as imaging agents or drug carriers. However, the translation of nanomedicines to a clinical setting has been slowed down due to a limited fundamental understanding of the nano-bio interaction. My thesis work describes the efforts in imaging the behavior of nanomaterials in live cells and animals by exploring the nonlinear optical properties. The first part of my thesis focuses on study of metallic and semiconducting nanoparticles in biological environment using their nonlinear optical signals. In chapter 2, systemic circulation of PEGylated gold nanorods (GNRs) is visualized by intravital two-photon luminescence (TPL) imaging. A biphasic clearance is demonstrated with branched PEG showing longer circulation. Following clearance, cellular biodistribution of GNRs in organs is mapped by TPL imaging. GNRs accumulate in macrophages in liver and spleen (Langmuir, 2009, 25, 12454-12459). In chapter 3, a bright three-photon luminescence is discovered from Au-Ag alloyed nanostructure by excitation with a femtosecond laser at 1290 nm, which enables bio-imaging with negligible photothermal toxicity and tissue autofluorescence (Angew Chemie, 2010, 49, 3485-3488, inside cover story). In chapter 4, a new contrast is invented for label-free, real-time imaging of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) by pump-probe microscopy. At pump/probe wavelength of 707 and 885 nm, semiconducting and metallic SWNTs (S-SWNTs and M-SWNTs) exhibit intense stimulated emission and absorption signals, which allow us to monitor the intracellular trafficking, distribution in tissues, and systemic circulation in vivo with single-nanotube sensitivity and sub-micron resolution. The second part presents label-free imaging of nanomedicines in live cells by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy

  3. High-Resolution fMRI Maps of Cortical Activation in Nonhuman Primates: Correlation with Intrinsic Signal Optical Images

    PubMed Central

    Roe, Anna W.; Chen, Li Min

    2009-01-01

    One of the most widely used functional brain mapping tools is blood oxygen level–dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). This method has contributed to new understandings of the functional roles of different areas in the human brain. However, its ability to map cerebral cortex at high spatial (submillimeter) resolution is still unknown. Other methods such as single- and multiunit electrophysiology and intrinsic signal optical imaging have revealed submillimeter resolution of sensory topography and cortical columnar activations. However, they are limited either by spatial scale (electrophysiology characterizes only local groups of neurons) or by the inability to monitor deep structures in the brain (i.e., cortical regions buried in sulci or subcortical structures). A method that could monitor all regions of the brain at high spatial resolution would be ideal. This capacity would open the doors to investigating, for example, how networks of cerebral cortical columns relate to or produce behavior. In this article we demonstrate that, without benefit of contrast agents, at a magnetic field strength of 9.4 tesla, BOLD fMRI can reveal millimeter-sized topographic maps of digit representation in the somatosensory cortex of the anesthetized squirrel monkey. Furthermore, by mapping the “funneling illusion,” it is possible to detect even submillimeter shifts in activation in the cortex. Our data suggest that at high magnetic field strength, the positive BOLD signal can be used to reveal high spatial resolution maps of brain activity, a finding that weakens previous notions about the ultimate spatial specificity of the positive BOLD signal. PMID:18172338

  4. Correlation of visually evoked intrinsic optical signals and electroretinograms recorded from chicken retina with a combined functional optical coherence tomography and electroretinography system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhlagh Moayed, Alireza; Hariri, Sepideh; Choh, Vivian; Bizheva, Kostadinka

    2012-01-01

    Visually evoked fast intrinsic optical signals (IOSs) were recorded for the first time in vivo from all layers of healthy chicken retina by using a combined functional optical coherence tomography (fOCT) and electroretinography (ERG) system. The fast IOSs were observed to develop within ~5 ms from the on-set of the visual stimulus, whereas slow IOSs were measured up to 1 s later. The visually evoked IOSs and ERG traces were recorded simultaneously, and a clear correlation was observed between them. The ability to measure visually evoked fast IOSs non-invasively and in vivo from individual retinal layers could significantly improve the understanding of the complex communication between different retinal cell types in healthy and diseased retinas.

  5. Independent component analysis for the detection of in vivo intrinsic signals from an optical imager of retinal function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barriga, Eduardo S.; Pattichis, Marios; Abramoff, Michael; T'so, Dan; Kwon, Young; Kardon, Randy; Soliz, Peter

    2007-02-01

    To overcome the difficulty in detection of loss of retinal activity, a functional-Retinal Imaging Device (f-RID) was developed. The device, which is based on a modified fundus camera, seeks to detect changes in optical signals that reflect functional changes in the retina. Measured changes in reflectance in response to the visual stimulus are on the order of 0.1% to 1% of the total reflected intensity level, which makes the functional signal difficult to detect by standard methods because it is masked by other physiological signals and by noise. In this paper, we present a new Independent Component Analysis (ICA) algorithm used to analyze the video sequences from a set of experiments with different patterned stimuli from cats and humans. The ICA algorithm with priors (ICA-P) uses information about the stimulation paradigms to increase the signal detection thresholds when compared to traditional ICA algorithms. The results of the analysis show that we can detect signal levels as low as 0.01% of the total reflected intensity. Also, improvement of up to 30dB in signal detection over traditional ICA algorithms is achieved. The study found that in more than 80% of the in-vivo experiments the patterned stimuli effects on the retina can be detected and extracted.

  6. Characterization of dermal structural assembly in normal and pathological connective tissues by intrinsic signal multiphoton optical microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyubovitsky, Julia G.; Xu, Xiaoman; Sun, Chung-ho; Andersen, Bogi; Krasieva, Tatiana B.; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2008-02-01

    Employing a reflectance multi-photon microscopy (MPM) technique, we developed novel method to quantitatively study the three-dimensional assembly of structural proteins within bulk of dermal ECMs. Using a structurally simplified model of skin with enzymatically dissected epidermis, we find that low resolution MPM clearly discriminates between normal and pathological dermis. High-resolution images revealed that the backscattered MPM signals are affected by the assembly of collagen fibrils and fibers within this system. Exposure of tissues to high concentrations of potentially denaturing chemicals also resulted in the reduction of SHG signals from structural proteins which coincided with the appearance of aggregated fluorescent structures.

  7. Control of anoxic depolarization in rat brain by near-infrared laser irradiation and its monitoring by intrinsic optical signal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawauchi, Satoko; Sato, Shunichi; Uozumi, Yoichi; Nawashiro, Hiroshi; Ishihara, Miya; Ashida, Hiroshi

    2012-03-01

    In brain anoxia or ischemia, spreading depolarization is a key event that deterimines brain tissue survival. After onset of anoxia/ischemia, impairment of energy metabolism causes anoxic/ischemic depolarization (AD), which considerably consumes energy, leading to acute neuronal death in the brain. Our previous intrinsic-optical-signal imaging for the rat brains showed that about 2 min after starting hypoxia, AD-related light-scattering waves were focally generated in the bilateral outermost regions in the cortex and spread toward the midline, indicating that AD can be monitored by lightscattering signal. The behaviors of the scattering waves were found to be correlated with the survival of the rats. In the present study, we used the scattering signal-based monitoring method for AD and examined whether near-infrared laser irradiation can control AD in the rat brains. The left hemisphere was irradiated with 808-nm laser transcranially at 7.5 mW/cm2 before (30 min) and during hypoxia. The onset time of the scattering wave (AD) was significantly delayed in the irradiated hemisphere when compared with that in the non-irradiated hemisphere (3.4 s, n=8). The area of AD spreading in the irradiated hemisphere was significantly smaller than that in the non-irradiated hemisphere (27-90% reduction at 10-50 s after AD onset). These results suggest that near-infrared light can delay and reduce anoxic depolarization in the brain, which is probably due to increase in the cerebral ATP by near-infrared laser irradiation.

  8. Spectroscopic analysis of skin intrinsic signals for multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pena, Ana-Maria; Strupler, Mathias; Boulesteix, Thierry; Senni, Karim; Godeau, Gaston; Beaurepaire, Emmanuel; Schanne-Klein, Marie-Claire

    2006-02-01

    We recorded multiphoton images of human skin biopsies using endogenous sources of nonlinear optical signals. We detected simultaneously two-photon excited fluorescence (2PEF) from intrinsic fluorophores and second harmonic generation (SHG) from collagen. We observed SHG from fibrillar collagens in the dermis, whereas no SHG was detectable from the non fibrillar type IV collagen in the basal laminae. We compared these distinct behaviours of collagens I and IV in SHG microscopy to polarization-resolved surface SHG experiments on thin films of collagens I and IV molecules. We observed similar signals for both types of molecular films, except for the chiroptical contributions which are present only for collagen I and enhance the signal typically by a factor of 2. We concluded that SHG microscopy is a sensitive probe of the micrometer-scale structural organization of collagen in biological tissues. In order to elucidate the origin of the endogenous fluorescence signals, we recorded 2PEF spectra at various positions in the skin biopsies, and compared these data to in vitro spectroscopic analysis. In particular, we studied the keratin fluorescence and determined its 2PEF action cross section. We observed a good agreement between 2PEF spectra recorded in the keratinized upper layers of the epidermis and in a solution of purified keratin. Finally, to illustrate the capabilities of this technique, we recorded 2PEF/SHG images of skin biopsies obtained from patients of various ages.

  9. Effects of Optical Blur Reduction on Equivalent Intrinsic Blur

    PubMed Central

    Valeshabad, Ali Kord; Wanek, Justin; McAnany, J. Jason; Shahidi, Mahnaz

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the effect of optical blur reduction on equivalent intrinsic blur, an estimate of the blur within the visual system, by comparing optical and equivalent intrinsic blur before and after adaptive optics (AO) correction of wavefront error. Methods Twelve visually normal individuals (age; 31 ± 12 years) participated in this study. Equivalent intrinsic blur (σint) was derived using a previously described model. Optical blur (σopt) due to high-order aberrations was quantified by Shack-Hartmann aberrometry and minimized using AO correction of wavefront error. Results σopt and σint were significantly reduced and visual acuity (VA) was significantly improved after AO correction (P ≤ 0.004). Reductions in σopt and σint were linearly dependent on the values before AO correction (r ≥ 0.94, P ≤ 0.002). The reduction in σint was greater than the reduction in σopt, although it was marginally significant (P = 0.05). σint after AO correlated significantly with σint before AO (r = 0.92, P < 0.001) and the two parameters were related linearly with a slope of 0.46. Conclusions Reduction in equivalent intrinsic blur was greater than the reduction in optical blur due to AO correction of wavefront error. This finding implies that VA in subjects with high equivalent intrinsic blur can be improved beyond that expected from the reduction in optical blur alone. PMID:25785538

  10. Population response characteristics of intrinsic signals in the cat somatosensory cortex following canine mechanical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Tao, Jianxiang; Wang, Jian; Li, Zhong; Meng, Jianjun; Yu, Hongbo

    2016-08-01

    Intrinsic signal optical imaging has been widely used to measure functional maps in various sensory cortices due to better spatial resolution and sensitivity for detecting cortical neuroplasticity. However, application of this technique in dentistry has not been reported. In this study, intrinsic signal optical imaging was used to investigate mechanically driven responses in the cat somatosensory cortex, when punctate mechanical stimuli were applied to maxillary canines. The global signal and its spatial organization pattern were obtained. Global signal strength gradually increased with stimulus strength. There was no significant difference in response strength between contralateral and ipsilateral mechanical stimulation. A slightly greater response was recorded in the sigmoidal gyrus than in the coronal gyrus. The cat somatosensory cortex activated by sensory inputs from mechanical stimulation of canines lacks both topographical and functional organization. It is not organized into columns that represent sensory input from each tooth or direction of stimulation. These results demonstrate that intrinsic signal optical imaging is a valid tool for investigating neural responses and neuroplasticity in the somatosensory cortex that represents teeth. PMID:27163378

  11. Chiroptical signal enhancement in quasi-null-polarization-detection geometry: Intrinsic limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhee, Hanju; Eom, Intae; Ahn, Sung-Hyun; Song, Ki-Hee; Cho, Minhaeng

    2015-05-01

    Despite its unique capability of distinguishing molecular handedness, chiroptical spectroscopy suffers from the weak-signal problem, which has restricted more extensive applications. The quasi-null-polarization-detection (QNPD) method has been shown to be useful for enhancing the chiroptical signal. Here, the underlying enhancement mechanism in the QNPD method combined with a heterodyne detection scheme is elucidated. It is experimentally demonstrated that the optical rotatory dispersion signal can be amplified by a factor of ˜400, which is the maximum enhancement effect achievable with our femtosecond laser setup. The upper limit of the QNPD enhancement effect of chiroptical measurements could, in practice, be limited by imperfection of the polarizer and finite detection sensitivity. However, we show that there exists an intrinsic limit in the enhancement with the QNPD method due to the weak but finite contribution from the homodyne chiroptical signal. This is experimentally verified by measuring the optical rotation of linearly polarized light with the QNPD scheme. We further provide discussions on the connection between this intrinsic limitation in the QNPD scheme for enhanced detection of weak chiroptical signals and those in optical enantioselectivity and Raman optical activity with a structured chiral field. We anticipate that the present work could be useful in further developing time-resolved nonlinear chiroptical spectroscopy.

  12. Molecular signaling involving intrinsically disordered proteins in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Russo, Anna; Manna, Sara La; Novellino, Ettore; Malfitano, Anna Maria; Marasco, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Investigations on cellular protein interaction networks (PINs) reveal that proteins that constitute hubs in a PIN are notably enriched in Intrinsically Disordered Proteins (IDPs) compared to proteins that constitute edges, highlighting the role of IDPs in signaling pathways. Most IDPs rapidly undergo disorder-to-order transitions upon binding to their biological targets to perform their function. Conformational dynamics enables IDPs to be versatile and to interact with a broad range of interactors under normal physiological conditions where their expression is tightly modulated. IDPs are involved in many cellular processes such as cellular signaling, transcriptional regulation, and splicing; thus, their high-specificity/low-affinity interactions play crucial roles in many human diseases including cancer. Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality in men worldwide. Therefore, identifying molecular mechanisms of the oncogenic signaling pathways that are involved in prostate carcinogenesis is crucial. In this review, we focus on the aspects of cellular pathways leading to PCa in which IDPs exert a primary role. PMID:27212129

  13. Molecular signaling involving intrinsically disordered proteins in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Anna; Manna, Sara La; Novellino, Ettore; Malfitano, Anna Maria; Marasco, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Investigations on cellular protein interaction networks (PINs) reveal that proteins that constitute hubs in a PIN are notably enriched in Intrinsically Disordered Proteins (IDPs) compared to proteins that constitute edges, highlighting the role of IDPs in signaling pathways. Most IDPs rapidly undergo disorder-to-order transitions upon binding to their biological targets to perform their function. Conformational dynamics enables IDPs to be versatile and to interact with a broad range of interactors under normal physiological conditions where their expression is tightly modulated. IDPs are involved in many cellular processes such as cellular signaling, transcriptional regulation, and splicing; thus, their high-specificity/low-affinity interactions play crucial roles in many human diseases including cancer. Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality in men worldwide. Therefore, identifying molecular mechanisms of the oncogenic signaling pathways that are involved in prostate carcinogenesis is crucial. In this review, we focus on the aspects of cellular pathways leading to PCa in which IDPs exert a primary role. PMID:27212129

  14. Fiber optic crossbar switch for automatically patching optical signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, C. H.

    1983-05-01

    A system for automatically optically switching fiber optic data signals between a plurality of input optical fibers and selective ones of a plurality of output fibers is described. The system includes optical detectors which are connected to each of the input fibers for converting the optic data signals appearing at the respective input fibers to an RF signal. A plurality of RF to optical signal converters are arranged in rows and columns. The output of each of the optical detectors are each applied to a respective row of optical signal converted for being converters back to an optical signal when the particular optical signal converter is selectively activated by a dc voltage.

  15. Intrinsic Fabry-Perot optical fiber sensors and their multiplexing

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Anbo

    2007-12-11

    An intrinsic Fabry-Perot optical sensor includes a thin film sandwiched between two fiber ends. When light is launched into the fiber, two reflections are generated at the two fiber/thin film interfaces due to a difference in refractive indices between the fibers and the film, giving rise to the sensor output. In another embodiment, a portion of the cladding of a fiber is removed, creating two parallel surfaces. Part of the evanescent fields of light propagating in the fiber is reflected at each of the surfaces, giving rise to the sensor output. In a third embodiment, the refractive index of a small portion of a fiber is changed through exposure to a laser beam or other radiation. Interference between reflections at the ends of the small portion give rise to the sensor output. Multiple sensors along a single fiber are multiplexed using an optical time domain reflectometry method.

  16. Optical Investigations of Physiology: A Study of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Biomedical Contrast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chance, Britton; Luo, Qingming; Nioka, Shoko; Alsop, David C.; Detre, John A.

    1997-06-01

    The utility and performance of optical studies of tissue depends upon the contrast and the changes of contrast in health and disease and in functional activity. The contrast is determined both by the optical properties of extrinsic and intrinsic chromophores and scatterers but especially upon the changes evoked by physiological activity and pathological states. Here, we have focused upon absorption changes of the intrinsic probe, blood absorbance changes due to cortical hypoxia and to haematomas, giving, for particular conditions, absorbance changes of 0.15 and over 0.4 Δ OD, respectively. Functional activity may give changes of blood volume of over 0.05 Δ OD with some variability due to individual responses that is best expressed as histogram displays of the distribution of response among a significant population. Responses have been observed in prefrontal parietal and occipital functions (242 tests). Extrinsic probes afford signals dependent upon the dose tolerance of the subject and can readily equal or exceed the blood volume and oxygenation signals, and currently afford vascular volume and flow indications. However, contrast agents for the functional activity of cellular function are ultimately to be expected. Finally, light-scattering changes afford osmolyte-related responses and are here shown to indicate a large signal attributed to cortical depolarization and K+ release in hypoxia/ischaemia. Thus, the optical method affords imaging of manifold contrasts that greatly enhance its specificity and sensitivity for diagnostic procedures.

  17. Intrinsic optical bistability in a strongly driven Rydberg ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Melo, Natalia R.; Wade, Christopher G.; Šibalić, Nikola; Kondo, Jorge M.; Adams, Charles S.; Weatherill, Kevin J.

    2016-06-01

    We observe and characterize intrinsic optical bistability in a dilute Rydberg vapor. The bistability is characterized by sharp jumps between states of low and high Rydberg occupancy with jump-up and -down positions displaying hysteresis depending on the direction in which the control parameter is changed. We find that the shift in frequency of the jump point scales with the fourth power of the principal quantum number. Also, the width of the hysteresis window increases with increasing principal quantum number, before reaching a peak and then closing again. The experimental results are consistent with predictions from a simple theoretical model based on semiclassical Maxwell-Bloch equations including the effects of interaction-induced broadening and level shifts. These results provide insight into the dynamics of driven dissipative systems.

  18. Exogenous modulation of intrinsic optic nerve neuroprotective activity

    PubMed Central

    Lazic, Tatjana; Kuehn, Markus H.; Harper, Matthew M.; Kardon, Randy H.; Kwon, Young H.; Lavik, Erin B.; Sakaguchi, Donald S.

    2013-01-01

    Background To characterize the molecular and functional status of the rat retina and optic nerve after acute elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP). Methods Retinal ischemia was induced in rats by increasing the IOP (110 mmHg/60 minutes). Microarray analysis, quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry were used to characterize retinal tissue. PLGA microspheres containing neurotrophic factors (BDNF, GDNF, or CNTF) or empty microspheres were injected into the vitreous of operated animals 1 day after elevation of IOP. Pupil light reflex (PLR) parameters and electroretinograms (ERG) were monitored at multiple time points during the 60-day postoperative recovery period. Results Molecular analysis showed a significant intrinsic up-regulation of CNTF at 10 and 25 days after induction of the acute ocular hypertension (p=0.0067). Molecular tissue analysis of GDNF and its receptors (GDNFR1, GDNFR2), and BDNF and its receptor (trkB) showed no change in expression. Animals that received CNTF microspheres had no significant functional recovery compared to animals which received blank microspheres (p>0.05). Animals that received GDNF or BDNF microspheres showed significant PLR recovery (p<0.05 and p<0.001 respectively) compared to non-treated animals. Conclusions Continuous release of neurotrophic growth factors (NGFs) significantly protects optic nerve function in the experimental model of retinal ischemia observed by PLR analysis. PMID:20229104

  19. Intrinsic Localized Modes in Optical Photonic Lattices and Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christodoulides, Demetrios

    -locking and pulse compression. A strong signature of discrete X-wave formation was also demonstrated in such structures. In the last few years, Anderson localization was unequivocally observed in array systems where the transition from ballistic transport to diffusive, and the cross-over to Anderson localization was studied as a function of disorder and nonlinearity. In recent studies synthetic lattices exhibiting parity-time (PT) symmetry were also considered. The interplay of gain and loss in this latter family of structures leads to counterintuitive characteristics and behavior such as non-reciprocal propagation and power oscillations. The realization of discrete array systems at su-bwavelenth scales is another important direction that is nowadays intensively pursued. References 1. D. N. Christodoulides, F. Lederer, and Y. Silberberg, Nature 424, 817- 823 (2003). 2. F. Lederer, G. I. Stegeman, D. N. Christodoulides, G. Assanto, M. Segev and Y. Silberberg, Phys. Reports 463, 1-126 (2008). 3. M Wimmer, A Regensburger, MA Miri, C. Bersch, D.N Christodoulides, and U. Peschel, ''Observation of optical solitons in PT-symmetric lattices'' Nature Communications 6, 7782 (2015). Intrinsic Localized Modes in Optical Photonic Lattices and Arrays.

  20. Optical stereo video signal processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, G. D.

    1985-12-01

    An otpical video signal processor is described which produces a two-dimensional cross-correlation in real time of images received by a stereo camera system. The optical image of each camera is projected on respective liquid crystal light valves. The images on the liquid crystal valves modulate light produced by an extended light source. This modulated light output becomes the two-dimensional cross-correlation when focused onto a video detector and is a function of the range of a target with respect to the stereo camera. Alternate embodiments utilize the two-dimensional cross-correlation to determine target movement and target identification.

  1. All-optical signal processing technique for secure optical communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Feng-chen; Su, Bing; Ye, Ya-lin; Zhang, Qian; Lin, Shao-feng; Duan, Tao; Duan, Jie

    2015-10-01

    Secure optical communication technologies are important means to solve the physical layer security for optical network. We present a scheme of secure optical communication system by all-optical signal processing technique. The scheme consists of three parts, as all-optical signal processing unit, optical key sequence generator, and synchronous control unit. In the paper, all-optical signal processing method is key technology using all-optical exclusive disjunction (XOR) gate based on optical cross-gain modulation effect, has advantages of wide dynamic range of input optical signal, simple structure and so on. All-optical XOR gate composed of two semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOA) is a symmetrical structure. By controlling injection current, input signal power, delay and filter bandwidth, the extinction ratio of XOR can be greater than 8dB. Finally, some performance parameters are calculated and the results are analyzed. The simulation and experimental results show that the proposed method can be achieved over 10Gbps optical signal encryption and decryption, which is simple, easy to implement, and error-free diffusion.

  2. Fiber-optic lattice signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moslehi, B.; Goodman, J. W.; Shaw, H. J.; Tur, M.

    1984-07-01

    It is pointed out that fiber-optic signal processing devices can be constructed to perform various functions, such as convolution, correlation, matrix operations, and frequency filtering. Previous studies have concentrated on classical tapped-delay-line forms (transversal filters). The present investigation is concerned with different fiber-optic structures, taking into account lattice (or ladder) forms, which can be used as alternatives for performing optical signal processing. The elements to perform the various signal processing operations are considered along with fiber-optic lattice configurations. Aspects of mathematical analysis are discussed, taking into account Z-transform techniques, transfer-matrix and chain-matrix formulations, modern control theory formulations, and positive optical systems. Attention is given to time-domain signal processing applications, and frequency-domain signal processing applications.

  3. Ultra-Low Phase Noise Microwaves from Optical Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Jennifer A.

    Continuous-wave lasers locked to high-finesse optical reference cavities are oscillators that produce ˜500 THz optical signals with unprecedented stability. Indeed, sub-femtosecond fractional frequency instability at one second averaging can now be achieved. A self-referenced femtosecond laser frequency comb (FLFC) is used as a frequency divider to provide a phase-coherent link between optical and microwave domains, dividing the frequency down to the gigahertz range while also transferring the stability of the original signal. Photodetectors then convert the optical pulses into electronic signals. The resultant 10 GHz microwave signals have ultra-low phase noise below -100 dBc/Hz at 1 Hz offset, surpassing that of traditional microwave oscillators. This new approach offers significant improvement for many applications that rely on stable microwave signals, and may even create new measurement technologies otherwise unachievable with current signal sources. In reality, fundamental and technical sources of noise in each stage of the optical-to-microwave generation process limit the ultimate achievable stability of the signal. Optical reference cavities are limited by environmental effects and thermal fluctuations, and FLFC dividers suffer from intrinsic timing jitter, amplitude noise, and limited stabilization servo bandwidth. However, it is the seemingly straightforward photodetection of optical pulses that proves to be the limiting factor in the ultimate noise floor of these signals. In this thesis, I describe the noise limitations of each part of the optical-to-microwave scheme, particularly focusing on the noise limitations of photodetection. I will give a basic representation of these photodetection noise phenomena in terms of the physical behavior of optically-generated electrons in semiconductor photodiodes. The two main photodetection noise phenomena---shot noise and amplitude-to-phase conversion---will be thoroughly characterized in the context of generation

  4. Roles of B Cell-Intrinsic TLR Signals in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Kongyang; Li, Jingyi; Fang, Yongfei; Lu, Liwei

    2015-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a large family of pattern recognition receptors. TLR signals are involved in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus. Mouse and human B cells constitutively express most TLRs. Many B cell subpopulations are highly responsive to certain TLR ligation, including B-1 B cells, transitional B cells, marginal zone B cells, germinal center B cell and memory B cells. The B cell-intrinsic TLR signals play critical roles during lupus process. In this review, roles of B cell-intrinsic TLR2, 4, 7, 8 and 9 signals are discussed during lupus pathogenesis in both mouse model and patients. Moreover, mechanisms underlying TLR ligation-triggered B cell activation and signaling pathways are highlighted. PMID:26068236

  5. Optically isolated signal coupler with linear response

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1994-01-01

    An optocoupler for isolating electrical signals that translates an electrical input signal linearly to an electrical output signal. The optocoupler comprises a light emitter, a light receiver, and a light transmitting medium. The light emitter, preferably a blue, silicon carbide LED, is of the type that provides linear, electro-optical conversion of electrical signals within a narrow wavelength range. Correspondingly, the light receiver, which converts light signals to electrical signals and is preferably a cadmium sulfide photoconductor, is linearly responsive to light signals within substantially the same wavelength range as the blue LED.

  6. Effect of reference spectra in spectral fitting to discriminate enzyme-activatable photoacoustic probe from intrinsic optical absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirasawa, Takeshi; Okawa, Shinpei; Iwatate, Ryu J.; Kamiya, Mako; Urano, Yasuteru; Ishihara, Miya

    2016-03-01

    Multispectral photoacoustic (MS-PA) imaging has been researched to image molecular probes in the presence of strong background signals produced from intrinsic optical absorbers. Spectral fitting method (SFM) discriminates probe signals from background signals by fitting the PA spectra that are calculated from MS-PA images to reference spectra of the probe and background, respectively. Because hemoglobin is a dominant optical absorber in visible to near-infrared wavelength range, absorption spectra of hemoglobin have been widely used as reference background spectra. However, the spectra of background signals produced from heterogeneous biological tissue differ from the reference background spectra due to presence of other intrinsic optical absorbers and effect of optical scattering. Due to the difference, the background signals partly remain in the probe images. To image the probe injected in subcutaneous tumors of mice clearly, we added the melanosome absorption spectrum to the reference background spectra because skin contains nonnegligible concentration of melanosome and the spectrum is very similar to the scattering spectrum of biological tissue. The probe injected in the subcutaneous tumor of mice was an enzyme-activatable probe which show their original colors only in the presence of γ-glutamyltranspeptidase, an enzyme associated with cancer. The probes have been successfully used for rapid fluorescence imaging of cancer. As a result of MS-PA imaging, by considering the melanosome absorption spectrum, the background signals were successfully suppressed and then clearer probe image was obtained. Our MS-PA imaging method afforded successful imaging of tumors in mice injected with activatable PA probes.

  7. High-resolution three-dimensional scanning optical image system for intrinsic and extrinsic contrast agents in tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Yueqing; Qian, Zhiyu; Chen, Jinxian; Blessington, Dana; Ramanujam, Nimmi; Chance, Britton

    2002-01-01

    This article presents the theory and development of a three-dimensional (3D) imaging instrument capable of determining the biochemical properties of tissue by measuring the absorption or fluorescence of different intrinsic and extrinsic agents simultaneously. A bifurcated optical fiber bundle, serving to deliver the excitation light and collect the emission or reflection light, scans over the flat tissue surface retrieving optical signals in each pixel. Two-dimensional (2D) images of a series of subsequent sections are obtained after signal conversion and processing to yield a 3D image. Manipulation of the scanning step and diameter size of the fibers within the bundle, the spatial resolution of the instrument attains a maximum of 40 × 40 × 10 μm3. The wavelength range is extended from ultraviolet to the near infrared (NIR) through specialized optical design, typically employed for the NIR extrinsic contrast agents study. The instrument is most applicable in situations involving the measurement of fluorescence or absorption at any specific wavelength within the spectrum range. Flavoprotein and nicotinamide adeine dinucleotide are the two typical intrinsic agents indicating the oxidization and reduction status of the tissue sample, with their fluorescence detected at wavelengths of 540 and 440 nm, respectively. Oxy and deoxy hemoglobin are two other significant intrinsic agents for evaluating the blood oxygenation saturation by recording their absorptions at two different wavelengths of 577 and 546 nm. These intrinsic agents were measured in this study for comparison of biochemical properties of rat liver in different gas inhalation treatments. Indocyanine green, a NIR extrinsic contrast agent measured at wavelengths of 780 nm/830 nm as excitation/emission can indicate blood pooling by displaying the distribution of blood vessels within a 9 L tumor. The advantage of high sensitivity, spatial resolution, and broad applied potentiality were demonstrated by the

  8. Optical signal processing: Hybrid success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayden, Michael

    2007-03-01

    Despite two decades of work geared towards improving the nonlinear optical properties of organic molecules, practical organic light modulators have not yet reached the market in large numbers. New organic-inorganic hybrid approaches may revolutionize the field.

  9. New Optical Methods for Signal Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan

    This doctoral thesis studies the optical implementations of various new algorithms and methods for large bandwidth signal and image processing. Among the schemes to be studied are the long data stream convolution/correlation, the Gabor and the wavelet transforms, and their applications to system failure prediction, dense target signal processing and image coding. Based on the Chinese remainder theorem, optically implementable algorithms are described, which convert the convolution/correlation of long data streams to relatively small scale linear operations such as a group of short -term vector-matrix multiplications or short-term convolutions/correlations. The proposed algorithms can be realized by using the existing optical analog data processors. Simulations were performed to prove their validity. Technical problems and fundamental limitations of the above schemes are studied. Following the consideration of the above time domain operations, signal's representations in joint time -frequency (scale) domain are then considered. An opto -electronic Gabor coefficient processor is designed to perform the Gabor transform on short one-dimensional (1-D) signals in real-time. Some experimental results are presented to confirm the operational principle of the system. As an application of this processor, Gabor transform based transient signal detection is studied. Other schemes for implementing Gabor transform of long 1-D signals based on the long data stream convolver, and 2-D signals are also investigated. Following the study of the Gabor transform, the newly suggested wavelet transform is considered for its optical implementation. Using commercially available opto-electronic components, an optical wavelet processor is designed and built to perform the wavelet transforms on short 1-D signals in real-time. As an extension, architectures for 2-D optical wavelet transform are also described and computer simulated with the consideration of their technical problems of optical

  10. Intrinsically safe oxygen and hydrogen optical leak detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beshay, Manal; Garon, Simona; Ruiz, David; Kempen, Lothar U.

    2011-06-01

    Cryogenic leak detection is critical to space missions, particularly for avoiding launch delays. The real-time, multi-location, early leak detection of oxygen and hydrogen down to ppm levels is extremely important for safety, reliability, and economic reasons. One of the significant challenges in meeting these requirements has been the drift effect that is caused by the exposure to extreme temperatures. This paper discusses the effect of the development of a sensor supporting matrix to improve the overall behavior of oxygen and hydrogen optical sensors at cryogenic temperatures. These achievements offer great advances in the fiber optic leak detection of cryogenic oxygen and hydrogen, specifically for space applications. Emphasis on operational conditions such as -150 K and vacuum environments, in addition to performance characteristics such as sensitivity (10 ppm) and response time (~ 3 sec), are addressed in this paper.

  11. Passive intrinsic-linewidth narrowing of ultraviolet extended-cavity diode laser by weak optical feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samutpraphoot, Polnop; Weber, Sophie; Lin, Qian; Gangloff, Dorian; Bylinskii, Alexei; Braverman, Boris; Kawasaki, Akio; Raab, Christoph; Kaenders, Wilhelm; Vuletić, Vladan

    2014-05-01

    We present a simple method for narrowing the intrinsic Lorentzian linewidth of a commercial ultraviolet grating extended-cavity diode laser (TOPTICA DL Pro) using weak optical feedback from a long external cavity. We achieve a suppression in frequency noise spectral density of 20 dB measured at frequencies around 1 MHz, corresponding to the narrowing of the intrinsic Lorentzian linewidth from 200 kHz to 2 kHz. The system is suitable for experiments requiring a tunable ultraviolet laser with narrow linewidth and low high-frequency noise, such as precision spectroscopy, optical clocks, and quantum information science experiments.

  12. Optical Profilometers Using Adaptive Signal Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Gregory A.; Youngquist, Robert; Mikhael, Wasfy

    2006-01-01

    A method of adaptive signal processing has been proposed as the basis of a new generation of interferometric optical profilometers for measuring surfaces. The proposed profilometers would be portable, hand-held units. Sizes could be thus reduced because the adaptive-signal-processing method would make it possible to substitute lower-power coherent light sources (e.g., laser diodes) for white light sources and would eliminate the need for most of the optical components of current white-light profilometers. The adaptive-signal-processing method would make it possible to attain scanning ranges of the order of decimeters in the proposed profilometers.

  13. Intrinsic signal imaging of brain function using a small implantable CMOS imaging device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haruta, Makito; Sunaga, Yoshinori; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Takehara, Hironari; Noda, Toshihiko; Sasagawa, Kiyotaka; Tokuda, Takashi; Ohta, Jun

    2015-04-01

    A brain functional imaging technique over a long period is important to understand brain functions related to animal behavior. We have developed a small implantable CMOS imaging device for measuring brain activity in freely moving animals. This device is composed of a CMOS image sensor chip and LEDs for illumination. In this study, we demonstrated intrinsic signal imaging of blood flow using the device with a green LED light source at a peak wavelength of 535 nm, which corresponds to one of the absorption spectral peaks of blood cells. Brain activity increases regional blood flow. The device light weight of about 0.02 g makes it possible to stably measure brain activity through blood flow over a long period. The device has successfully measured the intrinsic signal related to sensory stimulation on the primary somatosensory cortex.

  14. Radio Science from an Optical Communications Signal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moision, Bruce; Asmar, Sami; Oudrhiri, Kamal

    2013-01-01

    NASA is currently developing the capability to deploy deep space optical communications links. This creates the opportunity to utilize the optical link to obtain range, doppler, and signal intensity estimates. These may, in turn, be used to complement or extend the capabilities of current radio science. In this paper we illustrate the achievable precision in estimating range, doppler, and received signal intensity of an non-coherent optical link (the current state-of-the-art for a deep-space link). We provide a joint estimation algorithm with performance close to the bound. We draw comparisons to estimates based on a coherent radio frequency signal, illustrating that large gains in either precision or observation time are possible with an optical link.

  15. Intrinsic photoconductivity of ultracold fermions in optical lattices.

    PubMed

    Heinze, J; Krauser, J S; Fläschner, N; Hundt, B; Götze, S; Itin, A P; Mathey, L; Sengstock, K; Becker, C

    2013-02-22

    We report on the experimental observation of an analog to a persistent alternating photocurrent in an ultracold gas of fermionic atoms in an optical lattice. The dynamics is induced and sustained by an external harmonic confinement. While particles in the excited band exhibit long-lived oscillations with a momentum-dependent frequency, a strikingly different behavior is observed for holes in the lowest band. An initial fast collapse is followed by subsequent periodic revivals. Both observations are fully explained by mapping the system onto a nonlinear pendulum. PMID:23473159

  16. Intrinsic corrections to optical guiding in a free electron laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu-Jiuan; Scharlemann, E. T.; Sessler, A. M.

    1988-10-01

    The effect on optical guiding of the undulations of an electron beam in an FEL is investigated, and a model for a fully saturated FEL amplifier with no remaining gain is developed. The density of the electrom beam in the model fully includes the effects of both transverse and longitudinal undulation of the beam. The longitudinal density modulation is expressed in terms of the Bessel functions of ζ, where ζ = {a w2}/{2(1 + a w2}) is the shift of the electron phase in the electron bucket caused by its longitudinal undulation. The transverse density modulation is evaluated to second order in the ratio of undulation amplitude δr to beam radial scale length rb. The radiation field from the modeled beam is calculated in terms of spatial modes proportional to exp[i( k + δk + lkw) z - i ωt], where l is an arbitrary integer. Here, δk is the change of the wavenumber of the radiation caused by the electron bunches. Radially radiating modes with intensity on the order of ( {δk}/{k w)ζ 2} are found. Optical guiding is found to be modified by the transverse undulations of the beam at second order in {δr}/{r b}, and by the longitudinal undulations to first order in {δk}/{k w}. For the usual FEL parameters, the correction is quite small.

  17. Which is the best intrinsic motivation signal for learning multiple skills?

    PubMed

    Santucci, Vieri G; Baldassarre, Gianluca; Mirolli, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Humans and other biological agents are able to autonomously learn and cache different skills in the absence of any biological pressure or any assigned task. In this respect, Intrinsic Motivations (i.e., motivations not connected to reward-related stimuli) play a cardinal role in animal learning, and can be considered as a fundamental tool for developing more autonomous and more adaptive artificial agents. In this work, we provide an exhaustive analysis of a scarcely investigated problem: which kind of IM reinforcement signal is the most suitable for driving the acquisition of multiple skills in the shortest time? To this purpose we implemented an artificial agent with a hierarchical architecture that allows to learn and cache different skills. We tested the system in a setup with continuous states and actions, in particular, with a kinematic robotic arm that has to learn different reaching tasks. We compare the results of different versions of the system driven by several different intrinsic motivation signals. The results show (a) that intrinsic reinforcements purely based on the knowledge of the system are not appropriate to guide the acquisition of multiple skills, and (b) that the stronger the link between the IM signal and the competence of the system, the better the performance. PMID:24273511

  18. Signal processing schemes for optical voltage transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jinling; Xie, Delin; Chen, Hongbin; Xie, Latang; Song, Jianhe; Luo, Xiaoni

    2006-02-01

    This paper describes an optical voltage transducer(OVT) for a 35kV system based on Pockels effect in a BGO(Bi 4Ge 3O 12) crystal. OVT used to measure the voltage of power are superior to conventional electromagnet-induced voltage transducer in many aspects, thus it has great potential to applications. It has some advantages. These advantages are: 1)Optics provides total galvanic separation between the measuring point at high voltage (HV) potential and the measuring equipment at ground potential. 2)Transmission of measuring signals in optical fibers is immune to induced electromagnetic noise even in EMI-environment of switchyards and other high voltage installations. 3)Optics and especially optical fibers make the insulation costs independent of voltage levels thus giving an economical advantage at voltage levels above 100kV. 4)The use of optics is expected to reduce the weight of the transducers. 5)Optical transducers are expected to have a large bandwidth than conventional transducers. 6)The output-signals from an optical transducer are easily interfaced with computers and electronically operated equipment such as digital relays. New techniques developed in electronics and optical field including fiber optic technology bring new contributions to the measurement of voltage and electric field. A Pockels voltage sensor has been widely introduced to electrical power transmission and distribution systems and some advantage of the optical voltage measuring techniques are reported. In this paper, a brief summary of electro-optic effects and the principle of OVT is proposed. The signal processing schemes of different optical path and features are analyzed. The basic principle of OVT is to modulate the irradiance of the light-directed to OVT by an optical fiber-according to the potential difference between the HV-line and the ground potential. The modulation of the light is accomplished by placing a material-that has an optical property (the birefringence), which is

  19. DLP switched blaze grating: the heart of optical signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, Walter M.; Lee, Benjamin L.; Rancuret, Paul; Sawyers, Bryce D.; Endsley, Lynn; Powell, Donald

    2003-01-01

    We have developed an approach for processing communication signals in the optical domain using a DLP digital mirror array driven by a Digital Signal Processor (DSP). In optical communication systems, modulation rates of 10 GB/s and above are common, hence, direct processing of Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexed (DWDM) optical signals without undergoing Optical to Electrical conversion has become a key requirement for cost effective deployment of dynamic optical networks. This work will discuss primarily applications of Optical Signal Processing (OSP) to coherent DWDM signals. Optical Signal Processing has also found applications in spectroscopy, microscopy, sensing, optical correlation, and testing.

  20. State-dependent firing determines intrinsic dendritic Ca2+ signaling in thalamocortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Errington, Adam C; Renger, John J; Uebele, Victor N; Crunelli, Vincenzo

    2010-11-01

    Activity-dependent dendritic Ca(2+) signals play a critical role in multiple forms of nonlinear cellular output and plasticity. In thalamocortical neurons, despite the well established spatial separation of sensory and cortical inputs onto proximal and distal dendrites, respectively, little is known about the spatiotemporal dynamics of intrinsic dendritic Ca(2+) signaling during the different state-dependent firing patterns that are characteristic of these neurons. Here we demonstrate that T-type Ca(2+) channels are expressed throughout the entire dendritic tree of rat thalamocortical neurons and that they mediate regenerative propagation of low threshold spikes, typical of, but not exclusive to, sleep states, resulting in global dendritic Ca(2+) influx. In contrast, actively backpropagating action potentials, typical of wakefulness, result in smaller Ca(2+) influxes that can temporally summate to produce dendritic Ca(2+) accumulations that are linearly related to firing frequency but spatially confined to proximal dendritic regions. Furthermore, dendritic Ca(2+) transients evoked by both action potentials and low-threshold spikes are shaped by Ca(2+) uptake by sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPases but do not rely on Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release. Our data demonstrate that thalamocortical neurons are endowed with intrinsic dendritic Ca(2+) signaling properties that are spatially and temporally modified in a behavioral state-dependent manner and suggest that backpropagating action potentials faithfully inform proximal sensory but not distal corticothalamic synapses of neuronal output, whereas corticothalamic synapses only "detect" Ca(2+) signals associated with low-threshold spikes. PMID:21048143

  1. Intrinsic Disorder in Transmembrane Proteins: Roles in Signaling and Topology Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Bürgi, Jérôme; Xue, Bin; Uversky, Vladimir N.

    2016-01-01

    Intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs) are peculiar stretches of amino acids that lack stable conformations in solution. Intrinsic Disorder containing Proteins (IDP) are defined by the presence of at least one large IDR and have been linked to multiple cellular processes including cell signaling, DNA binding and cancer. Here we used computational analyses and publicly available databases to deepen insight into the prevalence and function of IDRs specifically in transmembrane proteins, which are somewhat neglected in most studies. We found that 50% of transmembrane proteins have at least one IDR of 30 amino acids or more. Interestingly, these domains preferentially localize to the cytoplasmic side especially of multi-pass transmembrane proteins, suggesting that disorder prediction could increase the confidence of topology prediction algorithms. This was supported by the successful prediction of the topology of the uncharacterized multi-pass transmembrane protein TMEM117, as confirmed experimentally. Pathway analysis indicated that IDPs are enriched in cell projection and axons and appear to play an important role in cell adhesion, signaling and ion binding. In addition, we found that IDP are enriched in phosphorylation sites, a crucial post translational modification in signal transduction, when compared to fully ordered proteins and to be implicated in more protein-protein interaction events. Accordingly, IDPs were highly enriched in short protein binding regions called Molecular Recognition Features (MoRFs). Altogether our analyses strongly support the notion that the transmembrane IDPs act as hubs in cellular signal events. PMID:27391701

  2. Identification of intrinsic and extrinsic transitions in pentacene single crystals by optical methods (*)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Rui; Pinczuk, Aron; Lang, D. V.; Ramirez, A. P.

    2005-03-01

    Pentacene single crystals with different purity levels are studied by using photoluminescence and resonant Raman scattering. Two luminescence bands are identified as intrinsic optical emissions by recombination of free excitons and self- trapped excitons. The luminescence bands observed below 1.6eV are attributed to the extrinsic optical emissions. Raman scattering from the pentacene crystals exhibits resonance enhancements with the two intrinsic bands. Temperature dependence of the luminescence from the pentacene crystals reveals that optical emission from the self-trapped excitons are sensitive to the sample qualities between 50 and 100K, and its intensity can be quenched by extrinsic traps. (*) Supported primarily by the Nanoscale Science and Engineering Initiative of the NSF under NSF Award Number CHE-0117752 and by the NYSTAR, and by a research grant of the W. M. Keck Foundation. We thank Mark Hybertsen, I. Dujovne, and C. F. Hirjibehedin for their helpful discussions.

  3. Exchange transfusion with fluorocarbon for studying synaptically evoked optical signal in rat cortex.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Y; Fujii, F; Sato, C; Nemoto, M; Tamura, M

    2000-02-01

    Optical imaging of intrinsic signal is a powerful technique for studying the functional organization of the brain [T. Bonhoeffer, D. S. Kim, D. Malonek, D. Shoham, A. Grinvald, Optical imaging of the layout of functional domains in area 17 and across the area 17/18 border in cat visual cortex, Eur. J. Neurosci. 7 (1995) 1973-1988; M. Hubener, D. Shoham, A. Grinvald, T. Bonhoeffer, Spatial relationships among three columnar systems in cat area 17, J. Neurosci. 17 (1997) 9270-9284; D. Malonek, A. Grinvald, Interactions between electrical activity and cortical microcirculation revealed by imaging spectroscopy: implications for functional brain mapping, Science 272 (1996) 551-554; A. Shmuel, A. Grinvald, Functional organization for direction of motion and its relationship to orientation maps in cat area 18, J. Neurosci. 16 (1996) 6945-6964] [1] [10] [14] [22]. Three components of intrinsic optical signal can be distinguished. Two of these components can be attributed either to changes in blood volume or to changes in oxygen consumption [R.D. Frostig, E.E. Lieke, D.Y. Ts'o, A. Grinvald, Cortical functional architecture and local coupling between neuronal activity and the microcirculation revealed by in vivo high resolution optical imaging of intrinsic signals, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 87 (1990) 6082-6086] [7]. The origin of the third component is not yet clear but the component seems to be based on scattered light [H.U. Dodt, G. D'Arcangelo, E. Pestel, W. Zieglgansberger, The spread of excitation in neocortical columns visualized with infrared-dark field videomicroscopy, NeuroReport 7 (1996) 1553-1558; K. Holthoff, O.W. Witte, Intrinsic optical signals in rat neocortical slices measured with near-infrared dark-field microscopy reveal changes in extracellular space, J. Neurosci. 16 (1996) 2740-2749; B.A. MacVicar, D. Hochman, Imaging of synaptically evoked intrinsic optical signals in hippocampal slices, J. Neurosci. 11 (1991) 1458-1469; L. Trachsel, H.U. Dodt, W

  4. A VHDL Core for Intrinsic Evolution of Discrete Time Filters with Signal Feedback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gwaltney, David A.; Dutton, Kenneth

    2005-01-01

    The design of an Evolvable Machine VHDL Core is presented, representing a discrete-time processing structure capable of supporting control system applications. This VHDL Core is implemented in an FPGA and is interfaced with an evolutionary algorithm implemented in firmware on a Digital Signal Processor (DSP) to create an evolvable system platform. The salient features of this architecture are presented. The capability to implement IIR filter structures is presented along with the results of the intrinsic evolution of a filter. The robustness of the evolved filter design is tested and its unique characteristics are described.

  5. Embedded intrinsic Fabry-Perot optical fiber sensors in cement concrete structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ki S.; Yoo, Jae-Wook; Kim, Seung Kwan; Kim, Byoung Yoon

    1996-05-01

    Intrinsic Fabry-Perot optical fiber sensors were embedded to the tensile side of the 20 cm by 20 cm by 150 cm cement concrete structures. The sensors were attached to the reinforcing steels and then, the cement concretes were applied. It took 30 days for curing the specimens. After that, the specimens were tested with 4-point bending method by a universal testing machine. Strains were measured and recorded by the strain gauges embedded near optical fiber sensors. Output data of fiber sensor showed good linearity to the strain data from the strain gauges up to 2000 microstrain. The optical fiber sensors showed good response after yielding of the structure while embedded metal film strain gauges did not show any response. We also investigated the behavior of the optical fiber sensor when the specimens were broken down. In conclusion, the optical fiber sensors can be used as elements of health monitoring systems for cement concrete infra-structures.

  6. Passive intrinsic-linewidth narrowing of ultraviolet extended-cavity diode laser by weak optical feedback.

    PubMed

    Samutpraphoot, Polnop; Weber, Sophie; Lin, Qian; Gangloff, Dorian; Bylinskii, Alexei; Braverman, Boris; Kawasaki, Akio; Raab, Christoph; Kaenders, Wilhelm; Vuletić, Vladan

    2014-05-19

    We present a simple method for narrowing the intrinsic Lorentzian linewidth of a commercial ultraviolet grating extended-cavity diode laser (TOPTICA DL Pro) using weak optical feedback from a long external cavity. We achieve a suppression in frequency noise spectral density of 20 dB measured at frequencies around 1 MHz, corresponding to the narrowing of the intrinsic Lorentzian linewidth from 200 kHz to 2 kHz. Provided additional active low-frequency noise suppression and long-term drift compensation, the system is suitable for experiments requiring a tunable ultraviolet laser with narrow linewidth and low high-frequency noise, such as precision spectroscopy, optical clocks, and quantum information science experiments. PMID:24921280

  7. Regulation of branching dynamics by axon-intrinsic asymmetries in Tyrosine Kinase Receptor signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zschätzsch, Marlen; Oliva, Carlos; Langen, Marion; De Geest, Natalie; Özel, Mehmet Neset; Williamson, W Ryan; Lemon, William C; Soldano, Alessia; Munck, Sebastian; Hiesinger, P Robin; Sanchez-Soriano, Natalia; Hassan, Bassem A

    2014-01-01

    Axonal branching allows a neuron to connect to several targets, increasing neuronal circuit complexity. While axonal branching is well described, the mechanisms that control it remain largely unknown. We find that in the Drosophila CNS branches develop through a process of excessive growth followed by pruning. In vivo high-resolution live imaging of developing brains as well as loss and gain of function experiments show that activation of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) is necessary for branch dynamics and the final branching pattern. Live imaging also reveals that intrinsic asymmetry in EGFR localization regulates the balance between dynamic and static filopodia. Elimination of signaling asymmetry by either loss or gain of EGFR function results in reduced dynamics leading to excessive branch formation. In summary, we propose that the dynamic process of axon branch development is mediated by differential local distribution of signaling receptors. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01699.001 PMID:24755286

  8. Intrinsic temperature-dependent evolutions in the electron-boson spectral density obtained from optical data

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jungseek

    2016-01-01

    We investigate temperature smearing effects on the electron-boson spectral density function (I2χ(ω)) obtained from optical data using a maximum entropy inversion method. We start with two simple model input I2χ(ω), calculate the optical scattering rates at selected temperatures using the model input spectral density functions and a generalized Allen’s formula, then extract back I2χ(ω) at each temperature from the calculated optical scattering rate using the maximum entropy method (MEM) which has been used for analysis of optical data of high-temperature superconductors including cuprates, and finally compare the resulting I2χ(ω) with the input ones. From this approach we find that the inversion process can recover the input I2χ(ω) almost perfectly when the quality of fits is good enough and also temperature smearing (or thermal broadening) effects appear in the I2χ(ω) when the quality of fits is not good enough. We found that the coupling constant and the logarithmically averaged frequency are robust to the temperature smearing effects and/or the quality of fits. We use these robust properties of the two quantities as criterions to check whether experimental data have intrinsic temperature-dependent evolutions or not. We carefully apply the MEM to two material systems (one optimally doped and the other underdoped cuprates) and conclude that the I2χ(ω) extracted from the optical data contain intrinsic temperature-dependent evolutions. PMID:27029840

  9. Optical signal processing at Essex Corporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franklin, William R.

    1996-02-01

    The most current research and development in optical signal processing and its application at Essex Corporation is summarized. In progress for more than a decade, this work has evolved from the development of highly specialized algorithms for the intelligence community to more general domains embracing such diverse areas as radar signal processing, medical ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging, acoustic tomography, and cellular and satellite communications. Essex develops algorithms and designs, fabricates, and tests breadboard designs and transforms these into rugged, compact products for use in harsh environments. Descriptions of the most important investigations in these areas are presented. An image synthesizer called ImSynTM is described that forms images from the measured spatial Fourier components of the object to be imaged. Applications to synthetic aperture radar, acoustic tomography, medical resonance imaging, and synthetic aperture microscopy are shown. An acousto-optic radar signal processor is described that can produce high-resolution, high-dynamic-range range Doppler maps from instantaneous wideband radar returns. A design for a fiber optic true-time delay beamformer is presented. Finally, an optoelectronic telecommunications switch is discussed.

  10. Cell Signaling Experiments Driven by Optical Manipulation

    PubMed Central

    Difato, Francesco; Pinato, Giulietta; Cojoc, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Cell signaling involves complex transduction mechanisms in which information released by nearby cells or extracellular cues are transmitted to the cell, regulating fundamental cellular activities. Understanding such mechanisms requires cell stimulation with precise control of low numbers of active molecules at high spatial and temporal resolution under physiological conditions. Optical manipulation techniques, such as optical tweezing, mechanical stress probing or nano-ablation, allow handling of probes and sub-cellular elements with nanometric and millisecond resolution. PicoNewton forces, such as those involved in cell motility or intracellular activity, can be measured with femtoNewton sensitivity while controlling the biochemical environment. Recent technical achievements in optical manipulation have new potentials, such as exploring the actions of individual molecules within living cells. Here, we review the progress in optical manipulation techniques for single-cell experiments, with a focus on force probing, cell mechanical stimulation and the local delivery of active molecules using optically manipulated micro-vectors and laser dissection. PMID:23698758

  11. Intrinsic excitability state of local neuronal population modulates signal propagation in feed-forward neural networks.

    PubMed

    Han, Ruixue; Wang, Jiang; Yu, Haitao; Deng, Bin; Wei, Xilei; Qin, Yingmei; Wang, Haixu

    2015-04-01

    Reliable signal propagation across distributed brain areas is an essential requirement for cognitive function, and it has been investigated extensively in computational studies where feed-forward network (FFN) is taken as a generic model. But it is still unclear how distinct local network states, which are intrinsically generated by synaptic interactions within each layer, would affect the ability of FFN to transmit information. Here we investigate the impact of such network states on propagating transient synchrony (synfire) and firing rate by a combination of numerical simulations and analytical approach. Specifically, local network dynamics is attributed to the competition between excitatory and inhibitory neurons within each layer. Our results show that concomitant with different local network states, the performance of signal propagation differs dramatically. For both synfire propagation and firing rate propagation, there exists an optimal local excitability state, respectively, that optimizes the performance of signal propagation. Furthermore, we find that long-range connections strongly change the dependence of spiking activity propagation on local network state and propose that these two factors work jointly to determine information transmission across distributed networks. Finally, a simple mean field approach that bridges response properties of long-range connectivity and local subnetworks is utilized to reveal the underlying mechanism. PMID:25933656

  12. Extrinsic and intrinsic signals converge on the Runx1/CBFβ transcription factor for nonpeptidergic nociceptor maturation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Siyi; O'Donovan, Kevin J; Turner, Eric E; Zhong, Jian; Ginty, David D

    2015-01-01

    The generation of diverse neuronal subtypes involves specification of neural progenitors and, subsequently, postmitotic neuronal differentiation, a relatively poorly understood process. Here, we describe a mechanism whereby the neurotrophic factor NGF and the transcription factor Runx1 coordinate postmitotic differentiation of nonpeptidergic nociceptors, a major nociceptor subtype. We show that the integrity of a Runx1/CBFβ holocomplex is crucial for NGF-dependent nonpeptidergic nociceptor maturation. NGF signals through the ERK/MAPK pathway to promote expression of Cbfb but not Runx1 prior to maturation of nonpeptidergic nociceptors. In contrast, transcriptional initiation of Runx1 in nonpeptidergic nociceptor precursors is dependent on the homeodomain transcription factor Islet1, which is largely dispensable for Cbfb expression. Thus, an NGF/TrkA-MAPK-CBFβ pathway converges with Islet1-Runx1 signaling to promote Runx1/CBFβ holocomplex formation and nonpeptidergic nociceptor maturation. Convergence of extrinsic and intrinsic signals to control heterodimeric transcription factor complex formation provides a robust mechanism for postmitotic neuronal subtype specification. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10874.001 PMID:26418744

  13. Control of peripheral tolerance by regulatory T cell-intrinsic Notch signaling.

    PubMed

    Charbonnier, Louis-Marie; Wang, Sen; Georgiev, Peter; Sefik, Esen; Chatila, Talal A

    2015-11-01

    Receptors of the Notch family direct the differentiation of helper T cell subsets, but their influence on regulatory T cell (T(reg) cell) responses is obscure. We found here that lineage-specific deletion of components of the Notch pathway enhanced T(reg) cell-mediated suppression of type 1 helper T cell (T(H)1 cell) responses and protected against their T(H)1 skewing and apoptosis. In contrast, expression in T(reg) cells of a gain-of-function transgene encoding the Notch1 intracellular domain resulted in lymphoproliferation, exacerbated T(H)1 responses and autoimmunity. Cell-intrinsic canonical Notch signaling impaired T(reg) cell fitness and promoted the acquisition by T(reg) cells of a T(H)1 cell-like phenotype, whereas non-canonical Notch signaling dependent on the adaptor Rictor activated the kinase AKT-transcription factor Foxo1 axis and impaired the epigenetic stability of Foxp3. Our findings establish a critical role for Notch signaling in controlling peripheral T(reg) cell function. PMID:26437242

  14. Intrinsic excitability state of local neuronal population modulates signal propagation in feed-forward neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Ruixue; Wang, Jiang; Yu, Haitao; Deng, Bin; Wei, Xilei; Qin, Yingmei; Wang, Haixu

    2015-04-01

    Reliable signal propagation across distributed brain areas is an essential requirement for cognitive function, and it has been investigated extensively in computational studies where feed-forward network (FFN) is taken as a generic model. But it is still unclear how distinct local network states, which are intrinsically generated by synaptic interactions within each layer, would affect the ability of FFN to transmit information. Here we investigate the impact of such network states on propagating transient synchrony (synfire) and firing rate by a combination of numerical simulations and analytical approach. Specifically, local network dynamics is attributed to the competition between excitatory and inhibitory neurons within each layer. Our results show that concomitant with different local network states, the performance of signal propagation differs dramatically. For both synfire propagation and firing rate propagation, there exists an optimal local excitability state, respectively, that optimizes the performance of signal propagation. Furthermore, we find that long-range connections strongly change the dependence of spiking activity propagation on local network state and propose that these two factors work jointly to determine information transmission across distributed networks. Finally, a simple mean field approach that bridges response properties of long-range connectivity and local subnetworks is utilized to reveal the underlying mechanism.

  15. Development and study the performance of PBA cladding modified fiber optic intrinsic biosensor for urea detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botewad, S. N.; Pahurkar, V. G.; Muley, G. G.

    2016-05-01

    The fabrication and study of a cladding modified fiber optic intrinsic urea biosensor based on evanescent wave absorbance has been presented. The sensor was prepared using cladding modification technique by removing a small portion of cladding of an optical fiber and modifying with an active cladding of porous polyaniline-boric acid (PBA) matrix to immobilize enzyme-urease through cross-linking via glutaraldehyde. The nature of as-synthesized and deposited PBA film on fiber optic sensing element was studied by ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The performance of the developed sensor was studied for different urea concentrations in solutions prepared in phosphate buffer.

  16. Fabrication of polyaniline-HCl cladding modified fiber optic intrinsic biosensor for glucose detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahurkar, Vikas; Tamgadge, Yuoraj; Muley, Gajanan

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, we have fabricated and studied response of cladding modified fiber optic intrinsic glucose biosensor (FOIGB). The optical fiber was used as a light transforming waveguide and sensing element fabricated over it by applying a thin layer of polymer. The cladding of the sensor was modified with the polyaniline-hydrochloric acid (PANI-HCl) polymer matrix. The PANI-HCl matrix provides an amorphous morphology useful to immobilize glucose oxidase (GOx) biomolecules through cross-linking technique via glutaraldehyde. The present sensor was used to detect the glucose analyte in the solution. In the sensing response study of FOIGB toward glucose, novel modal power distribution (MPD) technique was used. The reaction between GOx and glucose changes the optical properties of prepared FOIGB and hence modify MPD at output as a function of glucose concentration. The nature and surface morphology of PANI-HCl matrix has been studied.

  17. Intrinsic optical fiber sensor for sensing organophosphate nerve agent using the modified cladding approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bansal, Lalitkumar; El-Sherif, Mahmoud

    2004-03-01

    The concept of modified cladding based sensors represents the largest class of intrinsic fiber optic chemical sensors. In this design, the passive cladding of the optical fiber is replaced by an active coating, called modified cladding. The analyte in this case diffuses into the coating and induces changes in the absorbance, fluorescence, or some other spectroscopic property of the modified cladding, the coating acts as a chemo-chromic transducer and sensing takes place by intensity modulation. This design i.e. of the coating based sensors, has found enormous applicability in the realm of chemical and biochemical sensing which also includes environmental monitoring and detection of chemical warfare agents. In this paper, the development of an intrinsic fiber optic sensor for detection of organophosphate dimethyl-methyl phoshopnate (DMMP) is presented. DMMP is a chemical precursor to the nerve agent sarin. The chemo-chromic transducer material used as a modified coating on the fiber core is NDSA (Naphthalene disulphonic acid) doped polypyrrole. This coating material shows conductivity and absorbance change when exposed to DMMP. The fabrication of the sensor device is a three step process which involves (a) etching a small section of the optical fiber to expose the core, (b) coating the etched section of the optical fiber with the polymer, (c) integration of sensor components and testing. Thin film characterization is done using the UV-Vis spectrophotometer on in-situ coated films of polypyrrole on a glass substrate to check for absorbance change upon exposure to DMMP. The development procedure is presented next and encouraging results are discussed.

  18. New concept to break the intrinsic properties of organic semiconductors for optical sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choy, Wallace C. H.

    2015-09-01

    As the intrinsic electrostatic limit, space charge limit (SCL) for photocurrent is a universal phenomenon which is fundamental important for organic semiconductors. We will demonstrate SCL breaking by a new plasmonic-electrical concept. As a proof-ofconcept, organic solar cells (OSCs) comprising metallic planar and grating electrodes are studied. Interestingly, although strong plasmonic resonances induce abnormally dense photocarriers around a grating anode, the grating incorporated inverted OSC is exempt from space charge accumulation (limit) and degradation of electrical properties. The plasmonic-electrical concept will open up a new way to manipulate both optical and electrical properties of semiconductor devices simultaneously.

  19. Statistical analysis of intrinsic and extrinsic coupling losses for step-index polymer optical fibers.

    PubMed

    Werzinger, Stefan; Bunge, Christian-Alexander

    2015-08-24

    The intrinsic and extrinsic coupling losses of step-index polymer optical fibers are statistically examined by Monte Carlo simulations. In contrast to most existing models that linearly scale individual losses, a comprehensive analytic coupling loss model is used that also considers the interdependencies between mismatches in numerical aperture and core diameter, as well as radial and longitudinal offsets. As a typical example, the coupling losses of A4a.2 step-index multimode fibers are analyzed for an equilibrium mode distribution. The results show considerably less conservative coupling loss estimations than with traditional models, improving link power budgeting. PMID:26368203

  20. Intraoperative optical biopsy for brain tumors using spectro-lifetime properties of intrinsic fluorophores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasefi, Fartash; Kittle, David S.; Nie, Zhaojun; Falcone, Christina; Patil, Chirag G.; Chu, Ray M.; Mamelak, Adam N.; Black, Keith L.; Butte, Pramod V.

    2016-04-01

    We have developed and tested a system for real-time intra-operative optical identification and classification of brain tissues using time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy (TRFS). A supervised learning algorithm using linear discriminant analysis (LDA) employing selected intrinsic fluorescence decay temporal points in 6 spectral bands was employed to maximize statistical significance difference between training groups. The linear discriminant analysis on in vivo human tissues obtained by TRFS measurements (N = 35) were validated by histopathologic analysis and neuronavigation correlation to pre-operative MRI images. These results demonstrate that TRFS can differentiate between normal cortex, white matter and glioma.

  1. Mice deficient of glutamatergic signaling from intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells exhibit abnormal circadian photoentrainment.

    PubMed

    Purrier, Nicole; Engeland, William C; Kofuji, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Several aspects of behavior and physiology, such as sleep and wakefulness, blood pressure, body temperature, and hormone secretion exhibit daily oscillations known as circadian rhythms. These circadian rhythms are orchestrated by an intrinsic biological clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the hypothalamus which is adjusted to the daily environmental cycles of day and night by the process of photoentrainment. In mammals, the neuronal signal for photoentrainment arises from a small subset of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) that send a direct projection to the SCN. ipRGCs also mediate other non-image-forming (NIF) visual responses such as negative masking of locomotor activity by light, and the pupillary light reflex (PLR) via co-release of neurotransmitters glutamate and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) from their synaptic terminals. The relative contribution of each neurotransmitter system for the circadian photoentrainment and other NIF visual responses is still unresolved. We investigated the role of glutamatergic neurotransmission for circadian photoentrainment and NIF behaviors by selective ablation of ipRGC glutamatergic synaptic transmission in mice. Mutant mice displayed delayed re-entrainment to a 6 h phase shift (advance or delay) in the light cycle and incomplete photoentrainment in a symmetrical skeleton photoperiod regimen (1 h light pulses between 11 h dark periods). Circadian rhythmicity in constant darkness also was reduced in some mutant mice. Other NIF responses such as the PLR and negative masking responses to light were also partially attenuated. Overall, these results suggest that glutamate from ipRGCs drives circadian photoentrainment and negative masking responses to light. PMID:25357191

  2. Inverted optical intrinsic response accompanied by decreased cerebral blood flow are related to both neuronal inhibition and excitation

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zengguang; Cao, Pengjia; Sun, Pengcheng; Zhao, Linna; Li, Liming; Tong, Shanbao; Lu, Yiliang; Yan, Yan; Chen, Yao; Chai, Xinyu

    2016-01-01

    Negative hemodynamic response has been widely reported in blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging studies, however its origin is still controversial. Optical intrinsic signal (OIS) imaging can be used to study brain activity by simultaneously recording hemodynamic signals at different wavelengths with high spatial resolution. In this study, we found transcorneal electrical stimulation (TcES) could elicit both positive OIS response (POR) and negative OIS response (NOR) in cats’ visual cortex. We then investigated the property of this negative response to TcES and its relationship with cerebral blood flow (CBF) and neuronal activity. Results from laser speckle contrast imaging showed decreased CBF in the NOR region while increased CBF in the POR region. Both planar and laminar electrophysiological recordings in the middle (500–700 μm) cortical layers demonstrated that decreased and increased neuronal activities were coexisted in the NOR region. Furthermore, decreased neuronal activity was also detected in the deep cortical layers in the NOR region. This work provides evidence that the negative OIS together with the decreased CBF should be explained by mechanisms of both neuronal inhibition and excitation within middle cortical layers. Our results would be important for interpreting neurophysiological mechanisms underlying the negative BOLD signals. PMID:26860040

  3. High-definition optical coherence tomography intrinsic skin ageing assessment in women: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Boone, M A L M; Suppa, M; Marneffe, A; Miyamoto, M; Jemec, G B E; Del Marmol, V

    2015-10-01

    Several non-invasive two-dimensional techniques with different lateral resolution and measurable depth range have proved to be useful in assessing and quantifying morphological changes in skin ageing. Among these, only in vivo microscopy techniques permit histometric measurements in vivo. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of chronological (intrinsic) age-related (IAR) morphological changes of epidermis, dermo-epidermal junction (DEJ), papillary dermis (PD), papillary-reticular dermis junction and reticular dermis (RD) have been performed by high-definition optical coherence tomography in real time 3-D. HD-OCT images were taken at the internal site of the right upper arm. Qualitative HD-OCT IAR descriptors were reported at skin surface, at epidermal layer, DEJ, PD and upper RD. Quantitative evaluation of age-related compaction and backscattered intensity or brightness of different skin layers was performed by using the plugin plot z-axis profile of ImageJ(®) software permitting intensity assessment of HD-OCT (DICOM) images (3-D images). Analysis was in blind from all clinical information. Sixty, fair-skinned (Fitzpatrick types I-III) healthy females were analysed retrospectively in this study. The subjects belonged to three age groups: twenty in group I aged 20-39, twenty in group II aged 40-59 and twenty in group III aged 60-79. Only intrinsic ageing in women has been studied. Significant age-related qualitative and quantitative differences could be noticed. IAR changes in dermal matrix fibers morphology/organisation and in microvasculature were observed. The brightness and compaction of the different skin layers increased significantly with intrinsic skin ageing. The depth of visibility of fibers in RD increased significantly in the older age group. In conclusion, HD-OCT allows 3-D in vivo and real time qualitative and quantitative assessment of chronological (intrinsic) age-related morphological skin changes at high resolution from skin surface to a depth

  4. The optical origin of the PPG signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fine, I.

    2014-01-01

    PPG volumetric model is frequently adopted to explain the pulsatile nature of optical response for arterial pulsation. In this article we show that the pulsatile fluctuation of optical response can be explained in terms of the light scattering related changes. According to this assumption, these fluctuations are driven by the modulation the scattering coefficient associated with the blood flow hemodynamic effects. There was shown that the proposed model yields a good correspondence with the pulse-oximetry related parameters. Moreover, it was found that the experimental relationship between the red blood concentration in the blood (hematocrit) and the parameters being derived from the in vivo measured optical signals can be described in terms of this scattering driven model. There was demonstrated that the commonly used volumetric assumption fails to provide a reasonable description of the experimental results. The last fact can be used as a decisive argument in favor of the scattering driven model. This model can be used for better understanding of the pulse oximetry as well as for the guidance for the algorithmic development of the blood hemoglobin/ hematocrit in vivo.

  5. Effect of intrinsic organic carbon on the optical properties of fresh diesel soot

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Gabriella; Riziq, Ali Abo; Erlick, Carynelisa; Rudich, Yinon

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on the retrieval of the normalized mass absorption cross section (MAC) of soot using theoretical calculations that incorporate new measurements of the optical properties of organic carbon (OC) intrinsic to fresh diesel soot. Intrinsic OC was extracted by water and an organic solvent, and the complex refractive index of the extracted OC was derived at 532 and 355-nm wavelengths using cavity ring-down aerosol spectrometry. The extracted OC was found to absorb weakly in the visible wavelengths and moderately at blue wavelengths. The mass ratio of OC and elemental carbon (EC) in the collected particles was evaluated using a thermo-optical method. The measured EC/OC ratio in the soot exhibited substantial variability from measurement to measurement, ranging between 2 and 5. To test the sensitivity of the MAC to this variability, three different EC/OC ratios (2∶1, 1∶1, and 1∶2) were chosen as representative. Particle size and spherule morphology were estimated using scanning electron microscopy, and the soot was found to be primarily in the form of aggregates with a dominant aggregate diameter mode in the range 200–250 nm. The measured refractive index of the extracted OC was used with a variety of theoretical models to calculate the MAC of internally mixed diesel soot at 532 and 355 nm. We conclude that Rayleigh–Debye–Gans theory on clusters of coated spherules and T-matrix of a solid EC spheroid coated by intrinsic OC are both consistent with previous measurements; however, Rayleigh–Debye–Gans theory provides a more realistic physical model for the calculation PMID:20018649

  6. Effect of intrinsic organic carbon on the optical properties of fresh diesel soot.

    PubMed

    Adler, Gabriella; Riziq, Ali Abo; Erlick, Carynelisa; Rudich, Yinon

    2010-04-13

    This study focuses on the retrieval of the normalized mass absorption cross section (MAC) of soot using theoretical calculations that incorporate new measurements of the optical properties of organic carbon (OC) intrinsic to fresh diesel soot. Intrinsic OC was extracted by water and an organic solvent, and the complex refractive index of the extracted OC was derived at 532 and 355-nm wavelengths using cavity ring-down aerosol spectrometry. The extracted OC was found to absorb weakly in the visible wavelengths and moderately at blue wavelengths. The mass ratio of OC and elemental carbon (EC) in the collected particles was evaluated using a thermo-optical method. The measured EC/OC ratio in the soot exhibited substantial variability from measurement to measurement, ranging between 2 and 5. To test the sensitivity of the MAC to this variability, three different EC/OC ratios (21, 11, and 12) were chosen as representative. Particle size and spherule morphology were estimated using scanning electron microscopy, and the soot was found to be primarily in the form of aggregates with a dominant aggregate diameter mode in the range 200-250 nm. The measured refractive index of the extracted OC was used with a variety of theoretical models to calculate the MAC of internally mixed diesel soot at 532 and 355 nm. We conclude that Rayleigh-Debye-Gans theory on clusters of coated spherules and T-matrix of a solid EC spheroid coated by intrinsic OC are both consistent with previous measurements; however, Rayleigh-Debye-Gans theory provides a more realistic physical model for the calculation. PMID:20018649

  7. System and methods for determining masking signals for applying empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and for demodulating intrinsic mode functions obtained from application of EMD

    DOEpatents

    Senroy, Nilanjan; Suryanarayanan, Siddharth

    2011-03-15

    A computer-implemented method of signal processing is provided. The method includes generating one or more masking signals based upon a computed Fourier transform of a received signal. The method further includes determining one or more intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) of the received signal by performing a masking-signal-based empirical mode decomposition (EMD) using the at least one masking signal.

  8. Intrinsic protein flexibility in regulation of cell proliferation: advantages for signaling and opportunities for novel therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Follis, Ariele Viacava; Galea, Charles A; Kriwacki, Richard W

    2012-01-01

    It is now widely recognized that intrinsically disordered (or unstructured) proteins (IDPs, or IUPs) are found in organisms from all kingdoms of life. In eukaryotes, IDPs are highly abundant and perform a wide range of biological functions, including regulation and signaling. Despite increased interest in understanding the structural biology of IDPs, questions remain regarding the mechanisms through which disordered proteins perform their biological function(s). In other words, what are the relationships between disorder and function for IDPs? Several excellent reviews have recently been published that discuss the structural properties of IDPs.1-3 Here, we discuss two IDP systems which illustrate features of dynamic complexes. In the first section, we discuss two IDPs, p21 and p27, which regulate the mammalian cell division cycle by inhibiting cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks). In the second section, we discuss recent results from Follis, Hammoudeh, Metallo and coworkers demonstrating that the IDP Myc can be bound and inhibited by small molecules through formation of dynamic complexes. Previous studies have shown that polypeptide segments of p21 and p27 are partially folded in isolation and fold further upon binding their biological targets. Interestingly, some portions of p27 which bind to and inhibit Cdk2/cyclin A remain flexible in the bound complex. This residual flexibility allows otherwise buried tyrosine residues within p27 to be phosphorylated by nonreceptor tyrosine kinases (NRTKs). Tyrosine phosphorylation relieves kinase inhibition, triggering Cdk2-mediated phosphorylation of a threonine residue within the flexible C-terminus of p27. This, in turn, marks p27 for ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation, unleashing full Cdk2 activity which drives cell cycle progression. p27, thus, constitutes a conduit for transmission of proliferative signals via posttranslational modifications. Importantly, activation of the p27 signaling conduit by oncogenic NRTKs

  9. Using DNA mechanics to predict intrinsic and extrinsic nucleosome positioning signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, Alexandre

    2008-03-01

    In eukaryotic genomes, nucleosomes function to compact DNA and to regulate access to it both by simple physical occlusion and by providing the substrate for numerous covalent epigenetic tags. While nucleosome positions in vitro are determined by sequence alone, in vivo competition with other DNA-binding factors and action of chromatin remodeling enzymes play a role that needs to be quantified. We developed a biophysical, DNA mechanics-based model for the sequence dependence of DNA bending energies, and validated it against a collection of in vitro free energies of nucleosome formation and a nucleosome crystal structure; we also successfully designed both strong and poor histone binding sequences ab initio. For in vivo data from S.cerevisiae, the strongest positioning signal came from the competition with other factors rather than intrinsic nucleosome sequence preferences. Based on sequence alone, our model predicts that functional transcription factor binding sites tend to be covered by nucleosomes, yet are uncovered in vivo because functional sites cluster within a single nucleosome footprint and thus make transcription factors bind cooperatively. Similarly a weak enhancement of nucleosome binding in the TATA region becomes a strong depletion when the TATA-binding protein is included, in quantitative agreement with experiment. Our model distinguishes multiple ways in which genomic sequence influences nucleosome positions, and thus provides alternative explanations for several genome-wide experimental findings. In the future our approach will be used to rationally alter gene expression levels in model systems through redesign of nucleosome occupancy profiles.

  10. Optimizing the Intrinsic Signal-to-Noise Ratio of MRI Strip Detectors

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ananda; Bottomley, Paul A.

    2007-01-01

    An MRI detector is formed from a conducting strip separated by a dielectric substrate from a ground plane, and tuned to a quarter-wavelength. By distributing discrete tuning elements along the strip, the geometric design may be adjusted to optimize the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for a given application. Here a numerical electromagnetic (EM) method of moments (MoM) is applied to determine the length, width, substrate thickness, dielectric constant, and number of tuning elements that yield the best intrinsic SNR (ISNR) of the strip detector at 1.5 Tesla. The central question of how strip performance compares with that of a conventional optimized loop coil is also addressed. The numerical method is validated against the known ISNR performance of loop coils, and its ability to predict the tuning capacitances and performance of seven experimental strip detectors of varying length, width, substrate thickness, and dielectric constant. We find that strip detectors with low-dielectric constant, moderately thin-substrate, and length about 1.3 (±0.2) times the depth of interest perform best. The ISNR of strips is comparable to that of loops (i.e., higher close to the detector but lower at depth). The SNR improves with two inherently-decoupled strips, whose sensitivity profile is well-suited to parallel MRI. The findings are summarized as design “rules of thumb.” PMID:16724302

  11. Optical signal monitoring in phase modulated optical fiber transmission systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jian

    Optical performance monitoring (OPM) is one of the essential functions for future high speed optical networks. Among the parameters to be monitored, chromatic dispersion (CD) is especially important since it has a significant impact on overall system performance. In this thesis effective CD monitoring approaches for phase-shift keying (PSK) based optical transmission systems are investigated. A number of monitoring schemes based on radio frequency (RF) spectrum analysis and delay-tap sampling are proposed and their performance evaluated. A method for dispersion monitoring of differential phase-shift keying (DPSK) signals based on RF power detection is studied. The RF power spectrum is found to increase with the increase of CD and decrease with polarization mode dispersion (PMD). The spectral power density dependence on CD is studied theoretically and then verified through simulations and experiments. The monitoring sensitivity for nonreturn-to-zero differential phase-shift keying (NRZ-DPSK) and return-to-zero differential phase-shift keying (RZ-DPSK) based systems can reach 80ps/nm/dB and 34ps/nm/dB respectively. The scheme enables the monitoring of differential group delay (DGD) and CD simultaneously. The monitoring sensitivity of CD and DGD can reach 56.7ps/nm/dB and 3.1ps/dB using a bandpass filter. The effects of optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR), DGD, fiber nonlinearity and chirp on the monitoring results are investigated. Two RF pilot tones are employed for CD monitoring of DPSK signals. Specially selected pilot tone frequencies enable good monitoring sensitivity with minimum influence on the received signals. The dynamic range exceeding 35dB and monitoring sensitivity up to 9.5ps/nm/dB are achieved. Asynchronous sampling technique is employed for CD monitoring. A signed CD monitoring method for 10Gb/s NRZ-DPSK and RZ-DPSK systems using asynchronous delay-tap sampling technique is studied. The demodulated signals suffer asymmetric waveform distortion if

  12. Integrated Optics for Planar imaging and Optical Signal Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Qi

    Silicon photonics is a subject of growing interest with the potential of delivering planar electro-optical devices with chip scale integration. Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology has provided a marvelous platform for photonics industry because of its advantages in integration capability in CMOS circuit and countless nonlinearity applications in optical signal processing. This thesis is focused on the investigation of planar imaging techniques on SOI platform and potential applications in ultra-fast optical signal processing. In the first part, a general review and background introduction about integrated photonics circuit and planar imaging technique are provided. In chapter 2, planar imaging platform is realized by a silicon photodiode on SOI chip. Silicon photodiode on waveguide provides a high numerical aperture for an imaging transceiver pixel. An erbium doped Y2O3 particle is excited by 1550nm Laser and the fluorescent image is obtained with assistance of the scanning system. Fluorescence image is reconstructed by using image de-convolution technique. Under photovoltaic mode, we use an on-chip photodiode and an external PIN photodiode to realize similar resolution as 5μm. In chapter 3, a time stretching technique is developed to a spatial domain to realize a 2D imaging system as an ultrafast imaging tool. The system is evaluated based on theoretical calculation. The experimental results are shown for a verification of system capability to imaging a micron size particle or a finger print. Meanwhile, dynamic information for a moving object is also achieved by correlation algorithm. In chapter 4, the optical leaky wave antenna based on SOI waveguide has been utilized for imaging applications and extensive numerical studied has been conducted. and the theoretical explanation is supported by leaky wave theory. The highly directive radiation has been obtained from the broadside with 15.7 dB directivity and a 3dB beam width of ΔØ 3dB ≈ 1.65° in free space

  13. Evaluation of intrinsic respiratory signal determination methods for 4D CBCT adapted for mice

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Rachael; Pan, Tinsu; Rubinstein, Ashley; Court, Laurence; Ahmad, Moiz

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: 4D CT imaging in mice is important in a variety of areas including studies of lung function and tumor motion. A necessary step in 4D imaging is obtaining a respiratory signal, which can be done through an external system or intrinsically through the projection images. A number of methods have been developed that can successfully determine the respiratory signal from cone-beam projection images of humans, however only a few have been utilized in a preclinical setting and most of these rely on step-and-shoot style imaging. The purpose of this work is to assess and make adaptions of several successful methods developed for humans for an image-guided preclinical radiation therapy system. Methods: Respiratory signals were determined from the projection images of free-breathing mice scanned on the X-RAD system using four methods: the so-called Amsterdam shroud method, a method based on the phase of the Fourier transform, a pixel intensity method, and a center of mass method. The Amsterdam shroud method was modified so the sharp inspiration peaks associated with anesthetized mouse breathing could be detected. Respiratory signals were used to sort projections into phase bins and 4D images were reconstructed. Error and standard deviation in the assignment of phase bins for the four methods compared to a manual method considered to be ground truth were calculated for a range of region of interest (ROI) sizes. Qualitative comparisons were additionally made between the 4D images obtained using each of the methods and the manual method. Results: 4D images were successfully created for all mice with each of the respiratory signal extraction methods. Only minimal qualitative differences were noted between each of the methods and the manual method. The average error (and standard deviation) in phase bin assignment was 0.24 ± 0.08 (0.49 ± 0.11) phase bins for the Fourier transform method, 0.09 ± 0.03 (0.31 ± 0.08) phase bins for the modified Amsterdam shroud method, 0

  14. Optical clock signal distribution and packaging optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Linghui

    Polymer-based waveguides for optoelectronic interconnects and packagings were fabricated by a fabrication process that is compatible with the Si CMOS packaging process. An optoelectronic interconnection layer (OIL) for the high-speed massive clock signal distribution for the Cray T-90 supercomputer board employing optical multimode channel waveguides in conjunction with surface-normal waveguide grating couplers and a 1-to-2 3 dB splitter was constructed. Equalized optical paths were realized using an optical H-tree structure having 48 optical fanouts. This device could be increased to 64 without introducing any additional complications. A 1-to-48 fanout H-tree structure using Ultradel 9000D series polyimide was fabricated. The propagation loss and splitting loss have been measured as 0.21 dB/cm and 0.4 dB/splitter at 850 nm. The power budget was discussed, and the H-tree waveguide fully satisfies the power budget requirement. A tapered waveguide coupler was employed to match the mode profile between the single-mode fiber and the multimode channel waveguides of the OIL. A thermo-optical based multimode switch was designed, fabricated, and tested. The finite difference method was used to simulate the thermal distribution in the polymer waveguide. Both stable and transient conditions have been calculated. The thermo-optical switch was fabricated and tested. The switching speed of 1 ms was experimentally confirmed, fitting well with the simulation results. Thermo-optic switching for randomly polarized light at wavelengths of 850 nm was experimental confirmed, as was a stable attenuation of 25 dB. The details of tapered waveguide fabrication were investigated. Compression-molded 3-D tapered waveguides were demonstrated for the first time. Not only the vertical depth variation but also the linear dimensions of the molded waveguides were well beyond the limits of what any other conventional waveguide fabrication method is capable of providing. Molded waveguides with

  15. Intrinsic Fiber Optic Chemical Sensors for Subsurface Detection of CO2

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso, Jesus

    2016-01-01

    Intelligent Optical Systems, Inc. has developed distributed intrinsic fiber optic sensors to directly quantify the concentration of dissolved or gas-phase CO2 for leak detection or plume migration in carbon capture and sequestration (CCS). The capability of the sensor for highly sensitive detection of CO2 in the pressure and temperature range of 15 to 2,000 psi and 25°C to 175°C was demonstrated, as was the capability of operating in highly corrosive and contaminated environments such as those often found in CO2 injection sites. The novel sensor system was for the first time demonstrated deployed in a deep well, detecting multiple CO2 releases, in real time, at varying depths. Early CO2 release detection, by means of a sensor cable integrating multiple sensor segments, was demonstrated, as was the capability of quantifying the leak. The novel fiber optic sensor system exhibits capabilities not achieved by any other monitoring technology. This project represents a breakthrough in monitoring capabilities for CCS applications.

  16. Intrinsic heating in optically trapped Au nanoparticles measured by dark-field spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Andres-Arroyo, Ana; Wang, Fan; Toe, Wen Jun; Reece, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Assessing the degree of heating present when a metal nanoparticle is trapped in an optical tweezers is critical for its appropriate use in biological applications as a nanoscale force sensor. Heating is necessarily present for trapped plasmonic particles because of the non-negligible extinction which contributes to an enhanced polarisability. We present a robust method for characterising the degree of heating of trapped metallic nanoparticles, using the intrinsic temperature dependence of the localised surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) to infer the temperature of the surrounding fluid at different incident laser powers. These particle specific measurements can be used to infer the rate of heating and local temperature of trapped nanoparticles. Our measurements suggest a considerable amount of a variability in the degree of heating, on the range of 414–673 K/W, for different 100 nm diameter Au nanoparticles, and we associated this with variations in the axial trapping position. PMID:26417530

  17. Optical Signal Processing: Poisson Image Restoration and Shearing Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, Yie-Ming

    1973-01-01

    Optical signal processing can be performed in either digital or analog systems. Digital computers and coherent optical systems are discussed as they are used in optical signal processing. Topics include: image restoration; phase-object visualization; image contrast reversal; optical computation; image multiplexing; and fabrication of spatial filters. Digital optical data processing deals with restoration of images degraded by signal-dependent noise. When the input data of an image restoration system are the numbers of photoelectrons received from various areas of a photosensitive surface, the data are Poisson distributed with mean values proportional to the illuminance of the incoherently radiating object and background light. Optical signal processing using coherent optical systems is also discussed. Following a brief review of the pertinent details of Ronchi's diffraction grating interferometer, moire effect, carrier-frequency photography, and achromatic holography, two new shearing interferometers based on them are presented. Both interferometers can produce variable shear.

  18. Reconfigurable Optical Signal Processing Based on a Distributed Feedback Semiconductor Optical Amplifier

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming; Deng, Ye; Tang, Jian; Sun, Shuqian; Yao, Jianping; Azaña, José; Zhu, Ninghua

    2016-01-01

    All-optical signal processing has been considered a solution to overcome the bandwidth and speed limitations imposed by conventional electronic-based systems. Over the last few years, an impressive range of all-optical signal processors have been proposed, but few of them come with reconfigurability, a feature highly needed for practical signal processing applications. Here we propose and experimentally demonstrate an analog optical signal processor based on a phase-shifted distributed feedback semiconductor optical amplifier (DFB-SOA) and an optical filter. The proposed analog optical signal processor can be reconfigured to perform signal processing functions including ordinary differential equation solving and temporal intensity differentiation. The reconfigurability is achieved by controlling the injection currents. Our demonstration provitdes a simple and effective solution for all-optical signal processing and computing. PMID:26813252

  19. Reconfigurable Optical Signal Processing Based on a Distributed Feedback Semiconductor Optical Amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming; Deng, Ye; Tang, Jian; Sun, Shuqian; Yao, Jianping; Azaña, José; Zhu, Ninghua

    2016-01-01

    All-optical signal processing has been considered a solution to overcome the bandwidth and speed limitations imposed by conventional electronic-based systems. Over the last few years, an impressive range of all-optical signal processors have been proposed, but few of them come with reconfigurability, a feature highly needed for practical signal processing applications. Here we propose and experimentally demonstrate an analog optical signal processor based on a phase-shifted distributed feedback semiconductor optical amplifier (DFB-SOA) and an optical filter. The proposed analog optical signal processor can be reconfigured to perform signal processing functions including ordinary differential equation solving and temporal intensity differentiation. The reconfigurability is achieved by controlling the injection currents. Our demonstration provitdes a simple and effective solution for all-optical signal processing and computing.

  20. Reconfigurable Optical Signal Processing Based on a Distributed Feedback Semiconductor Optical Amplifier.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Deng, Ye; Tang, Jian; Sun, Shuqian; Yao, Jianping; Azaña, José; Zhu, Ninghua

    2016-01-01

    All-optical signal processing has been considered a solution to overcome the bandwidth and speed limitations imposed by conventional electronic-based systems. Over the last few years, an impressive range of all-optical signal processors have been proposed, but few of them come with reconfigurability, a feature highly needed for practical signal processing applications. Here we propose and experimentally demonstrate an analog optical signal processor based on a phase-shifted distributed feedback semiconductor optical amplifier (DFB-SOA) and an optical filter. The proposed analog optical signal processor can be reconfigured to perform signal processing functions including ordinary differential equation solving and temporal intensity differentiation. The reconfigurability is achieved by controlling the injection currents. Our demonstration provitdes a simple and effective solution for all-optical signal processing and computing. PMID:26813252

  1. Intrinsic magnetic field sensitivities of sensor head housing for all-fiber optic current sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuedian; Chang, Min; Mao, Chenfei; Lu, Dunke; Kamagara, Abel

    2014-10-01

    Full-fiber optical current sensors utilize the effects of magnetic-field imposed on the change of polarization azimuth of light in the fibers. Due to the sensitivities to external perturbations, the sensing fiber head in practical applications is usually packed in a fixed metallic housing majorly for protection purposes. However, the housing material itself tends to influence the magnetic field distributions of the current carrying wire in question. In this paper, the intrinsic effect and influence of fiber sensor head housing made of different magnetic materials on the magnetic field distributions around the current-carrying wire have been investigated. Simulation and virtual experimentation was carried out in the COMSOL environment. From the results, the housings made of single magnetic material are found to have magnetic disturbances on the magnetic field distribution around the wire. Housing made of some alloy materials has no influence on the magnetic distributions outside the wire. After experimenting with several materials, the former materials inclusive, steel is preferred as the protective housing and/or casing of fiber sensor head in optical fiber current sensors. This is on the basis of both technical and non-technical consideration of low cost of material though biased toward technical aspect of little or no influence on magnetic distribution around the wire.

  2. Research on small signal detection of optical voltage/current transformer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongbo; Zhang, Guoqing; Cai, Xingguo; Guo, Zhizhong; Yu, Wenbin; Huo, Guangyu

    2013-08-01

    This paper researches the signal conditioning program of optical voltage/current transformer and the imbalance during the transmission of dual optical path, gives a brief introduction to the basic principle of optical voltage transformer based on electro-optic Pockels effect and optical current transformer based on Faraday Magnetic-optical Effect, and induces a general expression form of output light intensities This paper research on the signal modulation methods for the system: AC and DC modulations. What is more, the advantages and disadvantages of both modulations in the system will be analyzed. Considering the characteristics that the systematic noise and signal have the spectrum overlapping and that when there is any fault, the fact that in the small signal detection system the output SNR of AC modulation is better than that of DC modulation will be proved. For the parameter changes caused by the environment factors, the feedback control linked by the DSP is imported, it automatically adjusts the balance of the two branch parameters, acquires the measured component in the condition of the two branch unbalance parameters. Furthermore, this paper researches on the influence of imbalance of the dual optical path on the signal detection system. It analyzes the error characteristics due to different kinds of losses and to component matching disorders and other intrinsic factors and then put forward the method to calculate balancing factors by means of the RMS of 50Hz signal. The result proves that using this method can improve the output SNR of optical voltage/current transformer to some extent.

  3. Simultaneous frequency conversion, regeneration and reshaping of optical signals.

    PubMed

    McKinstrie, C J; Cargill, D S

    2012-03-26

    Nondegenerate four-wave mixing in fibers enables the tunable and low-noise frequency conversion of optical signals. This paper shows that four-wave mixing driven by pulsed pumps can also regenerate and reshape optical signal pulses arbitrarily. PMID:22453365

  4. Neuromorphic opto-electronic integrated circuits for optical signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romeira, B.; Javaloyes, J.; Balle, S.; Piro, O.; Avó, R.; Figueiredo, J. M. L.

    2014-08-01

    The ability to produce narrow optical pulses has been extensively investigated in laser systems with promising applications in photonics such as clock recovery, pulse reshaping, and recently in photonics artificial neural networks using spiking signal processing. Here, we investigate a neuromorphic opto-electronic integrated circuit (NOEIC) comprising a semiconductor laser driven by a resonant tunneling diode (RTD) photo-detector operating at telecommunication (1550 nm) wavelengths capable of excitable spiking signal generation in response to optical and electrical control signals. The RTD-NOEIC mimics biologically inspired neuronal phenomena and possesses high-speed response and potential for monolithic integration for optical signal processing applications.

  5. All-optical signal processing using dynamic Brillouin gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santagiustina, Marco; Chin, Sanghoon; Primerov, Nicolay; Ursini, Leonora; Thévenaz, Luc

    2013-04-01

    The manipulation of dynamic Brillouin gratings in optical fibers is demonstrated to be an extremely flexible technique to achieve, with a single experimental setup, several all-optical signal processing functions. In particular, all-optical time differentiation, time integration and true time reversal are theoretically predicted, and then numerically and experimentally demonstrated. The technique can be exploited to process both photonic and ultra-wide band microwave signals, so enabling many applications in photonics and in radio science.

  6. All-optical signal processing using dynamic Brillouin gratings

    PubMed Central

    Santagiustina, Marco; Chin, Sanghoon; Primerov, Nicolay; Ursini, Leonora; Thévenaz, Luc

    2013-01-01

    The manipulation of dynamic Brillouin gratings in optical fibers is demonstrated to be an extremely flexible technique to achieve, with a single experimental setup, several all-optical signal processing functions. In particular, all-optical time differentiation, time integration and true time reversal are theoretically predicted, and then numerically and experimentally demonstrated. The technique can be exploited to process both photonic and ultra-wide band microwave signals, so enabling many applications in photonics and in radio science. PMID:23549159

  7. Non-Invasive Optical Biosensor for Probing Cell Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Ye

    2007-01-01

    Cell signaling mediated through a cellular target is encoded by spatial and temporal dynamics of downstream signaling networks. The coupling of temporal dynamics with spatial gradients of signaling activities guides cellular responses upon stimulation. Monitoring the integration of cell signaling in real time, if realized, would provide a new dimension for understanding cell biology and physiology. Optical biosensors including resonant waveguide grating (RWG) biosensor manifest a physiologically relevant and integrated cellular response related to dynamic redistribution of cellular matters, thus providing a non-invasive means for cell signaling study. This paper reviews recent progresses in biosensor instrumentation, and theoretical considerations and potential applications of optical biosensors for whole cell sensing.

  8. Advances in white-light optical signal processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, F. T. S.

    1984-01-01

    A technique that permits signal processing operations which can be carried out by white light source is described. The method performs signal processing that obeys the concept of coherent light rather than incoherent optics. Since the white light source contains all the color wavelengths of the visible light, the technique is very suitable for color signal processing.

  9. Transmission of RF Signals Over Optical Fiber for Avionics Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slaveski, Filip; Sluss, James, Jr.; Atiquzzaman, Mohammed; Hung, Nguyen; Ngo, Duc

    2002-01-01

    During flight, aircraft avionics transmit and receive RF signals to/from antennas over coaxial cables. As the density and complexity of onboard avionics increases, the electromagnetic interference (EM) environment degrades proportionately, leading to decreasing signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) and potential safety concerns. The coaxial cables are inherently lossy, limiting the RF signal bandwidth while adding considerable weight. To overcome these limitations, we have investigated a fiber optic communications link for aircraft that utilizes wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) to support the simultaneous transmission of multiple signals (including RF) over a single optical fiber. Optical fiber has many advantages over coaxial cable, particularly lower loss, greater bandwidth, and immunity to EM. In this paper, we demonstrate that WDM can be successfully used to transmit multiple RF signals over a single optical fiber with no appreciable signal degradation. We investigate the transmission of FM and AM analog modulated signals, as well as FSK digital modulated signals, over a fiber optic link (FOL) employing WDM. We present measurements of power loss, delay, SNR, carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR), total harmonic distortion (THD), and bit error rate (BER). Our experimental results indicate that WDM is a fiber optic technology suitable for avionics applications.

  10. An Intrinsic Fiber-Optic Sensor for Structure Lightning Current Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Truong X.; Ely, Jay J.; Szatkowski, George N.; Mata, Carlos T.; Mata, Angel. G.; Snyder, Gary P.

    2014-01-01

    An intrinsic optical-fiber sensor based on Faraday Effect is developed that is highly suitable for measuring lightning current on aircraft, towers and complex structures. Originally developed specifically for aircraft installations, it is light-weight, non-conducting, structure conforming, and is immune to electromagnetic interference, hysteresis and saturation. It can measure total current down to DC. When used on lightning towers, the sensor can help validate other sensors and lightning detection network measurements. Faraday Effect causes light polarization to rotate when the fiber is exposed to a magnetic field in the direction of light propagation. Thus, the magnetic field strength can be determined from the light polarization change. By forming closed fiber loops and applying Ampere's law, measuring the total light rotation yields the total current enclosed. A broadband, dual-detector, reflective polarimetric scheme allows measurement of both DC component and AC waveforms with a 60 dB dynamic range. Two systems were built that are similar in design but with slightly different sensitivities. The 1310nm laser system can measure 300 A - 300 kA, and has a 15m long sensing fiber. It was used in laboratory testing, including measuring current on an aluminum structure simulating an aircraft fuselage or a lightning tower. High current capabilities were demonstrated up to 200 kA at a lightning test facility. The 1550nm laser system can measure 400 A - 400 kA and has a 25m fiber length. Used in field measurements, excellent results were achieved in the summer of 2012 measuring rocket-triggered lightning at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing (ICLRT), Camp Blanding, Florida. In both systems increased sensitivity can be achieved with multiple fiber loops. The fiber optic sensor provides many unique capabilities not currently possible with traditional sensors. It represents an important new tool for lightning current measurement where low weight

  11. Intrinsic fiber optic absorption sensors for the detection of volatile organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Klunder, G.L.; Russo, R.E.

    1994-12-31

    Extensive contamination of ground water from organic solvents has placed a large emphasis on the development of instruments for remote in-situ sensing. Fiber optic chemical sensors (FOCSs) have made a great deal of progress in this area. The authors have investigated two intrinsic FOCSs for the detection of volatile organic compounds. One is based on evanescent wave absorption and the other is a direct absorption core-based sensor. Both sensors make use of silicone polymers as selective membranes to extract the volatile analyte from the aqueous solution for analysis in the NIR. The rate limiting step for analyte diffusion into the membrane has been determined to be diffusion through the Nernstian boundary. With each sensor, the times required to reach an equilibrium response are on the order of 30 minutes for 20 ppm aqueous solution of trichloroethylene. Headspace measurements are much faster and reach equilibrium in 3-5 minutes. A comparison of the two sensors, detection limits, diffusion rates and effects of temperature will be discussed.

  12. Rotating optical coupler for signal transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivie, C. V.

    1977-01-01

    Optical coupler using Dove prism assembly to form stationary image of rotating object, transmits data across rotating interface without sliprings or other mechanical contacts. Device can handle many high-bit-rate data channels.

  13. Optical Frequency Upconversion Technique for Transmission of Wireless MIMO-Type Signals over Optical Fiber

    PubMed Central

    Shaddad, R. Q.; Mohammad, A. B.; Al-Gailani, S. A.; Al-Hetar, A. M.

    2014-01-01

    The optical fiber is well adapted to pass multiple wireless signals having different carrier frequencies by using radio-over-fiber (ROF) technique. However, multiple wireless signals which have the same carrier frequency cannot propagate over a single optical fiber, such as wireless multi-input multi-output (MIMO) signals feeding multiple antennas in the fiber wireless (FiWi) system. A novel optical frequency upconversion (OFU) technique is proposed to solve this problem. In this paper, the novel OFU approach is used to transmit three wireless MIMO signals over a 20 km standard single mode fiber (SMF). The OFU technique exploits one optical source to produce multiple wavelengths by delivering it to a LiNbO3 external optical modulator. The wireless MIMO signals are then modulated by LiNbO3 optical intensity modulators separately using the generated optical carriers from the OFU process. These modulators use the optical single-sideband with carrier (OSSB+C) modulation scheme to optimize the system performance against the fiber dispersion effect. Each wireless MIMO signal is with a 2.4 GHz or 5 GHz carrier frequency, 1 Gb/s data rate, and 16-quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM). The crosstalk between the wireless MIMO signals is highly suppressed, since each wireless MIMO signal is carried on a specific optical wavelength. PMID:24772009

  14. Differentiating space-time optical signals using resonant nanophotonics structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emelyanov, S. V.; Bykov, D. A.; Golovastikov, N. V.; Doskolovich, L. L.; Soifer, V. A.

    2016-03-01

    A theoretical description of the space-time transformations of an optical signal, which passes through resonant gratings and Bragg gratings with a defect, is proposed. The problem of differentiating a space-time optical signal using a resonant grating has been solved. The strict solution to the Maxwell equations using the Fourier modal method is involved to determine the parameters of the transfer function of the resonant diffraction structure and to carry out numerical modeling, which has confirmed the proposed theoretical description.

  15. All-optical microwave signal processing based on optical phase modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Fei

    This thesis presents a theoretical and experimental study of optical phase modulation and its applications in all-optical microwave signal processing, which include all-optical microwave filtering, all-optical microwave mixing, optical code-division multiple-access (CDMA) coding, and ultrawideband (UWB) signal generation. All-optical microwave signal processing can be considered as the use of opto-electronic devices and systems to process microwave signals in the optical domain, which provides several significant advantages such as low loss, low dispersion, light weight, high time bandwidth products, and immunity to electromagnetic interference. In conventional approaches, the intensity of an optical carrier is modulated by a microwave signal based on direct modulation or external modulation. The intensity-modulated optical signal is then fed to a photonic circuit or system to achieve specific signal processing functionalities. The microwave signal being processed is usually obtained based on direct detection, i.e., an opto-electronic conversion by use of a photodiode. In this thesis, the research efforts are focused on the optical phase modulation and its applications in all-optical microwave signal processing. To avoid using coherent detection which is complicated and costly, simple and effective phase modulation to intensity modulation (PM-IM) conversion schemes are pursued. Based on a theoretical study of optical phase modulation, two approaches to achieving PM-IM conversions are proposed. In the first approach, the use of chromatic dispersion induced by a dispersive device to alter the phase relationships among the sidebands and the optical carrier of a phase-modulated optical signal to realize PM-IM conversion is investigated. In the second approach, instead of using a dispersive device, the PM-IM conversion is realized based on optical frequency discrimination implemented using an optical filter. We show that the proposed PM-IM conversion schemes can be

  16. System and method for linearly amplifying optical analog signals by backward Raman scattering

    DOEpatents

    Lin, Cheng-Heui

    1988-07-05

    A system for linearly amplifying an optical analog signal by backward stimulated Raman scattering comprises a laser source for generating a pump pulse; and an optic fiber having two opposed apertures, a first aperture for receiving the pump pulse and a second aperture for receiving the optical analog signal, wherein the optical analog signal is linearly amplified to an amplified optical analog signal.

  17. System and method for linearly amplifying optical analog signals by backward Raman scattering

    DOEpatents

    Lin, Cheng-Heui

    1988-01-01

    A system for linearly amplifying an optical analog signal by backward stimulated Raman scattering comprises a laser source for generating a pump pulse; and an optic fiber having two opposed apertures, a first aperture for receiving the pump pulse and a second aperture for receiving the optical analog signal, wherein the optical analog signal is linearly amplified to an amplified optical analog signal.

  18. Distributing Frequency And Time Signals On Optical Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutes, George F.

    1993-01-01

    Paper reports progress in distribution of frequency and time reference signals over optical fibers. Describes current performance at frequencies of 100 MHz, 1 GHz, and 8.4 GHz. Also describes transmitting and receiving equipment and discusses tradeoff between cost and performance. Concludes with discussion of likely future development and effects of developments on systems using distributed frequency reference signals.

  19. Optical signal acquisition and processing in future accelerator diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, G.P. ); Elliott, A. )

    1992-01-01

    Beam detectors such as striplines and wall current monitors rely on matched electrical networks to transmit and process beam information. Frequency bandwidth, noise immunity, reflections, and signal to noise ratio are considerations that require compromises limiting the quality of the measurement. Recent advances in fiber optics related technologies have made it possible to acquire and process beam signals in the optical domain. This paper describes recent developments in the application of these technologies to accelerator beam diagnostics. The design and construction of an optical notch filter used for a stochastic cooling system is used as an example. Conceptual ideas for future beam detectors are also presented.

  20. Optical signal acquisition and processing in future accelerator diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, G.P.; Elliott, A.

    1992-12-31

    Beam detectors such as striplines and wall current monitors rely on matched electrical networks to transmit and process beam information. Frequency bandwidth, noise immunity, reflections, and signal to noise ratio are considerations that require compromises limiting the quality of the measurement. Recent advances in fiber optics related technologies have made it possible to acquire and process beam signals in the optical domain. This paper describes recent developments in the application of these technologies to accelerator beam diagnostics. The design and construction of an optical notch filter used for a stochastic cooling system is used as an example. Conceptual ideas for future beam detectors are also presented.

  1. Concentric core optical fiber with multiple-mode signal transmission

    DOEpatents

    Muhs, Jeffrey D.

    1997-01-01

    A concentric core optical fiber provides for the simultaneous but independent transmission of signals over a single optical fiber. The concentric optical fiber is constructed of a single-mode or multimode inner optical fiber defined by a core and a cladding of a lower index of refraction than the core and an outer optical fiber defined by additional cladding concentrically disposed around the cladding and of an index of refraction lower than the first mentioned cladding whereby the latter functions as the core of the outer optical fiber. By employing such an optical fiber construction with a single-mode inner core or optical fiber, highly sensitive interferometric and stable less sensitive amplitude based sensors can be placed along the same length of a concentric core optical fiber. Also, by employing the concentric core optical fiber secure telecommunications can be achieved via the inner optical fiber since an intrusion of the concentric optical fiber will first cause a variation in the light being transmitted through the outer optical fiber and this variation of light being used to trigger a suitable alarm indicative of the intrusion.

  2. Concentric core optical fiber with multiple-mode signal transmission

    DOEpatents

    Muhs, J.D.

    1997-05-06

    A concentric core optical fiber provides for the simultaneous but independent transmission of signals over a single optical fiber. The concentric optical fiber is constructed of a single-mode or multimode inner optical fiber defined by a core and a cladding of a lower index of refraction than the core and an outer optical fiber defined by additional cladding concentrically disposed around the cladding and of an index of refraction lower than the first mentioned cladding whereby the latter functions as the core of the outer optical fiber. By employing such an optical fiber construction with a single-mode inner core or optical fiber, highly sensitive interferometric and stable less sensitive amplitude based sensors can be placed along the same length of a concentric core optical fiber. Also, by employing the concentric core optical fiber secure telecommunications can be achieved via the inner optical fiber since an intrusion of the concentric optical fiber will first cause a variation in the light being transmitted through the outer optical fiber and this variation of light being used to trigger a suitable alarm indicative of the intrusion. 3 figs.

  3. Nonlinear optical polymers for electro-optic signal processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsay, Geoffrey A.

    1991-01-01

    Photonics is an emerging technology, slated for rapid growth in communications systems, sensors, imagers, and computers. Its growth is driven by the need for speed, reliability, and low cost. New nonlinear polymeric materials will be a key technology in the new wave of photonics devices. Electron-conjubated polymeric materials offer large electro-optic figures of merit, ease of processing into films and fibers, ruggedness, low cost, and a plethora of design options. Several new broad classes of second-order nonlinear optical polymers were developed at the Navy's Michelson Laboratory at China Lake, California. Polar alignment in thin film waveguides was achieved by electric-field poling and Langmuir-Blodgett processing. Our polymers have high softening temperatures and good aging properties. While most of the films can be photobleached with ultraviolet (UV) light, some have excellent stability in the 500-1600 nm range, and UV stability in the 290-310 nm range. The optical nonlinear response of these polymers is subpicosecond. Electro-optic switches, frequency doublers, light modulators, and optical data storage media are some of the device applications anticipated for these polymers.

  4. Method for enhancing signals transmitted over optical fibers

    DOEpatents

    Ogle, J.W.; Lyons, P.B.

    1981-02-11

    A method for spectral equalization of high frequency spectrally broadband signals transmitted through an optical fiber is disclosed. The broadband signal input is first dispersed by a grating. Narrow spectral components are collected into an array of equalizing fibers. The fibers serve as optical delay lines compensating for material dispersion of each spectral component during transmission. The relative lengths of the individual equalizing fibers are selected to compensate for such prior dispersion. The output of the equalizing fibers couple the spectrally equalized light onto a suitable detector for subsequent electronic processing of the enhanced broadband signal.

  5. Method for enhancing signals transmitted over optical fibers

    DOEpatents

    Ogle, James W.; Lyons, Peter B.

    1983-01-01

    A method for spectral equalization of high frequency spectrally broadband signals transmitted through an optical fiber. The broadband signal input is first dispersed by a grating. Narrow spectral components are collected into an array of equalizing fibers. The fibers serve as optical delay lines compensating for material dispersion of each spectral component during transmission. The relative lengths of the individual equalizing fibers are selected to compensate for such prior dispersion. The output of the equalizing fibers couple the spectrally equalized light onto a suitable detector for subsequent electronic processing of the enhanced broadband signal.

  6. Sensing RF signals with the optical wideband converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valley, George C.; Sefler, George A.; Shaw, T. J.

    2013-01-01

    The optical wideband converter (OWC) is a system for measuring properties of RF signals in the GHz band without use of high speed electronics. In the OWC the RF signal is modulated on a repetitively pulsed optical field with a large wavelength chirp, the optical field is diffracted onto a spatial light modulator (SLM) whose pixels are modulated with a pseudo-random bit sequences (PRBSs), and finally the optical field is directed to a photodiode and the resulting current integrated for each PRBS. When the number of PRBSs and measurements equals the number of SLM pixels, the RF signal can be obtained in principle by multiplying the measurement vector by the inverse of the square matrix given by the PRBSs and the properties of the optics. When the number of measurements is smaller than the number of pixels, a compressive sensing (CS) measurement can be performed, and sparse RF signals can be obtained using one of the standard CS recovery algorithms such as the penalized l1 norm (also known as basis pursuit) or one of the variants of matching pursuit. Accurate reconstruction of RF signals requires good calibration of the OWC. In this paper, we present results using the OWC for RF signals consisting of 2 sinusoids recovered using 3 techniques (matrix inversion, basis pursuit, and matching pursuit). We compare results obtained with orthogonal matching pursuit with nonlinear least squares to basis pursuit with an over-complete dictionary.

  7. Down-Regulation of AKT Signalling by Ursolic Acid Induces Intrinsic Apoptosis and Sensitization to Doxorubicin in Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Villar, Victor Hugo; Vögler, Oliver; Barceló, Francisca; Martín-Broto, Javier; Martínez-Serra, Jordi; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Alemany, Regina

    2016-01-01

    Several important biological activities have been attributed to the pentacyclic triterpene ursolic acid (UA), being its antitumoral effect extensively studied in human adenocarcinomas. In this work, we focused on the efficacy and molecular mechanisms involved in the antitumoral effects of UA, as single agent or combined with doxorubicin (DXR), in human soft tissue sarcoma cells. UA (5–50 μM) strongly inhibited (up to 80%) the viability of STS cells at 24 h and its proliferation in soft agar, with higher concentrations increasing apoptotic death up to 30%. UA treatment (6–9 h) strongly blocked the survival AKT/GSK3β/β-catenin signalling pathway, which led to a concomitant reduction of the anti-apoptotic proteins c-Myc and p21, altogether resulting in the activation of intrinsic apoptosis. Interestingly, UA at low concentrations (10–15 μM) enhanced the antitumoral effects of DXR by up to 2-fold, while in parallel inhibiting DXR-induced AKT activation and p21 expression, two proteins implicated in antitumoral drug resistance and cell survival. In conclusion, UA is able to induce intrinsic apoptosis in human STS cells and also to sensitize these cells to DXR by blocking the AKT signalling pathway. Therefore, UA may have beneficial effects, if used as nutraceutical adjuvant during standard chemotherapy treatment of STS. PMID:27219337

  8. Down-Regulation of AKT Signalling by Ursolic Acid Induces Intrinsic Apoptosis and Sensitization to Doxorubicin in Soft Tissue Sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Villar, Victor Hugo; Vögler, Oliver; Barceló, Francisca; Martín-Broto, Javier; Martínez-Serra, Jordi; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Alemany, Regina

    2016-01-01

    Several important biological activities have been attributed to the pentacyclic triterpene ursolic acid (UA), being its antitumoral effect extensively studied in human adenocarcinomas. In this work, we focused on the efficacy and molecular mechanisms involved in the antitumoral effects of UA, as single agent or combined with doxorubicin (DXR), in human soft tissue sarcoma cells. UA (5-50 μM) strongly inhibited (up to 80%) the viability of STS cells at 24 h and its proliferation in soft agar, with higher concentrations increasing apoptotic death up to 30%. UA treatment (6-9 h) strongly blocked the survival AKT/GSK3β/β-catenin signalling pathway, which led to a concomitant reduction of the anti-apoptotic proteins c-Myc and p21, altogether resulting in the activation of intrinsic apoptosis. Interestingly, UA at low concentrations (10-15 μM) enhanced the antitumoral effects of DXR by up to 2-fold, while in parallel inhibiting DXR-induced AKT activation and p21 expression, two proteins implicated in antitumoral drug resistance and cell survival. In conclusion, UA is able to induce intrinsic apoptosis in human STS cells and also to sensitize these cells to DXR by blocking the AKT signalling pathway. Therefore, UA may have beneficial effects, if used as nutraceutical adjuvant during standard chemotherapy treatment of STS. PMID:27219337

  9. Intrinsic noise, dissipation cost, and robustness of cellular networks: The underlying energy landscape of MAPK signal transduction

    PubMed Central

    Lapidus, Saul; Han, Bo; Wang, Jin

    2008-01-01

    We develop a probabilistic method for analyzing global features of a cellular network under intrinsic statistical fluctuations, which is important when there are finite numbers of molecules. By making a self-consistent mean field approximation of splitting the variables in order to reduce the large number of degrees of freedom, which is reasonable for a not very strongly interacting network, we discovered that the underlying energy landscape of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) signal transduction network (with experimentally measured or inferred parameters such as chemical reaction rate coefficients in the network) is funneled toward a global minimum characterized by the nonequilibrium steady-state fixed point of the system at the end of the signal transduction process. For this system, we also show that the energy landscape is robust against intrinsic fluctuations and random perturbation to the inherent chemical reaction rates. The ratio of the slope versus the roughness of the energy landscape becomes a quantitative measure of robustness and stability of the network. Furthermore, we quantify the dissipation cost of this nonequilibrium system through entropy production, caused by the nonequilibrium flux in the system. We found that a lower dissipation cost corresponds to a more robust network. This least dissipation property might provide a design principle for robust and functional networks. Finally, we find the possibility of bistable and oscillatory-like solutions, which are important for cell fate decisions, upon perturbations. The method described here can be used in a variety of biological networks. PMID:18420822

  10. Nonlinear fiber applications for ultrafast all-optical signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravtsov, Konstantin

    In the present dissertation different aspects of all-optical signal processing, enabled by the use of nonlinear fibers, are studied. In particular, we focus on applications of a novel heavily GeO2-doped (HD) nonlinear fiber, that appears to be superior to many other types of nonlinear fibers because of its high nonlinearity and suitability for the use in nonlinear optical loop mirrors (NOLMs). Different functions, such as all-optical switching, thresholding, and wavelength conversion, are demonstrated with the HD fibers in the NOLM configuration. These basic functions are later used for realization of ultrafast time-domain demultiplexers, clock recovery, detectors of short pulses in stealth communications, and primitive elements for analog computations. Another important technology that benefits from the use of nonlinear fiber-based signal processing is optical code-division multiple access (CDMA). It is shown in both theory and experiment that all-optical thresholding is a unique way of improving existing detection methods for optical CDMA. Also, it is the way of implementation of true asynchronous optical spread-spectrum networks, which allows full realization of optical CDMA potential. Some aspects of quantum signal processing and manipulation of quantum states are also studied in this work. It is shown that propagation and collisions of Thirring solitons lead to a substantial squeezing of quantum states, which may find applications for generation of squeezed light.

  11. The Potential of Brittle Star Extracted Polysaccharide in Promoting Apoptosis via Intrinsic Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Baharara, Javad; Amini, Elaheh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Anti-cancer potential of marine natural products such as polysaccharides represented therapeutic potential in oncological researches. In this study, total polysaccharide from brittle star [Ophiocoma erinaceus (O. erinaceus)] was extracted and chemopreventive efficacy of Persian Gulf brittle star polysaccharide was investigated in HeLa human cervical cancer cells. Methods: To extract polysaccharide, dried brittle stars were ground and extracted mechanically. Then, detection of polysaccharide was performed by phenol sulfuric acid, Ultra Violet (UV)-sulfuric acid method and FTIR. The anti proliferative activity of isolated polysaccharide was examined by MTT assay and evaluation of cell death was done through morphological cell changes; Propodium Iodide staining, fluorescence microscopy and caspase-3, -9 enzymatic measurements. To assess its underlying mechanism, expression of Bax, Bcl-2 was evaluated. Results: The polysaccharide detection methods demonstrated isolation of crude polysaccharide from Persian Gulf brittle star. The results revealed that O. erinaceus polysaccharide suppressed the proliferation of HeLa cells in a dose and time dependent manner. Morphological observation of DAPI and Acridine Orange/Propodium Iodide staining was documented by typical characteristics of apoptotic cell death. Flow cytometry analyses exhibited the accumulation of treated cells in sub-G1 region. Additionally, polysaccharide extracted induced intrinsic apoptosis via up-regulation of caspase-3, caspase-9 and Bax along with down-regulation of Bcl-2 in HeLa cells. Conclusion: Taken together, the apoptosis inducing effect of brittle star polysaccharide via intrinsic pathway confirmed the anti tumor potential of marine polysaccharide. Therefore, these findings proposed new insight into anti cancer properties of brittle star polysaccharide as a promising agent in cervical cancer treatment. PMID:26605009

  12. Hybrid integrated optic modules for real-time signal processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, C. S.

    1984-01-01

    The most recent progress on four relatively new hybrid integrated optic device modules in LiNbO3 waveguides and one in YIG/GGG waveguide that are currently being studied are discussed. The five hybrid modules include a time-integrating acoustooptic correlator, a channel waveguide acoustooptic frequency shifter/modulator, an electrooptic channel waveguide total internal reflection moculator/switch, an electrooptic analog-to-digital converter using a Fabry-Perot modulator array, and a noncollinear magnetooptic modulator using magnetostatic surface waves. All of these devices possess the desirable characteristics of very large bandwidth (GHz or higher), very small substrate size along the optical path (typically 1.5 cm or less), single-mode optical propagation, and low drive power requirement. The devices utilize either acoustooptic, electrooptic or magnetooptic effects in planar or channel waveguides and, therefore, act as efficient interface devices between a light wave and temporal signals. Major areas of application lie in wideband multichannel optical real-time signal processing and communications. Some of the specific applications include spectral analysis and correlation of radio frequency (RF) signals, fiber-optic sensing, optical computing and multiport switching/routing, and analog-to-digital conversion of wide RF signals.

  13. Region-specific regulation of voltage-gated intrinsic currents in the developing optic tectum of the Xenopus tadpole.

    PubMed

    Hamodi, Ali S; Pratt, Kara G

    2014-10-01

    Across the rostrocaudal (RC) axis of the Xenopus tadpole optic tectum exists a developmental gradient. This gradient has served as a useful model to study many aspects of synapse and dendrite maturation. To compliment these studies, we characterized how the intrinsic excitability, the ease in which a neuron can fire action potentials, might also be changing across the same axis. Whole-cell recordings from tectal neurons at different points along the RC axis revealed a graded increase in intrinsic excitability: compared with neurons at the caudal end of the tectum, neurons at the rostral end fired more action potentials in response to current injection and expressed greater peak Na⁺ and K⁺ currents, the major intrinsic currents in these neurons that underlie the action potential. We also observed, along the same axis and in the same direction, a previously described increase in the amount of synaptic drive received by individual neurons (Wu GY, Malinow R, Cline HT. Science 274: 972-976, 1996). Thus as synaptic activity ramps up across the RC axis, so does intrinsic excitability. The reduction of overall circuit activity induced a compensatory scaling up of peak Na⁺ and K⁺ currents only in the caudal portion of the tectum, suggesting a region-specific, compensatory form of plasticity. PMID:24990560

  14. A novel tunable optical oscillator for broadband signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ajung; Suh, Y. K.

    2012-03-01

    A tunable optical oscillator that generates signals at the micro- to millimeter-wave band for wireless communication applications is suggested. It uses directly modulated semiconductor lasers, in which sideband modes and four-wave mixing (FWM) conjugate modes are injection locked by the simple control of the applied modulation power. The signals at 15 GHz with phase noise of below -95 dBc/Hz at an offset frequency of 100 kHz were experimentally obtained. The frequency of the generated signal is tunable, and the maximum achievable signal frequency is limited mainly by the bandwidth of the receiver.

  15. Nudging oligodendrocyte intrinsic signaling to remyelinate and repair: Estrogen receptor ligand effects.

    PubMed

    Khalaj, Anna J; Hasselmann, Jonathan; Augello, Catherine; Moore, Spencer; Tiwari-Woodruff, Seema K

    2016-06-01

    Demyelination in multiple sclerosis (MS) leads to significant, progressive axonal and neuronal degeneration. Currently existing immunosuppressive and immunomodulatory therapies alleviate MS symptoms and slow, but fail to prevent or reverse, disease progression. Restoration of damaged myelin sheath by replenishment of mature oligodendrocytes (OLs) should not only restore saltatory axon conduction, but also provide a major boost to axon survival. Our previous work has shown that therapeutic treatment with the modestly selective generic estrogen receptor (ER) β agonist diarylpropionitrile (DPN) confers functional neuroprotection in a chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse model of MS by stimulating endogenous remyelination. Recently, we found that the more potent, selective ERβ agonist indazole-chloride (Ind-Cl) improves clinical disease and motor performance. Importantly, electrophysiological measures revealed improved corpus callosal conduction and reduced axon refractoriness. This Ind-Cl treatment-induced functional remyelination was attributable to increased OL progenitor cell (OPC) and mature OL numbers. At the intracellular signaling level, transition of early to late OPCs requires ERK1/2 signaling, and transition of immature to mature OLs requires mTOR signaling; thus, the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway plays a major role in the late stages of OL differentiation and myelination. Indeed, therapeutic treatment of EAE mice with various ERβ agonists results in increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and phosphorylated (p) Akt and p-mTOR levels. It is notable that while DPN's neuroprotective effects occur in the presence of peripheral and central inflammation, Ind-Cl is directly neuroprotective, as demonstrated by remyelination effects in the cuprizone-induced demyelination model, as well as immunomodulatory. Elucidating the mechanisms by which ER agonists and other directly remyelinating agents modulate endogenous OPC and OL regulatory

  16. Clock recovery from 40 Gbps optical signal with optical phase-locked loop based on a terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jhon, Young Min; Ki, Ho Jin; Kim, Sun Ho

    2003-05-01

    10 GHz clock recovery from 40 Gbps optical time-division-multiplexed (OTDM) signal pulses is experimentally demonstrated using optical phase lock loop based on a terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer (TOAD) with a local-reference-oscillator-free electronic feedback circuit. The clock pulse that was used as the control pulse had energy of 800 fJ and the SNR of the time-extracted 10 GHz RF signal to the side components was larger than 40 dB.

  17. Activation of intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in cancer cells by Cymbopogon citratus polysaccharide fractions.

    PubMed

    Thangam, Ramar; Sathuvan, Malairaj; Poongodi, Arasu; Suresh, Veeraperumal; Pazhanichamy, Kalailingam; Sivasubramanian, Srinivasan; Kanipandian, Nagarajan; Ganesan, Nalini; Rengasamy, Ramasamy; Thirumurugan, Ramasamy; Kannan, Soundarapandian

    2014-07-17

    Essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus were already reported to have wide ranging medical and industrial applications. However, information on polysaccharides from the plant and their anticancer activities are limited. In the present study, polysaccharides from C. citratus were extracted and fractionated by anion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. Two different polysaccharide fractions such as F1 and F2 were obtained, and these fractions were found to have distinct acidic polysaccharides as characterized by their molecular weight and sugar content. NMR spectral analysis revealed the presence of (1→4) linked b-d-Xylofuranose moiety in these polysaccharides. Using these polysaccharide fractions F1 and F2, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities were evaluated against cancer cells in vitro and the mechanism of action of the polysaccharides in inducing apoptosis in cancer cells via intrinsic pathway was also proposed. Two different reproductive cancer cells such as Siha and LNCap were employed for in vitro studies on cytotoxicity, induction of apoptosis and apoptotic DNA fragmentation, changes in mitochondrial membrane potential, and profiles of gene and protein expression in response to treatment of cells by the polysaccharide fractions. These polysaccharide fractions exhibited potential cytotoxic and apoptotic effects on carcinoma cells, and they induced apoptosis in these cells through the events of up-regulation of caspase 3, down-regulation of bcl-2 family genes followed by cytochrome c release. PMID:24702929

  18. All-optical UWB signal generation and multicasting using a nonlinear optical loop mirror.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tianye; Li, Jia; Sun, Junqiang; Chen, Lawrence R

    2011-08-15

    An all-optical scheme for ultra-wideband (UWB) signal generation (positive and negative monocycle and doublet pulses) and multicasting using a nonlinear optical loop mirror (NOLM) is proposed and demonstrated. Five UWB signals (1 monocycle and 4 doublet pulses) are generated simultaneously from a single Gaussian optical pulse. The fractional bandwidths of the monocycle pulses are approximately 100% while those of the doublet pulses range from 100% to 133%. The UWB signals are then modulated using a 2(15)-1 pseudorandom bit sequence (PRBS) and error-free performance for each multicast channel is obtained. PMID:21934951

  19. All-optical UWB signal generation and multicasting using a nonlinear optical loop mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Tianye; Li, Jia; Sun, Junqiang; Chen, Lawrence R.

    2011-08-01

    An all-optical scheme for ultra-wideband (UWB) signal generation (positive and negative monocycle and doublet pulses) and multicasting using a nonlinear optical loop mirror (NOLM) is proposed and demonstrated. Five UWB signals (1 monocycle and 4 doublet pulses) are generated simultaneously from a single Gaussian optical pulse. The fractional bandwidths of the monocycle pulses are approximately 100% while those of the doublet pulses range from 100% to 133%. The UWB signals are then modulated using a 215 - 1 pseudorandom bit sequence (PRBS) and error-free performance for each multicast channel is obtained.

  20. Fiber optic signal collection system for primary flight control applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, Sandy L.

    1994-10-01

    The FOPMN is a fiber-optic signal collection system for primary flight control applications. An avionics bay protected electro-optic interface unit transmits light down fiber optic cable to an optical sensor housed in the harsh environment of a hydraulic actuator. The interface unit also receives the sensor's reflected pattern and calculates independent positions from the multiplexed signals. This paper discusses the FOPMN method for fiber-optically sensing and multiplexing two channels of position of a TEF actuator's main ram cylinder. Currently installed in NASA Dryden's SRA F/A-18, the FOPMN has accumulated approximately 15 hours of flight time. A performance comparison is made between the FOPMN positions and the flight control computer's feedback mechanism (the actuator LVDTs). Included is a discussion of some of the lessons learned as a result of testing the FOPMN in the lab and in flight. The FOPMN is well on its way to proving itself as a robust fiber optic system with the ability to multiplex numerous optical sensors for primary flight control. The success of the FOPMN leads to the second phase of the project--optical loop closure. Our goal for this phase is to have four FOPMN sensor channels on the main ram and/or the main control valve of the actuator to serve as the quad redundant feedback mechanism for flight control.

  1. Demonstration of optical steganography transmission using temporal phase coded optical signals with spectral notch filtering.

    PubMed

    Hong, Xuezhi; Wang, Dawei; Xu, Lei; He, Sailing

    2010-06-01

    A novel approach is proposed and experimentally demonstrated for optical steganography transmission in WDM networks using temporal phase coded optical signals with spectral notch filtering. A temporal phase coded stealth channel is temporally and spectrally overlaid onto a public WDM channel. Direct detection of the public channel is achieved in the presence of the stealth channel. The interference from the public channel is suppressed by spectral notching before the detection of the optical stealth signal. The approach is shown to have good compatibility and robustness to the existing WDM network for optical steganography transmission. PMID:20588368

  2. Nonlinear optical signal processing for high-speed, spectrally efficient fiber optic systems and networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bo

    The past decade has witnessed astounding boom in telecommunication network traffic. With the emergence of multimedia over Internet, the high-capacity optical transport systems have started to shift focus from the core network towards the end users. This trend leads to diverse optical networks with transparency and reconfigurability requirement. As single channel data rate continues to increase and channel spacing continues to shrink for high capacity, high spectral efficiency, the workload on conventional electronic signal processing elements in the router nodes continues to build up. Performing signal processing functions in the optical domain can potentially alleviate the speed bottleneck if the unique optical properties are efficiently leveraged to assist electronic processing methodologies. Ultra-high bandwidth capability along with the promise for multi-channel and format-transparent operation make optical signal processing an attractive technology which is expected to have great impact on future optical networks. For optical signal processing applications in fiber-optic network and systems, a laudable goal would be to explore the unique nonlinear optical processes in novel photonic devices. This dissertation investigates novel optical signal processing techniques through simulations and experimental demonstrations, analyzes limitations of these nonlinear processing elements and proposes techniques to enhance the system performance or designs for functional photonic modules. Two key signal-processing building blocks for future optical networks, namely slow-light-based tunable optical delay lines and SOA-based high-speed wavelength converters, are presented in the first part of the dissertation. Phase preserving and spectrally efficient slow light are experimentally demonstrated using advanced modulation formats. Functional and novel photonic modules, such as multi-channel synchronizer and variable-bit-rate optical time division multiplexer are designed and

  3. Activation of cell signaling via optical manipulation of gold-coated liposomes encapsulating signaling molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orsinger, Gabriel V.; Leung, Sarah J.; Romanowski, Marek

    2013-02-01

    Many diseases involve changes in cell signaling cascades, as seen commonly in drug resistant cancers. To better understand these intricate signaling events in diseased cells and tissues, experimental methods of probing cellular communication at a single to multi-cell level are required. We recently introduced a general platform for activation of selected signaling pathways by optically controlled delivery and release of water soluble factors using gold-coated liposomes. In the example presented here, we encapsulated inositol trisphosphate (IP3), a ubiquitous intracellular secondary messenger involved in GPCR and Akt signaling cascades, within 100 nm gold-coated liposomes. The high polarizability of the liposome's unique gold pseudo-shell allows stable optical trapping for subcellular manipulation in the presence of cells. We take this optical manipulation further by optically injecting IP3-containing liposomes into the cytosol of a single cell to initiate localized cell signaling. Upon optical injection of liposomal IP3 into a single ovarian carcinoma cell, we observed localized activation as reported by changes in Indo-1 fluorescence intensity. With established gap junctions between the injected cell and neighboring cells, we monitored propagation of this signaling to and through nearby cells.

  4. Signal simulation and signal processing for multiple reference optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuhaus, Kai; Subhash, Hrebesh; Dsouza, Roshan; Hogan, Josh; Wilson, Carol; Leahy, Martin

    2015-03-01

    The generation of a synthetic MR-OCT signal is presented and compared to a real acquired signal. Multiple reference optical coherence tomography (MR-OCT) is a novel time-domain interferometric system. The MR-OCT principle is adding a partial mirror to extend the axial scan range, which effectively extends the scan depth for imaging. The actuation of the scan mirror required for time-domain OCT, was demonstrated to operate with a low cost miniature voice coil, such as a speaker extracted from a smartphone or CD/DVD pick-up system. Building a compact and cost-effective optical imaging system will enable affordable medical diagnosis at low-resource setting applications. The partial mirror recirculates multiple reflections (orders) into the interferometric system and the increase of optical path delay does increase the beat frequency of the interference signal. The synthesis of such an interference signal using a numerical method is described in this manuscript.

  5. Optical Sensing Circuit Using Low-Temperature Polycrystalline Silicon p-Type Thin-Film Transistors and p-Intrinsic-Metal Diode for Active Matrix Displays with Optical Input Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Han-Sin; Kwon, Oh-Kyong

    2009-03-01

    An optical sensing circuit composed of low-temperature polycrystalline silicon (LTPS) p-type thin-film transistors (TFTs) and a p-intrinsic-metal (p-i-m) diode is proposed for image scanning and touch sensing functions. Because it is a very difficult challenge to integrate both display pixels and optical sensing circuits into the restricted pixel area, the number of additional devices and control signal lines must be minimized. Therefore, two p-type TFTs, one p-i-m diode, one capacitor, and one signal line are added to display pixel for the proposed optical sensing circuit. Active matrix liquid crystal display (AMLCD) and active matrix organic light-emitting diode (AMOLED) pixels with the proposed optical sensing circuit have image scanning and touch sensing functions, respectively. Through the measurement of the proposed circuit under the condition of incident light varying from 0 to 10,000 lx, we verified that the dynamic and output ranges of the proposed circuit are 30 dB and 1.5 V, respectively.

  6. Advanced Integrated Optical Signal Processing Components.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastani, Kasra

    This research was aimed at the development of advanced integrated optical components suitable for devices capable of processing multi-dimensional inputs. In such processors, densely packed waveguide arrays with low crosstalk are needed to provide dissection of the information that has been partially processed. Waveguide arrays also expand the information in the plane of the processor while maintaining its coherence. Rib waveguide arrays with low loss, high mode confinement and highly uniform surface quality (660 elements, 8 μm wide, 1 μm high, and 1 cm long with 2 mu m separations) were fabricated on LiNbO _3 substrates through the ion beam milling technique. A novel feature of the multi-dimensional IO processor architecture proposed herein is the implementation of large area uniform outcoupling (with low to moderate outcoupling efficiencies) from rib waveguide arrays in order to access the third dimension of the processor structure. As a means of outcoupling, uniform surface gratings (2 μm and 4 μm grating periods, 0.05 μm high and 1 mm long) with low outcoupling efficiencies (of approximately 2-18%/mm) were fabricated on the nonuniform surface of the rib waveguide arrays. As a practical technique of modulating the low outcoupling efficiencies of the surface gratings, it was proposed to alter the period of the grating as a function of position along each waveguide. Large aperture (2.5 mm) integrated lenses with short positive focal lengths (1.2-2.5 cm) were developed through a modification of the titanium-indiffused proton exchanged (TIPE) technique. Such integrated lenses were fabricated by increasing the refractive index of the slab waveguides by the TIPE process while maintaining the refractive index of the lenses at the lower level of Ti:LiNbO _3 waveguide. By means of curvature reversal of the integrated lenses, positive focal length lenses have been fabricated while providing high mode confinement for the slab waveguide. The above elements performed as

  7. Fiber fault location utilizing traffic signal in optical network.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Tong; Wang, Anbang; Wang, Yuncai; Zhang, Mingjiang; Chang, Xiaoming; Xiong, Lijuan; Hao, Yi

    2013-10-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a method for fault location in optical communication network. This method utilizes the traffic signal transmitted across the network as probe signal, and then locates the fault by correlation technique. Compared with conventional techniques, our method has a simple structure and low operation expenditure, because no additional device is used, such as light source, modulator and signal generator. The correlation detection in this method overcomes the tradeoff between spatial resolution and measurement range in pulse ranging technique. Moreover, signal extraction process can improve the location result considerably. Experimental results show that we achieve a spatial resolution of 8 cm and detection range of over 23 km with -8-dBm mean launched power in optical network based on synchronous digital hierarchy protocols. PMID:24104308

  8. Compressive sensing of sparse radio frequency signals using optical mixing.

    PubMed

    Valley, George C; Sefler, George A; Shaw, T Justin

    2012-11-15

    We demonstrate an optical mixing system for measuring properties of sparse radio frequency (RF) signals using compressive sensing (CS). Two types of sparse RF signals are investigated: (1) a signal that consists of a few 0.4 ns pulses in a 26.8 ns window and (2) a signal that consists of a few sinusoids at different frequencies. The RF is modulated onto the intensity of a repetitively pulsed, wavelength-chirped optical field, and time-wavelength-space mapping is used to map the optical field onto a 118-pixel, one-dimensional spatial light modulator (SLM). The SLM pixels are programmed with a pseudo-random bit sequence (PRBS) to form one row of the CS measurement matrix, and the optical throughput is integrated with a photodiode to obtain one value of the CS measurement vector. Then the PRBS is changed to form the second row of the mixing matrix and a second value of the measurement vector is obtained. This process is performed 118 times so that we can vary the dimensions of the CS measurement matrix from 1×118 to 118×118 (square). We use the penalized ℓ(1) norm method with stopping parameter λ (also called basis pursuit denoising) to recover pulsed or sinusoidal RF signals as a function of the small dimension of the measurement matrix and stopping parameter. For a square matrix, we also find that penalized ℓ(1) norm recovery performs better than conventional recovery using matrix inversion. PMID:23164876

  9. Interventional nerve visualization via the intrinsic anisotropic optical properties of the nerves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, Kenneth W.; Meijerink, Andries; Chin, Patrick T. K.

    2015-07-01

    We present an optical concept to visualize nerves during surgical interventions. The concept relies on the anisotropic optical properties of the nerves which allows for specific switching of the optical reflection by the nervous tissue. Using a low magnification polarized imaging system we are able to visualize the on and off switching of the optical reflection of the nervous tissue, enabling a non-invasive nerve specific real-time nerve visualization during surgery.

  10. Digital signal processing for fiber-optic thermometers

    SciTech Connect

    Fernicola, V.; Crovini, L.

    1994-12-31

    A digital signal processing scheme for measurement of exponentially-decaying signals, such as those found in fluorescence, lifetime-based, fiber-optic sensors, is proposed. The instrument uses a modified digital phase-sensitive-detection technique with the phase locked to a fixed value and the modulation period tracking the measured lifetime. Typical resolution of the system is 0.05% for slow decay (>500 {mu}s) and 0.1% for fast decay.

  11. Reversible Gating of Plasmonic Coupling for Optical Signal Amplification.

    PubMed

    Khoury, Christopher G; Fales, Andrew M; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2016-07-20

    Amplification of optical signals is useful for a wide variety of applications, ranging from data signal transmission to chemical sensing and biomedical diagnostics. One such application in chemical sensing is surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), an important technique for increasing the Raman signal using the plasmonic effect of enhanced electromagnetic fields associated with metallic nanostructures. One of the most important limitations of SERS-based amplification is the difficulty to reproducibly control the SERS signal. Here, we describe the design and implementation of a unique hybrid system capable of producing reversible gating of plasmonic coupling for Raman signal amplification. The hybrid system is composed of two subsystems: (1) colloidal magneto-plasmonic nanoparticles for SERS enhancement and (2) a micromagnet substrate with an externally applied magnetic field to modulate the colloidal nanoparticles. For this proof of concept demonstration, the nanoparticles were labeled with a Raman-active dye, and it was shown that the detected SERS signal could be reproducibly modulated by controlling the externally applied magnetic field. The developed system provides a simple, robust, inexpensive, and reusable device for SERS signal modulation. These properties will open up new possibilities for optical signal amplification and gating as well for high-throughput, reproducible SERS detection. PMID:27347606

  12. Optical signal processing using photonic reservoir computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehi, Mohammad Reza; Dehyadegari, Louiza

    2014-10-01

    As a new approach to recognition and classification problems, photonic reservoir computing has such advantages as parallel information processing, power efficient and high speed. In this paper, a photonic structure has been proposed for reservoir computing which is investigated using a simple, yet, non-partial noisy time series prediction task. This study includes the application of a suitable topology with self-feedbacks in a network of SOA's - which lends the system a strong memory - and leads to adjusting adequate parameters resulting in perfect recognition accuracy (100%) for noise-free time series, which shows a 3% improvement over previous results. For the classification of noisy time series, the rate of accuracy showed a 4% increase and amounted to 96%. Furthermore, an analytical approach was suggested to solve rate equations which led to a substantial decrease in the simulation time, which is an important parameter in classification of large signals such as speech recognition, and better results came up compared with previous works.

  13. Visible light communications using predistortion signal to enhance the response of passive optical receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Chen, Hung-Yu; Liang, Kevin; Wei, Liang-Yu; Chow, Chi-Wai; Yeh, Chien-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Traditional visible light communication (VLC) uses positive-intrinsic-negative photodiode (PD) or avalanche PD as the optical receivers (Rx). We demonstrate using a solar cell as the VLC Rx. The solar cell is flexible and low cost and converts the optical signal into an electrical signal directly without the need of external power supply. In addition to acting as the VLC passive Rx, the converted electrical signal from the solar cell can charge up the battery of the Rx nodes. Hence, the proposed scheme can be a promising candidate for the future Internet of Things network. However, a solar cell acting as a VLC Rx is very challenging, since the response of the solar cell is limited. Here, we propose and demonstrate using predistortion to significantly enhance the solar cell Rx response for the first time up to the authors' knowledge. Experimental results show that the response of the solar cell Rx is significantly enhanced; and the original 2-kHz detection bandwidth of the solar cell can be enhanced by 250 times for receiving 500-kbit/s VLC signal at a transmission distance of 1 m. The operation principle, the generated voltage by the solar cell, and the maximum data rates achieved at different transmission distances are also studied.

  14. BPSK optical mm-wave signal generation by septupling frequency via a single optical phase modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Peng; Ma, Jianxin

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we have proposed a novel and simple scheme to generate the BPSK optical millimeter wave (MMW) signal with frequency septupling by using an optical phase modulator (PM) and a wavelength selective switch (WSS). In this scheme, the PM is driven by a radio frequency (RF) BPSK signal at the optimized modulation index of 4.89 to assure the 4th and 3rd-order sidebands have equal amplitudes. An wavelength selective switch (WSS) is used to abstract the -4th and +3rd-order sidebands from the spectrum generated by RF BPSK signal modulating the lightwave to form the BPSK optical MMW signal with frequency septupling the driving RF signal. In these two tones, only the +3rd-order sideband bears the BPSK signal while the -4th-order sideband is unmodulated since the phase information is canceled by the even times multiplication of the phase of BPSK signal. The MMW signal can avoid the pulse walk-off effect and the amplitude fading effect caused by the fiber chromatic dispersion. By adjusting the modulation index to assure the two tones have equal amplitude, the generated optical MMW signal has the maximal opto-electrical conversion efficiency and good transmission performance.

  15. Improvement of the signal integrity in diffractive optical encoders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kress, Bernard; Mueller, Ulrich

    2014-09-01

    We are presenting several techniques to improve the quality of the signals in diffractive optics encoders, for either linear and rotational encoders. We have developed previously various hybrid incremental/absolute disk based rotary diffractive encoders architectures. While the binary signals for absolute encoding were usually of sufficiently good quality to retrieve the entire Gray code signal over the desired resolutions (10, 12 or 14 bits), the quality and integrity of the sinusoidal signals for the incremental part of the encoder needed to be improved, since these are the signals allowing the encoder to go to much higher interpolated resolutions (20 bits or over). A good precision over the interpolated signals assumes very accurate sinusoidal profiles form the raw signals. Strong interpolation can only be done on high quality sinusoidal native signals (also referred to as pulses per revolution or PPR). A typical high resolution incremental encoder might provide 12 to 16 native sinusoidal PPRs, but the interpolation over these signals can reach way over 20 bits of resolution if the signals are of good quality.

  16. Jak/Stat Signaling Stimulates Zebrafish Optic Nerve Regeneration and Overcomes the Inhibitory Actions of Socs3 and Sfpq

    PubMed Central

    Elsaeidi, Fairouz; Bemben, Michael A.; Zhao, Xiao-Feng

    2014-01-01

    The regenerative failure of mammalian optic axons is partly mediated by Socs3-dependent inhibition of Jak/Stat signaling (Smith et al., 2009, 2011). Whether Jak/Stat signaling is part of the normal regenerative response observed in animals that exhibit an intrinsic capacity for optic nerve regeneration, such as zebrafish, remains unknown. Nor is it known whether the repression of regenerative inhibitors, such as Socs3, contributes to the robust regenerative response of zebrafish to optic nerve damage. Here we report that Jak/Stat signaling stimulates optic nerve regeneration in zebrafish. We found that IL-6 family cytokines, acting via Gp130-coupled receptors, stimulate Jak/Stat3 signaling in retinal ganglion cells after optic nerve injury. Among these cytokines, we found that CNTF, IL-11, and Clcf1/Crlf1a can stimulate optic axon regrowth. Surprisingly, optic nerve injury stimulated the expression of Socs3 and Sfpq (splicing factor, proline/glutamine rich) that attenuate optic nerve regeneration. These proteins were induced in a Jak/Stat-dependent manner, stimulated each other's expression and suppressed the expression of regeneration-associated genes. In vivo, the injury-dependent induction of Socs3 and Sfpq inhibits optic nerve regeneration but does not block it. We identified a robust induction of multiple cytokine genes in zebrafish retinal ganglion cells that may contribute to their ability to overcome these inhibitory factors. These studies not only identified mechanisms underlying optic nerve regeneration in fish but also suggest new molecular targets for enhancing optic nerve regeneration in mammals. PMID:24523552

  17. Multiphoton microscopy using intrinsic signals for pharmacological studies in unstained cardiac and vascular tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaurepaire, Emmanuel; Boulesteix, Thierry; Pena, Ana-Maria; Pages, Nicole; Senni, Karim; Godeau, Gaston; Sauviat, Martin-Pierre; Schanne-Klein, Marie-Claire

    2005-03-01

    We report two novel applications of multiphoton microscopy for pharmacological studies of unstained cardiovascular tissue. First, we show that second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy of unstained cardiac myocytes can be used to determine the sarcomere length with sub-resolution accuracy, owing to the remarkable contrast of the SHG signal originating from myosin filaments. A measurement precision of 20 nm is achieved, taking the sample variability into account. We used this technique to measure sarcomere contracture in the presence of saxitoxin, and results were in agreement with mechanical measurements of atrial tissue contracture. Second, we characterized multiphoton microscopy of intact unlabeled arteries. We performed simultaneous detection of two-photon-excited fluorescence (2PEF) from elastin laminae and SHG from collagen fibers upon 860 nm excitation. Combined 2PEF/SHG images provide a highly specific, micron scale description of the architecture of these two major components of the vessel wall. We used this methodology to study the effects of lindane (a pesticide) on the artery wall structure and evidenced structural alteration of the vessel morphology.

  18. Intrinsic low pass filtering improves signal-to-noise ratio in critical-point flexure biosensors

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Ankit; Alam, Muhammad Ashraful

    2014-08-25

    A flexure biosensor consists of a suspended beam and a fixed bottom electrode. The adsorption of the target biomolecules on the beam changes its stiffness and results in change of beam's deflection. It is now well established that the sensitivity of sensor is maximized close to the pull-in instability point, where effective stiffness of the beam vanishes. The question: “Do the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the limit-of-detection (LOD) also improve close to the instability point?”, however remains unanswered. In this article, we systematically analyze the noise response to evaluate SNR and establish LOD of critical-point flexure sensors. We find that a flexure sensor acts like an effective low pass filter close to the instability point due to its relatively small resonance frequency, and rejects high frequency noise, leading to improved SNR and LOD. We believe that our conclusions should establish the uniqueness and the technological relevance of critical-point biosensors.

  19. Generation of two-mode optical signals with broadband frequency tunability and low spurious signal level.

    PubMed

    Song, Ho-Jin; Shimizu, Naofumi; Nagatsuma, Tadao

    2007-10-29

    For continuous millimeter and terahertz-wave applications, a two-mode optical signal generation technique that uses two arrayed waveguide gratings and two optical switch units is presented. In addition to easy and fast operation, this scheme offers broadband frequency tunability and high signal purity with a low spurious mode level. Mode spacing, which corresponds to the frequency of the generated MM/THz-wave signal after photomixing, was successfully swept in the range of 200 ~ 550 GHz and the optical spurious mode suppression ratio higher than 25 dBc was achieved. In addition, spurious modes characteristics were investigated by using second harmonic generation (SHG) autocorrelation methods for several frequencies. PMID:19550768

  20. Free space optical communications through clouds: analysis of signal characteristics.

    PubMed

    Wu, Binbin; Hajjarian, Zeinab; Kavehrad, Mohsen

    2008-06-10

    Free space optical communications (FSOC) is a method by which one transmits a modulated beam of light through the atmosphere for broadband applications. Fundamental limitations of FSOC arise from the environment through which light propagates. This work addresses transmitted light beam dispersion (spatial, angular, and temporal dispersion) in FSOC operating as a ground-to-air link when clouds exist along the communications channel. Light signals (photons) transmitted through clouds will interact with the cloud particles. Photon-particle interaction causes dispersion of light signals, which has significant effects on signal attenuation and pulse spread. The correlation between spatial and angular dispersion is investigated as well, which plays an important role on the receiver design. Moreover, the paper indicates that temporal dispersion (pulse spread) and energy loss strongly depend on the aperture size of the receiver, the field-of-view (FOV), and the position of the receiver relative to the optical axis of the transmitter. PMID:18545290

  1. Cordycepin induces apoptosis in human liver cancer HepG2 cells through extrinsic and intrinsic signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Le-Wen; Huang, Li-Hua; Yan, Sheng; Jin, Jian-Di; Ren, Shao-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Cordycepin, also termed 3′-deoxyadenosine, is a nucleoside analogue from Cordyceps sinensis and has been reported to demonstrate numerous biological and pharmacological properties. Our previous study illustrated that the anti-tumor effect of cordycepin may be associated with apoptosis. In the present study, the apoptotic effect of cordycepin on HepG2 cells was investigated using 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, tetraethylbenzimidazolylcarbocyanine iodide and propidium iodide staining analysis and flow cytometry. The results showed that cordycepin exhibited the ability to inhibit HepG2 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner when cells produced typical apoptotic morphological changes, including chromatin condensation, the accumulation of sub-G1 cells and change mitochondrial permeability. A potential mechanism for cordycepin-induced apoptosis of human liver cancer HepG2 cells may occur through the extrinsic signaling pathway mediated by the transmembrane Fas-associated with death domain protein. Apoptosis was also associated with Bcl-2 family protein regulation, leading to altered mitochondrial membrane permeability and resulting in the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol. The activation of the caspase cascade is responsible for the execution of apoptosis. In conclusion, cordycepin-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells involved the extrinsic and intrinsic signaling pathway and was primarily regulated by the Bcl-2 family proteins. PMID:27446383

  2. Probing the effect of intrinsic defects and dopants on the structural evolution and optical properties of ZnO nanocrystallites

    SciTech Connect

    Panda, N. R.; Sahu, D.; Acharya, B. S.; Nayak, P.

    2015-06-24

    Role of intrinsic defects and external impurities in modifying the structural and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures has been studied and discussed. ZnO nanocrystallites doped with B, N and S elements have been prepared by ultrasound assisted wet chemical method. Structural evolution of ZnO in presence of dopant ions has been studied by XRD and electron microscopic measurements. Elemental analysis like XPS has been carried out to ascertain the dopant configuration. A variation in crystallographic parameters and microstructure is found to be observed as impurity is incorporated into ZnO. This has been explained on the basis of the substitution of dopant at Zn{sup 2+} and O{sup −} sites rearranging the lattice. Optical absorption measurements and PL studies reflect a change in band gap of ZnO by impurity adsorption. Most of the cases, the band gap is found to be broadened which has been explained in the line of Moss-Burstein effect. The excitonic emission in ZnO is observed to blue shift supporting the above results and the defect emissions also get modified in terms of position and intensity. New PL bands observed have been assigned to the transitions related to the defect states present in the band gap of ZnO along with intrinsic defects.

  3. Multiple-channel optical signal processing with wavelength-waveform conversions, pulsewidth tunability, and signal regeneration.

    PubMed

    Nguyen Tan, Hung; Matsuura, Motoharu; Katafuchi, Tomoya; Kishi, Naoto

    2009-12-01

    A multiple-channel multiple-function optical signal processor (MCMF-OSP) including wavelength-waveform conversions, pulsewidth tunability, and signal regeneration is realized through AND logic gate based on optical parametric processing with a pulsewidth-tunable RZ clock pump. The proposed scheme simultaneously offers four signal processing functions which are useful in wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) transmission systems, and at network nodes with the necessity for multiple-channel data processing. After the discussions on the concept of MCMF-OSP, a proof-of concept experiment is demonstrated on four 10 Gb/s nonreturn-to-zero (NRZ) data format channels using nonlinearities in semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) and highly nonlinear fiber (HNLF). A wavelength and waveform conversions to return-to-zero (RZ) modulation format are obtained together with pulsewidth-tunable range from 20% to 80% duty cycles for all input signals. The converted signals inherit the timing and waveform of the RZ clock pump, thus resulting in a time regeneration and large tolerance to narrow-band optical filtering (NAOF) and fiber accumulated chromatic dispersion (CD). PMID:20052222

  4. Ultrafast Optical Signal Processing Based Upon Space-Time Dualities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Howe, James; Xu, Chris

    2006-07-01

    The last two decades have seen a wealth of optical instrumentation based upon the concepts of space-time duality. A historical overview of how this beautiful framework has been exploited to develop instruments for optical signal processing is presented. The power of this framework is then demonstrated by reviewing four devices in detail based upon space-time dualities that have been experimentally demonstrated: 1) a time-lens timing-jitter compensator for ultralong-haul dense-wavelength-division-multiplexed dispersion-managed soliton transmission, 2) a multiwavelength pulse generator using time-lens compression, 3) a programmable ultrafast optical delay line by use of a time-prism pair, and 4) an enhanced ultrafast optical delay line by use of soliton propagation between a time-prism pair.

  5. Bacteriorhodopsin films for optical signal processing and data storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walkup, John F. (Principal Investigator); Mehrl, David J. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    This report summarizes the research results obtained on NASA Ames Grant NAG 2-878 entitled 'Investigations of Bacteriorhodopsin Films for Optical Signal Processing and Data Storage.' Specifically we performed research, at Texas Tech University, on applications of Bacteriorhodopisin film to both (1) dynamic spatial filtering and (2) holographic data storage. In addition, measurements of the noise properties of an acousto-optical matrix-vestor multiplier built for NASA Ames by Photonic Systems Inc. were performed at NASA Ames' Photonics Laboratory. This research resulted in two papers presented at major optical data processing conferences and a journal paper which is to appear in APPLIED OPTICS. A new proposal for additional BR research has recently been submitted to NASA Ames Research Center.

  6. Detecting and characterizing infrasound signals with optical fiber infrasound sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Kristoffer; Zumberge, Mark; Berger, Jonathan; Hedlin, Michael; Arrowsmith, Stephen

    2005-04-01

    Optical Fiber Infrasound Sensors (OFIS) are long compliant tubes wrapped with two optical fibers that interferometrically measure the differential pressure variation along the length of the tube. Because each sensor averages spatially along the length of the tube, the frequency response of the recorded pressure variation is a function of the orientation of the OFIS sensor relative to the back azimuth and incidence angle of the incoming wave. We have exploited this property to investigate the ability of various OFIS geometries to determine the back azimuth of infrasound signals. We have found that an OFIS comprised of two orthogonal 89-m-long arms having their centers separated by 63 m can resolve the back azimuth of most infrasound signals with a good signal-to-noise ratio. We find a good match between the back azimuths determined with our technique and those determined for the same signals recorded on the co-located pipe array I57US with the Progressive Multichannel Cross-Correlation technique. Based on these results and additional synthetic tests, we have built and are testing a larger OFIS with several arms that will be able to resolve signals from all directions and with small signal-to-noise ratios.

  7. Signal to noise ratio of free space homodyne coherent optical communication after adaptive optics compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jian; Mei, Haiping; Deng, Ke; Kang, Li; Zhu, Wenyue; Yao, Zhoushi

    2015-12-01

    Designing and evaluating the adaptive optics system for coherent optical communication link through atmosphere requires to distinguish the effects of the residual wavefront and disturbed amplitude to the signal to noise ratio. Based on the new definition of coherent efficiency, a formula of signal to noise ratio for describing the performance of coherent optical communication link after wavefront compensation is derived in the form of amplitude non-uniformity and wavefront error separated. A beam quality metric is deduced mathematically to evaluate the effect of disturbed amplitude to the signal to noise ratio. Experimental results show that the amplitude fluctuation on the receiver aperture may reduce the signal to noise ratio about 24% on average when Fried coherent length r0=16 cm.

  8. Cell-intrinsic gp130 Signaling on CD4+ T cells Shapes Long-lasting Antiviral Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Harker, James A.; Wong, Kurt A.; Dolgoter, Aleksandr; Zuniga, Elina I.

    2015-01-01

    The interleukin-6 (IL-6) cytokine family utilizes the common signal transduction molecule gp130, which can mediate a diverse range of outcomes. To clarify the role of gp130 signaling in vivo during acute viral infection we infected Cd4-cre Il6stfl/fl mice, in which gp130 is conditionally ablated in T cells, with acute lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). We found that by day 12, but not at day 8, post infection the number of virus specific CD4+ T cells was reduced in the absence of gp130, and this was sustained for up to 2 months post infection. Additionally gp130 deficient TFH had lower expression of Maf, IL-21 and ICOS and this was accompanied by a reduction in the proportion of germinal center B cells and plasmablasts. Remarkably, two months post-infection the proportion of IgG2a/c+ memory B cells and the systemic levels of LCMV-specific IgG2 Abs were dramatically decreased, while there was a corresponding increase in IgG1+ memory B cells and virus-specific IgG1 Abs. In the same animals Gp130 deficient virus specific CD8+ T cells showed a reduced proportion of memory cells, which expressed lower levels of Tcf7, and displayed diminished recall responses on secondary infection. Mixed bone marrow chimeras revealed that the aforementioned gp130 effects on CD4+ T cells were cell-intrinsic. Overall our data show that gp130 signaling in T cells influences the quantity and quality of long lasting CD4+ T cell responses as well as CD8+ T cell and antibody mediated immunity after acute viral infection. PMID:26085685

  9. How Intrinsic Molecular Dynamics Control Intramolecular Communication in Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription Factor STAT5

    PubMed Central

    Langenfeld, Florent; Guarracino, Yann; Arock, Michel; Trouvé, Alain; Tchertanov, Luba

    2015-01-01

    Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription STAT5 is a key mediator of cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. While STAT5 activity is tightly regulated in normal cells, its constitutive activation directly contributes to oncogenesis and is associated with a broad range of hematological and solid tumor cancers. Therefore the development of compounds able to modulate pathogenic activation of this protein is a very challenging endeavor. A crucial step of drug design is the understanding of the protein conformational features and the definition of putative binding site(s) for such modulators. Currently, there is no structural data available for human STAT5 and our study is the first footprint towards the description of structure and dynamics of this protein. We investigated structural and dynamical features of the two STAT5 isoforms, STAT5a and STAT5b, taken into account their phosphorylation status. The study was based on the exploration of molecular dynamics simulations by different analytical methods. Despite the overall folding similarity of STAT5 proteins, the MD conformations display specific structural and dynamical features for each protein, indicating first, sequence-encoded structural properties and second, phosphorylation-induced effects which contribute to local and long-distance structural rearrangements interpreted as allosteric event. Further examination of the dynamical coupling between distant sites provides evidence for alternative profiles of the communication pathways inside and between the STAT5 domains. These results add a new insight to the understanding of the crucial role of intrinsic molecular dynamics in mediating intramolecular signaling in STAT5. Two pockets, localized in close proximity to the phosphotyrosine-binding site and adjacent to the channel for communication pathways across STAT5, may constitute valid targets to develop inhibitors able to modulate the function-related communication properties of this signaling

  10. Analog signal processing for optical coherence imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wei

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and optical coherence microscopy (OCM) are non-invasive optical coherence imaging techniques, which enable micron-scale resolution, depth resolved imaging capability. Both OCT and OCM are based on Michelson interferometer theory. They are widely used in ophthalmology, gastroenterology and dermatology, because of their high resolution, safety and low cost. OCT creates cross sectional images whereas OCM obtains en face images. In this dissertation, the design and development of three increasingly complicated analog signal processing (ASP) solutions for optical coherence imaging are presented. The first ASP solution was implemented for a time domain OCT system with a Rapid Scanning Optical Delay line (RSOD)-based optical signal modulation and logarithmic amplifier (Log amp) based demodulation. This OCT system can acquire up to 1600 A-scans per second. The measured dynamic range is 106dB at 200A-scan per second. This OCT signal processing electronics includes an off-the-shelf filter box with a Log amp circuit implemented on a PCB board. The second ASP solution was developed for an OCM system with synchronized modulation and demodulation and compensation for interferometer phase drift. This OCM acquired micron-scale resolution, high dynamic range images at acquisition speeds up to 45,000 pixels/second. This OCM ASP solution is fully custom designed on a perforated circuit board. The third ASP solution was implemented on a single 2.2 mm x 2.2 mm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) chip. This design is expandable to a multiple channel OCT system. A single on-chip CMOS photodetector and ASP channel was used for coherent demodulation in a time domain OCT system. Cross-sectional images were acquired with a dynamic range of 76dB (limited by photodetector responsivity). When incorporated with a bump-bonded InGaAs photodiode with higher responsivity, the expected dynamic range is close to 100dB.

  11. SERODS optical data storage with parallel signal transfer

    DOEpatents

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2003-09-02

    Surface-enhanced Raman optical data storage (SERODS) systems having increased reading and writing speeds, that is, increased data transfer rates, are disclosed. In the various SERODS read and write systems, the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) data is written and read using a two-dimensional process called parallel signal transfer (PST). The various embodiments utilize laser light beam excitation of the SERODS medium, optical filtering, beam imaging, and two-dimensional light detection. Two- and three-dimensional SERODS media are utilized. The SERODS write systems employ either a different laser or a different level of laser power.

  12. SERODS optical data storage with parallel signal transfer

    DOEpatents

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2003-06-24

    Surface-enhanced Raman optical data storage (SERODS) systems having increased reading and writing speeds, that is, increased data transfer rates, are disclosed. In the various SERODS read and write systems, the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) data is written and read using a two-dimensional process called parallel signal transfer (PST). The various embodiments utilize laser light beam excitation of the SERODS medium, optical filtering, beam imaging, and two-dimensional light detection. Two- and three-dimensional SERODS media are utilized. The SERODS write systems employ either a different laser or a different level of laser power.

  13. Causal evidence that intrinsic beta-frequency is relevant for enhanced signal propagation in the motor system as shown through rhythmic TMS

    PubMed Central

    Romei, Vincenzo; Bauer, Markus; Brooks, Joseph L.; Economides, Marcos; Penny, Will; Thut, Gregor; Driver, Jon; Bestmann, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Correlative evidence provides support for the idea that brain oscillations underpin neural computations. Recent work using rhythmic stimulation techniques in humans provide causal evidence but the interactions of these external signals with intrinsic rhythmicity remain unclear. Here, we show that sensorimotor cortex follows externally applied rhythmic TMS (rTMS) stimulation in the beta-band but that the elicited responses are strongest at the intrinsic individual beta peak frequency. While these entrainment effects are of short duration, even subthreshold rTMS pulses propagate through the network and elicit significant cortico-spinal coupling, particularly when stimulated at the individual beta-frequency. Our results show that externally enforced rhythmicity interacts with intrinsic brain rhythms such that the individual peak frequency determines the effect of rTMS. The observed downstream spinal effect at the resonance frequency provides evidence for the causal role of brain rhythms for signal propagation. PMID:26584867

  14. Causal evidence that intrinsic beta-frequency is relevant for enhanced signal propagation in the motor system as shown through rhythmic TMS.

    PubMed

    Romei, Vincenzo; Bauer, Markus; Brooks, Joseph L; Economides, Marcos; Penny, Will; Thut, Gregor; Driver, Jon; Bestmann, Sven

    2016-02-01

    Correlative evidence provides support for the idea that brain oscillations underpin neural computations. Recent work using rhythmic stimulation techniques in humans provide causal evidence but the interactions of these external signals with intrinsic rhythmicity remain unclear. Here, we show that sensorimotor cortex follows externally applied rhythmic TMS (rTMS) stimulation in the beta-band but that the elicited responses are strongest at the intrinsic individual beta peak frequency. While these entrainment effects are of short duration, even subthreshold rTMS pulses propagate through the network and elicit significant cortico-spinal coupling, particularly when stimulated at the individual beta-frequency. Our results show that externally enforced rhythmicity interacts with intrinsic brain rhythms such that the individual peak frequency determines the effect of rTMS. The observed downstream spinal effect at the resonance frequency provides evidence for the causal role of brain rhythms for signal propagation. PMID:26584867

  15. ATMOSUV-CanSat (Atmospheric Thunderstorms's Monitor Optical Signal & UV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvo, David; Navarro-González, Javier; Carrió, Fernando; Blay, Pere; Espinós, Héctor; Connell, Paul; Eyles, Chris; Reglero, Víctor

    2014-05-01

    The ATMOSUV-CanSat is a small instrument aimed to study the Optical and UV signal in a TGF (Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flash) process, as a complementary ground monitor facility in the study of thunderstorms at high altitude in the atmosphere. The main goal is to take complementary data to that of the MXGS/ASIM (Modular X-ray and Gamma-ray Sensor in the Atmosphere-Space Interactions Monitor) mission, taken from the ISS (International Space Station). The detector is planed to be launch in a baloon during severe thunderstorms and take measurements of air conditions and to perform fast imaging with high temporal accuracy. We expect to measure UV emision, optical signal, temperature, presure, and accurate 3D location, with FPGA controlled high velocity imaging devices and sensors.

  16. Toward optical signal processing using photonic reservoir computing.

    PubMed

    Vandoorne, Kristof; Dierckx, Wouter; Schrauwen, Benjamin; Verstraeten, David; Baets, Roel; Bienstman, Peter; Van Campenhout, Jan

    2008-07-21

    We propose photonic reservoir computing as a new approach to optical signal processing in the context of large scale pattern recognition problems. Photonic reservoir computing is a photonic implementation of the recently proposed reservoir computing concept, where the dynamics of a network of nonlinear elements are exploited to perform general signal processing tasks. In our proposed photonic implementation, we employ a network of coupled Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers (SOA) as the basic building blocks for the reservoir. Although they differ in many key respects from traditional software-based hyperbolic tangent reservoirs, we show using simulations that such a photonic reservoir can outperform traditional reservoirs on a benchmark classification task. Moreover, a photonic implementation offers the promise of massively parallel information processing with low power and high speed. PMID:18648434

  17. All-optical quantum random bit generation from intrinsically binary phase of parametric oscillators.

    PubMed

    Marandi, Alireza; Leindecker, Nick C; Vodopyanov, Konstantin L; Byer, Robert L

    2012-08-13

    We demonstrate a novel all-optical quantum random number generator (RNG) based on above-threshold binary phase state selection in a degenerate optical parametric oscillator (OPO). Photodetection is not a part of the random process, and no post processing is required for the generated bit sequence. We show that the outcome is statistically random with 99% confidence, and verify that the randomness is due to the phase of initiating photons generated through spontaneous parametric down conversion of the pump, with negligible contribution of classical noise sources. With the use of micro- and nanoscale OPO resonators, this technique offers a promise for simple, robust, and high-speed on-chip all-optical quantum RNGs. PMID:23038574

  18. High dynamic extinction ratio and pulse modulation of optical signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, A.; Tronev, A. V.; Lebedev, V.; Il'ichev, I. V.; Velichko, E.; Shamray, A.

    2015-11-01

    The use of a saturable absorber for increasing the extinction ratio at external modulation of optical signals is considered. An erbium doped fiber was used as the saturable absorber in the experiments. A considerable increase in the static extinction ratio (up to 50 dB) was demonstrated. A rather long erbium doped fiber relaxation time (about 10 ms) was a limiting factor in the case of pulse modulation. Ways of overcoming this drawback are discussed.

  19. Optical communication system performance with tracking error induced signal fading.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tycz, M.; Fitzmaurice, M. W.; Premo, D. A.

    1973-01-01

    System performance is determined for an optical communication system using noncoherent detection in the presence of tracking error induced signal fading assuming (1) binary on-off modulation (OOK) with both fixed and adaptive threshold receivers, and (2) binary polarization modulation (BPM). BPM is shown to maintain its inherent 2- to 3-dB advantage over OOK when adaptive thresholding is used, and to have a substantially greater advantage when the OOK system is restricted to a fixed decision threshold.

  20. Storage and switching of multiple optical signals among three channels

    SciTech Connect

    Song Xiaoli; Li Aijun; Wang Lei; Kang Zhihui; Kou Jun; Wang Chunliang; Jiang Yun; Gao Jinyue; Zhang Bing

    2009-05-15

    We experimentally and theoretically demonstrate that multioptical signals can be effectively stored and retrieved by fractional stimulated Raman adiabatic passage technique in a tripod-type four-level {sup 87}Rb atomic system. The optical pulses stored can be controllably released into two of the three different channels. The restored pulses have the same frequency, polarization, and propagation direction as the writing pulses. The experimental results fit very well with the numerical simulations.

  1. Coherent Detection of High-Rate Optical PPM Signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilnrotter, Victor; Fernandez, Michela Munoz

    2006-01-01

    A method of coherent detection of high-rate pulse-position modulation (PPM) on a received laser beam has been conceived as a means of reducing the deleterious effects of noise and atmospheric turbulence in free-space optical communication using focal-plane detector array technologies. In comparison with a receiver based on direct detection of the intensity modulation of a PPM signal, a receiver based on the present method of coherent detection performs well at much higher background levels. In principle, the coherent-detection receiver can exhibit quantum-limited performance despite atmospheric turbulence. The key components of such a receiver include standard receiver optics, a laser that serves as a local oscillator, a focal-plane array of photodetectors, and a signal-processing and data-acquisition assembly needed to sample the focal-plane fields and reconstruct the pulsed signal prior to detection. The received PPM-modulated laser beam and the local-oscillator beam are focused onto the photodetector array, where they are mixed in the detection process. The two lasers are of the same or nearly the same frequency. If the two lasers are of different frequencies, then the coherent detection process is characterized as heterodyne and, using traditional heterodyne-detection terminology, the difference between the two laser frequencies is denoted the intermediate frequency (IF). If the two laser beams are of the same frequency and remain aligned in phase, then the coherent detection process is characterized as homodyne (essentially, heterodyne detection at zero IF). As a result of the inherent squaring operation of each photodetector, the output current includes an IF component that contains the signal modulation. The amplitude of the IF component is proportional to the product of the local-oscillator signal amplitude and the PPM signal amplitude. Hence, by using a sufficiently strong local-oscillator signal, one can make the PPM-modulated IF signal strong enough to

  2. Multi-functional optical signal processing using optical spectrum control circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Shuhei; Ikeda, Tatsuhiko; Mizuno, Takayuki; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Tsuda, Hiroyuki

    2015-02-01

    Processing ultra-fast optical signals without optical/electronic conversion is in demand and time-to-space conversion has been proposed as an effective solution. We have designed and fabricated an arrayed-waveguide grating (AWG) based optical spectrum control circuit (OSCC) using silica planar lightwave circuit (PLC) technology. This device is composed of an AWG, tunable phase shifters and a mirror. The principle of signal processing is to spatially decompose the signal's frequency components by using the AWG. Then, the phase of each frequency component is controlled by the tunable phase shifters. Finally, the light is reflected back to the AWG by the mirror and synthesized. Amplitude of each frequency component can be controlled by distributing the power to high diffraction order light. The spectral controlling range of the OSCC is 100 GHz and its resolution is 1.67 GHz. This paper describes equipping the OSCC with optical coded division multiplex (OCDM) encoder/decoder functionality. The encoding principle is to apply certain phase patterns to the signal's frequency components and intentionally disperse the signal. The decoding principle is also to apply certain phase patterns to the frequency components at the receiving side. If the applied phase pattern compensates the intentional dispersion, the waveform is regenerated, but if the pattern is not appropriate, the waveform remains dispersed. We also propose an arbitrary filter function by exploiting the OSCC's amplitude and phase control attributes. For example, a filtered optical signal transmitted through multiple optical nodes that use the wavelength multiplexer/demultiplexer can be equalized.

  3. Intrinsic Differences in the Inner Jets of High and Low Optically Polarized Radio Quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lister, M.; Smith, P.

    2000-01-01

    We have conducted a high-resolution polarization study with the VLBA at 22 and 43 GHz to look for differences in the parsec-scale magnetic field structures of 18 high- and low-optically polarized, compact radio-loud quasars (HPQs and LPRQs, respectively).

  4. Laboratory Studies of Nonlinear Optical Signals for Caries Detection.

    PubMed

    Terrer, E; Panayotov, I V; Slimani, A; Tardivo, D; Gillet, D; Levallois, B; Fejerskov, O; Gergely, C; Cuisinier, F J G; Tassery, H; Cloitre, T

    2016-05-01

    Multiphoton confocal microscopy and nonlinear spectroscopy are used to investigate the caries process in dentin. Although dentin is a major calcified tissue of the teeth, its organic phase comprises type I collagen fibers. Caries drive dentin demineralization and collagen denaturation. Multiphoton microscopy is a powerful imaging technique: the biological materials are transparent to infrared frequencies and can be excited to penetration depths inaccessible to 1-photon confocal microscopy. The laser excitation greatly reduces photodamage to the sole focal region, and the signal-to-noise ratio is improved significantly. The method has been used to follow pathologic processes involving collagen fibrosis or collagen destruction based on their 2-photon excited fluorescence (2PEF) emission and second harmonic generation (SHG). Combining multiphoton imaging with nonlinear spectroscopy, we demonstrate that both 2PEF and SHG intensity of human dentin are strongly modified during the tooth caries process, and we show that the ratio between SHG and 2PEF signals is a reliable parameter to follow dental caries. The ratio of the SHG/2PEF signals measured by nonlinear optical spectroscopy provides valuable information on the caries process, specifically on the degradation of the organic matrix of dentin. The goal is to bring these nonlinear optical signals to clinical application for caries diagnosis. PMID:26826107

  5. Method and means for detecting optically transmitted signals and establishing optical interference pattern between electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Kostenbauder, A.G.

    1988-06-28

    A photodetector for detecting signal pulses transmitted in an optical carrier signal relies on the generation of electron-hole pairs and the diffusion of the generated electrons and holes to the electrodes on the surface of the semiconductor detector body for generating photovoltaic pulses. The detector utilizes the interference of optical waves for generating an electron-hole grating within the semiconductor body, and, by establishing an electron-hole pair maximum at one electrode and a minimum at the other electrode, a detectable voltaic pulse is generated across the electrode. 4 figs.

  6. Method and means for detecting optically transmitted signals and establishing optical interference pattern between electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Kostenbauder, Adnah G.

    1988-01-01

    A photodetector for detecting signal pulses transmitted in an optical carrier signal relies on the generation of electron-hole pairs and the diffusion of the generated electrons and holes to the electrodes on the surface of the semiconductor detector body for generating photovoltaic pulses. The detector utilizes the interference of optical waves for generating an electron-hole grating within the semiconductor body, and, by establishing an electron-hole pair maximum at one electrode and a minimum at the other electrode, a detectable voltaic pulse is generated across the electrode.

  7. Real-time digital signal processing-based optical coherence tomography and Doppler optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Alexander W; Reynolds, J Joshua; Marks, Daniel L; Boppart, Stephen A

    2004-01-01

    We present the development and use of a real-time digital signal processing (DSP)-based optical coherence tomography (OCT) and Doppler OCT system. Images of microstructure and transient fluid-flow profiles are acquired using the DSP architecture for real-time processing of computationally intensive calculations. This acquisition system is readily configurable for a wide range of real-time signal processing and image processing applications in OCT. PMID:14723509

  8. Intrinsic carrier multiplication efficiency in bulk Si crystals evaluated by optical-pump/terahertz-probe spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Yamashita, G.; Nagai, M. E-mail: ashida@mp.es.osaka-u.ac.jp; Ashida, M. E-mail: ashida@mp.es.osaka-u.ac.jp; Matsubara, E.; Kanemitsu, Y.

    2014-12-08

    We estimated the carrier multiplication efficiency in the most common solar-cell material, Si, by using optical-pump/terahertz-probe spectroscopy. Through close analysis of time-resolved data, we extracted the exact number of photoexcited carriers from the sheet carrier density 10 ps after photoexcitation, excluding the influences of spatial diffusion and surface recombination in the time domain. For incident photon energies greater than 4.0 eV, we observed enhanced internal quantum efficiency due to carrier multiplication. The evaluated value of internal quantum efficiency agrees well with the results of photocurrent measurements. This optical method allows us to estimate the carrier multiplication and surface recombination of carriers quantitatively, which are crucial for the design of the solar cells.

  9. The Intersection of the Extrinsic Hedgehog and WNT/Wingless Signals with the Intrinsic Hox Code Underpins Branching Pattern and Tube Shape Diversity in the Drosophila Airways

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Ryo; Hosono, Chie; Saigo, Kaoru; Samakovlis, Christos

    2015-01-01

    The tubular networks of the Drosophila respiratory system and our vasculature show distinct branching patterns and tube shapes in different body regions. These local variations are crucial for organ function and organismal fitness. Organotypic patterns and tube geometries in branched networks are typically controlled by variations of extrinsic signaling but the impact of intrinsic factors on branch patterns and shapes is not well explored. Here, we show that the intersection of extrinsic hedgehog(hh) and WNT/wingless (wg) signaling with the tube-intrinsic Hox code of distinct segments specifies the tube pattern and shape of the Drosophila airways. In the cephalic part of the airways, hh signaling induces expression of the transcription factor (TF) knirps (kni) in the anterior dorsal trunk (DTa1). kni represses the expression of another TF spalt major (salm), making DTa1 a narrow and long tube. In DTa branches of more posterior metameres, Bithorax Complex (BX-C) Hox genes autonomously divert hh signaling from inducing kni, thereby allowing DTa branches to develop as salm-dependent thick and short tubes. Moreover, the differential expression of BX-C genes is partly responsible for the anterior-to-posterior gradual increase of the DT tube diameter through regulating the expression level of Salm, a transcriptional target of WNT/wg signaling. Thus, our results highlight how tube intrinsic differential competence can diversify tube morphology without changing availabilities of extrinsic factors. PMID:25615601

  10. Following intracellular cholesterol transport by linear and non-linear optical microscopy of intrinsically fluorescent sterols.

    PubMed

    Wüstner, Daniel

    2012-02-01

    Elucidation of intracellular cholesterol transport is important for understanding the molecular basis of several metabolic and neuronal diseases, like atheroclerosis or lysosomal storage disorders. Progress in this field depends crucially on the development of new technical approaches to follow the cellular movement of this essential lipid molecule. In this article, a survey of the various methods being used for analysis of sterol trafficking is given. Various classical biochemical methods are presented and their suitability for analysis of sterol trafficking is assessed. Special emphasis is on recent developments in imaging technology to follow the intracellular fate of intrinsically fluorescent sterols as faithful cholesterol markers. In particular, UV-sensitive wide field and multiphoton microscopy of the sterol dehydroergosterol, DHE, is explained and new methods of quantitative image analysis like pixel-wise bleach rate fitting and multiphoton image correlation spectroscopy are introduced. Several applications of the new technology including observation of vectorial sterol trafficking in polarized human hepatoma cells for investigation of reverse cholesterol transport are presented. PMID:21470123

  11. Probing the intrinsic optical Bloch-mode emission from a 3D photonic crystal.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Mei-Li; Bur, James A; Du, Qingguo; John, Sajeev; Lin, Shawn-Yu

    2016-10-14

    We report experimental observation of intrinsic Bloch-mode emission from a 3D tungsten photonic crystal at low thermal excitation. After the successful removal of conventional metallic emission (normal emission), it is possible to make an accurate comparison of the Bloch-mode and the normal emission. For all biases, we found that the emission intensity of the Bloch-mode is higher than that of the normal emission. The Bloch-mode emission also exhibits a slower dependence on [Formula: see text] than that of the normal emission. The observed higher emission intensity and a different T-dependence is attributed to Bloch-mode assisted emission where emitters have been located into a medium having local density of states different than the isotropic case. Furthermore, our finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation shows the presence of localized spots at metal-air boundaries and corners, having intense electric field. The enhanced plasmonic field and local non-equilibrium could induce a strong thermally stimulated emission and may be the cause of our unusual observation. PMID:27606574

  12. A mesospheric airglow multichannel photometer and an optical method to measure mesospheric AGW intrinsic parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangognia, Anthony; Swenson, Gary; Vargas, Fabio; Liu, Alan

    2016-05-01

    A multichannel photometer (MCP) instrument, designed with filters for three specific airglow emissions, OH Meinel (5-1), (6-2), 840 nm; O2 (b) (0,1), 865 nm; and O(1S), 557.7 nm, as well as background, is used to observe atmospheric wave perturbations to layers in the local zenith with high temporal resolution (∼5 s). By measuring the relative phase of propagating waves through the layers, with known altitude separation, we deduce the vertical wavelength. We describe here the instrument attributes, a unique background subtraction technique, and the validation of a new method for determining intrinsic wave parameters via MCP and imager data that can be taken from various platforms, including ground-based and spacecraft platforms. Vertical wavelengths deduced using this method are in close agreement with those measured using LIDAR temperatures as well as those calculated with the dispersion relation using a combination of all-sky imager (horizontal wavelength) and meteor radar (winds) data.

  13. All-optical signal processing at 10 GHz using a photonic crystal molecule

    SciTech Connect

    Combrié, Sylvain; Lehoucq, Gaëlle; Junay, Alexandra; De Rossi, Alfredo; Malaguti, Stefania; Bellanca, Gaetano; Trillo, Stefano; Ménager, Loic; Peter Reithmaier, Johann

    2013-11-04

    We report on 10 GHz operation of an all-optical gate based on an Indium Phosphide Photonic Crystal Molecule. Wavelength conversion and all-optical mixing of microwave signals are demonstrated using the 2 mW output of a mode locked diode laser. The spectral separation of the optical pump and signal is crucial in suppressing optical cross-talk.

  14. Membrane binding mode of intrinsically disordered cytoplasmic domains of T cell receptor signaling subunits depends on lipid composition

    SciTech Connect

    Sigalov, Alexander B.; Hendricks, Gregory M.

    2009-11-13

    Intrinsically disordered cytoplasmic domains of T cell receptor (TCR) signaling subunits including {zeta}{sub cyt} and CD3{epsilon}{sub cyt} all contain one or more copies of an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM), tyrosine residues of which are phosphorylated upon receptor triggering. Membrane binding-induced helical folding of {zeta}{sub cyt} and CD3{epsilon}{sub cyt} ITAMs is thought to control TCR activation. However, the question whether or not lipid binding of {zeta}{sub cyt} and CD3{epsilon}{sub cyt} is necessarily accompanied by a folding transition of ITAMs remains open. In this study, we investigate whether the membrane binding mechanisms of {zeta}{sub cyt} and CD3{epsilon}{sub cyt} depend on the membrane model used. Circular dichroic and fluorescence data indicate that binding of {zeta}{sub cyt} and CD3{epsilon}{sub cyt} to detergent micelles and unstable vesicles is accompanied by a disorder-to-order transition, whereas upon binding to stable vesicles these proteins remain unfolded. Using electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering, we show that upon protein binding, unstable vesicles fuse and rupture. In contrast, stable vesicles remain intact under these conditions. This suggests different membrane binding modes for {zeta}{sub cyt} and CD3{epsilon}{sub cyt} depending on the bilayer stability: (1) coupled binding and folding, and (2) binding without folding. These findings explain the long-standing puzzle in the literature and highlight the importance of the choice of an appropriate membrane model for protein-lipid interactions studies.

  15. A dual-detector optical receiver for PDM signals detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guanyu; Yu, Yu; Zhang, Xinliang

    2016-05-01

    We propose and fabricate a silicon based dual-detector optical receiver, which consists of a two dimensional (2D) grating coupler (GC) and two separate germanium photodetectors (Ge PDs). The 2D GC performs polarization diversity, and thus demultiplexing and detection for polarization division multiplexed (PDM) signals can be achieved. Through a specific design with double-sides illumination, the space charge density can be reduced and the responsivity and saturation power can be improved significantly. The measured dark current, responsivity and bandwidth are 0.86 μA, 1.06 A/W and 36 GHz under 3 V reverse biased voltage, respectively. Both DC currents and eye diagrams are measured for the proposed device and the results validate its performance successfully. The power penalty between the single and dual polarized signals is about 1.9 dB under 10 and 20 Gb/s cases for both the two Ge PDs. The proposed direct detection (DD) for PDM signals with high speed, high responsivity and large saturation power is cost-effective and promising for short reach optical communication.

  16. A dual-detector optical receiver for PDM signals detection

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guanyu; Yu, Yu; Zhang, Xinliang

    2016-01-01

    We propose and fabricate a silicon based dual-detector optical receiver, which consists of a two dimensional (2D) grating coupler (GC) and two separate germanium photodetectors (Ge PDs). The 2D GC performs polarization diversity, and thus demultiplexing and detection for polarization division multiplexed (PDM) signals can be achieved. Through a specific design with double-sides illumination, the space charge density can be reduced and the responsivity and saturation power can be improved significantly. The measured dark current, responsivity and bandwidth are 0.86 μA, 1.06 A/W and 36 GHz under 3 V reverse biased voltage, respectively. Both DC currents and eye diagrams are measured for the proposed device and the results validate its performance successfully. The power penalty between the single and dual polarized signals is about 1.9 dB under 10 and 20 Gb/s cases for both the two Ge PDs. The proposed direct detection (DD) for PDM signals with high speed, high responsivity and large saturation power is cost-effective and promising for short reach optical communication. PMID:27198501

  17. A dual-detector optical receiver for PDM signals detection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guanyu; Yu, Yu; Zhang, Xinliang

    2016-01-01

    We propose and fabricate a silicon based dual-detector optical receiver, which consists of a two dimensional (2D) grating coupler (GC) and two separate germanium photodetectors (Ge PDs). The 2D GC performs polarization diversity, and thus demultiplexing and detection for polarization division multiplexed (PDM) signals can be achieved. Through a specific design with double-sides illumination, the space charge density can be reduced and the responsivity and saturation power can be improved significantly. The measured dark current, responsivity and bandwidth are 0.86 μA, 1.06 A/W and 36 GHz under 3 V reverse biased voltage, respectively. Both DC currents and eye diagrams are measured for the proposed device and the results validate its performance successfully. The power penalty between the single and dual polarized signals is about 1.9 dB under 10 and 20 Gb/s cases for both the two Ge PDs. The proposed direct detection (DD) for PDM signals with high speed, high responsivity and large saturation power is cost-effective and promising for short reach optical communication. PMID:27198501

  18. Simplified optical fiber RGB system in evaluating intrinsic quality of Sala mango

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahaya, Ommi Kalsom Mardziah; Jafri, Mohd. Zubir Mat; Aziz, Azlan Abdul; Omar, Ahmad Fairuz

    2015-06-01

    This study presents an alternative approach for the nondestructive assessment of fruit quality parameters with the use of a simplified optical fiber red-green-blue system (OF-RGB). The optical sensor system presented in this work is designed to rapidly measure the firmness, acidity, and soluble solid content of an intact Sala mango on the basis of color properties. The system consists of three light-emitting diodes with peak emission at 635 (red), 525 (green), and 470 nm (blue), as well as a single photodetector capable of sensing visible light. The measurements were conducted using the reflectance technique. The analyses were conducted by comparing the results obtained through the proposed system with those measured using two commercial spectrometers, namely, QE65000 and FieldSpec 3. The developed RGB system showed satisfactory accuracy in the measurement of acidity (R2=0.795) and firmness (R2=0.761), but a relatively lower accuracy in the measurement of soluble solid content (R2=0.593) of intact mangoes. The results obtained through OF-RGB are comparable with those measured by QE65000 and FieldSpec 3. This system is a promising new technology with rapid response, easy operation, and low cost with potential applications in the nondestructive assessment of quality attributes.

  19. Intrinsic corrections to optical guiding in a free-electron laser: Beam Research Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu-Jiuan; Scharlemann, E. T.; Sessler, A. M.

    The effect on optical guiding of the undulations of an electron beam in a free electron laser (FEL) is investigated. A model for a fully saturated FEL amplifier with no remaining gain is developed. The density of the electron beam includes the effects of both transverse and longitudinal undulation. The longitudinal density modulation is expressed in terms of the Bessel functions of zeta, where zeta = a(sub w)/2(1 + a(sub w)) is the shift of the electron phase in the electron bucket caused by its longitudinal undulation. The transverse density modulation is evaluated to second order in the ratio of undulation amplitude delta r to beam radial scale length r(sub b). The radiation field is calculated in terms of spatial modes proportional to exp(i(k + delta k + lk(sub w)z - iwt)), where l is an arbitrary integer. Here, delta k is the change of the wavenumber of the radiation caused by the electron bunches. Radially radiating modes with intensity on the order of (delta k/k(sub w))zeta sup 2 are found. Optical guiding is modified by the transverse undulations of the beam at second order in delta r(sub b), and by the longitudinal undulations to first order in delta k/k (sub w). For the usual FEL parameters, the correction is quite small.

  20. Optical induction of muscle contraction at the tissue scale through intrinsic cellular amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jonghee; Choi, Myunghwan; Ku, Taeyun; Choi, Won Jong; Choi, Chulhee

    2014-08-01

    The smooth muscle cell is the principal component responsible for involuntary control of visceral organs, including vascular tonicity, secretion, and sphincter regulation. It is known that the neurotransmitters released from nerve endings increase the intracellular Ca(2+) level in smooth muscle cells followed by muscle contraction. We herein report that femtosecond laser pulses focused on the diffraction-limited volume can induce intracellular Ca(2+) increases in the irradiated smooth muscle cell without neurotransmitters, and locally increased intracellular Ca(2+) levels are amplified by calcium-induced calcium-releasing mechanisms through the ryanodine receptor, a Ca(2+) channel of the endoplasmic reticulum. The laser-induced Ca(2+) increases propagate to adjacent cells through gap junctions. Thus, ultrashort-pulsed lasers can induce smooth muscle contraction by controlling Ca(2+), even with optical stimulation of the diffraction-limited volume. This optical method, which leads to reversible and reproducible muscle contraction, can be used in research into muscle dynamics, neuromuscular disease treatment, and nanorobot control. PMID:23650149

  1. Correlating optical damage threshold with intrinsic defect populations in fused silica as a function of heat treatment temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, N.; Matthews, M. J.; Elhadj, S.; Miller, P. E.; Nelson, A. J.; Hamilton, J.

    2013-04-03

    Here, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is used for the production of fused silica optics in high-power laser applications. However, relatively little is known about the ultraviolet laser damage threshold of CVD films and how they relate to intrinsic defects produced during deposition. We present here a study relating structural and electronic defects in CVD films to 355 nm pulsed-laser damage threshold as a function of post-deposition annealing temperature (THT). Plasma-enhanced CVD based on SiH4/N2O under oxygen-rich conditions was used to deposit 1.5, 3.1 and 6.4 µm thick films on etched SiO2 substrates. Rapid annealing was performed using a scanned CO2 laser beam up to THT ~ 2100 K. The films were then characterized using x-ray photoemission spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and photoluminescence spectroscopy. A gradual transition in the damage threshold of annealed films was observed for THT values up to 1600 K, correlating with a decrease in non-bridging silanol and oxygen deficient centres. An additional sharp transition in damage threshold also occurs at ~1850 K indicating substrate annealing. Based on our results, a mechanism for damage-related defect annealing is proposed, and the potential of using high-THT CVD SiO2 to mitigate optical damage is also discussed.

  2. Guest Editorial: Two-Dimensional Optical Signal Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kooij, Theo; Ludman, Jacques E.; Stilwell, P. D., Jr.

    1982-10-01

    When some optical processing systems firms proposed to the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA) and the U.S. Navy some years ago that they could beat the ILLIAC-IV-that venerable supercomputer, which until recently was the world's largest by at least a factor of 100, it sounded too good to be true. But they were right, and they did not even have to try hard. The problem was a two-dimensional (2-D) processing task of generating ambiguity surfaces to test whether two received signals came from a common origin, with unknown time and Doppler shifts. The ILLIAC, going all out as an in-line processor for the Acoustic Research Center near San Francisco, California, could just make a handful of such surfaces per second; the optical processors made hundreds, literally sucking their digital inputs dry.

  3. Coherent Terahertz Wireless Signal Transmission Using Advanced Optical Fiber Communication Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanno, Atsushi; Kuri, Toshiaki; Morohashi, Isao; Hosako, Iwao; Kawanishi, Tetsuya; Yoshida, Yuki; Kitayama, Ken-ichi

    2015-02-01

    Coherent terahertz signal transmission with multilevel modulation and demodulation is demonstrated using an optical sub-harmonic IQ mixer (SHIQM), which consists of optical components in advanced optical fiber communication technologies. An optical-frequency-comb-employed signal generator is capable of vector modulation as well as frequency tunability. Digital signal processing (DSP) adopted from the recently developed optical digital coherent communication can easily demodulate multi-level modulated terahertz signals by using electrical heterodyning for intermediate-frequency (IF) down conversion. This technique is applicable for mobile backhauling in the next-generation mobile communication technology directly connected to an optical fiber network as a high-speed wireless transmission link.

  4. A Random Walk into Optical Signal Processing and Integrated Optofluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baylor, Martha-Elizabeth

    2013-04-01

    As a young child, I knew that I wanted to be a paleontologist. My parents, both artists, did their best to encourage me in my quest to dig for dinosaurs. However, decisions during my late high school and early college years serendipitously shifted my path so that I ended up pursuing a career in applied physics. In particular, my career path has been centered in optics with an emphasis on holography and signal processing. This talk will discuss my research in the areas of opto-electronic blind source separation and holographic photopolymers as well as the non-linear path that has gotten me to this point.

  5. Symbol rate identification for auxiliary amplitude modulation optical signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Junyu; Dong, Zhi; Huang, Zhiping; Zhang, Yimeng

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we creatively propose and demonstrate a method for symbol rate identification (SRI) of auxiliary amplitude modulation (AAM) optical signal based on asynchronous delay-tap sampling (ADTS) and average magnitude difference function (AMDF). The method can accurately estimate symbol rate and has large transmission impairments tolerance. Furthermore, it can be realized in the digital signal processor (DSP) with low logical resources because of multiplication-free. In order to improve the accuracy of SRI, the peak to valley ratio (PTVR) of AMDF is introduced into our method for blind chromatic dispersion (CD) compensation. The results of the numerical simulations show that the overall maximum SRI error is smaller 0.079% for return-to-zero (RZ) on-off keying (OOK), RZ differential phase-shift keying (DPSK), RZ differential quadrature phase-shift keying (DQPSK) and RZ 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) with 50% duty cycles.

  6. Signaling of the strongest stimulus in the owl optic tectum.

    PubMed

    Mysore, Shreesh P; Asadollahi, Ali; Knudsen, Eric I

    2011-04-01

    Essential to the selection of the next target for gaze or attention is the ability to compare the strengths of multiple competing stimuli (bottom-up information) and to signal the strongest one. Although the optic tectum (OT) has been causally implicated in stimulus selection, how it computes the strongest stimulus is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that OT neurons in the barn owl systematically encode the relative strengths of simultaneously occurring stimuli independently of sensory modality. Moreover, special "switch-like" responses of a subset of neurons abruptly increase when the stimulus inside their receptive field becomes the strongest one. Such responses are not predicted by responses to single stimuli and, indeed, are eliminated in the absence of competitive interactions. We demonstrate that this sensory transformation substantially boosts the representation of the strongest stimulus by creating a binary discrimination signal, thereby setting the stage for potential winner-take-all target selection for gaze and attention. PMID:21471353

  7. Nonlinear Signal Processing Using Fiber-Optics Neurograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szu, Harold

    1986-02-01

    A novel optical device for nonlinear signal processing is described based upon the following observations: (a) A phase space for signal processing is identified with a time-frequency joint representation (TFJR) that appears almost everywhere naturally, for example in bats, in music, etc. (b) A sudden slow down mechanism is responsible for the transition from a phase coherent-to-incoherent wavefront and provides us the sharpest tone transduction from a Bekesy traveling wave in a model of the inner ear. The cause of the slowdown is physically identified to be due to three forces. This has been used to derive a cubic deceleration polynomial responsible for a cusp bifurcation phenomenon which occur for every tone transducted along the nonuniform elastic membrane. The liquid-filled inner ear cochlea channel is divided by the membrane into an upper duct that has hair cells for the forward sound-generated flow and the lower duct for the backward balance-return flow.

  8. Use of Multiband Acousto-optic Filters for Spectrally Encoded Signals Generation in Incoherent Optical Communication Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byshevski-Konopko, O. A.; Proklov, V. V.; Filatov, A. L.; Lugovskoi, A. V.; Korablev, E. M.

    New acousto-optical (AO) coder of spectrally optical signals for optical code division multiple access systems (O-CDMA) was proposed and investigated. The coder was developed on a base of multi-frequency acousto-optical filter (MAOF). Control RF signals for MAOF were synthesized taking into account intermodulation distortions and interferences between different carrier frequencies incoming to MAOF. An industrial LED was used under system investigation.

  9. Detection, Evaluation, and Optimization of Optical Signals Generated by Fiber Optic Bragg Gratings Under Dynamic Excitations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamovsky, Grigory; Lekki, John; Lock, James A.

    2002-01-01

    The dynamic response of a fiber optic Bragg grating to mechanical vibrations is examined both theoretically and experimentally. The theoretical expressions describing the consequences of changes in the grating's reflection spectrum are derived for partially coherent beams in an interferometer. The analysis is given in terms of the dominant wavelength, optical bandwidth, and optical path difference of the interfering signals. Changes in the reflection spectrum caused by a periodic stretching and compression of the grating were experimentally measured using an unbalanced Michelson interferometer, a Michelson interferometer with a non-zero optical path difference. The interferometer's sensitivity to changes in dominant wavelength of the interfering beams was measured as a function of interferometer unbalance and was compared to theoretical predictions. The theoretical analysis enables the user to determine the optimum performance for an unbalanced interferometer.

  10. Brillouin optical spectrum analyzer monitoring of subcarrier-multiplexed fiber-optic signals.

    PubMed

    Stern, Yonatan; Zhong, Kun; Schneider, Thomas; Ben-Ezra, Yossef; Zhang, Ru; Tur, Moshe; Zadok, Avi

    2013-09-01

    Optical spectral analysis of closely spaced, subcarrier multiplexed fiber-optic transmission is performed, based on stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS). The Brillouin gain window of a single, continuous-wave pump is scanned across the spectral extent of the signal under test. The polarization pulling effect associated with SBS is employed to improve the rejection ratio of the analysis by an order of magnitude. Ten tones, spaced by only 10 MHz and each carrying random-sequence on-off keying data, are clearly resolved. The measurement identifies the absence of a single subcarrier, directly in the optical domain. The results are applicable to the monitoring of optical orthogonal frequency domain multiplexing and radio over fiber transmission. PMID:24085075

  11. Simple signal-to-signal beat interference cancellation receiver based on balanced detection for a single-sideband optical OFDM signal with a reduced guard band.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jianxin

    2013-11-01

    A simple signal-to-signal beat interference cancellation receiver based on balanced detection (ICRBD) with an interleaver, a 2×2 three-decibel optical coupler, and a balanced photodiode pair is proposed for a single-sideband optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (SSB-OOFDM) signal with a reduced guard band (GB). Simulation demonstration of the ICRBD for a 40 Gbit/s 16-QAM SSB-OOFDM signal with a reduced GB was achieved successfully. PMID:24177087

  12. Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of melanin provides intrinsic contrast based on depolarization

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Bernhard; Baumann, Stefan O.; Konegger, Thomas; Pircher, Michael; Götzinger, Erich; Schlanitz, Ferdinand; Schütze, Christopher; Sattmann, Harald; Litschauer, Marco; Schmidt-Erfurth, Ursula; Hitzenberger, Christoph K.

    2012-01-01

    Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) is a functional extension of OCT. In addition to imaging based on tissue reflectivity, PS-OCT also enables depth-resolved mapping of sample polarization properties such as phase-retardation, birefringent axis orientation, Stokes vectors, and degree of polarization uniformity (DOPU). In this study, PS-OCT was used to investigate the polarization properties of melanin. In-vitro measurements in samples with varying melanin concentrations revealed polarization scrambling, i.e. depolarization of backscattered light. Polarization scrambling in the PS-OCT images was more pronounced for higher melanin concentrations and correlated with the concentration of the melanin granules in the phantoms. Moreover, in-vivo PS-OCT was performed in the retinas of normal subjects and individuals with albinism. Unlike in the normal eye, polarization scrambling in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) was less pronounced or even not observable in PS-OCT images of albinos. These results indicate that the depolarizing appearance of pigmented structures like, for instance, the RPE is likely to be caused by the melanin granules contained in these cells. PMID:22808437

  13. Optical modulation techniques for analog signal processing and CMOS compatible electro-optic modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, Douglas M.; Rasras, Mahmoud; Tu, Kun-Yii; Chen, Young-Kai; White, Alice E.; Patel, Sanjay S.; Carothers, Daniel; Pomerene, Andrew; Kamocsai, Robert; Beattie, James; Kopa, Anthony; Apsel, Alyssa; Beals, Mark; Mitchel, Jurgen; Liu, Jifeng; Kimerling, Lionel C.

    2008-02-01

    Integrating electronic and photonic functions onto a single silicon-based chip using techniques compatible with mass-production CMOS electronics will enable new design paradigms for existing system architectures and open new opportunities for electro-optic applications with the potential to dramatically change the management, cost, footprint, weight, and power consumption of today's communication systems. While broadband analog system applications represent a smaller volume market than that for digital data transmission, there are significant deployments of analog electro-optic systems for commercial and military applications. Broadband linear modulation is a critical building block in optical analog signal processing and also could have significant applications in digital communication systems. Recently, broadband electro-optic modulators on a silicon platform have been demonstrated based on the plasma dispersion effect. The use of the plasma dispersion effect within a CMOS compatible waveguide creates new challenges and opportunities for analog signal processing since the index and propagation loss change within the waveguide during modulation. We will review the current status of silicon-based electrooptic modulators and also linearization techniques for optical modulation.

  14. Digital signal processing techniques for coherent optical communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldfarb, Gilad

    Coherent detection with subsequent digital signal processing (DSP) is developed, analyzed theoretically and numerically and experimentally demonstrated in various fiber-optic transmission scenarios. The use of DSP in conjunction with coherent detection unleashes the benefits of coherent detection which rely on the preservaton of full information of the incoming field. These benefits include high receiver sensitivity, the ability to achieve high spectral-efficiency and the use of advanced modulation formats. With the immense advancements in DSP speeds, many of the problems hindering the use of coherent detection in optical transmission systems have been eliminated. Most notably, DSP alleviates the need for hardware phase-locking and polarization tracking, which can now be achieved in the digital domain. The complexity previously associated with coherent detection is hence significantly diminished and coherent detection is once gain considered a feasible detection alternative. In this thesis, several aspects of coherent detection (with or without subsequent DSP) are addressed. Coherent detection is presented as a means to extend the dispersion limit of a duobinary signal using an analog decision-directed phase-lock loop. Analytical bit-error ratio estimation for quadrature phase-shift keying signals is derived. To validate the promise for high spectral efficiency, the orthogonal-wavelength-division multiplexing scheme is suggested. In this scheme the WDM channels are spaced at the symbol rate, thus achieving the spectral efficiency limit. Theory, simulation and experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of this approach. Infinite impulse response filtering is shown to be an efficient alternative to finite impulse response filtering for chromatic dispersion compensation. Theory, design considerations, simulation and experimental results relating to this topic are presented. Interaction between fiber dispersion and nonlinearity remains the last major challenge

  15. Fast optical signals in the peripheral nervous system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Yunjie; Martin, Jeffrey M.; Sassaroli, Angelo; Clervil, Patricia R.; Bergethon, Peter R.; Fantini, Sergio

    2006-07-01

    We present a study of the near-infrared optical response to electrical stimulation of peripheral nerves. The sural nerve of six healthy subjects between the ages of 22 and 41 was stimulated with transcutaneous electrical pulses in a region located approximately 10 cm above the ankle. A two-wavelength (690 and 830 nm) tissue spectrometer was used to probe the same sural nerve below the ankle. We measured optical changes that peaked 60 to 160 ms after the electrical stimulus. On the basis of the strong wavelength dependence of these fast optical signals, we argue that their origin is mostly from absorption rather than scattering. From these absorption changes, we obtain oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin concentration changes that describe a rapid hemodynamic response to electrical nerve activation. In five out of six subjects, this hemodynamic response is an increase in total (oxy+deoxy) hemoglobin concentration, consistent with a fast vasodilation. Our findings support the hypothesis that the peripheral nervous system undergoes neurovascular coupling, even though more data is needed to prove such hypothesis.

  16. Optically tunable compensation of nonlinear signal distortion in optical fiber by end-span optical phase conjugation.

    PubMed

    Pelusi, Mark D; Eggleton, Benjamin J

    2012-03-26

    We demonstrate a nonlinear signal processing approach for compensating nonlinear distortion caused by the Kerr effect in optical fiber transmission. The concept relies on propagating the signal through a separate all-optical module outside the link to apply tunable nonlinear distortion and phase-conjugation in series. We show this uniquely enables tunable regeneration of phase-encoded 40 Gb/s signals of different data-formats and number of WDM channels, to allow significantly higher transmission powers through single and multi-span fiber links. An improvement in the receiver power penalty by 3~4 dB for a bit-error-rate (BER) of ≈10⁻⁵ is achieved. PMID:22453473

  17. Broken Optical Symmetry in DNA-SWNT Hybrids: Spectroscopic Signaling of the Helical Wrap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotkin, Slava V.

    2009-03-01

    Functionalizing single-stranded DNA on a single-wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) has allowed isolating individual tubes, making them soluble, and separating SWNTs according to their chirality. Such strong technological impact motivated our study of the optical properties of the DNA-SWNT hybrids, commonly used now for the solution-based fabrication and experiments. The helicity of the DNA wrap may interfere with the intrinsic Hamiltonian of the SWNT and result in bandstructure modulation. Our modeling predicts a symmetry lowering in the hybrid due to the Coulomb potential of the regular helical wrap of the ionized backbone of the ssDNA, followed by the qualitative changes in the cross- or circularly polarized SWNT absorption spectrum (with no or little change in the parallel polarization). In particular, we predict the appearance of a new peak in the cross-polarized absorption of the ssDNA-SWNT at a frequency lower than that of all allowed transitions in the bare tube. Such effect can be used for optical identification of the wrap at sufficient ssDNA coverage. Wrap signaling happens also via another optical effect, a strong circular dichroism even in the complex with an achiral SWNT, and even at the frequencies where ss-DNA has no absorption features at all. Symmetry of the wrap is central to determine such a circular dichroism of the hybrid. Having in mind that the exact geometry of a DNA wrap for an arbitrary tube is not precisely known yet, we put forward a general model capable of tracking optical effects, varying the parameters of the wrap and/or tube diameter. For various ssDNA backbone helical angles and for various tubes we predict different absorption spectra, though a general qualitative feature of the helical symmetry breaking, the appearance of new van Hove singularities and circular dichroism, must be present.

  18. AM-FM analysis of optical coherence tomography signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartakoulis, Andreas; Bousi, Evgenia; Pitris, Costas

    2009-02-01

    The early stages of malignant diseases, such as cancer, are characterized by cellular and microstructural changes which define both the diagnosis and the prognosis of the disease. Unfortunately, at the current resolution of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), such changes associated with early cancer are not clearly discernible. However, spectral analysis of OCT images has recently shown that additional information can be extracted from those signals, resulting in improved contrast which is directly related to scatterer size changes. Amplitude Modulation - Frequency Modulation (AM-FM) analysis is a fast and accurate technique which can also be applied to the OCT images for estimation of spectral information. It is based on the analytic signal of the real data, obtained using a Hilbert Transform, and provides the instantaneous amplitude, phase, and frequency of an OCT signal. The performance of this method is superior to both FFT-based and parametric (e.g. autoregressive) spectral analysis providing better accuracy and faster convergence when estimating scatterer features. Since disease tissues exhibit variations in scatterer size and thus also exhibit marked differences in spectral and phase characteristics, such advanced analysis techniques can provide more insight into the subtle changes observed in OCT images of malignancy. Therefore, they can make available a tool which could prove extremely valuable for the investigation of disease features which now remain below the resolution of OCT and improved the technology's diagnostic capabilities.

  19. Fiber-optic delay-line stabilization of heterodyne optical signal generator and method using same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, Ronald T. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    The present invention is a laser heterodyne frequency generator system with a stabilizer for use in the microwave and millimeter-wave frequency ranges utilizing a photonic mixer as a photonic phase detector in a stable optical fiber delay-line. Phase and frequency fluctuations of the heterodyne laser signal generators are stabilized at microwave and millimeter wave frequencies by a delay line system operating as a frequency discriminator. The present invention is free from amplifier and mixer 1/.function. noise at microwave and millimeter-wave frequencies that typically limit phase noise performance in electronic cavity stabilized electronic oscillators. Thus, 1/.function. noise due to conventional mixers is eliminated and stable optical heterodyne generation of electrical signals is achieved.

  20. All-optical frequency upconversion of a quasi optical single sideband signal utilizing a nonlinear semiconductor optical amplifier for radio-over-fiber applications.

    PubMed

    Park, Minho; Song, Jong-In

    2011-11-21

    An all-optical frequency upconversion technique using a quasi optical single sideband (q-OSSB) signal in a nonlinear semiconductor optical amplifier (NSOA) for radio-over-fiber applications is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. An optical radio frequency signal (f(RF) = 37.5 GHz) in the form of a q-OSSB signal is generated by mixing an optical intermediate frequency (IF) signal (f(IF) = 2.5 GHz) with an optical local oscillator signal (f(LO) = 35 GHz) utilizing coherent population oscillation and cross gain modulation effects in an NSOA. The phase noise, conversion efficiency, spurious free dynamic range (SFDR), and transmission characteristics of the q-OSSB signal are investigated. PMID:22109476

  1. Fiber optic signal amplifier using thermoelectric power generation

    DOEpatents

    Hart, M.M.

    1995-04-18

    A remote fiber optic signal amplifier for use as a repeater/amplifier, such as in transoceanic communications, powered by a Pu{sub 238} or Sr{sub 90} thermoelectric generator. The amplifier comprises a unit with connections on the receiving and sending sides of the communications system, and an erbium-doped fiber amplifier connecting each sending fiber to each receiving fiber. The thermoelectric generator, preferably a Pu{sub 238} or Sr{sub 90} thermoelectric generator delivers power to the amplifiers through a regulator. The heat exchange surfaces of the thermoelectric generator are made of materials resistant to corrosion and biological growth and are directly exposed to the outside, such as the ocean water in transoceanic communications. 2 figs.

  2. Fiber optic signal amplifier using thermoelectric power generation

    DOEpatents

    Hart, M.M.

    1993-01-01

    A remote fiber optic signal amplifier for use as a repeater/amplifier, such as in transoceanic communication, powered by a Pu{sub 238} or Sr{sub 90} thermoelectric generator. The amplifier comprises a unit with connections on the receiving and sending sides of the communications system, and an erbium-doped fiber amplifier connecting each sending fiber to each receiving fiber. The thermoelectric generator, preferably a Pu{sub 238} or Sr{sub 90} thermoelectric generator delivers power to the amplifiers through a regulator. The heat exchange surfaces of the thermoelectric generator are made of material resistant to corrosion and biological growth and are directly exposed to the outside, such as the ocean water in transoceanic communications.

  3. Fiber optic signal amplifier using thermoelectric power generation

    DOEpatents

    Hart, Mark M.

    1995-01-01

    A remote fiber optic signal amplifier for use as a repeater/amplifier, such as in transoceanic communications, powered by a Pu.sub.238 or Sr.sub.90 thermoelectric generator. The amplifier comprises a unit with connections on the receiving and sending sides of the communications system, and an erbium-doped fiber amplifier connecting each sending fiber to each receiving fiber. The thermoelectric generator, preferably a Pu.sub.238 or Sr.sub.90 thermoelectric generator delivers power to the amplifiers through a regulator. The heat exchange surfaces of the thermoelectric generator are made of materials resistant to corrosion and biological growth and are directly exposed to the outside, such as the ocean water in transoceanic communications.

  4. Dietary chlorophyllin inhibits the canonical NF-κB signaling pathway and induces intrinsic apoptosis in a hamster model of oral oncogenesis.

    PubMed

    Thiyagarajan, P; Senthil Murugan, R; Kavitha, K; Anitha, P; Prathiba, D; Nagini, S

    2012-03-01

    Chlorophyllin, a water-soluble, semi-synthetic derivative of the ubiquitous green pigment chlorophyll is shown to exert potent anticarcinogenic effects. In the present study, we investigated the chemopreventive effects of chlorophyllin on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis by analyzing the expression of NF-κB family members and markers of intrinsic apoptosis. Dietary administration of chlorophyllin (4 mg/kg bw) suppressed the development of HBP carcinomas by inhibiting the canonical NF-κB signaling pathway by downregulating IKKβ, preventing the phosphorylation of IκB-α, and reducing the expression of nuclear NF-κB. Inactivation of NF-κB signaling by chlorophyllin was associated with the induction of intrinsic apoptosis as evidenced by modulation of Bcl-2 family proteins, enforced nuclear localization of survivin, upregulation of apoptogenic molecules, activation of caspases, and cleavage of PARP. The results of the present study demonstrate that chlorophyllin inhibits the development of DMBA-induced HBP carcinogenesis by targeting NF-κB and the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Thus, dietary agents such as chlorophyllin that simultaneously target divergent pathways of cell survival and cell death are novel candidates for cancer chemoprevention. PMID:22210229

  5. Large optical power margin of signal light in OFDR-OCT by using semiconductor optical amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asaka, Kota

    2008-02-01

    We demonstrate a sensitivity improvement in an optical frequency domain reflectometry-optical coherence tomography (OFDR-OCT) system with a discretely swept light source by incorporating a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) in a sample arm. With the system, we achieve a high sensitivity of -134.4 dB when we measure the reflective mirror with an A-line rate of 0.25 kHz. This improves the sensitivity (-125.2 dB) by 9.2 dB compared with a system without the SOA. The OCT system without the SOA shows a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 56 dB when the signal light power is attenuated by about 66 dB, and the SNRs of less than 56 dB are obtained at higher attenuation levels. However, an SOA-incorporated OCT system provides the SNR of 56 dB at the much higher attenuation level of 86 dB. This means that using the SOA offers the large signal light power margin of 20 dB needed to obtain SNR of 56 dB. It is shown that the power margin is qualitatively dependent on the optical gain of the SOA. From an experimental analysis of the noises in the SOA-incorporated system, we found that the sensitivity enhancement is mainly limited by the beat noise between the reference light and the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) of the SOA. We obtained images that show clear cluster structures of enamel crystals near the dentin-enamel junction of an extracted human tooth with our SOA-incorporated discretely swept OFDR-OCT imaging, revealing the potential to achieve a high-speed OCT system with high sensitivity.

  6. Signal digitizing system and method based on amplitude-to-time optical mapping

    DOEpatents

    Chou, Jason; Bennett, Corey V; Hernandez, Vince

    2015-01-13

    A signal digitizing system and method based on analog-to-time optical mapping, optically maps amplitude information of an analog signal of interest first into wavelength information using an amplitude tunable filter (ATF) to impress spectral changes induced by the amplitude of the analog signal onto a carrier signal, i.e. a train of optical pulses, and next from wavelength information to temporal information using a dispersive element so that temporal information representing the amplitude information is encoded in the time domain in the carrier signal. Optical-to-electrical conversion of the optical pulses into voltage waveforms and subsequently digitizing the voltage waveforms into a digital image enables the temporal information to be resolved and quantized in the time domain. The digital image may them be digital signal processed to digitally reconstruct the analog signal based on the temporal information with high fidelity.

  7. Signal processing algorithm for transmission-type Fabry-Pérot interferometric optical fiber sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Jung-Ju; Kwon, Dong-Soo

    2001-08-01

    The recently developed transmission-type extrinsic Fabry-Pérot interferometric (TEFPI) optical fiber sensor can simply and effectively compensate for the difficult distinction of the measured direction of conventional EFPI optical fiber sensors. The TEFPI optical fiber sensor signal is composed of fringes and signal level variations, which correspond to the measured quantity and measured directions, respectively. In this paper, the signal processing algorithm, the fringe tracking method, is presented for TEFPI optical fiber sensors with a signal that differs from conventional interferometric sensors. The algorithm is verified by application to simulated and experimental sensor signals from strain measurements. The algorithm successfully processed TEFPI optical fiber sensor signals by finding the correct positions of peaks, valleys and signal levels, and by calculating the exact measured quantity and directions.

  8. Transmission of multiplexed video signals in multimode optical fiber systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Preston, III

    1988-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center has the need for economical transmission of two multiplexed video signals along multimode fiberoptic systems. These systems must span unusual distances and must meet RS-250B short-haul standards after reception. Bandwidth is a major problem and studies of the installed fibers, available LEDs and PINFETs led to the choice of 100 MHz as the upper limit for the system bandwidth. Optical multiplexing and digital transmission were deemed inappropriate. Three electrical multiplexing schemes were chosen for further study. Each of the multiplexing schemes included an FM stage to help meet the stringent S/N specification. Both FM and AM frequency division multiplexing methods were investigated theoretically and these results were validated with laboratory tests. The novel application of quadrature amplitude multiplexing was also considered. Frequency division multiplexing of two wideband FM video signal appears the most promising scheme although this application requires high power highly linear LED transmitters. Futher studies are necessary to determine if LEDs of appropriate quality exist and to better quantify performance of QAM in this application.

  9. Iridescent flowers? Contribution of surface structures to optical signaling.

    PubMed

    van der Kooi, Casper J; Wilts, Bodo D; Leertouwer, Hein L; Staal, Marten; Elzenga, J Theo M; Stavenga, Doekele G

    2014-07-01

    The color of natural objects depends on how they are structured and pigmented. In flowers, both the surface structure of the petals and the pigments they contain determine coloration. The aim of the present study was to assess the contribution of structural coloration, including iridescence, to overall floral coloration. We studied the reflection characteristics of flower petals of various plant species with an imaging scatterometer, which allows direct visualization of the angle dependence of the reflected light in the hemisphere above the petal. To separate the light reflected by the flower surface from the light backscattered by the components inside (e.g. the vacuoles), we also investigated surface casts. A survey among angiosperms revealed three different types of floral surface structure, each with distinct reflections. Petals with a smooth and very flat surface had mirror-like reflections and petal surfaces with cones yielded diffuse reflections. Petals with striations yielded diffraction patterns when single cells were illuminated. The iridescent signal, however, vanished when illumination similar to that found in natural conditions was applied. Pigmentary rather than structural coloration determines the optical appearance of flowers. Therefore, the hypothesized signaling by flowers with striated surfaces to attract potential pollinators presently seems untenable. PMID:24713039

  10. Coherent detection and digital signal processing for fiber optic communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ip, Ezra

    The drive towards higher spectral efficiency in optical fiber systems has generated renewed interest in coherent detection. We review different detection methods, including noncoherent, differentially coherent, and coherent detection, as well as hybrid detection methods. We compare the modulation methods that are enabled and their respective performances in a linear regime. An important system parameter is the number of degrees of freedom (DOF) utilized in transmission. Polarization-multiplexed quadrature-amplitude modulation maximizes spectral efficiency and power efficiency as it uses all four available DOF contained in the two field quadratures in the two polarizations. Dual-polarization homodyne or heterodyne downconversion are linear processes that can fully recover the received signal field in these four DOF. When downconverted signals are sampled at the Nyquist rate, compensation of transmission impairments can be performed using digital signal processing (DSP). Software based receivers benefit from the robustness of DSP, flexibility in design, and ease of adaptation to time-varying channels. Linear impairments, including chromatic dispersion (CD) and polarization-mode dispersion (PMD), can be compensated quasi-exactly using finite impulse response filters. In practical systems, sampling the received signal at 3/2 times the symbol rate is sufficient to enable an arbitrary amount of CD and PMD to be compensated for a sufficiently long equalizer whose tap length scales linearly with transmission distance. Depending on the transmitted constellation and the target bit error rate, the analog-to-digital converter (ADC) should have around 5 to 6 bits of resolution. Digital coherent receivers are naturally suited for the implementation of feedforward carrier recovery, which has superior linewidth tolerance than phase-locked loops, and does not suffer from feedback delay constraints. Differential bit encoding can be used to prevent catastrophic receiver failure due

  11. Intrinsic MyD88-Akt1-mTOR Signaling Coordinates Disparate Tc17 and Tc1 Responses during Vaccine Immunity against Fungal Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Nanjappa, Som Gowda; Hernández-Santos, Nydiaris; Galles, Kevin; Wüthrich, Marcel; Suresh, M.; Klein, Bruce S.

    2015-01-01

    Fungal infections have skyrocketed in immune-compromised patients lacking CD4+ T cells, underscoring the need for vaccine prevention. An understanding of the elements that promote vaccine immunity in this setting is essential. We previously demonstrated that vaccine-induced IL-17A+ CD8+ T cells (Tc17) are required for resistance against lethal fungal pneumonia in CD4+ T cell-deficient hosts, whereas the individual type I cytokines IFN-γ, TNF-α and GM-CSF, are dispensable. Here, we report that T cell-intrinsic MyD88 signals are crucial for these Tc17 cell responses and vaccine immunity against lethal fungal pneumonia in mice. In contrast, IFN-γ+ CD8+ cell (Tc1) responses are largely normal in the absence of intrinsic MyD88 signaling in CD8+ T cells. The poor accumulation of MyD88-deficient Tc17 cells was not linked to an early onset of contraction, nor to accelerated cell death or diminished expression of anti-apoptotic molecules Bcl-2 or Bcl-xL. Instead, intrinsic MyD88 was required to sustain the proliferation of Tc17 cells through the activation of mTOR via Akt1. Moreover, intrinsic IL-1R and TLR2, but not IL-18R, were required for MyD88 dependent Tc17 responses. Our data identify unappreciated targets for augmenting adaptive immunity against fungi. Our findings have implications for designing fungal vaccines and immune-based therapies in immune-compromised patients. PMID:26367276

  12. Intrinsic MyD88-Akt1-mTOR Signaling Coordinates Disparate Tc17 and Tc1 Responses during Vaccine Immunity against Fungal Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Nanjappa, Som Gowda; Hernández-Santos, Nydiaris; Galles, Kevin; Wüthrich, Marcel; Suresh, M; Klein, Bruce S

    2015-09-01

    Fungal infections have skyrocketed in immune-compromised patients lacking CD4+ T cells, underscoring the need for vaccine prevention. An understanding of the elements that promote vaccine immunity in this setting is essential. We previously demonstrated that vaccine-induced IL-17A+ CD8+ T cells (Tc17) are required for resistance against lethal fungal pneumonia in CD4+ T cell-deficient hosts, whereas the individual type I cytokines IFN-γ, TNF-α and GM-CSF, are dispensable. Here, we report that T cell-intrinsic MyD88 signals are crucial for these Tc17 cell responses and vaccine immunity against lethal fungal pneumonia in mice. In contrast, IFN-γ+ CD8+ cell (Tc1) responses are largely normal in the absence of intrinsic MyD88 signaling in CD8+ T cells. The poor accumulation of MyD88-deficient Tc17 cells was not linked to an early onset of contraction, nor to accelerated cell death or diminished expression of anti-apoptotic molecules Bcl-2 or Bcl-xL. Instead, intrinsic MyD88 was required to sustain the proliferation of Tc17 cells through the activation of mTOR via Akt1. Moreover, intrinsic IL-1R and TLR2, but not IL-18R, were required for MyD88 dependent Tc17 responses. Our data identify unappreciated targets for augmenting adaptive immunity against fungi. Our findings have implications for designing fungal vaccines and immune-based therapies in immune-compromised patients. PMID:26367276

  13. Development of a numerical framework for studying intrinsic parameter of a micro-lens-based optical detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paar, Steffen; Jiang, Xiaoming; Semmler, Wolfhard; Peter, Jörg

    2012-10-01

    In order to validate and to optimize the imaging capabilities of a micro-lens-array (MLA) based optical detector dedicated for preclinical in-vivo small animal imaging applications a numeric investigation framework is developed. The framework is laid-out to study the following MLA detector parameters: micro-lens diameter (D) and focal length (f), as well as sensor pixel size (A). Two mathematical models are implemented for light modeling: line-based and cone-based ray projections. Since the MLA detector requires mathematical postprocessing, specifically inverse mapping for image formation, the framework is fully integrated into such approach. MLA detector designs have been studied within valid parameter ranges yielding sub-millimeter spatial resolution for in vivo imaging of mice for detector-object-distances (t) up to 50 mm. In summary, there is a non-linear dependency of the detector's spatial resolution, scaling with D and f, for any respective t. On the other hand, detector efficiency is strongly dependent on f. Regardless of mathematical postprocessing the following set of intrinsic detector parameters had been found optimal for the intended application: D = 0.336 mm, f = 4.0 mm, A = 0.048 mm. When mathematical postprocessing is involved, particularly three-dimensional surface recognition, increasing f (cf. decreasing D) yields solid angles of the incoming rays closer to 90° and, thus, will decrease spatial depth information from the elementary images. Hence, a setup with D not larger than 0.5 mm and f between 2.0 mm and 3.0 mm is recommended.

  14. Precursory Acoustic Signals Detection in Rockfall Events by Means of Optical Fiber Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenato, L.; Marcato, G.; Gruca, G.; Iannuzzi, D.; Palmieri, L.; Galtarossa, A.; Pasuto, A.

    2012-12-01

    -electric transducer (PZT) and results, while not yet conclusive, confirm that FOSs may represent a viable approach to AE detection for unstable rock masses monitoring; experimental results suggest also that FOSs could be intrinsically more sensitive to volumes waves, whereas PZT seems more sensitive to surface waves.; Signals (top row) and corresponding PSDs (bottom row) recorded by the two fiber optical sensors (FCS, fiber coil sensor; FTC, ferrule-top cantilever) and by a traditional high-sensitive piezo-electric sensor (PZT, piezo-electric transducer).

  15. Optical signal processing for enabling high-speed, highly spectrally efficient and high capacity optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazal, Muhammad Irfan

    may be possible. Recently, interest has increased in exploring the spatial dimension of light to increase capacity, both in fiber as well as free-space communication channels. The orbital angular momentum (OAM) of light, carried by Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beams have the interesting property that, in theory, an infinite number of OAMs can be transmitted; which due to its inherent orthogonality will not affect each other. Thus, in theory, one can increase the channel capacity arbitrarily. However, in practice, the device dimensions will reduce the number of OAMs used. In addition to advanced modulation formats, it is expected that optical signal processing may play a role in the future development of more efficient optical transmission systems. The hope is that performing signal processing in the optical domain may reduce optical-to-electronic conversion inefficiencies, eliminate bottlenecks and take advantage of the ultrahigh bandwidth inherent in optics. While 40 to 50 Gbit/s electronic components are the peak of commercial technology and 100 Gbit/s capable RF components are still in their infancy, optical signal processing of these high-speed data signals may provide a potential solution. Furthermore, any optical processing system or sub-system must be capable of handling the wide array of data formats and data rates that networks may employ. The work presented in this Ph.D. dissertation attempts at addressing the issue of optical processing for advanced optical modulation formats, and particularly explores the state of the art in increasing the capacity of an optical link by a combination of wavelength/phase/polarization/OAM dimensions of light. Spatial multiplexing and demultiplexing of both coherently and directly detected signals at the 100 Gbit/s Ethernet standard is addressed. The application of a continuously tunable all-optical delay for all-optical functionality like time-slot interchange at high data-rates is presented. Moreover the interplay of chirp

  16. Luteolin induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis through extrinsic and intrinsic signaling pathways in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Su-Ho; Ham, Sunyoung; Kwon, Tae Ho; Kim, Man Sub; Lee, Dong Hun; Kang, Jeoung-Woo; Oh, Sei-Ryang; Yoon, Do-Young

    2014-01-01

    Luteolin is a common flavonoid that exists in medicinal herbs, fruits, and vegetables. Luteolin has biochemical functions including anti-allergy, anti-inflammation, and anti-cancer functions. However, its efficacy and precise mode of action against breast cancer are still under study. To elucidate whether luteolin exhibits an anticancer effect in breast cancer, MCF-7 breast cancer cells were incubated with luteolin, and apoptosis was assessed by observing nuclear morphological changes and by performing cell viability assay, cell cycle analysis, annexin V-FITC/PI double staining, western blotting, RT-PCR, and mitochondrial membrane potential measurements. Luteolin inhibited growth through perturbation of cell cycle progression at the sub-G1 and G1 phases in MCF-7 cells. Furthermore, luteolin enhanced the expression of death receptors, such as DR5, and activated caspase cascades. It enhanced the activities of caspase-8/-9/-3 in a dose-dependent manner, followed by inactivation of PARP. Activation of caspase-8 and caspase-9 induced caspase-3 activity, respectively, in apoptosis of extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. Luteolin also induced mitochondrial membrane potential collapse and cytochrome c release, and increased Bax expression by inhibiting expression of Bcl-2. Taken together, these results suggest that luteolin provokes cell cycle arrest and induces apoptosis by activating the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. PMID:25272060

  17. Imaging Odor-Evoked Activities in the Mouse Olfactory Bulb using Optical Reflectance and Autofluorescence Signals

    PubMed Central

    Chery, Romain; L'Heureux, Barbara; Bendahmane, Mounir; Renaud, Rémi; Martin, Claire; Pain, Frédéric; Gurden, Hirac

    2011-01-01

    In the brain, sensory stimulation activates distributed populations of neurons among functional modules which participate to the coding of the stimulus. Functional optical imaging techniques are advantageous to visualize the activation of these modules in sensory cortices with high spatial resolution. In this context, endogenous optical signals that arise from molecular mechanisms linked to neuroenergetics are valuable sources of contrast to record spatial maps of sensory stimuli over wide fields in the rodent brain. Here, we present two techniques based on changes of endogenous optical properties of the brain tissue during activation. First the intrinsic optical signals (IOS) are produced by a local alteration in red light reflectance due to: (i) absorption by changes in blood oxygenation level and blood volume (ii) photon scattering. The use of in vivo IOS to record spatial maps started in the mid 1980's with the observation of optical maps of whisker barrels in the rat and the orientation columns in the cat visual cortex1. IOS imaging of the surface of the rodent main olfactory bulb (OB) in response to odorants was later demonstrated by Larry Katz's group2. The second approach relies on flavoprotein autofluorescence signals (FAS) due to changes in the redox state of these mitochondrial metabolic intermediates. More precisely, the technique is based on the green fluorescence due to oxidized state of flavoproteins when the tissue is excited with blue light. Although such signals were probably among the first fluorescent molecules recorded for the study of brain activity by the pioneer studies of Britton Chances and colleagues3, it was not until recently that they have been used for mapping of brain activation in vivo. FAS imaging was first applied to the somatosensory cortex in rodents in response to hindpaw stimulation by Katsuei Shibuki's group4. The olfactory system is of central importance for the survival of the vast majority of living species because it

  18. Continuous wavelet-transform analysis of photoacoustic signal waveform to determine optical absorption coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirasawa, T.; Ishihara, M.; Tsujita, K.; Hirota, K.; Irisawa, K.; Kitagaki, M.; Fujita, M.; Kikuchi, M.

    2012-02-01

    In photo-acoustic (PA) imaging, valuable medical applications based on optical absorption spectrum such as contrast agent imaging and blood oxygen saturation measurement have been investigated. In these applications, there is an essential requirement to determine optical absorption coefficients accurately. In present, PA signal intensities have been commonly used to determine optical absorption coefficients. This method achieves practical accuracy by combining with radiative transfer analysis. However, time consumption of radiative transfer analysis and effects of signal generation efficiencies were problems of this method. In this research, we propose a new method to determine optical absorption coefficients using continuous wavelet transform (CWT). We used CWT to estimate instantaneous frequencies of PA signals which reflects optical absorption distribution. We validated the effectiveness of CWT in determination of optical absorption coefficients through an experiment. In the experiment, planar shaped samples were illuminated to generate PA signal. The PA signal was measured by our fabricated PA probe in which an optical fiber and a ring shaped P(VDFTrFE) ultrasound sensor were coaxially aligned. Optical properties of samples were adjusted by changing the concentration of dye solution. Tunable Ti:Sapphire laser (690 - 1000 nm) was used as illumination source. As a result, we confirmed strong correlation between optical absorption coefficients of samples and the instantaneous frequency of PA signal obtained by CWT. Advantages of this method were less interference of light transfer and signal generation efficiency.

  19. Coherent (photon) vs incoherent (current) detection of multidimensional optical signals from single molecules in open junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwalla, Bijay Kumar; Hua, Weijie; Zhang, Yu; Mukamel, Shaul; Harbola, Upendra

    2015-06-07

    The nonlinear optical response of a current-carrying single molecule coupled to two metal leads and driven by a sequence of impulsive optical pulses with controllable phases and time delays is calculated. Coherent (stimulated, heterodyne) detection of photons and incoherent detection of the optically induced current are compared. Using a diagrammatic Liouville space superoperator formalism, the signals are recast in terms of molecular correlation functions which are then expanded in the many-body molecular states. Two dimensional signals in benzene-1,4-dithiol molecule show cross peaks involving charged states. The correlation between optical and charge current signal is also observed.

  20. Optical Frequency Combs From Semiconductor Lasers and Applications in Ultrawideband Signal Processing and Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delfyett, Peter J.; Gee, Sangyoun; Choi, Myoung-Taek; Izadpanah, Hossein; Lee, Wangkuen; Ozharar, Sarper; Quinlan, Franklyn; Yilmaz, Tolga

    2006-07-01

    Modelocked semiconductor lasers are used to generate a set of phase-locked optical frequencies on a periodic grid. The periodic and phase coherent nature of the optical frequency combs makes it possible for the realization of high-performance optical and RF arbitrary-waveform synthesis. In addition, the resulting optical frequency components can be used for communication applications relying on direct detection, dense wavelength division multiplexing (WDM), coherent-detection WDM, optical time-division multiplexing, and optical code division multiple access. This paper highlights the recent results in the use of optical frequency combs generated from semiconductors for ultrawideband signal processing and communication applications.

  1. Altered intrinsic regional spontaneous brain activity in patients with optic neuritis: a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Yi; Cai, Feng-Qin; Zhong, Yu-Lin; Huang, Xin; Zhang, Ying; Hu, Pei-Hong; Pei, Chong-Gang; Zhou, Fu-Qing; Zeng, Xian-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the underlying regional homogeneity (ReHo) in brain-activity deficit in patients with optic neuritis (ON) and its relationship with behavioral performance. Materials and methods In total, twelve patients with ON (four males and eight females) and twelve (four males and eight females) age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy controls underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans. The ReHo method was used to assess the local features of spontaneous brain activity. Correlation analysis was used to explore the relationship between the observed mean ReHo values of the different brain areas and the visual evoked potential (VEP) in patients with ON. Results Compared with the healthy controls, patients with ON showed lower ReHo in the left cerebellum, posterior lobe, left middle temporal gyrus, right insula, right superior temporal gyrus, left middle frontal gyrus, bilateral anterior cingulate cortex, left superior frontal gyrus, right superior frontal gyrus, and right precentral gyrus, and higher ReHo in the cluster of the left fusiform gyrus and right inferior parietal lobule. Meanwhile, we found that the VEP amplitude of the right eye in patients with ON showed a positive correlation with the ReHo signal value of the left cerebellum posterior lobe (r=0.701, P=0.011), the right superior frontal gyrus (r=0.731, P=0.007), and the left fusiform gyrus (r=0.644, P=0.024). We also found that the VEP latency of the right eye in ON showed a positive correlation with the ReHo signal value of the right insula (r=0.595, P=0.041). Conclusion ON may involve dysfunction in the default-mode network, which may reflect the underlying pathologic mechanism. PMID:26715848

  2. Optical encryption/decryption of 8PSK signal using FWM-based modified XOR.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Cui, Yue; Zhan, Yueying; Zhang, Zhiguo; Chen, Xue

    2015-09-01

    A scheme for optical encryption/decryption of an eight-phase-shift keying (8PSK) signal is proposed, and this scheme applies modified optical XOR gates based on four-wave mixing (FWM) in a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA). Theoretical analyses and simulations are conducted. Both the performance and the parameter design of a 40-Gbit/s all-optical encryption/decryption system under various key parameters are studied. The results are useful for designing optical encryption/decryption for complex modulated signals. PMID:26368909

  3. Two-dimensionally tunable microwave signal generation based on optical frequency-to-time conversion.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jia; Yan, Lianshen; Pan, Wei; Luo, Bin; Zou, Xihua; Yi, Anlin; Yao, Xiaotian Steve

    2010-08-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate an all-fiber-based approach to generate microwave signals with tunable frequency and pulse width. The adjustable optical power spectrum can be achieved using a spectrum shaper, consisting of a variable differential-group-delay element and a bandwidth-tunable optical filter. Through the frequency-to-time conversion in the dispersive fiber, the frequency and pulse width of the obtained microwave signals can be user defined by modifying the optical spectrum shape. PMID:20680073

  4. Studies of beam expansion and distributed Bragg reflector lasers for fiber optics and optical signal processing. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Garmire, E.M.

    1981-03-03

    Separate studies were performed on beam expansion and on Distributed Bragg Reflector (DBR) lasers preliminary to monolithic integration on GaAs substrates. These components are proposed for use in optical signal processing, for fiber optic sources and for high-brightness lasers.

  5. Simultaneous multiple-depths en-face optical coherence tomography using multiple signal excitation of acousto-optic deflectors.

    PubMed

    Zurauskas, Mantas; Rogers, John; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh

    2013-01-28

    We present a novel low-coherence interferometer configuration, equipped with acousto-optic deflectors that can be used to simultaneously acquire up to eight time domain optical coherence tomography en-face images. The capabilities of the configuration are evaluated in terms of depth resolution, signal to noise ratio and crosstalk. Then the configuration is employed to demonstrate simultaneous en-face optical coherence tomography imaging at five different depths in a specimen of armadillidium vulgare. PMID:23389175

  6. Generation of spectral-encoded signals in noncoherent optical communication systems based on acousto-optic multiwavelength filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proklov, V. V.; Byshevski-Konopko, O. A.; Filatov, A. L.

    2015-10-01

    New acousto-optical (AO) methods and devices necessary for the creation of noncoherent optical code division multiple access (O-CDMA) systems are considered. Based on an AO multiwavelength filter, an original device generating spectral-encoded signals for O-CDMA systems with optimum WDM has been created and studied. It is shown that modern AO technology is capable of surmounting difficulties that previously hindered the transition of optical communication systems to CDMA data transmission.

  7. Propagation of 2.5 Gb/s Asynchronous, Concurrent, Optical CDMA Signals Through a 214 Kilometer Fiber Optic Link

    SciTech Connect

    Mendez, A.J.; Feng, H.X.C.; Heritage, J.P.; Morookian, J.; Gagliardi, R.M.

    2000-03-16

    The propagation of optical Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) signals was studied by computer simulation. Group velocity dispersion produces the worst impairment. With dispersion management, the decoder successfully recovers the signals, even in the presence of severe multi-access interference.

  8. Raldh2 expression in optic vesicle generates a retinoic acid signal needed for invagination of retina during optic cup formation.

    PubMed

    Mic, Felix A; Molotkov, Andrei; Molotkova, Natalia; Duester, Gregg

    2004-10-01

    Three retinaldehyde dehydrogenase genes (Raldh1, Raldh2, and Raldh3) expressed in unique spatiotemporal patterns may control synthesis of retinoic acid (RA) needed for retina development. However, previous studies indicate that retina formation still proceeds normally in Raldh1-/- mouse embryos lacking RA synthesis in the dorsal neural retina at the optic cup stage. Here, we demonstrate that Raldh2-/- embryos lacking RA synthesis in the optic vesicle exhibit a failure in retina invagination needed to develop an optic cup. This was also observed in Raldh1-/-:Raldh2-/- double mutants, which develop similarly. Both mutants retain RA activity in the lens placode associated with Raldh3 expression, but this RA activity is insufficient to induce optic cup formation. Maternal RA administration at the optic vesicle stage rescues optic cup formation in Raldh2-/- and Raldh1-/-:Raldh2-/- embryos, demonstrating that Raldh1 is not required during rescue of optic cup development. The optic cup of rescued Raldh1-/-:Raldh2-/- embryos exhibits normal RA activity and this is associated with Raldh3 expression in the retina and lens. Thus, RA signaling initiates in the optic vesicle in response to Raldh2 but can be maintained during optic cup formation by a gene other than Raldh1, most likely Raldh3. Loss of optic vesicle RA signaling does not effect expression of early determinants of retina at the optic vesicle stage (Pax6, Six3, Rx, Mitf). Our findings suggest that RA functions as one of the signals needed for invagination of the retina to generate an optic cup. PMID:15366004

  9. High-Speed Characterizatin of Optical Telecommunication Signals

    SciTech Connect

    Dorrer, C.

    2007-05-17

    Optical telecommunication systems constantly evolve toward higher bit rates, requiring the modulation and detection of higher-bandwidth optical waves. Commercial systems operating at 40 Gb/s are now available and research and development efforts are targeting higher bit rates for which optical pulses with picosecond-range duration are used. Chromatic dispersion, nonlinearities and amplified spontaneous emission from optical amplifiers are sources of transmission impairments that must be characterized and mitigated. Advanced modulation formats rely on the modulation of not only the amplitude of an optical wave (e.g., on/off keying), but also its phase (e.g., phase-shift keying) in order to optimize the transmission capabilities. The importance of the characterization of the properties of optical sources and components and the specificities of the optical telecommunication environment with respect to ultrafast optics are emphasized. Various diagnostics measuring the electric field of optical sources in the telecommunication environment are described. Sampling diagnostics capable of measuring eye diagrams and constellation diagrams of high-bit-rate, data-encoded sources are presented. Various optical pulse characterization techniques that meet the sensitivity requirements imposed by the telecommunication environment are also described.

  10. Simulation of the coherent MDM transmission using principal modes of the optical fiber as signal carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyubopytov, Vladimir S.; Zakirov, Robert A.; Vinogradova, Irina L.; Sultanov, Albert K.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper we demonstrate computer simulation results obtained for the coherent mode division multiplexed (MDM) 5x5 QPSK transmission using principal modes (PMs) of the stepped-index few-mode fiber (FMF) as a basis of independent signal carriers. The output signal recovering and the fiber propagation matrix determination are considered to be carried out in optical domain by means of reconfigurable multibranch diffractive optical elements (DOEs). Both the cases of Gaussian and Nyquist raised-cosine pulse shaping are considered for optical signal modulation. The simulation results show, that the transmission in the basis of PMs in strong coupling regime allows the reliability of the coherent MDM system to be fundamentally improved. As a result, utilization of the optical signal processing for MDM transmission could minimize substantially the DSP circuit complexity required for the real-time recovering of the transmitted signal.

  11. High-power optical millimeter-wave signal generation with tunable frequency multiplication factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yi-shi; Zheng, Zhenyu; Luo, Zhixiao; Min, Zhixuan; Xu, Ou; Liu, Jie

    2015-01-01

    This work demonstrates a simple and novel scheme for millimeter-wave (MMW) signal generation using optical multi-sidebands (OMSB) modulation. In the proposed methods, several pairs of optical sidebands can be generated by employing parallel phase modulators driven by a low frequency radio frequency (RF) signal. The optical sidebands will beat at a photodetector (PD) to generate high frequency MMW signal with tunable frequency multiplication factor, such as frequency octupling, 12-tupling, 16-tupling and 18-tupling. Since no optical filters or DC bias are used, the MMW signal has the evident character of high-power output. A generalized analytic expression and simulation verification for generating the frequency multi-tupling MMW signal are developed. The influences caused by non-ideal factors are discussed in detail, and undesired power ratios versus non-ideal factors are plotted and analyzed.

  12. Massively parallel spatial light modulation-based optical signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yao

    1993-03-01

    A new optical parallel arithmetic processing scheme using a nonholographic optoelectronic content-addressable memory (CAM) was proposed. The design of a four-bit CAM-based optical carry look-ahead adder was studied. Compared with existing optoelectronic binary addition approaches, this nonholographic CAM Scheme offers a number of practical advantages, such as faster processing speed and ease of optical implementation and alignment. For an addition of numbers longer than four bits, by incorporating the previous stage's carry, a number of four-bit CLA's can be cascaded. Experimental results were also demonstrated. One paper to the Optics Letters was published.

  13. Silver-Overgrowth-Induced Changes in Intrinsic Optical Properties of Gold Nanorods: From Noninvasive Monitoring of Growth Kinetics to Tailoring Internal Mirror Charges

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the effect of surfactant-mediated, asymmetric silver overgrowth of gold nanorods on their intrinsic optical properties. From concentration-dependent experiments, we established a close correlation of the extinction in the UV/vis/NIR frequency range and the morphological transition from gold nanorods to Au@Ag cuboids. Based on this correlation, a generic methodology for in situ monitoring of the evolution of the cuboid morphology was developed and applied in time-dependent experiments. We find that growth rates are sensitive to the substitution of the surfactant headgroup by comparison of benzylhexadecyldimethylammonium chloride (BDAC) with hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC). The time-dependent overgrowth in BDAC proceeds about 1 order of magnitude slower than in CTAC, which allows for higher control during silver overgrowth. Furthermore, silver overgrowth results in a qualitatively novel optical feature: Upon excitation inside the overlap region of the interband transition of gold and intraband of silver, the gold core acts as a retarding element. The much higher damping of the gold core compared to the silver shell in Au@Ag cuboids induces mirror charges at the core/shell interface as shown by electromagnetic simulations. Full control over the kinetic growth process consequently allows for precise tailoring of the resonance wavelengths of both modes. Tailored and asymmetric silver-overgrown gold nanorods are of particular interest for large-scale fabrication of nanoparticles with intrinsic metamaterial properties. These building blocks could furthermore find application in optical sensor technology, light harvesting, and information technology. PMID:26113885

  14. Drosophila Araucan and Caupolican Integrate Intrinsic and Signalling Inputs for the Acquisition by Muscle Progenitors of the Lateral Transverse Fate

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco-Rando, Marta; Tutor, Antonio S.; Prieto-Sánchez, Silvia; González-Pérez, Esther; Barrios, Natalia; Letizia, Annalisa; Martín, Paloma; Campuzano, Sonsoles; Ruiz-Gómez, Mar

    2011-01-01

    A central issue of myogenesis is the acquisition of identity by individual muscles. In Drosophila, at the time muscle progenitors are singled out, they already express unique combinations of muscle identity genes. This muscle code results from the integration of positional and temporal signalling inputs. Here we identify, by means of loss-of-function and ectopic expression approaches, the Iroquois Complex homeobox genes araucan and caupolican as novel muscle identity genes that confer lateral transverse muscle identity. The acquisition of this fate requires that Araucan/Caupolican repress other muscle identity genes such as slouch and vestigial. In addition, we show that Caupolican-dependent slouch expression depends on the activation state of the Ras/Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase cascade. This provides a comprehensive insight into the way Iroquois genes integrate in muscle progenitors, signalling inputs that modulate gene expression and protein activity. PMID:21811416

  15. Modern optical signal processing experiments demonstrating intensity and pulse-width modulation using an acousto-optic modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poon, Ting-Chung; McNeill, Mark D.; Moore, Daniel J.

    1997-09-01

    Two experiments are presented to introduce undergraduate students in electrical engineering or physics to modern optical signal processing. Both experiments use an acousto-optic (AO) Bragg cell together with additional electronics to modify the intensity of a laser beam. Specifically, we show how an AO feedback system operating in the Bragg regime can be configured to produce amplitude modulated (AM) and pulse-width modulated optical signals. The basic components of the AO feedback system include a laser, an AO Bragg cell, an electronic AM modulator, a photodetector, an amplifier, and an electronic adder. Except for the laser, the AM modulator, and the Bragg cell, each of these components can be constructed with low cost electronics. A tutorial outlining the principles of acousto-optics is included to provide sufficient understanding of the Bragg cell. The project described in the paper has been used as a demonstration for junior- and senior-level undergraduate students in electrical engineering communications and optics classes.

  16. Power-efficient method for IM-DD optical transmission of multiple OFDM signals.

    PubMed

    Effenberger, Frank; Liu, Xiang

    2015-05-18

    We propose a power-efficient method for transmitting multiple frequency-division multiplexed (FDM) orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) signals in intensity-modulation direct-detection (IM-DD) optical systems. This method is based on quadratic soft clipping in combination with odd-only channel mapping. We show, both analytically and experimentally, that the proposed approach is capable of improving the power efficiency by about 3 dB as compared to conventional FDM OFDM signals under practical bias conditions, making it a viable solution in applications such as optical fiber-wireless integrated systems where both IM-DD optical transmission and OFDM signaling are important. PMID:26074605

  17. From the intrinsic properties to the functional role of a neuron phenotype: an example from electric fish during signal trade-off.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Javier; Caputi, Angel A

    2013-07-01

    This review deals with the question: what is the relationship between the properties of a neuron and the role that the neuron plays within a given neural circuit? Answering this kind of question requires collecting evidence from multiple neuron phenotypes and comparing the role of each type in circuits that perform well-defined computational tasks. The focus here is on the spherical neurons in the electrosensory lobe of the electric fish Gymnotus omarorum. They belong to the one-spike-onset phenotype expressed at the early stages of signal processing in various sensory modalities and diverse taxa. First, we refer to the one-spike neuron intrinsic properties, their foundation on a low-threshold K(+) conductance, and the potential roles of this phenotype in different circuits within a comparative framework. Second, we present a brief description of the active electric sense of weakly electric fish and the particularities of spherical one-spike-onset neurons in the electrosensory lobe of G. omarorum. Third, we introduce one of the specific tasks in which these neurons are involved: the trade-off between self- and allo-generated signals. Fourth, we discuss recent evidence indicating a still-undescribed role for the one-spike phenotype. This role deals with the blockage of the pathway after being activated by the self-generated electric organ discharge and how this blockage favors self-generated electrosensory information in the context of allo-generated interference. Based on comparative analysis we conclude that one-spike-onset neurons may play several functional roles in animal sensory behavior. There are specific adaptations of the neuron's 'response function' to the circuit and task. Conversely, the way in which a task is accomplished depends on the intrinsic properties of the neurons involved. In short, the role of a neuron within a circuit depends on the neuron and its functional context. PMID:23761463

  18. PAPR reduction in optical OFDM systems using asymmetrically clipping and signal scrambling technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lin; Fang, Yong; Huang, Qinghua; Sun, Yanzan

    2015-08-01

    Optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OOFDM) is a promising technology in the next generation of high-speed and long-haul optical transmission, due to its high spectral efficiency, high speed of data transmission and strong ability of anti-dispersion. But optical OFDM system has a very high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR). High PAPR will bring instantaneous high optical power to the optical OFDM system. Asymmetrically clipping and signal scrambling based on fast Hartley transform for PAPR reduction is proposed in optical OFDM system. Firstly, IFFT/FFT module in each sub-block of traditional signal scrambling technique is replaced with inverse fast Hartley transform (IFHT) and fast Hartley transform (FHT) module, which yield to the real signal in OOFDM system. Then, asymmetrically clipping technique is applied to turn it into a positive and real signal. Finally, the signal with the minimum PAPR is selected for transmission in the fiber channel. The PAPR of the optical OFDM signal can be reduced effectively. And without the Hermitian symmetry, the space and computational complexity are reduced accordingly.

  19. Nonlinear optical signal processing on multiwavelength sensitive materials.

    PubMed

    Azimipour, Mehdi; Pashaie, Ramin

    2013-11-01

    Exploiting salient features in the photodynamics of specific types of light sensitive materials, a new approach is presented for realization of parallel nonlinear operations with optics. We briefly review the quantum structure and mathematical models offered for the photodynamics of two multiwavelength sensitive materials, doped crystals of lithium niobate and thick layers of bacteriorhodopsin. Next, a special mode of these dynamics in each material is investigated and a graphical design procedure is offered to produce highly nonlinear optical responses that can be dynamically reshaped via applying minimum changes in the optical setup. PMID:24177084

  20. Removal Of Surface Deposits And Intrinsic Stains Of Teeth With Fiber Optics Of Nd-YAG Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marioka, Toshio; Maseda, Yusaku; Oho, Takahiko

    1987-03-01

    An impact of the Q-switched Nd-YAG laser caused bleaching of stains and removal of deposits and pit & fissure contents of teeth. No chalky spots or craters were found microscopically on the enamel surface after irradiation. These results strongly suggested the clinical applicability of Q-switched Nd-YAG laser in removing dental deposits, intrinsic pigmentation of enamel, and pit and fissure contents of molar.

  1. All-optical signal amplifier and distributor using cavity-atom coupling systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Yafan; Lin, Gongwei; Niu, Yueping; Gong, Shangqing

    2016-05-01

    We report an all-optical signal amplifier and a signal distributor using cavity-atom coupling systems. In this system we couple atoms with an optical cavity and realize the great enhancement of a control laser by the cavity with the help of two high coupling lasers. By this effect, we can use one weak control field to control another strong target field and the intensity changes are linear with our experimental conditions. This can be used as an all-optical signal amplifier, also known as a ‘transphasor’. In our experiment, the gain of the weak field to strong field can be as high as 60. Furthermore, we can realize the distribution of optical signals, if we coordinate multiple cavity-atom coupling systems.

  2. Optical radio-photonic channel for transmission of a coherent narrowband analog signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuk, D. I.; Denisyuk, I. Yu.; Fokina, M. I.

    2015-10-01

    The channel of an optical transmission line of coherent narrowband analog signal consisting of a continuous-wave laser, an electro-optic modulator, and a vector phase rotator based on electrically controlled fiber-optical 1 × 2 splitter and fixed delay lines is analyzed. The scheme is constructed from commercially available components used in digital optical communication systems. The applicability of components for analog and small-signal circuits is determined. Variation of radio signal phase in the range from 0° to 170° for radio signal frequencies between 1 and 2 GHz is demonstrated experimentally. It is shown that phase variation is a linear function of frequency in this range.

  3. Spectral and temporal properties of optical signals with multiple sinusoidal phase modulations.

    PubMed

    Dorrer, C

    2014-02-10

    Optical signals generated by multiple sinusoidal temporal phase modulations (multi-FMs) applied to a monochromatic field are studied from the viewpoint of their optical spectrum and temporal modulations arising from spectral impairments. Statistical analysis based on the central limit theorem shows that the signals' optical spectrum converges to a normal distribution as the number of modulations increases, allowing one to predict the frequency range containing a given fraction of the total energy with the associated cumulative density function. The conversion of frequency modulation to amplitude modulation is analyzed and simulated for arbitrary multi-FM signals. These developments are of theoretical and practical importance for high-energy laser systems, where optical pulses are phase modulated in the front end to smooth out the on-target beam profile and prevent potentially catastrophic damage to optical components. PMID:24663283

  4. Technique for stabilizing the phase of the reference signals in analog fiber-optic links.

    PubMed

    Shadaram, M; Medrano, J; Pappert, S A; Berry, M H; Gookin, D M

    1995-12-20

    The effects of temperature and longitudinal stress on the phase delay of reference signals in a fiber-optic link are discussed. A feedback system that uses a fiber-optic phase modulator is used to compensate for the phase fluctuations of a reference signal in the link. The phase deviations of a 50-MHz reference frequency that are caused by temperature variations of the link is reduced by more than 95% on optimization of the correction system. The advantages of this technique are that the fiber-optic phase modulator has a greater stability compared with the electronic phase modulators, and signal conversions from electric to optic and optic to electric are avoided. PMID:21068946

  5. Applying of digital signal processing to optical equisignal zone system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maraev, Anton A.; Timofeev, Aleksandr N.; Gusarov, Vadim F.

    2015-05-01

    In this work we are trying to assess the application of array detectors and digital information processing to the system with the optical equisignal zone as a new method of evaluating of optical equisignal zone position. Peculiarities of optical equisignal zone formation are described. The algorithm of evaluation of optical equisignal zone position is applied to processing on the array detector. This algorithm enables to evaluate as lateral displacement as turning angles of the receiver relative to the projector. Interrelation of parameters of the projector and the receiver is considered. According to described principles an experimental set was made and then characterized. The accuracy of position evaluation of the equisignal zone is shown dependent of the size of the equivalent entrance pupil at processing.

  6. A high-resolution integrated optical spectrometer with applications to fibre sensor signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varasi, M.; Signorazzi, M.; Vannucci, A.; Dunphy, Jim

    1996-02-01

    An integrated optical device has been developed to realize the instrumentation for the processing of the optical signal such as those from fibre optic Bragg grating sensors (FBG) embedded in composite materials. The optical circuit integrates on X-cut 0957-0233/7/2/009/img7 an acousto-optical TE - TM converter included between two crossed polarizers, in order to realize a tunable high-resolution optical filter. The design and fabrication process parameters and solutions adopted with the aim of obtaining very-high-resolution filters ( FWHM < 0.45 nm at 1300 nm) are discussed. The device has been demonstrated to allow the polarization-independent spectrum analysis of in-fibre optical radiation, exploiting the heterodyne detection of the optical signals from the output of the acousto-optical tunable filter. The application as instrumentation for the processing of optical signals from such sensors is described and the experimental results are presented for the monitoring of static and dynamic deformations of composite material structures such as those in which the FBG sensors have been embedded.

  7. Thermally tuneable optical modulator adapted for differential signaling

    DOEpatents

    Zortman, William A.

    2016-01-12

    An apparatus for optical modulation is provided. The apparatus includes a modulator structure and a heater structure. The modulator structure comprises a ring or disk optical resonator having a closed curvilinear periphery and a pair of oppositely doped semiconductor regions within and/or adjacent to the optical resonator and conformed to modify the optical length of the optical resonator upon application of a bias voltage. The heater structure comprises a relatively resistive annulus of semiconductor material enclosed between an inner disk and an outer annulus of relatively conductive semiconductor material. The inner disk and the outer annulus are adapted as contact regions for a heater activation current. The heater structure is situated within the periphery of the optical resonator such that in operation, at least a portion of the resonator is heated by radial conductive heat flow from the heater structure. The apparatus further includes a substantially annular isolation region of dielectric or relatively resistive semiconductor material interposed between the heater structure and the modulator structure. The isolation region is effective to electrically isolate the bias voltage from the heater activation current.

  8. Fasudil alleviates traumatic optic neuropathy by inhibiting Rho signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jianglong; Lan, Shiying; Wang, Ruijia; Maier, Aba; Luan, Xinping

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The present study is to investigate the pathological changes in rabbits with traumatic optic neuropathy (TON), as well as the effect of fasudil on the lesions. Methods: A total of 144 New Zealand rabbits were successfully established as TON models. Twelve hours after surgery, the rabbits in control, dexamethasone, and fasudil groups were administrated with saline, dexamethasone, and fasudil via ear veins, respectively. Then, retinas of the rabbits were obtained at 72 h and on days 7, 14 and 21 after surgery. The pathological changes in retina and optic nerves were observed by hematoxylin and eosin staining and transmission electron microscopy. The expression levels of Rho-associated genes were measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: In control group, the axons were swelling, and mitochondria showed vacuolation after optic nerve crush. Mitochondria were swelled slightly in dexamethasone group. By contrast, nerves in fasudil group were repaired. Retinal ganglion cells in control group were reduced significantly due to optic nerve crush. The loss of retinal ganglion cells was alleviated in fasudil group. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction showed that the expression of Rho-associated genes were down-regulated. Conclusions: The present study demonstrates that fasudil inhibits the apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells and ameliorates damages of optic nerves in traumatic optic neuropathy. PMID:26550269

  9. System and method for ultrafast optical signal detecting via a synchronously coupled anamorphic light pulse encoded laterally

    DOEpatents

    Heebner, John E.

    2010-08-03

    In one general embodiment, a method for ultrafast optical signal detecting is provided. In operation, a first optical input signal is propagated through a first wave guiding layer of a waveguide. Additionally, a second optical input signal is propagated through a second wave guiding layer of the waveguide. Furthermore, an optical control signal is applied to a top of the waveguide, the optical control signal being oriented diagonally relative to the top of the waveguide such that the application is used to influence at least a portion of the first optical input signal propagating through the first wave guiding layer of the waveguide. In addition, the first and the second optical input signals output from the waveguide are combined. Further, the combined optical signals output from the waveguide are detected. In another general embodiment, a system for ultrafast optical signal recording is provided comprising a waveguide including a plurality of wave guiding layers, an optical control source positioned to propagate an optical control signal towards the waveguide in a diagonal orientation relative to a top of the waveguide, at least one optical input source positioned to input an optical input signal into at least a first and a second wave guiding layer of the waveguide, and a detector for detecting at least one interference pattern output from the waveguide, where at least one of the interference patterns results from a combination of the optical input signals input into the first and the second wave guiding layer. Furthermore, propagation of the optical control signal is used to influence at least a portion of the optical input signal propagating through the first wave guiding layer of the waveguide.

  10. The MUSCLES Treasury Survey: Intrinsic Lyα Profile Reconstructions and UV, X-ray, and Optical Correlations of Low-mass Exoplanet Host Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youngblood, Allison; France, Kevin; Parke Loyd, R. O.

    2016-01-01

    UV stellar radiation can significantly impact planetary atmospheres through heating and photochemistry, even regulating production of potential biomarkers. Cool stars emit the majority of their UV radiation in the form of emission lines, and the incident UV radiation on close-in habitable-zone planets is significant. Lyα (1215.67 Å) dominates the 912 - 3200 Å spectrum of cool stars, but strong absorption from the interstellar medium (ISM) makes direct observations of the intrinsic Lyα emission of even nearby stars challenging. The MUSCLES Hubble Space Telescope Treasury Survey (Measurements of the Ultraviolet Spectral Characteristics of Low-mass Exoplanetary Systems) has completed observations of 7 M and 4 K stars hosting exoplanets (d < 22 pc) with simultaneous X-ray and ground-based optical spectroscopy for many of the targets. We have reconstructed the intrinsic Lyα profiles using an MCMC technique and used the results to estimate the extreme ultraviolet (100 - 911 Å) spectrum. We also present empirical relations between chromospheric UV and optical lines, e.g., Lyα, Mg II, Ca II H & K, and Hα, for use when direct UV observations of low-mass exoplanet host stars are not possible. The spectra presented here will be made publicly available through MAST to support exoplanet atmosphere modeling.

  11. A topographic instructive signal guides the adjustment of the auditory space map in the optic tectum.

    PubMed

    Hyde, P S; Knudsen, E I

    2001-11-01

    Maps of auditory space in the midbrain of the barn owl (Tyto alba) are calibrated by visual experience. When owls are raised wearing prismatic spectacles that displace the visual field in azimuth, the auditory receptive fields of neurons in the optic tectum shift to compensate for the optical displacement of the visual field. This shift results primarily from a shift in the tuning of tectal neurons for interaural time difference. The visually based instructive signal that guides this plasticity could be based on a topographic, point-by-point comparison between auditory and visual space maps or on a foveation-dependent visual assessment of the accuracy of auditory orienting responses. To distinguish between these two possibilities, we subjected owls to optical conditions that differed in the center of gaze and the visual periphery. A topographic signal would cause the portions of the space map representing the central and peripheral regions of visual space to adjust differently, according to the optical conditions that exist in each region. In contrast, a foveation-based signal would cause both portions of the map to adjust similarly, according to the optical conditions that exist at the center of gaze. In six of seven experiments, adaptive changes were as predicted by a topographic instructive signal. Although the results do not rule out the possible contribution of a foveation-based signal, they demonstrate that a topographic instructive signal is, indeed, involved in the calibration of the auditory space map in the barn owl optic tectum. PMID:11606646

  12. Identification of complex scattered signals with a fast real-time hybrid electro-optical correlator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumdar, Arun K.; Sandomirsky, Sergey

    1997-10-01

    The goal of this work was to develop a fast optical correlator for automatic real-time target recognition. The tremendous importance of optical correlators for military and civilian applications was recognized recently and approved by a US conference committee of senators nd representatives. This publication presents the experimental results of detecting and identifying complex scattered signals by using an innovative, hybrid electro-optical correlator. Our technique is based on achieving optical correlation by utilizing state-of-the-art devices: time delay integration, charge coupled devices, liquid crystal displays, and electronically controllable light sources. Results of the experiment with our optical correlator, performed with simulated sonar signals with a center frequency of 100 kHz and duration of 8 to 512 pulses, show the possibility of recognizing a Doppler shift of 20 Hz. This Doppler shift corresponds to a target velocity of 20.7 m/sec. Simulation results indicate that we can achieve significant correlation for a noisy signal by using appropriate signal length. Our experiments demonstrate that we can perform approximately 1010 multiply accumulate operations per second with the high parallel optical corrector, compared to approximately 106 multiply accumulate operations per second using a Pentium 133 MHz personal computer. This new optical correlation scheme can provide solutions for overcoming the inherent shortcomings attributable to the low dynamic range of CCD, and the problem of compatibility caused by different pixel patterns between LCD and CCD by making use of high-quality optics and modern means of achieving uniform illumination.

  13. Cellular signaling protective against noise-induced hearing loss – A role for novel intrinsic cochlear signaling involving corticotropin-releasing factor?

    PubMed

    Vetter, Douglas E

    2015-09-01

    Hearing loss afflicts approximately 15% of the world's population, and crosses all socioeconomic boundaries. While great strides have been made in understanding the genetic components of syndromic and non-syndromic hearing loss, understanding of the mechanisms underlying noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) have come much more slowly. NIHL is not simply a mechanism by which older individuals loose their hearing. Significantly, the incidence of NIHL is increasing, and is now involving ever younger populations. This may predict future increased occurrences of hearing loss. Current research has shown that even short-term exposures to loud sounds generating what was previously considered temporary hearing loss, actually produces an almost immediate and permanent loss of specific populations of auditory nerve fibers. Additionally, recurrent exposures to intense sound may hasten age-related hearing loss. While NIHL is a significant medical concern, to date, few compounds have delivered significant protection, arguing that new targets need to be identified. In this commentary, we will explore cellular signaling processes taking place in the cochlea believed to be involved in protection against hearing loss, and highlight new data suggestive of novel signaling not previously recognized as occurring in the cochlea, that is perhaps protective of hearing. This includes a recently described local hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA)-like signaling system fully contained in the cochlea. This system may represent a local cellular stress-response system based on stress hormone release similar to the systemic HPA axis. Its discovery may hold hope for new drug therapies that can be delivered directly to the cochlea, circumventing systemic side effects. PMID:26074267

  14. Universal Michelson Gires-Tournois interferometer optical interleaver based on digital signal processing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Juan; Yang, Xiaowei

    2010-03-01

    Optical interleavers based on Michelson Gires-Tournois interferometer (MGTI) with arbitrary cascaded reflectors for symmetrical or asymmetrical periodic frequency response with arbitrary duty cycles are defined as universal MGTI optical interleaver (UMGTIOI). It can significantly enhance flexibility and applicability of optical networks. A novel and simple method based on digital signal processing is proposed for the design of UMGTIOI. Different kinds of design examples are given to confirm effectiveness of the method. PMID:20389520

  15. Development of an imaging modality utilizing 2D optical signals during an EPI-fluorescent optical mapping experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prior, Phillip; Roth, Bradley J.

    2009-05-01

    Optical mapping is a commonly used technique to visualize the electrical activity in the heart. Recently, several groups have attempted to use the signals acquired in optical mapping to image the transmembrane potential in the heart, which would be particularly advantageous when studying the effects of defibrillation-type shocks throughout the wall of the heart. Our work presents an alternative imaging method that makes use of data obtained using multiple wavelengths and therefore multiple optical decay constants. A modified form of the diffusion equation Green's function for a semi-infinite slab of tissue is derived and used to relate the detected optical signals to the source of emission photons. Images using the optical signals are reconstructed using Gaussian quadrature and matrix inversion. Our results show that images can be obtained for source terms located below the tissue surface. Furthermore, we demonstrate that our reconstruction method's susceptibility to noise can be alleviated using sophisticated matrix inverse techniques, such as singular value decomposition. Sources that rapidly decay with depth or are highly localized in the image plane require more sophisticated techniques (e.g., regularization methods) to image the electrical activity in the heart. The work presented here demonstrates the feasibility of a new imaging technique of cardiac electrical activity using optical mapping.

  16. Optical fiber sensors and signal processing for intelligent structure monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogowski, Robert; Claus, R. O.; Lindner, D. K.; Thomas, Daniel; Cox, Dave

    1988-01-01

    The analytic and experimental performance of optical fiber sensors for the control of vibration of large aerospace and other structures are investigated. In particular, model domain optical fiber sensor systems, are being studied due to their apparent potential as distributed, low mass sensors of vibration over appropriate ranges of both low frequency and low amplitude displacements. Progress during the past three months is outlined. Progress since September is divided into work in the areas of experimental hardware development, analytical analysis, control design and sensor development. During the next six months, tests of a prototype closed-loop control system for a beam are planned which will demonstrate the solution of several optical fiber instrumentation device problems, the performance of the control system theory which incorporates the model of the modal domain sensor, and the potential for distributed control which this sensor approach offers.

  17. Optical fiber sensors and signal processing for intelligent structure monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Daniel; Cox, Dave; Lindner, D. K.; Claus, R. O.

    1989-01-01

    Few mode optical fibers have been shown to produce predictable interference patterns when placed under strain. The use is described of a modal domain sensor in a vibration control experiment. An optical fiber is bonded along the length of a flexible beam. Output from the modal domain sensor is used to suppress vibrations induced in the beam. A distributed effect model for the modal domain sensor is developed. This model is combined with the beam and actuator dynamics to produce a system suitable for control design. Computer simulations predict open and closed loop dynamic responses. An experimental apparatus is described and experimental results are presented.

  18. On-Board Fiber-Optic Network Architectures for Radar and Avionics Signal Distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alam, Mohammad F.; Atiquzzaman, Mohammed; Duncan, Bradley B.; Nguyen, Hung; Kunath, Richard

    2000-01-01

    Continued progress in both civil and military avionics applications is overstressing the capabilities of existing radio-frequency (RF) communication networks based on coaxial cables on board modem aircrafts. Future avionics systems will require high-bandwidth on- board communication links that are lightweight, immune to electromagnetic interference, and highly reliable. Fiber optic communication technology can meet all these challenges in a cost-effective manner. Recently, digital fiber-optic communication systems, where a fiber-optic network acts like a local area network (LAN) for digital data communications, have become a topic of extensive research and development. Although a fiber-optic system can be designed to transport radio-frequency (RF) signals, the digital fiber-optic systems under development today are not capable of transporting microwave and millimeter-wave RF signals used in radar and avionics systems on board an aircraft. Recent advances in fiber optic technology, especially wavelength division multiplexing (WDM), has opened a number of possibilities for designing on-board fiber optic networks, including all-optical networks for radar and avionics RF signal distribution. In this paper, we investigate a number of different novel approaches for fiber-optic transmission of on-board VHF and UHF RF signals using commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components. The relative merits and demerits of each architecture are discussed, and the suitability of each architecture for particular applications is pointed out. All-optical approaches show better performance than other traditional approaches in terms of signal-to-noise ratio, power consumption, and weight requirements.

  19. Secure chaotic transmission of electrocardiography signals with acousto-optic modulation under profiled beam propagation.

    PubMed

    Almehmadi, Fares S; Chatterjee, Monish R

    2015-01-10

    Electrocardiography (ECG) signals are used for both medical purposes and identifying individuals. It is often necessary to encrypt this highly sensitive information before it is transmitted over any channel. A closed-loop acousto-optic hybrid device acting as a chaotic modulator is applied to ECG signals to achieve this encryption. Recently improved modeling of this approach using profiled optical beams has shown it to be very sensitive to key parameters that characterize the encryption and decryption process, exhibiting its potential for secure transmission of analog and digital signals. Here the encryption and decryption is demonstrated for ECG signals, both analog and digital versions, illustrating strong encryption without significant distortion. Performance analysis pertinent to both analog and digital transmission of the ECG waveform is also carried out using output signal-to-noise, signal-to-distortion, and bit-error-rate measures relative to the key parameters and presence of channel noise in the system. PMID:25967617

  20. Low-frequency analog signal distribution on digital photonic networks by optical delta-sigma modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanno, Atsushi; Kawanishi, Tetsuya

    2013-12-01

    We propose a delta-sigma modulation scheme for low- and medium-frequency signal transmission in a digital photonic network system. A 10-Gb/s-class optical transceiver with a delta-sigma modulator utilized as a high-speed analog-to-digital converter (ADC) provides a binary optical signal. On the signal reception side, a low-cost and slow-speed photonic receiver directly converts the binary signal into an analog signal at frequencies from several hundreds of kilohertz several tens of megahertz. Further, by using a clock and data recovery circuit at the receiver to reduce jitters, the single-sideband phase noise of the generated signals can be significantly reduced.

  1. Effect of second order signal-noise interactions in nonlinearity compensated optical transmission systems.

    PubMed

    Al-Khateeb, Mohammad A Z; McCarthy, Mary; Sánchez, Christian; Ellis, Andrew

    2016-04-15

    In this Letter, we theoretically and numerically analyze the performance of coherent optical transmission systems that deploy inline or transceiver based nonlinearity compensation techniques. For systems where signal-signal nonlinear interactions are fully compensated, we find that beyond the performance peak the signal-to-noise ratio degradation has a slope of 3  dBSNR/dBPower suggesting a quartic rather than quadratic dependence on signal power. This is directly related to the fact that signals in a given span will interact not only with linear amplified spontaneous emission noise, but also with the nonlinear four-wave mixing products generated from signal-noise interaction in previous (hitherto) uncompensated spans. The performance of optical systems employing different nonlinearity compensation schemes were numerically simulated and compared against analytical predictions, showing a good agreement within a 0.4 dB margin of error. PMID:27082361

  2. Paired SSB optical OFDM channels for high spectral efficient signal transmission over DWDM networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chicharro, Francisco I.; Ortega, Beatriz; Mora, José

    2016-07-01

    A new high spectral efficient SSB-OOFDM DWDM transmission system has been experimentally demonstrated. The proposed transmitter employs paired optical channels consisting of two SSB modulated OFDM signals using opposite sidebands in order to allow an efficient use of the spectrum with optical carriers separation under 10 GHz. Moreover, different paired channels are multiplexed into the 25 GHz grid DWDM fiber transmission link. Optical carrier spacing of 8.75 GHz in paired channels has been demonstrated allowing 40.8 Gb/s signal transmission rate over a 25 GHz paired channel bandwidth.

  3. Quantum issues in optical communication. [noise reduction in signal reception

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, R. S.

    1973-01-01

    Various approaches to the problem of controlling quantum noise, the dominant noise in an optical communications system, are discussed. It is shown that, no matter which way the problem is approached, there always remain uncertainties. These uncertainties exist because, to date, only very few communication problems have been solved in their full quantum form.

  4. Theoretical and Experimental Study of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) Signals Using an Analytical Transport Model

    SciTech Connect

    Vazquez Villa, A.; Delgado Atencio, J. A.; Vazquez y Montiel, S.; Cunill Rodriguez, M.; Martinez Rodriguez, A. E.; Ramos, J. Castro; Villanueva, A.

    2010-12-07

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive low coherent interferometric technique that provides cross-sectional images of turbid media. OCT is based on the classical Michelson interferometer where the mirror of the reference arm is oscillating and the signal arm contains a biological sample. In this work, we analyzed theoretically the heterodyne optical signal adopting the so called extended Huygens-Fresnel principle (EHFP). We use simulated OCT images with known optical properties to test an algorithm developed by ourselves to recover the scattering coefficient and we recovered the scattering coefficient with a relative error less than 5% for noisy signals. In addition, we applied this algorithm to OCT images from phantoms of known optical properties; in this case curves were indistinguishable. A revision of the validity of the analytical model applied to our system should be done.

  5. Cloud Optical Depth Retrievals from Solar Background "signal" of Micropulse Lidars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, J. Christine; Marshak, A.; Wiscombe, W.; Valencia, S.; Welton, E. J.

    2007-01-01

    Pulsed lidars are commonly used to retrieve vertical distributions of cloud and aerosol layers. It is widely believed that lidar cloud retrievals (other than cloud base altitude) are limited to optically thin clouds. Here we demonstrate that lidars can retrieve optical depths of thick clouds using solar background light as a signal, rather than (as now) merely a noise to be subtracted. Validations against other instruments show that retrieved cloud optical depths agree within 10-15% for overcast stratus and broken clouds. In fact, for broken cloud situations one can retrieve not only the aerosol properties in clear-sky periods using lidar signals, but also the optical depth of thick clouds in cloudy periods using solar background signals. This indicates that, in general, it may be possible to retrieve both aerosol and cloud properties using a single lidar. Thus, lidar observations have great untapped potential to study interactions between clouds and aerosols.

  6. High Speed All Optical Nyquist Signal Generation and Full-band Coherent Detection

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Junwen; Yu, Jianjun; Fang, Yuan; Chi, Nan

    2014-01-01

    Spectrum efficient data transmission is of key interest for high capacity optical communication systems considering the limited available bandwidth. Transmission of the high speed signal with higher-order modulation formats within the Nyquist bandwidth using coherent detection brings attractive performance advantages. However, high speed Nyquist signal generation with high order modulation formats is challenging. Electrical Nyquist pulse generation is restricted by the limited sampling rate and processor capacities of digital-to-analog convertor devices, while the optical Nyquist signals can provide a much higher symbol rate using time domain multiplexing method. However, most optical Nyquist signals are based on direct detection with simple modulation formats. Here we report the first experimental demonstration of high speed all optical Nyquist signal generation based on Sinc-shaped pulse generation and time-division multiplexing with high level modulation format and full-band coherent detection. Our experiments demonstrate a highly flexible and compatible all optical high speed Nyquist signal generation and detection scheme for future fiber communication systems. PMID:25142269

  7. Energy-Efficient pm-ary signaling for ultra-high-speed optical transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djordjevic, Ivan B.; Liu, Tao

    2015-01-01

    The future optical transport networks will be affected by limited bandwidth of information infrastructure, high power consumption, and heterogeneity of network segments. As a solution to all these problems, the multidimensional signaling has been proposed recently. In this invited paper, we follow a different strategy. Instead of conventional binary and 2mary signaling (m>=1) we propose to use the nonbinary pm-ary signaling, where p is a prime larger than 2. With pm-ary signaling we can improve the spectral of conventional 2m-ary schemes by log2p times for the same bandwidth occupancy. At the same time the energy efficiency of pm-ary signaling scheme is much better than that of 2m-ary signaling scheme based on binary representation of data. We further study the energy-efficient coded modulation for pm-ary signaling. The energy-efficient signal constellation design for pm-ary signaling is discussed as well. We will demonstrate that with the proposed pm-ary signaling in combination with energy-efficient signal constellation design, spectral-multiplexing, and polarization-division multiplexing, we can achieve beyond 1 Pb/s serial optical transport without a need for introduction of spatial-division multiplexing.

  8. Programming microbes using pulse width modulation of optical signals.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Eric A; Basu, Amar S; Bayer, Travis S

    2013-11-15

    Cells transmit and receive information via signalling pathways. A number of studies have revealed that information is encoded in the temporal dynamics of these pathways and has highlighted how pathway architecture can influence the propagation of signals in time and space. The functional properties of pathway architecture can also be exploited by synthetic biologists to enable precise control of cellular physiology. Here, we characterised the response of a bacterial light-responsive, two-component system to oscillating signals of varying frequencies. We found that the system acted as a low-pass filter, able to respond to low-frequency oscillations and unable to respond to high-frequency oscillations. We then demonstrate that the low-pass filtering behavior can be exploited to enable precise control of gene expression using a strategy termed pulse width modulation (PWM). PWM is a common strategy used in electronics for information encoding that converts a series of digital input signals to an analog response. We further show how the PWM strategy extends the utility of bacterial optogenetic control, allowing the fine-tuning of expression levels, programming of temporal dynamics, and control of microbial physiology via manipulation of a metabolic enzyme. PMID:23928560

  9. Optical feedback signal for ultrashort laser pulse ablation of tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, B.-M.; Feit, M.D.; Rubenchik, A.M.; Mammini, B.M.; Da Silva, L.B.

    1997-07-01

    An optical feedback system for controlled precise tissue ablation is discussed. Our setup includes an ultrashort pulse laser (USPL), and a diagnostic system using analysis of either tissue fluorescence or plasma emission luminescence. Current research is focused on discriminating hard and soft tissues such as bone and spinal cord during surgery using either technique. Our experimental observations exhibit considerable spectroscopic contrast between hard and soft tissue, and both techniques offer promise for a practical diagnostic system.

  10. Evaluation the development of focal cerebral ischemia in rats by optical imaging based on the spreading depression signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shangbin; Feng, Zhe; Zeng, Shaoqun; Luo, Qingming; Li, Pengcheng

    2007-02-01

    Spreading depression (SD) has been found involved in focal cerebral ischemia which may result in severe or lethal neurological deficits. Electrical recording of SD has been used for acute and long term monitoring of focal cerebral ischemia but with an inherently low resolution. Here, we presented optical intrinsic signal imaging (OISI) to characterize the spontaneous SD waves following permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats with high spatial resolution. During each SD episode, the measured optical reflectance varied regionally: decreased (-12.5+/-2.8%) in the area near the midline, remained flat (3.1+/-2.5%) in the lateral region, and increased (12.1+/-3.6%) in the intermediate cortex. The three types of changes yielded identifications for three biological relevant zones: nonischemic cortex, penumbra and infarct core. Accompanying recurrent SD waves, the suggested penumbral area reduced by about 6.4+/-2.5% of the whole imaged area per SD event, indicating a growth of the infracted area. Staining with 2% 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) 4 h post-occlusion proved the infarct cortex to be consistent with the lateral region where the final SD wave did not invade (r=0.86+/-0.10). The results suggest that OISI based on SD can effectively used to distinguish nonischemic cortex, penumbra and infarct core in the ischemic hemisphere and monitor the development of ischemia with high spatial resolution.

  11. UWB doublet signal generation and modulation based on DFB laser under optical pulses injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dalei; Wang, Rong; Xiang, Peng; Pu, Tao; Fang, Tao; Zhou, Hua; Zhao, Jiyong; Huang, Long; Zhu, Huatao; Wang, Peng

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a novel scheme to generate ultra-wideband (UWB) doublet signals based on the cross-gain modulation (XGM) effect in the DFB lasers is proposed and experimentally demonstrated, the modulation and transmission of the generated UWB doublet signals are also researched. In the proposed system, a gain-switched laser (GSL) is used as a master laser (ML) and the optical pulses from the ML are optically injected into two paralleled DFB lasers, which are used as slave lasers (SL). Then the outputs from the SLs are detected by a balanced photodiode (BPD) to generate the Bi-phased UWB signals. By properly setting the system parameters, UWB signals with various modulation formats such as on-off keying (OOK), pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) as well as the phase-shift keying (PSK) can be generated. In addition, fiber transmission of the modulated UWB signals is also experimentally investigated.

  12. Analog CMOS design for optical coherence tomography signal detection and processing.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei; Mathine, David L; Barton, Jennifer K

    2008-02-01

    A CMOS circuit was designed and fabricated for optical coherence tomography (OCT) signal detection and processing. The circuit includes a photoreceiver, differential gain stage and lock-in amplifier based demodulator. The photoreceiver consists of a CMOS photodetector and low noise differential transimpedance amplifier which converts the optical interference signal into a voltage. The differential gain stage further amplifies the signal. The in-phase and quadrature channels of the lock-in amplifier each include an analog mixer and switched-capacitor low-pass filter with an external mixer reference signal. The interferogram envelope and phase can be extracted with this configuration, enabling Doppler OCT measurements. A sensitivity of -80 dB is achieved with faithful reproduction of the interferometric signal envelope. A sample image of finger tip is presented. PMID:18269983

  13. Phase-resolved time-domain nonlinear optical signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher Faeder, Sarah M.; Jonas, David M.

    2000-09-01

    A systematic theoretical and computational investigation of the microscopic factors which determine the phase of the signal field in time-resolved quasidegenerate three-pulse scattering experiments is presented. The third-order phase-matched response is obtained by density-matrix perturbation theory using a Green-function formalism for a system composed of two well-separated sets of closely spaced energy levels. Equations for calculating the electric field of four-wave-mixing signals generated by path-length delayed pulses are given. It is found that the phase of the signal field is determined by the excitation pulse phases, the dynamics of the nonlinear polarization decay, the product of four transition dipole matrix elements, and by a pulse-delay-dependent phase modulation at the frequency of the first dipole oscillation in the four-wave-mixing process. Analytic results for a two-level Bloch model show the phase shift from rapid nonlinear polarization decay. The product of dipole matrix elements is real and positive for three-level processes (bleached ground-state absorption and excited-state emission), but can be real and negative for some four-level Raman processes. The pulse-delay-dependent phase modulation treated here is closely related to the interferometric pulse-delay-dependent amplitude modulation observed in some collinear experiments, and plays a role in producing photon echos in inhomogeneously broadened samples. Numerical calculations of phase-resolved electric fields for finite duration pulses using a Brownian oscillator model appropriate for condensed-phase dynamics are presented. The ability of pulse-delay-dependent phase modulation to encode the frequency of the initially excited dipole onto the phase of the signal field can be exploited to examine energy-level connectivity, reveal correlations hidden under the inhomogeneous lineshape, and probe relaxation pathways in multilevel systems.

  14. Joint digital signal processing for superchannel coherent optical communication systems.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cheng; Pan, Jie; Detwiler, Thomas; Stark, Andrew; Hsueh, Yu-Ting; Chang, Gee-Kung; Ralph, Stephen E

    2013-04-01

    Ultra-high-speed optical communication systems which can support ≥ 1Tb/s per channel transmission will soon be required to meet the increasing capacity demand. However, 1Tb/s over a single carrier requires either or both a high-level modulation format (i.e. 1024QAM) and a high baud rate. Alternatively, grouping a number of tightly spaced "sub-carriers" to form a terabit superchannel increases channel capacity while minimizing the need for high-level modulation formats and high baud rate, which may allow existing formats, baud rate and components to be exploited. In ideal Nyquist-WDM superchannel systems, optical subcarriers with rectangular spectra are tightly packed at a channel spacing equal to the baud rate, thus achieving the Nyquist bandwidth limit. However, in practical Nyquist-WDM systems, precise electrical or optical control of channel spectra is required to avoid strong inter-channel interference (ICI). Here, we propose and demonstrate a new "super receiver" architecture for practical Nyquist-WDM systems, which jointly detects and demodulates multiple channels simultaneously and mitigates the penalties associated with the limitations of generating ideal Nyquist-WDM spectra. Our receiver-side solution relaxes the filter requirements imposed on the transmitter. Two joint DSP algorithms are developed for linear ICI cancellation and joint carrier-phase recovery. Improved system performance is observed with both experimental and simulation data. Performance analysis under different system configurations is conducted to demonstrate the feasibility and robustness of the proposed joint DSP algorithms. PMID:23571924

  15. Wide bandwidth optical signals for high range resolution measurements in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nash, Justin; Lee, Robert; Mullen, Linda

    2016-05-01

    Measurements with high range resolution are needed to identify underwater threats, especially when two-dimensional contrast information is insufficient to extract object details. The challenge is that optical measurements are limited by scattering phenomena induced by the underwater channel. Back-scatter results in transmitted photons being directed back to the receiver before reaching the target of interest which induces a clutter signal for ranging and a reduction in contrast for imaging. Multiple small-angle scattering (forward-scatter) results in transmitted photons being directed to unintended regions of the target of interest (spatial spreading), while also stretching the temporal profile of a short optical pulse (temporal spreading). Spatial and temporal spreading of the optical signal combine to cause a reduction in range resolution in conventional laser imaging systems. NAVAIR has investigated ways in which wide bandwidth, modulated optical signals can be utilized to improve ranging and imaging performance in turbid water environments. Experimental efforts have been conducted to investigate channel effects on the propagated frequency content, as well as different filtering and processing techniques on the return signals to maximize range resolution. Of particular interest for the modulated pulses are coherent detection and processing techniques employed by the radar community, including methods to reduce sidelobe clutter. This paper will summarize NAVAIR's work and show that wideband optical signals, in combination with the CLEAN algorithm, can indeed provide enhancements to range resolution and 3D imagery in turbid water environments.

  16. Monitoring Ras Interactions with the Nucleotide Exchange Factor Son of Sevenless (Sos) Using Site-specific NMR Reporter Signals and Intrinsic Fluorescence*

    PubMed Central

    Vo, Uybach; Vajpai, Navratna; Flavell, Liz; Bobby, Romel; Breeze, Alexander L.; Embrey, Kevin J.; Golovanov, Alexander P.

    2016-01-01

    The activity of Ras is controlled by the interconversion between GTP- and GDP-bound forms partly regulated by the binding of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor Son of Sevenless (Sos). The details of Sos binding, leading to nucleotide exchange and subsequent dissociation of the complex, are not completely understood. Here, we used uniformly 15N-labeled Ras as well as [13C]methyl-Met,Ile-labeled Sos for observing site-specific details of Ras-Sos interactions in solution. Binding of various forms of Ras (loaded with GDP and mimics of GTP or nucleotide-free) at the allosteric and catalytic sites of Sos was comprehensively characterized by monitoring signal perturbations in the NMR spectra. The overall affinity of binding between these protein variants as well as their selected functional mutants was also investigated using intrinsic fluorescence. The data support a positive feedback activation of Sos by Ras·GTP with Ras·GTP binding as a substrate for the catalytic site of activated Sos more weakly than Ras·GDP, suggesting that Sos should actively promote unidirectional GDP → GTP exchange on Ras in preference of passive homonucleotide exchange. Ras·GDP weakly binds to the catalytic but not to the allosteric site of Sos. This confirms that Ras·GDP cannot properly activate Sos at the allosteric site. The novel site-specific assay described may be useful for design of drugs aimed at perturbing Ras-Sos interactions. PMID:26565026

  17. Late postnatal development of intrinsic and synaptic properties promotes fast and precise signaling in the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus.

    PubMed

    Ammer, J J; Grothe, B; Felmy, F

    2012-02-01

    The dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL) is an auditory brain stem structure that generates a long-lasting GABAergic output, which is important for binaural processing. Despite its importance in binaural processing, little is known about the cellular physiology and the synaptic input kinetics of DNLL neurons. To assess the relevant physiological parameters of DNLL neurons, their late postnatal developmental profile was analyzed in acute brain slices of 9- to 26-day-old Mongolian gerbils. The observed developmental changes in passive membrane and action potential (AP) properties all point toward an improvement of fast and precise signal integration in these neurons. Accordingly, synaptic glutamatergic and GABAergic current kinetics accelerate with age. The changes in intrinsic and synaptic properties contribute nearly equally to reduce the latency and jitter in AP generation and thus enhance the temporal precision of DNLL neurons. Furthermore, the size of the synaptic NMDA current is developmentally downregulated. Despite this developmental reduction, DNLL neurons display an NMDA-dependent postsynaptic amplification of AP generation, known to support high firing rates, throughout this developmental period. Taken together, our findings indicate that during late postnatal development DNLL neurons are optimized for high firing rates with high temporal precision. PMID:22131371

  18. Monitoring Ras Interactions with the Nucleotide Exchange Factor Son of Sevenless (Sos) Using Site-specific NMR Reporter Signals and Intrinsic Fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Vo, Uybach; Vajpai, Navratna; Flavell, Liz; Bobby, Romel; Breeze, Alexander L; Embrey, Kevin J; Golovanov, Alexander P

    2016-01-22

    The activity of Ras is controlled by the interconversion between GTP- and GDP-bound forms partly regulated by the binding of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor Son of Sevenless (Sos). The details of Sos binding, leading to nucleotide exchange and subsequent dissociation of the complex, are not completely understood. Here, we used uniformly (15)N-labeled Ras as well as [(13)C]methyl-Met,Ile-labeled Sos for observing site-specific details of Ras-Sos interactions in solution. Binding of various forms of Ras (loaded with GDP and mimics of GTP or nucleotide-free) at the allosteric and catalytic sites of Sos was comprehensively characterized by monitoring signal perturbations in the NMR spectra. The overall affinity of binding between these protein variants as well as their selected functional mutants was also investigated using intrinsic fluorescence. The data support a positive feedback activation of Sos by Ras·GTP with Ras·GTP binding as a substrate for the catalytic site of activated Sos more weakly than Ras·GDP, suggesting that Sos should actively promote unidirectional GDP → GTP exchange on Ras in preference of passive homonucleotide exchange. Ras·GDP weakly binds to the catalytic but not to the allosteric site of Sos. This confirms that Ras·GDP cannot properly activate Sos at the allosteric site. The novel site-specific assay described may be useful for design of drugs aimed at perturbing Ras-Sos interactions. PMID:26565026

  19. Determination of critical diameters for intrinsic carrier diffusion-length of GaN nanorods with cryo-scanning near-field optical microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Y. T.; Karlsson, K. F.; Birch, J.; Holtz, P. O.

    2016-01-01

    Direct measurements of carrier diffusion in GaN nanorods with a designed InGaN/GaN layer-in-a-wire structure by scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) were performed at liquid-helium temperatures of 10 K. Without an applied voltage, intrinsic diffusion lengths of photo-excited carriers were measured as the diameters of the nanorods differ from 50 to 800 nm. The critical diameter of nanorods for carrier diffusion is concluded as 170 nm with a statistical approach. Photoluminescence spectra were acquired for different positions of the SNOM tip on the nanorod, corresponding to the origins of the well-defined luminescence peaks, each being related to recombination-centers. The phenomenon originated from surface oxide by direct comparison of two nanorods with similar diameters in a single map has been observed and investigated. PMID:26876009

  20. Determination of critical diameters for intrinsic carrier diffusion-length of GaN nanorods with cryo-scanning near-field optical microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y. T.; Karlsson, K. F.; Birch, J.; Holtz, P. O.

    2016-02-01

    Direct measurements of carrier diffusion in GaN nanorods with a designed InGaN/GaN layer-in-a-wire structure by scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) were performed at liquid-helium temperatures of 10 K. Without an applied voltage, intrinsic diffusion lengths of photo-excited carriers were measured as the diameters of the nanorods differ from 50 to 800 nm. The critical diameter of nanorods for carrier diffusion is concluded as 170 nm with a statistical approach. Photoluminescence spectra were acquired for different positions of the SNOM tip on the nanorod, corresponding to the origins of the well-defined luminescence peaks, each being related to recombination-centers. The phenomenon originated from surface oxide by direct comparison of two nanorods with similar diameters in a single map has been observed and investigated.

  1. Nonlinear optical signal processing in high figure of merit CMOS compatible platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, D. J.; Morandotti, R.

    2015-05-01

    Photonic integrated circuits that exploit nonlinear optics in order to generate and process signals all-optically have achieved performance far superior to that possible electronically - particularly with respect to speed. Although silicon-on-insulator has been the leading platform for nonlinear optics for some time, its high two-photon absorption at telecommunications wavelengths poses a fundamental limitation. We review the recent achievements based in new CMOS-compatible platforms that are better suited than SOI for nonlinear optics, focusing on amorphous silicon and Hydex glass. We highlight their potential as well as the challenges to achieving practical solutions for many key applications. These material systems have opened up many new capabilities such as on-chip optical frequency comb generation and ultrafast optical pulse generation and measurement.

  2. Predicting Intrinsic mid-IR to optical flux ratios for galaxies of different types using Spectral Synthesis Models of Composite Stellar Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Duho; Jansen, Rolf A.; Windhorst, Rogier A.

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the intrinsic flux ratios of simple and composite stellar populations for various visible--near-infrared filters with respect to ˜3.5μm (L-band), and their dependence on metallicity, star-formation history, and effective mean age. This study is motivated by the fact that light from galaxies is reddened and attenuated by dust via scattering and absorption, where different sightlines across the face of a galaxy suffer various amounts of extinction. Ignoring the effects of this extinction could lead one to infer lower stellar mass, and SFR, or higher metallicity. Tamura et al. (2009) developed an approximate method, dubbed the "βV" method, which corrects for dust-extinction on a pixel-by-pixel basis, by comparing the observed flux ratio and empirical estimate of the intrinsic flux ratio of optical and ˜3.5μm broadband data. Here, we aim to validate and test the limits of the βV method for various filters spanning the visible through near-infrared wavelength range. Through extensive modeling, we test their assumptions for the intrinsic flux ratios for a wide variety of simple and composite stellar populations. We build spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of simple stellar populations (SSPs), by adopting Starburst99 and BC03 models for young (<9Myr) and old (>100Myr) stellar populations, respectively, and linear combinations of these for intermediate ages. We then construct composite stellar population (CSP) SEDs by combining SSP SEDs for various realistic star-formation histories (SFHs). We convolve filter response curves of visible--near-infrared filters for HST imaging surveys and mid-infrared filters in current (WISE, Spitzer/IRAC) and near-future use (JWST/NIRCam) with each model SED, to obtain intrinsic flux ratios (βλ,0). We find that βNIR,0 is only varying slightly as a function of metallicity but is insensitive to SFH or redshift (z≤2). We also find a narrow range of βV,0 (0.7+0.05-0.08) for early Hubble type galaxies (E and S0) using

  3. Nonlinear Optical Microscopy Signal Processing Strategies in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Adur, Javier; Carvalho, Hernandes F; Cesar, Carlos L; Casco, Víctor H

    2014-01-01

    This work reviews the most relevant present-day processing methods used to improve the accuracy of multimodal nonlinear images in the detection of epithelial cancer and the supporting stroma. Special emphasis has been placed on methods of non linear optical (NLO) microscopy image processing such as: second harmonic to autofluorescence ageing index of dermis (SAAID), tumor-associated collagen signatures (TACS), fast Fourier transform (FFT) analysis, and gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM)-based methods. These strategies are presented as a set of potential valuable diagnostic tools for early cancer detection. It may be proposed that the combination of NLO microscopy and informatics based image analysis approaches described in this review (all carried out on free software) may represent a powerful tool to investigate collagen organization and remodeling of extracellular matrix in carcinogenesis processes. PMID:24737930

  4. Kalman filtering to suppress spurious signals in Adaptive Optics control

    SciTech Connect

    Poyneer, L; Veran, J P

    2010-03-29

    In many scenarios, an Adaptive Optics (AO) control system operates in the presence of temporally non-white noise. We use a Kalman filter with a state space formulation that allows suppression of this colored noise, hence improving residual error over the case where the noise is assumed to be white. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this new filter in the case of the estimated Gemini Planet Imager tip-tilt environment, where there are both common-path and non-common path vibrations. We discuss how this same framework can also be used to suppress spatial aliasing during predictive wavefront control assuming frozen flow in a low-order AO system without a spatially filtered wavefront sensor, and present experimental measurements from Altair that clearly reveal these aliased components.

  5. Range-resolved interferometric signal processing using sinusoidal optical frequency modulation.

    PubMed

    Kissinger, Thomas; Charrett, Thomas O H; Tatam, Ralph P

    2015-04-01

    A novel signal processing technique using sinusoidal optical frequency modulation of an inexpensive continuous-wave laser diode source is proposed that allows highly linear interferometric phase measurements in a simple, self-referencing setup. Here, the use of a smooth window function is key to suppress unwanted signal components in the demodulation process. Signals from several interferometers with unequal optical path differences can be multiplexed, and, in contrast to prior work, the optical path differences are continuously variable, greatly increasing the practicality of the scheme. In this paper, the theory of the technique is presented, an experimental implementation using three multiplexed interferometers is demonstrated, and detailed investigations quantifying issues such as linearity and robustness against instrument drift are performed. PMID:25968772

  6. Two cascaded SOAs used as intensity modulators for adaptively modulated optical OFDM signals in optical access networks.

    PubMed

    Hamié, Ali; Hamzé, Mohamad; Taki, Haidar; Makouk, Layaly; Sharaiha, Ammar; Alaeddine, Ali; Al Housseini, Ali; Giacoumidis, Elias; Tang, J M

    2014-06-30

    Detailed theoretical and numerical investigations of the transmission performance of adaptively modulated optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexed (AMOOFDM) signals are undertaken, for the first time, in optical amplification and chromatic dispersion (CD) compensation free single mode fiber (SMF) intensity-modulated and direct-detection (IMDD) systems using two cascaded semiconductor optical amplifiers in a counterpropagating configuration as an intensity modulator (TC-SOA-CC-IM). A theoretical model describing the characteristics of this configuration is developed. Extensive performance comparisons are also made between the TC-SOA-CC and the single SOA intensity modulators. It is shown that, the TC-SOA-CC reaches its strongly saturated region using a lower input optical power much faster than the single SOA resulting in significantly reduced effective carrier lifetime and thus wide TC-SOA-CC bandwidths. It is shown that at low input optical power, we can increase the signal line rate almost 115% which will be more than twice the transmission performance offered by single SOA. In addition, the TC-SOA-CC-IM is capable of supporting signal line rates higher than corresponding to the SOA-IM by using 10dB lower input optical powers. For long transmission distance, the TC-SOA-CC-IM has much stronger CD compensation capability compared to the SOA-IM. In addition the use of TC-SOA-CC-IM is more effective regarding the capability to benefit from the CD compensation for shorter distances starting at 60km SMF, whilst for the SOA-IM starting at 90km. PMID:24977835

  7. Asynchronous detection of optical code division multiple access signals using a bandwidth-efficient and wavelength-aware receiver.

    PubMed

    Fok, Mable P; Deng, Yanhua; Prucnal, Paul R

    2010-04-01

    We experimentally demonstrate what we believe to be a novel detection scheme for interfacing asynchronous optical code division multiple access (CDMA) signals with an electronic clock and data recovery system that operates only at the baseband bandwidth. This allows using a large optical bandwidth expansion factor in which the optical chip rate is much larger than the bandwidth of the optoelectronic receiver. The received optical CDMA signal is launched into a four-wave-mixing-based wavelength-aware all-optical front end that rejects multiaccess interference, followed by an amplitude-noise suppression stage comprised of a semiconductor optical amplifier. The clean signal is then converted into a non-return-to-zero-like signal by a baseband receiver. Using the proposed detection scheme, asynchronous transmission and detection of optical CDMA signals is implemented. With the novel detection scheme, the classic CDMA near-far problem is mitigated, and error-free detection is easily obtained. PMID:20364229

  8. No Evidence of Intrinsic Optical/Near-infrared Linear Polarization for V404 Cygni during Its Bright Outburst in 2015: Broadband Modeling and Constraint on Jet Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Y. T.; Itoh, R.; Uemura, M.; Inoue, Y.; Cheung, C. C.; Watanabe, M.; Kawabata, K. S.; Fukazawa, Y.; Yatsu, Y.; Yoshii, T.; Tachibana, Y.; Fujiwara, T.; Saito, Y.; Kawai, N.; Kimura, M.; Isogai, K.; Kato, T.; Akitaya, H.; Kawabata, M.; Nakaoka, T.; Shiki, K.; Takaki, K.; Yoshida, M.; Imai, M.; Gouda, S.; Gouda, Y.; Akimoto, H.; Honda, S.; Hosoya, K.; Ikebe, A.; Morihana, K.; Ohshima, T.; Takagi, Y.; Takahashi, J.; Watanabe, K.; Kuroda, D.; Morokuma, T.; Murata, K.; Nagayama, T.; Nogami, D.; Oasa, Y.; Sekiguchi, K.

    2016-05-01

    We present simultaneous optical and near-infrared (NIR) polarimetric results for the black hole binary V404 Cyg spanning the duration of its seven-day-long optically brightest phase of its 2015 June outburst. The simultaneous R- and K s -band light curves showed almost the same temporal variation except for the isolated (∼30-minute duration) orphan K s -band flare observed at MJD 57193.54. We did not find any significant temporal variation of polarization degree (PD) and position angle (PA) in both R and K s bands throughout our observations, including the duration of the orphan NIR flare. We show that the observed PD and PA are predominantly interstellar in origin by comparing the V404 Cyg polarimetric results with those of the surrounding sources within the 7‧ × 7‧ field of view. The low intrinsic PD (less than a few percent) implies that the optical and NIR emissions are dominated by either disk or optically thick synchrotron emission, or both. We also present the broadband spectra of V404 Cyg during the orphan NIR flare and a relatively faint and steady state by including quasi-simultaneous Swift/XRT and INTEGRAL fluxes. By adopting a single-zone synchrotron plus inverse-Compton model as widely used in modeling of blazars, we constrained the parameters of a putative jet. Because the jet synchrotron component cannot exceed the Swift/XRT disk/corona flux, the cutoff Lorentz factor in the electron energy distribution is constrained to be <102, suggesting that particle acceleration is less efficient in this microquasar jet outburst compared to active galactic nucleus jets. We also suggest that the loading of the baryon component inside the jet is inevitable based on energetic arguments.

  9. No Evidence of Intrinsic Optical/Near-infrared Linear Polarization for V404 Cygni during Its Bright Outburst in 2015: Broadband Modeling and Constraint on Jet Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Y. T.; Itoh, R.; Uemura, M.; Inoue, Y.; Cheung, C. C.; Watanabe, M.; Kawabata, K. S.; Fukazawa, Y.; Yatsu, Y.; Yoshii, T.; Tachibana, Y.; Fujiwara, T.; Saito, Y.; Kawai, N.; Kimura, M.; Isogai, K.; Kato, T.; Akitaya, H.; Kawabata, M.; Nakaoka, T.; Shiki, K.; Takaki, K.; Yoshida, M.; Imai, M.; Gouda, S.; Gouda, Y.; Akimoto, H.; Honda, S.; Hosoya, K.; Ikebe, A.; Morihana, K.; Ohshima, T.; Takagi, Y.; Takahashi, J.; Watanabe, K.; Kuroda, D.; Morokuma, T.; Murata, K.; Nagayama, T.; Nogami, D.; Oasa, Y.; Sekiguchi, K.

    2016-05-01

    We present simultaneous optical and near-infrared (NIR) polarimetric results for the black hole binary V404 Cyg spanning the duration of its seven-day-long optically brightest phase of its 2015 June outburst. The simultaneous R- and K s -band light curves showed almost the same temporal variation except for the isolated (˜30-minute duration) orphan K s -band flare observed at MJD 57193.54. We did not find any significant temporal variation of polarization degree (PD) and position angle (PA) in both R and K s bands throughout our observations, including the duration of the orphan NIR flare. We show that the observed PD and PA are predominantly interstellar in origin by comparing the V404 Cyg polarimetric results with those of the surrounding sources within the 7‧ × 7‧ field of view. The low intrinsic PD (less than a few percent) implies that the optical and NIR emissions are dominated by either disk or optically thick synchrotron emission, or both. We also present the broadband spectra of V404 Cyg during the orphan NIR flare and a relatively faint and steady state by including quasi-simultaneous Swift/XRT and INTEGRAL fluxes. By adopting a single-zone synchrotron plus inverse-Compton model as widely used in modeling of blazars, we constrained the parameters of a putative jet. Because the jet synchrotron component cannot exceed the Swift/XRT disk/corona flux, the cutoff Lorentz factor in the electron energy distribution is constrained to be <102, suggesting that particle acceleration is less efficient in this microquasar jet outburst compared to active galactic nucleus jets. We also suggest that the loading of the baryon component inside the jet is inevitable based on energetic arguments.

  10. Quantum analysis of the nondegenerate optical parametric oscillator with injected signal

    SciTech Connect

    Coutinho dos Santos, B.; Dechoum, K.; Khoury, A.Z.; Silva, L.F. da; Olsen, M.K.

    2005-09-15

    In this paper we study the nondegenerate optical parametric oscillator with injected signal, both analytically and numerically. We develop a perturbation approach which allows us to find approximate analytical solutions, starting from the full equations of motion in the positive-P representation. We demonstrate the regimes of validity of our approximations via comparison with the full stochastic results. We find that, with reasonably low levels of injected signal, the system allows for demonstrations of quantum entanglement and the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox. In contrast to the normal optical parametric oscillator operating below threshold, these features are demonstrated with relatively intense fields.

  11. Femtosecond-laser-based synthesis of ultrastable microwave signals from optical frequency references.

    PubMed

    Bartels, A; Diddams, S A; Oates, C W; Wilpers, G; Bergquist, J C; Oskay, W H; Hollberg, L

    2005-03-15

    We use femtosecond laser frequency combs to convert optical frequency references to the microwave domain, where we demonstrate the synthesis of 10-GHz signals having a fractional frequency instability of < or =3.5 x 10(-15) at a 1-s averaging time, limited by the optical reference. The residual instability and phase noise of the femtosecond-laser-based frequency synthesizers are 6.5 x 10(-16) at 1 s and -98 dBc/Hz at a 1-Hz offset from the 10-GHz carrier, respectively. The timing jitter of the microwave signals is 3.3 fs. PMID:15792011

  12. Optically synchronized dual-channel terahertz signals for high-performance transmitter/receiver system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Naofumi; Oh, Kyoung-Hwan; Kohjiro, Satoshi; Kikuchi, Ken'ichi; Wakatsuki, Atsushi; Kukutsu, Naoya; Kado, Yuichi

    2010-02-01

    We developed a high-sweeping-speed optically synchronized dual-channel terahertz signal generator, in which the frequency difference between the two terahertz signals is independent of the frequency of the terahertz signals themselves. This feature is essential for heterodyne detection of terahertz signals with various frequencies. With this generator, a frequency-sweepable terahertz transmitter (Tx)/receiver (Rx) system with a wide dynamic range can be realized without sacrificing the high frequency-sweeping speed. Absorption line measurements for water vapor and nitrous oxide show that the developed Tx/Rx system can detect gas absorption with the optical depth of 0.04 or less. This result indicates the potential of the system as a remote gas sensor and gas analyzer.

  13. Stabilization of Phase of a Sinusoidal Signal Transmitted Over Optical Fiber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DAddario, Larry R.; Trink, Joseph T.

    2010-01-01

    In the process of connecting widely distributed antennas into a coherent array, it is necessary to synchronize the timing of signals at the various locations. This can be accomplished by distributing a common reference signal from a central source, usually over optical fiber. A high-frequency (RF or microwave) tone is a good choice for the reference. One difficulty is that the effective length of the optical fiber changes with temperature and mechanical stress, leading to phase instability in the received tone. This innovation provides a new way to stabilize the phase of the received tone, in spite of variations in the electrical length of the fiber. Stabilization is accomplished by two-way transmission in which part of the received signal is returned to the transmitting end over an identical fiber. The returned signal is detected and used to close an electrical servo loop whose effect is to keep constant the phase of the tone at the receiving end.

  14. Estimating respiratory rate from FBG optical sensors by using signal quality measurement.

    PubMed

    Yongwei Zhu; Maniyeri, Jayachandran; Fook, Victor Foo Siang; Haihong Zhang

    2015-08-01

    Non-intrusiveness is one of the advantages of in-bed optical sensor device for monitoring vital signs, including heart rate and respiratory rate. Estimating respiratory rate reliably using such sensors, however, is challenging, due to body movement, signal variation according to different subjects or body positions, etc. This paper presents a method for reliable respiratory rate estimation for FBG optical sensors by introducing signal quality estimation. The method estimates the quality of the signal waveform by detecting regularly repetitive patterns using proposed spectrum and cepstrum analysis. Multiple window sizes are used to cater for a wide range of target respiratory rates. Furthermore, the readings of multiple sensors are fused to derive a final respiratory rate. Experiments with 12 subjects and 2 body positions were conducted using polysomnography belt signal as groundtruth. The results demonstrated the effectiveness of the method. PMID:26736396

  15. Curvature sensing using an added-signal in a fiber optic cavity ring-down system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Susana O.; Biswas, P.; Bandyopadhyay, S.; Jorge, P. A.; Marques, M. B.; Frazão, O.

    2015-09-01

    This work presents a fiber-optic Cavity Ring-Down (CRD) configuration using an added-signal for curvature sensing. An Optical Time-Domain Reflectometer (OTDR) was used to send impulses down into the fiber loop cavity, inside of which a long period grating (LPG) was placed to act as sensing device. The added-signal was obtained by the sum of several conventional CRD impulses, thus providing an improvement on the curvature sensitivity when compared to the conventional CRD signal processing. Sensitivity to applied curvature of 15.3 μs/m-1 was obtained. This result was found to be 20-fold the one obtained for the conventional CRD signal processing.

  16. Detection of apparent skin motion using optical flow analysis: Blood pulsation signal obtained from optical flow sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Kazuki; Maekawa, Tsuyoshi; Miike, Hidetoshi

    1997-02-01

    A skin motion imaging system with two modes of operation, diffusive and specular reflections, was developed. The system consists of image capturing and processing elements. Using optical flow analyses of skin motion at the wrist, we have detected successfully a blood pulsation signal that concurs with the electrocardiogram. The signal provides information not only about blood pulsation, but also about blood circulation and the biomechanical properties of the skin. This system may have other applications in the future, such as noncontact blood pulsation detection and evaluation of the biomechanical properties of skin, for example.

  17. Wide bandwidth chaotic signal generation in a monolithically integrated semiconductor laser via optical injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Xue-Mei; Zhong, Zhu-Qiang; Zhao, Ling-Juan; Lu, Dan; Qiu, Hai-Ying; Xia, Guang-Qiong; Wu, Zheng-Mao

    2015-11-01

    Wide bandwidth chaotic signal generation in a three-section monolithically integrated semiconductor laser (MISL) under external optical injection is investigated experimentally. Through evaluating the effective bandwidth of chaotic signals, the influences of the optical injection on the bandwidth of chaotic signal from the MISL are analyzed. The experimental results indicate that, for the currents of the DFB section (IDFB) and the phase section (IP) are fixed at 70.00 mA and 34.00 mA, respectively, the effective bandwidth of chaos signal generated by the solitary MISL reaches its maximum value of 14.36 GHz when the current of the amplification section (IA) takes 23.22 mA. After an external optical injection is introduced into the MISL, the effective bandwidth of the generated chaotic signal can be beyond 2.5 times of the maximum value. Furthermore, the effects of the injection strength and the frequency detuning on the effective bandwidth of the generated chaotic signal are also discussed.

  18. Optical coherence tomography for blood glucose monitoring through signal attenuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Pretto, Lucas R.; Yoshimura, Tania M.; Ribeiro, Martha S.; de Freitas, Anderson Z.

    2016-03-01

    Development of non-invasive techniques for glucose monitoring is crucial to improve glucose control and treatment adherence in patients with diabetes. Hereafter, Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) may offer a good alternative for portable glucometers, since it uses light to probe samples. Changes in the object of interest can alter the intensity of light returning from the sample and, through it, one can estimate the sample's attenuation coefficient (μt) of light. In this work, we aimed to explore the behavior of μt of mouse's blood under increasing glucose concentrations. Different samples were prepared in four glucose concentrations using a mixture of heparinized blood, phosphate buffer saline and glucose. Blood glucose concentrations were measured with a blood glucometer, for reference. We have also prepared other samples diluting the blood in isotonic saline solution to check the effect of a higher multiple-scattering component on the ability of the technique to differentiate glucose levels based on μt. The OCT system used was a commercial Spectral Radar OCT with 930 nm central wavelength and spectral bandwidth (FWHM) of 100 nm. The system proved to be sensitive for all blood glucose concentrations tested, with good correlations with the obtained attenuation coefficients. A linear tendency was observed, with an increase in attenuation with higher values of glucose. Statistical difference was observed between all groups (p<0.001). This work opens the possibility towards a non-invasive diagnostic modality using OCT for glycemic control, which eliminates the use of analytes and/or test strips, as in the case with commercially available glucometers.

  19. Influence of optical gaps on signal and noise properties of luminescent screen x-ray detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Andreas

    2004-05-01

    X-ray detection with luminescent screens requires optical signal transfer as an intermediate step between x-ray detection and conversion to an electronic signal. Luminescent screens may be granular (phosphor screens), structured (e.g. CsI) or transparent (scintillators). The optical signal is imaged with lenses, fibre optics, electron optics or by proximity focussing to an electronic detector. Poor focussing or poor optical contact may degrade the signal and noise transfer characteristics, i.e. modulation transfer function (MTF) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE). The case when x-rays are detected with granular luminescent screens, imaged onto flat panel electronic detectors is considered here. The detector assembly often requires layers of glue or protective thin films creating optical gaps, in which light is spread, hence spatial resolution is degraded. The noise spectrum is not necessarily changed the same way. Its exact shape depends on the dominant noise sources in a given detector configuration under the specific operating conditions: The noise of the primary x-ray quanta, noise aliasing and direct x-ray detection by the electronic detection layer are the main contributions in this investigation. Especially at high spatial frequencies small optical gaps in conjunction with white quantum noise from direct x-ray absorption of the electronic imager degrade DQE: A gap of 40 μm between luminescent screen and detector reduces the DQE by 33% at the Nyquist frequency. This was demonstrated with an a-Si imager of 143-μm pixel size and a Lanex Fine luminescent screen operated at 100 kV.

  20. Code extraction from encoded signal in time-spreading optical code division multiple access.

    PubMed

    Si, Zhijian; Yin, Feifei; Xin, Ming; Chen, Hongwei; Chen, Minghua; Xie, Shizhong

    2010-01-15

    A vulnerability that allows eavesdroppers to extract the code from the waveform of the noiselike encoded signal of an isolated user in a standard time-spreading optical code division multiple access communication system using bipolar phase code is experimentally demonstrated. The principle is based on fine structure in the encoded signal. Each dip in the waveform corresponds to a transition of the bipolar code. Eavesdroppers can get the code by analyzing the chip numbers between any two transitions; then a decoder identical to the legal user's can be fabricated, and they can get the properly decoded signal. PMID:20081977

  1. The Biases of Optical Line-Ratio Selection for Active Galactic Nuclei and the Intrinsic Relationship between Black Hole Accretion and Galaxy Star Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trump, Jonathan R.; Sun, Mouyuan; Zeimann, Gregory R.; Luck, Cuyler; Bridge, Joanna S.; Grier, Catherine J.; Hagen, Alex; Juneau, Stephanie; Montero-Dorta, Antonio; Rosario, David J.; Brandt, W. Niel; Ciardullo, Robin; Schneider, Donald P.

    2015-09-01

    We use 317,000 emission-line galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to investigate line-ratio selection of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). In particular, we demonstrate that “star formation (SF) dilution” by H ii regions causes a significant bias against AGN selection in low-mass, blue, star-forming, disk-dominated galaxies. This bias is responsible for the observed preference of AGNs among high-mass, green, moderately star-forming, bulge-dominated hosts. We account for the bias and simulate the intrinsic population of emission-line AGNs using a physically motivated Eddington ratio distribution, intrinsic AGN narrow line region line ratios, a luminosity-dependent {L}{bol}/L[{{O}} {{III}}] bolometric correction, and the observed {M}{BH}-σ relation. These simulations indicate that, in massive ({log}({M}*/{M}⊙ )≳ 10) galaxies, AGN accretion is correlated with specific star formation rate (SFR) but is otherwise uniform with stellar mass. There is some hint of lower black hole occupation in low-mass ({log}({M}*/{M}⊙ )≲ 10) hosts, although our modeling is limited by uncertainties in measuring and interpreting the velocity dispersions of low-mass galaxies. The presence of SF dilution means that AGNs contribute little to the observed strong optical emission lines (e.g., [{{O}} {{III}}] and {{H}}α ) in low-mass and star-forming hosts. However the AGN population recovered by our modeling indicates that feedback by typical (low- to moderate-accretion) low-redshift AGNs has nearly uniform efficiency at all stellar masses, SFRs, and morphologies. Taken together, our characterization of the observational bias and resultant AGN occupation function suggest that AGNs are unlikely to be the dominant source of SF quenching in galaxies, but instead are fueled by the same gas which drives SF activity.

  2. Ultralow-phase-noise millimetre-wave signal generator assisted with an electro-optics-modulator-based optical frequency comb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishizawa, A.; Nishikawa, T.; Goto, T.; Hitachi, K.; Sogawa, T.; Gotoh, H.

    2016-05-01

    Low-noise millimetre-wave signals are valuable for digital sampling systems, arbitrary waveform generation for ultra-wideband communications, and coherent radar systems. However, the phase noise of widely used conventional signal generators (SGs) will increase as the millimetre-wave frequency increases. Our goal has been to improve commercially available SGs so that they provide a low-phase-noise millimetre-wave signal with assistance from an electro-optics-modulator-based optical frequency comb (EOM-OFC). Here, we show that the phase noise can be greatly reduced by bridging the vast frequency difference between the gigahertz and terahertz ranges with an EOM-OFC. The EOM-OFC serves as a liaison that magnifies the phase noise of the SG. With the EOM-OFC used as a phase noise “booster” for a millimetre-wave signal, the phase noise of widely used SGs can be reduced at an arbitrary frequency f (6 ≦ f ≦ 72 GHz).

  3. Ultralow-phase-noise millimetre-wave signal generator assisted with an electro-optics-modulator-based optical frequency comb

    PubMed Central

    Ishizawa, A.; Nishikawa, T.; Goto, T.; Hitachi, K.; Sogawa, T.; Gotoh, H.

    2016-01-01

    Low-noise millimetre-wave signals are valuable for digital sampling systems, arbitrary waveform generation for ultra-wideband communications, and coherent radar systems. However, the phase noise of widely used conventional signal generators (SGs) will increase as the millimetre-wave frequency increases. Our goal has been to improve commercially available SGs so that they provide a low-phase-noise millimetre-wave signal with assistance from an electro-optics-modulator-based optical frequency comb (EOM-OFC). Here, we show that the phase noise can be greatly reduced by bridging the vast frequency difference between the gigahertz and terahertz ranges with an EOM-OFC. The EOM-OFC serves as a liaison that magnifies the phase noise of the SG. With the EOM-OFC used as a phase noise “booster” for a millimetre-wave signal, the phase noise of widely used SGs can be reduced at an arbitrary frequency f (6 ≦ f ≦ 72 GHz). PMID:27185040

  4. Ultralow-phase-noise millimetre-wave signal generator assisted with an electro-optics-modulator-based optical frequency comb.

    PubMed

    Ishizawa, A; Nishikawa, T; Goto, T; Hitachi, K; Sogawa, T; Gotoh, H

    2016-01-01

    Low-noise millimetre-wave signals are valuable for digital sampling systems, arbitrary waveform generation for ultra-wideband communications, and coherent radar systems. However, the phase noise of widely used conventional signal generators (SGs) will increase as the millimetre-wave frequency increases. Our goal has been to improve commercially available SGs so that they provide a low-phase-noise millimetre-wave signal with assistance from an electro-optics-modulator-based optical frequency comb (EOM-OFC). Here, we show that the phase noise can be greatly reduced by bridging the vast frequency difference between the gigahertz and terahertz ranges with an EOM-OFC. The EOM-OFC serves as a liaison that magnifies the phase noise of the SG. With the EOM-OFC used as a phase noise "booster" for a millimetre-wave signal, the phase noise of widely used SGs can be reduced at an arbitrary frequency f (6 ≦ f ≦ 72 GHz). PMID:27185040

  5. Optical signaling in biofluids: a nondenaturing photostable molecular probe for serum albumins.

    PubMed

    Dey, Gourab; Gaur, Pankaj; Giri, Rajanish; Ghosh, Subrata

    2016-01-31

    The systematic investigation of the interaction of a new class of molecular materials with proteins through structure-optical signaling relationship studies has led to the development of efficient fluorescent probes that can detect and quantify serum albumins in biofluids without causing any denaturation. PMID:26675447

  6. Multiplexing free-space optical signals using superimposed collinear orbital angular momentum states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, J.; Yuan, X.-C.; Tao, S. H.; Burge, R. E.

    2007-07-01

    As a proof of concept, we experimentally demonstrate multiplexing of free-space optical signals in multiple channels labeled with different states of orbital angular momentum. The multiplexing process is carried out by a dynamic liquid-crystal spatial light modulator, while the phase function is calculated by an iterative algorithm. A binary amplitude computer-generated hologram serves as a demultiplexer.

  7. Numerical investigation of all-optical add-drop multiplexing for spectrally overlapping OFDM signals.

    PubMed

    Sygletos, S; Fabbri, S; Giacoumidis, E; Sorokina, M; Marom, D M; Stephens, M F C; Klonidis, D; Tomkos, I; Ellis, A D

    2015-03-01

    We propose a novel architecture for all-optical add-drop multiplexing of OFDM signals. Sub-channel extraction is achieved by means of waveform replication and coherent subtraction from the OFDM super-channel. Numerical simulations have been carried out to benchmark the performance of the architecture against critical design parameters. PMID:25836815

  8. Space Telescope and Optical Reverberation Mapping Project VI. Variations of the Intrinsic Absorption Lines in NGC 5548

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriss, Gerard A.; Agn Storm Team

    2015-01-01

    The AGN STORM collaboration monitored the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 5548 over a six-month period, with observations spanning the hard X-ray to mid-infrared wavebands. The core of this campaign was an intensive HST COS program, which obtained 170 far-ultraviolet spectra at approximately daily intervals, with twice-per-day monitoring of the X-ray, near-UV, and optical bands during much of the same period using Swift. The broad UV absorption lines discovered by Kaastra et al. (2014) and associated with the new soft X-ray obscurer are continuously present in the STORM campaign COS spectra. Their strength varies with the degree of soft X-ray obscuration as revealed by the Swift X-ray spectra. The narrow associated absorption lines in the UV spectrum of NGC 5548 remain strong. The lower-ionization transitions that appeared concurrently with the soft X-ray obscuration vary in response to the changing UV flux on a daily basis. Their depths over the longer term, however, also respond to the strength of the soft X-ray obscuration, indicating that the soft X-ray obscurer has a significant influence on the ionizing UV continuum that is not directly tracked by the observable UV continuum itself.

  9. Optically stimulated luminescence signals of polymineral fine grains in the JSC Mars-1 soil simulant sample.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, D; Blair, M; Lepper, K; McKeever, S W S

    2002-01-01

    The results of various experiments which characterise the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) signals from polymineral fine grains of a Martian soil simulant sample (JSC Mars-1) are presented. The blue-green stimulated luminescence signal has greater thermal stability than the infrared stimulated luminescence signal for pre-heat temperatures between 250 degrees C and 400 degrees C. Fading tests over a 2 month storage period at 20 degrees C indicate that in some aliquots of JSC Mars-1 both the blue-green stimulated luminescence and the infrared stimulated luminescence signals fade by as much as 50%, whereas in others there is no evidence of significant fading. Dose recovery experiments demonstrate that equivalent dose (measured/given) ratio varies from aliquot to aliquot, and the underestimation in dose is less than 5% for at least one aliquot, for both the infrared and blue-green stimulated luminescence signals. PMID:12382760

  10. Signal subspace analysis for decoherent processes during interferometric fiber-optic gyroscopes using synchronous adaptive filters.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongxiao; Wang, Zinan; Peng, Chao; Li, Zhengbin

    2014-10-10

    Conventional signal processing methods for improving the random walk coefficient and the bias stability of interferometric fiber-optic gyroscopes are usually implemented in one-dimension sequence. In this paper, as a comparison, we allocated synchronous adaptive filters with the calculations of correlations of multidimensional signals in the perspective of the signal subspace. First, two synchronous independent channels are obtained through quadrature demodulation. Next, synchronous adaptive filters were carried out in order to project the original channels to the high related error channels and the approximation channels. The error channel signals were then processed by principal component analysis for suppressing coherent noises. Finally, an optimal state estimation of these error channels and approximation channels based on the Kalman gain coefficient was operated. Experimental results show that this signal processing method improved the raw measurements' variance from 0.0630 [(°/h)2] to 0.0103 [(°/h)2]. PMID:25322393

  11. Adaptive coded spreading OFDM signal for dynamic-λ optical access network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bo; Zhang, Lijia; Xin, Xiangjun

    2015-12-01

    This paper proposes and experimentally demonstrates a novel adaptive coded spreading (ACS) orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signal for dynamic distributed optical ring-based access network. The wavelength can be assigned to different remote nodes (RNs) according to the traffic demand of optical network unit (ONU). The ACS can provide dynamic spreading gain to different signals according to the split ratio or transmission length, which offers flexible power budget for the network. A 10×13.12 Gb/s OFDM access with ACS is successfully demonstrated over two RNs and 120 km transmission in the experiment. The demonstrated method may be viewed as one promising for future optical metro access network.

  12. Stimulated Brillouin scattering gain bandwidth reduction and applications in microwave photonics and optical signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preussler, Stefan; Schneider, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) is one of the most dominant nonlinear effects in standard single-mode fibers and its unique spectral characteristics, especially the narrow bandwidth, enable many different applications. Most of the applications would benefit from a narrower bandwidth. Different methods for the bandwidth reduction of SBS in optical fibers are presented and discussed. A bandwidth reduction down to 17% of the natural gain can be achieved by the superposition of the gain with two losses or the utilization of a multistage system. Furthermore, applications in the field of microwave photonics and optical signal processing like high-resolution spectroscopy of communication signals, the storage of optical data packets as well as the processing of frequency combs including generation of millimeter waves and ideal sinc-shaped Nyquist pulses are presented.

  13. Gold nanoparticle-assisted all optical localized stimulation and monitoring of Ca2+ signaling in neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavoie-Cardinal, Flavie; Salesse, Charleen; Bergeron, Éric; Meunier, Michel; de Koninck, Paul

    2016-02-01

    Light-assisted manipulation of cells to control membrane activity or intracellular signaling has become a major avenue in life sciences. However, the ability to perform subcellular light stimulation to investigate localized signaling has been limited. Here, we introduce an all optical method for the stimulation and the monitoring of localized Ca2+ signaling in neurons that takes advantage of plasmonic excitation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). We show with confocal microscopy that 800 nm laser pulse application onto a neuron decorated with a few AuNPs triggers a transient increase in free Ca2+, measured optically with GCaMP6s. We show that action potentials, measured electrophysiologically, can be induced with this approach. We demonstrate activation of local Ca2+ transients and Ca2+ signaling via CaMKII in dendritic domains, by illuminating a single or few functionalized AuNPs specifically targeting genetically-modified neurons. This NP-Assisted Localized Optical Stimulation (NALOS) provides a new complement to light-dependent methods for controlling neuronal activity and cell signaling.

  14. “Seeing” electroencephalogram through the skull: imaging prefrontal cortex with fast optical signal

    PubMed Central

    Medvedev, Andrei V.; Kainerstorfer, Jana M.; Borisov, Sergey V.; Gandjbakhche, Amir H.; VanMeter, John

    2010-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy is a novel imaging technique potentially sensitive to both brain hemodynamics (slow signal) and neuronal activity (fast optical signal, FOS). The big challenge of measuring FOS noninvasively lies in the presumably low signal-to-noise ratio. Thus, detectability of the FOS has been controversially discussed. We present reliable detection of FOS from 11 individuals concurrently with electroencephalogram (EEG) during a Go-NoGo task. Probes were placed bilaterally over prefrontal cortex. Independent component analysis (ICA) was used for artifact removal. Correlation coefficient in the best correlated FOS–EEG ICA pairs was highly significant (p < 10−8), and event-related optical signal (EROS) was found in all subjects. Several EROS components were similar to the event-related potential (ERP) components. The most robust “optical N200” at t = 225 ms coincided with the N200 ERP; both signals showed significant difference between targets and nontargets, and their timing correlated with subject’s reaction time. Correlation between FOS and EEG even in single trials provides further evidence that at least some FOS components “reflect” electrical brain processes directly. The data provide evidence for the early involvement of prefrontal cortex in rapid object recognition. EROS is highly localized and can provide cost-effective imaging tools for cortical mapping of cognitive processes. PMID:21198150

  15. Gold nanoparticle-assisted all optical localized stimulation and monitoring of Ca2+ signaling in neurons

    PubMed Central

    Lavoie-Cardinal, Flavie; Salesse, Charleen; Bergeron, Éric; Meunier, Michel; De Koninck, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Light-assisted manipulation of cells to control membrane activity or intracellular signaling has become a major avenue in life sciences. However, the ability to perform subcellular light stimulation to investigate localized signaling has been limited. Here, we introduce an all optical method for the stimulation and the monitoring of localized Ca2+ signaling in neurons that takes advantage of plasmonic excitation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). We show with confocal microscopy that 800 nm laser pulse application onto a neuron decorated with a few AuNPs triggers a transient increase in free Ca2+, measured optically with GCaMP6s. We show that action potentials, measured electrophysiologically, can be induced with this approach. We demonstrate activation of local Ca2+ transients and Ca2+ signaling via CaMKII in dendritic domains, by illuminating a single or few functionalized AuNPs specifically targeting genetically-modified neurons. This NP-Assisted Localized Optical Stimulation (NALOS) provides a new complement to light-dependent methods for controlling neuronal activity and cell signaling. PMID:26857748

  16. Focal Activation of Cells by Plasmon Resonance Assisted Optical Injection of Signaling Molecules

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Experimental methods for single cell intracellular delivery are essential for probing cell signaling dynamics within complex cellular networks, such as those making up the tumor microenvironment. Here, we show a quantitative and general method of interrogation of signaling pathways. We applied highly focused near-infrared laser light to optically inject gold-coated liposomes encapsulating bioactive molecules into single cells for focal activation of cell signaling. For this demonstration, we encapsulated either inositol trisphosphate (IP3), an endogenous cell signaling second messenger, or adenophostin A (AdA), a potent analogue of IP, within 100 nm gold-coated liposomes, and injected these gold-coated liposomes and their contents into the cytosol of single ovarian carcinoma cells to initiate calcium (Ca2+) release from intracellular stores. Upon optical injection of IP3 or AdA at doses above the activation threshold, we observed increases in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration within the injected cell initiating the propagation of a Ca2+ wave throughout nearby cells. As confirmed by octanol-induced inhibition, the intercellular Ca2+ wave traveled via gap junctions. Optical injection of gold-coated liposomes represents a quantitative method of focal activation of signaling cascades of broad interest in biomedical research. PMID:24877558

  17. ``Seeing'' electroencephalogram through the skull: imaging prefrontal cortex with fast optical signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedev, Andrei V.; Kainerstorfer, Jana M.; Borisov, Sergey V.; Gandjbakhche, Amir H.; Vanmeter, John

    2010-11-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy is a novel imaging technique potentially sensitive to both brain hemodynamics (slow signal) and neuronal activity (fast optical signal, FOS). The big challenge of measuring FOS noninvasively lies in the presumably low signal-to-noise ratio. Thus, detectability of the FOS has been controversially discussed. We present reliable detection of FOS from 11 individuals concurrently with electroencephalogram (EEG) during a Go-NoGo task. Probes were placed bilaterally over prefrontal cortex. Independent component analysis (ICA) was used for artifact removal. Correlation coefficient in the best correlated FOS-EEG ICA pairs was highly significant (p < 10-8), and event-related optical signal (EROS) was found in all subjects. Several EROS components were similar to the event-related potential (ERP) components. The most robust ``optical N200'' at t = 225 ms coincided with the N200 ERP; both signals showed significant difference between targets and nontargets, and their timing correlated with subject's reaction time. Correlation between FOS and EEG even in single trials provides further evidence that at least some FOS components ``reflect'' electrical brain processes directly. The data provide evidence for the early involvement of prefrontal cortex in rapid object recognition. EROS is highly localized and can provide cost-effective imaging tools for cortical mapping of cognitive processes.

  18. A novel optical transmission link with DHT-based constant envelope optical OFDM signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jianxin; Liang, Hao

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, we have proposed a novel optical OFDM transmission link that takes advantages of discrete Hartley Transform (DHT) and constant envelope (CE) modulation, obtaining DHT-based constant envelope optical OFDM. The numerical results show that this design achieves better performance when compared with conventional O-OFDM in terms of bit error rate (BER) and peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR). The impact of phase modulation index (PMI) on both PAPR and noise tolerance is investigated. Since the scheme has simplified design, it is believed to be a cost-effective in the practical implement.

  19. Localized linear operators: application to image sequence compression using optical signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guha, Dipnarayan

    2003-10-01

    This paper discusses about the extension of Gabor Expansions to the optical domain and the design of an efficient filter bank to provide adaptive equalization in the light of Optical Signal Processing. The isomorphism between this localized linear operator and the filter design fundamentals are examined in the framework of image sequence compression. A new and efficient technique to perform Gabor expansion of Optical signals is introduced. The multi-resolution representation of data is considered in particular. A new approach to filter bank design in optical domain, using matrix formulation is introduced. Using this approach, an efficient optical filter bank with low complexity and good frequency response is designed. It is interesting to note that this design is a mathematical model of the quincunx filter bank. The characteristics of this optical filter bank are compared with that of other commonly used short kernel filter banks, for video compression applications. The approach is based on multi-resolution representation of data, which is generated by the filter bank proposed in this work. The use of multi-resolution data structure in conjunction with other components of the system allows a simple and efficient implementation. Simulations on typical image sequences show that it is possible to perform generic coding with reduced complexity and good efficiency.

  20. Quantitative optical coherence tomography by maximum a-posteriori estimation of signal intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Aaron C.; Kurokawa, Kazuhiro; Makita, Shuichi; Hong, Young-Joo; Miyazawa, Arata; Miura, Masahiro; Yasuno, Yoshiaki

    2016-03-01

    A maximum a-posteriori (MAP) estimator for signal amplitude of optical coherence tomography (OCT) is presented. This estimator provides an accurate and low bias estimation of the correct OCT signal amplitude even at very low signal-tonoise ratios. As a result, contrast improvement of retinal OCT images is demonstrated. In addition, this estimation method allows for an estimation reliability to be calculated. By combining the MAP estimator with a previously demonstrated attenuation imaging algorithm, we present attenuation coefficient images of the retina. From the reliability derived from the MAP image one can also determine which regions of the attenuation images are unreliable. From Jones matrix OCT data of the optic nerve head (ONH), we also demonstrate that combining MAP with polarization diversity (PD) OCT images can generate intensity images with fewer birefringence artifacts, resulting in better attenuation images. Analysis of the MAP intensity images shows higher image SNR than averaging.

  1. Zinc ferrite nanoparticles activate IL-1b, NFKB1, CCL21 and NOS2 signaling to induce mitochondrial dependent intrinsic apoptotic pathway in WISH cells

    SciTech Connect

    Saquib, Quaiser; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A.; Ahmad, Javed; Siddiqui, Maqsood A.; Dwivedi, Sourabh; Khan, Shams T.; Musarrat, Javed

    2013-12-01

    localization of NPs. • ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-NPs induce DNA damage and mitochondrial dysfunction in WISH cells. • ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-NPs activate inflammatory and oxidative stress signaling in WISH cells. • Elevation of p53, CASP 3, bax and bcl 2 genes affirms intrinsic apoptotic pathway.

  2. All-optical binary phase-coded UWB signal generation for multi-user UWB communications.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jianji; Yu, Yuan; Zhang, Yin; Li, Xiang; Huang, Dexiu; Zhang, Xinliang

    2011-05-23

    An all-optical incoherent scheme for generation of binary phase-coded ultra-wideband (UWB) signals is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The binary phase coding is performed based on all-optical phase modulation in a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) and phase modulation to intensity modulation (PM-IM) conversion in a fiber delay interferometer (DI) that serves as a multichannel frequency discriminator. By locating the phase-modulated light waves at the positive and negative slopes of the DI transmission spectra, binary phase encoded UWB codes (0 and π) are generated. We also experimentally demonstrate a bipolar UWB coding system with a code length of 4, operating at 1.25 Gb/s. And the decoding is analyzed as well. Our proposed system has potential application in future high-speed UWB impulse radio over optical fiber access networks. PMID:21643312

  3. Optical Correlation of Images With Signal-Dependent Noise Using Constrained-Modulation Filter Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downie, John D.

    1995-01-01

    Images with signal-dependent noise present challenges beyond those of images with additive white or colored signal-independent noise in terms of designing the optimal 4-f correlation filter that maximizes correlation-peak signal-to-noise ratio, or combinations of correlation-peak metrics. Determining the proper design becomes more difficult when the filter is to be implemented on a constrained-modulation spatial light modulator device. The design issues involved for updatable optical filters for images with signal-dependent film-grain noise and speckle noise are examined. It is shown that although design of the optimal linear filter in the Fourier domain is impossible for images with signal-dependent noise, proper nonlinear preprocessing of the images allows the application of previously developed design rules for optimal filters to be implemented on constrained-modulation devices. Thus the nonlinear preprocessing becomes necessary for correlation in optical systems with current spatial light modulator technology. These results are illustrated with computer simulations of images with signal-dependent noise correlated with binary-phase-only filters and ternary-phase-amplitude filters.

  4. Signal Normalization Reduces Systematic Measurement Differences Between Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Devices

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chieh-Li; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Ling, Yun; Wollstein, Gadi; Bilonick, Richard A.; Xu, Juan; Fujimoto, James G.; Sigal, Ian A.; Kagemann, Larry; Schuman, Joel S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To test the effect of a novel signal normalization method for reducing systematic optical coherence tomography (OCT) measurement differences among multiple spectral-domain (SD) OCT devices. Methods. A total of 109 eyes from 59 subjects were scanned with two SD-OCT devices (Cirrus and RTVue) at the same visit. Optical coherence tomography image data were normalized to match their signal characteristics between the devices. To compensate signal strength differences, custom high dynamic range (HDR) processing was also applied only to images with substantially lower signal strength. Global mean peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thicknesses were then measured automatically from all images using custom segmentation software and were compared to the original device outputs. Structural equation models were used to analyze the absolute RNFL thickness difference between original device outputs and our software outputs after signal normalization. Results. The device-measured RNFL thickness showed a statistically significant difference between the two devices (mean absolute difference 10.58 μm, P < 0.05), while there was no significant difference after normalization on eyes with 62.4-μm or thicker RNFL (mean absolute difference 2.95 μm, P < 0.05). Conclusions. The signal normalization method successfully reduces the systematic difference in RNFL thickness measurements between two SD-OCT devices. Enabling direct comparison of RNFL thickness obtained from multiple devices would broaden the use of OCT technology in both clinical and research applications. PMID:24114534

  5. An all-fiber partial discharge monitoring system based on both intrinsic fiber optic interferometry sensor and fluorescent fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Zelin; Zhang, Ruirui; Tong, Jie; Chen, Xi

    2013-12-01

    Partial discharges (PDs) are an electrical phenomenon that occurs within a transformer whenever the voltage stress is sufficient to produce ionization in voids or inclusions within a solid dielectric, at conductor/dielectric interfaces, or in bubbles within liquid dielectrics such as oil; high-frequency transient current discharges will then appear repeatedly and will progressively deteriorate the insulation, ultimately leading to breakdown. Fiber sensor has great potential on the partial discharge detection in high-voltage equipment for its immunity to electromagnetic interference and it can take direct measurement in the high voltage equipment. The energy released in PDs produces a number of effects, resulting in flash, chemical and structural changes and electromagnetic emissions and so on. Acoustic PD detection is based on the mechanical pressure wave emitted from the discharge and fluorescent fiber PD detection is based on the emitted light produced by ionization, excitation and recombination processes during the discharge. Both of the two methods have the shortage of weak anti-interference capacity in the physical environment, like thunder or other sound source. In order to avoid the false report, an all-fiber combined PD detection system of the two methods is developed in this paper. In the system the fluorescent fiber PD sensor is considered as a reference signal, three F-P based PD detection sensors are used to both monitor the PD intensity and calculate the exact position of the discharge source. Considering the wave band of the F-P cavity and the fluorescent probe are quite different, the reflection spectrum of the F-P cavity is in the infrared region, however the fluorescent probe is about 600nm to 700nm, thus the F-P sensor and fluorescent fiber probe can be connected in one fiber and the reflection light can be detected by two different detectors without mutual interference. The all-fiber partial discharge monitoring system not only can detect the PDs

  6. In-band simultaneous transmission of baseband and broadcast signals in wavelength reused bidirectional passive optical network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhury, Pallab K.

    2015-11-01

    Reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (RSOA) based bidirectional wavelength division multiplexing passive optical network (WDM-PON) is proposed and analyzed for broadcasting services along with conventional baseband signal. The downstream baseband signal is spectrally shaped for in-band transmission of broadcast signal, which ensures effective utilization of transmission bandwidth. The modulated downstream optical signal is further reused for upstream data modulation and transmitted over the same fiber with suppressed re-modulation and rayleigh backscattering noises. The proposed WDM-PON is successfully demonstrated for 10 Gb/s downstream baseband signal, 100 Mb/s 16-QAM (quadrature amplitude modulation) in-band broadcast signal and wavelength reused 1.25 Gb/s upstream signal. Error free operation for both the baseband signals as well as low value of error vector magnitude (EVM) for broadcast data are simultaneously achieved in acceptable receiver sensitivity.

  7. Deterioration of autonomic neuronal receptor signaling and mechanisms intrinsic to heart pacemaker cells contribute to age-associated alterations in heart rate variability in vivo.

    PubMed

    Yaniv, Yael; Ahmet, Ismayil; Tsutsui, Kenta; Behar, Joachim; Moen, Jack M; Okamoto, Yosuke; Guiriba, Toni-Rose; Liu, Jie; Bychkov, Rostislav; Lakatta, Edward G

    2016-08-01

    We aimed to determine how age-associated changes in mechanisms extrinsic and intrinsic to pacemaker cells relate to basal beating interval variability (BIV) reduction in vivo. Beating intervals (BIs) were measured in aged (23-25 months) and adult (3-4 months) C57BL/6 male mice (i) via ECG in vivo during light anesthesia in the basal state, or in the presence of 0.5 mg mL(-1) atropine + 1 mg mL(-1) propranolol (in vivo intrinsic conditions), and (ii) via a surface electrogram, in intact isolated pacemaker tissue. BIV was quantified in both time and frequency domains using linear and nonlinear indices. Although the average basal BI did not significantly change with age under intrinsic conditions in vivo and in the intact isolated pacemaker tissue, the average BI was prolonged in advanced age. In vivo basal BIV indices were found to be reduced with age, but this reduction diminished in the intrinsic state. However, in pacemaker tissue BIV indices increased in advanced age vs. adults. In the isolated pacemaker tissue, the sensitivity of the average BI and BIV in response to autonomic receptor stimulation or activation of mechanisms intrinsic to pacemaker cells by broad-spectrum phosphodiesterase inhibition declined in advanced age. Thus, changes in mechanisms intrinsic to pacemaker cells increase the average BIs and BIV in the mice of advanced age. Autonomic neural input to pacemaker tissue compensates for failure of molecular intrinsic mechanisms to preserve average BI. But this compensation reduces the BIV due to both the imbalance of autonomic neural input to the pacemaker cells and altered pacemaker cell responses to neural input. PMID:27168363

  8. TM dependence of the magneto-optic signal in GdTb-TM thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Hairston, D.K.; Kryder, M.H.

    1988-04-15

    The magneto-optic polar Kerr rotation for various GdTb-TM thin films was measured at room temperature as a function of TM composition and was found to correlate with the Slater--Pauling curve. In spite of the fact that the temperature dependence of magnetization is a complicating factor, the data clearly establish the above-mentioned correlation. The TM compositions ranged from Mn through Fe and Co to Ni. The Fe-based films had Curie temperatures covering a range from 100 to 300 /sup 0/C in contrast to the Co-based films whose Curie temperatures were clearly much greater than 300 /sup 0/C. Neither the Mn- nor the Ni-based films exhibited desirable magneto-optic activity when fabricated under the same conditions as the Fe- and/or Co-based films. When the Fe constituent of the GdTbFe films was gradually substituted with Mn or Co the room-temperature magneto-optic signal was found to decrease and increase, respectively. In a similar manner, when the Co constituent of GdTbCo films was gradually substituted with Fe or Ni the room-temperature magneto-optic effect was found to increase and decrease, respectively. However, when the Co constituent of GdTbCo films was gradually substituted with Mn the room-temperature magneto-optic effect also decreased, clearly establishing the correlation to the Slater--Pauling curve. These results are further evidence that the magneto-optic effect of traditional RE-TM thin films is dominated by the TM composition and explain the fact that the magneto-optic signal is largest in GdTbFeCo thin films. New data supporting the correlation between magneto-optic effect and perpendicular anisotropy was also obtained.

  9. Tailoring Vacancies Far Beyond Intrinsic Levels Changes the Carrier Type and Optical Response in Monolayer MoSe 2−x Crystals

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mahjouri-Samani, Masoud; Liang, Liangbo; Oyedele, Akinola; Kim, Yong-Sung; Tian, Mengkun; Cross, Nicholas; Wang, Kai; Lin, Ming-Wei; Boulesbaa, Abdelaziz; Rouleau, Christopher M.; et al

    2016-07-14

    Defect engineering has been a critical step in controlling the transport characteristics of electronic devices, and the ability to create, tune, and annihilate defects is essential to enable the range of next-generation devices. Whereas defect formation has been well-demonstrated in three-dimensional semiconductors, similar exploration of the heterogeneity in atomically thin two-dimensional semiconductors and the link between their atomic structures, defects, and properties has not yet been extensively studied. In this paper, we demonstrate the growth of MoSe2–x single crystals with selenium (Se) vacancies far beyond intrinsic levels, up to ~20%, that exhibit a remarkable transition in electrical transport properties frommore » n- to p-type character with increasing Se vacancy concentration. A new defect-activated phonon band at ~250 cm-1 appears, and the A1g Raman characteristic mode at 240 cm-1 softens toward ~230 cm-1 which serves as a fingerprint of vacancy concentration in the crystals. We show that post-selenization using pulsed laser evaporated Se atoms can repair Se-vacant sites to nearly recover the properties of the pristine crystals. Finally, first-principles calculations reveal the underlying mechanisms for the corresponding vacancy-induced electrical and optical transitions.« less

  10. Cooperative transients in inter-atomic correlation in the presence of an externally applied coherent field - Relation to intrinsic mirrorless optical bistability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowden, C. M.; Sung, C. C.

    1982-08-01

    The model presented earlier (Bowden and Sung, 1979), which predicts the circumstances under which intrinsic mirrorless optical bistability (OB) can occur due to atomic pair correlation in a small volume, is outlined and the results presented. These results, which predict a first-order phase transition in steady state for an externally driven collection of a large number of atoms far removed from thermodynamic equilibrium, form the motivation for a detailed microscopic examination of the dynamical behavior of atomic pair correlation in the presence of externally applied coherent radiation. A model is presented and results are discussed for the transient dynamic evolution of two two-level atoms separated from each other by a distance r in the presence of an externally applied coherent radiation field. The results predict collective radiation reaction, frequency shifts, relaxation in terms of the atomic separation r (assumed much larger than single atom dimensions), the externally applied field intensity and spacial uniformity of the field with respect to the inter-atomic volume.

  11. Tailoring Vacancies Far Beyond Intrinsic Levels Changes the Carrier Type and Optical Response in Monolayer MoSe2-x Crystals.

    PubMed

    Mahjouri-Samani, Masoud; Liang, Liangbo; Oyedele, Akinola; Kim, Yong-Sung; Tian, Mengkun; Cross, Nicholas; Wang, Kai; Lin, Ming-Wei; Boulesbaa, Abdelaziz; Rouleau, Christopher M; Puretzky, Alexander A; Xiao, Kai; Yoon, Mina; Eres, Gyula; Duscher, Gerd; Sumpter, Bobby G; Geohegan, David B

    2016-08-10

    Defect engineering has been a critical step in controlling the transport characteristics of electronic devices, and the ability to create, tune, and annihilate defects is essential to enable the range of next-generation devices. Whereas defect formation has been well-demonstrated in three-dimensional semiconductors, similar exploration of the heterogeneity in atomically thin two-dimensional semiconductors and the link between their atomic structures, defects, and properties has not yet been extensively studied. Here, we demonstrate the growth of MoSe2-x single crystals with selenium (Se) vacancies far beyond intrinsic levels, up to ∼20%, that exhibit a remarkable transition in electrical transport properties from n- to p-type character with increasing Se vacancy concentration. A new defect-activated phonon band at ∼250 cm(-1) appears, and the A1g Raman characteristic mode at 240 cm(-1) softens toward ∼230 cm(-1) which serves as a fingerprint of vacancy concentration in the crystals. We show that post-selenization using pulsed laser evaporated Se atoms can repair Se-vacant sites to nearly recover the properties of the pristine crystals. First-principles calculations reveal the underlying mechanisms for the corresponding vacancy-induced electrical and optical transitions. PMID:27416103

  12. PDM-QPSK vector signal generation by MZM-based optical carrier suppression and direct detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xinying; Yu, Jianjun; Xiao, Jiangnan; Chi, Nan; Xu, Yuming; Chen, Long

    2015-11-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the generation of polarization-division-multiplexing quadrature-phase-shift-keying (PDM-QPSK) modulated vector signal adopting Mach-Zehnder-modulator-based (MZM-based) optical-carrier-suppression (OCS) intensity modulation and direct detection. The MZM is driven by a 6-GHz precoded vector signal carrying 2-Gbaud QPSK transmitter data, and biased at its minimum transmission point to realize OCS modulation. The phase of the 6-GHz precoded vector signal is 1/2 of that of the regular QPSK symbol. Only one polarization beam splitter (PBS) is needed to implement optical polarization diversity. The bit-error rate (BER) for the 2-Gbaud PDM-QPSK modulated vector signal can reach the hard-decision forward-error-correction (HD-FEC) threshold of 3.8×10-3 after 80-km single-mode fiber-28 (SMF-28) transmission in the presence of optical dispersion compensation, and 80-km SMF-28 transmission causes no power penalty.

  13. Characterizing relationship between optical microangiography signals and capillary flow using microfluidic channels.

    PubMed

    Choi, Woo June; Qin, Wan; Chen, Chieh-Li; Wang, Jingang; Zhang, Qinqin; Yang, Xiaoqi; Gao, Bruce Z; Wang, Ruikang K

    2016-07-01

    Optical microangiography (OMAG) is a powerful optical angio-graphic tool to visualize micro-vascular flow in vivo. Despite numerous demonstrations for the past several years of the qualitative relationship between OMAG and flow, no convincing quantitative relationship has been proven. In this paper, we attempt to quantitatively correlate the OMAG signal with flow. Specifically, we develop a simplified analytical model of the complex OMAG, suggesting that the OMAG signal is a product of the number of particles in an imaging voxel and the decorrelation of OCT (optical coherence tomography) signal, determined by flow velocity, inter-frame time interval, and wavelength of the light source. Numerical simulation with the proposed model reveals that if the OCT amplitudes are correlated, the OMAG signal is related to a total number of particles across the imaging voxel cross-section per unit time (flux); otherwise it would be saturated but its strength is proportional to the number of particles in the imaging voxel (concentration). The relationship is validated using microfluidic flow phantoms with various preset flow metrics. This work suggests OMAG is a promising quantitative tool for the assessment of vascular flow. PMID:27446700

  14. Characterizing relationship between optical microangiography signals and capillary flow using microfluidic channels

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Woo June; Qin, Wan; Chen, Chieh-Li; Wang, Jingang; Zhang, Qinqin; Yang, Xiaoqi; Gao, Bruce Z.; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2016-01-01

    Optical microangiography (OMAG) is a powerful optical angio-graphic tool to visualize micro-vascular flow in vivo. Despite numerous demonstrations for the past several years of the qualitative relationship between OMAG and flow, no convincing quantitative relationship has been proven. In this paper, we attempt to quantitatively correlate the OMAG signal with flow. Specifically, we develop a simplified analytical model of the complex OMAG, suggesting that the OMAG signal is a product of the number of particles in an imaging voxel and the decorrelation of OCT (optical coherence tomography) signal, determined by flow velocity, inter-frame time interval, and wavelength of the light source. Numerical simulation with the proposed model reveals that if the OCT amplitudes are correlated, the OMAG signal is related to a total number of particles across the imaging voxel cross-section per unit time (flux); otherwise it would be saturated but its strength is proportional to the number of particles in the imaging voxel (concentration). The relationship is validated using microfluidic flow phantoms with various preset flow metrics. This work suggests OMAG is a promising quantitative tool for the assessment of vascular flow. PMID:27446700

  15. Optical-fiber pulse rate multiplier for ultralow phase-noise signal generation.

    PubMed

    Haboucha, A; Zhang, W; Li, T; Lours, M; Luiten, A N; Le Coq, Y; Santarelli, G

    2011-09-15

    In this Letter we report on an all optical-fiber approach to the synthesis of ultralow-noise microwave signals by photodetection of femtosecond laser pulses. We use a cascade of Mach-Zehnder fiber interferometers to realize stable and efficient repetition rate multiplication. This technique increases the signal level of the photodetected microwave signal by close to 18 dB. That in turn allows us to demonstrate a residual phase-noise level of -118 dBc/Hz at 1 Hz and -160 dBc/Hz at 10 MHz from a 12 GHz signal. The residual noise floor of the fiber multiplier and photodetection system alone is around -164 dBc/Hz at the same offset frequency, which is very close to the fundamental shot-noise floor. PMID:21931422

  16. Effects of the optical properties of gold nanoparticles on photoacoustic signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okawa, S.; Hirasawa, T.; Sato, R.; Kushibiki, T.; Ishihara, M.; Teranishi, T.

    2016-03-01

    The effects of the optical properties of gold nanoparticle (AuNP) on the photoacoustic (PA) signals were investigated with the numerical simulation and experiment using various spherical and polyhedral AuNPs. In the numerical simulation, the absorption and scattering cross sections were calculated by the discrete dipole approximation. The absorbed light energy was calculated by the Monte Carlo method. Then PA pressure wave was simulated based on the PA wave equation. In the experiment, the PA signals from the AuNP suspensions were measured by use of a P(VDFTrFE) piezoelectric film and a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser operated at 532 nm. It was demonstrated that the PA signals were characterized by both of the absorption cross sections and the scattering cross section. The scattering medium containing the AuNPs enhanced the amplitude of the PA signals.

  17. Network coding based joint signaling and dynamic bandwidth allocation scheme for inter optical network unit communication in passive optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Pei; Gu, Rentao; Ji, Yuefeng

    2014-06-01

    As an innovative and promising technology, network coding has been introduced to passive optical networks (PON) in recent years to support inter optical network unit (ONU) communication, yet the signaling process and dynamic bandwidth allocation (DBA) in PON with network coding (NC-PON) still need further study. Thus, we propose a joint signaling and DBA scheme for efficiently supporting differentiated services of inter ONU communication in NC-PON. In the proposed joint scheme, the signaling process lays the foundation to fulfill network coding in PON, and it can not only avoid the potential threat to downstream security in previous schemes but also be suitable for the proposed hybrid dynamic bandwidth allocation (HDBA) scheme. In HDBA, a DBA cycle is divided into two sub-cycles for applying different coding, scheduling and bandwidth allocation strategies to differentiated classes of services. Besides, as network traffic load varies, the entire upstream transmission window for all REPORT messages slides accordingly, leaving the transmission time of one or two sub-cycles to overlap with the bandwidth allocation calculation time at the optical line terminal (the OLT), so that the upstream idle time can be efficiently eliminated. Performance evaluation results validate that compared with the existing two DBA algorithms deployed in NC-PON, HDBA demonstrates the best quality of service (QoS) support in terms of delay for all classes of services, especially guarantees the end-to-end delay bound of high class services. Specifically, HDBA can eliminate queuing delay and scheduling delay of high class services, reduce those of lower class services by at least 20%, and reduce the average end-to-end delay of all services over 50%. Moreover, HDBA also achieves the maximum delay fairness between coded and uncoded lower class services, and medium delay fairness for high class services.

  18. Polarization insensitive all-optical wavelength conversion of polarization multiplexed signals using co-polarized pumps.

    PubMed

    Anthur, Aravind P; Zhou, Rui; O'Duill, Sean; Walsh, Anthony J; Martin, Eamonn; Venkitesh, Deepa; Barry, Liam P

    2016-05-30

    We study and experimentally validate the vector theory of four-wave mixing (FWM) in semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOA). We use the vector theory of FWM to design a polarization insensitive all-optical wavelength converter, suitable for advanced modulation formats, using non-degenerate FWM in SOAs and parallelly polarized pumps. We demonstrate the wavelength conversion of polarization-multiplexed (PM)-QPSK, PM-16QAM and a Nyquist WDM super-channel modulated with PM-QPSK signals at a baud rate of 12.5 GBaud, with total data rates of 50 Gbps, 100 Gbps and 200 Gbps respectively. PMID:27410100

  19. Enhancement of the signal-to-noise ratio at depths in Fourier domain optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradu, Adrian; Bouchal, Petr; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh.

    2012-01-01

    We present a Fourier domain optical coherence tomography set-up built around an optical configuration that exhibits Talbot bands. To produce Talbot bands, the two interferometer beams, object and reference are laterally shifted in their way towards the diffraction grating. This allows attenuation of mirror terms and optimisation of the sensitivity profile. We imaged the human skin in-vivo, and quantified the profile of the sensitivity profile in tissue by measuring the ratio between the strengths of signals originating in the reticular dermis and in the stratum corneum for different values of the lateral shift of the two interfering beams.

  20. Quantitative evaluation of optical coherence tomography signal enhancement with gold nanoshells.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Anant; Huang, Stanley; Wei Haw Lin, Alex; Lee, Min-Ho; Barton, Jennifer K; Drezek, Rebekah A; Pfefer, T Joshua

    2006-01-01

    Nanoshell-enhanced optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a novel technique with the potential for molecular imaging and improved disease detection. However, optimization of this approach will require a quantitative understanding of the influence of nanoshell parameters on detected OCT signals. In this study, OCT was performed at 1310 nm in water and turbid tissue-simulating phantoms to which nanoshells were added. The effect of nanoshell concentration, core diameter, and shell thickness on signal enhancement was characterized. Experimental results indicated trends that were consistent with predicted optical properties-a monotonic increase in signal intensity and attenuation with increasing shell and core size. Threshold concentrations for a 2-dB OCT signal intensity gain were determined for several nanoshell geometries. For the most highly backscattering nanoshells tested-291-nm core diameter, 25-nm shell thickness-a concentration of 10(9) nanoshells/mL was needed to produce this signal increase. Based on these results, we discuss various practical considerations for optimizing nanoshell-enhanced OCT. Quantitative experimental data presented here will facilitate optimization of OCT-based diagnostics and may also be relevant to other reflectance-based approaches as well. PMID:16965149

  1. Acousto-optics bandwidth broadening in a Bragg cell based on arbitrary synthesized signal methods.

    PubMed

    Peled, Itay; Kaminsky, Ron; Kotler, Zvi

    2015-06-01

    In this work, we present the advantages of driving a multichannel acousto-optical deflector (AOD) with a digitally synthesized multifrequency RF signal. We demonstrate a significant bandwidth broadening of ∼40% by providing well-tuned phase control of the array transducers. Moreover, using a multifrequency, complex signal, we manage to suppress the harmonic deflections and return most of the spurious energy to the main beam. This method allows us to operate the AOD with more than an octave of bandwidth with negligible spurious energy going to the harmonic beams and a total bandwidth broadening of over 70%. PMID:26192666

  2. The nanosecond optical parametric amplifier of a weak signal based on BBO crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagdasarov, V. Kh; Bel’kov, S. A.; Garanin, S. G.; Garnov, S. V.; Nikolaev, D. A.; Orlov, S. N.; Polivanov, Y. N.; Shcherbakov, I. A.; Tsvetkov, V. B.

    2016-09-01

    Parameters of the optical parametric amplifier (OPA), based on two BBO crystals were studied. The OPA was made with the schematic of the extraordinary wave walk off compensation. Efficient amplification of the weak signal (λ  =  1053 nm) in the field of the strong pumping wave (λ  =  532 nm) was obtained. The measured value of the amplification was equal to ~106. The noise level of the parametric amplifier was less than 10‑3 from the signal level.

  3. Signal of microstrip scanning near-field optical microscope in far- and near-field zones.

    PubMed

    Morozov, Yevhenii M; Lapchuk, Anatoliy S

    2016-05-01

    An analytical model of interference between an electromagnetic field of fundamental quasi-TM(EH)00-mode and an electromagnetic field of background radiation at the apex of a near-field probe based on an optical plasmon microstrip line (microstrip probe) has been proposed. The condition of the occurrence of electromagnetic energy reverse flux at the apex of the microstrip probe was obtained. It has been shown that the nature of the interference depends on the length of the probe. Numerical simulation of the sample scanning process was conducted in illumination-reflection and illumination-collection modes. Results of numerical simulation have shown that interference affects the scanning signal in both modes. However, in illumination-collection mode (pure near-field mode), the signal shape and its polarity are practically insensible to probe length change; only signal amplitude (contrast) is slightly changed. However, changing the probe length strongly affects the signal amplitude and shape in the illumination-reflection mode (the signal formed in the far-field zone). Thus, we can conclude that even small background radiation can significantly influence the signal in the far-field zone and has practically no influence on a pure near-field signal. PMID:27140358

  4. Amplification of optical signals in Bi{sub 12}TiO{sub 20} crystal by photorefractive surface waves

    SciTech Connect

    Khomenko, A.V.; Garcia-Weidner, A.; Kamshilin, A.A.

    1996-07-01

    We have demonstrated experimentally beam amplification by coupling between the signal beam and the photorefractive surfaces wave in Bi{sub 12}TiO{sub 20} crystal. A gain of 16,000 has been measured, with an output signal-to-noise ratio of {approx_gt}20 for weak input signals. {copyright} {ital 1996 Optical Society of America.}

  5. Add/drop multiplexing and TDM signal transmission in an optical CDMA ring network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Biao; Guo, Changjian; Chen, Jiajia; Zhang, Linjian; Jiang, Qiong; He, Sailing

    2007-08-01

    It is shown that a ring topology is better than a star topology for an optical-code-division multiple access (OCDMA) network as an optical metropolitan or local area network in terms of security and capacity. Each node in an OCDMA ring network requires an OCDMA add/drop multiplexer. We present what we believe to be a novel OCDMA add/drop multiplexer that can simultaneously add and drop multiple code channels, and a proof-of-feasibility experiment is demonstrated. An OCDMA ring may also adapt code channels for time domain multiplexing and other digital signal transmission systems. An experiment for the synchronized digital hierarchy (SDH) signal over a OCDMA link is demonstrated.

  6. Optical wavefront shaping for the enhancement of Raman signal in scattering media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Jonathan V.; Throckmorton, Graham A.; Hokr, Brett H.; Yakovlev, Vladislav V.

    2016-03-01

    The ability to non-invasively focus light through scattering media has significant applications in many fields ranging from nanotechnology to deep tissue sensing. Until recently, the multiple light scattering events that occur in complex media such as biological tissue have inhibited the focusing ability and penetration depth of optical tools. Through the use of optical wavefront shaping, the spatial distortions due to these scattering events can be corrected, and the incident light can be focused through the scattering medium. Here, we demonstrate that wavefront shaping can be used to non-invasively enhance the Raman signal of a material through a scattering medium. Raman signal enhancement was achieved using backscattered light and a continuous sequential algorithm. Our results show the potential of wavefront shaping as an important addition to non-invasive detection techniques.

  7. A unified optical damage criterion based on the probability density distribution of detector signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somoskoi, T.; Vass, Cs.; Mero, M.; Mingesz, R.; Bozoki, Z.; Osvay, K.

    2013-11-01

    Various methods and procedures have been developed so far to test laser induced optical damage. The question naturally arises, that what are the respective sensitivities of these diverse methods. To make a suitable comparison, both the processing of the measured primary signal has to be at least similar to the various methods, and one needs to establish a proper damage criterion, which has to be universally applicable for every method. We defined damage criteria based on the probability density distribution of the obtained detector signals. This was determined by the kernel density estimation procedure. We have tested the entire evaluation procedure in four well-known detection techniques: direct observation of the sample by optical microscopy; monitoring of the change in the light scattering power of the target surface and the detection of the generated photoacoustic waves both in the bulk of the sample and in the surrounding air.

  8. Bioinspired Polarization Imaging Sensors: From Circuits and Optics to Signal Processing Algorithms and Biomedical Applications

    PubMed Central

    York, Timothy; Powell, Samuel B.; Gao, Shengkui; Kahan, Lindsey; Charanya, Tauseef; Saha, Debajit; Roberts, Nicholas W.; Cronin, Thomas W.; Marshall, Justin; Achilefu, Samuel; Lake, Spencer P.; Raman, Baranidharan; Gruev, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present recent work on bioinspired polarization imaging sensors and their applications in biomedicine. In particular, we focus on three different aspects of these sensors. First, we describe the electro–optical challenges in realizing a bioinspired polarization imager, and in particular, we provide a detailed description of a recent low-power complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) polarization imager. Second, we focus on signal processing algorithms tailored for this new class of bioinspired polarization imaging sensors, such as calibration and interpolation. Third, the emergence of these sensors has enabled rapid progress in characterizing polarization signals and environmental parameters in nature, as well as several biomedical areas, such as label-free optical neural recording, dynamic tissue strength analysis, and early diagnosis of flat cancerous lesions in a murine colorectal tumor model. We highlight results obtained from these three areas and discuss future applications for these sensors. PMID:26538682

  9. Low power real time signal processing engine for optical coherence tomography systems using multi-core digital signal processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Murtaza; Parlapalli, Renuka; John, Renu; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2011-03-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) imaging is a high-resolution, sub-surface non-invasive imaging technique, using the principle of low coherence interferometry, that has become increasingly popular for various applications for structural and quantitative imaging [1]. Applications for OCT technology have been demonstrated in ophthalmology, dentistry, cardiology/intravascular imaging, endoscopy and intra-operative surgery, and many new applications are being researched. Due to higher sensitivity and faster rate of image acquisition, frequency domain OCT systems are now replacing the first generation time domain systems. These include spectral domain systems, which use a broadband low coherent source with spectrometer and a line scan camera based receive system, and swept source systems, that use wavelength sweeping source with a photo-detector based receive system. Both of these systems require very similar signal processing to recover the desired image from the captured digitized interference or fringe data.

  10. Intrinsic n

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, S. B.; Wei, S.-H.; Zunger, Alex

    2001-02-15

    ZnO typifies a class of materials that can be doped via native defects in only one way: either n type or p type. We explain this asymmetry in ZnO via a study of its intrinsic defect physics, including Zn{sub O}, Zn{sub i}, V{sub O}, O{sub i}, and V{sub Zn} and n-type impurity dopants, Al and F. We find that ZnO is n type at Zn-rich conditions. This is because (i) the Zn interstitial, Zn{sub i}, is a shallow donor, supplying electrons; (ii) its formation enthalpy is low for both Zn-rich and O-rich conditions, so this defect is abundant; and (iii) the native defects that could compensate the n-type doping effect of Zn{sub i} (interstitial O, O{sub i}, and Zn vacancy, V{sub Zn}), have high formation enthalpies for Zn-rich conditions, so these ''electron killers'' are not abundant. We find that ZnO cannot be doped p type via native defects (O{sub i},V{sub Zn}) despite the fact that they are shallow (i.e., supplying holes at room temperature). This is because at both Zn-rich and O-rich conditions, the defects that could compensate p-type doping (V{sub O},Zn{sub i},Zn{sub O}) have low formation enthalpies so these ''hole killers'' form readily. Furthermore, we identify electron-hole radiative recombination at the V{sub O} center as the source of the green luminescence. In contrast, a large structural relaxation of the same center upon double hole capture leads to slow electron-hole recombination (either radiative or nonradiative) responsible for the slow decay of photoconductivity.

  11. Reversible and irreversible emergence of chiroptical signals in J-aggregates of achiral 4-sulfonatophenyl substituted porphyrins: intrinsic chirality vs. chiral ordering in the solution.

    PubMed

    Arteaga, Oriol; El-Hachemi, Zoubir; Canillas, Adolf; Crusats, Joaquim; Rovira, Meritxell; Ribó, Josep M

    2016-09-18

    Mueller matrix polarimetry distinguishes the different origins of the reversible and irreversible chiroptical effects emerging in stirred solutions of J-aggregate nanoparticles: the reversible effect is due to an anisotropic ordering in the solution and the irreversible one is due to a bias from the racemic composition of intrinsically chiral structures. PMID:27530742

  12. Experimental demonstration of phase bistability in a broad-area optical oscillator with injected signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Lorente, R.; Esteban-Martín, A.; Roldán, E.; Staliunas, K.; de Valcárcel, G. J.; Silva, F.

    2015-11-01

    We demonstrate experimentally that a broad-area laserlike optical oscillator (a nondegenerate photorefractive oscillator) with structured injected signal displays two-phase patterns. The technique [de Valcárcel and Staliunas, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 054101 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.105.054101] consists in spatially modulating the injection, so that its phase alternates periodically between two opposite values, i.e., differing by π .

  13. Advanced signaling technologies for high-speed digital fiber-optic links.

    PubMed

    Stark, Andrew J; Isautier, Pierre; Pan, Jie; Pavan, Sriharsha Kota; Filer, Mark; Tibuleac, Sorin; Lingle, Robert; de Salvo, Richard; Ralph, Stephen E

    2014-09-01

    We summarize the most recent research of the Georgia Tech Terabit Optical Networking Consortium and the state-of-the-art in fiber telecommunications. These results comprise high-capacity single-mode fiber systems with digital coherent receivers and shorter-reach multimode fiber links with vertical cavity surface emitting lasers. We strongly emphasize the capabilities that sophisticated digital signal processing and electronics add to these fiber-based data transport links. PMID:25321383

  14. Is Anybody Out There? The Search for Radio and Optical Signals from Extraterrestrial Civilizations

    SciTech Connect

    Werthimer, Daniel

    2003-04-23

    Werthimer will discuss the search for radio and laser signals from other civilizations and review the SETI{at}home, SERENDIP and Astropulse radio SETI programs as well as the SEVENDIP and SPOCK optical SETI Programs. The SERENDIP SETI sky survey searches for narrow band radio signals at the 305 meter Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico. SETI@home uses four million volunteers to analyse 50 Terabytes of data from Arecibo. SETI{at}home is the largest supercomputer on the planet, currently averaging 40 Teraflops. SETI{at}home participants have donated one million CPU years of computer time. The upcoming Astropulse search will use distributed computing to search for uS time scale radio pulses from evaporating black holes, pulsars or ET. The SEVENDIP optical SETI program searches for nS timescale pulses at visible wavelengths. The Spock optical SETI program searches for narrow band coherent signals in high resolution stellar spectra taken at Keck observatory. More info at http://seti.berkeley.edu

  15. Time- and space-modulated Raman signals in graphene-based optical cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reserbat-Plantey, Antoine; Klyatskaya, Svetlana; Reita, Valérie; Marty, Laëtitia; Arcizet, Olivier; Ruben, Mario; Bendiab, Nedjma; Bouchiat, Vincent

    2013-11-01

    We present fabrication and optical characterization of micro-cavities made of multilayer graphene (MLG) cantilevers clamped by metallic electrodes and suspended over Si/SiO2 substrates. Graphene cantilevers act as semi-transparent mirrors closing air wedge optical cavities. This simple geometry implements a standing-wave optical resonator along with a mechanical one. Equal thickness interference fringes are observed in both Raman and Rayleigh backscattered signals, with interfringe given by their specific wavelength. Chromatic dispersion within the cavity makes possible the spatial modulation of graphene Raman lines and selective rejection of the silicon background signal. Electrostatic actuation of the multilayer graphene cantilever by a gate voltage tunes the cavity length and induces space and time modulation of the backscattered light, including the Raman lines. We demonstrate the potential of these systems for high-sensitivity Raman measurements of generic molecular species grafted on a multilayer graphene surface. The Raman signal of the molecular layer can be modulated both in time and space in a similar fashion and shows enhancement with respect to a collapsed membrane.

  16. Delay tracking of spread-spectrum signals for indoor optical ranging.

    PubMed

    Salido-Monzú, David; Martín-Gorostiza, Ernesto; Lázaro-Galilea, José Luis; Martos-Naya, Eduardo; Wieser, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Delay tracking of spread-spectrum signals is widely used for ranging in radio frequency based navigation. Its use in non-coherent optical ranging, however, has not been extensively studied since optical channels are less subject to narrowband interference situations where these techniques become more useful. In this work, an early-late delay-locked loop adapted to indoor optical ranging is presented and analyzed. The specific constraints of free-space infrared channels in this context substantially differ from those typically considered in radio frequency applications. The tracking stage is part of an infrared differential range measuring system with application to mobile target indoor localization. Spread-spectrum signals are used in this context to provide accurate ranging while reducing the effect of multipath interferences. The performance of the stage regarding noise and dynamic errors is analyzed and validated, providing expressions that allow an adequate selection of the design parameters depending on the expected input signal characteristics. The behavior of the stage in a general multipath scenario is also addressed to estimate the multipath error bounds. The results, evaluated under realistic conditions corresponding to an 870 nm link with 25 MHz chip-rate, built with low-cost up-to-date devices, show that an overall error below 6% of a chip time can be achieved. PMID:25490585

  17. Delay Tracking of Spread-Spectrum Signals for Indoor Optical Ranging

    PubMed Central

    Salido-Monzú, David; Martín-Gorostiza, Ernesto; Lázaro-Galilea, José Luis; Martos-Naya, Eduardo; Wieser, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Delay tracking of spread-spectrum signals is widely used for ranging in radio frequency based navigation. Its use in non-coherent optical ranging, however, has not been extensively studied since optical channels are less subject to narrowband interference situations where these techniques become more useful. In this work, an early-late delay-locked loop adapted to indoor optical ranging is presented and analyzed. The specific constraints of free-space infrared channels in this context substantially differ from those typically considered in radio frequency applications. The tracking stage is part of an infrared differential range measuring system with application to mobile target indoor localization. Spread-spectrum signals are used in this context to provide accurate ranging while reducing the effect of multipath interferences. The performance of the stage regarding noise and dynamic errors is analyzed and validated, providing expressions that allow an adequate selection of the design parameters depending on the expected input signal characteristics. The behavior of the stage in a general multipath scenario is also addressed to estimate the multipath error bounds. The results, evaluated under realistic conditions corresponding to an 870 nm link with 25 MHz chip-rate, built with low-cost up-to-date devices, show that an overall error below 6% of a chip time can be achieved. PMID:25490585

  18. Optical multi-coset sampling of GHz-band chirped signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valley, George C.; Sefler, George A.; Shaw, T. J.; Smith, Stephen L.

    2015-03-01

    Direct digitization of long, wideband chirped RF signals in the GHz band requires power hungry ADCs and produces large data sets. Here we present an optical scheme to perform multi-coset sampling of such signals with reduced power consumption and smaller data sets. In our scheme a repetitively pulsed femtosecond laser is dispersed to the interpulse time, the RF is modulated on the optical field, and the field is directed to a pair of wavelength-division demultiplexers (WDM). The channels of the WDM are attenuated with a pseudo-random sequence to form a coset pattern that repeats at the laser repetition rate. After a photodiode, the photocurrent is integrated for the duration of the dispersed optical pulse so that the coset pattern non-uniformly samples the RF signal. Since the laser repetition rate is uncorrelated with the RF, each coset provides an independent measurement of the RF. Experimental and numerical results show that 4 properties of the RF chirp pulse can be determined from the multiple coset samples: carrier frequency, chirp rate, start time, and pulse duration. Results are presented for a 20MHz chirp on a 13 microsecond pulse at a carrier of 2.473 GHz.

  19. Plastic fiber optics for micro-imaging of fluorescence signals in living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakurai, Takashi; Natsume, Mitsuo; Koida, Kowa

    2015-03-01

    The fiber-coupled microscope (FCM) enables in vivo imaging at deep sites in the tissues or organs that other optical techniques are unable to reach. To develop FCM-based intravital imaging, we employed a plastic optical fiber (POF) bundle that included more than 10,000-units of polystyrene core and polymethyl methacrylate cladding. Each POF had a diameter of less than 5 μm the tip of the bundle was less than 0.5 mm wide, and the flexible wire had a length of 1,000 mm. The optical performance of the plastic FCM was sufficient for detection of significant signal changes in an acinus of rat pancreas labeled with a calcium ion-sensitive fluorescent dye. In the future, the potential power of plastic FCM is expected to increase, enabling analysis of structure and organization of specific functions in live cells within vulnerable organs.

  20. A Hybrid TDM/WDM-PON System With FWM-Generated Source of Multiwavelength Optical Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyashuk, I.; Shchemelev, A.; Ivanov, G.

    2010-01-01

    A new approach to FTTx solutions is proposed, in the framework of which a hybrid TDM/WDM system using cascaded FWM-generated optical signals is evaluated by calculating the BER parameter and the optical power budget. Computer simulation is employed as the main method of calculations, with the results presented both in numerical and graphical forms. The results show that the use of a forward error correction allows the power margin of 4 dB to be achieved for the system to work reliably. The system can provide the total number of users up to 128 (8γx16 TDM users) with a bandwidth of multiple hundreds of Mbit/s p.u. by means of the existing passive optical networking infrastructure, with only minor improvements needed.

  1. Optical observations of meteors generating infrasound-I: Acoustic signal identification and phenomenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silber, Elizabeth A.; Brown, Peter G.

    2014-11-01

    We analyse infrasound signals from 71 bright meteors/fireballs simultaneously detected by video to investigate the phenomenology and characteristics of meteor-generated near-field infrasound (<300 km) and shock production. A taxonomy for meteor generated infrasound signal classification has been developed using the time-pressure signal of the infrasound arrivals. Based on the location along the meteor trail where the infrasound signal originates, we find most signals are associated with cylindrical shocks, with about a quarter of events evidencing spherical shocks associated with fragmentation episodes and optical flares. The video data indicate that all events with ray launch angles >117° from the trajectory heading are most likely generated by a spherical shock, while infrasound produced by the meteors with ray launch angles ≤117° can be attributed to both a cylindrical line source and a spherical shock. We find that meteors preferentially produce infrasound toward the end of their trails with a smaller number showing a preference for mid-trail production. Meteors producing multiple infrasound arrivals show a strong infrasound source height skewness to the end of trails and are much more likely to be associated with optical flares. We find that about 1% of all our optically-recorded meteors have associated detected infrasound and estimate that regional meteor infrasound events should occur on the order of once per week and dominate in numbers over infrasound associated with more energetic (but rarer) bolides. While a significant fraction of our meteors generating infrasound (~1/4 of single arrivals) are produced by fragmentation events, we find no instances where acoustic radiation is detectable more than about 60° beyond the ballistic regime at our meteoroid sizes (grams to tens of kilograms) emphasizing the strong anisotropy in acoustic radiation for meteors which are dominated by cylindrical line source geometry, even in the presence of fragmentation.

  2. All-optical quality-of-signal monitoring in real time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Betty Lise; Abou-Galala, Feras; Rabb, David; Durresi, Arjan

    2003-08-01

    An new optical correlator containing a tapped delay line with thousands of taps is described. This enables ultra-high resolution correlation. We apply this to monitoring quality-of-signal by correlating the received, degraded bits with and un-degraded signal. The strength of the correlation signal, which is all optical, is proportional to the quality. Dispersion and attenuation can be evaluated in less than 100 ps at 40Gb/s, and jitter and noise in less than 100 ns. This is a significant improvement over minutes or even hours for bit-error-rate measurements. Simulations show good correspondence to eye-diagram measurements, the conventional (but slow) way to measure signal quality. If a network node can know the quality of all its links in real-time, it can re-route signals around poor links, and provide restoration and protection as well. The key to all this is an optical correlator with a very large number of taps in its internal tapped delay line. Our device uses a White cell and a fixed micro-mirror array. In a White cell, light bounces back and forth between three spherical mirrors. Multiple beams circulate in the same cell without interfering and are each refocused to a unique pattern of spots. We make the spots land on the micro-mirror array to switch between cells of slightly different lengths. Our current design provides 6550 possible delays for thousands of light beams, using only ten mirrors, a lens, and the micro-mirror array. We have developed two routing and protection protocols to exploit having this real-time information available to the network.

  3. Full-duplex radio over fiber link with colorless source-free base station based on single sideband optical mm-wave signal with polarization rotated optical carrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jianxin

    2016-07-01

    A full-duplex radio-over fiber (RoF) link scheme based on single sideband (SSB) optical millimeter (mm)-wave signal with polarization-rotated optical carrier is proposed to realize the source-free colorless base station (BS), in which a polarization beam splitter (PBS) is used to abstract part of the optical carrier for conveying the uplink data. Since the optical carrier for the uplink does not bear the downlink signal, no cross-talk from the downlink contaminates the uplink signal. The simulation results demonstrate that both down- and up-links maintain good performance. The mm-wave signal distribution network based on the proposed full duplex fiber link scheme can use the uniform source-free colorless BSs, which makes the access system very simpler.

  4. Method of optical coherence tomography with parallel depth-resolved signal reception and fibre-optic phase modulators

    SciTech Connect

    Morozov, A N; Turchin, I V

    2013-12-31

    The method of optical coherence tomography with the scheme of parallel reception of the interference signal (P-OCT) is developed on the basis of spatial paralleling of the reference wave by means of a phase diffraction grating producing the appropriate time delay in the Mach–Zehnder interferometer. The absence of mechanical variation of the optical path difference in the interferometer essentially reduces the time required for 2D imaging of the object internal structure, as compared to the classical OCT that uses the time-domain method of the image construction, the sensitivity and the dynamic range being comparable in both approaches. For the resulting field of the interfering object and reference waves an analytical expression is derived that allows the calculation of the autocorrelation function in the plane of photodetectors. For the first time a method of linear phase modulation by 2π is proposed for P-OCT systems, which allows the use of compact high-frequency (a few hundred kHz) piezoelectric cell-based modulators. For the demonstration of the P-OCT method an experimental setup was created, using which the images of the inner structure of biological objects at the depth up to 1 mm with the axial spatial resolution of 12 μm were obtained. (optical coherence tomography)

  5. Signal degradation by multiple scattering in optical coherence tomography of dense tissue: a Monte Carlo study towards optical clearing of biotissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ruikang K.

    2002-07-01

    Multiple scattering is a major source that limits light penetration into biotissues, thereby preventing visualization of the deep microstructures for high-resolution optical imaging techniques. The optical clearing approach is a new adventure in biomedical optics for manipulating the optical properties of tissue; for example, the scattering coefficient and the degree of forward scattering of photons, by the use of the chemical administration method in order to improve the optical imaging depth, particularly for the recently developed optical coherence tomography (OCT). This paper investigates systematically how the multiple scattering affects signal attenuation and localization in general, and how the alterations of optical properties of tissue enhance the optical imaging depth and signal localization in particular, by the use of Monte Carlo simulations through the separate considerations of the least scattered photons (LSP) and multiple scattered photons (MSP). The LSP are those photons that contribute to the precise OCT signal, i.e. localization, and the MSP are those that degrade the OCT signal. It is shown that with either the reduction of the scattering coefficient or the increase of the degree of forward scattering, signal localization and imaging depth for OCT is enhanced. Whilst the increase of the anisotropic factor of the medium is more efficient in improving signal localization, it introduces more scattering events for the photons travelling within the tissue for both the LSP and MSP. It is also found that the OCT imaging resolution is almost reduced exponentially with the increase of the probing depth as opposed to the claimed system resolution. We demonstrate that optical clearing could be a useful tool to improve the imaging resolution when the light progressively penetrates the high scattering medium. Experimental results are also presented to show intuitively how multiple scattering affects OCT signal profiles by the use of intralipid solution and

  6. Optical wireless transmission of 405 nm, 1.45 Gbit/s optical IM/DD-OFDM signals through a 4.8 m underwater channel.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Mizukoshi, Izumi; Hanawa, Masanori

    2015-01-26

    In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate wireless transmission of optical intensity modulation/direct detection-orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (IM/DD-OFDM) signals in an underwater channel using a field programmable gate array based real-time transmitter. The real-time transmission of a 405 nm 1.45 Gbit/s optical OFDM signal through a 4.8 m underwater channel with an error vector magnitude of approximately 10% was successfully achieved. PMID:25835913

  7. Fibre segment interferometry using code-division multiplexed optical signal processing for strain sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kissinger, Thomas; Charrett, Thomas O. H.; Tatam, Ralph P.

    2013-09-01

    A novel optical signal processing scheme for multiplexing fibre segment interferometers is proposed. The continuous-wave, homodyne technique combines code-division multiplexing with single-sideband modulation. It uses only one electro-optic phase modulator to achieve both range separation and quadrature interferometric phase measurement. This scheme is applied to fibre segment interferometry, where a number of long-gauge length interferometric fibre sensors are formed by subtracting pairs of signals from equidistantly placed, weak back reflectors. In this work we give a detailed account of the signal processing involved and, in particular, explore aspects such as electronic bandwidth requirements, noise, crosstalk and linearity, which are important design considerations. A signal bandwidth of ±20 kHz permits the resolution of phase change rates of 2.5 × 104 rad s-1 for each of the four 16.5 m long segments in our setup. We show that dynamic strain resolutions below 0.2 nanostrain Hz-0.5 at 2 m sensor gauge length are achievable, even with an inexpensive diode laser. When used in applications that require only relative strain change measurements, this scheme compares well to more established techniques and can provide high-fidelity yet cost-effective measurements.

  8. Jitter model and signal processing techniques for pulse width modulation optical recording

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Max M.-K.

    1991-01-01

    A jitter model and signal processing techniques are discussed for data recovery in Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) optical recording. In PWM, information is stored through modulating sizes of sequential marks alternating in magnetic polarization or in material structure. Jitter, defined as the deviation from the original mark size in the time domain, will result in error detection if it is excessively large. A new approach is taken in data recovery by first using a high speed counter clock to convert time marks to amplitude marks, and signal processing techniques are used to minimize jitter according to the jitter model. The signal processing techniques include motor speed and intersymbol interference equalization, differential and additive detection, and differential and additive modulation.

  9. Optical signal processing of video surveillance for recognizing and measurement location railway infrastructure elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diyazitdinov, Rinat R.; Vasin, Nikolay N.

    2016-03-01

    Processing of optical signals, which are received from CCD sensors of video cameras, allows to extend the functionality of video surveillance systems. Traditional video surveillance systems are used for saving, transmitting and preprocessing of the video content from the controlled objects. Video signal processing by analytics systems allows to get more information about object's location and movement, the flow of technological processes and to measure other parameters. For example, the signal processing of video surveillance systems, installed on carriage-laboratories, are used for getting information about certain parameters of the railways. Two algorithms for video processing, allowing recognition of pedestrian crossings of the railways, as well as location measurement of the so-called "Anchor Marks" used to control the mechanical stresses of continuous welded rail track are described in this article. The algorithms are based on the principle of determining the region of interest (ROI), and then the analysis of the fragments inside this ROI.

  10. The sequence of events in a lightning stroke: terrestrial gamma ray flash, radio signal and optical lightning.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostgaard, N.; Gjesteland, T.; Christian, H. J., Jr.; Albrechtsen, K.; Carlson, B. E.; Collier, A.; Cummer, S.; Lu, G.

    2015-12-01

    Two observations of simultaneous terrestrial gamma ray flashes (RHESSI) and optical lightning (LIS) from space and radio signals on ground (WWLLN and Duke) will be presented. Both events indicate that radio waves come from the TGF itself, while the optical signal is slightly delayed. These observations are consistent with the TGF being produced in one of the last leader steps in an IC+ lightning stroke, and that the optical signal is produced when the leader reaches the positive charge layer.We will also present results showing that there are even more weak TGFs, than currently reported, in the RHESSI data set.

  11. Adaptive Integrated Optical Bragg Grating in Semiconductor Waveguide Suitable for Optical Signal Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moniem, T. A.

    2016-05-01

    This article presents a methodology for an integrated Bragg grating using an alloy of GaAs, AlGaAs, and InGaAs with a controllable refractive index to obtain an adaptive Bragg grating suitable for many applications on optical processing and adaptive control systems, such as limitation and filtering. The refractive index of a Bragg grating is controlled by using an external electric field for controlling periodic modulation of the refractive index of the active waveguide region. The designed Bragg grating has refractive indices programmed by using that external electric field. This article presents two approaches for designing the controllable refractive indices active region of a Bragg grating. The first approach is based on the modification of a planar micro-strip structure of the iGaAs traveling wave as the active region, and the second is based on the modification of self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum dots of an alloy from GaAs and InGaAs with a GaP traveling wave. The overall design and results are discussed through numerical simulation by using the finite-difference time-domain, plane wave expansion, and opto-wave simulation methods to confirm its operation and feasibility.

  12. The interpretation of the LII signal in optically dense combusting sprays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochoterena, R.

    2009-09-01

    A numerical investigation was made of the generation and behaviour of the LII signal in optically dense combusting sprays at conditions similar to those in the combustion chamber of compression ignition engines and gas turbines. The influence of particle size, particle morphology and size distribution on the behaviour of the LII signal, and the scattering and absorption of light, and the consequences that different calibration procedures have on the accuracy of the results were studied. Results show that, as the particle size or aggregation increases, light extinction is not caused only by absorption but also by scattering, which contributes more than 10% to the total extinction of light. Particle shape effects are important, irrespective of particle size. The form, soot concentration gradients and optical thickness of the flame cause an uneven laser fluence across the measuring volume that affects the generation of the LII signal. In addition, the quotient between the transmitted and incoming laser pulses across the flame borders can be as small as a percentage of unity. The interpretation of the induced signal is further challenged by the loss of signal between the measuring volume and the detection arrangement, thus causing the detection of spectrally distorted and weaker signals with an erroneous profile of the local amount of carbonaceous particles. An appropriate calibration procedure must be followed to obtain results that are quantitatively representative. External calibration was found to be inappropriate for these systems since it can lead one to underestimate the local volume fraction for almost two orders of magnitude. Implementing an in situ calibration along a line can lead to underestimate or overestimate the local mean volume fraction by a factor of two. However, the use of an in situ calibration procedure using a laser sheet that propagates through the complete measuring volume can reduce the error in estimating the mean soot volume fraction to a

  13. Optical Fiber Infrasound Sensor Arrays: Signal Detection and Characterization Capabilities in Light Wind Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, K.; Zumberge, M.; Berger, J.; Matoza, R.; Hedlin, M.; Shearer, P.

    2006-12-01

    Optical fiber infrasound sensors (OFIS) are long compliant tubes wrapped with two optical fibers that measure pressure variation with laser interferometry. Initial work suggested that this sensor has, in low-wind conditions, a lower noise floor above 1 Hz than a traditional microbarometer sensor with a pipe-array wind filter. More recent progress has been made in two other practical areas. First, we have increased reliability and the recorded signal fidelity. Noise caused by ambient temperature changes has been reduced by burial of the OFIS beneath a foot of coarse gravel and by employing a polarization diversity detector. We are currently experimenting with a thermally-controlled OFIS that would eliminate the need for burial of an OFIS. Second, we have been developing OFIS configurations, techniques, and software for signal phase velocity determination. Because the pressure variation is integrated along the length of the tube, the instrument response is a function of the orientation of the OFIS relative to that of the signal wavefront. We show with synthetic data and real data recorded at Pinion Flat Observatory in southern California how to exploit this spectral property to determine the phase velocity of infrasound signals. This type of analysis allows us to use an array that has a smaller surface area than typical microbarometer arrays with wind filters. For signals with very low signal to noise ratios, using circular OFIS in a traditional triangular array geometry works better. We also present preliminary evidence that the response of linear and circular OFIS to light wind is less pronounced than that of traditional sensors connected to a circular porous-hose wind filter.

  14. Prototype positron emission tomography insert with electro-optical signal transmission for simultaneous operation with MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olcott, Peter; Kim, Ealgoo; Hong, Keyjo; Lee, Brian J.; Grant, Alexander M.; Chang, Chen-Ming; Glover, Gary; Levin, Craig S.

    2015-05-01

    The simultaneous acquisition of PET and MRI data shows promise to provide powerful capabilities to study disease processes in human subjects, guide the development of novel treatments, and monitor therapy response and disease progression. A brain-size PET detector ring insert for an MRI system is being developed that, if successful, can be inserted into any existing MRI system to enable simultaneous PET and MRI images of the brain to be acquired without mutual interference. The PET insert uses electro-optical coupling to relay all the signals from the PET detectors out of the MRI system using analog modulated lasers coupled to fiber optics. Because the fibers use light instead of electrical signals, the PET detector can be electrically decoupled from the MRI making it partially transmissive to the RF field of the MRI. The SiPM devices and low power lasers were powered using non-magnetic MRI compatible batteries. Also, the number of laser-fiber channels in the system was reduced using techniques adapted from the field of compressed sensing. Using the fact that incoming PET data is sparse in time and space, electronic circuits implementing constant weight codes uniquely encode the detector signals in order to reduce the number of electro-optical readout channels by 8-fold. Two out of a total of sixteen electro-optical detector modules have been built and tested with the entire RF-shielded detector gantry for the PET ring insert. The two detectors have been tested outside and inside of a 3T MRI system to study mutual interference effects and simultaneous performance with MRI. Preliminary results show that the PET insert is feasible for high resolution simultaneous PET/MRI imaging for applications in the brain.

  15. Prototype positron emission tomography insert with electro-optical signal transmission for simultaneous operation with MRI.

    PubMed

    Olcott, Peter; Kim, Ealgoo; Hong, Keyjo; Lee, Brian J; Grant, Alexander M; Chang, Chen-Ming; Glover, Gary; Levin, Craig S

    2015-05-01

    The simultaneous acquisition of PET and MRI data shows promise to provide powerful capabilities to study disease processes in human subjects, guide the development of novel treatments, and monitor therapy response and disease progression. A brain-size PET detector ring insert for an MRI system is being developed that, if successful, can be inserted into any existing MRI system to enable simultaneous PET and MRI images of the brain to be acquired without mutual interference. The PET insert uses electro-optical coupling to relay all the signals from the PET detectors out of the MRI system using analog modulated lasers coupled to fiber optics. Because the fibers use light instead of electrical signals, the PET detector can be electrically decoupled from the MRI making it partially transmissive to the RF field of the MRI. The SiPM devices and low power lasers were powered using non-magnetic MRI compatible batteries. Also, the number of laser-fiber channels in the system was reduced using techniques adapted from the field of compressed sensing. Using the fact that incoming PET data is sparse in time and space, electronic circuits implementing constant weight codes uniquely encode the detector signals in order to reduce the number of electro-optical readout channels by 8-fold. Two out of a total of sixteen electro-optical detector modules have been built and tested with the entire RF-shielded detector gantry for the PET ring insert. The two detectors have been tested outside and inside of a 3T MRI system to study mutual interference effects and simultaneous performance with MRI. Preliminary results show that the PET insert is feasible for high resolution simultaneous PET/MRI imaging for applications in the brain. PMID:25856511

  16. Multiplexed optical operation of nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) arrays for sensing and signal-processing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampathkumar, Ashwin

    2014-06-01

    NEMS are rapidly being developed for a variety of sensing applications as well as for exploring interesting regimes in fundamental physics. In most of these endeavors, operation of a NEMS device involves actuating the device harmonically around its fundamental resonance and detecting subsequent motion while the device interacts with its environment. Even though a single NEMS resonator is exceptionally sensitive, a typical application, such as sensing or signal processing, requires the detection of signals from many resonators distributed over the surface of a chip. Therefore, one of the key technological challenges in the field of NEMS is development of multiplexed measurement techniques to detect the motion of a large number of NEMS resonators simultaneously. In this work, we address the important and difficult problem of interfacing with a large number of NEMS devices and facilitating the use of such arrays in, for example, sensing and signal processing applications. We report a versatile, all-optical technique to excite and read-out a distributed NEMS array. The NEMS array is driven by a distributed, intensity-modulated, optical pump through the photothermal effect. The ensuing vibrational response of the array is multiplexed onto a single, probe beam as a high-frequency phase modulation. The phase modulation is optically down converted to a low-frequency, intensity modulation using an adaptive full -field interferometer, and subsequently is detected using a charge-coupled device (CCD) array. Rapid and single-step mechanical characterization of approximately 60 nominally identical, high-frequency resonators is demonstrated. The technique may enable sensitivity improvements over single NEMS resonators by averaging signals coming from a multitude of devices in the array. In addition, the diffraction-limited spatial resolution may allow for position-dependent read-out of NEMS sensor chips for sensing multiple analytes or spatially inhomogeneous forces.

  17. Signal processing algorithm of newly developed transmission-type extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric optical fiber sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Jung-Ju; Kwon, Il-Bum

    2000-06-01

    The newly developed TEFPI (transmission-type extrinsic Fabry- Perot interferometric) optical fiber sensor can distinguish the direction of measurement more simply and effectively than the conventional reflection-type EFPI optical fiber sensors. The output signal of the TEFPI optical fiber sensor has the characteristics that the signal level of fringes shows a negative slope for a tensile direction and a positive slope for a compressive direction. Based on these characteristics, the direction of measurement of the TEFPI optical fiber sensor can be distinguished with ease. In this paper, the signal processing algorithm adequate to the TEFPI optical fiber sensor was developed. This algorithm can process signal with recognition of the positions of peaks, valleys and signal levels of fringes. Thus this can determine a measurement direction and the positions of direction changes by using the change trend of signal levels. The developed algorithm makes the post-process and real-time process of the signal of the TEFPI optical fiber sensor possible.

  18. Ground Optical Signal Processing Architecture for Contributing SSA Space Based Sensor Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koblick, D.; Klug, M.; Goldsmith, A.; Flewelling, B.; Jah, M.; Shanks, J.; Piña, R.

    2014-09-01

    The main objective of the DARPA program Orbit Outlook (O^2) is to improve the metric tracking and detection performance of the Space Situational Network (SSN) by adding a diverse low-cost network of contributing sensors to the Space Situational Awareness (SSA) mission. In order to accomplish this objective, not only must a sensor be in constant communication with a planning and scheduling system to process tasking requests, there must be an underlying framework to provide useful data products, such as angles only measurements. Existing optical signal processing implementations such as the Optical Processing Architecture at Lincoln (OPAL) are capable of converting mission data collections to angles only observations, but may be difficult for many users to obtain, support, and customize for low-cost missions and demonstration programs. The Ground Optical Signal Processing Architecture (GOSPA) will ingest raw imagery and telemetry data from a space based electro optical sensor and perform a background removal process to remove anomalous pixels, interpolate over bad pixels, and dominant temporal noise. After background removal, the streak end points and target centroids are located using a corner detection algorithm developed by Air Force Research Laboratory. These identified streak locations are then fused with the corresponding spacecraft telemetry data to determine the Right Ascension and Declination measurements with respect to time. To demonstrate the performance of GOSPA, non-rate tracking collections against a satellite in Geosynchronous Orbit are simulated from a visible optical imaging sensor in a polar Low Earth Orbit. Stars, noise and bad pixels are added to the simulated images based on look angles and sensor parameters. These collections are run through the GOSPA framework to provide angles- only measurements to the Air Force Research Laboratory Constrained Admissible Region Multiple Hypothesis Filter (CAR-MHF) in which an Initial Orbit Determination is

  19. An ideal-observer framework to investigate signal detectability in diffuse optical imaging

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Abhinav K.; Clarkson, Eric; Kupinski, Matthew A.

    2013-01-01

    With the emergence of diffuse optical tomography (DOT) as a non-invasive imaging modality, there is a requirement to evaluate the performance of the developed DOT systems on clinically relevant tasks. One such important task is the detection of high-absorption signals in the tissue. To investigate signal detectability in DOT systems for system optimization, an appropriate approach is to use the Bayesian ideal observer, but this observer is computationally very intensive. It has been shown that the Fisher information can be used as a surrogate figure of merit (SFoM) that approximates the ideal observer performance. In this paper, we present a theoretical framework to use the Fisher information for investigating signal detectability in DOT systems. The usage of Fisher information requires evaluating the gradient of the photon distribution function with respect to the absorption coefficients. We derive the expressions to compute the gradient of the photon distribution function with respect to the scattering and absorption coefficients. We find that computing these gradients simply requires executing the radiative transport equation with a different source term. We then demonstrate the application of the SFoM to investigate signal detectability in DOT by performing various simulation studies, which help to validate the proposed framework and also present some insights on signal detectability in DOT. PMID:24156068

  20. AMA- and RWE- Based Adaptive Kalman Filter for Denoising Fiber Optic Gyroscope Drift Signal.

    PubMed

    Yang, Gongliu; Liu, Yuanyuan; Li, Ming; Song, Shunguang

    2015-01-01

    An improved double-factor adaptive Kalman filter called AMA-RWE-DFAKF is proposed to denoise fiber optic gyroscope (FOG) drift signal in both static and dynamic conditions. The first factor is Kalman gain updated by random weighting estimation (RWE) of the covariance matrix of innovation sequence at any time to ensure the lowest noise level of output, but the inertia of KF response increases in dynamic condition. To decrease the inertia, the second factor is the covariance matrix of predicted state vector adjusted by RWE only when discontinuities are detected by adaptive moving average (AMA).The AMA-RWE-DFAKF is applied for denoising FOG static and dynamic signals, its performance is compared with conventional KF (CKF), RWE-based adaptive KF with gain correction (RWE-AKFG), AMA- and RWE- based dual mode adaptive KF (AMA-RWE-DMAKF). Results of Allan variance on static signal and root mean square error (RMSE) on dynamic signal show that this proposed algorithm outperforms all the considered methods in denoising FOG signal. PMID:26512665

  1. AMA- and RWE- Based Adaptive Kalman Filter for Denoising Fiber Optic Gyroscope Drift Signal

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Gongliu; Liu, Yuanyuan; Li, Ming; Song, Shunguang

    2015-01-01

    An improved double-factor adaptive Kalman filter called AMA-RWE-DFAKF is proposed to denoise fiber optic gyroscope (FOG) drift signal in both static and dynamic conditions. The first factor is Kalman gain updated by random weighting estimation (RWE) of the covariance matrix of innovation sequence at any time to ensure the lowest noise level of output, but the inertia of KF response increases in dynamic condition. To decrease the inertia, the second factor is the covariance matrix of predicted state vector adjusted by RWE only when discontinuities are detected by adaptive moving average (AMA).The AMA-RWE-DFAKF is applied for denoising FOG static and dynamic signals, its performance is compared with conventional KF (CKF), RWE-based adaptive KF with gain correction (RWE-AKFG), AMA- and RWE- based dual mode adaptive KF (AMA-RWE-DMAKF). Results of Allan variance on static signal and root mean square error (RMSE) on dynamic signal show that this proposed algorithm outperforms all the considered methods in denoising FOG signal. PMID:26512665

  2. Optimization of an avionic VCSEL-based optical link through large signal characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ly, Khadijetou S.; Rissons, A.; Gambardella, E.; Mollier, J.-C.

    2008-04-01

    Optical communication systems have been widely preferred for network communications, especially for Datacoms Local Area Network links. The optical technology is an excellent candidate for on-board systems due to the potential weight saving and EMC immunity. According to the short length of the link and a cost saving, Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL) and multimode fiber are the best solution for gigabit systems. In this context, we propose a modeling of 850nm VCSEL based on the rate equations analysis to predict the optical interconnect performances (jitter, bit error rate). Our aim is to define the operation conditions of VCSEL under large signal modulation in order to maximize the Extinction Ratio (current I OFF below threshold) without affecting link performances. The VCSEL model is developed to provide large signal modulation response. Biasing below threshold causes stochastic turn-on delay. Fluctuations of this delay occur, due to the spontaneous emission. This leads to additional turn-on jitter. These stochastic effects are included in the model by adding the Langevin photon and electron noise sources. The VCSEL behavior under high-speed modulation is studied to observe the transient response and extract the resonance frequency, overshoot and turn-on delay. The associated jitter is evaluated with the standard deviation of the turn-on delay probability density function. Simulations of stochastic and deterministic jitters are realized under different conditions of modulation (OFF current levels). Comparing simulations with measurement results carried out on VCSEL and a short haul gigabit link validates the approach.

  3. Analysis of Optical CDMA Signal Transmission: Capacity Limits and Simulation Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garba, Aminata A.; Yim, Raymond M. H.; Bajcsy, Jan; Chen, Lawrence R.

    2005-12-01

    We present performance limits of the optical code-division multiple-access (OCDMA) networks. In particular, we evaluate the information-theoretical capacity of the OCDMA transmission when single-user detection (SUD) is used by the receiver. First, we model the OCDMA transmission as a discrete memoryless channel, evaluate its capacity when binary modulation is used in the interference-limited (noiseless) case, and extend this analysis to the case when additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) is corrupting the received signals. Next, we analyze the benefits of using nonbinary signaling for increasing the throughput of optical CDMA transmission. It turns out that up to a fourfold increase in the network throughput can be achieved with practical numbers of modulation levels in comparison to the traditionally considered binary case. Finally, we present BER simulation results for channel coded binary and[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]-ary OCDMA transmission systems. In particular, we apply turbo codes concatenated with Reed-Solomon codes so that up to several hundred concurrent optical CDMA users can be supported at low target bit error rates. We observe that unlike conventional OCDMA systems, turbo-empowered OCDMA can allow overloading (more active users than is the length of the spreading sequences) with good bit error rate system performance.

  4. Simulation of optical configurations and signal processing methods in Anger-type neutron-position scintillation detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roche, C. T.; Strauss, M. G.; Brenner, R.

    The spatial linearity and resolution of Anger type neutron position scintillation detectors were studied as a semi-empirical model. Detector optics with either an air gap or optical grease between the scintillator and the dispersive light guide are considered. Three signal processing methods which truncate signals from PMT's distant from the scintillation are compared with the linear resistive weighting method. Air gap optics yields a 15% improvement in spatial resolution and 50% reduction in differential and integral nonlinearity relative to grease coupled optics, using linear processing. Using signal truncation instead of linear processing improves the resolution 15% to 20% for the air gap and 20% to 30% for the grease coupling case. The initial discrepancy in the resolution between the two optics nearly vanished, however, the linearity of the grease coupled system is still significantly poorer.

  5. Simulation of optical configurations and signal processing methods in Anger-type neutron-position scintillation detector

    SciTech Connect

    Roche, C.T.; Strauss, M.G.; Brenner, R.

    1984-01-01

    The spatial linearity and resolution of Anger-type neutron-position scintillation detectors are studied using a semi-empirical model. Detector optics with either an air gap or optical grease between the scintillator and the dispersive light guide are considered. Three signal processing methods which truncate signals from PMT's distant from the scintillation are compared with the linear resistive weighting method. Air gap optics yields a 15% improvement in spatial resolution and 50% reduction in differential and integral nonlinearity relative to grease coupled optics, using linear processing. Using signal truncation instead of linear processing improves the resolution 15-20% for the air gap and 20-30% for the grease coupling case. Thus, the initial discrepancy in the resolution between the two optics nearly vanished, however the linearity of the grease coupled system is still significantly poorer.

  6. Resolution and linearity of Anger-type neutron-position detectors as simulated with different signal processing and optics

    SciTech Connect

    Roche, C.T.; Brenner, R.; Strauss, M.G.

    1985-02-01

    The apatial linearity and resolution of Anger-type neutron-position scintillation detectors are studied using a semi-empirical model. Detector optics with either an air gap or optical grease between the scintillator and the dispersive light guide are considered. An air gap focuses the scintillation light on the photomultiplier tubes nearest the scintillation point. Four signal processing methods which truncate signals from photomultipler tubes distant from the scintillation are compared with the linear resistive weighting method. Using linear processing, air-gap optics yield a 25% improvement in resolution distance and an 80% reduction in integral nonlinearity relative to grease-coupled optics. With either optics, using signal truncation instead of linear processing improves the resolution distance 5-15%.

  7. Determination of Hurst exponent by optical signal processing applied on surface roughness measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marbán Salgado, José Antonio; Sarmiento Martínez, Oscar; Mayorga Cruz, Darwin; Uruchurtu Chavarín, Jorge

    2009-09-01

    In this work a surface roughness measurement performed by Hurst exponent determination, calculated at the same time from data processing of an optical reflected signal is presented. An industrial plate roller rod covered with a polymeric coating is illuminated using a laser source. A lens is used for casting the scattered light reflected from several sectors of the plate roller, and also to focus it into a power meter connected to a computer where corresponding data series are stored. Information related to specific points of the considered object is contained into the optical reflected signal and post-processing of related data signal series allows calculation of the Hurst exponent, also known as roughness exponent. A wear analysis on considered surface sectors of the roller is performed and as a result a relation between Hurst exponent and the coating thickness for each surface sector is clearly established. The simplicity of the opto-mechanical setup among other evident advantages may suggest the application of this non-destructive technique on surface metrology.

  8. Effect of resin type on the signal integrity of an embedded perfluorinated polymer optical fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamouda, Tamer; Peters, Kara; Seyam, Abdel-Fattah M.

    2012-05-01

    Polymer optical fibers (POF) hold many advantages for embedded sensing, such as their low cost, flexibility, high tensile strain limits and high fracture toughness. POF sensors may therefore be integrated into fiber reinforced composite structures for monitoring structural behavior. Since POFs do not require a protective coating, it is critical to verify that the resin system does not have a negative impact on the noise level or performance of POF sensors during composite manufacture. This study measured the effect of vinylester and epoxy resin systems on the signal loss of embedded perfluorinated, graded index POFs. Photon-counting optical time domain reflectometry (OTDR) was used to monitor the signal attenuation and backscattering level of the POFs throughout the resin curing cycle. Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) and cross section analyses using scanning electronic microscope (SEM) images were also conducted to investigate whether the resin system caused chemical and physical changes of the POF. This study showed that vinylester resin caused a significant increase in the backscattering level of POF sensors and therefore induced high fiber signal losses. On the other hand, the POF treated with epoxy showed no change in backscattering level, indicating that no chemical or physical change had occurred to the POF.

  9. cAMP signaling microdomains and their observation by optical methods

    PubMed Central

    Calebiro, Davide; Maiellaro, Isabella

    2014-01-01

    The second messenger cyclic AMP (cAMP) is a major intracellular mediator of many hormones and neurotransmitters and regulates a myriad of cell functions, including synaptic plasticity in neurons. Whereas cAMP can freely diffuse in the cytosol, a growing body of evidence suggests the formation of cAMP gradients and microdomains near the sites of cAMP production, where cAMP signals remain apparently confined. The mechanisms responsible for the formation of such microdomains are subject of intensive investigation. The development of optical methods based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), which allow a direct observation of cAMP signaling with high temporal and spatial resolution, is playing a fundamental role in elucidating the nature of such microdomains. Here, we will review the optical methods used for monitoring cAMP and protein kinase A (PKA) signaling in living cells, providing some examples of their application in neurons, and will discuss the major hypotheses on the formation of cAMP/PKA microdomains. PMID:25389388

  10. Electronic polarization-division demultiplexing based on digital signal processing in intensity-modulation direct-detection optical communication systems.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Kazuro

    2014-01-27

    We propose a novel configuration of optical receivers for intensity-modulation direct-detection (IM · DD) systems, which can cope with dual-polarization (DP) optical signals electrically. Using a Stokes analyzer and a newly-developed digital signal-processing (DSP) algorithm, we can achieve polarization tracking and demultiplexing in the digital domain after direct detection. Simulation results show that the power penalty stemming from digital polarization manipulations is negligibly small. PMID:24515206

  11. Decreased thyroid hormone signaling accelerates the reinnervation of the optic tectum following optic nerve crush in adult zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Bhumika, Stitipragyan; Lemmens, Kim; Vancamp, Pieter; Moons, Lieve; Darras, Veerle M

    2015-09-01

    The regenerative capacity of the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS) is poor and finding ways to stimulate long distance axonal regeneration in humans remains a challenge for neuroscientists. Thyroid hormones, well known for their key function in CNS development and maturation, more recently also emerged as molecules influencing regeneration. While several studies investigated their influence on peripheral nerve regeneration, in vivo studies on their role in adult CNS regeneration remain scarce. We therefore investigated the effect of lowering T3 signaling on the regeneration of the optic nerve (ON) following crush in zebrafish, a species where full recovery occurs spontaneously. Adult zebrafish were exposed to iopanoic acid (IOP), which lowered intracellular 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) availability, or to the thyroid hormone receptor β antagonist methylsulfonylnitrobenzoate (C1). Both treatments accelerated optic tectum (OT) reinnervation. At 7days post injury (7dpi) there was a clear increase in the biocytin labeled area in the OT following anterograde tracing as well as an increased immunostaining of Gap43, a protein expressed in outgrowing axons. This effect was attenuated by T3 supplementation to IOP-treated fish. ON crush induced very limited cell death and proliferation at the level of the retina in control, IOP- and C1-treated fish. The treatments also had no effect on the mRNA upregulation of the regeneration markers gap43, tub1a, and socs3b at the level of the retina at 4 and 7dpi. We did, however, find a correlation between the accelerated OT reinnervation and a more rapid resolution of microglia/macrophages in the ON and the OT of IOP-treated fish. Taken together these data indicate that lowering T3 signaling accelerates OT reinnervation following ON crush in zebrafish and that this is accompanied by a more rapid resolution of the inflammatory response. PMID:25913150

  12. Optical hybrid analog-digital signal processing based on spike processing in neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fok, Mable P.; Tian, Yue; Rosenbluth, David; Deng, Yanhua; Prucnal, Paul R.

    2011-09-01

    Spike processing is one kind of hybrid analog-digital signal processing, which has the efficiency of analog processing and the robustness to noise of digital processing. When instantiated with optics, a hybrid analog-digital processing primitive has the potential to be scalable, computationally powerful, and have high operation bandwidth. These devices open up a range of processing applications for which electronic processing is too slow. Our approach is based on a hybrid analog/digital computational primitive that elegantly implements the functionality of an integrate-and-fire neuron using a Ge-doped non-linear optical fiber and off-the-shelf semiconductor devices. In this paper, we introduce our photonic neuron architecture and demonstrate the feasibility of implementing simple photonic neuromorphic circuits, including the auditory localization algorithm of the barn owl, which is useful for LIDAR localization, and the crayfish tail-flip escape response.

  13. Novel optical methodologies in studying mechanical signal transduction in mammalian cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stamatas, G. N.; McIntire, L. V.

    1999-01-01

    For the last 3 decades evidence has been accumulating that some types of mammalian cells respond to their mechanically active environment by altering their morphology, growth rate, and metabolism. The study of such responses is very important in understanding, physiological and pathological conditions ranging from bone formation to atherosclerosis. Obtaining this knowledge has been the goal for an active research area in bioengineering termed cell mechanotransduction. The advancement of optical methodologies used in cell biology research has given the tools to elucidate cellular mechanisms that would otherwise be impossible to visualize. Combined with molecular biology techniques, they give engineers invaluable tools in understanding the chemical pathways involved in mechanotransduction. Herein we briefly review the current knowledge on mechanical signal transduction in mammalian cells, focusing on the application of novel optical techniques in the ongoing research.

  14. All-optical wavelength conversion of a 100-Gb/s polarization-multiplexed signal.

    PubMed

    Martelli, P; Boffi, P; Ferrario, M; Marazzi, L; Parolari, P; Siano, R; Pusino, V; Minzioni, P; Cristiani, I; Langrock, C; Fejer, M M; Martinelli, M; Degiorgio, V

    2009-09-28

    We present the results of an in-depth experimental investigation about all-optical wavelength conversion of a 100-Gb/s polarization-multiplexed (POLMUX) signal. Each polarization channel is modulated at 25 Gbaud by differential quadrature phase-shift keying (DQPSK). The conversion is realized exploiting the high nonlinear chi((2)) coefficient of a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide, in a polarization-independent configuration. We find that slight non-idealities in the polarization independent setup of the wavelength converter can significantly impair the performance of POLMUX systems. We show that high-quality wavelength conversion can be nevertheless achieved for both the polarization channels, provided that an accurate optimization of the setup is performed. This is the first demonstration, to the best of our knowledge, of the possibility to obtain penalty-free all-optical wavelength conversion in a 100-Gb/s POLMUX transmission system using direct-detection. PMID:19907562

  15. Brain mapping: new wave optical imaging.

    PubMed

    Mrsic-Flogel, Thomas; Hübener, Mark; Bonhoeffer, Tobias

    2003-09-30

    Optical imaging of intrinsic signals is widely used for high-resolution brain mapping in various animal species. A new approach using continuous data acquisition and Fourier decomposition of the signal allows for much faster mapping, opening up the possibility of applying this method to new experimental questions. PMID:14521859

  16. Parameter design of signal processing for transmission/reflection-type hybrid extrinsic Fabry Perot interferometric optical fiber sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Jung-Ju

    2005-02-01

    A transmission/reflection-type hybrid extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric (TRHEFPI) optical fiber sensor presents transmission-type and reflection-type sensor signals simultaneously, and measurement directions can be robustly distinguished with the phase lead or lag of the linear combination signal from the original sensor signal. This sensor principle compensates for the ambiguous distinction of the measurement directions and direction changes of conventional interferometric optical fiber sensors, including extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric optical fiber sensors, due to the exclusive use of fringe counting in signal processing. Designing a sensor coefficient in the linear combination signal is one of the most important works in signal processing for the TRHEFPI optical fiber sensor because the magnitude of the phase shifts depends on the sensor coefficient. A design method of the sensor coefficient is presented in this research. The method was verified with experimental sensor signals and applied to strain measurement experiments. A method of absolute measurement using the TRHEFPI optical fiber sensor is also presented.

  17. A digital-signal-processor-based optical tomographic system for dynamic imaging of joint diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasker, Joseph M.

    Over the last decade, optical tomography (OT) has emerged as viable biomedical imaging modality. Various imaging systems have been developed that are employed in preclinical as well as clinical studies, mostly targeting breast imaging, brain imaging, and cancer related studies. Of particular interest are so-called dynamic imaging studies where one attempts to image changes in optical properties and/or physiological parameters as they occur during a system perturbation. To successfully perform dynamic imaging studies, great effort is put towards system development that offers increasingly enhanced signal-to-noise performance at ever shorter data acquisition times, thus capturing high fidelity tomographic data within narrower time periods. Towards this goal, I have developed in this thesis a dynamic optical tomography system that is, unlike currently available analog instrumentation, based on digital data acquisition and filtering techniques. At the core of this instrument is a digital signal processor (DSP) that collects, collates, and processes the digitized data set. Complementary protocols between the DSP and a complex programmable logic device synchronizes the sampling process and organizes data flow. Instrument control is implemented through a comprehensive graphical user interface which integrates automated calibration, data acquisition, and signal post-processing. Real-time data is generated at frame rates as high as 140 Hz. An extensive dynamic range (˜190 dB) accommodates a wide scope of measurement geometries and tissue types. Performance analysis demonstrates very low system noise (˜1 pW rms noise equivalent power), excellent signal precision (˜0.04%--0.2%) and long term system stability (˜1% over 40 min). Experiments on tissue phantoms validate spatial and temporal accuracy of the system. As a potential new application of dynamic optical imaging I present the first application of this method to use vascular hemodynamics as a means of characterizing

  18. Squeezing properties of a two-transverse-mode degenerate optical parametric oscillator with an injected signal

    SciTech Connect

    Navarrete-Benlloch, Carlos; Roldan, Eugenio; Valcarcel, German J. de

    2011-04-15

    We study the classical and quantum properties of a degenerate optical parametric oscillator (DOPO) tuned to the first family of transverse modes at the down-converted frequency, under the injection of a resonant TEM{sub 10} mode. Unlike the usual single-mode DOPO with injected signal, large levels of squeezing are predicted even for relatively large injections. We interpret these results in connection with the spontaneous symmetry breaking predicted for this system in the absence of injection and with the existence of a bifurcation giving rise to the switching on of the (noninjected) TEM{sub 01} mode.

  19. Modulator bias control based on dither signal in 40Gb/s RZ optical transmission system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianyong; Wang, Muguang; Fu, Yongjun; Cao, Jihong; Qin, Xi; Zhang, Feng; Jian, Shuisheng

    2008-11-01

    The bias drift effect in the packaged LiNbO3 modulator is investigated. The Bessel expansion of the dithered clock shows that the harmonic component equal to the dither frequency can be synchronously demodulated to get the bias drift and avoid the random phase difference between the clock or data and the dither signal. By using the time division control method one control system can track two modulator bias drift in 40Gb/s RZ optical transmission system because the optimum bias point changes very slowly.

  20. Architectures and algorithms for all-optical 3D signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giglmayr, Josef

    1999-07-01

    All-optical signal processing by >= 2D lightwave circuits (LCs) is (i) aimed to allow the (later) inclusion of the frequency domain and is (ii) subject to photonic integration and thus the architectural and algorithmic framework has to be prepared carefully. Much work has been done in >= 2D algebraic system theory/modern control theory which has been applied in the electronic field of signal and image processing. For the application to modeling, analysis and design of the proposed 3D lightwave circuits (LCs) some elements are needed to describe and evalute the system efficiency as the number of system states of 3D LCs increases dramatically with regard to the number of i/o. Several problems, arising throughput such an attempt, are made transparent and solutions are proposed.

  1. 50 Mbps free space direct detection laser diode optical communication system with Q = 4 PPM signaling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Xiaoli; Davidson, Frederic; Field, Christopher

    1990-01-01

    A 50 Mbps direct detection optical communication system for use in an intersatellite link was constructed with an AlGaAs laser diode transmitter and a silicon avalanche photodiode photodetector. The system used a Q = 4 PPM format. The receiver consisted of a maximum likelihood PPM detector and a timing recovery subsystem. The PPM slot clock was recovered at the receiver by using a transition detector followed by a PLL. The PPM word clock was recovered by using a second PLL whose input was derived from the presence of back-to-back PPM pulses contained in the received random PPM pulse sequences. The system achieved a bit error rate of 0.000001 at less than 50 detected signal photons/information bit. The receiver was capable of acquiring and maintaining slot and word synchronization for received signal levels greater than 20 photons/information bit, at which the receiver bit error rate was about 0.01.

  2. Gigabit Ethernet signal transmission using asynchronous optical code division multiple access.

    PubMed

    Ma, Philip Y; Fok, Mable P; Shastri, Bhavin J; Wu, Ben; Prucnal, Paul R

    2015-12-15

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel architecture for interfacing and transmitting a Gigabit Ethernet (GbE) signal using asynchronous incoherent optical code division multiple access (OCDMA). This is the first such asynchronous incoherent OCDMA system carrying GbE data being demonstrated to be working among multi-users where each user is operating with an independent clock/data rate and is granted random access to the network. Three major components, the GbE interface, the OCDMA transmitter, and the OCDMA receiver are discussed in detail. The performance of the system is studied and characterized through measuring eye diagrams, bit-error rate and packet loss rate in real-time file transfer. Our Letter also addresses the near-far problem and realizes asynchronous transmission and detection of signal. PMID:26670529

  3. Self-analysis of coherent oscillations in time-resolved optical signals.

    PubMed

    Egorova, Dassia

    2014-11-01

    The specific origin of oscillations in time-resolved optical signals, in particular, for complex systems with nontrivial interstate couplings and nonseparable electron-nuclear motion, is often difficult to assign. Here, we show that coherent oscillations in two-dimensional photon-echo are capable of self-analysis; their beating maps provide a tool to tell apart ground-state bleach (GSB), stimulated emission (SE), and excited-state absorption (ESA) contributions to the oscillatory signal component. Because GSB carries information on ground-state coherence while SE and ESA reflect the excited-state coherence, the observed oscillations can be unambiguously assigned to ground-state or excited-state coherent motion. The findings prove especially advantageous for systems with dense detectable manifolds of states pertaining to each electronic state. An analogous analysis for frequency-resolved (dispersed) pump-probe spectroscopy is discussed briefly. PMID:25289505

  4. Coherent Optical Focal Plane Array Receiver for PPM Signals: Investigation and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez, Michela Munoz

    2006-01-01

    The performance of a coherent optical focal plane array receiver for PPM signals under atmospheric turbulence is investigated and applications of this system are addressed. The experimental demonstration of this project has already been explained in previous publications [1]. This article shows a more exhaustive analysis of the expressions needed to obtain the Bit Error Rate (BER) for the real system under study in the laboratory. Selected experimental results of this system are described and compared with theoretical BER expressions, and array combining gains are presented. Receiver sensitivity in terms of photons per bit (PPB) is examined; BER results are shown as a function of signal to noise ratios, (SNR), as well as a function of photons per symbol, and photons per bit.

  5. The fractal-like complexity of heart rate variability beyond neurotransmitters and autonomic receptors: signaling intrinsic to sinoatrial node pacemaker cells

    PubMed Central

    Yaniv, Yael; Lyashkov, Alexey E.; Lakatta, Edward G.

    2015-01-01

    The heart rate and rhythm are controlled by complex chaotic neural, chemical and hormonal networks which are not strictly regular, but exhibit fluctuations across multiple time scales. A careful assessment of the heart rate variability (HRV) offers clues to this complexity. A reduction in HRV, specifically in advanced age, is associated with increase in morbidity and mortality. Mechanisms that induce this decrease, however, have not been fully elucidated. The classical literature characterizes changes in HRV as a result of changes in the balance of competing influences of the sympathetic and parasympathetic autonomic impulses delivered to the heart. It has now become clear, however, that the heart rate and HRV are also determined by intrinsic properties of the pacemaker cells that comprise sinoatrial node, and that these properties respond to autonomic receptor stimulation in a non-linear mode. That HRV is determined by both the intrinsic properties of pacemaker cells in the sinoatrial node and the competing influences of the two branches of the autonomic neural input to the cells requires an expansion of our perspective about mechanisms that govern HRV in the normal heart, and how HRV changes with aging in health and in heart diseases. PMID:26709383

  6. Applying new data-entropy and data-scatter methods for optical digital signal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, N. D.; Egan, J.; Denieffe, D.; Riedel, S.; Tiernan, K.; McGowan, G.; Farrell, G.

    2005-06-01

    This paper introduces for the first time a numerical example of the data-entropy 'quality-budget' method. The paper builds on an earlier theoretical investigation into the application of this information theory approach for opto-electronic system engineering. Currently the most widely used way of analysing such a system is with the power budget. This established method cannot however integrate noise of different generic types. The traditional power budget approach is not capable of allowing analysis of a system with different noise types and specifically providing a measure of signal quality. The data-entropy budget first introduced by McMillan and Reidel on the other hand is able to handle diverse forms of noise. This is achieved by applying the dimensionless 'bit measure' in a quality-budget to integrate the analysis of all types of losses. This new approach therefore facilitates the assessment of both signal quality and power issues in a unified way. The software implementation of data-entropy has been utilised for testing on a fiber optic network. The results of various new quantitative data-entropy measures on the digital system are given and their utility discussed. A new data mining technique known as data-scatter also introduced by McMillan and Reidel provides a useful visualisation of the relationships between data sets and is discussed. The paper ends by giving some perspective on future work in which the data-entropy technique, providing the objective difference measure on the signals, and data-scatter technique, providing qualitative information on the signals, are integrated together for optical communication applications.

  7. On the optimum signal constellation design for high-speed optical transport networks.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Djordjevic, Ivan B

    2012-08-27

    In this paper, we first describe an optimum signal constellation design algorithm, which is optimum in MMSE-sense, called MMSE-OSCD, for channel capacity achieving source distribution. Secondly, we introduce a feedback channel capacity inspired optimum signal constellation design (FCC-OSCD) to further improve the performance of MMSE-OSCD, inspired by the fact that feedback channel capacity is higher than that of systems without feedback. The constellations obtained by FCC-OSCD are, however, OSNR dependent. The optimization is jointly performed together with regular quasi-cyclic low-density parity-check (LDPC) code design. Such obtained coded-modulation scheme, in combination with polarization-multiplexing, is suitable as both 400 Gb/s and multi-Tb/s optical transport enabling technology. Using large girth LDPC code, we demonstrate by Monte Carlo simulations that a 32-ary signal constellation, obtained by FCC-OSCD, outperforms previously proposed optimized 32-ary CIPQ signal constellation by 0.8 dB at BER of 10(-7). On the other hand, the LDPC-coded 16-ary FCC-OSCD outperforms 16-QAM by 1.15 dB at the same BER. PMID:23037090

  8. Extraction of vibration parameters from optical feedback interferometry signals using wavelets.

    PubMed

    Jha, Ajit; Azcona, Francisco J; Yañez, Carlos; Royo, Santiago

    2015-12-01

    This paper proposes the use of the wavelet transform as a technique that is suited for fringe detection and analysis of optical feedback interferometry (OFI) signals, thus allowing the retrieval of extremely small physical motion phenomena. A novel algorithm based on wavelet transform is used to process the OFI signal simultaneously in the time and frequency domains, enabling precise detection of signal fringes and, thus, the extraction of amplitude features of the vibrating target with error in the order of 0.1λ. Furthermore, using a complex Morlet wavelet as an analyzing wavelet enables us to extract important information from the time envelope of the OFI signal. Such an envelope can be useful in detecting fringes even in the presence of speckle reducing the error in a displacement reconstruction. Examples of OFI applications, including nanometric displacement sensing without direction ambiguity as well as the measurement of the frequency and velocity of vibrating targets and the detection in time of no periodic events, are also presented using this wavelet approach. PMID:26836667

  9. Research on the feature extraction and pattern recognition of the distributed optical fiber sensing signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bingjie; Sun, Qi; Pi, Shaohua; Wu, Hongyan

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, feature extraction and pattern recognition of the distributed optical fiber sensing signal have been studied. We adopt Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficient (MFCC) feature extraction, wavelet packet energy feature extraction and wavelet packet Shannon entropy feature extraction methods to obtain sensing signals (such as speak, wind, thunder and rain signals, etc.) characteristic vectors respectively, and then perform pattern recognition via RBF neural network. Performances of these three feature extraction methods are compared according to the results. We choose MFCC characteristic vector to be 12-dimensional. For wavelet packet feature extraction, signals are decomposed into six layers by Daubechies wavelet packet transform, in which 64 frequency constituents as characteristic vector are respectively extracted. In the process of pattern recognition, the value of diffusion coefficient is introduced to increase the recognition accuracy, while keeping the samples for testing algorithm the same. Recognition results show that wavelet packet Shannon entropy feature extraction method yields the best recognition accuracy which is up to 97%; the performance of 12-dimensional MFCC feature extraction method is less satisfactory; the performance of wavelet packet energy feature extraction method is the worst.

  10. State-of-the-art RF signal generation from optical frequency division.

    PubMed

    Hati, Archita; Nelson, Craig W; Barnes, Corey; Lirette, Danielle; Fortier, Tara; Quinlan, Franklyn; DeSalvo, Jason A; Ludlow, Andrew; Diddams, Scott A; Howe, David A

    2013-09-01

    We present the design of a novel, ultralow-phase-noise frequency synthesizer implemented with extremely-low-noise regenerative frequency dividers. This synthesizer generates eight outputs, viz. 1.6 GHz, 320 MHz, 160 MHz, 80 MHz, 40 MHz, 20 MHz, 10 MHz and 5 MHz for an 8 GHz input frequency. The residual single-sideband (SSB) phase noises of the synthesizer at 5 and 10 MHz outputs at 1 Hz offset from the carrier are -150 and -145 dBc/Hz, respectively, which are unprecedented phase noise levels. We also report the lowest values of phase noise to date for 5 and 10 MHz RF signals achieved with our synthesizer by dividing an 8 GHz signal generated from an ultra-stable optical-comb-based frequency division. The absolute SSB phase noises achieved for 5 and 10 MHz signals at 1 Hz offset are -150 and -143 dBc/Hz, respectively; at 100 kHz offset, they are -177 and -174 dBc/Hz, respectively. The phase noise of the 5 MHz signal corresponds to a frequency stability of approximately 7.6 × 10(-15) at 1 s averaging time for a measurement bandwidth (BW) of 500 Hz, and the integrated timing jitter over 100 kHz BW is 20 fs. PMID:24658712

  11. Alternative Wired and 60-GHz Wireless Full Duplex Access Based on a Polarization Orthogonal Dual-Tone Optical Millimeter-Wave Signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jianxin; Zhang, Ruijiao; Zhang, Junjie; Xin, Xiangjun

    2015-11-01

    A novel full duplex fiber wireless link providing alternative wired and 60-GHz wireless access is proposed based on a polarization orthogonal dual-tone optical millimeter-wave signal. In a hybrid optical network unit, the downlink optical signal can be decomposed as a single-sideband optical millimeter-wave signal (baseband optical signal) for wireless (wired) access by a polarization controller and polarization beam splitter. The uplink optical carrier abstracted from the downlink optical signal makes the hybrid optical network unit free from the optical source. The simulation results show that both downlinks and uplinks for either wired or wireless access can maintain quite good performance over 60 km of fiber.

  12. Laser phase induced intensity noise in fiber-optic signal processing and sensing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arie, Ady

    1991-03-01

    The effects of random phase fluctuations in laser output on the performance of optical systems was studied. The statistical nature of phase induced intensity noise (PIIN) was measured and analysed by studying its probability density function and the second and fourth moments of the optical field at the output of several multiple path systems. The properties of the semiconductor laser, including broad spectral linewidth and non-Lorentzian line shape were shown to have significant influence on the generated PIIN. The PIIN statistics was first studied via the probability density function (PDF) of the beat signal obtained from a two-beam interferometer fed by the laser. Two distinct operating regimes could be defined, according to the ratio between the interferometer delay and the laser coherence time. Analytical expressions were obtained for statistical averages of the PIIN at the output of a general multiple path system; they represent the variance and autocovariance, and the power spectral density of the PIIN at the system output. The non-Lorentzian lineshape of the semiconductor laser was taken into account and the results obtained were found to differ from the Lorentzian model predictions; power spectrum measurements by means of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer confirmed the theoretical model. Analysis of the PIIN for complex signal processing systems comprising several subsystems showed that the PIIN spectrum was determined by two mechanisms: noise generation and noise filtration.

  13. Applying an optical space-time coding method to enhance light scattering signals in microfluidic devices.

    PubMed

    Mei, Zhe; Wu, Tsung-Feng; Pion-Tonachini, Luca; Qiao, Wen; Zhao, Chao; Liu, Zhiwen; Lo, Yu-Hwa

    2011-09-01

    An "optical space-time coding method" was applied to microfluidic devices to detect the forward and large angle light scattering signals for unlabelled bead and cell detection. Because of the enhanced sensitivity by this method, silicon pin photoreceivers can be used to detect both forward scattering (FS) and large angle (45-60°) scattering (LAS) signals, the latter of which has been traditionally detected by a photomultiplier tube. This method yields significant improvements in coefficients of variation (CV), producing CVs of 3.95% to 10.05% for FS and 7.97% to 26.12% for LAS with 15 μm, 10 μm, and 5 μm beads. These are among the best values ever demonstrated with microfluidic devices. The optical space-time coding method also enables us to measure the speed and position of each particle, producing valuable information for the design and assessment of microfluidic lab-on-a-chip devices such as flow cytometers and complete blood count devices. PMID:21915241

  14. The effect of scattering-medium parameters on signal magnitude under acousto-optic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zyuryukina, O. V.; Volkova, E. K.; Perchenko, M. I.; Solov'ev, A. P.

    2014-04-01

    We have experimentally studied the influence of scattering anisotropy parameter g of a medium on the magnitude of signal S (visualization parameter) at an ultrasonic frequency that is registered upon acoustooptic tomography. Aqueous solutions of mixtures of cream and skimmed milk with different ratios between them were used as scattering media. The optical properties of media (absorption coefficient μa and reduced scattering coefficient μ' S ) have been measured on a spectrophotometer (Perkin-Elmer Lambda 950 UV-VIS-NIR) using the inverse adding-doubling technique. As a result of the investigation, we have found that there is a certain correlation between the value of the scattering anisotropy parameter g of aqueous solutions of investigated mixtures and the percentage of the mixture in the aqueous solution, which ensures the required small value of extinction coefficient μ of the scattering medium. An increase in signal S has been revealed with increasing anisotropy parameter g of the medium at a invariable value of extinction coefficient μ. We have concluded that, to solve an inverse problem on the acousto-optic tomography, it is necessary to take into account possible changes in the g factor in scattering media, including biological ones.

  15. Tolerance analysis of the pulse signal of a novel lateral deformable optical NEMS grating transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chen; Bai, Jian; Wang, Kaiwei

    2015-08-01

    This paper discusses the pulse signal of a novel opto-mechanical zeroth-order grating transducer based on an anomalous diffraction phenomenon, Wood's type anomaly and its corresponding tolerance analysis. In this device, tiny changes in the displacement of the nanostructured grating elements lead to a dramatic increase or decrease of the optical reflection amplitude. With this special feature, this structure is ideal to measure very small displacement. Unexpectedly, the original sinusoidal signal of the device develops into a new signal form, i.e. pulse signal with the decrease of the air gap between two layers of gratings. Thus the sensitivity of the structure is improved 8 times higher, as the slope of the pulse signal, namely 2.5%/nm, i.e. 0.65dB/nm, is 8 times higher than that of the original signal form, namely 0.3%/nm, i.e. 0.03dB/nm. However, this device is very sensitive to parameters including wavelength, period, duty ratio, air gap as well as thickness of the gratings. Thus, in this paper the performance of the structures with different parameter settings is analyzed and optimized through rigorous coupled wavelength analysis (RCWA) and 3-D finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. All the calculated data enables us to apply the structure into fields required for different sensitivities with different values of grating parameters and thus broadens the further usage of such novel structure. In addition, a synthetic tolerance analysis of the pulse signal is conducted and indicates the possibility of achieving an actual device with the highest slope superior to 0.5%/nm is close to 85% and the possibility that the highest slope of an actual device falls in the interval ranging from 1.0%/nm to 2.0%/nm is 64%. All the simulated data enables us to get a better understanding of the tolerance of the pulse signal and a guidance of successful realization of an actual device.

  16. An FPGA-based High Speed Parallel Signal Processing System for Adaptive Optics Testbed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.; Choi, Y.; Yang, Y.

    In this paper a state-of-the-art FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) based high speed parallel signal processing system (SPS) for adaptive optics (AO) testbed with 1 kHz wavefront error (WFE) correction frequency is reported. The AO system consists of Shack-Hartmann sensor (SHS) and deformable mirror (DM), tip-tilt sensor (TTS), tip-tilt mirror (TTM) and an FPGA-based high performance SPS to correct wavefront aberrations. The SHS is composed of 400 subapertures and the DM 277 actuators with Fried geometry, requiring high speed parallel computing capability SPS. In this study, the target WFE correction speed is 1 kHz; therefore, it requires massive parallel computing capabilities as well as strict hard real time constraints on measurements from sensors, matrix computation latency for correction algorithms, and output of control signals for actuators. In order to meet them, an FPGA based real-time SPS with parallel computing capabilities is proposed. In particular, the SPS is made up of a National Instrument's (NI's) real time computer and five FPGA boards based on state-of-the-art Xilinx Kintex 7 FPGA. Programming is done with NI's LabView environment, providing flexibility when applying different algorithms for WFE correction. It also facilitates faster programming and debugging environment as compared to conventional ones. One of the five FPGA's is assigned to measure TTS and calculate control signals for TTM, while the rest four are used to receive SHS signal, calculate slops for each subaperture and correction signal for DM. With this parallel processing capabilities of the SPS the overall closed-loop WFE correction speed of 1 kHz has been achieved. System requirements, architecture and implementation issues are described; furthermore, experimental results are also given.

  17. In vivo optical modulation of neural signals using monolithically integrated two-dimensional neural probe arrays.

    PubMed

    Son, Yoojin; Lee, Hyunjoo Jenny; Kim, Jeongyeon; Shin, Hyogeun; Choi, Nakwon; Lee, C Justin; Yoon, Eui-Sung; Yoon, Euisik; Wise, Kensall D; Kim, Tae Geun; Cho, Il-Joo

    2015-01-01

    Integration of stimulation modalities (e.g. electrical, optical, and chemical) on a large array of neural probes can enable an investigation of important underlying mechanisms of brain disorders that is not possible through neural recordings alone. Furthermore, it is important to achieve this integration of multiple functionalities in a compact structure to utilize a large number of the mouse models. Here we present a successful optical modulation of in vivo neural signals of a transgenic mouse through our compact 2D MEMS neural array (optrodes). Using a novel fabrication method that embeds a lower cladding layer in a silicon substrate, we achieved a thin silicon 2D optrode array that is capable of delivering light to multiple sites using SU-8 as a waveguide core. Without additional modification to the microelectrodes, the measured impedance of the multiple microelectrodes was below 1 MΩ at 1 kHz. In addition, with a low background noise level (± 25 μV), neural spikes from different individual neurons were recorded on each microelectrode. Lastly, we successfully used our optrodes to modulate the neural activity of a transgenic mouse through optical stimulation. These results demonstrate the functionality of the 2D optrode array and its potential as a next-generation tool for optogenetic applications. PMID:26494437

  18. In vivo optical modulation of neural signals using monolithically integrated two-dimensional neural probe arrays

    PubMed Central

    Son, Yoojin; Jenny Lee, Hyunjoo; Kim, Jeongyeon; Shin, Hyogeun; Choi, Nakwon; Justin Lee, C.; Yoon, Eui-Sung; Yoon, Euisik; Wise, Kensall D.; Geun Kim, Tae; Cho, Il-Joo

    2015-01-01

    Integration of stimulation modalities (e.g. electrical, optical, and chemical) on a large array of neural probes can enable an investigation of important underlying mechanisms of brain disorders that is not possible through neural recordings alone. Furthermore, it is important to achieve this integration of multiple functionalities in a compact structure to utilize a large number of the mouse models. Here we present a successful optical modulation of in vivo neural signals of a transgenic mouse through our compact 2D MEMS neural array (optrodes). Using a novel fabrication method that embeds a lower cladding layer in a silicon substrate, we achieved a thin silicon 2D optrode array that is capable of delivering light to multiple sites using SU-8 as a waveguide core. Without additional modification to the microelectrodes, the measured impedance of the multiple microelectrodes was below 1 MΩ at 1 kHz. In addition, with a low background noise level (±25 μV), neural spikes from different individual neurons were recorded on each microelectrode. Lastly, we successfully used our optrodes to modulate the neural activity of a transgenic mouse through optical stimulation. These results demonstrate the functionality of the 2D optrode array and its potential as a next-generation tool for optogenetic applications. PMID:26494437

  19. In vivo optical modulation of neural signals using monolithically integrated two-dimensional neural probe arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Yoojin; Jenny Lee, Hyunjoo; Kim, Jeongyeon; Shin, Hyogeun; Choi, Nakwon; Justin Lee, C.; Yoon, Eui-Sung; Yoon, Euisik; Wise, Kensall D.; Geun Kim, Tae; Cho, Il-Joo

    2015-10-01

    Integration of stimulation modalities (e.g. electrical, optical, and chemical) on a large array of neural probes can enable an investigation of important underlying mechanisms of brain disorders that is not possible through neural recordings alone. Furthermore, it is important to achieve this integration of multiple functionalities in a compact structure to utilize a large number of the mouse models. Here we present a successful optical modulation of in vivo neural signals of a transgenic mouse through our compact 2D MEMS neural array (optrodes). Using a novel fabrication method that embeds a lower cladding layer in a silicon substrate, we achieved a thin silicon 2D optrode array that is capable of delivering light to multiple sites using SU-8 as a waveguide core. Without additional modification to the microelectrodes, the measured impedance of the multiple microelectrodes was below 1 MΩ at 1 kHz. In addition, with a low background noise level (±25 μV), neural spikes from different individual neurons were recorded on each microelectrode. Lastly, we successfully used our optrodes to modulate the neural activity of a transgenic mouse through optical stimulation. These results demonstrate the functionality of the 2D optrode array and its potential as a next-generation tool for optogenetic applications.

  20. Raman Based Dispersive Systems for Short Pulse Generation and Optical Signal Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalyoncu, Salih Kagan

    Spatiotemporal dispersive systems have been widely utilized for nonlinear optics and optical signal processing applications. This thesis is dedicated to the investigation of dispersive and nonlinear properties of optical fibers, temporal dispersion for real time operation and spatially dispersed pulse shaping systems. In particular, this thesis is focused on Raman based dispersive systems based on such promising techniques as dispersion management, photonic time stretching and space-to-wavelength mapping for synchronous pulse generation and all-optical RF arbitrary waveform generation incorporated with mature MEMS technology. The first part of this thesis discusses a novel technique of using dispersion managed system for synchronous first and second order pulsed Raman lasers that can achieve frequency spacing of up to 1000 cm-1, which are widely utilized for CARS microscopy applications. In particular, I focus on analytical and numerical analysis of pulsed stability derived for Raman lasers by using dispersion-managed telecom fibers and pumping at near 1530 nm telecom wavelengths. I show the evolution of the first and second order Stokes signals at the output for different peak pump power and the net anomalous dispersion combinations. I determine the stability condition for dispersion-managed synchronous Raman lasers up to second order. In the second part of the thesis, the noise performance of the amplified time stretched systems is investigated. Amplified time stretched systems enabling real time applications such as high-speed analog-to-digital converters, RF arbitrary waveform generation and dispersive imaging are performance limited by the noise cumulated in the system. In particular, I analyze the noise performance and hence the effective number of bits (ENOB) performance of time stretch ADCs with distributed and lumped amplifications. I estimate that distributed amplification in time stretch system with >10GHz analog bandwidth exhibit up to 16dB higher SNR

  1. Event-related fast optical signal in a rapid object recognition task: improving detection by the Independent Component Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Medvedev, Andrei V.; Kainerstorfer, Jana; Borisov, Sergey V.; Barbour, Randall L.; VanMeter, John

    2008-01-01

    Noninvasive recording of fast optical signals presumably reflecting neuronal activity is a challenging task because of a relatively low signal-to-noise ratio. To improve detection of those signals in rapid object recognition tasks, we used the Independent Component Analysis (ICA) to reduce “global interference” (heartbeat and contribution of superficial layers). We recorded optical signals from the left prefrontal cortex in 10 right-handed participants with a continuous-wave instrument (DYNOT, NIRx, Brooklyn, NY). Visual stimuli were pictures of urban, landscape and seashore scenes with various vehicles as targets (target-to-non-target ratio 1:6) presented at ISI = 166 ms or 250 ms. Subjects mentally counted targets. Data were filtered at 2–30 Hz and artifactual components were identified visually (for heartbeat) and using the ICA weight matrix (for superficial layers). Optical signals were restored from the ICA components with artifactual components removed and then averaged over target and non-target epochs. After ICA processing, the event-related response was detected in 70–100% of subjects. The refined signal showed a significant decrease from baseline within 200–300 ms after targets and a slight increase after non-targets. The temporal profile of the optical signal corresponded well to the profile of a “differential ERP response”, the difference between targets and non-targets which peaks at 200 ms in similar object detection tasks. These results demonstrate that the detection of fast optical responses with continuous-wave instruments can be improved through the ICA method capable to remove noise, global interference and the activity of superficial layers. Fast optical signals may provide further information on brain processing during higher-order cognitive tasks such as rapid categorization of objects. PMID:18725213

  2. A molecular mechanism of optic nerve regeneration in fish: the retinoid signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Kato, Satoru; Matsukawa, Toru; Koriyama, Yoshiki; Sugitani, Kayo; Ogai, Kazuhiro

    2013-11-01

    The fish optic nerve regeneration process takes more than 100 days after axotomy and comprises four stages: neurite sprouting (1-4 days), axonal elongation (5-30 days), synaptic refinement (35-80 days) and functional recovery (100-120 days). We screened genes specifically upregulated in each stage from axotomized fish retina. The mRNAs for heat shock protein 70 and insulin-like growth factor-1 rapidly increased in the retinal ganglion cells soon after axotomy and function as cell-survival factors. Purpurin mRNA rapidly and transiently increased in the photoreceptors and purpurin protein diffusely increased in all nuclear layers at 1-4 days after injury. The purpurin gene has an active retinol-binding site and a signal peptide. Purpurin with retinol functions as a sprouting factor for thin neurites. This neurite-sprouting effect was closely mimicked by retinoic acid and blocked by its inhibitor. We propose that purpurin works as a retinol transporter to supply retinoic acid to damaged RGCs which in turn activates target genes. We also searched for genes involved in the second stage of regeneration. The mRNA of retinoid-signaling molecules increased in retinal ganglion cells at 7-14 days after injury and tissue transglutaminase and neuronal nitric oxide synthase mRNAs, RA-target genes, increased in retinal ganglion cells at 10-30 days after injury. They function as factors for the outgrowth of thick, long neurites. Here we present a retinoid-signaling hypothesis to explain molecular events during the early stages of optic nerve regeneration in fish. PMID:23994437

  3. [Raman Signal Enhancement for Gas Detection Using a Hollow Core Optical Fiber].

    PubMed

    Guo, Jin-jia; Yang, De-wang; Liu, Chun-hao

    2016-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy has been widely used for gas detection due to the advantages of simultaneous multiple species recognition, rapid analysis, and no sample preparation, etc. Low sensitivity is still a great limitation for Raman application. In this work a Raman system based on a hollow core optical fiber (HCOF) was built and the detection sensitivity for the gas was significantly improved. Also a comparison was carried out between the HCOF Raman system and back-scattering Raman system. The obtained results indicated that the HCOF Raman system could well enhance the signal while also for the background and noise. Using HCOF system, 60 folds signal enhancement was achieved with SNR improvement of 6 times for the N2 and O2 in air when comparing to the back-scattering system. While for the same signal intensity, with HCOF system the exposure time was well shortened to 1/60 and the noise was decreased to 1/2 than the back-scattering system. PMID:27228748

  4. All-optical frame clock recovery from even-multiplexed OTDM signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Lina; Liu, Guoming; Wu, Jian; Lin, Jintong

    2005-02-01

    Frame clock is useful for packet processing such as header detection and payload demultiplexing. A novel all-optical frame clock recovery scheme based on "intensity reshaper" and mode-locked semiconductor fiber ring laser is demonstrated. The "intensity reshaper" including a polarization controller and a polarizer is the key element to realize frame clock recovery from equal-amplitude even-multiplexed OTDM signals. In theory, a mathematical expression is given to analyze the intensity of harmonic of clock-frequency component. The relative intensity of each clock-frequency component will change with the alterative angle caused by adjusting the PC in the "intensity reshaper", so the desirable clock-frequency component can be enhanced, which is helpful for clock recovery. Moreover, the intensity of harmonic of clock-frequency component is also related to the pulse amplitude, width and period in the multiplexed data. In experiment, 2.5GHz frame clock is extracted from even-multiplexed 4x2.5GHz and 8x2.5GHz OTDM signals respectively. At the same time, bit clock is also recovered by using this scheme. The extracted clock pulses have several desirable features such as low timing jitter, broad wavelength tuning range and polarization independence. This scheme simplifies signal generation and propagation in OTDM systems, which can be applied to clock recovery in high-speed OTDM network.

  5. Digital-signal-processor-based dynamic imaging system for optical tomography.

    PubMed

    Lasker, Joseph M; Masciotti, James M; Schoenecker, Matthew; Schmitz, Christoph H; Hielscher, Andreas H

    2007-08-01

    In this article, we introduce a dynamic optical tomography system that is, unlike currently available analog instrumentation, based on digital data acquisition and filtering techniques. At the core of this continuous wave instrument is a digital signal processor (DSP) that collects, collates, processes, and filters the digitized data set. The processor is also responsible for managing system timing and the imaging routines which can acquire real-time data at rates as high as 150 Hz. Many of the synchronously timed processes are controlled by a complex programmable logic device that is also used in conjunction with the DSP to orchestrate data flow. The operation of the system is implemented through a comprehensive graphical user interface designed with LABVIEW software which integrates automated calibration, data acquisition, data organization, and signal postprocessing. Performance analysis demonstrates very low system noise (approximately 1 pW rms noise equivalent power), excellent signal precision (<0.04%-0.2%) and long term system stability (<1% over 40 min). A large dynamic range (approximately 190 dB) accommodates a wide scope of measurement geometries and tissue types. First experiments on tissue phantoms show that dynamic behavior is accurately captured and spatial location can be correctly tracked using this system. PMID:17764328

  6. Hybrid optically interconnected microprocessor: an InP I-MSM integrated onto a mixed-signal CMOS analog optical receiver with a digital CMOS microprocessor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Jae J.; Jung, Sungyong; Vrazel, Michael; Jung, Keeshik; Lee, Myunghee; Brooke, Martin A.; Jokerst, Nan Marie; Wills, Scott

    2000-05-01

    This paper presents the results of simultaneously working fully-differential optoelectronic receiver fabricated in Si CMOS with digital SIMD microprocessor on the same die next to analog, optical interface circuitry, the receiver have been hybrid integrated with a thin film InP-based inverted (I)-MSM photodetector and optically tested using external light source modulated by digital input signal. The noise immunity to mixed-signal digital switching noise of the differential receiver has been shown to be good enough to generate 10-9 BER.

  7. Frequency domain photothermoacoustic signal amplitude dependence on the optical properties of water: turbid polyvinyl chloride-plastisol system

    SciTech Connect

    Spirou, Gloria M.; Mandelis, Andreas; Vitkin, I. Alex; Whelan, William M

    2008-05-10

    Photoacoustic (more precisely, photothermoacoustic) signals generated by the absorption of photons can be related to the incident laser fluence rate. The dependence of frequency domain photoacoustic (FD-PA) signals on the optical absorption coefficient ({mu}a) and the effective attenuation coefficient ({mu}eff) of a turbid medium [polyvinyl chloride-plastisol (PVCP)] with tissuelike optical properties was measured, and empirical relationships between these optical properties and the photoacoustic (PA) signal amplitude and the laser fluence rate were derived for the water (PVCP system with and without optical scatterers). The measured relationships between these sample optical properties and the PA signal amplitude were found to be linear, consistent with FD-PA theory: {mu}a=a(A/{phi})-b and {mu}eff=c(A/{phi})+d, where {phi} is the laser fluence, A is the FD-PA amplitude, and a,...,d are empirical coefficients determined from the experiment using linear frequency-swept modulation and a lock-in heterodyne detection technique. This quantitative technique can easily be used to measure the optical properties of general turbid media using FD-PAs.

  8. Involvement of PI3K/Akt, ERK and p38 signaling pathways in emodin-mediated extrinsic and intrinsic human hepatoblastoma cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yuting; Lu, Peiran; Song, Ge; Liu, Qian; Zhu, Di; Liu, Xuebo

    2016-06-01

    As a natural anthraquinone derivative, 1,3,8-trihydroxy-6-methylanthraquinone, known as emodin, has recently been reported to possess potential chemopreventive capacity, but the underlying molecular mechanism of its hepatocyte toxicity remains poorly clarified. The present research indicated that emodin targeted HepG2 cells without being cytotoxic to primary human hepatocyte cells in comparison with chrysophanol and rhein. The anti-proliferative effect of emodin was ascribed to occurrence of apoptosis, which characterized by higher ethidium bromide signal, brighter DAPI fluorescence, cleavages of procaspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase as well as quantitative result from Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining. Furthermore, emodin improved Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, elicited disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential and promoted efflux of cytochrome c to cytosol, indicative of features of mitochondria-dependent apoptotic signals. Emodin concurrently led to activations of Fas, Fas-L, caspase-8 and tBid, which provoked death receptor apoptotic signals. Notably, activated tBid relayed the Fas apoptotic signal to the mitochondrial pathway. Besides, emodin effectively attenuated phosphorylations of Akt and ERK and promoted phosphorylation of p38. Inhibitions of PI3K/Akt and ERK and activation of p38 mediated emodin-induced apoptosis through modulating the mitochondrial pathway and/or death receptor pathway. Additionally, there was a cross-talk between PI3K/Akt and MAPKs pathways in emodin-induced apoptosis. PMID:27032576

  9. Concomitant requirement for Notch and Jak/Stat signaling during neuro-epithelial differentiation in the Drosophila optic lobe.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Kathy T; Wang, Jay; Junker, Markus; Kriz, Steve; Vo, Gloria; Asem, Bobby; Olson, John M; Banerjee, Utpal; Hartenstein, Volker

    2010-10-15

    The optic lobe forms a prominent compartment of the Drosophila adult brain that processes visual input from the compound eye. Neurons of the optic lobe are produced during the larval period from two neuroepithelial layers called the outer and inner optic anlage (OOA, IOA). In the early larva, the optic anlagen grow as epithelia by symmetric cell division. Subsequently, neuroepithelial cells (NE) convert into neuroblasts (NB) in a tightly regulated spatio-temporal progression that starts at the edges of the epithelia and gradually move towards its centers. Neuroblasts divide at a much faster pace in an asymmetric mode, producing lineages of neurons that populate the different parts of the optic lobe. In this paper we have reconstructed the complex morphogenesis of the optic lobe during the larval period, and established a role for the Notch and Jak/Stat signaling pathways during the NE-NB conversion. After an early phase of complete overlap in the OOA, signaling activities sort out such that Jak/Stat is active in the lateral OOA which gives rise to the lamina, and Notch remains in the medial cells that form the medulla. During the third instar, a wave front of enhanced Notch activity progressing over the OOA from medial to lateral controls the gradual NE-NB conversion. Neuroepithelial cells at the medial edge of the OOA, shortly prior to becoming neuroblasts, express high levels of Delta, which activates the Notch pathway and thereby maintains the OOA in an epithelial state. Loss of Notch signaling, as well as Jak/Stat signaling, results in a premature NE-NB conversion of the OOA, which in turn has severe effects on optic lobe patterning. Our findings present the Drosophila optic lobe as a useful model to analyze the key signaling mechanisms controlling transitions of progenitor cells from symmetric (growth) to asymmetric (differentiative) divisions. PMID:20692248

  10. Concomitant requirement for Notch and Jak/Stat signaling during neuro-epithelial differentiation in the Drosophila optic lobe

    PubMed Central

    Ngo, Kathy T.; Wang, Jay; Junker, Markus; Kriz, Steve; Vo, Gloria; Asem, Bobby; Olson, John M.; Banerjee, Utpal; Hartenstein, Volker

    2012-01-01

    The optic lobe forms a prominent compartment of the Drosophila adult brain that processes visual input from the compound eye. Neurons of the optic lobe are produced during the larval period from two neuroepithelial layers called the outer and inner optic anlage (OOA, IOA). In the early larva, the optic anlagen grow as epithelia by symmetric cell division. Subsequently, neuroepithelial cells (NE) convert into neuroblasts (NB) in a tightly regulated spatio-temporal progression that starts at the edges of the epithelia and gradually move towards its centers. Neuroblasts divide at a much faster pace in an asymmetric mode, producing lineages of neurons that populate the different parts of the optic lobe. In this paper we have reconstructed the complex morphogenesis of the optic lobe during the larval period, and established a role for the Notch and Jak/Stat signaling pathways during the NE-NB conversion. After an early phase of complete overlap in the OOA, signaling activities sort out such that Jak/Stat is active in the lateral OOA which gives rise to the lamina, and Notch remains in the medial cells that form the medulla. During the third instar, a wave front of enhanced Notch activity progressing over the OOA from medial to lateral controls the gradual NE-NB conversion. Neuroepithelial cells at the medial edge of the OOA, shortly prior to becoming neuroblasts, express high levels of Delta, which activates the Notch pathway and thereby maintains the OOA in an epithelial state. Loss of Notch signaling, as well as Jak/Stat signaling, results in a premature NE-NB conversion of the OOA, which in turn has severe effects on optic lobe patterning. Our findings present the Drosophila optic lobe as a useful model to analyze the key signaling mechanisms controlling transitions of progenitor cells from symmetric (growth) to asymmetric (differentiative) divisions. PMID:20692248

  11. Hepatitis B virus inhibits intrinsic RIG-I and RIG-G immune signaling via inducing miR146a

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Zhaohua; Zhang, Jian; Han, Qiuju; Su, Chenhe; Qu, Jing; Xu, Dongqing; Zhang, Cai; Tian, Zhigang

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies showed that hepatitis B virus (HBV), as a latency invader, attenuated host anti-viral immune responses. miRNAs were shown to be involved in HBV infection and HBV-related diseases, however, the precise role of miRNAs in HBV-mediated immunosuppression remains unclear. Here, we observed that down-regulated RIG-I like receptors might be one critical mechanism of HBV-induced suppression of type I IFN transcription in both HBV+ hepatoma cell lines and liver cancer tissues. Then, miR146a was demonstrated to negatively regulate the expression of RIG-I-like receptors by directly targeting both RIG-I and RIG-G. Further investigation showed that antagonizing miR146a by anti-sense inhibitors or sponge approach accelerated HBV clearance and reduced HBV load both in vitro and in a HBV-carrying mouse model. Therefore, our findings indicated that HBV-induced miR146a attenuates cell-intrinsic anti-viral innate immunity through targeting RIG-I and RIG-G, and silencing miR146a might be an effective target to reverse HBV-induced immune suppression. PMID:27210312

  12. Hepatitis B virus inhibits intrinsic RIG-I and RIG-G immune signaling via inducing miR146a.

    PubMed

    Hou, Zhaohua; Zhang, Jian; Han, Qiuju; Su, Chenhe; Qu, Jing; Xu, Dongqing; Zhang, Cai; Tian, Zhigang

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies showed that hepatitis B virus (HBV), as a latency invader, attenuated host anti-viral immune responses. miRNAs were shown to be involved in HBV infection and HBV-related diseases, however, the precise role of miRNAs in HBV-mediated immunosuppression remains unclear. Here, we observed that down-regulated RIG-I like receptors might be one critical mechanism of HBV-induced suppression of type I IFN transcription in both HBV(+) hepatoma cell lines and liver cancer tissues. Then, miR146a was demonstrated to negatively regulate the expression of RIG-I-like receptors by directly targeting both RIG-I and RIG-G. Further investigation showed that antagonizing miR146a by anti-sense inhibitors or sponge approach accelerated HBV clearance and reduced HBV load both in vitro and in a HBV-carrying mouse model. Therefore, our findings indicated that HBV-induced miR146a attenuates cell-intrinsic anti-viral innate immunity through targeting RIG-I and RIG-G, and silencing miR146a might be an effective target to reverse HBV-induced immune suppression. PMID:27210312

  13. All optical up-converted signal generation with high dispersion tolerance using frequency quadrupling technique for radio over fiber system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Yiying; Zhao, Jiayi; Hu, Jingjing; Kang, Zijian; Zhu, Wenwu; Fan, Feng; Han, Xiuyou; Zhao, Mingshan

    2016-05-01

    A novel all optical up-converted signal generation scheme with optical single-sideband (OSSB) technique for radio over fiber (RoF) application is presented and experimentally demonstrated using low-bandwidth devices. The OSSB signal is generated by one low-bandwidth intensity LiNbO3 Mach-Zehnder modulator (LN-MZM) under frequency quadrupling modulation scheme and one low-bandwidth LN-MZM under double sideband carrier suppressed modulation (DSB-CS) scheme. The proposed all OSSB generation scheme is capable of high tolerance of fiber chromatic dispersion induced power fading (DIPF) effect. Benefiting from this novel OSSB generation scheme, a 26 GHz radio frequency (RF) signal up-conversion is realized successfully when one sideband of the optical LO signal is reused as the optical carrier for intermediate frequency (IF) signal modulation. The received vector signal transmission over long distance single-mode fiber (SMF) shows negligible DIPF effect with the error vector magnitude (EVM) of 15.7% rms. In addition, a spurious free dynamic range (SFDR) of the OSSB up-converting system is measured up to 81 dB Hz2/3. The experiment results indicate that the proposed system may find potential applications in future wireless communication networks, especially in microcellular personal communication system (MPCS).

  14. Role of JAK/STAT signaling in neuroepithelial stem cell maintenance and proliferation in the Drosophila optic lobe

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wei; Li, Yonggang; Zhou, Liya; Yue, Haitao; Luo, Hong

    2011-07-15

    Highlights: {yields} JAK/STAT activity is graded in the Drosophila optic lobe neuroepithelium. {yields} Inactivation of JAK signaling causes disintegration of the optic lobe neuroepithelium and depletion of the neuroepithelial stem cells. {yields} JAK pathway overactivation promotes neuroepithelial overgrowth. {yields} Notch signaling acts downstream of JAK/STAT to promote neuroepithelial growth and expansion. -- Abstract: During Drosophila optic lobe development, proliferation and differentiation must be tightly modulated to reach its normal size for proper functioning. The JAK/STAT pathway plays pleiotropic roles in Drosophila development and in the larval brain, has been shown to inhibit medulla neuroblast formation. In this study, we find that JAK/STAT activity is required for the maintenance and proliferation of the neuroepithelial stem cells in the optic lobe. In loss-of-function JAK/STAT mutant brains, the neuroepithelial cells lose epithelial cell characters and differentiate prematurely while ectopic activation of this pathway is sufficient to induce neuroepithelial overgrowth in the optic lobe. We further show that Notch signaling acts downstream of JAK/STAT to control the maintenance and growth of the optic lobe neuroepithelium. Thus, in addition to its role in suppression of neuroblast formation, the JAK/STAT pathway is necessary and sufficient for optic lobe neuroepithelial growth.

  15. Optical heterodyning of the phase-tuned femtosecond optical Kerr gate signal for the determination of complex third-order susceptibilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orczyk, M. E.; Samoc, M.; Swiatkiewicz, J.; Manickam, N.; Tomoaia-Cotisel, M.; Prasad, P. N.

    1992-06-01

    It is shown that ultrafast optically stimulated birefringence and dichroism may be conveniently investigated by combining polarization sensitive optically heterodyned detection with phase tune-up between the optical Kerr gate signal and the local oscillator. The real and the imaginary parts of complex third-order optical nonlinearity can be effectively separated and their values and signs determined. 60 fs pulses at 620 nm were used in experiments carried on tetrahydrofuran solutions of canthaxanthin, a carotenoid important for photobiology. The values of both parts of the complex second hyperpolarizability gamma as well as the sign of its real part determined by this method compare well with that obtained from the concentration dependence method employing the homodyne-detection optical Kerr gate technique.

  16. Intrinsic disorder in transcription factors†

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiangang; Perumal, Narayanan B.; Oldfield, Christopher J.; Su, Eric W.; Uversky, Vladimir N.; Dunker, A. Keith

    2008-01-01

    Intrinsic disorder (ID) is highly abundant in eukaryotes, which reflect the greater need for disorder-associated signaling and transcriptional regulation in nucleated cells. Although several well-characterized examples of intrinsically disordered proteins in transcriptional regulation have been reported, no systematic analysis has been reported so far. To test for a general prevalence of intrinsic disorder in transcriptional regulation, we used the Predictor Of Natural Disorder Regions (PONDR) to analyze the abundance of intrinsic disorder in three transcription factor datasets and two control sets. This analysis revealed that from 94.13% to 82.63% of transcription factors posses extended regions of intrinsic disorder, relative to 54.51% and 18.64% of the proteins in two control datasets, which indicates the significant prevalence of intrinsic disorder in transcription factors. This propensity of transcription factors for intrinsic disorder was confirmed by cumulative distribution function analysis and charge-hydropathy plots. The amino acid composition analysis showed that all three transcription factor datasets were substantially depleted in order-promoting residues, and significantly enriched in disorder-promoting residues. Our analysis of the distribution of disorder within the transcription factor datasets revealed that: (a) The AT-hooks and basic regions of transcription factor DNA-binding domains are highly disordered; (b) The degree of disorder in transcription factor activation regions is much higher than that in DNA-binding domains; (c) The degree of disorder is significantly higher in eukaryotic transcription factors than in prokaryotic transcription factors; (d) The level of α-MoRFs (molecular recognition feature) prediction is much higher in transcription factors. Overall, our data reflected the fact that the eukaryotes with well-developed gene transcription machinery require transcription factor flexibility to be more efficient. PMID:16734424

  17. Experimental observation of optical differentiation and optical Hilbert transformation using a single SOI microdisk chip

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ting; Dong, Jianji; Liu, Li; Liao, Shasha; Tan, Sisi; Shi, Lei; Gao, Dingshan; Zhang, Xinliang

    2014-01-01

    Optical differentiation and optical Hilbert transformation play important roles in communications, computing, information processing and signal analysis in optical domain offering huge bandwidth. Meanwhile, silicon-based photonic integrated circuit is one of the most promising candidates for all-optical signal processing due to its intrinsic advantages of low power consumption, compact footprint, ultra-high speed and compatibility with electronic integrated circuits. In this study, we analyze the interrelation between first-order optical differentiation and optical Hilbert transformation and then experimentally demonstrate a feasible integrated scheme which can simultaneously function as first-order optical differentiation and optical Hilbert transformation based on a single microdisk resonator. This finding may motivate the development of integrated optical signal processors. PMID:24492519

  18. Reactivation of IgG-switched memory B cells by BCR-intrinsic signal amplification promotes IgG antibody production.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Johannes; Dittmann, Kai; Bösl, Michael R; Winkler, Thomas H; Wienands, Jürgen; Engels, Niklas

    2016-01-01

    Secondary antibody responses are marked by faster kinetics, improved antibody affinity and a switch from IgM to other immunoglobulin isotypes, most notably IgG, compared with primary responses. These changes protect from reinfection and represent the principle of most vaccination strategies. Yet, the molecular mechanisms that underlie B-cell memory responses are unclear. Here we show, by inactivating the immunoglobulin tail tyrosine (ITT) signalling motif of membrane-bound IgG1 in the mouse, that the ITT facilitates maintenance and reactivation of IgG-switched memory B cells in vivo. The ITT motif equips IgG-switched cells with enhanced BCR signalling capacity, which supports their competitiveness in secondary immune reactions and drives the formation of IgG-secreting plasma cells even in the absence of T-cell help. Our results demonstrate that ITT signalling promotes the vigorous production of IgG antibodies and thus provide a molecular basis for humoral immunological memory. PMID:26815242

  19. Reactivation of IgG-switched memory B cells by BCR-intrinsic signal amplification promotes IgG antibody production

    PubMed Central

    Lutz, Johannes; Dittmann, Kai; Bösl, Michael R; Winkler, Thomas H; Wienands, Jürgen; Engels, Niklas

    2015-01-01

    Secondary antibody responses are marked by faster kinetics, improved antibody affinity and a switch from IgM to other immunoglobulin isotypes, most notably IgG, compared with primary responses. These changes protect from reinfection and represent the principle of most vaccination strategies. Yet, the molecular mechanisms that underlie B-cell memory responses are unclear. Here we show, by inactivating the immunoglobulin tail tyrosine (ITT) signalling motif of membrane-bound IgG1 in the mouse, that the ITT facilitates maintenance and reactivation of IgG-switched memory B cells in vivo. The ITT motif equips IgG-switched cells with enhanced BCR signalling capacity, which supports their competitiveness in secondary immune reactions and drives the formation of IgG-secreting plasma cells even in the absence of T-cell help. Our results demonstrate that ITT signalling promotes the vigorous production of IgG antibodies and thus provide a molecular basis for humoral immunological memory. PMID:26815242

  20. Optical telecommunications system and signal analysis using data-entropy and multiple-centroid data-scatter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egan, J.; McMillan, N. D.; Denieffe, D.; Riedel, S.; Doyle, G.; Farrell, G.

    2005-09-01

    The data-entropy quality-budget developed by the authors is used as an alternative to the conventional power budget. The traditional power budget approach is not capable of providing a full analysis of a system with different noise types and specifically providing a measure of signal quality. The quality-budget addressed this issue by applying its dimensionless 'bit measure' to integrate the analysis of all types of losses. A data-entropy visualisation is produced for each set of points in a reference and test signal. This data-entropy signal is a measure of signal disorder and reflects the power loss and types of signal degradation experienced by the test signal. To analyse the differences between two signals an algorithm known as phase-coherent data-scatter (PCDS) is used to assess levels of attenuation, dispersion, jitter, etc. Practical analysis of telecommunications signals using the new multiple-centroid (MC) PCDS is presented here for the first time. MC-PCDS is then used to analyse differences between sets of data-entropy signals and digital signals. The theory behind MC data-scatter is discussed and its advantages for the quantification of signal degradations are assessed. Finally, a brief consideration is given to the use of pattern recognition algorithms to measure optical signal degrading factors.

  1. Metallic Nanoislands on Graphene as Highly Sensitive Transducers of Mechanical, Biological, and Optical Signals.

    PubMed

    Zaretski, Aliaksandr V; Root, Samuel E; Savchenko, Alex; Molokanova, Elena; Printz, Adam D; Jibril, Liban; Arya, Gaurav; Mercola, Mark; Lipomi, Darren J

    2016-02-10

    This article describes an effect based on the wetting transparency of graphene; the morphology of a metallic film (≤20 nm) when deposited on graphene by evaporation depends strongly on the identity of the substrate supporting the graphene. This control permits the formation of a range of geometries, such as tightly packed nanospheres, nanocrystals, and island-like formations with controllable gaps down to 3 nm. These graphene-supported structures can be transferred to any surface and function as ultrasensitive mechanical signal transducers with high sensitivity and range (at least 4 orders of magnitude of strain) for applications in structural health monitoring, electronic skin, measurement of the contractions of cardiomyocytes, and substrates for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS, including on the tips of optical fibers). These composite films can thus be treated as a platform technology for multimodal sensing. Moreover, they are low profile, mechanically robust, semitransparent and have the potential for reproducible manufacturing over large areas. PMID:26765039

  2. Metallic Nanoislands on Graphene as Highly Sensitive Transducers of Mechanical, Biological, and Optical Signals

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This article describes an effect based on the wetting transparency of graphene; the morphology of a metallic film (≤20 nm) when deposited on graphene by evaporation depends strongly on the identity of the substrate supporting the graphene. This control permits the formation of a range of geometries, such as tightly packed nanospheres, nanocrystals, and island-like formations with controllable gaps down to 3 nm. These graphene-supported structures can be transferred to any surface and function as ultrasensitive mechanical signal transducers with high sensitivity and range (at least 4 orders of magnitude of strain) for applications in structural health monitoring, electronic skin, measurement of the contractions of cardiomyocytes, and substrates for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS, including on the tips of optical fibers). These composite films can thus be treated as a platform technology for multimodal sensing. Moreover, they are low profile, mechanically robust, semitransparent and have the potential for reproducible manufacturing over large areas. PMID:26765039

  3. Optimal Signal Filtration in Optical Sensors with Natural Squeezing of Vacuum Noises

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gusev, A. V.; Kulagin, V. V.

    1996-01-01

    The structure of optimal receiver is discussed for optical sensor measuring a small displacement of probe mass. Due to nonlinear interaction of the field and the mirror, a reflected wave is in squeezed state (natural squeezing), two quadratures of which are correlated and therefore one can increase signal-to-noise ratio and overcome the SQL. A measurement procedure realizing such correlation processing of two quadratures is clarified. The required combination of quadratures can be produced via mixing of pump field reflected from the mirror with local oscillator phase modulated field in duel-detector homodyne scheme. Such measurement procedure could be useful not only for resonant bar gravitational detector but for laser longbase interferometric detectors as well.

  4. Influence of Color Noise on Processing of Optical Signals by Swarm Intellect Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galimullin, D. Z.; Sibgatullin, M. E.; Kamalova, D. I.; Salakhov, M. Kh.

    2015-09-01

    An approach based on stochastic particle swarm optimization was applied for the mathematical processing of spectral profiles with noise. To test the algorithm's stability with respect to noise, we used the noises with different values of the Hurst index which characterizes noise component from the point of view of prevalence of low-frequency or high-frequency component in it. The Hurst index varied from 0.1 to 0.9. An influence of color noise with level from 1 to 10% on processing of optical signals by particle swarm optimization algorithm was analyzed. This method is shown to be stable with respect to noise with the level of 10% if it's the Hurst index does not exceed the value of 0.5.

  5. Digital signal processor-based real-time optical Doppler tomography system.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shikui; Piao, Daqing; Chen, Yueli; Zhu, Quing

    2004-01-01

    We present a real-time data-processing and display unit based on a custom-designed digital signal processor (DSP) module for imaging tissue structure and Doppler blood flow. The DSP module is incorporated into a conventional optical coherence tomography system. We also demonstrate the flexibility of embedding advanced Doppler processing algorithms in the DSP module. Two advanced velocity estimation algorithms previously introduced by us are incorporated in this DSP module. Experiments on Intralipid flow demonstrate that a pulsatile flow of several hundred pulses per minute can be faithfully captured in M-scan mode by this DSP system. In vivo imaging of a rat's abdominal blood flow is also presented. PMID:15189082

  6. Optical diversity transmission using WDM signal and phase-conjugate lights through multi-core fiber.

    PubMed

    Koga, Masafumi; Moroi, Mitsuki; Takara, Hidehiko

    2016-05-01

    This paper proposes a maximum-ratio combining (MRC) scheme for a WDM signal and phase-conjugate pair (PCP) diversity transmission to cancel nonlinear phase-shift. A transfer function approximation for nonlinear phase-shift cancellation is formulated. It shows, with the help of a numerical calculation, that span-by-span chromatic dispersion compensation is more effective than the lumped equivalent at the receiver. This is confirmed in a 2-core diversity 5 channel WDM transmission experiment over 3-spans of 60km MCF with 25 Gbit/s-QPSK PCP. The peak Q-value was enhanced by 3.6dB through MRC, resulting in superior bitrate-distance product and optical power density limit, compared to twice the single core transmission. PMID:27137550

  7. Motion compensation of optical mapping signals from isolated beating rat hearts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stender, B.; Ernst, F.; Wang, B.; Zhang, Z. X.; Schlaefer, A.

    2013-09-01

    Optical mapping is a well established technique for recording monophasic action potential traces on the epicardial surface of isolated hearts. This measuring technique offers a high spatial resolution but it is sensitive towards myocardial motion. Motion artifacts occur because the mapping between a certain tissue portion sending out fluorescent light and a pixel of the photo detector changes over time. So far this problem has been addressed by suppressing the motion or ratiometric imaging. We developed a different approach to compensate the motion artifacts based on image registration. We could demonstrate how an image deformation field temporally changing with the heart motion could be determined. Using these deformation field time series for image transformation motion signals could be generated for each image pixel which were then successfully applied to remove baseline shift and compensate motion artifacts potentially leading to errors within maps of the first arrival time. The investigation was based on five different rat hearts stained with Di-4-ANEPPS.

  8. Multi-level signaling in the Stokes space and its application to large-capacity optical communications.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Kazuro; Kawakami, Shojiro

    2014-04-01

    The Stokes vector of an optical signal does not depend on its absolute phase; therefore, we can construct the phase-insensitive optical communication system, using the Stokes vector as a modulation parameter. In such a system, multi-level optical signals can effectively be designed in the three-dimensional Stokes space and demodulated either by direct detection or by coherent detection, where low-complexity digital-signal processing (DSP) is employed. Although this system has the disadvantage that adaptive equalizers can hardly be implemented in the digital domain, it is still an attractive solution to large-capacity (≥ 100 Gbit/s) and medium-or short-reach (≤ 100 km) transmission. In this paper, we discuss the receiver configuration for the multi-level signal in the Stokes space and the efficient DSP algorithm for demodulating such a signal. Simulation results demonstrate that 2-, 4-, 8-, 16-, and 32-ary signals in the Stokes space have good bit-error rate (BER) characteristics. Especially, the 16-ary signal at the moderate symbol rate of 25 Gsymbol/s can reach the bit rate of 100 Gbit/s even by using direct detection. PMID:24718113

  9. High speed all-optical PRBS generation using binary phase shift keyed signal based on QD-SOA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenbo; Hu, Hongyu; Dutta, Niloy K.

    2014-09-01

    A scheme to generate return-to-zero on-off keying (RZ-OOK) high speed all-optical pseudo random bit sequence (PRBS) using binary phase shift keyed (BPSK) signal based on quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers (QD-SOA) has been designed and studied. The PRBS is generated by a linear feedback shift register (LFSR) composed of all-optical logic XOR and AND gates. The XOR gate is composed of a pair of QD SOA Mach-Zehnder interferometers, which can generate BSPK signal to realize all-optical logic XOR gate. Results show that this scheme can mitigate the patterning effects and increase the operation speed to ~250Gb/s.

  10. Geometric intrinsic symmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Gozdz, A. Szulerecka, A.; Pedrak, A.

    2013-08-15

    The problem of geometric symmetries in the intrinsic frame of a many-body system (nucleus) is considered. An importance of symmetrization group notion is discussed. Ageneral structure of the intrinsic symmetry group structure is determined.

  11. Eyecup scope—optical recordings of light stimulus-evoked fluorescence signals in the retina

    PubMed Central

    Hausselt, Susanne E.; Breuninger, Tobias; Castell, Xavier; Denk, Winfried; Margolis, David J.; Detwiler, Peter B.

    2009-01-01

    Dendritic signals play an essential role in processing visual information in the retina. To study them in neurites too small for electrical recording, we developed an instrument that combines a multi-photon (MP) microscope with a through-the-objective high-resolution visual stimulator. An upright microscope was designed that uses the objective lens for both MP imaging and delivery of visual stimuli to functionally intact retinal explants or eyecup preparations. The stimulator consists of a miniature liquid-crystal-on-silicon display coupled into the optical path of an infrared-excitation laser-scanning microscope. A pair of custom-made dichroic filters allows light from the excitation laser and three spectral bands (‘colors’) from the stimulator to reach the retina, leaving two intermediate bands for fluorescence imaging. Special optics allow displacement of the stimulator focus relative to the imaging focus. Spatially resolved changes in calcium-indicator fluorescence in response to visual stimuli were recorded in dendrites of different types of mammalian retinal neurons. PMID:19023590

  12. Signal and response properties indicate an optoacoustic effect underlying the intra-cochlear laser-optical stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallweit, Nicole; Baumhoff, Peter; Krueger, Alexander; Tinne, Nadine; Heisterkamp, Alexander; Kral, Andrej; Maier, Hannes; Ripken, Tammo

    2016-02-01

    Optical cochlea stimulation is under investigation as a potential alternative to conventional electric cochlea implants in treatment of sensorineural hearing loss. If direct optical stimulation of spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) would be feasible, a smaller stimulation volume and, therefore, an improved frequency resolution could be achieved. However, it is unclear whether the mechanism of optical stimulation is based on direct neuronal stimulation or on optoacoustics. Animal studies on hearing vs. deafened guinea pigs already identified the optoacoustic effect as potential mechanism for intra-cochlear optical stimulation. In order to characterize the optoacoustic stimulus more thoroughly the acoustic signal along the beam path of a pulsed laser in water was quantified and compared to the neuronal response properties of hearing guinea pigs stimulated with the same laser parameters. Two pulsed laser systems were used for analyzing the influence of variable pulse duration, pulse energy, pulse peak power and absorption coefficient. Preliminary results of the experiments in water and in vivo suggesta similar dependency of response signals on the applied laser parameters: Both datasets show an onset and offset signal at the beginning and the end of the laser pulse. Further, the resulting signal amplitude depends on the pulse peak power as well as the temporal development of the applied laser pulse. The data indicates the maximum of the first derivative of power as the decisive factor. In conclusion our findings strengthen the hypothesis of optoacoustics as the underlying mechanism for optical stimulation of the cochlea.

  13. All-optical multi-channel wavelength conversion of Nyquist 16 QAM signal using a silicon waveguide.

    PubMed

    Long, Yun; Liu, Jun; Hu, Xiao; Wang, Andong; Zhou, Linjie; Zou, Kaiheng; Zhu, Yixiao; Zhang, Fan; Wang, Jian

    2015-12-01

    We experimentally demonstrate on-chip all-optical multi-channel wavelength conversion of Nyquist 16 ary quadrature amplitude modulation (16 QAM) signal in a silicon waveguide. The measured optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) penalties of wavelength conversion are ∼2  dB. The observed constellations of converted idlers indicate favorable performance of silicon-waveguide-based multi-channel wavelength conversion. We also experimentally study and compare the phase-conjugated wavelength conversion by degenerate four-wave mixing (FWM) and transparent wavelength conversion by non-degenerate FWM in the silicon waveguide. PMID:26625029

  14. Dual window method for processing spectroscopic optical coherence tomography signals with high spectral and spatial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robles, Francisco E.; Graf, Robert N.; Wax, Adam

    2009-02-01

    The generation of spectroscopic optical coherence tomography (SOCT) signals suffers from an inherent trade off between spatial and spectral resolution. Here, we present a dual window (DW) method that uses two Gaussian windows to simultaneously obtain high spectral and spatial resolution. We show that the DW method probes the Winger time-frequency distribution (TFD) with two orthogonal windows set by the standard deviation of the Gaussian windows used for processing. We also show that in the limit of an infinitesimally narrow window, combined with a large window, this method is equivalent to the Kirkwood & Richaczek TFD and, if the real part is taken, it is equivalent to the Margenau & Hill (MH) TFD. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the method by simulating a signal with four components separated in depth or center frequency. Six TFD are compared: the ideal, the Wigner, the MH, narrow window short time Fourier transform (STFT), wide window STFT, and the DW. The results show that the DW method contains features of the Wigner TFD, and that it contains the highest spatial and spectral resolution that is free of artifacts. This method can enable powerful applications, including accurate acquisition of the spectral information for cancer diagnosis.

  15. Optical nanosensor architecture for cell-signaling molecules using DNA aptamer-coated carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Cha, Tae-Gon; Baker, Benjamin A; Sauffer, M Dane; Salgado, Janette; Jaroch, David; Rickus, Jenna L; Porterfield, D Marshall; Choi, Jong Hyun

    2011-05-24

    We report a novel optical biosensor platform using near-infrared fluorescent single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) functionalized with target-recognizing aptamer DNA for noninvasively detecting cell-signaling molecules in real time. Photoluminescence (PL) emission of aptamer-coated SWNTs is modulated upon selectively binding to target molecules, which is exploited to detect insulin using an insulin-binding aptamer (IBA) as a molecular recognition element. We find that nanotube PL quenches upon insulin recognition via a photoinduced charge transfer mechanism with a quenching rate of k(q) = 5.85 × 10(14) M(-1) s(-1) and a diffusion-reaction rate of k(r) = 0.129 s(-1). Circular dichroism spectra reveal for the first time that IBA strands retain a four-stranded, parallel guanine quadruplex conformation on the nanotubes, ensuring target selectivity. We demonstrate that these IBA-functionalized SWNT sensors incorporated in a collagen extracellular matrix (ECM) can be regenerated by removing bound analytes through enzymatic proteolysis. As proof-of-concept, we show that the SWNT sensors embedded in the ECM promptly detect insulin secreted by cultured pancreatic INS-1 cells stimulated by glucose influx and report a gradient contour of insulin secretion profile. This novel design enables new types of label-free assays and noninvasive, in situ, real-time detection schemes for cell-signaling molecules. PMID:21520951

  16. Simultaneous measurements of pure scintillation and Cerenkov signals in an integrated fiber-optic dosimeter for electron beam therapy dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Wook Jae; Shin, Sang Hun; Jeon, Dayeong; Hong, Seunghan; Kim, Seon Geun; Sim, Hyeok In; Jang, Kyoung Won; Cho, Seunghyun; Lee, Bongsoo

    2013-11-18

    For real-time dosimetry in electron beam therapy, an integrated fiber-optic dosimeter (FOD) is developed using a water-equivalent dosimeter probe, four transmitting optical fibers, and a multichannel light-measuring device. The dosimeter probe is composed of two inner sensors, a scintillation sensor and a Cerenkov sensor, and each sensor has two different channels. Accordingly, we measured four separate light signals from each channel in the dosimeter probe, simultaneously, and then obtained the scintillation and Cerenkov signals using a subtraction method. To evaluate the performance of the integrated FOD, we measured the light signals according to the irradiation angle of the electron beam, the depth variation of the solid water phantom, and the electron beam energy. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the pure scintillation and Cerenkov signals obtained by an integrated FOD system based on a subtraction method can be effectively used for calibrating the conditions of high-energy electron beams in radiotherapy. PMID:24514292

  17. Impact of interferometer optical path difference speed profile on the Fourier-transform-spectrometry-derived spectrum of a telecommunications signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Katie M.; Genest, Jerome

    2006-07-01

    The impact of the interferometer optical path difference (OPD) speed profile on the spectrum, derived through the use of Fourier-transform spectrometry (FTS), of a synchronous optical network (SONET) signal is found. The SONET signal carries high-speed data traffic. It also may be modulated by low-frequency intensity or frequency modulation. It is found that the SONET header, high-speed data traffic and low-frequency modulation all manifest themselves as artifacts in the FTS-derived spectrum of the SONET signal. It is shown that a nonconstant OPD speed profile can smooth out these artifacts, making it unlikely that they will be mistaken for carrier signal peaks. However, it is found that smoothing out these artifacts lessens the achievable dynamic range of the FTS instrument in the frequency range of interest, the International Telecommunications Union common (C) and long (L) bands.

  18. Wavelength conversion for polarization multiplexing signal using four-wave mixing in semiconductor optical amplifier with reduced polarization crosstalk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hui; Chen, Ming; Wan, Qiuzhen; Zheng, Zhiwei

    2016-06-01

    We investigated wavelength conversion for polarization multiplexing signal based on four-wave mixing in a semiconductor optical amplifier. We found that the converted signals endured crosstalk among the pol-muxed channels. We also proposed and demonstrated a wavelength conversion scheme with polarization diversity technique. By utilizing the technique, the converted polarization multiplexing signal can be received without crosstalk. In addition, the performance of the proposed system is numerically analyzed with respect to the bit error rate of the converted signal, different frequency spacing between signal and pump and modulated data rate. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme may be a promising method to realize transparent wavelength conversion for polarization multiplexing signals.

  19. A novel method for weak signal demodulation in long-distance optical fiber Sagnac interferometer sensor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, G. Z.; Gao, X.; Chang, Y.

    2015-08-01

    A novel demodulation method for weak signal of fiber sagnac interferometer is proposed, by which we obtained a simple long distance optical fiber sensor system with positioning accuracy less than 1 km. In our work, we expanded one channel of interference signal in a Taylor series, and the weak phase difference of interference signal could be obtained by a weak signal approximation theory from the Taylor series, then the approximate phase difference was used to demodulate the weak signal and locate the fiber vibration. By using the proposed method, there was no need to use phase amplification technology such as the phase generated carrier modulation or phase-locked amplification technology for weak signal demodulation, whereas, we just need one channel to demodulate the phase, therefore it simplified the system structure and demodulation algorithm, and cut down the cost. Based on this new demodulation theory, the strong signal could also be demodulated; it just need choose a weak part from the strong signal. This proposed method was demonstrated in a long-distance fiber sagnac interferometer sensor system with length of 50 km. The positioning accuracy was less than 1 km in the length of 10, 20, 30 and 40 km. We believe the accuracy could be enhanced with the help of signal processing technology such as signal filter and signal denoising.

  20. New speckle analysis method for optical coherence tomography signal based on autocorrelation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Pretto, Lucas R.; Nogueira, Gesse E. C.; Freitas, Anderson Z.

    2015-06-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive imaging technique with high resolution widely used for in vivo applications. Nonetheless, OCT is prone to speckle, a granular noise that degrades the OCT signal. Speckle statistics may, nevertheless, reveal information regarding the scatterers from which it originates. This fact is exploited by techniques such as Speckle Variance-OCT (SVOCT). SVOCT, however, doesn't provide quantitative information, which is a major drawback for the use of speckle based techniques on OCT. In the present work we attack this problem, proposing a new method for analysis of speckle in OCT signal, based on autocorrelation. We associate the changes in decorrelation time of the signal with the changes in flow velocity. It is expected that greater velocities result in lower decorrelation times. To verify that, milk was pumped through a microchannel at different velocities, and the decorrelation time was computed for a single point in the center of the microchannel, sampled at 8 kHz rate. Our results suggest that for flows rates greater than 1 μl/min it is possible to associate decorrelation time with flow velocity, while velocities below that value are not distinguishable, supposedly due to the Brownian motion. For flow rates above 50 μl/min our acquisition rate doesn't get enough sampling information, as the decorrelation time gets too low. These results indicate that Speckle based techniques may be used to get quantitative information of flow in OCT samples, which can be used to assist in many diagnostics modalities, as well as map such flow regions.

  1. Analysis of detected signal performance in multi-tracks of optical disk memory using convex-shaped recording mark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otani, Yousuke; Nitta, Kouichi; Matoba, Osamu

    2014-09-01

    The possibility of multi-valued optical disk memory by using a convex-shaped recording mark fabricated by two-photon absorption is investigated. We fabricate a numerical model for convex-shaped recording marks and evaluate the signal characteristics in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The numerical results show that 6 bit data can be realized when the acceptable average SNR is 2 and a length of the mark is 4T.

  2. Noise-to-signal transition of a Brownian particle in the cubic potential: II. optical trapping geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemánek, Pavel; Šiler, Martin; Brzobohatý, Oto; Jákl, Petr; Filip, Radim

    2016-06-01

    The noise-to-signal transitions belong to an exciting group of processes in physics. In Filip and Zemánek (2016, J. Opt. 18 065401) we theoretically analyse the stochastic noise-to-signal transition of overdamped Brownian motion of a particle in the cubic potential. In this part, we propose a feasible experimental setup for a proof-of-principle experiment that uses methods of optical trapping in shaped laser beams which provide cubic and quadratic potentials. Theoretical estimates and results from the numerical simulations indicate that the noise-to-signal transition can be observed under realistic experimental conditions.

  3. Genome-Wide Prediction of Intrinsic Disorder; Sequence Alignment of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Midic, Uros

    2012-01-01

    Intrinsic disorder (ID) is defined as a lack of stable tertiary and/or secondary structure under physiological conditions in vitro. Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are highly abundant in nature. IDPs possess a number of crucial biological functions, being involved in regulation, recognition, signaling and control, e.g. their functional…

  4. Contrast enhancement and phase conjugation low-power optical signal in dynamic recording material based on bacteriorhodopsin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korchemskaya, Elena Y.; Soskin, Marat S.; Dukova, Tatjana V.; Vsevolodov, Nicolai N.

    1994-02-01

    Polymer films with fragments of the purple membranes containing protein bacteriorhodopsin (BR) have been used for the real-time optical information processing of low-power (several milliwatt) cw gas laser signals. The nonlinear recording media with BR have a potential in microscopic techniques for in-vivo diagnosis of the crystalline lens.

  5. Design and simulation of fast-pulse control signal generator for the electro-holographic optical switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yansheng; Ji, Jiarong; Dou, Wenhua; Wen, Changli

    2010-10-01

    The electro-holographic optical switch based on the quadratic electro-optic effect in paraelectric photorefractive crystals requires driving signal of fast pulse. The pulse rise/fall time and voltage are 10-10-10-8s and 102-103V, respectively, depending on the applications. A pulse control signal generator for the electro-holographic optical switch was designed and simulated. Considering the integration of pulse signal generator and the switch, the circuit employs three stages compact Marx generators utilizing parallel avalanche bipolar junction transistors series operated in the avalanche mode in each stage. These transistors and the crystals are mounted on printed circuit board. According to the simulated results, the output voltage ranged from 1.2kV to 1.5kV. The rise/fall time of this pulse is less than 3 nanoseconds. The pulse width is 20 nanoseconds, and trigger delay is about 1 nanosecond. The repetition rate is less than 50MHz which can be increased by reducing the pulse width of the trigger. The simulation results indicate that the pulse control signals from the designed generator can match the application of electro-holographic optical switch well.

  6. Cell-intrinsic role for IFN-α–STAT1 signals in regulating murine Peyer patch plasmacytoid dendritic cells and conditioning an inflammatory response

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haiyan S.; Gelbard, Alexander; Martinez, Gustavo J.; Esashi, Eiji; Zhang, Huiyuan; Nguyen-Jackson, Hoainam; Liu, Yong-Jun; Overwijk, Willem W.

    2011-01-01

    Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) reside in bone marrrow and lymphoid organs in homeostatic conditions and typically secrete abundant quantities of type I interferons (IFNs) on Toll-like receptor triggering. Recently, a pDC population was identified within Peyer patches (PPs) of the gut that is distinguished by its lack of IFN production; however, the relationship of PP pDCs to pDCs in other organs has been unclear. We report that PP pDCs are derived from common DC progenitors and accumulate in response to Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand, yet appear divergent in transcription factor profile and surface marker phenotype, including reduced E2-2 and CCR9 expression. Type I IFN signaling via STAT1 has a cell-autonomous role in accrual of PP pDCs in vivo. Moreover, IFN-α enhances pDC generation from DC progenitors by a STAT1-dependent mechanism. pDCs that have been developed in the presence of IFN-α resemble PP pDCs, produce inflammatory cytokines, stimulate Th17 cell generation, and fail to secrete IFN-α on Toll-like receptor engagement. These results indicate that IFN-α influences the development and function of pDCs by inducing emergence of an inflammatory (Th17-inducing) antigen-presenting subset, and simultaneously regulating accumulation of pDCs in the intestinal microenvironment. PMID:21828128

  7. Intrinsic optical properties and divergent doping effects of manganese(II) on luminescence for tin(II) phosphite grown from a deep-eutectic solvent.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui-Lin; Lai, Yei-Chen; Chiang, Yun-Wei; Wang, Sue-Lein

    2012-02-20

    This is the first study on the ionothermal synthesis, intrinsic photoluminescence (PL), and dopant effects for tin(II) phosphite, a stereochemically active 5s(2) lone-pair-electron-containing compound, the fundamental properties of which have rarely been explored before. In a new deep-eutectic solvent, single-phased products of SnHPO(3) (1) and Sn(1-x)Mn(x)HPO(3) (2) have been achieved in high yield. The crystalline powder of 1 is nonenantiomorphic, with an intense second-harmonic generation comparable to that of potassium dihydrogen phosphate. Under UV excitation, it unexpectedly emits white PL, an important intrinsic property never discovered in tin(II) oxysalts. Electron paramagnetic resonance hyperfine splitting characteristic of manganese has been detected on 2 and a three-pulse electron-spin-echo envelope modulation technique implemented to locate its corresponding location in the inorganic host. On the basis of temperature-dependent PL and lifetime measurements, the incorporated Mn(2+) uncommonly acts as a sensitizer in enhancing white emission until extremely low temperatures, in which it would resume its normal role as an activator to give out characteristic orange light. PMID:22288432

  8. Signal enhancement in optical projection tomography via virtual high dynamic range imaging of single exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yujie; Dong, Di; Shi, Liangliang; Wang, Jun; Yang, Xin; Tian, Jie

    2015-03-01

    Optical projection tomography (OPT) is a mesoscopic scale optical imaging technique for specimens between 1mm and 10mm. OPT has been proven to be immensely useful in a wide variety of biological applications, such as developmental biology and pathology, but its shortcomings in imaging specimens containing widely differing contrast elements are obvious. The longer exposure for high intensity tissues may lead to over saturation of other areas, whereas a relatively short exposure may cause similarity with surrounding background. In this paper, we propose an approach to make a trade-off between capturing weak signals and revealing more details for OPT imaging. This approach consists of three steps. Firstly, the specimens are merely scanned in 360 degrees above a normal exposure but non-overexposure to acquire the projection data. This reduces the photo bleaching and pre-registration computation compared with multiple different exposures in conventional high dynamic range (HDR) imaging method. Secondly, three virtual channels are produced for each projection image based on the histogram distribution to simulate the low, normal and high exposure images used in the traditional HDR technology in photography. Finally, each virtual channel is normalized to the full gray scale range and three channels are recombined into one image using weighting coefficients optimized by a standard eigen-decomposition method. After applying our approach on the projection data, filtered back projection (FBP) algorithm is carried out for 3-dimentional reconstruction. The neonatal wild-type mouse paw has been scanned to verify this approach. Results demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  9. Moderate plasma treatment enhances the quality of optically detected magnetic resonance signals of nitrogen-vacancy centres in nanodiamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotoma, Shingo; Igarashi, Ryuji; Shirakawa, Masahiro

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrate that a moderate plasma treatment increases the quality of optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) signals from negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy centres in nanodiamonds (NDs). We measured the statistics of the ODMR spectra of 50-nm-size NDs before and after plasma treatment. We then evaluated each ODMR spectrum in terms of fluorescence and ODMR intensities, line width and signal-to-noise (SN) ratio. Our results showed that plasma treatment for more than 10 min contributes to higher-quality ODMR signals, i.e. signals that are brighter, stronger, sharper and have a higher SN ratio. We showed that such signal improvement is due to alteration of the surface chemical states of the NDs by the plasma treatment. Our study contributes to the advancement of biosensing applications using ODMR of NDs.

  10. Analysis of ideal observer signal detectability in phase-contrast imaging employing linear shift-invariant optical systems

    PubMed Central

    Anastasio, Mark A.; Chou, Cheng-Ying; Zysk, Adam M.; Brankov, Jovan G.

    2010-01-01

    Phase-contrast imaging methods exploit variations in an object’s refractive index distribution to permit the visualization of subtle features that may have very similar optical absorption properties. Although phase-contrast is often viewed as being desirable in many biomedical applications, its relative influence on signal detectability when both absorption- and phase-contrast are present remains relatively unexplored. In this work, we investigate the ideal Bayesian observer signal to noise ratio (SNR) in phase-contrast imaging for a signal-known-exactly/background-known exactly detection task involving a weak signal. We demonstrate that this signal detectability measure can be decomposed into three contributions that have distinct interpretations associated with the imaging physics. PMID:21119750

  11. Nematicons and Their Electro-Optic Control: Light Localization and Signal Readdressing via Reorientation in Liquid Crystals

    PubMed Central

    Piccardi, Armando; Alberucci, Alessandro; Assanto, Gaetano

    2013-01-01

    Liquid crystals in the nematic phase exhibit substantial reorientation when the molecules are driven by electric fields of any frequencies. Exploiting such a response at optical frequencies, self-focusing supports transverse localization of light and the propagation of self-confined beams and waveguides, namely “nematicons”. Nematicons can guide other light signals and interact with inhomogeneities and other beams. Moreover, they can be effectively deviated by using the electro-optic response of the medium, leading to several strategies for voltage-controlled reconfiguration of light-induced guided-wave circuits and signal readdressing. Hereby, we outline the main features of nematicons and review the outstanding progress achieved in the last twelve years on beam self-trapping and electro-optic readdressing. PMID:24108367

  12. Graphene-assisted nonlinear optical device for four-wave mixing based tunable wavelength conversion of QPSK signal.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiao; Zeng, Mengqi; Wang, Andong; Zhu, Long; Fu, Lei; Wang, Jian

    2015-10-01

    We fabricate a nonlinear optical device based on a fiber pigtail cross-section coated with a single-layer graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Using such graphene-assisted nonlinear optical device, we experimentally demonstrate tunable wavelength conversion of a 10 Gbaud quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) signal by exploiting degenerate four-wave mixing (FWM) progress in graphene. We study the conversion efficiency as functions of the pump power and pump wavelength and evaluate the bit-error rate (BER) performance. The observed optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) penalties for tunable QPSK wavelength conversion are less than 2.2 dB at a BER of 1 × 10(-3). PMID:26480130

  13. Gold nanoparticle-assisted all optical localized stimulation and monitoring of Ca²⁺ signaling in neurons.

    PubMed

    Lavoie-Cardinal, Flavie; Salesse, Charleen; Bergeron, Éric; Meunier, Michel; De Koninck, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Light-assisted manipulation of cells to control membrane activity or intracellular signaling has become a major avenue in life sciences. However, the ability to perform subcellular light stimulation to investigate localized signaling has been limited. Here, we introduce an all optical method for the stimulation and the monitoring of localized Ca(2+) signaling in neurons that takes advantage of plasmonic excitation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). We show with confocal microscopy that 800 nm laser pulse application onto a neuron decorated with a few AuNPs triggers a transient increase in free Ca(2+), measured optically with GCaMP6s. We show that action potentials, measured electrophysiologically, can be induced with this approach. We demonstrate activation of local Ca(2+) transients and Ca(2+) signaling via CaMKII in dendritic domains, by illuminating a single or few functionalized AuNPs specifically targeting genetically-modified neurons. This NP-Assisted Localized Optical Stimulation (NALOS) provides a new complement to light-dependent methods for controlling neuronal activity and cell signaling. PMID:26857748

  14. First Search for an X-Ray-Optical Reverberation Signal in an Ultraluminous X-Ray Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasham, Dheeraj R.; Strohmayer, Tod E.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Trippe, Margaret L.; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Gandhi, Poshak

    2016-02-01

    Using simultaneous optical (VLT/FORS2) and X-ray (XMM-Newton) data of NGC 5408, we present the first ever attempt to search for a reverberation signal in an ultraluminous X-ray source (NGC 5408 X-1). The idea is similar to active galactic nucleus broad line reverberation mapping where a lag measurement between the X-ray and the optical flux combined with a Keplerian velocity estimate should enable us to weigh the central compact object. We find that although NGC 5408 X-1's X-rays are variable on a timescale of a few hundred seconds (rms of 9.0 ± 0.5%), the optical emission does not show any statistically significant variations. We set a 3σ upper limit on the rms optical variability of 3.3%. The ratio of the X-ray to the optical variability is an indicator of X-ray reprocessing efficiency. In X-ray binaries, this ratio is roughly 5. Assuming a similar ratio for NGC 5408 X-1, the expected rms optical variability is ≈2%, which is still a factor of roughly two lower than what was possible with the VLT observations in this study. We find marginal evidence (3σ) for optical variability on a ˜24 hr timescale. Our results demonstrate that such measurements can be made, but photometric conditions, low sky background levels, and longer simultaneous observations will be required to reach optical variability levels similar to those of X-ray binaries.

  15. Optical injection locking of monolithically integrated photonic source for generation of high purity signals above 100 GHz.

    PubMed

    Balakier, Katarzyna; Fice, Martyn J; van Dijk, Frederic; Kervella, Gael; Carpintero, Guillermo; Seeds, Alwyn J; Renaud, Cyril C

    2014-12-01

    A monolithically integrated photonic source for tuneable mm-wave signal generation has been fabricated. The source consists of 14 active components, i.e. semiconductor lasers, amplifiers and photodetectors, all integrated on a 3 mm(2) InP chip. Heterodyne signals in the range between 85 GHz and 120 GHz with up to -10 dBm output power have been successfully generated. By optically injection locking the integrated lasers to an external optical comb source, high-spectral-purity signals at frequencies >100 GHz have been generated, with phase noise spectral density below -90 dBc/Hz being achieved at offsets from the carrier greater than 10 kHz. PMID:25606875

  16. Amplification of the Signal Intensity of Fluorescence-Based Fiber-Optic Biosensors Using a Fabry-Perot Resonator Structure

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Meng-Chang; Chiu, Yi-Hsin; Lin, Sheng-Fu; Chang, Jenq-Yang; Chang, Chia-Ou; Chiang, Huihua Kenny

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescent biosensors have been widely used in biomedical applications. To amplify the intensity of fluorescence signals, this study developed a novel structure for an evanescent wave fiber-optic biosensor by using a Fabry-Perot resonator structure. An excitation light was coupled into the optical fiber through a laser-drilled hole on the proximal end of the resonator. After entering the resonator, the excitation light was reflected back and forth inside the resonator, thereby amplifying the intensity of the light in the fiber. Subsequently, the light was used to excite the fluorescent molecules in the reactive region of the sensor. The experimental results showed that the biosensor signal was amplified eight-fold when the resonator reflector was formed using a 92% reflective coating. Furthermore, in a simulation, the biosensor signal could be amplified 20-fold by using a 99% reflector. PMID:25690548

  17. Retrievals of Thick Cloud Optical Depth from the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) by Calibration of Solar Background Signal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Yuekui; Marshak, Alexander; Chiu, J. Christine; Wiscombe, Warren J.; Palm, Stephen P.; Davis, Anthony B.; Spangenberg, Douglas A.; Nguyen, Louis; Spinhirne, James D.; Minnis, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Laser beams emitted from the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS), as well as other space-borne laser instruments, can only penetrate clouds to a limit of a few optical depths. As a result, only optical depths of thinner clouds (< about 3 for GLAS) are retrieved from the reflected lidar signal. This paper presents a comprehensive study of possible retrievals of optical depth of thick clouds using solar background light and treating GLAS as a solar radiometer. To do so we first calibrate the reflected solar radiation received by the photon-counting detectors of GLAS' 532 nm channel, which is the primary channel for atmospheric products. The solar background radiation is regarded as a noise to be subtracted in the retrieval process of the lidar products. However, once calibrated, it becomes a signal that can be used in studying the properties of optically thick clouds. In this paper, three calibration methods are presented: (I) calibration with coincident airborne and GLAS observations; (2) calibration with coincident Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) and GLAS observations of deep convective clouds; (3) calibration from the first principles using optical depth of thin water clouds over ocean retrieved by GLAS active remote sensing. Results from the three methods agree well with each other. Cloud optical depth (COD) is retrieved from the calibrated solar background signal using a one-channel retrieval. Comparison with COD retrieved from GOES during GLAS overpasses shows that the average difference between the two retrievals is 24%. As an example, the COD values retrieved from GLAS solar background are illustrated for a marine stratocumulus cloud field that is too thick to be penetrated by the GLAS laser. Based on this study, optical depths for thick clouds will be provided as a supplementary product to the existing operational GLAS cloud products in future GLAS data releases.

  18. Extreme temperature robust optical sensor designs and fault-tolerant signal processing

    DOEpatents

    Riza, Nabeel Agha; Perez, Frank

    2012-01-17

    Silicon Carbide (SiC) probe designs for extreme temperature and pressure sensing uses a single crystal SiC optical chip encased in a sintered SiC material probe. The SiC chip may be protected for high temperature only use or exposed for both temperature and pressure sensing. Hybrid signal processing techniques allow fault-tolerant extreme temperature sensing. Wavelength peak-to-peak (or null-to-null) collective spectrum spread measurement to detect wavelength peak/null shift measurement forms a coarse-fine temperature measurement using broadband spectrum monitoring. The SiC probe frontend acts as a stable emissivity Black-body radiator and monitoring the shift in radiation spectrum enables a pyrometer. This application combines all-SiC pyrometry with thick SiC etalon laser interferometry within a free-spectral range to form a coarse-fine temperature measurement sensor. RF notch filtering techniques improve the sensitivity of the temperature measurement where fine spectral shift or spectrum measurements are needed to deduce temperature.

  19. Optical and electric signals from dried oriented purple membrane of bacteriorhodopsins.

    PubMed

    Tóth-Boconádi, R; Dér, A; Keszthelyi, L

    2011-04-01

    All the intermediates of the bacteriorhodopsin photocycle are excitable with light of suitable wavelength. This property might regulate the activity in the cells when they are exposed in the nature to high light intensity. On the other hand this property is involved in many applications. In this study the ground state and M intermediate of dried oriented samples of wild-type bacteriorhodopsin and its mutant D96N were excited with 406 nm laser flashes. Substantial M populations were generated with quasi-continuous illumination. The decay of the absorption of M intermediate had three components: their lifetimes were very different for laser flash and quasi-continuous illuminations in cases of both bacteriorhodopsin species. The optical answer for the excitation of M intermediate had a lifetime of 2.2 ms. Electric signals for M excitation had large fast negative components and small positive components in the 100 μs time domain. The results are expected to have important implications for bioelectronic applications of bacteriorhodopsin. PMID:21236739

  20. The impact of relative intensity noise on the signal in multiple reference optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuhaus, Kai; Subhash, Hrebesh; Alexandrov, Sergey; Dsouza, Roshan; Hogan, Josh; Wilson, Carol; Leahy, Martin; Slepneva, Svetlana; Huyet, Guillaume

    2016-03-01

    Multiple reference optical coherence tomography (MR-OCT) applies a unique low-cost solution to enhance the scanning depth of standard time domain OCT by inserting an partial mirror into the reference arm of the interferometric system. This novel approach achieves multiple reflections for different layers and depths of an sample with minimal effort of engineering and provides an excellent platform for low-cost OCT systems based on well understood production methods for micro-mechanical systems such as CD/DVD pick-up systems. The direct integration of a superluminescent light-emitting diode (SLED) is a preferable solution to reduce the form- factor of an MR-OCT system. Such direct integration exposes the light source to environmental conditions that can increase fluctuations in heat dissipation and vibrations and affect the noise characteristics of the output spectrum. This work describes the impact of relative intensity noise (RIN) on the quality of the interference signal of MR-OCT related to a variety of environmental conditions, such as temperature.